... ears. This is especially true if they use cotton swabs or dangerously sharp small objects, like hair ... all objects out of your ear canals — including cotton swabs — unless your doctor has told you it's ...
... can be caused by many different types of bacteria or fungi. It usually develops in ears that are exposed to moisture. People who get OE often have been diving or swimming for long periods of time. This can bring infectious bacteria directly into the ear canal. Swimmer's ear occurs ...
Malcolm, P N; Francis, I S; Wareing, M J; Cox, T C
External ear canal cholesteatoma (EECC) is rare in ear, nose and throat (ENT) practice. Two cases, one bilateral, are described. Computed tomography demonstrates the extent of bony involvement. Erosion of the external canal should not be overlooked when reviewing CT of the petrous bone in cases of discharge from the ear. EECC may necessitate surgery and delay in the diagnosis of EECC can result in progressive bony destruction.
Sand, Michael; Sand, Daniel; Brors, Dominik; Altmeyer, Peter; Mann, Benno; Bechara, Falk G
Skin diseases on the external aspect of the ear are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, othorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners, general and plastic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the ear. This article will focus on those diseases wherefore surgery or laser therapy is considered as a possible treatment option or which are potentially subject to surgical evaluation. PMID:18261212
Mazón, M; Pont, E; Montesinos, P; Carreres-Polo, J; Más-Estellés, F
The external ear is accessible to direct examination; the clinical history and otoscopy are sufficient to diagnose and treat most diseases of the external ear. We aim to describe the normal anatomy of the external ear, specify the indications for imaging tests, and review the clinical and radiological manifestations of the most common diseases affecting the external ear. We classify these diseases according to their origin into congenital, inflammatory, infectious, or traumatic disease or benign bone tumors or malignant tumors. Imaging does not play an important role in diseases of the external ear, but in certain clinical scenarios it can be crucial for reaching a concrete diagnosis and establishing the best treatment. Computed tomography is the first-choice technique for most diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging complements computed tomography and makes it possible to differentiate among different tissue types and to evaluate the extension of disease accurately.
... Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis Tumors of the ... Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis NOTE: This is ...
Wei, Jun; Ran, Suzhen; Yang, Zhengchun; Lin, Yun; Tang, Jing
Objectives. To investigate the best time of examination and section chosen of routine prenatal ultrasound screening for external ear abnormalities and evaluate the feasibility of examining the fetal external ear with ultrasonography. Methods. From July 2010 until August 2011, 42118 pregnant women with single fetus during 16–40 weeks of pregnancy were enrolled in the study. Fetal auricles and external auditory canal in the second trimester of pregnancy were evaluated by routine color Doppler ultrasound screening and systematic screening. Ultrasound images of fetal external ears were obtained on transverse-incline view at cervical vertebra level and mandible level and on parasagittal view and coronal view at external ear level. Results. Five fetuses had anomalous ears including bilateral malformed auricles with malformed external auditory canal, unilateral deformed external ear, and unilateral microtia. The detection rate of both auricles was negatively correlated with gestational age. Of the 5843 fetuses undergoing a routine ultrasound screening, 5797 (99.21%) had bilateral auricles. Of the 4955 fetuses following systematic screening, all fetuses (100%) had bilateral auricles. The best time for fetal auricles observation with ultrasonography is 20–24 weeks of pregnancy. Conclusions. Detection of external ear abnormalities may assist in the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:25050343
Gheorghe, D C; Stanciu, A E; Ulici, A; Zamfir-Chiru-Anton, A
Osteomas of the external ear are uncommon benign tumors that need to be differentiated from the external ear canal exostoses, bony proliferations that are linked mainly to cold-water exposure. Clinical manifestations vary from no symptoms to recurrent local infections and external ear cholesteatoma. Objective: presenting a rare case that we did not find described in the published literature. A patient with multiple long-term asymptomatic osteomas of both external ear canals presented to our department. Material: Data recorded from the patient's medical record was reviewed and analyzed. Surgery was performed and histology confirmed the presumptive diagnosis. Results: There was a discrepancy between the local severity of the disease, with a complete obstruction of his ear canals, and the long-term disease-free status of the patient. Conclusion: We hypothesized about the etiology of these multiple bilateral osteomas of the EAC, in light of the clinical and surgical findings.
Shanbhag, A; Friedman, H I; Augustine, J; von Recum, A F
Autogenous rib cartilage and silicone rubber are materials currently used for ear reconstruction. Increased morbidity and operative time with rib cartilage grafts and a high rate of extrusion with silicone implants render them less than ideal for reconstruction of the human ear. The purpose of the current investigation is to determine the efficacy of porous polyethylene as an alternative synthetic material for ear reconstruction. Porous polyethylene and silicone rubber discs of equal sizes in two thicknesses were implanted in lieu of the cartilage in the external ear of eight baboons. Histological evaluation of the sites after nine weeks revealed excellent anchorage of the thin porous polyethylene implants (1.5 mm) in the surrounding tissues. Silicone rubber implants, however, were encapsulated in a thickened granulation tissue capsule. When thicker implants (3.0 mm) were used, exposure or extrusion occurred in all cases. Porous polyethylene implants demonstrated only partial exposure; half of the silicone rubber implants were extruded; and the other two silicone rubber implants were almost completely extruded. Porous polyethylene was thus better incorporated into the soft tissues than silicone rubber as long as the overlying soft tissues were not stressed by an oversized implant or inadequate soft tissue coverage.
Background: Mechanical stimuli imparted by skeletal muscles play an important role during embryonic development in vertebrates. Little is known whether skeletal muscles are required for normal external ear development. Methods: We used Myf5−/−:MyoD−/− (double-mutant) mouse embryos that completely lack skeletal musculature and analyzed the development of the external ear. We concentrated on the external ear because several studies have suggested a muscular cause to various congenital auricular deformities, and middle and inner ear development was previously reported using the same mouse model. Wild-type mouse embryos were used as controls to compare the histomorphometric outcomes. Results: Our findings demonstrated an absence of the external auditory meatus, along with an abnormal auricular appearance, in the double-mutant mouse embryos. Specifically, the auricle did not protrude laterally as noted in the wild-type mouse ears. However, histomorphometric measurements were not significantly different between the wild-type and double-mutant mouse ears. Conclusion: Overall, our study showed that the development of the mouse external ear is dependent on the presence of skeletal muscles. PMID:26090272
Anwer, Cona; Schwarz, Tobias; Volk, Susan W; Vite, Charles
A 3 yr old male castrated Labrador retriever presented for evaluation and treatment of bilateral atresia of the external ear canals. The owners reported that the dog could hear only loud and high-pitched noises. Computed tomography of the head revealed intact vertical and horizontal ear canals filled with debris and a debris-filled right tympanic bulla. Air- and bone-conducted brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) testing revealed an elevated response threshold to air-conducted stimuli and greater amplitude waveforms evoked by bone-conducted stimuli. The ear canals were surgically corrected via lateral ear canal resection. BAER testing postoperatively revealed a decrease in the air-conducted BAER threshold. This case is an example of the use of bone-conducted BAER testing to aid in the diagnosis of conductive deafness, and in determining prognosis for normal hearing after surgical treatment of external ear canal atresia.
Odat, Haitham; Al-Qudah, Mohannad; Al-Qudah, Mohammad A
Cavernous hemangioma involving the external canal, tympanic membrane, and middle ear cavity is extremely rare. We present a case of a 45-year-old woman who had progressive right sided decreased hearing, pulsatile tinnitus, and aural fullness of 7 months duration. Microscopic examination, imaging studies, surgical treatment, and histological evaluation are reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of cavernous hemangioma with simultaneous involvement of the external ear, tympanic membrane, middle ear, and attic reported in English literature.
Chen, Junming; Liang, Hairong; Wang, Yuejian; Yu, Youjun
The aim of this study was to observe the effect of a titanium tube on external auditory canal reconstruction in congenital aural atresia and to assess the tube's effectiveness in preventing external canal stenosis or atresia after reconstruction. Reconstruction of the external ear canal with a titanium mesh tube was performed in 16 patients (16 ears) with congenital aural atresia at the First People's Hospital of Foshan. The titanium mesh tube was removed 1 year after surgery. The patients were followed up for 2 years (2 ± 0.3 years), and all of the patients had formed a new external ear canal. There was no local infection, granulation tissue, re-stenosis, or atresia in any of the patients after surgery. All of the patients were content with their newly formed external ear canal. Titanium mesh tubing is safe and effective for reconstruction of the external ear canal during surgery for congenital aural atresia.
Cikanek, Shawna J; Carpenter, James W; Lindemann, Dana M; Hallman, R M; Eshar, David; Kim, In Joong; Almes, Kelli M
A 5-y-old, intact, 2.5-kg female domestic rabbit was presented because of blood spatter on the wall of its cage and the toenails of its right hind limb. Physical examination revealed a red, gelatinous mass that spanned the width of the right vertical ear canal. Radiographic images revealed a soft-tissue opacity at the base of the right ear, which was superimposed over the tympanic bulla and extended to the pinna. A CT scan revealed that the soft-tissue mass was within the vertical and horizontal portions of the right external ear canal and extended to the level of the tympanic membrane, with no bony involvement. An incisional biopsy of the mass and subsequent histopathology revealed heterophilic inflammation with bacteria, necrosis, and no evidence of neoplasia. The patient died during anesthesia for removal of the mass at 1 mo after the initial presentation. Necropsy with histopathology of the mass was consistent with Shope fibroma virus in light of the presence of typical intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions. Electron microscopy of paraffin-embedded tissue revealed electron-dense intracytoplasmic structures within neoplastic cells consistent with the diagnosis of Leporipoxvirus. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of Shope fibroma virus invading the external ear canal of a domestic rabbit. Given the results of this case, Shope fibroma should be considered in rabbits presenting with abnormal tissue in the ear canal.
Spankovich, Christopher; Lobarinas, Edward; Ding, Dalian; Salvi, Richard; Le Prell, Colleen G
Systemic and local changes in body temperature can have a profound effect on traumatic injuries including those to the inner ear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of acutely increasing or decreasing the temperature of the external ear canal on cisplatin-induced hearing loss. The external auditory canals of male guinea pigs were acutely irrigated with warm (44 °C), euthermic (37 °C), or cool (30 °C) water and subsequently injected with cisplatin (12 mg/kg, i.p.). Hearing was assessed by the auditory brainstem response and cochleograms were prepared to determine loss of hair cells. Ear canal irrigation with warm water potentiated cisplatin-induced hearing loss and outer hair cell loss whereas cool ear canal irrigation showed significant protection from cisplatin-induced hearing loss and outer hair cell loss. These results suggest that non-invasive cool water ear canal irrigation may be highly effective clinical procedure for protecting against cisplatin-induced hearing loss.
Al-Humidi, Ahmed; Al-Khamiss, Abdullah
We present an unexpected extremely rare case of an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of the external ear. A 3-year-old boy presented with a mass arising on the posterior aspect of the left ear lobule and extending to the external auditory canal. This mass grew slowly and showed no skin changes. Radiologically, it was diagnosed as a vascular tumor. Surgical excision and primary closure was performed for the patient. Histopathologic examination demonstrated a circumscribed noncapsulated mass formed by a proliferation of spindle cells in deep dermis and subcutaneous tissue. The spindle cells were mixed with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration compatible with the IMT. Because it is very rare to arise in this location, we present this case as a case report with details histopathological examination and reviewed the English literature for similar cases. PMID:26309441
Wang, Jenny R; Parnes, Lorne S
We report a case of bilateral superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) in a 38-year-old man who presented with congenital hearing loss without vestibular symptoms. This case is unusual due to the association of SSCD with multiple congenital anomalies of the external, middle, and inner ears, but without any other craniofacial or systemic developmental anomalies. Findings of multiple malformations of temporal bone structures in this case lend support to the theory that SSCD may have an underlying developmental or congenital etiology.
Beriat, Güçlü Kaan; Akmansu, Şefik Halit; Doğan, Cem; Taştan, Eren; Topal, Ferda; Sabuncuoğlu, Bizden
Summary Background In recent years, pimecrolimus 1% cream has been demonstrated to reduce symptoms of atopic dermatitis in patients when applied topically. Material/Methods In our study we compared the therapeutic effects of local 1% pimecrolimus to 1% hydrocortisone, and to a control group in a mouse model with atopic dermatitis in the external ear canals. Atopic dermatitis was created by application of Dinitrochlorobenzene in the external ear canals of mice. The development of atopic dermatitis was detected by clinical observation score and determination of total serum IgE levels. Pimecrolimus and hydrocortisone cream were topically applied to the external ear canal skin once a day for 14 days. Results There was no significant difference between the hydrocortisone and the pimecrolimus therapy groups, while there was a statistically significant difference between these 2 groups and the control group (p<0.05) Assessment of the clinical observation scoring carried out on the 14th day of therapy revealed that there was no difference between the hydrocortisone and pimecrolimus groups. Biopsies were taken on the 14th day following treatment. Tissue samples were histologically evaluated; contact dermatitis was observed microscopically in the control group, but in the therapy groups only minimal evidence of contact dermatitis was found. Conclusions The results of our study reveal that the therapeutic efficacy of 1% pimecrolimus was equivalent to 1% hydrocortisone treatment in the artificially developed atopic dermatitis model in external ear canals of mice. These results clearly demonstrate that 1% pimecrolimus cream can be an effective alternative therapeutic agent in cases where steroid treatment proves to be insufficient or in cases where treatment must be discontinued due to its adverse effects. PMID:22460087
NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE BETHESDA, MARYLAND 82-22 EFFECT OF DIVING AND DIVING HOODS ON THE BACTERIAL FLORA OF THE EXTERNAL EAR CANAL AND SKIN...Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPeRT & PERIOD COVERED EFFECT OF DIVING AND DIVING HOODS ON THE BACTERIAL - PROGRESS FLORA OF THE EXTERNAL EAR CANAL AND SKIN MEDICAL...bacterial flora of the external ear canals and posterior auricular skin surface was investigated’in a group of 26 divers after 25 dry-suit dives in harbor
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Malassezia species from the body skin and external ear canal of healthy horses. The samples were obtained by scraping the skin surface from the nose, groin and dorsum and swabbing from the external ear canal of 163 animals, and then incubated on sabouraud dextrose agar and modified Dixon agar. Malassezia species were isolated from 34.9% of horses. The percentages of Malassezia species were 64.3% for Arab, 35.7% for Persian, 35.4% for Thoroughbred and 27.1% for Turkmen breeds. The greatest abundance of Malassezia species was found in the external ear canal (47.7%, representing significant difference with other sites), followed by nose (26.3%), groin (15.8%) and dorsum (10.5%) (P < 0.05). A total of 57 strains from six Malassezia species were detected with a frequency rate as follows: M. pachydermatis (33.3%), M. globosa (26.3%), M. sympodialis (14.1%), M. restricta (10.5%), M. obtusa (8.8%) and M. furfur (7%). The most common age-group affected was 1-3 years (59.4%). This study confirmed that cutaneous Malassezia microbiota in healthy horses varies by body site and age but not by breed and gender, representing M. pachydermatis as the most prevalent species on horse skin.
Bradamante, Z; Svajger, A
During chondrogenesis in the external ear of the rat oxytalan fibres precede the appearance of mature elastic fibres by 6-7 days. The spatial distribution of oxytalan fibres in fetal and neonatal pre-cartilage corresponds to that of the elastic fibres in mature cartilage. These findings support the hypothesis that oxytalan fibres in the pre-cartilage of the external ear of the rat are pre-elastic in nature. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:885786
Igimi, S; Takahashi, E; Mitsuoka, T
A new subspecies, Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans, was isolated from the external auditory meatus of dogs suffering from external ear otitis and is described on the basis of studies of 21 strains. Phenotypic studies showed that these strains are more closely related to Staphylococcus intermedius than to other staphylococci, but DNA hybridization studies indicated that they are closely related to Staphylococcus schleiferi N850274T. On the basis of biochemical distinctiveness (positive test tube coagulase test and different carbohydrate reactions) and the etiological importance (frequent isolation from otitis specimens from dogs) of these strains, we propose to classify them as a subspecies of S. schleiferi. The strains of this new subspecies are coagulase tube test, beta-hemolysin, and heat-stable nuclease positive but clumping factor negative. A simple scheme for the differentiation of S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans from the other coagulase-positive staphylococci is presented. The type strain is GA211 (= JCM 7470).
Carson, Henry J; Krivit, Jeffrey S; Eilers, Stanley G
We report on a patient who developed far-ranging metastases of adenocarcinoma of the colon that followed a gradual cephalad progression, including the right external ear canal, and led to hearing loss. The patient was a 63-year-old white male with stage III adenocarcinoma of the colon. After 2 years with metastases elsewhere, he developed hearing loss on the right side. Physical examination of the head and neck showed a mass in the external ear canal, and biopsy confirmed adenocarcinoma. After removal, the patient's hearing improved. This case is interesting not only because of the unusual metastasis to the external ear canal, but also because of the patient's previous history of metastasis over the course of more than 2 years. The significance of such wide-ranging metastases is that metastasis of adenocarcinoma to the ear did not signal imminent death, and relief of the hearing loss it caused was possible.
Garverick, S L; Kane, M; Ko, W H; Maniglia, A J
A miniaturized, low-power external unit has been developed for the clinical trials of a semi-implantable middle ear electromagnetic hearing device (SIMEHD) which uses radio-frequency telemetry to couple sound signals to the internal unit. The external unit is based on a commercial hearing aid which provides proven audio amplification and compression. Its receiver is replaced by an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) which: 1) adjusts the direct-current bias of the audio input according to its peak value; 2) converts the audio signal to a one-bit digital form using sigma-delta modulation; 3) modulates the sigma-delta output with a radio-frequency (RF) oscillator; and 4) drives the external RF coil and tuning capacitor using a field-effect transistor operated in class D. The external unit functions as expected and has been used to operate bench-top tests to the SIMEHD. Measured current consumption is 1.65-2.15 mA, which projects to a battery lifetime of about 15 days. Bandwidth is 6 kHz and harmonic distortion is about 2%.
Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia; Mariano, Thais Cristina Barbosa; Honório, Heitor Marques; Brito, Rubens Vuono de
Introduction Hearing loss is the most common clinical finding in patients with malformation of the external ear canal. Among the possibilities of treatment, there is the adaptation of hearing aids by bone conduction and the adaptation of implantable hearing aids. Objective To assess speech perception with the use of Vibrant Soundbridge (VBS - MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria) associated with additional amplification in patients with bilateral craniofacial malformation. Method We evaluated 11 patients with bilateral malformation over 12 years with mixed hearing loss or bilateral conductive. They were using the Softband (Oticon Medical, Sweden) and bone conduction hearing aid in the ear opposite the one with the VSB. We performed the evaluation of speech perception using the Hearing in Noise Test. Results Participants were eight men and three women with a mean of 19.5 years. The signal / noise ratio presented significant results in patients fitted with VSB and bone conduction hearing aid. Conclusion The results of speech perception were significantly better with use of VBS combined with bone conduction hearing aids.
Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia; Mariano, Thais Cristina Barbosa; Honório, Heitor Marques; Brito, Rubens Vuono de
Introduction Hearing loss is the most common clinical finding in patients with malformation of the external ear canal. Among the possibilities of treatment, there is the adaptation of hearing aids by bone conduction and the adaptation of implantable hearing aids. Objective To assess speech perception with the use of Vibrant Soundbridge (VBS - MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria) associated with additional amplification in patients with bilateral craniofacial malformation. Method We evaluated 11 patients with bilateral malformation over 12 years with mixed hearing loss or bilateral conductive. They were using the Softband (Oticon Medical, Sweden) and bone conduction hearing aid in the ear opposite the one with the VSB. We performed the evaluation of speech perception using the Hearing in Noise Test. Results Participants were eight men and three women with a mean of 19.5 years. The signal / noise ratio presented significant results in patients fitted with VSB and bone conduction hearing aid. Conclusion The results of speech perception were significantly better with use of VBS combined with bone conduction hearing aids. PMID:26722343
Jimena, Otero Negrete; Laura, Jaramillo Meza; Elena, Miranda Morales Rosa; Alonso, Navarro Hernández Jaime; Teresa, Quintero Martínez María
We did a descriptive study to determine whether the presence in the external ear canal of the Raillietia caprae mites and Mycoplasmas were associated. For that we sampled 360 goats slaughtered at abattoirs in the summer to identify those infested with the mite. We found only 20 infested, so used all of those plus another 47 uninfested goats selected systematically from the population negative for the isolation of Mycoplasmas. These goats came from the regions of Queretaro, Guanajuato, Sinaloa and Estado de México. Sterile swabs were taken from each ear canal of the carcass after removal of the pinna for microscopic observation of the mites and for the isolation of Mycoplasmas in both study groups. The swab samples were inoculated in Friis media for the isolation of Mycoplasmas; then, the isolates were biochemically characterized and identified serologically. We recovered isolates from the earwax of only nine of the 47 control goats, but from the earwax of 11 of the 20 infested goats; another four infested goats had Mycoplasma isolated from the mites but not from the earwax. Mycoplasma cottewii and Mycoplasma yeatsii were the only Mycoplasmas isolated from the uninfested goats, and also were the predominant (29 of 34) isolates from the infested goats and/or from the mites.
Eagles, Kylee; Fralich, Laura; Stevenson, J Herbert
Understanding basic ear anatomy and function allows an examiner to quickly and accurately identify at-risk structures in patients with head and ear trauma. External ear trauma (ie, hematoma or laceration) should be promptly treated with appropriate injury-specific techniques. Tympanic membrane injuries have multiple mechanisms and can often be conservatively treated. Temporal bone fractures are a common cause of ear trauma and can be life threatening. Facial nerve injuries and hearing loss can occur in ear trauma.
Brummund, Martin K; Sgard, Franck; Petit, Yvan; Laville, Frédéric
A linear three-dimensional (3D) elasto-acoustic finite element model was used to simulate the occlusion effect following mechanical vibration at the mastoid process. The ear canal and the surrounding soft and bony tissues were reconstructed using images of a female cadaver head (Visible Human Project(®)). The geometrical model was coupled to a 3D earplug model and imported into comsol Multiphysics (COMSOL(®), Sweden). The software was used to solve for the sound pressure at the eardrum. Finite element modeling of the human external ear and of the occlusion effect has several qualities that can complement existing measuring and modeling techniques. First, geometrically complex structures such as the external ear can be reconstructed. Second, various material behavioral laws and complex loading can be accounted for. Last, 3D analyses of external ear substructures are possible allowing for the computation of a broad range of acoustic indicators. The model simulates consistent occlusion effects (e.g., insertion depth variability). Comparison with an experimental dataset, kindly provided by Stenfelt and Reinfeldt [Int. J. Audiol. 46, 595-608 (2007)], further demonstrates the model's accuracy. Power balances were used to analyze occlusion effect differences obtained for a silicone earplug and to examine the increase in sound energy when the ear canal is occluded (e.g., high-pass filter removal).
Mileshina, N A; Osipenkov, S S; Bakhshinian, V V; Tavartkiladze, G A
The objective of the present study was to estimate the advantages of cochlear Baha BIA 400 abutments in the intraoperative and early postoperative periods. A total of 10 implantations of the systems with the use of hydroxyapatite bone cement were performed in 9 patients of different age. Stability of the implants and intensity of skin reactions were evaluated. The data obtained indicate that the use of cochlear Baha BIA 400 abutments significantly simplifies and shortens the surgical stage of rehabilitation producing a good cosmetic result. The use of the Osstell instrument made it possible to estimate stability of the implants intraoperatively and evaluate the effectiveness of osteointegration during the follow-up period. Analysis of the results of the study provided a basis on which to improve the quality and shorten duration of the rehabilitative treatment of the patients presenting with congenital external and middle ear malformations. Moreover, the data obtained can be used to develop practical recommendations for the further work in this area.
Al-Hussaini, A; Owens, D; Tomkinson, A
Tympanometric evaluation is routinely used as part of the complete otological examination. During tympanometric examination, evaluation of middle ear pressure and ear canal volume is undertaken. Little is reported in relation to the accuracy and precision tympanometry evaluates external ear canal volume. This study examines the capability of the tympanometer to accurately evaluate external auditory canal volume in both simple and partially obstructed ear canal models and assesses its capability to be used in studies examining the effectiveness of cerumolytics. An ear canal model was designed using simple laboratory equipment, including a 5 ml calibrated clinical syringe (Becton Dickinson, Spain). The ear canal model was attached to the sensing probe of a Kamplex tympanometer (Interacoustics, Denmark). Three basic trials were undertaken: evaluation of the tympanometer in simple canal volume measurement, evaluation of the tympanometer in assessing canal volume with partial canal occlusion at different positions within the model, and evaluation of the tympanometer in assessing canal volume with varying degrees of canal occlusion. 1,290 individual test scenarios were completed over the three arms of the study. At volumes of 1.4 cm(3) or below, a perfect relationship was noted between the actual and tympanometric volumes in the simple model (Spearman's ρ = 1) with weakening degrees of agreement with increasing volume of the canal. Bland-Altman plotting confirmed the accuracy of this agreement. In the wax substitute models, tympanometry was observed to have a close relationship (Spearman's ρ > 0.99) with the actual volume present with worsening error above a volume of 1.4 cm(3). Bland-Altman plotting and precision calculations provided evidence of accuracy. Size and position of the wax substitute had no statistical effect on results [Wilcoxon rank-sum test (WRST) p > 0.99], nor did degree of partial obstruction (WRST p > 0.99). The Kamplex tympanometer
Kalantar, E; Mosaei, M; Ekrami, A; Pedram, M
A bacteriological study of external ear canal was performed in 52 hospitalized cancer patients and 42 non hospitalized cancer patients at Shafa hospital, Ahwaz. Study was under taken to find out the normal flora changes in the external ear canals and to observe the prevalence of external otitis among these cancer patients. The control group consisted of 40 non-cancer patients. We observed the following bacteria among hospitalized cancer patients. Staphylococcus Coagulase negative (51.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (15.7%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (11.9%). Similarly, among non hospitalized cancer patients, Staphylococcus Coagulase negative (45.2%), S. aureus (9.5%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (4.7%). Incidence of Staphylococcus Coagulase negative and Streptococci pneumoniae is higher in control group than that in cancer patients. We have concluded that cancer patients probably suffer from external otitis more frequently because of enhanced colonization by S. aureus (P < 0.05). The antimicrobial susceptibility of these organisms to various antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion method using Muller Hinton agar. In hospitalized cancer patients Staphylococcus Coagulase negative was 25% and 85% resistant to Vancomycin and Penicillin G and in non hospitalized cancer patients, Staphylococcus Coagulase negative were 45% and 80% resistant to Vancomycin and Penicillin G. S. aureus of both the groups (hospitalized & non hospitalized) were resistant to Penicillin G. Similarly, both the groups were 55% and 50% resistance to Vancomycin.
Bergevin, Christopher; Olson, Elizabeth S
Sound energy is conveyed to the inner ear by the diaphanous, cone-shaped tympanic membrane (TM). The TM moves in a complex manner and transmits sound signals to the inner ear with high fidelity, pressure gain, and a short delay. Miniaturized sensors allowing high spatial resolution in small spaces and sensitivity to high frequencies were used to explore how pressure drives the TM. Salient findings are: (1) A substantial pressure drop exists across the TM, and varies in frequency from ∼10 to 30 dB. It thus appears reasonable to approximate the drive to the TM as being defined solely by the pressure in the ear canal (EC) close to the TM. (2) Within the middle ear cavity (MEC), spatial variations in sound pressure could vary by more than 20 dB, and the MEC pressure at certain locations/frequencies was as large as in the EC. (3) Spatial variations in pressure along the TM surface on the EC-side were typically less than 5 dB up to 50 kHz. Larger surface variations were observed on the MEC-side.
Greve, J; Bas, M; Schipper, J; Hoffmann, T K
A Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) represents nearly three percent of all malignant tumors. Thirty to fourty percent of the lymphomas are located extra-nodal. Within the head and neck region they might occur in the tonsils, tongue base or the sinuses, the larynx and the pharynx. A cutaneous manifestation is rare. We report on an extranodal B-cell-lymphoma of the ear in a young woman. She reported on a piercing of the pinna months before with a subsequent infection. This infection led to the development of a massive ear tumor. Histologic examination resulted in the final diagnosis. In spite of the considerable extent of the lymphoma there was no systemic manifestation and a total remission was induced by chemotherapy before adjuvant radiation.
Walsh, Kyle P.; Pasanen, Edward G.; McFadden, Dennis
In this study, a nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency OAE (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was used to measure cochlear responses from human subjects while they simultaneously performed behavioral tasks requiring, or not requiring, selective auditory attention. Appended to each stimulus presentation, and included in the calculation of each nSFOAE response, was a 30-ms silent period that was used to estimate the level of the inherent physiological noise in the ear canals of our subjects during each behavioral condition. Physiological-noise magnitudes were higher (noisier) for all subjects in the inattention task, and lower (quieter) in the selective auditory-attention tasks. These noise measures initially were made at the frequency of our nSFOAE probe tone (4.0 kHz), but the same attention effects also were observed across a wide range of frequencies. We attribute the observed differences in physiological-noise magnitudes between the inattention and attention conditions to different levels of efferent activation associated with the differing attentional demands of the behavioral tasks. One hypothesis is that when the attentional demand is relatively great, efferent activation is relatively high, and a decrease in the gain of the cochlear amplifier leads to lower-amplitude cochlear activity, and thus a smaller measure of noise from the ear. PMID:24732069
Spinner, N.B.; Rand, E.; McDonald-McGinn, D.M.
Uniparental disomy can cause disease if the involved chromosomal region contains imprinted genes. Uniparental disomy for portions of human chromosomes 6, 7, 9, 11, 14 and 15 have been associated with abnormal phenotypes. We studied a patient with multiple abnormalities including an absent left ear with a small right ear remnant, microcephaly, congenital heart disease and Hirschprung`s disease. Cytogenetics revealed a 45,XY,-20,-20,+ter rea(20;20)(p13;p13) in 10/10 cells from bone marrow and 20/20 cells from peripheral blood. Analysis of a skin culture revealed a second cell line with trisomy 20 resulting from an apparently normal chromosome 20 in addition to the terminally rearranged chromosome, in 8/100 cells studied. The unusual phenotype of our patient was not consistent with previously reported cases of deletions of 20p or mosaic trisomy 20. We hypothesized that the patient`s phenotype could either result from deletion of both copies of a gene near the p arm terminus of chromosome 20 or from uniparental disomy of chromosome 20. There were no alterations or rearrangements of PTP-alpha (which maps to distal 20p) by Southern or Northern blot analysis. A chromosome 20 sub-telomeric probe was found to be present on the rearranged 20 by FISH suggesting that subtelomeric sequences have not been lost as a consequece of this rearrangement. To determine the parental origin of the 2 chromosome 20`s in the terminal rearrangement, we studied the genotypes of the proband and his parents in lymphoblastoid cell lines at 8 polymorphic loci. Genotypes at D20S115, D20S186, and D20S119 indicated that there was paternal isodisomy. Other loci were uninformative. This is the first example of uniparental disomy for chromosome 20. Further studies are warranted to correlate phenotype with uniparental inheritance of this chromosome.
Ear infection (middle ear) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff An ear infection (acute otitis media) is most often a bacterial or viral infection that affects the middle ear, the air-filled space behind the eardrum that ...
Lafayette, Thereza Christina Sampaio; Coser, Virginia Maria; Brûlé, Alice Odette; Coser, Pedro Luis; Pereira, Waldir Veiga
Extramedullary involvement occurs infrequently in acute promyelocytic leukemia and is said to be more common after treatment with all-trans retinoic acid. We describe a 9-year-old girl who had an isolated external auditory canal and middle ear relapse after treatment with all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy. A patient with cytogenetically and molecularly confirmed acute promyelocytic leukemia developed isolated extramedullary relapse in the auditory canal and middle ear 4 years and 9 months after initial diagnosis, while in hematologic and molecular remission, successfully treated with arsenic trioxide alone.
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Orengo, Ida; Robbins, Kerri; Marsch, Amanda
The external ear is exposed to weathering and trauma; it also has sparse vascularity, making it prone to infection and disease. The external location of the cutaneous ear makes it easily visible for diagnosis and accessible for treatment. In this article, the authors focus on diseases of the ear that are most commonly encountered and may be subject to surgical and medical evaluation and/or treatment. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and treatment for each disease entity are discussed. PMID:23115534
... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Pierced Ears KidsHealth > For Kids > Pierced Ears A A A ... cool, but infected ears do not! Getting Your Ears Pierced It's important to get your ears pierced ...
Cheverud, J M; Lawson, H A; Bouckaert, K; Kossenkov, A V; Showe, L C; Cort, L; Blankenhorn, E P; Bedelbaeva, K; Gourevitch, D; Zhang, Y; Heber-Katz, E
External ear hole closure in LG/J mice represents a model of regenerative response. It is accompanied by the formation of a blastema-like structure and the re-growth of multiple tissues, including cartilage. The ability to regenerate tissue is heritable. An F34 advanced intercross line of mice (Wustl:LG,SM-G34) was generated to identify genomic loci involved in ear hole closure over a 30-day healing period. We mapped 19 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for ear hole closure. Individual gene effects are relatively small (0.08 mm), and most loci have co-dominant effects with phenotypically intermediate heterozygotes. QTL support regions were limited to a median size of 2 Mb containing a median of 19 genes. Positional candidate genes were evaluated using differential transcript expression between LG/J and SM/J healing tissue, function analysis and bioinformatic analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in and around positional candidate genes of interest. Analysis of the set of 34 positional candidate genes and those displaying expression differences revealed over-representation of genes involved in cell cycle regulation/DNA damage, cell migration and adhesion, developmentally related genes and metabolism. This indicates that the healing phenotype in LG/J mice involves multiple physiological mechanisms. PMID:24569637
Chen, Wan-Yu; Kuo, Sung-Hsin; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Lu, Szu-Huai; Tsai, Chiao-Ling; Chia-Hsien Cheng, Jason; Hong, Ruey-Long; Chen, Ya-Fang; Hsu, Chuan-Jen; Lin, Kai-Nan; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Lou, Pei-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Chong, Fok-Ching; Wang, Chun-Wei
Purpose: To report outcomes of the rare disease of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the external auditory canal (EAC) and middle ear treated with surgery and postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Failure patterns related to spatial dose distribution were also analyzed to provide insight into target delineation. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of the records of 11 consecutive patients with SCC of the EAC and middle ear who were treated with curative surgery and postoperative IMRT at one institution between January 2007 and February 2010. The prescribed IMRT dose was 60 to 66 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction. Three patients also received concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and 1 patient received concurrent oral tegafur/uracil. The median follow-up time was 19 months (range, 6-33 months). Results: Four patients had locoregional recurrence, yielding an estimated 2-year locoregional control rate of 70.7%. Among them, 1 patient had persistent disease after treatment, and 3 had marginal recurrence. Distant metastasis occurred in 1 patient after extensive locoregional recurrence, yielding an estimated 2-year distant control rate of 85.7%. The estimated 2-year overall survival was 67.5%. The three cases of marginal recurrence were near the preauricular space and glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint, adjacent to the apex of the ear canal and glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint, and in the postauricular subcutaneous area and ipsilateral parotid nodes, respectively. Conclusions: Marginal misses should be recognized to improve target delineation. When treating SCC of the EAC and middle ear, care should be taken to cover the glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint and periauricular soft tissue. Elective ipsilateral parotid irradiation should be considered. The treatment planning procedure should also be refined to balance subcutaneous soft-tissue dosimetry and toxicity.
... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Swimmer's Ear KidsHealth > For Kids > Swimmer's Ear Print A ... continue How Do I Know if I Have Swimmer's Ear? Swimmer's ear may start with some itching, ...
... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Tubes Ear Tubes Patient Health Information News media interested ... throat specialist) may be considered. What are ear tubes? Ear tubes are tiny cylinders placed through the ...
dos Santos, Sandra Batista; do Nascimento, Elmiro Rosendo; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Barreto, Maria Lúcia; de Almeida Pereira, Virginia Léo
Mycoplasmas were searched in the ear canal flushing of 60 bovine in Brazil. The prevalence obtained was 80%. The percentages of typified species were 12.5%, for M. alkalenses; 2.1%, M. arginini; 8.35%, M. bovirhinis; 2.1%, M. bovis; 25.0%, M. conjunctivae; 14.6%, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC and 10.4% M. capricolum. PMID:24031387
Ayerbe, I; Négrevergne, M; Ucelay, R; Sanchez Fernandez, J M
The middle ear forms part of the sound transformer mechanism, together with the outer ear and the conducting system of the inner ear. An intermediate sensory organ, sensitive to acoustic vibration, and linked to the inner ear, the middle ear made its appearance during the period of adaptation of marine creatures to a terrestrial habitat; its presence is therefore a phylogenetic requirement. It is classical to ascribe three functions to the middle ear: the transmission of acoustic vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the cochlea, impedance matching between the air in the external auditary meatus and the labyrinthine fluids, and protection of the inner ear by means of the acoustic reflex. If the classical mechanical explanation has been able to explain its function, the conceptualization of its physiology in terms of energy allows an even better understanding, as well as providing and explanation for the paradoxes which arise in clinical practice when the classical model is used.
Frangos, Eleni; Ellrich, Jens; Komisaruk, Barry R.
Background Tract-tracing studies in cats and rats demonstrated that the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN) projects to the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS); it has remained unclear as to whether or not the ABVN projects to the NTS in humans. Objective To ascertain whether non-invasive electrical stimulation of the cymba conchae, a region of the external ear exclusively innervated by the ABVN, activates the NTS and the “classical” central vagal projections in humans. Methods Twelve healthy adults underwent two fMRI scans in the same session. Electrical stimulation (continuous 0.25ms pulses, 25Hz) was applied to the earlobe (control, scan #1) and left cymba conchae (scan #2). Statistical analyses were performed with FSL. Two region-of-interest analyses were performed to test the effects of cymba conchae stimulation (compared to baseline and control, earlobe, stimulation) on the central vagal projections (corrected; brainstem p<0.01, forebrain p<0.05), followed by a whole-brain analysis (corrected, p< 0.05). Results Cymba conchae stimulation, compared to earlobe (control) stimulation, produced significant activation of the “classical” central vagal projections, e.g., widespread activity in the ipsilateral nucleus of the solitary tract, bilateral spinal trigeminal nucleus, dorsal raphe, locus coeruleus, and contralateral parabrachial area, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens. Bilateral activation of the paracentral lobule was also observed. Deactivations were observed bilaterally in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. Conclusion These findings provide evidence in humans that the central projections of the ABVN are consistent with the “classical” central vagal projections and can be accessed non-invasively via the external ear. PMID:25573069
... ear, where they make your eardrum vibrate. The vibrations are transmitted through three tiny bones, called ossicles, in your middle ear. The vibrations travel to your inner ear, a snail-shaped ...
... gross and useful. continue The Middle Ear: Good Vibrations After sound waves enter the outer ear, they ... take those sound waves and turn them into vibrations that are delivered to the inner ear. To ...
... an ear injury, avoid nose blowing and getting water in the injured ear. Treat ear infections right ... FDR Medical Services/Millard Fillmore Suburban Hospital, Buffalo, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...
... Ear popping - barotrauma; Pressure-related ear pain; Eustachian tube dysfunction - barotrauma ... air pressure outside of the body. The Eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ear and ...
In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…
... surgery. An ENT surgically inserts tubes inside your child’s middle ear. The tubes relieve the pressure and allow ... the risks of surgically inserting tubes inside my child's middle ear? What are the risks of not?Should ...
... Protect your hearing by wearing earplugs at loud music concerts and around noisy machinery, like in wood ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? ...
... the opening of the ear are common in newborn infants. In most cases, these are normal. However, they ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Common Infant and Newborn Problems Ear Disorders Skin Conditions Browse the Encyclopedia ...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003340.htm Ear examination To use the sharing features on this page, ... ear References King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey ...
... wax plug. Tip your head to allow the water to drain. You may need to repeat irrigation several times. To avoid damaging your ear or causing an infection: Never irrigate the ear if the eardrum may have a hole in it. Do not irrigate the ear with ...
... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Cauliflower Ear? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cauliflower Ear? A A A Have you ever seen ... looks bumpy and lumpy? The person might have cauliflower ear. That sure is a funny name. Let's ...
... los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray What's Cauliflower Ear? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cauliflower Ear? Print A A A Have you ever ... looks bumpy and lumpy? The person might have cauliflower ear. That sure is a funny name. Let's ...
The patient, 61 years of age, saw the general practitioner for a repeat prescription for her blood pressure medication. During the consultation, the patient mentioned that she had some discomfort in her left ear. The GP examined the patient's ears and noted that both external auditory canals were blocked by wax. He recommended that the patient have her ears syringed and arranged for the practice nurse to perform the procedure. The GP did not see the patient again.
Ogawa, Kazuhiko . E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Hatano, Kazuo; Uno, Takashi; Fuwa, Nobukazu; Itami, Jun; Kojya, Shizuo; Nakashima, Torahiko; Shinhama, Akihiko; Nakagawa, Takashi; Toita, Takafumi; Sakai, Mitsuhiro; Kodaira, Takeshi; Suzuki, Mikio; Ito, Hisao; Murayama, Sadayuki
Purpose: To examine the relative roles of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy in the management of patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the external auditory canal and middle ear. Methods and Materials: The records of 87 patients with histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma who were treated between 1984 and 2005 were reviewed. Fifty-three patients (61%) were treated with surgery and radiotherapy (S + RT group) and the remaining 34 patients with radiotherapy alone (RT group). Chemotherapy was administered in 34 patients (39%). Results: The 5-year actuarial overall and disease-free survival (DFS) rates for all patients were 55% and 54%, respectively. On univariate analysis, T stage (Stell's classification), treatment modality, and Karnofsky performance status had significant impact on DFS. On multivariate analysis, T stage and treatment modality were significant prognostic factors. Chemotherapy did not influence DFS. The 5-year DFS rate in T1, T2, and T3 patients was 83%, 45%, and 0 in the RT group (p < 0.0001) and 75%, 75%, and 46% in the S + RT group (p = 0.13), respectively. The 5-year DFS rate in patients with negative surgical margins, those with positive margins, and those with macroscopic residual disease was 83%, 55%, and 38%, respectively (p = 0.007). Conclusions: Radical radiotherapy is the treatment of choice for early-stage (T1) diseases, whereas surgery (negative surgical margins if possible) with radiotherapy is recommended as the standard care for advanced (T2-3) disease. Further clarification on the role of chemotherapy is necessary.
Kolk, Andreas; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Smeets, Ralf; Kesting, Marco; Hein, Rüdiger; Eckert, Alexander W
Skin has the highest incidence and variety of tumors of all organs. Its structure is of great complexity, and every component has the potential to originate a skin neoplasm (SN). Because of its exposed nature, skin is vulnerable to carcinogenic stimuli such as UV radiation. Various entities can cause SN. Nonmelanotic skin cancers (NMSC) are the most common of all cancers, with over one million cases diagnosed annually in the US. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for approximately 80% of all NMSC, most of the remaining 20% being squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The skin of the head and neck is the most common site for tumors, accounting for more than 80% of all NMSC. BCC, SCC, and malignant melanomas (MM) represent 85-90% of all SN. Merkel cell tumors (MCC), lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas of the skin (LELCS), dermato-fibro-sarcomas, leiomyosarkomas, and Kaposi-sarcomas are less frequent in the facial skin region and the external ear. Based on data from the German Federal Cancer Registry (2003/2004), 140,000 people in Germany were affected by SN (100,000 BCC, 22,000 SCC, 22,000 MM). This number increases considerably if malignant precursors, such as actinic keratosis, are included. Each year, the frequency of SN diagnosis rises by 3-7%. Among all known malignant tumors, MM exhibits the highest rate of increase in incidence. In the past, SN was primarily diagnosed in people aged 50 years or older. However, recently, the risk for developing SN has shifted, and younger people are also affected. Early diagnosis is significantly correlated with prognosis. Resection of SN creates defects that must be closed with local or microvascular flaps to avoid functional disturbing scar formation and deflection of the nose, eyelids, or lips. All therapeutic strategies for SN, the current standard for adjuvant and systemic treatment, and the management of the increasing number of patients under permanent blood thinner medication are described with regard to the treatment of SN.
... YesNoDo you have thick pus-filled or bloody drainage from the ear canal that started after a ... bone behind the ear, or from an ENLARGED LYMPH NODE.Self CareURGENTSEE YOUR DOCTOR RIGHT AWAY.Start ...
... or a respiratory infection such as a cold. Swimming in unclean water can lead to swimmer's ear. ... very well after it has gotten wet. Avoid swimming in polluted water. Use earplugs when swimming. Try ...
... you run the risk of getting infected ears. Metal Matters Your first earrings should have gold posts ( ... infection and swelling. Later, you may find some metals cause an allergic reaction. You're probably wondering ...
Taylor, W. C.
Ten children with gross deformity of the external ear were observed. In six the facial bones were underdeveloped on the same side as the deformed ear. In all six there was a congenital abnormality of the kidney or upper urinary tract, usually on the same side as the deformed ear. In addition there were usually other associated congenital defects in each case. In the remaining four children the facial bones appeared normal, and pyelography showed no abnormality of the urinary tract. In these four children there were no other associated defects. These observations emphasize the importance of investigating the urinary tract in children with gross deformity of the external ear, especially where there is an associated underdevelopment of the facial bones. PMID:14317453
Red Ear Syndrome (RES) is a very rare disorder, with approximately 100 published cases in the medical literature. Red ear (RE) episodes are characterised by unilateral or bilateral attacks of paroxysmal burning sensations and reddening of the external ear. The duration of these episodes ranges from a few seconds to several hours. The attacks occur with a frequency ranging from several a day to a few per year. Episodes can occur spontaneously or be triggered, most frequently by rubbing or touching the ear, heat or cold, chewing, brushing of the hair, neck movements or exertion. Early-onset idiopathic RES seems to be associated with migraine, whereas late-onset idiopathic forms have been reported in association with trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). Secondary forms of RES occur with upper cervical spine disorders or temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction. RES is regarded refractory to medical treatments, although some migraine preventative treatments have shown moderate benefit mainly in patients with migraine-related attacks. The pathophysiology of RES is still unclear but several hypotheses involving peripheral or central nervous system mechanisms have been proposed. PMID:24093332
Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...
Kelley, Laura S; Flynn-Lurie, Alison K; House, Rossi A; Simpson, Andrew C; Marsella, Rosanna
Tacrolimus is a nonsteroidal alternative to treat noninfectious otitis externa (OE) in people. This 21-day study investigated whether twice daily application (0.2 mL/dose) of sterile olive oil based 0.1% tacrolimus suspension in ears of atopic beagle dogs without OE was associated with adverse local reactions, development of OE, change in otic cytology, vestibular dysfunction, or hearing loss detected by brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER). The study was randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled. Twenty-two dogs matched for age and sex were randomized to tacrolimus or vehicle control treatment groups. Two investigators independently evaluated dogs for signs of adverse effects including OE the first 4 days of treatment, then every 3 days. A logistic regression model was fit for each investigator's clinical scores (SAS, 9.2, 2008). Time (P = 0.0032) and group (P = 0.0167) were always significant for OE. Inter-observer reliability of clinical scores was strong, measured using Kappa coefficients and proportion of agreement. All nine exclusions (7/10 control- and 2/12 tacrolimus-treated dogs) were excluded for yeast OE. Inter-observer agreement to exclude was 100%. All dogs not excluded had normal BAER assessments before treatment, weekly during treatment, and after 21 days of treatment. None showed vestibular abnormalities at these times. Tacrolimus blood concentrations (Abbott IMx Tacrolimus II) were below detection limits (3 ng/mL) at baseline and after 21 days of treatment. Results suggest otic application of olive oil based tacrolimus suspension to canine ears with intact tympanic membranes is unlikely to result in hearing loss or vestibular dysfunction but yeast OE is a possible risk.
Malformations of the middle ear are classified as minor and major malformations. Minor malformations appear with regular external auditory canal, tympanic membrane and aerated middle ear space. The conducting hearing loss is due to fixation or interruption of the ossicular chain. The treatment is surgical, following the rules of ossiculoplasty and stapes surgery. In major malformations (congenital aural atresia) there is no external auditory canal and a deformed or missing pinna. The mastoid and the middle ear space may be underdevelopped, the ossicular chain is dysplastic. Surgical therapy is possible in patients with good aeration of the temporal bone, existing windows, a near normal positioned facial nerve and a mobile ossicular chain. Plastic and reconstructive surgery of the pinna should proceed the reconstruction of the external auditory canal and middle ear. In cases of good prognosis unilateral aural atresia can be approached already in childhood. In patients with high risk of surgical failure, bone anchored hearing aids are the treatment of choice. Recent reports of implantable hearing devices may be discussed as an alternative treatment for selected patients. PMID:22073077
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100045.htm Ear tube insertion - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 4 Overview The eardrum (tympanic membrane) separates the ear canal from the middle ear. Review Date 8/ ...
... the germs bother your outer ear, it's called swimmer's ear. The middle ear is a small pocket ... What's Hearing Loss? Taking Care of Your Ears Swimmer's Ear Perforated Eardrum What's Earwax? Contact Us Print ...
Fuchs, Jennifer C; Tucker, Abigail S
The perception of our environment via sensory organs plays a crucial role in survival and evolution. Hearing, one of our most developed senses, depends on the proper function of the auditory system and plays a key role in social communication, integration, and learning ability. The ear is a composite structure, comprised of the external, middle, and inner ear. During development, the ear is formed from the integration of a number of tissues of different embryonic origin, which initiate in distinct areas of the embryo at different time points. Functional connections between the components of the hearing apparatus have to be established and maintained during development and adulthood to allow proper sound submission from the outer to the middle and inner ear. This highly organized and intimate connectivity depends on intricate spatiotemporal signaling between the various tissues that give rise to the structures of the ear. Any alterations in this chain of events can lead to the loss of integration, which can subsequently lead to conductive hearing loss, in case of outer and middle ear defects or sensorineural hearing loss, if inner ear structures are defective. This chapter aims to review the current knowledge concerning the development of the three ear compartments as well as mechanisms and signaling pathways that have been implicated in the coordination and integration process of the ear.
... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Swimmer's Ear (Otitis Externa) KidsHealth > For Parents > Swimmer's Ear (Otitis ... español Otitis del nadador (otitis externa) About Swimmer's Ear Otitis externa (OE) — commonly known as swimmer's ear — ...
Gan, Rong Z; Reeves, Brian P; Wang, Xuelin
A 3-D finite element (FE) model of the human ear consisting of the external ear canal, middle ear, and cochlea is reported in this paper. The acoustic-structure-fluid coupled FE analysis was conducted on the model which included the air in the ear canal and middle ear cavity, the fluid in the cochlea, and the middle ear and cochlea structures (i.e., bones and soft tissues). The middle ear transfer function such as the movements of tympanic membrane, stapes footplate, and round window, the sound pressure gain across the middle ear, and the cochlear input impedance in response to sound stimulus applied in the ear canal were derived and compared with the published experimental measurements in human temporal bones. The frequency sensitivity of the basilar membrane motion and intracochlear pressure induced by sound pressure in the ear canal was predicted along the length of the basilar membrane from the basal turn to the apex. The satisfactory agreements between the model and experimental data in the literature indicate that the middle ear function was well simulated by the model and the simplified cochlea was able to correlate sound stimulus in the ear canal with vibration of the basilar membrane and pressure variation of the cochlear fluid. This study is the first step toward the development of a comprehensive FE model of the entire human ear for acoustic-mechanical analysis.
... is typically done on both ears to optimize symmetry. Otoplasty can be done at any age after ... your ears — including their placement, size, shape and symmetry. The doctor might also take pictures of your ...
... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...
... needed. Your health care provider will use a cotton swab to collect the sample from inside the ... Using a cotton swab to take a sample of drainage from the outer ear is not painful. However, ear pain may ...
A middle ear infection is also known as otitis media. It is one of the most common of childhood infections. With this illness, the middle ear becomes red, swollen, and inflamed because of bacteria ...
... or inserting foreign objects like bobby pins or paper clips into the ear can all increase the ... discharge from the ear to help identify which bacteria or fungi are causing the infection. Over-the- ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100016.htm Ear surgery - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Overview This image demonstrates normal appearance of the ears in relation to the face. Review Date 10/ ...
Dimeff, Robert J.; Hough, David O.
Describes a quick, simple tie-through suture technique (in which a collodion packing is secured to the auricle with two buttons) for preventing cauliflower ear following external ear trauma in wrestlers and boxers. The technique ensures constant compression; multiple treatments for fluid reaccumulation are rarely necessary. (SM)
De Stefano, A; Dispenza, F; Aggarwal, N; Russo, A
Malformations of bony inner ear are rare anomalies occurring in approximately 20% of patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss. Conductive hearing loss is usually associated with abnormalities of the external and middle ear. Recent reports of patients with lateral semicircular canal malformations indicate inner ear malformations to be associated with sensorineural or conductive hearing loss. Differential diagnosis of conductive hearing loss should include otosclerosis, isolated ossicular deformities, inner ear anomalies or a combination of these. In this report, a case is described with right vestibule-lateral semicircular canal dysplasia presenting at our centre with bilateral otosclerosis.
... Year-Old Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery KidsHealth > For Parents > Middle Ear Infections and Ear ... medio y colocación de tubos de ventilación Why Surgery? Many kids get middle ear infections (known as ...
Peake, W T; Rosowski, J J
One way to assess an ear's performance as a receiver of acoustic power is to consider impedance matching at the tympanic membrane. Assumptions about some of the impedances involved have lead to the idea of an optimum velocity magnitude (per unit pressure), which has been used as a test of middle-ear performance. We show that this approach is not a realistic way to assess effectiveness of power absorption at the tympanic membrane. More generally, we suggest that, if the performance of the combined external-and-middle ear in collecting acoustic power and delivering it to the inner ear is considered, the external- and middle-ear power-transfer efficiencies, as well as impedance matching, are involved in relating performance to an ideal.
Hawke, Michael; Kwok, Peter
The authors provide a number of ear-drum pictures and identify and discuss diseases affecting the external ear canal, the tympanic membrane and middle ear. They also deal with the removal of foreign bodies from the external canal, perforation of the tympanic membrane, and the use of an artificial ventilation tube. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18 PMID:21263886
... 2-Year-Old Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery KidsHealth > For Parents > Middle Ear Infections and ... to 18 months or longer. previous continue Tympanostomy Tube Surgery If your child is old enough to ...
hearing with head and ear protection Figure 1: Nacre QUIETPRO® communications earplug. The left panel shows the controller with the in-ear system...was the Nacre QUIETPRO® in push-to-talk mode, with the volume for external sounds set at 0 dB gain. This device is one of several currently under review...the 10 subjects. The two ear conditions are labeled unoccluded (no ear protection) and occluded ( Nacre QUIETPRO® in-ear communications system). The
... close. Regularly wash your ears with soap and water. Carefully do this at least once a day to avoid infection. Twist the earrings a few times daily. This will help keep the pierced holes open. Put rubbing alcohol on your ears. Using ...
... Text Size Email Print Share Avoiding Infection After Ear Piercing Page Content Article Body What is the best way to avoid infection after ear piercing? Ears may be pierced for cosmetic reasons ...
... and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... The eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ear (the space deep to the eardrum) and the back of the ...
Objective To present our experience with ear splint therapy for babies with ear deformities, and thereby demonstrate that this therapy is an effective and safe intervention without significant complications. Methods This was a retrospective study of 54 babies (35 boys and 19 girls; 80 ears; age ≤3 months) with ear deformities who had received ear splint therapy at the Center for Torticollis, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ajou University Hospital between December 2014 and February 2016. Before the initiation of ear splint therapy, ear deformities were classified with reference to the standard terminology. We compared the severity of ear deformity before and after ear splint therapy by using the physician's ratings. We also compared the physician's ratings and the caregiver's ratings on completion of ear splint therapy. Results Among these 54 babies, 41 children (58 ears, 72.5%) completed the ear splint therapy. The mean age at initiation of therapy was 52.91±18.26 days and the treatment duration was 44.27±32.06 days. Satyr ear, forward-facing ear lobe, Darwinian notch, overfolded ear, and cupped ear were the five most common ear deformities. At the completion of therapy, the final physician's ratings of ear deformities were significantly improved compared to the initial ratings (8.28±1.44 vs. 2.51±0.92; p<0.001). There was no significant difference between the physician's ratings and the caregiver's ratings at the completion of ear splint therapy (8.28±1.44 vs. 8.0±1.61; p=0.297). Conclusion We demonstrated that ear splint therapy significantly improved ear deformities in babies, as measured by quantitative rating scales. Ear splint therapy is an effective and safe intervention for babies with ear deformities. PMID:28289646
Ruddy, J; Bickerton, R C
Discharge from the ear can be the result of many disease processes. The ear may discharge blood, pus, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or wax. Keratosis obturans, stenosis of the external meatus and benign tumours of the external meatus all lead to wax build-up, which may cause recurrent attacks of otitis externa. Malignant tumours, such as basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and tumours of ceruminous gland origin may also present with discharge. Tumours should be excluded by submitting all material removed from the external canal for histological examination. Single or multiple abscesses (known as furuncles) may occur in the hair follicles in the skin of the external acoustic meatus (EAM). Compulsive scratching, hearing aids and foreign bodies placed in the ear predispose to otitis externa, which is also often associated with infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and faecal organisms. Management may be with aluminium acetate 14%, topical antibiotic/steroid drops, a gauze wick soaked with icthammol 10% in glycerin or polymyxin B sulphate--neomycin sulphate--hydrocortisone acetate cream placed into the EAM and replaced every 24 to 48 hours, or systemic antibiotics according to severity. Malignant (necrotising) otitis externa causes progressive destruction of the temporal bone, and cranial nerve palsies (usually facial first). Treatment is limited debridement of infected bone, accompanied by intravenous aminoglycosides, and local antibiotic treatment and aural cleanout or oral ciprofloxacin. Middle ear conditions causing discharge include acute otitis media, infected grommets, traumatic perforations and chronic suppurative otitis media, as well as tumours of the ear canal skin and middle ear, radiation-induced otitis externa and osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone, tuberculosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, spontaneous or post-traumatic CSF leaks, Wegeners granulomatosis and immune deficiency states. Topical application of aminoglycoside
Wang, Mao-Che; Liu, Chia-Yu; Shiao, An-Suey; Wang, Tyrone
Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear), otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane.
... head, sports injuries, and even listening to loud music can cause ear damage, which can affect hearing ... But for kids and teens, listening to loud music (at concerts, in the car, through headphones) is ...
... Paralysis of the face Inflammation around the brain ( epidural abscess ) or in the brain Damage to the part ... pubmed/23818543 . Read More Cholesteatoma Ear infection - acute Epidural abscess Mastoiditis Otitis Review Date 4/21/2015 Updated ...
... Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor Review Date 8/5/2015 Updated by: Sumana Jothi ... Otolaryngology, NCHCS VA, SFVA, San Francisco, CA. Internal review and update on 09/01/2016 by David ...
... more than 6 children) Changes in altitude or climate Cold climate Exposure to smoke Family history of ear infections ... or fewer children. This can reduce your child's chances of getting a cold or other infection, and ...
... the dropper tip down. Tilt the affected ear up or lie on your side. Pull the ear backward and upward (or if giving ... into the ear canal. Keep your ear tilted up for a few minutes or insert a soft ... from the Michigan Pharmacists Association's Patient Education Program.
Dutta, Mainak; Ghatak, Soumya; Biswas, Gautam
Chronic discharging ear, mostly due to middle or external ear infection, is one of the leading causes for seeking healthcare among the paediatric population in a developing country. However, a long-standing forgotten middle ear foreign body forms a rare cause for such presentation demanding a high index of suspicion from the clinicians. Most of them are iatrogenic or accidental, and are removed by conventional permeatal approach; need for tympanotomy is rarely documented in the recent literature. We report the first case where a large stone was introduced into the middle ear through a pre-existing tympanic membrane perforation by the child himself, and only the second documentation of removal of a middle ear foreign body by tympanotomy in a child.
ABSTRACT The inner and middle ear are connected mainly through round and oval windows, and inflammation in the middle ear cavity can spread into the inner ear, which might induce a disturbance. In cases with intractable otitis media, attention should also be paid to symptoms related to the inner ear. In this paper, middle ear inflammation and related inner ear disturbances are reviewed with a focus on representative middle ear diseases (such as acute otitis media, chronic otitis media, otitis media with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, eosinophilic otitis media, cholesteatoma with labyrinthine fistula, and reflux-related otitis media). Their clinical concerns are then discussed with reference to experimental studies. In these diseases, early diagnosis and adequate treatment are required to manage not only middle ear but also inner ear conditions. PMID:28303055
Kligman, A M; Kwong, T
A simplified comedogenic assay is described in which test materials are applied for 2 weeks to the ears of rabbits just external to the ear canal. Excised tissue is thus immersed in water at 60 degrees C for 2 min, yielding a sheet of epidermis with microcomedones attached. The magnitude of follicular hyperkeratosis is extracted with the stereomicroscope. Sixteen materials were evaluated by the new and old model which required histological sectioning. Agreement was excellent.
Katavetin, Pisut; Watanatorn, Salin; Townamchai, Natavudh; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Praditpornsilpa, Kearkiat
The preservation of kidney function after kidney donation depends on the kidney reserve - the potential of the remaining kidney to boost their function after loss of the other kidney. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, size and shape of the external ears are examined to evaluate the person's kidney health. We hypothesized that ear size might be a practical yet overlooked marker of kidney reserve. Fifty kidney transplantation donors were participated in this study. The length and width of both ears of all participants were measured during one of the post-donation visits. Pre-donation serum creatinine and post-donation serum creatinine as well as other relevant parameters (age, sex, weight, height, etc.) of the participants were extracted from medical records. The estimated GFR was calculated from serum creatinine, age and sex using the CKD-EPI equation. Ear length negatively associated with %GFR decline after kidney donation. For every 1 cm increase in ear length, it was associated with 5.7% less GFR decline after kidney donation (95% Confidence Interval 0.2 to 11.3, P = 0.04). Ear width, as well as age, sex, body weight, height, body mass index, and pre-donation eGFR did not significantly associate with the GFR decline. Our findings support the notion of Traditional Chinese Medicine that ear morphology may be associated with kidney health and suggest that ear length might be a useful predictor of kidney function decline after kidney donation.
Hearing loss is one of the most dominant handicaps in modern societies, which additionally very often is not realized or not admitted. About one quarter of the general population suffers from inner ear hearing loss and is therefore restricted in communicational skills. Demographic factors like increasing age play an important role as well as environmental influences and an increasing sound and noise exposure especially in leisure activities. Thus borders between a "classical" presbyacusis - if it ever existed - and envirionmentally induced hearing loss disappear. Today restrictions in hearing ability develop earlier in age but at the same time they are detected and diagnosed earlier. This paper can eventually enlighten the wide field of inner ear hearing loss only fragmentarily; therefore mainly new research, findings and developments are reviewed. The first part discusses new aspects of diagnostics of inner ear hearing loss and different etiologies.
Shera, Christopher Alan
Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics--termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models--that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus -frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical
Shera, Christopher A.
Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics-termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models-that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical
... Images Ear anatomy Medical findings based on ear anatomy References House JW, Cunningham CD. Otosclerosis. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...
... Work: Healthy Swimming Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... painful. How is swimmer's ear spread at recreational water venues? Swimmerâ€™s ear can occur when water stays ...
... or it can be bought separately). Wear ear protection at concerts, especially when sitting near the stage or speakers (they'll still be able to hear with earplugs — it just won't be as deafening), mowing the lawn or using machinery (like in metal or wood shop at school), or playing a loud instrument ( ...
In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…
... it to get better by itself. Tips for Swimmers Sometimes, swimming can lead to a case of swimmer's ear . That's when your outer ear gets infected, ... cause an infection. If you think you have swimmer's ear, your mom or dad needs to call ...
Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.
Ear infections in infants and preschoolers can cause mild or moderate temporary hearing loss, which may in turn affect a child's ability to understand and learn language. Noting that providing children with proper medical treatment for ear infections or middle ear fluid is important in preventing possible problems with language development, this…
Himelfarb, M Z; Rapoport, Y; Shanon, E
In order to assess the validity of using various ear tips, tympanometry and acoustic admittance were studied in 20 young healthy subjects, and three different types of ear tip used to seal the external auditory canal. Significant variations in the admittance components and tympanometry curves were observed, resulting most probably from changes in the canal volume and the physical nature of the tipe. It appears advisable to develop and adopt an appropriate, standard ear tip for studies of admittance audiometry.
Dazert, Stefan; Thomas, Jan Peter; Volkenstein, Stefan
Malformations of the external and middle ear often go along with an aesthetic and functional handicap. Independent of additional aesthetic procedures, a successful functional hearing restoration leads to a tremendous gain in quality of life for affected patients. The introduction of implantable hearing systems (bone conduction and middle ear devices) offers new therapeutic options in this field. We focus on functional rehabilitation of patients with malformations, either by surgical reconstruction or the use of different implantable hearing devices, depending on the disease itself and the severity of malformation as well as hearing impairment. Patients with an open ear canal and minor malformations are good candidates for surgical hearing restoration of middle ear structures with passive titanium or autologous implants. In cases with complete fibrous or bony atresia of the ear canal, the most promising functional outcome and gain in quality of life can be expected with an active middle ear implant or a bone conduction device combined with a surgical aesthetic rehabilitation in a single or multi-step procedure. Although the surgical procedure for bone conduction devices is straightforward and safe, more sophisticated operations for active middle ear implants (e.g., Vibrant Soundbridge, MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria) provide an improved speech discrimination in noise and the ability of sound localization compared with bone conduction devices where the stimulation reaches both cochleae.
da Costa, Sady Selaimen; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro; Rosito, Letícia Petersen Schmidt
Middle ear cholesteatoma has been extensively studied. Theories of cholesteatoma pathogenesis involving previous tympanic membrane retraction are the most widely accepted, but the contralateral ear in patients with cholesteatoma remains unstudied. This study aimed to investigate the contralateral ear in patients with cholesteatoma, and to determine whether the characteristics of it differ according to patient age and cholesteatoma growth patterns. This study was cross sectional. We evaluated 356 patients with middle ear cholesteatoma in at least one ear, and no history of surgery, between August 2000 and March 2013. Otoendoscopy was conducted on both the affected and the contralateral ear. They were classified as normal, tympanic membrane perforation, moderate to severe tympanic membrane retraction and cholesteatoma. The mean age of the patients was 32.77 years, and 53.1 % of the cohort were female. Only 34.8 % of the contralateral ears were normal. The most common abnormality was moderate to severe tympanic membrane retraction (41.6 %). Cholesteatoma was identified in 16 %. Children exhibited a greater frequency of tympanic membrane retractions, whereas adults exhibited a greater frequency of cholesteatoma. All of the contralateral ears in the anterior epitympanic group were normal, but otherwise there were no differences in the contralateral ear when we compared the cholesteatoma growth patterns. We conclude that patients diagnosed with acquired cholesteatoma of one ear are significantly more likely to exhibit abnormalities of the contralateral ear.
Hoskison, E; Daniel, M; Al-Zahid, S; Shakesheff, K M; Bayston, R; Birchall, J P
Drug delivery to the ear is used to treat conditions of the middle and inner ear such as acute and chronic otitis media, Ménière's disease, sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus. Drugs used include antibiotics, antifungals, steroids, local anesthetics and neuroprotective agents. A literature review was conducted searching Medline (1966-2012), Embase (1988-2012), the Cochrane Library and Ovid (1966-2012), using search terms 'drug delivery', 'middle ear', 'inner ear' and 'transtympanic'. There are numerous methods of drug delivery to the middle ear, which can be categorized as topical, systemic (intravenous), transtympanic and via the Eustachian tube. Localized treatments to the ear have the advantages of targeted drug delivery allowing higher therapeutic doses and minimizing systemic side effects. The ideal scenario would be a carrier system that could cross the intact tympanic membrane loaded with drugs or biochemical agents for the treatment of middle and inner ear conditions.
A 6-year-old French spaniel and a 14-month-old German shepherd dog were diagnosed with ear canal atresia. Based on presentation, computed tomography, and auditory function evaluation, the first dog underwent excision of the horizontal ear canal and bulla curettage, and the second underwent re-anastomosis of the vertical canal to the external meatus. Both dogs had successful outcomes.
...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint. (a) Identification. An external nasal splint is a rigid or partially rigid device intended for use externally for... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section...
...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint. (a) Identification. An external nasal splint is a rigid or partially rigid device intended for use externally for... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section...
Wyatt, Jeff; DiVincenti, Louis
Elephant ear mites, not previously described in North America, were eradicated in two African elephants (Loxodonta africana) after six otic instillations of ivermectin at 2-wk intervals. The microscopic examination of a clear, mucoid discharge collected from the external ear canals of two wild-born African elephants housed in a New York State zoo for 25 yr revealed live mites (Loxoaneotus bassoni). The cytologic examination demonstrated no evidence of inflammation or infection. Both elephants were asymptomatic with normal hemograms and serum chemistry panels. A diagnosis of otoacariasis was made. Each elephant was treated six times with 5 ml of 1% ivermectin syrup instilled in each ear canal once every 2 wk. Microscopic examinations of clear mucus collected from each elephant's ear canals 9 days after the first instillation of ivermectin were negative for any life stages of ear mites. Microscopic examinations of mucus collected from both elephants' ear canals at 6, 11, and 16 wk, as well as annually post-treatment for 7 yr, confirmed eradication of the ear mites. The L. bassoni ear mite was first identified in the external ear canals of wild, asymptomatic, lesion-free, African elephants culled in Kruger National Park in South Africa. However, a new species in the same genus of mites (Loxoanoetus lenae) was identified at the necropsy of an 86-yr-old Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) living in a circus in Australia. The autopsy revealed a marked, ballooning distension of bone around the left external acoustic meatus, suggestive of mite-induced otitis externa, as seen in cattle infested with ear mites (Raillieta auris). Elephant health care providers should identify the prevalence of, and consider treatment of, elephants in their care infested with ear mites, given the possible risk for adverse health effects.
Viswanatha, Borlingegowda; Naseeruddin, Khaja
Otomycosis is a fungal infection of the external ear; middle ear and open mastoid cavity.1 Meyer first described the fungal infection of the external ear canal in 1884. External ear canal has an ideal warm humid environment for the proliferation of fungus.2 Although this disease is rarely life threatening, it can presents a challenging and frustrating situation for the otologist and patients due to long term treatment and high rate of recurrence.3 Otomycosis is seen more frequently in immunocompromised patients as compared to immunocompetent persons. Recurrence rate is high in immunocompromised patients and they need longer duration treatment and complications are more frequent in immunocompromised patients. In the recent years; opportunistic fungal infections are gaining greater importance in human medicine as a result of possibly huge number of immunocompromised patients.4 In immunocompromised patients, it is important that the treatment of otomycosis be vigorous, to minimize complications such as hearing loss, tympanic membrane perforations and invasive temporal bone infection.5 Fungal cultures are essential to confirm the diagnosis. Hematological investigations play a very important role in confirming the diagnosis and immunity status of the patients. In diabetic patients with otomycosis, along with antifungal therapy, blood sugar levels should be controlled with medical therapy to prevent complications. PMID:21625307
... Bony tumor of the ear canal Images Ear anatomy References Nicolai P, Castelnuovo P. Benign tumors of the sinonasal tract. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...
... intrument which is used to look into the ear canal. The ear speculum (a cone-shaped viewing piece of the otoscope) is slowly inserted into the ear canal while looking into the otoscope. The speculum ...
... hair follicles and glands that produce a waxy oil called cerumen. Sometimes the glands produce more wax than can be easily excreted out the ear. This extra wax may harden within the ear canal and block the ear.
Canty, A A; Prestwood, U; Dugdale, A E; Lewis, A N
In an Australian Aboriginal community, 65% of all people examined had clinical evidence of pathology in the ear drum or middle ear, but active ear disease was found mainly in children. In most people, both ears showed similar clinical changes. Clinical nutritional status and hygienic factors did not correlate with the presence of ear disease. Some families had significantly more ear disease than did others, suggesting that there is some as yet unidentified familial factor.
Kiringoda, Ruwan; Kozin, Elliott D; Lee, Daniel J
Endoscopic ear surgery (EES) provides several advantages compared with traditional binocular microscopy, including a wide-field view, improved resolution with high magnification, and visual access to hidden corridors of the middle ear. Although binocular microscopic-assisted surgical techniques remain the gold standard for most otologists, EES is slowly emerging as a viable alternative for performing otologic surgery at several centers in the United States and abroad. In this review, we evaluate the current body of literature regarding EES outcomes, summarize our EES outcomes at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, and compare these results with data for microscopic-assisted otologic surgery.
Shi, Xiaorui; Gillespie, Peter G; Nuttall, Alfred L
In hair cells of the inner ear, phosphatidylserine (PS), detected with fluorescent annexin V labeling, was rapidly exposed on the external leaflet of apical plasma membranes upon dissection of the organ of Corti. PS externalization was unchanged by caspase inhibition, suggesting that externalization did not portend apoptosis or necrosis. Consistent with that conclusion, mitochondrial membrane potential and hair-cell nuclear structure remained normal during externalization. PS externalization was triggered by forskolin, which raises cAMP, and blocked by inhibitors of adenylyl cyclase. Blocking Na(+) influx by inhibiting the mechanoelectrical transduction channels and P2X ATP channels also inhibited external PS externalization. Diminished PS externalization was also seen in cells exposed to LY 294002, which blocks membrane recycling in hair cells by inhibiting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. These results indicate that PS exposure on the external leaflet, presumably requiring vesicular transport, results from elevation of intracellular cAMP, which can be triggered by Na(+) entry into hair cells.
Rysz, Maciej; Jaworowski, Janusz; Krajewski, Romuald; Barańska, Joanna
In head and neck region leiomyosarcoma is a very rare finding. This tumor is usually located in abdominal cavity. We report a case of 78-year-old man with tumor of the auricle that was resected with 0.7 cm margin. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis revealed the leiomyosarcoma. Adjuvant therapy was not advised. During 3 years of follow-up there are no signs of recurrence. Review of the literature shows that the survival of patients with leiomyosarcoma in head and neck region seems to be similar to other kinds of sarcomas in this localization. It is not clear, how large surgical margins should be to achieve satisfactory local control.
... up of invisible waves of energy, causes these vibrations. Every time you hear a sound, the various ... When the eardrum vibrates, the ossicles amplify these vibrations and carry them to the inner ear. The ...
... part of the ear responsible for receiving/sending sounds and controlling balance. The degree of damage depends ... have trouble hearing certain things, from high-pitched sounds to talking if there's background noise. Or they ...
... previously covered by swimsuit > Pus-filled blisters around hair follicles Swimmer’s Ear (Otitis externa) > Pain when infected ear ... ear. You can find this product at your drug store. > Avoid putting objects in the ear (for ... levels drop, so testing your pool or hot tub’s disinfectant and pH ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...
Sandhu, Harpreet Kaur; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Goyal, Sharry; Sudan, Madhu; Ladgotra, Amit
Introduction The morphological characteristics and dimensions of external ear vary in different human ethnic races which can be utilized in forensics for personal identification of living or deceased. Aim To determine uniqueness of morphological and biometric variations of both ears for individualization among North East (NE) and North West (NW) subpopulation of India. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on randomly selected 80 students, 40 from each subgroup. Nine ear parameters were recorded twice using digital Vernier’s caliper by single investigator and two indices (Ear Index and Lobule Index) were calculated for both the ears. Morphological ear shapes and lobule attachment were also noted. Pearson’s coefficient correlation test was performed on cross-tabulations to evaluate significant relationship between different variables. Results Of the total 35% free and 65% attached ear lobes were noted in both population groups. Oval ear shape was most commonly noted followed by triangular, rectangular and round in both populations. On comparing anthropometric measurements of ears in two populations it was found that except the tragus length and lobule index all other values were noted more in NW population. No statistical difference was found in ear and lobular indices of males and females although the left ear index and lobule index were found to be higher than right in both populations except in NW females where right lobule index was recorded more than left. Conclusion The results obtained can be used in anthropological and forensic sciences for the inclusion and exclusion of persons for identification on the basis of ear variations. PMID:27437349
of arterial oxygen saturation. For centri- fuge experiments the floe,! ett-Packard ear oximeter, Model 47201A, has been successfully used both at...These difficulties are perhaps even more significant with respect to inflight experimental use. The difficulties are: 1. The bloodless ear is not truly...available (9), and a number of papers on both the clini- cal use (10-17) and the experimental use (1, 2, 18) of this equipment have been published since its
Stimulation of the round window (RW) for coupling an implantable hearing system to the cochlea has gained increasing clinical importance. To compare the vibration transfer to the cochlear fluids and partition in response to normal acoustic stimulation and to mechanical stimulation of the RW, we carried out an acoustic-structure coupled finite element analysis using a recently developed finite element (FE) model in our laboratory, which consisted of external ear canal, middle ear and cochlea. Intracochlear pressures were derived during normal forward sound stimulation as well as reverse RW stimulation. A model was utilized to calculate the force required of an actuator at the RW to produce a differential intracochlear pressure that is equivalent to a stimulus produced in normal ear by a given external ear-canal pressure. The current results provided further information to support the optimization of the actuators and adapt existing prostheses for RW stimulation in order to insure sufficient acoustic output.
Mur, Taha A.; Miick, Ronald
Aims. Hidrocystomas are benign cystic growths of the apocrine and eccrine sweat glands. These cystic lesions have been well documented on the face, head, and neck, but rarely in the external auditory canal. Presentation of Case. A 67-year-old woman presented with a bluish cystic mass partially occluding the external auditory canal and interfering with hearing aid use. Lesion was excised completely via a transcanal endoscopic approach with excellent cosmetic results, no canal stenosis, and no recurrence at 1-year follow-up. Discussion. We present a rare eccrine hidrocystoma of the external auditory canal and successful excision of this benign lesion. We describe the surgical management using a transcanal endoscopic approach and follow-up results. An eccrine gland cyst that presents as a mass occluding the external auditory canal is quite rare. There are only a few such cases reported in the literature. These masses can be mistaken for basal cell carcinomas or cholesterol granulomas but can be easily differentiated using histopathology. Conclusion. Eccrine hidrocystoma is a cystic lesion of sweat glands, rarely found in the external auditory canal. A characteristic bluish hue aids in diagnosis and surgical excision using ear endoscopy provides excellent control. PMID:27891276
Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C
The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.
Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.
The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097
Wang, Xuelin; Gan, Rong Z
Chinchilla is a commonly used animal model for research of sound transmission through the ear. Experimental measurements of the middle ear transfer function in chinchillas have shown that the middle ear cavity greatly affects the tympanic membrane (TM) and stapes footplate (FP) displacements. However, there is no finite element (FE) model of the chinchilla ear available in the literature to characterize the middle ear functions with the anatomical features of the chinchilla ear. This paper reports a recently completed 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear based on X-ray micro-computed tomography images of a chinchilla bulla. The model consisted of the ear canal, TM, middle ear ossicles and suspensory ligaments, and the middle ear cavity. Two boundary conditions of the middle ear cavity wall were simulated in the model as the rigid structure and the partially flexible surface, and the acoustic-mechanical coupled analysis was conducted with these two conditions to characterize the middle ear function. The model results were compared with experimental measurements reported in the literature including the TM and FP displacements and the middle ear input admittance in chinchilla ear. An application of this model was presented to identify the acoustic role of the middle ear septa-a unique feature of chinchilla middle ear cavity. This study provides the first 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing the middle ear functions through the acoustic-mechanical coupled FE analysis.
Johansson, L. Christoffer; Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders
Large ears enhance perception of echolocation and prey generated sounds in bats. However, external ears likely impair aerodynamic performance of bats compared to birds. But large ears may generate lift on their own, mitigating the negative effects. We studied flying brown long-eared bats, using high resolution, time resolved particle image velocimetry, to determine the aerodynamics of flying with large ears. We show that the ears and body generate lift at medium to cruising speeds (3–5 m/s), but at the cost of an interaction with the wing root vortices, likely reducing inner wing performance. We also propose that the bats use a novel wing pitch mechanism at the end of the upstroke generating thrust at low speeds, which should provide effective pitch and yaw control. In addition, the wing tip vortices show a distinct spiraling pattern. The tip vortex of the previous wingbeat remains into the next wingbeat and rotates together with a newly formed tip vortex. Several smaller vortices, related to changes in circulation around the wing also spiral the tip vortex. Our results thus show a new level of complexity in bat wakes and suggest large eared bats are less aerodynamically limited than previous wake studies have suggested.
Johansson, L Christoffer; Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders
Large ears enhance perception of echolocation and prey generated sounds in bats. However, external ears likely impair aerodynamic performance of bats compared to birds. But large ears may generate lift on their own, mitigating the negative effects. We studied flying brown long-eared bats, using high resolution, time resolved particle image velocimetry, to determine the aerodynamics of flying with large ears. We show that the ears and body generate lift at medium to cruising speeds (3-5 m/s), but at the cost of an interaction with the wing root vortices, likely reducing inner wing performance. We also propose that the bats use a novel wing pitch mechanism at the end of the upstroke generating thrust at low speeds, which should provide effective pitch and yaw control. In addition, the wing tip vortices show a distinct spiraling pattern. The tip vortex of the previous wingbeat remains into the next wingbeat and rotates together with a newly formed tip vortex. Several smaller vortices, related to changes in circulation around the wing also spiral the tip vortex. Our results thus show a new level of complexity in bat wakes and suggest large eared bats are less aerodynamically limited than previous wake studies have suggested.
Johansson, L. Christoffer; Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders
Large ears enhance perception of echolocation and prey generated sounds in bats. However, external ears likely impair aerodynamic performance of bats compared to birds. But large ears may generate lift on their own, mitigating the negative effects. We studied flying brown long-eared bats, using high resolution, time resolved particle image velocimetry, to determine the aerodynamics of flying with large ears. We show that the ears and body generate lift at medium to cruising speeds (3–5 m/s), but at the cost of an interaction with the wing root vortices, likely reducing inner wing performance. We also propose that the bats use a novel wing pitch mechanism at the end of the upstroke generating thrust at low speeds, which should provide effective pitch and yaw control. In addition, the wing tip vortices show a distinct spiraling pattern. The tip vortex of the previous wingbeat remains into the next wingbeat and rotates together with a newly formed tip vortex. Several smaller vortices, related to changes in circulation around the wing also spiral the tip vortex. Our results thus show a new level of complexity in bat wakes and suggest large eared bats are less aerodynamically limited than previous wake studies have suggested. PMID:27118083
Whitfield, Tanya T
The vertebrate inner ear is a sensory organ of exquisite design and sensitivity. It responds to sound, gravity and movement, serving both auditory (hearing) and vestibular (balance) functions. Almost all cell types of the inner ear, including sensory hair cells, sensory neurons, secretory cells and supporting cells, derive from the otic placode, one of the several ectodermal thickenings that arise around the edge of the anterior neural plate in the early embryo. The developmental patterning mechanisms that underlie formation of the inner ear from the otic placode are varied and complex, involving the reiterative use of familiar signalling pathways, together with roles for transcription factors, transmembrane proteins, and extracellular matrix components. In this review, I have selected highlights that illustrate just a few of the many recent discoveries relating to the development of this fascinating organ system.
Lewis, E R
When electrical resonances were observed in acoustic sensory cells of lower vertebrates, the hearing research community was presented with the exciting possibility that tuning in the ears of those animals might be explained directly in terms of familiar molecular devices. It is reported here that in the frog sacculus, where electrical resonances have been observed in isolated hair cells, the effects of those resonances are completely obscured in the tuning properties of the sacculus in the intact ear. This observation has important implications not only for students of the ear, but for reductionist biologists in general. All of the dynamic properties of a system of connected, bidirectional processes are consequences of all of those processes at once; in such a system, the properties of an experimentally isolated subsystem may be totally obscured in the operation of the system as a whole. PMID:3258166
Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... most cases, a health care provider finds pinna abnormalities during the first well-baby exam. This exam ...
The physiological functions of the ear and the role masking plays in speech communication are examined. Topics under investigation include sound analysis of the ear, the aural reflex, and various types of noise masking.
Dinkar, Ajit D; Sambyal, Shruti S
This study presents new insights and experimental results for the use of ears as a non-invasive biometric for human identification. To determine the uniqueness of the external ear pattern two methods were employed: The Weighted Scoring System and Pattern Recognition by Neural Networks. A total of 10 external ear features classified into 37 sub-features for both right and left ears of 400 Indians of Goan origin were studied after acquiring standardized side profile digital photographs. These features were then converted to numeric scores by the 'Weighted Scoring System' which were then compared to ascertain the uniqueness of ear pattern in same and different individuals. Apart from this feature-wise comparison, the initially acquired photographs of 800 individual ears were scrutinized and 80 visually similar ear patterns were found. After appropriate pre-processing of five train and five test images of each of these 80 visually similar ear patterns, the images were analyzed by a specially designed software and 360 feature vectors which were the distances from the centroid to the outer edge of the ear were extracted and saved. The feature vectors of train and test images were employed to train and test the Neural Networks. The result revealed that none of the individuals in the study sample had identical weighted scores when both right and left ear scores were considered in combination or when bilateral comparison was made in the same individual. The digital analysis of visually similar ear images by Neural Networks revealed a recognition rate of 94% with an Equal Error Rate at threshold value of 0.225. The inter-individual match score among train images were found to be less than the intra-individual match scores between train and test images or the differences found in former were more than that in the latter. Also, all intra-individual scores were above the system threshold (0.225) hence accepted as match, while all inter-individual scores were below it and hence
Furnham, A; Richardson, S; Miller, T
In a field study, three equally sized sales teams used on of three head-sets--left, right, both ears--for a day's selling of insurance by telephone. This had no effect on sales. In a retrospective study of records, daily sales performance including the percentage conversion rate for sales divided by the number of calls and the number and duration of calls was related to preference for type of head-set. Sales were markedly influenced by the choice of head-set. People who chose to wear the left earpiece significantly out sold the others wearing right and stereohead-sets. Neither the number of incoming calls nor the time spent on the telephone were influenced by the choice of head-set. When sales are analysed in terms of individual differences in personal preference for type of head-set, those who chose the left ear had an advantage. Forced use of the left, versus right ear or both ears for one day had no effect.
... en español Infecciones del oído medio After the common cold , ear infections are the most frequently diagnosed childhood ... winter season, when lots of people get upper respiratory tract infections or colds. Signs and Symptoms The signs and ...
van Dijk, Pim; Mason, Matthew J.; Schoffelen, Richard L. M.; Narins, Peter M.; Meenderink, Sebastiaan W. F.
The frog inner ear contains three regions that are sensitive to airborne sound and which are functionally distinct. (1) The responses of nerve fibres innervating the low-frequency, rostral part of the amphibian papilla (AP) are complex. Electrical tuning of hair cells presumably contributes to the frequency selectivity of these responses. (2) The caudal part of the AP covers the mid-frequency portion of the frog's auditory range. It shares the ability to generate both evoked and spontaneous otoacoustic emissions with the mammalian cochlea and other vertebrate ears. (3) The basilar papilla functions mainly as a single auditory filter. Its simple anatomy and function provide a model system for testing hypotheses concerning emission generation. Group delays of stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) from the basilar papilla are accounted for by assuming that they result from forward and reverse transmission through the middle ear, a mechanical delay due to tectorial membrane filtering and a rapid forward and reverse propagation through the inner ear fluids, with negligible delay. PMID:20149854
Pelosi, Stanley; Koss, Shira
Adenomatous tumors are an uncommon cause of a middle ear mass. Clinical findings may be nonspecific, leading to difficulties in differentiation from other middle ear tumors. Controversy also exists whether to classify middle ear adenoma and carcinoid as separate neoplasms, or alternatively within a spectrum of the same pathologic entity. Most adenomatous middle ear tumors are indolent in behavior, with a benign histologic appearance and slowly progressive growth. The mainstay of treatment is complete surgical resection, which affords the greatest likelihood of cure.
Yuan, Li; Mu, Zhichun
We propose an ear recognition system based on 2D ear images which includes three stages: ear enrollment, feature extraction, and ear recognition. Ear enrollment includes ear detection and ear normalization. The ear detection approach based on improved Adaboost algorithm detects the ear part under complex background using two steps: offline cascaded classifier training and online ear detection. Then Active Shape Model is applied to segment the ear part and normalize all the ear images to the same size. For its eminent characteristics in spatial local feature extraction and orientation selection, Gabor filter based ear feature extraction is presented in this paper. Kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis (KFDA) is then applied for dimension reduction of the high-dimensional Gabor features. Finally distance based classifier is applied for ear recognition. Experimental results of ear recognition on two datasets (USTB and UND datasets) and the performance of the ear authentication system show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section 874.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint....
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section 874.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint....
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section 874.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint....
Williams, Stephen M.
Examined relationship between handedness and preferred ear for telephoning in 140 college students. Increased degree of sinistrality was associated with increased tendency to use left ear for telephoning. Found tendency to pick up telephone receiver with preferred hand and hold earpiece to ipsilateral ear. Results may relate to reports of reduced…
... What Happens in the Operating Room? Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth > For Kids > Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? A A A en español ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...
Kinney, William C.; Hughes, Gordon B.
Immune inner ear disease represents a series of immune system mediated problems that can present with hearing loss, dizziness, or both. The etiology, presentation, testing, and treatment of primary immune inner ear disease is discussed. A review of secondary immune inner ear disease is presented for comparison. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)
... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth > For Kids > Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Print A A A en ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...
Constantinidis, J; Kyriafinis, G; Ereliadis, S; Daniilidis, J
Frey's syndrome of the external auditory canal is extremely rare. A 55-year old woman presented with a 6 month history of unilateral gustatory otorrhea. She never complained of hearing impairment, tinnitus, vertigo or otalgia. No trauma or surgical signs were evident near the ear or parotid gland. Examination of the ear showed an intact tympanic membrane without disease. A diagnosis of gustatory sweating syndrome was suggested by the observation of sweat production after chewing and by Minor's starch-iodine test. Symptoms were relieved after tympanic neurectomy. The pathogenesis, differential diagnosis and treatment options are discussed.
Muyshondt, Pieter G. G.; Pires, Felipe; Dirckx, Joris J. J.
The mechanical behavior of the middle ear structures in birds and mammals is affected by the fluids in the inner ear (IE) that are present behind the oval window. In this study, the aim was to gather knowledge of the acoustic impedance of the IE in the ostrich, to be able to determine the effect on vibrations and power flow in the single-ossicle bird middle ear for future studies. To determine the IE impedance, vibrations of the ossicle were measured for both the quasi-static and acoustic stimulus frequencies. In the acoustic regime, vibrations were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer and electromagnetic stimulation of the ossicle. The impedance of the inner ear could be determined by means of a simple RLC model in series, which resulted in a stiffness reactance of KIE = 0.20.1012 Pa/m3, an inertial impedance of MIE = 0.652.106 Pa s2/m3, and a resistance of RIE = 1.57.109 Pa s/m. The measured impedance is found to be considerably smaller than what is found for the human IE.
Areias, Bruno; Santos, Carla; Natal Jorge, Renato M; Gentil, Fernanda; Parente, Marco Pl
The ear is one of the most complex organs in the human body. Sound is a sequence of pressure waves, which propagates through a compressible media such as air. The pinna concentrates the sound waves into the external auditory meatus. In this canal, the sound is conducted to the tympanic membrane. The tympanic membrane transforms the pressure variations into mechanical displacements, which are then transmitted to the ossicles. The vibration of the stapes footplate creates pressure waves in the fluid inside the cochlea; these pressure waves stimulate the hair cells, generating electrical signals which are sent to the brain through the cochlear nerve, where they are decoded. In this work, a three-dimensional finite element model of the human ear is developed. The model incorporates the tympanic membrane, ossicular bones, part of temporal bone (external auditory meatus and tympanic cavity), middle ear ligaments and tendons, cochlear fluid, skin, ear cartilage, jaw and the air in external auditory meatus and tympanic cavity. Using the finite element method, the magnitude and the phase angle of the umbo and stapes footplate displacement are calculated. Two slightly different models are used: one model takes into consideration the presence of air in the external auditory meatus while the other does not. The middle ear sound transfer function is determined for a stimulus of 60 dB SPL, applied to the outer surface of the air in the external auditory meatus. The obtained results are compared with previously published data in the literature. This study highlights the importance of external auditory meatus in the sound transmission. The pressure gain is calculated for the external auditory meatus.
Tornari, Chrysostomos; Pal, Surojit; Lingam, Ravi Kumar; Kalan, Ali
A man in his early 30s presented with right-sided preauricular swelling and facial oedema. He had a history of acid injury to his right ear as a child resulting in pinna deformity and subsequent blind sac closure of the external auditory canal. Imaging showed abnormal ear anatomy and abnormal density of the right parotid gland. Antibiotic therapy prevented progression but did not resolve the symptoms. Therefore, the infected area was surgically drained. This showed an underlying cholesteatoma, a benign but locally destructive condition where keratinising squamous epithelium grows in the middle ear and mastoid. The infected region was drained and the cholesteatoma was excised. This led to full resolution of the infection. The patient is awaiting a follow-up diffusion-weighted MRI. This case was unusual as the disease had extended beyond the ear and we therefore wish to alert clinicians to cholesteatoma as a possible cause of facial swelling. PMID:25795747
Background Otomycosis is defined as an infection of the external ear canal with fungal agents. The treatment of the disease is cleansing and drying of the external ear canal, identification and treatment of any predisposing factors and application of topical antifungal agents. Terbinafine is used as an antifungal agent to treat otomycosis. We proposed to investigate the probable ototoxic effect of terbinafine solution on auditory brain stem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) when applied intratympanically in the middle ear of rats. Methods The experiment was performed on 30 female Wistar albino rats. Thirty animals were divided into three groups of 10 animals each. 1% terbinafine solution was administered to the first group (group T). The second group (group G) was administered 40 mg/ml gentamicin solution (ototoxic control). The third group (group S) was administered saline solution (negative control). Baseline DPOAE measurements and ABR testing from the left ears were obtained from the animals in all groups under general anesthesia. Ear solutions were applied in the middle ear intratympanically with a dental needle. Treatment was initiated after baseline measurements and repeated once every two days for fifteen days. Results Pre and post-treatment DPOAE responses for all tested frequencies of group T and Group S showed no statistically significant difference. However, the group G demonstrated a significant change in ABR thresholds and DPOAE responses. Conclusions Terbinafine solution is a broad spectrum antifungal agent effective in the treatment of otomycosis. The present study demonstrated that its direct administration in the middle ear of rats does not affect inner ear function as measured by ABR and DPOAE responses. PMID:23663536
Graboyes, Evan M.; Hullar, Timothy E.
Objective In 1731, Spanish sailors boarded the British brig Rebecca off the coast of Cuba and sliced off the left ear of its captain, Robert Jenkins. This traumatic auriculectomy was used as a pretext by the British to declare war on Spain in 1739, a conflict that is now known as the War of Jenkins’ Ear. Here, we examine the techniques available for auricular repair at the time of Jenkins’ injury and relate them to the historical events surrounding the incident. Methods Review of relevant original published manuscripts and monographs. Results Surgeons in the mid-18th century did not have experience with repair of traumatic total auriculectomies. Some contemporary surgeons favored auricular prostheses over surgical treatment. Methods for the reconstruction of partial defects were available, and most authors advocated a local post-auricular flap instead of a free tissue transfer. Techniques for repair of defects of the auricle lagged behind those for repair of the nose. Conclusion Limitations in care of traumatic auricular defects may have intensified the significance of Jenkins’ injury and helped lead to the War of Jenkins’ Ear, but conflict between Britain and Spain was probably unavoidable due to their conflicting commercial interests in the Caribbean. PMID:23444484
Zou, Jing; Pyykkö, Ilmari
To elucidate the communication between the middle and inner ear, and the fluid dynamics of the inner ear with the perilymphatic fistula (PLF) of the round window membrane (RWM). The PLF of the RWM was created in nine guinea pigs. Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid bismethylamide (Gd-DTPA-BMA) was delivered into the middle ear and followed in the inner ear using a 4.7 Tesla MRI. Pressure was delivered to the external ear canal of PLF ear in an attempt to enhance the inner ear uptake of Gd-DTPA-BMA. The immediate loading of Gd-DTPA-BMA in the scala tympani of the basal turn was ablated by the outflow of perilymph through the leaking RWM while the oval window passage for Gd-DTPA-BMA was enhanced. There was more Gd-DTPA-BMA distribution in the scala tympani than in the scala vestibuli in the second turn of the PLF cochlea (within 20 min). Signal in the vestibulum and scala vestibuli of the basal turn and rest part of PLF cochlea was greater than that of the control cochlea with intact RWM within 30 min. Pressure applied to the external ear canal tended to enhance the loading of Gd-DTPA-BMA in the perilymphatic scalae of the PLF cochlea. The enhanced oval window passage of Gd-DTPA-BMA was proven by the distorted distribution in the inner ear with PLF. The radial communication of cochlear perilymph was supported by the Gd-DTPA-BMA gradient among the perilymphatic scalae. Applying positive pressure to the external ear canal caused backflow of perilymph into the cochlea which has a potential of transmitting microbes from the middle ear into the inner ear.
Delnavaz, Aidin; Voix, Jérémie
Ear canal deformation caused by temporomandibular joint (jaw joint) activity, also known as "ear canal dynamic motion," is introduced in this paper as a candidate source of power to possibly recharge hearing aid batteries. The geometrical deformation of the ear canal is quantified in 3D by laser scanning of different custom ear moulds. An experimental setup is proposed to measure the amount of power potentially available from this source. The results show that 9 mW of power is available from a 15 mm3 dynamic change in the ear canal volume. Finally, the dynamic motion and power capability of the ear canal are investigated in a group of 12 subjects.
van Hemmen, J. Leo
Many vertebrates, such as frogs and lizards, have an air-filled cavity between left and right eardrum, i.e., internally coupled ears (ICE). Depending on source direction, internal time (iTD) and level (iLD) difference as experienced by the animal's auditory system may greatly exceed [C. Vossen et al., JASA 128 (2010) 909-918] the external, or interaural, time and level difference (ITD and ILD). Sensory processing only encodes iTD and iLD. We present an extension of ICE theory so as to elucidate the underlying physics. First, the membrane properties of the eardrum explain why for low frequencies iTD dominates whereas iLD does so for higher frequencies. Second, the plateau of iTD = γ ITD for constant 1 < γ < 5 and variable input frequency <ν∘ follows; e.g., for the Tockay gecko ν∘ ~ 1 . 5 kHz. Third, we use a sectorial instead of circular membrane to quantify the effect of the extracolumella embedded in the tympanum and connecting with the cochlea. The main parameters can be adjusted so that the model is species independent. Work done in collaboration with A.P. Vedurmudi and J. Goulet; partially supported by BCCN-Munich.
Stewart, Kenneth; Majdak-Paredes, Ewa
Reconstruction following ear trauma presents a heterogeneous group of abnormalities with significantly more variation in presentation. The aim of the study was to analyze our experience and expound some broad principles of auricular reconstruction in acquired ear deformities. A total of 117 patients with human, animal bites and revision otoplasty presented to our clinic. Demographic data were extracted from medical records and photographs. Management options included no reconstruction, external silicone prosthesis, or autologous reconstruction. Fifty percent of patients with human bite injuries and 62% with animal bite injuries opted for autologous ear reconstruction. A flap with either a costal cartilage framework (37/39; 95%) or conchal cartilage (2/39; 5%) was used. In revision otoplasty group, 12% required autologous reconstruction either with conchal or costal cartilage. We discuss our indications, techniques, complications, and predictable pattern of injuries in human bites. Autologous auricular reconstruction of traumatic injuries is a safe procedure associated with aesthetically pleasing outcome and improved quality of life despite physical and psychosocial comorbidities. Elderly patients are more likely to opt for prosthetic camouflage.
Yager, David D.
Insects use hearing for the crucial tasks of communicating with conspecifics and avoiding predators. Although all are based on the same acoustic principles, the diversity of insect ears is staggering and instructive. For instance, a South African grasshopper demonstrates that hearing conspecific calls is possible over distances 1 km with ears that do not have tympana. Actually, these creatures have six pairs of ears that play different roles in behavior. In numerical contrast, praying mantises have just a single ear in the ventral midline. The ear is very effective at detecting ultrasonic bat cries. However, the bioacoustics of sound transduction by two tympana facing each other in a deep, narrow slit is a puzzle. Tachinid flies demonstrate that directional hearing at 5 kHz is possible with a pair of ears fused together to give a total size of 1 mm. The ears are under the fly's chin. Hawk moths have their ears built into their mouthparts and the tympanum is more like a hollow ball than the usual membrane. As an apt last example, cicada ears are actually part of the orchestra: their tympana function both in sound reception and sound production.
Wu, Doris K.; Kelley, Matthew W.
The inner ear is a structurally complex vertebrate organ built to encode sound, motion, and orientation in space. Given its complexity, it is not surprising that inner ear dysfunction is a relatively common consequence of human genetic mutation. Studies in model organisms suggest that many genes currently known to be associated with human hearing impairment are active during embryogenesis. Hence, the study of inner ear development provides a rich context for understanding the functions of genes implicated in hearing loss. This chapter focuses on molecular mechanisms of inner ear development derived from studies of model organisms. PMID:22855724
Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David
The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.
Berghaus, Alexander; Nicoló, Marion San
The reconstruction of ear deformities has been challenging plastic surgeons since centuries. However, it is only in the 19th century that reports on partial and total ear reconstruction start increasing. In the quest for an aesthetically pleasing and natural-looking result, surgeons worked on the perfect framework and skin coverage. Different materials and flap techniques have evolved. Some were abandoned out of frustration, while others kept evolving over the years. In this article, we discuss the milestones in ear reconstruction-from ancient times to early attempts in Western civilization to the key chapters of ear reconstruction in the 20th century leading to the current techniques.
Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David
The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553
Marin, Daniel J.; Mita, Akira
Our current environment and architecture are mainly static even though our surrounding society is constantly changing. This is why the Biofication of Living Spaces field was created, to get more adaptive and suitable living spaces. On the other hand, human was naturally empowered with a lot of features responding to the environment. His/her 2 ears are powerful tools from which he/she can acquire a lot of information such as the source localization of a sound. Interaural (between both ears) time differences enable a lateral localization and this function can be technologically reproduced. However, the sound localization in the median plane of the head provided amongst others by our external ear called the pinna is yet to be imitated in robotics. The idea of this paper is to build some biomimetic ear prototypes and to analyze theirs influences on a transfer function called Interaural Transfer Function (ITF). Once achieved, attaching these prototyped ears to a sensor agent robot, we aim particularly at a sound localization in the median plane of the robot. However, we will have a quick look at the horizontal sound localization too. Finally, these "ears" on the sensor agent robot will be convenient to get a" much accurate and useful information as possible with only 2 microphones and to use this agent for biofication of living spaces issues.
Casselman, J W; Offeciers, E F; De Foer, B; Govaerts, P; Kuhweide, R; Somers, T
The embryology of the inner ear must be known as many of the inner ear malformations present as a result of the arrest during the various stages of embryology. These malformations are described in this "embryologic" perspective and specific names for certain malformations are no longer used. Both CT and MR can be used to look at inner ear malformations but often both techniques are complementary. However, CT is preferred when associated middle- or external ear malformations must be excluded. Magnetic resonance is preferred when subtle changes in the membranous labyrinth or abnormalities of the nerves in the internal auditory canal must be visualised. The CT and MR technique must however be adapted as more and more subtle congenital malformations can only be seen when the right technique is used. The heavily T2-weighted gradient-echo or fast spin-echo MR techniques are mandatory if malformations of the inner ear must be excluded. The purpose of this paper is to describe the techniques used to study these patients and to give an overview of the most frequent and important congenital malformations which can be found in the inner ear and internal auditory canal/cerebellopontine angle.
Gunn, W. J.
An experiment was conducted in order to determine the changes in loudness brought about by electro-cutaneous elicitation of the middle-ear reflex. Subjects were required to judge the relative loudness of the second of three consecutive 30-msec bursts of tone, the second tone being accompanied by an electrical shock to the external auditory meatus, capable of eliciting a contraction of the middle-ear muscles. The difference between these judgments and those of the control condition (shock on the arm) was taken to represent a measure of the attenuation provided by contraction of the middle-ear muscles. Test tones were 500, 1000, 2000, and 3000 Hz at levels of 65, 75, 85, 95, and 105 dB. The results indicate that the middle-ear reflex decreases the middle-ear's transmission mainly for low-frequency sounds. The results fail to lend support to the Loeb-Riopelle hypothesis that the middle-ear reflex acts as a limiter, rather than a linear attenuator.
Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristián; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Wylie, Douglas R
Owls are highly efficient predators with a specialized auditory system designed to aid in the localization of prey. One of the most unique anatomical features of the owl auditory system is the evolution of vertically asymmetrical ears in some species, which improves their ability to localize the elevational component of a sound stimulus. In the asymmetrically eared barn owl, interaural time differences (ITD) are used to localize sounds in azimuth, whereas interaural level differences (ILD) are used to localize sounds in elevation. These two features are processed independently in two separate neural pathways that converge in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus to form an auditory map of space. Here, we present a comparison of the relative volume of 11 auditory nuclei in both the ITD and the ILD pathways of 8 species of symmetrically and asymmetrically eared owls in order to investigate evolutionary changes in the auditory pathways in relation to ear asymmetry. Overall, our results indicate that asymmetrically eared owls have much larger auditory nuclei than owls with symmetrical ears. In asymmetrically eared owls we found that both the ITD and ILD pathways are equally enlarged, and other auditory nuclei, not directly involved in binaural comparisons, are also enlarged. We suggest that the hypertrophy of auditory nuclei in asymmetrically eared owls likely reflects both an improved ability to precisely locate sounds in space and an expansion of the hearing range. Additionally, our results suggest that the hypertrophy of nuclei that compute space may have preceded that of the expansion of the hearing range and evolutionary changes in the size of the auditory system occurred independently of phylogeny.
Shenoy, Vijendra S; Rao, Raghavendra A; Kamath, Panduranga M; Shihab, Haseena
Primary external auditory canal malignancies are very rare; in which, adenoid cystic carcinoma is extremely rare tumour accounting for approximately 5%. Majority of the patients presents with unilateral severe or dull aching constant ear pain of prolonged duration, reduced hearing and mass in the External Ear. These tumours are treated with aggressive surgical excision and adjuvant radiotherapy. Despite this, the overall prognosis is poor due to recurrences and distant metastasis. We report a rare case of adenoid cystic carcinoma in a 36-year-old female, who presented with right ear pain for the last one year. She was treated with wide local excision of the mass followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. PMID:25738012
Prasad, Vishnu; Shenoy, Vijendra S; Rao, Raghavendra A; Kamath, Panduranga M; Shihab, Haseena
Primary external auditory canal malignancies are very rare; in which, adenoid cystic carcinoma is extremely rare tumour accounting for approximately 5%. Majority of the patients presents with unilateral severe or dull aching constant ear pain of prolonged duration, reduced hearing and mass in the External Ear. These tumours are treated with aggressive surgical excision and adjuvant radiotherapy. Despite this, the overall prognosis is poor due to recurrences and distant metastasis. We report a rare case of adenoid cystic carcinoma in a 36-year-old female, who presented with right ear pain for the last one year. She was treated with wide local excision of the mass followed by adjuvant radiotherapy.
Gallun, Frederick J; Mason, Christine R; Kidd, Gerald
In three experiments, listeners identified speech processed into narrow bands and presented to the right ("target") ear. The ability of listeners to ignore (or even use) conflicting contralateral stimulation was examined by presenting various maskers to the target ear ("ipsilateral") and nontarget ear ("contralateral"). Theoretically, an absence of contralateral interference would imply selectively attending to only the target ear; the presence of interference from the contralateral stimulus would imply that listeners were unable to treat the stimuli at the two ears independently; and improved performance in the presence of informative contralateral stimulation would imply that listeners can process the signals at both ears and keep them separate rather than combining them. Experiments showed evidence of the ability to selectively process (or respond to) only the target ear in some, but not all, conditions. No evidence was found for improved performance due to contralateral stimulation. The pattern of interference found across experiments supports an interaction of stimulus-based factors (auditory grouping) and task-based factors (demand for processing resources) and suggests that listeners may not always be able to listen to the "better" ear even when it would be beneficial to do so.
Woody, Robert H.
Many people divide musicians into two types: those who can read music and those who play by ear. Formal music education tends to place great emphasis on producing musically literate performers but devotes much less attention to teaching students to make music without notation. Some would suggest that playing by ear is a specialized skill that is…
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....
The anatomy and developmental molecular genetics of the inner ear from establishment of the otic placode to formation of the definitive cochlea and vestibular apparatus will be reviewed and the complex 3-D structural changes that shape the developing inner ear will be illustrated...
In vertebrates, perception of sound, motion, and balance is mediated through mechanosensory hair cells located within the inner ear. In mammals, hair cells are only generated during a short period of embryonic development. As a result, loss of hair cells as a consequence of injury, disease, or genetic mutation, leads to permanent sensory deficits. At present, cochlear implantation is the only option for profound hearing loss. However, outcomes are still variable and even the best implant cannot provide the acuity of a biological ear. The recent emergence of stem cell technology has the potential to open new approaches for hair cell regeneration. The goal of this review is to summarize the current state of inner ear stem cell research from a viewpoint of its clinical application for inner ear disorders to illustrate how complementary studies have the potential to promote and refine stem cell therapies for inner ear diseases. The review initially discusses our current understanding of the genetic pathways that regulate hair cell formation from inner ear progenitors during normal development. Subsequent sections discuss the possible use of endogenous inner ear stem cells to induce repair as well as the initial studies aimed at transplanting stem cells into the ear. PMID:22514095
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....
Liu, Yingxi; Li, Sheng; Sun, Xiuzhen
Lesion of ossicular chain is a common ear disease impairing the sense of hearing. A comprehensive numerical model of human ear can provide better understanding of sound transmission. In this study, we propose a three-dimensional finite element model of human ear that incorporates the canal, tympanic membrane, ossicular bones, middle ear suspensory ligaments/muscles, middle ear cavity and inner ear fluid. Numerical analysis is conducted and employed to predict the effects of middle ear cavity, malleus handle defect, hypoplasia of the long process of incus, and stapedial crus defect on sound transmission. The present finite element model is shown to be reasonable in predicting the ossicular mechanics of human ear.
Maurer, K; Schröder, K; Schäfer, E
The measurement of sound pressure wave forms of different headphones resulted in considerable differences in an artificial ear and in the external auditory canal in man. This concerns, in particular, the pattern of stimuli used to elicit the auditory nerve and brain-stem auditory evoked potentials. By varying the electrical input to the headphones by means of a programmable stimulus generator, it can be shown that the sound pressure wave form can be influenced considerably.
The great majority of hearing disorders generates from pathologies in the inner ear, mainly the outer hair cells, as mentioned in the first part of this review. Very often, however, hearing loss appears suddenly and even without external causes like noise exposure. This sudden hearing loss is mostly unilateral, recovers very often spontaneously and should be treated, if persisting. Only in this acute stage there are therapeutic options available. If the inner ear hearing loss is chronic there is no curative therapy, an effective management of the hearing disorder is only possible through rehabilitation. This is due to the fact, that hair cells of all mammals, incl. humans, have no regenerative capacity and neither pharmaceutic agents nor other means can induce regeneration and recovery of hair cells. Even a gen-therapy is not available yet. In the second part of this review the main focus lies in sudden hearing loss and general therapeutic options for inner ear hearing loss.
Nuttall, Tim; Cole, Lynette K
Ear cleaning helps maintain the normal otic environment and is important in the treatment of otitis. Over cleaning, however, may trigger otitis through maceration of the epidermal lining. Simple manual cleaning is useful for routine cleansing but doesn't remove tightly adherent debris. Bulb syringes are more vigorous but may damage the ear in inexperienced hands. Devices using mains water pressure or dental machines are also available. Thorough cleaning of the ear canals and middle ear cavity can only be achieved by retrograde flushing using specially adapted catheters, feeding tubes or video otoscopes under anaesthesia. Myringotomy, inspection and cleaning of the middle should be performed if the tympanic membrane appears abnormal. There are a wide variety of cleaning fluids available. Ceruminolytics soften and dissolve cerumen to facilitate cleaning. Surfactants emulsify debris, breaking it up and keeping it in solution. Astringents dry the ear canal surface, preventing maceration. Maintaining a low pH and incorporating antimicrobial agents can inhibit microbial proliferation and glucocorticoids can be used to reduce inflammation. Adverse effects and contraindications following ear cleaning can include maceration, contact reactions, otitis media, ear canal avulsion, vestibular syndrome, Horner's syndrome, facial nerve paralysis and deafness. Care should be exercised in selecting cleaning fluids if the tympanic membranes are ruptured.
Koch, Caroline Tina; Bruggmann, Rémy; Tetens, Jens; Drögemüller, Cord
Highland cattle with congenital crop ears have notches of variable size on the tips of both ears. In some cases, cartilage deformation can be seen and occasionally the external ears are shortened. We collected 40 cases and 80 controls across Switzerland. Pedigree data analysis confirmed a monogenic autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with variable expressivity. All affected animals could be traced back to a single common ancestor. A genome-wide association study was performed and the causative mutation was mapped to a 4 Mb interval on bovine chromosome 6. The H6 family homeobox 1 (HMX1) gene was selected as a positional and functional candidate gene. By whole genome re-sequencing of an affected Highland cattle, we detected 6 non-synonymous coding sequence variants and two variants in an ultra-conserved element at the HMX1 locus with respect to the reference genome. Of these 8 variants, only a non-coding 76 bp genomic duplication (g.106720058_106720133dup) located in the conserved region was perfectly associated with crop ears. The identified copy number variation probably results in HMX1 misregulation and possible gain-of-function. Our findings confirm the role of HMX1 during the development of the external ear. As it is sometimes difficult to phenotypically diagnose Highland cattle with slight ear notches, genetic testing can now be used to improve selection against this undesired trait.
Kuhel, W I; Hume, C R; Selesnick, S H
Malignant tumors involving the structures of the temporal bone represent formidable diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for clinicians involved in the treatment of otologic disease. This article offers a perspective on the current understanding of the biology of malignancies involving the external auditory canal, middle ear space, and temporal bone, and reviews the often confusing and contradictory literature on this topic.
....3800 Section 878.3800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... is a device intended to be used to construct an external artificial body structure, such as an ear, breast, or nose. Usually the device is made of silicone rubber and it may be fastened to the body with...
....3800 Section 878.3800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... is a device intended to be used to construct an external artificial body structure, such as an ear, breast, or nose. Usually the device is made of silicone rubber and it may be fastened to the body with...
Du, Guangyuan; Zhu, Jiang
Keloid refers to the damaged skin due to excessive fibroblast proliferation. Ear is one predilection site. The pathogenesis of ear keloid is not very clear, and the treatment is also varied. Surgery, postoperative radiotherapy and laser treatment, steroid hormones, pressure therapy are the basic treatment methods. Integrated application of a variety of treatments, classification research and new materials using revealed the prospect for the treatment of the disease. This thesis reviews literature about ear keloid in recent 10 years, and introduces this disease and clinical research progress.
Csomos, Rebecca; Bosscher, Georgia; Mans, Christoph; Hardie, Robert
Otitis externa and media are frequently diagnosed disorders in rabbits and are particularly common in lop-eared breeds because of the specific anatomy of the ear canal. Medical management for otitis externa and media often provides only a temporary improvement in clinical signs. Surgery by means of partial or total ear canal ablation (PECA or TECA) combined with lateral bulla osteotomy (LBO) represents a feasible approach that is well tolerated and provides a good clinical outcome. Short-term complications associated with PECA/TECA-LBO include facial nerve paralysis and vestibular disease.
Zhang, Jing; Tian, Jiabin; Ta, Na; Huang, Xinsheng; Rao, Zhushi
Finite element method was employed in this study to analyze the change in performance of implantable hearing devices due to the consideration of soft tissues' viscoelasticity. An integrated finite element model of human ear including the external ear, middle ear and inner ear was first developed via reverse engineering and analyzed by acoustic-structure-fluid coupling. Viscoelastic properties of soft tissues in the middle ear were taken into consideration in this model. The model-derived dynamic responses including middle ear and cochlea functions showed a better agreement with experimental data at high frequencies above 3000 Hz than the Rayleigh-type damping. On this basis, a coupled finite element model consisting of the human ear and a piezoelectric actuator attached to the long process of incus was further constructed. Based on the electromechanical coupling analysis, equivalent sound pressure and power consumption of the actuator corresponding to viscoelasticity and Rayleigh damping were calculated using this model. The analytical results showed that the implant performance of the actuator evaluated using a finite element model considering viscoelastic properties gives a lower output above about 3 kHz than does Rayleigh damping model. Finite element model considering viscoelastic properties was more accurate to numerically evaluate implantable hearing devices.
Oldenburg, Elisabeth; Ellner, Frank
Red ear rot an important disease of maize cultivated in Europe is caused by toxigenic Fusarium species like Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum. To get detailed information on the time course of the infection process leading to the accumulation of Fusarium mycotoxins in maize ears, a field study was conducted over 2 years with two maize varieties, which were inoculated with F. culmorum or F. graminearum isolates at the stage of female flowering. Every fortnight after inoculation, infection and contamination progress in the ears was followed by visually evaluating disease signs and analysing Fusarium toxin concentrations in the infected ear tissues. In principle, infection and mycotoxin distribution were similar in respect of pathogens, varieties, and years. External infection symptoms showing some small pale or brown-marbled kernels with dark brown pedicels were mainly seen at the ear tip, whereas internal infection symptoms on the rachis were much more pronounced and spread in the upper half showing greyish brownish or pink discoloration of the pith. Well correlated with disease symptoms, a top-down gradient from high to low toxin levels within the ear with considerably higher concentrations in the rachis compared with the kernels was observed. It is suggested that both Fusarium pathogens primarily infect the rachis from the tip toward the bottom, whereas the kernels are subsequently infected via the rachillae connected to the rachis. A special focus on the pronounced disease symptoms visible in the rachis may be an approach to improve the evaluation of maize-genotype susceptibility against red ear rot pathogens. It has to be underlined that the accumulation of Fusarium mycotoxins in the rachis greatly accelerated 6 weeks after inoculation; therefore, highest contamination risk is indicated for feedstuffs containing large amounts of rachis (e.g., corn cob mix), especially when cut late in growing season.
Salt, Alec N; Hullar, Timothy E
Infrasonic sounds are generated internally in the body (by respiration, heartbeat, coughing, etc) and by external sources, such as air conditioning systems, inside vehicles, some industrial processes and, now becoming increasingly prevalent, wind turbines. It is widely assumed that infrasound presented at an amplitude below what is audible has no influence on the ear. In this review, we consider possible ways that low frequency sounds, at levels that may or may not be heard, could influence the function of the ear. The inner ear has elaborate mechanisms to attenuate low frequency sound components before they are transmitted to the brain. The auditory portion of the ear, the cochlea, has two types of sensory cells, inner hair cells (IHC) and outer hair cells (OHC), of which the IHC are coupled to the afferent fibers that transmit "hearing" to the brain. The sensory stereocilia ("hairs") on the IHC are "fluid coupled" to mechanical stimuli, so their responses depend on stimulus velocity and their sensitivity decreases as sound frequency is lowered. In contrast, the OHC are directly coupled to mechanical stimuli, so their input remains greater than for IHC at low frequencies. At very low frequencies the OHC are stimulated by sounds at levels below those that are heard. Although the hair cells in other sensory structures such as the saccule may be tuned to infrasonic frequencies, auditory stimulus coupling to these structures is inefficient so that they are unlikely to be influenced by airborne infrasound. Structures that are involved in endolymph volume regulation are also known to be influenced by infrasound, but their sensitivity is also thought to be low. There are, however, abnormal states in which the ear becomes hypersensitive to infrasound. In most cases, the inner ear's responses to infrasound can be considered normal, but they could be associated with unfamiliar sensations or subtle changes in physiology. This raises the possibility that exposure to the
A common motif in otolaryngology is the lack of certainty regarding diagnosis for middle ear conditions, resulting in many patients being overtreated under the worst-case assumption. Although pneumatic otoscopy and adjunctive tests offer additional information, white light otoscopy has been the main tool for diagnosis of external auditory canal and middle ear pathologies for over a century. In middle ear pathologies, the inability to avail high-resolution structural and/or molecular imaging is particularly glaring, leading to a complicated and erratic decision analysis. Here, we propose a novel multiwavelength fluorescence-based video-rate imaging strategy that combines readily available optical elements and software components to create a novel otoscopic device. This modified otoscope enables low-cost, detailed and objective diagnosis of common middle ear pathological conditions. Using the detection of congenital cholesteatoma as a specific example, we demonstrate the feasibility of fluorescence imaging to differentiate this proliferative lesion from uninvolved middle ear tissue based on the characteristic autofluorescence signals. Availability of real-time, wide-field chemical information should enable more complete removal of cholesteatoma, allowing for better hearing preservation and substantially reducing the well-documented risks, costs and psychological effects of repeated surgical procedures. PMID:25226556
Tubelli, Andrew A.; Zosuls, Aleks; Ketten, Darlene R.; Yamato, Maya; Mountain, David C.
The lack of baleen whale (Cetacea Mysticeti) audiograms impedes the assessment of the impacts of anthropogenic noise on these animals. Estimates of audiograms, which are difficult to obtain behaviorally or electrophysiologically for baleen whales, can be made by simulating the audiogram as a series of components representing the outer, middle, and inner ear (Rosowski, 1991; Ruggero and Temchin, 2002). The middle-ear portion of the system can be represented by the middle-ear transfer function (METF), a measure of the transmission of acoustic energy from the external ear to the cochlea. An anatomically accurate finite element model of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) middle ear was developed to predict the METF for a mysticete species. The elastic moduli of the auditory ossicles were measured by using nanoindentation. Other mechanical properties were estimated from experimental stiffness measurements or from published values. The METF predicted a best frequency range between approximately 30 Hz and 7.5 kHz or between 100 Hz and 25 kHz depending on stimulation location. Parametric analysis found that the most sensitive parameters are the elastic moduli of the glove finger and joints and the Rayleigh damping stiffness coefficient β. The predicted hearing range matches well with the vocalization range. PMID:23145610
A key innovation in the history of whales was the evolution of a sonar system together with high-frequency hearing. Fossils of an archaic toothed whale's inner ear bones provide clues for a stepwise emergence of underwater echolocation ability.
... recommended for use in children — some have dangerous side effects or may interfere with conventional treatments. By Mayo Clinic Staff Alternative ear infection treatments abound on the internet and in books and magazines. They include chiropractic adjustments, homeopathy, herbal ...
Suseela, Bibilash Babu; Babu, Preethitha; Chittoria, Ravi Kumar; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad
Earlobe piercing is a common office room procedure done by a plastic surgeon. Various methods of ear piercing have been described. In this article, we describe a novel method of laser ear piercing using the diode laser. An 18-year-old female patient underwent an ear piercing using a diode laser with a power of 2.0 W in continuous mode after topical local anaesthetic and pre-cooling. The diode laser was fast, safe, easy to use and highly effective way of ear piercing. The advantages we noticed while using the diode laser over conventional methods were more precision, minimal trauma with less chances of hypertrophy and keloids, no bleeding with coagulation effect of laser, less time taken compared to conventional method and less chance of infection due to thermal heat effect of laser.
Mazón, M; Pont, E; Montoya-Filardi, A; Carreres-Polo, J; Más-Estellés, F
Pediatric sensorineural hearing loss is a major cause of disability; although inner ear malformations account for only 20-40% of all cases, recognition and characterization will be vital for the proper management of these patients. In this article relevant anatomy and development of inner ear are surveyed. The role of neuroimaging in pediatric sensorineural hearing loss and cochlear preimplantation study are assessed. The need for a universal system of classification of inner ear malformations with therapeutic and prognostic implications is highlighted. And finally, the radiological findings of each type of malformation are concisely described and depicted. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging play a crucial role in the characterization of inner ear malformations and allow the assessment of the anatomical structures that enable the selection of appropriate treatment and surgical approach.
Rice, C. G.; Coles, R. R. A.
The problems of protecting the ear against hazardous noise are the subject of a general review, supported where relevant by data from the authors' own researches. Ear protectors are classified into two main types−plugs and muffs—and the general principles of their function and limitations are stated. Examples of representative ear protectors are given in more detail, with particular respect to their relative merits and pure-tone attenuation characteristics. The effects of earplugs on speech communication are considered and the relationships between pure-tone attenuation and protection against continuous noise are discussed in some detail. The results of temporary threshold shift (T.T.S.) reduction studies of the efficiency of V.51R and Selectone-K earplugs in protecting against reverberant and non-reverberant impulsive noises are presented. The design requirements of ear protectors and some of the problems created by them are also outlined. Images PMID:5946129
Suseela, Bibilash Babu; Babu, Preethitha; Chittoria, Ravi Kumar; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad
Earlobe piercing is a common office room procedure done by a plastic surgeon. Various methods of ear piercing have been described. In this article, we describe a novel method of laser ear piercing using the diode laser. An 18-year-old female patient underwent an ear piercing using a diode laser with a power of 2.0 W in continuous mode after topical local anaesthetic and pre-cooling. The diode laser was fast, safe, easy to use and highly effective way of ear piercing. The advantages we noticed while using the diode laser over conventional methods were more precision, minimal trauma with less chances of hypertrophy and keloids, no bleeding with coagulation effect of laser, less time taken compared to conventional method and less chance of infection due to thermal heat effect of laser. PMID:28163460
...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that is... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section...
...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that is... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Schedule of ratings-ear...—ear. Diseases of the Ear Rating 6200Chronic suppurative otitis media, mastoiditis, or cholesteatoma... of the substance 10 6208Malignant neoplasm of the ear (other than skin only) 100 Note: A rating...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...
Yoo, Myung Hoon; Kang, Byung Chul; Park, Hong Ju
Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate surgical interventions and hearing rehabilitation in patients with chronic middle ear disease of only hearing ears. Subjects and Methods Thirty-one patients with chronic middle ear disease of only hearing ears were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patients were classified into three groups according to the hearing level: groups A [pure tone audiometry (PTA)<40], B (40≤PTA<70), and C (PTA≥70). We evaluated hearing results and patterns of auditory rehabilitation. Results The main consideration for a surgical procedure was the presence of recurrent otorrhea and structural destruction. The reasons for surgical intervention in only hearing ears were otorrhea caused by chronic otitis media (68%), cholesteatoma (29%), and cholesterol granuloma (3%). The causes of contralateral deaf ears were chronic otitis media (81%) and sensorineural hearing loss (19%). Although there was hearing deterioration in some patients with severe hearing loss (PTA≥70), all patients achieved dry ears after surgery and functional hearing using auditory rehabilitation. Hearing aids were used in most patients with moderate to moderately severe hearing loss and cochlear implants were used for auditory rehabilitation in patients with severe to profound hearing loss. Conclusions Proper evaluation and indications for surgery in only hearing ears are important for successful eradication of inflammation and hearing preservation. Surgical interventions can achieve dry ear and enable further auditory rehabilitations using hearing aids and cochlear implantation. PMID:25279226
Cruz-Gonzalez, L; Lisker, R
The mode of inheritance of ear wax type, ear lobe attachment and tongue rolling ability were studied in 77 families with a total of 293 children. The results clearly showed that the dry ear wax type and the attached ear lobe type represent the homozygous state for two pairs of autosomal recessive genes. The evidence for the same being true regarding the lack of ability to roll the tongue was less conclusive in our material, but this could be due to difficulties in communication between the examined individuals and the examiners.
Yu, Jen-Fang; Lee, Kun-Che; Wang, Ren-Hung; Chen, Yen-Sheng; Fan, Chun-Chieh; Peng, Ying-Chin; Tu, Tsung-Hsien; Chen, Ching-I; Lin, Kuei-Yi
Human ear canals cannot be measured directly with existing general measurement tools. Furthermore, general non-contact optical methods can only conduct simple peripheral measurements of the auricle and cannot obtain the internal ear canal shape-related measurement data. Therefore, this study uses the computed tomography (CT) technology to measure the geometric shape of the ear canal and the shape of the ear canal using a non-invasive method, and to complete the anthropometry of external auditory canal. The results of the study show that the average height and width of ear canal openings, and the average depth of the first bend for men are generally longer, wider and deeper than those for women. In addition, the difference between the height and width of the ear canal opening is about 40% (p < 0.05). Hence, the circular cross-section shape of the earplugs should be replaced with an elliptical cross-section shape during manufacturing for better fitting.
Scarpaci, Jacob W.; Durlach, N. I.; Colburn, H. Steven
Advantages of binaural over monaural hearing in noisy environments are reduced when the monaural stimulation is derived from the monaural signal with the better signal-to-noise ratio (better-ear listening). In the reported experiments, conducted in a soundproof room with two speakers and a custom-designed, noise-cancellation headset, speech intelligibility in the presence of interference was measured for both binaural and better-ear configurations. The headset, which incorporated two microphones (located at the two ears) and two insert earphones, was used to present binaural stimulation or better-ear (better-microphone) monaural stimulation. Although the results varied significantly with the locations of the target and interference sources, the advantage of binaural listening over better-ear listening was no more than a few dB. In addition to reporting the data obtained in these experiments, relations to previous work on better-ear listening and CROS hearing aids, as well as to current work on cochlear implants, are discussed. [Work supported by NIDCD (00100).
Keogh, I J; Portmann, D
Drop weld injuries to the tympanic membrane and middle ear caused by hot sparks or molten slag are a rare but significant injury. Steel workers and welders who are regularly exposed to flying sparks and molten metal slag are predisposed. This type of transtympanic thermal injury occurs when the slag literally drops into the external auditory canal and burns through the tympanic membrane. A spectrum of severity of injury occurs which includes chronic tympanic membrane perforation, chronic otorrhoea, facial nerve injury and deafness. Chronic tympanic membrane perforation is the most common sequelae and is perhaps one of the most challenging of all perforations to repair The combination of direct thermal injury and foreign body reaction results in continuing or recurrent suppuration. The foreign body reaction is due to the embedding of metal slag in the promontorial mucosa. We present a case of drop weld injury to the left tympanic membrane, resulting in chronic middle ear inflammation, otorrhoea and tympanic perforation. CAT scan clearly demonstrated a metallic promontorial foreign body with localised bone erosion. We emphasise the importance of removing these foreign bodies and recommend a cartilage reinforced underlay tympanoplasty technique to repair these perforations. Transtympanic thermal trauma is a preventable occupational injury, which is best, avoided by earplugs and increased awareness.
Marneros, Alexander G; Beck, Anita E; Turner, Emily H; McMillin, Margaret J; Edwards, Matthew J; Field, Michael; de Macena Sobreira, Nara Lygia; Perez, Ana Beatriz A; Fortes, Jose A R; Lampe, Anne K; Giovannucci Uzielli, Maria Luisa; Gordon, Christopher T; Plessis, Ghislaine; Le Merrer, Martine; Amiel, Jeanne; Reichenberger, Ernst; Shively, Kathryn M; Cerrato, Felecia; Labow, Brian I; Tabor, Holly K; Smith, Joshua D; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A; Bamshad, Michael J
Scalp-ear-nipple (SEN) syndrome is a rare, autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by cutis aplasia of the scalp; minor anomalies of the external ears, digits, and nails; and malformations of the breast. We used linkage analysis and exome sequencing of a multiplex family affected by SEN syndrome to identify potassium-channel tetramerization-domain-containing 1 (KCTD1) mutations that cause SEN syndrome. Evaluation of a total of ten families affected by SEN syndrome revealed KCTD1 missense mutations in each family tested. All of the mutations occurred in a KCTD1 region encoding a highly conserved bric-a-brac, tram track, and broad complex (BTB) domain that is required for transcriptional repressor activity. KCTD1 inhibits the transactivation of the transcription factor AP-2α (TFAP2A) via its BTB domain, and mutations in TFAP2A cause cutis aplasia in individuals with branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS), suggesting a potential overlap in the pathogenesis of SEN syndrome and BOFS. The identification of KCTD1 mutations in SEN syndrome reveals a role for this BTB-domain-containing transcriptional repressor during ectodermal development.
Piromchai, Patorn; Kasemsiri, Pornthep; Thanawirattananit, Panida; Yimtae, Kwanchanok
Patients with craniofacial anomalies often present to doctors due to their noticeable disfigurement and are routinely assessed by otolaryngologists for hearing evaluation. However, small percentage of craniofacial anomaly patients may present with delayed speech though they may not have initial obvious external deformation. The objective of case series is to identify the congenital inner ear malformation. The series of clinical presentation, physical examination, investigations, treatments and follow-up results were demonstrated followed by the discussion.
Mason, Matthew J
Many species of small desert mammals are known to have expanded auditory bullae. The ears of gerbils and heteromyids have been well described, but much less is known about the middle ear anatomy of other desert mammals. In this study, the middle ears of three gerbils (Meriones, Desmodillus and Gerbillurus), two jerboas (Jaculus) and two sengis (elephant-shrews: Macroscelides and Elephantulus) were examined and compared, using micro-computed tomography and light microscopy. Middle ear cavity expansion has occurred in members of all three groups, apparently in association with an essentially 'freely mobile' ossicular morphology and the development of bony tubes for the middle ear arteries. Cavity expansion can occur in different ways, resulting in different subcavity patterns even between different species of gerbils. Having enlarged middle ear cavities aids low-frequency audition, and several adaptive advantages of low-frequency hearing to small desert mammals have been proposed. However, while Macroscelides was found here to have middle ear cavities so large that together they exceed brain volume, the bullae of Elephantulus are considerably smaller. Why middle ear cavities are enlarged in some desert species but not others remains unclear, but it may relate to microhabitat.
Shah, Parth V; Kozin, Elliott D; Remenschneider, Aaron K; Dedmon, Matthew M; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Cohen, Michael S; Lee, Daniel J
Transcanal endoscopic ear surgery (EES) provides a high-resolution, wide-field view of the middle ear compared with the conventional operating microscope, reducing the need for a postauricular incision or mastoidectomy. Our group has shown in cadaveric human temporal bone studies that radiant energy from the endoscope tip can quickly elevate temperatures of the tympanic cavity. Elevated temperatures of the middle ear are associated with acute auditory brainstem response shifts in animal models. In EES, proposed methods to decrease middle ear temperature include frequent removal of the endoscope and the use of suction to rapidly dissipate heat; however, the routine application of such cooling techniques remains unknown. Herein, we aim to quantify the duration that the tympanic cavity is typically exposed to the endoscope during routine endoscopic middle ear surgery. We find that the tympanic cavity is exposed to the endoscope without a cooling mechanism for a prolonged period of time.
Beutner, Dirk; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd
Besides eradication of chronic middle ear disease, the reconstruction of the sound conduction apparatus is a major goal of modern ear microsurgery. The material of choice in cases of partial ossicular replacement prosthesis is the autogenous ossicle. In the event of more extensive destruction of the ossicular chain diverse alloplastic materials, e.g. metals, ceramics, plastics or composits are used for total reconstruction. Their specialised role in conducting sound energy within a half-open implant bed sets high demands on the biocompatibility as well as the acoustic-mechanic properties of the prosthesis. Recently, sophisticated titanium middle ear implants allowing individual adaptation to anatomical variations are widely used for this procedure. However, despite modern developments, hearing restoration with passive implants often faces its limitations due to tubal-middle-ear dysfunction. Here, implantable hearing aids, successfully used in cases of sensorineural hearing loss, offer a promising alternative. This article reviews the actual state of affairs of passive and active middle ear implants. PMID:22073102
Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.
This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.
Takanashi, Yoshitaka; Shibata, Shunichi; Katori, Yukio; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Shinichi; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Kawase, Tetsuaki
In the human middle ear, the annular ligament of the incudostapedial joint and the insertions of the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles contain abundant elastic fibers; i.e., the elastic-fiber-mediated entheses. Hyaluronan also coexists with the elastic fibers. In the present study using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated the distribution of elastin not only in the incudostapedial joint but also in the other two joints of the middle ear in adults and fetuses. In adults, the expression of elastin did not extend out of the annular ligament composed of mature elastic fibers but clearly overlapped with it. Electron microscopic observations of the annular ligament demonstrated a few microfibrils along the elastic fibers. Thus, in contrast to the vocal cord, the middle ear entheses seemed not to contain elaunin and oxytalan fibers. In mid-term fetuses (at approximately 15-16 weeks of gestation) before opening of the external acoustic meatus, the incudostapedial joint showed abundant elastic fibers, but the incudomalleolar and stapediovestibular joints did not. At this stage, hyaluronan was not colocalized, but distributed diffusely in loose mesenchymal tissues surrounding the ear ossicles. Therefore, fetal development of elastin and elastic fibers in the middle ear entheses is unlikely to require acoustic oscillation. In late-stage fetuses (25-30 weeks), whose ear ossicles were almost the same size as those in adults, we observed bundling and branching of elastic fibers. However, hyaluronan expression was not as strong as in adults. Colocalization between elastic fibers and hyaluronan appeared to be a result of postnatal maturation of the entheses.
Songu, Murat; Ozkul, Yilmaz; Kirtay, Seyithan; Arslanoglu, Secil; Ozkut, Mahmut; Inan, Sevinc; Onal, Kazim
We have planned to demonstrate histopathologic effects of mid- or long-term oral use of desloratadine and cetirizine HCl molecules on middle ear mucosa of rats. Thirty-six rats were randomized equally into six groups. Desloratadine groups received once daily doses of 1 mg/ml desloratadine for 30 (D30 Group) or 60 (D60 Group) days. The Cetirizine study groups were given once daily doses of 1 mg/ml cetirizine for 30 (S30 Group) or 60 (S60 Group) days. Control groups were given 2 cc physiologic saline using orogastric gavage method through a 12 G gavage catheter for 30 (K30 Group) or 60 (K60) days. At the end of 30 days, D30, S30 and K30 Groups were sacrificed. Tissue samples harvested from groups were evaluated between 1 and 4 Grades for histological characteristics of middle ear canal, eardrum, middle ear epithelium and connective tissue, edema, vascular congestion and inflammatory cells. In the control group no pathological finding was encountered in rats sacrificed on 30 and 60 days. No statistical difference was observed when groups were compared on external ear epithelial tissue, external ear sebaceous gland, middle ear inflammation, and middle ear capillary dilatation both on 30 and 60 days. Tympanic membrane collagen was more evident in D30 and D60 groups when compared with C30 and C60 groups. Comparison of histopathological grading results between 30 and 60 days revealed no significant changes. In conclusion, oral intake of cetirizine and desloratadine preparations has effects of tympanic membrane collagen, degrees of edema and vascular congestion being more prominent with desloratadine molecule.
Evenhouse, Raymond J.; Chen, Xiaoming
The cosmetic result of an ear restored surgically or via prosthetics is dependent on the surgeon''s ability to carve a precise cartilage armature at the time of surgery or the prosthetist''s ability to sculpt in wax an exact duplicate of the patient''s " missing" ear. Introducing CAD/CAM technology into the process benefits the esthetic outcome of these procedures. By utilizing serial section information derived from CAT MRI or moulage techniques a mirrorimage of the patient''s " donor" ear is generated. The resulting earform data is then used for the design of a cartilage armature produced by multi-axis milling or to produce by stereolithography a model which serves as the basis for a prosthesis.
Traditionally, otologists have aimed to produce a clean, dry, safe ear with the best possible hearing result. More recently, "less invasively" has been added to this list of goals. The development of small-diameter, high-quality rigid endoscopes and high-definition video systems has made totally endoscopic, transcanal surgery a reality in adult otology and a possibility in pediatric otology. This article reviews the anatomy of the pediatric middle ear and its surrounding airspaces and structures based on the work of dozens of researchers over the past 50 years. It will focus on the developmental changes in ear anatomy from birth through the first decade, when structure and function change most rapidly. Understanding the limits and possibilities afforded by new endoscopic technologies, the pediatric otologist can strive for results matching or exceeding those achieved by more invasive surgical approaches.
Greci, Valentina; Travetti, Olga; Di Giancamillo, Mauro; Lombardo, Rocco; Giudice, Chiara; Banco, Barbara; Mortellaro, Carlo M.
Middle ear cholesteatoma is a rare condition in dogs with chronic otitis. Otorrhea, otodinia, and pain on temporomandibular joint palpation are the most common clinical signs. Neurological abnormalities are often detectable. Computed tomography reveals the presence of an expansive and invasive unvascularized lesion involving the tympanic cavity and the bulla, with little or no contrast enhancement after administration of contrast mediu. Video-otoscopy may detect pearly growth or white/yellowish scales in the middle ear cavity. Surgery is the only therapy but is associated with a high risk of recurrence. PMID:22131579
Carlin, W V; Lesser, T H; John, D G; Fielder, C; Carrick, D G; Thomas, P L; Hill, S
This paper reports a multicentre, controlled, blind, prospective, randomized study into the use of prophylactic systemic antibiotics in myringoplasty surgery. Seventy-one individuals were clinically and bacteriologically assessed both preoperatively, and for a period of 8 weeks postoperatively. The results showed that antibiotic prophylaxis did not eradicate bacterial pathogens already present in preoperative ears, nor did it prevent their development during the postoperative period. The observation that an ear was wet or dry gave no indication of the actual presence or absence of pathogenic organisms.
Chhatpar, Siddharth R.; Ngia, Lester; Vlach, Chris; Lin, Dong; Birkhimer, Craig; Juneja, Amit; Pruthi, Tarun; Hoffman, Orin; Lewis, Tristan
Hands-free control of unmanned ground vehicles is essential for soldiers, bomb disposal squads, and first responders. Having their hands free for other equipment and tasks allows them to be safer and more mobile. Currently, the most successful hands-free control devices are speech-command based. However, these devices use external microphones, and in field environments, e.g., war zones and fire sites, their performance suffers because of loud ambient noise: typically above 90dBA. This paper describes the development of technology using the ear as an output source that can provide excellent command recognition accuracy even in noisy environments. Instead of picking up speech radiating from the mouth, this technology detects speech transmitted internally through the ear canal. Discreet tongue movements also create air pressure changes within the ear canal, and can be used for stealth control. A patented earpiece was developed with a microphone pointed into the ear canal that captures these signals generated by tongue movements and speech. The signals are transmitted from the earpiece to an Ultra-Mobile Personal Computer (UMPC) through a wired connection. The UMPC processes the signals and utilizes them for device control. The processing can include command recognition, ambient noise cancellation, acoustic echo cancellation, and speech equalization. Successful control of an iRobot PackBot has been demonstrated with both speech (13 discrete commands) and tongue (5 discrete commands) signals. In preliminary tests, command recognition accuracy was 95% with speech control and 85% with tongue control.
Stepp, Cara E; Voss, Susan E
The impedance of the middle-ear air space was measured on three human cadaver ears with complete mastoid air-cell systems. Below 500 Hz, the impedance is approximately compliance-like, and at higher frequencies (500-6000 Hz) the impedance magnitude has several (five to nine) extrema. Mechanisms for these extrema are identified and described through circuit models of the middle-ear air space. The measurements demonstrate that the middle-ear air space impedance can affect the middle-ear impedance at the tympanic membrane by as much as 10 dB at frequencies greater than 1000 Hz. Thus, variations in the middle-ear air space impedance that result from variations in anatomy of the middle-ear air space can contribute to inter-ear variations in both impedance measurements and otoacoustic emissions, when measured at the tympanic membrane.
Xie, Haiyuan; Qian, Mingli
According to the development of body temperature measurement mode, an ear thermometer with infrared thermopiles sensor is designed for body thermometry Compared with oral thermometer, the accuracy of ear thermometer is acceptable.
Healthy Lifestyle Consumer health Is ear candling a safe way to remove earwax? Answers from Charles W. Beatty, ... 05, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/ear-candling/faq-20058212 . ...
... recurrent tinnitus, whether the sound is perceived in one ear, both ears, or in the head. Note (3): Do not evaluate objective tinnitus (in which the sound is audible to other people and has a definable cause...
... recurrent tinnitus, whether the sound is perceived in one ear, both ears, or in the head. Note (3): Do not evaluate objective tinnitus (in which the sound is audible to other people and has a definable cause...
... recurrent tinnitus, whether the sound is perceived in one ear, both ears, or in the head. Note (3): Do not evaluate objective tinnitus (in which the sound is audible to other people and has a definable cause...
... Although there is no proven medical link between middle ear infections and pediatric obesity there may be a behavioral association between the two conditions. Some studies have found that when a child is rubbing or massaging the infected ear the ...
Haynes, David S.; Young, Jadrien A.; Wanna, George B.; Glasscock, Michael E.
Hearing loss affects approximately 30 million people in the United States. It has been estimated that only approximately 20% of people with hearing loss significant enough to warrant amplification actually seek assistance for amplification. A significant interest in middle ear implants has emerged over the years to facilitate patients who are noncompliant with conventional hearing aides, do not receive significant benefit from conventional aides, or are not candidates for cochlear implants. From the initial studies in the 1930s, the technology has greatly evolved over the years with a wide array of devices and mechanisms employed in the development of implantable middle ear hearing devices. Currently, these devices are generally available in two broad categories: partially or totally implantable using either piezoelectric or electromagnetic systems. The authors present an up-to-date overview of the major implantable middle ear devices. Although the current devices are largely in their infancy, indications for middle ear implants are ever evolving as promising studies show good results. The totally implantable devices provide the user freedom from the social and practical difficulties of using conventional amplification. PMID:19762429
Fues, Marianne Cole
Audiobooks have been around for years in various formats, like cassette tapes and CDs. This article describes a new type of audiobook on the market which is generating an interest in "reading." The device, called Playaway, is the size of a MP3 player and comes with a lanyard and ear buds. Buttons on the back of the player control the…
Olson, Dianne R.
This curriculum was designed to help teachers teach their fourth-grade students about hearing and the effects of loud noises on hearing. The program describes the human ear and how it works, explains the health effects of noise, and offers ways for students to protect their hearing from unsafe noise levels. Students are taught how hearing is…
This article suggests that the development of listening skills should extend to the "soundscape" of nonspeech acoustical information. It presents a model for effective aural processing, identifies categories of information obtained from nonverbal sound, and explores "ear-tuning" or listening exercises that use sound to glean…
Speden, R N
This isolated, perfused ear artery of the rabbit has been used to examine the effect of alterations in muscle load on the construction of arteries. The equilibrium muscle load, taken as the difference in wall stress between the relaxed and constricted artery at the same external radius, was varied by changing the transmural pressure and by constricting the artery. 2. The equilibrium muscle load increased initially and then declined with decreasing external radius when the transmural pressure was kept constant. The maximum muscle load was reached when the relaxed external radius had been reduced by 11% at 80 mmHg and by 4-5% (relative to the radius at 80 mmHg) at 160 mmHg. 3. Arteries from young rabbits (3-6 months in age) which were partially constricted by adrenaline or spontaneous activity responded better to 60 sec of 4 Hz field stimulation at transmural pressures above 100 mmHg than did relaxed arteries. Neither field stimulation nor high concentrations of noradrenaline ( is greater than 800 ng/ml.) were able to constrict most arteries effectively at pressures above 160-170 mmHg unless partial constriction was present. The partial constriction reduced the load placed on the muscle by the same transmural pressure. Constrictio n during field stimulation was due largely to the release of neurotransmitter. 4. Ear arteries from young and older rabbits differed little in their ability to constrict against different transmural pressures. The one major difference was a lesser maximum constriction of arteries from older rabbits (18-24 months in age). However, arteries from older rabbits constricted well at the higher transmural pressures only because wall thickening largely compensated for a decreased ability of the muscle to develop active tension. 5. It is concluded that a decrease in internal radius to wall thickness ratio by either sufficient partial vasoconstriction or by wall thickening favours constriction of arteries because the load placed on the muscle by the
Anthwal, Neal; Thompson, Hannah
The mammalian ear is a complex structure divided into three main parts: the outer; middle; and inner ear. These parts are formed from all three germ layers and neural crest cells, which have to integrate successfully in order to form a fully functioning organ of hearing. Any defect in development of the outer and middle ear leads to conductive hearing loss, while defects in the inner ear can lead to sensorineural hearing loss. This review focuses on the development of the parts of the ear involved with sound transduction into the inner ear, and the parts largely ignored in the world of hearing research: the outer and middle ear. The published data on the embryonic origin, signalling, genetic control, development and timing of the mammalian middle and outer ear are reviewed here along with new data showing the Eustachian tube cartilage is of dual embryonic origin. The embryonic origin of some of these structures has only recently been uncovered (Science, 339, 2013, 1453; Development, 140, 2013, 4386), while the molecular mechanisms controlling the growth, structure and integration of many outer and middle ear components are hardly known. The genetic analysis of outer and middle ear development is rather limited, with a small number of genes often affecting either more than one part of the ear or having only very small effects on development. This review therefore highlights the necessity for further research into the development of outer and middle ear structures, which will be important for the understanding and treatment of conductive hearing loss.
... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...
... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles... OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the EAR” is a term used in the EAR to describe those items...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles... OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the EAR” is a term used in the EAR to describe those items...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles... OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the EAR” is a term used in the EAR to describe those items...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles... OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the EAR” is a term used in the EAR to describe those items...
... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...
What to ask your doctor about ear tube surgery; Tympanostomy - what to ask your doctor; Myringotomy - what to ask your doctor ... Why does my child need ear tubes? Can we try other treatments? ... the surgery? Is it safe to wait before getting ear tubes? Will ...
Aldrovandi, Ana Lúcia; Osugui, Lika; Acqua Coutinho, Selene Dall'
The objective of this study was to characterize genotypically Malassezia spp. isolated from the external ear canal of healthy horses. Fifty-five horses, 39 (70.9%) males and 16 (29.1%) females, from different breeds and adults were studied. External ear canals were cleaned and a sterile cotton swab was introduced to collect cerumen. A total of 110 samples were cultured into Dixon medium and were incubated at 32°C for up to 15 days. Macro- and micromorphology and phenotypic identification were performed. DNA was extracted, strains were submitted to polymerase chain reaction technique, and the products obtained were submitted to Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism using the restriction enzymes BstCI and HhaI. Strains were sent off to genetic sequencing of the regions 26S rDNA D1/D2 and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA. Malassezia spp. were isolated from 33/55 (60%) animals and 52/110 (47%) ear canals. No growth on Sabouraud dextrose agar was observed, confirming the lipid dependence of all strains. Polymerase chain reaction-Restriction fragment length polymorphism permitted the molecular identification of Malassezia nana - 42/52 (81%) and Malassezia slooffiae - 10/52 (19%). Sequencing confirmed RFLP identification. It was surprising that M. nana represented over 80% of the strains and no Malassezia equina was isolated in this study, differing from what was expected.
Rot, Irena; Baguma-Nibasheka, Mark; Costain, Willard J; Hong, Paul; Tafra, Robert; Mardesic-Brakus, Snjezana; Mrduljas-Djujic, Natasa; Saraga-Babic, Mirna; Kablar, Boris
The current paper is a continuation of our work described in Rot and Kablar, 2010. Here, we show lists of 10 up- and 87 down-regulated genes obtained by a cDNA microarray analysis that compared developing Myf5-/-:Myod-/- (and Mrf4-/-) petrous part of the temporal bone, containing middle and inner ear, to the control, at embryonic day 18.5. Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses entirely lack skeletal myoblasts and muscles. They are unable to move their head, which interferes with the perception of angular acceleration. Previously, we showed that the inner ear areas most affected in Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses were the vestibular cristae ampullaris, sensitive to angular acceleration. Our finding that the type I hair cells were absent in the mutants' cristae was further used here to identify a profile of genes specific to the lacking cell type. Microarrays followed by a detailed consultation of web-accessible mouse databases allowed us to identify 6 candidate genes with a possible role in the development of the inner ear sensory organs: Actc1, Pgam2, Ldb3, Eno3, Hspb7 and Smpx. Additionally, we searched for human homologues of the candidate genes since a number of syndromes in humans have associated inner ear abnormalities. Mutations in one of our candidate genes, Smpx, have been reported as the cause of X-linked deafness in humans. Our current study suggests an epigenetic role that mechanical, and potentially other, stimuli originating from muscle, play in organogenesis, and offers an approach to finding novel genes responsible for altered inner ear phenotypes.
Meister, H; Walger, M; Mickenhagen, A; von Wedel, H; Stennert, E
Several ways to evaluate the sound transmission properties of middle ear implants are now established. Besides computer-based simulations using acoustic and electrical analog circuits or finite element analysis, measurements can be performed with temporal bone preparations. Experiments with these preparations consider various anatomical properties, but a large number of parameters influence the outcome of measurements. To facilitate standardized measurements, a mechanical middle ear model was developed that allows comparison of the transfer function of middle ear implants on defined conditions. The model approximates the impedances of the tympanic membrane and inner ear with the aid of thin, flexible membranes. The implants are fit between the membranes, and displacement at an artificial stapes foot-plate is measured with an optical probe. Fundamental influences on the sound transmission properties of nine different middle ear implants (total ossicular replacement prostheses) were examined. Although the material and shape were different, some of the prostheses revealed very similar transfer functions. The mass of the implant showed the largest influence on sound conduction. With a higher mass, the frequency area above approximately 1 kHz was found to be significantly deteriorated. The lightest implant used was 4 mg and showed the best overall results. These findings show that middle ear prostheses should be as light as possible for optimum high-frequency transmission.
Alizadeh Taheri, Peymaneh; Rostami, Shima
Acute otitis externa (AOE) is an infection of the external auditory canal, the auricle, and the outer surface of the tympanic membrane. Although AOE is one of the most common otologic conditions encountered in pediatric population, it is known to primarily affect children older than 2 years. We report a case of AOE caused by Staphylococcus aureus in a 23-day-old neonate. A 23-day-old female infant presented to our neonatology clinic with irritability and discharge from the right ear. There were yellow otorrhea, mild erythema, and edema of right external ear canal. There was no sign of otitis media on otoscopy. The results of laboratory tests were insignificant. The discharge culture grew colonies of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. After 48 hours of treatment with intravenous cloxacillin, significant improvement was observed. The present case highlights an unusual presentation of staphylococcal infection in a neonate. This is the first case of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus otitis externa in an immunocompetent newborn. PMID:27703821
Houle, Cyril O.
This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)
Murray, Aaron R; Atkinson, Lucy; Mahadi, Mohd K; Deuchars, Susan A; Deuchars, Jim
The human ear seems an unlikely candidate for therapies aimed at improving cardiac function, but the ear and the heart share a common connection: the vagus nerve. In recent years there has been increasing interest in the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN), a unique cutaneous subdivision of the vagus distributed to the external ear. Non-invasive electrical stimulation of this nerve through the skin may offer a simple, cost-effective alternative to the established method of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), which requires a surgical procedure and has generated mixed results in a number of clinical trials for heart failure. This review discusses the available evidence in support of modulating cardiac activity using this strange auricular nerve.
Ear candles are hollow tubes coated in wax which are inserted into patients' ears and then lit at the far end. The procedure is used as a complementary therapy for a wide range of conditions. A critical assessment of the evidence shows that its mode of action is implausible and demonstrably wrong. There are no data to suggest that it is effective for any condition. Furthermore, ear candles have been associated with ear injuries. The inescapable conclusion is that ear candles do more harm than good. Their use should be discouraged.
Oztürkcan, Sedat; Dündar, Riza; Katilmis, Hüseyin; Ilknur, Ali Ekber; Aktaş, Sinem; Haciömeroğlu, Senem
This study analyzed the ototoxic effects of boric acid solutions. Boric acid solutions have been used as otologic preparations for many years. Boric acid is commonly found in solutions prepared with alcohol or distilled water but can also be found in a powder form. These preparations are used for both their antiseptic and acidic qualities in external and middle ear infections. We investigated the ototoxic effect of boric acid solutions on guinea pigs. We are unaware of any similar, previously published study of this subject in English. The study was conducted on 28 young albino guinea pigs. Prior to application of the boric acid solution under general anesthesia, an Auditory Brainstem Response (ABRs) test was applied to the right ear of the guinea pigs. Following the test, a perforation was created on the tympanic membrane of the right ear of each guinea pig and small gelfoam pieces were inserted into the perforated area. Test solutions were administered to the middle ear for 10 days by means of a transcanal route. Fifteen days after inserting the gelfoams in all of the guinea pigs, we anasthesized the guinea pigs and removed the gelfoams from the perforated region of the ear and then performed an ABRs on each guinea pig. The ABRs were within the normal range before the applications. After the application, no significant changes were detected in the ABRs thresholds in neither the saline group nor the group administered boric acid and distilled water solution; however, significant changes were detected in the ABRs thresholds of the Gentamicine and boric acid and alcohol solution groups. We believe that a 4% boric acid solution prepared with distilled water can be a more reliable preparation than a 4% boric acid solution prepared with alcohol.
Minovi, Amir; Dazert, Stefan
Middle ear diseases in childhood play an important role in daily ENT practice due to their high incidence. Some of these like acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion have been studied extensively within the last decades. In this article, we present a selection of important childhood middle ear diseases and discuss the actual literature concerning their treatment, management of complications and outcome. Another main topic of this paper deals with the possibilities of surgical hearing rehabilitation in childhood. The bone-anchored hearing aid BAHA® and the active partially implantable device Vibrant Soundbridge® could successfully be applied for children. In this manuscript, we discuss the actual literature concerning clinical outcomes of these implantable hearing aids. PMID:25587371
This study considers the general question how animal size limits the size and information receiving capacity of sense organs. To clarify this in the case of the mammalian middle ear, I studied 63 mammalian species, ranging from a small bat to the Indian elephant. I determined the skull mass and the masses of the ossicles malleus, incus and stapes (M, I and S), and measured the tympanic membrane area, A1. The ossicular mass (in mg) is generally negatively allometric to skull mass (in g), the regression equation for the whole material (excluding true seals) being y = 1.373 x(0.513). However, for very small mammals the allometry approaches isometry. Within a group of large mammals no distinct allometry can be discerned. The true seals (Phocidae) are exceptional by having massive ossicles. The size relations within the middle ear are generally rather constant. However, the I/M relation is slightly positively allometric, y = 0.554 x(1.162). Two particularly isometric relations were found; the S/(M + I) relation for the ossicles characterized by the regression equation y = 0.054 x(0.993), and the relation between a two-dimensional measure of the ossicles and the tympanic membrane ares, (M + I)2/3 /A1. As in isometric ears the sound energy collected by the tympanic membrane is linearly related to its area, the latter isometry suggests that, regardless of animal size, a given ossicular cross-sectional area is exposed to a similar sound-induced stress. Possible morphological middle ear adaptations to particular acoustic environments are discussed.
Bernard, S L
Patients who have survived thermal injuries to the face suffer from severe disfigurement. When the nose and ear are involved, the resulting deformities are immediately obvious to all who see the patient. This level of injury results in a self-imposed confinement; the patients never leave their homes. It is therefore important that we plastic surgeons know, understand, and use all options available to improve our patients' appearance and ultimately their mental and physical well being.
Caner, Gül; Olgun, Levent; Gültekin, Gürol; Aydar, Levent
The adequacy of anesthesia and comfort during surgery was assessed for 100 consecutive patients undergoing middle ear surgery using local anesthesia, both by the patients themselves and by the surgeon. The possibility of inducing an iatrogenic facial weakness was also evaluated. Both the surgeon and the majority of patients were pleased with the quality of anesthesia and little adverse effects occurred as a consequence of local anesthesia itself.
Koffi, Moise; Jiji, Latif; Andreopoulos, Yiannis
It is estimated that a 4200 kg elephant generates as much as 5.12 kW of heat. How the elephant dissipates its metabolic heat and regulates its body temperature has been investigated during the past seven decades. Findings and conclusions differ sharply. The high rate of metabolic heat coupled with low surface area to volume ratio and the absence of sweat glands eliminate surface convection as the primary mechanism for heat removal. Noting that the elephant ears have high surface area to volume ratio and an extensive vascular network, ear flapping is thought to be the principal thermoregulatory mechanism. A computational and experimental program is carried out to examine flow and heat transfer characteristics. The ear is modeled as a uniformly heated oscillating rectangular plate. Our computational work involves a three-dimensional time dependent CFD code with heat transfer capabilities to obtain predictions of the flow field and surface temperature distributions. This information was used to design an experimental setup with a uniformly heated plate of size 0.2m x 0.3m oscillating at 1.6 cycles per second. Results show that surface temperature increases and reaches a steady periodic oscillation after a period of transient oscillation. The role of the vortices shed off the plate in heat transfer enhancement will be discussed.
Thomassen, Henri A; Gea, Stefan; Maas, Steve; Bout, Ron G; Dirckx, Joris J J; Decraemer, Willem F; Povel, G David E
The Oilbird and many Swiftlet species are unique among birds for their ability to echolocate. Echolocaters may benefit from improved hearing sensitivity. Therefore, morphological adaptations to echolocation might be present in echolocating birds' middle ears. We studied the functional morphology of the tympano-ossicular chain of seven specimens of four echolocating Swiftlet species and one specimen each of five non-echolocating species. Three dimensional (3D) reconstructions were made from micro-Computer-Tomographic (muCT) scans. The reconstructions were used in functional morphological analyses and model calculations. A two dimensional (2D) rigid rod model with fixed rotational axes was developed to study footplate output-amplitudes and to describe how changes in the arrangement of the tympano-ossicular chain affect its function. A 3D finite element model was used to predict ossicular-chain movement and to investigate the justification of the 2D approach. No morphological adaptations towards echolocation were found in the middle-ear lever system or in the mass impedance of the middle ear. A wide range of middle-ear configurations result in maximum output-amplitudes and all investigated species are congruent with these predicted best configurations. Echolocation is unlikely to depend on adaptations in the middle ear tympano-ossicular chain.
Hwang, Euna; Kim, Young Soo; Chung, Seum
Before visiting a plastic surgeon, some microtia patients may undergo canaloplasty for hearing improvement. In such cases, scarred tissues and the reconstructed external auditory canal in the postauricular area may cause a significant limitation in using the posterior auricular skin flap for ear reconstruction. In this article, we present a new method for auricular reconstruction in microtia patients with previous canaloplasty. By dividing a postauricular skin flap into an upper scalp extended skin flap and a lower mastoid extended skin flap at the level of a reconstructed external auditory canal, the entire anterior surface of the auricular framework can be covered with the two extended postauricular skin flaps. The reconstructed ear shows good color match and texture, with the entire anterior surface of the reconstructed ear being resurfaced with the skin flaps. Clinical question/level of evidence; therapeutic level IV.
Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Yang, Angela Weihong; Zhang, Anthony Lin; May, Brian H.
Abstract Ear-acupuncture/ear-acupressure (EAP) has been used for a range of health conditions with numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating its efficacy and safety. However, the design of sham interventions in these RCTs varied significantly. This study systematically reviewed RCTs on EAP for all clinical conditions involving a number of sham EAPs as a control intervention. The review is guided by the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.1.0 and investigated the types and differences of sham EAP interventions. Four electronic English databases (The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL®) and two Chinese databases (CQVIP, CNKI) were searched in December 2012 and 55 published RCTs comparing real and sham EAP for any clinical condition were included. Characteristics of participants, real and sham interventions, and outcomes were extracted. Four types of sham methods were identified. Among the 55 RCTs, 25 studies involved treatment on nonspecific ear acupoints as the sham method; seven studies used nonacupoints on the ear; nine studies selected placebo needles or placebo ear-acupressure on the same ear acupoints for the real treatment; 10 studies employed pseudo-intervention; and five studies combined two of the above methods to be the sham control. Other factors of treatment such as number of points, treatment duration, and frequency also varied greatly. Risk of bias assessment suggests that 32 RCTs were “high risk” in terms of participants blinding, and 45 RCTs were “high risk” in terms of personnel blinding. Meta-analysis was not conducted due to the high clinical heterogeneity across included studies. No relationship was found between the sham designs and efficacy outcomes, or between the sham types and dropout rate. No solid conclusion of which design is the most appropriate sham control of EAP could be drawn in this review. PMID:24138333
Homma, Kenji; Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Kim, Namkeun; Du, Yu; Puria, Sunil
In extremely loud noise environments, it is important to not only protect one’s hearing against noise transmitted through the air-conduction (AC) pathway, but also through the bone-conduction (BC) pathways. Much of the energy transmitted through the BC pathways is concentrated in the mid-frequency range around 1.5–2 kHz, which is likely due to the structural resonance of the middle ear. One potential approach for mitigating this mid-frequency BC noise transmission is to introduce a positive or negative static pressure in the ear canal, which is known to reduce BC as well as AC hearing sensitivity. In the present study, middle-ear ossicular velocities at the umbo and stapes were measured using human cadaver temporal bones in response to both BC and AC excitations, while static air pressures of ±400 mm H2O were applied in the ear canal. For the maximum negative pressure of −400 mm H2O, mean BC stapes-velocity reductions of about 5–8 dB were observed in the frequency range from 0.8 to 2.5 kHz, with a peak reduction of 8.6(± 4.7) dB at 1.6 kHz. Finite-element analysis indicates that the peak BC-response reduction tends to be in the mid-frequency range because the middle-ear BC resonance, which is typically around 1.5–2 kHz, is suppressed by the pressure-induced stiffening of the middle-ear structure. The measured data also show that the BC responses are reduced more for negative static pressures than for positive static pressures. This may be attributable to a difference in the distribution of the stiffening among the middle-ear components depending on the polarity of the static pressure. The characteristics of the BC-response reductions are found to be largely consistent with the available psychoacoustic data, and are therefore indicative of the relative importance of the middle-ear mechanism in BC hearing. PMID:19944139
Ravicz, Michael E; Rosowski, John J
The middle-ear input admittance relates sound power into the middle ear (ME) and sound pressure at the tympanic membrane (TM). ME input admittance was measured in the chinchilla ear canal as part of a larger study of sound power transmission through the ME into the inner ear. The middle ear was open, and the inner ear was intact or modified with small sensors inserted into the vestibule near the cochlear base. A simple model of the chinchilla ear canal, based on ear canal sound pressure measurements at two points along the canal and an assumption of plane-wave propagation, enables reliable estimates of Y(TM,) the ME input admittance at the TM, from the admittance measured relatively far from the TM. Y(TM) appears valid at frequencies as high as 17 kHz, a much higher frequency than previously reported. The real part of Y(TM) decreases with frequency above 2 kHz. Effects of the inner-ear sensors (necessary for inner ear power computation) were small and generally limited to frequencies below 3 kHz. Computed power reflectance was ~0.1 below 3.5 kHz, lower than with an intact ME below 2.5 kHz, and nearly 1 above 16 kHz.
Vincenti, V; Pasanisi, E; Bacciu, A; Bacciu, S; Zini, C
Cochlear implantation in the setting of chronic otitis media or previous middle ear surgery poses several problems for the surgeon: possible spread of infection to the cochlea and the subarachnoid spaces with consequent meningitis, risk of electrode array extrusion and possible recurrence of the original disease. Several surgical strategies have been proposed to overcome these problems. In the present study, clinical and functional results of cochlear implantation in 26 patients with chronic otitis media (8 cases) or previous middle ear surgery (18 cases) in the ear most suitable for implantation were retrospectively reviewed. Among the 8 patients with chronic otitis media, in 7 cases a subtotal petrosectomy associated with external auditory canal closure and mastoid and Eustachian tube obliteration was performed, while in the remaining patient cochlear implantation was done 6 months after a myringoplasty. The only complication observed was a reperforation of the tympanic membrane in this latter patient. Among the 18 patients with previous middle ear surgery, 2 had undergone intact canal wall tympanomastoidectomy and were implanted utilising the previous surgical approach. In the remaining 16 patients who had a radical cavity, an open technique was maintained in 3 cases; a cavity revision associated to external auditory canal closure, Eustachian tube and mastoid obliteration was performed in 12 patients, while in one case a middle cranial fossa approach was utilised. Two of the 3 patients in whom an open technique was maintained have experienced electrode array extrusion. The only complication observed in the remaining patients was the breakdown of the external auditory canal closure in one case. No problems were noted in patients who had undergone intact canal wall tympanomastoidectomy as well as in the subject implanted via the middle cranial fossa approach. All patients achieved and maintained good hearing performance over time. Subtotal petrosectomy associated
Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)
An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.
Kesting, Marco Rainer; Thurmüller, Petra; Hölzle, Frank; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Holland-Letz, Tim; Stücker, Markus
In order to assess an objective measure for the outcome of ear acupuncture, we evaluated the effect of electrical ear acupuncture on areas of histamine-induced alloknesis in 32 healthy volunteers. In a first assessment 5 min after histamine application on both volar forearms, 16 subjects received right ear and 16 left ear acupuncture. Immediately before and 5 min after acupuncture, alloknesis areas on both forearms were planimetrically evaluated. A second assessment was carried out 4 weeks later with the same patients. They underwent histamine application once more, but received no acupuncture. Alloknesis areas were then compared with reference to time, assessment and therapy side. Forearms relating to ipsilateral acupuncture showed significantly reduced or even no alloknesis areas after therapy. On the contralateral sides and during the "non-acupuncture" assessment 4 weeks later, alloknesis areas were significantly enlarged compared with sides ipsilateral to right and left ear acupuncture. Hence, results verify the effects of electrical ear acupuncture by objective measures.
Kurnatowski, Piotr; Kurnatowska, Agnieszka K
Fungi, in comparison with other pathogenic factors, have high pathogenicity. The number of fungal species which are able to infect people is over 500. The upper respiratory tract and ear have permanent contact with external environment which makes their ontocenoses open to continuous exchange of microorganisms of which they consist. In etiology of inflammatory processes 21 species which belonging to 3 genera (Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota) of fungi play important role. Administration of antifungal drugs can be: prophylactic, empiric preemptive and therapeutic. Physicians may prescribe antibiotics (mainly pollens: amphotericin B, natamycin and nystatin) and chemiotherapeutics (mainly azoles and fluorpirymidins, pigments, chlorhexidine and chlorquinaldol). In ENT practice topical and systemic drugs can be administrated. Topical lozenges include amphotericin B, clotrimazole, chlorhexidine or chlorquinaldol and oral gels: nystatin and miconazole. Some of drugs are in the form of suspension/solution, which can be used for inhalation, into the sinus, for swabbing or for lavage: amphotericin B, natamycin, nystatin, clotrimazol, flucytosine, miconazole, fluconazole, vorykonazole, caspofungin. It should be underlined that only a few of dugs can be absorbed from the digestive tract: flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, vorykonazole.
Yiin, R S Z; Tang, P H; Tan, T Y
The aetiology of profound hearing loss in children is complex and multifactorial. Congenital inner ear abnormality is a major cause of hearing loss in children. CT temporal bone imaging is the modality of choice in the investigation of hearing loss. Recognising the congenital abnormalities of the inner ear guides the clinician's management of the condition. This pictorial essay illustrates the congenital abnormalities of the inner ear on high resolution CT temporal bone images and correlation with developmental arrest during embryology.
Verhaert, Nicolas; Mojallal, Hamidreza; Schwab, Burkard
The aim of this study was to describe the outcome and possible complications of subtotal petrosectomy (SP) for Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) device surgery in a tertiary referral center. A secondary objective was the evaluation of hearing results in a subgroup of subjects who received the VSB device. Between 2009 and early 2011, 22 adult subjects with chronic otitis media (COM) underwent a SP, blind sac closure of the external auditory canal and abdominal fat obliteration to facilitate the application of an active middle ear implant (AMEI) in a staged procedure. Indications consisted of mixed hearing loss after previous tympanomastoplasty and failure of hearing rehabilitation with a hearing aid or bone conduction device in COM. Pre- and postoperative pure-tone audiograms were analyzed in respect to deterioration of inner ear function, unaided and aided (hearing aid, bone-anchored hearing aid and VSB) speech audiograms were compared to verify improvements in communications skills and functional gains. Incidence and type of complications were reviewed. No significant change was observed regarding mean bone conduction thresholds after the first stage procedure. Some minor wound healing problems were noted. Speech perception using the VSB (n = 16) showed a mean aided speech discrimination at 65-dB SPL of 75 % [standard deviation (SD) 28.7], at 80-dB SPL of 90 % (SD 25.1). Our results suggest that for selected patients with open mastoid cavities and chronic middle ear disease, SP with abdominal fat obliteration is an effective and safe technique to facilitate safe AMEI placement.
Khoyratty, Fadil; Sweed, Ahmed; Douglas, Susan; Magdy, Tawfik
Osteoma and cholesteatoma of the external auditory canal is a rare clinical finding, presenting specific challenges in patients suffering from this dual pathology of the ear. We report on a unique complication of this association in a patient suffering with recurrent neck abscesses. Neck disease secondary to cholesteatoma has become nearly extinct with better clinical imaging and sensible antibiotic usage. PMID:24964451
Khoyratty, Fadil; Sweed, Ahmed; Douglas, Susan; Magdy, Tawfik
Osteoma and cholesteatoma of the external auditory canal is a rare clinical finding, presenting specific challenges in patients suffering from this dual pathology of the ear. We report on a unique complication of this association in a patient suffering with recurrent neck abscesses. Neck disease secondary to cholesteatoma has become nearly extinct with better clinical imaging and sensible antibiotic usage.
Claros, Pedro; Matusialk, Monika
Authors present two cases of children with reccurent meningitis and unilateral deafness. Implemented diagnostics (CT, NMR, ABR) revealed one side inner ear congenital malformation in one case and anterior fossa bony defect accompanied by labirynthine deformation in the other case. The presence of perilymphatic fistulae in oval and round windows and cerebrospinal fluid leakage has been confirmed in both cases during surgery. Carefull obliteration of the Eustachian tube and both windows has been performed. Non- complicated postoperative course (2 months and 6 years - respectively) has prooved the effectiveness of applied treatment.
Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying
Biometrics based personal authentication is an effective way for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a person's identity. Recently, 3D ear shape has attracted tremendous interests in research field due to its richness of feature and ease of acquisition. However, the existing ICP (Iterative Closet Point)-based 3D ear matching methods prevalent in the literature are not quite efficient to cope with the one-to-many identification case. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by proposing a novel effective fully automatic 3D ear identification system. We at first propose an accurate and efficient template-based ear detection method. By utilizing such a method, the extracted ear regions are represented in a common canonical coordinate system determined by the ear contour template, which facilitates much the following stages of feature extraction and classification. For each extracted 3D ear, a feature vector is generated as its representation by making use of a PCA-based local feature descriptor. At the stage of classification, we resort to the sparse representation based classification approach, which actually solves an l1-minimization problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work introducing the sparse representation framework into the field of 3D ear identification. Extensive experiments conducted on a benchmark dataset corroborate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. The associated Matlab source code and the evaluation results have been made publicly online available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/ear/srcear/srcear.htm.
McGinness, Sam; Coleman, Hedley; Varikatt, Winny; da Cruz, Melville
Neuroendocrine tumours occur throughout the body but are rare in the head and neck region and particularly rare in the middle ear. Clinical findings are often nonspecific and therefore pose a diagnostic challenge. Furthermore, the nomenclature of neuroendocrine tumours of the middle ear is historically controversial. Herein a case is presented of a middle ear adenoma in a 33-year-old patient who presented with otalgia, hearing loss, and facial nerve palsy. A brief discussion is included regarding the histopathological features of middle ear adenomas and seeks to clarify the correct nomenclature for these tumours. PMID:27429819
Peacock, John; Von Unge, Magnus; Dirckx, Joris
Vibrations of the middle ear ossicles are easily measured by means of laser vibrometry. However, exposing the ossicles requires the removal of the eardrum, with the result that the ossicles can no longer be stimulated acoustically. To overcome this we devised a new set up in which the ossicles can be driven magnetically. After measuring the response of the eardrum to an acoustic signal, we then remove the eardrum and attach a small magnet to the exposed manubrium (the part of the first auditory ossicle, the malleus, which is normally attached to the eardrum). An electromagnetic excitation coil is then used to drive the magnet, and the output to the coil adjusted until the vibration of the manubrium, as measured by the vibrometer, matches that measured in response to the acoustic signal. Such a set-up has uses in research on middle ear mechanics, such as the measurement of non-linearities in their response, as well as applications in the diagnosis of middle ear conditions such as the fixation of the ossicles by otosclerosis, or in chronic otitis media. We describe our set up in which the vibrometer unit is attached to a surgical microscope, offering accurate positioning of the laser beam. We discuss the viability of our method and its future potential by presenting some measurements on artificially fixated ears.
Salt, Alec N.; Hullar, Timothy E.
Infrasonic sounds are generated internally in the body (by respiration, heartbeat, coughing, etc) and by external sources, such as air conditioning systems, inside vehicles, some industrial processes and, now becoming increasingly prevalent, wind turbines. It is widely assumed that infrasound presented at an amplitude below what is audible has no influence on the ear. In this review, we consider possible ways that low frequency sounds, at levels that may or may not be heard, could influence the function of the ear. The inner ear has elaborate mechanisms to attenuate low frequency sound components before they are transmitted to the brain. The auditory portion of the ear, the cochlea, has two types of sensory cells, inner hair cells (IHC) and outer hair cells (OHC), of which the IHC are coupled to the afferent fibers that transmit “hearing” to the brain. The sensory stereocilia (“hairs”) on the IHC are “fluid coupled” to mechanical stimuli, so their responses depend on stimulus velocity and their sensitivity decreases as sound frequency is lowered. In contrast, the OHC are directly coupled to mechanical stimuli, so their input remains greater than for IHC at low frequencies. At very low frequencies the OHC are stimulated by sounds at levels below those that are heard. Although the hair cells in other sensory structures such as the saccule may be tuned to infrasonic frequencies, auditory stimulus coupling to these structures is inefficient so that they are unlikely to be influenced by airborne infrasound. Structures that are involved in endolymph volume regulation are also known to be influenced by infrasound, but their sensitivity is also thought to be low. There are, however, abnormal states in which the ear becomes hypersensitive to infrasound. In most cases, the inner ear’s responses to infrasound can be considered normal, but they could be associated with unfamiliar sensations or subtle changes in physiology. This raises the possibility that
Background Gonadal and stress-related steroid hormones are known to influence auditory function across vertebrates but the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for steroid-mediated auditory plasticity at the level of the inner ear remain unknown. The presence of steroid receptors in the ear suggests a direct pathway for hormones to act on the peripheral auditory system, but little is known about which receptors are expressed in the ear or whether their expression levels change with internal physiological state or external social cues. We used qRT-PCR to measure mRNA expression levels of multiple steroid receptor subtypes (estrogen receptors: ERα, ERβa, ERβb; androgen receptors: ARα, ARβ; corticosteroid receptors: GR2, GR1a/b, MR) and aromatase in the main hearing organ of the inner ear (saccule) in the highly social African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, and tested whether these receptor levels were correlated with circulating steroid concentrations. Results We show that multiple steroid receptor subtypes are expressed within the main hearing organ of a single vertebrate species, and that expression levels differ between the sexes. We also show that steroid receptor subtype-specific changes in mRNA expression are associated with reproductive phase in females and social status in males. Sex-steroid receptor mRNA levels were negatively correlated with circulating estradiol and androgens in both males and females, suggesting possible ligand down-regulation of receptors in the inner ear. In contrast, saccular changes in corticosteroid receptor mRNA levels were not related to serum cortisol levels. Circulating steroid levels and receptor subtype mRNA levels were not as tightly correlated in males as compared to females, suggesting different regulatory mechanisms between sexes. Conclusions This is the most comprehensive study of sex-, social-, and reproductive-related steroid receptor mRNA expression in the peripheral auditory system of any single
Yamato, Maya; Khidas, Kamal; Pyenson, Nicholas D; Fordyce, R Ewan; Mead, James G
Underwater human activities and anthropogenic noise in our oceans may be a major source of habitat degradation for marine life. This issue was highlighted by the opening of the United States Eastern Seaboard for seismic oil and gas exploration in 2014, which generated massive media coverage and widespread concern that seismic surveys could kill or deafen whales. We discovered 11 new specimens of fractured and healed cetacean ear bones, out of a survey of 2127 specimens housed in museum collections. This rare condition has been previously reported only in two specimens of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) from the early 1900s, summarized by Fraser & Purves (1953). All of our new specimens are represented by species for which this condition had never been reported previously, including both baleen and toothed whales. The baleen whale specimens (Balaenoptera physalus, Balaenoptera borealis, Balaenoptera acutorostrata) were collected during Canadian commercial whaling operations in the Atlantic Ocean in the 1970s; the specimens include ear bones with well-healed fractures, demonstrating that baleen whales are capable of overcoming traumatic injury to the ears. The toothed whale specimens (Delphinus sp., Berardius bairdii) were found dead on beaches in 1972 and 2001, respectively, with less remodeled fractures. Thus, ear injuries may be more lethal to the echolocating toothed whales, which rely on hearing for navigation and foraging. We explore several hypotheses regarding how these injuries could have occurred, and conclude that the most parsimonious explanations appear to be both direct and indirect effects of lytic processes from disease or calcium depletion, or damage from external pressure waves. Although further research is required to confirm whether the fractures resulted from natural or human-induced events, this study underscores the importance of museum collections and the work of stranding networks in understanding the potential effects of modern human
Pappas, S; Nikolopoulos, T P; Korres, S; Papacharalampous, G; Tzangarulakis, A; Ferekidis, E
A discharging ear is a very common condition for the general practitioner and the ENT surgeon. Oral and intravenous antibiotics have potential complications, are costly, and exhibit increasing resistance. This study explores the advantages and disadvantages of all common otic preparations and compares effectiveness, safety, cost and complication rates. In chronic otitis media (chronic discharging ears), topical antibiotics seem to be the treatment of choice by comparison with oral or intravenous antibiotics. Cultures and antibiograms do not correspond directly to clinical efficacy, as laboratory determination of resistance does not take into account the high concentration of antibiotics in local preparations. It is safer to use quinolone drops as a first-line treatment, but it is still possible to use short courses of other drops if quinolones are either unavailable or contraindicated (e.g. allergy), or when bacteria are resistant to them. However, in such a situation, a round window membrane involved in an established inflammatory process and therefore less permeable to the passage of topical preparations is the preferred setting, as ototoxicity is a potential complication, especially in the case of gentamicin, in which case patients should be warned accordingly.
This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.
Walsh, Kyle P; Pasanen, Edward G; McFadden, Dennis
Human subjects performed in several behavioral conditions requiring, or not requiring, selective attention to visual stimuli. Specifically, the attentional task was to recognize strings of digits that had been presented visually. A nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emission (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was collected during the visual presentation of the digits. The segment of the physiological response discussed here occurred during brief silent periods immediately following the SFOAE-evoking stimuli. For all subjects tested, the physiological-noise magnitudes were substantially weaker (less noisy) during the tasks requiring the most visual attention. Effect sizes for the differences were >2.0. Our interpretation is that cortico-olivo influences adjusted the magnitude of efferent activation during the SFOAE-evoking stimulation depending upon the attention task in effect, and then that magnitude of efferent activation persisted throughout the silent period where it also modulated the physiological noise present. Because the results were highly similar to those obtained when the behavioral conditions involved auditory attention, similar mechanisms appear to operate both across modalities and within modalities. Supplementary measurements revealed that the efferent activation was spectrally global, as it was for auditory attention.
Walsh, Kyle P.; Pasanen, Edward G.; McFadden, Dennis
Human subjects performed in several behavioral conditions requiring, or not requiring, selective attention to visual stimuli. Specifically, the attentional task was to recognize strings of digits that had been presented visually. A nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emission (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was collected during the visual presentation of the digits. The segment of the physiological response discussed here occurred during brief silent periods immediately following the SFOAE-evoking stimuli. For all subjects tested, the physiological-noise magnitudes were substantially weaker (less noisy) during the tasks requiring the most visual attention. Effect sizes for the differences were >2.0. Our interpretation is that cortico-olivo influences adjusted the magnitude of efferent activation during the SFOAE-evoking stimulation depending upon the attention task in effect, and then that magnitude of efferent activation persisted throughout the silent period where it also modulated the physiological noise present. Because the results were highly similar to those obtained when the behavioral conditions involved auditory attention, similar mechanisms appear to operate both across modalities and within modalities. Supplementary measurements revealed that the efferent activation was spectrally global, as it was for auditory attention. PMID:24732070
Alves, Marisa; Ramos, Daniela; Oliveira, Graça; Alves, Helena; Anderson, Ilona; Magalhães, Isabel; Martins, Jorge H; Simões, Margarida; Ferreira, Raquel; Fonseca, Rita; Andrade, Susana; Silva, Luís; Ribeiro, Carlos; Ferreira, Pedro Lopes
Introdução: A utilização de instrumentos de avaliação em saúde adequados é fundamental na gestão da prestação de cuidados. A escassez, em Portugal, de instrumentos específicos para a avaliação do desempenho de crianças utilizadoras de implantes cocleares motivou o trabalho de tradução e de adaptação da bateria de testes EARS (Evaluation of Auditory Responses to Speech) para o português europeu. Esta bateria de testes é hoje um dos instrumentos mais comummente utilizados por equipas de (re)habilitação de crianças surdas com implantes cocleares em todo o mundo. O objetivo a atingir com a validação do EARS foi fornecer às equipas de (re)habilitação um instrumento que permita: (i) monitorizar a evolução individual da reabilitação; (ii) gerir um programa de (re)habilitação de acordo com resultados objetivos, comparáveis entre diferentes equipas de (re)habilitação; (iii) obter dados comparáveis comequipas internacionais; e (iv) melhorar a adesão e a motivação da família e restantes profissionais no ambulatório.Material e Métodos: No processo de tradução e de adaptação da bateria de testes, os procedimentos adotados foram os seguintes: (i) tradução da versão inglesa para português europeu por um tradutor profissional; (ii) revisão dessa tradução realizada por um painel de especialistas constituído por otorrinolaringologistas, terapeutas da fala e técnicos de audiologia; (iii) adaptação dos estímulos de teste pela equipa de terapeutas da fala; e (iv) nova revisão por parte do painel de especialistas.Resultados: São apresentados, para cada um dos instrumentos que compõem a bateria EARS, as adaptações introduzidas, conciliando as características e os objetivos originais dos instrumentos com as particularidades linguísticas e culturais da população portuguesa.Discussão: São discutidas as dificuldades encontradas durante o processo de tradução e de adaptação e as soluções adotadas. São feitas
Nakagawa, Seiji; Hotehama, Takuya; Ito, Kazuhito; Inagaki, Tomohiro
We have been developing novel mobile phones using bone conduction, with flat-panel loudspeakers that convey speech sound by vibrating the pinna. In bone conduction via the pinna, i.e., pinna conduction, it is thought that speech sounds are conveyed via both air- and bone-conduction pathways. To obtain useful information for further development of bone-conduction mobile phones, peripheral mechanisms of the pinna conduction need to be clarified. In this study, hearing thresholds, sound field in the outer ear canals, and vibrations of the inner wall of the outer ear canals were measured while normal-hearing participants used pinna-conduction mobile phones. Thresholds decreased linearly as contact pressure increased below 1 kHz, but contact pressure did not affect thresholds above 2 kHz. Additionally, sound fields in the ipsilateral ear canal showed similar results. These results indicate that there is a considerable degree of bone-conduction components from the pinna to the inner ear, which only allow sounds below 1 kHz through. Because similar characteristics were observed in the threshold and the sound field in the outer ear canal, we suggest that osseotympanic emission, sound emission into the ear canal from the inner wall, and air conduction via external auditory foramen are the dominant components of pinna conduction. However, in the vibration measurement, differences between the ipsi- and contra-lateral responses were smaller than the sound field measurement. The smaller inter-lateral differences of the vibration in the outer ear canal suggest the existence of a significant amount of bone-conduction components that directly reach the middle or inner ear. Although the amount of such bone-conduction components does not seem sufficient for pinna.
Neely, Stephen T.; Stenfelt, Stefan; Schairer, Kim S.
Several alternative ear-canal measures are similar to absorbance in their requirement for prior determination of a Thévenin-equivalent sound source. Examples are (1) sound intensity level (SIL), (2) forward-pressure level (FPL), (3) time-domain ear-canal reflectance (TDR), and (4) cochlear reflectance (CR). These four related measures are similar to absorbance in their utilization of wide-band stimuli and their focus on recording ear-canal sound pressure. The related measures differ from absorbance in how the ear-canal pressure is analyzed and in the type of information that is extracted from the recorded response. SIL and FPL have both been shown to be better as measures of sound level in the ear canal compared to sound pressure level (SPL) because they reduced calibration errors due to standing waves in studies of behavioral thresholds and otoacoustic emissions. TDR may be used to estimate ear-canal geometry and may have the potential to assess middle-ear pathology. CR reveals information about the inner ear that is similar to what is provided by other types of otoacoustic emissions and may have theoretical advantages that strengthen its interpretation. PMID:23900185
One of the most amazing transitions and innovations during the evolution of mammals was the formation of a novel jaw joint and the incorporation of the original jaw joint into the middle ear to create the unique mammalian three bone/ossicle ear. In this review, we look at the key steps that led to this change and other unusual features of the middle ear and how developmental biology has been providing an understanding of the mechanisms involved. This starts with an overview of the tympanic (air-filled) middle ear, and how the ear drum (tympanic membrane) and the cavity itself form during development in amniotes. This is followed by an investigation of how the ear is connected to the pharynx and the relationship of the ear to the bony bulla in which it sits. Finally, the novel mammalian jaw joint and versatile dentary bone will be discussed with respect to evolution of the mammalian middle ear. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evo-devo in the genomics era, and the origins of morphological diversity’. PMID:27994124
Kong, Dehua; Fu, Kuang; Zhao, Hui
Inner ear malformations are anomalies linking to development insults at different periods of embryogenesis,which are common causes of congenital sensorineural hearing loss. The evaluation of pediatric sensorineural hearing loss mostly depends on high-resolution computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, which can excellently depict the temporal bones and inner ear malformations.
Yukawa, Kumiko; Horiguchi, Satoshi; Suzuki, Mamoru
It has been reported that normal hearing is rare in patients with severe inner ear vestibular malformations [Kokai H, Oohashi M, Ishikawa K, Harada K, Hiratsuka H, Ogasawara M et al. Clinical review of inner ear malformation. J Otolaryngol Jpn 2003;106(10):1038-44; Schuknecht HF. Mondini dysplasia. A clinical pathological study. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1980;89(Suppl. 65):1-23; Jackler RK, Luxford WM, House WF. Congenital malformations of the inner ear: a classification based on embryogenesis. Laryngoscope 1987;97:2-14; Phelps PD. Congenital lesions of the inner ear, demonstrated by tomography. Arch Otolaryngol 1974;100:11-8]. A 37-year-old woman had combined dysplasia of the posterior and lateral semicircular canals (PSCC, LSCC) with normal cochlear development and normal hearing in both ears. She had complained of dizziness for 8 months. High resolution computed tomography (CT) showed hypogenesis of the bony labyrinth in both ears. Bilateral PSCC and LSCC dysplasia and dilatation of the vestibule were detected. Magnetic resonant imaging (MRI) revealed that the deformity of the PSCC was more severe than the LSCC. Although the caloric test of the left ear elicited no nystagmus and there was reduced response in the right ear, the horizontal vestibulo-occular reflex (VOR) was present. Her dizzy sensation disappeared within 3 months without special treatment. The dizziness attack might have been caused by a temporary breakdown of her peripheral vestibular system.
... activities over which BIS exercises regulatory jurisdiction under the EAR. Conversely, items and activities... programs administered by other agencies. Items and activities subject to the EAR are not necessarily exempted from the control programs of other agencies. Although BIS and other agencies that...
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...
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Morrissey, Kelly A; Garcia-Albea, Victoria; Goldberg, Lynne J
The ear is a characteristic location for deposition of uric acid in patients with gout. Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia has not been described in this location. We report three patients with tophaceous gout on the ear whose biopsies exhibited epidermal hyperplasia mimicking squamous cell carcinoma, in order to call attention to this potential diagnostic pitfall.
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...
Van Thong Ho; Rao, V.J.; Mikaelian, D.O.
A case of mixed type adenoma of the middle ear and mastoid is presented in which CT showed complete opacification of the middle ear and mastoid air cells with bulging of the tympanic membrane but without ossicular or bony destruction. 7 refs., 1 figs.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class airman... by, or that may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....
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... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class airman... may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class airman... by, or that may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....
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... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class airman... may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....
... device includes the esophageal dilator; tracheal bistour (a long, narrow surgical knife); tracheal dilator; tracheal hook; laryngeal injection set; laryngeal knife; laryngeal saw; laryngeal trocar...; wire ear loop; microrule; mirror; mobilizer; ear, nose, and throat punch; ear, nose and throat...
... device includes the esophageal dilator; tracheal bistour (a long, narrow surgical knife); tracheal dilator; tracheal hook; laryngeal injection set; laryngeal knife; laryngeal saw; laryngeal trocar...; wire ear loop; microrule; mirror; mobilizer; ear, nose, and throat punch; ear, nose and throat...
... device includes the esophageal dilator; tracheal bistour (a long, narrow surgical knife); tracheal dilator; tracheal hook; laryngeal injection set; laryngeal knife; laryngeal saw; laryngeal trocar...; wire ear loop; microrule; mirror; mobilizer; ear, nose, and throat punch; ear, nose and throat...
... gov/news/fullstory_164372.html Common Post-Op Ear Drops Tied to Eardrum Perforations in Kids Rate ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Children who suffer through multiple ear infections are often candidates for ear tube surgery. ...
... Section: Focus on Communication Anatomy of the Human Ear/ Questions to Ask your Hearing Professional Past Issues / ... A feeling of fullness or fluid in the ear Ringing in your ears (called tinnitus) Causes Aging ...
Carter, Melissa T; Blaser, Susan; Papsin, Blake; Meschino, Wendy; Reardon, Willie; Klatt, Regan; Babul-Hirji, Riyana; Milunsky, Jeff; Chitayat, David
Hearing impairment is common in individuals with branchio-oculo-facial (BOF) syndrome. The majority of described individuals have conductive hearing impairment due to malformed ossicles and/or external canal stenosis or atresia, although a sensorineural component to the hearing impairment in BOF syndrome is increasingly being reported. Sophisticated computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone has revealed middle and inner ear malformations in three previous reports. We present middle and inner ear abnormalities in three additional individuals with mutation-proven BOF syndrome. We suggest that temporal bone CT imaging be included in the medical workup of a child with BOF syndrome, in order to guide management.
Goodman, Wilfred S; Charbonneau, Paul A
The technique of external rhinoplasty is outlined. Having reviewed 74 cases, its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Reluctance to use this external approach seems to be based on emotional rather than radical grounds, for its seems to be the procedure of choice for many problems.
Ciuman, Raphael R.
In recent years, huge advances have taken place in understanding of inner ear pathophysiology causing sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Advances in understanding comprise biochemical and physiological research of stimulus perception and conduction, inner ear homeostasis, and hereditary diseases with underlying genetics. This review describes and tabulates the various causes of inner ear disease and defines inner ear and non-inner ear causes of hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. The aim of this review was to comprehensively breakdown this field of otorhinolaryngology for specialists and non-specialists and to discuss current therapeutic options in distinct diseases and promising research for future therapies, especially pharmaceutic, genetic, or stem cell therapy. PMID:24362017
Ferreira, Ana; Gentil, Fernanda; Tavares, João Manuel R S
In recent years, the segmentation, i.e. the identification, of ear structures in video-otoscopy, computerised tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) image data, has gained significant importance in the medical imaging area, particularly those in CT and MR imaging. Segmentation is the fundamental step of any automated technique for supporting the medical diagnosis and, in particular, in biomechanics studies, for building realistic geometric models of ear structures. In this paper, a review of the algorithms used in ear segmentation is presented. The review includes an introduction to the usually biomechanical modelling approaches and also to the common imaging modalities. Afterwards, several segmentation algorithms for ear image data are described, and their specificities and difficulties as well as their advantages and disadvantages are identified and analysed using experimental examples. Finally, the conclusions are presented as well as a discussion about possible trends for future research concerning the ear segmentation.
Sommers, R K; Brady, W A; Moore, W H
39 stutterers and 39 normal speakers indicated their ear preferences for dichotically presented words and digits. A single response mode for both dichotic words and digits was selected to study speech perception. Stutterers showed significantly less of the normal right-ear preference for dichotic words and digits than non-stutterers. The proportion of stutterers who failed to demonstrate a right-ear preference for dichotic words was significantly greater than for non-stutterers. 18% of the stutterers and none of the non-stutterers showed reversed or a left-ear preference for dichotic digits. Although non-stuttering children and adults performed alike on the dichotic tasks, the right-ear dichotic-words scores of stuttering children were significantly smaller than those of adult stutterers. The results are related to an early notion that stuttering may be related to mixed dominance and recent evidence showing that large percentages of older stuttering children show spontaneous remission of stuttering.
Allen, T; Juric-Sekhar, G; Campbell, S; Mussar, K E; Seidel, K; Tan, J; Zyphur, M; Villagracia, L; Stephanian, D; Koch, H; Ramirez, J M; Rubens, D D
Compensated respiratory acidosis has been observed in a significant number of patients with active vestibular disease. We therefore hypothesized that the inner ear may play an unrecognized integral role in respiratory control. To test this premise, we investigated whether mice with induced inner ear injury demonstrated any alteration in their respiratory response to inhaled carbon dioxide (CO(2)). Experimental mice and control mice were included in two separate experiments. Intra-tympanic gentamycin injections were administered to induce inner ear damage in experimental animals. Hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction were tested 1-week after injections to confirm presence of inner ear insult, following which the animal's respiratory response to inhalation of 8% CO(2) was examined. Mice with inner ear injury (n=60) displayed a significantly diminished hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR). This contrasted with the normal HCVR seen in control mice that had not undergone tympanic injections (n=30), controls that received tympanic injections with saline (n=5), and controls that had gentamicin administered systemically (n=5). In response to inspired CO(2), the mean respiratory frequency of control mice increased by an average of 50% over their baseline values for both parts of the experiment. In contrast, the ear-damaged experimental group mean values increased by only three breaths per minute (bpm) (2%) in the first experiment and by 28 bpm (11%) in the second experiment. Inner ear damage significantly reduces the respiratory response to CO(2) inhalation. In addition to the established role of the inner ear organ in hearing and balance, this alludes to an unidentified function of the inner ear and its interconnecting neuronal pathways in respiratory regulation. This finding may offer valuable new clues for disease states with abnormal respiratory control where inner ear dysfunction may be present.
This paper reports findings from the Ear-Playing Project in relation to the teaching strategies that 15 instrumental teachers adopted during one-to-one instrumental lessons whilst helping their students to copy music by ear from a recording. Overall, the teachers used a variety of strategies including singing and humming along with or without the…
Hedenstierna, G; Schildt, B
The results of cardiac output determinations by a dye dilution technique were compared using (a) a dichromatic earpiece which was calibrated as a flow-through cuvette, but also permitted automatic computing by virtue of a pressure capsule, and (b) an ordinary flow-through densitometer. Eleven subjects, some with cardio-pulmonary disease, were investigated. Cardiac outputs were systematically overestimated when automatically computed. The results obtained by manual calculation with the ear-piece corresponded more nearly with those derived from the flow-through cuvette, but still with a deviation from the identity line and with a residual standard deviation of 0.8 l/min. Double determinations had a residual standard deviation of 0.7 l/min. Despite its ease of handling, an earpiece densitometer seems to be too unreliable to be suitable for routine use.
Aretz, Holger; Aegerter, Johannes; Engler, Olaf
The cup-drawing of a strongly anisotropic sheet metal is simulated using a commercial finite element software along with a user material subroutine. In order to accurately describe the plastic anisotropy of the material the well-known recent yield function 'Yld2004-18p' is extended. Regarding the experimental characterization of the considered material the occurrence of dynamic strain aging lead to an oscillating signal of the width change of the tensile samples, which prevented a reliable determination of plastic strain ratios (r-values). Thus, an improved measurement concept was developed that leads to a very robust and reproducible determination of r-values. Furthermore, a novel plane-strain tensile test sample is presented which is used for the characterization of the plastic anisotropy in biaxial loading states. A quantitative comparison with measured earing profiles of deep drawn cups illustrates the predictive capabilities of the numerical simulation.
Berghaus, Alexander; Stelter, Klaus; Naumann, Andreas; Hempel, John Martin
This article describes a surgical technique using porous polyethylene as the framework material for ear reconstruction. In comparison to the use of rib cartilage, porous polyethylene - first described by Berghaus in 1982 - provides better definition and projection as well as congruency with the opposite side. Hospitalization time is significantly shorter. There are less surgical interventions than with traditional microtia operations that use rib cartilage, and the patient is spared the additional procedure needed to remove the rib cartilage, with all the associated complications as well as the resulting thorax scar. Also, reconstruction can take place at an earlier age, which is advantageous for those concerned. Using porous polyethylene as the frame material, a temporoparietal flap and full-thickness skin cover, we have been able to achieve very convincing results over recent years.
Schmidt, K; Piaia, T; Bertolini, G; De Lorenzi, D
A nine-month-old Labrador retriever was referred to the Clinica Veterinaria Privata San Marco because of frequent headshaking and downward turning of the right ear. Clinical examination revealed that there was no external acoustic meatus in the right ear. Computed tomography confirmed that the vertical part of the right auditory canal ended blindly, providing a diagnosis of external auditory canal atresia. Cytological examination and culture of fluid from the canal and the bulla revealed only aseptic cerumen; for this reason, it was assumed that the dog was probably affected by a congenital developmental deformity of the external auditory canal. Reconstructive surgery was performed using a "pull-through" technique. Four months after surgery the cosmetic and functional results were satisfactory.
Goldberg, B.; Goycoolea, M.V.; Schleivert, P.M.; Shea, D.; Schachern, P.; Paparella, M.M.; Carpenter, A.M.
A study of the permeability of the middle ear-inner ear interface for macromolecules was carried out in chinchillas with open and obstructed eustachian tubes utilizing tritiated human serum albumin and immunoelectrophoresis. Tritiated albumin was placed in the round window niche area or normal animals and animals in which the eustachian tubes had been obstructed for 24 hours or 14 days. The tritiated albumin was allowed to remain in the middle ear cavity for 24 hours, Samples of middle ear effusion, perilymph, blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected and measured for radioactivity. Radioactivity was demonstrated in the perilymph. Samples of middle ear effusions and perilymph were also studied by immunoelectrophoresis with goat antihuman albumin. Albumin placed in the round window niche of an experimental animal could be recovered unchanged in the perilymph. The results suggest a pathophysiologic explanation for the association of otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss or endolymphatic hydrops.
Withnell, Robert H.; Fields, Taylor N.
Zwislocki's circuit model of the middle ear  has been used, in original or modified form, in subsequent studies modeling the ear [4, 6]. The model includes two eardrum modes of vibration, a shunt for flexible coupling between the incus and stapes, and a single tuned oscillator for ossicular vibration. The contribution of each of these mechanisms was examined by fitting a model of the ear to acoustic input impedance data from healthy human ears. The circuit elements for a non-ossicular eardrum vibration and a flexible coupling between the incus and stapes were found to be detrimental or non-essential for the model-fit-to-data. A single mode of eardrum vibration for sound transmission to the middle ear is consistent with the eardrum acting as an impedance-matching device, with pars-tensa eardrum vibration coupled to the ossicles . A single-tuned oscillator was insufficient to account for the bandwidth of the ear. The frequency response of the ear suggests multiple resonant modes of ossicular vibration.
Mulay, Apoorva; Akram, Khondoker M.; Williams, Debbie; Armes, Hannah; Russell, Catherine; Hood, Derek; Armstrong, Stuart; Stewart, James P.; Brown, Steve D. M.; Bingle, Lynne
ABSTRACT Otitis media (OM), or middle ear inflammation, is the most common paediatric disease and leads to significant morbidity. Although understanding of underlying disease mechanisms is hampered by complex pathophysiology it is clear that epithelial abnormalities underpin the disease. There is currently a lack of a well-characterised in vitro model of the middle ear (ME) epithelium that replicates the complex cellular composition of the middle ear. Here, we report the development of a novel in vitro model of mouse middle ear epithelial cells (mMECs) at an air–liquid interface (ALI) that recapitulates the characteristics of the native murine ME epithelium. We demonstrate that mMECs undergo differentiation into the varied cell populations seen within the native middle ear. Proteomic analysis confirmed that the cultures secrete a multitude of innate defence proteins from their apical surface. We showed that the mMECs supported the growth of the otopathogen, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), suggesting that the model can be successfully utilised to study host–pathogen interactions in the middle ear. Overall, our mMEC culture system can help to better understand the cell biology of the middle ear and improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of OM. The model also has the potential to serve as a platform for validation of treatments designed to reverse aspects of epithelial remodelling that underpin OM development. PMID:27660200
Rasetshwane, Daniel M; Neely, Stephen T
A number of acoustical applications require the transformation of acoustical quantities, such as impedance and pressure that are measured at the entrance of the ear canal, to quantities at the eardrum. This transformation often requires knowledge of the shape of the ear canal. Previous attempts to measure ear-canal area functions were either invasive, non-reproducible, or could only measure the area function up to a point mid-way along the canal. A method to determine the area function of the ear canal from measurements of acoustic impedance at the entrance of the ear canal is described. The method is based on a solution to the inverse problem in which measurements of impedance are used to calculate reflectance, which is then used to determine the area function of the canal. The mean ear-canal area function determined using this method is similar to mean ear-canal area functions measured by other researchers using different techniques. The advantage of the proposed method over previous methods is that it is non- invasive, fast, and reproducible.
Dai, Chenkai; Wood, Mark W.; Gan, Rong Z.
In our previous studies, the effects of effusion and pressure on sound transmission were investigated separately. The aim of this study is to investigate the combined effect of fluid and pressure on middle ear function. An otitis media with effusion model was created by injecting saline solution and air pressure simultaneously into the middle ear of human temporal bones. Tympanic membrane displacement in response to 90 dB SPL sound input was measured by a laser vibrometer and the compliance of the middle ear was measured by a tympanometer. The movement of the tympanic membrane at the umbo was reduced up to 17 dB by the combination of fluid and pressure in the middle ear over the auditory frequency range. The fluid and pressure effects on the umbo movement in the fluid-pressure combination are not additive. The combined effect of fluid and pressure on the umbo movement is different compared with that of only fluid or pressure change in the middle ear. Negative pressure in fluid-pressure combination had more effect on middle ear function than positive pressure. Tympanometry can detect the middle ear pressure of the fluid-pressure combination. This study provides quantitative information for analysis of the combined effect of fluid and pressure on tympanic membrane movement. PMID:18162348
This chapter builds on prior chapters and focuses on higher education trends on the horizon and the resulting impact on external reporting for institutional researchers. Three practical recommendations and examples for institutional researchers are also presented.
Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying
Biometrics based personal authentication is an effective way for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a person’s identity. Recently, 3D ear shape has attracted tremendous interests in research field due to its richness of feature and ease of acquisition. However, the existing ICP (Iterative Closet Point)-based 3D ear matching methods prevalent in the literature are not quite efficient to cope with the one-to-many identification case. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by proposing a novel effective fully automatic 3D ear identification system. We at first propose an accurate and efficient template-based ear detection method. By utilizing such a method, the extracted ear regions are represented in a common canonical coordinate system determined by the ear contour template, which facilitates much the following stages of feature extraction and classification. For each extracted 3D ear, a feature vector is generated as its representation by making use of a PCA-based local feature descriptor. At the stage of classification, we resort to the sparse representation based classification approach, which actually solves an l1-minimization problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work introducing the sparse representation framework into the field of 3D ear identification. Extensive experiments conducted on a benchmark dataset corroborate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. The associated Matlab source code and the evaluation results have been made publicly online available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/ear/srcear/srcear.htm. PMID:24740247
Background Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a leading cause of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). The mechanisms of pathogenesis of CMV-related SNHL are still unclear. The aim is to study congenital CMV-related damage in the fetal inner ear, in order to better understand the underlying pathophysiology behind CMV-SNHL. Results We studied inner ears and brains of 20 human fetuses, all at 21 week gestational age, with a high viral load in the amniotic fluid, with and without ultrasound (US) brain abnormalities. We evaluated histological brain damage, inner ear infection, local inflammatory response and tissue viral load. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CMV was positive in 14/20 brains (70%) and in the inner ears of 9/20 fetuses (45%). In the cases with inner ear infection, the marginal cell layer of the stria vascularis was always infected, followed by infection in the Reissner’s membrane. The highest tissue viral load was observed in the inner ear with infected Organ of Corti. Vestibular labyrinth showed CMV infection of sensory cells in the utricle and in the crista ampullaris. US cerebral anomalies were detected in 6 cases, and in all those cases, the inner ear was always involved. In the other 14 cases with normal brain scan, histological brain damage was present in 8 fetuses and 3 of them presented inner ear infection. Conclusions CMV-infection of the marginal cell layer of the stria vascularis may alter potassium and ion circulation, dissipating the endocochlear potential with consequent SNHL. Although abnormal cerebral US is highly predictive of brain and inner ear damage, normal US findings cannot exclude them either. PMID:24252374
Dag, Emine Kutlu; Gulumser, Cagri; Erbek, Seyra
Many physiological changes occur during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to reveal whether there is a change in middle ear resonance frequency during pregnancy. A prospective case-control study was designed at a tertiary referral center. The study included 46 pregnant women at the third trimester (27-40 weeks) and 43 nonpregnant voluntary women. All the study subjects underwent pure-tone audiometry and multifrequency tympanometry. Pure-tone hearing levels at frequencies of 250 to 8000 Hz and resonance frequency values were compared between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Impact of age, side of the tested ear, and weight gained in pregnancy on resonance frequency were evaluated. Air conduction threshold values at frequencies of 250 Hz and 500 Hz were significantly higher in pregnant women than in the control group (P<0.001). Middle ear resonance frequency values of both ears in pregnant women were found to be significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant relation of middle ear resonance frequency values to age or side of the tested ear in both groups (P>0.05). A negative correlation between weight gained in pregnancy and middle ear resonance frequency values was determined for the left ear (correlation coefficient for left ears: -0.348, P=0.018). The results of this study suggest that resonance frequency may be decreased during the pregnancy. More comprehensive studies in which many pregnant women followed regularly before and after pregnancy are needed to have more certain links.
Dag, Emine Kutlu; Gulumser, Cagri; Erbek, Seyra
Many physiological changes occur during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to reveal whether there is a change in middle ear resonance frequency during pregnancy. A prospective case-control study was designed at a tertiary referral center. The study included 46 pregnant women at the third trimester (27-40 weeks) and 43 nonpregnant voluntary women. All the study subjects underwent pure-tone audiometry and multifrequency tympanometry. Pure-tone hearing levels at frequencies of 250 to 8000 Hz and resonance frequency values were compared between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Impact of age, side of the tested ear, and weight gained in pregnancy on resonance frequency were evaluated. Air conduction threshold values at frequencies of 250 Hz and 500 Hz were significantly higher in pregnant women than in the control group (P<0.001). Middle ear resonance frequency values of both ears in pregnant women were found to be significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant relation of middle ear resonance frequency values to age or side of the tested ear in both groups (P>0.05). A negative correlation between weight gained in pregnancy and middle ear resonance frequency values was determined for the left ear (correlation coefficient for left ears: –0.348, P=0.018). The results of this study suggest that resonance frequency may be decreased during the pregnancy. More comprehensive studies in which many pregnant women followed regularly before and after pregnancy are needed to have more certain links. PMID:27588163
Mondel, Prabath Kumar Anand, Sunanda Limaye, Uday S.
Crouzon’s syndrome is the commonest variety of syndromic craniosynostosis. Life-threatening ear bleed due to ruptured jugular venous diverticulum in Crouzon’s syndrome has not been described previously. In patients with syndromic craniosynostosis, definitive repair of jugular diverticulum by open surgery is fraught with high risk of bleeding, poor functional outcomes, and even death. A 24-year-old woman with Crouzon’s syndrome presented with conductive hearing loss and recurrent episodes of torrential bleeding from her left ear. On computed tomography, a defect in the roof of jugular fossa containing jugular venous diverticulum immediately inferior to the bony external auditory canal was seen. The clinical presentation, imaging features, and endovascular management of Crouzon’s syndrome due to a ruptured jugular venous diverticulum is described.
Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit
Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites.
Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S.; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit
Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites. PMID:24834381
More than 200 different surgical techniques of correction of lop ear have been published. The operation is usually recommended to be performed at the age of six years or after. In addition, lop ear surgery involves risks, the most common complications being bleeding, infections, sensory alterations and scarring problems. Surgical preference and decision should always be based on realistic expectations of the patient or the parents, and prior to the decision they should have adequate information about the nature of the procedure and potential complications. Splint therapy of lop ear is possible for infants.
Issara, Karima; Boughaleb, Zouhour; Tawfiq, Nezha; Bouchbika, Zineb; Benchakroun, Nadia; Jouhadi, Hassan; Sahraoui, Souha; Benider, Abdellatif
Angiosarcoma of the ear is a very rare and locally aggressive malignant tumor. It accounts for 4-5% of cutaneous sarcomas and less than 1% of all sarcomas. Our study aims to describe and discuss diagnostic and therapeutic modalities of this malignancy. We report the clinical case of a 31 year old patient with bulging mass of the pavilion of the left ear. CT scan was in favor of tumor of the pavilion of the ear invading ipsilateral parotid. Histological diagnosis was in favor of angiosarcoma. The treatment consisted of complete surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. She is in complete remission with a follow-up period of 1 year.
Yaguchi, Yuichiro; Murakami, Daisuke; Yamato, Masayuki; Hama, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuhisa; Kojima, Hiromi; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Okano, Teruo
The likelihood of recurrent retraction and adhesion of newly formed tympanic membrane is high when middle ear mucosa is extensively lost during cholesteatoma and adhesive otitis media surgery. If rapid postoperative regeneration of the mucosa on the exposed bone surface can be achieved, prevention of recurrent eardrum adhesion and cholesteatoma formation, for which there has been no definitive treatment, can be expected. Suture-less transplantation of tissue-engineered mucosal cell sheets was examined immediately after the operation of otitis media surgery in order to quickly regenerate middle ear mucosa lost during surgery in a rabbit model. Transplantable middle ear mucosal cell sheets with a three-dimensional tissue architecture very similar to native middle ear mucosa were fabricated from middle ear mucosal tissue fragments obtained in an autologous manner from middle ear bulla on temperature-responsive culture surfaces. Immediately after the mucosa was resected from middle ear bone bulla inner cavity, mucosal cell sheets were grafted at the resected site. Both bone hyperplasia and granulation tissue formation were inhibited and early mucosal regeneration was observed in the cell sheet-grafted group, compared with the control group in which only mucosal removal was carried out and the bone surface exposed. This result indicates that tissue engineered mucosal cell sheets would be useful to minimize complications after the surgical operation on otitis media and future clinical application is expected.
Popper, Arthur N. (Principal Investigator)
The general status of a grant to investigate the origins and evolution of two hair cell types in the ears of a teleost fish, Astronotus ocellatus (the oscar), is presented. First, it was demonstrated that the cells in the rostral end of the saccule of the , Carassius auratus, are type 1-like, while those at the caudal end are type 2 cells. It was demonstrated that the dichotomy of hair cell types found in the utricle of the oscar is also found in the goldfish. Second, the lateral line system of the oscar was examined using gentamicin sulphate, an ototocix drug that destroys type 1- like hair cells but does not appear to damage type 2 hair cells. It was demonstrated that the hair cells found in neuromasts of lateral line canal organs were totally destroyed within 1 day of treatment, while the hair cells in free neuromasts were undamaged after 12 days of treatment. Third, it was demonstrated that the calyx, the specialized nerve ending, is not unique to amniotes and that it is present at least in the cristae of semicirular canals in goldfish. These results have demonstrated that: (1) there are multiple hair cell types in the vestibular endorgans of the ear of fishes, (2) these hair cell types are very similar to those found in the mammalian vestibular endorgans, (3) the nerve calyx is also present in fishes, and (4) multiple hair cell types and the calyx have evolved far earlier in the course of vertebrate evolution than heretofore thought. Understanding the structure of the vestibular endorgans has important implications for being able to understand how these organs respond to gravistatic, acceleration and acoustic input. The vestibular endorgans of fishes may provide an ideal system in which to analyze functional differences in hair cells. Not only are the two hair cell types similar to those found in mammals, they are located in very discrete regions in each endorgan. Thus, it is relatively easy to gain access to cells of one or the other type. The presence of two
Sinquin, Jean-Marc; Sorribas, Jordi; Diviacco, Paolo; Vandenberghe, Thomas; Munoz, Raquel; Garcia, Oscar
The EU FP7 Projects Eurofleets and Eurofleets2 are an European wide alliance of marine research centers that aim to share their research vessels, to improve information sharing on planned, current and completed cruises, on details of ocean-going research vessels and specialized equipment, and to durably improve cost-effectiveness of cruises. Within this context logging of information on how, when and where anything happens on board of the vessel is crucial information for data users in a later stage. This forms a primordial step in the process of data quality control as it could assist in the understanding of anomalies and unexpected trends recorded in the acquired data sets. In this way completeness of the metadata is improved as it is recorded accurately at the origin of the measurement. The collection of this crucial information has been done in very different ways, using different procedures, formats and pieces of software in the context of the European Research Fleet. At the time that the Eurofleets project started, every institution and country had adopted different strategies and approaches, which complicated the task of users that need to log general purpose information and events on-board whenever they access a different platform loosing the opportunity to produce this valuable metadata on-board. Among the many goals the Eurofleets project has, a very important task is the development of an "event log software" called EARS (Eurofleets Automatic Reporting System) that enables scientists and operators to record what happens during a survey. EARS will allow users to fill, in a standardized way, the gap existing at the moment in metadata description that only very seldom links data with its history. Events generated automatically by acquisition instruments will also be handled, enhancing the granularity and precision of the event annotation. The adoption of a common procedure to log survey events and a common terminology to describe them is crucial to provide
Claes, Peter; Reijniers, Jonas; Shriver, Mark D; Snyders, Jonatan; Suetens, Paul; Nielandt, Joachim; De Tré, Guy; Vandermeulen, Dirk
The human external ears, or pinnae, have an intriguing shape and, like most parts of the human external body, bilateral symmetry is observed between left and right. It is a well-known part of our auditory sensory system and mediates the spatial localization of incoming sounds in 3D from monaural cues due to its shape-specific filtering as well as binaural cues due to the paired bilateral locations of the left and right ears. Another less broadly appreciated aspect of the human pinna shape is its uniqueness from one individual to another, which is on the level of what is seen in fingerprints and facial features. This makes pinnae very useful in human identification, which is of great interest in biometrics and forensics. Anatomically, the type of symmetry observed is known as matching symmetry, with structures present as separate mirror copies on both sides of the body, and in this work we report the first such investigation of the human pinna in 3D. Within the framework of geometric morphometrics, we started by partitioning ear shape, represented in a spatially dense way, into patterns of symmetry and asymmetry, following a two-factor anova design. Matching symmetry was measured in all substructures of the pinna anatomy. However, substructures that 'stick out' such as the helix, tragus, and lobule also contained a fair degree of asymmetry. In contrast, substructures such as the conchae, antitragus, and antihelix expressed relatively stronger degrees of symmetric variation in relation to their levels of asymmetry. Insights gained from this study were injected into an accompanying identification setup exploiting matching symmetry where improved performance is demonstrated. Finally, possible implications of the results in the context of ear recognition as well as sound localization are discussed.
Claes, Peter; Reijniers, Jonas; Shriver, Mark D; Snyders, Jonatan; Suetens, Paul; Nielandt, Joachim; De Tré, Guy; Vandermeulen, Dirk
The human external ears, or pinnae, have an intriguing shape and, like most parts of the human external body, bilateral symmetry is observed between left and right. It is a well-known part of our auditory sensory system and mediates the spatial localization of incoming sounds in 3D from monaural cues due to its shape-specific filtering as well as binaural cues due to the paired bilateral locations of the left and right ears. Another less broadly appreciated aspect of the human pinna shape is its uniqueness from one individual to another, which is on the level of what is seen in fingerprints and facial features. This makes pinnae very useful in human identification, which is of great interest in biometrics and forensics. Anatomically, the type of symmetry observed is known as matching symmetry, with structures present as separate mirror copies on both sides of the body, and in this work we report the first such investigation of the human pinna in 3D. Within the framework of geometric morphometrics, we started by partitioning ear shape, represented in a spatially dense way, into patterns of symmetry and asymmetry, following a two-factor anova design. Matching symmetry was measured in all substructures of the pinna anatomy. However, substructures that ‘stick out’ such as the helix, tragus, and lobule also contained a fair degree of asymmetry. In contrast, substructures such as the conchae, antitragus, and antihelix expressed relatively stronger degrees of symmetric variation in relation to their levels of asymmetry. Insights gained from this study were injected into an accompanying identification setup exploiting matching symmetry where improved performance is demonstrated. Finally, possible implications of the results in the context of ear recognition as well as sound localization are discussed. PMID:25382291
Cristalli, G; Mercante, G; Marucci, L; Soriani, A; Telera, S; Spriano, G
The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety, effectiveness and functional outcomes of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in locally advanced stage tumours involving the middle ear. Data on 13 consecutive patients treated for malignant tumor of external auditory canal involving the middle ear were retrospectively reviewed. Median follow-up was 33 months (range 6-133). Five (38%) patients were stage III and 8 (62%) were Stage IV according to the University of Pittsburgh staging system. Lateral temporal bone resection (LTBR) was performed in all cases. LTBR was associated with parotidectomy in 5 (38%) cases, and with neck dissection and parotidectomy in 6 (46%) cases. No patients had gross residual tumour. Surgical treatment was followed by IORT (12 Gy) and IMRT (50 Gy). Adjuvant chemotherapy was used in 4 (30%) cases. Preoperative and postoperative audiometric tests were performed to assess hearing loss. 5-year local-control (LC), 5-year distant-metastasis (DM), 5-year disease-free-survival (DFS) and 5-year overall-survival (OS) were calculated with Kaplan-Meyer method. Significant changes in bone conduction were reported after treatment. Partial flap necrosis was the only early complication observed in three (23%) cases, while meningeal fistula was seen in one (7.6%) case as a late complication. The 5-year LC-rate was 68%. The 5-year DM-rate was 90%. The 5-year DFS-rate was 61%. The 5-year OS-rate was 69%. IORT followed by IMRT for the treatment of advanced external auditory canal and middle ear tumours seems to be safe. No intraoperative death was reported. IORT may reduce the postoperative irradiation of remnant tissue obtaining the same full dose on the tumour bed. No complications of the residual external ear were observed. Detriment of neurosensory hearing may be expected. Future studies are required to confirm the benefit of this procedure in the ear.
Buckingham, R A; Stuart, D R; Geick, M R; Girgis, S J; McGee, T J
The present theory of eustachian tube (ET) function and middle ear (ME) ventilation posits that oxygen absorbed by the ME mucosa causes negative ME pressure which is relieved by periodic opening of the ET during swallowing and yawning. After developing a method to cannulate the ET of mongrel dogs we connected the cannulas hermetically to manometers. This system excluded ET function and tested the oxygen absorption capacity of the ME. When we controlled respiration and maintained blood gas PO2 and PCO2 at normal levels, we were unable to find any manometric evidence of negative pressure of gas absorption in the dog ME. Lowering the PCO2 and raising the PO2 of the blood by hyperventilation caused negative ME pressure which could be measured manometrically. We confirmed these findings with the tympanometer. Raising the PCO2 and lowering the PO2 by hypoventilation caused positive pressure in the ME. There is no evidence in these experiments that O2 absorption occurs or causes negative ME pressure in the dog. To the contrary there is evidence that elevated blood levels of the more diffusible CO2 cause an increase in the ME pressure and lowered CO2 level causes a negative ME pressure.
Tight junctions (TJs) are structures that seal the space between the epithelial cell sheets. In the inner ear, the barrier function of TJs is indispensable for the separation of the endolymphatic and perilymphatic spaces, which is essential for the generation and maintenance of the endocochlear potential (EP). TJs are formed by the intercellular binding of membrane proteins, known as claudins, and mutations in these proteins cause deafness in humans and mice. Within the epithelial cell sheet, however, a bound structure is present at the site where the corners of three cells meet (tricellular tight junctions (tTJs)), and the maintenance of the barrier function at this location cannot be explained by the claudins alone. Tricellulin and the angulin family of proteins (angulin-1/LSR, angulin-2/ILDR1, and angulin-3/ILDR2) have been identified as tTJ-associated proteins. Tricellulin and ILDR1 are localized at the tTJ and alterations in these proteins have been reported to be involved in deafness. In this review, we will present the current state of knowledge for tTJs. PMID:27195292
Wenzel, Gentiana I.; Balster, Sven; Zhang, Kaiyin; Lim, Hubert H.; Reich, Uta; Massow, Ole; Lubatschowski, Holger; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Lenarz, Thomas; Reuter, Guenter
The hearing performance with conventional hearing aids and cochlear implants is dramatically reduced in noisy environments and for sounds more complex than speech (e. g. music), partially due to the lack of localized sensorineural activation across different frequency regions with these devices. Laser light can be focused in a controlled manner and may provide more localized activation of the inner ear, the cochlea. We sought to assess whether visible light with parameters that could induce an optoacoustic effect (532 nm, 10-ns pulses) would activate the cochlea. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded preoperatively in anesthetized guinea pigs to confirm normal hearing. After opening the bulla, a 50-μm core-diameter optical fiber was positioned in the round window niche and directed toward the basilar membrane. Optically induced ABRs (OABRs), similar in shape to those of acoustic stimulation, were elicited with single pulses. The OABR peaks increased with energy level (0.6 to 23 μJ/pulse) and remained consistent even after 30 minutes of continuous stimulation at 13 μJ, indicating minimal or no stimulation-induced damage within the cochlea. Our findings demonstrate that visible light can effectively and reliably activate the cochlea without any apparent damage. Further studies are in progress to investigate the frequency-specific nature and mechanism of green light cochlear activation.
Roland, Peter S.; Brown, Orval
The use of tympanostomy tubes to treat middle ear disease including otitis media is discussed with sections on the eustachian tube; acute otitis media; persistent effusion; changes in the tympanic membrane; special populations; and complications. (DB)
Patel, Tirth R.; Moberly, Aaron C.
Objectives. We describe an unusual case of surgical management of congenital mixed hearing loss in a female patient with inner ear malformation. This report outlines the role of temporal bone imaging and previous surgical history in evaluating a patient's risk of perilymph gusher during stapes surgery. Methods. A 68-year-old female patient with a history of profound bilateral mixed hearing loss due to ossicular and cochlear malformation presented to our otology clinic. She had undergone multiple unsuccessful previous ear surgeries. Computed tomography revealed bilateral inner ear malformations. She elected to proceed with revision stapedectomy. Results. The patient received modest benefit to hearing, and no operative complications occurred. Conclusions. Although stapedectomy has been shown to improve hearing in patients with stapes fixation, there is risk of perilymph gusher in patients with inner ear abnormalities. Evaluation and counseling of the risk of gusher during stapes surgery should be done on a case-by-case basis. PMID:27144044
Sheehy, J L
THERE ARE THREE FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR PERSISTENCE OF DISCHARGE FROM A CHRONICALLY DRAINING EAR: Moisture, opportunistic bacteria, and debris and diseased tissue. In most cases, the discharge may be temporarily controlled or eliminated by office treatment:* Instruction of the patient in aural hygiene and impressing upon him the importance of avoiding getting water in the ear.* Thorough cleaning of the ear, by the physician initially, and by the patient as frequently as necessary to keep the ear free of discharge.* Antibiotics, used locally rather than systemically, and usually in the form of a powder applied by the patient daily at home.* Culture and sensitivity tests when the problem does not respond to routine office treatment as outlined.
... periodicals, unbound, excluding waste; music books; sheet music; calendars and calendar blocks, paper; maps... EAR (see § 734.3(b)(2)). However, notwithstanding § 734.3(b)(2), encryption source code in...
... periodicals, unbound, excluding waste; music books; sheet music; calendars and calendar blocks, paper; maps... EAR (see § 734.3(b)(2)). However, notwithstanding § 734.3(b)(2), encryption source code in...
... periodicals, unbound, excluding waste; music books; sheet music; calendars and calendar blocks, paper; maps... code in electronic form or media (e.g., computer diskette or CD ROM) remains subject to the EAR...
... periodicals, unbound, excluding waste; music books; sheet music; calendars and calendar blocks, paper; maps... code in electronic form or media (e.g., computer diskette or CD ROM) remains subject to the EAR...
Surgical management of major congenital malformations of the ear is a difficult and complex procedure. The risk of damaging middle and inner ear structures because of their frequently aberrant location, the failure to keep a patent ear canal over the long term, and the difficulty in achieving a good hearing result all challenge the otologic surgeon. The purpose of this study was to analyze the results obtained with a surgical technique developed to prevent postoperative stenosis or total closure of the newly formed auditory meatus and to achieve at least serviceable hearing in the majority of cases. Emphasis is placed on the selection of surgical cases based on a classification that evaluates, through x-ray tomograms, the anatomic relation of the glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint to the middle ear space. Anatomic and functional results are presented. Comments are made in regard to different possibilities of reconstruction of the sound conducting mechanism.
Carrillo-Córdova, Jorge Raúl; Jiménez Murat, Yusef; Apellaniz-Campo, Armando; Bracho-Olvera, Hazel; Carrillo Esper, Raúl
Face burns are a singular pathology with great functional and psychological impact in the patients suffering them. The ears play a fundamental role in personal interactions and damage to this organ results in physical and emotional distress. The reconstructive treatment of the burned ear is a challenge. Multiple procedures have been described to achieve success in the reconstruction of the burned ear; immediate reconstruction with autologous rib cartilage, secondary reconstruction, alloplastic material reconstruction, tissue expansion, skin grafts and also microvascular flaps are some of the most common procedures used in this patients. All these techniques focus on giving a natural appearance to the patient. Burns to the ears affect 30% of the patients with facial burns, they require an excellent treatment given by a multidisciplinary team.
Boistel, Renaud; Aubin, Thierry; Cloetens, Peter; Peyrin, Françoise; Scotti, Thierry; Herzog, Philippe; Gerlach, Justin; Pollet, Nicolas; Aubry, Jean-François
Acoustic communication is widespread in animals. According to the sensory drive hypothesis [Endler JA (1993) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 340(1292):215–225], communication signals and perceptual systems have coevolved. A clear illustration of this is the evolution of the tetrapod middle ear, adapted to life on land. Here we report the discovery of a bone conduction–mediated stimulation of the ear by wave propagation in Sechellophryne gardineri, one of the world’s smallest terrestrial tetrapods, which lacks a middle ear yet produces acoustic signals. Based on X-ray synchrotron holotomography, we measured the biomechanical properties of the otic tissues and modeled the acoustic propagation. Our models show how bone conduction enhanced by the resonating role of the mouth allows these seemingly deaf frogs to communicate effectively without a middle ear. PMID:24003145
... Facebook Share on Twitter Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Search MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions scalp-ear-nipple syndrome scalp- ...
Shoaib, M.; Basit, A.; Faye, I.
Security is very important and in order to avoid any physical contact, identification of human when they are moving is necessary. Ear biometric is one of the methods by which a person can be identified using surveillance cameras. Various techniques have been proposed to increase the ear based recognition systems. In this work, a feature extraction method for human ear recognition based on wavelet transforms is proposed. The proposed features are approximation coefficients and specific details of level two after applying various types of wavelet transforms. Different wavelet transforms are applied to find the suitable wavelet. Minimum Euclidean distance is used as a matching criterion. Results achieved by the proposed method are promising and can be used in real time ear recognition system.
Sacheli, R; Delacroix, L; Vandenackerveken, P; Nguyen, L; Malgrange, B
Recent advances in human genomics led to the identification of numerous defective genes causing deafness, which represent novel putative therapeutic targets. Future gene-based treatment of deafness resulting from genetic or acquired sensorineural hearing loss may include strategies ranging from gene therapy to antisense delivery. For successful development of gene therapies, a minimal requirement involves the engineering of appropriate gene carrier systems. Transfer of exogenous genetic material into the mammalian inner ear using viral or non-viral vectors has been characterized over the last decade. The nature of inner ear cells targeted, as well as the transgene expression level and duration, are highly dependent on the vector type, the route of administration and the strength of the promoter driving expression. This review summarizes and discusses recent advances in inner ear gene-transfer technologies aimed at examining gene function or identifying new treatment for inner ear disorders.
In the inner ear, Notch signaling has been proposed to specify the sensory regions, as well as regulate the differentiation of hair cells and supporting cell within those regions. In addition, Notch plays an important role in otic neurogenesis, by determining which cells differentiate as neurons, sensory cells and non-sensory cells. Here, I review the evidence for the complex and myriad roles Notch participates in during inner ear development. A particular challenge for those studying ear development and Notch is to decipher how activation of a single pathway can lead to different outcomes within the ear, which may include changes in the intrinsic properties of the cell, Notch modulation, and potential non-canonical pathways. PMID:23578865
... Info Statistics about Hearing, Balance, Ear Infections, and Deafness Quick Statistics Charts and Tables What the Numbers ... NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders 31 Center Drive, MSC ...
... 1- to 2-Year-Old Can I Prevent Ear Infections When My Child Swims? KidsHealth > For Parents > Can I Prevent Ear Infections When My Child Swims? A A A My ... outer ear. The good news is that outer ear infections often can be prevented. For starters, your daughter ...
... 1- to 2-Year-Old Can I Prevent Ear Infections When My Child Swims? KidsHealth > For Parents > Can I Prevent Ear Infections When My Child Swims? A A A ... year-round and has recently been getting swimmer's ear. Can these infections be prevented? – Jovana Swimmer's ear , ...
... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose...; and ear, nose, and throat trocar. (b) Classification Class I (general controls). The device is exempt... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical...
... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source...
... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat drug... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration...
... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source...
... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and...
... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and...
... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat drug... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration...
... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose...; and ear, nose, and throat trocar. (b) Classification Class I (general controls). The device is exempt... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Steps regarding scope of the EAR. 732... FOR USING THE EAR § 732.2 Steps regarding scope of the EAR. Steps 1 though 6 are designed to aid you in determining the scope of the EAR. A flow chart describing these steps is contained in...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Steps regarding scope of the EAR. 732... FOR USING THE EAR § 732.2 Steps regarding scope of the EAR. Steps 1 though 6 are designed to aid you in determining the scope of the EAR. A flow chart describing these steps is contained in...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Steps regarding scope of the EAR. 732... FOR USING THE EAR § 732.2 Steps regarding scope of the EAR. Steps 1 though 6 are designed to aid you in determining the scope of the EAR. A flow chart describing these steps is contained in...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steps regarding scope of the EAR. 732... FOR USING THE EAR § 732.2 Steps regarding scope of the EAR. Steps 1 though 6 are designed to aid you in determining the scope of the EAR. A flow chart describing these steps is contained in...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Steps regarding scope of the EAR. 732... FOR USING THE EAR § 732.2 Steps regarding scope of the EAR. Steps 1 though 6 are designed to aid you in determining the scope of the EAR. A flow chart describing these steps is contained in...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...
Saha, Ritaban; Mazumdar, Ardhendu; Mazumdar, Sibani
Introduction The middle ear ossicles form a semi rigid chain in the middle of the ear for conduction and amplification of sound waves from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear. Although, our knowledge of the ear ossicles dates back to the 15th century, and various studies have been carried out on their morphometry, morphology, anomalies, embryology, function and structure throughout the world, information about the morphology of middle ear ossicles is meagre in Indian subjects. Aim To find out the morphological variations of middle ear ossicles of right and left sides. Materials and Methods In the present study, the middle ear ossicles were bilaterally dissected out from the temporal bones obtained from 26 cadaveric heads from the Department of Anatomy under a surgical oto-microscope with micro instruments. Morphological variations were studied under the magnification of the operating microscope. Attempt was also made to evaluate the clinical implications related to such variants and compare the results with those observations made in other parts of India and abroad. Age variation was not considered as the ossicles reach their full size at birth. Results It was observed that the stapes was the most variable and the incus as the most stable ossicle so far as morphological variations are concerned. Malleus presented variations in the free ends of manubrium, lateral process and anterior process. Variation in morphology of stapes did not follow any fixed pattern. Conclusion It is expected that this work may also inspire many others to continue temporal bone dissection with a view to gather more ossicles which might be preserved in ossicular banks by following proper sterilization methods for future use as homografts in ossiculoplasty. These harvested ossicles may be used to replace eroded middle ear ossicles as an alternative to manufactured prosthesis. PMID:28273957
Miyamoto, R T; Robbins, A J; Myres, W A; Pope, M L
We report the case of a profoundly deaf 4-year-old boy with congenital deafness as a result of Mondini's dysplasia. The Mondini inner ear malformation is the result of arrested labyrinthine development during embryogenesis and is characterized by both bony and membranous anomalies of the inner ear. The dysplastic cochlear anatomy does not preclude successful cochlear implantation, and electrical threshold measurements are similar to those recorded in pediatric subjects deafened as a result of other causes.
Tekin, M; Oztürkmen Akay, H; Fitoz, S; Birnbaum, S; Cengiz, F B; Sennaroğlu, L; Incesulu, A; Yüksel Konuk, E B; Hasanefendioğlu Bayrak, A; Sentürk, S; Cebeci, I; Utine, G E; Tunçbilek, E; Nance, W E; Duman, D
Homozygous mutations in the fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF3) gene have recently been discovered in an autosomal recessive form of syndromic deafness characterized by complete labyrinthine aplasia (Michel aplasia), microtia, and microdontia (OMIM 610706 - LAMM). In order to better characterize the phenotypic spectrum associated with FGF3 mutations, we sequenced the FGF3 gene in 10 unrelated families in which probands had congenital deafness associated with various inner ear anomalies, including Michel aplasia, with or without tooth or external ear anomalies. FGF3 sequence changes were not found in eight unrelated probands with isolated inner ear anomalies or with a cochlear malformation along with auricle and tooth anomalies. We identified two new homozygous FGF3 mutations, p.Leu6Pro (c.17T>C) and p. Ile85MetfsX15 (c.254delT), in four subjects from two unrelated families with LAMM. The p.Leu6Pro mutation occurred within the signal site of FGF3 and is predicted to impair its secretion. The c.254delT mutation results in truncation of FGF3. Both mutations completely co-segregated with the phenotype, and heterozygotes did not have any of the phenotypic findings of LAMM. Some affected children had large skin tags on the upper side of the auricles, which is a distinctive clinical component of the syndrome. Enlarged collateral emissary veins associated with stenosis of the jugular foramen were noted on computerized tomographies of most affected subjects with FGF3 mutations. However, similar venous anomalies were also detected in persons with non-syndromic Michel aplasia, suggesting that a direct causative role of impaired FGF3 signaling is unlikely.
Diyes, G C P; Rajakaruna, R S
Otobius megnini is a one host, nidicolous soft tick (Family Argasidae) whose larvae and nymphs parasitize the external ear canal of many wild and domestic animals and occasionally humans. The present study was conducted to determine the seasonal dynamics of O. megnini infesting stabled horses in Nuwara Eliya racecourses. Ticks were sampled biweekly for two years from May 2013 to May 2015 from the ear canal of seven thoroughbred male horses. Weather data: temperature, rainfall and humidity for the study period were obtained from the Meteorological Department, Colombo. A total of 23, 287 ticks of O. megnini were collected from the ear canal of horses and all of which were immature stages comprising 41.4% larvae and 59.6% nymphs. Larval counts were high during warmer months of the year with minimum numbers recording September-November. High larval abundance may be due to the high hatching rate of eggs at high temperatures. Larval abundance was significantly affected by maximum temperature, minimum relative humidity and average relative humidity (Multiple regression; r(2)=0.5, F=3.7, p=0.01). Population peaks for nymphs occurred in May, October and January. Nymph counts were low in March and April. Weather conditions did not have any correlation with the abundance of nymphs. Rainfall had no effect on both larvae and nymph counts. Even though control measures have been taken, O. megnini infestation is a serious problem for the stable owners especially because these horses are used in racing and other recreational purposes. Further, there is a high risk of spreading this tick within the country due to the presence of suitable hosts and the adaptability of the tick to survive in changing climatic conditions. Information on the seasonal dynamics of the tick population is important for employing control measures.
Xu, Luyao Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo; Chen, Qi-Sheng
A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.
Wagner, F; Todt, I; Wagner, J; Ernst, A
Currently, there are two active middle ear implants available commercially: the Vibrant Soundbridge system and the Carina system. A third active middle ear implant, the Esteem, is under clinical evaluation. All devices are indicated for patients with moderate-to-severe hearing loss. Because active middle ear implants are directly coupled to middle ear structures, many of the problems that patients with conventional hearing aids report, such as acoustic feedback, occlusion, and irritation of the outer ear canal, are avoided. In addition, AMEI patients perform well in background noise. However, indications for AMEIs are selective and candidates should be carefully evaluated before surgery. Before considering an AMEI, patients should be provided with conventional hearing aids. Only when benefit is insufficient and audiological selection criteria are met is further candidacy evaluation indicated. Since Colletti described coupling the Vibrant Soundbridge directly onto the round window membrane in 2006, the indications for the Vibrant Soundbridge have expanded and the VSB is implanted in patients with conductive and mixed hearing losses. Patients have often undergone middle ear surgery before. Especially mixed hearing loss cases with 30-60 dB HL sensorineural hearing impairment and 30-40 dB HL air-bone gaps may be helped by this new application.
Mech, L. David
Genetic findings suggest that 2 types of wolves, Canis lupus (Gray Wolf) and C. lycaon (Eastern Wolf), and/or their hybrids occupy Minnesota (MN), and this study examines adult wolf ear lengths as a possible distinguisher between these two. Photographic evidence suggested that the Eastern Wolf possesses proportionately longer ears than Gray Wolves. Ear lengths from 22 northwestern MN wolves from the early 1970s and 22 Alaskan wolves were used to represent Gray Wolves, and the greatest length of the sample (12.8 cm) was used as the least length to demarcate Eastern Wolf from Gray Wolf influence in the samples. Twenty-three percent of 112 adult wolves from Algonquin Park in eastern Ontario and 30% of 106 recent adult wolves in northeastern MN possessed ears >12.8 cm. The northeastern MN sample differed significantly from that of current and past northwestern MN wolves. Ear-lengths of wolves in the eastern half of the northeastern MN wolf population were significantly longer than those in the western half of that study area, even though the mean distance between the 2 areas was only 40 km, and the mean length of my 2004–2009 sample was significantly longer than that of 1999–2003. These findings support the hypothesis that Eastern Wolves tend to possess longer ears than do Gray Wolves and suggest a dynamic hybridization process is still underway in MN.
Sienknecht, Ulrike J
Results from developmental and phylogenetic studies have converged to facilitate insight into two important steps in vertebrate evolution: (1) the ontogenetic origin of articulating elements of the buccal skeleton, i.e., jaws, and (2) the later origins of middle ear impedance-matching systems that convey air-borne sound to the inner ear fluids. Middle ear ossicles and other skeletal elements of the viscerocranium (i.e., gill suspensory arches and jaw bones) share a common origin both phylogenetically and ontogenetically. The intention of this brief overview of middle-ear development is to emphasize the intimate connection between evolution and embryogenesis. Examples of developmental situations are discussed in which cells of different provenance, such as neural crest, mesoderm or endoderm, gather together and reciprocal interactions finally determine cell fate. Effects of targeted mutagenesis on middle ear development are described to illustrate how the alteration of molecularly-controlled morphogenetic programs led to phylogenetic modifications of skeletal development. Ontogenetic plasticity has enabled the diversification of jaw elements as well as middle ear structures during evolution. This article is part of a special issue entitled "MEMRO 2012".
Feng, Bin; Gan, Rong Z
A lumped parametric model of the human auditoria peripherals consisting of six masses suspended with six springs and ten dashpots was proposed. This model will provide the quantitative basis for the construction of a physical model of the human middle ear. The lumped model parameters were first identified using published anatomical data, and then determined through a parameter optimization process. The transfer function of the middle ear obtained from human temporal bone experiments with laser Doppler interferometers was used for creating the target function during the optimization process. It was found that, among 14 spring and dashpot parameters, there were five parameters which had pronounced effects on the dynamic behaviors of the model. The detailed discussion on the sensitivity of those parameters was provided with appropriate applications for sound transmission in the ear. We expect that the methods for characterizing the lumped model of the human ear and the model parameters will be useful for theoretical modeling of the ear function and construction of the ear physical model.
Brookes, G B; Morrison, A W; Richard, R
Certain investigations in patients with unilateral Meniere's disease may on occasion show abnormalities in the completely symptomless contralateral ear. These tests include transtympanic electrocochleography, the acetazolamide cochlear hydration test, vestibular aqueduct tomography, and caloric testing. Eventually these ears may well become symptomatic. Previous studies have shown that otoadmittance changes are a sensitive indicator of glycerol-induced intracochlear pressure alterations in hydropic ears, but do not occur in patients without Meniere's disease. Otoadmittance parameters were evaluated in the asymptomatic ears of 73 consecutive patients with unilateral Meniere's disease. Satisfactory traces and adequate dehydration were achieved in fifty-nine. A significant change in the maximum conductance, similar to that often seen in symptomatic hydropic ears, was found in twenty-four cases (40.7%). The presence of functional abnormalities in well over one-third of asymptomatic ears means that they cannot be used as controls in clinical research studies. Furthermore, recognition of contralateral latent hydrops at the initial otologic assessment may modify the subsequent treatment strategy.
Chen, Ming-Chun; Xu, Qing-Fang; Luo, Di-Qing; Li, Xiang; He, Ding-Yang
Erythermalgia is a rare cutaneous disorder characterized by attacking of erythema, pain and increased temperature, which primarily involves the extremities and may infrequently extend to the neck, face, ears and even the scrotum. We reported an 18-year-old woman who presented with 3 years history of sole involvement of attacking erythema, pain and warmth over her face and ears without any other associations. The frequency and severity of the flares progressed gradually during the course. Cutaneous examination revealed erythema, increased temperature and tenderness on the face and ears during the flare. The symptoms could be relieved rapidly by cooling. Dermatoscope showed that vessels inside the erythema were more dilated during the episode than after application of ice. The lesion is considered a rare variant of erythermalgia with sole involvement of face and ears. The symptoms had mild response to oral antihistamines, topical steroids and tacrolimus, but had excellent response to the combinative therapy of aspirin and paroxetins.
Windmill, J F C; Sueur, J; Robert, D
Female cicadas use sound when they select a mate from a chorus of singing males. The cicada has a tympanal ear; and the tympanal membrane, and constituent tympanal ridge, act as both acousto-mechanical transducers and frequency filters. The tympanal ridge is physically connected to a large number of mechanoreceptor neurons via a cuticular extension known as the tympanal apodeme. Using microscanning laser Doppler vibrometry, we measured for the first time the in vivo vibrations of the apodeme of female Cicadatra atra in response to the motion of the tympanum driven by sound. These measurements reveal that the nanoscale motion of the tympanal membrane is over a magnitude greater than that of the apodeme. Furthermore, the apodeme acts as an additional mechanical frequency filter, enhancing that of the tympanal ridge, narrowing the frequency band of vibration at the mechanoreceptor neurons to that of the male calling song. This study enhances our understanding of the mechanical link between the external ear of the cicada and its sensory cells.
Guttal, Satyabodh Sheshraj; Shanbhag, Shruti; Kulkarni, Sudhindra S.; Thakur, Srinath L.
Burns can leave a patient with a severely debilitating disability even after treatment. The objectives of burn rehabilitation are to minimize the adverse effects caused by the injury while rehabilitating the patient's physical and psychological well-being, maximizing social integration. Long-term success of maxillofacial prostheses mainly depends on the retention. Extra oral implant retained prostheses have proved to be a predictable treatment option for maxillofacial rehabilitation. Replacement of a severely deformed external ear with burned tissues may be satisfactorily accomplished by a cosmetic prosthesis anchored by implants integrated in the skull. The use of such implants is now a well-recognized method for creating a stable result in maxillofacial rehabilitation. This case report describes a safe, simple and economical method for the rehabilitation of a patient with missing right auricle using an implant supported silicone prosthesis. The implant was placed in the mastoid region of the temporal bone. Reconstruction of the ear was done with auricular silicone prosthesis, retained using magnets incorporated in an autopolymerizing resin shim to decrease the weight of the prosthesis on a single implant. This method eliminates the need of tedious laboratory procedures and exact casting and fitting requirements of a metal substructure while minimizing the overall weight and cost of the prosthesis while maintaining adequate support, esthetics and retention of the prosthesis. PMID:26929490
Zhao, Xiaoyan; Qin, Renjia
This paper makes persuasive demonstrations on some problems about the human ear sound transmission principle in existing physiological textbooks and reference books, and puts forward the authors' view to make up for its literature. Exerting the knowledge of lever in physics and the acoustics theory, we come up with an equivalent simplified model of manubrium mallei which is to meet the requirements as the long arm of the lever. We also set up an equivalent simplified model of ossicular chain--a combination of levers of ossicular chain. We disassemble the model into two simple levers, and make full analysis and demonstration on them. Through the calculation and comparison of displacement amplitudes in both external auditory canal air and internal ear lymph, we may draw a conclusion that the key reason, which the sound displacement amplitude is to be decreased to adapt to the endurance limit of the basement membrane, is that the density and sound speed in lymph is much higher than those in the air.
Motallebzadeh, Hamid; Maftoon, Nima; Pitaro, Jacob; Funnell, W Robert J; Daniel, Sam J
Admittance measurement is a promising tool for evaluating the status of the middle ear in newborns. However, the newborn ear is anatomically very different from the adult one, and the acoustic input admittance is different than in adults. To aid in understanding the differences, a finite-element model of the newborn ear canal and middle ear was developed and its behaviour was studied for frequencies up to 2000 Hz. Material properties were taken from previous measurements and estimates. The simulation results were within the range of clinical admittance measurements made in newborns. Sensitivity analyses of the material properties show that in the canal model, the maximum admittance and the frequency at which that maximum admittance occurs are affected mainly by the stiffness parameter; in the middle-ear model, the damping is as important as the stiffness in influencing the maximum admittance magnitude but its effect on the corresponding frequency is negligible. Scaling up the geometries increases the admittance magnitude and shifts the resonances to lower frequencies. The results suggest that admittance measurements can provide more information about the condition of the middle ear when made at multiple frequencies around its resonance.
Vidal, Benedicto de Campos; Mello, Maria Luiza S
Rat ear cartilage was studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy to expand the current knowledge which has been established for relatively more complex cartilage types. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the ear cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) with published data on articular cartilage, collagen II and 4-chondroitin-sulfate standards, as well as of collagen type I-containing dermal collagen bundles (CBs) with collagen type II, was performed. Ear cartilage ECM glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were revealed histochemically and as a reduction in ECM FT-IR spectral band heights (1140-820 cm-1) after testicular hyaluronidase digestion. Although ear cartilage is less complex than articular cartilage, it contains ECM components with a macromolecular orientation as revealed using polarization microscopy. Collagen type II and GAGs, which play a structural role in the stereo-arrangement of the ear cartilage, contribute to its FT-IR spectrum. Similar to articular cartilage, ear cartilage showed that proteoglycans add a contribution to the collagen amide I spectral region, a finding that does not recommend this region for collagen type II quantification purposes. In contrast to articular cartilage, the symmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups at 1064 cm-1 appeared under-represented in the FT-IR spectral profile of ear cartilage. Because the band corresponding to the asymmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups (1236-1225 cm-1) overlapped with that of amide III bands, it is not recommended for evaluation of the -SO3- contribution to the FT-IR spectrum of the ear cartilage ECM. Instead, a peak (or shoulder) at 1027-1016 cm-1 could be better considered for this intent. Amide I/amide II ratios as calculated here and data from the literature suggest that protein complexes of the ear cartilage ECM are arranged with a lower helical conformation compared to pure collagen II. The present results could motivate further studies on this tissue under
Silver, Lauren; Burg, Scott
Hiring an external evaluator is not right for every museum or every project. Evaluations are highly situational, grounded in specific times and places; each one is unique. The museum and the evaluator share equal responsibility in an evaluation's success, so it is worth investing time and effort to ensure that both are clear about the goals,…
Schuurman, J P; Go, P M N Y H
In this article, we present 3 cases of patients with different types of haemorrhoidal disease. The first patient is a 27-year-old woman who had been experiencing incidental rectal blood loss without pain during defecation for 3 months. The second patient is a 76-year-old woman who had been bothered by varying degrees of pain from a swelling nearby the anus for 1 year. The third case involves a 31-year-old man who had had continuous severe pain in the anal area for 3 consecutive days. The first patient appeared to have internal hemorrhoids, whereas different forms of external hemorrhoids affected the patients in the other 2 cases. Internal haemorrhoids develop from the intraluminal corpus cavernosum recti; external haemorrhoids from the perianal marginal veins. Patients with internal haemorrhoids present with symptoms that include blood loss and prolaps feeling during defecation. In patients with external haemorrhoids pain is the prominent symptom. Internal haemorrhoids are treated either conservatively or surgically, depending upon their severity. Considering external haemorrhoidal disease surgical treatment provides the most rapid and persistent relief of symptoms.
Gold, Ben K.
This report presents the results of a community survey which attempted to determine the demand for another college in the Los Angeles Community College District. The function of this "community campus" or "external college" would be to serve members of the community who are not already served by the eight existing colleges. Questionnaires received…
Millard, Richard M.
The history of the interrelation among state approval, accreditation, and institutional eligibility is considered. It is suggested that faculty and college administrators can be either an internal or external group in relationship to the planning process. The federal government, or the state government, passes legislation that may have both…
Mills, Katelyn E; Robbins, Jesse; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G
Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1) assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2) determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3) owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810) were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness ('nature vs nurture task'), found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392) provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its 'natural' state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410) is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others.
Mills, Katelyn E.; Robbins, Jesse; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.
Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1) assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2) determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3) owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810) were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness (‘nature vs nurture task’), found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392) provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its ‘natural’ state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410) is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others. PMID:27348817
Marchioni, Daniele; Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Mattioli, Francesco; Nogeira, Joao Flavio; Tarabichi, Muuaz; Villari, Domenico; Presutti, Livio
Surgical approaches to the inner ear and internal auditory canal (IAC) are well known and well documented. The objective of this study is to analyze the morphology, and surgical and anatomic findings of an exclusive endoscopic transcanal approach (EETA) to the IAC. Cadaveric dissections were performed on 11 temporal bones, approaching the internal auditory meatus directly through the external ear canal and avoiding mastoidectomy. In all cases, it was possible to dissect the internal carotid artery and jugular bulb with a 0° endoscope, and with good control of these two structures. The medial wall of the bony labyrinth guaranteed good landmarks for IAC dissection, such as the spherical recess, and the labyrinthine tract of the facial nerve. The IAC can be thoroughly visualized in the cadaver using EETA, avoiding mastoidectomy, extensive temporal bone tissue removal and external incisions. Clinically based reports will be required in future to strengthen our preliminary results.
Hadlington, Lee; Bridges, Andrew M.; Darby, Richard J.
Two experiments used both irrelevant speech and tones in order to assess the effect of manipulating the spatial location of irrelevant sound. Previous research in this area had produced inconclusive results (e.g., Colle, 1980). The current study demonstrated a novel finding, that sound presented to the left ear produces the greatest level of…
Schultz, Julia A; Zeller, Ulrich; Luo, Zhe-Xi
The monophyletic clade Monotremata branches early from the rest of the mammalian crown group in the Jurassic and members of this clade retain many ancestral mammalian traits. Thus, accurate and detailed anatomical descriptions of this group can offer unique insight into the early evolutionary history of Mammalia. In this study, we examine the inner ear anatomy of two extant monotremes, Ornithorhynchus anatinus and Tachyglossus aculeatus, with the primary goals of elucidating the ancestral mammalian ear morphology and resolving inconsistencies found within previous descriptive literature. We use histological serial sections and high-resolution microcomputed tomography (µCT) for correlating soft tissue features of the vestibule and cochlea to the osseous labyrinth endocast. We found that in both monotremes the scala tympani coils to a lesser degree than scala vestibuli and scala media, although all three scalae show an apical coil inside the osseous cochlear tube. The helicotrema (conduit between scala tympani and scala vestibuli) is in subapical position, and the cochlear and lagenar ganglia and their associated nerve fibers are not enclosed by bone. In comparison, in extant therian mammals (i.e., marsupials and placentals) the helicotrema is located at the apex of the osseous cochlear canal, the three scalae coil to the same degree and the cochlear ganglion is enclosed by the primary bony lamina. Whether the lagenar ganglion is lost in therian mammals or integrated into the cochlear ganglion is still debated. The presence of a sensory lagenar macula at the apex of the membranous cochlear duct, innervated by a separate lagenar nerve and ganglion is a plesiomorphic condition of amniotes that monotremes share. A separate osseous lagenar canaliculus for the lagenar nerve, and the coiling of the distended lagenar sac at the end of the cochlear duct are autapomorphies of monotremes. Based on our findings we hypothesize that the ancestral inner ear of stem mammaliaforms
Beyer, Wolfgang; Baumgartner, Reinhold; Tauber, Stefan
The administration of low-level-laserlight for irradiation of the inner ear could represented a new therapeutic model for complex diseases of the inner ear. However, successful therapy requires a well-defined light dosimetry based on a dosimetric analysis of the human cochlea that represents a complex anatomy. The light distribution inside the cochlear windings, produced by an irradiation of the tympanic membrane, was quantitatively measured ex vivo for HeNe laser wavelengths of 593 nm and 633 nm. To obtain the space irradiance within an intact cochlea a correction factor of about 6 has been determined by Monte Carlo calculations. It follows from 3 contributions, first the backscattering of light in the bony parts removed during the preparation procedure of the specimen, second the change of index of refraction from the bony parts to air and third some geometrical factors due to the angular distribution of the radiation. The transmission of light across the tympanic cavity and the promontory depends strongly on the wavelength. Due to the observed spatial intensity variations of a factor 10 and more inside the cochlear windings the optimum external light dose has to be chosen with regard to the tonotopy of the ear.
Zhang, Xiangming; Gan, Rong Z
A finite element (FE) model of the human ear including the ear canal, middle ear, and spiral cochlea was constructed from histological sections of human temporal bone. Multiphysics analysis of the acoustics, structure, and fluid coupling in the ear was conducted in the model. The viscoelastic material behavior was applied to the middle ear soft tissues based on dynamic measurements of tissues in our laboratory. The FE model was first validated using the experimental data obtained in human cadaver ears, and then used to investigate the efficiency of the forward and reverse mechanical driving with middle ear implant, and the passive vibration of basilar membrane (BM) with cochlear implant placed in the cochlear scala tympani. The middle ear transfer function and the cochlear function of the BM vibration were derived from the model. This comprehensive ear model provides a novel computational tool to visualize and compute the implantable hearing devices and surgical procedures.
Pracchia, Louis; Vetter, Ronald F.; Rosenlof, Darwin
A thermal battery activated by external heat comprising an anode (e.g., composed of a lithium-aluminum alloy), a cathode (e.g., composed of iron disulfide), and an electrolyte (e.g., a lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic) with the electrolyte inactive at ambient temperature but activated by melting at a predetermined temperature when exposed to external heating is presented. The battery can be used as a sensor or to ignite pyrotechnic and power electronic devices in a system for reducing the hazard of ordnance exposed to detrimental heating. A particular application is the use of the battery to activate a squib to function in conjunction with one or more other components to vent an ordnance case in order to prevent its explosion in a fire.
Li, Xiujuan; Zhu, Yaohong; Liu, Panqi; Zhuge, Zengyu; Su, Guosheng; Wang, Jiufeng
The eared pheasant consists of four species: white eared pheasant (Crossoptilon crossoptilon), Tibetan eared pheasant (Crossoptilon harmani), blue eared pheasant (Crossoptilon auritum), and brown eared pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum). These species are found only in China, and are also on the list of the world's threatened species. In this paper, 74 individuals from the four eared pheasant species were assessed for population genetic diversity by means of fluorescent-AFLP markers. A total of 429 AFLP peaks were amplified by 11 pairs of fluorescent EcoRI/TaqI primer combinations. Out of all markers, 329 AFLPs were polymorphic. Each primer combination produced in reactions from 19 to 72 fragments and the polymorphic peaks percentage ranged from 53.33% to 86.11% with an average of 74.36% polymorphic bands. Genetic distance between species and genetic diversity within species were evaluated using Jaccard's similarity coefficients (SC) and the corresponding dendrogram. It was found that there was a moderate genetic distance between the four species (SC=0.674-0.832). Brown eared pheasant was genetically closely related to blue eared pheasant (SC=0.832), while white eared pheasant was more closely related to Tibetan eared pheasant (SC=0.812). Genetic diversity was lower in brown eared pheasant (SC=0.913) and Tibetan eared pheasant (SC=0.903) than in white eared pheasant (SC=0.832) and blue eared pheasant (SC=0.853).
Ma, Ci; Schneider, Scott N; Miller, Marian; Nebert, Daniel W; Lind, Caroline; Roda, Sandy M; Afton, Scott E; Caruso, Joseph A; Genter, Mary Beth
There is evidence in human populations that exposure to manganese (Mn), or Mn in combination with excessive noise exposure, results in hearing loss. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction revealed expression of the metal transporters DMT1, ZIP8, and ZIP14 in control mouse ears. ZIP8 is known to have a high affinity (K(m) = 2.2 microM) for Mn transport, and ZIP8 protein was localized to the blood vessels of the ear by immunohistochemistry. We treated mice (strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J) with Mn (100 mg/kg MnCl(2), by subcutaneous injection, on three alternating days), and Mn was significantly elevated in the ears of the treated mice. Mn concentrations remained elevated over controls for at least 2 weeks after treatment. These studies demonstrate that metal transporters are present in the mouse ear and that Mn can accumulate in the ear following systemic exposure. Future studies should focus on whether Mn exposure is associated with hearing deficits.
Mirkovic, Bojana; Bleichner, Martin G.; De Vos, Maarten; Debener, Stefan
Target speaker identification is essential for speech enhancement algorithms in assistive devices aimed toward helping the hearing impaired. Several recent studies have reported that target speaker identification is possible through electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. If the EEG system could be reduced to acceptable size while retaining the signal quality, hearing aids could benefit from the integration with concealed EEG. To compare the performance of a multichannel around-the-ear EEG system with high-density cap EEG recordings an envelope tracking algorithm was applied in a competitive speaker paradigm. The data from 20 normal hearing listeners were concurrently collected from the traditional state-of-the-art laboratory wired EEG system and a wireless mobile EEG system with two bilaterally-placed around-the-ear electrode arrays (cEEGrids). The results show that the cEEGrid ear-EEG technology captured neural signals that allowed the identification of the attended speaker above chance-level, with 69.3% accuracy, while cap-EEG signals resulted in the accuracy of 84.8%. Further analyses investigated the influence of ear-EEG signal quality and revealed that the envelope tracking procedure was unaffected by variability in channel impedances. We conclude that the quality of concealed ear-EEG recordings as acquired with the cEEGrid array has potential to be used in the brain-computer interface steering of hearing aids. PMID:27512364
Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)
Disclosed are microcapsules comprising a polymer shell enclosing one or more immiscible liquid phases in which a drug or drug precursor are contained in a liquid phase. The microparticles also contain magnetic particles that can be heated by application of an external magnetic field and thus heated to a predetermined Curie temperature. Heating of the particles melts the polymer shell and releases the drug without causing heating of surrounding tissues.
Background Hearing impairment negatively impacts students' development of academic, language and social skills. Even minimal unilateral hearing loss can hinder educational performance. We investigated the prevalence of ear diseases among secondary school students in the city of Xi'an, China in order to provide a foundation for evidence-based hearing healthcare. Methods A stratified random sampling survey was conducted in 29 secondary schools. Demographics and medical histories were collected, and otologic examinations were performed. Questionnaires were administered to assess insomnia, academic stress and use of portable audio devices. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with hearing impairment, and the association of sensorineural hearing loss with insomnia, academic stress and the use of portable audio devices was analyzed with the chi-square test. Results The percentage of students with some form of ear disease was 3.32%. External ear disease, middle ear disease and sensorineural hearing loss occurred in 1.21%, 0.64% and 1.47% of the students, respectively. Boys had a relatively higher prevalence of ear disease than girls. According to our survey, the prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss increased significantly among the students with insomnia and extended use of portable audio devices, but not among those with elevated levels of academic stress. Hearing aids and surgical treatment were needed in 1.47% and 0.89% of the students, respectively. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of ear disease among secondary school students, and this should be given more attention. Insomnia and the excessive use of portable audio devices may be related to adolescent sensorineural hearing loss. It is important to establish and comply with an evidence-based preventive strategy. PMID:21649930
Alexander, V; Lau, A; Beaumont, E; Hope, A
To examine how individual surfing behaviour affects the development of external auditory canal exostosis and to produce a model to predict exostosis severity. A standardised questionnaire was completed and each participant underwent an otoscopic examination. Surfers were recruited from August to October 2011 from surfing competitions and from colleges in the South West of England. 207 surfers were included, 53 % had evidence of external auditory canal; exostosis: grade 1, 23%; grade 2, 16%, grade 3, 16%. This risk of exostosis significantly increased with (1) surfing for 6 or more years, (2) surfing in the winter months, (3) surfing five or more times per month in the winter and (4) reported ear symptoms. Interestingly, participation in other water sports and wearing earplugs or a hood reduced the risk of developing exostosis. Surfers who surf in England are at significant risk of exostosis. A probability model was designed, incorporating different surfing behaviours and ear symptoms, the first of its kind in exostosis research. This model will be a useful tool for raising awareness of external ear canal exostosis in the surfing community and in assessing individual need for surgical intervention.
Gómez Díaz, Oswaldo J.
Background: The retroauricular tissues have been used for a long time for ear reconstruction, but the anatomical bases of flaps of this region are not completely clear. The aim of this study was to estimate blood supply area and location of this on the skin and fascia retroauricular dependent of posterior auricular artery (PAA) to establish safe margins to design flaps for auricular reconstruction. Methods: Dissection under magnification (×3.5) of the PAA through a cervical approach; injection of methylmethacrylate in the PAA as a staining technique; retroauricular approach to identify the territory of irrigation of PAA in the retroauricular skin and fascia; measuring and location of the stained area; and report of 2 cases of ear reconstruction with fasciocutaneous and fascia flaps based on PAA, designed according to the anatomical study. Results: In a sample of 10 cadaveric specimens, the PAA irrigated an area of the retroauricular skin and fascia of 10.7 cm length × 7.07 cm wide equivalent to 60.44 cm2 (95% CI, 37.07–83.81), with a distribution posterior to external auditory canal of 7.15 cm (95% CI, 5.53–8.77) and posterior to the helix insertion of 6.12 cm (95% CI, 4.89–7.35). In the 2 patients treated with fascia and fasciocutaneous flaps based on the PAA, these were good options for ear reconstruction. Conclusion: A fascia or fasciocutaneous flap from the retroauricular region based on PAA within the dimensions and location found in this study will be a safe option for reconstruction of the ear. PMID:28293515
Voss, S E; Rosowski, J J; Shera, C A; Peake, W T
In clinical measurements of hearing sensitivity, a given earphone is assumed to produce essentially the same sound-pressure level in all ears. However, recent measurements [Voss et al., Ear and Hearing (in press)] show that with some middle-ear pathologies, ear-canal sound pressures can deviate by as much as 35 dB from the normal-ear value; the deviations depend on the earphone, the middle-ear pathology, and frequency. These pressure variations cause errors in the results of hearing tests. Models developed here identify acoustic mechanisms that cause pressure variations in certain pathological conditions. The models combine measurement-based Thévenin equivalents for insert and supra-aural earphones with lumped-element models for both the normal ear and ears with pathologies that alter the ear's impedance (mastoid bowl, tympanostomy tube, tympanic-membrane perforation, and a "high-impedance" ear). Comparison of the earphones' Thévenin impedances to the ear's input impedance with these middle-ear conditions shows that neither class of earphone acts as an ideal pressure source; with some middle-ear pathologies, the ear's input impedance deviates substantially from normal and thereby causes abnormal ear-canal pressure levels. In general, for the three conditions that make the ear's impedance magnitude lower than normal, the model predicts a reduced ear-canal pressure (as much as 35 dB), with a greater pressure reduction with an insert earphone than with a supra-aural earphone. In contrast, the model predicts that ear-canal pressure levels increase only a few dB when the ear has an increased impedance magnitude; the compliance of the air-space between the tympanic membrane and the earphone determines an upper limit on the effect of the middle-ear's impedance increase. Acoustic leaks at the earphone-to-ear connection can also cause uncontrolled pressure variations during hearing tests. From measurements at the supra-aural earphone-to-ear connection, we conclude that it
It is estimated that one-third of the United States population subscribes to alternative medical therapies (Eisenberg et al, NEJM 1993;328:246-252). Ear candles are popular products promoted by alternative health practitioners, and sold by health shops and even over the Internet. They have been promoted for ear and sinus discomfort, rhinitis, sinusitis, glue ear, colds, flu, migraine, tinnitus, but particularly for removal of ear wax (cerumen). In this case report, a 4-year-old girl in New Zealand presents with otitis media and during the course of the ear examination white deposits were noticed on her eardrum; this was confirmed as being caused by ear candling.
Bok, Jinwoong; Raft, Steven; Kong, Kyoung-Ah; Koo, Soo Kyung; Dräger, Ursula C.; Wu, Doris K.
Vertebrate hearing and balance are based in complex asymmetries of inner ear structure. Here, we identify retinoic acid (RA) as an extrinsic signal that acts directly on the ear rudiment to affect its compartmentalization along the anterior-posterior axis. A rostrocaudal wave of RA activity, generated by tissues surrounding the nascent ear, induces distinct responses from anterior and posterior halves of the inner ear rudiment. Prolonged response to RA by posterior otic tissue correlates with Tbx1 transcription and formation of mostly nonsensory inner ear structures. By contrast, anterior otic tissue displays only a brief response to RA and forms neuronal elements and most sensory structures of the inner ear. PMID:21173260
Ji, Qiang; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Zhang, Xingliao; Yuan, Chong-Xi; Xu, Li
The definitive mammalian middle ear (DMME) is defined by the loss of embryonic Meckel's cartilage and disconnection of the middle ear from the mandible in adults. It is a major feature distinguishing living mammals from nonmammalian vertebrates. We report a Cretaceous trechnotherian mammal with an ossified Meckel's cartilage in the adult, showing that homoplastic evolution of the DMME occurred in derived therian mammals, besides the known cases of eutriconodonts. The mandible with ossified Meckel's cartilage appears to be paedomorphic. Reabsorption of embryonic Meckel's cartilage to disconnect the ear ossicles from the mandible is patterned by a network of genes and signaling pathways. This fossil suggests that developmental heterochrony and gene patterning are major mechanisms in homplastic evolution of the DMME.
Nishimura, Jun; Kuroda, Tadahiro
To realize the ubiquitous eating habits monitoring, we proposed the use of sounds sensed by an in-ear placed wireless wearable microphone. A prototype of wireless wearable in-ear microphone was developed by utilizing a common Bluetooth headset. We proposed a robust chewing action recognition algorithm which consists of two recognition stages: “chew-like” signal detection and chewing sound verification stages. We also provide empirical results on other action recognition using in-ear sound including swallowing, cough, belch, and etc. The average chewing number counting error rate of 1.93% is achieved. Lastly, chewing sound mapping is proposed as a new prototypical approach to provide an additional intuitive feedback on food groups to be able to infer the eating habits in their daily life context.
Koizumi, Hiroshi; Shimada, Junichi; Uenishi, Yuji; Tochikubo, Osamu
Blood pressure (BP) measurement and BP control are important for the prevention of lifestyle diseases, especially hypertension, which can lead to more serious conditions, such as cardiac infarction and cerebral apoplexy. The purpose of our study is to develop a ubiquitous blood pressure sensor that is more comfortable and less disruptive of users' daily activities than conventional blood pressure sensors. Our developed sensor is worn at an ear orifice and measures blood pressure at the tragus. This paper describes the concept, configuration, and the optical and electronic details of the developed ear-worn blood pressure sensor and presents preliminary evaluation results. The developed sensor causes almost no discomfort and produces signals whose quality is high enough for detecting BP at an ear, making it suitable for ubiquitous usage.
Aschendorff, A; Laszig, R; Maier, W; Beck, R; Schild, C; Birkenhäger, R; Wesarg, T; Kröger, S; Arndt, S
The radiologic evaluation of the temporal bone in cochlear implant candidates can detect malformations of the inner ear in up to 20% of cases. The aim of our study was to analyze and classify malformations of the inner ear in patients with cochlear implants carried out from 2001 to 2009. Malformations of the inner ear, including malformations of the internal auditory canal were detected in 12.7% of children and 3.4% of adults. Mondini dysplasia was most common and occurred in 45% of cases. The surgical procedure had to be adapted according to the individual malformation. Modification of surgical access, management of intraoperative CSF gusher, choice of electrode array, intraoperative imaging and the use of navigation were the most important factors. Rehabilitation results were generally very positive and corresponded to the expectation depending on the duration of deafness, if no additional handicaps were present.
Popper, A. N.; Saidel, W. M.
Analysis of the structure of the ears in teleost fishes has led to the tentative suggestion that otolithic endorgans may function differently, in different species. Recently, evidence has demonstrated different 'types' of sensory hair cells can be found in the ears of teleost fishes, and individual hair cell types are found in discrete regions of individual sensory, epithelia. The presence of multiple hair cell types in fishes provides strong support to the hypothesis of regional differences in the responses of individual otolithic sensory epithelia. The finding of hair cell types in fishes that closely resemble those found in amniote vestibular endorgans also suggests that hair cell heterogeneity arose earlier in the evolution of the vertebrate ear than previously thought.
Morris, R; Bakker, D; Satz, P; Van der Vlugt, H
Dichotic listening research with children has continued to be prevalent although numerous authors have described both theoretical and methodological limitations with traditional dichotic listening free-recall paradigms. The present research adds to this growing skepticism by reanalyzing two major longitudinal studies of children's ear asymmetries. These two studies, based in different countries (United States, Holland), utilized highly similar paradigms (free-recall digits), subjects (males), and age levels (kindergarten and second and fifth grade). The questions of ear advantage development, patterns of ear advantages, and the relationship between dichotic listening performance and reading skills are addressed from the multiple statistical methodologies represented in the literature. From these analyses, support for all of the major hypotheses regarding the developmental patterns of dichotic listening performances could be obtained from the same data samples. The use of traditional free-recall dichotic listening paradigms are not recommended for use with children. The implications for future research are discussed.
Longworth-Mills, Emma; Koehler, Karl R; Hashino, Eri
This protocol describes a three-dimensional culture method for generating inner ear sensory epithelia, which comprises sensory hair cells and a concurrently arising neuronal population. Mouse embryonic stem cells are initially plated in 96-well plates with differentiation media; following aggregation, Matrigel is added in order to promote epithelialization. A series of small molecule applications is then used over the first 14 days of culture to guide differentiation towards an otic lineage. After 16-20 days, vesicles containing inner ear sensory hair cells and supporting cells arise from the cultured aggregates. Aggregates may be analyzed using immunohistochemistry and electrophysiology techniques. This system serves as a simple and relatively inexpensive in vitro model of inner ear development.
Peacock, J.; von Unge, M.; Dirckx, J.
Vibrations of the middle ear ossicles are easily measured by means of laser vibrometry. However, laser vibrometry requires free visual access to the object under investigation, and acquiring free visual access to the ossicles through the ear canal requires the removal of the tympanic membrane (TM), with the result that the ossicles can no longer be stimulated acoustically. To overcome this, we devised a new setup in which the ossicles can be driven magnetically. After measuring the response of the TM to an acoustic signal, we then remove it and attach a small magnet to the exposed manubrium (a part of the most lateral auditory ossicle, the malleus, which is normally attached to the TM). An electromagnetic excitation coil is then used to drive the magnet, and the output to the coil adjusted until the vibration of the manubrium, as measured by the vibrometer, matches that measured in response to the acoustic signal. Such a setup may have uses in research on middle ear mechanics, such as the measurement of nonlinearities in their response, as well as applications in the diagnosis of middle ear conditions such as the fixation of the ossicles by otosclerosis or in chronic otitis media. We describe our setup and discuss the viability of our method and its future clinical potential by presenting some measurements on an artificially fixated ear.
Feeney, M. Patrick; Hazelbaker, Julie; Kelly, J. Kip; Graves, Amanda
The effect of ear canal pressure on pure-tone thresholds and wideband reflectance and conductance was examined in ten human participants. Pure-tone thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz were measured in random order using a 2AFC procedure at ambient pressure, and at ear canal pressures of positive and negative 200 daPa. These results were compared to wideband changes in reflectance and conductance using the same probe. Reflectance changes with pressure were in good agreement with recent data on reflectance tympanometry [R. H. Margolis, G. L. Saly, and D. H. Keefe, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106, 265-280 (1999)]. Both one-third-octave conductance measures and pure-tone thresholds were found to decrease by around 10 dB at 500 Hz and 1000 Hz compared to a 2- to 4-dB decrease at 2000 and 4000 Hz. These results are consistent with the change in middle-ear sound transmission with ear-canal pressure changes reported in a recent temporal-bone study in Norwegian cattle [M. Kringlebotn, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 1442-1450 (2000)]. The results of this study suggest that the change in middle-ear conductance may provide an objective measure of conductive hearing loss for the conditions in this experiment. [Work supported by NIH, RO3 DC04129.
Liu, Shu-Qin; Zang, Wei-Jin; Li, Zeng-Li; Yu, Xiao-Jiang; Li, Bao-Ping
Surgical denervation of rabbit ear blood vessel beds was combined with the isolated perfused rabbit ear technique to investigate the mechanism of atropine's vasodilator action. Intramuscular injection of atropine 0.2 mg/kg dilated the denervated blood vessels in the rabbit ear like innervated ones in vivo. Atropine at the maximal concentration (Cmax) of 3 x 10(-6) to 3 x 10(-4) M did not increase effluent flow of the isolated perfused denervated rabbit ear under constant perfusion pressure, but chlorpromazine at a Cmax of 10(-6) M and acetylcholine (ACh) at 2.5 x 10(-7) M significantly increased it and noradrenaline (NA) at 10(-7) M significantly decreased it. Atropine at Cmax of 3 x 10(-7) M did not affect, but at 3 x 10(-6) M it abolished the increase of the effluent flow induced by ACh 2.5 x 10(-7) M. Atropine at 3 x 10(-7) M did not affect it, but at 10(-6), 3 x 10(-6), and 10(-5) it significantly alleviated the decrease of effluent flow induced by NA 10(-7) M. Because the increase of effluent flow of rabbit ear under constant perfusion pressure reflects vasodilation of the ear to some extent, the study suggests that atropine has no direct vasodilator action; its vasodilator action is not attributed to blockade of M-cholinoreceptors located on the vascular wall; however, the alpha1-adrenoceptor might be a target site mediating atropine's vasodilator action in vivo.
With our growing experience with the Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) middle ear implant, the question emerged of its indication in mixed hearing loss due to advanced otosclerosis. We describe the VSB implantation technique in primary otosclerosis performed together with a stapedotomy piston procedure. Hearing results under headphone and free-field conditions show that the stapedotomy piston procedure closes the air-bone gap as expected and that the VSB provides comparable gain to that usually recorded for pure sensorineural hearing loss. The gains of the two procedures add up. These results open the field of mixed hearing loss to the VSB middle ear implant.
Rich, Thomas H; Hopson, James A; Musser, Anne M; Flannery, Timothy F; Vickers-Rich, Patricia
A dentary of the oldest known monotreme, the Early Cretaceous Teinolophos trusleri, has an internal mandibular trough, which in outgroups to mammals houses accessory jaw bones, and probable contact facets for angular, coronoid, and splenial bones. Certain of these accessory bones were detached from the mandible to become middle ear bones in mammals. Evidence that the angular (homologous with the mammalian ectotympanic) and the articular and prearticular (homologous with the mammalian malleus) bones retained attachment to the lower jaw in a basal monotreme indicates that the definitive mammalian middle ear evolved independently in living monotremes and therians (marsupials and placentals).
Pentyala, Sahana; Mysore, Pooja; Moller, Daryn; Pentyala, Srinivas; Kardovich, Richard; Martino, Andrew; Proothi, Michael
Recurrent dislocation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disk is caused by many factors. Dislocation can result in an acute or chronic closed lock condition. Temporomandibular joint dysfunction is often presented with otalgia symptoms. Other aural symptoms such as deafness, tinnitus, pressure/blockage, and vertigo are also commonly presented together with TMJ dysfunction (Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 1980;5:23-36). However, pruritus associated with TMJ dysfunction in the inner ear has never been reported in the literature. We report a case history of TMJ dysfunction and associated inner ear pruritus, which are both resolved by eminectomy.
Ozeki, Michio; Kato, Zenichiro; Sasai, Hideo; Kubota, Kazuo; Funato, Michinori; Orii, Kenji; Kaneko, Hideo; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Naomi
Inner ear malformations are frequently found in patients with congenital hearing loss. It has been reported that normal hearing is rare in patients with severe inner ear vestibular malformations. A 9-year-old boy had had complained of recurrent dizziness and disequilibrium for 2 months. Clinical and neuro-otological examinations showed peripheral involvement of the vestibular system, while audiological investigation was normal. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, with three-dimensional reconstruction, showed dysplasia of the bilateral lateral semicircular canals (LSCCs). Isolated vestibular malformation might not be as rare as previously thought, and should be examined by imaging of the temporal bone.
Omel'chenko, A I; Sobol', E N; Sviridov, A P; Harding, S; Jumel, K; Walker, R; Jones, N
Acoustic monitoring of a plastic operation for reshaping the porcine ear using radiation from a Ho:YAG laser was performed to control a change in the elasticity of the ear cartilage. Variations in the cartilage elasticity were controlled by changes in the amplitude and shape of an acoustic wave during the laser action. It is shown that the optoacoustic signal amplitude exponentially decreases at least by a factor of 2-2.5 at the moment of the cartilage reshaping caused by the action of radiation pulses from a Ho:YAG laser. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
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Thundat, Thomas George [Knoxville, TN; Van Neste, Charles W [Kingston, TN; Vass, Arpad Alexander [Oak Ridge, TN
A generator includes a coil disposed about a core. A first stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a first end portion of the core and a second stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a second end portion of core. The first and second stationary magnetic field sources apply a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An external magnetic field source may be disposed outside the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. Electrical energy is generated in response to an interaction between the coil, the moving magnetic field, and the stationary magnetic field.
Wyatt, Clair L.; Thurgood, V. Alan; Allred, Glenn D.
Under NASA Contract No. NAS5-28185, the Center for Space Engineering at Utah State University has produced a calibration instrument for the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). DIRBE is one of the instruments aboard the Cosmic Background Experiment Observatory (COBE). The calibration instrument is referred to as the DEC (Dirbe External Calibrator). DEC produces a steerable, infrared beam of controlled spectral content and intensity and with selectable point source or diffuse source characteristics, that can be directed into the DIRBE to map fields and determine response characteristics. This report discusses the design of the DEC instrument, its operation and characteristics, and provides an analysis of the systems capabilities and performance.
Tomatis, Alfred; Talbi, Louisa; Vervoort, Jozef; Fromenteau, Joel; De Voigt, Martin; Van Deun, Jozef
The goal of the proposed work is to collect data on the responses of the vestibular system to long-term conditions of weightlessness and to evaluate the benefits of a program of Electronic Ear(1) designed to act preventively to lessen symptoms due to weightlessness and to readapt the vestibular system after return to normal gravity.Data in the form of listening tests and brain maps tests(2) and observations(3) will be collected during pre- and post-flight simulation.We have to identify if the preservation process of astronauts against weightlessness effects is located in the ear. The long- term objective of the study is to create a blueprint of an Electronic Ear to be used on board should the outcome be positive.
Puria, S; Rosowski, JJ
In our daily life we hear airborne sounds that travel primarily through the external and the middle ear to the cochlear sensory epithelium. We also hear sounds that travel to the cochlea via a second sound conduction route, bone conduction. This second pathway is excited by vibrations of the head and body that result from substrate vibrations, direct application of vibrational stimuli to the head or body, or vibrations induced by airborne sound. The sensation of bone-conducted sound is affected by the presence of the external and middle ear but not completely dependent on their function. Measurements of the differential sensitivity of patients to airborne sound and direct vibration of the head are part of the routine battery of clinical tests used to separate conductive and sensorineural hearing losses. George von Békésy designed a careful set of experiments and pioneered many measurement techniques on human cadaver temporal bones, in physical models, and in human subjects to elucidate the basic mechanisms or air and bone conducted sound. Looking back one marvels at the sheer number of experiments he performed on sound conduction, mostly by himself without the aid of students or research associates. Békésy’s work had a profound impact on the field of middle ear mechanics and bone conduction fifty years ago when he received his Nobel Prize. Today many of Békésy’s ideas continue to be investigated and extended, some have been supported by new evidence, some have been refuted, while others remain to be tested. PMID:22617841
Microswimmers move autonomously but are subject to external fields, which influence their swimming path and their collective dynamics. With three concrete examples we illustrate swimming in external fields and explain the methodology to treat it. First, an active Brownian particle shows a conventional sedimentation profile in a gravitational field but with increased sedimentation length and some polar order along the vertical. Bottom-heavy swimmers are able to invert the sedimentation profile. Second, active Brownian particles interacting by hydrodynamic flow fields in a three-dimensional harmonic trap can spontaneously break the isotropic symmetry. They develop polar order, which one can describe by mean-field theory reminiscent to Weiss theory of ferromagnetism, and thereby pump fluid. Third, a single microswimmer shows interesting non-linear dynamics in Poiseuille flow including swinging and tumbling trajectories. For pushers, hydrodynamic interactions with bounding surfaces stabilize either straight swimming against the flow or tumbling close to the channel wall, while pushers always move on a swinging trajectory with a specific amplitude as limit cycle.
Stepan, E V; Ermolov, A S; Rogal', M L; Teterin, Yu S
The main principles of treatment of external postoperative pancreatic fistulas are viewed in the article. Pancreatic trauma was the reason of pancreatic fistula in 38.7% of the cases, operations because of acute pancreatitis - in 25.8%, and pancreatic pseudocyst drainage - in 35.5%. 93 patients recovered after the treatment. Complex conservative treatment of EPF allowed to close fistulas in 74.2% of the patients with normal patency of the main pancreatic duct (MPD). The usage of octreotide 600-900 mcg daily for at least 5 days to decrease pancreatic secretion was an important part of the conservative treatment. Endoscopic papillotomy was performed in patients with major duodenal papilla obstruction and interruption of transporting of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Stent of the main pancreatic duct was indicated in patients with extended pancreatic duct stenosis to normalize transport of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Surgical formation of anastomosis between distal part of the main pancreatic duct and gastro-intestinal tract was carried out when it was impossible to fulfill endoscopic stenting of pancreatic duct either because of its interruption and diastasis between its ends, or in the cases of unsuccessful conservative treatment of external pancreatic fistula caused by drainage of pseudocyst.
Torres, Leda; Juárez, Ulises; García, Laura; Miranda-Ríos, Juan; Frias, Sara
There is no information regarding the role of microRNAs in the development of the external ear in mammals. The purpose of this study was to determine the stage-specific expression of microRNA during external ear development in mice under normal conditions. GeneChip miRNA 3.0 arrays by Affymetrix were used to obtain miRNA expression profiles from mice fetal pinnae and back skin tissues at 13.5 days-post-coitum (dpc) and 14.5 dpc. Biological triplicates for each tissue were analyzed; one litter represents one biological replica, each litter had 16 fetuses on average. The results were analyzed with Affymetrix's Transcriptome Analysis Console software to identify differentially expressed miRNAs. The inquiry showed significant differential expression of 25 miRNAs at 13.5 dpc and 31 at 14.5 dpc, some of these miRNAs were predicted to target genes implicated in external ear development. One example is mmu-miR-10a whose low expression in pinnae is known to impact ear development by modulating Hoxa1 mRNA levels Garzon et al. (2006), Gavalas et al. (1998) , . Other findings like the upregulation of mmu-miR-200c and mmu-miR-205 in the pinnae tissues of healthy mice are in agreement with what has been reported in human patients with microtia, in which down regulation of both miRNAs has been found Li et al. (2013) . This study uncovered a spatiotemporal pattern of miRNA expression in the external ear, which results from continuous transcriptional changes during normal development of body structures. All microarray data are available at the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) at NCBI under accession number GSE64945.
Rask-Andersen, Helge; Liu, Wei; Linthicum, Fred H
Background/Aims EAS technique combines electric and acoustic stimulation in the same ear and utilizes both low frequency acoustic hearing and electric stimulation of preserved neurons. We present data of ganglion cell and dendrite populations in ears from normal individuals and those suffered from adult-onset hereditary progressive hearing loss with various residual low tone hearing. Some of these were potential candidates for EAS surgery. The data may give us information about the neuro-anatomic situation in EAS ears. Methods Dendrites and ganglion cells were calculated and audio-cytocochleograms constructed. The temporal bones were from the collection at the House Ear Institute in Los Angeles, USA. Normal human anatomy, based on surgical specimens, is presented. Results IHCs and OHCs, supporting cells, ganglion cells and dendrites were preserved in the apical region. In the mid-frequency region, around 1 kHz, the OC with inner and outer hair cells were often conserved while in the lower basal turn, representing frequencies above 3 kHz, OC was atrophic and replaced by thin cells. Despite loss of hair cells and lamina fibers ganglion cells were present even after 28 years duration of deafness. Conclusions Conditions with profound SNHL with preserved low tone hearing may have several causes and the pathology may vary accordingly. In our patients with progressive adult-onset SNHL (amalgamated into “presbyacusis”) neurons were conserved even after long duration of deafness. These spiral ganglion cells may be excellent targets for electric stimulation using EAS technique. PMID:19955718
An unusual conflict-of-interest case involving the federal government, a university researcher on ear infections, and the pharmaceutical industry has renewed the debate over what constitutes unacceptable conflict of interest, federal review of medical treatment, government protection against research bias, and disclosure of research project…
García-Murray, E; Adán-Rivas, O; Salcido-Calzadilla, H
Amputation of any body part is undoubtedly a traumatic experience leaving a terrible deformity, especially when the part or parts involved are visible and constitute an essential component of someone's facial whole. Bilateral ear amputation and successful subsequent replantation has been reported historically, but not in the modern surgical literature. We report the case of a 27-year-old female who was abducted and suffered a bilateral ear amputation at the hands of one of her captors to speed delivery of ransom money; the severed parts were sent to the parents approximately 2 hours after the amputation had taken place, and the girl was released some 48 hours after the ears were delivered. Microvascular replantation was attempted immediately after admission to the hospital some 2 hours after her release, but failed, and so a non-microvascular replantation was performed and was successful, after approximately 54 hours of ischaemia time. We consider this the first report of a complete bilateral, delayed, non-microvascular, successful ear replantation in a human being in the modern literature.
Johnson, Dale L.; McCormick, David P.; Baldwin, Constance D.
This study examined the relation of middle ear effusion (MEE) in the first 3 years of life to language outcomes at age seven. It was hypothesized, on the basis of a literature review, that (1) a low, but positive relation between early MEE and language measures in general will be observed at age seven, and (2) major effects will be demonstrated…
Ilomäki, Jaana H; Karhuketo, T; Vasama, J P; Kääriäinen, J; Rautiainen, M
The mucociliary clearance (MCC) is an important defence mechanism of the middle ear. The mucociliary transport (MCT) is a part of MCC. We measured the duration of MCT and visualised its routes in middle ears of 31 patients (mean age 45 years; range 7-61 years; SD 11.6) with intact tympanic membrane, with ventilated middle ears and without a history of prolonged otitis media. The transition time of indigo carmine dye from the promontory mucosa to the middle ear orifice of the Eustachian tube (ET) was observed with a rigid 30°, 1.7-mm-diameter tympanoscope. The dye took an average of 7 min (range 4.5-15 min; SD 3.4; median 4.5) to reach the ET orifice in 25 (81 %) patients. Three main ciliary pathways were detected: (1) below and parallel to the tensor tympani muscle; (2) downwards, anterior to the round window, and then ascending to the ET; and (3) straight across the promontory.
Charaziak, Karolina K; Shera, Christopher A
Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) provide an acoustic fingerprint of the inner ear, and changes in this fingerprint may indicate changes in cochlear function arising from efferent modulation, aging, noise trauma, and/or exposure to harmful agents. However, the reproducibility and diagnostic power of OAE measurements is compromised by the variable acoustics of the ear canal, in particular, by multiple reflections and the emergence of standing waves at relevant frequencies. Even when stimulus levels are controlled using methods that circumvent standing-wave problems (e.g., forward-pressure-level calibration), distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) levels vary with probe location by 10-15 dB near half-wave resonant frequencies. The method presented here estimates the initial outgoing OAE pressure wave at the eardrum from measurements of the conventional OAE, allowing one to separate the emitted OAE from the many reflections trapped in the ear canal. The emitted pressure level (EPL) represents the OAE level that would be recorded were the ear canal replaced by an infinite tube with no reflections. When DPOAEs are expressed using EPL, their variation with probe location decreases to the test-retest repeatability of measurements obtained at similar probe positions. EPL provides a powerful way to reduce the variability of OAE measurements and improve their ability to detect cochlear changes.
Trune, Dennis R.
Purpose of Review Describe ion and water homeostatic mechanisms in the inner ear, how they are compromised in hearing disorders, and what treatments are employed to restore auditory function. Recent Findings The ion and water transport functions in the inner ear help maintain the proper endolymph K+ concentration required for hair cell function. Gene defects and idiopathic alterations in these transport functions cause hearing loss, but often the underlying cause is unknown. Current therapies largely involve glucocorticoid treatment, although the mechanisms of restoration are often undeterminable. Recent studies of these ion homeostatic functions in the ear are characterizing their cellular and molecular control. It is anticipated that future management of these hearing disorders will be more targeted to the cellular processes involved and improve the likelihood of hearing recovery. Summary A better understanding of the ion homeostatic processes in the ear will permit more effective management of their associated hearing disorders. Sufficient insight into many homeostatic hearing disorders has now been attained to usher in a new era of better therapies and improved clinical outcomes. PMID:20693900
Yoshikawa, Hiroto; Mayer, Monique N; Linn, Kathleen A; Dickinson, Ryan M; Carr, Anthony P
An 8-year-old, castrated male golden retriever was referred for lethargy and inappetance. Severe pain was elicited on palpation of the left temporomandibular joint region. Computed tomography revealed aggressive bone destruction of the left bulla. Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed. Malignant tumor in the canine middle ear is rare.
Sampieri, Francesca; Orchard, Rekha N; Antonopoulos, Aphroditi J; Hamilton, Donald L
Researchers may place a catheter in the ear vessel of a rabbit for a short period of time in order to collect repeated blood samples without extensive restraint of the animal. Maintaining such a catheter in a healthy rabbit can be challenging, as the animal may scratch at the ear, removing the catheter or forming a large hematoma that might impede blood sampling. The authors developed a technique for protecting the indwelling catheter by cutting a section of moleskin to the same shape as the ear and gluing it to the surface of the ear and the catheter. They applied this technique to collect multiple blood samples during 12-h periods from nine rabbits in a pharmacokinetics study. Catheters remained patent in five rabbits for 12 h, in two rabbits for 8 h, in one rabbit for 6 h and in one rabbit for 4 h. This technique allowed for collection of repeated blood samples and prevented the rabbits from interfering with the catheter while allowing them to move freely during the sampling period.
Nurses working in A&E departments throughout the UK frequently encounter patients with ear, nose and throat conditions. While the majority of these are straightforward, a small number are serious and even life-threatening. Tanya Reynolds discusses the nursing management of this group of patients and stresses the importance of appropriate assessment, pain management and referral.
Freeman, Marcia S.
Suggesting that students in grades 4-12 can develop their ear for expository writing and improve their skills by having well-written expository pieces read to them regularly, this book contains a broad variety of sample expository read-aloud pieces with accompanying notes that highlight the techniques each writer has used particularly well. After…
Yao, Haibo; Kincaid, Russell; Hruska, Zuzana; Brown, Robert L.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E.
Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus (A.flavus) and Aspergillus parasitiucus fungi that grow naturally in corn. Very serious health problems such as liver damage and lung cancer can result from exposure to high toxin levels in grain. Consequently, many countries have established strict guidelines for permissible levels in consumables. Conventional chemical-based analytical methods used to screen for aflatoxin such as thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are time consuming, expensive, and require the destruction of samples as well as proper training for data interpretation. Thus, it has been a continuing effort within the research community to find a way to rapidly and non-destructively detect and possibly quantify aflatoxin contamination in corn. One of the more recent developments in this area is the use of spectral technology. Specifically, fluorescence hyperspectral imaging offers a potential rapid, and non-invasive method for contamination detection in corn infected with toxigenic A.flavus spores. The current hyperspectral image system is designed for scanning flat surfaces, which is suitable for imaging single or a group of corn kernels. In the case of a whole corn cob, it is preferred to be able to scan the circumference of the corn ear, appropriate for whole ear inspection. This paper discusses the development of a hyperspectral imaging system for whole corn ear imaging. The new instrument is based on a hyperspectral line scanner using a rotational stage to turn the corn ear.
Nagaty, H F; Emami-Nouri, M
A case of invasion of the human ear by the German cockroach Blattella germanica (L) IN Mash'had, Khorassan, Iran is described. As far as the Author is aware this is the first such case recorded and published from Iran.
Aldhafeeri, Ahmad M.; Alsanosi, Abdulrahman A.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of inner ear anomalies and the frequency of different anomaly types among cochlear implant recipients. Methods: This study included a retrospective chart review of all patients who received cochlear implants between January 2009 and January 2013 in King Abdulaziz University Hospital cochlear implant program in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All subjects underwent thin-cut CT of the temporal bone and MRI. The collected data included age, gender, and CT and MRI findings regarding temporal bone anomalies. Patients with any identified congenital inner ear anomalies were included in the study. Results: In total, 316 patients’ cases were reviewed. Inner ear malformations were identified in 24 patients, which represented a prevalence of 7.5%. Among these 24 patients, 8 (33.3%) presented with a large vestibular aqueduct (LVA), 8 (33.3%) semicircular canal (SCC) dysplasia, 7 (29.1%) classical Mondini deformity, and one (4.1%) cochlear hypoplasia. Conclusion: The prevalence of inner ear anomalies among cochlear implant recipients was 7.5%. This result is consistent with findings worldwide. The most common anomalies were LVA and SCC hypoplasia; by contrast, in other regions, the most common anomaly is either the Mondini deformity, or LVA. PMID:27652360
Shibata, Seiji B.; Raphael, Yehoash
Health care professionals tending to patients with inner ear disease face inquiries about therapy options, including treatments that are being developed for future use but not yet available. The devastating outcome of sensorineural hearing loss, combined with the permanent nature of the symptoms, make these inquiries demanding and frequent. The…
Wassef, M; Kanavaros, P; Polivka, M; Nemeth, J; Monteil, J P; Frachet, B; Tran Ba Huy, P
Middle ear adenoma (MEA) is a distinctive, rare entity that appears to be derived from the lining epithelium of the middle ear mucosa. We report four cases of MEA displaying the typical histologic growth pattern. Two distinct tumor cell immunophenotypes were identified in all cases; the first type exhibited positivity with anti-epithelial membrane antigen and anti-keratin antibodies, and the second type showed immunoreactivity with anti-keratin, anti-vimentin, and anti-neuron-specific enolase antibodies. Ultrastructural studies revealed bidirectional mucinous and neuroendocrine differentiation, demonstrated by the presence of two distinct cell types containing apically located mucous granules and basally concentrated neuroendocrine granules, respectively. The presence of neuroendocrine differentiation was supported by the immunohistochemical detection of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the tumor cells in one case and neuron-specific enolase in three cases. These findings suggest that the potential for mixed mucinous/neuroendocrine differentiation described in other endodermally derived tumors also exists in middle ear mucosa. We also believe that the rare lesions diagnosed as primary carcinoid tumors of the middle ear might in fact be MEA with predominant or only neuroendocrine differentiation. The clinical course of our four cases and our review of the pertinent literature confirm the benign nature of MEA and indicate that these tumors should be treated by complete local excision without additional therapy.
... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound.... (1) The sound field characteristics -described in paragraph 126.96.36.199 are -“required.” (2) Sections 3.3... testing should not allow the subject to engage in any activity that may cause a Temporary Threshold...
... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound.... (1) The sound field characteristics -described in paragraph 188.8.131.52 are -“required.” (2) Sections 3.3... testing should not allow the subject to engage in any activity that may cause a Temporary Threshold...
... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound.... (1) The sound field characteristics -described in paragraph 184.108.40.206 are -“required.” (2) Sections 3.3... testing should not allow the subject to engage in any activity that may cause a Temporary Threshold...
and explore hearing loss and tinnitus outcomes within one year after injury. The Expeditionary Medical Encounter Database was used to identify... tinnitus . The prevalence of ear injuries was 30.7% (1,223 of 3,981). The most common ear injury diagnoses were “inner or middle ear injury involving... tinnitus ” and tympanic membrane (TM) rupture. Hearing pro- tection reduced the odds of ear injury involving tinnitus . Per- sonnel with TM rupture had
Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.
This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested.
The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex, and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind. PMID:22065955
This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs.
Smith, Maureen A.; Kaufman, Nancy J.; Dearlove, Andrea J.
Background: Major gaps exist between what we know and what we do in clinical practice and community health programs and narrowing this gap will require substantive partnerships between academic researchers and the communities they serve. Objectives: We describe a research pilot award program that makes a unique commitment to community engagement through the addition of an External Community Review Committee to the typical research review process that gives external stakeholders decision-making power over research funding. Methods: Whereas engaging community reviewers in discussion and rating of research proposals is not novel, the ICTR ECRC review process is distinct in that it is subsequent to peer review and uses different criteria and methodology. This method of engagement allows for the community review panel to re-rank scientifically meritorious proposals—such that proposals funded do not necessarily follow the rank order from scientific peer review. The approach taken by UW ICTR differs from those discussed in the literature that present a model of community-academic co-review. Results: This article provides guidance for others interested in this model of community engagement and reviews insights gained during the evolution of this strategy; including how we addressed conflict, how the committee was able to change the pilot award program over time, and individual roles that were crucial to the success of this approach. Conclusions: The advantages of this approach include success through traditional academic metrics while achieving an innovative shared-power mechanism for community engagement which we believe is critical for narrowing the gap between knowledge and practice. PMID:24056512
Orji, Foster Tochukwu; O. Onyero, Emmanuel; Agbo, Christian Ejiofor
Objective : The ear irritations suffered by hearing aid (HA) users are yet to be related to the clinical state of canal. We undertook this study to examine the nature of debris and the microbial flora of ears of hearing aid users, as well as evaluate the determinant factors of ear irritation in this population. Methods : An observational clinical study was carried out involving 32 unilateral hearing aid users recruited from ENT clinic of a tertiary referral center. Each subject underwent otoscopic assessment of canal debris and microbial analysis of swab cultures taken from the hearing aid-wearing ear and contralateral normal ear without hearing aid. Results : Canal debris [wax (28%), fungal deposits (19%), bacteria exudates (13%)]. as well as microorganisms were identified in significant number of ears with hearing aids than ears without hearing aid (P = 0.003 and P = 0.006 respectively). Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the commonest identified bacteria. Others were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus species. Intolerable irritations of hearing aid wearing ears were significantly associated with bacterial and fungal otitis externa, and ear discharge (P = 0.005, 0.02, 0.03 respectively). Conclusions : This study demonstrates that using hearing aid alters the ear canal flora; increases risk of both fungal and bacterial otitis externa, as well as encourage wax debris formation, with resultant ear irritations. To ensure compliance their ears should periodically be attended to, by de-waxing or given topical antimicrobial agents where indicated. PMID:24948963