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Sample records for ear hearing devices

  1. Dichotic Hearing in Elderly Hearing Aid Users Who Choose to Use a Single-Ear Device

    PubMed Central

    Ribas, Angela; Mafra, Nicoli; Marques, Jair; Mottecy, Carla; Silvestre, Renata; Kozlowski, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Elderly individuals with bilateral hearing loss often do not use hearing aids in both ears. Because of this, dichotic tests to assess hearing in this group may help identify peculiar degenerative processes of aging and hearing aid selection. Objective To evaluate dichotic hearing for a group of elderly hearing aid users who did not adapt to using binaural devices and to verify the correlation between ear dominance and the side chosen to use the device. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study involving 30 subjects from 60 to 81 years old, of both genders, with an indication for bilateral hearing aids for over 6 months, but using only a single device. Medical history, pure tone audiometry, and dichotic listening tests were all completed. Results All subjects (100%) of the sample failed the dichotic digit test; 94% of the sample preferred to use the device in one ear because bilateral use bothered them and affected speech understanding. In 6%, the concern was aesthetics. In the dichotic digit test, there was significant predominance of the right ear over the left, and there was a significant correlation between the dominant side with the ear chosen by the participant for use of the hearing aid. Conclusion In elderly subjects with bilateral hearing loss who have chosen to use only one hearing aid, there is dominance of the right ear over the left in dichotic listening tasks. There is a correlation between the dominant ear and the ear chosen for hearing aid fitting. PMID:25992120

  2. Testing a Method for Quantifying the Output of Implantable Middle Ear Hearing Devices

    PubMed Central

    Rosowski, J.J.; Chien, W.; Ravicz, M.E.; Merchant, S.N.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes tests of a standard practice for quantifying the performance of implantable middle ear hearing devices (also known as implantable hearing aids). The standard and these tests were initiated by the Food and Drug Administration of the United States Government. The tests involved measurements on two hearing devices, one commercially available and the other home built, that were implanted into ears removed from human cadavers. The tests were conducted to investigate the utility of the practice and its outcome measures: the equivalent ear canal sound pressure transfer function that relates electrically driven middle ear velocities to the equivalent sound pressure needed to produce those velocities, and the maximum effective ear canal sound pressure. The practice calls for measurements in cadaveric ears in order to account for the varied anatomy and function of different human middle ears. PMID:17406105

  3. Two Ears and Two (or More?) Devices: A Pediatric Case Study of Bilateral Profound Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Uchanski, Rosalie M.; Davidson, Lisa S.; Quadrizius, Sharon; Reeder, Ruth; Cadieux, Jamie; Kettel, Jerrica; Chole, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Advances in technology and expanding candidacy guidelines have motivated many clinics to consider children with precipitously sloping high-frequency hearing loss as candidates for cochlear implants (CIs). A case study is presented of a pediatric CI patient whose hearing thresholds were preserved within 10 dB of preimplant levels (125–750 Hz) after receiving a fully inserted 31.5-mm electrode array at one ear. The primary goal of this study was to explore the possible benefit of using both a hearing aid (HA) and a CI at one ear while using a HA at the opposite ear. The authors find that although the use of bilateral hearing aids with a CI may only provide a slight benefit, careful attention must be paid to the coordinated fitting of devices, especially at the ear with two devices. PMID:19447765

  4. Two ears and two (or more?) devices: a pediatric case study of bilateral profound hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Uchanski, Rosalie M; Davidson, Lisa S; Quadrizius, Sharon; Reeder, Ruth; Cadieux, Jamie; Kettel, Jerrica; Chole, Richard A

    2009-06-01

    Advances in technology and expanding candidacy guidelines have motivated many clinics to consider children with precipitously sloping high-frequency hearing loss as candidates for cochlear implants (CIs). A case study is presented of a pediatric CI patient whose hearing thresholds were preserved within 10 dB of preimplant levels (125-750 Hz) after receiving a fully inserted 31.5-mm electrode array at one ear. The primary goal of this study was to explore the possible benefit of using both a hearing aid (HA) and a CI at one ear while using a HA at the opposite ear. The authors find that although the use of bilateral hearing aids with a CI may only provide a slight benefit, careful attention must be paid to the coordinated fitting of devices, especially at the ear with two devices.

  5. Single-Stage Ear Reconstruction and Hearing Restoration Using Polyethylene Implant and Implantable Hearing Devices.

    PubMed

    Hempel, John Martin

    2015-12-01

    The use of porous polyethylene in reconstructive surgery of the auricle is becoming increasingly accepted. This is a single-stage procedure providing pleasing cosmetic rehabilitation. Further advantages are the possibility of early implantation and the lack of complications caused by harvesting costal cartilage. Additional hearing restoration using middle ear implants allows functional rehabilitation at an early stage. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. A micropower miniature piezoelectric actuator for implantable middle ear hearing device.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhigang; Mills, Robert; Luo, Hongyan; Zheng, Xiaolin; Hou, Wensheng; Wang, Lijun; Brown, Stuart I; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a small actuator using a miniature piezoelectric stack and a flextensional mechanical amplification structure for an implantable middle ear hearing device (IMEHD). A finite-element method was used in the actuator design. Actuator vibration displacement was measured using a laser vibrometer. Preliminary evaluation of the actuator for an IMEHD was conducted using a temporal bone model. Initial results from one temporal bone study indicated that the actuator was small enough to be implanted within the middle ear cavity, and sufficient stapes displacement can be generated for patients with mild to moderate hearing losses, especially at higher frequency range, by the actuator suspended onto the stapes. There was an insignificant mass-loading effect on normal sound transmission (<3 dB) when the actuator was attached to the stapes and switched off. Improved vibration performance is predicted by more firm attachment. The actuator power consumption and its generated equivalent sound pressure level are also discussed. In conclusion, the actuator has advantages of small size, lightweight, and micropower consumption for potential use as IMHEDs.

  7. Numerical evaluation of implantable hearing devices using a finite element model of human ear considering viscoelastic properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Tian, Jiabin; Ta, Na; Huang, Xinsheng; Rao, Zhushi

    2016-08-01

    Finite element method was employed in this study to analyze the change in performance of implantable hearing devices due to the consideration of soft tissues' viscoelasticity. An integrated finite element model of human ear including the external ear, middle ear and inner ear was first developed via reverse engineering and analyzed by acoustic-structure-fluid coupling. Viscoelastic properties of soft tissues in the middle ear were taken into consideration in this model. The model-derived dynamic responses including middle ear and cochlea functions showed a better agreement with experimental data at high frequencies above 3000 Hz than the Rayleigh-type damping. On this basis, a coupled finite element model consisting of the human ear and a piezoelectric actuator attached to the long process of incus was further constructed. Based on the electromechanical coupling analysis, equivalent sound pressure and power consumption of the actuator corresponding to viscoelasticity and Rayleigh damping were calculated using this model. The analytical results showed that the implant performance of the actuator evaluated using a finite element model considering viscoelastic properties gives a lower output above about 3 kHz than does Rayleigh damping model. Finite element model considering viscoelastic properties was more accurate to numerically evaluate implantable hearing devices. © IMechE 2016.

  8. External unit for a semi-implantable middle ear hearing device.

    PubMed

    Garverick, S L; Kane, M; Ko, W H; Maniglia, A J

    1997-06-01

    A miniaturized, low-power external unit has been developed for the clinical trials of a semi-implantable middle ear electromagnetic hearing device (SIMEHD) which uses radio-frequency telemetry to couple sound signals to the internal unit. The external unit is based on a commercial hearing aid which provides proven audio amplification and compression. Its receiver is replaced by an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) which: 1) adjusts the direct-current bias of the audio input according to its peak value; 2) converts the audio signal to a one-bit digital form using sigma-delta modulation; 3) modulates the sigma-delta output with a radio-frequency (RF) oscillator; and 4) drives the external RF coil and tuning capacitor using a field-effect transistor operated in class D. The external unit functions as expected and has been used to operate bench-top tests to the SIMEHD. Measured current consumption is 1.65-2.15 mA, which projects to a battery lifetime of about 15 days. Bandwidth is 6 kHz and harmonic distortion is about 2%.

  9. Sheep as a large animal model for middle and inner ear implantable hearing devices: a feasibility study in cadavers.

    PubMed

    Schnabl, Johannes; Glueckert, Rudolf; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Recheis, Wolfgang; Potrusil, Thomas; Kuhn, Volker; Wolf-Magele, Astrid; Riechelmann, Herbert; Sprinzl, Georg M

    2012-04-01

    Currently, no large animal model exists for surgical-experimental exploratory analysis of implantable hearing devices. In a histomorphometric study, we sought to investigate whether sheep or pig cochleae are suitable for this purpose and whether device implantation is feasible. Skulls of pig and sheep cadavers were examined using high-resolution 128-slice computed tomography (CT) to study anatomic relationships. A cochlear implant and an active middle ear implant could be successfully implanted into the sheep's inner and middle ear, respectively. Correct device placement was verified by CT and histology. The cochlear anatomy of the sheep was further studied by micro-CT and histology. Our investigations indicate that the sheep is a suitable animal model for implantation of implantable hearing devices. The implantation of the devices was successfully performed by access through a mastoidectomy. The histologic, morphologic, and micro-CT study of the sheep cochlea showed that it is highly similar to the human cochlea. The temporal bone of the pig was not suitable for these microsurgical procedures because the middle and inner ear were not accessible owing to distinct soft and fatty tissue coverage of the mastoid. The sheep is an appropriate large animal model for experimental studies with implantable hearing devices, whereas the pig is not.

  10. Implementation of a transcutaneous charger for fully implantable middle ear hearing device.

    PubMed

    Lim, H; Yoon, Y; Lee, C; Park, I; Song, B; Cho, J

    2005-01-01

    A transcutaneous charger for the fully implantable middle ear hearing device (F-IMEHD), which can monitor the charging level of battery, has been designed and implemented. In order to recharge the battery of F-IMEHD, the electromagnetic coupling between primary coil at outer body and secondary coil at inner body has been used. Considering the implant condition of the F-IMEHD, the primary coil and the secondary coil have been designed. Using the resonance of LC tank circuit at each coil, transmission efficiency was increased. Since the primary and the secondary coil are magnetically coupled, the current variation of the primary coil is related with the impedance of internal resonant circuit. Using the principle mentioned above, the implanted module could transmit outward the information about charging state of battery or coupling between two coils by the changing internal impedance. As in the demonstrated results of experiment, the implemented charger has supplied the sufficient operating voltage for the implanted battery within about 10 mm distance. And also, it has been confirmed that the implanted module can transmit information outward by control of internal impedance.

  11. Historical Aspects of Inner Ear Anatomy and Biology that Underlie the Design of Hearing and Balance Prosthetic Devices.

    PubMed

    Van De Water, Thomas R

    2012-11-01

    This review presents some of the major historical events that advanced the body of knowledge of the anatomy of the inner ear and its sensory receptors as well as the biology of these receptors that underlies the sensory functions of hearing and balance. This knowledge base of the inner ear's structure/function has been an essential factor for the design and construction of prosthetic devices to aid patients with deficits in their senses of hearing and balance. Prosthetic devices are now available for severely hearing impaired and deaf patients to restore hearing and are known as cochlear implants and auditory brain stem implants. A prosthetic device for patients with balance disorders is being perfected and is in an animal model testing phase with another prosthetic device for controlling intractable dizziness in Meniere's patients currently being evaluated in clinical testing. None of this would have been possible without the pioneering studies and discoveries of the investigators mentioned in this review and with the work of many other talented investigators to numerous to be covered in this review. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Individual Fit Testing of Hearing Protection Devices Based on Microphone in Real Ear.

    PubMed

    Biabani, Azam; Aliabadi, Mohsen; Golmohammadi, Rostam; Farhadian, Maryam

    2017-12-01

    Labeled noise reduction (NR) data presented by manufacturers are considered one of the main challenging issues for occupational experts in employing hearing protection devices (HPDs). This study aimed to determine the actual NR data of typical HPDs using the objective fit testing method with a microphone in real ear (MIRE) method. Five available commercially earmuff protectors were investigated in 30 workers exposed to reference noise source according to the standard method, ISO 11904-1. Personal attenuation rating (PAR) of the earmuffs was measured based on the MIRE method using a noise dosimeter (SVANTEK, model SV 102). The results showed that means of PAR of the earmuffs are from 49% to 86% of the nominal NR rating. The PAR values of earmuffs when a typical eyewear was worn differed statistically ( p < 0.05). It is revealed that a typical safety eyewear can reduce the mean of the PAR value by approximately 2.5 dB. The results also showed that measurements based on the MIRE method resulted in low variability. The variability in NR values between individuals, within individuals, and within earmuffs was not the statistically significant ( p > 0.05). This study could provide local individual fit data. Ergonomic aspects of the earmuffs and different levels of users experience and awareness can be considered the main factors affecting individual fitting compared with the laboratory condition for acquiring the labeled NR data. Based on the obtained fit testing results, the field application of MIRE can be employed for complementary studies in real workstations while workers perform their regular work duties.

  13. Other Products and Devices to Improve Hearing

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Consumer Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Other Products and Devices to Improve Hearing Share Tweet Linkedin ... no hearing in one ear. Personal Sound Amplification Products Personal Sound Amplification Products (PSAPs), or sound amplifiers, ...

  14. Calibration of an In-Ear Dosimeter for a Single Hearing Protection Device

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    history of ototoxic medication use, audiological history of tinnitus , etc. A total of 54 subjects were screened to participate in this study.1 subject...was excluded from this study based on a history of seizures. 18 subjects were excluded based on hearing threshold results. 15 subjects were...Military Service: Implications for hearing loss and tinnitus ”, Washington, DC, National Academies Press. 7. United States Government Accountability Office

  15. Surgical and Technical Modalities for Hearing Restoration in Ear Malformations.

    PubMed

    Dazert, Stefan; Thomas, Jan Peter; Volkenstein, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Malformations of the external and middle ear often go along with an aesthetic and functional handicap. Independent of additional aesthetic procedures, a successful functional hearing restoration leads to a tremendous gain in quality of life for affected patients. The introduction of implantable hearing systems (bone conduction and middle ear devices) offers new therapeutic options in this field. We focus on functional rehabilitation of patients with malformations, either by surgical reconstruction or the use of different implantable hearing devices, depending on the disease itself and the severity of malformation as well as hearing impairment. Patients with an open ear canal and minor malformations are good candidates for surgical hearing restoration of middle ear structures with passive titanium or autologous implants. In cases with complete fibrous or bony atresia of the ear canal, the most promising functional outcome and gain in quality of life can be expected with an active middle ear implant or a bone conduction device combined with a surgical aesthetic rehabilitation in a single or multi-step procedure. Although the surgical procedure for bone conduction devices is straightforward and safe, more sophisticated operations for active middle ear implants (e.g., Vibrant Soundbridge, MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria) provide an improved speech discrimination in noise and the ability of sound localization compared with bone conduction devices where the stimulation reaches both cochleae. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Pinnaplasty: reshaping ears to improve hearing aid retention.

    PubMed

    Gault, David; Grob, Marion; Odili, Joy

    2007-01-01

    The hearing aid is extremely important to the deaf. A small number have difficulty in retaining the device because the ear is prominent or cup-shaped. This report describes 11 children whose ear shape was modified to improve hearing aid retention and one adult in whom an over set back ear was released to allow fitment of a postaural device. In eight of the 11 children treated, conservative measures such as double-sided tape and retention bands (Huggies) had been tried previously without success. The creation of an antihelical fold in a misshapen ear lacking such a fold provides a reinforcing strut which is useful to support a hearing aid. In patients whose ear had been excessively tethered by previous surgery, projection was restored by inserting a cartilage block behind the ear. In one child with ears tethered by previous surgery, costal cartilage was used not only to release both ears, but also to reconstruct a new helical rim on one side. Surgery enabled a normal postaural hearing aid to be worn in 17 of the 19 ears treated. The two failures deserve special mention. In one patient with a unilateral deformity and severe mental retardation, the dressings were pulled off immediately after surgery. In another patient with a bilateral problem, the appearance and hearing aid retention was improved, but there was not enough room in the postauricular sulcus on one side for the battery component to fit comfortably and an in-the-ear device is now used on that side. Pinnaplasty is a helpful strategy to improve hearing aid retention. Care must be taken not to overdo the set back so that enough room is left to retain the hearing device.

  17. A study of the real-world noise attenuation of the current hearing protection devices in typical workplaces using Field Microphone in Real Ear method.

    PubMed

    Aliabadi, Mohsen; Biabani, Azam; Golmohammadi, Rostam; Farhadian, Maryam

    2018-05-28

    Actual noise reduction of the earmuffs is considered as one of the main challenges for the evaluation of the effectiveness of a hearing conservation program. The current study aimed to determine the real world noise attenuation of current hearing protection devices in typical workplaces using a field microphone in real ear (FMIRE) method. In this cross-sectional study, five common earmuffs were investigated among 50 workers in two industrial factories with different noise characteristics. Noise reduction data was measured with the use of earmuffs based on the ISO 11904 standard, field microphone in real ear method, using noise dosimeter (SVANTEK, model SV 102) equipped with a microphone SV 25 model. The actual insertion losses (IL) of the tested earmuffs in octave band were lower than the labeled insertion loss data (p <  0.05). The frequency nature of noise to which workers are exposed has noticeable effects on the actual noise reduction of earmuffs (p <  0.05). The results suggest that the proportion of time using earmuffs has a considerable impact on the effective noise reduction during the workday. Data about the ambient noise characteristics is a key criterion when evaluating the acoustic performance of hearing protectors in any workplaces. Comfort aspects should be considered as one of the most important criteria for long-term use and effective wearing of hearing protection devices. FMIRE could facilitate rapid and simple measurement of the actual performance of the current earmuffs employed by workers during different work activities.

  18. Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and ... loss. How does otitis media affect a child’s hearing? All children with middle ear infection or fluid ...

  19. Statistics about Hearing, Balance, Ear Infections and Deafness

    MedlinePlus

    ... You are here Home » Health Info Statistics about Hearing, Balance, Ear Infections, and Deafness Quick Statistics Charts ... What the Numbers Mean: An Epidemiological Perspective on Hearing References on Hearing Epidemiology Last Updated Date: October ...

  20. Devices for hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIDCD). Assistive devices for people with hearing, voice, speech, or language disorders. Nidcd.nih.gov Web site. www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/assistive-devices-people-hearing-voice-speech-or-language-disorders . Updated March 6, 2017. Accessed July 5, 2017. ...

  1. Challenges in fitting a hearing aid to a severely collapsed ear canal and mixed hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Oeding, Kristi; Valente, Michael; Chole, Richard

    2012-04-01

    Collapsed ear canals typically occur when an outside force, such as a headset for audiometric testing, is present. However, when a collapsed ear canal occurs without external pressure, this creates a challenge not only for performing audiometric testing but also for coupling a hearing aid to the ear canal. This case report highlights the challenges associated with fitting a hearing aid on a patient with a severe anterior-posterior collapsed ear canal with a mixed hearing loss. A 67-yr-old female originally presented to Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine in 1996 with a long-standing history of bilateral otosclerosis. She had chronic ear infections in the right ear and a severely collapsed ear canal in the left ear and was fit with a bone anchored hearing aid (BAHA®) on the right side in 2003. However, benefit from the BAHA started to decrease due to changes in hearing, and a different hearing solution was needed. It was proposed that a hearing aid be fit to her collapsed left ear canal; however, trying to couple a hearing aid to the collapsed ear canal required unique noncustom earmold solutions. This case study highlights some of the obstacles and potential solutions for coupling a hearing aid to a severely collapsed ear canal. American Academy of Audiology.

  2. External ear anomalies and hearing impairment in Noonan Syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Trier, Dorothée C; van Nierop, Josephine; Draaisma, Jos M Th; van der Burgt, Ineke; Kunst, Henricus; Croonen, Ellen A; Admiraal, Ronald J C

    2015-06-01

    This is the first cohort in which hearing impairment and external ear anomalies in Noonan Syndrome are described extensively. Retrospective analysis of the otorhinolaryngological and clinical genetic data from 97 Noonan Syndrome (NS) patients. Forty-four NS patients were seen by an otorhinolaryngologist for the analysis of hearing impairment. In our cohort 80 of the 97 patients were genetically tested. In 71 of these mutations were found: in 48 patients a mutation in PTPN11, in 10 patients in SOS1, in 5 patients in SHOC2, in 5 patients in RAF1, in 1 patient in MAP2K2, in 1 patient in KRAS and in 1 patient in A2ML1. External ear anomalies were reported in 75 NS patients (77%). In 69 patients the ears were low-set, 28 patients had posteriorly rotated ears, 14 patients showed protruding ears and 18 had thickened helices. Hearing impairment was detected in 34 NS patients. Nine patients had sensorineural hearing impairment, two a permanent conductive hearing impairment, two other patients had mixed hearing impairment and 20 patients had conductive hearing impairment in the past, caused by otitis media with effusion. Their temporary conductive hearing impairment resolved between the ages of 2 and 18 years. Sensorineural hearing impairment varied between mild high-frequency hearing impairment and profound (uni- and bilateral) hearing impairment and was progressive in three patients. Four NS patients received cochlear implants for their severe sensorineural hearing impairment. The cohort is small for genotype-phenotype correlations, but sensorineural hearing impairment, especially the bilateral severe hearing impairment, was only seen in patients with a PTPN11 mutation. NS is characterized by dysmorphic external ear anomalies and both sensorineural and conductive hearing impairment. Audiological examinations are recommended in all patients with Noonan Syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluating the physical fit of receiver-in-the-ear hearing aids in infants.

    PubMed

    Caporali, Sueli Aparecida; Schmidt, Erik; Eriksson, Asa; Sköld, Birgitta; Popecki, Barbara; Larsson, Josefina; Auriemmo, Jane

    2013-03-01

    In spite of early identification and intervention efforts achieved by Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) programs, many infants with hearing loss experience delays in early vocabulary development in comparison to peers with normal hearing (Mayne, Yoshinaga-Itano, Sedey, 2000a; Mayne, Yoshinaga-Itano, Sedey, Carey, 2000b; Moeller et al, 2007a, 2007b). One of the several factors that may contribute to individual differences in outcomes is inconsistent hearing aid use in this age group. This may be associated with the physical fit when using traditional behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing aids, since they are relatively large in comparison with the small and soft ear of an infant. Receiver-in-the-ear (RITE) hearing aids may be advantageous for use in pediatric fittings, since they are very tiny and lightweight and therefore sit comfortably on a small soft ear. To evaluate the use of a RITE hearing aid with an instant ear-tip especially developed for infants in terms of physical fit, stability, safety, and security of the device, as well as the use of retention tools (remedies for keeping the hearing aid securely on the ear) with this age group. A longitudinal study with hearing impaired infants fitted with RITE hearing aids was performed. Eighteen infants with mild to moderate/severe hearing loss participated in the study. The age range was 2-36 mo. Sixteen infants had worn hearing aids prior to their participation in the study. Each hearing impaired infant was fitted with the RITE hearing aid and an instant ear-tip, the size of which was chosen by the audiologist. The infants used the device for a period of 2-5 mo. Audiologists and parents completed questionnaires at every visit (5-7 visits in total). Responses were obtained using a category rating scale (Stevens, 1975) from 0 to 10. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and nonparametric statistics. Sixteen of the 18 children completed the study. At the end of the study, 11 of the 16 children

  4. Association Between Hearing Loss And Cauliflower Ear in Wrestlers, a Case Control Study Employing Hearing Tests.

    PubMed

    Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Rostami, Mohsen; Nourian, Ruhollah; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Sarough Farahani, Saeed; Farahbakhsh, Farzin; Kordi, Ramin

    2015-06-01

    According to anecdotal findings, some wrestling coaches and wrestlers believe that cauliflower ear might lead to hearing loss. Our preliminary study showed that the prevalence of hearing loss reported by the wrestlers with cauliflower ear is significantly higher than this rate among wrestlers without cauliflower ear. To the best of our knowledge, no other study has confirmed this finding employing hearing tests. To evaluate and to compare the prevalence of hearing loss among wrestlers with and without cauliflower ears employing hearing tests. The subjects were randomly selected form 14 wrestling clubs in Tehran. Subjects were 201 wrestlers with cauliflower ears (100 wrestlers with one cauliflower ear and 101 wrestlers with two cauliflower ears) and 139 wrestlers without cauliflower ears. All the participants in this study were interviewed to collect information on demographic factors and medical history of risk factors and diseases related to hearing loss. The subjects in both groups underwent otoscopic and audiologic examinations. Audiometric examination results at the frequency range of 0.5 - 8 KHz showed that the prevalence of hearing loss among cauliflower ears was higher than this rate among non-cauliflower ears. Also, the percentage of positive history of ear infections among cauliflower ears (8.4%) was about two times more than this finding among non-cauliflower ears (4.9%). This difference tended to be significant (OR: 1.86, P = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.98 - 3.53). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that the prevalence of hearing loss among cauliflower ears is higher than this rate among non-cauliflower ears confirmed by audiological tests. This emphasizes that, more preventive measures such as mandatory ear gear for wrestlers are required.

  5. Association Between Hearing Loss And Cauliflower Ear in Wrestlers, a Case Control Study Employing Hearing Tests

    PubMed Central

    Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Rostami, Mohsen; Nourian, Ruhollah; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Sarough Farahani, Saeed; Farahbakhsh, Farzin; Kordi, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to anecdotal findings, some wrestling coaches and wrestlers believe that cauliflower ear might lead to hearing loss. Our preliminary study showed that the prevalence of hearing loss reported by the wrestlers with cauliflower ear is significantly higher than this rate among wrestlers without cauliflower ear. To the best of our knowledge, no other study has confirmed this finding employing hearing tests. Objectives: To evaluate and to compare the prevalence of hearing loss among wrestlers with and without cauliflower ears employing hearing tests. Patients and Methods: The subjects were randomly selected form 14 wrestling clubs in Tehran. Subjects were 201 wrestlers with cauliflower ears (100 wrestlers with one cauliflower ear and 101 wrestlers with two cauliflower ears) and 139 wrestlers without cauliflower ears. All the participants in this study were interviewed to collect information on demographic factors and medical history of risk factors and diseases related to hearing loss. The subjects in both groups underwent otoscopic and audiologic examinations. Results: Audiometric examination results at the frequency range of 0.5 - 8 KHz showed that the prevalence of hearing loss among cauliflower ears was higher than this rate among non-cauliflower ears. Also, the percentage of positive history of ear infections among cauliflower ears (8.4%) was about two times more than this finding among non-cauliflower ears (4.9%). This difference tended to be significant (OR: 1.86, P = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.98 - 3.53). Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that the prevalence of hearing loss among cauliflower ears is higher than this rate among non-cauliflower ears confirmed by audiological tests. This emphasizes that, more preventive measures such as mandatory ear gear for wrestlers are required. PMID:26448842

  6. Mechanisms of Hearing Loss after Blast Injury to the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Il; Gao, Simon S.; Xia, Anping; Wang, Rosalie; Salles, Felipe T.; Raphael, Patrick D.; Abaya, Homer; Wachtel, Jacqueline; Baek, Jongmin; Jacobs, David; Rasband, Matthew N.; Oghalai, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the frequent use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) around the world, the study of traumatic blast injuries is of increasing interest. The ear is the most common organ affected by blast injury because it is the body’s most sensitive pressure transducer. We fabricated a blast chamber to re-create blast profiles similar to that of IEDs and used it to develop a reproducible mouse model to study blast-induced hearing loss. The tympanic membrane was perforated in all mice after blast exposure and found to heal spontaneously. Micro-computed tomography demonstrated no evidence for middle ear or otic capsule injuries; however, the healed tympanic membrane was thickened. Auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission threshold shifts were found to be correlated with blast intensity. As well, these threshold shifts were larger than those found in control mice that underwent surgical perforation of their tympanic membranes, indicating cochlear trauma. Histological studies one week and three months after the blast demonstrated no disruption or damage to the intra-cochlear membranes. However, there was loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) within the basal turn of the cochlea and decreased spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and afferent nerve synapses. Using our mouse model that recapitulates human IED exposure, our results identify that the mechanisms underlying blast-induced hearing loss does not include gross membranous rupture as is commonly believed. Instead, there is both OHC and SGN loss that produce auditory dysfunction. PMID:23840874

  7. Inner ear contribution to bone conduction hearing in the human.

    PubMed

    Stenfelt, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    Bone conduction (BC) hearing relies on sound vibration transmission in the skull bone. Several clinical findings indicate that in the human, the skull vibration of the inner ear dominates the response for BC sound. Two phenomena transform the vibrations of the skull surrounding the inner ear to an excitation of the basilar membrane, (1) inertia of the inner ear fluid and (2) compression and expansion of the inner ear space. The relative importance of these two contributors were investigated using an impedance lumped element model. By dividing the motion of the inner ear boundary in common and differential motion it was found that the common motion dominated at frequencies below 7 kHz but above this frequency differential motion was greatest. When these motions were used to excite the model it was found that for the normal ear, the fluid inertia response was up to 20 dB greater than the compression response. This changed in the pathological ear where, for example, otosclerosis of the stapes depressed the fluid inertia response and improved the compression response so that inner ear compression dominated BC hearing at frequencies above 400 Hz. The model was also able to predict experimental and clinical findings of BC sensitivity in the literature, for example the so called Carhart notch in otosclerosis, increased BC sensitivity in superior semicircular canal dehiscence, and altered BC sensitivity following a vestibular fenestration and RW atresia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ear canal dynamic motion as a source of power for in-ear devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delnavaz, Aidin; Voix, Jérémie

    2013-02-01

    Ear canal deformation caused by temporomandibular joint (jaw joint) activity, also known as "ear canal dynamic motion," is introduced in this paper as a candidate source of power to possibly recharge hearing aid batteries. The geometrical deformation of the ear canal is quantified in 3D by laser scanning of different custom ear moulds. An experimental setup is proposed to measure the amount of power potentially available from this source. The results show that 9 mW of power is available from a 15 mm3 dynamic change in the ear canal volume. Finally, the dynamic motion and power capability of the ear canal are investigated in a group of 12 subjects.

  9. The Dose Response Relationship between In Ear Occupational Noise Exposure and Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitz, Peter M.; Galusha, Deron; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Clougherty, Jane E.; Neitzel, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Current understanding of the dose-response relationship between occupational noise and hearing loss is based on cross-sectional studies prior to the widespread use hearing protection and with limited data regarding noise exposures below 85dBA. We report on the hearing loss experience of a unique cohort of industrial workers with daily monitoring of noise inside of hearing protection devices. Methods At an industrial facility, workers exhibiting accelerated hearing loss were enrolled in a mandatory program to monitor daily noise exposures inside of hearing protection. We compared these noise measurements (as time-weighted LAVG) to interval rates of high frequency hearing loss over a six year period using a mixed effects model, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Workers’ high frequency hearing levels at study inception averaged more than 40 dB hearing threshold level (HTL). Most noise exposures were less than 85dBA (mean LAVG 76 dBA, interquartile range 74 to 80 dBA). We found no statistical relationship between LAvg and high frequency hearing loss (p = 0.53). Using a metric for monthly maximum noise exposure did not improve model fit. Conclusion At-ear noise exposures below 85dBA did not show an association with risk of high frequency hearing loss among workers with substantial past noise exposure and hearing loss at baseline. Therefore, effective noise control to below 85dBA may lead to significant reduction in occupational hearing loss risk in such individuals. Further research is needed on the dose response relationship of noise and hearing loss in individuals with normal hearing and little prior noise exposure. PMID:23825197

  10. Ear malformations, hearing loss and hearing rehabilitation in children with Treacher Collins syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Francisco; Coutinho, Miguel Bebiano; Ferreira, João Pinto; Sousa, Cecilia Almeida

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the main ear malformations, hearing loss and auditory rehabilitation in children with Treacher Collins syndrome. We performed a retrospective study of 9 children with Treacher Collins syndrome treated in a central hospital between January 2003 and January 2013. This study showed a high incidence of malformations of the outer and middle ear, such as microtia, atresia or stenosis of the external auditory canal, hypoplastic middle ear cavity, dysmorphic or missing ossicular chain. Most patients had bilateral hearing loss of moderate or high degree. In the individuals studied, there was functional improvement in patients with bone-anchored hearing aids in relation to conventional hearing aids by bone conduction. Treacher Collins syndrome is characterized by bilateral malformations of the outer and middle ear. Hearing rehabilitation in these children is of utmost importance, and bone-anchored hearing aids is the method of choice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  11. Wind noise within and across behind-the-ear and miniature behind-the-ear hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Zakis, Justin A; Hawkins, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies investigated wind noise with Behind-The-Ear (BTE) hearing aids, but not the more common mini-BTE style of device, which typically has a smaller shell and microphones located more deeply behind the pinna. The current study investigated wind-noise levels across one BTE and two mini-BTE devices, and between the front and rear omni-directional microphones within devices. Levels were measured at two wind speeds (3 and 6 m/s) and 36 wind azimuths (10° increments). The pattern of wind-noise level versus azimuth was similar across mini-BTE devices, and differed for the BTE device. However, mean levels were markedly different across mini-BTE devices, and could be higher, lower, or similar to those of the BTE device. For within-device level differences, the pattern and mean across azimuth were similar across mini-BTE devices, and differed for the BTE device. Wind noise had the potential to slightly or severely reduce speech intelligibility at 3 or 6 m/s, respectively, across all devices.

  12. Ear surgery techniques results on hearing threshold improvement

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtarinejad, Farhad; Pour, Saeed Soheili; Nilforoush, Mohammad Hussein; Sepehrnejad, Mahsa; Mirelahi, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bone conduction (BC) threshold depression is not always by means of sensory neural hearing loss and sometimes it is an artifact caused by middle ear pathologies and ossicular chain problems. In this research, the influences of ear surgeries on bone conduction were evaluated. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a clinical trial study. The ear surgery performed on 83 patients classified in four categories: Stapedectomy, tympanomastoid surgery and ossicular reconstruction partially or totally; Partial Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis (PORP) and Total Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis (TORP). Bone conduction thresholds assessed in frequencies of 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz pre and post the surgery. Results: In stapedectomy group, the average of BC threshold in all frequencies improved approximately 6 dB in frequency of 2000 Hz. In tympanomastoid group, BC threshold in the frequency of 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz changed 4 dB (P-value < 0.05). Moreover, In the PORP group, 5 dB enhancement was seen in 1000 and 2000 Hz. In TORP group, the results confirmed that BC threshold improved in all frequencies especially at 4000 Hz about 6.5 dB. Conclusion: In according to results of this study, BC threshold shift was seen after several ear surgeries such as stapedectomy, tympanoplasty, PORP and TORP. The average of BC improvement was approximately 5 dB. It must be considered that BC depression might happen because of ossicular chain problems. Therefore; by resolving middle ear pathologies, the better BC threshold was obtained, the less hearing problems would be faced. PMID:24381615

  13. Systematic review of middle ear implants: do they improve hearing as much as conventional hearing AIDS?

    PubMed

    Tysome, James R; Moorthy, Ram; Lee, Ambrose; Jiang, Dan; O'Connor, Alec Fitzgerald

    2010-12-01

    A systematic review to determine whether middle ear implants (MEIs) improve hearing as much as hearing aids. Databases included MEDLINE, EMBASE, DARE, and Cochrane searched with no language restrictions from 1950 or the start date of each database. Initial search found 644 articles, of which 17 met the inclusion criteria of MEI in adults with a sensorineural hearing loss, where hearing outcomes and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) compared MEI with conventional hearing aids (CHAs). Study quality assessment included whether ethical approval was gained, the study was prospective, eligibility criteria specified, a power calculation made and appropriate controls, outcome measures, and analysis performed. Middle ear implant outcome analysis included residual hearing, complications, and comparison to CHA in terms of functional gain, speech perception in quiet and in noise, and validated PROM questionnaires. Because of heterogeneity of outcome measures, comparisons were made by structured review. The quality of studies was moderate to poor with short follow-up. The evidence supports the use of MEI because, overall, they do not decrease residual hearing, result in a functional gain in hearing comparable to CHA, and may improve perception of speech in noise and sound quality. We recommend the publication of long-term results comparing MEI with CHA, reporting a minimum of functional gain, speech perception in quiet and in noise, complications, and a validated PROM to guide the engineering of the new generation of MEI in the future.

  14. Electromagnetic semi-implantable hearing device: phase I. Clinical trials.

    PubMed

    McGee, T M; Kartush, J M; Heide, J C; Bojrab, D I; Clemis, J D; Kulick, K C

    1991-04-01

    Conventional hearing aids have improved significantly in recent years; however, amplification of sound within the external auditory canal creates a number of intrinsic problems, including acoustic feedback and the need for a tight ear mold to increase usable gain. Nonacoustic alternatives which could obviate these encumbrances have not become practical due to inefficient coupling (piezoelectric techniques) or unfeasible power requirements (electromagnetic techniques). Recent technical advances, however, prompted a major clinical investigation of a new electromagnetic, semi-implantable hearing device. This study presents the details of clinical phase I, in which an electromagnetic driver was coupled with a target magnet temporarily affixed onto the lateral surface of the malleus of six hearing aid users with sensorineural losses. The results indicate that the electromagnetic hearing device provides sufficient gain and output characteristics to benefit individuals with sensorineural hearing loss. Significant improvements compared to conventional hearing aids were noted in pure-tone testing and, to a lesser degree, in speech discrimination. Subjective responses were quite favorable, indicating that the electromagnetic hearing device 1. produces no acoustic feedback; 2. works well in noisy environments; and 3. provides a more quiet, natural sound than patients' conventional hearing aids. These favorable results led to phase II of the project, in which patients with surgically amendable mixed hearing losses were implanted with the target magnet incorporated within a hydroxyapatite ossicular prosthesis. The results of this second-stage investigation were also encouraging and will be reported separately.

  15. Conductive hearing loss and middle ear pathology in young infants referred through a newborn universal hearing screening program in Australia.

    PubMed

    Aithal, Sreedevi; Aithal, Venkatesh; Kei, Joseph; Driscoll, Carlie

    2012-10-01

    Although newborn hearing screening programs have been introduced in most states in Australia, the prevalence of conductive hearing loss and middle ear pathology in the infants referred through these programs is not known. This study was designed to (1) evaluate the prevalence of conductive hearing loss and middle ear pathology in infants referred by a newborn hearing screening program in north Queensland, (2) compare prevalence rates of conductive hearing loss and middle ear pathology in indigenous and nonindigenous infants, and (3) review the outcomes of those infants diagnosed with conductive hearing loss and middle ear pathology. Retrospective chart review of infants referred to the Audiology Department of The Townsville Hospital was conducted. Chart review of 234 infants referred for one or both ears from a newborn hearing screening program in north Queensland was conducted. A total of 211 infants attended the diagnostic appointment. Review appointments to monitor hearing status were completed for 46 infants with middle ear pathology or conductive hearing loss. Diagnosis of hearing impairment was made using an age-appropriate battery of audiological tests. Results were analyzed for both initial and review appointments. Mean age at initial diagnostic assessment was 47.5 days (SD = 31.3). Of the 69 infants with middle ear pathology during initial diagnostic assessment, 18 had middle ear pathology with normal hearing, 47 had conductive hearing loss, and 4 had mixed hearing loss. Prevalence of conductive hearing loss in the newborns was 2.97 per 1,000 while prevalence of middle ear pathology (with or without conductive hearing loss) was 4.36 per 1,000. Indigenous Australians or Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) infants had a significantly higher prevalence of conductive hearing loss and middle ear pathology than non-ATSI infants (35.19 and 44.45% vs 17.83 and 28.66%, respectively). ATSI infants also showed poor resolution of conductive hearing loss

  16. Amplification options in unilateral aural atresia: an active middle ear implant or a bone conduction device?

    PubMed

    Agterberg, Martijn J H; Frenzel, Henning; Wollenberg, Barbara; Somers, Thomas; Cremers, Cor W R J; Snik, Ad F M

    2014-01-01

    There is no consensus on treatment of patients with congenital unilateral aural atresia. Currently, 3 intervention options are available, namely, surgical reconstruction, application of a bone-conduction device (BCD), or application of a middle ear implant. The present study aims to compare the BCD with the application of a middle ear implant. We hypothesized that cross-hearing (stimulating the cochlea by means of bone conduction contralateral to the implanted side) would cause BCD users to have difficulty performing localization tasks. Audiologic data of 4 adult patients with a middle ear implant coupled directly to the cochlea were compared with data of 4 adult patients fitted with an osseointegrated BCD. All patients were fitted during adulthood. The emphasis of this study is on directional hearing. The middle ear implant and the BCD improved sound localization of patients with congenital unilateral aural atresia. Unaided scores demonstrate a large variation. Our results demonstrate that there was no advantage of the middle ear implant over the BCD for directional hearing in patients who had no amplification in childhood. The BCD users had the best bandwidth.

  17. Sensitive high frequency hearing in earless and partially eared harlequin frogs (Atelopus).

    PubMed

    Womack, Molly C; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Coloma, Luis A; Hoke, Kim L

    2018-04-19

    Harlequin frogs, genus Atelopus , communicate at high frequencies despite most species lacking a complete tympanic middle ear that facilitates high frequency hearing in most anurans and other tetrapods. Here we test whether Atelopus are better at sensing high frequency acoustic sound compared to other eared and earless species in the Bufonidae family, determine whether middle ear variation within Atelopus affects hearing sensitivity, and test potential hearing mechanisms in Atelopus We determine that at high frequencies (2000-4000 Hz) Atelopus are 10-34 dB more sensitive than other earless bufonids but are relatively insensitive to mid-range frequencies (900-1500 Hz) compared to eared bufonids. Hearing among Atelopus species is fairly consistent, evidence that the partial middle ears present in a subset of Atelopus species do not convey a substantial hearing advantage. We further demonstrate that Atelopus hearing is not likely facilitated by vibration of the skin overlying the normal tympanic membrane region or the body lung wall, leaving the extratympanic hearing pathways in Atelopus enigmatic. Together these results show Atelopus have sensitive high frequency hearing without the aid of a tympanic middle ear and prompt further study of extratympanic hearing mechanisms in anurans. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. World Health Organization and Its Initiative for Ear and Hearing Care.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Shelly; Cieza, Alarcos

    2018-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) addresses ear diseases and hearing loss through its program on prevention of deafness and hearing loss. Recently, the World Health Assembly called for action at global and national levels to tackle the rising prevalence and adverse impact of unaddressed hearing loss. Following a public health approach toward this issue, WHO is focusing on i) raising awareness among policymakers and civil society; and ii) providing technical support to countries for promoting hearing care. Meeting this challenge requires a coordinated global effort with all stakeholders working together to make ear and hearing care accessible to all. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Should children who use cochlear implants wear hearing aids in the opposite ear?

    PubMed

    Ching, T Y; Psarros, C; Hill, M; Dillon, H; Incerti, P

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 1) whether a hearing aid needs to be adjusted differently depending on whether a child wears a cochlear implant or another hearing aid in the contralateral ear; 2) whether the use of a hearing aid and a cochlear implant in opposite ears leads to binaural interference; and 3) whether the use of a hearing aid and a cochlear implant in opposite ears leads to binaural benefits in speech perception, localization, and communicative functioning in real life. Sixteen children participated in this study. All children used a Nucleus 22 or Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system programmed with the SPEAK strategy in one ear. The hearing aid amplification requirements in the nonimplanted ear of these children were determined using two procedures. A paired comparison technique was used to identify the frequency response that was best for speech intelligibility in quiet, and a loudness balancing technique was used to match the loudness of speech in the ear with a hearing aid to that with a cochlear implant. Eleven of the 16 children participated in the investigation of binaural effects. Performance in speech perception, localization, and communicative functioning was assessed under four aided conditions: cochlear implant with hearing aid as worn, cochlear implant alone, hearing aid alone, and cochlear implant with hearing aid adjusted according to individual requirements. Fifteen of the 16 children whose amplification requirements were determined preferred a hearing aid frequency response that was within +/-6 dB/octave of the NAL-RP prescription. On average, the children required 6 dB more gain than prescribed to balance the loudness of the implanted ear for a speech signal presented at 65 dB SPL. For all 11 children whose performance was evaluated for investigating binaural effects, there was no indication of significantly poorer performance under bilaterally aided conditions compared with unilaterally aided conditions. On average, there were

  20. Benefits of active middle ear implants in mixed hearing loss: Stapes versus round window.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeon Mi; Jung, Jinsei; Moon, In Seok; Kim, Sung Huhn; Choi, Jae Young

    2017-06-01

    We compared the audiologic benefits of active middle ear implants with those of passive middle ear implants with hearing aids in mixed hearing loss, and also compared the outcomes of stapes vibroplasty with those of round window vibroplasty. Retrospective chart review. Thirty-four patients with mixed hearing loss due to chronic otitis media were treated with a middle ear implant. Of these, 15 were treated with a passive middle ear implant (conventional ossiculoplasty with a partial ossicular replacement prosthesis), nine with an active middle ear implant coupling to the stapes, and 10 with an active middle ear implant coupling to the round window. Patients underwent pure-tone/free-field audiograms and speech discrimination tests before surgery and 6 months after surgery, and the results of these tests were compared. The active middle ear implant resulted in better outcomes than the passive middle ear implant with hearing aids at mid to high frequencies (P < .05). Patients who received either a stapes vibroplasty or a round window vibroplasty showed comparable hearing gain except at 8,000 Hz (48.9 dB vs. 31.0 dB, P < .05). Patients who received a stapes vibroplasty showed an improvement even in bone conduction at 1,000 Hz and 2,000 Hz (both P < .05). Active middle ear implantation could be a better option than treatment with passive middle ear implants with hearing aids for achieving rehabilitation in patients with mixed hearing loss. Vibroplasty via either oval window or round window stimulation shares similar good results. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:1435-1441, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Customized acoustic transform functions and their accuracy at predicting real-ear hearing aid performance.

    PubMed

    Munro, K J; Hatton, N

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the validity of predicting the real-ear aided response by adding customized acoustic transform functions to the performance of a hearing aid in a 2-cc coupler. The real-ear hearing aid response, the real-ear-to-coupler difference (RECD/HA2), and field to behind-the-ear microphone transfer functions were measured in both ears of 24 normally hearing subjects using probe-tube microphone equipment. The RECD/HA2 transform function was obtained using both insert earphones and with the hearing aid/ pressure comparison method. An RECD/HA2 transfer function was also obtained with a customized earmold, ER-3A foam tip, and an oto-admittance tip. Validity estimates were calculated as the difference between the derived and measured real-ear response. The derived response was generally within 5 dB of the measured real-ear response when it incorporated an RECD/HA2 transform function obtained with a customized earmold for the specific ear in question. Discrepancies increased when the RECD/HA2 transfer function was obtained from the same subject but the opposite ear. There were significant differences between the RECD/HA2 transform function obtained with customized and temporary earmolds. As a result, the derived response incorporating these transforms differed significantly from the measured real-ear response obtained with the customized earmold. The insert earphone and the hearing aid RECD/HA2 transfer function were equally valid. The derived response may be used as a substitute for in situ hearing aid response procedures when it incorporates acoustic transform functions obtained with a customized earmold from the specific ear in question.

  2. [Effect of rehabilitation for prelingual deaf children who use cochlear implants in conjunction with hearing aids in the opposite ears].

    PubMed

    Tian, Yanjing; Zhou, Huifang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Dong; Xu, Yi; Guo, Yuxi

    2012-10-01

    To compare the effect of rehabilitation of prelingual deaf children who used a cochlear implant (CI) in one ear and a hearing aids in the opposite ear while the hearing level of the opposite ears are different. Hearing ability, language ability and learning ability was included in the content. The aim of this research is to investigate better style of rehabilitation, and to offer the best help to the prelingual deaf children. Accord ing to the hearing level of the ear opposite to the one wearing a cochlear implant and whether the opposite ear wear a hearing aid or not, 30 prelingual deaf children were divided into three groups, including cochlear implant with opposite severe hearing loss and hearing aid ear (CI+SHA), cochlear implant with opposite profound hearing loss and hearing aid ear (CI+PHA), cochlear implant only (CI). The effect of rehabilitation was assessed in six different times (3,6,9,12,15 and 18 months after the cochlear implants and hearing aids began to work). The longer time the rehabilitation spends, the better the hearing ability,language ability and the learning ability were. The hearing ability of CI+SHA was better than those of CI+PHA (P<0.05) and CI (P<0.05). The language ability and learning ability of CI-SHA was nearly equal to those of the other two groups. The prelingual deaf children should take much more time on rehabilitation. The effect of rehabilitation for prelingual deaf children who used cochlear implant in one ear and hearing aid in the other depend on the residual hearing level of the other ear. If a prelingual deaf children still has any residual hearing level in the ear opposite to the cochlear implant ear, it is better for him/her to wear a hearing aid in the ear.

  3. Struggling to Hear? Tiny Devices Can Keep You Connected

    MedlinePlus

    ... features. For example, some can connect to your mobile phone, TV, and other devices using Bluetooth technology. That ... Loss? Hearing Aids Hearing Loss and Hearing Aid Use (Infographic) Assistive Devices for People with Hearing, Voice, ...

  4. The Effects of Age at Cleft Palate Repair on Middle Ear Function and Hearing Level.

    PubMed

    Lou, Qun; Zhu, Hongping; Luo, Yi; Zhou, Zhibo; Ma, Lian; Ma, Xiaoran; Fu, Yuan

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the age effects of cleft palate repair on middle ear function and hearing level in patients who underwent cleft palate repair at different ages by audiologic examination. Medical histories were gathered in detail, and audiologic tests (ie, tympanometry and pure tone hearing threshold) were conducted in 126 patients after palatoplasty. The patients were divided into the following 4 groups according to their ages when they underwent cleft palate repair: group I (0-3 years, 73 patients), group II (4-7 years, 29 patients), group III (8-11 years, 16 patients), and group IV (12 years and older, 8 patients). The data regarding tympanograms, hearing levels, and the average hearing thresholds of each group were analyzed using chi-square tests. The prevalence of middle ear dysfunction and hearing loss in the patients who underwent palatoplasty before 3 years old (27.4% and 2.0% respectively) was significantly lower than that in patients who underwent palatopalsty at 12 years or older (75.0% and 43.7%, respectively). Linear-by-linear association revealed that the prevalences of middle ear dysfunction and hearing loss among the 4 groups were significantly different ( P < .05). The prevalence of middle ear dysfunction and hearing loss tended to increase with advancing age at the time of cleft palate repair. From an audiologist's perspective, palatoplasty at an early age is very beneficial in helping children with cleft palates acquire better middle ear function and hearing level.

  5. Validated Smartphone-Based Apps for Ear and Hearing Assessments: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pallawela, Danuk

    2016-01-01

    Background An estimated 360 million people have a disabling hearing impairment globally, the vast majority of whom live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Early identification through screening is important to negate the negative effects of untreated hearing impairment. Substantial barriers exist in screening for hearing impairment in LMICs, such as the requirement for skilled hearing health care professionals and prohibitively expensive specialist equipment to measure hearing. These challenges may be overcome through utilization of increasingly available smartphone app technologies for ear and hearing assessments that are easy to use by unskilled professionals. Objective Our objective was to identify and compare available apps for ear and hearing assessments and consider the incorporation of such apps into hearing screening programs Methods In July 2015, the commercial app stores Google Play and Apple App Store were searched to identify apps for ear and hearing assessments. Thereafter, six databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, Global Health, Web of Science, CINAHL, and mHealth Evidence) were searched to assess which of the apps identified in the commercial review had been validated against gold standard measures. A comparison was made between validated apps. Results App store search queries returned 30 apps that could be used for ear and hearing assessments, the majority of which are for performing audiometry. The literature search identified 11 eligible validity studies that examined 6 different apps. uHear, an app for self-administered audiometry, was validated in the highest number of peer reviewed studies against gold standard pure tone audiometry (n=5). However, the accuracy of uHear varied across these studies. Conclusions Very few of the available apps have been validated in peer-reviewed studies. Of the apps that have been validated, further independent research is required to fully understand their accuracy at detecting ear and hearing conditions. PMID

  6. "Epic Ear Defence"-A Game to Educate Children on the Risks of Noise-Related Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Eikelboom, Robert H; Leishman, Natalie F; Munro, Tyler J; Nguyen, Bach; Riggs, Peter R; Tennant, Jonathon; West, Rhiannon K; Robertson, William B

    2012-12-01

    Hearing loss resulting from overexposure to entertainment-related sounds is a modern concern. "Epic Ear Defence" places the player in the three-dimensional environment of the ear canal and challenges the player to defend the ear from various noises, to delay the onset of noise-related hearing loss.

  7. The role of intracochlear drug delivery devices in the management of inner ear disease.

    PubMed

    Ayoob, Andrew M; Borenstein, Jeffrey T

    2015-03-01

    Diseases of the inner ear include those of the auditory and vestibular systems, and frequently result in disabling hearing loss or vertigo. Despite a rapidly expanding pipeline of potential cochlear therapeutics, the inner ear remains a challenging organ for targeted drug delivery, and new technologies are required to deliver these therapies in a safe and efficacious manner. In addition to traditional approaches for direct inner ear drug delivery, novel microfluidics-based systems are under development, promising improved control over pharmacokinetics over longer periods of delivery, ultimately with application towards hair cell regeneration in humans. Advances in the development of intracochlear drug delivery systems are reviewed, including passive systems, active microfluidic technologies and cochlear prosthesis-mediated delivery. This article provides a description of novel delivery systems and their potential future clinical applications in treating inner ear disease. Recent progresses in microfluidics and miniaturization technologies are enabling the development of wearable and ultimately implantable drug delivery microsystems. Progress in this field is being spurred by the convergence of advances in molecular biology, microfluidic flow control systems and models for drug transport in the inner ear. These advances will herald a new generation of devices, with near-term applications in preclinical models, and ultimately with human clinical use for a range of diseases of the inner ear.

  8. Comparison of Ear-Canal Reflectance and Umbo Velocity in Patients with Conductive Hearing Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchant, Gabrielle R.; Nakajima, Hideko H.; Pisano, Dominic V.; Röösli, Christof; Hamade, Mohamad A.; Mafoud, Lorice; Halpin, Christopher F.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.

    2011-11-01

    Patients who present at hearing clinics with a conductive hearing loss (CHL) in the presence of an intact, healthy tympanic membrane create a unique challenge for otologists. While patient counseling, treatment options, and outcome vary with differing middle-ear pathologies, a non-invasive diagnostic that can differentiate between these pathologies does not currently exist. We evaluated the clinical utility and diagnostic accuracy of two non-invasive measures of middle-ear mechanics: ear-canal reflectance (ECR) and umbo velocity (VU).

  9. Hearing aid silicone impression material as a foreign body in the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Min; Yi, Keun-Ik; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Il-Woo

    We report an extremely rare case of hearing aid silicone impression material as a foreign body in the middle ear. Symptoms of the patient were otorrhea and vertigo after taking of a mold impression on his only hearing ear, and the symptoms mimicked chronic otitis media. A temporal bone CT scan revealed foreign body material in the middle ear and Eustachian tube. An intact canal wall mastoidectomy with a facial recess approach and type IV tympanoplasty was performed to remove the silicone impression material. In addition to the case report, we review the literature regarding impression material foreign bodies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask your Hearing Professional

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders A severe blow to the head Loud noise Assistive Devices Hearing Aids —Small electronic devices worn ... or without hearing aids to overcome distance, background noise, or poor room acoustics. An example is a ...

  11. Speech Perception for Adults Who Use Hearing Aids in Conjunction with Cochlear Implants in Opposite Ears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Mansze; Grayden, David; Dowell, Richard C.; Lawrence, David

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to (a) investigate the effect of using a hearing aid in conjunction with a cochlear implant in opposite ears on speech perception in quiet and in noise, (b) identify the speech information obtained from a hearing aid that is additive to the information obtained from a cochlear implant, and (c) explore the relationship between…

  12. Inner ear anomalies and conductive hearing loss in children with Apert syndrome: an overlooked otologic aspect.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guangwei; Schwartz, Lynn Thomas; Gopen, Quinton

    2009-02-01

    To identify the occurrence of inner ear structural anomalies and conductive hearing loss (CHL) in children with Apert syndrome. Retrospective review. Pediatric tertiary referral center. Twenty pediatric patients with Apert syndrome were found; all patients (38/40 ears) had inner ear anomalies. Computerized tomography of the head/temporal bone, pure-tone (including air and bone conduction) audiometry, and tympanometry. Imaging demonstrating inner ear anomalies, including malformations of the cochlea, dilated vestibule, and/or semicircular canal; audiologic findings of air-bone gap(s). Hearing loss was found in 90% of the patients with Apert syndrome, and 80% of them had CHL. Air-bone gaps were found at all frequencies, with larger gaps at low frequencies. Fifty percent (20/40) of the ears had better than 0 dB hearing level bone conduction thresholds at 250 and/or 500 Hz. Normal middle ear pressure and mobility were found in all ears with intact eardrum. Inner ear anomalies were found in all patients, and 90% of them had bilateral involvement. Most frequently observed inner ear anomalies were dilated vestibule, malformed lateral semicircular canal, and cochlear dysplasia. Children with Apert syndrome may present with significant CHL that cannot be explained by minor middle ear pathologies alone. This conductive loss may be, at least partially, attributed to the inner ear anomalies; however, these structural anomalies are usually not recognized in these patients. Failure to close air-bone gap after surgical intervention may raise the suspicion of inner ear anomalies, and computed tomographic scan of the temporal bone can provide definitive proof.

  13. [Principles of energy sources of totally implantable hearing aids for inner ear hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Baumann, J W; Leysieffer, H

    1998-02-01

    A fully implantable hearing aid consists of a sound receptor (microphone), an electronic amplifier including active audio-signal processing, an electromechanical transducer (actuator) for stimulating the ear by vibration, and an energy source. The energy source may be either a primary cell or a rechargeable (secondary) cell. As the energy requirements of an implantable hearing aid are dependent on the operating principle of the actuator, the operating principles of electromagnetic and piezoelectric transducers were examined with respect to their relative power consumption. The analysis showed that the energy requirements of an implantable hearing aid are significantly increased when an electromagnetic transducer is used. The power consumption of a piezoelectric transducer was found to be less than that of the electronic components alone. The energy needed to run a fully implantable hearing aid under these conditions would be 38 mWH per day. Primary cells cannot provide the energy needed for a minimum operation time of 5 years (70 WH), and therefore rechargeable cells must be used. A theoretical appraisal was carried out on nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium-ion cells to determine their suitability as well as to assess the risks associated with their use in an implant. Safety measures were drawn up from the results. Ni-MH cells were found to be the most suitable for use as an energy source for implantable hearing-aids because they are more robust than Li ion cells and their storage capacity is double that of Ni-Cd cells of similar size.

  14. Effects of user training with electronically-modulated sound transmission hearing protectors and the open ear on horizontal localization ability.

    PubMed

    Casali, John G; Robinette, Martin B

    2015-02-01

    To determine if training with electronically-modulated hearing protection (EMHP) and the open ear results in auditory learning on a horizontal localization task. Baseline localization testing was conducted in three listening conditions (open-ear, in-the-ear (ITE) EMHP, and over-the-ear (OTE) EMHP). Participants then wore either an ITE or OTE EMHP for 12, almost daily, one-hour training sessions. After training was complete, participants again underwent localization testing in all three listening conditions. A computer with a custom software and hardware interface presented localization sounds and collected participant responses. Twelve participants were recruited from the student population at Virginia Tech. Audiometric requirements were 35 dBHL at 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz bilaterally, and 55 dBHL at 4000 Hz in at least one ear. Pre-training localization performance with an ITE or OTE EMHP was worse than open-ear performance. After training with any given listening condition, including open-ear, performance in that listening condition improved, in part from a practice effect. However, post-training localization performance showed near equal performance between the open-ear and training EMHP. Auditory learning occurred for the training EMHP, but not for the non-training EMHP; that is, there was no significant training crossover effect between the ITE and the OTE devices. It is evident from this study that auditory learning (improved horizontal localization performance) occurred with the EMHP for which training was performed. However, performance improvements found with the training EMHP were not realized in the non-training EMHP. Furthermore, localization performance in the open-ear condition also benefitted from training on the task.

  15. Self-administered hearing loss screening using an interactive, tablet play audiometer with ear bud headphones.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Jeffrey C; Heley, Sophie; Beauregard, Yves; Champagne, Sandra; Bromwich, Matthew A

    2015-08-01

    The timely diagnosis and treatment of acquired hearing loss in the pediatric population has significant implications for a child's development. Audiological assessment in children, however, carries both technological and logistical challenges. Typically, specialized methods (such as play audiometry) are required to maintain the child's attention and can be resource intensive. These challenges were previously addressed by a novel, calibrated, interactive play audiometer for Apple(®) iOS(®) called "ShoeBOX Audiometry". This device has potential applications for deployment in environments where traditional clinical audiometry is either unavailable or impractical. The objective of this study was to assess the screening capability of the tablet audiometer in an uncontrolled environment using consumer ear-bud headphones. Consecutive patients presenting to the Audiology Clinic at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (ages 4 and older) were recruited. Participants' hearing was evaluted using the tablet audiometer calibrated to Apple(®) In-Ear headphones. The warble tone thresholds obtained were compared to gold standard measurements taken with a traditional clinical audiometer inside a soundbooth. 80 patients were enrolled. The majority of participants were capable of completing an audiologic assessment using the tablet computer. Due to ambient noise levels outside a soundbooth, thresholds obtained at 500Hz were not consistent with traditional audiometry. Excluding 500Hz threholds, the tablet audiometer demonstrated strong negative predictive value (89.7%) as well as strong sensitivity (91.2%) for hearing loss. Thresholds obtained in an uncontrolled setting are not reflective of diagnostic thresholds due to the uncalibrated nature of the headphones and variability of the setting without a booth. Nevertheless, the tablet audiometer proved to be both a valid and sensitive instrument for unsupervised screening of warble-tone thresholds in children. Copyright © 2015

  16. Comparison of muzzle suppression and ear-level hearing protection in firearm use.

    PubMed

    Branch, Matthew Parker

    2011-06-01

    To compare noise reduction of commercially available ear-level hearing protection (muffs/inserts) to that of firearm muzzle suppressors. Experimental sound measurements under consistent environmental conditions. None. Muzzle suppressors for 2 pistol and 2 rifle calibers were tested using the Bruel & Kjaer 2209 sound meter and Bruel & Kjaer 4136 microphone calibrated with the Bruel & Kjaer Pistonphone using Military-Standard 1474D placement protocol. Five shots were recorded unsuppressed and 10 shots suppressed under consistent environmental conditions. Sound reduction was then compared with the real-world noise reduction rate of the best available ear-level protectors. All suppressors offered significantly greater noise reduction than ear-level protection, usually greater than 50% better. Noise reduction of all ear-level protectors is unable to reduce the impulse pressure below 140 dB for certain common firearms, an international standard for prevention of sensorineural hearing loss. Modern muzzle-level suppression is vastly superior to ear-level protection and the only available form of suppression capable of making certain sporting arms safe for hearing. The inadequacy of standard hearing protectors with certain common firearms is not recognized by most hearing professionals or their patients and should affect the way hearing professionals counsel patients and the public.

  17. Contralateral Occlusion Test: The effect of external ear canal occlusion on hearing thresholds.

    PubMed

    Reis, Luis Roque; Fernandes, Paulo; Escada, Pedro

    Bedside testing with tuning forks may decrease turnaround time and improve decision making for a quick qualitative assessment of hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of ear canal occlusion on hearing, in order to decide which tuning fork frequency is more appropriate to use for quantifying hearing loss with the Contralateral Occlusion Test. Twenty normal-hearing adults (forty ears) underwent sound field pure tone audiometry with and without ear canal occlusion. Each ear was tested with the standard frequencies. The contralateral ear was suppressed with by masking. Ear occlusion was performed by two examiners. Participants aged between 21 and 30 years (25.6±3.03 years) showed an increase in hearing thresholds with increasing frequencies from 19.94dB (250Hz) to 39.25dB (2000Hz). The threshold difference between occluded and unoccluded conditions was statistically significant and increased from 10.69dB (250Hz) to 32.12dB (2000Hz). There were no statistically significant differences according to gender or between the examiners. The occlusion effect increased the hearing thresholds and became more evident with higher frequencies. The occlusion method as performed demonstrated reproducibility. In the Contralateral Occlusion Test, 256Hz or 512Hz tuning forks should be used for diagnosis of mild hearing loss, and a 2048Hz tuning fork should be used for moderate hearing loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence for a Right-Ear Advantage in Newborn Hearing Screening Results.

    PubMed

    Ari-Even Roth, Daphne; Hildesheimer, Minka; Roziner, Ilan; Henkin, Yael

    2016-12-06

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ear asymmetry, order of testing, and gender on transient-evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) pass rates and response levels in newborn hearing screening. The screening results of 879 newborns, of whom 387 (study group) passed screening successfully in only one ear in the first TEOAE screening, but passed screening successfully in both ears thereafter, and 492 (control group) who passed screening successfully in both ears in the first TEOAE, were retrospectively examined for pass rates and TEOAE characteristics. Results indicated a right-ear advantage, as manifested by significantly higher pass rates in the right ear (61% and 39% for right and left ears, respectively) in the study group, and in 1.75 dB greater TEOAE response amplitudes in the control group. The right-ear advantage was enhanced when the first tested ear was the right ear (76%). When the left ear was tested first, pass rates were comparable in both ears. The right-ear advantage in pass rates was similar in females versus males, but manifested in 1.5 dB higher response amplitudes in females compared with males, regardless of the tested ear and order of testing in both study and control groups. The study provides further evidence for the functional lateralization of the auditory system at the cochlear level already apparent soon after birth in both males and females. While order of testing plays a significant role in the asymmetry in pass rates, the innate right-ear advantage seems to be a more dominant contributor. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Evidence for a Right-Ear Advantage in Newborn Hearing Screening Results

    PubMed Central

    Hildesheimer, Minka; Roziner, Ilan; Henkin, Yael

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ear asymmetry, order of testing, and gender on transient-evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) pass rates and response levels in newborn hearing screening. The screening results of 879 newborns, of whom 387 (study group) passed screening successfully in only one ear in the first TEOAE screening, but passed screening successfully in both ears thereafter, and 492 (control group) who passed screening successfully in both ears in the first TEOAE, were retrospectively examined for pass rates and TEOAE characteristics. Results indicated a right-ear advantage, as manifested by significantly higher pass rates in the right ear (61% and 39% for right and left ears, respectively) in the study group, and in 1.75 dB greater TEOAE response amplitudes in the control group. The right-ear advantage was enhanced when the first tested ear was the right ear (76%). When the left ear was tested first, pass rates were comparable in both ears. The right-ear advantage in pass rates was similar in females versus males, but manifested in 1.5 dB higher response amplitudes in females compared with males, regardless of the tested ear and order of testing in both study and control groups. The study provides further evidence for the functional lateralization of the auditory system at the cochlear level already apparent soon after birth in both males and females. While order of testing plays a significant role in the asymmetry in pass rates, the innate right-ear advantage seems to be a more dominant contributor. PMID:27927982

  20. Ear diseases among secondary school students in Xi'an, China: the role of portable audio device use, insomnia and academic stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Li, Xu; Xu, Zhan; Li, Zonghua; Zhang, Pengzhi; He, Ya; Wang, Fangyuan; Qiu, Jianhua

    2011-06-08

    Hearing impairment negatively impacts students' development of academic, language and social skills. Even minimal unilateral hearing loss can hinder educational performance. We investigated the prevalence of ear diseases among secondary school students in the city of Xi'an, China in order to provide a foundation for evidence-based hearing healthcare. A stratified random sampling survey was conducted in 29 secondary schools. Demographics and medical histories were collected, and otologic examinations were performed. Questionnaires were administered to assess insomnia, academic stress and use of portable audio devices. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with hearing impairment, and the association of sensorineural hearing loss with insomnia, academic stress and the use of portable audio devices was analyzed with the chi-square test. The percentage of students with some form of ear disease was 3.32%. External ear disease, middle ear disease and sensorineural hearing loss occurred in 1.21%, 0.64% and 1.47% of the students, respectively. Boys had a relatively higher prevalence of ear disease than girls. According to our survey, the prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss increased significantly among the students with insomnia and extended use of portable audio devices, but not among those with elevated levels of academic stress. Hearing aids and surgical treatment were needed in 1.47% and 0.89% of the students, respectively. There is a high prevalence of ear disease among secondary school students, and this should be given more attention. Insomnia and the excessive use of portable audio devices may be related to adolescent sensorineural hearing loss. It is important to establish and comply with an evidence-based preventive strategy.

  1. Monaural or binaural sound deprivation in postlingual hearing loss: Cochlear implant in the worse ear.

    PubMed

    Canale, Andrea; Dalmasso, Giulia; Dagna, Federico; Lacilla, Michelangelo; Montuschi, Carla; Rosa, Rosalba Di; Albera, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    To determine whether speech recognition scores (SRS) differ between adults with long-term auditory deprivation in the implanted ear and adults who received cochlear implant (CI) in the nonsound-deprived ear, either for hearing aid-assisted or due to rapidly deteriorating hearing loss. Retrospective study. Speech recognition scores at evaluations (3 and 14 months postimplantation) conducted with CI alone at 60-dB sound pressure level intensity were compared in 15 patients (4 with bilateral severe hearing loss; 11 with asymmetric hearing loss, 7 of which had contralateral hearing aid), all with long-term auditory deprivation (mean duration 16.9 years) (group A), and in 15 other patients with postlingual hearing loss (10 symmetric, 5 asymmetric with bimodal stimulation) (controls, group B). Comparison of mean percentage of correctly recognized words on speech audiometry at 3 and 14 months showed improvement within each group (P < 0.05). Between-group comparison showed no significant difference at 3 (P = 0.17) or 14 months (P = 0.46). Comparison of SRSs in group A (bimodal stimulation [n = 7] and binaural sound deprivation [n = 4]) versus group B showed no significant differences at 3 (bimodal stimulation P = 0.16; binaural sound deprivation P = 0.19) or 14 months (bimodal stimulation P = 0.14; binaural sound deprivation P = 0.82). Speech recognition scores in monaural and binaural sound-deprived ears did not significantly differ from ears with unilateral cochlear implantation in nonsound-deprived ears when tested with CI alone. Improvement in the implanted worse ear indicates that it could be a potential candidate ear for cochlear implantation even when sound deprived. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:1905-1910, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Effectiveness of alternative listening devices to conventional hearing aids for adults with hearing loss: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Maidment, David W; Barker, Alex B; Xia, Jun; Ferguson, Melanie A

    2016-10-27

    Hearing loss is a major public health concern, affecting over 11 million people in the UK. While hearing aids are the most common clinical intervention for hearing loss, the majority of people that would benefit from using hearing aids do not take them up. Recent technological advances have led to a rapid increase of alternative listening devices to conventional hearing aids. These include hearing aids that can be customised using a smartphone, smartphone-based 'hearing aid' apps, personal sound amplification products and wireless hearing products. However, no systematic review has been published evaluating whether alternative listening devices are an effective management strategy for people with hearing loss. The objective of this systematic review is to assess whether alternative listening devices are an effective intervention for adults with hearing loss. Methods are reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 checklist. Retrospective or prospective studies, randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials, and before-after comparison studies will be eligible for inclusion. We will include studies with adult participants (≥18 years) with a mild or moderate hearing loss. The intervention should be an alternative listening device to a conventional hearing aid (comparison). Studies will be restricted to outcomes associated with the consequences of hearing loss. We will search relevant databases to identify published, completed but unpublished and ongoing trials. The overall quality of included evidence will be evaluated using the GRADE system, and meta-analysis performed if appropriate. No ethical issues are foreseen. The findings will be reported at national and international conferences, primarily audiology, and ear, nose and throat, and in a peer-reviewed journal using the PRISMA guidelines. PROSPERO CRD4201502958. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  3. Effectiveness of alternative listening devices to conventional hearing aids for adults with hearing loss: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Alex B; Xia, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hearing loss is a major public health concern, affecting over 11 million people in the UK. While hearing aids are the most common clinical intervention for hearing loss, the majority of people that would benefit from using hearing aids do not take them up. Recent technological advances have led to a rapid increase of alternative listening devices to conventional hearing aids. These include hearing aids that can be customised using a smartphone, smartphone-based ‘hearing aid’ apps, personal sound amplification products and wireless hearing products. However, no systematic review has been published evaluating whether alternative listening devices are an effective management strategy for people with hearing loss. Methods and analysis The objective of this systematic review is to assess whether alternative listening devices are an effective intervention for adults with hearing loss. Methods are reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 checklist. Retrospective or prospective studies, randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials, and before-after comparison studies will be eligible for inclusion. We will include studies with adult participants (≥18 years) with a mild or moderate hearing loss. The intervention should be an alternative listening device to a conventional hearing aid (comparison). Studies will be restricted to outcomes associated with the consequences of hearing loss. We will search relevant databases to identify published, completed but unpublished and ongoing trials. The overall quality of included evidence will be evaluated using the GRADE system, and meta-analysis performed if appropriate. Ethics and dissemination No ethical issues are foreseen. The findings will be reported at national and international conferences, primarily audiology, and ear, nose and throat, and in a peer-reviewed journal using the PRISMA guidelines. Review

  4. Enhancing Ear and Hearing Health Access for Children With Technology and Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, De Wet

    2017-10-12

    Technology and connectivity advances are demonstrating increasing potential to improve access of service delivery to persons with hearing loss. This article demonstrates use cases from community-based hearing screening and automated diagnosis of ear disease. This brief report reviews recent evidence for school- and home-based hearing testing in underserved communities using smartphone technologies paired with calibrated headphones. Another area of potential impact facilitated by technology and connectivity is the use of feature extraction algorithms to facilitate automated diagnosis of most common ear conditions from video-otoscopic images. Smartphone hearing screening using calibrated headphones demonstrated equivalent sensitivity and specificity for school-based hearing screening. Automating test sequences with a forced-choice response paradigm allowed persons with minimal training to offer screening in underserved communities. The automated image analysis and diagnosis system for ear disease demonstrated an overall accuracy of 80.6%, which is up to par and exceeds accuracy rates previously reported for general practitioners and pediatricians. The emergence of these tools that capitalize on technology and connectivity advances enables affordable and accessible models of service delivery for community-based ear and hearing care.

  5. Can you hear me now? Understanding vertebrate middle ear development

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Susan Caroline

    2010-01-01

    The middle ear is a composite organ formed from all three germ layers and the neural crest. It provides the link between the outside world and the inner ear, where sound is transduced and routed to the brain for processing. Extensive classical and modern studies have described the complex morphology and origin of the middle ear. Non-mammalian vertebrates have a single ossicle, the columella. Mammals have three functionally equivalent ossicles, designated the malleus, incus and stapes. In this review, I focus on the role of genes known to function in the middle ear. Genetic studies are beginning to unravel the induction and patterning of the multiple middle ear elements including the tympanum, skeletal elements, the air-filled cavity, and the insertion point into the inner ear oval window. Future studies that elucidate the integrated spatio-temporal signaling mechanisms required to pattern the middle ear organ system are needed. The longer-term translational benefits of understanding normal and abnormal ear development will have a direct impact on human health outcomes. PMID:21196256

  6. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. 874.5220 Section 874.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose...

  7. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. 874.5220 Section 874.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose...

  8. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. 874.5220 Section 874.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose...

  9. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. 874.5220 Section 874.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose...

  10. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. 874.5220 Section 874.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose...

  11. [The experimental research of inner ear metabolism and electrical physiology of autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Tan, C; Cao, Y; Hu, P

    1998-09-01

    Inquire into the mechanism of inner ear pathological physiology in autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss (ASHL). With the auditory electric-physiological techniques and enzyme-histochemical method, the change of inner ear hearing function and enzyme activity were observed. These animals, which threshold of auditory nerve compound active potential (CAP) and cochlear microphonic potential(CM) heightening evidently, showed that the amplitude of endolymphatic potential(EP) (include-EP) bring down in various degrees, which was related to the change of the active of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and SDH in vascularis stria and endolymphatic sac. The abnormality of enzymes metabolism in inner ear tissues, which following autoimmune inflammation damage, is the pathological foundation of hearing dysfunction.

  12. Beyond the hearing aid: Assistive listening devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Alice E.

    2003-04-01

    Persons with hearing loss can obtain great benefit from hearing aids but there are many situations that traditional amplification devices will not provide enough help to ensure optimal communication. Assistive listening and signaling devices are designed to improve the communication of the hearing impaired in instances where traditional hearing aids are not sufficient. These devices are designed to help with problems created by listening in noise or against a competing message, improve distance listening, facilitate group conversation (help with problems created by rapidly changing speakers), and allow independence from friends and family. With the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990, assistive listening devices (ALDs) are becoming more accessible to the public with hearing loss. Employers and public facilities must provide auxiliary aids and services when necessary to ensure effective communication for persons who are deaf or hard of hearing. However many professionals and persons with hearing loss are unaware of the various types and availability of ALDs. An overview of ALDs along with a discussion of their advantages and disadvantages will be given.

  13. Computed tomography demonstrates abnormalities of contralateral ear in subjects with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Sonya; Whitlow, Christopher T; Koonce, James; Zapadka, Michael E; Chen, Michael Y; Williams, Daniel W; Lewis, Meagan; Evans, Adele K

    2014-02-01

    Prior studies have associated gross inner ear abnormalities with pediatric sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) using computed tomography (CT). No studies to date have specifically investigated morphologic inner ear abnormalities involving the contralateral unaffected ear in patients with unilateral SNHL. The purpose of this study is to evaluate contralateral inner ear structures of subjects with unilateral SNHL but no grossly abnormal findings on CT. IRB-approved retrospective analysis of pediatric temporal bone CT scans. 97 temporal bone CT scans, previously interpreted as "normal" based upon previously accepted guidelines by board certified neuroradiologists, were assessed using 12 measurements of the semicircular canals, cochlea and vestibule. The control-group consisted of 72 "normal" temporal bone CTs with underlying SNHL in the subject excluded. The study-group consisted of 25 normal-hearing contralateral temporal bones in subjects with unilateral SNHL. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was then conducted to evaluate for differences between the study and control group. Cochlea basal turn lumen width was significantly greater in magnitude and central lucency of the lateral semicircular canal bony island was significantly lower in density for audiometrically normal ears of subjects with unilateral SNHL compared to controls. Abnormalities of the inner ear were present in the contralateral audiometrically normal ears of subjects with unilateral SNHL. These data suggest that patients with unilateral SNHL may have a more pervasive disease process that results in abnormalities of both ears. The findings of a cochlea basal turn lumen width disparity >5% from "normal" and/or a lateral semicircular canal bony island central lucency disparity of >5% from "normal" may indicate inherent risk to the contralateral unaffected ear in pediatric patients with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimizing the Combination of Acoustic and Electric Hearing in the Implanted Ear

    PubMed Central

    Karsten, Sue A.; Turner, Christopher W.; Brown, Carolyn J.; Jeon, Eun Kyung; Abbas, Paul J.; Gantz, Bruce J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine an optimal approach to program combined acoustic plus electric (A+E) hearing devices in the same ear to maximize speech-recognition performance. Design Ten participants with at least 1 year of experience using Nucleus Hybrid (short electrode) A+E devices were evaluated across three different fitting conditions that varied in the frequency ranges assigned to the acoustically and electrically presented portions of the spectrum. Real-ear measurements were used to optimize the acoustic component for each participant, and the acoustic stimulation was then held constant across conditions. The lower boundary of the electric frequency range was systematically varied to create three conditions with respect to the upper boundary of the acoustic spectrum: Meet, Overlap, and Gap programming. Consonant recognition in quiet and speech recognition in competing-talker babble were evaluated after participants were given the opportunity to adapt by using the experimental programs in their typical everyday listening situations. Participants provided subjective ratings and evaluations for each fitting condition. Results There were no significant differences in performance between conditions (Meet, Overlap, Gap) for consonant recognition in quiet. A significant decrement in performance was measured for the Overlap fitting condition for speech recognition in babble. Subjective ratings indicated a significant preference for the Meet fitting regimen. Conclusions Participants using the Hybrid ipsilateral A+E device generally performed better when the acoustic and electric spectra were programmed to meet at a single frequency region, as opposed to a gap or overlap. Although there is no particular advantage for the Meet fitting strategy for recognition of consonants in quiet, the advantage becomes evident for speech recognition in competing-talker babble and in patient preferences. PMID:23059851

  15. Reasons for low uptake of referrals to ear and hearing services for children in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Bright, Tess; Mulwafu, Wakisa; Thindwa, Richard; Zuurmond, Maria; Polack, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Early detection and appropriate intervention for children with hearing impairment is important for maximizing functioning and quality of life. The lack of ear and hearing services in low income countries is a significant challenge, however, evidence suggests that even where such services are available, and children are referred to them, uptake is low. The aim of this study was to assess uptake of and barriers to referrals to ear and hearing services for children in Thyolo District, Malawi. This was a mixed methods study. A survey was conducted with 170 caregivers of children who were referred for ear and hearing services during community-based screening camps to assess whether they had attended their referral and reasons for non-attendance. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 caregivers of children who did not take up their referral to explore in-depth the reasons for non-uptake. In addition, 15 stakeholders were interviewed. Thematic analysis of the interview data was conducted and emerging trends were analysed. Referral uptake was very low with only 5 out of 150 (3%) children attending. Seven main interacting themes for non-uptake of referral were identified in the semi-structured interviews: location of the hospital, lack of transport, other indirect costs of seeking care, fear and uncertainty about the referral hospital, procedural problems within the camps, awareness and understanding of hearing loss, and lack of visibility and availability of services. This study has highlighted a range of interacting challenges faced by families in accessing ear and hearing services in this setting. Understanding these context specific barriers to non-uptake of ear and hearing services is important for designing appropriate interventions to increase uptake.

  16. Reasons for low uptake of referrals to ear and hearing services for children in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Mulwafu, Wakisa; Thindwa, Richard; Zuurmond, Maria; Polack, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Background Early detection and appropriate intervention for children with hearing impairment is important for maximizing functioning and quality of life. The lack of ear and hearing services in low income countries is a significant challenge, however, evidence suggests that even where such services are available, and children are referred to them, uptake is low. The aim of this study was to assess uptake of and barriers to referrals to ear and hearing services for children in Thyolo District, Malawi. Methods This was a mixed methods study. A survey was conducted with 170 caregivers of children who were referred for ear and hearing services during community-based screening camps to assess whether they had attended their referral and reasons for non-attendance. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 caregivers of children who did not take up their referral to explore in-depth the reasons for non-uptake. In addition, 15 stakeholders were interviewed. Thematic analysis of the interview data was conducted and emerging trends were analysed. Results Referral uptake was very low with only 5 out of 150 (3%) children attending. Seven main interacting themes for non-uptake of referral were identified in the semi-structured interviews: location of the hospital, lack of transport, other indirect costs of seeking care, fear and uncertainty about the referral hospital, procedural problems within the camps, awareness and understanding of hearing loss, and lack of visibility and availability of services. Conclusion This study has highlighted a range of interacting challenges faced by families in accessing ear and hearing services in this setting. Understanding these context specific barriers to non-uptake of ear and hearing services is important for designing appropriate interventions to increase uptake. PMID:29261683

  17. Benefit of Wearing a Hearing Aid on the Unimplanted Ear in Adult Users of a Cochlear Implant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Camille C.; Tyler, Richard S.; Witt, Shelley A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to document performance of participants wearing a cochlear implant and hearing aid in opposite ears on speech-perception and localization tests. Twelve individuals who wore a cochlear implant and a hearing aid on contralateral ears were tested on their abilities to understand words in quiet and sentences in…

  18. How minute sooglossid frogs hear without a middle ear.

    PubMed

    Boistel, Renaud; Aubin, Thierry; Cloetens, Peter; Peyrin, Françoise; Scotti, Thierry; Herzog, Philippe; Gerlach, Justin; Pollet, Nicolas; Aubry, Jean-François

    2013-09-17

    Acoustic communication is widespread in animals. According to the sensory drive hypothesis [Endler JA (1993) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 340(1292):215-225], communication signals and perceptual systems have coevolved. A clear illustration of this is the evolution of the tetrapod middle ear, adapted to life on land. Here we report the discovery of a bone conduction-mediated stimulation of the ear by wave propagation in Sechellophryne gardineri, one of the world's smallest terrestrial tetrapods, which lacks a middle ear yet produces acoustic signals. Based on X-ray synchrotron holotomography, we measured the biomechanical properties of the otic tissues and modeled the acoustic propagation. Our models show how bone conduction enhanced by the resonating role of the mouth allows these seemingly deaf frogs to communicate effectively without a middle ear.

  19. Eyes as fenestrations to the ears: a novel mechanism for high-frequency and ultrasonic hearing.

    PubMed

    Lenhardt, Martin L

    2007-01-01

    Intense airborne ultrasound has been associated with hearing loss, tinnitus, and various nonauditory subjective effects, such as headaches, dizziness, and fullness in the ear. Yet, when people detect ultrasonic components in music, ultrasound adds to the pleasantness of the perception and evokes changes in the brain as measured in electroencephalograms, behavior, and imaging. How does the airborne ultrasound get into the ear to create such polar-opposite human effects? Surprisingly, ultrasound passes first through the eyes; thus, the eye becomes but another window into the inner ear.

  20. Historical background of bone conduction hearing devices and bone conduction hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Mudry, Albert; Tjellström, Anders

    2011-01-01

    During the last 20 years, bone-anchored hearing aids (Baha(®)) became a familiar solution in the treatment of some types of hearing loss. The aim of this chapter is to present the different historical steps which have permitted the production of this new bone conduction hearing device. The recognition of bone conduction hearing is old and was known at least in Antiquity. During the Renaissance, Girolamo Cardano demonstrated a method by which sound may be transmitted to the ear by means of a rod or the shaft of a spear held between one's teeth: this was the beginning of teeth stimulators to improve hearing, firstly in connection with a musical instrument and then, in the second part of the 19th century, with the speaker. The development of the carbon microphone at the beginning of the 20th century allowed the construction of the bone conduction vibrator placed on the mastoid area, notably supported by eyeglasses since the 1950s. Confronted by various problems, and notably the loss of part of sound in the soft tissue of the external mastoid, the idea to implant the vibrator into the mastoid bone was developed in Göteborg, and the first Baha was implanted in 1977 by Anders Tjellström. From that date, various improvements allowed the development of the actual Baha. These different steps are presented in this study, supported by original documentation. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Hearing difficulties, ear-related diagnoses and sickness absence or disability pension - a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hearing difficulties is a large public health problem, prognosticated to be the ninth leading burden of disease in 2030, and may also involve large consequences for work capacity. However, research regarding sickness absence and disability pension in relation to hearing difficulties is scarce. The aim was to gain knowledge about hearing difficulties or other ear-related diagnoses and sickness absence and disability pension through conducting a systematic literature review of published studies. Methods Studies presenting empirical data on hearing difficulties or ear-related diagnoses and sick leave or disability pension, published in scientific peer-reviewed journals, were included. Studies were sought for in three ways: in literature databases (Pub-Med, Embase, PsycInfo, SSCI, and Cochrane) through March 2011, through scrutinising lists of references, and through contacts. Identified publications were assessed for relevance and data was extracted from the studies deemed relevant. Results A total of 18 studies were assessed as relevant and included in this review, regardless of scientific quality. Fourteen studies presented empirical data on hearing difficulties/ear diagnoses and sick leave and six on these conditions and disability pension. Only two studies presented rate ratios or odds ratios regarding associations between hearing difficulties and sick leave, and only two on hearing difficulties and risk of disability pension. Both measures of hearing difficulties and of sick leave varied considerable between the studies. Conclusions Remarkably few studies on hearing difficulties in relation to sickness absence or disability pension were identified. The results presented in them cannot provide evidence for direction or magnitude of potential associations. PMID:22966953

  2. Airplane Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... to severe hearing loss Ringing in your ear (tinnitus) Spinning sensation (vertigo) Vomiting resulting from vertigo Bleeding ... complications may include: Permanent hearing loss Ongoing (chronic) tinnitus Prevention Follow these tips to avoid airplane ear: ...

  3. The quest for restoring hearing: Understanding ear development more completely.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Israt; Pan, Ning; Elliott, Karen L; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    Neurosensory hearing loss is a growing problem of super-aged societies. Cochlear implants can restore some hearing, but rebuilding a lost hearing organ would be superior. Research has discovered many cellular and molecular steps to develop a hearing organ but translating those insights into hearing organ restoration remains unclear. For example, we cannot make various hair cell types and arrange them into their specific patterns surrounded by the right type of supporting cells in the right numbers. Our overview of the topologically highly organized and functionally diversified cellular mosaic of the mammalian hearing organ highlights what is known and unknown about its development. Following this analysis, we suggest critical steps to guide future attempts toward restoration of a functional organ of Corti. We argue that generating mutant mouse lines that mimic human pathology to fine-tune attempts toward long-term functional restoration are needed to go beyond the hope generated by restoring single hair cells in postnatal sensory epithelia. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Effects of Middle Ear Pressure on Hearing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-30

    Miller, J,M.: Choline salicylate : Effects on cochlear function. Arch. Otolaryngol. 99: 304-308, 1974. *12. Miller, J.M. and Holmquist, J.: An animal model...for study of eustachian tube and middle ear function. Scand. Audiol. 3: 63-68, 1974. 13. McPherson, D. and Miller, J.: Salicylate ototoxicity in the

  5. A longitudinal study on postoperative hearing thresholds with the Vibrant Soundbridge device.

    PubMed

    Vincent, C; Fraysse, B; Lavieille, J-P; Truy, E; Sterkers, O; Vaneecloo, F-M

    2004-10-01

    The Vibrant Soundbridge is a semi-implantable middle ear hearing device used in the rehabilitation of adults with sensorineural hearing loss. In order to evaluate the long-term effects of the implanted part of the device, audiological data from 39 patients implanted over several implant sites across France were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The mean follow-up time was 16 months; 25 patients had a follow-up period of over 1 year. Surgery was uneventful in all cases. The present study of the 39 implanted patients with a mid- to long-term follow-up found a statistically significant modification of hearing thresholds (pre- versus postoperative) for frequencies of 0.5 and 4 kHz. However, the shift of threshold was rather limited (2.79 and 3.34 dB, respectively), and this variation was not statistically different from the evolution of the opposite non-operated ear.

  6. Influence of Hearing Risk Information on the Motivation and Modification of Personal Listening Device Use.

    PubMed

    Serpanos, Yula C; Berg, Abbey L; Renne, Brittany

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to investigate the behaviors, knowledge, and motivators associated with personal listening device (PLD) use and (b) to determine the influence of different types of hearing health risk education information (text with or without visual images) on motivation to modify PLD listening use behaviors in young adults. College-age students (N = 523) completed a paper-and-pencil survey tapping their behaviors, knowledge, and motivation regarding listening to music or media at high volume using PLDs. Participants rated their motivation to listen to PLDs at lower volume levels following each of three information sets: text only, behind-the-ear hearing aid image with text, and inner ear hair cell damage image with text. Acoustically pleasing and emotional motives were the most frequently cited (38%-45%) reasons for listening to music or media using a PLD at high volume levels. The behind-the-ear hearing aid image with text information was significantly (p < .0001) more motivating to participants than text alone or the inner ear hair cell damage image with text. Evocative imagery using hearing aids may be an effective approach in hearing protective health campaigns for motivating safer listening practices with PLDs in young adults.

  7. Feasibility and acceptability of training community health workers in ear and hearing care in Malawi: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mulwafu, Wakisa; Kuper, Hannah; Viste, Asgaut; Goplen, Frederik K

    2017-10-11

    To assess the feasibility and acceptability of training community health workers (CHWs) in ear and hearing care, and their ability to identify patients with ear and hearing disorders. Cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT). Health centres in Thyolo district, Malawi. Ten health centres participated, 5 intervention (29 CHWs) and 5 control (28 CHWs). Intervention CHWs received 3 days of training in primary ear and hearing care, while among control CHWs, training was delayed for 6 months. Both groups were given a pretest that assessed knowledge about ear and hearing care, only the intervention group was given the posttest on the third day of training. The intervention group was given 1 month to identify patients with ear and hearing disorders in their communities, and these people were screened for hearing disorders by ear, nose and throat clinical specialists. Primary outcome measure was improvement in knowledge of ear and hearing care among CHWs after the training. Secondary outcome measures were number of patients with ear or hearing disorders identified by CHWs and number recorded at health centres during routine activities, and the perceived feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. The average overall correct answers increased from 55% to 68% (95% CI 65 to 71) in the intervention group (p<0.001). A total of 1739 patients with potential ear and hearing disorders were identified by CHWs and 860 patients attended the screening camps, of whom 400 had hearing loss (73 patients determined through bilateral fail on otoacoustic emissions, 327 patients through audiometry). Where cause could be determined, the most common cause of ear and hearing disorders was chronic suppurative otitis media followed by impacted wax. The intervention was perceived as feasible and acceptable to implement. Training was effective in improving the knowledge of CHW in ear and hearing care in Malawi and allowing them to identify patients with ear and hearing disorders. This

  8. Ear-Canal Reflectance, Umbo Velocity and Tympanometry in Normal Hearing Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rosowski, John J; Nakajima, Hideko H.; Hamade, Mohamad A.; Mafoud, Lorice; Merchant, Gabrielle R.; Halpin, Christopher F.; Merchant, Saumil N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study compares measurements of ear-canal reflectance (ECR) to other objective measurements of middle-ear function including, audiometry, umbo velocity (VU), and tympanometry in a population of strictly defined normal hearing ears. Design Data were prospectively gathered from 58 ears of 29 normal hearing subjects, 16 female and 13 male, aged 22–64 years. Subjects met all of the following criteria to be considered as having normal hearing. (1) No history of significant middle-ear disease. (2) No history of otologic surgery. (3) Normal tympanic membrane (TM) on otoscopy. (4) Pure-tone audiometric thresholds of 20 dB HL or better for 0.25 – 8 kHz. (5) Air-bone gaps no greater than 15 dB at 0.25 kHz and 10 dB for 0.5 – 4 kHz. (6) Normal, type-A peaked tympanograms. (7) All subjects had two “normal” ears (as defined by these criteria). Measurements included pure-tone audiometry for 0.25 – 8 kHz, standard 226 Hz tympanometry, Ear canal reflectance(ECR) for 0.2 – 6 kHz at 60 dB SPL using the Mimosa Acoustics HearID system, and Umbo Velocity (VU ) for 0.3 – 6 kHz at 70–90 dB SPL using the HLV-1000 laser Doppler vibrometer (Polytec Inc). Results Mean power reflectance (|ECR|2) was near 1.0 at 0.2– 0.3 kHz, decreased to a broad minimum of 0.3 to 0.4 between 1 and 4 kHz, and then sharply increased to almost 0.8 by 6 kHz. The mean pressure reflectance phase angle (∠ECR) plotted on a linear frequency scale showed a group delay of approximately 0.1 ms for 0.2 – 6 kHz. Small significant differences were observed in |ECR|2 at the lowest frequencies between right and left ears, and between males and females at 4 kHz. |ECR|2 decreased with age, but reached significance only at 1 kHz. Our ECR measurements were generally similar to previous published reports. Highly significant negative correlations were found between |ECR|2 and VU for frequencies below 1 kHz. Significant correlations were also found between the tympanometrically determined peak

  9. Defects in middle ear cavitation cause conductive hearing loss in the Tcof1 mutant mouse.

    PubMed

    Richter, Carol A; Amin, Susan; Linden, Jennifer; Dixon, Jill; Dixon, Michael J; Tucker, Abigail S

    2010-04-15

    Conductive hearing loss (CHL) is one of the most common forms of human deafness. Despite this observation, a surprising gap in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying CHL remains, particularly with respect to the molecular mechanisms underlying middle ear development and disease. Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of facial development that results from mutations in the gene TCOF1. CHL is a common feature of TCS but the causes of the hearing defect have not been studied. In this study, we have utilized Tcof1 mutant mice to dissect the developmental mechanisms underlying CHL. Our results demonstrate that effective cavitation of the middle ear is intimately linked to growth of the auditory bulla, the neural crest cell-derived structure that encapsulates all middle ear components, and that defects in these processes have a profoundly detrimental effect on hearing. This research provides important insights into a poorly characterized cause of human deafness, and provides the first mouse model for the study of middle ear cavity defects, while also being of direct relevance to a human genetic disorder.

  10. Protection Against Hearing Loss in General Aviation Operations, Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    An inflight evaluation of four aural protectors is presented. The hearing protection devices studied were ear muffs, plastic ear plugs, rubber ear plugs, and wax ear plugs. It is concluded that ear plugs are satisfactory for providing adequate sound attenuation in general aviation aircraft. However, two problems were found in the use of ear plugs; comfort and interference with cabin communications.

  11. Perspectives for the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss by cellular regeneration of the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Branco, Mario S; Cabrera, Sonia; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is a caused by the loss of the cochlear hair cells with the consequent deafferentation of spiral ganglion neurons. Humans do not show endogenous cellular regeneration in the inner ear and there is no exogenous therapy that allows the replacement of the damaged hair cells. Currently, treatment is based on the use of hearing aids and cochlear implants that present different outcomes, some difficulties in auditory discrimination and a limited useful life. More advanced technology is hindered by the functional capacity of the remaining spiral ganglion neurons. The latest advances with stem cell therapy and cellular reprogramming have developed several possibilities to induce endogenous regeneration or stem cell transplantation to replace damaged inner ear hair cells and restore hearing function. With further knowledge of the cellular and molecular biology of the inner ear and its embryonic development, it will be possible to use induced stem cells as in vitro models of disease and as replacement cellular therapy. Investigation in this area is focused on generating cellular therapy with clinical use for the treatment of profound sensorineural hearing loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  12. Hearing Loss and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the most common ones: Hearing aids are electronic instruments you wear in or behind your ear. ... information.) Cochlear (COKE-lee-ur) implants are small electronic devices surgically implanted in the inner ear that ...

  13. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation of...

  14. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation of...

  15. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation of...

  16. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation of...

  17. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation of...

  18. Wind noise in hearing aids with directional and omnidirectional microphones: polar characteristics of behind-the-ear hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Chung, King; Mongeau, Luc; McKibben, Nicholas

    2009-04-01

    Wind noise can be a significant problem for hearing instrument users. This study examined the polar characteristics of flow noise at outputs of two behind-the-ear digital hearing aids, and a microphone mounted on the surface of a cylinder at flow velocities ranging from a gentle breeze (4.5 m/s) to a strong gale (22.5 m/s) . The hearing aids were programed in an anechoic chamber, and tested in a quiet wind tunnel for flow noise recordings. Flow noise levels were estimated by normalizing the overall gain of the hearing aids to 0 dB. The results indicated that the two hearing aids had similar flow noise characteristics: The noise level was generally the lowest when the microphone faced upstream, higher when the microphone faced downstream, and the highest for frontal and rearward incidence angles. Directional microphones often generated higher flow noise level than omnidirectional microphones but they could reduce far-field background noise, resulting in a lower ambient noise level than omnidirectional microphones. Data for the academic microphone- on-cylinder configuration suggested that both turbulence and flow impingement might have contributed to the generation of flow noise in the hearing aids. Clinical and engineering design applications are discussed.

  19. Hearing protection for clubbers is music to their ears.

    PubMed

    Beach, Elizabeth; Williams, Warwick; Gilliver, Megan

    2010-12-01

    while it is difficult to promote the use of hearing protectors in noisy workplaces and leisure settings, some nightclub attendees choose to wear earplugs when exposed to loud music. This qualitative study investigated the perceptions of clubbers about the advantages and disadvantages of earplug use in nightclubs. Such first-hand information could potentially be used to educate non-wearers about the features of different earplug types, the experience of wearing earplugs and their relative merits. structured telephone interviews were conducted with 20 regular clubbers who wear different types of earplugs at nightclubs. Participants were asked about their experience of wearing earplugs and, in particular, what they perceive to be the advantages and disadvantages of earplugs. participants' responses revealed that cheaper foam earplugs are considered less satisfactory than more expensive earplugs, which are relatively discreet and comfortable, facilitate communication with others, create minimal music distortion and, in some cases, improve music sound quality. In terms of effectiveness, all types of earplugs were considered beneficial in reducing the after-effects of loud music and providing hearing protection. the perceived advantages of earplugs, which are often not recognised by non-earplug wearers, should be communicated in order to encourage the use of earplugs among clubbers.

  20. Better late than never: effective air-borne hearing of toads delayed by late maturation of the tympanic middle ear structures.

    PubMed

    Womack, Molly C; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Hoke, Kim L

    2016-10-15

    Most vertebrates have evolved a tympanic middle ear that enables effective hearing of airborne sound on land. Although inner ears develop during the tadpole stages of toads, tympanic middle ear structures are not complete until months after metamorphosis, potentially limiting the sensitivity of post-metamorphic juveniles to sounds in their environment. We tested the hearing of five species of toads to determine how delayed ear development impairs airborne auditory sensitivity. We performed auditory brainstem recordings to test the hearing of the toads and used micro-computed tomography and histology to relate the development of ear structures to hearing ability. We found a large (14-27 dB) increase in hearing sensitivity from 900 to 2500 Hz over the course of ear development. Thickening of the tympanic annulus cartilage and full ossification of the middle ear bone are associated with increased hearing ability in the final stages of ear maturation. Thus, juvenile toads are at a hearing disadvantage, at least in the high-frequency range, throughout much of their development, because late-forming ear elements are critical to middle ear function at these frequencies. We discuss the potential fitness consequences of late hearing development, although research directly addressing selective pressures on hearing sensitivity across ontogeny is lacking. Given that most vertebrate sensory systems function very early in life, toad tympanic hearing may be a sensory development anomaly. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Specialization for underwater hearing by the tympanic middle ear of the turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans

    PubMed Central

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Brandt, Christian; Willis, Katie L.; Christensen, Christian Bech; Ketten, Darlene; Edds-Walton, Peggy; Fay, Richard R.; Madsen, Peter T.; Carr, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    Turtles, like other amphibious animals, face a trade-off between terrestrial and aquatic hearing. We used laser vibrometry and auditory brainstem responses to measure their sensitivity to vibration stimuli and to airborne versus underwater sound. Turtles are most sensitive to sound underwater, and their sensitivity depends on the large middle ear, which has a compliant tympanic disc attached to the columella. Behind the disc, the middle ear is a large air-filled cavity with a volume of approximately 0.5 ml and a resonance frequency of approximately 500 Hz underwater. Laser vibrometry measurements underwater showed peak vibrations at 500–600 Hz with a maximum of 300 µm s−1 Pa−1, approximately 100 times more than the surrounding water. In air, the auditory brainstem response audiogram showed a best sensitivity to sound of 300–500 Hz. Audiograms before and after removing the skin covering reveal that the cartilaginous tympanic disc shows unchanged sensitivity, indicating that the tympanic disc, and not the overlying skin, is the key sound receiver. If air and water thresholds are compared in terms of sound intensity, thresholds in water are approximately 20–30 dB lower than in air. Therefore, this tympanic ear is specialized for underwater hearing, most probably because sound-induced pulsations of the air in the middle ear cavity drive the tympanic disc. PMID:22438494

  2. Specialization for underwater hearing by the tympanic middle ear of the turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans.

    PubMed

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Brandt, Christian; Willis, Katie L; Christensen, Christian Bech; Ketten, Darlene; Edds-Walton, Peggy; Fay, Richard R; Madsen, Peter T; Carr, Catherine E

    2012-07-22

    Turtles, like other amphibious animals, face a trade-off between terrestrial and aquatic hearing. We used laser vibrometry and auditory brainstem responses to measure their sensitivity to vibration stimuli and to airborne versus underwater sound. Turtles are most sensitive to sound underwater, and their sensitivity depends on the large middle ear, which has a compliant tympanic disc attached to the columella. Behind the disc, the middle ear is a large air-filled cavity with a volume of approximately 0.5 ml and a resonance frequency of approximately 500 Hz underwater. Laser vibrometry measurements underwater showed peak vibrations at 500-600 Hz with a maximum of 300 µm s(-1) Pa(-1), approximately 100 times more than the surrounding water. In air, the auditory brainstem response audiogram showed a best sensitivity to sound of 300-500 Hz. Audiograms before and after removing the skin covering reveal that the cartilaginous tympanic disc shows unchanged sensitivity, indicating that the tympanic disc, and not the overlying skin, is the key sound receiver. If air and water thresholds are compared in terms of sound intensity, thresholds in water are approximately 20-30 dB lower than in air. Therefore, this tympanic ear is specialized for underwater hearing, most probably because sound-induced pulsations of the air in the middle ear cavity drive the tympanic disc.

  3. Open ear hearing aids in tinnitus therapy: An efficacy comparison with sound generators.

    PubMed

    Parazzini, Marta; Del Bo, Luca; Jastreboff, Margaret; Tognola, Gabriella; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) with sound generators or with open ear hearing aids in the rehabilitation of tinnitus for a group of subjects who, according to Jastreboff categories, can be treated with both approaches to sound therapy (borderline of Category 1 and 2). This study was a prospective data collection with a parallel-group design which entailed that each subject was randomly assigned to one of the two treatments group: half of the subjects were fitted binaurally with sound generators, and the other half with open ear hearing aids. Both groups received the same educational counselling sessions. Ninety-one subjects passed the screening criteria and were enrolled into the study. Structured interviews, with a variety of measures evaluated through the use of visual-analog scales and the tinnitus handicap inventory self-administered questionnaire, were performed before the therapy and at 3, 6, and 12 months during the therapy. Data showed a highly significant improvement in both tinnitus treatments starting from the first three months and up to one year of therapy, with a progressive and statistically significant decrease in the disability every three months. TRT was equally effective with sound generator or open ear hearing aids: they gave basically identical, statistically indistinguishable results.

  4. FGF23 Deficiency Leads to Mixed Hearing Loss and Middle Ear Malformation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lysaght, Andrew C.; Yuan, Quan; Fan, Yi; Kalwani, Neil; Caruso, Paul; Cunnane, MaryBeth; Lanske, Beate; Stanković, Konstantina M.

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a circulating hormone important in phosphate homeostasis. Abnormal serum levels of FGF23 result in systemic pathologies in humans and mice, including renal phosphate wasting diseases and hyperphosphatemia. We sought to uncover the role FGF23 plays in the auditory system due to shared molecular mechanisms and genetic pathways between ear and kidney development, the critical roles multiple FGFs play in auditory development and the known hearing phenotype in mice deficient in klotho (KL), a critical co-factor for FGF23 signaling. Using functional assessments of hearing, we demonstrate that Fgf mice are profoundly deaf. Fgf mice have moderate hearing loss above 20 kHz, consistent with mixed conductive and sensorineural pathology of both middle and inner ear origin. Histology and high-voltage X-ray computed tomography of Fgf mice demonstrate dysplastic bulla and ossicles; Fgf mice have near-normal morphology. The cochleae of mutant mice appear nearly normal on gross and microscopic inspection. In wild type mice, FGF23 is ubiquitously expressed throughout the cochlea. Measurements from Fgf mice do not match the auditory phenotype of Kl −/− mice, suggesting that loss of FGF23 activity impacts the auditory system via mechanisms at least partially independent of KL. Given the extensive middle ear malformations and the overlap of initiation of FGF23 activity and Eustachian tube development, this work suggests a possible role for FGF23 in otitis media. PMID:25243481

  5. Performance Assessment of Active Hearing Protection Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-08

    8 Figure 6. Placement of ATFs and free -field pressure transducer ....................................... 8 Figure 7. Pressure-time history...devices selected for this study were all equipped with a hear-thru setting designed to amplify soft sounds and conversational speech while allowing loud...duration of an impulse noise A ¼” microphone or slender probe (tapered pencil gauge) was used to measure the free - field pressure wave according to the

  6. Conductive Hearing Loss Caused by Third-Window Lesions of the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Various authors have described conductive hearing loss (CHL), defined as an air-bone gap on audiometry, in patients without obvious middle ear pathologic findings. Recent investigations have suggested that many of these cases are due to disorders of the inner ear, resulting in pathologic third windows. Objective To provide an overview of lesions of the inner ear resulting in a CHL due to a third-window mechanism. The mechanism of the CHL is explained along with a classification scheme for these disorders. We also discuss methods for diagnosis of these disorders. Data Sources The data were compiled from a review of the literature and recent published research on middle and inner ear mechanics from our laboratory. Conclusion A number of disparate disorders affecting the labyrinth can produce CHL by acting as a pathologic third window in the inner ear. The common denominator is that these conditions result in a mobile window on the scala vestibuli side of the cochlear partition. The CHL results by the dual mechanism of worsening of air conduction thresholds and improvement of bone conduction thresholds. Such lesions may be anatomically discrete or diffuse. Anatomically discrete lesions may be classified by location: semicircular canals (superior, lateral, or posterior canal dehiscence), bony vestibule (large vestibular aqueduct syndrome, other inner ear malformations), or the cochlea (carotid-cochlear dehiscence, X-linked deafness with stapes gusher, etc.). An example of an anatomically diffuse lesion is Paget disease, which may behave as a distributed or diffuse third window. Third-window lesions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of CHL in patients with an intact tympanic membrane and an aerated, otherwise healthy, middle ear. Clues to suspect such a lesion include a low-frequency air-bone gap with supranormal thresholds for bone conduction, and presence of acoustic reflexes, vestibular evoked myogenic responses, or otoacoustic emission

  7. Murine CMV-Induced Hearing Loss Is Associated with Inner Ear Inflammation and Loss of Spiral Ganglia Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Golemac, Mijo; Pugel, Ester Pernjak; Jonjic, Stipan; Britt, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) occurs in 0.5–1% of live births and approximately 10% of infected infants develop hearing loss. The mechanism(s) of hearing loss remain unknown. We developed a murine model of CMV induced hearing loss in which murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection of newborn mice leads to hematogenous spread of virus to the inner ear, induction of inflammatory responses, and hearing loss. Characteristics of the hearing loss described in infants with congenital HCMV infection were observed including, delayed onset, progressive hearing loss, and unilateral hearing loss in this model and, these characteristics were viral inoculum dependent. Viral antigens were present in the inner ear as were CD3+ mononuclear cells in the spiral ganglion and stria vascularis. Spiral ganglion neuron density was decreased after infection, thus providing a mechanism for hearing loss. The lack of significant inner ear histopathology and persistence of inflammation in cochlea of mice with hearing loss raised the possibility that inflammation was a major component of the mechanism(s) of hearing loss in MCMV infected mice. PMID:25875183

  8. Perception of Suprasegmental Speech Features via Bimodal Stimulation: Cochlear Implant on One Ear and Hearing Aid on the Other

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Most, Tova; Harel, Tamar; Shpak, Talma; Luntz, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the contribution of acoustic hearing to the perception of suprasegmental features by adults who use a cochlear implant (CI) and a hearing aid (HA) in opposite ears. Method: 23 adults participated in this study. Perception of suprasegmental features--intonation, syllable stress, and word…

  9. Prospective study of inner ear radiation dose and hearing loss in head-and-neck cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Charlie C.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Lee, Julia S.

    Purpose: To determine the relationship between the radiation dose to the inner ear and long-term hearing loss. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients included those receiving curative radiotherapy (RT) for head-and-neck cancer. After enrollment, patients underwent three-dimensional conformal RT planning and delivery (180-200 cGy/fraction) appropriate for their disease site and stage. The inner ear was contoured on axial CT planning images. Dose-volume histograms, as well as the mean and maximal dose for each structure, were calculated. Patients underwent pure tone audiometry at baseline (before treatment) and 1, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after RT. The threshold level (the greater themore » value, the more hearing loss) in decibels was recorded for 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, and 8000 Hz. For patients receiving predominantly unilateral RT, the contralateral ear served as the de facto control. The differences in threshold level between the ipsilateral and contralateral ears were calculated, and the temporal pattern and dose-response relation of hearing loss were analyzed using statistical methods that take into account the correlation between two ears in the same subject and repeated, sequential measurements of each subject. Results: Of the 40 patients enrolled in this study, 35 qualified for analysis. Four patients who received concurrent chemotherapy and RT were analyzed separately. The 31 unilaterally treated patients received a median dose of 47.4 Gy (range, 14.1-68.8 Gy) to the ipsilateral inner ear and 4.2 Gy (range, 0.5-31.3 Gy) to the contralateral inner ear. Hearing loss was associated with the radiation dose received by the inner ear (loss of 210dB was observed in ears receiving {>=}45 Gy) and was most appreciable in the higher frequencies ({>=}2000 Hz). For a 60-year-old patient with no previous hearing loss in either ear, after receiving 45 Gy, the ipsilateral ear, according to our clinical model, would have a 19.3-dB (95% confidence interval [CI], 15

  10. Applications of direct-to-consumer hearing devices for adults with hearing loss: a review

    PubMed Central

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Taylor, Brian; Dockens, Ashley L; Tran, Nicole R; Lane, Kayla; Castle, Mariana; Grover, Vibhu

    2017-01-01

    Background This systematic literature review is aimed at investigating applications of direct-to-consumer hearing devices for adults with hearing loss. This review discusses three categories of direct-to-consumer hearing devices: 1) personal sound amplification products (PSAPs), 2) direct-mail hearing aids, and 3) over-the-counter (OTC) hearing aids. Method A literature review was conducted using EBSCOhost and included the databases CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. After applying prior agreed inclusion and exclusion criteria, 13 reports were included in the review. Results Included studies fell into three domains: 1) electroacoustic characteristics, 2) consumer surveys, and 3) outcome evaluations. Electroacoustic characteristics of these devices vary significantly with some meeting the stringent acoustic criteria used for hearing aids, while others producing dangerous output levels (ie, over 120-dB sound pressure level). Low-end (or low-cost) devices were typically poor in acoustic quality and did not meet gain levels necessary for most adult and elderly hearing loss patterns (eg, presbycusis), especially in high frequencies. Despite direct-mail hearing aids and PSAPs being associated with lower satisfaction when compared to hearing aids purchased through hearing health care professionals, consumer surveys suggest that 5%–19% of people with hearing loss purchase hearing aids through direct-mail or online. Studies on outcome evaluation suggest positive outcomes of OTC devices in the elderly population. Of note, OTC outcomes appear better when a hearing health care professional supports these users. Conclusion While some direct-to-consumer hearing devices have the capability to produce adverse effects due to production of dangerously high sound levels and internal noise, the existing literature suggests that there are potential benefits of these devices. Research of direct-to-consumer hearing devices is limited, and current published studies are of weak quality. Much

  11. Applications of direct-to-consumer hearing devices for adults with hearing loss: a review.

    PubMed

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Taylor, Brian; Dockens, Ashley L; Tran, Nicole R; Lane, Kayla; Castle, Mariana; Grover, Vibhu

    2017-01-01

    This systematic literature review is aimed at investigating applications of direct-to-consumer hearing devices for adults with hearing loss. This review discusses three categories of direct-to-consumer hearing devices: 1) personal sound amplification products (PSAPs), 2) direct-mail hearing aids, and 3) over-the-counter (OTC) hearing aids. A literature review was conducted using EBSCOhost and included the databases CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. After applying prior agreed inclusion and exclusion criteria, 13 reports were included in the review. Included studies fell into three domains: 1) electroacoustic characteristics, 2) consumer surveys, and 3) outcome evaluations. Electroacoustic characteristics of these devices vary significantly with some meeting the stringent acoustic criteria used for hearing aids, while others producing dangerous output levels (ie, over 120-dB sound pressure level). Low-end (or low-cost) devices were typically poor in acoustic quality and did not meet gain levels necessary for most adult and elderly hearing loss patterns (eg, presbycusis), especially in high frequencies. Despite direct-mail hearing aids and PSAPs being associated with lower satisfaction when compared to hearing aids purchased through hearing health care professionals, consumer surveys suggest that 5%-19% of people with hearing loss purchase hearing aids through direct-mail or online. Studies on outcome evaluation suggest positive outcomes of OTC devices in the elderly population. Of note, OTC outcomes appear better when a hearing health care professional supports these users. While some direct-to-consumer hearing devices have the capability to produce adverse effects due to production of dangerously high sound levels and internal noise, the existing literature suggests that there are potential benefits of these devices. Research of direct-to-consumer hearing devices is limited, and current published studies are of weak quality. Much effort is needed to understand the

  12. Ear wax

    MedlinePlus

    See your provider if your ears are blocked with wax and you are unable to remove the wax. Also call if you have an ear wax blockage and you develop new symptoms, such as: Drainage from the ear Ear pain Fever Hearing loss that continues after you clean the wax

  13. Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protect your hearing by wearing earplugs at loud music concerts and around noisy machinery, like in wood ... More on this topic for: Kids Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? ...

  14. 21 CFR 874.3330 - Master hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Master hearing aid. 874.3330 Section 874.3330 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3330 Master hearing aid. (a) Identification. A master hearing aid is an electronic device intended to simulate a hearing aid during audiometric...

  15. 21 CFR 874.3330 - Master hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Master hearing aid. 874.3330 Section 874.3330 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3330 Master hearing aid. (a) Identification. A master hearing aid is an electronic device intended to simulate a hearing aid during audiometric...

  16. 21 CFR 874.3330 - Master hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Master hearing aid. 874.3330 Section 874.3330 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3330 Master hearing aid. (a) Identification. A master hearing aid is an electronic device intended to simulate a hearing aid during audiometric...

  17. 21 CFR 874.3330 - Master hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Master hearing aid. 874.3330 Section 874.3330 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3330 Master hearing aid. (a) Identification. A master hearing aid is an electronic device intended to simulate a hearing aid during audiometric...

  18. 21 CFR 874.3330 - Master hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Master hearing aid. 874.3330 Section 874.3330 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3330 Master hearing aid. (a) Identification. A master hearing aid is an electronic device intended to simulate a hearing aid during audiometric...

  19. Auditory function in normal-hearing, noise-exposed human ears

    PubMed Central

    Stamper, Greta C.; Johnson, Tiffany A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine if supra-threshold measures of auditory function, such as distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs), are correlated with noise exposure history in normal-hearing human ears. Recent data from animal studies have revealed significant deafferentation of auditory nerve fibers following full recovery from temporary noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Furthermore, these data report smaller ABR wave I amplitudes in noise-exposed animal ears when compared to non-noise exposed control animals or pre-noise exposure amplitudes in the same animal. It is unknown if a similar phenomenon exists in the normal-hearing, noise-exposed human ear. Design Thirty normal-hearing human subjects with a range of noise exposure backgrounds (NEBs) participated in this study. NEB was quantified by the use of a noise exposure questionnaire that extensively queried loud sound exposure over the previous 12 months. DPOAEs were collected at three f2’s (1, 2, and 4 kHz) over a range of L2’s. DPOAE stimulus level began at 80 dB FPL (forward-pressure level) and decreased in 10 dB steps. Two-channel ABRs were collected in response to click stimuli and 4 kHz tone bursts; one channel utilized an ipsilateral mastoid electrode and the other an ipsilateral tympanic membrane (TM) electrode. ABR stimulus level began at 90 dB nHL and was decreased in 10 dB steps. Amplitudes of waves I and V of the ABR were analyzed. Results A statistically significant relationship between ABR wave I amplitude and NEB was found for clicked-evoked ABRs recorded at a stimulus level of 90 dB nHL using a mastoid recording electrode. For this condition, ABR wave I amplitudes decreased as a function of NEB. Similar systematic trends were present for ABRs collected in response to clicks and 4 kHz tone bursts at additional supra-threshold stimulation levels (≥ 70 dB nHL). The relationship weakened and disappeared with decreases in stimulation level (≤ 60 dB n

  20. Towards an Active Hearing Protection Device for Musicians =

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, Antoine

    Professional musicians are oftentimes exposed to high levels of sound. Prolonged or severe exposure to high sound levels could lead to permanent hearing loss and compromise their career. The logical solution would be to wear hearing protection devices (HPDs) when appropriate. However, perceptual discomfort associated with wearing HPD can discourage their use by musicians. The perceptual discomfort is caused by two detrimental effects: the occlusion effect and the isolation effect. The occlusion effect is often reported as an augmented, unnatural and annoying perception of one's own voice or instrument mechanically coupled to the head when wearing HPDs. The isolation effect is the unnatural sensation of being isolated from a given sound environment and can be caused by wearing HPDs that do not compensate for psychoacoustical factors and therefore alter the wearer's auditory perception. Both effects are highly unfavorable to the musicians' auditory perception and compromise their capacity to perform to the best of their abilities for their audience. They are among the reasons most often reported by musicians to decide not to wear HPDs. This master's project presents the concept and first prototype of an active HPD for musicians that aims at solving the detrimental effects while protecting the musician's hearing. A solution for the occlusion effect is presented in the form of an earplug complemented with in-ear active noise control. Practical design issues and required trade-off are analyzed through a literature review and the implementation and characterization of an active occlusion effect reduction system, allowing reduction of the occlusion effect between 8.5 and 12 dB at 250 Hz. A solution for the isolation effect is presented in the form of an earplug complemented with digital signal processing capabilities. Factors that may cause the isolation effect are identified through a literature review and corresponding algorithms that aim at re-establishing the

  1. Ear health and hearing surveillance in girls and women with Turner's syndrome: recommendations from the Turner's Syndrome Support Society.

    PubMed

    Kubba, H; Smyth, A; Wong, S C; Mason, A

    2017-06-01

    Turner's syndrome (TS) is a common chromosomal disorder, affecting one in 2000 newborn girls, in which part or all of one X chromosome is missing. Ear and hearing problems are very common in girls and women with TS. The aim of this review was to review the published literature to suggest recommendations for otological health surveillance. A keyword search of Ovid Medline was performed for published literature on the subject and evidence rated according to the GRADE criteria. Middle ear disorders are very common and persistent in girls and women with TS as are progressive sensorineural hearing loss and balance disorders. Otolaryngologists should be aware of the high prevalence and challenging nature of all forms of ear disease in individuals with TS. Early intervention may offer benefits to health and education, and we advocate routine lifelong annual hearing screening in this group. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. NIST System for Measuring the Directivity Index of Hearing Aids under Simulated Real-Ear Conditions.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Randall P

    2013-01-01

    The directivity index is a parameter that is commonly used to characterize the performance of directional hearing aids, and is determined from the measured directional response. Since this response is different for a hearing aid worn on a person as compared to when it is in a free field, directivity index measurements of hearing aids are usually done under simulated real-ear conditions. Details are provided regarding the NIST system for measuring the hearing aid directivity index under these conditions and how this system is used to implement a standardized procedure for performing such measurements. This procedure involves a sampling method that utilizes sound source locations distributed in a semi-aligned zone array on an imaginary spherical surface surrounding a standardized acoustical test manikin. The capabilities of the system were demonstrated over the frequency range of one-third-octave bands with center frequencies from 200 Hz to 8000 Hz through NIST participation in an interlaboratory comparison. This comparison was conducted between eight different laboratories of members of Working Group S3/WG48, Hearing Aids, established by Accredited Standards Committee S3, Bioacoustics, which is administered by the Acoustical Society of America and accredited by the American National Standards Institute. Directivity measurements were made for a total of six programmed memories in two different hearing aids and for the unaided manikin with the manikin right pinna accompanying the aids. Omnidirectional, cardioid, and bidirectional response patterns were measured. Results are presented comparing the NIST data with the reference values calculated from the data reported by all participating laboratories.

  3. NIST System for Measuring the Directivity Index of Hearing Aids under Simulated Real-Ear Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Randall P

    2013-01-01

    The directivity index is a parameter that is commonly used to characterize the performance of directional hearing aids, and is determined from the measured directional response. Since this response is different for a hearing aid worn on a person as compared to when it is in a free field, directivity index measurements of hearing aids are usually done under simulated real-ear conditions. Details are provided regarding the NIST system for measuring the hearing aid directivity index under these conditions and how this system is used to implement a standardized procedure for performing such measurements. This procedure involves a sampling method that utilizes sound source locations distributed in a semi-aligned zone array on an imaginary spherical surface surrounding a standardized acoustical test manikin. The capabilities of the system were demonstrated over the frequency range of one-third-octave bands with center frequencies from 200 Hz to 8000 Hz through NIST participation in an interlaboratory comparison. This comparison was conducted between eight different laboratories of members of Working Group S3/WG48, Hearing Aids, established by Accredited Standards Committee S3, Bioacoustics, which is administered by the Acoustical Society of America and accredited by the American National Standards Institute. Directivity measurements were made for a total of six programmed memories in two different hearing aids and for the unaided manikin with the manikin right pinna accompanying the aids. Omnidirectional, cardioid, and bidirectional response patterns were measured. Results are presented comparing the NIST data with the reference values calculated from the data reported by all participating laboratories. PMID:26401425

  4. A cross-sectional evaluation of the validity of a smartphone otoscopy device in screening for ear disease in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Mandavia, R; Lapa, T; Smith, M; Bhutta, M F

    2018-02-01

    Hearing loss is a neglected international health problem. The greatest burden of ear disease is in low-income countries where there is also a lack of resources. In this context, screening for otological disease may be worthwhile. Cupris© has developed an otoscopy device that offers the possibility of low-cost mass screening in remote communities. We evaluated the validity of this device in diagnosing ear disease and in determining whether referral to an ENT centre is warranted. Cross-sectional study. Outpatient clinic, Nepal. All adults and children were invited to take part over a 2-day period. The Cupris© device was used to record participants otological history and examination. Stored history and images were assessed in the United Kingdom by a Consultant-grade ENT Surgeon, who provided a diagnosis and decided whether referral to an ENT centre was warranted. After screening with the Cupris© device, participants were immediately assessed by a UK trained ENT Consultant Surgeon using a standard otoscope ("standard assessment"). A diagnosis was recorded for each participant and a decision was made as to whether referral to an ENT centre was warranted. Concordance in primary diagnosis (analysed per ear) and concordance in the decision to refer (analysed per patient). Cohen's kappa coefficient for inter-rater agreement in diagnosis. Fifty-six patients agreed to participate. In four patients, the quality of video recorded precluded a diagnosis or management plan. These patients were excluded from subsequent analysis, leaving 52 patients for analysis. The same diagnosis was reached for 99 of 104 ears when comparing the Cupris© device to standard assessment (95% concordance), with Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.89. The decision as to whether a patient should be referred to an ENT centre for further assessment was the same for all 52 participants when comparing the Cupris© device to standard assessment. When compared to standard assessment, the Cupris© device is a

  5. Factors contributing to hearing impairment in patients with cleft lip/palate in Malaysia: A prospective study of 346 ears.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Jack Pein; Soo, Siew Shuin; Manuel, Anura Michelle

    2016-09-01

    To determine the factors contributing towards hearing impairment in patients with cleft lip/palate. A prospective analysis was conducted on 173 patients (346 ears) with cleft lip and palate (CL/P) who presented to the combined cleft clinic at University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) over 12 months. The patients' hearing status was determined using otoacoustic emission (OAE), pure tone audiometry (PTA) and auditory brainstem response (ABR). These results were analysed against several parameters, which included age, gender, race, types of cleft pathology, impact and timing of repair surgery. The patients' age ranged from 1-26 years old. They comprised 30% with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), 28% with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP), 28% with isolated cleft palate (ICP) and 14% with isolated cleft lip (ICL). Majority of the patients (68.2%) had normal otoscopic findings. Out of the 346 ears, 241 ears (70%) ears had passed the hearing tests. There was no significant relationship between patients' gender and ethnicity with their hearing status. The types of cleft pathology significantly influenced the outcome of PTA and ABR screening results (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the repaired and unrepaired cleft groups and the outcome of hearing tests. However, hearing improvement occurred when palatal repair was performed at the age of <1year old (OR = 2.37, CI 1.2 = 4.6, p = 0.01). Majority of the cleft patients had normal hearing (70%). Hearing threshold varied significantly between the different types of cleft pathology. Surgery conferred no significant impact on the hearing outcome unless surgery was performed at the age of <1 year old. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Multimodal optical imager for inner ear hearing loss diagnosis (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jesung; Maguluri, Gopi N.; Zhao, Youbo; Iftimia, Nicusor V.

    2017-02-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), which typically originates in the cochlea, is the most common otologic problem caused by aging and noise trauma. The cochlea, a delicate and complex biological mechanosensory transducer in the inner ear, has been extensively studied with the goal of improving diagnosis of SNHL. However, the difficulty associated with accessing the cochlea and resolving the microstructures that facilitate hearing within it in a minimally-invasive way has prevented us from being able to assess the pathology underlying SNHL in humans. To address this problem we investigated the ability of a multimodal optical system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) and single photon autofluorescence imaging (AFI) to enable visualization and evaluation of microstructures in the cochlea. A laboratory OCT/AFI imager was built to acquire high resolution OCT and single photon fluorescence images of the cochlea. The imager's ability to resolve diagnostically-relevant details was evaluated in ears extracted from normal and noise-exposed mice. A prototype endoscopic OCT/AFI imager was developed based on a double-clad fiber approach. Our measurements show that the multimodal OCT/AFI imager can be used to evaluate structural integrity in the mouse cochlea. Therefore, we believe that this technology is promising as a potential clinical evaluation tool, and as a technique for guiding otologic surgeries such as cochlear implant surgery.

  7. Students' Attitudes toward the Use of Hearing Aids in Al-Ahsa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alodail, Abdullah Kholifh

    2011-01-01

    Hearing aid devices are worn within people's ears to help them hear the sounds around them. Teachers have to accept the use of hearing aids in the classroom as a device to assist students with hearing loss (Plumley, 2008). Further study is helpful to hearing aid research because it demonstrates the importance of hearing aid benefit awareness in…

  8. Effects of tubing length and coupling method on hearing threshold and real-ear to coupler difference measures.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Samantha; Pittman, Andrea; Fanning, Robert

    2013-06-01

    This tutorial demonstrates the effects of tubing length and coupling type (i.e., foam tip or personal earmold) on hearing threshold and real-ear-to-coupler difference (RECD) measures. Hearing thresholds from 0.25 kHz through 8 kHz are reported at various tubing lengths for 28 normal-hearing adults between the ages of 22 and 31 years. RECD values are reported for 14 of the adults. All measures were made with an insert earphone coupled to a standard foam tip and with an insert earphone coupled to each participant's personal earmold. Threshold and RECD measures obtained with a personal earmold were significantly different from those obtained with a foam tip on repeated measures analyses of variance. One-sample t tests showed these differences to vary systematically with increasing tubing length, with the largest average differences (7-8 dB) occurring at 4 kHz. This systematic examination demonstrates the equal and opposite effects of tubing length on threshold and acoustic measures. Specifically, as tubing length increased, sound pressure level in the ear canal decreased, affecting both hearing thresholds and the real-ear portion of the RECDs. This demonstration shows that when the same coupling method is used to obtain the hearing thresholds and RECD, equal and accurate estimates of real-ear sound pressure level are obtained.

  9. Localization and interaural time difference (ITD) thresholds for cochlear implant recipients with preserved acoustic hearing in the implanted ear

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, René H.; Grantham, D. Wesley; Sheffield, Sterling W.; Davis, Timothy J.; Dwyer, Robert; Dorman, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate horizontal plane localization and interaural time difference (ITD) thresholds for 14 adult cochlear implant recipients with hearing preservation in the implanted ear. Localization to broadband noise was assessed in an anechoic chamber with a 33-loudspeaker array extending from −90 to +90°. Three listening conditions were tested including bilateral hearing aids, bimodal (implant + contralateral hearing aid) and best aided (implant + bilateral hearing aids). ITD thresholds were assessed, under headphones, for low-frequency stimuli including a 250-Hz tone and bandpass noise (100–900 Hz). Localization, in overall rms error, was significantly poorer in the bimodal condition (mean: 60.2°) as compared to both bilateral hearing aids (mean: 46.1°) and the best-aided condition (mean: 43.4°). ITD thresholds were assessed for the same 14 adult implant recipients as well as 5 normal-hearing adults. ITD thresholds were highly variable across the implant recipients ranging from the range of normal to ITDs not present in real-world listening environments (range: 43 to over 1600 μs). ITD thresholds were significantly correlated with localization, the degree of interaural asymmetry in low-frequency hearing, and the degree of hearing preservation related benefit in the speech reception threshold (SRT). These data suggest that implant recipients with hearing preservation in the implanted ear have access to binaural cues and that the sensitivity to ITDs is significantly correlated with localization and degree of preserved hearing in the implanted ear. PMID:24607490

  10. Localization and interaural time difference (ITD) thresholds for cochlear implant recipients with preserved acoustic hearing in the implanted ear.

    PubMed

    Gifford, René H; Grantham, D Wesley; Sheffield, Sterling W; Davis, Timothy J; Dwyer, Robert; Dorman, Michael F

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate horizontal plane localization and interaural time difference (ITD) thresholds for 14 adult cochlear implant recipients with hearing preservation in the implanted ear. Localization to broadband noise was assessed in an anechoic chamber with a 33-loudspeaker array extending from -90 to +90°. Three listening conditions were tested including bilateral hearing aids, bimodal (implant + contralateral hearing aid) and best aided (implant + bilateral hearing aids). ITD thresholds were assessed, under headphones, for low-frequency stimuli including a 250-Hz tone and bandpass noise (100-900 Hz). Localization, in overall rms error, was significantly poorer in the bimodal condition (mean: 60.2°) as compared to both bilateral hearing aids (mean: 46.1°) and the best-aided condition (mean: 43.4°). ITD thresholds were assessed for the same 14 adult implant recipients as well as 5 normal-hearing adults. ITD thresholds were highly variable across the implant recipients ranging from the range of normal to ITDs not present in real-world listening environments (range: 43 to over 1600 μs). ITD thresholds were significantly correlated with localization, the degree of interaural asymmetry in low-frequency hearing, and the degree of hearing preservation related benefit in the speech reception threshold (SRT). These data suggest that implant recipients with hearing preservation in the implanted ear have access to binaural cues and that the sensitivity to ITDs is significantly correlated with localization and degree of preserved hearing in the implanted ear. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Glue Ear, Hearing Loss and IQ: An Association Moderated by the Child’s Home Environment

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Amanda J.; Maw, Richard; Midgley, Elizabeth; Golding, Jean; Steer, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Background Glue ear or otitis media with effusion (OME) is common in children and may be associated with hearing loss (HL). For most children it has no long lasting effects on cognitive development but it is unclear whether there are subgroups at higher risk of sequelae. Objectives To examine the association between a score comprising the number of times a child had OME and HL (OME/HL score) in the first four/five years of life and IQ at age 4 and 8. To examine whether any association between OME/HL and IQ is moderated by socioeconomic, child or family factors. Methods Prospective, longitudinal cohort study: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). 1155 children tested using tympanometry on up to nine occasions and hearing for speech (word recognition) on up to three occasions between age 8 months and 5 years. An OME/HL score was created and associations with IQ at ages 4 and 8 were examined. Potential moderators included a measure of the child’s cognitive stimulation at home (HOME score). Results For the whole sample at age 4 the group with the highest 10% OME/HL scores had performance IQ 5 points lower [95% CI −9, −1] and verbal IQ 6 points lower [95% CI −10, −3] than the unaffected group. By age 8 the evidence for group differences was weak. There were significant interactions between OME/HL and the HOME score: those with high OME/HL scores and low 18 month HOME scores had lower IQ at age 4 and 8 than those with high OME/HL scores and high HOME scores. Adjusted mean differences ranged from 5 to 8 IQ points at age 4 and 8. Conclusions The cognitive development of children from homes with lower levels of cognitive stimulation is susceptible to the effects of glue ear and hearing loss. PMID:24498289

  12. Wireless and acoustic hearing with bone-anchored hearing devices.

    PubMed

    Bosman, Arjan J; Mylanus, Emmanuel A M; Hol, Myrthe K S; Snik, Ad F M

    2015-07-01

    The efficacy of wireless connectivity in bone-anchored hearing was studied by comparing the wireless and acoustic performance of the Ponto Plus sound processor from Oticon Medical relative to the acoustic performance of its predecessor, the Ponto Pro. Nineteen subjects with more than two years' experience with a bone-anchored hearing device were included. Thirteen subjects were fitted unilaterally and six bilaterally. Subjects served as their own control. First, subjects were tested with the Ponto Pro processor. After a four-week acclimatization period performance the Ponto Plus processor was measured. In the laboratory wireless and acoustic input levels were made equal. In daily life equal settings of wireless and acoustic input were used when watching TV, however when using the telephone the acoustic input was reduced by 9 dB relative to the wireless input. Speech scores for microphone with Ponto Pro and for both input modes of the Ponto Plus processor were essentially equal when equal input levels of wireless and microphone inputs were used. Only the TV-condition showed a statistically significant (p <5%) lower speech reception threshold for wireless relative to microphone input. In real life, evaluation of speech quality, speech intelligibility in quiet and noise, and annoyance by ambient noise, when using landline phone, mobile telephone, and watching TV showed a clear preference (p <1%) for the Ponto Plus system with streamer over the microphone input. Due to the small number of respondents with landline phone (N = 7) the result for noise annoyance was only significant at the 5% level. Equal input levels for acoustic and wireless inputs results in equal speech scores, showing a (near) equivalence for acoustic and wireless sound transmission with Ponto Pro and Ponto Plus. The default 9-dB difference between microphone and wireless input when using the telephone results in a substantial wireless benefit when using the telephone. The preference of

  13. Identification of neonatal hearing impairment: ear-canal measurements of acoustic admittance and reflectance in neonates.

    PubMed

    Keefe, D H; Folsom, R C; Gorga, M P; Vohr, B R; Bulen, J C; Norton, S J

    2000-10-01

    analyses, YR responses varied in the first few days after birth. An analysis showed that the use of a YR test criterion to assess the quality of probe seal may help control the false-positive rate in evoked otoacoustic emission testing. This is the first report of wideband YR responses in neonates. Data were acquired in a few seconds, but the responses are highly sensitive to whether the probe is fully sealed in the ear canal. A real-time acoustic test of probe fit is proposed to better address the probe seal problem. The YR responses provide information on middle-ear status that varies over the neonatal age range and that is sensitive to the presence or absence of risk factors, ear, and gender differences. Thus, a YR test may have potential for use in neonatal screening tests for hearing loss.

  14. Use of the 'real-ear to dial difference' to derive real-ear SPL from hearing level obtained with insert earphones.

    PubMed

    Munro, K J; Lazenby, A

    2001-10-01

    The electroacoustic characteristics of a hearing instrument are normally selected for individuals using data obtained during audiological assessment. The precise inter-relationship between the electroacoustic and audiometric variables is most readily appreciated when they have been measured at the same reference point, such as the tympanic membrane. However, it is not always possible to obtain the real-ear sound pressure level (SPL) directly if this is below the noise floor of the probe-tube microphone system or if the subject is unco-operative. The real-ear SPL may be derived by adding the subject's real-ear to dial difference (REDD) acoustic transform to the audiometer dial setting. The aim of the present study was to confirm the validity of the Audioscan RM500 to measure the REDD with the ER-3A insert earphone. A probe-tube microphone was used to measure the real-ear SPL and REDD from the right ears of 16 adult subjects ranging in age from 22 to 41 years (mean age 27 years). Measurements were made from 0.25 kHz to 6 kHz at a dial setting of 70 dB with an ER-3A insert earphone and two earmould configurations: the EAR-LINK foam ear-tip and the subjects' customized skeleton earmoulds. Mean REDD varied as a function of frequency but was typically approximately 12 dB with a standard deviation (SD) of +/- 1.7 dB and +/- 2.7 dB for the foam ear-tip and customized earmould, respectively. The mean test-retest difference of the REDD varied with frequency but was typically 0.5 dB (SD 1 dB). Over the frequency range 0.5-4 kHz, the derived values were found to be within 5 dB of the measured values in 95% of subjects when using the EAR-LINK foam ear-tip and within 4 dB when using the skeleton earmould. The individually measured REDD transform can be used in clinical practice to derive a valid estimate of real-ear SPL when it has not been possible to measure this directly.

  15. Hearing difficulties, ear-related diagnoses and sickness absence or disability pension--a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Friberg, Emilie; Gustafsson, Klas; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2012-09-12

    Hearing difficulties is a large public health problem, prognosticated to be the ninth leading burden of disease in 2030, and may also involve large consequences for work capacity. However, research regarding sickness absence and disability pension in relation to hearing difficulties is scarce. The aim was to gain knowledge about hearing difficulties or other ear-related diagnoses and sickness absence and disability pension through conducting a systematic literature review of published studies. Studies presenting empirical data on hearing difficulties or ear-related diagnoses and sick leave or disability pension, published in scientific peer-reviewed journals, were included. Studies were sought for in three ways: in literature databases (Pub-Med, Embase, PsycInfo, SSCI, and Cochrane) through March 2011, through scrutinising lists of references, and through contacts. Identified publications were assessed for relevance and data was extracted from the studies deemed relevant. A total of 18 studies were assessed as relevant and included in this review, regardless of scientific quality. Fourteen studies presented empirical data on hearing difficulties/ear diagnoses and sick leave and six on these conditions and disability pension. Only two studies presented rate ratios or odds ratios regarding associations between hearing difficulties and sick leave, and only two on hearing difficulties and risk of disability pension. Both measures of hearing difficulties and of sick leave varied considerable between the studies. Remarkably few studies on hearing difficulties in relation to sickness absence or disability pension were identified. The results presented in them cannot provide evidence for direction or magnitude of potential associations.

  16. The physics of hearing: fluid mechanics and the active process of the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Reichenbach, Tobias; Hudspeth, A J

    2014-07-01

    active process operates near a Hopf bifurcation, the generic properties of which explain several key features of hearing. Moreover, when the gain of the active process rises sufficiently in ultraquiet circumstances, the system traverses the bifurcation and even a normal ear actually emits sound. The remarkable properties of hearing thus stem from the propagation of traveling waves on a nonlinear and excitable medium.

  17. The physics of hearing: fluid mechanics and the active process of the inner ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichenbach, Tobias; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2014-07-01

    active process operates near a Hopf bifurcation, the generic properties of which explain several key features of hearing. Moreover, when the gain of the active process rises sufficiently in ultraquiet circumstances, the system traverses the bifurcation and even a normal ear actually emits sound. The remarkable properties of hearing thus stem from the propagation of traveling waves on a nonlinear and excitable medium.

  18. Perception of suprasegmental speech features via bimodal stimulation: cochlear implant on one ear and hearing aid on the other.

    PubMed

    Most, Tova; Harel, Tamar; Shpak, Talma; Luntz, Michal

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the contribution of acoustic hearing to the perception of suprasegmental features by adults who use a cochlear implant (CI) and a hearing aid (HA) in opposite ears. 23 adults participated in this study. Perception of suprasegmental features-intonation, syllable stress, and word emphasis-was assessed. All tests were administered in 2 conditions: CI alone and CI + HA (bimodal). Scores were significantly higher in the bimodal condition in comparison to scores in CI alone for all 3 tests. In both conditions, there was great variability among the individual participants. Significant negative correlations emerged between perception of suprasegmental features and the unaided pure-tone average of the contralateral ear to the CI. This study found a significant bimodal advantage for perception of all suprasegmental features, most probably due to the better low-frequency acoustic hearing that is provided by the HA. Outcomes suggest that in cases of residual hearing in the contralateral ear to the implanted ear, HA use should be encouraged.

  19. Inquiring Ears Want to Know: A Fact Sheet about Your Hearing Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... track changes in hearing over time • Your hearing threshold levels (the quietest sounds you can hear) are ... Do I have normal hearing? Compare your hearing threshold levels to this scale: -10 – 25 dB 26 – ...

  20. Hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... eardrum) Ringing or buzzing sound in the ears ( tinnitus ) Causes Conductive hearing loss (CHL) occurs because of ... severe hearing loss or ringing in the ears (tinnitus). You have other symptoms, such as ear pain , ...

  1. Studies on Auditory and Vestibular End Organs and Brain Stem Nuclei. [inner ear damage and hearing defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ades, H. W.

    1974-01-01

    Cats were exposed to tones of 125, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz at sound pressure levels in the range 120 to 157.5 db, and for durations of one hour (1000, 2000, 4000 Hz) or four hours (125 Hz). Pure tone audiograms were obtained for each animal before and after exposure. Cochleas of animals were examined by phase-contrast microscopy. Extent of inner ear damage and range of frequencies for which hearing loss occurred increased as exposure tone was decreased in frequency. For example, exposure to 4000 Hz produced damage in a restricted region of the cochlea and hearing loss for a relatively narrow range of frequencies; exposure to 125 Hz produced wide-spread inner ear damage and hearing loss throughout the frequency range 125 to 6000 Hz.

  2. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions provide clues to hearing mechanisms in the frog ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassilakis, Pantelis N.; Meenderink, Sebastiaan W. F.; Narins, Peter M.

    2004-12-01

    2 f1-f2 and 2 f2-f1 distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were recorded from both ears of male and female Rana pipiens pipiens and Rana catesbeiana. The input-output (I/O) curves obtained from the amphibian papilla (AP) of both frog species are analogous to I/O curves recorded from mammals suggesting that, similarly to the mammalian cochlea, there may be an amplification process present in the frog AP. DPOAE level dependence on L1-L2 is different from that in mammals and consistent with intermodulation distortion expectations. Therefore, if a mechanical structure in the frog inner ear is functioning analogously to the mammalian basilar membrane, it must be more broadly tuned. DPOAE audiograms were obtained for primary frequencies spanning the animals' hearing range and selected stimulus levels. The results confirm that DPOAEs are produced in both papillae, with R. catesbeiana producing stronger emissions than R. p. pipiens. Consistent with previously reported sexual dimorphism in the mammalian and anuran auditory systems, females of both species produce stronger emissions than males. Moreover, it appears that 2 f1-f2 in the frog is generated primarily at the DPOAE frequency place, while 2 f2-f1 is generated primarily at a frequency place around the primaries. Regardless of generation place, both emissions within the AP may be subject to the same filtering mechanism, possibly the tectorial membrane..

  3. Recognition and Localization of Speech by Adult Cochlear Implant Recipients Wearing a Digital Hearing Aid in the Nonimplanted Ear (Bimodal Hearing)

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Lisa G.; Skinner, Margaret W.; Litovsky, Ruth A.; Strube, Michael J; Kuk, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Background The use of bilateral amplification is now common clinical practice for hearing aid users but not for cochlear implant recipients. In the past, most cochlear implant recipients were implanted in one ear and wore only a monaural cochlear implant processor. There has been recent interest in benefits arising from bilateral stimulation that may be present for cochlear implant recipients. One option for bilateral stimulation is the use of a cochlear implant in one ear and a hearing aid in the opposite nonimplanted ear (bimodal hearing). Purpose This study evaluated the effect of wearing a cochlear implant in one ear and a digital hearing aid in the opposite ear on speech recognition and localization. Research Design A repeated-measures correlational study was completed. Study Sample Nineteen adult Cochlear Nucleus 24 implant recipients participated in the study. Intervention The participants were fit with a Widex Senso Vita 38 hearing aid to achieve maximum audibility and comfort within their dynamic range. Data Collection and Analysis Soundfield thresholds, loudness growth, speech recognition, localization, and subjective questionnaires were obtained six–eight weeks after the hearing aid fitting. Testing was completed in three conditions: hearing aid only, cochlear implant only, and cochlear implant and hearing aid (bimodal). All tests were repeated four weeks after the first test session. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. Significant effects were further examined using pairwise comparison of means or in the case of continuous moderators, regression analyses. The speech-recognition and localization tasks were unique, in that a speech stimulus presented from a variety of roaming azimuths (140 degree loudspeaker array) was used. Results Performance in the bimodal condition was significantly better for speech recognition and localization compared to the cochlear implant–only and hearing aid–only conditions. Performance

  4. Recognition and localization of speech by adult cochlear implant recipients wearing a digital hearing aid in the nonimplanted ear (bimodal hearing).

    PubMed

    Potts, Lisa G; Skinner, Margaret W; Litovsky, Ruth A; Strube, Michael J; Kuk, Francis

    2009-06-01

    The use of bilateral amplification is now common clinical practice for hearing aid users but not for cochlear implant recipients. In the past, most cochlear implant recipients were implanted in one ear and wore only a monaural cochlear implant processor. There has been recent interest in benefits arising from bilateral stimulation that may be present for cochlear implant recipients. One option for bilateral stimulation is the use of a cochlear implant in one ear and a hearing aid in the opposite nonimplanted ear (bimodal hearing). This study evaluated the effect of wearing a cochlear implant in one ear and a digital hearing aid in the opposite ear on speech recognition and localization. A repeated-measures correlational study was completed. Nineteen adult Cochlear Nucleus 24 implant recipients participated in the study. The participants were fit with a Widex Senso Vita 38 hearing aid to achieve maximum audibility and comfort within their dynamic range. Soundfield thresholds, loudness growth, speech recognition, localization, and subjective questionnaires were obtained six-eight weeks after the hearing aid fitting. Testing was completed in three conditions: hearing aid only, cochlear implant only, and cochlear implant and hearing aid (bimodal). All tests were repeated four weeks after the first test session. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. Significant effects were further examined using pairwise comparison of means or in the case of continuous moderators, regression analyses. The speech-recognition and localization tasks were unique, in that a speech stimulus presented from a variety of roaming azimuths (140 degree loudspeaker array) was used. Performance in the bimodal condition was significantly better for speech recognition and localization compared to the cochlear implant-only and hearing aid-only conditions. Performance was also different between these conditions when the location (i.e., side of the loudspeaker array that

  5. Hearing loss in the developing world: evaluating the iPhone mobile device as a screening tool.

    PubMed

    Peer, S; Fagan, J J

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have the world's highest prevalence of hearing loss, and hearing screening programmes are scarce. Mobile devices such as smartphones have potential for audiometric testing. To evaluate the uHear app using an Apple iPhone as a possible hearing screening tool in the developing world, and to determine accuracy of certain hearing thresholds that could prove useful in early detection of hearing loss for high-risk populations in resource-poor communities. This was a quasi-experimental study design. Participants recruited from the Otolaryngology Clinic, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, completed a uHear test in three settings--waiting room (WR), quiet roon (QR) and soundproof room (SR). Thresholds were compared with formal audiograms. Twenty-five patients were tested (50 ears). The uHear test detected moderate or worse hearing loss (pure-tone average (PTA) > 40 dB accurately with a sensitivity of 100% in all three environments. Specificity was 88% (SR), 73% (QR) and 68% (WR). Its was highly accurate in detecting high-frequency hearing loss (2 000, 4 000, 6 000 Hz) in the QR and SR with 'good' and 'very good' kappa values, showing statistical significance (p < 0.05). It was moderately accurate in low-frequency hearing loss (250, 500, 1 000 Hz) in the SR, and poor in the QR and WR. Using the iPhone, uHear is a feasible screening test to rule out significant hearing loss (PTA > 40 dB). It is highly sensitive for detecting threshold changes at high frequencies, making it reasonably well suited to detect presbycusis and ototoxic hearing loss from HIV, tuberculosis therapy and chemotherapy. Portability and ease of use make it appropriate to use in developing world communities that lack screening programmes.

  6. Hearing with an atympanic ear: good vibration and poor sound-pressure detection in the royal python, Python regius.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Brandt, Christian; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2012-01-15

    Snakes lack both an outer ear and a tympanic middle ear, which in most tetrapods provide impedance matching between the air and inner ear fluids and hence improve pressure hearing in air. Snakes would therefore be expected to have very poor pressure hearing and generally be insensitive to airborne sound, whereas the connection of the middle ear bone to the jaw bones in snakes should confer acute sensitivity to substrate vibrations. Some studies have nevertheless claimed that snakes are quite sensitive to both vibration and sound pressure. Here we test the two hypotheses that: (1) snakes are sensitive to sound pressure and (2) snakes are sensitive to vibrations, but cannot hear the sound pressure per se. Vibration and sound-pressure sensitivities were quantified by measuring brainstem evoked potentials in 11 royal pythons, Python regius. Vibrograms and audiograms showed greatest sensitivity at low frequencies of 80-160 Hz, with sensitivities of -54 dB re. 1 m s(-2) and 78 dB re. 20 μPa, respectively. To investigate whether pythons detect sound pressure or sound-induced head vibrations, we measured the sound-induced head vibrations in three dimensions when snakes were exposed to sound pressure at threshold levels. In general, head vibrations induced by threshold-level sound pressure were equal to or greater than those induced by threshold-level vibrations, and therefore sound-pressure sensitivity can be explained by sound-induced head vibration. From this we conclude that pythons, and possibly all snakes, lost effective pressure hearing with the complete reduction of a functional outer and middle ear, but have an acute vibration sensitivity that may be used for communication and detection of predators and prey.

  7. Right-Ear Advantage for Speech-in-Noise Recognition in Patients with Nonlateralized Tinnitus and Normal Hearing Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Tai, Yihsin; Husain, Fatima T

    2018-04-01

    Despite having normal hearing sensitivity, patients with chronic tinnitus may experience more difficulty recognizing speech in adverse listening conditions as compared to controls. However, the association between the characteristics of tinnitus (severity and loudness) and speech recognition remains unclear. In this study, the Quick Speech-in-Noise test (QuickSIN) was conducted monaurally on 14 patients with bilateral tinnitus and 14 age- and hearing-matched adults to determine the relation between tinnitus characteristics and speech understanding. Further, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), tinnitus loudness magnitude estimation, and loudness matching were obtained to better characterize the perceptual and psychological aspects of tinnitus. The patients reported low THI scores, with most participants in the slight handicap category. Significant between-group differences in speech-in-noise performance were only found at the 5-dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) condition. The tinnitus group performed significantly worse in the left ear than in the right ear, even though bilateral tinnitus percept and symmetrical thresholds were reported in all patients. This between-ear difference is likely influenced by a right-ear advantage for speech sounds, as factors related to testing order and fatigue were ruled out. Additionally, significant correlations found between SNR loss in the left ear and tinnitus loudness matching suggest that perceptual factors related to tinnitus had an effect on speech-in-noise performance, pointing to a possible interaction between peripheral and cognitive factors in chronic tinnitus. Further studies, that take into account both hearing and cognitive abilities of patients, are needed to better parse out the effect of tinnitus in the absence of hearing impairment.

  8. The effects of experimentally induced conductive hearing loss on spectral and temporal aspects of sound transmission through the ear

    PubMed Central

    Lupo, J. Eric; Koka, Kanthaiah; Thornton, Jennifer L.; Tollin, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Conductive hearing loss (CHL) is known to produce hearing deficits, including deficits in sound localization ability. The differences in sound intensities and timing experienced between the two tympanic membranes are important cues to sound localization (ILD and ITD, respectively). Although much is known about the effect of CHL on hearing levels, little investigation has been conducted into the actual impact of CHL on sound location cues. This study investigated effects of CHL induced by earplugs on cochlear microphonic (CM) amplitude and timing and their corresponding effect on the ILD and ITD location cues. Acoustic and CM measurements were made in 5 chinchillas before and after earplug insertion, and again after earplug removal using pure tones (500 Hz to 24 kHz). ILDs in the unoccluded condition demonstrated position and frequency dependence where peak far-lateral ILDs approached 30 dB for high frequencies. Unoccluded ear ITD cues demonstrated positional and frequency dependence with increased ITD cue for both decreasing frequency (± 420 µs at 500 Hz, ± 310 µs for 1–4 kHz ) and increasingly lateral sound source locations. Occlusion of the ear canal with foam plugs resulted in a mild, frequency-dependent conductive hearing loss of 10–38 dB (mean 31 ± 3.9 dB) leading to a concomitant frequency dependent increase in ILDs at all source locations. The effective ITDs increased in a frequency dependent manner with ear occlusion as a direct result of the acoustic properties of the plugging material, the latter confirmed via acoustical measurements using a model ear canal with varying volumes of acoustic foam. Upon ear plugging with acoustic foam, a mild CHL is induced. Furthermore, the CHL induced by acoustic foam results in substantial changes in the magnitudes of both the ITD and ILD cues to sound location. PMID:21073935

  9. Ick Ciliary Kinase Is Essential for Planar Cell Polarity Formation in Inner Ear Hair Cells and Hearing Function.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Shio; Chaya, Taro; Omori, Yoshihiro; Kuwahara, Ryusuke; Kubo, Shun; Sakaguchi, Hirofumi; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2017-02-22

    Cellular asymmetries play crucial roles in development and organ function. The planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway is involved in the establishment of cellular asymmetry within the plane of a cell sheet. Inner ear sensory hair cells (HCs), which have several rows of staircase-like stereocilia and one kinocilium located at the vertex of the stereocilia protruding from the apical surface of each HC, exhibit a typical form of PCP. Although connections between cilia and PCP signaling in vertebrate development have been reported, their precise nature is not well understood. During inner ear development, several ciliary proteins are known to play a role in PCP formation. In the current study, we investigated a functional role for intestinal cell kinase (Ick), which regulates intraflagellar transport (IFT) at the tip of cilia, in the mouse inner ear. A lack of Ick in the developing inner ear resulted in PCP defects in the cochlea, including misorientation or misshaping of stereocilia and aberrant localization of the kinocilium and basal body in the apical and middle turns, leading to auditory dysfunction. We also observed abnormal ciliary localization of Ift88 in both HCs and supporting cells. Together, our results show that Ick ciliary kinase is essential for PCP formation in inner ear HCs, suggesting that ciliary transport regulation is important for PCP signaling. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The cochlea in the inner ear is the hearing organ. Planar cell polarity (PCP) in hair cells (HCs) in the cochlea is essential for mechanotransduction and refers to the asymmetric structure consisting of stereociliary bundles and the kinocilium on the apical surface of the cell body. We reported previously that a ciliary kinase, Ick, regulates intraflagellar transport (IFT). Here, we found that loss of Ick leads to abnormal localization of the IFT component in kinocilia, PCP defects in HCs, and hearing dysfunction. Our study defines the association of ciliary transport

  10. Morin hydrate promotes inner ear neural stem cell survival and differentiation and protects cochlea against neuronal hearing loss.

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Jia, Zhanwei; Zhang, Ying; Ren, Xiumin

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of morin hydrate on neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from mouse inner ear and its potential in protecting neuronal hearing loss. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays were employed to assess the effect of morin hydrate on the viability and proliferation of in vitro NSC culture. The NSCs were then differentiated into neurons, in which neurosphere formation and differentiation were evaluated, followed by neurite outgrowth and neural excitability measurements in the subsequent in vitro neuronal network. Mechanotransduction of cochlea ex vivo culture and auditory brainstem responses threshold and distortion product optoacoustic emissions amplitude in mouse ototoxicity model were also measured following gentamicin treatment to investigate the protective role of morin hydrate against neuronal hearing loss. Morin hydrate improved viability and proliferation, neurosphere formation and neuronal differentiation of inner ear NSCs, and promoted in vitro neuronal network functions. In both ex vivo and in vivo ototoxicity models, morin hydrate prevented gentamicin-induced neuronal hearing loss. Morin hydrate exhibited potent properties in promoting growth and differentiation of inner ear NSCs into functional neurons and protecting from gentamicin ototoxicity. Our study supports its clinical potential in treating neuronal hearing loss. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  11. Hearing in young adults. Part I: The effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices.

    PubMed

    Keppler, Hannah; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Vinck, Bart

    2015-01-01

    There is great concern regarding the development of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in youth caused by high sound levels during various leisure activities. Health-orientated behavior of young adults might be linked to the beliefs and attitudes toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices (HPDs). The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and HPDs on young adults' hearing status. A questionnaire and an audiological test battery were completed by 163 subjects (aged 18-30 years). The questionnaire contained the Youth Attitude to Noise Scale (YANS) and Beliefs about Hearing Protection and Hearing Loss (BAHPHL). A more positive attitude or belief represented an attitude where noise or hearing loss is seen as unproblematic and attitudes and beliefs regarding HPDs is worse. Hearing was evaluated using (high frequency) pure tone audiometry (PTA), transient evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. First, mean differences in hearing between the groups with different attitudes and beliefs were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Second, a χ² test was used to examine the usage of HPDs by the different groups with different attitudes and beliefs. Young adults with a positive attitude had significantly more deteriorated hearing and used HPDs less than the other subjects. Hearing conservation programs (HCPs) for young adults should provide information and knowledge regarding noise, hearing loss, and HPDs. Barriers wearing HPDs should especially be discussed. Further, those campaigns should focus on self-experienced hearing related symptoms that might serve as triggers for attitudinal and behavioral changes.

  12. Hearing in young adults. Part I: The effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices

    PubMed Central

    Keppler, Hannah; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Vinck, Bart

    2015-01-01

    There is great concern regarding the development of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in youth caused by high sound levels during various leisure activities. Health-orientated behavior of young adults might be linked to the beliefs and attitudes toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices (HPDs). The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and HPDs on young adults’ hearing status. A questionnaire and an audiological test battery were completed by 163 subjects (aged 18-30 years). The questionnaire contained the Youth Attitude to Noise Scale (YANS) and Beliefs about Hearing Protection and Hearing Loss (BAHPHL). A more positive attitude or belief represented an attitude where noise or hearing loss is seen as unproblematic and attitudes and beliefs regarding HPDs is worse. Hearing was evaluated using (high frequency) pure tone audiometry (PTA), transient evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. First, mean differences in hearing between the groups with different attitudes and beliefs were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Second, a χ2 test was used to examine the usage of HPDs by the different groups with different attitudes and beliefs. Young adults with a positive attitude had significantly more deteriorated hearing and used HPDs less than the other subjects. Hearing conservation programs (HCPs) for young adults should provide information and knowledge regarding noise, hearing loss, and HPDs. Barriers wearing HPDs should especially be discussed. Further, those campaigns should focus on self-experienced hearing related symptoms that might serve as triggers for attitudinal and behavioral changes. PMID:26356365

  13. Effects of Bluetooth device electromagnetic field on hearing: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, R; Prepageran, N; Prepagaran, N; Rahmat, O; Zulkiflee, A B; Hufaida, K S

    2012-04-01

    The Bluetooth wireless headset has been promoted as a 'hands-free' device with a low emission of electromagnetic radiation. To evaluate potential changes in hearing function as a consequence of using Bluetooth devices, by assessing changes in pure tone audiography and distortion production otoacoustic emissions. Prospective study. Thirty adult volunteers were exposed to a Bluetooth headset device (1) on 'standby' setting for 6 hours and (2) at full power for 10 minutes. Post-exposure hearing was evaluated using pure tone audiography and distortion production otoacoustic emission testing. There were no statistically significant changes in hearing, as measured above, following either exposure type. Exposure to the electromagnetic field emitted by a Bluetooth headset, as described above, did not decrease hearing thresholds or alter distortion product otoacoustic emissions.

  14. Taking Care of Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Audiologist Perforated Eardrum What's Hearing Loss? Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? Swimmer's Ear Your Ears What's Earwax? View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  15. Measurement of hearing protection devices performance in the workplace during full-shift working operations.

    PubMed

    Nélisse, Hugues; Gaudreau, Marc-André; Boutin, Jérôme; Voix, Jérémie; Laville, Frédéric

    2012-03-01

    The effectiveness of hearing protection devices (HPDs), when used in workplace conditions, has been shown over the years to be usually lower than the labeled values obtained under well-controlled laboratory conditions. Causes for such discrepancies have been listed and discussed by many authors. This study is an attempt to understand the issues in greater details and quantify some of these factors by looking at the performance of hearing protectors as a function of time during full work shift conditions. A non-invasive field microphone in the real ear (F-MIRE)-based method has been developed for measuring the effectiveness of different HPDs as a function of time in the workplace. Details of the test procedures, the equipment used, and the post-processing operations are presented and discussed. The methodology was developed in such a way that a complete time and frequency representation are possible. The system was used on a total of 24 workers in eight different companies. Work shifts of up to 9-h long were recorded. Various types of earmuffs and one type of molded earplugs were tested. Attenuation data reported as a function of time showed, for most workers tested, considerable fluctuations over entire work shift periods. Parts of these fluctuations are attributed to variations in the low-frequency content in the noise (in particular for earmuffs) as well as poor insertion and/or fitting of earplugs. Lower performances than laboratory-based ones were once again observed for most cases tested but also, important left and right ear differences were obtained for many individuals. When reported as a function of frequency, the attenuation results suggested that the few approximations used to relate the measurements to subjective real-ear-attenuation-at-threshold (REAT) data were realistic. The use of individualized attenuation data and performance ratings for HPDs as well as a good knowledge of the ambient noise in the workplace are key ingredients when evaluating the

  16. Do You Hear Me? Information for Persons with a Hearing Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Emily

    1990-01-01

    This compendium of general information for individuals with hearing impairments reports on: the incidence of hearing impairments; methods of communication between hearing and nonhearing persons (fingerspelling, lip reading, cued speech, signing, and telephone devices); 13 titles of books and tapes available; 4 sources of hearing ear dogs; 42…

  17. Performance Assessment of Passive Hearing Protection Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-24

    ear ................................................ 9 Figure 11. Schematic of the set-up of the explosive charge for the creation of a shock wave...10 Table 1: Type and mass of explosive and distance between ATF and explosive for different peak pressure levels and A-durations...OF TABLES Table 1: Type and mass of explosive and distance between ATF and explosive for different peak pressure levels and A-durations

  18. A "Goldilocks" Approach to Hearing Aid Self-Fitting: Ear-Canal Output and Speech Intelligibility Index.

    PubMed

    Mackersie, Carol; Boothroyd, Arthur; Lithgow, Alexandra

    2018-06-11

    The objective was to determine self-adjusted output response and speech intelligibility index (SII) in individuals with mild to moderate hearing loss and to measure the effects of prior hearing aid experience. Thirteen hearing aid users and 13 nonusers, with similar group-mean pure-tone thresholds, listened to prerecorded and preprocessed sentences spoken by a man. Starting with a generic level and spectrum, participants adjusted (1) overall level, (2) high-frequency boost, and (3) low-frequency cut. Participants took a speech perception test after an initial adjustment before making a final adjustment. The three self-selected parameters, along with individual thresholds and real-ear-to-coupler differences, were used to compute output levels and SIIs for the starting and two self-adjusted conditions. The values were compared with an NAL second nonlinear threshold-based prescription (NAL-NL2) and, for the hearing aid users, performance of their existing hearing aids. All participants were able to complete the self-adjustment process. The generic starting condition provided outputs (between 2 and 8 kHz) and SIIs that were significantly below those prescribed by NAL-NL2. Both groups increased SII to values that were not significantly different from prescription. The hearing aid users, but not the nonusers, increased high-frequency output and SII significantly after taking the speech perception test. Seventeen of the 26 participants (65%) met an SII criterion of 60% under the generic starting condition. The proportion increased to 23 out of 26 (88%) after the final self-adjustment. Of the 13 hearing aid users, 8 (62%) met the 60% criterion with their existing hearing aids. With the final self-adjustment, 12 out of 13 (92%) met this criterion. The findings support the conclusion that user self-adjustment of basic amplification characteristics can be both feasible and effective with or without prior hearing aid experience.

  19. Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... but they are less common. The infection usually affects the middle ear and is called otitis media. ... become clogged with fluid and mucus. This can affect hearing, because sound cannot get through all that ...

  20. Amplification of transcutaneous and percutaneous bone-conduction devices with a test-band in an induced model of conductive hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Park, Marn Joon; Lee, Jae Ryung; Yang, Chan Joo; Yoo, Myung Hoon; Jin, In Suk; Choi, Chi Ho; Park, Hong Ju

    2016-11-01

    Transcutaneous devices have a disadvantage, the dampening effect by soft tissue between the bone and devices. We investigated hearing outcomes with percutaneous and transcutaneous devices using test-bands in an induced unilateral conductive hearing loss. Comparison of hearing outcomes of two devices in the same individuals. The right ear was plugged in 30 subjects and a test-band with devices (Cochlear™ Baha® BP110 Power and Sophono® Alpha-2 MPO™) was applied on the right mastoid tip with the left ear masked. Sound-field thresholds, speech recognition thresholds (SRTs), and word recognition scores (WRSs) were compared. Aided thresholds of Sophono were significantly better than those of Baha at most frequencies. Sophono WRSs (86 ± 12%) at 40 dB SPL and SRTs (14 ± 5 dB HL) were significantly better than those (73 ± 24% and 23 ± 8 dB HL) of Baha. However, Sophono WRSs (98 ± 3%) at 60 dB SPL did not differ from Baha WRSs (95 ± 12%). Amplifications of the current transcutaneous device were not inferior to those of percutaneous devices with a test-band in subjects with normal bone-conduction thresholds. Since the percutaneous devices can increase the gain when fixed to the skull by eliminating the dampening effect, both devices are expected to provide sufficient hearing amplification.

  1. Measurement of impulse peak insertion loss for four hearing protection devices in field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, William J.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Meinke, Deanna K.; Sondergaard, Jacob; Finan, Donald S.; Lankford, James E.; Khan, Amir; Vernon, Julia; Stewart, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective In 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed an impulse noise reduction rating (NRR) for hearing protection devices based upon the impulse peak insertion loss (IPIL) methods in the ANSI S12.42-2010 standard. This study tests the ANSI S12.42 methods with a range of hearing protection devices measured in field conditions. Design The method utilizes an acoustic test fixture and three ranges for impulse levels: 130–134, 148–152, and 166–170 dB peak SPL. For this study, four different models of hearing protectors were tested: Bilsom 707 Impact II electronic earmuff, E·A·R Pod Express, E·A·R Combat Arms version 4, and the Etymotic Research, Inc. Electronic BlastPLG™ EB1. Study sample Five samples of each protector were fitted on the fixture or inserted in the fixture's ear canal five times for each impulse level. Impulses were generated by a 0.223 caliber rifle. Results The average IPILs increased with peak pressure and ranged between 20 and 38 dB. For some protectors, significant differences were observed across protector examples of the same model, and across insertions. Conclusions The EPA's proposed methods provide consistent and reproducible results. The proposed impulse NRR rating should utilize the minimum and maximum protection percentiles as determined by the ANSI S12.42-2010 methods. PMID:22176308

  2. 76 FR 34845 - Medical Devices; Ear, Nose, and Throat Devices; Classification of the Wireless Air-Conduction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... control by other users with a similar medical device. Exposure to non-ionizing radiation Wireless... Administration (FDA) is classifying the wireless air-conduction hearing aid into class II (special controls). The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable...

  3. A longitudinal study of hearing and middle ear status of individuals with cleft palate with and without additional malformations/syndromes.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Traci; Persson, Christina; Moller, Claes; Lohmander, Anette; Magnusson, Lennart

    2014-09-01

    Objective : To describe and compare the middle ear status and hearing sensitivity in adolescence with isolated cleft palate plus additional malformations and/or syndromes with those with only an isolated cleft palate. Design : Retrospective and longitudinal. Two groups of individuals with isolated cleft palate were compared. Participants : A cohort of individuals born over 4 years in the western region of Sweden. The cohort was divided into one group with isolated cleft palate (n = 31; ICP) and one group with isolated cleft palate plus additional malformations and/or syndromes (n = 37; ICP+). Methods : Middle ear status and hearing thresholds were collected from the medical records at 7, 10, 13, and 16 years of age, examined, and compared within and between groups over time. Results : The ICP+ group demonstrated a significantly higher prevalence of abnormal middle ear status and elevated hearing thresholds as compared with the ICP group. As the individuals aged, the prevalence of abnormal middle ear status decreased. The hearing levels in both groups decreased in the low to middle frequencies as individuals aged; however, the hearing in the high frequencies did not. Conclusions : Individuals with cleft palate need to be followed routinely for middle ear status and hearing thresholds to ensure optimal audiological rehabilitation, with particular attention to those with additional malformations and/or syndromes.

  4. Evolutionary origins of ultrasonic hearing and laryngeal echolocation in bats inferred from morphological analyses of the inner ear

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many mammals have evolved highly adapted hearing associated with ecological specialisation. Of these, bats possess the widest frequency range of vocalisations and associated hearing sensitivities, with frequencies of above 200 kHz in some lineages that use laryngeal echolocation. High frequency hearing in bats appears to have evolved via structural modifications of the inner ear, however, studying these minute features presents considerable challenges and hitherto few such attempts have been made. To understand these adaptations more fully, as well as gain insights into the evolutionary origins of ultrasonic hearing and echolocation in bats, we undertook micro-computed tomography (μCT) scans of the cochleae of representative bat species from 16 families, encompassing their broad range of ecological diversity. To characterise cochlear gross morphology, we measured the relative basilar membrane length and number of turns, and compared these values between echolocating and non-echolocating bats, as well as other mammals. Results We found that hearing and echolocation call frequencies in bats correlated with both measures of cochlear morphology. In particular, relative basilar membrane length was typically longer in echolocating species, and also correlated positively with the number of cochlear turns. Ancestral reconstructions of these parameters suggested that the common ancestor of all extant bats was probably capable of ultrasonic hearing; however, we also found evidence of a significant decrease in the rate of morphological evolution of the basilar membrane in multiple ancestral branches within the Yangochiroptera suborder. Within the echolocating Yinpterochiroptera, there was some evidence of an increase in the rate of basilar membrane evolution in some tips of the tree, possibly associated with reported shifts in call frequency associated with recent speciation events. Conclusions The two main groups of echolocating bat were found to display

  5. An evidence based protocol for managing neonatal middle ear effusions in babies who fail newborn hearing screening.

    PubMed

    Weber, Brittany C; Whitlock, Scott M; He, Kaidi; Kimbrell, Blake S; Derkay, Craig S

    2018-04-12

    To evaluate the prevalence of middle ear disease in infants referred for failed newborn hearing screening (NBHS) and to review patient outcomes after intervention in order to propose an evidence-based protocol for management of newborns with otitis media with effusion (OME) who fail NBHS. 85 infants with suspected middle ear pathology were retrospectively reviewed after referral for failed NBHS. All subjects underwent a diagnostic microscopic exam with myringotomy with or without placement of a ventilation tube in the presence of a middle ear effusion and had intra-operative auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing or testing at a later date. At the initial office visit, a normal middle ear space bilaterally was documented in 5 babies (6%), 29/85 (34%) had an equivocal exam while 51/85 (60%) had at least a unilateral OME. Myringotomy with or without tube placement due to presence of an effusion was performed on 65/85 (76%) neonates. Normal hearing was established in 17/85 (20%) after intervention, avoiding the need for any further audiologic workup. Bilateral or unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) or mixed hearing loss was noted in 54/85 (64%) and these children were referred for amplification. Initially observation with follow up outpatient visits was initiated in 27/85 (32%) however, only 3/27 (11%) resolved with watchful waiting and 24/27 (89%) ultimately required at least unilateral tube placement due to OME and 14/24 (59%) were found to have at least a unilateral mixed or SNHL. An effective initial management plan for children with suspected middle ear pathology and failed NBHS is diagnostic operative microscopy with placement of a ventilation tube in the presence of a MEE along with either intra-operative ABR or close follow-up ABR. This allows for the identification and treatment of babies with a conductive component due to OME, accurate diagnosing of an underlying SNHL component and for prompt aural rehabilitation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc

  6. The effects of experimentally induced conductive hearing loss on spectral and temporal aspects of sound transmission through the ear.

    PubMed

    Eric Lupo, J; Koka, Kanthaiah; Thornton, Jennifer L; Tollin, Daniel J

    2011-02-01

    Conductive hearing loss (CHL) is known to produce hearing deficits, including deficits in sound localization ability. The differences in sound intensities and timing experienced between the two tympanic membranes are important cues to sound localization (ILD and ITD, respectively). Although much is known about the effect of CHL on hearing levels, little investigation has been conducted into the actual impact of CHL on sound location cues. This study investigated effects of CHL induced by earplugs on cochlear microphonic (CM) amplitude and timing and their corresponding effect on the ILD and ITD location cues. Acoustic and CM measurements were made in 5 chinchillas before and after earplug insertion, and again after earplug removal using pure tones (500 Hz to 24 kHz). ILDs in the unoccluded condition demonstrated position and frequency dependence where peak far-lateral ILDs approached 30 dB for high frequencies. Unoccluded ear ITD cues demonstrated positional and frequency dependence with increased ITD cue for both decreasing frequency (±420 μs at 500 Hz, ±310 μs for 1-4 kHz) and increasingly lateral sound source locations. Occlusion of the ear canal with foam plugs resulted in a mild, frequency-dependent conductive hearing loss of 10-38 dB (mean 31 ± 3.9 dB) leading to a concomitant frequency dependent increase in ILDs at all source locations. The effective ITDs increased in a frequency dependent manner with ear occlusion as a direct result of the acoustic properties of the plugging material, the latter confirmed via acoustical measurements using a model ear canal with varying volumes of acoustic foam. Upon ear plugging with acoustic foam, a mild CHL is induced. Furthermore, the CHL induced by acoustic foam results in substantial changes in the magnitudes of both the ITD and ILD cues to sound location. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hearing with Two Ears: Evidence for Cortical Binaural Interaction during Auditory Processing.

    PubMed

    Henkin, Yael; Yaar-Soffer, Yifat; Givon, Lihi; Hildesheimer, Minka

    2015-04-01

    Integration of information presented to the two ears has been shown to manifest in binaural interaction components (BICs) that occur along the ascending auditory pathways. In humans, BICs have been studied predominantly at the brainstem and thalamocortical levels; however, understanding of higher cortically driven mechanisms of binaural hearing is limited. To explore whether BICs are evident in auditory event-related potentials (AERPs) during the advanced perceptual and postperceptual stages of cortical processing. The AERPs N1, P3, and a late negative component (LNC) were recorded from multiple site electrodes while participants performed an oddball discrimination task that consisted of natural speech syllables (/ka/ vs. /ta/) that differed by place-of-articulation. Participants were instructed to respond to the target stimulus (/ta/) while performing the task in three listening conditions: monaural right, monaural left, and binaural. Fifteen (21-32 yr) young adults (6 females) with normal hearing sensitivity. By subtracting the response to target stimuli elicited in the binaural condition from the sum of responses elicited in the monaural right and left conditions, the BIC waveform was derived and the latencies and amplitudes of the components were measured. The maximal interaction was calculated by dividing BIC amplitude by the summed right and left response amplitudes. In addition, the latencies and amplitudes of the AERPs to target stimuli elicited in the monaural right, monaural left, and binaural listening conditions were measured and subjected to analysis of variance with repeated measures testing the effect of listening condition and laterality. Three consecutive BICs were identified at a mean latency of 129, 406, and 554 msec, and were labeled N1-BIC, P3-BIC, and LNC-BIC, respectively. Maximal interaction increased significantly with progression of auditory processing from perceptual to postperceptual stages and amounted to 51%, 55%, and 75% of the sum of

  8. Ear wax

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Ear wax only becomes a problem if it causes a hearing impairment or other ear-related symptoms. Ear wax is more likely to accumulate and cause a hearing impairment when normal extrusion is prevented — for example, by the use of hearing aids, or by the use of cotton buds to clean the ears. Ear wax can visually obscure the ear drum, and may need to be removed for diagnostic purposes. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of methods to remove ear wax? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found nine systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: ear syringing; manual removal (other than ear syringing); and wax softeners (alone or prior to syringing). PMID:19450340

  9. Hands-free device control using sound picked up in the ear canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhatpar, Siddharth R.; Ngia, Lester; Vlach, Chris; Lin, Dong; Birkhimer, Craig; Juneja, Amit; Pruthi, Tarun; Hoffman, Orin; Lewis, Tristan

    2008-04-01

    Hands-free control of unmanned ground vehicles is essential for soldiers, bomb disposal squads, and first responders. Having their hands free for other equipment and tasks allows them to be safer and more mobile. Currently, the most successful hands-free control devices are speech-command based. However, these devices use external microphones, and in field environments, e.g., war zones and fire sites, their performance suffers because of loud ambient noise: typically above 90dBA. This paper describes the development of technology using the ear as an output source that can provide excellent command recognition accuracy even in noisy environments. Instead of picking up speech radiating from the mouth, this technology detects speech transmitted internally through the ear canal. Discreet tongue movements also create air pressure changes within the ear canal, and can be used for stealth control. A patented earpiece was developed with a microphone pointed into the ear canal that captures these signals generated by tongue movements and speech. The signals are transmitted from the earpiece to an Ultra-Mobile Personal Computer (UMPC) through a wired connection. The UMPC processes the signals and utilizes them for device control. The processing can include command recognition, ambient noise cancellation, acoustic echo cancellation, and speech equalization. Successful control of an iRobot PackBot has been demonstrated with both speech (13 discrete commands) and tongue (5 discrete commands) signals. In preliminary tests, command recognition accuracy was 95% with speech control and 85% with tongue control.

  10. Noise-induced hearing loss in young adults: the role of personal listening devices and other sources of leisure noise.

    PubMed

    Mostafapour, S P; Lahargoue, K; Gates, G A

    1998-12-01

    No consensus exists regarding the magnitude of the risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) associated with leisure noise, in particular, personal listening devices in young adults. Examine the magnitude of hearing loss associated with personal listening devices and other sources of leisure noise in causing NIHL in young adults. Prospective auditory testing of college student volunteers with retrospective history exposure to home stereos, personal listening devices, firearms, and other sources of recreational noise. Subjects underwent audiologic examination consisting of estimation of pure-tone thresholds, speech reception thresholds, and word recognition at 45 dB HL. Fifty subjects aged 18 to 30 years were tested. All hearing thresholds of all subjects (save one-a unilateral 30 dB HL threshold at 6 kHz) were normal, (i.e., 25 dB HL or better). A 10 dB threshold elevation (notch) in either ear at 3 to 6 kHz as compared with neighboring frequencies was noted in 11 (22%) subjects and an unequivocal notch (15 dB or greater) in either ear was noted in 14 (28%) of subjects. The presence or absence of any notch (small or large) did not correlate with any single or cumulative source of noise exposure. No difference in pure-tone threshold, speech reception threshold, or speech discrimination was found among subjects when segregated by noise exposure level. The majority of young users of personal listening devices are at low risk for substantive NIHL. Interpretation of the significance of these findings in relation to noise exposure must be made with caution. NIHL is an additive process and even subtle deficits may contribute to unequivocal hearing loss with continued exposure. The low prevalence of measurable deficits in this study group may not exclude more substantive deficits in other populations with greater exposures. Continued education of young people about the risk to hearing from recreational noise exposure is warranted.

  11. A new device for delivering drugs into the inner ear: otoendoscope with microcatheter.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, Sho; Saito, Hideyuki; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2012-04-01

    Intratympanic injection (ITI) of drugs into the inner ear is an attractive way to deliver therapy. However, if the round window membrane (RWM) cannot be visualized, adhesions need to be removed first before ITI can be performed. We developed and tested a novel otoendoscopy device that allows visualization of the RWM for the purpose of ITI. Our otoendoscope consists of a catheter channel for delivering drugs and a suction channel. The novel otoendoscope for inner ear drug delivery has a fine needle with catheter, which can be used to remove or perforate round window niche (RWN) mucosal adhesions. The elliptical shape of the otoendoscope effectively captures the field in the light-guided area, resulting in bright images. Our otoendoscope can be used to apply drugs directly onto the surface of the RWM and to verify the correct placement of an inner ear drug delivery system, ensuring that it is safely in place. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic suppurative otitis media, middle ear pathology and corresponding hearing loss in a cohort of Greenlandic children.

    PubMed

    Avnstorp, Magnus Balslev; Homøe, Preben; Bjerregaard, Peter; Jensen, Ramon Gordon

    2016-04-01

    Otitis media (OM) has been observed at elevated prevalence rates in Greenlandic children. OM associated hearing loss (HL) may compromise the children's linguistic skills, social development and educational achievements. We investigated the prevalence of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), otitis media with effusion (OME) and tympanic membrane sequelae of OM, and compared the corresponding hearing thresholds. In 2010 we examined a cohort of 223 Greenlandic children aged 4-10 years by video otoscopy, tympanometry and tested hearing thresholds for the low-frequencies: 500, 1000 and 2000Hz and the high-frequencies: 4000 and 6000Hz. HL was categorized according to the worst hearing ear and was compared within the groups: CSOM, OME, tympanic membrane sequelae of OM and normal. Of 207 children, 5.8% had CSOM, 13.9% had OME and 55.6% had tympanic membrane sequelae of OM. The median pure tone average in low-frequencies/high-frequencies were: CSOM: 34.2/31.3dB, OME: 23.3/22.5dB, Sequelae of OM: 13.3/15dB and normal ears: 11.7/12.5dB. We found a significant difference (p<0.05) between the four groups. In 56.5% of all children a HL>15dB in any frequency was found, while 6.5% suffered from a bilateral low-frequency HL>25dB. The severity of OM significantly corresponded to increased HL. The burden of CSOM and HL remains high in young Greenlandic children. Aggressive treatment with antibiotics, improved hearing rehabilitation, sound field amplification in classrooms and otosurgical capacity should be further promoted in Greenland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Round Window Application of an Active Middle Ear Implant: A Comparison With Hearing Aid Usage in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Satoshi; Usami, Shin-Ichi; Takahashi, Haruo; Kanda, Yukihiko; Tono, Tetsuya; Doi, Katsumi; Kumakawa, Kozo; Gyo, Kiyofumi; Naito, Yasushi; Kanzaki, Sho; Yamanaka, Noboru; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2017-07-01

    To report on the safety and efficacy of an investigational active middle ear implant (AMEI) in Japan, and to compare results to preoperative results with a hearing aid. Prospective study conducted in Japan in which 23 Japanese-speaking adults suffering from conductive or mixed hearing loss received a VIBRANT SOUNDBRIDGE with implantation at the round window. Postoperative thresholds, speech perception results (word recognition scores, speech reception thresholds, signal-to-noise ratio [SNR]), and quality of life questionnaires at 20 weeks were compared with preoperative results with all patients receiving the same, best available hearing aid (HA). Statistically significant improvements in postoperative AMEI-aided thresholds (1, 2, 4, and 8 kHz) and on the speech reception thresholds and word recognition scores tests, compared with preoperative HA-aided results, were observed. On the SNR, the subjects' mean values showed statistically significant improvement, with -5.7 dB SNR for the AMEI-aided mean and -2.1 dB SNR for the preoperative HA-assisted mean. The APHAB quality of life questionnaire also showed statistically significant improvement with the AMEI. Results with the AMEI applied to the round window exceeded those of the best available hearing aid in speech perception as well as quality of life questionnaires. There were minimal adverse events or changes to patients' residual hearing.

  14. Hearing aid and hearing assistance technology use in Aotearoa/New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Campbell, Rebecca J; Lessoway, Kamea

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe factors that are related to hearing aid and hearing assistance technology ownership and use in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Adults with hearing impairment living in New Zealand were surveyed regarding health-related quality of life and device usage. Audiometric data (hearing sensitivity and speech in noise) were collected. Data were obtained from 123 adults with hearing impairment: 73 reported current hearing-aid use, 81 reported current hearing assistance technology use. In both analyses, device users had more difficulty understanding speech in background noise, had poor hearing in both their better and worse hearing ears, and perceived more consequences of hearing impairment in their everyday lives (both emotionally and socially) than non-hearing-aid users. Discriminant analyses showed that the social consequences of hearing impairment and the better ear hearing best classified hearing aid users from non-users but social consequences and worse ear hearing best classified hearing assistance technology users from non-users. Quality of life measurements and speech-in-noise assessments provide useful clinical information. Hearing-impaired adults in New Zealand who use hearing aids also tend to use hearing assistance technology, which has important clinical implications.

  15. Successful engagement: CBM's holistic approach to the work in the area of ear care, deafness, hard of hearing and deafblindness.

    PubMed

    Tesni, Sian; Santana-Hernández, Diego

    2014-09-01

    CBM is an international Christian development organisation, committed to improving the quality of life of persons with disabilities in disadvantaged societies. CBM aims at achieving this in partnership with local organisations and in cooperation with stakeholders at regional and international levels. This article aims at sharing CBM's holistic approach for successful engagement in the work area of ear care, deafness, hard of hearing and deafblindness. Review of CBM supporting documents, including strategies, position papers, technical guidelines, criteria of success and information related to partners, centres of excellence and model projects. Description of how partner programmes use participatory methods of planning and implementation, involving persons with disabilities and the community. Recommendations on how to develop national or sub-national strategies to impact the lives, and advocate with governments for the rights and inclusion, of persons with disabilities. CBM's holistic approach to work in the area of ear care; deafness; hard of hearing and deafblindness includes intervention at all levels of health care provision, Education, CBR and Audiological, Speech Therapy and other interdisciplinary services. This article presents CBM's core principles and shares specific strategic planning and results, together with lessons learnt while searching a sustainable engagement for field work. Rehabilitation, in its widest conception, should be approached as a multidisciplinary strategy, and developed in close cooperation with other local, national and international agencies. CBM is positioned in a strategic point from where it can play a key role in the facilitation of an international forum for agencies and stakeholders to reach a consensus to decrease the burden of ear disease and hearing loss, through early intervention and re/habilitation.

  16. Comparison of an Electromagnetic Middle Ear Implant and Hearing Aid Word Recognition Performance to Word Recognition Performance Obtained Under Earphones.

    PubMed

    Chang, C Y Joseph; Spearman, Michael; Spearman, Brian; McCraney, Anna; Glasscock, Michael E

    2017-10-01

    To report the results of patients with the Maxum middle ear implant (MEI) and compare word recognition scores (WRS) and speech perception gap (SP Gap) of Maxum versus optimally fit hearing aids (HA). Case series with chart review. Single, private otology clinic. Eleven ears, in nine adult patients (two women; average age 62.7 yr). Twelve consecutive ears with moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) underwent implantation of the Maxum system. One patient was not included due to inadequate preoperative testing. Primary outcome measures included word recognition score (WRS) and SP Gap (maximum word understanding [PB max] - WRSaided) improvement compared with HAs. The average Maxum WRS was 64.7% (range, 28-94%), a 41.6% improvement (range, 10-66%) over HAs (p < 0.001). The average Maxum SP Gap was 6.6% (range, -8 to 24%), a 41.6% improvement (range, 10-66%) over HAs (p < 0.001). These data demonstrate that the Maxum provides superior WRS than HAs for patients with significant aided SP Gaps. There is a significant, very strong correlation between Maxum WRS and PB max (r = 0.85, p = 0.001). This implies that PB max may reasonably predict WRS outcomes with Maxum before implantation, and the SP Gap can reasonably predict the degree of additional potential benefit with Maxum. In advising patients who may be candidates for both a CI and MEI, PB max and SP Gap measurements will provide useful predictive information to help clinicians counsel patients on their choice of hearing technology. 4.

  17. [Hearing disorders and rock music].

    PubMed

    Lindhardt, Bjarne Orskov

    2008-12-15

    Only few studies have investigated the frequency of hearing disorders in rock musicians. Performing rock music is apparently associated with a hearing loss in a fraction of musicians. Tinnitus and hyperacusis are more common among rock musicians than among the background population. It seems as if some sort of resistance against further hearing loss is developed over time. The use of ear protection devices have not been studied systematically but appears to be associated with diminished hearing loss.

  18. Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials to Evaluate Cochlear Implant Candidacy in an Ear With Long-standing Hearing Loss: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Patel, Tirth R; Shahin, Antoine J; Bhat, Jyoti; Welling, D Bradley; Moberly, Aaron C

    2016-10-01

    We describe a novel use of cortical auditory evoked potentials in the preoperative workup to determine ear candidacy for cochlear implantation. A 71-year-old male was evaluated who had a long-deafened right ear, had never worn a hearing aid in that ear, and relied heavily on use of a left-sided hearing aid. Electroencephalographic testing was performed using free field auditory stimulation of each ear independently with pure tones at 1000 and 2000 Hz at approximately 10 dB above pure-tone thresholds for each frequency and for each ear. Mature cortical potentials were identified through auditory stimulation of the long-deafened ear. The patient underwent successful implantation of that ear. He experienced progressively improving aided pure-tone thresholds and binaural speech recognition benefit (AzBio score of 74%). Findings suggest that use of cortical auditory evoked potentials may serve a preoperative role in ear selection prior to cochlear implantation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. JS-X syndrome: A multiple congenital malformation with vocal cord paralysis, ear deformity, hearing loss, shoulder musculature underdevelopment, and X-linked recessive inheritance.

    PubMed

    Hoeve, Hans L J; Brooks, Alice S; Smit, Liesbeth S

    2015-07-01

    We report on a family with a not earlier described multiple congenital malformation. Several male family members suffer from laryngeal obstruction caused by bilateral vocal cord paralysis, outer and middle ear deformity with conductive and sensorineural hearing loss, facial dysmorphisms, and underdeveloped shoulder musculature. The affected female members only have middle ear deformity and hearing loss. The pedigree is suggestive of an X-linked recessive inheritance pattern. SNP-array revealed a deletion and duplication on Xq28 in the affected family members. A possible aetiology is a neurocristopathy with most symptoms expressed in structures derived from branchial arches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Programmable shunt valve interactions with osseointegrated hearing devices.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Matthew J; Wehrmann, Daniel; Albers, J Andrew; El Tecle, Najib E; Costa, Dary; Elbabaa, Samer K

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Patients with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts with programmable valves who would benefit from osseointegrated hearing devices (OIHDs) represent a unique population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the magnetic field strengths of 4 OIHDs and their interactions with 5 programmable VP shunt valves. METHODS Magnetic field strength was measured as a function of distance for each hearing device (Cochlear Baha 5, Cochlear Baha BP110, Oticon Ponto Plus Power, and Medtronic Sophono) in the following modes: inactive, active in quiet, and active in 60 decibels of background noise in the sound booth. The hearing devices were introduced to each shunt valve (Aesculap proGAV, Aesculap proGAV 2.0, Codman Hakim, Codman Certas, and Medtronic Strata II) also as a function of distance in these identical 3 settings. Each trial was repeated 5 times. Between each trial, the valves were assessed for a change in setting. Finally, using a skull model, the devices were introduced to each other in standard anatomical locations and the valves were assessed for a change in settings. RESULTS The maximum magnetic field strengths generated by the Cochlear Baha 5, BP110, and Oticon OIHDs were 1.1, 36.2, and 48.7 gauss (G), respectively. The maximum strength generated by the Sophono device was > 800 G. The magnetic field strength of the hearing devices decreased markedly with increasing distance from the device. The strength of the Sophono's magnetic attachment decreased to 34.8 G at 5 mm. The Codman Hakim, Codman Certas, and Medtronic Strata II valve settings changed when rotating the valves next to the Sophono abutment. No other changes in valve settings occurred in the distance or anatomical models for any other trials. CONCLUSIONS This is the first study evaluating the interaction between OIHDs and programmable VP shunt valves. The findings suggest that it is safe to use these devices together without having to switch to a nonprogrammable valve or move the shunt valve to a more

  1. 21 CFR 874.3320 - Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer. 874... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3320 Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer. (a) Identification. A group hearing aid or group auditory trainer...

  2. 21 CFR 874.3320 - Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer. 874... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3320 Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer. (a) Identification. A group hearing aid or group auditory trainer...

  3. 21 CFR 874.3320 - Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer. 874... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3320 Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer. (a) Identification. A group hearing aid or group auditory trainer...

  4. 21 CFR 874.3320 - Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer. 874... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3320 Group hearing aid or group auditory trainer. (a) Identification. A group hearing aid or group auditory trainer...

  5. 21 CFR 801.420 - Hearing aid devices; professional and patient labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Special Requirements for Specific Devices § 801.420 Hearing aid devices; professional and patient labeling. (a) Definitions for the purposes of this section... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearing aid devices; professional and patient...

  6. 21 CFR 801.420 - Hearing aid devices; professional and patient labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Special Requirements for Specific Devices § 801.420 Hearing aid devices; professional and patient labeling. (a) Definitions for the purposes of this section... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hearing aid devices; professional and patient...

  7. Targeting hearing health messages for users of personal listening devices.

    PubMed

    Punch, Jerry L; Elfenbein, Jill L; James, Richard R

    2011-06-01

    To summarize the literature on patterns and risks of personal listening device (PLD) use, which is ubiquitous among teenagers and young adults. The review emphasizes risk awareness, health concerns of PLD users, inclination to take actions to prevent hearing loss from exposure to loud music, and specific instructional messages that are likely to motivate such preventive actions. We conducted a systematic, critical review of the English-language scholarly literature on the topic of PLDs and their potential effects on human hearing. We used popular database search engines to locate relevant professional journals, books, recent conference papers, and other reference sources. Adolescents and young adults appear to have somewhat different perspectives on risks to hearing posed by PLD use. Messages designed to suggest actions they might take in avoiding or reducing these risks, therefore, need to be targeted to achieve optimal outcomes. We offer specific recommendations regarding the framing and content of educational messages that are most likely to be effective in reducing the potentially harmful effects of loud music on hearing in these populations, and we note future research needs.

  8. Evolution of directional hearing in moths via conversion of bat detection devices to asymmetric pressure gradient receivers

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Andrew; Marin-Cudraz, Thibaut

    2016-01-01

    Small animals typically localize sound sources by means of complex internal connections and baffles that effectively increase time or intensity differences between the two ears. However, some miniature acoustic species achieve directional hearing without such devices, indicating that other mechanisms have evolved. Using 3D laser vibrometry to measure tympanum deflection, we show that female lesser waxmoths (Achroia grisella) can orient toward the 100-kHz male song, because each ear functions independently as an asymmetric pressure gradient receiver that responds sharply to high-frequency sound arriving from an azimuth angle 30° contralateral to the animal's midline. We found that females presented with a song stimulus while running on a locomotion compensation sphere follow a trajectory 20°–40° to the left or right of the stimulus heading but not directly toward it, movement consistent with the tympanum deflections and suggestive of a monaural mechanism of auditory tracking. Moreover, females losing their track typically regain it by auditory scanning—sudden, wide deviations in their heading—and females initially facing away from the stimulus quickly change their general heading toward it, orientation indicating superior ability to resolve the front–rear ambiguity in source location. X-ray computer-aided tomography (CT) scans of the moths did not reveal any internal coupling between the two ears, confirming that an acoustic insect can localize a sound source based solely on the distinct features of each ear. PMID:27849607

  9. Growth hormone treatment does not affect incidences of middle ear disease or hearing loss in infants and toddlers with Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Marsha L; Roush, Jackson; Liu, Chunhua; Zagar, Anthony J; Eugster, Erica; Travers, Sharon; Fechner, Patricia Y; Quigley, Charmian A

    2010-01-01

    No randomized, controlled, prospective study has evaluated the effect of growth hormone (GH) on the rates of middle ear (ME) disease and hearing loss in girls with Turner syndrome (TS). A 2-year, prospective, randomized, controlled, open-label, multicenter, clinical trial ('Toddler Turner Study'; August 1999 to August 2003) was carried out. The study was conducted at 11 US pediatric endocrine centers. Eighty-eight girls with TS, aged 9 months to 4 years, were enrolled. The interventions comprised recombinant GH (50 microg/kg/day, n = 45) or no treatment (n = 43) for 2 years. The outcome measures included occurrence rates of ear-related problems, otitis media (OM) and associated antibiotic treatments, tympanometric assessment of ME function and hearing assessment by audiology. At baseline, 57% of the girls (mean age = 1.98 +/- 1.00 years) had a history of recurrent OM, 33% had undergone tympanostomy tube (t-tube) insertion and 27% had abnormal hearing. There was no significant difference between the treatment groups for annual incidence of OM episodes (untreated control: 1.9 +/- 1.4; GH-treated: 1.5 +/- 1.6, p = 0.17). A quarter of the subjects underwent ear surgeries (mainly t-tube insertions) during the study. Recurrent or persistent abnormality of ME function on tympanometry was present in 28-45% of the girls without t-tubes at the 6 postbaseline visits. Hearing deficits were found in 19-32% of the girls at the annual postbaseline visits. Most of these were conductive deficits, however, 2 girls had findings consistent with sensorineural hearing loss, which was evident before 3 years of age. Ear and hearing problems are common in infants and toddlers with TS and are not significantly influenced by GH treatment. Girls with TS need early, regular and thorough ME monitoring by their primary care provider and/or otolaryngologist, and at least annual hearing evaluations by a pediatric audiologist. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Staging workers' use of hearing protection devices: application of the transtheoretical model.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Delbert M; Lusk, Sally L

    2006-04-01

    The threat of noise-induced hearing loss is a serious concern for many workers. This study explores use of the transtheoretical model as a framework for defining stages of workers' acceptance of hearing protection devices. A secondary analysis was performed using a cross-section of data from a randomized, controlled clinical trial of an intervention to increase use of hearing protection. Use of hearing protection devices was well distributed across the theorized stages of change. Chi-square analysis and analysis of variance revealed significant differences between stages for the variables studied. Discrete stages of hearing protection device use can be identified, laying the foundation for further work investigating use of the transtheoretical model for promoting hearing protection device use. The model can provide a framework for tailoring interventions and evaluating their effects. With further development of the transtheoretical model, nurses may be able to easily identify workers' readiness to use hearing protection devices and tailor training toward that goal.

  11. A comparison of the brainstem auditory evoked response in healthy ears of unilaterally deaf dogs and bilaterally hearing dogs.

    PubMed

    Plonek, M; Nicpoń, J; Kubiak, K; Wrzosek, M

    2017-03-01

    Auditory plasticity in response to unilateral deafness has been reported in various animal species. Subcortical changes occurring in unilaterally deaf young dogs using the brainstem auditory evoked response have not been evaluated yet. The aim of this study was to assess the brainstem auditory evoked response findings in dogs with unilateral hearing loss, and compare them with recordings obtained from healthy dogs. Brainstem auditory evoked responses (amplitudes and latencies of waves I, II, III, V, the V/I wave amplitude ratio, wave I-V, I-III and III-V interpeak intervals) were studied retrospectively in forty-six privately owned dogs, which were either unilaterally deaf or had bilateral hearing. The data obtained from the hearing ears in unilaterally deaf dogs were compared to values obtained from their healthy littermates. Statistically significant differences in the amplitude of wave III and the V/I wave amplitude ratio at 75 dB nHL were found between the group of unilaterally deaf puppies and the control group. The recordings of dogs with single-sided deafness were compared, and the results showed no statistically significant differences in the latencies and amplitudes of the waves between left- (AL) and right-sided (AR) deafness. The recordings of the brainstem auditory evoked response in canines with unilateral inborn deafness in this study varied compared to recordings from healthy dogs. Future studies looking into electrophysiological assessment of hearing in conjunction with imaging modalities to determine subcortical auditory plasticity and auditory lateralization in unilaterally deaf dogs are warranted.

  12. The use of hearing protection devices by older adults during recreational noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Nondahl, D M; Cruickshanks, K J; Dalton, D S; Klein, B E K; Klein, R; Tweed, T S; Wiley, T L

    2006-01-01

    A population-based study to assess the use of hearing protection devices by older adults during noisy recreational activities was performed. The population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study was designed to measure the prevalence of hearing loss in adults residing in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. The use of hearing protection devices during noisy recreational activities was assessed by performing three examinations over a period of 10 years (1993-1995, no. of participants (n)=3753, aged 48-92 years; 1998-2000, n=2800, aged 53-97 years; 2003-2005, n=2395, aged 58-100 years). The recreational activities included hunting, target shooting, woodworking/carpentry, metalworking, driving loud recreational vehicles, and performing yard work using either power tools or a chain saw. The prevalence of using hearing protection devices during any of these activities increased with time (9.5%, 15.0%, and 19.9% at baseline, 5 years, and 10 years, respectively). However, the use of hearing protection devices remained low for most activities. Those under the age of 65 were twice as likely to use hearing protection devices during noisy activities than were older adults. Men, those with a hearing handicap, and those with significant tinnitus were more likely to use hearing protection devices. Smokers and the less educated were less likely to use hearing protection devices. The results demonstrated that many adults expose themselves to potentially damaging recreational noise, leaving them at risk for hearing loss.

  13. Hearing risk associated with the usage of personal listening devices among urban high school students in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, A H; Seluakumaran, K; Husain, R

    2013-08-01

    To investigate listening habits and hearing risks associated with the use of personal listening devices among urban high school students in Malaysia. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. In total, 177 personal listening device users (13-16 years old) were interviewed to elicit their listening habits (e.g. listening duration, volume setting) and symptoms of hearing loss. Their listening levels were also determined by asking them to set their usual listening volume on an Apple iPod TM playing a pre-selected song. The iPod's sound output was measured with an artificial ear connected to a sound level meter. Subjects also underwent pure tone audiometry to ascertain their hearing thresholds at standard frequencies (0.5-8 kHz) and extended high frequencies (9-16 kHz). The mean measured listening level and listening duration for all subjects were 72.2 dBA and 1.2 h/day, respectively. Their self-reported listening levels were highly correlated with the measured levels (P < 0.001). Subjects who listened at higher volumes also tend to listen for longer durations (P = 0.012). Male subjects listened at a significantly higher volume than female subjects (P = 0.008). When sound exposure levels were compared with the recommended occupational noise exposure limit, 4.5% of subjects were found to be listening at levels which require mandatory hearing protection in the occupational setting. Hearing loss (≥25 dB hearing level at one or more standard test frequencies) was detected in 7.3% of subjects. Subjects' sound exposure levels from the devices were positively correlated with their hearing thresholds at two of the extended high frequencies (11.2 and 14 kHz), which could indicate an early stage of noise-induced hearing loss. Although the average high school student listened at safe levels, a small percentage of listeners were exposed to harmful sound levels. Preventive measures are needed to avoid permanent hearing damage in high-risk listeners. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society

  14. Directional Hearing Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M.; Lin, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    Hearing-aid device indicates visually whether sound is coming from left, right, back, or front. Device intended to assist individuals who are deaf in at least one ear and unable to discern naturally directions to sources of sound. Device promotes safety in street traffic, on loading docks, and in presence of sirens, alarms, and other warning sounds. Quadraphonic version of device built into pair of eyeglasses and binaural version built into visor.

  15. Nutrient-Enhanced Diet Reduces Noise-Induced Damage to the Inner Ear and Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Le Prell, C. G.; Gagnon, P. M; Bennett, D. C.; Ohlemiller, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been broadly implicated as a cause of cell death and neural degeneration in multiple disease conditions; however, the evidence for successful intervention with dietary antioxidant manipulations has been mixed. In this study, we investigated the potential for protection of cells in the inner ear using a dietary supplement with multiple antioxidant components, selected for their potential interactive effectiveness. Protection against permanent threshold shift (PTS) was observed in CBA/J mice maintained on a diet supplemented with a combination of β-carotene, vitamins C and E, and magnesium when compared to PTS in control mice maintained on a nutritionally complete control diet. Although hair cell survival was not enhanced, noise-induced loss of Type II fibrocytes in the lateral wall was significantly reduced (p<0.05), and there was a trend towards less noise-induced loss in strial cell density in animals maintained on the supplemented diet. Taken together, our data suggest that pre-noise oral treatment with the high-nutrient diet can protect cells in the inner ear and reduce PTS in mice. Demonstration of functional and morphological preservation of cells in the inner ear with oral administration of this antioxidant supplemented diet supports the possibility of translation to human patients, and suggests an opportunity to evaluate antioxidant protection in mouse models of oxidative stress-related disease and pathology. PMID:21708355

  16. How can the auditory efferent system protect our ears from noise-induced hearing loss? Let us count the ways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Lynne; Miller, Judi A. Lapsley

    2015-12-01

    It is a cause for some debate as to how the auditory olivocochlear (OC) efferent system could protect hearing from noise trauma. In this review, we examined physiological research to find mechanisms that could effectively attenuate the response to sound. For each purported mechanism, we indicate which part of the OC-efferent system is responsible for the function and the site of action. These mechanisms include basilar-membrane phase shifts at high stimulus levels; changes in outer-hair-cell stiffness and phase lag associated with efferent slow effects; small decreases in endocochlear potentials causing small decreases in outer- and inner-hair-cell output; low-spontaneous-rate and medium-spontaneous-rate fibers showing OC-induced decrements at high levels; auditory-nerve initial-peak reduction; OC effect increasing over minutes; cholinergic activation of anti-apoptotic pathways; and anti-excitotoxicity. There are clearly multiple opportunities for the OC-efferent system to protect the inner ear from noise trauma. From further exploration into the mechanisms outlined here, as well as to-be-discovered mechanisms, we will gain a greater understanding of the protective nature of the OC-efferent system. These findings could aid our ability to design better predictive tests for people at risk for noise-induced hearing loss.

  17. Middle ear abnormalities in Van Maldergem syndrome.

    PubMed

    Verheij, Emmy; Thomeer, Henricus G X M; Pameijer, Frank A; Topsakal, Vedat

    2017-01-01

    Van Maldergem syndrome (VMS) is a very rare syndrome that was first described in 1992. The main features of this syndrome comprise intellectual disability, blepharo-naso-facial malformation, and hand anomalies. Almost all nine described patients have been shown to be affected by conductive hearing impairment attributed to microtia, and atresia of the outer ear canal. Here, we present a VMS patient with congenital malformations of the middle ear as the main reason for severe conductive bilateral hearing impairment. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe middle ear abnormalities in VMS. These malformations were seen on high resolution Computed Tomography scanning and during an exploratory tympanotomy. Due to the severity of the middle ear abnormalities and the risk for facial nerve damage, the patient was not offered an ossicular chain reconstruction but a bone conduction device after this exploratory tympanotomy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, Pro136His TWIST mutation, hearing loss, and external and middle ear structural anomalies: report on a Brazilian family.

    PubMed

    Lamônica, Dionísia A C; Maximino, Luciana P; Feniman, Mariza Ribeiro; Silva, Greyce K; Zanchetta, Sthella; Abramides, Dagma V M; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Rocha, Kátia; Richieri-Costa, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    To describe the clinical, speech, hearing, and imaging findings in three members of a Brazilian family with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS) who presented some unusual characteristics within the spectrum of the syndrome. Clinical evaluation was performed by a multidisciplinary team. Direct sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction-amplified coding region of the TWIST1 gene, routine and electrophysiological hearing evaluation, speech evaluation, and imaging studies through computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. TWIST1 gene analysis revealed a Pro136His mutation in all patients. Hearing evaluation showed peripherial and mixed hearing loss in two of the patients, one of them with severe unilateral microtia. Computed tomography scan showed structural middle ear anomalies, and MRI showed distortion of the skull contour as well as some of the brain structures. We report a previously undescribed TWIST1 gene mutation in patients with SCS. There is evidence that indicates hearing loss (conductive and mixed) can be related both with middle ear (microtia, high jugular bulb, and enlarged vestibules) as well as with brain stem anomalies. Here we discuss the relationship between the gene mutation and the clinical, imaging, speech, and hearing findings.

  19. Middle Ear Disease, Hearing Loss and Educational Problems of American Indian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Damian; Mitchell, Jeanette

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes a number of studies which have attempted to document the prevalence of otitis media among American Indians. Reviews findings concerning psycho-educational consequences of otitis media and mild-to-moderate hearing loss, and their importance in American Indian education. Recommends procedures for creating an optional language listening…

  20. 21 CFR 801.421 - Hearing aid devices; conditions for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Informs the prospective user that the exercise of the waiver is not in the user's best health interest... that my best health interest would be served if I had a medical evaluation by a licensed physician (preferably a physician who specializes in diseases of the ear) before purchasing a hearing aid. I do not wish...

  1. 21 CFR 801.421 - Hearing aid devices; conditions for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Informs the prospective user that the exercise of the waiver is not in the user's best health interest... that my best health interest would be served if I had a medical evaluation by a licensed physician (preferably a physician who specializes in diseases of the ear) before purchasing a hearing aid. I do not wish...

  2. 21 CFR 801.421 - Hearing aid devices; conditions for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Informs the prospective user that the exercise of the waiver is not in the user's best health interest... that my best health interest would be served if I had a medical evaluation by a licensed physician (preferably a physician who specializes in diseases of the ear) before purchasing a hearing aid. I do not wish...

  3. 21 CFR 801.421 - Hearing aid devices; conditions for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Informs the prospective user that the exercise of the waiver is not in the user's best health interest... that my best health interest would be served if I had a medical evaluation by a licensed physician (preferably a physician who specializes in diseases of the ear) before purchasing a hearing aid. I do not wish...

  4. 21 CFR 801.421 - Hearing aid devices; conditions for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Informs the prospective user that the exercise of the waiver is not in the user's best health interest... that my best health interest would be served if I had a medical evaluation by a licensed physician (preferably a physician who specializes in diseases of the ear) before purchasing a hearing aid. I do not wish...

  5. Ear tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    ... eardrum may cause some hearing loss. But most children do not have long-term damage to their hearing or speech, even when the ... not go away with treatment, or if a child has many ear infections ... or that damages nearby nerves Injury to the ear after sudden ...

  6. Safety of an intra-oral hearing device utilizing a split-mouth research design.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ross; Hujoel, Philippe; Murray, Michael; Popelka, Gerald R

    2011-01-01

    The auditory deficits of Single Sided Deafness (SSD) can be treated effectively with a novel device, SoundBite, that delivers sound by applying imperceptible vibratory signals to the teeth (hereafter referred to as an intra-oral hearing device). The intra-oral hearing device is placed around two maxillary teeth and is similar to a small partial denture or retainer. The goal of this study was to report how this removable hearing device affects the oral structures. Twenty-two SSD patients wearing an intra-oral hearing device were enrolled in a prospective study for six months. Differences (delta) between the device-anchoring teeth and the equivalent contralateral non-device teeth were evaluated with four dental parameters using a paired t-test. Hearing thresholds were evaluated as a function of alveolar bone support using linear regression. Compared to the non-device teeth, the hearing device teeth did not exhibit any increased recession (delta = 0.1 mm, p-value = 0.48), increased pocket depth (delta = 0.0 mm, p-value = 0.48), increased root resorption (delta = 4%, p-value = 0.43), or increased alveolar bone loss (delta = 0.0 %, p-value = 0.43). There was no association between the amount of alveolar support and hearing thresholds (delta = 0.2, p-value = 0.34). The intra-oral component of the hearing device did not adversely affect the dental structures of the subjects in this trial.

  7. Carina® and Esteem®: a systematic review of fully implantable hearing devices.

    PubMed

    Pulcherio, Janaina Oliveira Bentivi; Bittencourt, Aline Gomes; Burke, Patrick Rademaker; Monsanto, Rafael da Costa; de Brito, Rubens; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    To review the outcomes of the fully implantable middle ear devices Carina and Esteem regarding the treatment of hearing loss. PubMed, Embase, Scielo, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. Abstracts of 77 citations were screened, and 43 articles were selected for full review. From those, 22 studies and two literature reviews in English directly demonstrating the results of Carina and Esteem were included. There were a total of 244 patients ranging from 18 to 88 years. One hundred and 10 patients were implanted with Carina and with 134 Esteem. There were registered 92 males and 67 females. Five studies provided no information about patients' age or gender. From the data available, the follow-up ranged from 2 to 29.4 months. The comparison of the results about word recognition is difficult as there was no standardization of measurement. The results were obtained from various sound intensities and different frequencies. The outcomes comparing to conventional HAs were conflicting. Nevertheless, all results comparing to unaided condition showed improvement and showed a subjective improvement of quality of life. There are still some problems to be solved, mainly related to device functioning and price. Due to the relatively few publications available and small sample sizes, we must be careful in extrapolating these results to a broader population. Additionally, none of all these studies represented level high levels of evidence (i.e. randomized controlled trials).

  8. Carina® and Esteem®: A Systematic Review of Fully Implantable Hearing Devices

    PubMed Central

    Pulcherio, Janaina Oliveira Bentivi; Bittencourt, Aline Gomes; Burke, Patrick Rademaker; Monsanto, Rafael da Costa; de Brito, Rubens; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the outcomes of the fully implantable middle ear devices Carina and Esteem regarding the treatment of hearing loss. Data Sources PubMed, Embase, Scielo, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. Study Selection Abstracts of 77 citations were screened, and 43 articles were selected for full review. From those, 22 studies and two literature reviews in English directly demonstrating the results of Carina and Esteem were included. Data Extraction There were a total of 244 patients ranging from 18 to 88 years. One hundred and 10 patients were implanted with Carina and with 134 Esteem. There were registered 92 males and 67 females. Five studies provided no information about patients’ age or gender. From the data available, the follow-up ranged from 2 to 29.4 months. Data Synthesis The comparison of the results about word recognition is difficult as there was no standardization of measurement. The results were obtained from various sound intensities and different frequencies. The outcomes comparing to conventional HAs were conflicting. Nevertheless, all results comparing to unaided condition showed improvement and showed a subjective improvement of quality of life. Conclusion There are still some problems to be solved, mainly related to device functioning and price. Due to the relatively few publications available and small sample sizes, we must be careful in extrapolating these results to a broader population. Additionally, none of all these studies represented level high levels of evidence (i.e. randomized controlled trials). PMID:25329463

  9. Memory for sound, with an ear toward hearing in complex auditory scenes.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Joel S; Gregg, Melissa K

    2011-10-01

    An area of research that has experienced recent growth is the study of memory during perception of simple and complex auditory scenes. These studies have provided important information about how well auditory objects are encoded in memory and how well listeners can notice changes in auditory scenes. These are significant developments because they present an opportunity to better understand how we hear in realistic situations, how higher-level aspects of hearing such as semantics and prior exposure affect perception, and the similarities and differences between auditory perception and perception in other modalities, such as vision and touch. The research also poses exciting challenges for behavioral and neural models of how auditory perception and memory work.

  10. 78 FR 66940 - Regulatory Requirements for Hearing Aid Devices and Personal Sound Amplification Products; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-D-1295] Regulatory Requirements for Hearing Aid Devices and Personal Sound Amplification Products; Draft Guidance for... draft guidance entitled ``Regulatory Requirements for Hearing Aid Devices and Personal Sound...

  11. Comparison of methods of evaluating hearing benefit of middle ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Toner, J G; Smyth, G D

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare two methods of predicting the level of subjective patient benefit following reconstructive middle ear surgery. This should have always been an important consideration in advising patients regarding surgery, but assumes even more relevance in these days of clinical audit and cost benefit analysis. The two methods studied were the '15/30 dB rule of thumb' (Smyth and Patterson, 1985) and the 'Glasgow plot' (Browning et al., 1991). The predictions of benefit for each of the two methods were compared to the assessment of actual benefits by the patient post-operatively. The results of this comparison in 153 patients were analysed, the rule of thumb was found to be somewhat more sensitive in predicting patient benefit.

  12. Cochlear implantation in adults with asymmetric hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Firszt, Jill B; Holden, Laura K; Reeder, Ruth M; Cowdrey, Lisa; King, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss is a standard criterion for cochlear implantation. Increasingly, patients are implanted in one ear and continue to use a hearing aid in the nonimplanted ear to improve abilities such as sound localization and speech understanding in noise. Patients with severe to profound hearing loss in one ear and a more moderate hearing loss in the other ear (i.e., asymmetric hearing) are not typically considered candidates for cochlear implantation. Amplification in the poorer ear is often unsuccessful because of limited benefit, restricting the patient to unilateral listening from the better ear alone. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients with asymmetric hearing loss could benefit from cochlear implantation in the poorer ear with continued use of a hearing aid in the better ear. Ten adults with asymmetric hearing between ears participated. In the poorer ear, all participants met cochlear implant candidacy guidelines; seven had postlingual onset, and three had pre/perilingual onset of severe to profound hearing loss. All had open-set speech recognition in the better-hearing ear. Assessment measures included word and sentence recognition in quiet, sentence recognition in fixed noise (four-talker babble) and in diffuse restaurant noise using an adaptive procedure, localization of word stimuli, and a hearing handicap scale. Participants were evaluated preimplant with hearing aids and postimplant with the implant alone, the hearing aid alone in the better ear, and bimodally (the implant and hearing aid in combination). Postlingual participants were evaluated at 6 mo postimplant, and pre/perilingual participants were evaluated at 6 and 12 mo postimplant. Data analysis compared the following results: (1) the poorer-hearing ear preimplant (with hearing aid) and postimplant (with cochlear implant); (2) the device(s) used for everyday listening pre- and postimplant; and (3) the hearing aid-alone and bimodal

  13. Cochlear Implantation in Adults with Asymmetric Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Firszt, Jill B.; Holden, Laura K.; Reeder, Ruth M.; Cowdrey, Lisa; King, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Objective Bilateral severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss is a standard criterion for cochlear implantation. Increasingly, patients are implanted in one ear and continue to use a hearing aid in the non-implanted ear to improve abilities such as sound localization and speech understanding in noise. Patients with severe-to-profound hearing loss in one ear and a more moderate hearing loss in the other ear (i.e., asymmetric hearing) are not typically considered candidates for cochlear implantation. Amplification in the poorer ear is often unsuccessful due to limited benefit, restricting the patient to unilateral listening from the better ear alone. The purpose of this study was to determine if patients with asymmetric hearing loss could benefit from cochlear implantation in the poorer ear with continued use of a hearing aid in the better ear. Design Ten adults with asymmetric hearing between ears participated. In the poorer ear, all participants met cochlear implant candidacy guidelines; seven had postlingual onset and three had pre/perilingual onset of severe-to-profound hearing loss. All had open-set speech recognition in the better hearing ear. Assessment measures included word and sentence recognition in quiet, sentence recognition in fixed noise (four-talker babble) and in diffuse restaurant noise using an adaptive procedure, localization of word stimuli and a hearing handicap scale. Participants were evaluated pre-implant with hearing aids and post-implant with the implant alone, the hearing aid alone in the better ear and bimodally (the implant and hearing aid in combination). Postlingual participants were evaluated at six months post-implant and pre/perilingual participants were evaluated at six and 12 months post-implant. Data analysis compared results 1) of the poorer hearing ear pre-implant (with hearing aid) and post-implant (with cochlear implant), 2) with the device(s) used for everyday listening pre- and post-implant and, 3) between the hearing

  14. Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infection? Swimmer's Ear Perforated Eardrum Hearing Impairment Swimmer's Ear (External ... All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, ...

  15. Considerations for Pediatric Cochlear Implant Recipients With Unilateral or Asymmetric Hearing Loss: Assessment, Device Fitting, and Habilitation.

    PubMed

    Greaver, Laura; Eskridge, Hannah; Teagle, Holly F B

    2017-06-13

    The purpose of this clinical report is to present case studies of children who are nontraditional candidates for cochlear implantation because they have significant residual hearing in 1 ear and to describe outcomes and considerations for their audiological management and habilitation. Case information is presented for 5 children with profound hearing loss in 1 ear and normal or mild-to-moderate hearing loss in the opposite ear and who have undergone unilateral cochlear implantation. Pre- and postoperative assessments were performed per typical clinic routines with modifications described. Postimplant habilitation was customized for each recipient using a combination of traditional methods, newer technologies, and commercial materials. The 5 children included in this report are consistent users of their cochlear implants and demonstrate speech recognition in the implanted ear when isolated from the better hearing ear. Candidacy criteria for cochlear implantation are evolving. Children with single-sided deafness or asymmetric hearing loss who have traditionally not been considered candidates for cochlear implantation should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Audiological management of these recipients is not vastly different compared with children who are traditional cochlear implant recipients. Assessment and habilitation techniques must be modified to isolate the implanted ear to obtain accurate results and to provide meaningful therapeutic intervention.

  16. Decisional Conflict in Parents Considering Bone-Anchored Hearing Devices in Children With Unilateral Aural Atresia.

    PubMed

    Graham, M Elise; Haworth, Rebecca; Chorney, Jill; Bance, Manohar; Hong, Paul

    2015-12-01

    The benefits of bone-anchored hearing devices (BAHD) in children with unilateral aural atresia are controversial. We sought to determine whether there is parental decisional conflict surrounding elective placement of BAHD for this indication. Caregivers of pediatric patients with unilateral aural atresia and normal contralateral ear undergoing percutaneous BAHD consultation were enrolled. All consultations were carried out by one pediatric otolaryngologist in a consistent manner. After consultation, the participants completed a demographics form and the Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS) questionnaire. Twenty-three caregivers of 15 male (65.2%) and 8 female (34.8%) children (mean age 5.65 years) participated. The overall median DCS score was 15.63 (standard error = 4.21). Significant decisional conflict (DCS score ≥ 25) was found in 10 participants (43.5%). The median DCS score in the group choosing surgery was 5.47, and it was 23.44 in those who did not choose surgery (Mann-Whitney U = 39, Z = -1.391, P = .164). The median DCS score for mothers and fathers was 25 and 3.91, respectively. Many parents experienced significant decisional conflict when considering percutaneous BAHD surgery in children with unilateral aural atresia in our study population. Future research should explore the impact of decisional conflict on health outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. The effects of a hearing education program on recreational noise exposure, attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices in young adults.

    PubMed

    Keppler, Hannah; Ingeborg, Dhooge; Sofie, Degeest; Bart, Vinck

    2015-01-01

    Excessive recreational noise exposure in young adults might result in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and tinnitus. Inducing behavioral change in young adults is one of the aims of a hearing conservation program (HCP). The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a hearing education program after 6 months in young adults in relation to knowledge regarding their individual hearing status. The results of a questionnaire regarding the weekly equivalent recreational noise exposure, attitudes and beliefs toward noise, and hearing loss and hearing protector devices (HPDs) were compared between both sessions. Seventy-eight young adults completed the questionnaire concerning recreational noise exposure, youth attitude to noise scale (YANS), and beliefs about hearing protection and hearing loss (BAHPHL). Their hearing status was evaluated based on admittance measures, audiometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). The main analysis consisted of a mixed model analysis of variance with dependent variables of either the noise exposure or the scores on (subscales of) YANS and BAHPHL. The independent variables were hearing status and session one versus session two. There was a significant decrease in recreational noise exposure and several (sub) scales of YANS and BAHPHL between both the sessions. This behavioral change resulted in a more frequent use of HPDs in 12% of the participants. However, the behavioral change was not completely related to the knowledge of young adults' individual hearing status. To prevent hearing damage in young people, investing in HCPs is necessary, apart from regulating sound levels and its compliance at various leisure-time activities. Also, the long-term effect of HCPs and their most cost-efficient repetition rates should be further investigated.

  18. Computational Modeling of Blast Wave Transmission Through Human Ear.

    PubMed

    Leckness, Kegan; Nakmali, Don; Gan, Rong Z

    2018-03-01

    Hearing loss has become the most common disability among veterans. Understanding how blast waves propagate through the human ear is a necessary step in the development of effective hearing protection devices (HPDs). This article presents the first 3D finite element (FE) model of the human ear to simulate blast wave transmission through the ear. The 3D FE model of the human ear consisting of the ear canal, tympanic membrane, ossicular chain, and middle ear cavity was imported into ANSYS Workbench for coupled fluid-structure interaction analysis in the time domain. Blast pressure waveforms recorded external to the ear in human cadaver temporal bone tests were applied at the entrance of the ear canal in the model. The pressure waveforms near the tympanic membrane (TM) in the canal (P1) and behind the TM in the middle ear cavity (P2) were calculated. The model-predicted results were then compared with measured P1 and P2 waveforms recorded in human cadaver ears during blast tests. Results show that the model-derived P1 waveforms were in an agreement with the experimentally recorded waveforms with statistic Kurtosis analysis. The FE model will be used for the evaluation of HPDs in future studies.

  19. What Is an Ear Infection?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hearing Loss? Taking Care of Your Ears Swimmer's Ear Perforated Eardrum What's Earwax? View ... All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, ...

  20. Real-ear acoustical characteristics of impulse sound generated by golf drivers and the estimated risk to hearing: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fei; Bardsley, Barry

    2014-01-21

    This study investigated real-ear acoustical characteristics in terms of the sound pressure levels (SPLs) and frequency responses in situ generated from golf club drivers at impact with a golf ball. The risk of hearing loss caused by hitting a basket of golf balls using various drivers was then estimated. Cross-sectional study. The three driver clubs were chosen on the basis of reflection of the commonality and modern technology of the clubs. The participants were asked to choose the clubs in a random order and hit six two-piece range golf balls with each club. The experiment was carried out at a golf driving range in South Wales, UK. 19 male amateur golfers volunteered to take part in the study, with an age range of 19-54 years. The frequency responses and peak SPLs in situ of the transient sound generated from the club at impact were recorded bilaterally and simultaneously using the GN Otometric Freefit wireless real-ear measurement system. A swing speed radar system was also used to investigate the relationship between noise level and swing speed. Different clubs generated significantly different real-ear acoustical characteristics in terms of SPL and frequency responses. However, they did not differ significantly between the ears. No significant correlation was found between the swing speed and noise intensity. On the basis of the SPLs measured in the present study, the percentage of daily noise exposure for hitting a basket of golf balls using the drivers described above was less than 2%. The immediate danger of noise-induced hearing loss for amateur golfers is quite unlikely. However, it may be dangerous to hearing if the noise level generated by the golf clubs exceeded 116 dBA.

  1. Real-ear acoustical characteristics of impulse sound generated by golf drivers and the estimated risk to hearing: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fei; Bardsley, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated real-ear acoustical characteristics in terms of the sound pressure levels (SPLs) and frequency responses in situ generated from golf club drivers at impact with a golf ball. The risk of hearing loss caused by hitting a basket of golf balls using various drivers was then estimated. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The three driver clubs were chosen on the basis of reflection of the commonality and modern technology of the clubs. The participants were asked to choose the clubs in a random order and hit six two-piece range golf balls with each club. The experiment was carried out at a golf driving range in South Wales, UK. Participants 19 male amateur golfers volunteered to take part in the study, with an age range of 19–54 years. Outcome measures The frequency responses and peak SPLs in situ of the transient sound generated from the club at impact were recorded bilaterally and simultaneously using the GN Otometric Freefit wireless real-ear measurement system. A swing speed radar system was also used to investigate the relationship between noise level and swing speed. Results Different clubs generated significantly different real-ear acoustical characteristics in terms of SPL and frequency responses. However, they did not differ significantly between the ears. No significant correlation was found between the swing speed and noise intensity. On the basis of the SPLs measured in the present study, the percentage of daily noise exposure for hitting a basket of golf balls using the drivers described above was less than 2%. Conclusions The immediate danger of noise-induced hearing loss for amateur golfers is quite unlikely. However, it may be dangerous to hearing if the noise level generated by the golf clubs exceeded 116 dBA. PMID:24448845

  2. How to quantify binaural hearing in patients with unilateral hearing using hearing implants.

    PubMed

    Snik, Ad; Agterberg, Martijn; Bosman, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Application of bilateral hearing devices in bilateral hearing loss and unilateral application in unilateral hearing loss (second ear with normal hearing) does not a priori lead to binaural hearing. An overview is presented on several measures of binaural benefits that have been used in patients with unilateral or bilateral deafness using one or two cochlear implants, respectively, and in patients with unilateral or bilateral conductive/mixed hearing loss using one or two percutaneous bone conduction implants (BCDs), respectively. Overall, according to this overview, the most significant and sensitive measure is the benefit in directional hearing. Measures using speech (viz. binaural summation, binaural squelch or use of the head shadow effect) showed minor benefits, except for patients with bilateral conductive/mixed hearing loss using two BCDs. Although less feasible in daily practise, the binaural masking level difference test seems to be a promising option in the assessment of binaural function. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Inner ear disorders.

    PubMed

    Smouha, Eric

    2013-01-01

    To present a framework for the diagnosis and treatment of inner ear disorders, with an emphasis on problems common to neuro-rehabilitation. Disorders of the inner ear can cause hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo and imbalance. Hearing loss can be conductive, sensorineural, or mixed; conductive hearing loss arises from the ear canal or middle ear, while sensorineural hearing loss arises from the inner ear or auditory nerve. Vertigo is a hallucination of motion, and is the cardinal symptom of vestibular system disease. It should be differentiated from other causes of dizziness: gait imbalance, disequilibrium, lightheadedness (pre-syncope). Vertigo can be caused by problems in the inner ear or central nervous system. The diagnosis of inner ear disorders begins with a targeted physical examination. The initial work-up of hearing loss is made by audiometry, and vertigo by electronystagmography (ENG). Supplemental tests and MRI are obtained when clinically indicated. The clinical pattern and duration of vertigo are the most important clinical features in the diagnosis. Common inner ear causes of vertigo include: vestibular neuritis (sudden, unilateral vestibular loss), Meniere's disease (episodic vertigo), benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), and bilateral vestibular loss. Common central nervous system causes of vertigo include: post concussion syndrome, cervical vertigo, vestibular migraine, cerebrovascular disease, and acoustic neuroma. A basic knowledge of vestibular physiology, coupled with a understanding of common vestibular syndromes, will lead to correct diagnosis and treatment in most cases.

  4. Fundamental frequency information for speech recognition via bimodal stimulation: cochlear implant in one ear and hearing aid in the other.

    PubMed

    Shpak, Talma; Most, Tova; Luntz, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of fundamental frequency (F0) information in improving speech perception of individuals with a cochlear implant (CI) who use a contralateral hearing aid (HA). The authors hypothesized that in bilateral-bimodal (CI/HA) users the perception of natural prosody speech would be superior to the perception of speech with monotonic flattened F0 contour, whereas in unilateral CI users the perception of both speech signals would be similar. They also hypothesized that in the CI/HA listening condition the speech perception scores would improve as a function of the magnitude of the difference between the F0 characteristics of the target speech signal and the F0 characteristics of the competitors, whereas in the CI-alone condition such a pattern would not be recognized, or at least not as clearly. Two tests were administered to 29 experienced CI/HA adult users who, regardless of their residual hearing or speech perception abilities, had chosen to continue using an HA in the nonimplanted ear for at least 75% of their waking hours. In the first test, the difference between the perception of speech characterized by natural prosody and speech characterized by monotonic flattened F0 contour was assessed in the presence of babble noise produced by three competing male talkers. In the second test the perception of semantically unpredictable sentences was evaluated in the presence of a competing reversed speech sentence spoken by different single talkers with different F0 characteristics. Each test was carried out under two listening conditions: CI alone and CI/HA. Under both listening conditions, the perception of speech characterized by natural prosody was significantly better than the perception of speech in which monotonic F0 contour was flattened. Differences between the scores for natural prosody and for monotonic flattened F0 speech contour were significantly greater, however, in the CI/HA condition than with CI alone. In the second

  5. 34 CFR 300.113 - Routine checking of hearing aids and external components of surgically implanted medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Routine checking of hearing aids and external... Eligibility Other Fape Requirements § 300.113 Routine checking of hearing aids and external components of surgically implanted medical devices. (a) Hearing aids. Each public agency must ensure that hearing aids worn...

  6. 34 CFR 300.113 - Routine checking of hearing aids and external components of surgically implanted medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Routine checking of hearing aids and external components... Eligibility Other Fape Requirements § 300.113 Routine checking of hearing aids and external components of surgically implanted medical devices. (a) Hearing aids. Each public agency must ensure that hearing aids worn...

  7. 34 CFR 300.113 - Routine checking of hearing aids and external components of surgically implanted medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Routine checking of hearing aids and external... Eligibility Other Fape Requirements § 300.113 Routine checking of hearing aids and external components of surgically implanted medical devices. (a) Hearing aids. Each public agency must ensure that hearing aids worn...

  8. Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... never change the dose or stop giving your child a medicine without talking to your doctor first. Reviewed by: Robert C. ... Hearing Loss? Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Going to the Audiologist Hearing ...

  9. Hearing protection devices: Use at work predicts use at play.

    PubMed

    Beach, Elizabeth Francis; Gilliver, Megan; Williams, Warwick

    2016-09-02

    Use of hearing protection devices (HPDs) at work is widespread and well researched, but less is known about HPD use in high-noise leisure activities. We investigated HPD use of 8,144 Australians in leisure settings. An online survey asked questions about HPD use at work and leisure and examined whether age, gender, HPD use at work, and tinnitus predicted HPD use in leisure activities. Leisure-based HPD use was most common during high-risk work-related activities. Use of HPDs at work was the most significant predictor of leisure-based use, with workplace users up to 5 times more likely to use HPDs at leisure. Men were significantly more likely than women to use HPDs in 10/20 leisure activities, and those with tinnitus were more likely than those without to use HPDs in 8/20 activities. Older participants were more likely to use HPDs at nightclubs and concerts, but younger participants were more likely to use HPDs playing e-games and musical instruments.

  10. Audiologists' communication behaviour during hearing device management appointments.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Karen; Ong, Clarissa W; Borrie, Stephanie A; Nelson, Lauri H; Twohig, Michael P

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to describe audiologist communication behaviours during appointments for hearing device monitoring and management before and after participation in counselling skills training. The study used a longitudinal design with three assessment points over 6 months. The sample included 10 audiologists and audiology graduate students interacting in a professional setting with their clients. Audiologists reported improvement in their counselling skills from pre-training to follow-up, which was consistent with objective findings that audiologist relative speaking time decreased from pre-training to post-training as well as from pre-training to follow-up. Observer-rated scores of participants' counselling skills; however, yielded no significant differences across time. Some improvement was noted in audiologists' counselling behaviour following a 1-day communication skills workshop and continued learning support. It is evident; however, that further training, such as increased training and performance feedback, is needed to maintain and enhance audiologist progress in the various aspects of counselling.

  11. Congenital malformations of the inner ear and the vestibulocochlear nerve in children with sensorineural hearing loss: evaluation with CT and MRI.

    PubMed

    Westerhof, J P; Rademaker, J; Weber, B P; Becker, H

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the diagnostic value of CT and MRI in children with sensorineural hearing loss and to analyze anatomic abnormalities of the inner ear and the vestibulocochlear nerve in this patient group. We evaluated 42 inner ears in 21 children with congenital deafness who had congenital inner ear malformations and who were candidates for cochlear implants. All patients were studied with high resolution MR and helical CT examinations. The MR study included a T2-weighted 3D fast SE sequence. We describe and tabulate the anatomic abnormalities. Special attention was given to abnormalities of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The field of view in the plane according to the length axis of the internal auditory canal (IAC) was 4 cm. Additional continuous parasagittal reformations perpendicular to the length axis of the IAC were studied with a field of view of 3 cm. CT and MRI allowed accurate identification of malformations of the inner ear in children with congenital deafness. We identified 99 malformations, with a majority of patients demonstrating multiple abnormalities. Common imaging findings were Mondini abnormality and Mondini variants (12/42) and fusion of the lateral or superior semicircular canal with the vestibule (12/42). MRI demonstrated in 9 of 21 patients a rudimentary or absent vestibulocochlear nerve in the auditory canal. CT and MRI are important modalities to analyze the inner ear in children who are candidates for cochlear implants. MRI with an extremely small field of view should be used to study possible abnormalities of the vestibulocochlear nerves. This may alter clinical care and allow cochlear implant placement in patients whose electrodiagnostic studies suggest that the implant should not be performed. The detailed analysis of abnormalities of the inner ear might establish prognostic factors.

  12. Hearing Tests Based on Biologically Calibrated Mobile Devices: Comparison With Pure-Tone Audiometry

    PubMed Central

    Grysiński, Tomasz; Kręcicki, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Background Hearing screening tests based on pure-tone audiometry may be conducted on mobile devices, provided that the devices are specially calibrated for the purpose. Calibration consists of determining the reference sound level and can be performed in relation to the hearing threshold of normal-hearing persons. In the case of devices provided by the manufacturer, together with bundled headphones, the reference sound level can be calculated once for all devices of the same model. Objective This study aimed to compare the hearing threshold measured by a mobile device that was calibrated using a model-specific, biologically determined reference sound level with the hearing threshold obtained in pure-tone audiometry. Methods Trial participants were recruited offline using face-to-face prompting from among Otolaryngology Clinic patients, who own Android-based mobile devices with bundled headphones. The hearing threshold was obtained on a mobile device by means of an open access app, Hearing Test, with incorporated model-specific reference sound levels. These reference sound levels were previously determined in uncontrolled conditions in relation to the hearing threshold of normal-hearing persons. An audiologist-assisted self-measurement was conducted by the participants in a sound booth, and it involved determining the lowest audible sound generated by the device within the frequency range of 250 Hz to 8 kHz. The results were compared with pure-tone audiometry. Results A total of 70 subjects, 34 men and 36 women, aged 18-71 years (mean 36, standard deviation [SD] 11) participated in the trial. The hearing threshold obtained on mobile devices was significantly different from the one determined by pure-tone audiometry with a mean difference of 2.6 dB (95% CI 2.0-3.1) and SD of 8.3 dB (95% CI 7.9-8.7). The number of differences not greater than 10 dB reached 89% (95% CI 88-91), whereas the mean absolute difference was obtained at 6.5 dB (95% CI 6.2-6.9). Sensitivity and

  13. Hearing Tests Based on Biologically Calibrated Mobile Devices: Comparison With Pure-Tone Audiometry.

    PubMed

    Masalski, Marcin; Grysiński, Tomasz; Kręcicki, Tomasz

    2018-01-10

    Hearing screening tests based on pure-tone audiometry may be conducted on mobile devices, provided that the devices are specially calibrated for the purpose. Calibration consists of determining the reference sound level and can be performed in relation to the hearing threshold of normal-hearing persons. In the case of devices provided by the manufacturer, together with bundled headphones, the reference sound level can be calculated once for all devices of the same model. This study aimed to compare the hearing threshold measured by a mobile device that was calibrated using a model-specific, biologically determined reference sound level with the hearing threshold obtained in pure-tone audiometry. Trial participants were recruited offline using face-to-face prompting from among Otolaryngology Clinic patients, who own Android-based mobile devices with bundled headphones. The hearing threshold was obtained on a mobile device by means of an open access app, Hearing Test, with incorporated model-specific reference sound levels. These reference sound levels were previously determined in uncontrolled conditions in relation to the hearing threshold of normal-hearing persons. An audiologist-assisted self-measurement was conducted by the participants in a sound booth, and it involved determining the lowest audible sound generated by the device within the frequency range of 250 Hz to 8 kHz. The results were compared with pure-tone audiometry. A total of 70 subjects, 34 men and 36 women, aged 18-71 years (mean 36, standard deviation [SD] 11) participated in the trial. The hearing threshold obtained on mobile devices was significantly different from the one determined by pure-tone audiometry with a mean difference of 2.6 dB (95% CI 2.0-3.1) and SD of 8.3 dB (95% CI 7.9-8.7). The number of differences not greater than 10 dB reached 89% (95% CI 88-91), whereas the mean absolute difference was obtained at 6.5 dB (95% CI 6.2-6.9). Sensitivity and specificity for a mobile

  14. Wideband acoustic immittance in children with Down syndrome: prediction of middle-ear dysfunction, conductive hearing loss and patent PE tubes.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Lisa L; Keefe, Douglas H; Feeney, M Patrick; Brown, David K; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Elsayed, Alaaeldin M; Amann, Julia M; Manickam, Vairavan; Fitzpatrick, Denis; Shott, Sally R

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate pressurised wideband acoustic immittance (WAI) tests in children with Down syndrome (DS) and in typically developing children (TD) for prediction of conductive hearing loss (CHL) and patency of pressure equalising tubes (PETs). Audiologic diagnosis was determined by audiometry in combination with distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, 0.226 kHz tympanometry and otoscopy. WAI results were compared for ears within diagnostic categories (Normal, CHL and PET) and between groups (TD and DS). Children with DS (n = 40; mean age 6.4 years), and TD children (n = 48; mean age 5.1 years) were included. Wideband absorbance was significantly lower at 1-4 kHz in ears with CHL compared to NH for both TD and DS groups. In ears with patent PETs, wideband absorbance and group delay (GD) were larger than in ears without PETs between 0.25 and 1.5 kHz. Wideband absorbance tests were performed similarly for prediction of CHL and patent PETs in TD and DS groups. Wideband absorbance and GD revealed specific patterns in both TD children and those with DS that can assist in detection of the presence of significant CHL, assess the patency of PETs, and provide frequency-specific information in the audiometric range.

  15. Wideband Acoustic Immittance in Children with Down Syndrome: Prediction of Middle-Ear Dysfunction, Conductive Hearing Loss and Patent PE Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lisa L.; Keefe, Douglas H.; Feeney, M. Patrick; Brown, David K.; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Elsayed, Alaaeldin M.; Amann, Julia M.; Manickam, Vairavan; Fitzpatrick, Denis; Shott, Sally R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate pressurized wideband acoustic immittance (WAI) tests in children with Down syndrome (DS) and in typically developing children (TD) for prediction of conductive hearing loss (CHL) and patency of pressure equalizing tubes (PETs). Design Audiologic diagnosis was determined by audiometry in combination with distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, 226-Hz tympanometry and otoscopy. WAI results were compared for ears within diagnostic categories (Normal, CHL and PET) and between groups (TD and DS). Study Sample Children with DS (n=40; mean age 6.4 yrs.), and TD children (n=48; mean age 5.1 yrs.) were included. Results Wideband absorbance was significantly lower at 1–4 kHz in ears with CHL compared to NH for both TD and DS groups. In ears with patent PETs, wideband absorbance and group delay (GD) were larger than in ears without PETs between 0.25–1.5 kHz. Wideband absorbance tests performed similarly for prediction of CHL and patent PETs in TD and DS groups. Conclusions Wideband absorbance and group delay revealed specific patterns in both TD children and those with DS that can assist in detection of the presence of significant CHL, assess the patency of PETs, and provide frequency-specific information in the audiometric range. PMID:28434272

  16. Factors affecting the use and perceived benefit of ITE and BTE hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Baumfield, A; Dillon, H

    2001-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate factors that might affect hearing aid use, satisfaction and perceived benefit. A further aim was to look at which variables affect the choice of hearing aid, in particular, an in-the-ear (ITE) versus a behind-the-ear (BTE) device. Twenty-nine elderly hearing-impaired people with a mild-to-moderate hearing loss were fitted with both an ITE and a BTE hearing aid with similar electroacoustic performance. Both hearing aids were linear with output compression limiting and were fitted in a randomized order. After wearing each device for a six-week period, subj ets were asked to select the hearing aid they preferred. Variables significantly related to hearing aid choice, use and perceived benefit included ease of management, accuracy with which the NAL-R insertion gain target was achieved, earmould comfort and the type of hearing aid the client preferred initially.

  17. Functional hearing in the classroom: assistive listening devices for students with hearing impairment in a mainstream school setting.

    PubMed

    Zanin, Julien; Rance, Gary

    2016-12-01

    To assess the benefit of assistive listening devices (ALDs) for students with hearing impairment in mainstream schools. Speech recognition (CNC words) in background noise was assessed in a typical classroom. Participants underwent testing using four device configurations: (1) HA(s)/CI(s) alone, (2) soundfield amplification, (3) remote microphone (Roger Pen) on desk and (4) remote microphone at the loudspeaker. A sub-group of students subsequently underwent a 2-week classroom trial of each ALD. Degree of improvement from baseline [HA(s)/CI(s)] alone was assessed using teacher and student Listening Inventory for Education-Revised (LIFE-R) questionnaires. In all, 20 students, aged 12.5-18.9 years, underwent speech recognition assessment. In total, 10 of these participated in the classroom trial. Hearing loss ranged from mild-to-profound levels. Performance in each ALD configuration was higher than for HAs/CIs alone (p < 0.001). Teacher and student LIFE-R results indicated significant improvement in listening/communication when using the remote microphone in conjunction with HAs/CIs (p < 0.05). There was no difference between the soundfield system and the baseline measurement (p > 0.05). Speech recognition improvements were demonstrated with the implementation of both remote microphones and soundfield systems. Both students and teachers reported functional hearing advantages in the classroom when using the remote microphone in concert with their standard hearing devices.

  18. Objective and perceptual comparisons of two bluetooth hearing aid assistive devices.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jackie L; Pustejovsky, Carmen; Vanneste, Sven

    2017-08-01

    With the advent of Bluetooth technology, many of the assistive listening devices for hearing have become manufacturer specific, with little objective information about the performance provided. Thirty native English-speaking adults (mean age 29.8) with normal hearing were tested pseudo-randomly with two major hearing aid manufacturers' proprietary Bluetooth connectivity devices paired to the accompanying manufacturer's specific hearing aids. Sentence recognition performance was objectively measured for each system with signals transmitted via a land-line to the same iPhone in two conditions. There was a significant effect of participant's performance according to listening condition. There was no significant effect between device manufacturers according to listening condition, but there was a significant effect in participant's perception of "quality of sound". Despite differences in signal transmission for each devise, when worn by participants both the systems performed equally. In fact, participants expressed personal preferences for specific technology that was largely due to their perceived quality of sound while listening to recorded signals. While further research is necessary to investigate other measures of benefit for Bluetooth connectivity devices, preliminary data suggest that in order to ensure comfort and compatibility, not only should objective measures of the patient benefit be completed, but also assessing the patient's perception of benefit is equally important. Implications for Rehabilitation All professionals who work with individuals with hearing loss, become aware of the differences in the multiple choices for assistive technology readily available for hearing loss. With the ever growing dispensing of Bluetooth connectivity devices coupled to hearing aids, there is an increased burden to determine whether performance differences could exist between manufacturers. There is a growing need to investigate other measures of benefit for Bluetooth

  19. Ear Infections and Language Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.

    Ear infections in infants and preschoolers can cause mild or moderate temporary hearing loss, which may in turn affect a child's ability to understand and learn language. Noting that providing children with proper medical treatment for ear infections or middle ear fluid is important in preventing possible problems with language development, this…

  20. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... hearing impairment. Most hearing aids share several similar electronic components, including a microphone that picks up sound; ... the ear canal; and batteries that power the electronic parts. Hearing aids differ by: design technology used ...

  1. Hearing Loss in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses hearing loss in adults. It begins with an explanation of the anatomy of the ear and then explains the three types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Tinnitus, hearing aids, and cochlear implants are also addressed. (CR)

  2. [Therapeutic effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 injection into the inner ears through scala tympani fenestration on gentamicin-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs].

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-he; Chen, Hao; Guo, Meng-he

    2008-02-01

    To study the therapeutic effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) injection into the inner ears through a scala tympani fenestration on sensorineural deafness in a guinea pig model of gentamicin-induced hearing loss. Twenty guinea pigs with gentamicin-induced hearing loss were randomized equally into IGF-1 group and control group. In both groups, scala tympani fenestration was performed for injection of IGF-1 (10 microl) or artificial perilymphatic fluid (10 microl). Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) test was performed before and 7 and 14 days after surgery, respectively, and the cochlea was removed by decollation of 3 guinea pigs from each group after ABR test for observing the changes in the hair cells using scanning electron microscope. Significant reduction in the ABR response threshold (RT) occurred in IGF-1 group 7 and 14 days after the surgery, and on day 14, ABR RT showed significant difference between IGF-1 group and the control group. Scanning electron microscopy revealed severer damages of the hair cells in the control group, and in the IGF-1 group, finger-like microvilli was detected on the surface of the damaged hair cells. IGF-1 injection in the inner ear through the scala tympani fenestration may ameliorate the damages of the auditory function and relieve sustained toxicity of gentamicin in guinea pigs possibly by protection and partial repair of the damaged cochlea hair cells as well as protection of the afferent nerves.

  3. Don't Let Gun Sports Backfire on You: Use Ear Protection and Hang onto Your Hearing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Inside NIDCD Newsletter » Spring 2006 Don't Let Gun Sports Backfire on You: Use Ear Protection and ... in the skeet event, would never fire a gun without them. Likewise, Dave Henderson, a nationally recognized ...

  4. Ear Infection (Middle Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    ... secretions from the middle ear Swelling, inflammation and mucus in the eustachian tubes from an upper respiratory ... your baby for at least six months. Breast milk contains antibodies that may offer protection from ear ...

  5. Designing of a digital behind-the-ear hearing aid to meet the World Health Organization requirements.

    PubMed

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Penteado, Silvio Pires

    2010-06-01

    Hearing loss is a common health issue that affects nearly 10% of the world population as indicated by many international studies. The hearing impaired typically experience more frustration, anxiety, irritability, depression, and disorientation than those with normal hearing levels. The standard rehabilitation tool for hearing impairment is an electronic hearing aid whose main components are transducers (microphone and receiver) and a digital signal processor. These electronic components are manufactured by supply chain rather than by hearing aid manufacturers. Manufacturers can use custom-designed components or generic off-the-shelf components. These electronic components are available as application-specific or off-the-shelf products, with the former designed for a specific manufacturer and the latter for a generic approach. The choice of custom or generic components will affect the product specifications, pricing, manufacturing, life cycle, and marketing strategies of the product. The World Health Organization is interested in making available to developing countries hearing aids that are inexpensive to purchase and maintain. The hearing aid presented in this article was developed with these specifications in mind together with additional contemporary features such as four channels with wide dynamic range compression, an adjustable compression rate for each channel, four comfort programs, an adaptive feedback manager, and full volume control. This digital hearing aid is fitted using a personal computer with minimal hardware requirements in intuitive three-step fitting software. A trimmer-adjusted version can be developed where human and material resources are scarce.

  6. Designing of a Digital Behind-the-Ear Hearing Aid to Meet the World Health Organization Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Penteado, Silvio Pires

    2010-01-01

    Hearing loss is a common health issue that affects nearly 10% of the world population as indicated by many international studies. The hearing impaired typically experience more frustration, anxiety, irritability, depression, and disorientation than those with normal hearing levels. The standard rehabilitation tool for hearing impairment is an electronic hearing aid whose main components are transducers (microphone and receiver) and a digital signal processor. These electronic components are manufactured by supply chain rather than by hearing aid manufacturers. Manufacturers can use custom-designed components or generic off-the-shelf components. These electronic components are available as application-specific or off-the-shelf products, with the former designed for a specific manufacturer and the latter for a generic approach. The choice of custom or generic components will affect the product specifications, pricing, manufacturing, life cycle, and marketing strategies of the product. The World Health Organization is interested in making available to developing countries hearing aids that are inexpensive to purchase and maintain. The hearing aid presented in this article was developed with these specifications in mind together with additional contemporary features such as four channels with wide dynamic range compression, an adjustable compression rate for each channel, four comfort programs, an adaptive feedback manager, and full volume control. This digital hearing aid is fitted using a personal computer with minimal hardware requirements in intuitive three-step fitting software. A trimmer-adjusted version can be developed where human and material resources are scarce. PMID:20724354

  7. Sheep as a large animal ear model: Middle-ear ossicular velocities and intracochlear sound pressure.

    PubMed

    Péus, Dominik; Dobrev, Ivo; Prochazka, Lukas; Thoele, Konrad; Dalbert, Adrian; Boss, Andreas; Newcomb, Nicolas; Probst, Rudolf; Röösli, Christof; Sim, Jae Hoon; Huber, Alexander; Pfiffner, Flurin

    2017-08-01

    Animals are frequently used for the development and testing of new hearing devices. Dimensions of the middle ear and cochlea differ significantly between humans and commonly used animals, such as rodents or cats. The sheep cochlea is anatomically more like the human cochlea in size and number of turns. This study investigated the middle-ear ossicular velocities and intracochlear sound pressure (ICSP) in sheep temporal bones, with the aim of characterizing the sheep as an experimental model for implantable hearing devices. Measurements were made on fresh sheep temporal bones. Velocity responses of the middle ear ossicles at the umbo, long process of the incus and stapes footplate were measured in the frequency range of 0.25-8 kHz using a laser Doppler vibrometer system. Results were normalized by the corresponding sound pressure level in the external ear canal (P EC ). Sequentially, ICSPs at the scala vestibuli and tympani were then recorded with custom MEMS-based hydrophones, while presenting identical acoustic stimuli. The sheep middle ear transmitted most effectively around 4.8 kHz, with a maximum stapes velocity of 0.2 mm/s/Pa. At the same frequency, the ICSP measurements in the scala vestibuli and tympani showed the maximum gain relative to the P EC (24 dB and 5 dB, respectively). The greatest pressure difference across the cochlear partition occurred between 4 and 6 kHz. A comparison between the results of this study and human reference data showed middle-ear resonance and best cochlear sensitivity at higher frequencies in sheep. In summary, sheep can be an appropriate large animal model for research and development of implantable hearing devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Binaural integration: a challenge to overcome for children with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Karen A; Cushing, Sharon L; Easwar, Vijayalakshmi; Polonenko, Melissa J; Papsin, Blake C

    2017-12-01

    Access to bilateral hearing can be provided to children with hearing loss by fitting appropriate hearing devices to each affected ear. It is not clear, however, that bilateral input is properly integrated through hearing devices to promote binaural hearing. In the present review, we examine evidence indicating that abnormal binaural hearing continues to be a challenge for children with hearing loss despite early access to bilateral input. Behavioral responses and electrophysiological data in children, combined with data from developing animal models, reveal that deafness in early life disrupts binaural hearing and that present hearing devices are unable to reverse these changes and/or promote expected development. Possible limitations of hearing devices include mismatches in binaural place, level, and timing of stimulation. Such mismatches could be common in children with hearing loss. One potential solution is to modify present device fitting beyond providing audibility to each ear by implementing binaural fitting targets. Efforts to better integrate bilateral input could improve spatial hearing in children with hearing loss.

  9. An Electroacoustic Hearing Protector Simulator That Accurately Predicts Pressure Levels in the Ear Based on Standard Performance Metrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    earplug and earmuff showing HPD simulator elements for energy flow paths...unprotected or protected ear traditionally start with analysis of energy flow through schematic diagrams based on electroacoustic (EA) analogies between...Schröter, 1983; Schröter and Pösselt, 1986; Shaw and Thiessen, 1958, 1962; Zwislocki, 1957). The analysis method tracks energy flow through fluid and

  10. Effects of low speed wind on the recognition/identification and pass-through communication tasks of auditory situation awareness afforded by military hearing protection/enhancement devices and tactical communication and protective systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kichol; Casali, John G

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of controlled low-speed wind-noise on the auditory situation awareness performance afforded by military hearing protection/enhancement devices (HPED) and tactical communication and protective systems (TCAPS). Recognition/identification and pass-through communications tasks were separately conducted under three wind conditions (0, 5, and 10 mph). Subjects wore two in-ear-type TCAPS, one earmuff-type TCAPS, a Combat Arms Earplug in its 'open' or pass-through setting, and an EB-15LE electronic earplug. Devices with electronic gain systems were tested under two gain settings: 'unity' and 'max'. Testing without any device (open ear) was conducted as a control. Ten subjects were recruited from the student population at Virginia Tech. Audiometric requirements were 25 dBHL or better at 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, and 8000 Hz in both ears. Performance on the interaction of communication task-by-device was significantly different only in 0 mph wind speed. The between-device performance differences varied with azimuthal speaker locations. It is evident from this study that stable (non-gusting) wind speeds up to 10 mph did not significantly degrade recognition/identification task performance and pass-through communication performance of the group of HPEDs and TCAPS tested. However, the various devices performed differently as the test sound signal speaker location was varied and it appears that physical as well as electronic features may have contributed to this directional result.

  11. Gender and other factors associated with the use of hearing protection devices at work.

    PubMed

    Meira, Tatiane Costa; Santana, Vilma Sousa; Ferrite, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    To analyze whether sociodemographic, occupational, and health-related data are associated with the use of hearing protection devices at work, according to gender. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2006, using a random sample of 2,429 workers, aged between 18 and 65 years old, from residential sub-areas in Salvador, BA, Northeastern Brazil. Questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic, occupational, and health-related data. Workers who reported that they worked in places where they needed to shout in order to be heard were considered to be exposed to noise. Exposed workers were asked whether they used hearing protection devices, and if so, how frequently. Analyses were conducted according to gender, with estimates made about prevalence of the use of hearing protection devices, prevalence ratios, and their respective 95% confidence intervals. Twelve percent (12.3%) of study subjects reported that they were exposed to noise while working. Prevalence of the use of hearing protection devices was 59.3% for men and 21.4% for women. Men from higher socioeconomic levels (PR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.14;1.90) and who had previous audiometric tests (PR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.15;1.88) were more likely to use hearing protection devices. For women, greater perceived safety was associated with the use of protection devices (PR = 2.92; 95%CI 1.34;6.34). This perception was specifically related to the presence of supervisors committed to safety (PR = 2.09; 95%CI 1.04;4.21), the existence of clear rules to prevent workplace injuries (PR = 2.81; 95%CI 1.41;5.59), and whether they were informed about workplace safety (PR = 2.42; 95%CI 1.23;4.76). There is a gender bias regarding the use of hearing protection devices that is less favorable to women. The use of such devices among women is positively influenced by their perception of a safe workplace, suggesting that gender should be considered as a factor in hearing conservation programs.

  12. Gender and other factors associated with the use of hearing protection devices at work

    PubMed Central

    Meira, Tatiane Costa; Santana, Vilma Sousa; Ferrite, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze whether sociodemographic, occupational, and health-related data are associated with the use of hearing protection devices at work, according to gender. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2006, using a random sample of 2,429 workers, aged between 18 and 65 years old, from residential sub-areas in Salvador, BA, Northeastern Brazil. Questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic, occupational, and health-related data. Workers who reported that they worked in places where they needed to shout in order to be heard were considered to be exposed to noise. Exposed workers were asked whether they used hearing protection devices, and if so, how frequently. Analyses were conducted according to gender, with estimates made about prevalence of the use of hearing protection devices, prevalence ratios, and their respective 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS Twelve percent (12.3%) of study subjects reported that they were exposed to noise while working. Prevalence of the use of hearing protection devices was 59.3% for men and 21.4% for women. Men from higher socioeconomic levels (PR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.14;1.90) and who had previous audiometric tests (PR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.15;1.88) were more likely to use hearing protection devices. For women, greater perceived safety was associated with the use of protection devices (PR = 2.92; 95%CI 1.34;6.34). This perception was specifically related to the presence of supervisors committed to safety (PR = 2.09; 95%CI 1.04;4.21), the existence of clear rules to prevent workplace injuries (PR = 2.81; 95%CI 1.41;5.59), and whether they were informed about workplace safety (PR = 2.42; 95%CI 1.23;4.76). CONCLUSIONS There is a gender bias regarding the use of hearing protection devices that is less favorable to women. The use of such devices among women is positively influenced by their perception of a safe workplace, suggesting that gender should be considered as a factor in hearing conservation programs. PMID:26487294

  13. The Viability of Hearing Protection Device Fit-Testing at Navy and Marine Corps Accession Points

    PubMed Central

    Federman, Jeremy; Duhon, Christon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The viability of hearing protection device (HPD) verification (i.e., fit-testing) on a large scale was investigated to address this gap in a military accession environment. Materials and Methods: Personal Attenuation Ratings (PARs) following self-fitted (SELF-Fit) HPDs were acquired from 320 US Marine Corps training recruits (87.5% male, 12.5% female) across four test protocols (1-, 3-, 5-, and 7- frequency). SELF-Fit failures received follow-up to assess potential causes. Follow-up PARs were acquired (Experimenter fit [EXP-Fit], followed by Subject re-fit [SUB Re-Fit]). EXP-Fit was intended to provide a perception (dubbed “ear canal muscle memory”) of what a correctly fitted HPD should feel like. SUB Re-Fit was completed following EXP-Fit to determine whether a training recruit could duplicate EXP-Fit on her/his own without assistance. Results: A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (N=320) showed that SELF-Fit means differed significantly between protocols (P < 0.001). Post-hoc analyses showed that the 1-freq SELF-Fit mean was significantly lower than all other protocols (P < 0.03) by 5.6 dB or more. No difference was found between the multi-frequency protocols. For recruits who were followed up with EXP-Fit (n=79), across all protocols, a significant (P < 0.001) mean improvement of 25.68 dB (10.99) was found, but PARs did not differ (P = 0.99) between EXP-Fit protocols. For recruits in the 3-freq and 5-freq protocol groups who experienced all three PAR test methods (n=33), PAR methods differed (P < 0.001) but no method by protocol interaction was found (P = 0.46). Post hoc tests showed that both EXP-Fit and SUB Re-Fit had significantly better attenuation than SELF-Fit (P < 0.001), but no difference was found between EXPFit and SUB Re-Fit (P = 0.59). For SELF-Fit, the 1-freq protocol resulted in a 35% pass rate, whereas the 3-, 5-, and 7-freq protocols resulted in >60% pass rates. Results showed that once recruits experienced how HPDs should

  14. Hearing Tests on Mobile Devices: Evaluation of the Reference Sound Level by Means of Biological Calibration.

    PubMed

    Masalski, Marcin; Kipiński, Lech; Grysiński, Tomasz; Kręcicki, Tomasz

    2016-05-30

    Hearing tests carried out in home setting by means of mobile devices require previous calibration of the reference sound level. Mobile devices with bundled headphones create a possibility of applying the predefined level for a particular model as an alternative to calibrating each device separately. The objective of this study was to determine the reference sound level for sets composed of a mobile device and bundled headphones. Reference sound levels for Android-based mobile devices were determined using an open access mobile phone app by means of biological calibration, that is, in relation to the normal-hearing threshold. The examinations were conducted in 2 groups: an uncontrolled and a controlled one. In the uncontrolled group, the fully automated self-measurements were carried out in home conditions by 18- to 35-year-old subjects, without prior hearing problems, recruited online. Calibration was conducted as a preliminary step in preparation for further examination. In the controlled group, audiologist-assisted examinations were performed in a sound booth, on normal-hearing subjects verified through pure-tone audiometry, recruited offline from among the workers and patients of the clinic. In both the groups, the reference sound levels were determined on a subject's mobile device using the Bekesy audiometry. The reference sound levels were compared between the groups. Intramodel and intermodel analyses were carried out as well. In the uncontrolled group, 8988 calibrations were conducted on 8620 different devices representing 2040 models. In the controlled group, 158 calibrations (test and retest) were conducted on 79 devices representing 50 models. Result analysis was performed for 10 most frequently used models in both the groups. The difference in reference sound levels between uncontrolled and controlled groups was 1.50 dB (SD 4.42). The mean SD of the reference sound level determined for devices within the same model was 4.03 dB (95% CI 3

  15. Development of a computer-based automated pure tone hearing screening device: a preliminary clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gan, Kok Beng; Azeez, Dhifaf; Umat, Cila; Ali, Mohd Alauddin Mohd; Wahab, Noor Alaudin Abdul; Mukari, Siti Zamratol Mai-Sarah

    2012-10-01

    Hearing screening is important for the early detection of hearing loss. The requirements of specialized equipment, skilled personnel, and quiet environments for valid screening results limit its application in schools and health clinics. This study aimed to develop an automated hearing screening kit (auto-kit) with the capability of realtime noise level monitoring to ensure that the screening is performed in an environment that conforms to the standard. The auto-kit consists of a laptop, a 24-bit resolution sound card, headphones, a microphone, and a graphical user interface, which is calibrated according to the American National Standards Institute S3.6-2004 standard. The auto-kit can present four test tones (500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz) at 25 or 40 dB HL screening cut-off level. The clinical results at 40 dB HL screening cut-off level showed that the auto-kit has a sensitivity of 92.5% and a specificity of 75.0%. Because the 500 Hz test tone is not included in the standard hearing screening procedure, it can be excluded from the auto-kit test procedure. The exclusion of 500 Hz test tone improved the specificity of the auto-kit from 75.0% to 92.3%, which suggests that the auto-kit could be a valid hearing screening device. In conclusion, the auto-kit may be a valuable hearing screening tool, especially in countries where resources are limited.

  16. Hearing Device Manufacturers Call for Interoperability and Standardization of Internet and Audiology.

    PubMed

    Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Abrams, Harvey; Bülow, Maja; Lunner, Thomas; Nelson, John; Riis, Søren Kamaric; Vanpoucke, Filiep

    2016-10-01

    This article describes the perspectives of hearing device manufacturers regarding the exciting developments that the Internet makes possible. Specifically, it proposes to join forces toward interoperability and standardization of Internet and audiology. A summary of why such a collaborative effort is required is provided from historical and scientific perspectives. A roadmap toward interoperability and standardization is proposed. Information and communication technologies improve the flow of health care data and pave the way to better health care. However, hearing-related products, features, and services are notoriously heterogeneous and incompatible with other health care systems (no interoperability). Standardization is the process of developing and implementing technical standards (e.g., Noah hearing database). All parties involved in interoperability and standardization realize mutual gains by making mutually consistent decisions. De jure (officially endorsed) standards can be developed in collaboration with large national health care systems as well as spokespeople for hearing care professionals and hearing device users. The roadmap covers mutual collaboration; data privacy, security, and ownership; compliance with current regulations; scalability and modularity; and the scope of interoperability and standards. We propose to join forces to pave the way to the interoperable Internet and audiology products, features, and services that the world needs.

  17. Laboratory Performance of the Single-Sided E-A-R (registered trademark) Combat Arms Hearing Protective Earplug

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    mdividu a eté evalue sans protection auditive ctaye.c port. binaural du protecteur dans chacun des deux modes. Les seuils auditifs en champ hbre...which the ears were: unocciuded (Unocelud), fitted binaurally with the single- sided version of the Combat Arms earplug in the steady state noise mode...CAE SS), and fitted binaurally with the single-sided version of the Combat Arms earplug in the weapons fire mode (CAE WF). The unoccluded condition was

  18. Hearing loss and the central auditory system: Implications for hearing aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisina, Robert D.

    2003-04-01

    Hearing loss can result from disorders or damage to the ear (peripheral auditory system) or the brain (central auditory system). Here, the basic structure and function of the central auditory system will be highlighted as relevant to cases of permanent hearing loss where assistive devices (hearing aids) are called for. The parts of the brain used for hearing are altered in two basic ways in instances of hearing loss: (1) Damage to the ear can reduce the number and nature of input channels that the brainstem receives from the ear, causing plasticity of the central auditory system. This plasticity may partially compensate for the peripheral loss, or add new abnormalities such as distorted speech processing or tinnitus. (2) In some situations, damage to the brain can occur independently of the ear, as may occur in cases of head trauma, tumors or aging. Implications of deficits to the central auditory system for speech perception in noise, hearing aid use and future innovative circuit designs will be provided to set the stage for subsequent presentations in this special educational session. [Work supported by NIA-NIH Grant P01 AG09524 and the International Center for Hearing & Speech Research, Rochester, NY.

  19. Noise and Hearing Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... my hearing? A ringing in the ears, called tinnitus, commonly occurs after noise exposure, and often becomes ... a ringing or other sound in your ear (tinnitus), which could be the result of long-term ...

  20. A Review of Assistive Listening Device and Digital Wireless Technology for Hearing Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chun Hyeok

    2014-01-01

    Assistive listening devices (ALDs) refer to various types of amplification equipment designed to improve the communication of individuals with hard of hearing to enhance the accessibility to speech signal when individual hearing instruments are not sufficient. There are many types of ALDs to overcome a triangle of speech to noise ratio (SNR) problems, noise, distance, and reverberation. ALDs vary in their internal electronic mechanisms ranging from simple hard-wire microphone-amplifier units to more sophisticated broadcasting systems. They usually use microphones to capture an audio source and broadcast it wirelessly over a frequency modulation (FM), infra-red, induction loop, or other transmission techniques. The seven types of ALDs are introduced including hardwire devices, FM sound system, infra-red sound system, induction loop system, telephone listening devices, television, and alert/alarm system. Further development of digital wireless technology in hearing instruments will make possible direct communication with ALDs without any accessories in the near future. There are two technology solutions for digital wireless hearing instruments improving SNR and convenience. One is near-field magnetic induction combined with Bluetooth radio frequency (RF) transmission or proprietary RF transmission and the other is proprietary RF transmission alone. Recently launched digital wireless hearing aid applying this new technology can communicate from the hearing instrument to personal computer, phones, Wi-Fi, alert systems, and ALDs via iPhone, iPad, and iPod. However, it comes with its own iOS application offering a range of features but there is no option for Android users as of this moment. PMID:25566400

  1. A review of assistive listening device and digital wireless technology for hearing instruments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Sook; Kim, Chun Hyeok

    2014-12-01

    Assistive listening devices (ALDs) refer to various types of amplification equipment designed to improve the communication of individuals with hard of hearing to enhance the accessibility to speech signal when individual hearing instruments are not sufficient. There are many types of ALDs to overcome a triangle of speech to noise ratio (SNR) problems, noise, distance, and reverberation. ALDs vary in their internal electronic mechanisms ranging from simple hard-wire microphone-amplifier units to more sophisticated broadcasting systems. They usually use microphones to capture an audio source and broadcast it wirelessly over a frequency modulation (FM), infra-red, induction loop, or other transmission techniques. The seven types of ALDs are introduced including hardwire devices, FM sound system, infra-red sound system, induction loop system, telephone listening devices, television, and alert/alarm system. Further development of digital wireless technology in hearing instruments will make possible direct communication with ALDs without any accessories in the near future. There are two technology solutions for digital wireless hearing instruments improving SNR and convenience. One is near-field magnetic induction combined with Bluetooth radio frequency (RF) transmission or proprietary RF transmission and the other is proprietary RF transmission alone. Recently launched digital wireless hearing aid applying this new technology can communicate from the hearing instrument to personal computer, phones, Wi-Fi, alert systems, and ALDs via iPhone, iPad, and iPod. However, it comes with its own iOS application offering a range of features but there is no option for Android users as of this moment.

  2. A real-time data acquisition and control of gradient coil noise for fMRI identification of hearing disorder in children with history of ear infection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaeseung; Holte, James; Ritenour, E Russell

    2013-02-01

    Early ear infection and trauma, from birth to age 12 are known to have a significant effect on sensory and cognitive development. This effect can be demonstrated through the fMRI study of children who have a history of ear infection compared to a control group. A second research question is the extent to which brain plasticity at an early age can reduce the impact of infection on hearing and cognitive development. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) provides a mapping of brain activity in cognitive and sensory regions by recording the oxygenation state of the local cerebral blood flow. The gradient coils of fMRI scanners generate intense acoustic noise (GCN) - to which the subject is in close proximity - in the range of 90 to 140 db SPL during the imaging process. Clearly this noise will impress its signature on low level brain response patterns. An Active Noise Canceller (ANC) system can suppress the effect of GCN on the subject's perception of a phonetic stimulus at the phoneme, word or phrase level. Due to a superimposition of the frequency and time domain components of the test signal and GCN for MR test, the ANC filtering system performs its function in real time - we must capture the brain's response to the test signal AFTER the noise has been removed. This goal is achieved through the application of field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology of NI LabVIEW. The presentation (in the noisy fMRI environment) of test words and phrases to hearing impaired children can identify sources of distortion to their perceptual processes associated with GCN. Once this distortion has been identified, learning strategies may be introduced to replace the hearing function distorted by early infection as well as the short term effect of GCN. The study of speech cognition without the confounding effect of GCN and with the varying level of GCN for a repeated test signal at later age can be allowed to a measure of recovery through brain plasticity.

  3. A real-time data acquisition and control of gradient coil noise for fMRI identification of hearing disorder in children with history of ear infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaeseung; Holte, James

    2013-01-01

    Early ear infection and trauma, from birth to age 12 are known to have a significant effect on sensory and cognitive development. This effect can be demonstrated through the fMRI study of children who have a history of ear infection compared to a control group. A second research question is the extent to which brain plasticity at an early age can reduce the impact of infection on hearing and cognitive development. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) provides a mapping of brain activity in cognitive and sensory regions by recording the oxygenation state of the local cerebral blood flow. The gradient coils of fMRI scanners generate intense acoustic noise (GCN) - to which the subject is in close proximity - in the range of 90 to 140 db SPL during the imaging process. Clearly this noise will impress its signature on low level brain response patterns. An Active Noise Canceller (ANC) system can suppress the effect of GCN on the subject’s perception of a phonetic stimulus at the phoneme, word or phrase level. Due to a superimposition of the frequency and time domain components of the test signal and GCN for MR test, the ANC filtering system performs its function in real time - we must capture the brain’s response to the test signal AFTER the noise has been removed. This goal is achieved through the application of field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology of NI LabVIEW. The presentation (in the noisy fMRI environment) of test words and phrases to hearing impaired children can identify sources of distortion to their perceptual processes associated with GCN. Once this distortion has been identified, learning strategies may be introduced to replace the hearing function distorted by early infection as well as the short term effect of GCN. The study of speech cognition without the confounding effect of GCN and with the varying level of GCN for a repeated test signal at later age can be allowed to a measure of recovery through brain plasticity. PMID:23482910

  4. Wireless behind-the-ear EEG recording device with wireless interface to a mobile device (iPhone/iPod touch).

    PubMed

    Do Valle, Bruno G; Cash, Sydney S; Sodini, Charlie G

    2014-01-01

    EEG remains the mainstay test for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with epilepsy. Unfortunately, ambulatory EEG systems are far from ideal for patients that have infrequent seizures. The systems only last up to 3 days and if a seizure is not captured during the recordings, the doctor cannot give a definite diagnosis of the patient's condition. The ambulatory systems also suffers from being too bulky and posing some constraints on the patient, such as not being able to shower during the recordings. This paper presents a novel behind-the-ear EEG recording device that uses an iPhone or iPod Touch to continuously upload the patient's data to a secure server. This device not only gives the doctors access to the EEG data in real time but it can be easily removed and re-applied by the patient at any time, thus reducing the interference with quality of life.

  5. [Basics of Ear Surgery].

    PubMed

    Lailach, S; Zahnert, T

    2016-12-01

    The present article about the basics of ear surgery is a short overview of current indications, the required diagnostics and surgical procedures of common otologic diseases. In addition to plastic and reconstructive surgery of the auricle, principles of surgery of the external auditory canal, basics of middle ear surgery and the tumor surgery of the temporal bone are shown. Additionally, aspects of the surgical hearing rehabilitation (excluding implantable hearing systems) are presented considering current study results. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. The Galker test of speech reception in noise; associations with background variables, middle ear status, hearing, and language in Danish preschool children.

    PubMed

    Lauritsen, Maj-Britt Glenn; Söderström, Margareta; Kreiner, Svend; Dørup, Jens; Lous, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    We tested "the Galker test", a speech reception in noise test developed for primary care for Danish preschool children, to explore if the children's ability to hear and understand speech was associated with gender, age, middle ear status, and the level of background noise. The Galker test is a 35-item audio-visual, computerized word discrimination test in background noise. Included were 370 normally developed children attending day care center. The children were examined with the Galker test, tympanometry, audiometry, and the Reynell test of verbal comprehension. Parents and daycare teachers completed questionnaires on the children's ability to hear and understand speech. As most of the variables were not assessed using interval scales, non-parametric statistics (Goodman-Kruskal's gamma) were used for analyzing associations with the Galker test score. For comparisons, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. Interrelations were adjusted for using a non-parametric graphic model. In unadjusted analyses, the Galker test was associated with gender, age group, language development (Reynell revised scale), audiometry, and tympanometry. The Galker score was also associated with the parents' and day care teachers' reports on the children's vocabulary, sentence construction, and pronunciation. Type B tympanograms were associated with a mean hearing 5-6dB below that of than type A, C1, or C2. In the graphic analysis, Galker scores were closely and significantly related to Reynell test scores (Gamma (G)=0.35), the children's age group (G=0.33), and the day care teachers' assessment of the children's vocabulary (G=0.26). The Galker test of speech reception in noise appears promising as an easy and quick tool for evaluating preschool children's understanding of spoken words in noise, and it correlated well with the day care teachers' reports and less with the parents' reports. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mice deficient in H+-ATPase a4 subunit have severe hearing impairment associated with enlarged endolymphatic compartments within the inner ear

    PubMed Central

    Lorente-Cánovas, Beatriz; Ingham, Neil; Norgett, Elizabeth E.; Golder, Zoe J.; Karet Frankl, Fiona E.; Steel, Karen P.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Mutations in the ATP6V0A4 gene lead to autosomal recessive distal renal tubular acidosis in patients, who often show sensorineural hearing impairment. A first Atp6v0a4 knockout mouse model that recapitulates the loss of H+-ATPase function seen in humans has been generated and recently reported (Norgett et al., 2012). Here, we present the first detailed analysis of the structure and function of the auditory system in Atp6v0a4−/− knockout mice. Measurements of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) showed significantly elevated thresholds in homozygous mutant mice, which indicate severe hearing impairment. Heterozygote thresholds were normal. Analysis of paint-filled inner ears and sections from E16.5 embryos revealed a marked expansion of cochlear and endolymphatic ducts in Atp6v0a4−/− mice. A regulatory link between Atp6v0a4, Foxi1 and Pds has been reported and we found that the endolymphatic sac of Atp6v0a4−/− mice expresses both Foxi1 and Pds, which suggests a downstream position of Atp6v0a4. These mutants also showed a lack of endocochlear potential, suggesting a functional defect of the stria vascularis on the lateral wall of the cochlear duct. However, the main K+ channels involved in the generation of endocochlear potential, Kcnj10 and Kcnq1, are strongly expressed in Atp6v0a4−/− mice. Our results lead to a better understanding of the role of this proton pump in hearing function. PMID:23065636

  8. Innovation in abutment-free bone-anchored hearing devices in children: Updated results and experience.

    PubMed

    Baker, Shaun; Centric, Aaron; Chennupati, Sri Kiran

    2015-10-01

    Bone-anchored hearing devices are an accepted treatment option for hearing restoration in various types of hearing loss. Traditional devices have a percutaneous abutment for attachment of the sound processor that contributes to a high complication rate. Previously, our institution reported on the Sophono (Boulder, CO, USA) abutment-free system that produced similar audiologic results to devices with abutments. Recently, Cochlear Americas (Centennial, CO, USA) released an abutment-free bone-anchored hearing device, the BAHA Attract. In contrast to the Sophono implant, the BAHA Attract utilizes an osseointegrated implant. This study aims to demonstrate patient benefit abutment-free devices, compare the results of the two abutment-free devices, and examine complication rates. A retrospective chart review was conducted for the first eleven Sophono implanted patients and for the first six patients implanted with the BAHA Attract at our institution. Subsequently, we analyzed patient demographics, audiometric data, clinical course and outcomes. Average improvement for the BAHA Attract in pure-tone average (PTA) and speech reception threshold (SRT) was 41dB hearing level (dBHL) and 56dBHL, respectively. Considering all frequencies, the BAHA Attract mean improvement was 39dBHL (range 32-45dBHL). The Sophono average improvement in PTA and SRT was 38dBHL and 39dBHL, respectively. The mean improvement with Sophono for all frequencies was 34dBHL (range 24-43dBHL). Significant improvements in both pure-tone averages and speech reception threshold for both devices were achieved. In direct comparison of the two separate devices using the chi-square test, the PTA and SRT data between the two devices do not show a statistically significant difference (p-value 0.68 and 0.56, respectively). The complication rate for these abutment-free devices is lower than that of those featuring the transcutaneous abutment, although more studies are needed to further assess this potential advantage

  9. Two-Way Radio Modem Data Transfer for Newborn Hearing Screening Devices.

    PubMed

    Matulat, Peter; Lepper, Ingo; Böttcher, Peter; Parfitt, Ross; Oswald, Hans; Am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinette; Deuster, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    The success of a newborn hearing screening program depends on successful tracking and follow-up to ensure that children who have had positive screening results in the first few days of life receive appropriate and timely diagnostic and intervention services. The easy availability, through a suitable infrastructure, of the data necessary for the tracking, diagnosis, and care of children concerned is a major key to enhancing the quality and efficiency of newborn hearing screening programs. Two systems for the automated two-way transmission of newborn hearing screening and configuration data, based on mobile communication technology, for the screening devices MADSEN AccuScreen ® and Natus Echo-Screen ® were developed and tested in a field study. Radio modem connections were compared with conventional analogue modem transmissions from Natus Echo-Screen devices for duration, transmission rate, number of lost connections, and frequency of use. The average session duration was significantly lower with the MADSEN AccuScreen (12 s) and Natus Echo-Screen both with radio modem (15 s) than the Natus Echo-Screen with analogue modem (108 s). The transmission rate was significantly higher (898 and 1,758 vs. 181 bytes/s) for the devices with radio modems. Both radio modem devices had significantly lower rates of broken connections after initial connection (2.1 and 0.9 vs. 5.5%). An increase in the frequency of data transmission from the clinics with mobile radio devices was found. The use of mobile communication technology in newborn hearing screening devices offers improvements in the average session duration, transmission rate, and reliability of the connection over analogue solutions. We observed a behavioral change in clinical staff using the new technology: the data exchange with the tracking center is more often used. The requirements for on-site support were reduced. These savings outweigh the small increase in costs for the Internet service provider.

  10. Congenital oval or round window anomaly with or without abnormal facial nerve course: surgical results for 15 ears.

    PubMed

    Thomeer, Henricus; Kunst, Henricus; Verbist, Berit; Cremers, Cor

    2012-07-01

    To describe the audiometric results in a consecutive series of patients with congenital ossicular aplasia (Class 4a) or dysplasia of the oval and/or round window (Class 4b), which might include a possible anomalous course of the facial nerve. Retrospective chart study. Tertiary referral center. A tertiary referral center study with a total of 14 patients with congenital minor ear anomalies as part of a consecutive series (n = 89) who underwent exploratory tympanotomies (15 ears). Audiometric results. In 8 of 15 ears, ossicular reconstruction was attempted. In the short term (1 mo), there was a serviceable hearing outcome (air-bone gap closure to within 25 dB) in 4 ears. However, the long-term results showed deterioration because of an increased air-bone gap in all but 1 ear. No facial nerve lesion was observed postoperatively. Congenital dysplasia or aplasia of the oval and/or round window is an uncommon congenital minor ear anomaly. Classical microsurgical opportunities are rare in this group of anomalies. Newer options for hearing rehabilitation, such as the osseointegrated passive bone conduction devices, have become viable alternatives for conventional air conduction hearing devices. In the near future, upcoming active bone conduction devices might become the most preferred surgical option. In cases in which the facial nerve is only partially overlying the oval window, a type of malleostapedotomy procedure might result in a serviceable postoperative hearing level.

  11. Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehlinger, Keegan M.; Van Horne, Amanda J. Owen; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Spoken language skills of 3- and 6-year-old children who are hard of hearing (HH) were compared with those of children with normal hearing (NH). Method: Language skills were measured via mean length of utterance in words (MLUw) and percent correct use of finite verb morphology in obligatory contexts based on spontaneous conversational…

  12. Speech perception benefits of FM and infrared devices to children with hearing aids in a typical classroom.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Karen L; Goldstein, Howard

    2004-04-01

    Children typically learn in classroom environments that have background noise and reverberation that interfere with accurate speech perception. Amplification technology can enhance the speech perception of students who are hard of hearing. This study used a single-subject alternating treatments design to compare the speech recognition abilities of children who are, hard of hearing when they were using hearing aids with each of three frequency modulated (FM) or infrared devices. Eight 9-12-year-olds with mild to severe hearing loss repeated Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) sentence lists under controlled conditions in a typical kindergarten classroom with a background noise level of +10 dB signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and 1.1 s reverberation time. Participants listened to HINT lists using hearing aids alone and hearing aids in combination with three types of S/N-enhancing devices that are currently used in mainstream classrooms: (a) FM systems linked to personal hearing aids, (b) infrared sound field systems with speakers placed throughout the classroom, and (c) desktop personal sound field FM systems. The infrared ceiling sound field system did not provide benefit beyond that provided by hearing aids alone. Desktop and personal FM systems in combination with personal hearing aids provided substantial improvements in speech recognition. This information can assist in making S/N-enhancing device decisions for students using hearing aids. In a reverberant and noisy classroom setting, classroom sound field devices are not beneficial to speech perception for students with hearing aids, whereas either personal FM or desktop sound field systems provide listening benefits.

  13. Gender differences in use of hearing protection devices among farm operators.

    PubMed

    McCullagh, Marjorie C; Banerjee, Tanima; Yang, James J; Bernick, Janice; Duffy, Sonia; Redman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although farm operators have frequent exposure to hazardous noise and high rates of noise-induced hearing loss, they have low use of hearing protection devices (HPDs). Women represent about one-third of farm operators, and their numbers are climbing. However, among published studies examining use of HPDs in this worker group, none have examined gender-related differences. The purpose of this study was to examine gender-related differences in use of hearing protection and related predictors among farm operators. Data previously collected at farm shows and by telephone were analyzed using t-tests and generalized linear model with zero inflated negative binomial (ZINB) distribution. The difference in rate of hearing protector use between men and women farm operators was not significant. There was no difference between men and women in most hearing protector-related attitudes and beliefs. Although men and women farm operators had similar rates of use of hearing protectors when working in high-noise environments, attitudes about HPD use differed. Specifically, interpersonal role modeling was a predictor of HPD use among women, but not for men. This difference suggests that while farm operators of both genders may benefit from interventions designed to reduce barriers to HPD use (e.g., difficulty communicating with co-workers and hearing warning sounds), farm women have unique needs in relation to cognitive-perceptual factors that predict HPD use. Women farm operators may lack role models for use of HPDs (e.g., in peers and advertising), contributing to their less frequent use of protection.

  14. The efficacy of unilateral bone-anchored hearing devices in Chinese Mandarin-speaking patients with bilateral aural atresia.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yue; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Pu; Wang, Zhen; Zhu, Xiaoli; Yang, Hua; Chen, Xiaowei

    2014-04-01

    The bone-anchored hearing device (BAHD) was not introduced in China until 2010. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the efficacy of Chinese Mandarin-speaking patients with bilateral aural atresia. To evaluate the speech recognition of Chinese Mandarin-speaking patients with BAHDs as well as patients' satisfaction using 2 questionnaires. A retrospective case review of 16 patients with bilateral aural atresia conducted at a tertiary referral center. A BAHD was implanted during auricle reconstruction surgery or after the auricle was rebuilt. A surgical method to combine the BAHD implantation with the second stage of ear reconstruction was introduced. Speech audiometry test and mean pure-tone threshold results were compared among patients with unaided hearing and those with BAHDs. Scores from the BAHD user questionnaire and Glasgow Children's Benefit Inventory (GCBI) were used to measure patients' satisfaction and subjective health benefit. The mean (SD) speech discrimination scores measured in a sound field with a presentation level of 45 dB HL (hearing level) were 6.7% (7.4%) unaided and 86.5% (4.4%) with a BAHD. Scores with a presentation level of 65 dB HL were 56.5% (7.4%) unaided and 90.1% (3.4%) with a BAHD. The speech reception threshold was 60.6 (7.5) dB HL unaided and 24.7 (5.0) dB HL with a BAHD. The mean (SD) pure-tone threshold of the patients was 61.6 (7.8) dB HL unaided and 23.8 (5.9) dB HL with a BAHD. The BAHD application questionnaire demonstrated excellent patient satisfaction. The mean (SD) benefit score of GCBI was 45.6 (14.4). For aural atresia, the BAHD has been one of the most reliable methods of auditory rehabilitation. It can improve the patient's word recognition performance and quality of life. The technique of BAHD implantation combined with auricular reconstruction in a 2-stages-in-1 surgery and the modified incision of patients with reconstructed auricle proved to be safe and effective.

  15. Ear Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... most common illness in infants and young children. Tinnitus, a roaring in your ears, can be the ... problems in your inner ear; its symptoms include tinnitus and dizziness. Ear barotrauma is an injury to ...

  16. Swimmer's Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eardrum Taking Care of Your Ears Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Your Ears What's Earwax? How Do Pain Relievers Work? View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  17. Seeing and Hearing a Word: Combining Eye and Ear Is More Efficient than Combining the Parts of a Word

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Matthieu; Poeppel, David; Pelli, Denis G.

    2013-01-01

    To understand why human sensitivity for complex objects is so low, we study how word identification combines eye and ear or parts of a word (features, letters, syllables). Our observers identify printed and spoken words presented concurrently or separately. When researchers measure threshold (energy of the faintest visible or audible signal) they may report either sensitivity (one over the human threshold) or efficiency (ratio of the best possible threshold to the human threshold). When the best possible algorithm identifies an object (like a word) in noise, its threshold is independent of how many parts the object has. But, with human observers, efficiency depends on the task. In some tasks, human observers combine parts efficiently, needing hardly more energy to identify an object with more parts. In other tasks, they combine inefficiently, needing energy nearly proportional to the number of parts, over a 60∶1 range. Whether presented to eye or ear, efficiency for detecting a short sinusoid (tone or grating) with few features is a substantial 20%, while efficiency for identifying a word with many features is merely 1%. Why? We show that the low human sensitivity for words is a cost of combining their many parts. We report a dichotomy between inefficient combining of adjacent features and efficient combining across senses. Joining our results with a survey of the cue-combination literature reveals that cues combine efficiently only if they are perceived as aspects of the same object. Observers give different names to adjacent letters in a word, and combine them inefficiently. Observers give the same name to a word’s image and sound, and combine them efficiently. The brain’s machinery optimally combines only cues that are perceived as originating from the same object. Presumably such cues each find their own way through the brain to arrive at the same object representation. PMID:23734220

  18. Seeing and hearing a word: combining eye and ear is more efficient than combining the parts of a word.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Matthieu; Poeppel, David; Pelli, Denis G

    2013-01-01

    To understand why human sensitivity for complex objects is so low, we study how word identification combines eye and ear or parts of a word (features, letters, syllables). Our observers identify printed and spoken words presented concurrently or separately. When researchers measure threshold (energy of the faintest visible or audible signal) they may report either sensitivity (one over the human threshold) or efficiency (ratio of the best possible threshold to the human threshold). When the best possible algorithm identifies an object (like a word) in noise, its threshold is independent of how many parts the object has. But, with human observers, efficiency depends on the task. In some tasks, human observers combine parts efficiently, needing hardly more energy to identify an object with more parts. In other tasks, they combine inefficiently, needing energy nearly proportional to the number of parts, over a 60∶1 range. Whether presented to eye or ear, efficiency for detecting a short sinusoid (tone or grating) with few features is a substantial 20%, while efficiency for identifying a word with many features is merely 1%. Why? We show that the low human sensitivity for words is a cost of combining their many parts. We report a dichotomy between inefficient combining of adjacent features and efficient combining across senses. Joining our results with a survey of the cue-combination literature reveals that cues combine efficiently only if they are perceived as aspects of the same object. Observers give different names to adjacent letters in a word, and combine them inefficiently. Observers give the same name to a word's image and sound, and combine them efficiently. The brain's machinery optimally combines only cues that are perceived as originating from the same object. Presumably such cues each find their own way through the brain to arrive at the same object representation.

  19. Analysis of Nonlinear Insertion Loss of Hearing Protection Devices using an Acoustic Test Fixture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    USAARL Report No. 2016-05 Analysis of Nonlinear Insertion Loss of Hearing Protection Devices using an Acoustic Test Fixture By Robert Williams1...through circuitry. Talk through circuits use electro- acoustic transducers to pass ambient sounds through the protector. When the circuitry detects...the SPL of the acoustic insult. If the protective capacity is variable, it should be accounted for in the selection of appropriate HPDs. REAT

  20. The effect of symmetrical and asymmetrical hearing impairment on music quality perception.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yuexin; Zhao, Fei; Chen, Yuebo; Liang, Maojin; Chen, Ling; Yang, Haidi; Xiong, Hao; Zhang, Xueyuan; Zheng, Yiqing

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of symmetrical, asymmetrical and unilateral hearing impairment on music quality perception. Six validated music pieces in the categories of classical music, folk music and pop music were used to assess music quality in terms of its 'pleasantness', 'naturalness', 'fullness', 'roughness' and 'sharpness'. 58 participants with sensorineural hearing loss [20 with unilateral hearing loss (UHL), 20 with bilateral symmetrical hearing loss (BSHL) and 18 with bilateral asymmetrical hearing loss (BAHL)] and 29 normal hearing (NH) subjects participated in the present study. Hearing impaired (HI) participants had greater difficulty in overall music quality perception than NH participants. Participants with BSHL rated music pleasantness and naturalness to be higher than participants with BAHL. Moreover, the hearing thresholds of the better ears from BSHL and BAHL participants as well as the hearing thresholds of the worse ears from BSHL participants were negatively correlated to the pleasantness and naturalness perception. HI participants rated the familiar music pieces higher than unfamiliar music pieces in the three music categories. Music quality perception in participants with hearing impairment appeared to be affected by symmetry of hearing loss, degree of hearing loss and music familiarity when they were assessed using the music quality rating test (MQRT). This indicates that binaural symmetrical hearing is important to achieve a high level of music quality perception in HI listeners. This emphasizes the importance of provision of bilateral hearing assistive devices for people with asymmetrical hearing impairment.

  1. Immunologic Disorders of the Inner Ear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, William C.; Hughes, Gordon B.

    1997-01-01

    Immune inner ear disease represents a series of immune system mediated problems that can present with hearing loss, dizziness, or both. The etiology, presentation, testing, and treatment of primary immune inner ear disease is discussed. A review of secondary immune inner ear disease is presented for comparison. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  2. Occupational noise-induced hearing loss in auto part factory workers in welding units in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sriopas, Apiradee; Chapman, Robert S; Sutammasa, Saravudh; Siriwong, Wattasit

    2017-01-24

    Most workers in auto part factories in Thailand are usually exposed to excessive noise in their workplace. This study aimed to assess the level of occupational noise-induced hearing loss and investigate risk factors causing hearing loss in auto part factory workers in the welding units in Thailand. This was a cross-sectional study. One hundred eighty subjects were recruited from 356 workers in the welding unit of three factories. Sixty eligible subjects in each factory were selected by systemic random sampling. The subjects were interviewed using a face-to-face questionnaire. Noise exposure levels and audiograms were measured by a noise dosimeter and an audiometer, respectively. The findings confirmed that noise exposure levels of 86-90 dB (A) and exceeding 90 dB (A) significantly increased the risk of hearing loss in either ear. A noise exposure level exceeding 90 dB (A) significantly increased the prevalence of hearing loss in both ears. Regarding, a 10-pack-year smoking history increased the prevalence of hearing loss in either ear or both ears. In addition, subjects with employment duration exceeding 10 years significantly developed hearing loss in either ear. The engineering control or personal control by wearing hearing protection device should be used to decrease noise exposure levels lower than 85 dB (A) for 8 h. Moreover, if the exposure level reaches 85 dB (A) for 8 h, the employer needs to implement a hearing conservation program in the workplace.

  3. Financing the Purchase of Devices for Deaf and Severely Hard of Hearing People: A Directory of Sources. GRI Monograph Series B, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, The State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ. Bureau of Economic Research.

    The directory provides basic information about programs that purchase, finance, or lend devices for deaf and hard-of-hearing people. Only devices that make use of senses other than hearing (e.g., telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD), closed caption television decoders, and flashing signal systems) are covered, and most devices cost less…

  4. Ear Pieces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

  5. Ear discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... swabs or other small objects into the ear Middle ear infection Other causes of ear discharge include: Eczema ... tube surgery - what to ask your doctor Images Ear anatomy Eardrum repair - series References Bauer CA, Jenkins HA. Otologic symptoms and syndromes. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et ...

  6. Usefulness of the protection motivation theory in explaining hearing protection device use among male industrial workers.

    PubMed

    Melamed, S; Rabinowitz, S; Feiner, M; Weisberg, E; Ribak, J

    1996-05-01

    The present study examined the usefulness of personal variables: noise annoyance, and components of the protection motivation theory (R. W. Rogers, 1983) along with social-organizational factors in explaining hearing protection device (HPD) use among Israeli manufacturing workers. Participants were 281 men exposed to harmful noise levels for which routine HPD use is required by regulation. In practice, 3 HPD user groups were identified: nonusers (n = 38), occasional users (n = 125), and regular users (n = 118). HPD use was objectively verified. HPD use was primarily related to the personal variables but not to management pressure, coworker pressure, or family support. The most powerful predictors of HPD use were perceived self-efficacy (for long-term HPD use), perceived susceptibility (to hearing loss), and noise annoyance, together explaining 48% of the outcome variance. These findings have implications for interventions aimed at motivating workers to use HPDs regularly.

  7. Hearing Instruments for Unilateral Severe-to-Profound Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sandra Nelson; Lucas, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the nature and quality of the evidence for the use of hearing instruments in adults with a unilateral severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. Design: The PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane, CINAHL, and DARE databases were searched with no restrictions on language. The search included articles from the start of each database until February 11, 2015. Studies were included that (a) assessed the impact of any form of hearing instrument, including devices that reroute signals between the ears or restore aspects of hearing to a deaf ear, in adults with a sensorineural severe to profound loss in one ear and normal or near-normal hearing in the other ear; (b) compared different devices or compared a device with placebo or the unaided condition; (c) measured outcomes in terms of speech perception, spatial listening, or quality of life; (d) were prospective controlled or observational studies. Studies that met prospectively defined criteria were subjected to random effects meta-analyses. Results: Twenty-seven studies reported in 30 articles were included. The evidence was graded as low-to-moderate quality having been obtained primarily from observational before-after comparisons. The meta-analysis identified statistically significant benefits to speech perception in noise for devices that rerouted the speech signals of interest from the worse ear to the better ear using either air or bone conduction (mean benefit, 2.5 dB). However, these devices also degraded speech understanding significantly and to a similar extent (mean deficit, 3.1 dB) when noise was rerouted to the better ear. Data on the effects of cochlear implantation on speech perception could not be pooled as the prospectively defined criteria for meta-analysis were not met. Inconsistency in the assessment of outcomes relating to sound localization also precluded the synthesis of evidence across studies. Evidence for

  8. The hearing aid effect in 2013.

    PubMed

    Rauterkus, Erik P; Palmer, Catherine V

    2014-10-01

    The hearing aid effect is the term used to describe the assignment of negative attributes to individuals using hearing aids. The effect was first empirically identified in 1977 when it was reported that adults rating young children with and without hearing aids assigned negative attributes to the children depicted with hearing aids. Investigations in the 1980s and 1990s reported mixed results related to the extent of the hearing aid effect but continued to identify, on average, some negative attributes assigned to individuals wearing hearing aids. The specific aim of this research was to investigate whether the hearing aid effect has diminished in the past several decades by replicating the methods of previous studies for testing the hearing aid effect while using updated devices. Five device configurations were rated across eight attributes. RESULTS for each attribute were considered separately. A total of 24 adults judged pictures of young men wearing various ear level technologies across 8 attributes on a 7-point Likert scale. Five young men between ages 15 and 17 yr were photographed wearing each of five device configurations including (1) a standard-sized behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing aid coupled to an earmold with #13 tubing, (2) a mini-BTE hearing aid with a slim tube open-fit configuration, (3) a completely-in-the-canal hearing aid that could not be seen because of its location in the ear canal, (4) an earbud, and (5) a Bluetooth receiver. The 24 raters saw pictures of each of the 5 young men with each wearing one of the 5 devices so that devices and young men were never judged twice by the same observer. All judgments of each device, regardless of the young man modeling the device, were combined in the data analysis. The effect of device types on judgments was tested using a one-way between-participant analysis of variance. There was a significant difference on the judgment of age and trustworthiness level among the five devices. However, our post hoc

  9. Measurement of β-hydroxybutyrate in capillary blood obtained from an ear to detect hyperketonemia in dairy cows by using an electronic handheld device.

    PubMed

    Süss, D; Drillich, M; Klein-Jöbstl, D; Wagener, K; Krieger, S; Thiel, A; Meyer, L; Schwendenwein, I; Iwersen, M

    2016-09-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to test whether capillary blood obtained by puncturing the skin of an ear with a minimal invasive lancet technique is able to detect hyperketonemia (HYK) in dairy cows. Furthermore, test characteristics of a new available handheld device, the FreeStyle Precision Neo (FSP-Neo, Abbott GmbH & Co. KG, Wiesbaden, Germany) for determination of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in bovine blood were evaluated by comparing the measurements with a laboratory reference. The BHB concentration was determined with the FSP-Neo device in 720 capillary blood samples from 3 different sampling sites (left, right ear, and repeated measurement) and in 240 samples from a coccygeal vessel. The concentration of BHB in serum harvested from the coccygeal blood samples was analyzed at the laboratory and was used as reference. The Spearman correlation coefficient (ρs) between the BHB concentrations in capillary blood measured with the handheld device and the reference test was between 0.76 and 0.81. Using capillary blood, the mean ± standard deviation BHB difference compared with the reference test was 0.20±0.47 mmol/L for all 3 sampling locations at the ears. The receiver operating characteristic analyses for the FSP-Neo device resulted in an optimized threshold for the detection of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in capillary blood of 1.3 mmol/L (left and right ear) and 1.2 mmol/L (repeated measurements). Applying these adjusted threshold sensitivities (Se) for all 3 capillary sampling sites at the ear were 100%, and specificities (Sp) ranged between 93 and 94%. Hence, we conclude that all sampling locations were suitable to identify cows suffering from SCK. The reference test compared with BHB measurements in coccygeal blood resulted in a ρs of 0.92 with a mean ± standard deviation of 0.02±0.21 mmol/L. The receiver operating characteristic analyses for the FSP-Neo device resulted in an optimized threshold for the detection of SCK in

  10. Hearing is Believing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion on the cochlear implant. This device was developed by Adam Kissiah, who suffers from hearing loss. Driven by his own hearing problem and three failed corrective surgeries, Kissiah started working in the mid-1970s on this surgically implantable device that provides hearing sensation to persons with severe-to-profound hearing loss who receive little or no benefit from hearing aids. Uniquely, the cochlear implant concept was not based on theories of medicine, as Kissiah had no medical background whatsoever. Instead, he utilized the technical expertise he learned while working as an electronics instrumentation engineer at NASA s Kennedy Space Center for the basis of his invention. This took place over 3 years, when Kissiah would spend his lunch breaks and evenings in Kennedy s technical library, studying the impact of engineering principles on the inner ear. In April of 2003, Kissiah was inducted into the Space Foundation's U.S. Space Technology Hall of Fame for his invention

  11. Hearing improvement with softband and implanted bone-anchored hearing devices and modified implantation surgery in patients with bilateral microtia-atresia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yibei; Fan, Xinmiao; Wang, Pu; Fan, Yue; Chen, Xiaowei

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate auditory development and hearing improvement in patients with bilateral microtia-atresia using softband and implanted bone-anchored hearing devices and to modify the implantation surgery. The subjects were divided into two groups: the softband group (40 infants, 3 months to 2 years old, Ponto softband) and the implanted group (6 patients, 6-28 years old, Ponto). The Infant-Toddler Meaning Auditory Integration Scale was used conducted to evaluate auditory development at baseline and after 3, 6, 12, and 24 months, and visual reinforcement audiometry was used to assess the auditory threshold in the softband group. In the implanted group, bone-anchored hearing devices were implanted combined with the auricular reconstruction surgery, and high-resolution CT was used to assess the deformity preoperatively. Auditory threshold and speech discrimination scores of the patients with implants were measured under the unaided, softband, and implanted conditions. Total Infant-Toddler Meaning Auditory Integration Scale scores in the softband group improved significantly and approached normal levels. The average visual reinforcement audiometry values under the unaided and softband conditions were 76.75 ± 6.05 dB HL and 32.25 ± 6.20 dB HL (P < 0.01), respectively. In the implanted group, the auditory thresholds under the unaided, softband, and implanted conditions were 59.17 ± 3.76 dB HL, 32.5 ± 2.74 dB HL, and 17.5 ± 5.24 dB HL (P < 0.01), respectively. The respective speech discrimination scores were 23.33 ± 14.72%, 77.17 ± 6.46%, and 96.50 ± 2.66% (P < 0.01). Using softband bone-anchored hearing devices is effective for auditory development and hearing improvement in infants with bilateral microtia-atresia. Wearing softband bone-anchored hearing devices before auricle reconstruction and combining bone-anchored hearing device implantation with auricular reconstruction surgery may bethe optimal clinical choice for these patients, and

  12. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear...

  13. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear...

  14. Assistive Listening Devices: A Report of the National Task Force on Quality of Services in the Postsecondary Education of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warick, Ruth; Clark, Catherine; Dancer, Jesse; Sinclair, Stephen

    This report examines the use of auditory assistive listening devices by students who are hard of hearing or deaf in the postsecondary educational setting. Individual sections address the following topics: (1) distinctions between hearing aids and assistive listening devices; (2) assistive listening devices and the college student; (3) types of…

  15. Acoustic Reflexes in Normal-Hearing Adults, Typically Developing Children, and Children with Suspected Auditory Processing Disorder: Thresholds, Real-Ear Corrections, and the Role of Static Compliance on Estimates.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Udit; Allan, Chris; Allen, Prudence

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested elevated reflex thresholds in children with auditory processing disorders (APDs). However, some aspects of the child's ear such as ear canal volume and static compliance of the middle ear could possibly affect the measurements of reflex thresholds and thus impact its interpretation. Sound levels used to elicit reflexes in a child's ear may be higher than predicted by calibration in a standard 2-cc coupler, and lower static compliance could make visualization of very small changes in impedance at threshold difficult. For this purpose, it is important to evaluate threshold data with consideration of differences between children and adults. A set of studies were conducted. The first compared reflex thresholds obtained using standard clinical procedures in children with suspected APD to that of typically developing children and adults to test the replicability of previous studies. The second study examined the impact of ear canal volume on estimates of reflex thresholds by applying real-ear corrections. Lastly, the relationship between static compliance and reflex threshold estimates was explored. The research is a set of case-control studies with a repeated measures design. The first study included data from 20 normal-hearing adults, 28 typically developing children, and 66 children suspected of having an APD. The second study included 28 normal-hearing adults and 30 typically developing children. In the first study, crossed and uncrossed reflex thresholds were measured in 5-dB step size. Reflex thresholds were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA). In the second study, uncrossed reflex thresholds, real-ear correction, ear canal volume, and static compliance were measured. Reflex thresholds were measured using a 1-dB step size. The effect of real-ear correction and static compliance on reflex threshold was examined using RM-ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient, respectively. Study 1 replicated previous

  16. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... ear anatomy Otoscopic exam of the ear References King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ...

  17. Elephant ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002867.htm Elephant ear poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Elephant ear plants are indoor or outdoor plants with ...

  18. Speech perception enhancement in elderly hearing aid users using an auditory training program for mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jyaehyoung; Jeon, Hanjae; Song, Changgeun; Han, Woojae

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to develop an auditory training program using a mobile device and to test its efficacy by applying it to older adults suffering from moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss. Among the 20 elderly hearing-impaired listeners who participated, 10 were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) and 10 were assigned to a non-training group (NTG) as a control. As a baseline, all participants were measured by vowel, consonant and sentence tests. In the experiment, the TG had been trained for 4 weeks using a mobile program, which had four levels and consisted of 10 Korean nonsense syllables, with each level completed in 1 week. In contrast, traditional auditory training had been provided for the NTG during the same period. To evaluate whether a training effect was achieved, the two groups also carried out the same tests as the baseline after completing the experiment. The results showed that performance on the consonant and sentence tests in the TG was significantly increased compared with that of the NTG. Also, improved scores of speech perception were retained at 2 weeks after the training was completed. However, vowel scores were not changed after the 4-week training in both the TG and the NTG. This result pattern suggests that a moderate amount of auditory training using the mobile device with cost-effective and minimal supervision is useful when it is used to improve the speech understanding of older adults with hearing loss. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 61-68. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  19. The design of a device for hearer and feeler differentiation, part A. [speech modulated hearing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creecy, R.

    1974-01-01

    A speech modulated white noise device is reported that gives the rhythmic characteristics of a speech signal for intelligible reception by deaf persons. The signal is composed of random amplitudes and frequencies as modulated by the speech envelope characteristics of rhythm and stress. Time intensity parameters of speech are conveyed through the vibro-tactile sensation stimuli.

  20. Ear Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  1. Ear Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... may have OTITIS MEDIA, an infection of the middle ear. Self CareSee your doctor. Many ear infections will ... half-alcohol, half-white vinegar solution in the ear before and after swimming or ... JOINT (TMJ) SYNDROME, a disorder that affects the jaw joint, may ...

  2. Molecular Mechanisms of Inner Ear Development

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Doris K.; Kelley, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    The inner ear is a structurally complex vertebrate organ built to encode sound, motion, and orientation in space. Given its complexity, it is not surprising that inner ear dysfunction is a relatively common consequence of human genetic mutation. Studies in model organisms suggest that many genes currently known to be associated with human hearing impairment are active during embryogenesis. Hence, the study of inner ear development provides a rich context for understanding the functions of genes implicated in hearing loss. This chapter focuses on molecular mechanisms of inner ear development derived from studies of model organisms. PMID:22855724

  3. Molecular mechanisms of inner ear development.

    PubMed

    Wu, Doris K; Kelley, Matthew W

    2012-08-01

    The inner ear is a structurally complex vertebrate organ built to encode sound, motion, and orientation in space. Given its complexity, it is not surprising that inner ear dysfunction is a relatively common consequence of human genetic mutation. Studies in model organisms suggest that many genes currently known to be associated with human hearing impairment are active during embryogenesis. Hence, the study of inner ear development provides a rich context for understanding the functions of genes implicated in hearing loss. This chapter focuses on molecular mechanisms of inner ear development derived from studies of model organisms.

  4. Understanding history, philanthropy and the role of WHO in provision of assistive technologies for hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Shelly; Moussy, Francis; Friede, Martin Howell

    2014-09-01

    Philanthropy continues to play an important role in provision of hearing devices and is often the only alternative for the majority of those in need of these devices. While this leads to improved access to services it may also create unsustainable service delivery models. Over the past decade, World Health Organization (WHO) has been making consistent efforts towards promoting accessibility and affordability of high-quality hearing devices, especially in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC). WHO developed and updated the "Guidelines for Hearing Aids and Services in Developing Countries", in 2004. In 2006, WHO supported the establishment of "World Wide (WW) Hearing", to promote hearing aid access across the globe. In the past year, WHO has renewed these efforts. As the first step and following a consultation on promoting access to hearing devices, WHO has developed a preferred product profile in order to facilitate the development and access of appropriate and affordable hearing aids for developing countries. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (article 32), calls for international collaboration to promote access to assistive technology including hearing devices. A coordinated global effort is required to promote availability and affordability of high-quality hearing devices. Such an undertaking requires the cooperation of all stakeholders: WHO, Member States, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), philanthropists, manufacturers and users, to fulfill the international obligation and bring about a change in the quality of life of millions of people with hearing loss. Development of preferred product profile for hearing aids in LMICs can improve development and provision of high-quality, affordable hearing devices. Investment made by the recipients, such as partial financial contribution towards the cost of device or through purchase of ear mould or batteries, leads to a greater sense of responsibility towards the device and its maintenance

  5. Numerical analysis of ossicular chain lesion of human ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingxi; Li, Sheng; Sun, Xiuzhen

    2009-04-01

    Lesion of ossicular chain is a common ear disease impairing the sense of hearing. A comprehensive numerical model of human ear can provide better understanding of sound transmission. In this study, we propose a three-dimensional finite element model of human ear that incorporates the canal, tympanic membrane, ossicular bones, middle ear suspensory ligaments/muscles, middle ear cavity and inner ear fluid. Numerical analysis is conducted and employed to predict the effects of middle ear cavity, malleus handle defect, hypoplasia of the long process of incus, and stapedial crus defect on sound transmission. The present finite element model is shown to be reasonable in predicting the ossicular mechanics of human ear.

  6. Wearable ear EEG for brain interfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Eric D.; Walker, Nicholas; Danko, Amanda S.

    2017-02-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) measuring electrical activity via electroencephalogram (EEG) have evolved beyond clinical applications to become wireless consumer products. Typically marketed for meditation and neu- rotherapy, these devices are limited in scope and currently too obtrusive to be a ubiquitous wearable. Stemming from recent advancements made in hearing aid technology, wearables have been shrinking to the point that the necessary sensors, circuitry, and batteries can be fit into a small in-ear wearable device. In this work, an ear-EEG device is created with a novel system for artifact removal and signal interpretation. The small, compact, cost-effective, and discreet device is demonstrated against existing consumer electronics in this space for its signal quality, comfort, and usability. A custom mobile application is developed to process raw EEG from each device and display interpreted data to the user. Artifact removal and signal classification is accomplished via a combination of support matrix machines (SMMs) and soft thresholding of relevant statistical properties.

  7. A Self-Fitting Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Keidser, Gitte; Dillon, Harvey; Hartley, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The need for reliable access to hearing health care services is growing globally, particularly in developing countries and in remotely located, underserved regions in many parts of the developed world. Individuals with hearing loss in these areas are at a significant disadvantage due to the scarcity of local hearing health care professionals and the high cost of hearing aids. Current approaches to making hearing rehabilitation services more readily available to underserved populations include teleaudiology and the provision of amplification devices outside of the traditional provider-client relationship. Both strategies require access to such resources as dedicated equipment and/or specially trained staff. Another possible strategy is a self-fitting hearing aid, a personal amplification device that is equipped with an onboard tone generator to enable user-controlled, automated, in situ audiometry; an onboard prescription to determine the initial hearing aid settings; and a trainable algorithm to enable user-controlled fine-tuning. The device is thus assembled, fitted, and managed by the user without the need for audiological or computer support. This article details the self-fitting concept and its potential application in both developing and developed countries. Potential advantages and disadvantages of such a device are discussed, and considerations for further investigations into the concept are presented. Overall, the concept is considered technologically viable with the main challenges anticipated to be development of clear, simple user instructions and a delivery model that ensures reliable supplies of instant-fit ear tips and batteries. PMID:22143873

  8. Listening to the ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shera, Christopher A.

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics-termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models-that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  9. Listening to the Ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shera, Christopher Alan

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics--termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models--that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus -frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  10. Cilia and Ear.

    PubMed

    Piatti, Gioia; De Santi, Maria Margherita; Torretta, Sara; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Soi, Daniela; Ambrosetti, Umberto

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of otological complications derived from primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) in adulthood. Twenty-three patients with diagnosed PCD underwent medical history aimed at recording the presence of ear, nose, and throat manifestations (ENT) and any surgical treatments. The ENT objectivity was annotated, and then patients were subjected to audiometric test, tympanometry, registration of otoacoustic emission, and vestibular evaluation. Otitis media with chronic middle ear effusion (OME) during childhood was reported in 52% of the subjects, no patient had undergone ear surgery, and only 2 patients had an episode of otitis in the last year. Eleven of 23 patients showed normal hearing, 11 had a conductive hearing impairment, and 1 showed a severe sensorineural hearing loss unrelated to the syndrome. The bilateral stapedial reflex was only found in all cases of normoacusia and type A tympanogram, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) were present in 8 patients, and no patient had vestibular alterations. Our study confirms a very frequent prevalence of OME in PCD during childhood. Careful monitoring of otological complications of the syndrome is always desirable, also given the high presence in adults of other manifestations in the upper airways, such as chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis.

  11. 21 CFR 801.420 - Hearing aid devices; professional and patient labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... damage the hearing aid, such as dropping, immersing, or exposing the hearing aid to excessive heat. (vii... strongly discouraged. children with hearing loss In addition to seeing a physician for a medical evaluation, a child with a hearing loss should be directed to an audiologist for evaluation and rehabilitation...

  12. U.S. Marine Corps Level-Dependent Hearing Protector Assessment: Objective Measures of Hearing Protection Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    12 4.2.1 Loudspeaker Array ...Instrumentation 4.2.1 Loudspeaker Array Target stimuli were presented from a spherical loudspeaker array consisting of 57 Meyer Sound MM-4XP miniature... loudspeaker array on a raised platform that placed their ears at the same elevation as the 0° loudspeaker ring. The chair was free to rotate 360° and

  13. Hearing Aids and Hearing Impaired Students in Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodford, Charles

    This paper describes functions of the components of hearing aids and provides a detailed procedure to detect hearing aid dysfunctions. The most common type of hearing aids for school children are the behind the ear type. Various hearing aid components change sound into an electrical signal, which is amplified and adjusted by a volume control. The…

  14. Hearing on Assistive Devices for Americans with Disabilities. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Select Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    Some forms of assistive device technology are not available to many disabled children or adults because there is not a centralized system to link the technology with those who need it. This hearing explores ways to promote widespread availability of assistive devices. Examined are types of devices, the costs of such devices, methods of…

  15. Military Hearing Conservation Workshop Director Handbook,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    r HaigCnerainDrctrHnbo (b*T scp -asgnetsorrspniblt.s -:.--3 .’..................................................................an. HSHB-OB November...Approved Hearing Protective Devices and Related Equipment. a. Nonstandard. (NOT APPROVED). (I) Fingers (bi-digital earplugs). - - (2) Palms . (3...a) Single-flange (5-10 percent have different sizes between ears): () extra small (white) - 5 percent (ii) small (green) - 25 percent . oil . 5-26 9

  16. Bringing Hearing to the Deaf

    SciTech Connect

    Shipsey, Ian

    In his talk, Shipsey will discuss the cochlear implant, the first device to successfully allow the profoundly deaf to regain some sense of hearing. A cochlear implant is a small electronic apparatus. Unlike a normal hearing aid, which amplifies sound, a cochlear implant is surgically implanted behind the ear where it converts sound waves into electrical impulses. These implants have instigated a popular but controversial revolution in the treatment of deafness, and they serve as a model for research in neuroscience and biomedical engineering. Shipsey will discuss the physiology of natural hearing from the perspective of a physicist. He willmore » also touch on the function of cochlear implants in the context of historical treatments, electrical engineering, psychophysics, clinical evaluation of efficacy and personal experience. Finally, Shipsey will address the social implications of cochlear implantation and the future outlook for auditory prostheses.« less

  17. Inner Ear Drug Delivery for Auditory Applications

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Erin E. Leary; Mescher, Mark J.; Sewell, William F.; Tao, Sarah L.; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.

    2008-01-01

    Many inner ear disorders cannot be adequately treated by systemic drug delivery. A blood-cochlear barrier exists, similar physiologically to the blood-brain barrier, which limits the concentration and size of molecules able to leave the circulation and gain access to the cells of the inner ear. However, research in novel therapeutics and delivery systems has led to significant progress in the development of local methods of drug delivery to the inner ear. Intratympanic approaches, which deliver therapeutics to the middle ear, rely on permeation through tissue for access to the structures of the inner ear, whereas intracochlear methods are able to directly insert drugs into the inner ear. Innovative drug delivery systems to treat various inner ear ailments such as ototoxicity, sudden sensorineural hearing loss, autoimmune inner ear disease, and for preserving neurons and regenerating sensory cells are being explored. PMID:18848590

  18. Occupational hearing loss of market mill workers in the city of Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kitcher, Emmanuel D; Ocansey, Grace; Abaidoo, Benjamin; Atule, Alidu

    2014-01-01

    Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is an irreversible sensorineural hearing loss associated with exposure to high levels of excessive noise. Prevention measures are not well established in developing countries. This comparative cross sectional study aims to determine the prevalence of hearing loss in both a group of high risk workers and a control group and to assess their knowledge of the effects of noise on hearing health. A total of 101 market mill workers and 103 controls employed within markets in the city of Accra, Ghana, were evaluated using a structured questionnaire and pure tone audiometry. The questionnaire assessed factors including self-reported hearing loss, tinnitus, knowledge on the effects of noise on hearing health and the use of hearing protective devices. Pure tone audiometric testing was conducted for both mill workers and controls. Noise levels at the work premises of the mill workers and controls were measured. Symptoms of hearing loss were reported by 24 (23.76%) and 8 (7.7%) mill workers and controls respectively. Fifty-five (54.5%) and fifty-four (52.37%) mill workers and controls exhibited knowledge of the effects of noise on hearing health. Five (5.0%) mill workers used hearing protective devices. There was significant sensorineural hearing loss and the presence of a 4 kHz audiometric notch among mill workers when compared with controls for the mean thresholds of 2 kHz, 3 kHz and 4 kHz (P = 0. 001). The prevalence of hearing loss in the better hearing ears of the mill workers and controls was 24.8% and 4.8% respectively (P < 0.5). The prevalence of hearing loss, which may be characteristic of NIHL in the better hearing ears of the mill workers and controls was 24.8% and 4.8% respectively. The majority of mill workers did not use hearing protection.

  19. Recent advances in therapeutics and drug delivery for the treatment of inner ear diseases: a patent review (2011-2015).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kim; Kempfle, Judith S; Jung, David H; McKenna, Charles E

    2017-02-01

    Inner ear disorders such as hearing loss, tinnitus, and Ménière's disease significantly impact the quality of life of affected individuals. Treatment of such disorders is an ongoing challenge. Current clinical approaches relieve symptoms but do not fully restore hearing, and the search for more effective therapeutic methods represents an area of urgent current interest. Areas covered: Thirty four patents and patent applications published from 2011 to 2015 were selected from the database of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), covering new approaches for the treatment of inner ear disorders described in the patent literature: 1) identification of new therapeutic agents, 2) development of sustained release formulations, and 3) medical devices that facilitate delivery of such agents to the inner ear. Expert opinion: The search for effective treatments of inner ear disorders is ongoing. Increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms of hearing loss, Ménière's disease, and tinnitus is driving development of new therapeutic agents. However, delivery of these agents to the inner ear is a continuing challenge. At present, combination of a suitable drug with an appropriate mode of drug delivery is the key focus of innovative research to cure inner ear disorders.

  20. 34 CFR 300.113 - Routine checking of hearing aids and external components of surgically implanted medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Routine checking of hearing aids and external components of surgically implanted medical devices. 300.113 Section 300.113 Education Regulations of the Offices...

  1. 34 CFR 300.113 - Routine checking of hearing aids and external components of surgically implanted medical devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Routine checking of hearing aids and external components of surgically implanted medical devices. 300.113 Section 300.113 Education Regulations of the...

  2. 38 CFR 4.85 - Evaluation of hearing impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... impairment. (a) An examination for hearing impairment for VA purposes must be conducted by a state-licensed... percentage evaluation by combining the Roman numeral designations for hearing impairment of each ear. The horizontal rows represent the ear having the better hearing and the vertical columns the ear having the...

  3. 38 CFR 4.85 - Evaluation of hearing impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... impairment. (a) An examination for hearing impairment for VA purposes must be conducted by a state-licensed... percentage evaluation by combining the Roman numeral designations for hearing impairment of each ear. The horizontal rows represent the ear having the better hearing and the vertical columns the ear having the...

  4. 38 CFR 4.85 - Evaluation of hearing impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... impairment. (a) An examination for hearing impairment for VA purposes must be conducted by a state-licensed... percentage evaluation by combining the Roman numeral designations for hearing impairment of each ear. The horizontal rows represent the ear having the better hearing and the vertical columns the ear having the...

  5. 38 CFR 4.85 - Evaluation of hearing impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... impairment. (a) An examination for hearing impairment for VA purposes must be conducted by a state-licensed... percentage evaluation by combining the Roman numeral designations for hearing impairment of each ear. The horizontal rows represent the ear having the better hearing and the vertical columns the ear having the...

  6. 38 CFR 4.85 - Evaluation of hearing impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... impairment. (a) An examination for hearing impairment for VA purposes must be conducted by a state-licensed... percentage evaluation by combining the Roman numeral designations for hearing impairment of each ear. The horizontal rows represent the ear having the better hearing and the vertical columns the ear having the...

  7. Experience Changes How Emotion in Music Is Judged: Evidence from Children Listening with Bilateral Cochlear Implants, Bimodal Devices, and Normal Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Papsin, Blake C.; Paludetti, Gaetano; Gordon, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Children using unilateral cochlear implants abnormally rely on tempo rather than mode cues to distinguish whether a musical piece is happy or sad. This led us to question how this judgment is affected by the type of experience in early auditory development. We hypothesized that judgments of the emotional content of music would vary by the type and duration of access to sound in early life due to deafness, altered perception of musical cues through new ways of using auditory prostheses bilaterally, and formal music training during childhood. Seventy-five participants completed the Montreal Emotion Identification Test. Thirty-three had normal hearing (aged 6.6 to 40.0 years) and 42 children had hearing loss and used bilateral auditory prostheses (31 bilaterally implanted and 11 unilaterally implanted with contralateral hearing aid use). Reaction time and accuracy were measured. Accurate judgment of emotion in music was achieved across ages and musical experience. Musical training accentuated the reliance on mode cues which developed with age in the normal hearing group. Degrading pitch cues through cochlear implant-mediated hearing induced greater reliance on tempo cues, but mode cues grew in salience when at least partial acoustic information was available through some residual hearing in the contralateral ear. Finally, when pitch cues were experimentally distorted to represent cochlear implant hearing, individuals with normal hearing (including those with musical training) switched to an abnormal dependence on tempo cues. The data indicate that, in a western culture, access to acoustic hearing in early life promotes a preference for mode rather than tempo cues which is enhanced by musical training. The challenge to these preferred strategies during cochlear implant hearing (simulated and real), regardless of musical training, suggests that access to pitch cues for children with hearing loss must be improved by preservation of residual hearing and improvements in

  8. Experience Changes How Emotion in Music Is Judged: Evidence from Children Listening with Bilateral Cochlear Implants, Bimodal Devices, and Normal Hearing.

    PubMed

    Giannantonio, Sara; Polonenko, Melissa J; Papsin, Blake C; Paludetti, Gaetano; Gordon, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    Children using unilateral cochlear implants abnormally rely on tempo rather than mode cues to distinguish whether a musical piece is happy or sad. This led us to question how this judgment is affected by the type of experience in early auditory development. We hypothesized that judgments of the emotional content of music would vary by the type and duration of access to sound in early life due to deafness, altered perception of musical cues through new ways of using auditory prostheses bilaterally, and formal music training during childhood. Seventy-five participants completed the Montreal Emotion Identification Test. Thirty-three had normal hearing (aged 6.6 to 40.0 years) and 42 children had hearing loss and used bilateral auditory prostheses (31 bilaterally implanted and 11 unilaterally implanted with contralateral hearing aid use). Reaction time and accuracy were measured. Accurate judgment of emotion in music was achieved across ages and musical experience. Musical training accentuated the reliance on mode cues which developed with age in the normal hearing group. Degrading pitch cues through cochlear implant-mediated hearing induced greater reliance on tempo cues, but mode cues grew in salience when at least partial acoustic information was available through some residual hearing in the contralateral ear. Finally, when pitch cues were experimentally distorted to represent cochlear implant hearing, individuals with normal hearing (including those with musical training) switched to an abnormal dependence on tempo cues. The data indicate that, in a western culture, access to acoustic hearing in early life promotes a preference for mode rather than tempo cues which is enhanced by musical training. The challenge to these preferred strategies during cochlear implant hearing (simulated and real), regardless of musical training, suggests that access to pitch cues for children with hearing loss must be improved by preservation of residual hearing and improvements in

  9. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  10. Better together: reduced compliance after sequential versus simultaneous bilateral hearing aids fitting.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Limor; Banai, Karen; Attias, Joseph; Karni, Avi

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sequential versus simultaneous bilateral hearing aids fitting on patient compliance. Thirty-six older adults with hearing impairment participated in this study. Twelve were fitted with bilateral hearing aids simultaneously. The remaining participants were fitted sequentially: One hearing aid (to the left or to the right ear) was used initially; 1 month later, the other ear was also fitted with a hearing aid for bilateral use. Self-reports on usefulness and compliance were elicited after the first and second months of hearing aid use. In addition, the number of hours the hearing aids were used was extracted from the data loggings of each device. Simultaneous fitting resulted in high levels of compliance and consistent usage throughout the study period. Sequential fitting resulted in abrupt reduction in compliance and hours of use once the second hearing aid was added, both in the clinical scoring and in the data loggings. Simultaneous fitting of bilateral hearing aids results in better compliance compared with sequential fitting. The addition of a second hearing aid after a relatively short period of monaural use may lead to inconsistent use of both hearing aids.

  11. Ear Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1/20th of an inch) that could allow water to enter the middle ear, research studies show no benefit in keeping the ears dry and current guidelines do not recommend routine water precautions. Therefore, you do not need to restrict ...

  12. Listening to Nature's orchestra with peculiar ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, David D.

    2003-04-01

    Insects use hearing for the crucial tasks of communicating with conspecifics and avoiding predators. Although all are based on the same acoustic principles, the diversity of insect ears is staggering and instructive. For instance, a South African grasshopper demonstrates that hearing conspecific calls is possible over distances 1 km with ears that do not have tympana. Actually, these creatures have six pairs of ears that play different roles in behavior. In numerical contrast, praying mantises have just a single ear in the ventral midline. The ear is very effective at detecting ultrasonic bat cries. However, the bioacoustics of sound transduction by two tympana facing each other in a deep, narrow slit is a puzzle. Tachinid flies demonstrate that directional hearing at 5 kHz is possible with a pair of ears fused together to give a total size of 1 mm. The ears are under the fly's chin. Hawk moths have their ears built into their mouthparts and the tympanum is more like a hollow ball than the usual membrane. As an apt last example, cicada ears are actually part of the orchestra: their tympana function both in sound reception and sound production.

  13. Middle ear impedance measurements in large vestibular aqueduct syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bilgen, Cem; Kirkim, Günay; Kirazli, Tayfun

    2009-06-01

    To assess the effect of inner ear pressure on middle ear impedance in patients with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS). Data from admittance tympanometry and multifrequency tympanometry on 8 LVAS patients and control subjects were studied. Static acoustic compliance (SAC) values for the ears with stable sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) were within the limits of the mean values of control groups except for two ears. The resonance frequency (RF) values of the ears with stable SNHL were lower than the mean values of control groups except for three ears. SAC values for the two ears with fluctuating SNHL were lower and the RF values were higher than the mean values of control groups. Decreased SAC values and increased RF values found in the ears with fluctuating SNHL might be an indirect indicator of increased inner ear pressure, while low RF values in the ears with stable SNHL might reflect the decreased inner ear impedance.

  14. Multiple enhancers located in a 1-Mb region upstream of POU3F4 promote expression during inner ear development and may be required for hearing

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, Silvia; Voesenek, Krysta; de la Calle-Mustienes, Elisa; Robert-Moreno, Alex; Kokotas, Haris; Grigoriadou, Maria; Economides, John; Van Camp, Guy; Hilgert, Nele; Moreno, Felipe; Alsina, Berta; Petersen, Michael B.; Kremer, Hannie

    2010-01-01

    POU3F4 encodes a POU-domain transcription factor required for inner ear development. Defects in POU3F4 function are associated with X-linked deafness type 3 (DFN3). Multiple deletions affecting up to ~900-kb upstream of POU3F4 are found in DFN3 patients, suggesting the presence of essential POU3F4 enhancers in this region. Recently, an inner ear enhancer was reported that is absent in most DFN3 patients with upstream deletions. However, two indications suggest that additional enhancers in the POU3F4 upstream region are required for POU3F4 function during inner ear development. First, there is at least one DFN3 deletion that does not eliminate the reported enhancer. Second, the expression pattern driven by this enhancer does not fully recapitulate Pou3f4 expression in the inner ear. Here, we screened a 1-Mb region upstream of the POU3F4 gene for additional cis-regulatory elements and searched for novel DFN3 mutations in the identified POU3F4 enhancers. We found several novel enhancers for otic vesicle expression. Some of these also drive expression in kidney, pancreas and brain, tissues that are known to express Pou3f4. In addition, we report a new and smallest deletion identified so far in a DFN3 family which eliminates 3.9 kb, comprising almost exclusively the previous reported inner ear enhancer. We suggest that multiple enhancers control the expression of Pou3f4 in the inner ear and these may contribute to the phenotype observed in DFN3 patients. In addition, the novel deletion demonstrates that the previous reported enhancer, although not sufficient, is essential for POU3F4 function during inner ear development. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00439-010-0864-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20668882

  15. Help with Hearing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infections and Hearing ...................................................................................4 Tubes ............................................................................................................................4 Speech and Language Development .......................................................................6 Common Speech Disorders Related to Persistent Ear ... may be placed early to help speech and language development. If your child needs “tubes” (see below), they ...

  16. Pop-rock musicians: assessment of their satisfaction provided by hearing protectors.

    PubMed

    Santoni, Cristiane Bolzachini; Fiorini, Ana Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Pop-rock musicians are at risk of developing hearing loss and other symptoms related to amplified music. The aim of the present study was to assess the satisfaction provided by the use of hearing protection in pop-rock musicians. Contemporary cohort study. A study of 23 male pop-rock musicians, aged between 25 to 45 years. After audiological evaluation (pure tone audiometry, middle ear analysis, TEOAE and DPOAE) hearing protective devices were provided to be used for three months. After that musicians answered a satisfaction assessment questionnaire. The prevalence of hearing loss was of 21.7%. The most common complaints about the hearing protectors were: autophonia, pressure in the ears, interference in high frequencies perception and full time use of the hearing protector during concerts. There was a positive correlation between a reduction in tinnitus after the use of the HPD with the following complaints: tinnitus after beginning the career (p= 0.044), discomfort with the sound intensity in the work place (p= 0.009) and intolerance to loud sound (p= 0.029). There was a high prevalence of hearing loss and a positive tendency towards the use of the ear protector device among the sample population.

  17. The middle ear mass: a rare but important diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pankhania, Miran; Rourke, Thomas; Draper, Mark R

    2011-12-02

    The authors report a rare case of primary intracranial meningioma presenting as a middle ear mass with conductive hearing loss. The authors aim to highlight the importance of diagnosing a middle ear mass, which although rare, may have a substantial impact on ongoing patient management. A discussion of other middle ear pathologies is made in order to demonstrate the subtle differences in presentation.

  18. Audibility of reverse alarms under hearing protectors for normal and hearing-impaired listeners.

    PubMed

    Robinson, G S; Casali, J G

    1995-11-01

    The question of whether or not an individual suffering from a hearing loss is capable of hearing an auditory alarm or warning is an extremely important industrial safety issue. The ISO Standard that addresses auditory warnings for workplaces requires that any auditory alarm or warning be audible to all individuals in the workplace including those suffering from a hearing loss and/or wearing hearing protection devices (HPDs). Research was undertaken to determine how the ability to detect an alarm or warning signal changed for individuals with normal hearing and two levels of hearing loss as the levels of masking noise and alarm were manipulated. Pink noise was used as the masker and a heavy-equipment reverse alarm was used as the signal. The rating method paradigm of signal detection theory was used as the experimental procedure to separate the subjects' absolute sensitivities to the alarm from their individual criteria for deciding to respond in an affirmative manner. Results indicated that even at a fairly low signal-to-noise ratio (0 dB), subjects with a substantial hearing loss [a pure-tone average (PTA) hearing level of 45-50 dBHL in both ears] were capable of hearing the reverse alarm while wearing a high-attenuation earmuff in the pink noise used in the study.

  19. Evaluation of Extended-Wear Hearing Technology for Children with Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jace; Schafer, Erin; Martella, Natalie; Morais, Mila; Mann, Misty

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that many older children and teenagers who have mild to moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss do not use their hearing instruments during all waking hours. A variety of reasons may contribute toward this problem, including concerns about cosmetics associated with hearing aid use and the inconvenience of daily maintenance associated with hearing instruments. Extended-wear hearing instruments are inserted into the wearer's ear canal by an audiologist and are essentially invisible to outside observers. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits and limitations associated with use of extended-wear hearing instruments in a group of children with hearing loss. A two-way repeated measures design was used to examine performance differences obtained with the participants' daily-wear hearing instruments versus that obtained with extended-wear hearing instruments. Sixteen children, ages 10-17 yr old, with sensorineural hearing loss ranging from mild to moderately severe. Probe microphone measures were completed to evaluate the aided output of device. Behavioral test measures included word recognition in quiet, sentence recognition in noise, aided warble-tone thresholds, and psychophysical loudness scaling. Questionnaires were also administered to evaluate subjective performance with each hearing technology. Data logging suggested that many participants were not using their daily-wear hearing instruments during all waking hours (mean use was less than 6 h/day). Real ear probe microphone measurements indicated that a closer fit to the Desired Sensation Level Version 5 prescriptive targets was achieved with the children's daily-wear instruments when compared to the extended-wear instruments. There was no statistically significant difference in monosyllabic word recognition at 50 or 60 dBA obtained with the two hearing technologies. Sentence recognition in noise obtained with use of the extended-wear devices was, however, significantly

  20. Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to create and evaluate the effectiveness of brochures to reduce the risk for noise-induced hearing loss in college students.

    PubMed

    Kotowski, Michael R; Smith, Sandi W; Johnstone, Patti M; Pritt, Erin

    2011-01-01

    Brochures containing messages developed according to the Extended Parallel Process Model were deployed to increase intentions to use hearing protection for college students. These brochures were presented to one-half of a college student sample, after which a questionnaire was administered to assess perceptions of threat, efficacy, and behavioral intentions. The other half of the sample completed the questionnaire and then received brochures. Results indicated that people receiving the brochure before the questionnaire reported greater perceptions of hearing loss threat and efficacy to use ear plugs when in loud environments, however, intentions to use ear plugs were unchanged. Distribution of the brochure also resulted in greater perceptions of hearing loss threat and efficacy to use over-the-ear headphones when using devices such as MP3 players. In this case, however, intentions to use over-the-ear headphones increased. Results are discussed in terms of future research and practical applications.

  1. Ear tag

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ear tag or pit are: An inherited tendency to have this facial feature A genetic syndrome ... Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2016:chap 19. Review Date 4/24/2017 Updated by: Liora C Adler, MD, ...

  2. Swimmer's ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... often gets better with the proper treatment. Possible Complications The infection may spread to other areas around the ear, including the skull bone. In older people or those who have diabetes, the infection may become severe. This condition is ...

  3. Pierced Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... weeks. Then you can start enjoying your pierced ears again! Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: September ... All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, ...

  4. Ear emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... and ruptured eardrums can be caused by: Inserting cotton swabs, toothpicks, pins, pens, or other objects into ... The person will have severe pain. Place sterile cotton gently in the outer ear canal to keep ...

  5. The Effects of Dual-Language Support on the Language Skills of Bilingual Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Listening Devices Relative to Their Monolingual Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunta, Ferenc; Douglas, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of supporting both English and Spanish on language outcomes in bilingual children with hearing loss (HL) who used listening devices (cochlear implants and hearing aids). The English language skills of bilingual children with HL were compared to those of their monolingual English-speaking peers'…

  6. Music to whose ears? The effect of social norms on young people's risk perceptions of hearing damage resulting from their music listening behavior.

    PubMed

    Gilliver, Megan; Carter, Lyndal; Macoun, Denise; Rosen, Jenny; Williams, Warwick

    2012-01-01

    Professional and community concerns about the potentially dangerous noise levels for common leisure activities has led to increased interest on providing hearing health information to participants. However, noise reduction programmes aimed at leisure activities (such as music listening) face a unique difficulty. The noise source that is earmarked for reduction by hearing health professionals is often the same one that is viewed as pleasurable by participants. Furthermore, these activities often exist within a social setting, with additional peer influences that may influence behavior. The current study aimed to gain a better understanding of social-based factors that may influence an individual's motivation to engage in positive hearing health behaviors. Four hundred and eighty-four participants completed questionnaires examining their perceptions of the hearing risk associated with listening to music listening and asking for estimates of their own and their peer's music listening behaviors. Participants were generally aware of the potential risk posed by listening to personal stereo players (PSPs) and the volumes likely to be most dangerous. Approximately one in five participants reported using listening volumes at levels perceived to be dangerous, an incidence rate in keeping with other studies measuring actual PSP use. However, participants showed less awareness of peers' behavior, consistently overestimating the volumes at which they believed their friends listened. Misperceptions of social norms relating to listening behavior may decrease individuals' perceptions of susceptibility to hearing damage. The consequences of hearing health promotion are discussed, along with suggestions relating to the development of new programs.

  7. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An...

  8. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An...

  9. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An...

  10. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An...

  11. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An...

  12. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Ear Care in Coastal Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Dosemane, Deviprasad; Ganapathi, Keerthan; Kanthila, Jayashree

    2015-12-01

    Ear as an organ is necessary for the perception of sound and body balance. Ear infection, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and excessive use of mobile phone for listening to music at high volume all can reduce hearing. No earlier study was available in the costal Karnataka population, regarding the practice of ear care. The study objective was to ascertain the level of knowledge of the community regarding ear care, to find out whether some of the common conditions affecting hearing are known and to find out the common practices involved in maintaining ear hygiene. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 subjects in two tertiary care hospitals by convenient sampling, using self-administered questionnaire. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice across the age groups, religion & education background were studied. Across different education groups, 66.7%-90% did not know that 'cold' can cause ear infection and 46.7%-75.0% did not know that diabetes and hypertension can reduce hearing. When there is ear pain or discharge, people put ear drops available at home in 48.3%-75.0% across 3 age groups; 58.5%-61.5% across 3 religions and 44.8%-67.9% across 5 education groups. No statistically significant difference was found in the practice of pouring oil into ears across religions. A total of 58.6%-100% daily clean inside the ear and 70-100% use cotton buds. General perception of the people is that ear is necessary only for hearing. Majority did not know that nasal infection can affect the ear and that DM and hypertension can cause hearing loss. When there is ear pain and discharge, most of the adults put drops that are available at home. Pouring oil into the ears and cleaning inside the ear canals is routinely practiced in costal Karnataka.

  13. Green laser light activates the inner ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Gentiana I.; Balster, Sven; Zhang, Kaiyin; Lim, Hubert H.; Reich, Uta; Massow, Ole; Lubatschowski, Holger; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Lenarz, Thomas; Reuter, Guenter

    2009-07-01

    The hearing performance with conventional hearing aids and cochlear implants is dramatically reduced in noisy environments and for sounds more complex than speech (e. g. music), partially due to the lack of localized sensorineural activation across different frequency regions with these devices. Laser light can be focused in a controlled manner and may provide more localized activation of the inner ear, the cochlea. We sought to assess whether visible light with parameters that could induce an optoacoustic effect (532 nm, 10-ns pulses) would activate the cochlea. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded preoperatively in anesthetized guinea pigs to confirm normal hearing. After opening the bulla, a 50-μm core-diameter optical fiber was positioned in the round window niche and directed toward the basilar membrane. Optically induced ABRs (OABRs), similar in shape to those of acoustic stimulation, were elicited with single pulses. The OABR peaks increased with energy level (0.6 to 23 μJ/pulse) and remained consistent even after 30 minutes of continuous stimulation at 13 μJ, indicating minimal or no stimulation-induced damage within the cochlea. Our findings demonstrate that visible light can effectively and reliably activate the cochlea without any apparent damage. Further studies are in progress to investigate the frequency-specific nature and mechanism of green light cochlear activation.

  14. Impact of coupling techniques of an active middle ear device to the round window membrane for the backward stimulation of the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Gostian, Antoniu-Oreste; Pazen, David; Ortmann, Magdalene; Luers, Jan-Christoffer; Anagiotos, Andreas; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd; Beutner, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Interposed cartilage and the round window coupler (RWC) increase the efficiency of cochlea stimulation with the floating mass transducer (FMT) of a single active middle ear implant (AMEI) placed against the round window membrane. Treatment of mixed and conductive hearing loss with an AMEI attached to the round window is effective, yet the best placement technique of its FMT for the most efficient stimulation of the cochlea remains to be determined. Experimental study on human temporal bones with the FMT placed against firstly the unaltered round window niche and then subsequently against the fully exposed round window membrane with and without interposed cartilage and the RWC. Cochlea stimulation is measured by the volume velocities of the stapes footplate using LASER vibrometry. At the undrilled round window niche, placement of the FMT by itself and with the RWC resulted in similar volume velocities. The response was significantly raised by interposing cartilage into the undrilled round window niche. Complete exposure of the round window membrane allowed for significantly increased volume velocities. Among these, coupling of the FMT with interposed cartilage yielded responses of similar magnitude compared with the RWC but significantly higher compared with the FMT by itself. Good contact to the round window membrane is essential for efficient stimulation of the cochlea. Therefore, interposing cartilage into the undrilled round window niche is a viable option. At the drilled round window membrane, the FMT with interposed cartilage and attached to the RWC are similarly effective.

  15. Performance Assessment of Hearing Protection and Communication Enhancement Devices: Peltor Comtac III and IV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    providing a hear-thru, or active capability while mitigating hearing loss and tinnitus caused by exposure to loud, steady-state and impulse noise. Active...loss and tinnitus caused by exposure to loud, steady-state and impulse noise. The general approach was to use ANSI standard measurement procedures

  16. Preserved Acoustic Hearing in Cochlear Implantation Improves Speech Perception

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Sterling W.; Jahn, Kelly; Gifford, René H.

    2015-01-01

    Background With improved surgical techniques and electrode design, an increasing number of cochlear implant (CI) recipients have preserved acoustic hearing in the implanted ear, thereby resulting in bilateral acoustic hearing. There are currently no guidelines, however, for clinicians with respect to audio-metric criteria and the recommendation of amplification in the implanted ear. The acoustic bandwidth necessary to obtain speech perception benefit from acoustic hearing in the implanted ear is unknown. Additionally, it is important to determine if, and in which listening environments, acoustic hearing in both ears provides more benefit than hearing in just one ear, even with limited residual hearing. Purpose The purposes of this study were to (1) determine whether acoustic hearing in an ear with a CI provides as much speech perception benefit as an equivalent bandwidth of acoustic hearing in the non-implanted ear, and (2) determine whether acoustic hearing in both ears provides more benefit than hearing in just one ear. Research Design A repeated-measures, within-participant design was used to compare performance across listening conditions. Study Sample Seven adults with CIs and bilateral residual acoustic hearing (hearing preservation) were recruited for the study. Data Collection and Analysis Consonant-nucleus-consonant word recognition was tested in four conditions: CI alone, CI + acoustic hearing in the nonimplanted ear, CI + acoustic hearing in the implanted ear, and CI + bilateral acoustic hearing. A series of low-pass filters were used to examine the effects of acoustic bandwidth through an insert earphone with amplification. Benefit was defined as the difference among conditions. The benefit of bilateral acoustic hearing was tested in both diffuse and single-source background noise. Results were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results Similar benefit was obtained for equivalent acoustic frequency bandwidth in either ear. Acoustic

  17. A self-fitting hearing aid: need and concept.

    PubMed

    Convery, Elizabeth; Keidser, Gitte; Dillon, Harvey; Hartley, Lisa

    2011-12-01

    The need for reliable access to hearing health care services is growing globally, particularly in developing countries and in remotely located, underserved regions in many parts of the developed world. Individuals with hearing loss in these areas are at a significant disadvantage due to the scarcity of local hearing health care professionals and the high cost of hearing aids. Current approaches to making hearing rehabilitation services more readily available to underserved populations include teleaudiology and the provision of amplification devices outside of the traditional provider-client relationship. Both strategies require access to such resources as dedicated equipment and/or specially trained staff. Another possible strategy is a self-fitting hearing aid, a personal amplification device that is equipped with an onboard tone generator to enable user-controlled, automated, in situ audiometry; an onboard prescription to determine the initial hearing aid settings; and a trainable algorithm to enable user-controlled fine-tuning. The device is thus assembled, fitted, and managed by the user without the need for audiological or computer support. This article details the self-fitting concept and its potential application in both developing and developed countries. Potential advantages and disadvantages of such a device are discussed, and considerations for further investigations into the concept are presented. Overall, the concept is considered technologically viable with the main challenges anticipated to be development of clear, simple user instructions and a delivery model that ensures reliable supplies of instant-fit ear tips and batteries.

  18. The Hearing Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capewell, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    Glue ear, a condition resulting in intermittent hearing loss in young children, affects about 80% of young children under seven years old. About 60% of children will spend a third of their time unable to hear within normal thresholds. Teachers are unlikely to consider the sound quality in classrooms. In my research young people provided…

  19. Molecular biology of hearing

    PubMed Central

    Stöver, Timo; Diensthuber, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The inner ear is our most sensitive sensory organ and can be subdivided into three functional units: organ of Corti, stria vascularis and spiral ganglion. The appropriate stimulus for the organ of hearing is sound, which travels through the external auditory canal to the middle ear where it is transmitted to the inner ear. The inner ear houses the hair cells, the sensory cells of hearing. The inner hair cells are capable of mechanotransduction, the transformation of mechanical force into an electrical signal, which is the basic principle of hearing. The stria vascularis generates the endocochlear potential and maintains the ionic homeostasis of the endolymph. The dendrites of the spiral ganglion form synaptic contacts with the hair cells. The spiral ganglion is composed of neurons that transmit the electrical signals from the cochlea to the central nervous system. In recent years there has been significant progress in research on the molecular basis of hearing. An increasing number of genes and proteins related to hearing are being identified and characterized. The growing knowledge of these genes contributes not only to greater appreciation of the mechanism of hearing but also to a deeper understanding of the molecular basis of hereditary hearing loss. This basic research is a prerequisite for the development of molecular diagnostics and novel therapies for hearing loss. PMID:22558056

  20. Listen Up! Noises Can Damage Your Hearing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shortened Understanding Aphasia Wise Choices It’s a Noisy Planet: Protect Your Hearing Your ears can be your ... the noise (wear earplugs or earmuffs). Links Noisy Planet Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Interactive Sound Ruler AgePage: ...

  1. Ionizing Radiation and the Ear

    SciTech Connect

    Borsanyi, Steven J.

    The effects of ionizing radiation on the ears of 100 patients were studied in the course of treatment of malignant head and neck tumors by teleradiation using Co 60. Early changes consisted of radiation otitis media and a transient vasculitis of the vessels of the inner ear, resulting in hearing loss, tinnitus, and temporary recruitment. While no permanent changes were detected microscopically shortly after the completion of radiation in the cochlea or labyrinth, late changes sometimes occurred in the temporal bone as a result of an obliterating endarteritis. The late changes were separate entities caused primarily by obliterating endarteritis andmore » alterations in the collagen. Radiation affected the hearing of individuals selectively. When hearing threshold shift did occur, the shift was not great. The 4000 cps frequency showed a greater deficit in hearing capacity during the tests, while the area least affected appeared to be in the region of 2000 cps. The shift in speech reception was not significant and it was correlated with the over-all change in response to pure tones. Discrimination did not appear to be affected. Proper shielding of the ear with lead during radiation, when possible, eliminated most complications. (H.R.D.)« less

  2. An environment-adaptive management algorithm for hearing-support devices incorporating listening situation and noise type classifiers.

    PubMed

    Yook, Sunhyun; Nam, Kyoung Won; Kim, Heepyung; Hong, Sung Hwa; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kim, In Young

    2015-04-01

    In order to provide more consistent sound intelligibility for the hearing-impaired person, regardless of environment, it is necessary to adjust the setting of the hearing-support (HS) device to accommodate various environmental circumstances. In this study, a fully automatic HS device management algorithm that can adapt to various environmental situations is proposed; it is composed of a listening-situation classifier, a noise-type classifier, an adaptive noise-reduction algorithm, and a management algorithm that can selectively turn on/off one or more of the three basic algorithms-beamforming, noise-reduction, and feedback cancellation-and can also adjust internal gains and parameters of the wide-dynamic-range compression (WDRC) and noise-reduction (NR) algorithms in accordance with variations in environmental situations. Experimental results demonstrated that the implemented algorithms can classify both listening situation and ambient noise type situations with high accuracies (92.8-96.4% and 90.9-99.4%, respectively), and the gains and parameters of the WDRC and NR algorithms were successfully adjusted according to variations in environmental situation. The average values of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), frequency-weighted segmental SNR, Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality, and mean opinion test scores of 10 normal-hearing volunteers of the adaptive multiband spectral subtraction (MBSS) algorithm were improved by 1.74 dB, 2.11 dB, 0.49, and 0.68, respectively, compared to the conventional fixed-parameter MBSS algorithm. These results indicate that the proposed environment-adaptive management algorithm can be applied to HS devices to improve sound intelligibility for hearing-impaired individuals in various acoustic environments. Copyright © 2014 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Amplification in the rehabilitation of unilateral deafness: speech in noise and directional hearing effects with bone-anchored hearing and contralateral routing of signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Mei; Bowditch, Stephen; Anderson, Michael J; May, Bradford; Cox, Kenneth M; Niparko, John K

    2006-02-01

    Vibromechanical stimulation with a semi-implantable bone conductor (Entific BAHA device) overcomes some of the head-shadow effects in unilateral deafness. What specific rehabilitative benefits are observed when the functional ear exhibits normal hearing versus moderate sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL)? The authors conducted a prospective trial of subjects with unilateral deafness in a tertiary care center. This study comprised adults with unilateral deafness (pure-tone average [PTA] > 90 dB; Sp.D. < 20%) and either normal monaural hearing (n = 18) or moderate SNHL (PTA = 25-50 dB: Sp.D. > 75%) in the contralateral functional ear (n = 5). Subjects were fit with contralateral routing of signal (CROS) devices for 1 month and tested before (mastoid) implantation, fitting, and testing with a bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA). Outcome measures were: 1) subjective benefit; 2) source localization tests (Source Azimuth Identification in Noise Test [SAINT]); 3) speech discrimination in quiet and in noise assessed with Hearing In Noise Test (HINT) protocols. There was consistent satisfaction with BAHA amplification and poor acceptance of CROS amplification. General directional hearing decreased with CROS use and was unchanged by BAHA and directional microphone aids. Relative to baseline and CROS, BAHA produced significantly better speech recognition in noise. Twenty-two of 23 subjects followed up in this study continue to use their BAHA device over an average follow-up period of 30.24 months (range, 51-12 months). BAHA amplification on the side of a deaf ear yields greater benefit in subjects with monaural hearing than does CROS amplification. Advantages likely related to averting the interference of speech signals delivered to the better ear, as occurs with conventional CROS amplification, while alleviating the negative head-shadow effects of unilateral deafness. The advantages of head-shadow reduction in enhancing speech recognition with noise in the hearing ear outweigh

  4. Industrial hearing conservation.

    PubMed

    Glorig, A

    1979-08-01

    Hearing conservation programs, when appropriate in industry, are now a necessity. Even though one may not wish to adopt an altruistic attitude toward the conservation of hearing, one must, like it or not, initiate a hearing conservation program because of both federal and state regulations. Since industrial noise exposure produced more hearing loss in more people than all other causes of hearing loss combined, it is incumbent on all industries with noise makers to do something about protecting human hearing. The tragedy is that nearly all industrial hearing loss can be prevented with proper hearing conservation measures. The cost of hearing conservation is far less than the cost of hearing loss in terms of human suffering and dollars in the compensation courts. Proper education of both managment and labor can result in successful hearing conservation programs. The method of choice is reduction of the noise at the source, but in many cases this is infeasible both technically and economically and therefore protection at the ear must be used. Experience has shown that with proper supervision ear protection programs can prevent the majority of instances of hearing loss in the majority of individuals exposed.

  5. The EarLens System: New Sound Transduction Methods

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Rodney; Fay, Jonathan P.; Rucker, Paul; Rosen, Micha; Olson, Lisa; Puria, Sunil

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis is tested that an open-canal hearing device, with a microphone in the ear canal, can be designed to provide amplification over a wide bandwidth and without acoustic feedback. In the design under consideration, a transducer consisting of a thin silicone platform with an embedded magnet is placed directly on the tympanic membrane. Sound picked up by a microphone in the ear canal, including sound-localization cues thought to be useful for speech perception in noisy environments, is processed and amplified, and then used to drive a coil near the tympanic-membrane transducer. The perception of sound results from the vibration of the transducer in response the electromagnetic field produced by the coil. Sixteen subjects (ranging from normal-hearing to moderately hearing-impaired) wore this transducer for up to a ten-month period, and were monitored for any adverse reactions. Three key functional characteristics were measured: 1) the maximum equivalent pressure output (MEPO) of the transducer; 2) the feedback gain margin (GM), which describes the maximum allowable gain before feedback occurs; and 3) the tympanic-membrane damping effect (DTM), which describes the change in hearing level due to placement of the transducer on the eardrum. Results indicate that the tympanic-membrane transducer remains in place and is well tolerated. The system can produce sufficient output to reach threshold for those with as much as 60 dBHL of hearing impairment for up to 8 kHz in 86% of the study population, and up to 11.2 kHz in 50% of the population. The feedback gain margin is on average 30 dB except at the ear canal resonance frequencies of 3 and 9 kHz, where the average was reduced to 12 dB and 23 dB respectively. The average value of DTM is close to 0 dB everywhere except in the 2–4 kHz range, where it peaks at 8 dB. A new alternative system that uses photonic energy to transmit both the signal and power to a photodiode and micro-actuator on an EarLens platform is

  6. 21 CFR 801.420 - Hearing aid devices; professional and patient labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (ii) History of active drainage from the ear within the previous 90 days. (iii) History of sudden or...). (ii) Frequency response curve. (iii) Average saturation output (HF-Average SSPL 90). (iv) Average full-on gain (HF-Average full-on gain). (v) Reference test gain. (vi) Frequency range. (vii) Total...

  7. 21 CFR 801.420 - Hearing aid devices; professional and patient labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (ii) History of active drainage from the ear within the previous 90 days. (iii) History of sudden or...). (ii) Frequency response curve. (iii) Average saturation output (HF-Average SSPL 90). (iv) Average full-on gain (HF-Average full-on gain). (v) Reference test gain. (vi) Frequency range. (vii) Total...

  8. Phonological Awareness at 5 years of age in Children who use Hearing Aids or Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Teresa Y.C.; Cupples, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Children with hearing loss typically underachieve in reading, possibly as a result of their underdeveloped phonological skills. This study addressed the questions of whether the development of phonological awareness (PA) is influenced by 1) the degree of hearing loss; and 2) whether performance of children with severe-profound hearing loss differed according to the hearing devices used. Drawing on data collected as part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI, www.outcomes.nal.gov.au) study, the authors found that sound-matching scores of children with hearing loss ranging from mild to profound degrees were, on average, within the normal range. The degree of hearing loss did not have a significant impact on scores, but there was a non-significant tendency for the proportion of children who achieved zero scores to increase with increase in hearing loss. For children with severe hearing loss, there was no significant group difference in scores among children who used bilateral hearing aids, bimodal fitting (a cochlear implant and a hearing aid in contralateral ears), and bilateral cochlear implants. Although there is a need for further prospective research, professionals have an important role in targeting PA skills for rehabilitation of young children with hearing loss. PMID:26929789

  9. Swimmer's Ear (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... scratching the ear canal, vigorous ear cleaning with cotton swabs, or putting foreign objects like bobby pins ... Also, never put objects into kids' ears, including cotton-tipped swabs. How Is Swimmer's Ear Treated? Treatment ...

  10. Effects of the intensity of masking noise on ear canal recorded low-frequency cochlear microphonic waveforms in normal hearing subjects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming

    2014-07-01

    Compared to auditory brainstem responses (ABRs), cochlear microphonics (CMs) may be more appropriate to serve as a supplement to the test of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Researchers have shown that low-frequency CMs from the apical cochlea are measurable at the tympanic membrane using high-pass masking noise. Our objective is to study the effect of such noise at different intensities on low-frequency CMs recorded at the ear canal, which is not completely known. Six components were involved in this CM measurement including an ear canal electrode (1), a relatively long and low-frequency toneburst (2), and high-pass masking noise at different intensities (3). The rest components include statistical analysis based on multiple human subjects (4), curve modeling based on amplitudes of CM waveforms (CMWs) and noise intensity (5), and a technique based on electrocochleography (ECochG or ECoG) (6). Results show that low-frequency CMWs appeared clearly. The CMW amplitude decreased with an increase in noise level. It decreased first slowly, then faster, and finally slowly again. In conclusion, when masked with high-pass noise, the low-frequency CMs are measurable at the human ear canal. Such noise reduces the low-frequency CM amplitude. The reduction is noise-intensity dependent but not completely linear. The reduction may be caused by the excited basal cochlea which the low-frequency has to travel and pass through. Although not completely clear, six mechanisms related to such reduction are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Workplace Noise on Hearing Ability in Tile and Ceramic Industry Workers in Iran: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Noise as a common physical hazard may lead to noise-induced hearing loss, an irreversible but preventable disorder. Annual audiometric evaluations help detect changes in hearing status before clinically significant hearing loss develops. This study was designed to track hearing threshold changes during 2-year follow-up among tile and ceramic workers. Methods. This follow-up study was conducted on 555 workers (totally 1110 ears). Subjects were divided into four groups according to the level of noise exposure. Hearing threshold in conventional audiometric frequencies was measured and standard threshold shift was calculated for each ear. Results. Hearing threshold was increased during 2 years of follow-up. Increased hearing threshold was most frequently observed at 4000, 6000, and 3000 Hz. Standard threshold shift was observed in 13 (2.34%), 49 (8.83%), 22 (3.96%), and 63 (11.35%) subjects in the first and second years of follow-up in the right and left ears, respectively. Conclusions. This study has documented a high incidence of noise-induced hearing loss in tile and ceramic workers that would put stress on the importance of using hearing protection devices. PMID:24453922

  12. Gender differences in real-world hearing protector attenuation.

    PubMed

    Abel, S M; Alberti, P W; Rokas, D

    1988-04-01

    This research investigated the possibility of differences in real-world attenuation attributable to gender. A total of 160 subjects, 80 males and 80 females, under the age of 45 years, and with normal hearing, were tested. Subjects were assigned to four hearing protector categories with the restriction that there were 20 males and 20 females in each group. The devices chosen for study were the E-A-R expandable foam plug, the Willson Sound Silencer premolded vinyl plug with double flange, the Bilsom Soft polyethylene encapsulated glass fiber plug, and the MSA Ear Defender (V-51R) premolded vinyl plug with single flange. Binaural headphone detection thresholds were measured in quiet with the open ear, and subsequently with protectors fitted binaurally for one-third octave noise bands centered at 250, 500, 1000, 3150 and 6300 Hz. The results indicated that attenuation scores achieved by females were less than those observed for males when the device was sold in only one size. Apart from the question of adequate sizing, for two of the insert protectors studied, mean achieved attenuation fell short of the manufacturer's specifications by as much as 18 dB, for particular frequencies tested. The relatively wide variation in scores observed for all four protectors in spite of experimenter-fit could not be accounted for by differences in either hearing threshold across subjects or by size of plug fit, for those devices available in several sizes.

  13. Are two ears not better than one?

    PubMed

    McArdle, Rachel A; Killion, Mead; Mennite, Monica A; Chisolm, Theresa H

    2012-03-01

    The decision to fit one or two hearing aids in individuals with binaural hearing loss has been debated for years. Although some 78% of U.S. hearing aid fittings are binaural (Kochkin , 2010), Walden and Walden (2005) presented data showing that 82% (23 of 28 patients) of their sample obtained significantly better speech recognition in noise scores when wearing one hearing aid as opposed to two. To conduct two new experiments to fuel the monaural/binaural debate. The first experiment was a replication of Walden and Walden (2005), whereas the second experiment examined the use of binaural cues to improve speech recognition in noise. A repeated measures experimental design. Twenty veterans (aged 59-85 yr), with mild to moderately severe binaurally symmetrical hearing loss who wore binaural hearing aids were recruited from the Audiology Department at the Bay Pines VA Healthcare System. Experiment 1 followed the procedures of the Walden and Walden study, where signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss was measured using the Quick Speech-in-Noise (QuickSIN) test on participants who were aided with their current hearing aids. Signal and noise were presented in the sound booth at 0° azimuth under five test conditions: (1) right ear aided, (2) left ear aided, (3) both ears aided, (4) right ear aided, left ear plugged, and (5) unaided. The opposite ear in (1) and (2) was left open. In Experiment 2, binaural Knowles Electronics Manikin for Acoustic Research (KEMAR) manikin recordings made in Lou Malnati's pizza restaurant during a busy period provided a typical real-world noise, while prerecorded target sentences were presented through a small loudspeaker located in front of the KEMAR manikin. Subjects listened to the resulting binaural recordings through insert earphones under the following four conditions: (1) binaural, (2) diotic, (3) monaural left, and (4) monaural right. Results of repeated measures ANOVAs demonstrated that the best speech recognition in noise performance was

  14. Hear, Hear!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin

    2000-01-01

    Examines the problem of acoustics in school classrooms; the problems it creates for student learning, particularly for students with hearing problems; and the impediments to achieving acceptable acoustical levels for school classrooms. Acoustic guidelines are explored and some remedies for fixing sound problems are highlighted. (GR)

  15. Energy extraction from the biologic battery in the inner ear

    PubMed Central

    Mercier, Patrick P; Lysaght, Andrew C; Bandyopadhyay, Saurav; Chandrakasan, Anantha P; Stankovic, Konstantina M

    2013-01-01

    Endocochlear potential (EP) is a battery-like electrochemical gradient found in and actively maintained by the inner ear1,2. Here we demonstrate that the mammalian EP can be used as a power source for electronic devices. We achieved this by designing an anatomically sized, ultra-low quiescent-power energy harvester chip integrated with a wireless sensor capable of monitoring the EP itself. Although other forms of in vivo energy harvesting have been described in lower organisms3-5, and thermoelectric6, piezoelectric7 and biofuel8,9 devices are promising for mammalian applications, there have been few, if any, in vivo demonstrations in the vicinity of the ear, eye and brain. In this work, the chip extracted a minimum of 1.12 nW from the EP of a guinea pig for up to 5 h, enabling a 2.4 GHz radio to transmit measurement of the EP every 40–360 s. With future optimization of electrode design, we envision using the biologic battery in the inner ear to power chemical and molecular sensors, or drug-delivery actuators for diagnosis and therapy of hearing loss and other disorders. PMID:23138225

  16. Energy extraction from the biologic battery in the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Patrick P; Lysaght, Andrew C; Bandyopadhyay, Saurav; Chandrakasan, Anantha P; Stankovic, Konstantina M

    2012-12-01

    Endocochlear potential (EP) is a battery-like electrochemical gradient found in and actively maintained by the inner ear. Here we demonstrate that the mammalian EP can be used as a power source for electronic devices. We achieved this by designing an anatomically sized, ultra-low quiescent-power energy harvester chip integrated with a wireless sensor capable of monitoring the EP itself. Although other forms of in vivo energy harvesting have been described in lower organisms, and thermoelectric, piezoelectric and biofuel devices are promising for mammalian applications, there have been few, if any, in vivo demonstrations in the vicinity of the ear, eye and brain. In this work, the chip extracted a minimum of 1.12 nW from the EP of a guinea pig for up to 5 h, enabling a 2.4 GHz radio to transmit measurement of the EP every 40-360 s. With future optimization of electrode design, we envision using the biologic battery in the inner ear to power chemical and molecular sensors, or drug-delivery actuators for diagnosis and therapy of hearing loss and other disorders.

  17. Design of a dynamic sensor inspired by bat ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Rolf; Pannala, Mittu; Reddy, O. Praveen K.; Meymand, Sajjad Z.

    2012-09-01

    In bats, the outer ear shapes act as beamforming baffles that create a spatial sensitivity pattern for the reception of the biosonar signals. Whereas technical receivers for wave-based signals usually have rigid geometries, the outer ears of some bat species, such as horseshoe bats, can undergo non-rigid deformations as a result of muscular actuation. It is hypothesized that these deformations provide the animals with a mechanism to adapt their spatial hearing sensitivity on short, sub-second time scales. This biological approach could be of interest to engineering as an inspiration for the design of beamforming devices that combine flexibility with parsimonious implementation. To explore this possibility, a biomimetic dynamic baffle was designed based on a simple shape overall geometry based on an average bat ear. This shape was augmented with three different biomimetic local shape features, a ridge on its exposed surface as well as a flap and an incision along its rim. Dynamic non-rigid deformations of the shape were accomplished through a simple actuation mechanism based on linear actuation inserted at a single point. Despite its simplicity, the prototype device was able to reproduce the dynamic functional characteristics that have been predicted for its biological paragon in a qualitative fashion.

  18. Therapy of hearing disorders - conservative procedures

    PubMed Central

    Plontke, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    A wide range of therapeutic strategies are available for the therapy of hearing disorders including pharmaceutical, acoustic, electrical, surgical, radiological, cognitive-behavioural and so-called "alternative" strategies. This review focuses on general conservative strategies and specific therapeutic approaches mainly for inner ear disorders, whereas surgical and device-based therapies including hearing aids and cochlear implants are described in other chapters in this volume. In addition to the systemic medication-based therapies for the treatment of hearing disorders, the rapidly growing field of local drug delivery to the inner ear as a promising therapeutic strategy is discussed on the background of unresolved issues. After description of non-drug-based therapeutic procedures, the conservative therapy of specific diseases and syndromes is reviewed. In general, there is a major discrepancy between promising animal studies up to regeneration and stem-cell transplantation, and uncontrolled experimental studies in humans on the one hand and the shortage of randomized controlled clinical trials with a high level of evidence on the other hand. Therefore, the review and comments on published clinical studies should assist the reader in making his/her own decision about the effectiveness of various, especially pharmaceutical treatments. From a critical analysis - particularly of the clinical studies presented - conclusions are drawn for the therapy of hearing disorders in the future. PMID:22073049

  19. Q: How Does Loud Noise Affect Hearing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    This is an appropriate question, especially in light of the recent news that the incidence of hearing loss in teens has been increased by a third. To understand how loud noise affects hearing, you need to know the basics of how your ear works. To understand how your ear works, it will help if you do the following activities and ignore that they…

  20. Dysmorphism of the middle ear: case report

    PubMed Central

    Solero, P; Ferrara, M; Musto, R; Pira, A; Di Lisi, D

    2005-01-01

    Summary Although there are numerous publications in the literature describing the wide range of diagnosis, classifications and treatment of malformations of the hearing apparatus, even more variations can be found in clinical practice. Indeed, each individual case is unique as far as concerns pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment. The case reported herein describes a 12-year-old boy affected by cranio-facial dysmorphism and monolateral conductive hearing loss in the right ear: followed from radiological diagnosis – carried out to study a malformation of the ear pinna – to surgical treatment. PMID:16602328

  1. Development of a digital hearing aid to meet the Brazilian Government's Ordinance 587 (APAC).

    PubMed

    Penteado, Silvio Pires; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of sensorineural hearing loss is based on hearing aids, also known as individual sound amplification devices. The hearing aids purchased by the Brazilian Government, aiming at fulfilling public policies, are based on dedicated components, which bring about benefits, but also render them expensive and may impair repair services after manufacture's warranty expires. to design digital behind-the-ear hearing aids built from standardized components coming from the very supply chain of these manufacturers. experimental. to identify the supply chain of these manufacturers, request samples and set up hearing aids in the laboratory. The developed hearing aids did not show lesser electroacoustic characteristics when compared to those acquired by the Government, also being tested by the same reference international technical standard. It is possible to develop digital behind-the-ear hearing aids based on off-the-shelf components from hearing aid manufacturers' supply chain. Their advantages include low operational costs - for acquisition (with clear advantages for the Government) and service (advantage for the patient).

  2. Management of Children Using Cochlear Implants and Hearing Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Psarros, Colleen; Incerti, Paula; Hill, Mandy

    2001-01-01

    Four case studies identify six factors affecting successful use of a hearing aid with a cochlear implant: duration of hearing aid use prior to implantation, amount of residual hearing in the non-implanted ear, educational and listening demands, cosmetic issues, hearing aid rejection, and extended period of non-use of hearing aid. (Contains…

  3. Does Combat Hearing Preservation Equipment Affect Balance?

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Art; Hoffer, Ali N; Hoffer, Michael

    2017-03-01

    (1) To investigate whether the occlusion effect and hearing attenuation produced by 3M Combat Arms Ear Plugs (CAEP) affects balance when compared to no hearing protection and (2) to investigate whether the occlusion effect and noise-canceling capabilities of the Nacre QuietPro system affects balance when compared to no hearing protection. This prospective study collected pilot data for investigation of mechanisms of balance. 20 subjects with normal hearing and no vestibular dysfunction were tested with blackened goggles in three conditions-no hearing protection, CAEP, and with the Nacre QuietPro. A static posturogrpahy forceplate was used to measure center of gravity angular acceleration for a period of 20 seconds. The order of the conditions tested was randomized for each individual. Mean angular acceleration and standard deviation (degrees/second) of the three conditions were: (1) no hearing protection (control), 0.65 + 0.19, (2) CAEP, 0.69 + 0.23, and (3) QuietPro, 0.70 + 0.20 (one-way analysis of variance [ANOVA], df = 2, F = 0.38, p = 0.706). The components of an intact balance system include a variety of neural inputs, to include vesitbuloocular, vestibulospinal, and labyrinthine afferents. Both the CAEP and Nacre QuietPro are hearing preservation devices utilized during Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. Our pilot data show no decrement in balance with utilization of these combat hearing preservation devices. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  4. Experimental and theoretical identification of a four- acoustic-inputs/two-vibration-outputs hearing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, P. A.

    1999-07-01

    A cricket's ear is a directional acoustic sensor. It has a remarkable level of sensitivity to the direction of sound propagation in a narrow frequency bandwidth of 4-5 KHz. Because of its complexity, the directional sensitivity has long intrigued researchers. The cricket's ear is a four-acoustic-inputs/two-vibration-outputs system. In this dissertation, this system is examined in depth, both experimentally and theoretically, with a primary goal to understand the mechanics involved in directional hearing. Experimental identification of the system is done by using random signal processing techniques. Theoretical identification of the system is accomplished by analyzing sound transmission through complex trachea of the ear. Finally, a description of how the cricket achieves directional hearing sensitivity is proposed. The fundamental principle involved in directional heating of the cricket has been utilized to design a device to obtain a directional signal from non- directional inputs.

  5. Audiometric Predictions Using SFOAE and Middle-Ear Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, John C.; Keefe, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective The goals of the study are to determine how well stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) identify hearing loss, classify hearing loss as mild or moderate-severe, and correlate with pure-tone thresholds in a population of adults with normal middle-ear function. Other goals are to determine if middle-ear function as assessed by wideband acoustic transfer function (ATF) measurements in the ear canal account for the variability in normal thresholds, and if the inclusion of ATFs improves the ability of SFOAEs to identify hearing loss and predict pure-tone thresholds. Design The total suppressed SFOAE signal and its corresponding noise were recorded in 85 ears (22 normal ears and 63 ears with sensorineural hearing loss) at octave frequencies from 0.5 – 8 kHz using a nonlinear residual method. SFOAEs were recorded a second time in three impaired ears to assess repeatability. Ambient-pressure ATFs were obtained in all but one of these 85 ears, and were also obtained from an additional 31 normal-hearing subjects in whom SFOAE data were not obtained. Pure-tone air-and bone-conduction thresholds and 226-Hz tympanograms were obtained on all subjects. Normal tympanometry and the absence of air-bone gaps were used to screen subjects for normal middle-ear function. Clinical decision theory was used to assess the performance of SFOAE and ATF predictors in classifying ears as normal or impaired, and linear regression analysis was used to test the ability of SFOAE and ATF variables to predict the air-conduction audiogram. Results The ability of SFOAEs to classify ears as normal or hearing impaired was significant at all test frequencies. The ability of SFOAEs to classify impaired ears as either mild or moderate-severe was significant at test frequencies from 0.5 to 4 kHz. SFOAEs were present in cases of severe hearing loss. SFOAEs were also significantly correlated with air-conduction thresholds from 0.5 to 8 kHz. The best performance occurred using the SFOAE

  6. Earable TEMPO: A Novel, Hands-Free Input Device that Uses the Movement of the Tongue Measured with a Wearable Ear Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Hisashi

    2018-01-01

    In this study, an earphone-type interface named “earable TEMPO” was developed for hands-free operation, wherein the user can control the device by simply pushing the tongue against the roof of the mouth for about one second. This interface can be used to start and stop the music from a portable audio player. The earable TEMPO uses an earphone-type sensor equipped with a light emitting diode (LED) and a phototransistor to optically measure shape variations that occur in the external auditory meatus when the tongue is pressed against the roof of the mouth. To evaluate the operation of the earable TEMPO, experiments were performed on five subjects (men and women aged 22–58) while resting, chewing gum (representing mastication), and walking. The average accuracy was 100% while resting and chewing and 99% while walking. The precision was 100% under all conditions. The average recall value of the five subjects was 92%, 90%, and 48% while resting, masticating, and walking, respectively. All subjects were reliably able to perform the action of pressing the tongue against the roof of the mouth. The measured shape variations in the ear canal were highly reproducible, indicating that this method is suitable for various applications such as controlling a portable audio player. PMID:29494482

  7. Laser vibrometer measurements and middle ear prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flock, Stephen T.; Dornhoffer, John; Ferguson, Scott

    1997-05-01

    One of us has developed an improved partial ossicular replacement prosthesis that is easier to implant and, based on pilot clinical measurements, results in better high-frequency hearing as compared to patients receiving one of the alternative prostheses. It is hypothesized that the primary reason for this is because of the relatively light weight (about 25 mg) and low compliance of the prosthesis, which could conceivably result in better high frequency vibrational characteristics. The purpose of our initial work was to develop an instrument suitable for objectively testing the vibrational characteristics of prostheses. We have developed a laser based device suitable for measuring the vibrational characteristics of the oval window or other structures of the middle ear. We have tested this device using a piezoelectric transducer excited at audio frequencies, as well as on the oval window in human temporal bones harvested from cadavers. The results illustrate that it is possible to non-invasively monitor the vibrational characteristics of anatomic structures with a very inexpensive photonic device.

  8. Aging and Hearing Health: The Life-course Approach.

    PubMed

    Davis, Adrian; McMahon, Catherine M; Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen M; Russ, Shirley; Lin, Frank; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Chadha, Shelly; Tremblay, Kelly L

    2016-04-01

    Sensory abilities decline with age. More than 5% of the world's population, approximately 360 million people, have disabling hearing loss. In adults, disabling hearing loss is defined by thresholds greater than 40 dBHL in the better hearing ear.Hearing disability is an important issue in geriatric medicine because it is associated with numerous health issues, including accelerated cognitive decline, depression, increased risk of dementia, poorer balance, falls, hospitalizations, and early mortality. There are also social implications, such as reduced communication function, social isolation, loss of autonomy, impaired driving ability, and financial decline. Furthermore, the onset of hearing loss is gradual and subtle, first affecting the detection of high-pitched sounds and with difficulty understanding speech in noisy but not in quiet environments. Consequently, delays in recognizing and seeking help for hearing difficulties are common. Age-related hearing loss has no known cure, and technologies (hearing aids, cochlear implants, and assistive devices) improve thresholds but do not restore hearing to normal. Therefore, health care for persons with hearing loss and people within their communication circles requires education and counseling (e.g., increasing knowledge, changing attitudes, and reducing stigma), behavior change (e.g., adapting communication strategies), and environmental modifications (e.g., reducing noise). In this article, we consider the causes, consequences, and magnitude of hearing loss from a life-course perspective. We examine the concept of "hearing health," how to achieve it, and implications for policy and practice. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Virtual acoustic environments for comprehensive evaluation of model-based hearing devices.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Giso; Luberadzka, Joanna; Hohmann, Volker

    2018-06-01

    Create virtual acoustic environments (VAEs) with interactive dynamic rendering for applications in audiology. A toolbox for creation and rendering of dynamic virtual acoustic environments (TASCAR) that allows direct user interaction was developed for application in hearing aid research and audiology. The software architecture and the simulation methods used to produce VAEs are outlined. Example environments are described and analysed. With the proposed software, a tool for simulation of VAEs is available. A set of VAEs rendered with the proposed software was described.

  10. Isolating the auditory system from acoustic noise during functional magnetic resonance imaging: Examination of noise conduction through the ear canal, head, and bodya)

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Melcher, Jennifer R.

    2007-01-01

    Approaches were examined for reducing acoustic noise levels heard by subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a technique for localizing brain activation in humans. Specifically, it was examined whether a device for isolating the head and ear canal from sound (a “helmet”) could add to the isolation provided by conventional hearing protection devices (i.e., earmuffs and earplugs). Both subjective attenuation (the difference in hearing threshold with versus without isolation devices in place) and objective attenuation (difference in ear-canal sound pressure) were measured. In the frequency range of the most intense fMRI noise (1–1.4 kHz), a helmet, earmuffs, and earplugs used together attenuated perceived sound by 55–63 dB, whereas the attenuation provided by the conventional devices alone was substantially less: 30–37 dB for earmuffs, 25–28 dB for earplugs, and 39–41 dB for earmuffs and earplugs used together. The data enabled the clarification of the relative importance of ear canal, head, and body conduction routes to the cochlea under different conditions: At low frequencies (≤500 Hz), the ear canal was the dominant route of sound conduction to the cochlea for all of the device combinations considered. At higher frequencies (>500 Hz), the ear canal was the dominant route when either earmuffs or earplugs were worn. However, the dominant route of sound conduction was through the head when both earmuffs and earplugs were worn, through both ear canal and body when a helmet and earmuffs were worn, and through the body when a helmet, earmuffs, and earplugs were worn. It is estimated that a helmet, earmuffs, and earplugs together will reduce the most intense fMRI noise levels experienced by a subject to 60–65 dB SPL. Even greater reductions in noise should be achievable by isolating the body from the surrounding noise field. PMID:11206150

  11. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Debris removal, antibiotic ear drops, keeping water and cotton swabs out of the ear, and pain relievers ... Injuring the ear canal while cleaning it (using cotton swabs) or getting water or irritants, such as ...

  12. Ear Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Inserting something into the ear. Things like a cotton swab, fingernail, or pencil can scratch the ear ... Never stick anything in their ears — not even cotton swabs or their fingers. Regular bathing should be ...

  13. Analysis of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions by concentration of frequency and time: Preliminary results from normal hearing and Ménière's disease ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tzu-Chi; Wu, Hau-Tieng; Chen, Ya-Hui; Chen, Ya-Han; Fang, Te-Yung; Wang, Pa-Chun; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2018-05-01

    The presence of click-evoked (CE) otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) has been clinically accepted as an indicator of normal cochlear processing of sounds. For treatment and diagnostic purposes, however, clinicians do not typically pay attention to the detailed spectrum and waveform of CEOAEs. A possible reason is due to the lack of noise-robust signal processing tools to estimate physiologically meaningful time-frequency properties of CEOAEs, such as the latency of spectral components. In this on-going study, we applied a modern tool called concentration of frequency and time (ConceFT, [1]) to analyze CEOAE waveforms. Randomly combined orthogonal functions are used as windowing functions for time-frequency analysis. The resulting spectrograms are subject to nonlinear time-frequency reassignment so as to enhance the concentration of time-varying sinusoidal components. The results after reassignment could be further averaged across the random choice of windows. CEOAE waveforms are acquired by a linear averaging paradigm, and longitudinal data are currently being collected from patients with Ménière's disease (MD) and a control group of normal hearing subjects. When CEOAE is present, the ConceFT plots show traces of decreasing but fluctuating instantaneous frequency against time. For comparison purposes, same processing methods are also applied to analyze CEOAE data from cochlear mechanics simulation.

  14. Stem Cell Therapy for the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    In vertebrates, perception of sound, motion, and balance is mediated through mechanosensory hair cells located within the inner ear. In mammals, hair cells are only generated during a short period of embryonic development. As a result, loss of hair cells as a consequence of injury, disease, or genetic mutation, leads to permanent sensory deficits. At present, cochlear implantation is the only option for profound hearing loss. However, outcomes are still variable and even the best implant cannot provide the acuity of a biological ear. The recent emergence of stem cell technology has the potential to open new approaches for hair cell regeneration. The goal of this review is to summarize the current state of inner ear stem cell research from a viewpoint of its clinical application for inner ear disorders to illustrate how complementary studies have the potential to promote and refine stem cell therapies for inner ear diseases. The review initially discusses our current understanding of the genetic pathways that regulate hair cell formation from inner ear progenitors during normal development. Subsequent sections discuss the possible use of endogenous inner ear stem cells to induce repair as well as the initial studies aimed at transplanting stem cells into the ear. PMID:22514095

  15. Diphtheria and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Schubert, C R; Cruickshanks, K J; Wiley, T L; Klein, R; Klein, B E; Tweed, T S

    2001-01-01

    To determine if infectious diseases usually experienced in childhood have an effect on hearing ability later in life. The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (N = 3,753) is a population-based study of age-related hearing loss in adults aged 48 to 92 years in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. As part of this study, infectious disease history was obtained and hearing was tested using pure-tone audiometry. Hearing loss was defined as a pure-tone average of thresholds at 500 Hz, 1,000 Hz, 2,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz greater than 25 decibels hearing level in either ear. After adjusting for confounders, only a history of diphtheria (n = 37) was associated with hearing loss (odds ratio [OR] 2.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05, 7.36). There was no relationship between hearing loss and history of chickenpox, measles, mumps, pertussis, polio, rheumatic fever, rubella, or scarlet fever. Only two participants with a history of diphtheria and hearing loss reported having a hearing loss before age 20. Diphtheria in childhood may have consequences for hearing that do not become apparent until later in life. A possible biological mechanism for a diphtheria effect on hearing ability exists: The toxin produced by the Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacteria can cause damage to cranial nerves and therefore may affect the auditory neural pathway. These data may have important implications for areas facing a resurgence of diphtheria cases.

  16. Occupational noise-induced hearing loss in Indian steel industry workers: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Deepak, Kishore Kumar

    2013-04-01

    The present study focused on exploring the current level of hearing protection and subsequently determined the prevalence of occupational noise-induced hearing loss among casting and forging industry workers. The casting and forging industry provides employment to a significant portion of the population. The level of hearing protection was assessed through questionnaire survey of 572 workers. Out of these workers, 165 and another control group of 57 participants were assessed by formal audiometry. Audiometric tests were conducted at frequencies of 1.0 KHz to 8.0 KHz.The occurrence of hearing loss was determined on the basis of a hearing threshold level with a low fence of 25 dB. Student's test and ANOVA were used to compare the various groups; a p value < .05 was considered statistically significant. More than 90% of the workers sampled showed significant hearing loss at medium and high frequencies. The analyses revealed a higher prevalence of significant hearing loss among the forging workers compared with the workers associated with the other activities. The workers of the Indian steel industry are highly exposed to occupational noise. The majority of workers are not protected from noise-induced hearing loss. There is a need to provide special ear protectors for workers engaged in forging. A complete hearing protection program, including training, audiometry, job rotation, and the use of hearing protection devices, needs to be introduced.

  17. Influence of contralateral acoustic hearing on adult bimodal outcomes after cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Plant, Kerrie; van Hoesel, Richard; McDermott, Hugh; Dawson, Pamela; Cowan, Robert

    2016-08-01

    To examine post-implantation benefit and time taken to acclimate to the cochlear implant for adult candidates with more hearing in the contralateral non-implanted ear than has been previously considered within local candidacy guidelines. Prospective, within-subject experimental design. Forty postlingual hearing-impaired adult subjects with a contralateral ear word score in quiet ranging from 27% to 100% (median 67%). Post-implantation improvement of 2.4 dB and 4.0 dB was observed on a sentence in coincident babble test at presentation levels of 65 and 55 dB SPL respectively, and a 2.1 dB benefit in spatial release from masking (SRM) advantage observed when the noise location favoured the implanted side. Significant post-operative group mean change of between 2.1 and 3.0 was observed on the sub-scales of the speech, spatial, and qualities (SSQ) questionnaire. Degree of post-implantation speech reception threshold (SRT) benefit on the coincident babble test and on perception of soft speech and sounds in the environment was greater for subjects with less contralateral hearing. The degree of contralateral acoustic hearing did not affect time taken to acclimate to the device. The findings from this study support cochlear implantation for candidates with substantial acoustic hearing in the contralateral ear, and provide guidance regarding post-implantation expectations.

  18. Direct cost comparison of minimally invasive punch technique versus traditional approaches for percutaneous bone anchored hearing devices.

    PubMed

    Sardiwalla, Yaeesh; Jufas, Nicholas; Morris, David P

    2017-06-12

    Minimally Invasive Ponto Surgery (MIPS) was recently described as a new technique to facilitate the placement of percutaneous bone anchored hearing devices. The procedure has resulted in a simplification of the surgical steps and a dramatic reduction in surgical time while maintaining excellent patient outcomes. Given these developments, our group sought to move the procedure from the main operating suite where they have traditionally been performed. This study aims to test the null hypothesis that MIPS and open approaches have the same direct costs for the implantation of percutaneous bone anchored hearing devices in a Canadian public hospital setting. A retrospective direct cost comparison of MIPS and open approaches for the implantation of bone conduction implants was conducted. Indirect and future costs were not included in the fiscal analysis. A simple cost comparison of the two approaches was made considering time, staff and equipment needs. All 12 operations were performed on adult patients from 2013 to 2016 by the same surgeon at a single hospital site. MIPS has a total mean reduction in cost of CAD$456.83 per operation from the hospital perspective when compared to open approaches. The average duration of the MIPS operation was 7 min, which is on average 61 min shorter compared with open approaches. The MIPS technique was more cost effective than traditional open approaches. This primarily reflects a direct consequence of a reduction in surgical time, with further contributions from reduced staffing and equipment costs. This simple, quick intervention proved to be feasible when performed outside the main operating room. A blister pack of required equipment could prove convenient and further reduce costs.

  19. Long-Term Asymmetric Hearing Affects Cochlear Implantation Outcomes Differently in Adults with Pre- and Postlingual Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Boisvert, Isabelle; McMahon, Catherine M.; Dowell, Richard C.; Lyxell, Björn

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, a single cochlear implant is offered as a treatment for a bilateral hearing loss. In cases where there is asymmetry in the amount of sound deprivation between the ears, there is a dilemma in choosing which ear should be implanted. In many clinics, the choice of ear has been guided by an assumption that the reorganisation of the auditory pathways caused by longer duration of deafness in one ear is associated with poorer implantation outcomes for that ear. This assumption, however, is mainly derived from studies of early childhood deafness. This study compared outcomes following implantation of the better or poorer ear in cases of long-term hearing asymmetries. Audiological records of 146 adults with bilateral hearing loss using a single hearing aid were reviewed. The unaided ear had 15 to 72 years of unaided severe to profound hearing loss before unilateral cochlear implantation. 98 received the implant in their long-term sound-deprived ear. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to assess the relative contribution of potential predictors to speech recognition performance after implantation. Duration of bilateral significant hearing loss and the presence of a prelingual hearing loss explained the majority of variance in speech recognition performance following cochlear implantation. For participants with postlingual hearing loss, similar outcomes were obtained by implanting either ear. With prelingual hearing loss, poorer outcomes were obtained when implanting the long-term sound-deprived ear, but the duration of the sound deprivation in the implanted ear did not reliably predict outcomes. Contrary to an apparent clinical consensus, duration of sound deprivation in one ear has limited value in predicting speech recognition outcomes of cochlear implantation in that ear. Outcomes of cochlear implantation are more closely related to the period of time for which the brain is deprived of auditory stimulation from both ears. PMID:26043227

  20. Modeling Speech Level as a Function of Background Noise Level and Talker-to-Listener Distance for Talkers Wearing Hearing Protection Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouserhal, Rachel E.; Bockstael, Annelies; MacDonald, Ewen; Falk, Tiago H.; Voix, Jérémie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Studying the variations in speech levels with changing background noise level and talker-to-listener distance for talkers wearing hearing protection devices (HPDs) can aid in understanding communication in background noise. Method: Speech was recorded using an intra-aural HPD from 12 different talkers at 5 different distances in 3…

  1. Inner ear problems of Thai priest at Priest Hospital.

    PubMed

    Karnchanakas, Taweporn; Tantanavat, Are; Sinsakontavat, Jamjan

    2008-01-01

    The inner ear problems of Thai priest at Priest Hospital had never been reported previously, so Department of Ear Nose Throat try to correlate the metebotic disorder with inner ear problems. 1) To study the fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol (T. Chol), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglyceride (TG), the factors expected to involve in inner ear problems of priests at Priest Hospital. 2) To compare the FBS, T. Chol, HDL, LDL, and TG of priests with inner ear problems at Priest Hospital. 3) To find the percentage of abnormal from FBS, T. Chol, LDL, and TG. The study using 83 sampling of priests with inner ear problems and 107 priests as a controlled group. The research instruments used to collect data was the questionnaire which composed of general information, physical, ear-nose-throat and neurological examination, pure tone audiometry, brainstem evoke response audiometry (BERA) and the blood tests:FBS, T. Chol, TG, and LDL. The inner ear problems were composed of: 1) Dizziness 2) Hearing Loss 3) Tinnitus Aurium. The descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data from questionnaires and utilized frequency, percentage, standard deviation (S.D.) and t-test to achieve desired results. Priest at middle age and elderly with inner ear problems had greater FBS and TG than expected values of the control group. The middle age and elderly priests who had greater FBS and TG than expected values were sick with inner ear problems that causing dizziness, hearing loss and tinnitus aurium.

  2. Screening for hearing loss versus parental concern regarding hearing problems: Subsequent referral and treatment for otitis media in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Lok, Willeke; Anteunis, Lucien J. C.; Chenault, Michelene N.; Meesters, Cor; Haggard, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The present study investigates whether general practitioner (GP) consultation initiated by failing the population hearing screening at age nine months or GP consultation because of parental concern over ear/hearing problems was more important in deciding on referral and/or surgical treatment of otitis media (OM). Design A questionnaire covering the history between birth and 21 months of age was used to obtain information on referral after failing the hearing screening, GP consultations for ear/hearing problems, and subsequent referral to a specialist and possible surgical treatment at an ENT department. Setting The province of Limburg, the Netherlands. Subjects Healthy infants invited for the hearing screening at age nine months, who responded in an earlier study called PEPPER (Persistent Ear Problems, Providing Evidence for Referral, response rate 58%). Main outcome measures The odds of a child being surgically treated for OM. Results The response rate for the present questionnaire was 72%. Of all children tested, 3.9% failed the hearing screening and were referred to their GP. Of all 2619 children in this study, 18.6% visited their GP with ear/hearing problems. Children failing the hearing screening without GP consultation for ear/hearing problems were significantly more often treated surgically for OM than children passing the hearing screening but with GP consultation for ear/hearing problems. Conclusion Objectified hearing loss, i.e. failing the hearing screening, was important in the decision for surgical treatment in infants in the Netherlands. PMID:22794165

  3. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  4. Blast-related Ear Injuries among U.S. Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    ment outcomes. The exclusion of servicemembers with history of hearing loss and/or tinnitus before injury was a strength of this study, which allowed...and explore hearing loss and tinnitus outcomes within one year after injury. The Expeditionary Medical Encounter Database was used to identify... tinnitus . The prevalence of ear injuries was 30.7% (1,223 of 3,981). The most common ear injury diagnoses were “inner or middle ear injury involving

  5. Natural history of hearing loss in children with enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tyler; Westerberg, Brian D; Atashband, Shahnaz; Kozak, Frederick K

    2008-02-01

    To determine the natural history of hearing loss in children with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) syndrome. (1) Retrospective cohort study and (2) systematic literature review. Tertiary pediatric centre. (1) Charts of children assessed by one physician between 1993 and 2000 were reviewed. (2) Source articles were identified by a search of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library of the English-language literature through January 2006, with manual review of references. The search was limited to English, human, and age less than 18 years. Pure-tone average. Hearing was classified as stable, progressive and fluctuating. (1) Twenty-one children (39 ears) with EVA were identified. Eighty-two percent of ears had stable hearing, and 18% of ears demonstrated progressive hearing loss. (2) Seven source articles were identified and combined with the present data for a total of 310 ears with a mean follow-up of 4 years. Bilateral EVA was found to be six times more common than unilateral EVA, and there was an equal male to female ratio. Stable hearing was found in 67% of ears and progressive hearing loss in 33% of ears. Subgroup analysis demonstrated hearing fluctuations in 50% of progressive hearing loss ears and 34% of stable ears. Stable hearing is observed in 67% of ears with EVA of which 34% will demonstrate fluctuations in hearing. Progression of hearing loss is seen in 33% of ears of which half will demonstrate fluctuations.

  6. Animal models of middle ear cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Fukuda, Tomomi; Takahashi, Haruo; Koji, Takehiko

    2011-01-01

    Middle ear acquired cholesteatoma is a pathological condition associated with otitis media, which may be associated with temporal bone resorption, otorrhea and hearing loss, and occasionally various other complications. Cholesteatoma is characterized by the enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells with aberrant morphologic characteristics. Unfortunately, our understanding of the mechanism underlying its pathogenesis is limited. To investigate its pathogenesis, different animal models have been used. This paper provides a brief overview of the current status of research in the field of pathogenesis of middle ear acquired cholesteatoma, four types of animal models previously reported on, up-to-date cholesteatoma research using these animal models, our current studies of the local hybrid ear model, and the future prospect of new animal models of middle ear cholesteatoma.

  7. Animal Models of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto-Fukuda, Tomomi; Takahashi, Haruo; Koji, Takehiko

    2011-01-01

    Middle ear acquired cholesteatoma is a pathological condition associated with otitis media, which may be associated with temporal bone resorption, otorrhea and hearing loss, and occasionally various other complications. Cholesteatoma is characterized by the enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells with aberrant morphologic characteristics. Unfortunately, our understanding of the mechanism underlying its pathogenesis is limited. To investigate its pathogenesis, different animal models have been used. This paper provides a brief overview of the current status of research in the field of pathogenesis of middle ear acquired cholesteatoma, four types of animal models previously reported on, up-to-date cholesteatoma research using these animal models, our current studies of the local hybrid ear model, and the future prospect of new animal models of middle ear cholesteatoma. PMID:21541229

  8. Assistive Devices for People with Hearing, Voice, Speech, or Language Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... sleepy. What research is being conducted on assistive technology? The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication ... NIDCD) funds research into several areas of assistive technology, such as those described below. Improved devices for ...

  9. Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, Procedures & Devices Over-the- ...

  10. Frequency-Shift Hearing Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed hearing aid maps spectrum of speech into band of lower frequencies at which ear remains sensitive. By redirecting normal speech frequencies into frequency band from 100 to 1,500 Hz, hearing aid allows people to understand normal conversation, including telephone calls. Principle operation of hearing aid adapted to other uses such as, clearing up noisy telephone or radio communication. In addition, loud-speakers more easily understood in presence of high background noise.

  11. Gain affected by the interior shape of the ear canal.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jen-Fang; Chen, Yen-Sheng; Cheng, Wei-De

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the correlation of gain distribution and the interior shape of the human external ear canal. Cross-sectional study of gain measurement at the first bend and second bend. Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University. There were 15 ears in patients aged between 20 and 30 years (8 men/7 women) with normal hearing and middle ears. Stimulus frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz were based on the standard clinical hearing test. Measurements closer to the tympanic membrane and the positions at the first and second bends were confirmed by using otoscope. Real ear measurement to analyze the canal resonance in human external ears was adopted. This study found that gain at stimulus frequencies of 4000 Hz was affected by the interior shape of the ear canal (P < .005), particularly at the first and second bends, whereas gain was only affected by the length of the ear canal for stimulus frequencies of 2000 Hz (P < .005). This study found that gain was affected not only by the length of the external auditory canal (EAC) but also by the interior shape of the EAC significantly. The findings of this study may have potential clinical applications in canalplasty and congenital aural atresia surgery and may be used to guide surgeries that attempt to reshape the ear canal to achieve more desirable hearing outcomes.

  12. Inner ear symptoms and disease: Pathophysiological understanding and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Ciuman, Raphael R.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, huge advances have taken place in understanding of inner ear pathophysiology causing sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Advances in understanding comprise biochemical and physiological research of stimulus perception and conduction, inner ear homeostasis, and hereditary diseases with underlying genetics. This review describes and tabulates the various causes of inner ear disease and defines inner ear and non-inner ear causes of hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. The aim of this review was to comprehensively breakdown this field of otorhinolaryngology for specialists and non-specialists and to discuss current therapeutic options in distinct diseases and promising research for future therapies, especially pharmaceutic, genetic, or stem cell therapy. PMID:24362017

  13. Hearing screening in children with skeletal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Tunkel, David E; Kerbavaz, Richard; Smith, Beth; Rose-Hardison, Danielle; Alade, Yewande; Hoover-Fong, Julie

    2011-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of hearing loss and abnormal tympanometry in children with skeletal dysplasia. Clinical screening program. National convention of the Little People of America. Convenience sample of volunteers aged 18 years or younger with skeletal dysplasias. Hearing screening with behavioral testing and/or otoacoustic emissions, otoscopy, and tympanometry. A failed hearing screen was defined as hearing 35 dB HL (hearing level) or greater at 1 or more tested frequencies or by a "fail" otoacoustic emissions response. Types B and C tympanograms were considered abnormal. A total of 58 children (aged ≤18 years) with skeletal dysplasia enrolled, and 56 completed hearing screening. Forty-one children had normal hearing (71%); 9 failed in 1 ear (16%); and 6 failed in both ears (10%). Forty-four children had achondroplasia, and 31 had normal hearing in both ears (71%); 8 failed hearing screening in 1 ear (18%), and 3 in both ears (7%). Tympanometry was performed in 45 children, with normal tympanograms found in 21 (47%), bilateral abnormal tympanograms in 15 (33%), and unilateral abnormal tympanograms in 9 (20%). Fourteen children with achondroplasia had normal tympanograms (42%); 11 had bilateral abnormal tympanograms (33%); and 8 had unilateral abnormal tympanograms (24%). For those children without functioning tympanostomy tubes, there was a 9.5 times greater odds of hearing loss if there was abnormal tympanometry (P = .03). Hearing loss and middle-ear disease are both highly prevalent in children with skeletal dysplasias. Abnormal tympanometry is highly associated with the presence of hearing loss, as expected in children with eustachian tube dysfunction. Hearing screening with medical intervention is recommended for these children.

  14. Exposure to hazardous workplace noise and use of hearing protection devices among US workers--NHANES, 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    Tak, Sangwoo; Davis, Rickie R; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2009-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence of workplace noise exposure and use of hearing protection devices (HPDs) at noisy work, NIOSH analyzed 1999-2004 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). A total of 9,275 currently employed workers aged > or =16 years were included in the weighted analysis. Hazardous workplace noise exposure was defined as self-reported exposure to noise at their current job that was so loud that the respondent had to speak in a raised voice to be heard. Industry and occupation were determined based on the respondent's current place and type of work. Twenty-two million US workers (17%) reported exposure to hazardous workplace noise. The weighted prevalence of workplace noise exposure was highest for mining (76%, SE = 7.0) followed by lumber/wood product manufacturing (55%, SE = 2.5). High-risk occupations included repair and maintenance, motor vehicle operators, and construction trades. Overall, 34% of the estimated 22 million US workers reporting hazardous workplace exposure reported non-use of HPDs. The proportion of noise-exposed workers who reported non-use of HPDs was highest for healthcare and social services (73.7%, SE = 8.1), followed by educational services (55.5%). Hearing loss prevention and intervention programs should be targeted at those industries and occupations identified to have a high prevalence of workplace noise exposure and those industries with the highest proportion of noise-exposed workers who reported non-use of HPDs. Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. High-Level Psychophysical Tuning Curves: Forward Masking in Normal-Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Listeners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David A.

    1991-01-01

    Forward-masked psychophysical tuning curves were obtained at multiple probe levels from 26 normal-hearing listeners and 24 ears of 21 hearing-impaired listeners with cochlear hearing loss. Results indicated that some cochlear hearing losses influence the sharp tuning capabilities usually associated with outer hair cell function. (Author/JDD)

  16. Reducing the risk of music-induced hearing loss from overuse of portable listening devices: understanding the problems and establishing strategies for improving awareness in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Portnuff, Cory DF

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss from the overuse of portable listening devices (PLDs), such as MP3 players or iPods, is of great concern in the popular media. This review aims to discuss the current state of scientific knowledge about music-induced hearing loss from PLD use. This report evaluates the literature on the risk to hearing from PLD use, the individual and psychological factors that influence PLD usage, and strategies for reducing exposure to music through PLDs. Specific interventions are reviewed, and several recommendations for designing interventions and for individual intervention in clinical practice are presented. Clinical recommendations suggested include the “80–90 rule” and the use of isolator-style earphones to reduce background noise. PMID:26929674

  17. Reducing the risk of music-induced hearing loss from overuse of portable listening devices: understanding the problems and establishing strategies for improving awareness in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Portnuff, Cory Df

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss from the overuse of portable listening devices (PLDs), such as MP3 players or iPods, is of great concern in the popular media. This review aims to discuss the current state of scientific knowledge about music-induced hearing loss from PLD use. This report evaluates the literature on the risk to hearing from PLD use, the individual and psychological factors that influence PLD usage, and strategies for reducing exposure to music through PLDs. Specific interventions are reviewed, and several recommendations for designing interventions and for individual intervention in clinical practice are presented. Clinical recommendations suggested include the "80-90 rule" and the use of isolator-style earphones to reduce background noise.

  18. Congenital hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Korver, Anna M. H.; Smith, Richard J. H.; Van Camp, Guy; Schleiss, Mark R.; Bitner-Glindzicz, Maria A. K.; Lustig, Lawrence R.; Usami, Shin-ichi; Boudewyns, An N.

    2017-01-01

    Congenital hearing loss (hearing loss present at birth) is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in children. In the majority of developed countries, neonatal hearing-screening programmes enable early detection; early intervention will prevent delays in speech and language development and have long-lasting beneficial effects on social and emotional development and quality of life. A hearing loss diagnosis is usually followed by a search for an underlying aetiology. Congenital hearing loss might be attributed to environmental and prenatal factors, which prevail in low-income settings; congenital infections, particularly cytomegalovirus, are also a common risk factor for hearing loss. Genetic causes probably account for the majority of cases in developed countries; mutations can affect any component of the hearing pathway, in particular inner ear homeostasis (endolymph production and maintenance) and mechano-electrical transduction (conversion of a mechanical stimulus into electrochemical activity). Once the underlying cause of hearing loss is established, it might direct therapeutic decision-making and guide prevention and (genetic) counseling. Management options include specific antimicrobial therapies, surgical treatment of cranio-facial abnormalities and hearing aids. An improved understanding of the pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms underlying hearing loss and increased awareness of recent advances in genetic testing will promote the development of new treatment and screening strategies. PMID:28079113

  19. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  20. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  1. Cauliflower Ear and Skin Infections among Wrestlers in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Kordi, Ramin; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Nourian, Roh Allah; Wallace, W Angus

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the magnitude of the selected sports medicine problems (i.e. cauliflower ear and skin infections) among wrestlers in Tehran. A number of 411 wrestlers were randomly selected from wrestling clubs in Tehran employing cluster sample setting method. The participants were interviewed using a specially designed and validated questionnaire. Nearly half of the participants (44%) had "cauliflower ears". Only 23% of these participants had received any kind of treatment for their acute ear haematomas that are known to result in "cauliflower ears". The prevalence of reported hearing loss among participants with cauliflower ears (11.5%, 95%CI: 6.9 to 16.2) was significantly more than this prevalence among those participants without cauliflower ears (1.8%, 95%CI: 0.1 to 3.5) (p < 0.05). More than half of the participants (52%) had skin infection diagnosed by a physician during the previous year. This study has identified evidence of an increase in hearing loss as a possible side effect of either cauliflower ear or ear injury in wrestling in Iran. There has been an outbreak of ringworm and there is a significant potential for an outbreak of impetigo among wrestlers in Tehran. Key pointsSkin infections are prevalent among wrestlers in Tehran.Commonly wrestlers in Tehran continue to carry out wrestling training while affected by skin infections.Cauliflower ear "is common among wrestlers in Tehran.More research is needed to investigate hearing loss as a possible side effect of either cauliflower ear or ear injury in wrestling in Iran.

  2. Structure and function of the mammalian middle ear. I: Large middle ears in small desert mammals.

    PubMed

    Mason, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Many species of small desert mammals are known to have expanded auditory bullae. The ears of gerbils and heteromyids have been well described, but much less is known about the middle ear anatomy of other desert mammals. In this study, the middle ears of three gerbils (Meriones, Desmodillus and Gerbillurus), two jerboas (Jaculus) and two sengis (elephant-shrews: Macroscelides and Elephantulus) were examined and compared, using micro-computed tomography and light microscopy. Middle ear cavity expansion has occurred in members of all three groups, apparently in association with an essentially 'freely mobile' ossicular morphology and the development of bony tubes for the middle ear arteries. Cavity expansion can occur in different ways, resulting in different subcavity patterns even between different species of gerbils. Having enlarged middle ear cavities aids low-frequency audition, and several adaptive advantages of low-frequency hearing to small desert mammals have been proposed. However, while Macroscelides was found here to have middle ear cavities so large that together they exceed brain volume, the bullae of Elephantulus are considerably smaller. Why middle ear cavities are enlarged in some desert species but not others remains unclear, but it may relate to microhabitat. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  3. How Hearing Loss Impacts Communication. Tipsheet: Serving Students Who Are Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atcherson, Samuel R.; Johnson, Marni I.

    2009-01-01

    Hearing, or auditory processing, involves the use of many hearing skills in a single or combined fashion. The sounds that humans hear can be characterized by their intensity (loudness), frequency (pitch), and timing. Impairment of any of the auditory structures from the visible ear to the central auditory nervous system within the brain can have a…

  4. Alternative path to hearing: photonic sonogram hearing aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Elmer H.

    2002-05-01

    For those with total hearing loss, there are no direct remedies except for electronic (i.e. cochlear) implants. They are invasive and do not always function in a satisfactory manner. Although sign language opens the window to a rich culture but communication with the hearing world is hindered. Lip reading can bridge that gap but communication is not without some stress. Inability to detect possible life threatening situations outside the visual field also affects the quality of life for those without the ability to hear. If the hearing process is viewed from the point of system engineering, there is a sound source and air is the transmission medium to the ear. The hearing structure of the ear converts mechanical vibrations to electrical signals that are then transmitted through nerve paths to the section of the brain where sound signals are processed. In most cases of total hearing loss, the hearing structure of the ear is non-functional. A cochlear implant bypasses this hearing structure. It electronically converts sounds from the air into their frequency components and feeds them into transmission nerve paths to the brain as electrical signals. This system-engineering point of view suggests that other pathways to the brain might be explored. The following section considers the visual pathway.

  5. Hearing in Insects.

    PubMed

    Göpfert, Martin C; Hennig, R Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Insect hearing has independently evolved multiple times in the context of intraspecific communication and predator detection by transforming proprioceptive organs into ears. Research over the past decade, ranging from the biophysics of sound reception to molecular aspects of auditory transduction to the neuronal mechanisms of auditory signal processing, has greatly advanced our understanding of how insects hear. Apart from evolutionary innovations that seem unique to insect hearing, parallels between insect and vertebrate auditory systems have been uncovered, and the auditory sensory cells of insects and vertebrates turned out to be evolutionarily related. This review summarizes our current understanding of insect hearing. It also discusses recent advances in insect auditory research, which have put forward insect auditory systems for studying biological aspects that extend beyond hearing, such as cilium function, neuronal signal computation, and sensory system evolution.

  6. Theory of forward and reverse middle-ear transmission applied to otoacoustic emissions in infant and adult ears

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, Douglas H.; Abdala, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand why otoacoustic emission (OAE) levels are higher in normal-hearing human infants relative to adults. In a previous study, distortion product (DP) OAE input/output (I/O) functions were shown to differ at f2=6 kHz in adults compared to infants through 6 months of age. These DPOAE I/O functions were used to noninvasively assess immaturities in forward/reverse transmission through the ear canal and middle ear [Abdala, C., and Keefe, D. H., (2006). J. Acoust Soc. Am. 120, 3832–3842]. In the present study, ear-canal reflectance and DPOAEs measured in the same ears were analyzed using a scattering-matrix model of forward and reverse transmission in the ear canal, middle ear, and cochlea. Reflectance measurements were sensitive to frequency-dependent effects of ear-canal and middle-ear transmission that differed across OAE type and subject age. Results indicated that DPOAE levels were larger in infants mainly because the reverse middle-ear transmittance level varied with ear-canal area, which differed by more than a factor of 7 between term infants and adults. The forward middle-ear transmittance level was −16 dB less in infants, so that the conductive efficiency was poorer in infants than adults. PMID:17348521

  7. Acoustic stimulation on the round window for active middle ear implants.

    PubMed

    Seong, Kiwoong; Lee, Kyuyup; Puria, Sunil; Cho, Jin-Ho

    2018-06-01

    Many clinical reports have discussed the effectiveness of stimulating the ear's round window (RW) with a tool to mitigate conductive and mixed hearing loss. The RW is one of the two openings from the middle ear into the inner ear. Various methods have been proposed to construct a highly efficient, easily implanted, and reliable RW transducer. Devices, however, such as floating mass transducers, have difficulty establishing proper contact without some degree of bone incision around the RW. Additionally, vibration energy may not be fully transmitted to the cochlea, but instead will be spread through the soft tissue around the transducer. We propose a more direct RW stimulation with very high acoustical impedance using a receiver that is a volume velocity source. We expect this source to overcome large acoustic impedance by maximizing sound pressure in a confined space, the RW niche. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, ear canal pressure, RW pressure, and stapes velocity are measured by acoustic RW stimulation of human temporal bones. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Revisiting gender, race, and ear differences in peripheral auditory function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boothalingam, Sriram; Klyn, Niall A. M.; Stiepan, Samantha M.; Wilson, Uzma S.; Lee, Jungwha; Siegel, Jonathan H.; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2018-05-01

    Various measures of auditory function are reported to be superior in females as compared to males, in African American compared to Caucasian individuals, and in right compared to left ears. We re-examined the influence of these subject variables on hearing thresholds and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) in a sample of 887 human participants between 10 and 68 years of age. Even though the variables of interest here have been examined before, previous attempts have largely been limited to frequencies up to 8 kHz. We used state-of-the-art signal delivery and recording techniques that compensated for individual differences in ear canal acoustics, allowing us to measure hearing thresholds and OAEs up to 20 kHz. The use of these modern calibration and recording techniques provided the motivation for re-examining these commonly studied variables. While controlling for age, noise exposure history, and general health history, we attempted to isolate the effects of gender, race, and ear (left versus right) on hearing thresholds and OAEs. Our results challenge the notion of a right ear advantage and question the existence of a significant gender and race differences in both hearing thresholds and OAE levels. These results suggest that ear canal anatomy and acoustics should be important considerations when evaluating the influence of gender, race, and ear on peripheral auditory function.

  9. Estimation of outer-middle ear transmission using DPOAEs and fractional-order modeling of human middle ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghibolhosseini, Maryam

    Our ability to hear depends primarily on sound waves traveling through the outer and middle ear toward the inner ear. Hence, the characteristics of the outer and middle ear affect sound transmission to/from the inner ear. The role of the middle and outer ear in sound transmission is particularly important for otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), which are sound signals generated in a healthy cochlea, and recorded by a sensitive microphone placed in the ear canal. OAEs are used to evaluate the health and function of the cochlea; however, they are also affected by outer and middle ear characteristics. To better assess cochlear health using OAEs, it is critical to quantify the impact of the outer and middle ear on sound transmission. The reported research introduces a noninvasive approach to estimate outer-middle ear transmission using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). In addition, the role of the outer and middle ear on sound transmission was investigated by developing a physical/mathematical model, which employed fractional-order lumped elements to include the viscoelastic characteristics of biological tissues. Impedance estimations from wideband refectance measurements were used for parameter fitting of the model. The model was validated comparing its estimates of the outer-middle ear sound transmission with those given by DPOAEs. The outer-middle ear transmission by the model was defined as the sum of forward and reverse outer-middle ear transmissions. To estimate the reverse transmission by the model, the probe-microphone impedance was calculated through estimating the Thevenin-equivalent circuit of the probe-microphone. The Thevenin-equivalent circuit was calculated using measurements in a number of test cavities. Such modeling enhances our understanding of the roles of different parts of the outer and middle ear and how they work together to determine their function. In addition, the model would be potentially helpful in diagnosing pathologies of

  10. Early hearing detection and intervention: 2010 CODEPEH recommendation.

    PubMed

    Trinidad-Ramos, Germán; de Aguilar, Valentín Alzina; Jaudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Sequí-Canet, José Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Newborn hearing screening is currently performed routinely in many regional health-care systems in Spain. Despite the remarkable expansion in newborn hearing screening since 2000, its feasibility and the benefits of early identification and intervention, many major challenges still remain. In this article, the Committee for the Early Detection of Hearing Loss (Comisión para la Detección Precoz de la Hipoacusia, CODEPEH) updates the recommendations that are considered important for the future development of early hearing detection and intervention (EDHI) systems in the following points: 1. Screening protocols: Separate protocols are recommended for NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Units) and well-infant nurseries. 2. Diagnostic audiology evaluation. Professionals with skills and expertise in evaluating newborn and young infants should provide diagnosis, selection and fitting of amplification devices. 3. Medical evaluation. Risk factors for congenital and acquired hearing loss have been combined in a single list rather than grouped by time of onset. A stepwise diagnostic paradigm is diagnostically more efficient and cost-effective than a simultaneous testing approach. 4. Early intervention and surveillance. All individuals providing services to infants with hearing loss should have specialized training and expertise in the development of audition, speech and language. Regular surveillance should be performed on developmental milestones, auditory skills, parental concerns, and middle ear status. 5. Quality control. Data management as part of an integrated system is important to monitor and improve the quality of EDHI services. 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolated Sensorineural Hearing Loss as a Sequela after Lightning Strike

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Mahfuz; Kalkan, Ferhat; Bozan, Nazım; Özçalimli, İsa; Zeki Erdem, Mehmet; Yalınkılıç, Abdülaziz; Garca, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-01-01

    In most of the surviving patients after a lightning strike, audiovestibular abnormalities have been reported. The most frequently reported type of abnormalities is a tympanic membrane perforation with hearing loss and external ear canal burn. However a sensor neural hearing loss and mixed type hearing loss can also occur, but these occur rarely. A nineteen-year-old female patient had, after a lightning strike, serious burns on the left ear, behind the ear, and on the chest and neck. She also had in her left ear 108 dB hearing loss with irregular central perforation and in her right ear 52 dB sensorineural hearing loss. There was no hearing loss before the strike. A hearing aid was recommended for the right ear and good care and follow-up were recommended for the left ear. A lightning strike can cause serious audiological damage. Therefore, it is necessary to make a careful audiovestibular evaluation of the patients. Although there exist rarely healed cases from sensorineural hearing loss after lightning strike in literature, in our case hearing loss occurred bilaterally and then it healed unilaterally. This condition is quite rare in literature. PMID:26161278

  12. Ear infection - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... Chole RA. Chronic otitis media, mastoiditis, and petrositis. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. ...

  13. Ear drainage culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... needed. Your health care provider will use a cotton swab to collect the sample from inside the ... Using a cotton swab to take a sample of drainage from the outer ear is not painful. However, ear pain may ...

  14. Swimmer's Ear (External Otitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... t help, your doctor might prescribe a stronger pain reliever. You'll use this only for a short time — until the ear drops and antibiotics begin to work. To protect your ear while it heals, your ...

  15. Objective Metric Based Assessments for Efficient Evaluation of Auditory Situation Awareness Characteristics of Tactical Communications and Protective Systems (TCAPS) and Augmented Hearing Protective Devices (HPDs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-30

    Assessments for Efficient Evaluation of Auditory Situation Awareness Characteristics of Tactical Communications and Protective Systems (TCAPS) and Augmented...Hearing Protective Devices (HPDs) W81XWH-13-C-0193 John G. Casali, Ph.D, CPE & Kichol Lee, Ph.D Auditory Systems Lab, Industrial and Systems ...Suite 1 JBSA Lackland, TX 78236-9908 Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. The Virginia Tech Auditory Systems Laboratory (ASL

  16. Structural Diversity in the Inner Ear of Teleost Fishes: Implications for Connections to the Mauthner Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Edds-Walton, Peggy L.

    1995-01-01

    A body of literature suggests that the Mauthner cell startle response can be elicited by stimulation of the ear. While we know that there are projections to the M-cell from the ear, the specific endorgan(s) of the ear projecting to the M-cell are not known. Moreover, there are many reasons to question whether there is one pattern of inner ear to M-cell connection or whether the endorgan(s) projection to the M-cell varies in species that have different hearing capabilities of hearing structures. In this paper, we briefly review the structure of fish ears, with an emphasis on structural regionalization within the ear. We also review the central projections of the ear, along with a discussion of the limited data on projections to the M-cell.

  17. The Ear and Hearing in Bipes biporus

    PubMed Central

    Wever, Ernest Glen; Gans, Carl

    1972-01-01

    The sound conduction system of Bipes biporus is unusual among amphisbaenians, in that the columella does not have a catilaginous or bony extra-columella passing laterally to the labial skin. Instead, the terminal disk of the columella ends in fibrous tissue beneath a deep fold of skin forming the nuchal constriction. The occurrence of an epihyal supports earlier suggestions that the amphisbaenian extracolumella may be homologous to the epihyal. Measurements of cochlear potentials, made by direction of the sound stimuli to the region of the head posteroventral to the quadrate bone, show that Bipes biporus ranks high among amphisbaenians in auditory sensitivity. Images PMID:4506791

  18. Ultrasound characterization of middle ear effusion.

    PubMed

    Seth, Rahul; Discolo, Christopher M; Palczewska, Grazyna M; Lewandowski, Jan J; Krakovitz, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    To further enhance and assess the ability to characterize middle ear effusion (MEE) using non-invasive ultrasound technology. This is a prospective unblinded comparison study. Fifty-six children between the ages of 6 months and 17 years scheduled to undergo bilateral myringotomy with pressure equalization tube placement were enrolled. With the child anesthetized, the probe was placed into the external ear canal after sterile water was inserted. Ultrasound recordings of middle ear contents were analyzed by computer algorithm. Middle ear fluid was collected during myringotomy and analyzed for bacterial culture and viscosity. Ultrasound waveforms yielded a computer algorithm interpretation of middle ear contents in 66% of ears tested. When a result was obtained, the sensitivity and specificity for successfully characterizing middle ear fluid content as either void of fluid, thick fluid (mucoid), or thin fluid (serous or purulent) were at least 94%. Mucoid effusions had higher measured viscosity values (P=.002). Viscosity measures were compared to culture result, and those with low viscosity (thin consistency) had a higher likelihood of having a positive culture (P=.048). The device sensitivity and specificity for fluid detection were 94% or greater among interpretable waveforms (66% of those tested). Although this technology provides important information of the middle ear effusion presence and characteristic, further technological improvements are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrasound Characterization of Middle Ear Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Rahul; Discolo, Christopher M; Palczewska, Grazyna M; Lewandowski, Jan J; Krakovitz, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To further enhance and assess the ability to characterize middle ear effusion (MEE) using non-invasive ultrasound technology. Materials and Methods This is a prospective unblinded comparison study. Fifty-six children between the ages of 6 months and 17 years scheduled to undergo bilateral myringotomy with pressure equalization tube placement were enrolled. With the child anesthetized, the probe was placed into the external ear canal after sterile water was inserted. Ultrasound recordings of middle ear contents were analyzed by computer algorithm. Middle ear fluid was collected during myringotomy and analyzed for bacterial culture and viscosity. Results Ultrasound waveforms yielded a computer algorithm interpretation of middle ear contents in 66% of ears tested. When a result was obtained, the sensitivity and specificity for successfully characterizing middle ear fluid content as either void of fluid, thick fluid (mucoid), or thin fluid (serous or purulent) was at least 94%. Mucoid effusions had higher measured viscosity values (P=0.002). Viscosity measures were compared to culture result, and those with low viscosity (thin consistency) had a higher likelihood of having a positive culture (P=0.048). Conclusion The device sensitivity and specificity for fluid detection was 94% or greater among interpretable waveforms (66% of those tested). Although this technology provides important information of the middle ear effusion presence and characteristic, further technological improvements are needed. PMID:23084430

  20. Optoacoustic induced vibrations within the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Zhang, K Y; Wenzel, G I; Balster, S; Lim, H H; Lubatschowski, H; Lenarz, T; Ertmer, W; Reuter, G

    2009-12-07

    An acoustic transient can be generated inside an absorbing tissue as a result of laser-tissue interaction after pulsed laser irradiation. Herein we report a novel application of this physical process, the optoacoustic wave generation in the inner ear and subsequently the induction of basilar membrane vibrations. These laser induced vibrations show a direct correlation to the laser energy and an indirect correlation to the distance from the irradiation focus. Through these characteristics they may be used, in a new generation of cochlear implants, to improve the frequency specific cochlear activation and consequently improve speech perception in hearing impaired patients with residual hearing.

  1. Hearing loss and speech perception in noise difficulties in Fanconi anemia.

    PubMed

    Verheij, Emmy; Oomen, Karin P Q; Smetsers, Stephanie E; van Zanten, Gijsbert A; Speleman, Lucienne

    2017-10-01

    Fanconi anemia is a hereditary chromosomal instability disorder. Hearing loss and ear abnormalities are among the many manifestations reported in this disorder. In addition, Fanconi anemia patients often complain about hearing difficulties in situations with background noise (speech perception in noise difficulties). Our study aimed to describe the prevalence of hearing loss and speech perception in noise difficulties in Dutch Fanconi anemia patients. Retrospective chart review. A retrospective chart review was conducted at a Dutch tertiary care center. All patients with Fanconi anemia at clinical follow-up in our hospital were included. Medical files were reviewed to collect data on hearing loss and speech perception in noise difficulties. In total, 49 Fanconi anemia patients were included. Audiograms were available in 29 patients and showed hearing loss in 16 patients (55%). Conductive hearing loss was present in 24.1%, sensorineural in 20.7%, and mixed in 10.3%. A speech in noise test was performed in 17 patients; speech perception in noise was subnormal in nine patients (52.9%) and abnormal in two patients (11.7%). Hearing loss and speech perception in noise abnormalities are common in Fanconi anemia. Therefore, pure tone audiograms and speech in noise tests should be performed, preferably already at a young age, because hearing aids or assistive listening devices could be very valuable in developing language and communication skills. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2358-2361, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Active middle ear implant after lateral petrosectomy and radiotherapy for ear cancer.

    PubMed

    Cristalli, Giovanni; Sprinzl, Georg M; Wolf-Magele, Astrid; Marchesi, Paolo; Mercante, Giuseppe; Spriano, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    Tumor of the temporal bone is a rare disease with a very poor prognosis. Surgery and postoperative radiotherapy are usually the recommended treatments for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the external and middle ear, which may cause conductive hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the audiologic results and compliance of active middle ear implant (AMEI) and establish the feasibility of the procedure in a patient treated for middle ear cancer. A 73-year-old patient treated with lateral petrosectomy, neck dissection, reconstruction/obliteration by pedicled pectoralis major myocutaneous flap, and postoperative full dose radiotherapy for external and middle ear SCC was selected for AMEI. Preoperative audiometric and speech audiometry tests were performed on both ears before and after the activation. Pure tone free field audiometry. Binaural free field speech audiogram. Aided pure tone free field audiometry AMEI results show an increase in air conduction. Speech audiogram showed better discrimination scores in AMEI-aided situations. No complications were observed. AMEI after surgery followed by radiotherapy for middle ear cancer is feasible. Acoustic results in obliterated ear are satisfactory.

  3. Benefits of incorporating the adaptive dynamic range optimization amplification scheme into an assistive listening device for people with mild or moderate hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hung-Yue; Luo, Ching-Hsing; Lo, Tun-Shin; Chen, Hsiao-Chuan; Huang, Kuo-You; Liao, Wen-Huei; Su, Mao-Chang; Liu, Shu-Yu; Wang, Nan-Mai

    2017-08-28

    This study investigated whether a self-designed assistive listening device (ALD) that incorporates an adaptive dynamic range optimization (ADRO) amplification strategy can surpass a commercially available monaurally worn linear ALD, SM100. Both subjective and objective measurements were implemented. Mandarin Hearing-In-Noise Test (MHINT) scores were the objective measurement, whereas participant satisfaction was the subjective measurement. The comparison was performed in a mixed design (i.e., subjects' hearing status being mild or moderate, quiet versus noisy, and linear versus ADRO scheme). The participants were two groups of hearing-impaired subjects, nine mild and eight moderate, respectively. The results of the ADRO system revealed a significant difference in the MHINT sentence reception threshold (SRT) in noisy environments between monaurally aided and unaided conditions, whereas the linear system did not. The benchmark results showed that the ADRO scheme is effectively beneficial to people who experience mild or moderate hearing loss in noisy environments. The satisfaction rating regarding overall speech quality indicated that the participants were satisfied with the speech quality of both ADRO and linear schemes in quiet environments, and they were more satisfied with ADRO than they with the linear scheme in noisy environments.

  4. Current Status and Prospects of Gene Therapy for the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Aji

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Inner ear diseases are common and often result in hearing disability. Sensorineural hearing loss is the main cause of hearing disability. So far, no effective treatment is available although some patients may benefit from a hearing aid equipped with a hearing amplifier or from cochlear implantation. Inner ear gene therapy has become an emerging field of study for the treatment of hearing disability. Numerous new discoveries and tremendous advances have been made in inner ear gene therapy including gene vectors, routes of administration, and therapeutic genes and targets. Gene therapy may become a treatment option for inner ear diseases in the near future. In this review, we summarize the current state of inner ear gene therapy including gene vectors, delivery routes, and therapeutic genes and targets by examining and analyzing publications on inner ear gene therapy from the literature and patent documents, and identify promising patents, novel techniques, and vital research projects. We also discuss the progress and prospects of inner ear gene therapy, the advances and shortcomings, with possible solutions in this field of research. PMID:21338273

  5. Hearing and hearing loss: Causes, effects, and treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmiedt, Richard A.

    2003-04-01

    Hearing loss can have multiple causes. The outer and middle ears are conductive pathways for acoustic energy to the inner ear (cochlea) and help shape our spectral sensitivity. Conductive hearing loss is mechanical in nature such that the energy transfer to the cochlea is impeded, often from eardrum perforations or middle ear fluid buildup. Beyond the middle ear, the cochlea comprises three interdependent systems necessary for normal hearing. The first is that of basilar-membrane micromechanics including the outer hair cells. This system forms the basis of the cochlear amplifier and is the most vulnerable to noise and drug exposure. The second system comprises the ion pumps in the lateral wall tissues of the cochlea. These highly metabolic cells provide energy to the cochlear amplifier in the form of electrochemical potentials. This second system is particularly vulnerable to the effects of aging. The third system comprises the inner hair cells and their associated sensory nerve fibers. This system is the transduction stage, changing mechanical vibrations to nerve impulses. New treatments for hearing loss are on the horizon; however, at present the best strategy is avoidance of cochlear trauma and the proper use of hearing aids. [Work supported by NIA and MUSC.

  6. Contralateral ear occlusion for improving the reliability of otoacoustic emission screening tests.

    PubMed

    Papsin, Emily; Harrison, Adrienne L; Carraro, Mattia; Harrison, Robert V

    2014-01-01

    Newborn hearing screening is an established healthcare standard in many countries and testing is feasible using otoacoustic emission (OAE) recording. It is well documented that OAEs can be suppressed by acoustic stimulation of the ear contralateral to the test ear. In clinical otoacoustic emission testing carried out in a sound attenuating booth, ambient noise levels are low such that the efferent system is not activated. However in newborn hearing screening, OAEs are often recorded in hospital or clinic environments, where ambient noise levels can be 60-70 dB SPL. Thus, results in the test ear can be influenced by ambient noise stimulating the opposite ear. Surprisingly, in hearing screening protocols there are no recommendations for avoiding contralateral suppression, that is, protecting the opposite ear from noise by blocking the ear canal. In the present study we have compared transient evoked and distortion product OAEs measured with and without contralateral ear plugging, in environmental settings with ambient noise levels <25 dB SPL, 45 dB SPL, and 55 dB SPL. We found out that without contralateral ear occlusion, ambient noise levels above 55 dB SPL can significantly attenuate OAE signals. We strongly suggest contralateral ear occlusion in OAE based hearing screening in noisy environments.

  7. Restoration of hearing by hearing aids: conventional hearing aids – implantable hearing aids – cochlear implants – auditory brainstem implants

    PubMed Central

    Leuwer, R.; Müller, J.

    2005-01-01

    Aim of this report is to explain the current concept of hearing restoration using hearing aids. At present the main issues of conventional hearing aids are the relative benefits of analogue versus digital devices and different strategies for the improvement of hearing in noise. Implantable hearing aids provide a better sound quality and less distortion. The lack of directional microphones is the major disadvantage of the partially implantable hearing aids commercially available. Two different clinical studies about fully implantable hearing aids have been started in 2004. One of the most-promising developments seems to be the electric-acoustic stimulation. PMID:22073051

  8. Fitting of hearing aids with different technical parameters to a patient with dead regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojan-Jezierska, Dorota; Skrodzka, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine an optimal hearing aid fitting procedure for a patient with well diagnosed high-frequency ‘dead regions’ in both cochleas. The patient reported non-symmetrical hearing problems of sensorineural origin. For binaural amplification two similar independent hearing aids were used as well as a pair of dependent devices with an ear-to-ear function. Two fitting methods were used: DSLi/o and NAL-NL1, and four different strategies of fitting were tested: the initial fitting based on the DSLi/o or NAL-NL1 method with necessary loudness corrections, the second fitting taking into account all the available functions of hearing instruments, the third fitting (based on the second one) but with significantly reduced amplification well above one octave of frequency inside dead region, and the final fitting with significantly reduced gain slightly below one octave inside dead regions. The results of hearing aids fitting were assessed using an APHAB procedure.

  9. Hearing Loss in HIV-Infected Children in Lilongwe, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Hrapcak, Susan; Kuper, Hannah; Bartlett, Peter; Devendra, Akash; Makawa, Atupele; Kim, Maria; Kazembe, Peter; Ahmed, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infection is becoming a chronic illness. Preliminary data suggest that HIV-infected children have a higher risk of disabilities, including hearing impairment, although data are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and types of hearing loss in HIV-infected children in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of 380 HIV-infected children aged 4–14 years attending ART clinic in Lilongwe between December 2013-March 2014. Data was collected through pediatric quality of life and sociodemographic questionnaires, electronic medical record review, and detailed audiologic testing. Hearing loss was defined as >20 decibels hearing level (dBHL) in either ear. Predictors of hearing loss were explored by regression analysis generating age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios. Children with significant hearing loss were fitted with hearing aids. Results Of 380 patients, 24% had hearing loss: 82% conductive, 14% sensorineural, and 4% mixed. Twenty-one patients (23% of those with hearing loss) were referred for hearing aid fitting. There was a higher prevalence of hearing loss in children with history of frequent ear infections (OR 7.4, 4.2–13.0) and ear drainage (OR 6.4, 3.6–11.6). Hearing loss was linked to history of WHO Stage 3 (OR 2.4, 1.2–4.5) or Stage 4 (OR 6.4, 2.7–15.2) and history of malnutrition (OR 2.1, 1.3–3.5), but not to duration of ART or CD4. Only 40% of caregivers accurately perceived their child’s hearing loss. Children with hearing impairment were less likely to attend school and had poorer emotional (p = 0.02) and school functioning (p = 0.04). Conclusions There is an urgent need for improved screening tools, identification and treatment of hearing problems in HIV-infected children, as hearing loss was common in this group and affected school functioning and quality of life. Clear strategies were identified for prevention and treatment, since most

  10. Cauliflower Ear and Skin Infections among Wrestlers in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Kordi, Ramin; Mansournai, Mohammad Ali; Nourian, Roh Allah; Wallace, W. Angus

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the magnitude of the selected sports medicine problems (i.e. cauliflower ear and skin infections) among wrestlers in Tehran. A number of 411 wrestlers were randomly selected from wrestling clubs in Tehran employing cluster sample setting method. The participants were interviewed using a specially designed and validated questionnaire. Nearly half of the participants (44%) had “cauliflower ears”. Only 23% of these participants had received any kind of treatment for their acute ear haematomas that are known to result in “cauliflower ears”. The prevalence of reported hearing loss among participants with cauliflower ears (11.5%, 95%CI: 6.9 to 16.2) was significantly more than this prevalence among those participants without cauliflower ears (1.8%, 95%CI: 0.1 to 3.5) (p < 0.05). More than half of the participants (52%) had skin infection diagnosed by a physician during the previous year. This study has identified evidence of an increase in hearing loss as a possible side effect of either cauliflower ear or ear injury in wrestling in Iran. There has been an outbreak of ringworm and there is a significant potential for an outbreak of impetigo among wrestlers in Tehran. Key points Skin infections are prevalent among wrestlers in Tehran. Commonly wrestlers in Tehran continue to carry out wrestling training while affected by skin infections. Cauliflower ear ”is common among wrestlers in Tehran. More research is needed to investigate hearing loss as a possible side effect of either cauliflower ear or ear injury in wrestling in Iran. PMID:24198702

  11. Physical outcome measures for conductive and mixed hearing loss treatment: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Johansson, M L; Tysome, J R; Hill-Feltham, P; Hodgetts, W E; Ostevik, A; McKinnon, B J; Monksfield, P; Sockalingam, R; Wright, T

    2018-05-07

    The number of potential options for rehabilitation of patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss is continually expanding. To be able to inform patients and other stakeholders there is a need to identify and develop patient-centred outcomes for treatment of hearing loss. To identify outcome measures in the physical core area used when reporting the outcome after treatment of conductive and mixed hearing loss in adult patients. Systematic review. Systematic review of literature related to reported physical outcome measures after treatment of mixed or conductive hearing loss without restrictions regarding type of intervention, treatment or device. Any measure reporting the physical outcome after treatment or intervention of mixed or conductive hearing loss was sought and categorised. The physical outcomes measures that had been extracted were then grouped into domains. The literature search resulted in the identification of 1,434 studies, of which 153 were selected for inclusion in the review. The majority (57%) of papers reported results from middle ear surgery, with the remainder reporting results from either bone conduction hearing devices or middle ear implants. Outcomes related to complications were categorised into 17 domains, whereas outcomes related to treatment success was categorised in 22 domains. The importance of these domains to patients and other stakeholders needs to be further explored in order to establish which of these domains are most relevant to interventions for conductive or mixed hearing loss. This will allow us to then assess which outcomes measures are most suitable for inclusion in the core set This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Hearing impairment and retirement.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Mary E; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Pinto, Alex; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Dalton, Dayna S

    2014-02-01

    Many factors influence the decision to retire including age, insurance, and pension availability along with physical and mental health. Hearing impairment may be one such factor. The purpose of this study was to compare the 15 yr retirement rate among subjects with and without hearing impairment. Prospective, population-based study. Subjects were participants in the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS), a longitudinal investigation of age-related hearing loss. Participants who were working full- or part-time in 1993-1995 were included (n = 1410, mean age = 57.8 yr). Data from four EHLS phases (1993-1995, 1998-2000, 2003-2005, and 2009-2010) were analyzed in 2010-2012. Hearing impairment was defined as a pure tone threshold average (at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) greater than 25 dB HL in the worse ear. Employment status was determined at each of the four phases. Kaplan-Meier estimates of the cumulative incidence of retirement were calculated, and Cox discrete-time modeling was used to determine the effect of hearing impairment on the rate of retirement. The cumulative incidence of retirement was significantly (p < 0.02) higher in those with a hearing impairment (77%) compared to those without a hearing impairment (74%). After adjustment for age, gender, self-reported health, and history of chronic disease, there was no significant difference in the rate of retirement between those with and without a hearing impairment (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.7, 1.1). Similar results were observed when hearing aid users were excluded, when hearing impairment was based on the better ear thresholds, and when analyses were restricted to those under 65 yr of age and working full-time at baseline. Participants with a hearing impairment were less likely to state that the main reason for retirement was that the time seemed right. Hearing impairment was found to be associated with a higher rate of retirement, but the association was not independent of the

  13. Hearing Impairment and Retirement

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Mary E; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Pinto, Alex; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Dalton, Dayna S

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many factors influence the decision to retire including age, insurance and pension availability along with physical and mental health. Hearing impairment may be one such factor. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare the 15 year retirement rate among subjects with and without hearing impairment. RESEARCH DESIGN Prospective, population-based study STUDY SAMPLE Subjects were participants in the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS), a longitudinal investigation of age-related hearing loss. Participants who were working full- or part-time in 1993–1995 were included (n=1410, mean age=57.8 years). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Data from four EHLS phases (1993–1995, 1998–2000, 2003–2005, and 2009–2010) were analyzed in 2010–2012. Hearing impairment was defined as a pure tone threshold average (at 0.5,1,2 and 4 kHz) greater than 25 dB HL in the worse ear. Employment status was determined at each of the four phases. Kaplan-Meier estimates of the cumulative incidence of retirement were calculated and Cox discrete-time modeling was used to determine the effect of hearing impairment on the rate of retirement. RESULTS The cumulative incidence of retirement was significantly (p < 0.02) higher in those with a hearing impairment (77%) compared to those without a hearing impairment (74%). After adjustment for age, gender, self-reported health, and history of chronic disease, there was no significant difference in the rate of retirement between those with and without a hearing impairment (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.9, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.7, 1.1). Similar results were observed when hearing aid users were excluded, when hearing impairment was based on the better ear thresholds, and when analyses were restricted to those less than 65 years of age and working full-time at baseline. Participants with a hearing impairment were less likely to state that the main reason for retirement was that the time seemed right. CONCLUSIONS Hearing impairment

  14. Development of an ear cap in chronic suppurative otitis media using additive manufacturing and TRIZ.

    PubMed

    Mawale, Mahesh B; Kuthe, Abhaykumar; Mawale, Anupama M; Dahake, Sandeep W

    2018-06-01

    The prevalence rate of chronic suppurative otitis media is high and its treatment continues to be a challenge for the otorhinolaryngologists. Due to middle ear infection, there may be pain, hearing loss and spontaneous rupture of the eardrum which results in perforation. Infections can cause a hole in the eardrum as a side effect of otitis media. The patients suffering from ear perforation or having a hole in eardrum require preventing entry of water in the ear. This article describes the development of ear cap using additive manufacturing and TRIZ (a collaborative tool) to prevent the entry of water in the ear during chronic otitis media.

  15. Noise-induced hearing loss caused by gunshot in South Korean military service.

    PubMed

    Moon, In Seok

    2007-04-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is a preventive disease and yet the effective treatment modality has not been established. Acute acoustic traumas caused by an exposure to gunshot noise are common in young South Korean males in military service. Considering the significant lack of awareness on this serious issue as well as the absence of proper protective gear, an in-depth analysis is desperately needed. All 3650 soldiers performed regular periodic gunfire exercise without any hearing protective measures. Seven patients with hearing impairment after periodic gunfire visited the aeromedical squadron; all were right-handed males. Six were tested with the K-2 rifle and one was tested with a K-5 revolver. History taking, physical examination, pure-tone audiometry, and impedance audiometry were conducted. In the next periodic gunfire exercise, all 3650 soldiers performed gunfire with unilateral hearing protection. The average outcome of postexposure air conduction thresholds was 6.5 dB in the right ear and 33.1 dB in the left ear. After medical treatment, hearing impairment was much improved; however, tinnitus was not diminished. In the next periodic gunfire exercise, the result of a supplement of unilateral earplug protection proved its effectiveness on acoustic trauma caused by gunfire noise. Asymmetry in hearing loss is related to the position of the head during gunfire. A unilateral hearing protection device was enough to protect hearing from gunfire noise. At the same time, it can effectively prevent a potential firearm accident that can be caused by trainees mishearing the instruction of a firearm instructor if both earplugs are worn. Thus, providing a unilateral earplug for protection against acoustic trauma must be taken into serious consideration.

  16. Shaping sound in space: the regulation of inner ear patterning.

    PubMed

    Groves, Andrew K; Fekete, Donna M

    2012-01-01

    The inner ear is one of the most morphologically elaborate tissues in vertebrates, containing a group of mechanosensitive sensory organs that mediate hearing and balance. These organs are arranged precisely in space and contain intricately patterned sensory epithelia. Here, we review recent studies of inner ear development and patterning which reveal that multiple stages of ear development - ranging from its early induction from the embryonic ectoderm to the establishment of the three cardinal axes and the fine-grained arrangement of sensory cells - are orchestrated by gradients of signaling molecules.

  17. Shaping sound in space: the regulation of inner ear patterning

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Andrew K.; Fekete, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    The inner ear is one of the most morphologically elaborate tissues in vertebrates, containing a group of mechanosensitive sensory organs that mediate hearing and balance. These organs are arranged precisely in space and contain intricately patterned sensory epithelia. Here, we review recent studies of inner ear development and patterning which reveal that multiple stages of ear development – ranging from its early induction from the embryonic ectoderm to the establishment of the three cardinal axes and the fine-grained arrangement of sensory cells – are orchestrated by gradients of signaling molecules. PMID:22186725

  18. Vitamin D receptor deficiency impairs inner ear development in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Hye-Joo; Biology Department, Princess Nourah University, Riyadh 11671

    The biological actions of vitamin D are largely mediated through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, which regulates gene expression in a wide variety of tissues and cells. Mutations in VDR gene have been implicated in ear disorders (hearing loss and balance disorder) but the mechanisms are not well established. In this study, to investigate the role of VDR in inner ear development, morpholino-mediated gene knockdown approaches were used in zebrafish model system. Two paralogs for VDR, vdra and vdrb, have been identified in zebrafish. Knockdown of vdra had no effectmore » on ear development, whereas knockdown of vdrb displayed morphological ear defects including smaller otic vesicles with malformed semicircular canals and abnormal otoliths. Loss-of-vdrb resulted in down-regulation of pre-otic markers, pax8 and pax2a, indicating impairment of otic induction. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos lacking vdrb produced fewer sensory hair cells in the ears and showed disruption of balance and motor coordination. These data reveal that VDR signaling plays an important role in ear development. - Highlights: • VDR signaling is involved in ear development. • Knockdown of vdrb causes inner ear malformations during embryogenesis. • Knockdown of vdrb affects otic placode induction. • Knockdown of vdrb reduces the number of sensory hair cells in the inner ear. • Knockdown of vdrb disrupts balance and motor coordination.« less

  19. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions upon ear canal pressurization.

    PubMed

    Zebian, Makram; Schirkonyer, Volker; Hensel, Johannes; Vollbort, Sven; Fedtke, Thomas; Janssen, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the change in distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) level upon ear canal pressurization. DPOAEs were measured on 12 normal-hearing human subjects for ear canal static pressures between -200 and +200 daPa in (50 ± 5) daPa steps. A clear dependence of DPOAE levels on the pressure was observed, with levels being highest at the maximum compliance of the middle ear, and decreasing on average by 2.3 dB per 50 daPa for lower and higher pressures. Ear canal pressurization can serve as a tool for improving the detectability of DPOAEs in the case of middle-ear dysfunction.

  20. Inner ear abnormalities in patients with Goldenhar syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bisdas, Sotirios; Lenarz, Minoo; Lenarz, Thomas; Becker, Hartmut

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the inner ear malformations in patients with Goldenhar syndrome and to hypothesize the potential embryopathogenesis of these malformations. Retrospective case review. Tertiary referral center. Fourteen patients with Goldenhar syndrome. Each patient underwent hearing tests and high-resolution computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone. In six patients, magnetic resonance imaging of the temporal bone also was performed. Among the 14 patients with Goldenhar syndrome, 13 had outer and middle ear anomalies and 5 (36%) had inner ear malformations, including one case of common cavity. Our observations regarding inner ear anomalies in Goldenhar syndrome correlate with the reported cases in the literature and may help to hypothesize the embryological origin of these malformations, which can caused by an early developmental arrest in the fourth gestational week. Specialists evaluating patients with Goldenhar syndrome should be aware of the possibility of inner ear malformations, which could be diagnosed earlier with appropriate imaging studies.

  1. A Retrospective Estimate of Ear Disease Detection Using the "Red Flags" in a Clinical Sample.

    PubMed

    Klyn, Niall A M; Kleindienst Robler, Samantha; Alfakir, Razan; Nielsen, Donald W; Griffith, James W; Carlson, Deborah L; Lundy, Larry; Dhar, Sumitrajit; Zapala, David A

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of two red flag protocols in detecting ear diseases associated with changes in hearing. The presence of red-flag symptoms was determined in a chart review of 307 adult patients from the Mayo Clinic Florida Departments of Otorhinolaryngology and Audiology. Participants formed a convenience sample recruited for a separate study. Neurotologist diagnosis was the criterion for comparisons. Of the 251 patient files retained for analysis, 191 had one or more targeted diseases and 60 had age- or noise-related hearing loss. Food and Drug Administration red flags sensitivity was 91% (confidence interval [CI], 86 to 95%) and specificity was 72% (CI, 59 to 83%). American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery red flags sensitivity was 98% (CI, 95 to 99%) and specificity was 20% (CI, 11 to 32%). Stakeholders must determine which diseases are meaningful contraindications for hearing aid use and whether these red-flag protocols have acceptable levels of sensitivity and specificity. As direct-to-consumer models of hearing devices increase, a disease detection method that does not require provider intercession would be useful.

  2. Underwater Hearing in Turtles.

    PubMed

    Willis, Katie L

    2016-01-01

    The hearing of turtles is poorly understood compared with the other reptiles. Although the mechanism of transduction of sound into a neural signal via hair cells has been described in detail, the rest of the auditory system is largely a black box. What is known is that turtles have higher hearing thresholds than other reptiles, with best frequencies around 500 Hz. They also have lower underwater hearing thresholds than those in air, owing to resonance of the middle ear cavity. Further studies demonstrated that all families of turtles and tortoises share a common middle ear cavity morphology, with scaling best suited to underwater hearing. This supports an aquatic origin of the group. Because turtles hear best under water, it is important to examine their vulnerability to anthropogenic noise. However, the lack of basic data makes such experiments difficult because only a few species of turtles have published audiograms. There are also almost no behavioral data available (understandable due to training difficulties). Finally, few studies show what kinds of sounds are behaviorally relevant. One notable paper revealed that the Australian snake-necked turtle (Chelodina oblonga) has a vocal repertoire in air, at the interface, and under water. Findings like these suggest that there is more to the turtle aquatic auditory scene than previously thought.

  3. "Gun-shooting hearing loss": A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sataloff, Joseph; Hawkshaw, Mary J; Sataloff, Robert T

    2010-01-01

    Gun-shooting deafness is the common terminology applied to sensorineural hearing loss caused by shooting firearms. Many characteristics of gun-shooting hearing loss have been proposed, but they have not been defined clearly or established conclusively. We studied 37 users of recreational firearms to obtain pilot data to help determine if it is true that right-handed gun shooters develop more hearing loss in the left ear and vice versa, whether everyone who frequently shoots guns develops sensorineural hearing loss, and whether significant hearing loss is typically prevented by wearing commercially available ear protectors while shooting.

  4. Optimizing Hearing Loss Prevention and Treatment, Rehabilitation and Re - Integration of Soldiers with Hearing Impairment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    for whom hearing loss is more often associated with middle ear disease , but is also relevant to assess the aeration system of the ear in with ...being, the ability to cope with post-traumatic stress and the overall quality of life. Modern Militaries have highly trained and experienced specialists...impaired in that environment. In the case of evaluating the impact of noise-induced hearing loss, this would mean finding trained operators with all

  5. 10 Ways to Protect Your Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Jennifer Stewart

    2011-01-01

    There are physical symptoms related to noise overexposure--difficulty with communication, ringing in the ears, temporary hearing loss (a.k.a. temporary threshold shift), noise-induced hearing loss--as well as psychological symptoms, such as irritability and psychological fatigue. Since both the physical and psychological symptoms of noise…

  6. Ambient and at-the-ear occupational noise exposure and serum lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Arlien-Søborg, Mai C; Schmedes, Astrid S; Stokholm, Z A; Grynderup, M B; Bonde, J P; Jensen, C S; Hansen, Å M; Frederiksen, T W; Kristiansen, J; Christensen, K L; Vestergaard, J M; Lund, S P; Kolstad, H A

    2016-10-01

    Occupational and residential noise exposure has been related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Alteration of serum lipid levels has been proposed as a possible causal pathway. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between ambient and at-the-ear occupational noise exposure and serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides when accounting for well-established predictors of lipid levels. This cross-sectional study included 424 industrial workers and 84 financial workers to obtain contrast in noise exposure levels. They provided a serum sample and wore portable dosimeters that every 5-s recorded ambient noise exposure levels during a 24-h period. We extracted measurements obtained during work and calculated the full-shift mean ambient noise level. For 331 workers who kept a diary on the use of a hearing protection device (HPD), we subtracted 10 dB from every noise recording obtained during HPD use and estimated the mean full-shift noise exposure level at the ear. Mean ambient noise level was 79.9 dB (A) [range 55.0-98.9] and the mean estimated level at the ear 77.8 dB (A) [range 55.0-94.2]. Ambient and at-the-ear noise levels were strongly associated with increasing levels of triglycerides, cholesterol-HDL ratio, and decreasing levels of HDL-cholesterol, but only in unadjusted analyses that did not account for HPD use and other risk factors. No associations between ambient or at-the-ear occupational noise exposure and serum lipid levels were observed. This indicates that a causal pathway between occupational and residential noise exposure and cardiovascular disease does not include alteration of lipid levels.

  7. Management of Hearing Aid Assembly by Urban-Dwelling Hearing-Impaired Adults in a Developed Country

    PubMed Central

    Keidser, Gitte; Hartley, Lisa; Caposecco, Andrea; Hickson, Louise; Meyer, Carly

    2011-01-01

    A self-fitting hearing aid, designed to be assembled and programmed without audiological or computer support, could bring amplification to millions of people in developing countries, who remain unaided due to the lack of a local, professional, audiological infrastructure. The ability to assemble and insert a hearing aid is fundamental to the successful use of a self-fitting device. In this study, the management of such tasks was investigated. Eighty older, urban-dwelling, hearing-impaired adults in a developed country were asked to follow a set of written, illustrated instructions to assemble two slim-fit behind-the-ear hearing aids. Participants were allowed to access assistance with the task from an accompanying partner. A range of personal and audiometric variables was measured through the use of structured questionnaires and standardized tests of health literacy, cognitive function, and manual dexterity. The results showed that 99% of participants were able to complete the hearing aid assembly task, either on their own or with assistance. Health literacy, or the ability to read and understand health-related text, and gender most strongly influenced participants’ ability to complete the assembly task independently and accurately. Higher levels of health literacy were associated with an increased likelihood of independent and successful task completion. Male participants were more likely to complete the task on their own, while female participants were more likely to assemble the device without errors. The results of this study will inform future work regarding development of educational material for the self-fitting hearing aid as well as candidacy for such a device. PMID:22200734

  8. Passage of albumin from the middle ear to the inner ear in otitis media in the chinchilla

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, B.; Goycoolea, M.V.; Schleivert, P.M.

    1981-08-01

    A study of the permeability of the middle ear-inner ear interface for macromolecules was carried out in chinchillas with open and obstructed eustachian tubes utilizing tritiated human serum albumin and immunoelectrophoresis. Tritiated albumin was placed in the round window niche area or normal animals and animals in which the eustachian tubes had been obstructed for 24 hours or 14 days. The tritiated albumin was allowed to remain in the middle ear cavity for 24 hours, Samples of middle ear effusion, perilymph, blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected and measured for radioactivity. Radioactivity was demonstrated in the perilymph. Samples of middlemore » ear effusions and perilymph were also studied by immunoelectrophoresis with goat antihuman albumin. Albumin placed in the round window niche of an experimental animal could be recovered unchanged in the perilymph. The results suggest a pathophysiologic explanation for the association of otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss or endolymphatic hydrops.« less

  9. Reiter's syndrome and hearing loss: a possible association?

    PubMed Central

    Monsanto, Rafael C; Neto, Arlindo C L; Lorenzetti, Fábio T M

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Patient complained of hearing loss and tinnitus after the onset of Reiter's syndrome. Audiometry confirmed the hearing loss on the left ear; blood work showed increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C3 fraction of the complement. Genotyping for HLA-B27 was positive. Treatment with prednisolone did not improve the hearing levels. PMID:25548635

  10. Reiter's syndrome and hearing loss: a possible association?

    PubMed

    Monsanto, Rafael C; Neto, Arlindo C L; Lorenzetti, Fábio T M

    2014-12-01

    Patient complained of hearing loss and tinnitus after the onset of Reiter's syndrome. Audiometry confirmed the hearing loss on the left ear; blood work showed increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C3 fraction of the complement. Genotyping for HLA-B27 was positive. Treatment with prednisolone did not improve the hearing levels.

  11. Cauliflower ear dissection.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Masao; Suzuki, Ayano; Nagata, Takeshi; Fukamizu, Hidekazu

    2011-11-01

    Cauliflower ear (CE) is caused by repeated direct trauma to the external ear. Surgical correction of an established CE is one of the most challenging problems in ear reconstruction. However, no reports have clarified the dissection of an established CE in detail. In this report, the dissection of a CE is described based on macroscopic, microscopic and imaging features. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Envoy® Totally Implantable Hearing System, St. Croix Medical

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Kai; Grant, Iain L.; Javel, Eric

    2002-01-01

    The Totally Implantable Envoy® System is currently undergoing clinical trials in both the United States and Europe. The fully implantable hearing device is intended for use in patients with sensorineural hearing loss. The device employs piezoelectric transducers to sense ossicle motion and drive the stapes. Programmable signal processing parameters include amplification, compression, and variable frequency response. The fully implantable attribute allows users to take advantage of normal external ear resonances and head-related transfer functions, while avoiding undesirable earmold effects. The high sensitivity, low power consumption, and high fidelity attributes of piezoelectric transducers minimize acoustic feedback and maximize battery life (Gyo, 1996; Yanagihara, (1987) and 2001). The surgical procedure to install the device has been accurately defined and implantation is reversible. PMID:25425915

  13. [Diagnosis of psychogenic hearing disorders in childhood].

    PubMed

    Kothe, C; Fleischer, S; Breitfuss, A; Hess, M

    2003-11-01

    In comparison with organic hearing loss, which is commonly reported, non-organic hearing loss is under-represented in the literature. The audiological results for 20 patients, aged between 6 and 17 years (mean 11.3), with psychogenic hearing disturbances were analysed prospectively. In 17 cases, the disturbance was bilateral and in three cases unilateral. In no case was the result of an objective hearing test exceptional, while a hearing threshold of between 30 and 100 dB was reported in single ear, pure-tone audiograms. In 12 cases, single ear speech audiograms were unexceptional. Suprathreshold tests, such as the dichotic discrimination test or the speech audiogram with noise disturbance, could lead to a clearer diagnosis in cases of severe psychogenic auditory impairment. In half of the patients, a conflict situation in the school or family was evident. After treatment for this conflict, hearing ability returned to normal. There was no improvement for six patients.

  14. Asymmetric hearing loss in a random population of patients with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nili; Shkolnik, Mark; Kochba, Anat; Segal, Avichai; Kraus, Mordechai

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the correlation of asymmetric hearing loss, in a random population of patients with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss, to several clinical factors such as age, sex, handedness, and noise exposure. We randomly selected, from 8 hearing institutes in Israel, 429 patients with sensorineural hearing loss of at least 30 dB at one frequency and a speech reception threshold not exceeding 30 dB. Patients with middle ear disease or retrocochlear disorders were excluded. The results of audiometric examinations were compared binaurally and in relation to the selected factors. The left ear's hearing threshold level was significantly higher than that of the right ear at all frequencies except 1.0 kHz (p < .05). One hundred fifty patients (35%) had asymmetric hearing loss (more than 10 dB difference between ears). In most of the patients (85%) the binaural difference in hearing threshold level, at any frequency, was less than 20 dB. Age, handedness, and sex were not found to be correlated to asymmetric hearing loss. Noise exposure was found to be correlated to asymmetric hearing loss.

  15. Long-term results of hearing preservation cochlear implant surgery in patients with residual low frequency hearing.

    PubMed

    Moteki, Hideaki; Nishio, Shin-Ya; Miyagawa, Maiko; Tsukada, Keita; Iwasaki, Satoshi; Usami, Shin-Ichi

    2017-05-01

    Differences were found between patients with stable hearing and those with progressive hearing loss in the lower frequencies with respect to the rate of progression in the contralateral ear. It is suggested that the electric acoustic stimulation (EAS) can provide improvement in hearing ability over the long-term if residual hearing might be lost to some extent. To evaluate the long-term threshold changes in the low frequency hearing of the implanted ear as compared with the non-implanted ear, and the hearing abilities with EAS along with the extent of residual hearing. Seventeen individuals were enrolled and received the EAS implant with a 24-mm FLEXeas electrode array. Hearing thresholds and speech perception were measured pre- and post-operatively for 1-5 years. Post-operative hearing preservation (HP) rates were calculated using the preservation numerical scale. The average linear regression coefficient for the decline in hearing preservation score was -6.9 for the implanted ear and the patients were subsequently categorized into two groups: those with better than average, stable hearing; and those with worse than average, progressive hearing loss. EAS showed better results than electric stimulation alone, in spite of an absence of speech perception with acoustic stimulation.

  16. Experimental autoimmune hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Understanding of autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss (ASNHL) has been hindered by the inaccessibility of the inner ear to biopsy and the lack of workable animal models. A report in this issue of the JCI describes a mouse model of CD4+ T cell–mediated ASNHL induced by immunization with peptides from the inner ear–specific proteins cochlin and β-tectorin. PMID:15085190

  17. Impact of socio-economic status on ear health and behaviour in children: A cross-sectional study in the capital of India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Divya; Gulati, Achal; Gupta, Umang

    2015-11-01

    Socio-economic differences in the society have been a major cause for the discrepancy in disease and behavioural patterns in society. With 360 million people (32 million children) in the world suffering from disabling hearing losses, it is imperative to gain an insight into the impact of differences in socio-economic strata on children's ear health issues, their knowledge of ear ailments and attitude towards ear health so as to suggest policies addressing ear health issues. The study was carried out in two different school types namely government schools and private schools which represent wide difference in the socio-economic status of the students studying there. A questionnaire was administered to students aged 10 to 13 years to assess the current ear care practices, knowledge regarding ear ailments, attitude towards hearing and their adaptability to reform. The children belonging to higher socio-economic status were found to have lesser incidence of ear diseases and ear abuse, more referrals for ear ailments, lesser indulgence in risky ear health behaviours, better knowledge pool, positive attitude towards ear health and hearing and were more adaptable to change for better hearing. Structures of social disparity are essential determinants of ear health acting both independently and through their influence on behavioural determinants of health. Increasing awareness of ear health issues at the school level itself should be one of the goals of health care providers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Trimodal speech perception: how residual acoustic hearing supplements cochlear-implant consonant recognition in the presence of visual cues.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, Benjamin M; Schuchman, Gerald; Bernstein, Joshua G W

    2015-01-01

    As cochlear implant (CI) acceptance increases and candidacy criteria are expanded, these devices are increasingly recommended for individuals with less than profound hearing loss. As a result, many individuals who receive a CI also retain acoustic hearing, often in the low frequencies, in the nonimplanted ear (i.e., bimodal hearing) and in some cases in the implanted ear (i.e., hybrid hearing) which can enhance the performance achieved by the CI alone. However, guidelines for clinical decisions pertaining to cochlear implantation are largely based on expectations for postsurgical speech-reception performance with the CI alone in auditory-only conditions. A more comprehensive prediction of postimplant performance would include the expected effects of residual acoustic hearing and visual cues on speech understanding. An evaluation of auditory-visual performance might be particularly important because of the complementary interaction between the speech information relayed by visual cues and that contained in the low-frequency auditory signal. The goal of this study was to characterize the benefit provided by residual acoustic hearing to consonant identification under auditory-alone and auditory-visual conditions for CI users. Additional information regarding the expected role of residual hearing in overall communication performance by a CI listener could potentially lead to more informed decisions regarding cochlear implantation, particularly with respect to recommendations for or against bilateral implantation for an individual who is functioning bimodally. Eleven adults 23 to 75 years old with a unilateral CI and air-conduction thresholds in the nonimplanted ear equal to or better than 80 dB HL for at least one octave frequency between 250 and 1000 Hz participated in this study. Consonant identification was measured for conditions involving combinations of electric hearing (via the CI), acoustic hearing (via the nonimplanted ear), and speechreading (visual cues

  19. Quality of Life and Hearing Eight Years After Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Härkönen, Kati; Kivekäs, Ilkka; Rautiainen, Markus; Kotti, Voitto; Vasama, Juha-Pekka

    2017-04-01

    To explore long-term hearing results, quality of life (QoL), quality of hearing (QoH), work-related stress, tinnitus, and balance problems after idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). Cross-sectional study. We reviewed the audiograms of 680 patients with unilateral ISSNHL on average 8 years after the hearing impairment, and then divided the patients into two study groups based on whether their ISSNHL had recovered to normal (pure tone average [PTA] ≤ 30 dB) or not (PTA > 30 dB). The inclusion criteria were a hearing threshold decrease of 30 dB or more in at least three contiguous frequencies occurring within 72 hours in the affected ear and normal hearing in the contralateral ear. Audiograms of 217 patients fulfilled the criteria. We reviewed their medical records; measured present QoL, QoH, and work-related stress with specific questionnaires; and updated the hearing status. Poor hearing outcome after ISSNHL was correlated with age, severity of hearing loss, and vertigo together with ISSNHL. Quality of life and QoH were statistically significantly better in patients with recovered hearing, and the patients had statistically significantly less tinnitus and balance problems. During the 8-year follow-up, the PTA of the affected ear deteriorated on average 7 dB, and healthy ear deteriorated 6 dB. Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss that failed to recover had a negative impact on long-term QoL and QoH. The hearing deteriorated as a function of age similarly both in the affected and the healthy ear, and there were no differences between the groups. The cumulative recurrence rate for ISSNHL was 3.5%. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:927-931, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Leupeptin reduces impulse noise induced hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to continuous and impulse noise can induce a hearing loss. Leupeptin is an inhibitor of the calpains, a family of calcium-activated proteases which promote cell death. The objective of this study is to assess whether Leupeptin could reduce the hearing loss resulting from rifle impulse noise. Methods A polyethelene tube was implanted into middle ear cavities of eight fat sand rats (16 ears). Following determination of auditory nerve brainstem evoked response (ABR) threshold in each ear, the animals were exposed to the noise of 10 M16 rifle shots. Immediately after the exposure, saline was then applied to one (control) ear and non-toxic concentrations of leupeptin determined in the first phase of the study were applied to the other ear, for four consecutive days. Results Eight days after the exposure, the threshold shift (ABR) in the control ears was significantly greater (44 dB) than in the leupeptin ears (27 dB). Conclusion Leupeptin applied to the middle ear cavity can reduce the hearing loss resulting from exposure to impulse noise. PMID:22206578

  1. Mobile phone usage does not affect sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Sagiv, D; Migirov, L; Madgar, O; Nakache, G; Wolf, M; Shapira, Y

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies found that mobile phone users had a significantly greater risk of having elevated thresholds in speech frequencies. This study investigated the correlation between the laterality of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, handedness and the preferred ear for mobile phone use. The study included all patients who presented with sudden sensorineural hearing loss to the Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery in our tertiary referral medical centre between 2014 and 2016. Patients were asked to indicate their dominant hand and preferred ear for mobile phone use. The study comprised 160 patients. No correlation was found between the dominant hand or preferred ear for mobile phone use and the side of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. There was no correlation between the side of the sudden sensorineural hearing loss (preferable or non-preferable for mobile phone use) and audiometric characteristics. No correlation was found between the laterality of ears used for mobile phone and sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

  2. Examination of Insert Ear Interaural Attenuation (IA)Values in Audiological Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Gumus, Nebi M; Gumus, Merve; Unsal, Selim; Yuksel, Mustafa; Gunduz, Mehmet

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Interaural Attenuation (IA) in frequency base in the insert earphones that are used in audiological assessments. Thirty healthy subjects between 18-65 years of age (14 female and 16 male) participated in our study. Otoscopic examination was performed on all participants. Audiological evaluations were performed using the Interacoustics AC40 clinical audiometer and ER-3A insert earphones. IA value was calculated by subtracting good ear bone conduction hearing thresholds of the worst airway hearing threshold. In our measuring for 0.125-8.0 kHz frequency were performed in our audiometry device separately for each frequency. IA amount in the results we found in 1000 Hz and below frequencies about 75-110 dB range avarage is 89±5dB, in above 1000 Hz frequencies in 50-95 dB range and avarage it is changed to 69±5dB. According to the obtained findings the quantity of melting in the transition between the ears are increasing with the insert earphones. The insert earphone should be beside supraaural earphone that is routinely used in clinics. Difficult masking applications due to the increase in the value of IA can be easily done with insert earphones.

  3. Inquiry-Based Investigation on the Internet: Sound and the Human Ear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlan, Kevin; Sterling, Donna R.

    2006-01-01

    In this online exploration of sound energy and the human ear, students carry out an inquiry-based activity, which leads them to websites featuring a diagram of a human ear, an interactive demonstration of the Doppler effect, a model of longitudinal waves, and an animation of human hearing. In the activity, students formulate, justify, and evaluate…

  4. Hearing Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... deafness ) or loses hearing later in life (after learning to hear and speak, which is known as ... Impaired? For people who lose their hearing after learning to speak and hear, it can be difficult ...

  5. Direction discriminating hearing aid system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M.; Lin, H. C.; Ward, G.

    1991-01-01

    A visual display was developed for people with substantial hearing loss in either one or both ears. The system consists of three discreet units; an eyeglass assembly for the visual display of the origin or direction of sounds; a stationary general purpose noise alarm; and a noise seeker wand.

  6. Socioeconomic differences in hearing among middle-aged and older adults: cross-sectional analyses using the Health Survey for England

    PubMed Central

    Scholes, Shaun; Biddulph, Jane; Davis, Adrian; Mindell, Jennifer S.

    2018-01-01

    Background Hearing loss impacts on cognitive, social and physical functioning. Both hearing loss and hearing aid use vary across population subgroups. We examined whether hearing loss, and reported current hearing aid use among persons with hearing loss, were associated with different markers of socioeconomic status (SES) in a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. Methods Hearing was measured using an audiometric screening device in the Health Survey for England 2014 (3292 participants aged 45 years and over). Hearing loss was defined as >35 dB HL at 3.0 kHz in the better-hearing ear. Using sex-specific logistic regression modelling, we evaluated the associations between SES and hearing after adjustment for potential confounders. Results 26% of men and 20% of women aged 45 years and over had hearing loss. Hearing loss was higher among men in the lowest SES groups. For example, the multivariable-adjusted odds of hearing loss were almost two times as high for those in the lowest versus the highest income tertile (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.74). Among those with hearing loss, 30% of men and 27% of women were currently using a hearing aid. Compared with men in the highest income tertile, the multivariable-adjusted odds of using a hearing aid nowadays were lower for men in the middle (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.99) and the lowest (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.97) income tertiles. Associations between SES and hearing were weaker or null among women. Conclusions While the burden of hearing loss fell highest among men in the lowest SES groups, current hearing aid use was demonstrably lower. Initiatives to detect hearing loss early and increase the uptake and the use of hearing aids may provide substantial public health benefits and reduce socioeconomic inequalities in health. PMID:29391384

  7. Effectiveness of Ear Splint Therapy for Ear Deformities

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To present our experience with ear splint therapy for babies with ear deformities, and thereby demonstrate that this therapy is an effective and safe intervention without significant complications. Methods This was a retrospective study of 54 babies (35 boys and 19 girls; 80 ears; age ≤3 months) with ear deformities who had received ear splint therapy at the Center for Torticollis, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ajou University Hospital between December 2014 and February 2016. Before the initiation of ear splint therapy, ear deformities were classified with reference to the standard terminology. We compared the severity of ear deformity before and after ear splint therapy by using the physician's ratings. We also compared the physician's ratings and the caregiver's ratings on completion of ear splint therapy. Results Among these 54 babies, 41 children (58 ears, 72.5%) completed the ear splint therapy. The mean age at initiation of therapy was 52.91±18.26 days and the treatment duration was 44.27±32.06 days. Satyr ear, forward-facing ear lobe, Darwinian notch, overfolded ear, and cupped ear were the five most common ear deformities. At the completion of therapy, the final physician's ratings of ear deformities were significantly improved compared to the initial ratings (8.28±1.44 vs. 2.51±0.92; p<0.001). There was no significant difference between the physician's ratings and the caregiver's ratings at the completion of ear splint therapy (8.28±1.44 vs. 8.0±1.61; p=0.297). Conclusion We demonstrated that ear splint therapy significantly improved ear deformities in babies, as measured by quantitative rating scales. Ear splint therapy is an effective and safe intervention for babies with ear deformities. PMID:28289646

  8. Improvements in Speech Perception by Children with Profound Prelingual Hearing Loss: Effects of Device, Communication Mode, and Chronological Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Ted A.; Svirsky, Mario A.; Kirk, Karen I.; Miyamoto, Richard T.

    1998-01-01

    This study compared the speech perception skills over time (mean = 3.5 years) of 74 prelingually deaf children using cochlear implants with the predicted speech perception skills of 58 similar children using hearing aids. Generally, speech perception scores for the children using cochlear implants were higher that those predicted for children with…

  9. Assessment of Four Passive Hearing Protection Devices for Continuous Noise Attenuation, Impulsive Noise Insertion Loss, and Auditory Localization Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-17

    their duties, and may decrease the future standard of living and career opportunities for the Soldier. Tinnitus and noise-induced hearing loss are the...tested. Volunteers were given a questionnaire to report if they were sick, suffering from allergies, experiencing tinnitus , or otherwise in poor health

  10. Speech Perception Benefits of FM and Infrared Devices to Children with Hearing Aids in a Typical Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Karen L.; Goldstein, Howard

    2004-01-01

    Children typically learn in classroom environments that have background noise and reverberation that interfere with accurate speech perception. Amplification technology can enhance the speech perception of students who are hard of hearing. Purpose: This study used a single-subject alternating treatments design to compare the speech recognition…

  11. Future Approaches for Inner Ear Protection and Repair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Seiji B.; Raphael, Yehoash

    2010-01-01

    Health care professionals tending to patients with inner ear disease face inquiries about therapy options, including treatments that are being developed for future use but not yet available. The devastating outcome of sensorineural hearing loss, combined with the permanent nature of the symptoms, make these inquiries demanding and frequent. The…

  12. Development and Validation of the Musical Ear Training Assessment (META)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Anna; Kopiez, Reinhard

    2018-01-01

    In the following study, we have developed an assessment instrument for the practice-dependent skill of analytical hearing following a strict test theoretical validation, resulting in the Musical Ear Training Assessment (META). By means of three pilot studies, a developmental study, and a validation study, we verified a one-dimensional test model…

  13. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... medical certificate are: (a) The person shall demonstrate acceptable hearing by at least one of the... both ears, at a distance of 6 feet from the examiner, with the back turned to the examiner. (2) Demonstrate an acceptable understanding of speech as determined by audiometric speech discrimination testing...

  14. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... medical certificate are: (a) The person shall demonstrate acceptable hearing by at least one of the... both ears, at a distance of 6 feet from the examiner, with the back turned to the examiner. (2) Demonstrate an acceptable understanding of speech as determined by audiometric speech discrimination testing...

  15. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... medical certificate are: (a) The person shall demonstrate acceptable hearing by at least one of the... both ears, at a distance of 6 feet from the examiner, with the back turned to the examiner. (2) Demonstrate an acceptable understanding of speech as determined by audiometric speech discrimination testing...

  16. Left-right and front-back spatial hearing with multiple directional microphone configurations in modern hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Carette, Evelyne; Van den Bogaert, Tim; Laureyns, Mark; Wouters, Jan

    2014-10-01

    Several studies have demonstrated negative effects of directional microphone configurations on left-right and front-back (FB) sound localization. New processing schemes, such as frequency-dependent directionality and front focus with wireless ear-to-ear communication in recent, commercial hearing aids may preserve the binaural cues necessary for left-right localization and may introduce useful spectral cues necessary for FB disambiguation. In this study, two hearing aids with different processing schemes, which were both designed to preserve the ability to localize sounds in the horizontal plane (left-right and FB), were compared. We compared horizontal (left-right and FB) sound localization performance of hearing aid users fitted with two types of behind-the-ear (BTE) devices. The first type of BTE device had four different programs that provided (1) no directionality, (2-3) symmetric frequency-dependent directionality, and (4) an asymmetric configuration. The second pair of BTE devices was evaluated in its omnidirectional setting. This setting automatically activates a soft forward-oriented directional scheme that mimics the pinna effect. Also, wireless communication between the hearing aids was present in this configuration (5). A broadband stimulus was used as a target signal. The directional hearing abilities of the listeners were also evaluated without hearing aids as a reference. A total of 12 listeners with moderate to severe hearing loss participated in this study. All were experienced hearing-aid users. As a reference, 11 listeners with normal hearing participated. The participants were positioned in a 13-speaker array (left-right, -90°/+90°) or 7-speaker array (FB, 0-180°) and were asked to report the number of the loudspeaker located the closest to where the sound was perceived. The root mean square error was calculated for the left-right experiment, and the percentage of FB errors was used as a FB performance measure. RESULTS were analyzed with

  17. Probing the Xenopus laevis inner ear transcriptome for biological function

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The senses of hearing and balance depend upon mechanoreception, a process that originates in the inner ear and shares features across species. Amphibians have been widely used for physiological studies of mechanotransduction by sensory hair cells. In contrast, much less is known of the genetic basis of auditory and vestibular function in this class of animals. Among amphibians, the genus Xenopus is a well-characterized genetic and developmental model that offers unique opportunities for inner ear research because of the amphibian capacity for tissue and organ regeneration. For these reasons, we implemented a functional genomics approach as a means to undertake a large-scale analysis of the Xenopus laevis inner ear transcriptome through microarray analysis. Results Microarray analysis uncovered genes within the X. laevis inner ear transcriptome associated with inner ear function and impairment in other organisms, thereby supporting the inclusion of Xenopus in cross-species genetic studies of the inner ear. The use of gene categories (inner ear tissue; deafness; ion channels; ion transporters; transcription factors) facilitated the assignment of functional significance to probe set identifiers. We enhanced the biological relevance of our microarray data by using a variety of curation approaches to increase the annotation of the Affymetrix GeneChip® Xenopus laevis Genome array. In addition, annotation analysis revealed the prevalence of inner ear transcripts represented by probe set identifiers that lack functional characterization. Conclusions We identified an abundance of targets for genetic analysis of auditory and vestibular function. The orthologues to human genes with known inner ear function and the highly expressed transcripts that lack annotation are particularly interesting candidates for future analyses. We used informatics approaches to impart biologically relevant information to the Xenopus inner ear transcriptome, thereby addressing the

  18. Alternative splicing of inner-ear-expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanfei; Liu, Yueyue; Nie, Hongyun; Ma, Xin; Xu, Zhigang

    2016-09-01

    Alternative splicing plays a fundamental role in the development and physiological function of the inner ear. Inner-ear-specific gene splicing is necessary to establish the identity and maintain the function of the inner ear. For example, exon 68 of Cadherin 23 (Cdh23) gene is subject to inner-ear-specific alternative splicing, and as a result, Cdh23(+ 68) is only expressed in inner ear hair cells. Alternative splicing along the tonotopic axis of the cochlea contributes to frequency tuning, particularly in lower vertebrates, such as chickens and turtles. Differential splicing of Kcnma1, which encodes for the α subunit of the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (BK channel), has been suggested to affect the channel gating properties and is important for frequency tuning. Consequently, deficits in alternative splicing have been shown to cause hearing loss, as we can observe in Bronx Waltzer (bv) mice and Sfswap mutant mice. Despite the advances in this field, the regulation of alternative splicing in the inner ear remains elusive. Further investigation is also needed to clarify the mechanism of hearing loss caused by alternative splicing deficits.

  19. A System to Simulate and Reproduce Audio-Visual Environments for Spatial Hearing Research

    PubMed Central

    Seeber, Bernhard U.; Kerber, Stefan; Hafter, Ervin R.

    2009-01-01

    The article reports the experience gained from two implementations of the “Simulated Open-Field Environment” (SOFE), a setup that allows sounds to be played at calibrated levels over a wide frequency range from multiple loudspeakers in an anechoic chamber. Playing sounds from loudspeakers in the free-field has the advantage that each participant listens with their own ears, and individual characteristics of the ears are captured in the sound they hear. This makes an easy and accurate comparison between various listeners with and without hearing devices possible. The SOFE uses custom calibration software to assure individual equalization of each loudspeaker. Room simulation software creates the spatio-temporal reflection pattern of sound sources in rooms which is played via the SOFE loudspeakers. The sound playback system is complemented by a video projection facility which can be used to collect or give feedback or to study auditory-visual interaction. The article discusses acoustical and technical requirements for accurate sound playback against the specific needs in hearing research. An introduction to software concepts is given which allow easy, high-level control of the setup and thus fast experimental development, turning the SOFE into a “Swiss army knife” tool for auditory, spatial hearing and audio-visual research. PMID:19909802

  20. A system to simulate and reproduce audio-visual environments for spatial hearing research.

    PubMed

    Seeber, Bernhard U; Kerber, Stefan; Hafter, Ervin R

    2010-02-01

    The article reports the experience gained from two implementations of the "Simulated Open-Field Environment" (SOFE), a setup that allows sounds to be played at calibrated levels over a wide frequency ran