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Sample records for ear lobe creases

  1. The Combined Effect of Ear Lobe Crease and Conventional Risk Factor in the Diagnosis of Angiographically Diagnosed Coronary Artery Disease and the Short-Term Prognosis in Patients Who Underwent Coronary Stents

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xuwei; Jiang, Yu; Wang, Ningfu; Shen, Yun; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhong, Yigang; Xu, Peng; Zhou, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The role of diagonal ear lobe crease (DELC) in coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis and prognosis remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to assess the combined effect of DELC with other conventional risk factors in the diagnosis and prognosis of CAD in Chinese patients who underwent angiography and coronary stent implantation. The study consisted of 956 consecutive patients who underwent angiography. The DELC was identified as no DELC, unilateral, and bilateral DELC. The conventional risk factors for CAD were recorded. Our dada showed that the overall presence of DELC is associated with CAD risk. Stratification analyses revealed that the diagnostic value of DELC was mostly significant in those with >4 risk factors. Also in patients with >4 risk factors, the presence of bilateral DELC remains to be associated with higher hs-CRP level, higher severity of CAD, and higher possibility of developing major adverse cardiac events after successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Our study confirmed the relation of DELC with CAD in Chinese patients; more importantly, our data suggest the combination of DELC and CAD risk factors will help to predict the incidence of CAD and may predict the prognosis after successfully PCI. PMID:26131833

  2. Two flaps and Z-plasty technique for correction of longitudinal ear lobe cleft.

    PubMed

    Lee, Paik-Kwon; Ju, Hong-Sil; Rhie, Jong-Won; Ahn, Sang-Tae

    2005-06-01

    Various surgical techniques have been reported for the correction of congenital ear lobe deformities. Our method, the two-flaps-and-Z-plasty technique, for correcting the longitudinal ear lobe cleft is presented. This technique is simple and easy to perform. It enables us to keep the bulkiness of the ear lobe with minimal tissue sacrifice, and to make a shorter operation scar. The small Z-plasty at the free ear lobe margin avoids notching deformity and makes the shape of the ear lobe smoother. The result is satisfactory in terms of matching the contralateral normal ear lobe in shape and symmetry.

  3. Simian crease

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a single line that runs across the palm of the hand. People most often have 3 creases in their palms. The crease is most often referred to as ... Distinct lines that form creases appear on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. ...

  4. A rare neoplastic growth on the ear lobe.

    PubMed

    Rovere, R K; Hilgert, S F; da Costa, P Camara; de Lima, A S

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of an 83-year-old previously healthy female patient presenting with a swiftly evolving erythematous violaceous, infiltrative, ulcerated onion like mass with hyperkeratotic surface on the left ear lobe. The lesion was excised and resulted as an atypical fibroxanthoma, an extremely rare neoplastic growth, being a superficial variant of pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma. A brief review of dia-gnosis, treatment and prognosis is discussed.

  5. Earlobe creases

    MedlinePlus

    ... ask questions about medical history and symptoms. These may include: When did you first notice the earlobe creases? What other symptoms or problems have you also noticed? Tests depend on the symptoms.

  6. Ear-lobe keloids: treatment by a protocol of surgical excision and immediate postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ragoowansi, R; Cornes, P G; Glees, J P; Powell, B W; Moss, A L

    2001-09-01

    There is no universally agreed policy for treating keloid scars of the ear lobe following piercing. We treated 35 patients (34 women) for high-risk ear-lobe keloids; the average age was 24 years (range: 16-44 years). All had failed to respond to prior treatment with massage and silicone, and corticosteroid injection. The keloids were excised extralesionally and the defects were closed with interrupted prolene sutures. The operative scar was covered with topical 2% lignocaine-0.25% chlorhexidine sterile lubricant gel under a transparent adhesive dressing. Adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy of 10 Gy, applied as 100 kV photons (4 mm high-voltage therapy (HVT) Al), was given within 24 h of surgery. All keloid scars were controlled at 4 weeks' follow-up. At 1 year, three out of 34 cases followed up had relapsed (probability of control: 91.2%). At 5 years, a further four out of the remaining 31 patients had relapsed (cumulative probability of control at 5 years: 79.4%). There were no cases of serious toxicity. Copyright 2001 The British Association of Plastic Surgeons.

  7. Improved analysis of palm creases

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Seo; Shin, Dong Sun; Jung, Wonsug

    2010-01-01

    Palm creases are helpful in revealing anthropologic characteristics and diagnosing chromosomal aberrations, and have been analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. However, previous methods of analyzing palm creases were not objective so that reproducibility could not be guaranteed. In this study, a more objective morphologic analysis of palm creases was developed. The features of the improved methods include the strict definition of major and minor palm creases and the systematic classification of major palm creases based on their relationships, branches, and variants. Furthermore, based on the analysis of 3,216 Koreans, palm creases were anthropologically interpreted. There was a tendency for palm creases to be evenly distributed on the palm, which was acknowledged by the relationship between major and minor creases as well as by the incidences of major creases types. This tendency was consistent with the role of palm creases to facilitate folding of palm skin. The union of major palm creases was frequent in males and right palms to have powerful hand grip. The new method of analyzing palm creases is expected to be widely used for anthropologic investigation and chromosomal diagnosis. PMID:21189999

  8. Generic Bistability in Creased Conical Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechenault, F.; Adda-Bedia, M.

    2015-12-01

    The emerging field of mechanical metamaterials has sought inspiration in the ancient art of origami as archetypal deployable structures that carry geometric rigidity, exhibit exotic material properties, and are potentially scalable. A promising venue to introduce functionality consists in coupling the elasticity of the sheet and the kinematics of the folds. In this spirit, we introduce a scale-free, analytical description of a very general class of snap-through, bistable patterns of creases naturally occurring at the vertices of real origami that can be used as building blocks to program and actuate the overall shape of the decorated sheet. These switches appear at the simplest possible level of creasing and admit straightforward experimental realizations.

  9. Dimension-controlled formation of crease patterns on soft solids.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shan; Gao, Bo; Zhou, Zhiheng; Gu, Qiang; Guo, Tianfu

    2017-01-18

    Soft solids such as PDMS or silicone are widely needed in many advanced applications such as flexible electronics and medical engineering. The ability to control the structure and properties of the surface of soft solids provides new opportunities in these applications. In particular, mechanical loading induced elastic instability is a convenient method to control the surface morphology. The critical strain at which the crease nucleates is experimentally measured under plane strain conditions, and is found to be consistent with that predicted by nonlinear large deformation theory of creases. Under compressive loading, we find that silicone undergoes a transition of creasing pattern from a single channeling or double channeling crease to an unchanneling crease, depending on the specimen's width and height. Finite element simulations are performed to better understand the underlying mechanism of creasing, wherein a relationship between the depth and spacing of the creases is established. It is found to be in good agreement with the experimental data obtained.

  10. Effectiveness of Ear Splint Therapy for Ear Deformities

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To present our experience with ear splint therapy for babies with ear deformities, and thereby demonstrate that this therapy is an effective and safe intervention without significant complications. Methods This was a retrospective study of 54 babies (35 boys and 19 girls; 80 ears; age ≤3 months) with ear deformities who had received ear splint therapy at the Center for Torticollis, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ajou University Hospital between December 2014 and February 2016. Before the initiation of ear splint therapy, ear deformities were classified with reference to the standard terminology. We compared the severity of ear deformity before and after ear splint therapy by using the physician's ratings. We also compared the physician's ratings and the caregiver's ratings on completion of ear splint therapy. Results Among these 54 babies, 41 children (58 ears, 72.5%) completed the ear splint therapy. The mean age at initiation of therapy was 52.91±18.26 days and the treatment duration was 44.27±32.06 days. Satyr ear, forward-facing ear lobe, Darwinian notch, overfolded ear, and cupped ear were the five most common ear deformities. At the completion of therapy, the final physician's ratings of ear deformities were significantly improved compared to the initial ratings (8.28±1.44 vs. 2.51±0.92; p<0.001). There was no significant difference between the physician's ratings and the caregiver's ratings at the completion of ear splint therapy (8.28±1.44 vs. 8.0±1.61; p=0.297). Conclusion We demonstrated that ear splint therapy significantly improved ear deformities in babies, as measured by quantitative rating scales. Ear splint therapy is an effective and safe intervention for babies with ear deformities. PMID:28289646

  11. Ear Infection (Middle Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    ... secretions from the middle ear Swelling, inflammation and mucus in the eustachian tubes from an upper respiratory ... your baby for at least six months. Breast milk contains antibodies that may offer protection from ear ...

  12. A Universal Crease Pattern for Folding Orthogonal Shapes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-29

    We present a universal crease pattern--known in geometry as the tetrakis tiling and in origami as box pleating--that can fold into any object made up...to be folded. This result contrasts previous universality results for origami , which require a different crease pattern for each target object, and...confirms intuition in the origami community that box pleating is a powerful design technique.

  13. Characterization of Creases in Polymers for Adaptive Origami Structures (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Techniques employed in origami are of interest for the design of actuating structures with multiple defined geometric states. Most research in this...studied in detail. Understanding creasing is crucial for establishing material selection guidelines in origami engineering applications...Identification of the precise failure mechanisms is critical for understanding the residual fold angle and selecting optimal materials for specific origami

  14. Ear Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... most common illness in infants and young children. Tinnitus, a roaring in your ears, can be the ... problems in your inner ear; its symptoms include tinnitus and dizziness. Ear barotrauma is an injury to ...

  15. Swimmer's Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eardrum Taking Care of Your Ears Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Your Ears What's Earwax? How Do Pain Relievers Work? View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  16. Ear wax

    MedlinePlus

    See your provider if your ears are blocked with wax and you are unable to remove the wax. Also call if you have an ear wax blockage and you develop new symptoms, such as: Drainage from the ear Ear pain Fever Hearing loss that continues after you clean the wax

  17. Ear Pieces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

  18. Ear discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... swabs or other small objects into the ear Middle ear infection Other causes of ear discharge include: Eczema ... tube surgery - what to ask your doctor Images Ear anatomy Eardrum repair - series References Bauer CA, Jenkins HA. Otologic symptoms and syndromes. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et ...

  19. Buckling of an Elastic Ridge: Competition between Wrinkles and Creases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestringant, C.; Maurini, C.; Lazarus, A.; Audoly, B.

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the elastic buckling of a triangular prism made of a soft elastomer. A face of the prism is bonded to a stiff slab that imposes an average axial compression. We observe two possible buckling modes which are localized along the free ridge. For ridge angles ϕ below a critical value ϕ⋆≈9 0 ° , experiments reveal an extended sinusoidal mode, while for ϕ above ϕ⋆, we observe a series of creases progressively invading the lateral faces starting from the ridge. A numerical linear stability analysis is set up using the finite-element method and correctly predicts the sinusoidal mode for ϕ ≤ϕ⋆, as well as the associated critical strain ɛc(ϕ ). The experimental transition at ϕ⋆ is found to occur when this critical strain ɛc(ϕ ) attains the value ɛc(ϕ⋆)=0.44 corresponding to the threshold of the subcritical surface creasing instability. Previous analyses have focused on elastic crease patterns appearing on planar surfaces, where the role of scale invariance has been emphasized; our analysis of the elastic ridge provides a different perspective, and reveals that scale invariance is not a sufficient condition for localization.

  20. Geometrically controlled snapping transitions in shells with curved creases.

    PubMed

    Bende, Nakul Prabhakar; Evans, Arthur A; Innes-Gold, Sarah; Marin, Luis A; Cohen, Itai; Hayward, Ryan C; Santangelo, Christian D

    2015-09-08

    Curvature and mechanics are intimately connected for thin materials, and this coupling between geometry and physical properties is readily seen in folded structures from intestinal villi and pollen grains to wrinkled membranes and programmable metamaterials. While the well-known rules and mechanisms behind folding a flat surface have been used to create deployable structures and shape transformable materials, folding of curved shells is still not fundamentally understood. Shells naturally deform by simultaneously bending and stretching, and while this coupling gives them great stability for engineering applications, it makes folding a surface of arbitrary curvature a nontrivial task. Here we discuss the geometry of folding a creased shell, and demonstrate theoretically the conditions under which it may fold smoothly. When these conditions are violated we show, using experiments and simulations, that shells undergo rapid snapping motion to fold from one stable configuration to another. Although material asymmetry is a proven mechanism for creating this bifurcation of stability, for the case of a creased shell, the inherent geometry itself serves as a barrier to folding. We discuss here how two fundamental geometric concepts, creases and curvature, combine to allow rapid transitions from one stable state to another. Independent of material system and length scale, the design rule that we introduce here explains how to generate snapping transitions in arbitrary surfaces, thus facilitating the creation of programmable multistable materials with fast actuation capabilities.

  1. Path Searching Based Crease Detection for Large Scale Scanned Document Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jifu; Li, Yi; Li, Shutao; Sun, Bin; Sun, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Since the large size documents are usually folded for preservation, creases will occur in the scanned images. In this paper, a crease detection method is proposed to locate the crease pixels for further processing. According to the imaging process of contactless scanners, the shading on both sides of the crease usually varies a lot. Based on this observation, a convex hull based algorithm is adopted to extract the shading information of the scanned image. Then, the possible crease path can be achieved by applying the vertical filter and morphological operations on the shading image. Finally, the accurate crease is detected via Dijkstra path searching. Experimental results on the dataset of real scanned newspapers demonstrate that the proposed method can obtain accurate locations of the creases in the large size document images.

  2. Airplane Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... to severe hearing loss Ringing in your ear (tinnitus) Spinning sensation (vertigo) Vomiting resulting from vertigo Bleeding ... complications may include: Permanent hearing loss Ongoing (chronic) tinnitus Prevention Follow these tips to avoid airplane ear: ...

  3. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... ear anatomy Otoscopic exam of the ear References King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ...

  4. Elephant ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002867.htm Elephant ear poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Elephant ear plants are indoor or outdoor plants with ...

  5. Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protect your hearing by wearing earplugs at loud music concerts and around noisy machinery, like in wood ... More on this topic for: Kids Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? ...

  6. Ear Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  7. Ear Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... may have OTITIS MEDIA, an infection of the middle ear. Self CareSee your doctor. Many ear infections will ... half-alcohol, half-white vinegar solution in the ear before and after swimming or ... JOINT (TMJ) SYNDROME, a disorder that affects the jaw joint, may ...

  8. Palmar Creases: Classification, Reliability and Relationships to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD).

    PubMed

    Mattison, Siobhán M; Brunson, Emily K; Holman, Darryl J

    2015-09-01

    A normal human palm contains 3 major creases: the distal transverse crease; the proximal transverse crease; and the thenar crease. Because permanent crease patterns are thought to be laid down during the first trimester, researchers have speculated that deviations in crease patterns could be indicative of insults during fetal development. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to compare the efficacy and reliability of two coding methods, the first (M1) classifying both "simiana" and Sydney line variants and the second (M2) counting the total number of crease points of origin on the radial border of the hand; and (2) to ascertain the relationship between palmar crease patterns and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Bilateral palm prints were taken using the carbon paper and tape method from 237 individuals diagnosed with FASD and 190 unexposed controls. All prints were coded for crease variants under M1 and M2. Additionally, a random sample of 98 matched (right and left) prints was selected from the controls to determine the reliabilities of M1 and M2. For this analysis, each palm was read twice, at different times, by two readers. Intra-observer Kappa coefficients were similar under both methods, ranging from 0.804-0.910. Inter-observer Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.582-0.623 under M1 and from 0.647-0.757 under M2. Using data from the entire sample of 427 prints and controlling for sex and ethnicity (white v. non-white), no relationship was found between palmar crease variants and FASD. Our results suggest that palmar creases can be classified reliably, but palmar crease patterns may not be affected by fetal alcohol exposure.

  9. The Versatile Lid Crease Approach to Upper Eyelid Margin Rotation.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Antonio A V; Akaishi, Patricia M S; Al-Dufaileej, Mohammed; Galindo-Ferreiro, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Lid margin rotational procedures have been used to correct cicatricial trachomatous entropion since the 19(th) century. There are two basic types of surgeries used for lid margin rotation. The first type is based on through-and-through approach combining tarsotomy and the use of sutures on the anterior lamella. The second type of surgery was suggested by Trabut, who proposed a tarsal advancement by posterior approach. We demonstrate that using a lid crease incision combines the basic mechanisms of the anterior and posterior approaches and in addition, addresses a variety of lid problems commonly found in the aged population with cicatricial entropion. After tarsal plate exposure, a tarsotomy through conjunctiva is performed as described by Trabut. Then, instead of using external sutures secured by bolsters, internal absorbable sutures can be used to simultaneously advance the distal tarsal fragment and exert strong tension on the marginal orbicularis muscle. Sixty lids of 40 patients underwent surgery with a lid crease incision. The follow-up ranged from 1 to 12 months (mean 3.0 months ± 2.71). Forty percent of the patients (24 lids) had more than 3 months of follow-up. Adequate margin rotation was achieved in all lids but one that showed a medial eyelash touching the cornea.

  10. Multi-crease Self-folding by Global Heating.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Shuhei; Onal, Cagdas D; Rus, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates a new approach to autonomous folding for the body of a 3D robot from a 2D sheet, using heat. We approach this challenge by folding a 0.27-mm sheetlike material into a structure. We utilize the thermal deformation of a contractive sheet sandwiched by rigid structural layers. During this baking process, the heat applied on the entire sheet induces contraction of the contracting layer and thus forms an instructed bend in the sheet. To attain the targeted folding angles, the V-fold spans method is used. The targeted angle θout can be kinematically encoded into crease geometry. The realization of this angle in the folded structure can be approximately controlled by a contraction angle θin. The process is non-reversible, is reliable, and is relatively fast. Our method can be applied simultaneously to all the folds in multi-crease origami structures. We demonstrate the use of this method to create a lightweight mobile robot.

  11. Sampling and Visualizing Creases with Scale-Space Particles

    PubMed Central

    Kindlmann, Gordon L.; Estépar, Raúl San José; Smith, Stephen M.; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    Particle systems have gained importance as a methodology for sampling implicit surfaces and segmented objects to improve mesh generation and shape analysis. We propose that particle systems have a significantly more general role in sampling structure from unsegmented data. We describe a particle system that computes samplings of crease features (i.e. ridges and valleys, as lines or surfaces) that effectively represent many anatomical structures in scanned medical data. Because structure naturally exists at a range of sizes relative to the image resolution, computer vision has developed the theory of scale-space, which considers an n-D image as an (n + 1)-D stack of images at different blurring levels. Our scale-space particles move through continuous four-dimensional scale-space according to spatial constraints imposed by the crease features, a particle-image energy that draws particles towards scales of maximal feature strength, and an inter-particle energy that controls sampling density in space and scale. To make scale-space practical for large three-dimensional data, we present a spline-based interpolation across scale from a small number of pre-computed blurrings at optimally selected scales. The configuration of the particle system is visualized with tensor glyphs that display information about the local Hessian of the image, and the scale of the particle. We use scale-space particles to sample the complex three-dimensional branching structure of airways in lung CT, and the major white matter structures in brain DTI. PMID:19834216

  12. Finger vein recognition based on finger crease location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhiying; Ding, Shumeng; Yin, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Finger vein recognition technology has significant advantages over other methods in terms of accuracy, uniqueness, and stability, and it has wide promising applications in the field of biometric recognition. We propose using finger creases to locate and extract an object region. Then we use linear fitting to overcome the problem of finger rotation in the plane. The method of modular adaptive histogram equalization (MAHE) is presented to enhance image contrast and reduce computational cost. To extract the finger vein features, we use a fusion method, which can obtain clear and distinguishable vein patterns under different conditions. We used the Hausdorff average distance algorithm to examine the recognition performance of the system. The experimental results demonstrate that MAHE can better balance the recognition accuracy and the expenditure of time compared with three other methods. Our resulting equal error rate throughout the total procedure was 3.268% in a database of 153 finger vein images.

  13. Ear wax

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Ear wax only becomes a problem if it causes a hearing impairment or other ear-related symptoms. Ear wax is more likely to accumulate and cause a hearing impairment when normal extrusion is prevented — for example, by the use of hearing aids, or by the use of cotton buds to clean the ears. Ear wax can visually obscure the ear drum, and may need to be removed for diagnostic purposes. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of methods to remove ear wax? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found nine systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: ear syringing; manual removal (other than ear syringing); and wax softeners (alone or prior to syringing). PMID:19450340

  14. Ear Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1/20th of an inch) that could allow water to enter the middle ear, research studies show no benefit in keeping the ears dry and current guidelines do not recommend routine water precautions. Therefore, you do not need to restrict ...

  15. Ear tag

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ear tag or pit are: An inherited tendency to have this facial feature A genetic syndrome ... Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2016:chap 19. Review Date 4/24/2017 Updated by: Liora C Adler, MD, ...

  16. Swimmer's ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... often gets better with the proper treatment. Possible Complications The infection may spread to other areas around the ear, including the skull bone. In older people or those who have diabetes, the infection may become severe. This condition is ...

  17. Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... but they are less common. The infection usually affects the middle ear and is called otitis media. ... become clogged with fluid and mucus. This can affect hearing, because sound cannot get through all that ...

  18. Pierced Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... weeks. Then you can start enjoying your pierced ears again! Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: September ... All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, ...

  19. Ear emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... and ruptured eardrums can be caused by: Inserting cotton swabs, toothpicks, pins, pens, or other objects into ... The person will have severe pain. Place sterile cotton gently in the outer ear canal to keep ...

  20. Swimmer's Ear (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... scratching the ear canal, vigorous ear cleaning with cotton swabs, or putting foreign objects like bobby pins ... Also, never put objects into kids' ears, including cotton-tipped swabs. How Is Swimmer's Ear Treated? Treatment ...

  1. The effects of elastocapillary length on the surface creasing instability of hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouchi, Tetsu; Liu, Qihan; Suo, Zhigang; Hayward, Ryan

    Creasing is a mode of surface instability induced by compressing elastomers or gels. Formation of creases is known to proceed by a nucleation and growth process, and the critical nucleus size is thought to be determined by the elastocapillary length (defined by the ratio of surface tension to elastic modulus). Here, we vary the elastocapillary length over the range of 0.008 to 0.4 mm by preparing a series of soft hydrogels with different compositions and contacting them with humidified air. By rapidly applying compression, we are able to achieve strains that exceed the Maxwell strain (where creases become favorable compared to a flat surface) by more than 0.10, and which approach Biot's prediction for linear instability of a compressed half-space. Regardless of the conditions, however, we observe formation of creases only by nucleation and growth, although the density of nucleation sites is found to be sensitive to elastocapillary length. Interestingly, fast propagation of creases (at velocities similar to the speed of sound in the material) are found at strains approaching Biot's point.

  2. Finger crease pattern recognition using Legendre moments and principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Rongfang; Lin, Tusheng

    2007-03-01

    The finger joint lines defined as finger creases and its distribution can identify a person. In this paper, we propose a new finger crease pattern recognition method based on Legendre moments and principal component analysis (PCA). After obtaining the region of interest (ROI) for each finger image in the pre-processing stage, Legendre moments under Radon transform are applied to construct a moment feature matrix from the ROI, which greatly decreases the dimensionality of ROI and can represent principal components of the finger creases quite well. Then, an approach to finger crease pattern recognition is designed based on Karhunen-Loeve (K-L) transform. The method applies PCA to a moment feature matrix rather than the original image matrix to achieve the feature vector. The proposed method has been tested on a database of 824 images from 103 individuals using the nearest neighbor classifier. The accuracy up to 98.584% has been obtained when using 4 samples per class for training. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed approach is feasible and effective in biometrics.

  3. An elastic dimpling instability with Kosterlitz-Thouless character and a precursor role in creasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engstrom, Tyler; Paulsen, Joseph; Schwarz, Jennifer

    Creasing instability, also known as sulcification, occurs in a variety of quasi-2d elastic systems subject to compressive plane strain, and has been proposed as a mechanism of brain folding. While the dynamics of pre-existing creases can be understood in terms of crack propagation, a detailed critical phenomena picture of the instability is lacking. We show that surface dimpling is an equilibrium phase transition, and can be described in a language of quasi-particle excitations conceptualized as ``ghost fibers'' within the shear lag model. Tension-compression pairs (dipoles) of ghost fibers are energetically favorable at low strains, and the pairs unbind at a critical compressive plane strain, analogously to vortices in the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. This dimpling transition bears strong resemblance to the creasing instability. We argue that zero-length creases are ghost fibers, which are a special case of ``ghost slabs''. Critical strain of a ghost slab increases linearly with its length, and is independent of both shear modulus and system thickness.

  4. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Debris removal, antibiotic ear drops, keeping water and cotton swabs out of the ear, and pain relievers ... Injuring the ear canal while cleaning it (using cotton swabs) or getting water or irritants, such as ...

  5. Ear Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Inserting something into the ear. Things like a cotton swab, fingernail, or pencil can scratch the ear ... Never stick anything in their ears — not even cotton swabs or their fingers. Regular bathing should be ...

  6. Mobile assemblies of Bennett linkages from four-crease origami patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao; Chen, Yan

    2018-02-01

    This paper deals with constructing mobile assemblies of Bennett linkages inspired by four-crease origami patterns. A transition technique has been proposed by taking the thick-panel form of an origami pattern as an intermediate bridge. A zero-thickness rigid origami pattern and its thick-panel form share the same sector angles and folding behaviours, while the thick-panel origami and the mobile assembly of linkages are kinematically equivalent with differences only in link profiles. Applying this transition technique to typical four-crease origami patterns, we have found that the Miura-ori and graded Miura-ori patterns lead to assemblies of Bennett linkages with identical link lengths. The supplementary-type origami patterns with different mountain-valley crease assignments correspond to different types of Bennett linkage assemblies with negative link lengths. And the identical linkage-type origami pattern generates a new mobile assembly. Hence, the transition technique offers a novel approach to constructing mobile assemblies of spatial linkages from origami patterns.

  7. Mobile assemblies of Bennett linkages from four-crease origami patterns.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Chen, Yan

    2018-02-01

    This paper deals with constructing mobile assemblies of Bennett linkages inspired by four-crease origami patterns. A transition technique has been proposed by taking the thick-panel form of an origami pattern as an intermediate bridge. A zero-thickness rigid origami pattern and its thick-panel form share the same sector angles and folding behaviours, while the thick-panel origami and the mobile assembly of linkages are kinematically equivalent with differences only in link profiles. Applying this transition technique to typical four-crease origami patterns, we have found that the Miura-ori and graded Miura-ori patterns lead to assemblies of Bennett linkages with identical link lengths. The supplementary-type origami patterns with different mountain-valley crease assignments correspond to different types of Bennett linkage assemblies with negative link lengths. And the identical linkage-type origami pattern generates a new mobile assembly. Hence, the transition technique offers a novel approach to constructing mobile assemblies of spatial linkages from origami patterns.

  8. Frontal Lobe Seizures

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause of frontal lobe epilepsy remains unknown. Complications Status epilepticus. Frontal lobe seizures tend to occur in clusters and may provoke a dangerous condition called status epilepticus — in which seizure activity lasts much longer than ...

  9. Ear infection - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... Chole RA. Chronic otitis media, mastoiditis, and petrositis. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. ...

  10. Ear drainage culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... needed. Your health care provider will use a cotton swab to collect the sample from inside the ... Using a cotton swab to take a sample of drainage from the outer ear is not painful. However, ear pain may ...

  11. Swimmer's Ear (External Otitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... t help, your doctor might prescribe a stronger pain reliever. You'll use this only for a short time — until the ear drops and antibiotics begin to work. To protect your ear while it heals, your ...

  12. Taking Care of Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Audiologist Perforated Eardrum What's Hearing Loss? Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? Swimmer's Ear Your Ears What's Earwax? View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  13. Palaeopathology of the earlobe crease (Frank's sign): New insights from Renaissance art.

    PubMed

    Galassi, Francesco M; Borghi, Claudio; Ballestriero, Roberta; Habicht, Michael E; Henneberg, Maciej; Rühli, Frank J

    2017-06-01

    Several studies have associated the earlobe crease sign, discovered by Sanders T. Frank in 1973, with cardiovascular pathology, yet very few studies have focused on the antiquity of this trait, with the most ancient one thought to date back to the Roman Emperor Hadrian (76-138CE). This article presents two more cases from the Italian Renaissance in the works of the artist Andrea Mantegna (1431-1506) and examines them in a multidisciplinary fashion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Frontal lobe function in temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Stretton, J.; Thompson, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is typically associated with long-term memory dysfunction. The frontal lobes support high-level cognition comprising executive skills and working memory that is vital for daily life functioning. Deficits in these functions have been increasingly reported in TLE. Evidence from both the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature suggests both executive function and working memory are compromised in the presence of TLE. In relation to executive impairment, particular focus has been paid to set shifting as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task. Other discrete executive functions such as decision-making and theory of mind also appear vulnerable but have received little attention. With regard to working memory, the medial temporal lobe structures appear have a more critical role, but with emerging evidence of hippocampal dependent and independent processes. The relative role of underlying pathology and seizure spread is likely to have considerable bearing upon the cognitive phenotype and trajectory in TLE. The identification of the nature of frontal lobe dysfunction in TLE thus has important clinical implications for prognosis and surgical management. Longitudinal neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies assessing frontal lobe function in TLE patients pre- and postoperatively will improve our understanding further. PMID:22100147

  15. Wrinkles and creases in the bending, unbending and eversion of soft sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigaeva, Taisiya; Mangan, Robert; Vergori, Luigi; Destrade, Michel; Sudak, Les

    2018-04-01

    We study what is clearly one of the most common modes of deformation found in nature, science and engineering, namely the large elastic bending of curved structures, as well as its inverse, unbending, which can be brought beyond complete straightening to turn into eversion. We find that the suggested mathematical solution to these problems always exists and is unique when the solid is modelled as a homogeneous, isotropic, incompressible hyperelastic material with a strain-energy satisfying the strong ellipticity condition. We also provide explicit asymptotic solutions for thin sectors. When the deformations are severe enough, the compressed side of the elastic material may buckle and wrinkles could then develop. We analyse, in detail, the onset of this instability for the Mooney-Rivlin strain energy, which covers the cases of the neo-Hookean model in exact nonlinear elasticity and of third-order elastic materials in weakly nonlinear elasticity. In particular, the associated theoretical and numerical treatment allows us to predict the number and wavelength of the wrinkles. Guided by experimental observations, we finally look at the development of creases, which we simulate through advanced finite-element computations. In some cases, the linearized analysis allows us to predict correctly the number and the wavelength of the creases, which turn out to occur only a few per cent of strain earlier than the wrinkles.

  16. Designing of self-deploying origami structures using geometrically misaligned crease patterns

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Kazuya; Tsukahara, Akira; Okabe, Yoji

    2016-01-01

    Usually, origami-based morphing structures are designed on the premise of ‘rigid folding’, i.e. the facets and fold lines of origami can be replaced with rigid panels and ideal hinges, respectively. From a structural mechanics viewpoint, some rigid-foldable origami models are overconstrained and have negative degrees of freedom (d.f.). In these cases, the singularity in crease patterns guarantees their rigid foldability. This study presents a new method for designing self-deploying origami using the geometrically misaligned creases. In this method, some facets are replaced by ‘holes’ such that the systems become a 1-d.f. mechanism. These perforated origami models can be folded and unfolded similar to rigid-foldable (without misalignment) models because of their d.f. focusing on the removed facets, the holes will deform according to the motion of the frame of the remaining parts. In the proposed method, these holes are filled with elastic parts and store elastic energy for self-deployment. First, a new extended rigid-folding simulation technique is proposed to estimate the deformation of the holes. Next, the proposed method is applied on arbitrary-size quadrilateral mesh origami. Finally, by using the finite-element method, the authors conduct numerical simulations and confirm the deployment capabilities of the models. PMID:26997884

  17. Designing of self-deploying origami structures using geometrically misaligned crease patterns.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kazuya; Tsukahara, Akira; Okabe, Yoji

    2016-01-01

    Usually, origami-based morphing structures are designed on the premise of 'rigid folding', i.e. the facets and fold lines of origami can be replaced with rigid panels and ideal hinges, respectively. From a structural mechanics viewpoint, some rigid-foldable origami models are overconstrained and have negative degrees of freedom (d.f.). In these cases, the singularity in crease patterns guarantees their rigid foldability. This study presents a new method for designing self-deploying origami using the geometrically misaligned creases. In this method, some facets are replaced by 'holes' such that the systems become a 1-d.f. mechanism. These perforated origami models can be folded and unfolded similar to rigid-foldable (without misalignment) models because of their d.f. focusing on the removed facets, the holes will deform according to the motion of the frame of the remaining parts. In the proposed method, these holes are filled with elastic parts and store elastic energy for self-deployment. First, a new extended rigid-folding simulation technique is proposed to estimate the deformation of the holes. Next, the proposed method is applied on arbitrary-size quadrilateral mesh origami. Finally, by using the finite-element method, the authors conduct numerical simulations and confirm the deployment capabilities of the models.

  18. Mutations in Either TUBB or MAPRE2 Cause Circumferential Skin Creases Kunze Type

    PubMed Central

    Isrie, Mala; Breuss, Martin; Tian, Guoling; Hansen, Andi Harley; Cristofoli, Francesca; Morandell, Jasmin; Kupchinsky, Zachari A.; Sifrim, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Celia Maria; Dapena, Elena Porta; Doonanco, Kurston; Leonard, Norma; Tinsa, Faten; Moortgat, Stéphanie; Ulucan, Hakan; Koparir, Erkan; Karaca, Ender; Katsanis, Nicholas; Marton, Valeria; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Davis, Erica E.; Cowan, Nicholas J.; Keays, David Anthony; Van Esch, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    Circumferential skin creases Kunze type (CSC-KT) is a specific congenital entity with an unknown genetic cause. The disease phenotype comprises characteristic circumferential skin creases accompanied by intellectual disability, a cleft palate, short stature, and dysmorphic features. Here, we report that mutations in either MAPRE2 or TUBB underlie the genetic origin of this syndrome. MAPRE2 encodes a member of the microtubule end-binding family of proteins that bind to the guanosine triphosphate cap at growing microtubule plus ends, and TUBB encodes a β-tubulin isotype that is expressed abundantly in the developing brain. Functional analyses of the TUBB mutants show multiple defects in the chaperone-dependent tubulin heterodimer folding and assembly pathway that leads to a compromised yield of native heterodimers. The TUBB mutations also have an impact on microtubule dynamics. For MAPRE2, we show that the mutations result in enhanced MAPRE2 binding to microtubules, implying an increased dwell time at microtubule plus ends. Further, in vivo analysis of MAPRE2 mutations in a zebrafish model of craniofacial development shows that the variants most likely perturb the patterning of branchial arches, either through excessive activity (under a recessive paradigm) or through haploinsufficiency (dominant de novo paradigm). Taken together, our data add CSC-KT to the growing list of tubulinopathies and highlight how multiple inheritance paradigms can affect dosage-sensitive biological systems so as to result in the same clinical defect. PMID:26637975

  19. Cauliflower ear dissection.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Masao; Suzuki, Ayano; Nagata, Takeshi; Fukamizu, Hidekazu

    2011-11-01

    Cauliflower ear (CE) is caused by repeated direct trauma to the external ear. Surgical correction of an established CE is one of the most challenging problems in ear reconstruction. However, no reports have clarified the dissection of an established CE in detail. In this report, the dissection of a CE is described based on macroscopic, microscopic and imaging features. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Alteration of Duration Mismatch Negativity Induced by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Over the Left Parietal Lobe.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Hirokazu; Shiga, Tetsuya; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Yabe, Hirooki

    2017-01-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is generated by a comparison between an incoming sound and the memory trace of preceding sounds stored in sensory memory without any attention to the sound. N100 (N1) is associated with the afferent response to sound onset and reflects early analysis of stimulus characteristics. MMN generators are present in the temporal and frontal lobe, and N1 generators are present in the temporal lobe. The parietal lobe is involved in MMN generation elicited by a change in duration. The anatomical network connecting these areas, lateralization, and the effect of the side of ear stimulation on MMN remain unknown. Thus, we studied the effects of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left parietal lobe on MMN and N1 in 10 healthy subjects. Low-frequency rTMS over the left parietal lobe decreased the amplitude of MMN following right ear sound stimulation, but the amplitude was unaffected with left ear sound stimulation. We observed no significant changes in the amplitude of N1 or the latency of MMN or N1. These results suggest that low-frequency rTMS over the left parietal lobe modulates the detection of early auditory changes in duration in healthy subjects. Stimulation that is contralateral to the side of the ear experiencing sound may affect the generation of duration MMN more than ipsilateral stimulation. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2016.

  1. The effect of image alterations on identification using palmar flexion creases.

    PubMed

    Cook, Tom; Sutton, Raul; Buckley, Kevan

    2013-11-01

    Palmprints are identified using matching of minutia points, which can be time consuming for fingerprint experts and in database searches. This article analyzes the operational characteristics of a palmar flexion crease (PFC) identification software tool, using a dataset of 10 replicates of 100 palms, where the user can label and match palmar line features. Results show that 100 palmprint images modified 10 times each using rotation, translation, and additive noise, mimicking some of the characteristics found in crime scene palmar marks, can be identified with a 99.2% genuine acceptance rate and 0% false acceptance rate when labeled within 3.5 mm of the PFC. Partial palmprint images can also be identified using the same method to filter the dataset prior to traditional matching, while maintaining an effective genuine acceptance rate. The work shows that identification using PFCs can improve palmprint identification through integration with existing systems, and through dedicated palmprint identification applications. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Upper lid crease approach for margin rotation in trachomatous cicatricial entropion without external sutures.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Antonio Augusto Velasco E; Akaishi, Patricia M S; Al-Dufaileej, Mohammed; Galindo-Ferreiro, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    To describe the use of a lid crease incision for upper eyelid margin rotation in cicatricial entropion combining internal traction on the anterior lamella, tarsotomy, and tarsal overlap without external sutures. Surgical description: The main steps of the procedure consisted of exposure of the entire tarsal plate up to the eyelashes followed by tarsotomy through the conjunctiva. A double-armed 6.0 polyglactin suture was then passed through the distal tarsal fragment to the marginal section of the orbicularis oculi muscle. As the sutures were tied, the distal tarsus advanced over the marginal section, and traction was exerted on the marginal strip of the orbicularis muscle. There were no bolsters or external knots. The pretarsal skin-muscle flap was closed with a 6.0 plain gut suture. We used this procedure at a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia from 2013 to 2014. Sixty upper lids of 40 patients (23 women and 17 men) were operated on, with an age range of 44-99 years [mean ± standard deviation (SD) = 70.9 ± 13.01 years]. Bilateral surgery was performed on 21 patients. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 12 months (mean 3.0 ± 2.71 months). Forty percent of the patients (24 lids) had more than 3 months' follow-up. The postoperative lid margin position was good in all cases. Trichiasis (two lashes) was observed in only one patient with unilateral entropion on the medial aspect of the operated lid. The upper lid margin can be effectively rotated through a lid crease incision with internal sutures. The technique combines the main mechanisms of the Wies and Trabut approaches and avoids the use of bolsters or external sutures, which require a second consultation to be removed. Some other lid problems, such as ptosis, retraction, or dermatochalasis, can be concomitantly addressed during the procedure.

  3. Morphological Variations and Biometrics of Ear: An Aid to Personal Identification.

    PubMed

    Verma, Pradhuman; Sandhu, Harpreet Kaur; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Goyal, Sharry; Sudan, Madhu; Ladgotra, Amit

    2016-05-01

    The morphological characteristics and dimensions of external ear vary in different human ethnic races which can be utilized in forensics for personal identification of living or deceased. To determine uniqueness of morphological and biometric variations of both ears for individualization among North East (NE) and North West (NW) subpopulation of India. The study was conducted on randomly selected 80 students, 40 from each subgroup. Nine ear parameters were recorded twice using digital Vernier's caliper by single investigator and two indices (Ear Index and Lobule Index) were calculated for both the ears. Morphological ear shapes and lobule attachment were also noted. Pearson's coefficient correlation test was performed on cross-tabulations to evaluate significant relationship between different variables. Of the total 35% free and 65% attached ear lobes were noted in both population groups. Oval ear shape was most commonly noted followed by triangular, rectangular and round in both populations. On comparing anthropometric measurements of ears in two populations it was found that except the tragus length and lobule index all other values were noted more in NW population. No statistical difference was found in ear and lobular indices of males and females although the left ear index and lobule index were found to be higher than right in both populations except in NW females where right lobule index was recorded more than left. The results obtained can be used in anthropological and forensic sciences for the inclusion and exclusion of persons for identification on the basis of ear variations.

  4. Ear tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    ... eardrum may cause some hearing loss. But most children do not have long-term damage to their hearing or speech, even when the ... not go away with treatment, or if a child has many ear infections ... or that damages nearby nerves Injury to the ear after sudden ...

  5. Inner ear disorders.

    PubMed

    Smouha, Eric

    2013-01-01

    To present a framework for the diagnosis and treatment of inner ear disorders, with an emphasis on problems common to neuro-rehabilitation. Disorders of the inner ear can cause hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo and imbalance. Hearing loss can be conductive, sensorineural, or mixed; conductive hearing loss arises from the ear canal or middle ear, while sensorineural hearing loss arises from the inner ear or auditory nerve. Vertigo is a hallucination of motion, and is the cardinal symptom of vestibular system disease. It should be differentiated from other causes of dizziness: gait imbalance, disequilibrium, lightheadedness (pre-syncope). Vertigo can be caused by problems in the inner ear or central nervous system. The diagnosis of inner ear disorders begins with a targeted physical examination. The initial work-up of hearing loss is made by audiometry, and vertigo by electronystagmography (ENG). Supplemental tests and MRI are obtained when clinically indicated. The clinical pattern and duration of vertigo are the most important clinical features in the diagnosis. Common inner ear causes of vertigo include: vestibular neuritis (sudden, unilateral vestibular loss), Meniere's disease (episodic vertigo), benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), and bilateral vestibular loss. Common central nervous system causes of vertigo include: post concussion syndrome, cervical vertigo, vestibular migraine, cerebrovascular disease, and acoustic neuroma. A basic knowledge of vestibular physiology, coupled with a understanding of common vestibular syndromes, will lead to correct diagnosis and treatment in most cases.

  6. Developed lower-positioned transverse ligament restricts eyelid opening and folding and determines Japanese as being with or without visible superior palpebral crease.

    PubMed

    Ban, Midori; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Ban, Ryokuya; Yuzuriha, Shunsuke; Kaneko, Ai

    2013-01-01

    We have reported that a developed lower-positioned transverse ligament between the superior-medial orbital rim and the lateral orbital rim on the lateral horn in the lower orbital fat space antagonizes eyelid opening and folding in certain Japanese to produce narrow eye, no visible superior palpebral crease, and full eyelid. In this study, we confirmed relationship between development of the lower-positioned transverse ligament and presence of the superior palpebral crease. We evaluated whether (1) digital immobilization of eyebrow movement during eyelid opening and (2) a developed lower-positioned transverse ligament could classify Japanese subjects as being with or without visible superior palpebral crease. Digital immobilization of eyebrow movement restricted eyelid opening in all subjects without visible superior palpebral crease but did not restrict in any subject with visible superior palpebral crease. Macroscopic and microscopic evidence revealed that the lower-positioned transverse ligament behind the lower orbital septum in subjects without visible superior palpebral crease was significantly more developed than that in subjects with visible superior palpebral crease. Since a developed lower-positioned transverse ligament antagonizes opening and folding of the anterior lamella of the upper eyelid in subjects without visible superior palpebral crease, these individuals open their eyelids by lifting the eyebrow with the anterior lamella and the lower-positioned transverse ligament owing to increased tonic contraction of the frontalis muscle, in addition to the retractile force of the levator aponeurotic expansions. In subjects with visible superior palpebral crease, the undeveloped lower-positioned transverse ligament does not antagonize opening and folding of the anterior lamella, and so they open their eyelids by folding the anterior lamella on the superior palpebral crease via the retractile force of the levator aponeurotic expansions.

  7. Developed Lower-Positioned Transverse Ligament Restricts Eyelid Opening and Folding and Determines Japanese as Being With or Without Visible Superior Palpebral Crease

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Midori; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Ban, Ryokuya; Yuzuriha, Shunsuke; Kaneko, Ai

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We have reported that a developed lower-positioned transverse ligament between the superior-medial orbital rim and the lateral orbital rim on the lateral horn in the lower orbital fat space antagonizes eyelid opening and folding in certain Japanese to produce narrow eye, no visible superior palpebral crease, and full eyelid. In this study, we confirmed relationship between development of the lower-positioned transverse ligament and presence of the superior palpebral crease. Methods: We evaluated whether (1) digital immobilization of eyebrow movement during eyelid opening and (2) a developed lower-positioned transverse ligament could classify Japanese subjects as being with or without visible superior palpebral crease. Results: Digital immobilization of eyebrow movement restricted eyelid opening in all subjects without visible superior palpebral crease but did not restrict in any subject with visible superior palpebral crease. Macroscopic and microscopic evidence revealed that the lower-positioned transverse ligament behind the lower orbital septum in subjects without visible superior palpebral crease was significantly more developed than that in subjects with visible superior palpebral crease. Conclusions: Since a developed lower-positioned transverse ligament antagonizes opening and folding of the anterior lamella of the upper eyelid in subjects without visible superior palpebral crease, these individuals open their eyelids by lifting the eyebrow with the anterior lamella and the lower-positioned transverse ligament owing to increased tonic contraction of the frontalis muscle, in addition to the retractile force of the levator aponeurotic expansions. In subjects with visible superior palpebral crease, the undeveloped lower-positioned transverse ligament does not antagonize opening and folding of the anterior lamella, and so they open their eyelids by folding the anterior lamella on the superior palpebral crease via the retractile force of the levator

  8. Frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kellinghaus, Christoph; Lüders, Hans O

    2004-12-01

    Frontal lobe epilepsy accounts for only 10-20% of the patients in surgical series, but the incidence in non-surgical patient cohorts seems to be much higher. The typical clinical presentation of the seizures includes contralateral clonic movements, uni- or bilateral tonic motor activity as well as complex automatism. The yield of surface EEG may be limited due to the difficulty in detection of mesial or basal foci, and the patient may be misdiagnosed as having non-epileptic events. In addition, in patients with mesial frontal foci the epileptiform discharges may be mislateralized ("paradoxical lateralization"). Therefore, epilepsy surgery has been commonly considered as less promising in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy. However, the advent of sophisticated neuroimaging techniques, particularly MRI with epilepsy-specific sequences, has made it possible to delineate the epileptogenic lesion and detect a specific etiology, in an increasing number of patients. Thus, the success rate of epilepsy surgery in frontal lobe epilepsy is currently comparable to temporal lobe epilepsy, if the candidates are carefully selected. Patients with frontal lobe epilepsy who do not respond to anticonvulsive medication, and who are not eligible for epilepsy surgery may benefit from alternative approaches such as electrical brain stimulation.

  9. The constricted ear.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Alfredo A; Williams, J Kerwin; Elsahy, Nabil I

    2002-04-01

    The constricted ear may be described best as a pursestring closure of the ear. The deformity may include lidding of the upper pole with downward folding, protrusion of the concha, decreased vertical height, and low ear position relative to the face. The goals of surgical correction should include obtaining symmetry and correcting the intra-auricular anatomy. The degree of intervention is based on the severity of the deformity and may range from simple repositioning, soft tissue rearrangement, or manipulation of the cartilage. Multiple surgical techniques are described.

  10. Red ear syndrome.

    PubMed

    Purdy, R Allan; Dodick, David W

    2007-08-01

    The red ear syndrome is a rare syndrome originally described by Lance in 1994. It involves pain in and around the ear and associated autonomic phenomena, the most significant of which is cutaneous erythema of the ear ipsilateral to the pain and obvious to the patient and examiner during the attack. It may well represent an auriculo-autonomic cephalgia and/or be part of the group of disorders recognized as trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. As a syndrome, it still lacks specificity in regard to etiology, mechanisms, and treatment but is important to recognize clinically because of its associations.

  11. Ear-EEG detects ictal and interictal abnormalities in focal and generalized epilepsy - A comparison with scalp EEG monitoring.

    PubMed

    Zibrandtsen, I C; Kidmose, P; Christensen, C B; Kjaer, T W

    2017-12-01

    Ear-EEG is recording of electroencephalography from a small device in the ear. This is the first study to compare ictal and interictal abnormalities recorded with ear-EEG and simultaneous scalp-EEG in an epilepsy monitoring unit. We recorded and compared simultaneous ear-EEG and scalp-EEG from 15 patients with suspected temporal lobe epilepsy. EEGs were compared visually by independent neurophysiologists. Correlation and time-frequency analysis was used to quantify the similarity between ear and scalp electrodes. Spike-averages were used to assess similarity of interictal spikes. There were no differences in sensitivity or specificity for seizure detection. Mean correlation coefficient between ear-EEG and nearest scalp electrode was above 0.6 with a statistically significant decreasing trend with increasing distance away from the ear. Ictal morphology and frequency dynamics can be observed from visual inspection and time-frequency analysis. Spike averages derived from ear-EEG electrodes yield a recognizable spike appearance. Our results suggest that ear-EEG can reliably detect electroencephalographic patterns associated with focal temporal lobe seizures. Interictal spike morphology from sufficiently large temporal spike sources can be sampled using ear-EEG. Ear-EEG is likely to become an important tool in clinical epilepsy monitoring and diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Neocortical Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Bercovici, Eduard; Kumar, Balagobal Santosh; Mirsattari, Seyed M.

    2012-01-01

    Complex partial seizures (CPSs) can present with various semiologies, while mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a well-recognized cause of CPS, neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy (nTLE) albeit being less common is increasingly recognized as separate disease entity. Differentiating the two remains a challenge for epileptologists as many symptoms overlap due to reciprocal connections between the neocortical and the mesial temporal regions. Various studies have attempted to correctly localize the seizure focus in nTLE as patients with this disorder may benefit from surgery. While earlier work predicted poor outcomes in this population, recent work challenges those ideas yielding good outcomes in part due to better localization using improved anatomical and functional techniques. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the diagnostic workup, particularly the application of recent advances in electroencephalography and functional brain imaging, in neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:22953057

  13. Cosmetic ear surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... ear reduction. In: Rubin JP, Neligan PC, eds. Plastic Surgery: Volume 2: Aesthetic Surgery . 4th ed. Philadelphia, ... Tang Ho, MD, Assistant Professor, Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology – Head and ...

  14. Complications of ear rings.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jennifer C E; O'Toole, Gregory

    2012-06-01

    In this paper the complications of ear piercing are considered and the treatment of resultant deformities is described. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... more than 6 children) Changes in altitude or climate Cold climate Exposure to smoke Family history of ear infections ... Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Internal review and update ...

  16. EAR Program Research Results

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-01-01

    The Exploratory Advanced Research (EAR) Program addresses the need for longer term, higher risk research with the potential for longterm improvements to transportation systems-improvements in planning, building, renewing, and operating safe, congesti...

  17. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Middle Ear Infections KidsHealth / For Parents / Middle Ear Infections What's ... en español Infecciones del oído medio What Are Middle Ear Infections? Ear infections happen when viruses or bacteria ...

  18. Catalog of Resources for Education in Ada (Trade Name) and Software Engineering (CREASE). Version 5.0.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    are eligible to participate in this course. This course is not offered for graduate credit. This course is taught by Timothy J. Fullam. For more...information on this course, contact Timothy J. Fullman at the above address and phone number. University of Alaska Southeast CREASE Version 5.0 13 CS 202...259 DATA STRUCTURES USING Ada University Offeror: Gallaudet University Department of Math/Computer Science Washington, DC 20002 (202) 651-5315 The

  19. Mesial frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Unnwongse, Kanjana; Wehner, Tim; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy

    2012-10-01

    Mesial frontal lobe epilepsies can be divided into epilepsies arising from the anterior cingulate gyrus and those of the supplementary sensorimotor area. They provide diagnostic challenges because they often lack lateralizing or localizing features on clinical semiology and interictal and ictal scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. A number of unique semiologic features have been described over the last decade in patients with mesial frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). There are few reports of applying advanced neurophysiologic techniques such as electrical source imaging, magnetoencephalography, EEG/functional magnetic resonance imaging, or analysis of high-frequency oscillations in patients with mesial FLE. Despite these diagnostic challenges, it seems that patients with mesial FLE benefit from epilepsy surgery to the same extent or even better than patients with FLE do, as a whole.

  20. Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infection? Swimmer's Ear Perforated Eardrum Hearing Impairment Swimmer's Ear (External ... All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, ...

  1. Listening to the ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shera, Christopher A.

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics-termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models-that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  2. Listening to the Ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shera, Christopher Alan

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics--termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models--that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus -frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  3. [Basics of Ear Surgery].

    PubMed

    Lailach, S; Zahnert, T

    2016-12-01

    The present article about the basics of ear surgery is a short overview of current indications, the required diagnostics and surgical procedures of common otologic diseases. In addition to plastic and reconstructive surgery of the auricle, principles of surgery of the external auditory canal, basics of middle ear surgery and the tumor surgery of the temporal bone are shown. Additionally, aspects of the surgical hearing rehabilitation (excluding implantable hearing systems) are presented considering current study results. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    MedlinePlus

    ... ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... to the eardrum) and the back of the nose and upper throat. ... down from high altitudes. Chewing gum the entire time you are ...

  5. What Is an Ear Infection?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hearing Loss? Taking Care of Your Ears Swimmer's Ear Perforated Eardrum What's Earwax? View ... All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, ...

  6. From Ear to Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

  7. Ear-protector ratings.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1973-12-01

    Twenty-one brands of ear protectors, including custom-molded, wearer-molded, and pre-molded types, were evaluated according to American-standard procedures. Earplugs are described and are listed in the order of their low-frequency (below 1000 Hz) att...

  8. Ear surgery - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Ear Disorders ...

  9. Ear Infections and Language Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.

    Ear infections in infants and preschoolers can cause mild or moderate temporary hearing loss, which may in turn affect a child's ability to understand and learn language. Noting that providing children with proper medical treatment for ear infections or middle ear fluid is important in preventing possible problems with language development, this…

  10. Ear Scaffold Reconstruction Using Ultrasonic Aspirator for Cauliflower Ear.

    PubMed

    Hao, Scarlett; Angster, Kristen; Hubbard, Fleesie; Greywoode, Jewel; Vakharia, Kalpesh T

    2018-04-01

    Untreated auricular hematomas from ear trauma can result in an ear deformation known as cauliflower ear, secondary to fibrosis and new cartilage overgrowth. Cauliflower ear reconstruction has traditionally utilized tools such as a drill or a scalpel in order to improve auricular cosmesis. We present a case report utilizing an ultrasonic aspirator to recontour the fibrosed cartilage of a cauliflower ear. The ultrasonic aspirator has advantages over traditional tools in its ability to provide finely controlled bone removal without damage to surrounding soft tissue. The patient in this case report underwent multistage reconstruction using the ultrasonic aspirator with excellent cosmetic result and patient satisfaction.

  11. Dorsolateral frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ricky W; Worrell, Greg A

    2012-10-01

    Dorsolateral frontal lobe seizures often present as a diagnostic challenge. The diverse semiologies may not produce lateralizing or localizing signs and can appear bizarre and suggest psychogenic events. Unfortunately, scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are often unsatisfactory. It is not uncommon that these traditional diagnostic studies are either unhelpful or even misleading. In some cases, SPECT and positron emission tomography imaging can be an effective tool to identify the origin of seizures. However, these techniques and other emerging techniques all have limitations, and new approaches are needed to improve source localization.

  12. Dorsolateral Frontal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ricky W.; Worrell, Greg A.

    2012-01-01

    Dorsolateral frontal lobe seizures often present as a diagnostic challenge. The diverse semiologies may not produce lateralizing or localizing signs, and can appear bizarre and suggest psychogenic events. Unfortunately, scalp EEG and MRI are often unsatisfactory. It is not uncommon that these traditional diagnostic studies are either unhelpful or even misleading. In some cases SPECT and PET imaging can be an effective tool to identify the origin of seizures. However, these techniques and other emerging techniques all have limitations, and new approaches are needed to improve source localization. PMID:23027094

  13. Ear Infections - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Nepali (नेपाली) Russian (Русский) ... हिन्दी (Hindi) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Japanese (日本語) Expand Section Middle Ear Infection - 日本語 (Japanese) ...

  14. Cilia and Ear.

    PubMed

    Piatti, Gioia; De Santi, Maria Margherita; Torretta, Sara; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Soi, Daniela; Ambrosetti, Umberto

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of otological complications derived from primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) in adulthood. Twenty-three patients with diagnosed PCD underwent medical history aimed at recording the presence of ear, nose, and throat manifestations (ENT) and any surgical treatments. The ENT objectivity was annotated, and then patients were subjected to audiometric test, tympanometry, registration of otoacoustic emission, and vestibular evaluation. Otitis media with chronic middle ear effusion (OME) during childhood was reported in 52% of the subjects, no patient had undergone ear surgery, and only 2 patients had an episode of otitis in the last year. Eleven of 23 patients showed normal hearing, 11 had a conductive hearing impairment, and 1 showed a severe sensorineural hearing loss unrelated to the syndrome. The bilateral stapedial reflex was only found in all cases of normoacusia and type A tympanogram, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) were present in 8 patients, and no patient had vestibular alterations. Our study confirms a very frequent prevalence of OME in PCD during childhood. Careful monitoring of otological complications of the syndrome is always desirable, also given the high presence in adults of other manifestations in the upper airways, such as chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis.

  15. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Semiology

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Robert D. G.

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy represents a multifaceted group of disorders divided into two broad categories, partial and generalized, based on the seizure onset zone. The identification of the neuroanatomic site of seizure onset depends on delineation of seizure semiology by a careful history together with video-EEG, and a variety of neuroimaging technologies such as MRI, fMRI, FDG-PET, MEG, or invasive intracranial EEG recording. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the commonest form of focal epilepsy and represents almost 2/3 of cases of intractable epilepsy managed surgically. A history of febrile seizures (especially complex febrile seizures) is common in TLE and is frequently associated with mesial temporal sclerosis (the commonest form of TLE). Seizure auras occur in many TLE patients and often exhibit features that are relatively specific for TLE but few are of lateralizing value. Automatisms, however, often have lateralizing significance. Careful study of seizure semiology remains invaluable in addressing the search for the seizure onset zone. PMID:22957241

  16. Stability of Lobed Balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, Danny (Technical Monitor); Pagitz, M.; Pellegrino, Xu S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a computational study of the stability of simple lobed balloon structures. Two approaches are presented, one based on a wrinkled material model and one based on a variable Poisson s ratio model that eliminates compressive stresses iteratively. The first approach is used to investigate the stability of both a single isotensoid and a stack of four isotensoids, for perturbations of in.nitesimally small amplitude. It is found that both structures are stable for global deformation modes, but unstable for local modes at su.ciently large pressure. Both structures are stable if an isotropic model is assumed. The second approach is used to investigate the stability of the isotensoid stack for large shape perturbations, taking into account contact between di.erent surfaces. For this structure a distorted, stable configuration is found. It is also found that the volume enclosed by this con.guration is smaller than that enclosed by the undistorted structure.

  17. An unusual case of complicated temporal lobe abscess following tympanomastoidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Tuanfang; Ren, Jihao; Lu, Yongde; Chen, Xing; Wang, Yaowen; Huang, Fengying

    2013-01-01

    We report a unusual case of complicated temporal lobe abscess following tympanomastoidectomy in a 26-year-old Chinese man here. The patient complained of binaural recurrent purulent discharge accompanied by hearing loss more than 10 years, then he received a right tympanomastoidectomy three months ago, but 3 weeks after surgery, he started to experience fierce headache and nausea and so on. The CT and MRI suggested the diagnosis of right temporal lobe abscess and then right temporal lobe abscess was excised. The patient was successfully treated with a right temporal lobe abscess resection and a radical right mastoidectomy. Although the cerebral abscess following radical tympanomastoidectomy are extremely rare, we should pay attention to it. we suggest the main reasons was still suffering from purulent discharge in the ear after the first tympanomastoidectomy, the granulation and cholesteatoma failed to completely remove during the first operation. and even resulted in substantial bone defect. It is well-known that good drainage is a key to reduce intra-cranial complications. PMID:23826430

  18. Hepatocellular carcinoma in Riedel's lobe.

    PubMed

    Zamfir, R; Braşoveanu, V; Boroş, M; Herlea, V; Popescu, I

    2008-01-01

    We present a rare case of 65-year female with right abdominal mass and abdominal discomfort; a combination of Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography and laparotomy was utilized to make a diagnosis of tumoral Riedel's lobe. In our case, laparotomy with resection of Riedel's lobe was the proper therapeutical solution.

  19. The ear: Diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Vignaud, J.; Jardin, C.; Rosen, L.

    1986-01-01

    This is an English translation of volume 17-1 of Traite de radiodiagnostic and represents a reasonably complete documentation of the diseases of the temporal bone that have imaging manifestations. The book begins with chapters on embryology, anatomy and radiography anatomy; it continues with blood supply and an overview of temporal bone pathology. Subsequent chapters cover malformations, trauma, infections, tumors, postoperative changes, glomus tumors, vertebasilar insufficiency, and facial nerve canal lesions. A final chapter demonstrates and discusses magnetic resonance images of the ear and cerebellopontine angle.

  20. Surgical correction of cauliflower ear.

    PubMed

    Yotsuyanagi, T; Yamashita, K; Urushidate, S; Yokoi, K; Sawada, Y; Miyazaki, S

    2002-07-01

    We have classified the cauliflower ear into different types according to the zone and the degree of deformity. One major group is deformity without change in the outline of the ear, and this is divided into four subgroups according to the zone. All of these subgroups can be treated by shaving the deformed cartilage through suitable incision lines. For deformities accompanied by a skin deficit, a postauricular skin flap should be used. The other major group is deformity accompanied by a change in the outline of the ear, which is divided into two subgroups. If the ear is rigid, a conchal cartilage graft is used. If the structural integrity of the ear is poor, costal cartilage is used to provide rigidity.

  1. Anatomy of the Temporal Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Kiernan, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Only primates have temporal lobes, which are largest in man, accommodating 17% of the cerebral cortex and including areas with auditory, olfactory, vestibular, visual and linguistic functions. The hippocampal formation, on the medial side of the lobe, includes the parahippocampal gyrus, subiculum, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, and associated white matter, notably the fimbria, whose fibres continue into the fornix. The hippocampus is an inrolled gyrus that bulges into the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle. Association fibres connect all parts of the cerebral cortex with the parahippocampal gyrus and subiculum, which in turn project to the dentate gyrus. The largest efferent projection of the subiculum and hippocampus is through the fornix to the hypothalamus. The choroid fissure, alongside the fimbria, separates the temporal lobe from the optic tract, hypothalamus and midbrain. The amygdala comprises several nuclei on the medial aspect of the temporal lobe, mostly anterior the hippocampus and indenting the tip of the temporal horn. The amygdala receives input from the olfactory bulb and from association cortex for other modalities of sensation. Its major projections are to the septal area and prefrontal cortex, mediating emotional responses to sensory stimuli. The temporal lobe contains much subcortical white matter, with such named bundles as the anterior commissure, arcuate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus and uncinate fasciculus, and Meyer's loop of the geniculocalcarine tract. This article also reviews arterial supply, venous drainage, and anatomical relations of the temporal lobe to adjacent intracranial and tympanic structures. PMID:22934160

  2. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect - pinna; Congenital defect - pinna Images Ear abnormalities Pinna of the newborn ear References Haddad J, Keesecker S. Congenital malformations. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ...

  3. Anomalies of the middle and inner ear.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Kimsey; Shah, Rahul K; Kenna, Margaret

    2007-02-01

    The development of the middle and inner ear highlights the intricacy of embryology. As early as 3 weeks after fertilization, the inner ear begins taking form. This process, along with development of the middle ear, continues throughout gestation. At birth, the middle ear, inner ear, and associated structures are almost adult size. An understanding of the embryologic development of the ear serves as a foundation for evaluating and managing congenital malformations of these structures. The focus of this article is the normal, abnormal, and arrested development of the middle and inner ear, with a clinical emphasis on malformed middle and inner ear structures and a discussion of associated syndromes.

  4. Classification of Newborn Ear Malformations and their Treatment with the EarWell Infant Ear Correction System.

    PubMed

    Daniali, Lily N; Rezzadeh, Kameron; Shell, Cheryl; Trovato, Matthew; Ha, Richard; Byrd, H Steve

    2017-03-01

    A single practice's treatment protocol and outcomes following molding therapy on newborn ear deformations and malformations with the EarWell Infant Ear Correction System were reviewed. A classification system for grading the severity of constricted ear malformations was created on the basis of anatomical findings. A retrospective chart/photograph review of a consecutive series of infants treated with the EarWell System from 2011 to 2014 was undertaken. The infants were placed in either deformation or malformation groups. Three classes of malformation were identified. Data regarding treatment induction, duration of treatment, and quality of outcome were collected for all study patients. One hundred seventy-five infant ear malformations and 303 infant ear deformities were treated with the EarWell System. The average age at initiation of treatment was 12 days; the mean duration of treatment was 37 days. An average of six office visits was required. Treated malformations included constricted ears [172 ears (98 percent)] and cryptotia [three ears (2 percent)]. Cup ear (34 ears) was considered a constricted malformation, in contrast to the prominent ear deformity. Constricted ears were assigned to one of three classes, with each subsequent class indicating increasing severity: class I, 77 ears (45 percent); class II, 81 ears (47 percent); and class III, 14 ears (8 percent). Molding therapy with the EarWell System reduced the severity by an average of 1.2 points (p < 0.01). Complications included minor superficial excoriations and abrasions. The EarWell System was shown to be effective in eliminating or reducing the need for surgery in all but the most severe malformations. Therapeutic, IV.

  5. Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... never change the dose or stop giving your child a medicine without talking to your doctor first. Reviewed by: Robert C. ... Hearing Loss? Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Going to the Audiologist Hearing ...

  6. Dementia of frontal lobe type.

    PubMed Central

    Neary, D; Snowden, J S; Northen, B; Goulding, P

    1988-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients with presenile dementia due to primary cerebral atrophy do not have Alzheimer's disease. One form of non-Alzheimer dementia may be designated as dementia of frontal lobe type (DFT), on the basis of a characteristic neuropsychological picture suggestive of frontal lobe disorder, confirmed by findings on single photon emission tomography. The case histories of seven patients exemplify the disorder: a presentation of social misconduct and personality change, unconcern and disinhibition, in the presence of physical well-being and few neurological signs. Assessment revealed economic and concrete speech with verbal stereotypes, variable memory impairment, and marked abnormalities on tasks sensitive to frontal lobe function. Visuo-spatial disorder was invariably absent. Comparisons of DFT and Alzheimer patients revealed qualitative differences in clinical presentation, neurological signs, profile of psychological disability, electroencephalography, single photon emission tomography and demography. DFT, which may represent forms of Pick's disease, may be more common than is often recognised. PMID:3258902

  7. Principles of endoscopic ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Tarabichi, Muaaz; Kapadia, Mustafa

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this review is to study the rationale, limitations, techniques, and long-term outcomes of endoscopic ear surgery. The article discusses the advantages of endoscopic ear surgery in treating cholesteatoma and how the hidden sites like facial recess, sinus tympani, and anterior epitympanum are easily accessed using the endoscope. Transcanal endoscopic approach allows minimally invasive removal of cholesteatoma with results that compare well to traditional postauricular tympanomastoidectomy.

  8. Surgical correction of constricted ear combined with Stahl's ear.

    PubMed

    Bi, Ye; Lin, Lin; Yang, Qinhua; Pan, Bo; Zhao, Yanyong; He, Leren; Jiang, Haiyue

    2015-07-01

    Constricted ear combined with Stahl's ear is a rare ear deformity, which is a kind of complex congenital auricular deformity. From 1 January 2007 to 1 January 2014, 19 patients with constricted ear combined with Stahl's ear (Spock ear) were enrolled in this study, most of which were unilaterally deformed. To correct the deformity, a double Z-shaped skin incision was made on the posterior side of the auricle, with the entire layer of cartilage cut parallel to the helix traversing the third crus to form a fan-shaped cartilage flap. The superior crura of the antihelix were shaped by the folding cartilage rim. The cartilage of the abnormal third crus was made part of the new superior crura of antihelix, and the third crus was eliminated. The postoperative aesthetic assessment of the reshaped auricle was graded by both doctors and patients (or their parents). Out of the 19 patients, the number of satisfying cases of the symmetry, helix stretch, elimination of the third crus, the cranioauricular angle, and the substructure of the reshaped ears was 14 (nine excellent and five good), 16 (six excellent and 10 good), 17 (eight excellent and nine good), 15 (five excellent and 10 good), and 13 (two excellent and 11 good), respectively. With a maximum of a 90-month follow-up, no complication was observed. The results of the study suggested that this rare deformity could be corrected by appropriate surgical treatment, with a satisfied postoperative appearance. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pattern zoology in biaxially pre-stretched elastic bilayers: from wrinkles and creases to fracture-like ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rashed, Rashed; Lopez JiméNez, Francisco; Reis, Pedro

    The wrinkling of elastic bilayers under compression has been explored as a method to produce reversible surface topography, with applications ranging from microfluidics to tunable optics. We introduce a new experimental system to study the effects of pre-stretching on the instability patterns that result from the biaxial compression of thin shells bound to an elastic substrate. A pre-stretched substrate is first prepared by pressurizing an initially flat elastomeric disk and bulging it into a nearly hemispherical thick shell. The substrate is then coated with a thin layer of a polymer suspension, which, upon curing, results in a thin shell of nearly constant thickness. Releasing the pre-stretch in the substrate by deflating the system places the outer film in a state of biaxial compression, resulting in a variety of buckling patterns. We explore the parameter space by systematically varying the pre-stretch, the substrate/film stiffness mismatch, and the thickness of the film. This results in a continuous transition between different buckling patterns, from the dimples and wrinkles that are traditionally associated with the buckling of elastic bilayers, to creases and high aspect ratio `fracture-like' ridges, where the pre-stretch plays an essential role.

  10. Reconstruction of acquired sub-total ear defects with autologous costal cartilage.

    PubMed

    Harris, P A; Ladhani, K; Das-Gupta, R; Gault, D T

    1999-06-01

    Acquired sub-total ear defects are common and challenging to reconstruct. We report the use of an autologous costal cartilage framework to reconstruct sub-total defects involving all anatomical regions of the ear. Twenty-eight partially damaged ears in 27 patients were reconstructed with this technique. The defects resulted from bites (14), road traffic accidents (five), burns (four), iatrogenic causes (four) and chondritis following minor trauma (one). Computerised image analysis revealed a median of 31% (range 13-72%) ear loss. An autologous costal cartilage framework was fashioned in all cases. If adequate local skin was available, this was draped over the framework, but in nine cases preliminary tissue expansion was used and in a further three cases with significant scarring, the framework was covered with a temporoparietal fascial flap. Clinical assessment after ear reconstruction was undertaken, scoring for symmetry, the helical rim, the antihelical fold, the lobe position and a 'natural look' to produce a four-point scale; 11 were excellent, 12 were good, two were fair and three were poor. Our experience suggests that formal delayed reconstruction with autologous costal cartilage is to be recommended when managing acquired, sub-total ear deformity.

  11. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  12. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  13. 3D finite element model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing middle ear functions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuelin; Gan, Rong Z.

    2016-01-01

    Chinchilla is a commonly used animal model for research of sound transmission through the ear. Experimental measurements of the middle ear transfer function in chinchillas have shown that the middle ear cavity greatly affects the tympanic membrane (TM) and stapes footplate (FP) displacements. However, there is no finite element (FE) model of the chinchilla ear available in the literature to characterize the middle ear functions with the anatomical features of the chinchilla ear. This paper reports a recently completed 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear based on X-ray micro-computed tomography images of a chinchilla bulla. The model consisted of the ear canal, TM, middle ear ossicles and suspensory ligaments, and the middle ear cavity. Two boundary conditions of the middle ear cavity wall were simulated in the model as the rigid structure and the partially flexible surface, and the acoustic-mechanical coupled analysis was conducted with these two conditions to characterize the middle ear function. The model results were compared with experimental measurements reported in the literature including the TM and FP displacements and the middle ear input admittance in chinchilla ear. An application of this model was presented to identify the acoustic role of the middle ear septa - a unique feature of chinchilla middle ear cavity. This study provides the first 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing the middle ear functions through the acoustic-mechanical coupled FE analysis. PMID:26785845

  14. Unclassified congenital deformities of the external ear.

    PubMed

    Vathulya, Madhubari

    2018-01-01

    Congenital ear deformities are a common entity. They are found in isolation or as a part of syndrome in patients. They may involve the external, middle or inner ear or in any of these combinations. Three patients of different ages presented with deformities including mirror image duplication of the superior auricle, unclassified deformities of ear lobule (wavy lobule) and deformity of superior auricle with unclassified variety of lateral ear pit. This article highlights that there are further cases of ear deformities that are noticed in the general population who come for cosmetic correction, and hence, there is a need for further modifying the classification of ear deformities.

  15. Learning to perform ear reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Gordon H

    2009-08-01

    Learning how to perform ear reconstruction is very difficult. There are no standardized teaching methods. This has resulted in many ear reconstructions being suboptimal. Learning requires a major commitment by the surgeon. Factors to be seriously considered by those considering performing this surgery are (1) commitment, (2) aptitude, (3) training methods available, (4) surgical skills and experience, and (5) additional equipment needs. Unless all these factors are addressed in a surgeon's decision to perform this form of reconstruction, the end result will be compromised, and patient care will not be optimized. It is hoped that considering these factors and following this approach will result in a higher quality of aesthetic result. The future of ear reconstruction lies in the use of advanced digital technologies and tissue engineering. Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers.

  16. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Nickels, Katherine C.; Wong-Kisiel, Lily C.; Moseley, Brian D.; Wirrell, Elaine C.

    2012-01-01

    The temporal lobe is a common focus for epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy in infants and children differs from the relatively homogeneous syndrome seen in adults in several important clinical and pathological ways. Seizure semiology varies by age, and the ictal EEG pattern may be less clear cut than what is seen in adults. Additionally, the occurrence of intractable seizures in the developing brain may impact neurocognitive function remote from the temporal area. While many children will respond favorably to medical therapy, those with focal imaging abnormalities including cortical dysplasia, hippocampal sclerosis, or low-grade tumors are likely to be intractable. Expedient workup and surgical intervention in these medically intractable cases are needed to maximize long-term developmental outcome. PMID:22957247

  17. Inner Ear Drug Delivery for Auditory Applications

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Erin E. Leary; Mescher, Mark J.; Sewell, William F.; Tao, Sarah L.; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.

    2008-01-01

    Many inner ear disorders cannot be adequately treated by systemic drug delivery. A blood-cochlear barrier exists, similar physiologically to the blood-brain barrier, which limits the concentration and size of molecules able to leave the circulation and gain access to the cells of the inner ear. However, research in novel therapeutics and delivery systems has led to significant progress in the development of local methods of drug delivery to the inner ear. Intratympanic approaches, which deliver therapeutics to the middle ear, rely on permeation through tissue for access to the structures of the inner ear, whereas intracochlear methods are able to directly insert drugs into the inner ear. Innovative drug delivery systems to treat various inner ear ailments such as ototoxicity, sudden sensorineural hearing loss, autoimmune inner ear disease, and for preserving neurons and regenerating sensory cells are being explored. PMID:18848590

  18. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Otitis media is an inflammation or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs when there is ... which causes production of fluid or pus. Chronic otitis media occurs when the eustachian tube becomes blocked ...

  19. Physiological functioning of the ear and masking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The physiological functions of the ear and the role masking plays in speech communication are examined. Topics under investigation include sound analysis of the ear, the aural reflex, and various types of noise masking.

  20. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear...

  1. Immunologic Disorders of the Inner Ear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, William C.; Hughes, Gordon B.

    1997-01-01

    Immune inner ear disease represents a series of immune system mediated problems that can present with hearing loss, dizziness, or both. The etiology, presentation, testing, and treatment of primary immune inner ear disease is discussed. A review of secondary immune inner ear disease is presented for comparison. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  2. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear...

  3. Treating "cauliflower ear" with silicone mold.

    PubMed

    Gross, C G

    1978-01-01

    Acute hematoma of the ear (cauliflower ear) can be satisfactorily treated with aspiration and the use of the silicone mold to prevent reaccumulation of the blood or serum in the ear. Advantages of the silicone mold over other dressings appears to be ease of application, patient acceptance, and prevention of reoccurrence of reaccumulation of the hematoma.

  4. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth / For Kids / Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Print en español La música ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  5. Pleated and Creased Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudte, Levi; Wei, Zhiyan; Mahadevan, L.

    2012-02-01

    The strategic placement of curved folds on a paper annulus produces saddle-shaped origami. These exotic geometries resulting from simple design processes motivate our development of a computational tool to simulate the stretching, bending and folding of thin sheets of material. We seek to understand the shape of the curved origami figure by applying the computational tool to simulate a thin annulus with single or multiple folds. We aim to quantify the static geometry of this simplified model in order to delineate methods for actuation and control of similar developable structures with curved folds. Miura-ori pattern is a periodic pleated structure defined in terms of 2 angles and 2 lengths. The unit cell embodies the basic element in all non-trivial pleated structures - the mountain or valley folds, wherein four folds come together at a single vertex. The ability of this structure to pack and unpack with a few degrees of freedom leads to their use in deployable structures such as solar sails and maps, just as this feature is useful in insect wings, plant leaves and flowers. We probe the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the mechanical behavior of these structures with a view to optimizing material performance.

  6. Treating autism by targeting the temporal lobes.

    PubMed

    Chi, Richard P; Snyder, Allan W

    2014-11-01

    Compelling new findings suggest that an early core signature of autism is a deficient left anterior temporal lobe response to language and an atypical over-activation of the right anterior temporal lobe. Intriguingly, our recent results from an entirely different line of reasoning and experiments also show that applying cathodal stimulation (suppressing) at the left anterior temporal lobe together with anodal stimulation (facilitating) at the right anterior temporal lobe, by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), can induce some autistic-like cognitive abilities in otherwise normal adults. If we could briefly induce autistic like cognitive abilities in healthy individuals, it follows that we might be able to mitigate some autistic traits by reversing the above stimulation protocol, in an attempt to restore the typical dominance of the left anterior temporal lobe. Accordingly, we hypothesize that at least some autistic traits can be mitigated, by applying anodal stimulation (facilitating) at the left anterior temporal lobe together with cathodal stimulation (suppressing) at the right anterior temporal lobe. Our hypothesis is supported by strong convergent evidence that autistic symptoms can emerge and later reverse due to the onset and subsequent recovery of various temporal lobe (predominantly the left) pathologies. It is also consistent with evidence that the temporal lobes (especially the left) are a conceptual hub, critical for extracting meaning from lower level sensory information to form a coherent representation, and that a deficit in the temporal lobes underlies autistic traits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The frontal lobe and aggression

    PubMed Central

    Séguin, Jean R.

    2014-01-01

    Frontal lesions often lead to psychosocial problems. It is not surprising that frontal lobe dysfunctions have been proposed to underlie antisocial behaviour in individuals without apparent lesions. However, physical aggression and violence have never been systematically related to acquired lesions. Whereas, traditional neuropsychological testing identifies problems in cognitive and emotional information processing, recent brain-imaging studies have revealed both the frontal structural and functional underpinnings of antisocial behaviour. Careful characterization of antisocial behaviour subtypes seems to indicate that cognitive-neuropsychological function is systematically poor in physical aggression and hyperactivity. Recent refinements point to biological and genetic moderators of that association. PMID:24976846

  8. Ionizing Radiation and the Ear

    SciTech Connect

    Borsanyi, Steven J.

    The effects of ionizing radiation on the ears of 100 patients were studied in the course of treatment of malignant head and neck tumors by teleradiation using Co 60. Early changes consisted of radiation otitis media and a transient vasculitis of the vessels of the inner ear, resulting in hearing loss, tinnitus, and temporary recruitment. While no permanent changes were detected microscopically shortly after the completion of radiation in the cochlea or labyrinth, late changes sometimes occurred in the temporal bone as a result of an obliterating endarteritis. The late changes were separate entities caused primarily by obliterating endarteritis andmore » alterations in the collagen. Radiation affected the hearing of individuals selectively. When hearing threshold shift did occur, the shift was not great. The 4000 cps frequency showed a greater deficit in hearing capacity during the tests, while the area least affected appeared to be in the region of 2000 cps. The shift in speech reception was not significant and it was correlated with the over-all change in response to pure tones. Discrimination did not appear to be affected. Proper shielding of the ear with lead during radiation, when possible, eliminated most complications. (H.R.D.)« less

  9. Pathogenesis of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto-Fukuda, Tomomi; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Shibata, Yasuaki; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Takahashi, Haruo; Koji, Takehiko

    2010-01-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma is characterized by enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells with aberrant morphological characteristics. To investigate the origin of the cholesteatoma cells, we analyzed spontaneously occurring cholesteatomas associated with a new transplantation model in Mongolian gerbils (gerbils). Cholesteatomas were induced in gerbils with a transplanted tympanic membrane by using the external auditory canal (EAC) ligation method. After the pars flaccida of the tympanic membranes were completely removed from male gerbils, corresponding portions of tympanic membranes of female gerbils were transplanted to the area of defect, and then we ligated the EAC (hybrid-model group). As a control group, the EAC of normal male and female gerbils was ligated without myringoplasty. In all ears of each group, the induced cholesteatomas were seen. In situ PCR was then performed to detect the mouse X chromosome-linked phosphoglycerate kinase-1 (pgk-1) gene on the paraffin sections. One pgk-1 spot in the epithelial nuclei was detected in male cholesteatoma, and two pgk-1 spots were detected in female cholesteatoma, respectively. On the other hand, in the hybrid-model group, we detected not only one but also two pgk-1 spots in the epithelial nuclei of cholesteatoma. These results strengthened the evidence that the origin of epithelial cells in cholesteatoma is the tympanic membrane in this model, but not the residential middle ear epithelial cells or the skin of the EAC. PMID:20413684

  10. A morphometric study of the human ear.

    PubMed

    Alexander, K Skaria; Stott, David J; Sivakumar, Branavan; Kang, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    We examined variations in the shape of the human ear according to age, sex and ethnic group with particular attention to ear prominence. 420 volunteers were recruited. Measurements included; head height and length, ear height and axis, antihelix taken off angle, earlobe length and width, ear width at the helical root and tragus. Prominence was measured at the helical root and tragus (conchomastoid angle, conchal bowl depth and helical-mastoid distance). Good symmetry was shown for all measurements. Ethnically Indian volunteers had the largest ears (both length and width), followed by Caucasians, and Afro-Caribbeans. This trend was significant in males (p<0.001), but not significant in females (p=0.087). Ears increased in size throughout life. Subjectively, only 2% of volunteers felt their ears were prominent compared to 10% in the opinion of the principal investigator. No objective measurements were identified that accurately predicted subjective perceptions of prominence. We found consistent trends in ear morphology depending on ethnic group, age and sex. Our study was unable to define an objective method for assessing ear prominence. Decisions about what constitutes a prominent ear should be left to personal and aesthetic choice. Copyright © 2010 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ear canal dynamic motion as a source of power for in-ear devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delnavaz, Aidin; Voix, Jérémie

    2013-02-01

    Ear canal deformation caused by temporomandibular joint (jaw joint) activity, also known as "ear canal dynamic motion," is introduced in this paper as a candidate source of power to possibly recharge hearing aid batteries. The geometrical deformation of the ear canal is quantified in 3D by laser scanning of different custom ear moulds. An experimental setup is proposed to measure the amount of power potentially available from this source. The results show that 9 mW of power is available from a 15 mm3 dynamic change in the ear canal volume. Finally, the dynamic motion and power capability of the ear canal are investigated in a group of 12 subjects.

  12. Middle lobe syndrome in children today.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Vittorio; Priftis, Kostas N; de Benedictis, Fernando M

    2014-06-01

    Middle lobe syndrome in children is a distinct clinical and radiographic entity that has been well described in the pediatric literature. However, issues regarding its etiology, clinical presentation, and management continue to puzzle the clinical practitioner. Pathophysiologically, there are two forms of middle lobe syndrome, namely obstructive and nonobstructive. Middle lobe syndrome may present as symptomatic or asymptomatic, as persistent or recurrent atelectasis, or as pneumonitis or bronchiectasis of the middle lobe and/or lingula. A lower threshold of performing a chest radiograph is warranted in children with persistent or recurrent nonspecific respiratory symptoms, particularly if there is clinical deterioration, in order to detect middle lobe syndrome and to initiate a further diagnostic and therapeutic workup. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Frontal lobe alterations in schizophrenia: a review.

    PubMed

    Mubarik, Ateeq; Tohid, Hassaan

    2016-01-01

    To highlight the changes in the frontal lobe of the human brain in people with schizophrenia. This was a qualitative review of the literature. Many schizophrenic patients exhibit functional, structural, and metabolic abnormalities in the frontal lobe. Some patients have few or no alterations, while some have more functional and structural changes than others. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows structural and functional changes in volume, gray matter, white matter, and functional activity in the frontal lobe, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not yet fully understood. When schizophrenia is studied as an essential topic in the field of neuropsychiatry, neuroscientists find that the frontal lobe is the most commonly involved area of the human brain. A clear picture of how this lobe is affected in schizophrenia is still lacking. We therefore recommend that further research be conducted to improve understanding of the pathophysiology of this psychiatric dilemma.

  14. Molecular Mechanisms of Inner Ear Development

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Doris K.; Kelley, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    The inner ear is a structurally complex vertebrate organ built to encode sound, motion, and orientation in space. Given its complexity, it is not surprising that inner ear dysfunction is a relatively common consequence of human genetic mutation. Studies in model organisms suggest that many genes currently known to be associated with human hearing impairment are active during embryogenesis. Hence, the study of inner ear development provides a rich context for understanding the functions of genes implicated in hearing loss. This chapter focuses on molecular mechanisms of inner ear development derived from studies of model organisms. PMID:22855724

  15. Molecular mechanisms of inner ear development.

    PubMed

    Wu, Doris K; Kelley, Matthew W

    2012-08-01

    The inner ear is a structurally complex vertebrate organ built to encode sound, motion, and orientation in space. Given its complexity, it is not surprising that inner ear dysfunction is a relatively common consequence of human genetic mutation. Studies in model organisms suggest that many genes currently known to be associated with human hearing impairment are active during embryogenesis. Hence, the study of inner ear development provides a rich context for understanding the functions of genes implicated in hearing loss. This chapter focuses on molecular mechanisms of inner ear development derived from studies of model organisms.

  16. Listening to Nature's orchestra with peculiar ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, David D.

    2003-04-01

    Insects use hearing for the crucial tasks of communicating with conspecifics and avoiding predators. Although all are based on the same acoustic principles, the diversity of insect ears is staggering and instructive. For instance, a South African grasshopper demonstrates that hearing conspecific calls is possible over distances 1 km with ears that do not have tympana. Actually, these creatures have six pairs of ears that play different roles in behavior. In numerical contrast, praying mantises have just a single ear in the ventral midline. The ear is very effective at detecting ultrasonic bat cries. However, the bioacoustics of sound transduction by two tympana facing each other in a deep, narrow slit is a puzzle. Tachinid flies demonstrate that directional hearing at 5 kHz is possible with a pair of ears fused together to give a total size of 1 mm. The ears are under the fly's chin. Hawk moths have their ears built into their mouthparts and the tympanum is more like a hollow ball than the usual membrane. As an apt last example, cicada ears are actually part of the orchestra: their tympana function both in sound reception and sound production.

  17. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553

  18. Could ionizing radiation forestall cauliflower ear?

    PubMed

    Hwang, K; Kim, C W; Lee, S I; Park, I S; Kim, W C; Loh, J J

    2001-02-01

    Repeated trauma to the ear very often results in "cauliflower ear." Many methods have been suggested to prevent an injured ear from demonstrating a cauliflowerlike deformity. The principles of treatment are evacuation of the hematoma, control of the reaccumulation of fluid, and maintenance of the cartilage contour. The authors studied the effect of ionizing radiation on deformed rabbit ears induced by repeated trauma. Twenty ears (10 rabbits) were used in the experiment. The animals were divided into four groups (control, preradiation, low dose, and high dose). Hematoma was produced by pounding the lateral side of the auricle 10 times with a 50-g weight at a height of 15 cm. The thickness of the injured and uninjured sites was measured, and histological analysis was performed for each group. The thickness of the ears of the irradiated groups was significantly less than the control group. The authors think that radiation treatment of repeatedly injured ears could prevent ear deformity, and could possibly be an adjunctive form of management of cauliflower ear in addition to hematoma evacuation and compression therapy.

  19. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.

  20. CT of the ear in Pendred syndrome.

    PubMed

    Goldfeld, Moshe; Glaser, Benjamin; Nassir, Elias; Gomori, John Moshe; Hazani, Elitsur; Bishara, Nassir

    2005-05-01

    To prospectively determine the structural anomalies of the inner ear by using thin-section computed tomography (CT) in an extended family with Pendred syndrome. Ethics committee approved the study, and informed consent was obtained from every patient or from parents of patients under legal age. Twelve patients (three females and nine males aged 7-47 years) with Pendred syndrome (all from the same ethnic isolate and with the same mutation in the PDS gene) were evaluated for inner-ear malformation at thin-section CT. Both ears were evaluated. Presence or absence of interscalar septum between upper and middle turns of the cochlea was evaluated, and vestibule and vestibular aqueduct were examined for enlargement. Modiolus was determined to be present or absent (modiolar deficiency). CT scans were evaluated in consensus by two radiologists (M.G., J.M.G.). All patients had inner ear malformation on both sides. Modiolus was absent and vestibule was enlarged on both sides in all 12 patients. Interscalar septum was absent in 18 (75%) of 24 ears. In eight patients, interscalar septum was absent in both ears, whereas in two patients, it was absent on only one side. Aqueduct was enlarged in 20 (80%) of 24 ears. In nine patients, both ears had enlarged aqueducts, while in two patients, only one side was abnormal. Inner ear malformation is an invariable finding in Pendred syndrome. Modiolus deficiency and vestibular enlargement were the most consistent anomalies in this population with Pendred syndrome. (c) RSNA, 2005.

  1. Playing by Ear: Foundation or Frill?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Many people divide musicians into two types: those who can read music and those who play by ear. Formal music education tends to place great emphasis on producing musically literate performers but devotes much less attention to teaching students to make music without notation. Some would suggest that playing by ear is a specialized skill that is…

  2. The ideal ear position in Caucasian females.

    PubMed

    Broer, P Niclas; Thiha, Aung; Ehrl, Denis; Sinno, Sammy; Juran, Sabrina; Szpalski, Caroline; Ng, Reuben; Ninkovic, Milomir; Prantl, Lukas; Heidekrueger, Paul I

    2018-03-01

    Ear position contributes significantly to facial appearance. However, while objective measurements remain the foundation for esthetic evaluations, little is known about how an ear should ideally be positioned regarding its rotational axis. This study aimed to further evaluate whether there exists a universally applicable ideal ear axis, and how sociodemographic factors impact such preferences. An interactive online survey was designed, enabling participants to change the axis of a female model's ear in terms of its forward and backward rotation. The questionnaire was sent out internationally to plastic surgeons and the general public. Demographic data were collected and analysis of variance was used to investigate respective preferences. A total of 1016 responses from 35 different countries (response rate: 18.5%) were gathered. Overall, 60% of survey takers chose the minus 10 or 5° angles to be most attractive. Significant differences were found regarding sex, ethnicity, country of residence, profession and respective ear axis preferences. Across multiple countries and ethnicities, an ear position in slight reclination of minus 5-10° is considered most pleasing in Caucasian females. However, sociodemographic factors significantly impact individual ear axis preferences and should be taken into consideration when performing reconstructive ear surgery. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Stem Cell Therapy for the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    In vertebrates, perception of sound, motion, and balance is mediated through mechanosensory hair cells located within the inner ear. In mammals, hair cells are only generated during a short period of embryonic development. As a result, loss of hair cells as a consequence of injury, disease, or genetic mutation, leads to permanent sensory deficits. At present, cochlear implantation is the only option for profound hearing loss. However, outcomes are still variable and even the best implant cannot provide the acuity of a biological ear. The recent emergence of stem cell technology has the potential to open new approaches for hair cell regeneration. The goal of this review is to summarize the current state of inner ear stem cell research from a viewpoint of its clinical application for inner ear disorders to illustrate how complementary studies have the potential to promote and refine stem cell therapies for inner ear diseases. The review initially discusses our current understanding of the genetic pathways that regulate hair cell formation from inner ear progenitors during normal development. Subsequent sections discuss the possible use of endogenous inner ear stem cells to induce repair as well as the initial studies aimed at transplanting stem cells into the ear. PMID:22514095

  4. Is Attention Shared Between the Ears?1

    PubMed Central

    Shiffrin, Richard M.; Pisoni, David B.; Castaneda-Mendez, Kicab

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the locus of attention during selective listening for speech-like stimuli. Can processing be differentially allocated to the two ears? Two conditions were used. The simultaneous condition involved one of four randomly chosen stop-consonants being presented to one of the ears chosen at random. The sequential condition involved two intervals; in the first S listened to the right ear; in the second S listened to the left ear. One of the four consonants was presented to an attended ear during one of these intervals. Experiment I used no distracting stimuli. Experiment II utilized a distracting consonant not confusable with any of the four target consonants. This distractor was always presented to any ear not containing a target. In both experiments, simultaneous and sequential performance were essentially identical, despite the need for attention sharing between the two ears during the simultaneous condition. We conclude that selective attention does not occur during perceptual processing of speech sounds presented to the two ears. We suggest that attentive effects arise in short-term memory following processing. PMID:23226838

  5. Ultrasound characterization of middle ear effusion.

    PubMed

    Seth, Rahul; Discolo, Christopher M; Palczewska, Grazyna M; Lewandowski, Jan J; Krakovitz, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    To further enhance and assess the ability to characterize middle ear effusion (MEE) using non-invasive ultrasound technology. This is a prospective unblinded comparison study. Fifty-six children between the ages of 6 months and 17 years scheduled to undergo bilateral myringotomy with pressure equalization tube placement were enrolled. With the child anesthetized, the probe was placed into the external ear canal after sterile water was inserted. Ultrasound recordings of middle ear contents were analyzed by computer algorithm. Middle ear fluid was collected during myringotomy and analyzed for bacterial culture and viscosity. Ultrasound waveforms yielded a computer algorithm interpretation of middle ear contents in 66% of ears tested. When a result was obtained, the sensitivity and specificity for successfully characterizing middle ear fluid content as either void of fluid, thick fluid (mucoid), or thin fluid (serous or purulent) were at least 94%. Mucoid effusions had higher measured viscosity values (P=.002). Viscosity measures were compared to culture result, and those with low viscosity (thin consistency) had a higher likelihood of having a positive culture (P=.048). The device sensitivity and specificity for fluid detection were 94% or greater among interpretable waveforms (66% of those tested). Although this technology provides important information of the middle ear effusion presence and characteristic, further technological improvements are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An...

  7. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An...

  8. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An...

  9. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An...

  10. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An...

  11. INNER EAR EMBRYOGENESIS: GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The anatomy and developmental molecular genetics of the inner ear from establishment of the otic placode to formation of the definitive cochlea and vestibular apparatus will be reviewed and the complex 3-D structural changes that shape the developing inner ear will be illustrated...

  12. Ultrasound Characterization of Middle Ear Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Rahul; Discolo, Christopher M; Palczewska, Grazyna M; Lewandowski, Jan J; Krakovitz, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To further enhance and assess the ability to characterize middle ear effusion (MEE) using non-invasive ultrasound technology. Materials and Methods This is a prospective unblinded comparison study. Fifty-six children between the ages of 6 months and 17 years scheduled to undergo bilateral myringotomy with pressure equalization tube placement were enrolled. With the child anesthetized, the probe was placed into the external ear canal after sterile water was inserted. Ultrasound recordings of middle ear contents were analyzed by computer algorithm. Middle ear fluid was collected during myringotomy and analyzed for bacterial culture and viscosity. Results Ultrasound waveforms yielded a computer algorithm interpretation of middle ear contents in 66% of ears tested. When a result was obtained, the sensitivity and specificity for successfully characterizing middle ear fluid content as either void of fluid, thick fluid (mucoid), or thin fluid (serous or purulent) was at least 94%. Mucoid effusions had higher measured viscosity values (P=0.002). Viscosity measures were compared to culture result, and those with low viscosity (thin consistency) had a higher likelihood of having a positive culture (P=0.048). Conclusion The device sensitivity and specificity for fluid detection was 94% or greater among interpretable waveforms (66% of those tested). Although this technology provides important information of the middle ear effusion presence and characteristic, further technological improvements are needed. PMID:23084430

  13. Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and ... loss. How does otitis media affect a child’s hearing? All children with middle ear infection or fluid ...

  14. Ear asymmetries in middle-ear, cochlear, and brainstem responses in human infants

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, Douglas H.; Gorga, Michael P.; Jesteadt, Walt; Smith, Lynette M.

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, Sininger and Cone-Wesson examined asymmetries in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of otoacoustic emissions (OAE) in infants, reporting that distortion-product (DP)OAE SNR was larger in the left ear, whereas transient-evoked (TE)OAE SNR was larger in the right. They proposed that cochlear and brainstem asymmetries facilitate development of brain-hemispheric specialization for sound processing. Similarly, in 2006 Sininger and Cone-Wesson described ear asymmetries mainly favoring the right ear in infant auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). The present study analyzed 2640 infant responses to further explore these effects. Ear differences in OAE SNR, signal, and noise were evaluated separately and across frequencies (1.5, 2, 3, and 4 kHz), and ABR asymmetries were compared with cochlear asymmetries. Analyses of ear-canal reflectance and admittance showed that asymmetries in middle-ear functioning did not explain cochlear and brainstem asymmetries. Current results are consistent with earlier studies showing right-ear dominance for TEOAE and ABR. Noise levels were higher in the right ear for OAEs and ABRs, causing ear asymmetries in SNR to differ from those in signal level. No left-ear dominance for DPOAE signal was observed. These results do not support a theory that ear asymmetries in cochlear processing mimic hemispheric brain specialization for auditory processing. PMID:18345839

  15. Biometric recognition using 3D ear shape.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ping; Bowyer, Kevin W

    2007-08-01

    Previous works have shown that the ear is a promising candidate for biometric identification. However, in prior work, the preprocessing of ear images has had manual steps and algorithms have not necessarily handled problems caused by hair and earrings. We present a complete system for ear biometrics, including automated segmentation of the ear in a profile view image and 3D shape matching for recognition. We evaluated this system with the largest experimental study to date in ear biometrics, achieving a rank-one recognition rate of 97.8 percent for an identification scenario and an equal error rate of 1.2 percent for a verification scenario on a database of 415 subjects and 1,386 total probes.

  16. Microbiomes of the normal middle ear and ears with chronic otitis media.

    PubMed

    Minami, Shujiro B; Mutai, Hideki; Suzuki, Tomoko; Horii, Arata; Oishi, Naoki; Wasano, Koichiro; Katsura, Motoyasu; Tanaka, Fujinobu; Takiguchi, Tetsuya; Fujii, Masato; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to profile and compare the middle ear microbiomes of human subjects with and without chronic otitis media. Prospective multicenter cohort study. All consecutive patients undergoing tympanoplasty surgery for chronic otitis media or ear surgery for conditions other than otitis media were recruited. Sterile swab samples were collected from the middle ear mucosa during surgery. The variable region 4 of the 16S rRNA gene in each sample were amplified using region-specific primers adapted for the Illumina MiSeq sequencer (Illumina, CA, USA)). The sequences were subjected to local blast and classified using Metagenome@KIN (World Fusion, Tokyo, Japan). In total, 155 participants were recruited from seven medical centers. Of these, 88 and 67 had chronic otitis media and normal middle ears, respectively. The most abundant bacterial phyla on the mucosal surfaces of the normal middle ears were Proteobacteria, followed by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The children and adults with normal middle ears differed significantly in terms of middle ear microbiomes. Subjects with chronic otitis media without active inflammation (dry ear) had similar middle ear microbiomes as the normal middle ears group. Subjects with chronic otitis media with active inflammation (wet ear) had a lower prevalence of Proteobacteria and a higher prevalence of Firmicutes than the normal middle ears. The human middle ear is inhabited by more diverse microbial communities than was previously thought. Alteration of the middle ear microbiome may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media with active inflammation. 2b. Laryngoscope, 127:E371-E377, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Human Frontal Lobes and AI Planning Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, Richard; Lum, Henry Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Human frontal lobes are essential for maintaining a self-regulating balance between predictive and reactive behavior. This paper describes a system that integrates prediction and reaction based on neuropsychological theories of frontal lobe function. In addition to enhancing our understanding of deliberate action in humans' the model is being used to develop and evaluate the same properties in machines. First, the paper presents some background neuropsychology in order to set a general context. The role of frontal lobes is then presented by summarizing three theories which formed the basis for this work. The components of an artificial frontal lobe are then discussed from both neuropsychological and AI perspectives. The paper concludes by discussing issues and methods for evaluating systems that integrate planning and reaction.

  18. Frontal lobe dementia and motor neuron disease.

    PubMed Central

    Neary, D; Snowden, J S; Mann, D M; Northen, B; Goulding, P J; Macdermott, N

    1990-01-01

    Four patients are described, in whom a profound and rapidly progressive dementia occurred in association with clinical features of motor neuron disease. The pattern of dementia indicated impaired frontal lobe function, confirmed by reduced tracer uptake in the frontal lobes on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Pathological examination of the brains of two patients revealed frontal-lobe atrophy, with mild gliosis and spongiform change. The spinal cord changes were consistent with motor neuron disease. The clinical picture and pathological findings resembled those of dementia of frontal-lobe type and were distinct from those of Alzheimer's disease. The findings have implications for the understanding of the spectrum of non-Alzheimer forms of primary degenerative dementia. Images PMID:2303828

  19. Microsurgical techniques in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Alonso Vanegas, Mario A; Lew, Sean M; Morino, Michiharu; Sarmento, Stenio A

    2017-04-01

    Temporal lobe resection is the most prevalent epilepsy surgery procedure. However, there is no consensus on the best surgical approach to treat temporal lobe epilepsy. Complication rates are low and efficacy is very high regarding seizures after such procedures. However, there is still ample controversy regarding the best surgical approach to warrant maximum seizure control with minimal functional deficits. We describe the most frequently used microsurgical techniques for removal of both the lateral and mesial temporal lobe structures in the treatment of medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) due to mesial temporal sclerosis (corticoamygdalohippocampectomy and selective amygdalohippocampectomy). The choice of surgical technique appears to remain a surgeon's preference for the near future. Meticulous surgical technique and thorough three-dimensional microsurgical knowledge are essentials for obtaining the best results. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  20. Alterations of the occipital lobe in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Tohid, Hassaan; Faizan, Muhammad; Faizan, Uzma

    2015-01-01

    The relationship of the occipital lobe of the brain with schizophrenia is not commonly studied; however, this topic is considered an essential subject matter among clinicians and scientists. We conducted this systematic review to elaborate the relationship in depth. We found that most schizophrenic patients show normal occipital anatomy and physiology, a minority showed dwindled values, and some demonstrated augmented function and structure. The findings are laborious to incorporate within single disease models that present the involvement of the occipital lobe in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia progresses clinically in the mid-twenties and thirties and its prognosis is inadequate. Changes in the volume, the gray matter, and the white matter in the occipital lobe are quite evident; however, the mechanism behind this involvement is not yet fully understood. Therefore, we recommend further research to explore the occipital lobe functions and volumes across the different stages of schizophrenia. PMID:26166588

  1. Middle ear tuberculosis: diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Jesić, Snezana; Stosić, Svetlana; Milenković, Branislava; Nesić, Vladimir; Dudvarski, Zoran; Jotić, Ana; Slijepcević, Nikola

    2009-01-01

    Tuberculous otitis is a diagnostic problem due to the difficulty to obtain microbiological, histomorphological and cytological confirmation of the disease. Our objective was to compare clinical and radiological characteristic and development of otogenic complications in patients with tuberculous otitis and otitis with cholesteatoma as the most destructive form of chronic nonspecific otitis in the purpose of establishing the diagnostic criteria for tuberculous otitis. Medical records of 12 patients with tuberculous otitis and 163 patients with cholesteatoma treated at the Institute of Otorhinolaryngology and Maxillofacial Surgery in Belgrade during the eight-year period were analyzed. All of the patients underwent otomicroscopic, audiological and radiological examination of the thorax and temporal bone, microbiological examination of the secretion and histomorphological examination of the tissue taken during middle ear surgery. Statistical analysis was done using chi2 test with Yates correction. Otogenic complication as facial palsy and sensorineural hearing loss were more frequent in tuberculous otitis patients, than in cholesteatoma. Also, fistulas of the labyrinth and facial canal bone destruction were also more frequent in tuberculous otitis than in cholesteatoma. A larger extent of temporal bone destruction was noticed on CT scans of the temporal bone in half of the patents with tuberculous otitis. Coexistence with miliary pulmonary tuberculosis was detected in one third of the patients. There were no microbiological or histomorphological confirmations of the disease, except in one case with positive ZiehI-Neelsen staining. Tuberculous otitis media should be considered in patients with serious otogenic complications and with shorter duration of ear discharge, and in association with diagnosed miliary pulmonary tuberculosis and extensive temporal bone destruction. Polymerase chain reaction still is not reliable for diagnosis.

  2. Numerical analysis of ossicular chain lesion of human ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingxi; Li, Sheng; Sun, Xiuzhen

    2009-04-01

    Lesion of ossicular chain is a common ear disease impairing the sense of hearing. A comprehensive numerical model of human ear can provide better understanding of sound transmission. In this study, we propose a three-dimensional finite element model of human ear that incorporates the canal, tympanic membrane, ossicular bones, middle ear suspensory ligaments/muscles, middle ear cavity and inner ear fluid. Numerical analysis is conducted and employed to predict the effects of middle ear cavity, malleus handle defect, hypoplasia of the long process of incus, and stapedial crus defect on sound transmission. The present finite element model is shown to be reasonable in predicting the ossicular mechanics of human ear.

  3. The magnetospheric lobe at geosynchronous orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Thomsen, M.F.; Bame, S.J.; McComas, D.J.

    1994-09-01

    On rare occasions, satellites at geosynchronous altitude enter the magnetospheric lobe, characterized by extremely low ion fluxes between 1 eV and 40 keV and electron fluxes above a few hundred eV. One year of plasma observations from two simultaneously operating spacecraft at synchronous orbit is surveyed for lobe encounters. A total of 34 full encounters and 56 apparent near encounters are identified, corresponding to {approximately}0.06% of the total observation time. Unlike energetic particle (E>40 keV) dropouts studied earlier, there is a strong tendency for the lobe encounters to occur postmidnight, as late as 07 local time. The two spacecraft encountermore » the lobe with different rates and in different seasons. These occurrence properties are not simply explicable in terms of the orbital geometry in either the solar magnetic or the geocentric solar magnetospheric coordinate system. A composite coordinate system which previously organized more energetic particle dropouts is somewhat more successful in organizing the lobe encounters, suggesting that solar wind distortion of the magnetic equatorial plane away from the dipole location and toward the antisolar direction may be largely responsible for these dropouts. The authors results further suggest that this distortion persists even sunward of the dawn-dusk terminator. However, a simple dawn-dusk symmetric distortion does not fully account for all the seasonal and local time asymmetries in the occurrence of the lobe encounters; thus there is probably an additional dawn-dusk asymmetry in the distorted field. The lobe encounters are strongly associated with magnetospheric activity and tend to occur in association with rare magnetosheath encounters at synchronous orbit. It thus appears that the presence of the lobe at geosynchronous orbit is the result of major, probably asymmetric modifications of the magnetospheric field geometry in times of strong disturbance. 19 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.« less

  4. Robust pulmonary lobe segmentation against incomplete fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Suicheng; Zheng, Qingfeng; Siegfried, Jill; Pu, Jiantao

    2012-03-01

    As important anatomical landmarks of the human lung, accurate lobe segmentation may be useful for characterizing specific lung diseases (e.g., inflammatory, granulomatous, and neoplastic diseases). A number of investigations showed that pulmonary fissures were often incomplete in image depiction, thereby leading to the computerized identification of individual lobes a challenging task. Our purpose is to develop a fully automated algorithm for accurate identification of individual lobes regardless of the integrity of pulmonary fissures. The underlying idea of the developed lobe segmentation scheme is to use piecewise planes to approximate the detected fissures. After a rotation and a global smoothing, a number of small planes were fitted using local fissures points. The local surfaces are finally combined for lobe segmentation using a quadratic B-spline weighting strategy to assure that the segmentation is smooth. The performance of the developed scheme was assessed by comparing with a manually created reference standard on a dataset of 30 lung CT examinations. These examinations covered a number of lung diseases and were selected from a large chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) dataset. The results indicate that our scheme of lobe segmentation is efficient and accurate against incomplete fissures.

  5. Frontal lobe connectivity and cognitive impairment in pediatric frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Braakman, Hilde M H; Vaessen, Maarten J; Jansen, Jacobus F A; Debeij-van Hall, Mariette H J A; de Louw, Anton; Hofman, Paul A M; Vles, Johan S H; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Backes, Walter H

    2013-03-01

    Cognitive impairment is frequent in children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), but its etiology is unknown. With functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we have explored the relationship between brain activation, functional connectivity, and cognitive functioning in a cohort of pediatric patients with FLE and healthy controls. Thirty-two children aged 8-13 years with FLE of unknown cause and 41 healthy age-matched controls underwent neuropsychological assessment and structural and functional brain MRI. We investigated to which extent brain regions activated in response to a working memory task and assessed functional connectivity between distant brain regions. Data of patients were compared to controls, and patients were grouped as cognitively impaired or unimpaired. Children with FLE showed a global decrease in functional brain connectivity compared to healthy controls, whereas brain activation patterns in children with FLE remained relatively intact. Children with FLE complicated by cognitive impairment typically showed a decrease in frontal lobe connectivity. This decreased frontal lobe connectivity comprised both connections within the frontal lobe as well as connections from the frontal lobe to the parietal lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, and basal ganglia. Decreased functional frontal lobe connectivity is associated with cognitive impairment in pediatric FLE. The importance of impairment of functional integrity within the frontal lobe network, as well as its connections to distant areas, provides new insights in the etiology of the broad-range cognitive impairments in children with FLE. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  6. Acceleration induced water removal from ear canals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hosung; Averett, Katelee; Jung, Sunghwan

    2017-11-01

    Children and adults commonly experience having water trapped in the ear canals after swimming. To remove the water, individuals will shake their head sideways. Since a child's ear canal has a smaller diameter, it requires more acceleration of the head to remove the trapped water. In this study, we theoretically and experimentally investigated the acceleration required to break the surface meniscus of the water in artificial ear canals and hydrophobic-coated glass tubes. In experiments, ear canal models were 3D-printed from a CT-scanned human head. Also, glass tubes were coated with silane to match the hydrophobicity in ear canals. Then, using a linear stage, we measured the acceleration values required to forcefully eject the water from the artificial ear canals and glass tubes. A theoretical model was developed to predict the critical acceleration at a given tube diameter and water volume by using a modified Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Furthermore, this research can shed light on the potential of long-term brain injury and damage by shaking the head to push the water out of the ear canal. This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grant CBET-1604424.

  7. Facial Asymmetry: Brow and Ear Position.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Balaji; Meyer, Dale R

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to analyze brow and ear position, and examine the relationship between these structures in patients presenting for blepharoplasty evaluation. A retrospective chart review was performed, which included all patients presenting to one oculoplastic physician for a blepharoplasty evaluation from November, 2012 to March, 2014. The prevalence of brow ptosis and brow and ear asymmetry was calculated; the proportional distribution was determined, and chi-square analysis and the z-test of proportions were used to calculate the significance. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for this study. A total of 133 patients met the inclusion criteria. Some degree of brow ptosis was noted in 83% of patients. Brow asymmetry was found in 88% of patients, and ear asymmetry in 77%. Of those patients who had asymmetry, 61% had the right brow lower and 75% had the right ear lower; 73% of all patients had the brow and ear lower on the same side ( p  < 0.001). In this study, brow ptosis and asymmetry were quite common. In addition, the side of the lower brow correlated strongly with the side of the lower ear, and the right side structures were lower more often than the left. Patients presenting for blepharoplasty evaluation may have an element of generalized facial asymmetry which includes the brows and ears. These observations can be important for preoperative planning and patient counseling. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Detailed assessment of the ear in Cornelia de Lange syndrome: comparison with a control sample using the new dysmorphology guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Alasdair G W; Collins, Julianne S; Deardorff, Matthew A; Krantz, Ian D

    2009-10-01

    The literature abounds with reports of malformation syndromes in which human external ears are variously described as dysplastic, abnormal, large/small, low set, typical, or in some way unusual. Rarely is the ear well illustrated or described in meaningful detail. With few exceptions, such as Down syndrome, there is no real understanding of the degree to which ear morphology is affected in a specific syndrome. This paper describes a retrospective attempt to apply the recently published Morphological Definitions of the ear to compare a control sample of convenience with a group of patients with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) (all six papers in this issue are available online, open access at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/121641055/issue). Although this study has a number of limitations, it demonstrates that the method can be successfully applied and is capable of producing data that can be subjected to statistical analysis. The ears of the patients with CdLS were significantly different from the controls over a number of descriptors, the most significant of which included more frequent apparent posterior rotation, a shorter more serpiginous antihelical stem and sharper antihelical to inferior crus angle, a shorter crus helix, a more V-shaped incisura, and a smaller lobe.

  9. Middle ear impedance measurements in large vestibular aqueduct syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bilgen, Cem; Kirkim, Günay; Kirazli, Tayfun

    2009-06-01

    To assess the effect of inner ear pressure on middle ear impedance in patients with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS). Data from admittance tympanometry and multifrequency tympanometry on 8 LVAS patients and control subjects were studied. Static acoustic compliance (SAC) values for the ears with stable sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) were within the limits of the mean values of control groups except for two ears. The resonance frequency (RF) values of the ears with stable SNHL were lower than the mean values of control groups except for three ears. SAC values for the two ears with fluctuating SNHL were lower and the RF values were higher than the mean values of control groups. Decreased SAC values and increased RF values found in the ears with fluctuating SNHL might be an indirect indicator of increased inner ear pressure, while low RF values in the ears with stable SNHL might reflect the decreased inner ear impedance.

  10. EARS: Electronic Access to Reference Service.

    PubMed Central

    Weise, F O; Borgendale, M

    1986-01-01

    Electronic Access to Reference Service (EARS) is a front end to the Health Sciences Library's electronic mail system, with links to the online public catalog. EARS, which became operational in September 1984, is accessed by users at remote sites with either a terminal or microcomputer. It is menu-driven, allowing users to request: a computerized literature search, reference information, a photocopy of a journal article, or a book. This paper traces the history of EARS and discusses its use, its impact on library staff and services, and factors that influence the diffusion of new technology. PMID:3779167

  11. EARS: Electronic Access to Reference Service.

    PubMed

    Weise, F O; Borgendale, M

    1986-10-01

    Electronic Access to Reference Service (EARS) is a front end to the Health Sciences Library's electronic mail system, with links to the online public catalog. EARS, which became operational in September 1984, is accessed by users at remote sites with either a terminal or microcomputer. It is menu-driven, allowing users to request: a computerized literature search, reference information, a photocopy of a journal article, or a book. This paper traces the history of EARS and discusses its use, its impact on library staff and services, and factors that influence the diffusion of new technology.

  12. Microsurgical anatomy of the central lobe.

    PubMed

    Frigeri, Thomas; Paglioli, Eliseu; de Oliveira, Evandro; Rhoton, Albert L

    2015-03-01

    The central lobe consists of the pre- and postcentral gyri on the lateral surface and the paracentral lobule on the medial surface and corresponds to the sensorimotor cortex. The objective of the present study was to define the neural features, craniometric relationships, arterial supply, and venous drainage of the central lobe. Cadaveric hemispheres dissected using microsurgical techniques provided the material for this study. The coronal suture is closer to the precentral gyrus and central sulcus at its lower rather than at its upper end, but they are closest at a point near where the superior temporal line crosses the coronal suture. The arterial supply of the lower two-thirds of the lateral surface of the central lobe was from the central, precentral, and anterior parietal branches that arose predominantly from the superior trunk of the middle cerebral artery. The medial surface and the superior third of the lateral surface were supplied by the posterior interior frontal, paracentral, and superior parietal branches of the pericallosal and callosomarginal arteries. The venous drainage of the superior two-thirds of the lateral surface and the central lobe on the medial surface was predominantly through the superior sagittal sinus, and the inferior third of the lateral surface was predominantly through the superficial sylvian veins to the sphenoparietal sinus or the vein of Labbé to the transverse sinus. The pre- and postcentral gyri and paracentral lobule have a morphological and functional anatomy that differentiates them from the remainder of their respective lobes and are considered by many as a single lobe. An understanding of the anatomical relationships of the central lobe can be useful in preoperative planning and in establishing reliable intraoperative landmarks.

  13. Distinct lobes of Limulus ventral photoreceptors. I. Functional and anatomical properties of lobes revealed by removal of glial cells

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Removing the glial cells that encase Limulus ventral photoreceptors allows direct observation of the cell surface. Light microscopy of denuded photoreceptors reveals a subdivision of the cell body into lobes. Often one lobe, but sometimes several, is relatively clear and translucent (the R lobes). The lobe adjacent to the axon (the A lobe) has a textured appearance. Scanning electron microscopy shows that microvilli cover the surface of R lobes and are absent from the surface of A lobes. When a dim spot of light is incident on the R lobe, the probability of evoking a single photon response is two to three orders of magnitude higher than when the same spot is incident on the A lobe. We conclude that the sensitivity of the cell to light is principally a function of the R lobe. PMID:7175490

  14. Neonatal Ear Molding: Timing and Technique.

    PubMed

    Anstadt, Erin Elizabeth; Johns, Dana Nicole; Kwok, Alvin Chi-Ming; Siddiqi, Faizi; Gociman, Barbu

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of auricular deformities is believed to be ∼11.5 per 10,000 births, excluding children with microtia. Although not life-threatening, auricular deformities can cause undue distress for patients and their families. Although surgical procedures have traditionally been used to reconstruct congenital auricular deformities, ear molding has been gaining acceptance as an efficacious, noninvasive alternative for the treatment of newborns with ear deformations. We present the successful correction of bilateral Stahl's ear deformity in a newborn through a straightforward, nonsurgical method implemented on the first day of life. The aim of this report is to make pediatric practitioners aware of an effective and simple molding technique appropriate for correction of congenital auricular anomalies. In addition, it stresses the importance of very early initiation of ear cartilage molding for achieving the desired outcome. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Animal models of middle ear cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Fukuda, Tomomi; Takahashi, Haruo; Koji, Takehiko

    2011-01-01

    Middle ear acquired cholesteatoma is a pathological condition associated with otitis media, which may be associated with temporal bone resorption, otorrhea and hearing loss, and occasionally various other complications. Cholesteatoma is characterized by the enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells with aberrant morphologic characteristics. Unfortunately, our understanding of the mechanism underlying its pathogenesis is limited. To investigate its pathogenesis, different animal models have been used. This paper provides a brief overview of the current status of research in the field of pathogenesis of middle ear acquired cholesteatoma, four types of animal models previously reported on, up-to-date cholesteatoma research using these animal models, our current studies of the local hybrid ear model, and the future prospect of new animal models of middle ear cholesteatoma.

  16. Animal Models of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto-Fukuda, Tomomi; Takahashi, Haruo; Koji, Takehiko

    2011-01-01

    Middle ear acquired cholesteatoma is a pathological condition associated with otitis media, which may be associated with temporal bone resorption, otorrhea and hearing loss, and occasionally various other complications. Cholesteatoma is characterized by the enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells with aberrant morphologic characteristics. Unfortunately, our understanding of the mechanism underlying its pathogenesis is limited. To investigate its pathogenesis, different animal models have been used. This paper provides a brief overview of the current status of research in the field of pathogenesis of middle ear acquired cholesteatoma, four types of animal models previously reported on, up-to-date cholesteatoma research using these animal models, our current studies of the local hybrid ear model, and the future prospect of new animal models of middle ear cholesteatoma. PMID:21541229

  17. Milestones in the History of Ear Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Berghaus, Alexander; Nicoló, Marion San

    2015-12-01

    The reconstruction of ear deformities has been challenging plastic surgeons since centuries. However, it is only in the 19th century that reports on partial and total ear reconstruction start increasing. In the quest for an aesthetically pleasing and natural-looking result, surgeons worked on the perfect framework and skin coverage. Different materials and flap techniques have evolved. Some were abandoned out of frustration, while others kept evolving over the years. In this article, we discuss the milestones in ear reconstruction-from ancient times to early attempts in Western civilization to the key chapters of ear reconstruction in the 20th century leading to the current techniques. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. EAR Program Research Results : Updated through 2013

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-12-31

    The Exploratory Advanced Research (EAR) Program addresses the need for longer term, higher risk research with the potential for long-term improvements to transportation systemsimprovements in planning, building, renewing, and operating safe, conge...

  19. EAR Program Research Results: Updated through 2014

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-12-31

    The Exploratory Advanced Research (EAR) Program addresses the need for longer term, higher risk research with the potential for long-term improvements to transportation systemsimprovements in planning, building, renewing, and operating safe, conge...

  20. Diode Laser Ear Piercing: A Novel Technique.

    PubMed

    Suseela, Bibilash Babu; Babu, Preethitha; Chittoria, Ravi Kumar; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Earlobe piercing is a common office room procedure done by a plastic surgeon. Various methods of ear piercing have been described. In this article, we describe a novel method of laser ear piercing using the diode laser. An 18-year-old female patient underwent an ear piercing using a diode laser with a power of 2.0 W in continuous mode after topical local anaesthetic and pre-cooling. The diode laser was fast, safe, easy to use and highly effective way of ear piercing. The advantages we noticed while using the diode laser over conventional methods were more precision, minimal trauma with less chances of hypertrophy and keloids, no bleeding with coagulation effect of laser, less time taken compared to conventional method and less chance of infection due to thermal heat effect of laser.

  1. Torsion of partial cleft of ear lobule.

    PubMed

    Kumaraswamy, M; Waiker, Veena P

    2014-02-01

    Torsion is a well-known phenomenon involving organs with long mesentery. Torsion in the ear lobule is rare. Ear lobule is very well vascularized. In cases of partial cleft ear lobule, there is a small segment of lobule inferior to the cleft which is vascularized through the pedicles on either side of the cleft. A lady aged 89 years presented with discoloration of the ear lobule. She was diagnosed as having gangrene of the central part of lobule. The segment of the lobule had undergone more than 360° torsion. She underwent debridement of gangrenous part and lobuloplasty. In our case laxity of the stretched lobule caused the torsion of the segment followed by gangrene. This rare complication indicates the need for correction of the cleft lobule not only for esthetic purpose, but also for the prevention of torsion. Copyright © 2013 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. EAR Program Research Results: Updated through 2016

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-12-31

    The Exploratory Advanced Research (EAR) Program addresses the need for longer term, higher risk research with the potential for long-term improvements to transportation systemsimprovements in planning, building, renewing, and operating safe, conge...

  3. Middle ear abnormalities in Van Maldergem syndrome.

    PubMed

    Verheij, Emmy; Thomeer, Henricus G X M; Pameijer, Frank A; Topsakal, Vedat

    2017-01-01

    Van Maldergem syndrome (VMS) is a very rare syndrome that was first described in 1992. The main features of this syndrome comprise intellectual disability, blepharo-naso-facial malformation, and hand anomalies. Almost all nine described patients have been shown to be affected by conductive hearing impairment attributed to microtia, and atresia of the outer ear canal. Here, we present a VMS patient with congenital malformations of the middle ear as the main reason for severe conductive bilateral hearing impairment. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe middle ear abnormalities in VMS. These malformations were seen on high resolution Computed Tomography scanning and during an exploratory tympanotomy. Due to the severity of the middle ear abnormalities and the risk for facial nerve damage, the patient was not offered an ossicular chain reconstruction but a bone conduction device after this exploratory tympanotomy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Mixing Enhancement in a Lobed Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. L.; Majamaki, A. J.; Lam, I. T.; Delabroy, O.; Karagozian, A. R.; Marble, F. E.; Smith, O. I.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the non-reactive mixing processes associated with a lobed fuel injector in a coflowing air stream is presented. The lobed fuel injector is a device which generates streamwise vorticity, producing high strain rates which can enhance the mixing of reactants while delaying ignition in a controlled manner. The lobed injectors examined in the present study consist of two corrugated plates between which a fuel surrogate, CO2, is injected into coflowing air. Acetone is seeded in the CO2 supply as a fuel marker. Comparison of two alternative lobed injector geometries is made with a straight fuel injector to determine net differences in mixing and strain fields due to streamwise vorticity generation. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of the seeded acetone yields two-dimensional images of the scalar concentration field at various downstream locations, from which local mixing and scalar dissipation rates are computed. It is found that the lobed injector geometry can enhance molecular mixing and create a highly strained flowfield, and that the strain rates generated by scalar energy dissipation can potentially delay ignition in a reacting flowfield.

  5. Verrucous carcinoma of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Woodson, G E; Jurco, S; Alford, B R; McGavran, M H

    1981-01-01

    A case of a highly destructive, cytologically nondysplastic squamous epithelial lesion of the middle ear is presented. The cranial nerve involvement and bone destruction are more extensive than has been seen in cholesteatoma. Cultures are negative for Pseudomonas, and the patient does not have the reported diathesis for malignant otitis externa. The gross and microscopic features are those of verrucous carcinoma. To our knowledge, the middle ear has not been previously reported as a site of involvement by verrucous carcinoma.

  6. [Constricted ear therapy with free auricular composite grafts].

    PubMed

    Liu, Tun; Zhang, Lian-sheng; Zhuang, Hong-xing; Zhang, Ke-yuan

    2004-03-01

    A simple and effective therapy for single side constricted ear. Transplanting normal side free composite auricular grafts to constricted ear (15 patients and 15 sides), then lengthening the helix, exposing the scapha, correcting deformity. The 15 patients composite grafts all survived. The helix has been lengthened, the scapha exposed, the normal ear reduced, the constricted ear augmented and two sides ear have become symmetry. This method is simple and results are satisfied.

  7. Automated MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe.

    PubMed

    Ranta, Marin E; Chen, Min; Crocetti, Deana; Prince, Jerry L; Subramaniam, Krish; Fischl, Bruce; Kaufmann, Walter E; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2014-05-01

    Examination of associations between specific disorders and physical properties of functionally relevant frontal lobe sub-regions is a fundamental goal in neuropsychiatry. Here, we present and evaluate automated methods of frontal lobe parcellation with the programs FreeSurfer(FS) and TOADS-CRUISE(T-C), based on the manual method described in Ranta et al. [2009]: Psychiatry Res 172:147-154 in which sulcal-gyral landmarks were used to manually delimit functionally relevant regions within the frontal lobe: i.e., primary motor cortex, anterior cingulate, deep white matter, premotor cortex regions (supplementary motor complex, frontal eye field, and lateral premotor cortex) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions (medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC, inferior PFC, lateral orbitofrontal cortex [OFC] and medial OFC). Dice's coefficient, a measure of overlap, and percent volume difference were used to measure the reliability between manual and automated delineations for each frontal lobe region. For FS, mean Dice's coefficient for all regions was 0.75 and percent volume difference was 21.2%. For T-C the mean Dice's coefficient was 0.77 and the mean percent volume difference for all regions was 20.2%. These results, along with a high degree of agreement between the two automated methods (mean Dice's coefficient = 0.81, percent volume difference = 12.4%) and a proof-of-principle group difference analysis that highlights the consistency and sensitivity of the automated methods, indicate that the automated methods are valid techniques for parcellation of the frontal lobe into functionally relevant sub-regions. Thus, the methodology has the potential to increase efficiency, statistical power and reproducibility for population analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders with hypothesized frontal lobe contributions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Automated MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Ranta, Marin E.; Chen, Min; Crocetti, Deana; Prince, Jerry L.; Subramaniam, Krish; Fischl, Bruce; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of associations between specific disorders and physical properties of functionally relevant frontal lobe sub-regions is a fundamental goal in neuropsychiatry. Here we present and evaluate automated methods of frontal lobe parcellation with the programs FreeSurfer(FS) and TOADS-CRUISE(T-C), based on the manual method described in Ranta et al. (2009) in which sulcal-gyral landmarks were used to manually delimit functionally relevant regions within the frontal lobe: i.e., primary motor cortex, anterior cingulate, deep white matter, premotor cortex regions (supplementary motor complex, frontal eye field and lateral premotor cortex) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions (medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC, inferior PFC, lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and medial OFC). Dice's coefficient, a measure of overlap, and percent volume difference were used to measure the reliability between manual and automated delineations for each frontal lobe region. For FS, mean Dice's coefficient for all regions was 0.75 and percent volume difference was 21.2%. For T-C the mean Dice's coefficient was 0.77 and the mean percent volume difference for all regions was 20.2%. These results, along with a high degree of agreement between the two automated methods (mean Dice's coefficient = 0.81, percent volume difference = 12.4%) and a proof-of-principle group difference analysis that highlights the consistency and sensitivity of the automated methods, indicate that the automated methods are valid techniques for parcellation of the frontal lobe into functionally relevant sub-regions. Thus, the methodology has the potential to increase efficiency, statistical power and reproducibility for population analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders with hypothesized frontal lobe contributions. PMID:23897577

  9. Fat-plug myringoplasty of ear lobule vs abdominal donor sites.

    PubMed

    Acar, Mustafa; Yazıcı, Demet; San, Turhan; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cingi, Cemal

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the success rates of fat-graft myringoplasties harvesting adipose grafts from different donor sites (ear lobule vs abdomen). The clinical records of 61 patients (24 males and 37 females) who underwent fat-plug myringoplasty (FPM) were reviewed retrospectively. Fat from ear lobule (FEL) and abdominal fat were used as graft materials. The impact of age, gender, systemic diseases, topography of the perforation, utilization of fat graft materials of different origin on the tympanic membrane closure rate and the effect of FPM on hearing gain was analyzed. Our tympanic membrane (TM) closure rate was 82 %. No statistical significant difference was observed regarding age, gender, comorbidities (septal deviation, hypertension and diabetes mellitus) or habits (smoking). Posterior TM perforations had significantly lower healing rate. The change in TM closure rate considering different adipose tissue donor sites was not statistically significant. The hearing gain of the patients was mostly below 20 dB. Fat-plug myringoplasty (FPM) is a safe, cost-effective and easy operation for selected patients. Abdominal fat graft is as effective as ear lobe fat graft on tympanic membrane healing, has cosmetic advantages and should be taken into consideration when planning fat as the graft source.

  10. [Atypical inflammation of the middle ear].

    PubMed

    Garov, E V; Kryukov, A I; Zelenkova, V N; Sidorina, N G; Kaloshina, A S

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the patients presenting with atypical inflammation of the middle ear and consider the currently available methods for their examination. A total of 20 patients at the age from 16 to 66 years were admitted to the Department of Ear Microsurgery during the period from 2008 and 2016 for the treatment of atypical inflammation of the middle ear. Eleven of them (18 ears) were found to have tuberculous lesions (TL) of the middle ear while the remaining 9 patients (11 ears) suffered giant cell vasculitis (GCV). All the patients underwent the general clinical and otorhinolaryngological examination, computed tomography of the temporal bones and the thoracic cavity organs, cytological, bacteriological, pathomorphological, and molecular-genetic studies including PCR diagnostics, rheumatological tests, as well as counseling by a phthisiotherapist and rheumatologist. The primary localization of TL in the middle ear was documented in 6 patients including its association with lung lesions in 5 cases. The clinical picture of the disease in 5 patients was that of smoldering exudative pathology and in 6 ones was accompanied by suppurative perforative otitis media. According to the laboratory analyses, bacteriological diagnostics proved efficient in 9% of the patients, pathomorphological and cytological diagnostics in 18% and 27.3% of the cases respectively while the effectiveness of PCR diagnostics was estimated at 55%. The diagnosis in individual patients was established within the period from 1 month to 1.5 years after they first sought medical advice in connection with complaints of the ear disease. Tuberculosis of the middle ear began to develop as exudative middle otitis that acquired the form of bilateral pathology in 4 patients. Three patients had a concomitant pulmonary disease. In 4 patuents, the diagnois of middle ear tuberculosis was established based on the presence of the specific antibodies and in 5 ones based on the

  11. Southern Laurentide ice lobes were created by ice streams: Des Moines Lobe in Minnesota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    Regional mapping in southern Minnesota has illuminated a suite of landforms developed by the Des Moines Lobe that delimit the position of the lobe at its maximum and at lesser readvances. The ice lobe repeatedly advanced, discharged its subglacial water, and subsequently stagnated. Recent glaciological research on Antarctic ice streams has led some glacial geologists to postulate that ice streams drained parts of the marine-based areas of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. I postulate that such ice streams may develop in land-based areas of an ice sheet as well, and that the Des Moines Lobe, 200 km wide and 900 km long, was an outlet glacier of an ice stream. It appears to have been able to advance beyond the Laurentide Ice Sheet as long as adequate water pressure was maintained. However, the outer part of the lobe stagnated because subglacial water that facilitated the flow was able to drain away through tunnel valleys. Stagnation of the lobe is not equivalent to stoppage of the ice stream, because ice repeatedly advanced into and onto the stagnant margins, stacking ice and debris. Similar landforms are also seen in other lobes of the upper midwestern United States.

  12. Middle Ear Pressures in Wind Instrument Musicians.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Max Sallis; Morris, Simon; Clark, Matthew P; Begg, Philip

    2018-05-22

    This study aimed to assess if playing wind instruments leads to a measurable increase in middle ear pressure during note generation and to provide evidence to clinicians to advise musicians undergoing middle ear surgery. An observational cohort study of 40 volunteers in 7 different wind instrument categories underwent tympanometry at rest and during note production. Community. Recreational musicians aged over 18 years recruited from the student body attending Birmingham University, UK. None. Tympanometry is used as a noninvasive measure of middle ear pressure. The pressure at which peak compliance occurred was taken as an indirect measure of middle ear pressure. The data produced at rest and during note production was statistically analysed with paired t testing and significance set at a p value less than 0.01. Overall a statistically significant increase in middle ear pressure change of 0.63 mm Hg (p = 0.0001) during note production was identified. Musicians playing the oboe and trumpet demonstrate the largest increase in middle ear pressure of 1.46 mm Hg (p = 0.0053) and 0.78 mm Hg (p = 0.0005) respectively. The data provided by this study gives evidence for the first time that playing wind instruments does increase middle ear pressure. Although the clinical significance of this is yet to be determined the authors would advise that musicians who undergo otological procedures should refrain from playing their instruments until full recovery has been achieved as advised by their clinician following direct microscopic review.

  13. Structure and function of the mammalian middle ear. I: Large middle ears in small desert mammals.

    PubMed

    Mason, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Many species of small desert mammals are known to have expanded auditory bullae. The ears of gerbils and heteromyids have been well described, but much less is known about the middle ear anatomy of other desert mammals. In this study, the middle ears of three gerbils (Meriones, Desmodillus and Gerbillurus), two jerboas (Jaculus) and two sengis (elephant-shrews: Macroscelides and Elephantulus) were examined and compared, using micro-computed tomography and light microscopy. Middle ear cavity expansion has occurred in members of all three groups, apparently in association with an essentially 'freely mobile' ossicular morphology and the development of bony tubes for the middle ear arteries. Cavity expansion can occur in different ways, resulting in different subcavity patterns even between different species of gerbils. Having enlarged middle ear cavities aids low-frequency audition, and several adaptive advantages of low-frequency hearing to small desert mammals have been proposed. However, while Macroscelides was found here to have middle ear cavities so large that together they exceed brain volume, the bullae of Elephantulus are considerably smaller. Why middle ear cavities are enlarged in some desert species but not others remains unclear, but it may relate to microhabitat. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  14. Prenatal evaluation of the middle ear and diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia using MRI.

    PubMed

    Katorza, Eldad; Nahama-Allouche, Catherine; Castaigne, Vanina; Gonzales, Marie; Galliani, Eva; Marlin, Sandrine; Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Rosenblatt, Jonathan; le Pointe, Hubert Ducou; Garel, Catherine

    2011-05-01

    Analysis of the middle ear with fetal MRI has not been previously reported. To show the contribution of fetal MRI to middle ear imaging. The tympanic cavity was evaluated in 108 fetal cerebral MRI examinations (facial and/or cerebral malformation excluded) and in two cases, one of Treacher Collins syndrome (case 1) and the other of oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OUV) spectrum (case 2) with middle ear hypoplasia identified by MRI at 27 and 36 weeks' gestation, respectively. In all 108 fetuses (mean gestational age 32.5 weeks), the tympanic cavity and T2 hypointensity related to the ossicles were well visualised on both sides. Case 1 had micro/retrognathia and bilateral external ear deformity and case 2 had retrognathism with a left low-set and deformed ear. MRI made it possible to recognize the marked hypoplasia of the tympanic cavity, which was bilateral in case 1 and unilateral in case 2. Both syndromes are characterized by craniofacial abnormalities including middle ear hypoplasia, which cannot be diagnosed with US. The middle ear cavity can be visualized with fetal MRI. We emphasize the use of this imaging modality in the diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia.

  15. [Effect size on resonance of the outer ear canal by simulation of middle ear lesions using a temporal bone preparation].

    PubMed

    Scheinpflug, L; Vorwerk, U; Begall, K

    1995-01-01

    By means of a model of the external and the middle ear it is possible to simulate various, exactly defined pathological conditions of the middle ear and to describe their influence on ear canal resonance. Starting point of the investigations are fresh postmortem preparations of 8 human temporal bones with an intact ear drum and a retained skin of the ear canal. The compliance of the middle ear does not significantly differ from the clinical data of probands with healthy ears. After antrotomy it is possible to simulate pathological conditions of the middle ear one after the other at the same temporal bone. The influence of the changed middle ear conditions on ear drum compliance, ear canal volume and on the resonance curve of the external ear canal was investigated. For example, the middle ear was filled with water to create approximately the same conditions as in acute serous otitis media. In this middle ear condition a significant increase of the sound pressure amplification was found, on an average by 4 decibels compared to the unchanged temporal bone model. A small increase in resonance frequency was also measured. The advantages of this model are the approximately physiological conditions and the constant dimensions of the external and middle ear.

  16. Formation of Bipolar Lobes by Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soker, Noam

    2002-04-01

    I conduct an analytical study of the interaction of jets, or a collimated fast wind (CFW), with a previously blown asymptotic giant branch (AGB) slow wind. Such jets (or CFWs) are supposedly formed when a compact companion, a main-sequence star, or a white dwarf accretes mass from the AGB star, forms an accretion disk, and blows two jets. This type of flow, which I think shapes bipolar planetary nebulae (PNs), requires three-dimensional gasdynamical simulations, which are limited in the parameter space they can cover. By imposing several simplifying assumptions, I derive simple expressions which reproduce some basic properties of lobes in bipolar PNs and which can be used to guide future numerical simulations. I quantitatively apply the results to two proto-PNs. I show that the jet interaction with the slow wind can form lobes which are narrow close to, and far away from, the central binary system, and which are wider somewhere in between. Jets that are recollimated and have constant cross section can form cylindrical lobes with constant diameter, as observed in several bipolar PNs. Close to their source, jets blown by main-sequence companions are radiative; only further out they become adiabatic, i.e., they form high-temperature, low-density bubbles that inflate the lobes.

  17. Neuropsychological outcome after traumatic temporal lobe damage.

    PubMed

    Formisano, R; Schmidhuber-Eiler, B; Saltuari, L; Cigany, E; Birbamer, G; Gerstenbrand, F

    1991-01-01

    The most frequent sequelae after severe brain injury include changes in personality traits, disturbances of emotional behaviour and impairment of cognitive functions. In particular, emotional changes and/or verbal and non verbal dysfunctions were found in patients with bilateral or unilateral temporal lobe lesions. The aim of our study is to correlate the localization of the brain damage after severe brain injury, in particular of the temporal lobe, with the cognitive impairment and the emotional and behavioural changes resulting from these lesions. The patients with right temporal lobe lesions showed significantly better scores in verbal intelligence and verbal memory in comparison with patients with left temporal lobe lesions and those with other focal brain lesions or diffuse brain damage. In contradistinction, study of the personality and the emotional changes (MMPI and FAF) failed to demonstrate pathological scores in the 3 groups with different CT lesions, without any significant difference being found between the groups with temporal lesions and those with other focal brain lesions or diffuse brain damage. The severity of the brain injury and the prolongation of the disturbance of consciousness could, in our patients, account for prevalence of congnitive impairment on personality and emotional changes.

  18. Maintaining ear aesthetics in helical rim reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Taylor, James M; Rajan, Ruchika; Dickson, John K; Mahajan, Ajay L

    2014-03-01

    Wedge resections of the helical rim may result in a significant deformity of the ear with the ear not only smaller but cupped and prominent too. Our technique involves resection of the wedge in the scaphal area without extending into the concha followed by advancement of the helical rim into the defect. This technique is most suitable for peripheral defects of the helical rim, in the middle third. Our modified surgical technique was applied to reconstruction of the pinna after resection of the tumor in 12 patients. Free cartilaginous helical rim, length of helical rim to be resected, and projection of the ear from the mastoid was measured. This was then compared with measurements after the operation, and the patient satisfaction assessed with a visual analog scale. The free cartilaginous rim was 91.67 ± 5.61 mm. Of this, 21.92 ± 3.78 mm was resected, which amounted to 23.84% ± 3.35% of the rim. Although this resulted in a mean increase in ear projection of 6.42 ± 1.68 mm, the aesthetic outcome was good (visual analog scale, 9.08 ± 0.9). This technique reduces cupping and does not make the ear as prominent as it may do after a conventional wedge resection and results in high patient satisfaction.

  19. Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

    2001-01-01

    This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

  20. Ear molding in newborn infants with auricular deformities.

    PubMed

    Byrd, H Steve; Langevin, Claude-Jean; Ghidoni, Lorraine A

    2010-10-01

    A review of a single physician's experience in managing over 831 infant ear deformities (488 patients) is presented. The authors' methods of molding have advanced from the use of various tapes, glues, and stents, to a comprehensive yet simple system that shapes the antihelix, the triangular fossa, the helical rim, and the overly prominent conchal-mastoid angle (EarWell Infant Ear Correction System). The types of deformities managed, and their relative occurrence, are as follows: (1) prominent/cup ear, 373 ears (45 percent); (2) lidding/lop ear, 224 ears (27 percent); (3) mixed ear deformities, 83 ears (10 percent) (all had associated conchal crus); (4) Stahl's ear, 66 ears (8 percent); (5) helical rim abnormalities, 58 ears (7 percent); (6) conchal crus, 25 ears (3 percent); and (7) cryptotia, two ears (0.2 percent). Bilateral deformities were present in 340 patients (70 percent), with unilateral deformities in 148 patients (30 percent). Fifty-eight infant ears (34 patients) were treated using the final version of the EarWell Infant Ear Correction System with a success rate exceeding 90 percent (good to excellent results). The system was found to be most successful when begun in the first week of the infant's life. When molding was initiated after 3 weeks from birth, only approximately half of the infants had a good response. Congenital ear deformities are common and only approximately 30 percent self-correct. These deformities can be corrected by initiating appropriate molding in the first week of life. Neonatal molding reduces the need for surgical correction with results that often exceed what can be achieved with the surgical alternative.

  1. Semantic memory is impaired in patients with unilateral anterior temporal lobe resection for temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Ehsan, Sheeba; Baker, Gus A; Rogers, Timothy T

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary clinical and basic neuroscience studies have increasingly implicated the anterior temporal lobe regions, bilaterally, in the formation of coherent concepts. Mounting convergent evidence for the importance of the anterior temporal lobe in semantic memory is found in patients with bilateral anterior temporal lobe damage (e.g. semantic dementia), functional neuroimaging and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation studies. If this proposal is correct, then one might expect patients with anterior temporal lobe resection for long-standing temporal lobe epilepsy to be semantically impaired. Such patients, however, do not present clinically with striking comprehension deficits but with amnesia and variable anomia, leading some to conclude that semantic memory is intact in resection for temporal lobe epilepsy and thus casting doubt over the conclusions drawn from semantic dementia and linked basic neuroscience studies. Whilst there is a considerable neuropsychological literature on temporal lobe epilepsy, few studies have probed semantic memory directly, with mixed results, and none have undertaken the same type of systematic investigation of semantic processing that has been conducted with other patient groups. In this study, therefore, we investigated the semantic performance of 20 patients with resection for chronic temporal lobe epilepsy with a full battery of semantic assessments, including more sensitive measures of semantic processing. The results provide a bridge between the current clinical observations about resection for temporal lobe epilepsy and the expectations from semantic dementia and other neuroscience findings. Specifically, we found that on simple semantic tasks, the patients' accuracy fell in the normal range, with the exception that some patients with left resection for temporal lobe epilepsy had measurable anomia. Once the semantic assessments were made more challenging, by probing specific-level concepts, lower frequency

  2. Semantic memory is impaired in patients with unilateral anterior temporal lobe resection for temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ehsan, Sheeba; Baker, Gus A.; Rogers, Timothy T.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary clinical and basic neuroscience studies have increasingly implicated the anterior temporal lobe regions, bilaterally, in the formation of coherent concepts. Mounting convergent evidence for the importance of the anterior temporal lobe in semantic memory is found in patients with bilateral anterior temporal lobe damage (e.g. semantic dementia), functional neuroimaging and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation studies. If this proposal is correct, then one might expect patients with anterior temporal lobe resection for long-standing temporal lobe epilepsy to be semantically impaired. Such patients, however, do not present clinically with striking comprehension deficits but with amnesia and variable anomia, leading some to conclude that semantic memory is intact in resection for temporal lobe epilepsy and thus casting doubt over the conclusions drawn from semantic dementia and linked basic neuroscience studies. Whilst there is a considerable neuropsychological literature on temporal lobe epilepsy, few studies have probed semantic memory directly, with mixed results, and none have undertaken the same type of systematic investigation of semantic processing that has been conducted with other patient groups. In this study, therefore, we investigated the semantic performance of 20 patients with resection for chronic temporal lobe epilepsy with a full battery of semantic assessments, including more sensitive measures of semantic processing. The results provide a bridge between the current clinical observations about resection for temporal lobe epilepsy and the expectations from semantic dementia and other neuroscience findings. Specifically, we found that on simple semantic tasks, the patients’ accuracy fell in the normal range, with the exception that some patients with left resection for temporal lobe epilepsy had measurable anomia. Once the semantic assessments were made more challenging, by probing specific-level concepts, lower frequency

  3. Chronic atelectasis of the left lower lobe: a clinicopathological condition equivalent to middle lobe syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Abdel-Mohsen; Elmistekawy, Elsayed; Elatafy, Elatafy

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Middle lobe syndrome is a well-known clinical condition. In this retrospective study, we report our experience with a similar clinicopathological condition affecting the left lower lobe. METHODS The data of 17 patients with atelectasis or bronchiectasis of the left lower lobe who underwent lobectomy during the period from January 2000 to December 2011 were reviewed. Demographic, clinical, radiological and surgical data were collected. RESULTS Seventeen patients were included in this study, only one adult male patient of 52 years and 16 children. The paediatric patients were 10 boys and 6 girls, their age ranged from 2 to 11 years, mean 6.19 ± 2.6 years. Most patients presented with recurrent respiratory infection 15/17 (88.2%). The lag time before referral to surgery ranged from 3 to 48 months, mean 17.59 ± 13.1 months. Radiological signs of bronchiectasis were found in 11 (64.7%) patients. Bronchoscopy showed patent lower lobe bronchus in all patients. The criteria for lobectomy were evidence of bronchiectasis [11 (64.71%) patients], persistent atelectasis of the lobe after bronchoscopy and intensive medical therapy for a maximum of 2 months [6 (35.29%) patients]. Histopathological examination showed bronchiectasis in 11 (64.71%) patients, fibrosing pneumonitis in 4 (23.53%) patients and peribronchial inflammation in 2 (11.76%) patients. Most patients were doing well 1 year after surgery. CONCLUSIONS Chronic atelectasis of the left lower lobe is a clinicopathological condition equivalent to middle lobe syndrome. Impaired collateral ventilation together with airway plugging with secretion is an accepted explanation. Surgical resection is indicated for bronchiectatic lobe or failure of 2-month intensive medical therapy to resolve lobar atelectasis. PMID:22761114

  4. Chronic atelectasis of the left lower lobe: a clinicopathological condition equivalent to middle lobe syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Abdel-Mohsen; Elmistekawy, Elsayed; Elatafy, Elatafy

    2012-10-01

    Middle lobe syndrome is a well-known clinical condition. In this retrospective study, we report our experience with a similar clinicopathological condition affecting the left lower lobe. The data of 17 patients with atelectasis or bronchiectasis of the left lower lobe who underwent lobectomy during the period from January 2000 to December 2011 were reviewed. Demographic, clinical, radiological and surgical data were collected. Seventeen patients were included in this study, only one adult male patient of 52 years and 16 children. The paediatric patients were 10 boys and 6 girls, their age ranged from 2 to 11 years, mean 6.19 ± 2.6 years. Most patients presented with recurrent respiratory infection 15/17 (88.2%). The lag time before referral to surgery ranged from 3 to 48 months, mean 17.59 ± 13.1 months. Radiological signs of bronchiectasis were found in 11 (64.7%) patients. Bronchoscopy showed patent lower lobe bronchus in all patients. The criteria for lobectomy were evidence of bronchiectasis [11 (64.71%) patients], persistent atelectasis of the lobe after bronchoscopy and intensive medical therapy for a maximum of 2 months [6 (35.29%) patients]. Histopathological examination showed bronchiectasis in 11 (64.71%) patients, fibrosing pneumonitis in 4 (23.53%) patients and peribronchial inflammation in 2 (11.76%) patients. Most patients were doing well 1 year after surgery. Chronic atelectasis of the left lower lobe is a clinicopathological condition equivalent to middle lobe syndrome. Impaired collateral ventilation together with airway plugging with secretion is an accepted explanation. Surgical resection is indicated for bronchiectatic lobe or failure of 2-month intensive medical therapy to resolve lobar atelectasis.

  5. Precise individualized armature for ear reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenhouse, Raymond J.; Chen, Xiaoming

    1991-04-01

    The cosmetic result of an ear restored surgically or via prosthetics is dependent on the surgeon''s ability to carve a precise cartilage armature at the time of surgery or the prosthetist''s ability to sculpt in wax an exact duplicate of the patient''s " missing" ear. Introducing CAD/CAM technology into the process benefits the esthetic outcome of these procedures. By utilizing serial section information derived from CAT MRI or moulage techniques a mirrorimage of the patient''s " donor" ear is generated. The resulting earform data is then used for the design of a cartilage armature produced by multi-axis milling or to produce by stereolithography a model which serves as the basis for a prosthesis.

  6. Building an endoscopic ear surgery program.

    PubMed

    Golub, Justin S

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses background, operative details, and outcomes of endoscopic ear surgery. This information will be helpful for those establishing a new program. Endoscopic ear surgery is growing in popularity. The ideal benefit is in totally transcanal access that would otherwise require a larger incision. The endoscope carries a number of advantages over the microscope, as well as some disadvantages. Several key maneuvers can minimize disadvantages. There is a paucity of studies directly comparing outcomes between endoscopic and microscopic approaches for the same procedure. The endoscope is gaining acceptance as a tool for treating otologic diseases. For interested surgeons, this article can help bridge the transition from microscopic to totally transcanal endoscopic ear surgery for appropriate disease.

  7. Temporal lobe epilepsy in a cat with a pyriform lobe oligodendroglioma and hippocampal necrosis.

    PubMed

    Vanhaesebrouck, An E; Posch, Barbara; Baker, Sam; Plessas, Ioannis N; Palmer, Anthony C; Constantino-Casas, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    A 14-year-old male domestic shorthair cat presented with an acute onset of aggressive behaviour, fear and hypersalivation. Neurological examination revealed bilateral mydriasis and left-sided facial twitching and hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed moderate bilateral symmetrical T2-hyperintensity along the entire hippocampus and bilateral asymmetric T2-hyperintensity in the pyriform lobes. Marked bilateral contrast enhancement of the hippocampus was evident on post-contrast T1-weighted images. The partial complex seizures were refractory to medical treatment and the cat was euthanased 4 days after admission. The clinical and MRI findings were consistent with feline hippocampal necrosis (FHN). On histopathology, neuronal necrosis and astrocytosis were present in the hippocampi and pyriform lobes. In addition, an oligodendroglioma was detected in the right pyriform lobe. Contrary to previous reports of FHN in which no underlying cause could be identified, we believe that in this case the seizure focus arose from a neoplastic lesion within the right pyriform lobe. This unique case report represents the so-called 'dual pathology' of temporal lobe epilepsy in humans, in which an extrahippocampal lesion within the temporal lobe results in hippocampal sclerosis.

  8. Expansion method in secondary total ear reconstruction for undesirable reconstructed ear.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tun; Hu, Jintian; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Qingguo

    2014-09-01

    Ear reconstruction by autologous costal cartilage grafting is the most widely applied technique with fewer complications. However, undesirable ear reconstruction brings more problems to plastic surgeons. Some authors resort to free flap or osseointegration technique with prosthetic ear. In this article, we introduce a secondary total ear reconstruction with expanded skin flap method. From July 2010 to April 2012, 7 cases of undesirable ear reconstruction were repaired by tissue expansion method. Procedures including removal of previous cartilage framework, soft tissue expander insertion, and second stage of cartilage framework insertion were performed to each case regarding their local conditions. The follow-up time ranged from 6 months to 2.5 years. All of the cases recovered well with good 3-dimensional forms, symmetrical auriculocephalic angle, and stable fixation. All these evidence showed that this novel expansion method is safe, stable, and less traumatic for secondary total ear reconstruction. With sufficient expanded skin flap and refabricated cartilage framework, lifelike appearance of reconstructed ear could be acquired without causing additional injury.

  9. Active middle ear implant after lateral petrosectomy and radiotherapy for ear cancer.

    PubMed

    Cristalli, Giovanni; Sprinzl, Georg M; Wolf-Magele, Astrid; Marchesi, Paolo; Mercante, Giuseppe; Spriano, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    Tumor of the temporal bone is a rare disease with a very poor prognosis. Surgery and postoperative radiotherapy are usually the recommended treatments for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the external and middle ear, which may cause conductive hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the audiologic results and compliance of active middle ear implant (AMEI) and establish the feasibility of the procedure in a patient treated for middle ear cancer. A 73-year-old patient treated with lateral petrosectomy, neck dissection, reconstruction/obliteration by pedicled pectoralis major myocutaneous flap, and postoperative full dose radiotherapy for external and middle ear SCC was selected for AMEI. Preoperative audiometric and speech audiometry tests were performed on both ears before and after the activation. Pure tone free field audiometry. Binaural free field speech audiogram. Aided pure tone free field audiometry AMEI results show an increase in air conduction. Speech audiogram showed better discrimination scores in AMEI-aided situations. No complications were observed. AMEI after surgery followed by radiotherapy for middle ear cancer is feasible. Acoustic results in obliterated ear are satisfactory.

  10. Gustatory otalgia and wet ear syndrome: a possible cross-innervation after ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Saito, H

    1999-04-01

    The chorda tympani and Arnold's nerves have close approximation to each other and their cross-innervation is possible after ear surgery. A retrospective study was performed with a temporal bone pathology case and two clinical cases as representatives of such a possibility. Patients had severe otalgia and wet ear during gustatory stimulation. A temporal bone pathology case was studied under a light microscope. Earache and/or wet ear were provoked during gustatory stimulation. Wet ear was tested with iodine-starch reaction after the subject tasted lemon juice. The temporal bone specimen has clusters of regenerated fibers in the tympanic cavity in the area of the chorda tympani and Arnold's nerves, suggesting a possibility of mixing. There are regenerated fibers in the iter chordae anterius, showing successful bridging of the chorda tympani nerves across a long gap. Detachment of the skin over the operated mastoid bowl obscured signs in one clinical case. Another clinical case of gustatory wet ear showed objective evidence of cross-innervation with iodine-starch reaction. The detachment procedure and iodine-starch reaction were the proofs that the signs were related to regenerated fibers. This is the first report of gustatory otalgia and wet ear after ear surgery.

  11. Comparison between Scalp EEG and Behind-the-Ear EEG for Development of a Wearable Seizure Detection System for Patients with Focal Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ying; Cleeren, Evy; Dan, Jonathan; Claes, Kasper; Hunyadi, Borbála

    2017-01-01

    A wearable electroencephalogram (EEG) device for continuous monitoring of patients suffering from epilepsy would provide valuable information for the management of the disease. Currently no EEG setup is small and unobtrusive enough to be used in daily life. Recording behind the ear could prove to be a solution to a wearable EEG setup. This article examines the feasibility of recording epileptic EEG from behind the ear. It is achieved by comparison with scalp EEG recordings. Traditional scalp EEG and behind-the-ear EEG were simultaneously acquired from 12 patients with temporal, parietal, or occipital lobe epilepsy. Behind-the-ear EEG consisted of cross-head channels and unilateral channels. The analysis on Electrooculography (EOG) artifacts resulting from eye blinking showed that EOG artifacts were absent on cross-head channels and had significantly small amplitudes on unilateral channels. Temporal waveform and frequency content during seizures from behind-the-ear EEG visually resembled that from scalp EEG. Further, coherence analysis confirmed that behind-the-ear EEG acquired meaningful epileptic discharges similarly to scalp EEG. Moreover, automatic seizure detection based on support vector machine (SVM) showed that comparable seizure detection performance can be achieved using these two recordings. With scalp EEG, detection had a median sensitivity of 100% and a false detection rate of 1.14 per hour, while, with behind-the-ear EEG, it had a median sensitivity of 94.5% and a false detection rate of 0.52 per hour. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of detecting seizures from EEG recordings behind the ear for patients with focal epilepsy. PMID:29295522

  12. Dysmorphism of the middle ear: case report

    PubMed Central

    Solero, P; Ferrara, M; Musto, R; Pira, A; Di Lisi, D

    2005-01-01

    Summary Although there are numerous publications in the literature describing the wide range of diagnosis, classifications and treatment of malformations of the hearing apparatus, even more variations can be found in clinical practice. Indeed, each individual case is unique as far as concerns pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment. The case reported herein describes a 12-year-old boy affected by cranio-facial dysmorphism and monolateral conductive hearing loss in the right ear: followed from radiological diagnosis – carried out to study a malformation of the ear pinna – to surgical treatment. PMID:16602328

  13. Correcting prominent ears with the island technique.

    PubMed

    DeMoura, L F

    1977-01-01

    A surgical procedure is described which corrects the ansiform ear by repositioning and reconstructing the anthelix and the anterior crus with the formation of the triangular fossa. This corrects the scaphoconchal angle and improves the cephaloauricular angle, overcoming the problem of prominent ears. Correction in early childhood is recommended in order to avoid personality problems that may result from the deformity, particularly in boys. The technique employed yields important advantages: (1) prolonged use of the helmet-type of surgical dressing is unnecessary; (2) scars are less conspicuous; (3) the outcome is attractive and normal; (4) bleeding and inflammatory complications are avoided; and (5) recurrence of the malformation is unlikely.

  14. Are two ears not better than one?

    PubMed

    McArdle, Rachel A; Killion, Mead; Mennite, Monica A; Chisolm, Theresa H

    2012-03-01

    The decision to fit one or two hearing aids in individuals with binaural hearing loss has been debated for years. Although some 78% of U.S. hearing aid fittings are binaural (Kochkin , 2010), Walden and Walden (2005) presented data showing that 82% (23 of 28 patients) of their sample obtained significantly better speech recognition in noise scores when wearing one hearing aid as opposed to two. To conduct two new experiments to fuel the monaural/binaural debate. The first experiment was a replication of Walden and Walden (2005), whereas the second experiment examined the use of binaural cues to improve speech recognition in noise. A repeated measures experimental design. Twenty veterans (aged 59-85 yr), with mild to moderately severe binaurally symmetrical hearing loss who wore binaural hearing aids were recruited from the Audiology Department at the Bay Pines VA Healthcare System. Experiment 1 followed the procedures of the Walden and Walden study, where signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss was measured using the Quick Speech-in-Noise (QuickSIN) test on participants who were aided with their current hearing aids. Signal and noise were presented in the sound booth at 0° azimuth under five test conditions: (1) right ear aided, (2) left ear aided, (3) both ears aided, (4) right ear aided, left ear plugged, and (5) unaided. The opposite ear in (1) and (2) was left open. In Experiment 2, binaural Knowles Electronics Manikin for Acoustic Research (KEMAR) manikin recordings made in Lou Malnati's pizza restaurant during a busy period provided a typical real-world noise, while prerecorded target sentences were presented through a small loudspeaker located in front of the KEMAR manikin. Subjects listened to the resulting binaural recordings through insert earphones under the following four conditions: (1) binaural, (2) diotic, (3) monaural left, and (4) monaural right. Results of repeated measures ANOVAs demonstrated that the best speech recognition in noise performance was

  15. The extratemporal lobe epilepsies in the epilepsy monitoring unit

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Deepa; Tripathi, Manjari

    2014-01-01

    Extratemporal lobe epilepsies (ETLE) are characterized by the epileptogenic foci outside the temporal lobe. They have a wide spectrum of semiological presentation depending upon the site of origin. They can arise from frontal, parietal, occipital lobes and from hypothalamic hamartoma. We discuss in this review the semiology of different types of ETLE encountered in the epilepsy monitoring unit. PMID:24791090

  16. A different type of 'glue ear': report of an unusual case of prominent ears.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Elizabeth M; O'Neill, Ann C; Regan, Padraic J

    2003-09-01

    Prominent ears is a condition that can cause extreme psychological distress in young people. This cosmetic deformity can be corrected by otoplasty, an outpatient surgical procedure that is associated with a high rate of patient satisfaction. We report the unusual case of a teenage boy who had repeatedly applied cyanoacrylate adhesive ("superglue") to his postauricular skin in an attempt to pin back his prominent ears. This case of "glue ear" was ultimately resolved by successful otoplasty, although the residual effects of the glue resulted in delayed healing of the surgical wound.

  17. Route Learning Impairment in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Memory impairment on neuropsychological tests is relatively common in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients. But memory rarely has been evaluated in more naturalistic settings. This study assessed TLE (n = 19) and control (n = 32) groups on a real-world route learning (RL) test. Compared to the controls, the TLE group committed significantly more total errors across the three RL test trials. RL errors correlated significantly with standardized auditory and visual memory and visual-perceptual test scores in the TLE group. In the TLE subset for whom hippocampal data were available (n = 14), RL errors also correlated significantly with left hippocampal volume. This is one of the first studies to demonstrate real-world memory impairment in TLE patients and its association with both mesial temporal lobe integrity and standardized memory test performance. The results support the ecological validity of clinical neuropsychological assessment. PMID:23041173

  18. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in mucopolysaccharidosis.

    PubMed

    Bonanni, Paolo; Volzone, Anna; Randazzo, Giovanna; Antoniazzi, Lisa; Rampazzo, Angelica; Scarpa, Maurizio; Nobili, Lino

    2014-10-01

    Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is an epileptic syndrome that is primarily characterized by seizures with motor signs occurring almost exclusively during sleep. We describe 2 children with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) who were referred for significant sleep disturbance. Long term video-EEG monitoring (LT-VEEGM) demonstrated sleep-related hypermotor seizures consistent with NFLE. No case of sleep-related hypermotor seizures has ever been reported to date in MPS. However, differential diagnosis with parasomnias has been previously discussed. The high frequency of frontal lobe seizures causes sleep fragmentation, which may result in sleep disturbances observed in at least a small percentage of MPS patients. We suggest monitoring individuals with MPS using periodic LT-VEEGM, particularly when sleep disorder is present. Moreover, our cases confirm that NFLE in lysosomal storage diseases may occur, and this finding extends the etiologic spectrum of NFLE. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Inverted Lobes Have Satisfactory Functions Compared With Noninverted Lobes in Lung Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kayawake, Hidenao; Chen-Yoshikawa, Toyofumi F; Motoyama, Hideki; Hamaji, Masatsugu; Hijiya, Kyoko; Aoyama, Akihiro; Goda, Yasufumi; Oda, Hiromi; Ueda, Satoshi; Date, Hiroshi

    2018-04-01

    To overcome the problem of small-for-size grafts in standard living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT), we developed inverted LDLLT, in which a right lower lobe from 1 donor is implanted as a right graft and another right lower lobe from another donor is implanted as a left graft. We retrospectively analyzed the functions of inverted grafts vs noninverted grafts. Between 2008 and 2015, 64 LDLLTs were performed. Included were 35 LDLLTs whose recipients were adults and monitored for more than 6 months without developing chronic lung allograft dysfunction. Among them, 65 implanted lobes were eligible for this analysis. There were 31 right lower lobes implanted as right grafts (right-to-right group), 7 right lower lobes as inverted left grafts (right-to-left group), and 27 left lower lobes as left grafts (left-to-left group). We evaluated the graft forced vital capacity (G-FVC) and graft volume of the 65 lobes before and 6 months after LDLLT and compared them among the three groups. Preoperatively, G-FVC in the right-to-left group (1,050 mL) was comparable to that in the right-to-right group (1,177 mL) and better than that in the left-to-left group (791 mL, p < 0.01). Six months after LDLLT, G-FVC in the right-to-left group (1,015 mL) remained comparable to that in the right-to-right group (1,001 mL) and better than that in the left-to-left group (713 mL, p = 0.047). The ratio of graft volume 6 months after LDLLT to the preoperative value was comparable. The functions of inverted grafts in inverted LDLLTs were satisfactory compared with those of noninverted grafts. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [An ear thermometer based on infrared thermopiles sensor].

    PubMed

    Xie, Haiyuan; Qian, Mingli

    2013-09-01

    According to the development of body temperature measurement mode, an ear thermometer with infrared thermopiles sensor is designed for body thermometry Compared with oral thermometer, the accuracy of ear thermometer is acceptable.

  1. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders Pediatric Obesity ... self-esteem, and isolation from their peers. Pediatric obesity and otolaryngic problems Otolaryngologists, or ear, nose, and ...

  2. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Although there is no proven medical link between middle ear infections and pediatric obesity there may be a behavioral association between the two conditions. Some studies have found that when a child is rubbing or massaging the infected ear the ...

  3. Transmission matrix analysis of the chinchilla middle ear

    PubMed Central

    Songer, Jocelyn E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the common use of the chinchilla as an animal model in auditory research, a complete characterization of the chinchilla middle ear using transmission matrix analysis has not been performed. In this paper we describe measurements of middle-ear input admittance and stapes velocity in ears with the middle-ear cavity opened under three conditions: intact tympano-ossicular system and cochlea, after the cochlea has been drained, and after the stapes has been fixed. These measurements, made with stimulus frequencies of 100–8000 Hz, are used to define the transmission matrix parameters of the middle ear and to calculate the cochlear input impedance as well as the middle-ear output impedance. This transmission characterization of the chinchilla middle ear will be useful for modeling auditory sensitivity in the normal and pathological chinchilla ear. PMID:17672642

  4. Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your doctor about ear tube surgery; Tympanostomy - what to ask your doctor; Myringotomy - what to ask your doctor ... need ear tubes? Can we try other treatments? What are the risks of the surgery? Is it ...

  5. Perirhinal cortex and temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Biagini, Giuseppe; D'Antuono, Margherita; Benini, Ruba; de Guzman, Philip; Longo, Daniela; Avoli, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The perirhinal cortex—which is interconnected with several limbic structures and is intimately involved in learning and memory—plays major roles in pathological processes such as the kindling phenomenon of epileptogenesis and the spread of limbic seizures. Both features may be relevant to the pathophysiology of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy that represents the most refractory adult form of epilepsy with up to 30% of patients not achieving adequate seizure control. Compared to other limbic structures such as the hippocampus or the entorhinal cortex, the perirhinal area remains understudied and, in particular, detailed information on its dysfunctional characteristics remains scarce; this lack of information may be due to the fact that the perirhinal cortex is not grossly damaged in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and in models mimicking this epileptic disorder. However, we have recently identified in pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats the presence of selective losses of interneuron subtypes along with increased synaptic excitability. In this review we: (i) highlight the fundamental electrophysiological properties of perirhinal cortex neurons; (ii) briefly stress the mechanisms underlying epileptiform synchronization in perirhinal cortex networks following epileptogenic pharmacological manipulations; and (iii) focus on the changes in neuronal excitability and cytoarchitecture of the perirhinal cortex occurring in the pilocarpine model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Overall, these data indicate that perirhinal cortex networks are hyperexcitable in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy, and that this condition is associated with a selective cellular damage that is characterized by an age-dependent sensitivity of interneurons to precipitating injuries, such as status epilepticus. PMID:24009554

  6. Frontal lobe astrocytoma following radiotherapy for medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.S.; Kushner, M.J.; Dell, S.

    1981-05-01

    A young woman had a frontal lobe astrocytoma 14 years after successful treatment of a posterior fossa medulloblastoma by surgery and whole-neuraxis irradiation. The association of these two tumors is rare, and it is unlikely that the second tumor was the result of metastasis and differentiation of residual or recurrent medulloblastoma. We review the evidence supporting this view and also the likelihood that the astrocytoma was induced by the prior radiation.

  7. Sublingual pyramidal lobe. Complications of subtotal thyroidectomy for Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Sternberg, J.L.

    1986-11-01

    A potential complication of subtotal thyroidectomy where a large pyramidal lobe is present is described. The pyramidal lobe normally is immobilized inferiorly by its attachment to the thyroidal isthmus. When the isthmus is removed and the pyramidal lobe is left in situ during subtotal thyroidectomy its superior attachments will allow the pyramidal lobe to become situated sublingually. This may produce gagging and nausea. To avoid the complication, it is recommended that the pyramidal lobe be removed during subtotal thyroidectomy. If the patient also is thyrotoxic, I-131 can be used to treat this complication successfully.

  8. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Surgery Failures: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Harroud, Adil; Bouthillier, Alain; Weil, Alexander G.; Nguyen, Dang Khoa

    2012-01-01

    Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are refractory to antiepileptic drugs in about 30% of cases. Surgical treatment has been shown to be beneficial for the selected patients but fails to provide a seizure-free outcome in 20–30% of TLE patients. Several reasons have been identified to explain these surgical failures. This paper will address the five most common causes of TLE surgery failure (a) insufficient resection of epileptogenic mesial temporal structures, (b) relapse on the contralateral mesial temporal lobe, (c) lateral temporal neocortical epilepsy, (d) coexistence of mesial temporal sclerosis and a neocortical lesion (dual pathology); and (e) extratemporal lobe epilepsy mimicking TLE or temporal plus epilepsy. Persistence of epileptogenic mesial structures in the posterior temporal region and failure to distinguish mesial and lateral temporal epilepsy are possible causes of seizure persistence after TLE surgery. In cases of dual pathology, failure to identify a subtle mesial temporal sclerosis or regions of cortical microdysgenesis is a likely explanation for some surgical failures. Extratemporal epilepsy syndromes masquerading as or coexistent with TLE result in incomplete resection of the epileptogenic zone and seizure relapse after surgery. In particular, the insula may be an important cause of surgical failure in patients with TLE. PMID:22934162

  9. Getting Teens to Read with Their Ears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fues, Marianne Cole

    2009-01-01

    Audiobooks have been around for years in various formats, like cassette tapes and CDs. This article describes a new type of audiobook on the market which is generating an interest in "reading." The device, called Playaway, is the size of a MP3 player and comes with a lanyard and ear buds. Buttons on the back of the player control the…

  10. Congenital tuberculosis localised to the ear.

    PubMed Central

    Naranbhai, R C; Mathiassen, W; Malan, A F

    1989-01-01

    We report two infants who had localised congenital tuberculous otitis. In both cases the infants presented with an ear discharge and both mothers had been diagnosed as having miliary tuberculosis. Infection is thought to have occurred in utero or during birth. Images Figure PMID:2786383

  11. A systematic review on external ear melanoma.

    PubMed

    Toia, Francesca; Garbo, Giuseppe; Tripoli, Massimiliano; Rinaldi, Gaetana; Moschella, Francesco; Cordova, Adriana

    2015-07-01

    External ear melanoma accounts for only 1% of all cutaneous melanomas, and data on its optimal management and prognosis are limited. We aim to review the literature on external ear melanoma to guide surgeons in the treatment of this uncommon and peculiar pathology. A systematic review of English language studies on ear melanoma published from 1993 to 2013 was performed using the PubMed electronic database. Data on epidemiology, oncological treatment (tumor resection and regional lymph nodes management), and reconstruction were extrapolated from selected papers. The total number of patients was 858 (30 studies). The helix was the most common location (57%); superficial spreading melanoma was the most common histopathological subtype (41%). The mean Breslow thickness was 2.01 mm, with 88% of stage I-II patients. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed in 45% of patients, with 8% of positive nodes. Available data on its prognosis are fragmentary and contrasting, but the Breslow thickness appears to be the main prognostic factor. There is a tendency towards reduced resection margins and preservation of the underlying perichondrium and cartilage. Local flaps are the most popular reconstructive option. To the best of our knowledge, this systematic review presents the largest data series on external ear melanoma. There is no general agreement on its surgical management, but a favorable prognosis seems to justify the tendency towards conservative treatments. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Surgical correction of the cauliflower ear.

    PubMed

    Vogelin, E; Grobbelaar, A O; Chana, J S; Gault, D T

    1998-07-01

    The cauliflower ear presents a challenge to the surgeon. Patients complain of discomfort and appearance. Three patients were treated surgically via a posterior approach to remove the hardened segment and re-sculpture a leaf of cartilage left in place. An acceptable cosmetic result was achieved and all patients are currently pain free.

  13. Interaction Between Allergy and Middle Ear Infection.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Woo Jin

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have attempted to identify interactions among the causes of otitis media with effusion (OME). This review discusses the interaction between allergy and infection with regard to host and environmental factors in terms of the development of OME. Protection of the upper airway against microbial invasion requires active interaction between the defense mechanisms of the respiratory epithelium, including innate and adaptive immunity, and mechanical factors. The impairment of these defenses due to allergy and/or increased bacterial resistance may lead to increased susceptibility to infectious organisms in the respiratory tract and middle ear mucosa. Recent genetic studies have provided valuable information about the association of Toll-like receptor signaling variations with clinical phenotypes and the risk of infection in the middle ear. Among the causal factors of OME, allergy not only induces an inflammatory reaction in the middle ear cavity but also facilitates the invasion of infectious pathogens. There is also evidence that allergy can affect the susceptibility of patients to infection of the upper respiratory tract, including the middle ear cavity.

  14. A review of microvascular ear replantation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung Won; Lee, Junsang; Oh, Suk Joon; Koh, Sung Hoon; Chung, Chul Hoon; Lee, Jong Wook

    2013-03-01

    Microvascular ear replantation is a significant challenge because of the small size of the vessels and the fact that traumatic amputations are frequently avulsed. The zone of trauma is therefore extended and the primary repair of the injured vessel is rendered unlikely. The purpose of this study is to review the literature of ear replantation. A review of the relevant literature that has been published since 1980 revealed 47 cases reported in 37 publications. We present 5 cases from our own experience and analyze a total 52 cases of microvascular ear replantation. The patient's age, sex, degree of amputation, cause of injury, ischemic time, method of arterial and venous anastomosis, complications, any additional outflow used, postoperative medications, the requirement for transfusions, and the number of hospital admission days are described. Successful microvascular ear replantations require anastomosis of the vessels if possible. Rather than a vein graft, primary repair of the vessels, or at least pedicled repair of the artery, should be considered to ensure flap survival. In addition, vein repair should be considered if possible to ensure the secure drainage of blood from the replant. With secure circulation, the replant can survive, resulting in a very satisfactory outcome. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Keep Your Ear-Lids Open.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrington, Gary

    1994-01-01

    This article suggests that the development of listening skills should extend to the "soundscape" of nonspeech acoustical information. It presents a model for effective aural processing, identifies categories of information obtained from nonverbal sound, and explores "ear-tuning" or listening exercises that use sound to glean…

  16. [The effect of OSAHS on middle ear and inner ear vestibule function advances].

    PubMed

    Li, K L; Li, J R

    2016-05-20

    Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome(OSAHS) as a common frequentlyoccurring disease, it can cause repeated episodes of hypoxaemia and hypercapnia during sleep. With long period of hypoxaemia, obvious pathological changes and dysfunction emerged in heart,brain and lung then all kinds of clinical symptoms appear. Because of the middle ear and inner ear themselves anatomical characteristics and blood supply of regulating mechanism, they often has been damaged before the other important organ damage. As scholars have indepth study of the auditory system complications in patients with OSAHS, various influence of OSAHS on the middle ear,inner ear also gradually be known.This paper will review the effect of OSAHS on middle ear, inner ear and vestibule function, hope to have some application value for clinical work. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

  17. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation of...

  18. The middle ear mass: a rare but important diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pankhania, Miran; Rourke, Thomas; Draper, Mark R

    2011-12-02

    The authors report a rare case of primary intracranial meningioma presenting as a middle ear mass with conductive hearing loss. The authors aim to highlight the importance of diagnosing a middle ear mass, which although rare, may have a substantial impact on ongoing patient management. A discussion of other middle ear pathologies is made in order to demonstrate the subtle differences in presentation.

  19. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation of...

  20. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation of...

  1. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation of...

  2. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation of...

  3. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... technology and software not subject to the EAR are described in §§ 734.7 through 734.11 and supplement no. 1... of items subject to the EAR out of the United States, or release of technology or software subject to... source code and object code software subject to the EAR. (2) Export of technology or software. (See...

  4. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... technology and software not subject to the EAR are described in §§ 734.7 through 734.11 and supplement no. 1... of items subject to the EAR out of the United States, or release of technology or software subject to... source code and object code software subject to the EAR. (2) Export of technology or software. (See...

  5. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... technology and software not subject to the EAR are described in §§ 734.7 through 734.11 and supplement no. 1... of items subject to the EAR out of the United States, or release of technology or software subject to... source code and object code software subject to the EAR. (2) Export of technology or software. (See...

  6. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... technology and software not subject to the EAR are described in §§ 734.7 through 734.11 and supplement no. 1... of items subject to the EAR out of the United States, or release of technology or software subject to... source code and object code software subject to the EAR. (2) Export of technology or software. (See...

  7. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... technology and software not subject to the EAR are described in §§ 734.7 through 734.11 and supplement no. 1... of items subject to the EAR out of the United States, or release of technology or software subject to... source code and object code software subject to the EAR. (2) Export of technology or software. (See...

  8. Role of skeletal muscle in ear development.

    PubMed

    Rot, Irena; Baguma-Nibasheka, Mark; Costain, Willard J; Hong, Paul; Tafra, Robert; Mardesic-Brakus, Snjezana; Mrduljas-Djujic, Natasa; Saraga-Babic, Mirna; Kablar, Boris

    2017-10-01

    The current paper is a continuation of our work described in Rot and Kablar, 2010. Here, we show lists of 10 up- and 87 down-regulated genes obtained by a cDNA microarray analysis that compared developing Myf5-/-:Myod-/- (and Mrf4-/-) petrous part of the temporal bone, containing middle and inner ear, to the control, at embryonic day 18.5. Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses entirely lack skeletal myoblasts and muscles. They are unable to move their head, which interferes with the perception of angular acceleration. Previously, we showed that the inner ear areas most affected in Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses were the vestibular cristae ampullaris, sensitive to angular acceleration. Our finding that the type I hair cells were absent in the mutants' cristae was further used here to identify a profile of genes specific to the lacking cell type. Microarrays followed by a detailed consultation of web-accessible mouse databases allowed us to identify 6 candidate genes with a possible role in the development of the inner ear sensory organs: Actc1, Pgam2, Ldb3, Eno3, Hspb7 and Smpx. Additionally, we searched for human homologues of the candidate genes since a number of syndromes in humans have associated inner ear abnormalities. Mutations in one of our candidate genes, Smpx, have been reported as the cause of X-linked deafness in humans. Our current study suggests an epigenetic role that mechanical, and potentially other, stimuli originating from muscle, play in organogenesis, and offers an approach to finding novel genes responsible for altered inner ear phenotypes.

  9. [European Portuguese EARS test battery adaptation].

    PubMed

    Alves, Marisa; Ramos, Daniela; Oliveira, Graça; Alves, Helena; Anderson, Ilona; Magalhães, Isabel; Martins, Jorge H; Simões, Margarida; Ferreira, Raquel; Fonseca, Rita; Andrade, Susana; Silva, Luís; Ribeiro, Carlos; Ferreira, Pedro Lopes

    2014-01-01

    The use of adequate assessment tools in health care is crucial for the management of care. The lack of specific tools in Portugal for assessing the performance of children who use cochlear implants motivated the translation and adaptation of the EARS (Evaluation of Auditory Responses to Speech) test battery into European Portuguese. This test battery is today one of the most commonly used by (re)habilitation teams of deaf children who use cochlear implants worldwide. The goal to be achieved with the validation of EARS was to provide (re)habilitation teams an instrument that enables: (i) monitoring the progress of individual (re)habilitation, (ii) managing a (re)habilitation program according to objective results, comparable between different (re)habilitation teams, (iii) obtaining data that can be compared with the results of international teams, and (iv) improving engagement and motivation of the family and other professionals from local teams. For the test battery translation and adaptation process, the adopted procedures were the following: (i) translation of the English version into European Portuguese by a professional translator, (ii) revision of the translation performed by an expert panel, including doctors, speech-language pathologists and audiologists, (iii) adaptation of the test stimuli by the team's speechlanguage pathologist, and (iv) further review by the expert panel. For each of the tests that belong to the EARS battery, the introduced adaptations and adjustments are presented, combining the characteristics and objectives of the original tests with the linguistic and cultural specificities of the Portuguese population. The difficulties that have been encountered during the translation and adaptation process and the adopted solutions are discussed. Comparisons are made with other versions of the EARS battery. We defend that the translation and the adaptation process followed for the EARS test battery into European Portuguese was correctly conducted

  10. Functional relevance of interindividual differences in temporal lobe callosal pathways: a DTI tractography study.

    PubMed

    Westerhausen, René; Grüner, Renate; Specht, Karsten; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2009-06-01

    The midsagittal corpus callosum is topographically organized, that is, with regard to their cortical origin several subtracts can be distinguished within the corpus callosum that belong to specific functional brain networks. Recent diffusion tensor tractography studies have also revealed remarkable interindividual differences in the size and exact localization of these tracts. To examine the functional relevance of interindividual variability in callosal tracts, 17 right-handed male participants underwent structural and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. Probabilistic tractography was carried out to identify the callosal subregions that interconnect left and right temporal lobe auditory processing areas, and the midsagittal size of this tract was seen as indicator of the (anatomical) strength of this connection. Auditory information transfer was assessed applying an auditory speech perception task with dichotic presentations of consonant-vowel syllables (e.g., /ba-ga/). The frequency of correct left ear reports in this task served as a functional measure of interhemispheric transfer. Statistical analysis showed that a stronger anatomical connection between the superior temporal lobe areas supports a better information transfer. This specific structure-function association in the auditory modality supports the general notion that interindividual differences in callosal topography possess functional relevance.

  11. A Calmodulin C-Lobe Ca2+-Dependent Switch Governs Kv7 Channel Function.

    PubMed

    Chang, Aram; Abderemane-Ali, Fayal; Hura, Greg L; Rossen, Nathan D; Gate, Rachel E; Minor, Daniel L

    2018-02-21

    Kv7 (KCNQ) voltage-gated potassium channels control excitability in the brain, heart, and ear. Calmodulin (CaM) is crucial for Kv7 function, but how this calcium sensor affects activity has remained unclear. Here, we present X-ray crystallographic analysis of CaM:Kv7.4 and CaM:Kv7.5 AB domain complexes that reveal an Apo/CaM clamp conformation and calcium binding preferences. These structures, combined with small-angle X-ray scattering, biochemical, and functional studies, establish a regulatory mechanism for Kv7 CaM modulation based on a common architecture in which a CaM C-lobe calcium-dependent switch releases a shared Apo/CaM clamp conformation. This C-lobe switch inhibits voltage-dependent activation of Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 but facilitates Kv7.1, demonstrating that mechanism is shared by Kv7 isoforms despite the different directions of CaM modulation. Our findings provide a unified framework for understanding how CaM controls different Kv7 isoforms and highlight the role of membrane proximal domains for controlling voltage-gated channel function. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Naturopathic treatment for ear pain in children.

    PubMed

    Sarrell, E Michael; Cohen, Herman Avner; Kahan, Ernesto

    2003-05-01

    Otitis media is 1 of the most frequent diseases of early infancy and childhood and 1 of the most common reasons for children to visit a physician. In the past 2 decades, there has been a substantial increase in the diagnosis of otitis media worldwide. In the United States, 93% of all children have had at least 1 episode of acute otitis media (AOM) by 7 years of age. Otalgia is the hallmark of AOM. Most affected children either complain of earache or manifest behavior that the parents interpret as indicating ear pain. Treatment of the ear pain early in the course of AOM decreases both parental anxiety and the child's discomfort and accelerates the healing process. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and tolerability of naturopathic versus traditional treatment for the management of otalgia commonly associated with AOM in children. The study was designed as a double-blind trial in an outpatient community clinic. A total of 171 children who were aged 5 to 18 years and had otalgia and clinical findings associated with middle-ear infection were studied. The children were randomly assigned to receive treatment with Naturopathic Herbal Extract Ear Drops (NHED) or anesthetic ear drops, with or without amoxicillin. On enrollment, the children were assigned by computer-numbered randomization to receive NHED (contents: allium sativum, verbascum thapsus, calendula flores, hypericum perfoliatum, lavender, and vitamin E in olive oil) 5 drops 3 times daily, alone (group A) or together with a topical anesthetic (amethocaine and phenazone in glycerin) 5 drops 3 times daily (group B), or oral amoxicillin 80 mg/kg/d (maximum 500 mg/dose) divided into 3 doses with either NHED 5 drops 3 times daily (group C) or topical anesthetic 5 drops 3 times daily (group D). A double-blind design was used, and all ear drops were placed in identical bottles. Treatment was initiated by the nurse in all cases. A single physician (M.S.) evaluated and treated all of the patients

  13. Chinchilla middle ear transmission matrix model and middle-ear flexibilitya)

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2017-01-01

    The function of the middle ear (ME) in transforming ME acoustic inputs and outputs (sound pressures and volume velocities) can be described with an acoustic two-port transmission matrix. This description is independent of the load on the ME (cochlea or ear canal) and holds in either direction: forward (from ear canal to cochlea) or reverse (from cochlea to ear canal). A transmission matrix describing ME function in chinchilla, an animal commonly used in auditory research, is presented, computed from measurements of forward ME function: input admittance YTM, ME pressure gain GMEP, ME velocity transfer function HV, and cochlear input admittance YC, in the same set of ears [Ravicz and Rosowski (2012b). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 2437–2454; (2013a). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 2208–2223; (2013b). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 2852–2865]. Unlike previous estimates, these computations require no assumptions about the state of the inner ear, effectiveness of ME manipulations, or measurements of sound transmission in the reverse direction. These element values are generally consistent with physical constraints and the anatomical ME “transformer ratio.” Differences from a previous estimate in chinchilla [Songer and Rosowski (2007). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 932–942] may be due to a difference in ME flexibility between the two subject groups. PMID:28599566

  14. Chinchilla middle ear transmission matrix model and middle-ear flexibility.

    PubMed

    Ravicz, Michael E; Rosowski, John J

    2017-05-01

    The function of the middle ear (ME) in transforming ME acoustic inputs and outputs (sound pressures and volume velocities) can be described with an acoustic two-port transmission matrix. This description is independent of the load on the ME (cochlea or ear canal) and holds in either direction: forward (from ear canal to cochlea) or reverse (from cochlea to ear canal). A transmission matrix describing ME function in chinchilla, an animal commonly used in auditory research, is presented, computed from measurements of forward ME function: input admittance Y TM , ME pressure gain G MEP , ME velocity transfer function H V , and cochlear input admittance Y C , in the same set of ears [Ravicz and Rosowski (2012b). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 2437-2454; (2013a). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 2208-2223; (2013b). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 2852-2865]. Unlike previous estimates, these computations require no assumptions about the state of the inner ear, effectiveness of ME manipulations, or measurements of sound transmission in the reverse direction. These element values are generally consistent with physical constraints and the anatomical ME "transformer ratio." Differences from a previous estimate in chinchilla [Songer and Rosowski (2007). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 932-942] may be due to a difference in ME flexibility between the two subject groups.

  15. Anthropometric growth study of the ear in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shichun; Li, Dianguo; Liu, Zhenzhong; Wang, Yibiao; Liu, Lei; Jiang, Duyin; Pan, Bo

    2018-04-01

    A large number of anthropometric studies of the auricle have been reported in different nations, but little data were available in the Chinese population. The aim of this study was to analyze growth changes in the ear by measuring the width and length of ears in a Chinese population. A total of 480 participants were enrolled and classified into 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, 9-, 12-, 14-, and 18-year groups (half were boys and half were girls in each group). Ear length, ear width, body weight, and body length were measured and recorded; ear index was calculated according to ear length and ear width. The growth of auricle and differences between genders were analyzed. Growth of ear in relation to body height and weight and the degree of emphasis on the length and width of the auricle were also analyzed. Ear length and width increased with age. Ear length achieved its mature size in both 14-year-old males and females. Ear width reached its mature size in males at 7 years and in females at 5 years. Different trends of ear index were shown between males and females. People in this population paid more attention to the length than the width of the auricle. The data indicated that ear development followed increase in age. There were gender and ethnic difference in the development of ear. These results may have potential implications for the diagnosis of congenital malformations, syndromes, and planning of ear reconstruction surgery. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Ear Care in Coastal Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Dosemane, Deviprasad; Ganapathi, Keerthan; Kanthila, Jayashree

    2015-12-01

    Ear as an organ is necessary for the perception of sound and body balance. Ear infection, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and excessive use of mobile phone for listening to music at high volume all can reduce hearing. No earlier study was available in the costal Karnataka population, regarding the practice of ear care. The study objective was to ascertain the level of knowledge of the community regarding ear care, to find out whether some of the common conditions affecting hearing are known and to find out the common practices involved in maintaining ear hygiene. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 subjects in two tertiary care hospitals by convenient sampling, using self-administered questionnaire. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice across the age groups, religion & education background were studied. Across different education groups, 66.7%-90% did not know that 'cold' can cause ear infection and 46.7%-75.0% did not know that diabetes and hypertension can reduce hearing. When there is ear pain or discharge, people put ear drops available at home in 48.3%-75.0% across 3 age groups; 58.5%-61.5% across 3 religions and 44.8%-67.9% across 5 education groups. No statistically significant difference was found in the practice of pouring oil into ears across religions. A total of 58.6%-100% daily clean inside the ear and 70-100% use cotton buds. General perception of the people is that ear is necessary only for hearing. Majority did not know that nasal infection can affect the ear and that DM and hypertension can cause hearing loss. When there is ear pain and discharge, most of the adults put drops that are available at home. Pouring oil into the ears and cleaning inside the ear canals is routinely practiced in costal Karnataka.

  17. Correction of Lying Ears by Augmentation of the Conchoscaphal Angle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Eun; Yeo, Chi-Ho; Kim, Taegon; Kim, Yong-Ha; Lee, Jun Ho; Chung, Kyu-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Lying ears are defined as ears that protrude less from the head, and in frontal view, are characterized by lateral positioning of antihelical contour relative to the helical rim. These aesthetically displeasing ears require correction in accord with the goals of otoplasty stated by McDowell. The authors present a case of lying ears treated by correcting the conchomastoid angle using Z-plasty, resection of posterior auricular muscle, and correction of the conchoscaphal angle by releasing cartilage using 2 full-thickness incisions and grafting of a conchal cartilage spacer. By combining these techniques, the authors efficiently corrected lying ears and produced aesthetically pleasing results.

  18. Management of auricular hematoma and the cauliflower ear.

    PubMed

    Greywoode, Jewel D; Pribitkin, Edmund A; Krein, Howard

    2010-12-01

    Acute auricular hematoma is common after blunt trauma to the side of the head. A network of vessels provides a rich blood supply to the ear, and the ear cartilage receives its nutrients from the overlying perichondrium. Prompt management of hematoma includes drainage and prevention of reaccumulation. If left untreated, an auricular hematoma can result in complications such as perichondritis, infection, and necrosis. Cauliflower ear may result from long-standing loss of blood supply to the ear cartilage and formation of neocartilage from disrupted perichondrium. Management of cauliflower ear involves excision of deformed cartilage and reshaping of the auricle. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  19. Estimation of outer-middle ear transmission using DPOAEs and fractional-order modeling of human middle ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghibolhosseini, Maryam

    Our ability to hear depends primarily on sound waves traveling through the outer and middle ear toward the inner ear. Hence, the characteristics of the outer and middle ear affect sound transmission to/from the inner ear. The role of the middle and outer ear in sound transmission is particularly important for otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), which are sound signals generated in a healthy cochlea, and recorded by a sensitive microphone placed in the ear canal. OAEs are used to evaluate the health and function of the cochlea; however, they are also affected by outer and middle ear characteristics. To better assess cochlear health using OAEs, it is critical to quantify the impact of the outer and middle ear on sound transmission. The reported research introduces a noninvasive approach to estimate outer-middle ear transmission using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). In addition, the role of the outer and middle ear on sound transmission was investigated by developing a physical/mathematical model, which employed fractional-order lumped elements to include the viscoelastic characteristics of biological tissues. Impedance estimations from wideband refectance measurements were used for parameter fitting of the model. The model was validated comparing its estimates of the outer-middle ear sound transmission with those given by DPOAEs. The outer-middle ear transmission by the model was defined as the sum of forward and reverse outer-middle ear transmissions. To estimate the reverse transmission by the model, the probe-microphone impedance was calculated through estimating the Thevenin-equivalent circuit of the probe-microphone. The Thevenin-equivalent circuit was calculated using measurements in a number of test cavities. Such modeling enhances our understanding of the roles of different parts of the outer and middle ear and how they work together to determine their function. In addition, the model would be potentially helpful in diagnosing pathologies of

  20. Structures that Contribute to Middle-Ear Admittance in Chinchilla

    PubMed Central

    Rosowski, John J.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Songer, Jocelyn E.

    2009-01-01

    We describe measurements of middle-ear input admittance in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) before and after various manipulations that define the contributions of different middle-ear components to function. The chinchilla’s middle-ear air spaces have a large effect on the low-frequency compliance of the middle ear, and removing the influences of these spaces reveals a highly admittant tympanic membrane and ossicular chain. Measurements of the admittance of the air spaces reveal that the high-degree of segmentation of these spaces has only a small effect on the admittance. Draining the cochlea further increases the middle-ear admittance at low frequencies and removes a low-frequency (less than 300 Hz) level dependence in the admittance. Spontaneous or sound-driven contractions of the middle-ear muscles in deeply anesthetized animals were associated with significant changes in middle-ear admittance. PMID:16944166

  1. Genetics of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Salzmann, Annick; Malafosse, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is usually regarded as a polygenic and complex disorder. To understand its genetic component, numerous linkage analyses of familial forms and association studies of cases versus controls have been conducted since the middle of the nineties. The present paper lists genetic findings for TLE from the initial segregation analysis to the most recent results published in May 2011. To date, no genes have been clearly related to TLE despite many efforts to do so. However, it is vital to continue replication studies and collaborative attempts to find significant results and thus determine which gene variant combination plays a definitive role in the aetiology of TLE. PMID:22957248

  2. Management of prominent ears: personal approach.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Macias, José Manuel

    2008-03-01

    Various methods for correcting prominent ears have been reported. Although anterior cartilage antihelix abrasion combined with posterior retention sutures is a conventional procedure, it does not include anterior conchal cartilage abrasion and thus allows easier reduction of the condromastoid angle. A simple and effective technique is described that involves using a rasp to score the whole anterior surface of the auricular cartilage, including the concha, in combination with Mustarde-type conchal-antihelical and conchal-mastoid retention sutures. This method was applied to 342 patients (675 ears) over 23 years, who were followed up for periods varying from 18 to 24 months. Good results were obtained for all patients with minimal complications.

  3. A rare case of petrified ear.

    PubMed

    Buikema, Kathryn E; Adams, Erin G

    2012-01-01

    Calcification or ossification of the auricle, also referred to as petrified ear, is a rare diagnosis in dermatology. In medical literature, it has most often been attributed to trauma, hypothermia and frostbite, or hypercalcemia secondary to a metabolic or endocrine disorder, such as Addison's disease. Here, we report the clinical and radiologic findings of a 79-year-old African American male whose unilateral petrified auricle was an incidental finding. He had a preceding history of hyperparathyroidism and subsequent hypercalcemia treated with a subtotal parathyroidectomy three years prior to presentation. In addition to laboratory analysis, a history and physical examination was performed which revealed no other signs of hypercalcemia. Radiologic studies demonstrated partial ossification of the external auricular cartilage on the left side. The patient was diagnosed with the rare occurrence of a petrified ear. In light of this case, we provide a discussion concerning the possible etiologies of this diagnosis including appropriate patient evaluation and possible treatment recommendations.

  4. A Rare Case of Petrified Ear

    PubMed Central

    Buikema, Kathryn E.; Adams, Erin G.

    2012-01-01

    Calcification or ossification of the auricle, also referred to as petrified ear, is a rare diagnosis in dermatology. In medical literature, it has most often been attributed to trauma, hypothermia and frostbite, or hypercalcemia secondary to a metabolic or endocrine disorder, such as Addison's disease. Here, we report the clinical and radiologic findings of a 79-year-old African American male whose unilateral petrified auricle was an incidental finding. He had a preceding history of hyperparathyroidism and subsequent hypercalcemia treated with a subtotal parathyroidectomy three years prior to presentation. In addition to laboratory analysis, a history and physical examination was performed which revealed no other signs of hypercalcemia. Radiologic studies demonstrated partial ossification of the external auricular cartilage on the left side. The patient was diagnosed with the rare occurrence of a petrified ear. In light of this case, we provide a discussion concerning the possible etiologies of this diagnosis including appropriate patient evaluation and possible treatment recommendations. PMID:23259082

  5. Ewing Sarcoma of the External Ear Canal

    PubMed Central

    Kecelioglu Binnetoglu, Kiymet; Gerin, Fatma; Sari, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a high-grade malignant tumor that has skeletal and extraskeletal forms and consists of small round cells. In the head and neck region, reported localization of extraskeletal ES includes the larynx, thyroid gland, submandibular gland, nasal fossa, pharynx, skin, and parotid gland, but not the external ear canal. Methods. We present the unique case of a 2-year-old boy with extraskeletal ES arising from the external ear canal, mimicking auricular hematoma. Results. Surgery was performed and a VAC/IE (vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide alternating with ifosfamide, and etoposide) regimen was used for adjuvant chemotherapy for 12 months. Conclusion. The clinician should consider extraskeletal ES when diagnosing tumors localized in the head and neck region because it may be manifested by a nonspecific clinical picture mimicking common otorhinolaryngologic disorders. PMID:27313930

  6. A genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci for variation in human ear morphology.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Kaustubh; Reales, Guillermo; Smith, Andrew J P; Konka, Esra; Palmen, Jutta; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Fuentes, Macarena; Pizarro, María; Barquera Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín Pérez, Gastón; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C; Hurtado, Malena; Villegas, Valeria; Granja, Vanessa; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Calderón, Rosario; Rosique, Javier; Cheeseman, Michael; Bhutta, Mahmood F; Humphries, Steve E; Gonzalez-José, Rolando; Headon, Denis; Balding, David; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2015-06-24

    Here we report a genome-wide association study for non-pathological pinna morphology in over 5,000 Latin Americans. We find genome-wide significant association at seven genomic regions affecting: lobe size and attachment, folding of antihelix, helix rolling, ear protrusion and antitragus size (linear regression P values 2 × 10(-8) to 3 × 10(-14)). Four traits are associated with a functional variant in the Ectodysplasin A receptor (EDAR) gene, a key regulator of embryonic skin appendage development. We confirm expression of Edar in the developing mouse ear and that Edar-deficient mice have an abnormally shaped pinna. Two traits are associated with SNPs in a region overlapping the T-Box Protein 15 (TBX15) gene, a major determinant of mouse skeletal development. Strongest association in this region is observed for SNP rs17023457 located in an evolutionarily conserved binding site for the transcription factor Cartilage paired-class homeoprotein 1 (CART1), and we confirm that rs17023457 alters in vitro binding of CART1.

  7. [Preoperative CT Scan in middle ear cholesteatoma].

    PubMed

    Sethom, Anissa; Akkari, Khemaies; Dridi, Inès; Tmimi, S; Mardassi, Ali; Benzarti, Sonia; Miled, Imed; Chebbi, Mohamed Kamel

    2011-03-01

    To compare preoperative CT scan finding and per-operative lesions in patients operated for middle ear cholesteatoma, A retrospective study including 60 patients with cholesteatoma otitis diagnosed and treated within a period of 5 years, from 2001 to 2005, at ENT department of Military Hospital of Tunis. All patients had computed tomography of the middle and inner ear. High resolution CT scan imaging was performed using millimetric incidences (3 to 5 millimetres). All patients had surgical removal of their cholesteatoma using down wall technic. We evaluated sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of CT-scan comparing otitic damages and CT finding, in order to examine the real contribution of computed tomography in cholesteatoma otitis. CT scan analysis of middle ear bone structures shows satisfaction (with 83% of sensibility). The rate of sensibility decrease (63%) for the tympanic raff. Predictive value of CT scan for the diagnosis of cholesteatoma was low. However, we have noticed an excellent sensibility in the analysis of ossicular damages (90%). Comparative frontal incidence seems to be less sensible for the detection of facial nerve lesions (42%). But when evident on CT scan findings, lesions of facial nerve were usually observed preoperatively (spécificity 78%). Predictive value of computed tomography for the diagnosis of perilymphatic fistulae (FL) was low. In fact, CT scan imaging have showed FL only for four patients among eight. Best results can be obtained if using inframillimetric incidences with performed high resolution computed tomography. Preoperative computed tomography is necessary for the diagnosis and the evaluation of chronic middle ear cholesteatoma in order to show extending lesion and to detect complications. This CT analysis and surgical correlation have showed that sensibility, specificity and predictive value of CT-scan depend on the anatomic structure implicated in cholesteatoma damages.

  8. Structural Metadata Research in the Ears Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    detecting structural information in the word stream (the so-called “structural MDE” portion of the EARS program); other MDE efforts on speaker ... diarization are overviewed in [13]. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. We describe the structural MDE tasks, performance measurement, and corpora...tems have only recently been introduced, with NIST reporting re- sults with the Wilcoxon signed rank test for speaker -level average score differences

  9. Theory of forward and reverse middle-ear transmission applied to otoacoustic emissions in infant and adult ears

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, Douglas H.; Abdala, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand why otoacoustic emission (OAE) levels are higher in normal-hearing human infants relative to adults. In a previous study, distortion product (DP) OAE input/output (I/O) functions were shown to differ at f2=6 kHz in adults compared to infants through 6 months of age. These DPOAE I/O functions were used to noninvasively assess immaturities in forward/reverse transmission through the ear canal and middle ear [Abdala, C., and Keefe, D. H., (2006). J. Acoust Soc. Am. 120, 3832–3842]. In the present study, ear-canal reflectance and DPOAEs measured in the same ears were analyzed using a scattering-matrix model of forward and reverse transmission in the ear canal, middle ear, and cochlea. Reflectance measurements were sensitive to frequency-dependent effects of ear-canal and middle-ear transmission that differed across OAE type and subject age. Results indicated that DPOAE levels were larger in infants mainly because the reverse middle-ear transmittance level varied with ear-canal area, which differed by more than a factor of 7 between term infants and adults. The forward middle-ear transmittance level was −16 dB less in infants, so that the conductive efficiency was poorer in infants than adults. PMID:17348521

  10. Ear recognition from one sample per person.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Mu, Zhichun; Zhang, Baoqing; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP) in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP) available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC) ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods.

  11. Why Do Elephants Flap Their Ears?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffi, Moise; Jiji, Latif; Andreopoulos, Yiannis

    2009-11-01

    It is estimated that a 4200 kg elephant generates as much as 5.12 kW of heat. How the elephant dissipates its metabolic heat and regulates its body temperature has been investigated during the past seven decades. Findings and conclusions differ sharply. The high rate of metabolic heat coupled with low surface area to volume ratio and the absence of sweat glands eliminate surface convection as the primary mechanism for heat removal. Noting that the elephant ears have high surface area to volume ratio and an extensive vascular network, ear flapping is thought to be the principal thermoregulatory mechanism. A computational and experimental program is carried out to examine flow and heat transfer characteristics. The ear is modeled as a uniformly heated oscillating rectangular plate. Our computational work involves a three-dimensional time dependent CFD code with heat transfer capabilities to obtain predictions of the flow field and surface temperature distributions. This information was used to design an experimental setup with a uniformly heated plate of size 0.2m x 0.3m oscillating at 1.6 cycles per second. Results show that surface temperature increases and reaches a steady periodic oscillation after a period of transient oscillation. The role of the vortices shed off the plate in heat transfer enhancement will be discussed.

  12. Pathology of ear hematomas in swine.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Richard; Hélie, Pierre; D'Allaire, Sylvie

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of our study were to describe the pathology of ear hematomas in swine and to add to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of this condition. The pathogenesis of aural hematomas has been studied mainly in dogs; however, disagreements exist about the precise anatomic location of the hemorrhage. Sixteen pigs with ear hematoma at various stages of development were included in this study. The pigs were submitted for routine autopsy for various and unrelated reasons over a period of several years. Based on gross examination, the 16 cases of aural hematomas were subjectively classified as acute (n = 6), subacute (n = 3), and chronic (n = 7). The age of the animals at the time of autopsy ranged from 2 weeks to adulthood, with all acute cases being <7 weeks of age. Morphologic examination of all acute cases revealed that the hematoma developed predominantly in a subperichondral location on both sides of the cartilaginous plate simultaneously. Within these same cases, there were also some areas in which blood-filled clefts had formed within the cartilage itself. Besides fibroplasia, neoformation of cartilage was found to represent a significant part of the repair process. All chronic cases were characterized on cross-section of the ear by the presence of at least 2 distinct, wavy, focally folded, and roughly parallel plates of cartilage separated from each other by fibrous tissue. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. An investigation of ear necrosis in pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeonghwa; Friendship, Robert M; Poljak, Zvonimir; DeLay, Josepha; Slavic, Durda; Dewey, Catherine E

    2013-05-01

    Porcine ear necrosis was investigated in 23 conveniently chosen farms, consisting of 14 case farms and 9 control farms. Biopsies of lesions and oral swabs from pigs on 11 case farms were examined by histology and bacterial culture. All farms were visited for observations and a survey on management, housing, and the presence of other clinical signs or behavioral vices. Histological examination revealed that the lesions began on the surface and progressed to deeper layers, and that vascular damage did not appear to be the initiating cause. Spirochetes were only rarely observed in histological examination and were not cultured from biopsies and oral swabs. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus hyicus were cultured from 91% and 66% of samples, respectively. Ear biting and a humid environment were associated with ear necrosis. On some farms large numbers of pigs were affected and lesions were sometimes extensive. The condition appears to be an infectious disease beginning on the surface of the skin; contributing environmental and management factors are likely.

  14. An investigation of ear necrosis in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeonghwa; Friendship, Robert M.; Poljak, Zvonimir; DeLay, Josepha; Slavic, Durda; Dewey, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    Porcine ear necrosis was investigated in 23 conveniently chosen farms, consisting of 14 case farms and 9 control farms. Biopsies of lesions and oral swabs from pigs on 11 case farms were examined by histology and bacterial culture. All farms were visited for observations and a survey on management, housing, and the presence of other clinical signs or behavioral vices. Histological examination revealed that the lesions began on the surface and progressed to deeper layers, and that vascular damage did not appear to be the initiating cause. Spirochetes were only rarely observed in histological examination and were not cultured from biopsies and oral swabs. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus hyicus were cultured from 91% and 66% of samples, respectively. Ear biting and a humid environment were associated with ear necrosis. On some farms large numbers of pigs were affected and lesions were sometimes extensive. The condition appears to be an infectious disease beginning on the surface of the skin; contributing environmental and management factors are likely. PMID:24155434

  15. Pressure equilibration in the penguin middle ear.

    PubMed

    Sadé, Jacob; Handrich, Yves; Bernheim, Joelle; Cohen, David

    2008-01-01

    King penguins have a venous structure in the form of a corpus cavernosum (CC) in their middle ear (ME) submucosa. The CC may be viewed as a special organelle that can change ME volume for pressure equilibration during deep-sea diving it is a pressure regulating organelle (PRO). A similar CC and muscles also surround the external ear (EE) and may constrict it, isolating the tympanic membrane from the outside. A CC was previously found also in the ME of marine diving mammals and can be expected to exist in other deep diving animals, such as marine turtles. Marine animals require equalization of middle ear (ME) pressure when diving hundreds or thousands of meters to catch prey. We investigated what mechanism enables king penguins to protect their ME when they dive to great depths. Biopsies and serial sections of the ME and the EE of the deep diving king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) were examined microscopically. It was demonstrated that the penguin ME has an extensive network of small and large submucosal venous sinuses. This venous formation, a corpus cavernosum, can expand and potentially 'flood' the ME almost completely on diving, thus elevating ME pressure and reducing the ME space. The EE has a similar protective mechanism.

  16. Predicting skin deficits through surface area measurements in ear reconstruction and adult ear surface area norms.

    PubMed

    Yazar, Memet; Sevim, Kamuran Zeynep; Irmak, Fatih; Yazar, Sevgi Kurt; Yeşilada, Ayşin Karasoy; Karşidağğ, Semra Hacikerim; Tatlidede, Hamit Soner

    2013-07-01

    Ear reconstruction is one of the most challenging procedures in plastic surgery practice. Many studies and techniques have been described in the literature for carving a well-pronounced framework. However, just as important as the cartilage framework is the ample amount of delicate skin coverage of the framework. In this report, we introduce an innovative method of measuring the skin surface area of the auricle from a three-dimensional template created from the healthy ear.The study group consisted of 60 adult Turkish individuals who were randomly selected (30 men and 30 women). The participant ages ranged from 18 to 45 years (mean, 31.5 years), and they had no history of trauma or congenital anomalies. The template is created by dividing the ear into aesthetic subunits and using ImageJ software to estimate the necessary amount of total skin surface area required.Reconstruction of the auricle is a complicated process that requires experience and patience to provide the auricular details. We believe this estimate will shorten the learning curve for residents and surgeons interested in ear reconstruction and will help surgeons obtain adequate skin to drape over the well-sculpted cartilage frameworks by providing a reference list of total ear skin surface area measurements for Turkish men and women.

  17. Middle-ear velocity transfer function, cochlear input immittance, and middle-ear efficiency in chinchilla

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The transfer function HV between stapes velocity VS and sound pressure near the tympanic membrane PTM is a descriptor of sound transmission through the middle ear (ME). The ME power transmission efficiency (MEE), the ratio of sound power entering the cochlea to power entering the middle ear, was computed from HV measured in seven chinchilla ears and previously reported measurements of ME input admittance YTM and ME pressure gain GMEP [Ravicz and Rosowski, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 2437–2454 (2012); J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 2208–2223 (2013)] in the same ears. The ME was open, and a pressure sensor was inserted into the cochlear vestibule for most measurements. The cochlear input admittance YC computed from HV and GMEP is controlled by a combination of mass and resistance and is consistent with a minimum-phase system up to 27 kHz. The real part Re{YC}, which relates cochlear sound power to inner-ear sound pressure, decreased gradually with frequency up to 25 kHz and more rapidly above that. MEE was about 0.5 between 0.1 and 8 kHz, higher than previous estimates in this species, and decreased sharply at higher frequencies. PMID:24116422

  18. Middle-ear velocity transfer function, cochlear input immittance, and middle-ear efficiency in chinchilla.

    PubMed

    Ravicz, Michael E; Rosowski, John J

    2013-10-01

    The transfer function H(V) between stapes velocity V(S) and sound pressure near the tympanic membrane P(TM) is a descriptor of sound transmission through the middle ear (ME). The ME power transmission efficiency (MEE), the ratio of sound power entering the cochlea to power entering the middle ear, was computed from H(V) measured in seven chinchilla ears and previously reported measurements of ME input admittance Y(TM) and ME pressure gain G(MEP) [Ravicz and Rosowski, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 2437-2454 (2012); J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 2208-2223 (2013)] in the same ears. The ME was open, and a pressure sensor was inserted into the cochlear vestibule for most measurements. The cochlear input admittance Y(C) computed from H(V) and G(MEP) is controlled by a combination of mass and resistance and is consistent with a minimum-phase system up to 27 kHz. The real part Re{Y(C)}, which relates cochlear sound power to inner-ear sound pressure, decreased gradually with frequency up to 25 kHz and more rapidly above that. MEE was about 0.5 between 0.1 and 8 kHz, higher than previous estimates in this species, and decreased sharply at higher frequencies.

  19. Functional neuroanatomy of the insular lobe.

    PubMed

    Stephani, C; Fernandez-Baca Vaca, G; Maciunas, R; Koubeissi, M; Lüders, H O

    2011-06-01

    The insula is the fifth lobe of the brain and it is the least known. Hidden under the temporal, frontal and parietal opercula, as well as under dense arterial and venous vessels, its accessibility is particularly restricted. Functional data on this region in humans, therefore, are scarce and the existing evidence makes conclusions on its functional and somatotopic organization difficult. 5 patients with intractable epilepsy underwent an invasive presurgical evaluation with implantation of diagnostic invasive-depth electrodes, including insular electrodes that were inserted using a mesiocaudodorsal to laterorostroventral approach. Altogether 113 contacts were found to be in the insula and were stimulated with alternating currents during preoperative monitoring. Different viscerosensitive and somatosensory phenomena were elicited by stimulation of these electrodes. A relatively high density of electrode contacts enabled us to delineate several functionally distinct areas within the insula. We found somatosensory symptoms to be restricted to the posterior insula and a subgroup of warmth or painful sensations in the dorsal posterior insula. Viscerosensory symptoms were elicited by more anterior electrode contacts with a subgroup of gustatory symptoms occurring after stimulation of electrode contacts in the central part of the insula. The anterior insula did not show reproducible responses to stimulation. In line with previous studies, we found evidence for somato- and viscerosensory cortex in the insula. In addition, our results suggest that there is a predominantly posterior and central distribution of these functions in the insular lobe.

  20. Prospective memory and frontal lobe function.

    PubMed

    Neulinger, Kerryn; Oram, Joanne; Tinson, Helen; O'Gorman, John; Shum, David H K

    2016-01-01

    The study sought to examine the role of frontal lobe functioning in focal prospective memory (PM) performance and its relation to PM deficit in older adults. PM and working memory (WM) differences were studied in younger aged (n = 21), older aged (n = 20), and frontal injury (n = 14) groups. An event-based focal PM task was employed and three measures of WM were administered. The younger aged group differed from the other two groups in showing significantly higher scores on PM and on one of the WM measures, but there were no differences at a statistically significant level between the older aged group and the frontal injury groups on any of the memory measures. There were, however, some differences in correlations with a WM measure between groups. It is concluded that there are similarities and differences in the deficits in PM between older adults and patients with frontal lobe injury on focal as well as nonfocal PM tasks.

  1. [Normal aging of frontal lobe functions].

    PubMed

    Calso, Cristina; Besnard, Jérémy; Allain, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Normal aging in individuals is often associated with morphological, metabolic and cognitive changes, which particularly concern the cerebral frontal regions. Starting from the "frontal lobe hypothesis of cognitive aging" (West, 1996), the present review is based on the neuroanatomical model developed by Stuss (2008), introducing four categories of frontal lobe functions: executive control, behavioural and emotional self-regulation and decision-making, energization and meta-cognitive functions. The selected studies only address the changes of one at least of these functions. The results suggest a deterioration of several cognitive frontal abilities in normal aging: flexibility, inhibition, planning, verbal fluency, implicit decision-making, second-order and affective theory of mind. Normal aging seems also to be characterised by a general reduction in processing speed observed during neuropsychological assessment (Salthouse, 1996). Nevertheless many cognitive functions remain preserved such as automatic or non-conscious inhibition, specific capacities of flexibility and first-order theory of mind. Therefore normal aging doesn't seem to be associated with a global cognitive decline but rather with a selective change in some frontal systems, conclusion which should be taken into account for designing caring programs in normal aging.

  2. Anterior Temporal Lobe Morphometry Predicts Categorization Ability.

    PubMed

    Garcin, Béatrice; Urbanski, Marika; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2018-01-01

    Categorization is the mental operation by which the brain classifies objects and events. It is classically assessed using semantic and non-semantic matching or sorting tasks. These tasks show a high variability in performance across healthy controls and the cerebral bases supporting this variability remain unknown. In this study we performed a voxel-based morphometry study to explore the relationships between semantic and shape categorization tasks and brain morphometric differences in 50 controls. We found significant correlation between categorization performance and the volume of the gray matter in the right anterior middle and inferior temporal gyri. Semantic categorization tasks were associated with more rostral temporal regions than shape categorization tasks. A significant relationship was also shown between white matter volume in the right temporal lobe and performance in the semantic tasks. Tractography revealed that this white matter region involved several projection and association fibers, including the arcuate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. These results suggest that categorization abilities are supported by the anterior portion of the right temporal lobe and its interaction with other areas.

  3. Increased Prevalence of Bent Lobes for Double-lobed Radio Galaxies in Dense Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverstein, Ezekiel M.; Anderson, Michael E.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2018-01-01

    Double-lobed radio galaxies (DLRGs) often have radio lobes that subtend an angle of less than 180°, and these bent DLRGs have been shown to associate preferentially with galaxy clusters and groups. In this study, we utilize a catalog of DLRGs in SDSS quasars with radio lobes visible in VLA FIRST 20 cm radio data. We cross-match this catalog against three catalogs of galaxies over the redshift range 0< z< 0.70, obtaining 81 tentative matches. We visually examine each match and apply a number of selection criteria, eventually obtaining a sample of 44 securely detected DLRGs, which are paired to a nearby massive galaxy, galaxy group, or galaxy cluster. Most of the DLRGs identified in this manner are not central galaxies in the systems to which they are matched. Using this sample, we quantify the projected density of these matches as a function of projected separation from the central galaxy, finding a very steep decrease in matches as the impact parameter increases (for {{Σ }}\\propto {b}-m we find m={2.5}-0.3+0.4) out to b∼ 2 Mpc. In addition, we show that the fraction of DLRGs with bent lobes also decreases with radius, so that if we exclude DLRGs associated with the central galaxy in the system, the bent fraction is 78% within 1 Mpc and 56% within 2 Mpc, compared to just 29% in the field; these differences are significant at 3.6σ and 2.8σ , respectively. This behavior is consistent with ram pressure being the mechanism that causes the lobes to bend.

  4. Abnormal behavior in children with temporal lobe epilepsy and ganglioglioma.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Catarina A; Franzon, Renata C; Souza, Elisabete A P; Schmutzler, Kátia M R S; Montenegro, Maria Augusta; Queiroz, Luciano de S; Cendes, Fernando; Guerreiro, Marilisa M

    2004-10-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy in childhood is characterized by great clinical, electroencephalographic, and etiological diversity. The prognosis after temporal lobe epilepsy surgery in childhood is usually good, with most patients achieving complete seizure control. However, in some children behavior deteriorates postoperatively. We report two girls (2 and 6 years of age) with refractory seizures due to temporal lobe ganglioglioma. They exhibited aggression and hyperactivity since the beginning of their epilepsy. In both patients, behavioral disturbances worsened postoperatively, despite complete seizure control. Patients and parents should be advised about possible behavioral disturbances after epilepsy surgery, especially in the presence of a temporal lobe developmental tumor, even when seizure control is achieved postoperatively.

  5. Surgical Considerations of Intractable Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Boling, Warren W.

    2018-01-01

    Surgery of temporal lobe epilepsy is the best opportunity for seizure freedom in medically intractable patients. The surgical approach has evolved to recognize the paramount importance of the mesial temporal structures in the majority of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy who have a seizure origin in the mesial temporal structures. For those individuals with medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, a selective amygdalohippocampectomy surgery can be done that provides an excellent opportunity for seizure freedom and limits the resection to temporal lobe structures primarily involved in seizure genesis. PMID:29461485

  6. Interpreting ambiguous advertisements: the effect of frontal lobe damage.

    PubMed

    Pearce, S; McDonald, S; Coltheart, M

    1998-11-01

    Despite intact primary language processes patients with frontal lobe deficits often have impaired communication skills including impaired capacity to understand conversational inference. This study examined the ability of three patients with demonstrated frontal lobe pathology to interpret lexically ambiguous advertisements. When compared to a nonbrain-damaged control group it was found that the frontal lobe patients were poorer at comprehending the abstract or inferred meanings inherent in the advertisements. The pattern of performance across the patients did, nevertheless, differ despite a similar end result. These findings are discussed in relation to theories concerning the contribution of the frontal lobes to language function.

  7. Computational Modeling of Blast Wave Transmission Through Human Ear.

    PubMed

    Leckness, Kegan; Nakmali, Don; Gan, Rong Z

    2018-03-01

    Hearing loss has become the most common disability among veterans. Understanding how blast waves propagate through the human ear is a necessary step in the development of effective hearing protection devices (HPDs). This article presents the first 3D finite element (FE) model of the human ear to simulate blast wave transmission through the ear. The 3D FE model of the human ear consisting of the ear canal, tympanic membrane, ossicular chain, and middle ear cavity was imported into ANSYS Workbench for coupled fluid-structure interaction analysis in the time domain. Blast pressure waveforms recorded external to the ear in human cadaver temporal bone tests were applied at the entrance of the ear canal in the model. The pressure waveforms near the tympanic membrane (TM) in the canal (P1) and behind the TM in the middle ear cavity (P2) were calculated. The model-predicted results were then compared with measured P1 and P2 waveforms recorded in human cadaver ears during blast tests. Results show that the model-derived P1 waveforms were in an agreement with the experimentally recorded waveforms with statistic Kurtosis analysis. The FE model will be used for the evaluation of HPDs in future studies.

  8. Inner ear problems of Thai priest at Priest Hospital.

    PubMed

    Karnchanakas, Taweporn; Tantanavat, Are; Sinsakontavat, Jamjan

    2008-01-01

    The inner ear problems of Thai priest at Priest Hospital had never been reported previously, so Department of Ear Nose Throat try to correlate the metebotic disorder with inner ear problems. 1) To study the fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol (T. Chol), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglyceride (TG), the factors expected to involve in inner ear problems of priests at Priest Hospital. 2) To compare the FBS, T. Chol, HDL, LDL, and TG of priests with inner ear problems at Priest Hospital. 3) To find the percentage of abnormal from FBS, T. Chol, LDL, and TG. The study using 83 sampling of priests with inner ear problems and 107 priests as a controlled group. The research instruments used to collect data was the questionnaire which composed of general information, physical, ear-nose-throat and neurological examination, pure tone audiometry, brainstem evoke response audiometry (BERA) and the blood tests:FBS, T. Chol, TG, and LDL. The inner ear problems were composed of: 1) Dizziness 2) Hearing Loss 3) Tinnitus Aurium. The descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data from questionnaires and utilized frequency, percentage, standard deviation (S.D.) and t-test to achieve desired results. Priest at middle age and elderly with inner ear problems had greater FBS and TG than expected values of the control group. The middle age and elderly priests who had greater FBS and TG than expected values were sick with inner ear problems that causing dizziness, hearing loss and tinnitus aurium.

  9. Sheep as a large animal ear model: Middle-ear ossicular velocities and intracochlear sound pressure.

    PubMed

    Péus, Dominik; Dobrev, Ivo; Prochazka, Lukas; Thoele, Konrad; Dalbert, Adrian; Boss, Andreas; Newcomb, Nicolas; Probst, Rudolf; Röösli, Christof; Sim, Jae Hoon; Huber, Alexander; Pfiffner, Flurin

    2017-08-01

    Animals are frequently used for the development and testing of new hearing devices. Dimensions of the middle ear and cochlea differ significantly between humans and commonly used animals, such as rodents or cats. The sheep cochlea is anatomically more like the human cochlea in size and number of turns. This study investigated the middle-ear ossicular velocities and intracochlear sound pressure (ICSP) in sheep temporal bones, with the aim of characterizing the sheep as an experimental model for implantable hearing devices. Measurements were made on fresh sheep temporal bones. Velocity responses of the middle ear ossicles at the umbo, long process of the incus and stapes footplate were measured in the frequency range of 0.25-8 kHz using a laser Doppler vibrometer system. Results were normalized by the corresponding sound pressure level in the external ear canal (P EC ). Sequentially, ICSPs at the scala vestibuli and tympani were then recorded with custom MEMS-based hydrophones, while presenting identical acoustic stimuli. The sheep middle ear transmitted most effectively around 4.8 kHz, with a maximum stapes velocity of 0.2 mm/s/Pa. At the same frequency, the ICSP measurements in the scala vestibuli and tympani showed the maximum gain relative to the P EC (24 dB and 5 dB, respectively). The greatest pressure difference across the cochlear partition occurred between 4 and 6 kHz. A comparison between the results of this study and human reference data showed middle-ear resonance and best cochlear sensitivity at higher frequencies in sheep. In summary, sheep can be an appropriate large animal model for research and development of implantable hearing devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Chinchilla middle-ear admittance and sound power: High-frequency estimates and effects of inner-ear modifications

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The middle-ear input admittance relates sound power into the middle ear (ME) and sound pressure at the tympanic membrane (TM). ME input admittance was measured in the chinchilla ear canal as part of a larger study of sound power transmission through the ME into the inner ear. The middle ear was open, and the inner ear was intact or modified with small sensors inserted into the vestibule near the cochlear base. A simple model of the chinchilla ear canal, based on ear canal sound pressure measurements at two points along the canal and an assumption of plane-wave propagation, enables reliable estimates of YTM, the ME input admittance at the TM, from the admittance measured relatively far from the TM. YTM appears valid at frequencies as high as 17 kHz, a much higher frequency than previously reported. The real part of YTM decreases with frequency above 2 kHz. Effects of the inner-ear sensors (necessary for inner ear power computation) were small and generally limited to frequencies below 3 kHz. Computed power reflectance was ∼0.1 below 3.5 kHz, lower than with an intact ME below 2.5 kHz, and nearly 1 above 16 kHz. PMID:23039439

  11. The mirror mechanism in the parietal lobe.

    PubMed

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Rozzi, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    The mirror mechanism is a basic mechanism that transforms sensory representations of others' actions into motor representations of the same actions in the brain of the observer. The mirror mechanism plays an important role in understanding actions of others. In the present chapter we discuss first the basic organization of the posterior parietal lobe in the monkey, stressing that it is best characterized as a motor scaffold, on the top of which sensory information is organized. We then describe the location of the mirror mechanism in the posterior parietal cortex of the monkey, and its functional role in areas PFG, and anterior, ventral, and lateral intraparietal areas. We will then present evidence that a similar functional organization is present in humans. We will conclude by discussing the role of the mirror mechanism in the recognition of action performed with tools. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Frontal lobe function in chess players.

    PubMed

    Nejati, Majid; Nejati, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players don't have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players don't have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  13. Video electroencephalogram telemetry in temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Jayanti

    2014-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most commonly encountered medically refractory epilepsy. It is also the substrate of refractory epilepsy that gives the most gratifying results in any epilepsy surgery program, with a minimum use of resources. Correlation of clinical behavior and the ictal patterns during ictal behavior is mandatory for success at epilepsy surgery. Video electroencephalogram (EEG) telemetry achieves this goal and hence plays a pivotal role in pre-surgical assessment. The role of telemetry is continuously evolving with the advent of digital EEG technology, of high-resolution volumetric magnetic resonance imaging and other functional imaging techniques. Most of surgical selection in patients with TLE can be done with a scalp video EEG monitoring. However, the limitations of the scalp EEG technique demand invasive recordings in a selected group of TLE patients. This subset of the patients can be a challenge to the epileptologist. PMID:24791089

  14. Xenomelia: a new right parietal lobe syndrome.

    PubMed

    McGeoch, Paul D; Brang, David; Song, Tao; Lee, Roland R; Huang, Mingxiong; Ramachandran, V S

    2011-12-01

    Damage to the right parietal lobe has long been associated with various disorders of body image. The authors have recently suggested that an unusual behavioural condition in which otherwise rational individuals desire the amputation of a healthy limb might also arise from right parietal dysfunction. Four subjects who desired the amputation of healthy legs (two right, one left and one, at first, bilateral and then left only) were recruited and underwent magnetoencephalography (MEG) scans during tactile stimulation of sites above and below the desired amputation line. Regions of interest (ROIs) in each hemisphere (superior parietal lobule (SPL), inferior parietal lobule, S1, M1, insula, premotor cortex and precuneus) were defined using FreeSurfer software. Analysis of average MEG activity across the 40-140 ms post-stimulation timeframe was carried out using an unpaired t test. This revealed significantly reduced activation only in the right SPL ROI for the subjects' affected legs when compared with both subjects' unaffected legs and that of controls. The right SPL is a cortical area that appears ideally placed to unify disparate sensory inputs to create a coherent sense of having a body. The authors propose that inadequate activation of the right SPL leads to the unnatural situation in which the sufferers can feel the limb in question being touched without it actually incorporating into their body image, with a resulting desire for amputation. The authors introduce the term 'xenomelia' as a more appropriate name than apotemnophilia or body integrity identity disorder, for what appears to be an unrecognised right parietal lobe syndrome.

  15. The initial cooling of pahoehoe flow lobes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keszthelyi, L.; Denlinger, R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new thermal model for the initial cooling of pahoehoe lava flows. The accurate modeling of this initial cooling is important for understanding the formation of the distinctive surface textures on pahoehoe lava flows as well as being the first step in modeling such key pahoehoe emplacement processes as lava flow inflation and lava tube formation. This model is constructed from the physical phenomena observed to control the initial cooling of pahoehoe flows and is not an empirical fit to field data. We find that the only significant processes are (a) heat loss by thermal radiation, (b) heat loss by atmospheric convection, (c) heat transport within the flow by conduction with temperature and porosity-dependent thermal properties, and (d) the release of latent heat during crystallization. The numerical model is better able to reproduce field measurements made in Hawai'i between 1989 and 1993 than other published thermal models. By adjusting one parameter at a time, the effect of each of the input parameters on the cooling rate was determined. We show that: (a) the surfaces of porous flows cool more quickly than the surfaces of dense flows, (b) the surface cooling is very sensitive to the efficiency of atmospheric convective cooling, and (c) changes in the glass forming tendency of the lava may have observable petrographic and thermal signatures. These model results provide a quantitative explanation for the recently observed relationship between the surface cooling rate of pahoehoe lobes and the porosity of those lobes (Jones 1992, 1993). The predicted sensitivity of cooling to atmospheric convection suggests a simple field experiment for verification, and the model provides a tool to begin studies of the dynamic crystallization of real lavas. Future versions of the model can also be made applicable to extraterrestrial, submarine, silicic, and pyroclastic flows.

  16. Craniopharyngioma in the Temporal Lobe: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Baik, Seung Kug; Kim, Sang-Pyo; Kim, Il-Man; Sevick, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Herein, we report on an unusual case of craniopharyngioma arising in the temporal lobe with no prior history of surgery and with no connection to the craniopharyngeal duct. MR images showed a cystic tumor with a small solid portion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a craniopharyngioma occurring in the temporal lobe. PMID:15064562

  17. Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines

    DOEpatents

    Hilal, Sadek K.; Sampson, William B.; Leonard, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a rotating superconductor magnet for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet.

  18. Lung lobe segmentation based on statistical atlas and graph cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Honma, Hirotoshi; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi; Mori, Kensaku

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a novel method that can extract lung lobes by utilizing probability atlas and multilabel graph cuts. Information about pulmonary structures plays very important role for decision of the treatment strategy and surgical planning. The human lungs are divided into five anatomical regions, the lung lobes. Precise segmentation and recognition of lung lobes are indispensable tasks in computer aided diagnosis systems and computer aided surgery systems. A lot of methods for lung lobe segmentation are proposed. However, these methods only target the normal cases. Therefore, these methods cannot extract the lung lobes in abnormal cases, such as COPD cases. To extract lung lobes in abnormal cases, this paper propose a lung lobe segmentation method based on probability atlas of lobe location and multilabel graph cuts. The process consists of three components; normalization based on the patient's physique, probability atlas generation, and segmentation based on graph cuts. We apply this method to six cases of chest CT images including COPD cases. Jaccard index was 79.1%.

  19. Optoacoustic induced vibrations within the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Zhang, K Y; Wenzel, G I; Balster, S; Lim, H H; Lubatschowski, H; Lenarz, T; Ertmer, W; Reuter, G

    2009-12-07

    An acoustic transient can be generated inside an absorbing tissue as a result of laser-tissue interaction after pulsed laser irradiation. Herein we report a novel application of this physical process, the optoacoustic wave generation in the inner ear and subsequently the induction of basilar membrane vibrations. These laser induced vibrations show a direct correlation to the laser energy and an indirect correlation to the distance from the irradiation focus. Through these characteristics they may be used, in a new generation of cochlear implants, to improve the frequency specific cochlear activation and consequently improve speech perception in hearing impaired patients with residual hearing.

  20. The velocity field of growing ear cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, R W; Peacock, M A

    1978-01-01

    The velocity vector field of the growing rabbit ear cartilage has been investigated between 12 and 299 days. Empirical curves have been computed for path lines and for velocities between 12 and 87 days. The tissue movement has been found to behave as an irrotational flow of material. Stream lines and velocity equipotential lines have been calculated and provide akinematic description of the changes during growth. The importance of a knowledge of the velocity vector in physical descriptions of growth and morphological differentiation at the tissue and cellular levels is emphasized. PMID:689993

  1. Vitamin D receptor deficiency impairs inner ear development in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Hye-Joo; Biology Department, Princess Nourah University, Riyadh 11671

    The biological actions of vitamin D are largely mediated through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, which regulates gene expression in a wide variety of tissues and cells. Mutations in VDR gene have been implicated in ear disorders (hearing loss and balance disorder) but the mechanisms are not well established. In this study, to investigate the role of VDR in inner ear development, morpholino-mediated gene knockdown approaches were used in zebrafish model system. Two paralogs for VDR, vdra and vdrb, have been identified in zebrafish. Knockdown of vdra had no effectmore » on ear development, whereas knockdown of vdrb displayed morphological ear defects including smaller otic vesicles with malformed semicircular canals and abnormal otoliths. Loss-of-vdrb resulted in down-regulation of pre-otic markers, pax8 and pax2a, indicating impairment of otic induction. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos lacking vdrb produced fewer sensory hair cells in the ears and showed disruption of balance and motor coordination. These data reveal that VDR signaling plays an important role in ear development. - Highlights: • VDR signaling is involved in ear development. • Knockdown of vdrb causes inner ear malformations during embryogenesis. • Knockdown of vdrb affects otic placode induction. • Knockdown of vdrb reduces the number of sensory hair cells in the inner ear. • Knockdown of vdrb disrupts balance and motor coordination.« less

  2. Piercing the upper ear: a simple infection, a difficult reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Cicchetti, S; Skillman, J; Gault, D T

    2002-04-01

    Piercing the upper ear to retain jewellery is now commonplace. When infection ensues, devastating chondritis leads to collapse of the ear. To our knowledge, the surgical reconstruction of post-piercing deformities has not been documented in the literature. We present five such cases referred for autogenous-tissue ear reconstruction. In four of these, the destroyed segments of ear cartilage were replaced with a carved costal-cartilage framework. One patient declined surgery. The importance of preventing infection is stressed. Copyright 2002 The British Association of Plastic Surgeons.

  3. Fly-ear inspired acoustic sensors for gunshot localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haijun; Currano, Luke; Gee, Danny; Yang, Benjamin; Yu, Miao

    2009-05-01

    The supersensitive ears of the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea have inspired researchers to develop bio-inspired directional microphone for sound localization. Although the fly ear is optimized for localizing the narrow-band calling song of crickets at 5 kHz, experiments and simulation have shown that it can amplify directional cues for a wide frequency range. In this article, a theoretical investigation is presented to study the use of fly-ear inspired directional microphones for gunshot localization. Using an equivalent 2-DOF model of the fly ear, the time responses of the fly ear structure to a typical shock wave are obtained and the associated time delay is estimated by using cross-correlation. Both near-field and far-field scenarios are considered. The simulation shows that the fly ear can greatly amplify the time delay by ~20 times, which indicates that with an interaural distance of only 1.2 mm the fly ear is able to generate a time delay comparable to that obtained by a conventional microphone pair with a separation as large as 24 mm. Since the parameters of the fly ear structure can also be tuned for muzzle blast and other impulse stimulus, fly-ear inspired acoustic sensors offers great potential for developing portable gunshot localization systems.

  4. Correction of Stahl ear deformity using a suture technique.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Adil Abbas; Jose, Rajive M; Ali, Syed Nadir; Yap, Lok Huei

    2010-09-01

    Correction of partial ear deformities can be a challenging task for the plastic surgeon. There are no standard techniques for correcting many of these deformities, and several different techniques are described in literature. Stahl ear is one such anomaly, characterized by an accessory third crus in the ear cartilage, giving rise to an irregular helical rim. The conventional techniques of correcting this deformity include either excision of the cartilage, repositioning of the cartilage, or scoring techniques. We recently encountered a case of Stahl ear deformity and undertook correction using internal sutures with very good results. The technical details of the surgery are described along with a review of literature on correcting similar anomalies.

  5. Incorporating anthropometry into design of ear-related products.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bor-Shong

    2008-01-01

    To achieve mass customization and collaborative product design, human factors and ergonomics should play a key development role. The purpose of this study was to provide product designers with the anthropometic dimensions of outer ears for different demographic data, including gender and age. The second purpose was to compare the dimensions of various ear-related products (i.e., earphone, bluetooth earphone and ear-cup earphone) with the anthropometic database and recommend appropriate solutions for design. Two hundred subjects aged 20-59 was selected for this study and divided into four age stratifications. Further, three different dimensions of the outer ear (i.e., the earhole length, the ear connection length and the length of the pinna) were measured by superimposed grid photographic technique. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate the effects of gender, and age on ear dimensions. The results showed that all ear dimensions had significant gender effects. A comparison between the anthropometric dimensions and those of current products revealed that most current ear-related products need to be redesigned using anthropometric data. The shapes of earhole and pinna are not circular. Consequently, ear products need to be elongated so that users may feel more comfortably and not have the product slip off easily.

  6. Magnetically driven middle ear ossicles for optical measurement of vibrations in an ear with opened eardrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, John; Von Unge, Magnus; Dirckx, Joris

    2012-06-01

    Vibrations of the middle ear ossicles are easily measured by means of laser vibrometry. However, exposing the ossicles requires the removal of the eardrum, with the result that the ossicles can no longer be stimulated acoustically. To overcome this we devised a new set up in which the ossicles can be driven magnetically. After measuring the response of the eardrum to an acoustic signal, we then remove the eardrum and attach a small magnet to the exposed manubrium (the part of the first auditory ossicle, the malleus, which is normally attached to the eardrum). An electromagnetic excitation coil is then used to drive the magnet, and the output to the coil adjusted until the vibration of the manubrium, as measured by the vibrometer, matches that measured in response to the acoustic signal. Such a set-up has uses in research on middle ear mechanics, such as the measurement of non-linearities in their response, as well as applications in the diagnosis of middle ear conditions such as the fixation of the ossicles by otosclerosis, or in chronic otitis media. We describe our set up in which the vibrometer unit is attached to a surgical microscope, offering accurate positioning of the laser beam. We discuss the viability of our method and its future potential by presenting some measurements on artificially fixated ears.

  7. Lung lobe modeling and segmentation with individualized surface meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaffert, Thomas; Barschdorf, Hans; von Berg, Jens; Dries, Sebastian; Franz, Astrid; Klinder, Tobias; Lorenz, Cristian; Renisch, Steffen; Wiemker, Rafael

    2008-03-01

    An automated segmentation of lung lobes in thoracic CT images is of interest for various diagnostic purposes like the quantification of emphysema or the localization of tumors within the lung. Although the separating lung fissures are visible in modern multi-slice CT-scanners, their contrast in the CT-image often does not separate the lobes completely. This makes it impossible to build a reliable segmentation algorithm without additional information. Our approach uses general anatomical knowledge represented in a geometrical mesh model to construct a robust lobe segmentation, which even gives reasonable estimates of lobe volumes if fissures are not visible at all. The paper describes the generation of the lung model mesh including lobes by an average volume model, its adaptation to individual patient data using a special fissure feature image, and a performance evaluation over a test data set showing an average segmentation accuracy of 1 to 3 mm.

  8. The cognitive profile of occipital lobe epilepsy and the selective association of left temporal lobe hypometabolism with verbal memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Knopman, Alex A; Wong, Chong H; Stevenson, Richard J; Homewood, Judi; Mohamed, Armin; Somerville, Ernest; Eberl, Stefan; Wen, Lingfeng; Fulham, Michael; Bleasel, Andrew F

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the cognitive profile of structural occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) and whether verbal memory impairment is selectively associated with left temporal lobe hypometabolism on [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Nine patients with OLE, ages 8-29 years, completed presurgical neuropsychological assessment. Composite measures were calculated for intelligence quotient (IQ), speed, attention, verbal memory, nonverbal memory, and executive functioning. In addition, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) was used as a specific measure of frontal lobe functioning. Presurgical FDG-PET was analyzed with statistical parametric mapping in 8 patients relative to 16 healthy volunteers. Mild impairments were evident for IQ, speed, attention, and executive functioning. Four patients demonstrated moderate or severe verbal memory impairment. Temporal lobe hypometabolism was found in seven of eight patients. Poorer verbal memory was associated with left temporal lobe hypometabolism (p = 0.002), which was stronger (p = 0.03 and p = 0.005, respectively) than the association of left temporal lobe hypometabolism with executive functioning or with performance on the WCST. OLE is associated with widespread cognitive comorbidity, suggesting cortical dysfunction beyond the occipital lobe. Verbal memory impairment is selectively associated with left temporal lobe hypometabolism in OLE, supporting a link between neuropsychological dysfunction and remote hypometabolism in focal epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  9. Wearable ear EEG for brain interfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Eric D.; Walker, Nicholas; Danko, Amanda S.

    2017-02-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) measuring electrical activity via electroencephalogram (EEG) have evolved beyond clinical applications to become wireless consumer products. Typically marketed for meditation and neu- rotherapy, these devices are limited in scope and currently too obtrusive to be a ubiquitous wearable. Stemming from recent advancements made in hearing aid technology, wearables have been shrinking to the point that the necessary sensors, circuitry, and batteries can be fit into a small in-ear wearable device. In this work, an ear-EEG device is created with a novel system for artifact removal and signal interpretation. The small, compact, cost-effective, and discreet device is demonstrated against existing consumer electronics in this space for its signal quality, comfort, and usability. A custom mobile application is developed to process raw EEG from each device and display interpreted data to the user. Artifact removal and signal classification is accomplished via a combination of support matrix machines (SMMs) and soft thresholding of relevant statistical properties.

  10. Enhanced visualization of inner ear structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemczyk, Kazimierz; Kucharski, Tomasz; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Bruzgielewicz, Antoni

    2004-07-01

    Recently surgery requires extensive support from imaging technologies in order to increase effectiveness and safety of operations. One of important tasks is to enhance visualisation of quasi-phase (transparent) 3d structures. Those structures are characterized by very low contrast. It makes differentiation of tissues in field of view very difficult. For that reason the surgeon may be extremly uncertain during operation. This problem is connected with supporting operations of inner ear during which physician has to perform cuts at specific places of quasi-transparent velums. Conventionally during such operations medical doctor views the operating field through stereoscopic microscope. In the paper we propose a 3D visualisation system based on Helmet Mounted Display. Two CCD cameras placed at the output of microscope perform acquisition of stereo pairs of images. The images are processed in real-time with the goal of enhancement of quasi-phased structures. The main task is to create algorithm that is not sensitive to changes in intensity distribution. The disadvantages of existing algorithms is their lack of adaptation to occuring reflexes and shadows in field of view. The processed images from both left and right channels are overlaid on the actual images exported and displayed at LCD's of Helmet Mounted Display. A physician observes by HMD (Helmet Mounted Display) a stereoscopic operating scene with indication of the places of special interest. The authors present the hardware ,procedures applied and initial results of inner ear structure visualisation. Several problems connected with processing of stereo-pair images are discussed.

  11. Probing the Xenopus laevis inner ear transcriptome for biological function

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The senses of hearing and balance depend upon mechanoreception, a process that originates in the inner ear and shares features across species. Amphibians have been widely used for physiological studies of mechanotransduction by sensory hair cells. In contrast, much less is known of the genetic basis of auditory and vestibular function in this class of animals. Among amphibians, the genus Xenopus is a well-characterized genetic and developmental model that offers unique opportunities for inner ear research because of the amphibian capacity for tissue and organ regeneration. For these reasons, we implemented a functional genomics approach as a means to undertake a large-scale analysis of the Xenopus laevis inner ear transcriptome through microarray analysis. Results Microarray analysis uncovered genes within the X. laevis inner ear transcriptome associated with inner ear function and impairment in other organisms, thereby supporting the inclusion of Xenopus in cross-species genetic studies of the inner ear. The use of gene categories (inner ear tissue; deafness; ion channels; ion transporters; transcription factors) facilitated the assignment of functional significance to probe set identifiers. We enhanced the biological relevance of our microarray data by using a variety of curation approaches to increase the annotation of the Affymetrix GeneChip® Xenopus laevis Genome array. In addition, annotation analysis revealed the prevalence of inner ear transcripts represented by probe set identifiers that lack functional characterization. Conclusions We identified an abundance of targets for genetic analysis of auditory and vestibular function. The orthologues to human genes with known inner ear function and the highly expressed transcripts that lack annotation are particularly interesting candidates for future analyses. We used informatics approaches to impart biologically relevant information to the Xenopus inner ear transcriptome, thereby addressing the

  12. Cauliflower Ear and Skin Infections among Wrestlers in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Kordi, Ramin; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Nourian, Roh Allah; Wallace, W Angus

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the magnitude of the selected sports medicine problems (i.e. cauliflower ear and skin infections) among wrestlers in Tehran. A number of 411 wrestlers were randomly selected from wrestling clubs in Tehran employing cluster sample setting method. The participants were interviewed using a specially designed and validated questionnaire. Nearly half of the participants (44%) had "cauliflower ears". Only 23% of these participants had received any kind of treatment for their acute ear haematomas that are known to result in "cauliflower ears". The prevalence of reported hearing loss among participants with cauliflower ears (11.5%, 95%CI: 6.9 to 16.2) was significantly more than this prevalence among those participants without cauliflower ears (1.8%, 95%CI: 0.1 to 3.5) (p < 0.05). More than half of the participants (52%) had skin infection diagnosed by a physician during the previous year. This study has identified evidence of an increase in hearing loss as a possible side effect of either cauliflower ear or ear injury in wrestling in Iran. There has been an outbreak of ringworm and there is a significant potential for an outbreak of impetigo among wrestlers in Tehran. Key pointsSkin infections are prevalent among wrestlers in Tehran.Commonly wrestlers in Tehran continue to carry out wrestling training while affected by skin infections.Cauliflower ear "is common among wrestlers in Tehran.More research is needed to investigate hearing loss as a possible side effect of either cauliflower ear or ear injury in wrestling in Iran.

  13. Inner ear contribution to bone conduction hearing in the human.

    PubMed

    Stenfelt, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    Bone conduction (BC) hearing relies on sound vibration transmission in the skull bone. Several clinical findings indicate that in the human, the skull vibration of the inner ear dominates the response for BC sound. Two phenomena transform the vibrations of the skull surrounding the inner ear to an excitation of the basilar membrane, (1) inertia of the inner ear fluid and (2) compression and expansion of the inner ear space. The relative importance of these two contributors were investigated using an impedance lumped element model. By dividing the motion of the inner ear boundary in common and differential motion it was found that the common motion dominated at frequencies below 7 kHz but above this frequency differential motion was greatest. When these motions were used to excite the model it was found that for the normal ear, the fluid inertia response was up to 20 dB greater than the compression response. This changed in the pathological ear where, for example, otosclerosis of the stapes depressed the fluid inertia response and improved the compression response so that inner ear compression dominated BC hearing at frequencies above 400 Hz. The model was also able to predict experimental and clinical findings of BC sensitivity in the literature, for example the so called Carhart notch in otosclerosis, increased BC sensitivity in superior semicircular canal dehiscence, and altered BC sensitivity following a vestibular fenestration and RW atresia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL OTIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 344.12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of isopropyl...

  15. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL OTIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 344.12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of isopropyl...

  16. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL OTIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 344.12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of isopropyl...

  17. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL OTIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 344.12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of isopropyl...

  18. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL OTIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 344.12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of isopropyl...

  19. The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

  20. Single-stage autologous ear reconstruction for microtia.

    PubMed

    Kasrai, Leila; Snyder-Warwick, Alison K; Fisher, David M

    2014-03-01

    The authors have been using the Nagata technique since 2002. In this review of 100 consecutive ear reconstructions, the authors present technique modifications that have evolved over this period that have contributed to improved auricular contour and that now allow for auricular reconstruction in a single stage. This study is a retrospective review of a prospectively acquired database. The series is restricted to primary reconstructions performed for congenital microtia. Photographs of 10 consecutive patients are presented to demonstrate the results of the technique. Surgical complication rates are discussed. One hundred ear reconstructions were performed in 96 patients. There were 75 primary cases of congenital microtia. Twenty-four ears underwent a two-stage reconstruction, and 51 ears were reconstructed with a Nagata stage I procedure or a single-stage reconstruction. There was a gradual shift in technique, with a trend to perform fewer Nagata stage II outsetting procedures and more single-stage reconstructions. In patients who underwent an ear reconstruction in two stages, the surgical complication rate was 22 percent. In the last 40 consecutive ear reconstructions since abandoning the two-stage approach, the surgical complication rate is now 15 percent. A modification of Nagata's technique of autologous ear reconstruction for microtia is described. Modifications of the three-dimensional framework address the contour of the inferior crus and control tragal projection and position. Inclusion of a projection block and recruitment of retroauricular skin allow for symmetric projection of the ear in a single stage. Therapeutic, IV.

  1. Surgical correction of the expanded earlobe after ear gauging.

    PubMed

    Henderson, James; Malata, Charles M

    2010-10-01

    Expansion of the earlobe by ear gauging or plugging is an increasingly fashionable practice. As patients get older, some seek to have their ears restored to normal. This report presents a simple local flap technique that has been successful in achieving uneventful healing with acceptable cosmetic results.

  2. [Adaptability of sweet corn ears to a frozen process].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Matheus, Alejandra O; Martínez, Norelkys Maribel; de Bertorelli, Ligia O; De Venanzi, Frank

    2004-12-01

    The effects of frozen condition on the quality of three sweet corn ears (2038, 2010, 2004) and the pattern (Bonanza), were evaluated. Biometrics characteristics like ear size, ear diameter, row and kernel deep were measured as well as chemical and physical measurement in fresh and frozen states. The corn ears were frozen at -95 degrees C by 7 minutes. The yield and stability of the frozen ears were evaluated at 45 and 90 days of frozen storage (-18 degrees C). The average commercial yield as frozen corn ear for all the hybrids was 54.2%. The industry has a similar value range of 48% to 54%. The ear size average was 21.57 cm, row number was 15, ear diameter 45.54 mm and the kernel corn deep was 8.57 mm. All these measurements were found not different from commercial values found for the industry. All corn samples evaluated showed good stability despites the frozen processing and storage. Hybrid 2038 ranked higher in quality.

  3. Long-eared owls nesting in Badlands National Park

    Treesearch

    Deborah D. Paulson; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1985-01-01

    Long-eared Owls nest at high densities locally over the Great Plains where suitable habitat is limited (Bent 1938), yet , according to Whitney et al. (1978), this species is rare to uncommon in South Dakota. Especially west of the Missouri River, few nesting records have been reported. This paper reports the occurrence of Long-eared Owls in the Badlands National Park...

  4. Preventing Cauliflower Ear with a Modified Tie-Through Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimeff, Robert J.; Hough, David O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a quick, simple tie-through suture technique (in which a collodion packing is secured to the auricle with two buttons) for preventing cauliflower ear following external ear trauma in wrestlers and boxers. The technique ensures constant compression; multiple treatments for fluid reaccumulation are rarely necessary. (SM)

  5. Redefinition of the helical rim in cauliflower-ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Schonauer, F; La Rusca, I; Pereira, J A; Molea, G

    2002-01-01

    Cauliflower ear is a serious deformity of the auricle induced by single or repeated injury to the external ear. Few papers deal with surgical techniques for correcting this deformity. We describe the use of ipsilateral excess cartilage to restore the helical rim. Copyright 2002 The British Association of Plastic Surgeons.

  6. Replantation of an avulsed ear, using a single arterial anastamosis.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, G; Bhatti, K; Masood, S

    2008-01-01

    Avulsion of the ear is relatively uncommon and replantation a technical challenge. A case in which an avulsed ear was successfully replanted using a single arterial anastamosis is described. The surgical difficulties encountered, the pharmaceutical approach to postoperative care and the problems which resulted from the lack of venous drainage are discussed.

  7. Gain affected by the interior shape of the ear canal.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jen-Fang; Chen, Yen-Sheng; Cheng, Wei-De

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the correlation of gain distribution and the interior shape of the human external ear canal. Cross-sectional study of gain measurement at the first bend and second bend. Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University. There were 15 ears in patients aged between 20 and 30 years (8 men/7 women) with normal hearing and middle ears. Stimulus frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz were based on the standard clinical hearing test. Measurements closer to the tympanic membrane and the positions at the first and second bends were confirmed by using otoscope. Real ear measurement to analyze the canal resonance in human external ears was adopted. This study found that gain at stimulus frequencies of 4000 Hz was affected by the interior shape of the ear canal (P < .005), particularly at the first and second bends, whereas gain was only affected by the length of the ear canal for stimulus frequencies of 2000 Hz (P < .005). This study found that gain was affected not only by the length of the external auditory canal (EAC) but also by the interior shape of the EAC significantly. The findings of this study may have potential clinical applications in canalplasty and congenital aural atresia surgery and may be used to guide surgeries that attempt to reshape the ear canal to achieve more desirable hearing outcomes.

  8. Identifying position, visibility, dimensions, and angulation of the ear.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Kasim; Christian, Jayanth; Jeyapalan, Karthigeyan; Natarajan, Shanmuganathan; Banu, Fathima; Veeravalli, Padmanabhan T

    2014-01-01

    We selected 254 subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 yr to assess the ear position, angulations of the ear in relation to the nose, visibility from the frontal view, and dimensions of the ear by using various anthropometric points of the face. Subjects were divided into four groups based on facial form. A reference plane indicator, facial topographical measurements, metal ruler, and digital photography were used. While considering the position of the ear, in all facial forms except square tapering, the most samples showed a tendency for the subaurale being in line with subnasale. Regression analysis showed a tendency to gnathion distance is the most dependent variable with length of the ear kept as a constant predictor, while both interalar distance and exocanthion to endocanthion distance correlate highly significantly to the width of the ear. In all subjects, the visibility of the ear when viewed from the front was an average of 1.5 mm. Regardless of facial form, ear angulation was generally less than nose angulation.

  9. Can you hear me now? Understanding vertebrate middle ear development

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Susan Caroline

    2010-01-01

    The middle ear is a composite organ formed from all three germ layers and the neural crest. It provides the link between the outside world and the inner ear, where sound is transduced and routed to the brain for processing. Extensive classical and modern studies have described the complex morphology and origin of the middle ear. Non-mammalian vertebrates have a single ossicle, the columella. Mammals have three functionally equivalent ossicles, designated the malleus, incus and stapes. In this review, I focus on the role of genes known to function in the middle ear. Genetic studies are beginning to unravel the induction and patterning of the multiple middle ear elements including the tympanum, skeletal elements, the air-filled cavity, and the insertion point into the inner ear oval window. Future studies that elucidate the integrated spatio-temporal signaling mechanisms required to pattern the middle ear organ system are needed. The longer-term translational benefits of understanding normal and abnormal ear development will have a direct impact on human health outcomes. PMID:21196256

  10. Klippel-Feil syndrome and associated ear anomalies.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Nadir; Arslanoğlu, Atilla; Mahiroğullari, Mahir; Sahan, Murat; Ozkan, Hüseyin

    2008-01-01

    Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) is a congenital segmentation anomaly of the cervical vertebrae that manifests as short neck, low hair line, and limited neck mobility. Various systemic malformations may also accompany the syndrome including wide variety of otopathologies affecting all 3 compartments of the ear (external, middle, and inner ear) as well as internal acoustic canal and vestibular aqueduct. We aimed to investigate these involvements and their clinical correlates in a group of patients with KFS. We present 20 KFS cases, of which 12 (% 60) displayed most of the reported ear abnormalities such as microtia, external ear canal stenosis, chronic ear inflammations and their sequels, anomalies of the tympanic cavity and ossicles, inner ear dysplasies, deformed internal acoustic canal, and wide vestibular aqueduct, which are demonstrated using the methods of otoscopy, audiologic testing, and temporal bone computed tomography. This series represents one of the highest reported rate of ear involvement in KFS. We found no correlation between the identified ear pathologies and the skeletal and extraskeletal malformations. The genetic nature of the syndrome was supported by the existence of affected family members in 4 (20%) of the cases.

  11. Major evolutionary transitions and innovations: the tympanic middle ear

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    One of the most amazing transitions and innovations during the evolution of mammals was the formation of a novel jaw joint and the incorporation of the original jaw joint into the middle ear to create the unique mammalian three bone/ossicle ear. In this review, we look at the key steps that led to this change and other unusual features of the middle ear and how developmental biology has been providing an understanding of the mechanisms involved. This starts with an overview of the tympanic (air-filled) middle ear, and how the ear drum (tympanic membrane) and the cavity itself form during development in amniotes. This is followed by an investigation of how the ear is connected to the pharynx and the relationship of the ear to the bony bulla in which it sits. Finally, the novel mammalian jaw joint and versatile dentary bone will be discussed with respect to evolution of the mammalian middle ear. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evo-devo in the genomics era, and the origins of morphological diversity’. PMID:27994124

  12. Comparison of Microbiological Flora in the External Auditory Canal of Normal Ear and an Ear with Acute Otitis Externa.

    PubMed

    Ghanpur, Asheesh Dora; Nayak, Dipak Ranjan; Chawla, Kiran; Shashidhar, V; Singh, Rohit

    2017-09-01

    Acute Otitis Externa (AOE) is also known as swimmer's ear. Investigations initiated during World War II firmly established the role of bacteria in the aetiology of Acute Otitis Externa. To culture the microbiological flora of the normal ear and compare it with the flora causing AOE and to know the role of normal ear canal flora and anaerobes in the aetiology. A prospective observational study was conducted on 64 patients clinically diagnosed with unilateral AOE. Ear swabs were taken from both the ears. Microbiological flora was studied considering diseased ear as test ear and the normal ear as the control. Aerobic and anaerobic cultures were done. Severity of the disease was assessed by subjective and objective scores. Effect of topical treatment with ichthammol glycerine pack was assessed after 48 hours and scores were calculated again. Patients with scores < 4 after pack removal were started on systemic antibiotics and were assessed after seven days of antibiotics course. Data was analysed using Paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Chi-square test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (33%) was the most common bacteria cultured from the ear followed by Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (18%). Patients with anaerobic organism in the test ear had severe symptoms and needed systemic antibiotic therapy. Most of the cases may respond to empirical antibiotic therapy. In cases with severe symptoms and the ones refractory to empirical treatment, a culture from the ear canal will not be a tax on the patient. This helps in giving a better understanding about the disease, causative organisms and helps in avoiding the use of inappropriate antibiotics that usually result in developing resistant strains of bacteria.

  13. Can I Prevent Ear Infections When My Child Swims? (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ear Your Ears Perforated Eardrum What's Earwax? Swimmer's Ear (External ... All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, ...

  14. Lobed Mixer Optimization for Advanced Ejector Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waitz, Ian A.

    1996-01-01

    The overall objectives are: 1) to pursue analytical, computational, and experimental studies that enhance basic understanding of forced mixing phenomena relevant to supersonic jet noise reduction, and 2) to integrate this enhanced understanding (analytical, computational, and empirical) into a design-oriented model of a mixer-ejector noise suppression system. The work is focused on ejector geometries and flow conditions typical of those being investigated in the NASA High Speed Research Program (HSRP). The research will be carried out in collaboration with the NASA HSRP Nozzle Integrated Technology Development (ITD) Team, and will both contribute to, and benefit from, the results of other HSRP research. The noise suppressor system model that is being developed under this grant is distinct from analytical tools developed by industry because it directly links details of lobe geometry to mixer-ejector performance. In addition, the model provides a 'technology road map to define gaps in the current understanding of various phenomena related to mixer-ejector design and to help prioritize research areas. This report describes research completed in the past year, as well as work proposed for the following year.

  15. Episodic reinstatement in the medial temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Staresina, Bernhard P; Henson, Richard N A; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Alink, Arjen

    2012-12-12

    The essence of episodic memory is our ability to reexperience past events in great detail, even in the absence of external stimulus cues. Does the phenomenological reinstatement of past experiences go along with reinstating unique neural representations in the brain? And if so, how is this accomplished by the medial temporal lobe (MTL), a brain region intimately linked to episodic memory? Computational models suggest that such reinstatement (also termed "pattern completion") in cortical regions is mediated by the hippocampus, a key region of the MTL. Although recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies demonstrated reinstatement of coarse item properties like stimulus category or task context across different brain regions, it has not yet been shown whether reinstatement can be observed at the level of individual, discrete events-arguably the defining feature of episodic memory-nor whether MTL structures like the hippocampus support this "true episodic" reinstatement. Here we show that neural activity patterns for unique word-scene combinations encountered during encoding are reinstated in human parahippocampal cortex (PhC) during retrieval. Critically, this reinstatement occurs when word-scene combinations are successfully recollected (even though the original scene is not visually presented) and does not encompass other stimulus domains (such as word-color associations). Finally, the degree of PhC reinstatement across retrieval events correlated with hippocampal activity, consistent with a role of the hippocampus in coordinating pattern completion in cortical regions.

  16. The Medial Temporal Lobe and Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Eichenbaum, H.; Yonelinas, A.R.; Ranganath, C.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to recognize a previously experienced stimulus is supported by two processes: recollection of the stimulus in the context of other information associated with the experience, and a sense of familiarity with the features of the stimulus. Although familiarity and recollection are functionally distinct, there is considerable debate about how these kinds of memory are supported by regions in the medial temporal lobes (MTL). Here, we review evidence for the distinction between recollection and familiarity and then consider the evidence regarding the neural mechanisms of these processes. Evidence from neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and neurophysiological studies of humans, monkeys, and rats indicates that different subregions of the MTL make distinct contributions to recollection and familiarity. The data suggest that the hippocampus is critical for recollection but not familiarity. The parahippocampal cortex also contributes to recollection, possibly via the representation and retrieval of contextual (especially spatial) information, whereas perirhinal cortex contributes to and is necessary for familiarity-based recognition. The findings are consistent with an anatomically guided hypothesis about the functional organization of the MTL and suggest mechanisms by which the anatomical components of the MTL interact to support of the phenomenology of recollection and familiarity. PMID:17417939

  17. Atypical handedness in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Doležalová, Irena; Schachter, Steven; Chrastina, Jan; Hemza, Jan; Hermanová, Markéta; Rektor, Ivan; Pažourková, Marta; Brázdil, Milan

    2017-07-01

    The main aim of our study was to investigate the handedness of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). We also sought to identify clinical variables that correlated with left-handedness in this population. Handedness (laterality quotient) was assessed in 73 consecutive patients with MTLE associated with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) using the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Associations between right- and left-handedness and clinical variables were investigated. We found that 54 (74.0%) patients were right-handed, and 19 (26%) patients were left-handed. There were 15 (36.6%) left-handed patients with left-sided seizure onset compared to 4 (12.5%) left-handed patients with right-sided seizure onset (p=0.030). Among patients with left-sided MTLE, age at epilepsy onset was significantly correlated with handedness (8years of age [median; min-max 0.5-17] in left-handers versus 15years of age [median; min-max 3-30] in right-handers (p<0.001). Left-sided MTLE is associated with atypical handedness, especially when seizure onset occurs during an active period of brain development, suggesting a bi-hemispheric neuroplastic process for establishing motor dominance in patients with early-onset left-sided MTLE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Determining Surgical Candidacy in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Alireza; Fallah, Aria; Valiante, Taufik A.

    2012-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of adult epilepsy that is amenable to surgical treatment. In the carefully selected patient, excellent seizure outcome can be achieved with minimal or no side effects from surgery. This may result in improved psychosocial functioning, achieving higher education, and maintaining or gaining employment. The objective of this paper is to discuss the surgical selection process of a patient with TLE. We define what constitutes a patient that has medically refractory TLE, describe the typical history and physical examination, and distinguish between mesial TLE and neocortical TLE. We then review the role of routine (ambulatory/sleep-deprived electroencephalography (EEG), video EEG, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), neuropsychological testing, and Wada testing) and ancillary preoperative testing (positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), subtraction ictal SPECT correlated to MRI (SISCOM), magnetoencephalography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and functional MRI) in selecting surgical candidates. We describe the surgical options for resective epilepsy surgery in TLE and its commonly associated risks while highlighting some of the controversies. Lastly, we present teaching cases to illustrate the presurgical workup of patients with medically refractory TLE. PMID:22957238

  19. Grating lobe elimination in steerable parametric loudspeaker.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chuang; Gan, Woon-Seng

    2011-02-01

    In the past two decades, the majority of research on the parametric loudspeaker has concentrated on the nonlinear modeling of acoustic propagation and pre-processing techniques to reduce nonlinear distortion in sound reproduction. There are, however, very few studies on directivity control of the parametric loudspeaker. In this paper, we propose an equivalent circular Gaussian source array that approximates the directivity characteristics of the linear ultrasonic transducer array. By using this approximation, the directivity of the sound beam from the parametric loudspeaker can be predicted by the product directivity principle. New theoretical results, which are verified through measurements, are presented to show the effectiveness of the delay-and-sum beamsteering structure for the parametric loudspeaker. Unlike the conventional loudspeaker array, where the spacing between array elements must be less than half the wavelength to avoid spatial aliasing, the parametric loudspeaker can take advantage of grating lobe elimination to extend the spacing of ultrasonic transducer array to more than 1.5 wavelengths in a typical application.

  20. Bilateral external ear canal osteomas - discussion on a clinical case.

    PubMed

    Gheorghe, D C; Stanciu, A E; Ulici, A; Zamfir-Chiru-Anton, A

    2016-01-01

    Osteomas of the external ear are uncommon benign tumors that need to be differentiated from the external ear canal exostoses, bony proliferations that are linked mainly to cold-water exposure. Clinical manifestations vary from no symptoms to recurrent local infections and external ear cholesteatoma. Objective: presenting a rare case that we did not find described in the published literature. A patient with multiple long-term asymptomatic osteomas of both external ear canals presented to our department. Material: Data recorded from the patient's medical record was reviewed and analyzed. Surgery was performed and histology confirmed the presumptive diagnosis. Results: There was a discrepancy between the local severity of the disease, with a complete obstruction of his ear canals, and the long-term disease-free status of the patient. Conclusion: We hypothesized about the etiology of these multiple bilateral osteomas of the EAC, in light of the clinical and surgical findings.

  1. Audiometric Predictions Using SFOAE and Middle-Ear Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, John C.; Keefe, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective The goals of the study are to determine how well stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) identify hearing loss, classify hearing loss as mild or moderate-severe, and correlate with pure-tone thresholds in a population of adults with normal middle-ear function. Other goals are to determine if middle-ear function as assessed by wideband acoustic transfer function (ATF) measurements in the ear canal account for the variability in normal thresholds, and if the inclusion of ATFs improves the ability of SFOAEs to identify hearing loss and predict pure-tone thresholds. Design The total suppressed SFOAE signal and its corresponding noise were recorded in 85 ears (22 normal ears and 63 ears with sensorineural hearing loss) at octave frequencies from 0.5 – 8 kHz using a nonlinear residual method. SFOAEs were recorded a second time in three impaired ears to assess repeatability. Ambient-pressure ATFs were obtained in all but one of these 85 ears, and were also obtained from an additional 31 normal-hearing subjects in whom SFOAE data were not obtained. Pure-tone air-and bone-conduction thresholds and 226-Hz tympanograms were obtained on all subjects. Normal tympanometry and the absence of air-bone gaps were used to screen subjects for normal middle-ear function. Clinical decision theory was used to assess the performance of SFOAE and ATF predictors in classifying ears as normal or impaired, and linear regression analysis was used to test the ability of SFOAE and ATF variables to predict the air-conduction audiogram. Results The ability of SFOAEs to classify ears as normal or hearing impaired was significant at all test frequencies. The ability of SFOAEs to classify impaired ears as either mild or moderate-severe was significant at test frequencies from 0.5 to 4 kHz. SFOAEs were present in cases of severe hearing loss. SFOAEs were also significantly correlated with air-conduction thresholds from 0.5 to 8 kHz. The best performance occurred using the SFOAE

  2. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions upon ear canal pressurization.

    PubMed

    Zebian, Makram; Schirkonyer, Volker; Hensel, Johannes; Vollbort, Sven; Fedtke, Thomas; Janssen, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the change in distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) level upon ear canal pressurization. DPOAEs were measured on 12 normal-hearing human subjects for ear canal static pressures between -200 and +200 daPa in (50 ± 5) daPa steps. A clear dependence of DPOAE levels on the pressure was observed, with levels being highest at the maximum compliance of the middle ear, and decreasing on average by 2.3 dB per 50 daPa for lower and higher pressures. Ear canal pressurization can serve as a tool for improving the detectability of DPOAEs in the case of middle-ear dysfunction.

  3. Inner ear symptoms and disease: Pathophysiological understanding and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Ciuman, Raphael R.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, huge advances have taken place in understanding of inner ear pathophysiology causing sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Advances in understanding comprise biochemical and physiological research of stimulus perception and conduction, inner ear homeostasis, and hereditary diseases with underlying genetics. This review describes and tabulates the various causes of inner ear disease and defines inner ear and non-inner ear causes of hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. The aim of this review was to comprehensively breakdown this field of otorhinolaryngology for specialists and non-specialists and to discuss current therapeutic options in distinct diseases and promising research for future therapies, especially pharmaceutic, genetic, or stem cell therapy. PMID:24362017

  4. Direct cost comparison of totally endoscopic versus open ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Patel, N; Mohammadi, A; Jufas, N

    2018-02-01

    Totally endoscopic ear surgery is a relatively new method for managing chronic ear disease. This study aimed to test the null hypothesis that open and endoscopic approaches have similar direct costs for the management of attic cholesteatoma, from an Australian private hospital setting. A retrospective direct cost comparison of totally endoscopic ear surgery and traditional canal wall up mastoidectomy for the management of attic cholesteatoma in a private tertiary setting was undertaken. Indirect and future costs were excluded. A direct cost comparison of anaesthetic setup and resources, operative setup and resources, and surgical time was performed between the two techniques. Totally endoscopic ear surgery has a mean direct cost reduction of AUD$2978.89 per operation from the hospital perspective, when compared to canal wall up mastoidectomy. Totally endoscopic ear surgery is more cost-effective, from an Australian private hospital perspective, than canal wall up mastoidectomy for attic cholesteatoma.

  5. Inner ear abnormalities in patients with Goldenhar syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bisdas, Sotirios; Lenarz, Minoo; Lenarz, Thomas; Becker, Hartmut

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the inner ear malformations in patients with Goldenhar syndrome and to hypothesize the potential embryopathogenesis of these malformations. Retrospective case review. Tertiary referral center. Fourteen patients with Goldenhar syndrome. Each patient underwent hearing tests and high-resolution computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone. In six patients, magnetic resonance imaging of the temporal bone also was performed. Among the 14 patients with Goldenhar syndrome, 13 had outer and middle ear anomalies and 5 (36%) had inner ear malformations, including one case of common cavity. Our observations regarding inner ear anomalies in Goldenhar syndrome correlate with the reported cases in the literature and may help to hypothesize the embryological origin of these malformations, which can caused by an early developmental arrest in the fourth gestational week. Specialists evaluating patients with Goldenhar syndrome should be aware of the possibility of inner ear malformations, which could be diagnosed earlier with appropriate imaging studies.

  6. Physiological artifacts in scalp EEG and ear-EEG.

    PubMed

    Kappel, Simon L; Looney, David; Mandic, Danilo P; Kidmose, Preben

    2017-08-11

    A problem inherent to recording EEG is the interference arising from noise and artifacts. While in a laboratory environment, artifacts and interference can, to a large extent, be avoided or controlled, in real-life scenarios this is a challenge. Ear-EEG is a concept where EEG is acquired from electrodes in the ear. We present a characterization of physiological artifacts generated in a controlled environment for nine subjects. The influence of the artifacts was quantified in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) deterioration of the auditory steady-state response. Alpha band modulation was also studied in an open/closed eyes paradigm. Artifacts related to jaw muscle contractions were present all over the scalp and in the ear, with the highest SNR deteriorations in the gamma band. The SNR deterioration for jaw artifacts were in general higher in the ear compared to the scalp. Whereas eye-blinking did not influence the SNR in the ear, it was significant for all groups of scalps electrodes in the delta and theta bands. Eye movements resulted in statistical significant SNR deterioration in both frontal, temporal and ear electrodes. Recordings of alpha band modulation showed increased power and coherence of the EEG for ear and scalp electrodes in the closed-eyes periods. Ear-EEG is a method developed for unobtrusive and discreet recording over long periods of time and in real-life environments. This study investigated the influence of the most important types of physiological artifacts, and demonstrated that spontaneous activity, in terms of alpha band oscillations, could be recorded from the ear-EEG platform. In its present form ear-EEG was more prone to jaw related artifacts and less prone to eye-blinking artifacts compared to state-of-the-art scalp based systems.

  7. Pinnaplasty: reshaping ears to improve hearing aid retention.

    PubMed

    Gault, David; Grob, Marion; Odili, Joy

    2007-01-01

    The hearing aid is extremely important to the deaf. A small number have difficulty in retaining the device because the ear is prominent or cup-shaped. This report describes 11 children whose ear shape was modified to improve hearing aid retention and one adult in whom an over set back ear was released to allow fitment of a postaural device. In eight of the 11 children treated, conservative measures such as double-sided tape and retention bands (Huggies) had been tried previously without success. The creation of an antihelical fold in a misshapen ear lacking such a fold provides a reinforcing strut which is useful to support a hearing aid. In patients whose ear had been excessively tethered by previous surgery, projection was restored by inserting a cartilage block behind the ear. In one child with ears tethered by previous surgery, costal cartilage was used not only to release both ears, but also to reconstruct a new helical rim on one side. Surgery enabled a normal postaural hearing aid to be worn in 17 of the 19 ears treated. The two failures deserve special mention. In one patient with a unilateral deformity and severe mental retardation, the dressings were pulled off immediately after surgery. In another patient with a bilateral problem, the appearance and hearing aid retention was improved, but there was not enough room in the postauricular sulcus on one side for the battery component to fit comfortably and an in-the-ear device is now used on that side. Pinnaplasty is a helpful strategy to improve hearing aid retention. Care must be taken not to overdo the set back so that enough room is left to retain the hearing device.

  8. Ear Infection in Isolated Cleft Lip: Etiological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Ruegg, Teresa A.; Cooper, Margaret E.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Ford, Matthew D.; Wehby, George L.; Deleyiannis, Frederic W.B.; Czeizel, Andrew E.; Hecht, Jacqueline T.; Marazita, Mary L.; Weinberg, Seth M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Hypothesis Chronic ear infections are a common occurrence in children with orofacial clefts involving the secondary palate. Less is known about the middle ear status of individuals with isolated clefts of the lip, although several studies have reported elevated rates of ear infection in this group. The purpose of this retrospective study was to test the hypothesis that chronic ear infections occur more frequently in isolated cleft lip cases (n=94) compared with controls (n=183). Methods A questionnaire was used to obtain information on history of chronic ear infection. The association between ear infection status (present/absent) and cleft lip status (cleft lip case/control) was tested using both chi-square and logistic regression. Results and Conclusions The reported occurrence of chronic ear infection was significantly greater in cleft lipcases (31%) compared to unaffected controls (11%). After adjusting for age and sex, having a cleft lip increased the odds of being positive for ear infection by a factor greater than three (OR=3.698; 95%CI=1.91–7.14). Within cleft lipcases, there was no difference in the occurrence of ear infection by defect laterality or by the type of clefting present in the family history. Although velopharyngeal insufficiency was present in 18.4% of our cleft lip sample, there was no statistical association between ear infection and abnormal speech patterns. These results may have potential implications both for the clinical management of isolated cleft lip cases and for understanding the etiology of orofacial clefting. PMID:26153759

  9. Ear Infection in Isolated Cleft Lip: Etiological Implications.

    PubMed

    Ruegg, Teresa A; Cooper, Margaret E; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Ford, Matthew D; Wehby, George L; Deleyiannis, Frederic W B; Czeizel, Andrew E; Hecht, Jacqueline T; Marazita, Mary L; Weinberg, Seth M

    2017-03-01

      Chronic ear infections are a common occurrence in children with orofacial clefts involving the secondary palate. Less is known about the middle ear status of individuals with isolated clefts of the lip, although several studies have reported elevated rates of ear infection in this group. The purpose of this retrospective study was to test the hypothesis that chronic ear infections occur more frequently in isolated cleft lip cases (n = 94) compared with controls (n = 183).   A questionnaire was used to obtain information on history of chronic ear infection. The association between ear infection status (present/absent) and cleft lip status (cleft lip case/control) was tested using both chi-square and logistic regression.   The reported occurrence of chronic ear infection was significantly greater in cleft lip cases (31%) compared with unaffected controls (11%). After adjusting for age and sex, having a cleft lip increased the odds of being positive for ear infection by a factor greater than 3 (odds ratio = 3.698; 95% confidence interval = 1.91 to 7.14). Within cleft lip cases, there was no difference in the occurrence of ear infection by defect laterality or by the type of clefting present in the family history. Although velopharyngeal insufficiency was present in 18.4% of our cleft lip sample, there was no statistical association between ear infection and abnormal speech patterns. These results may have potential implications both for the clinical management of isolated cleft lip cases and for understanding the etiology of orofacial clefting.

  10. Mozart Ear Deformity: a Rare Diagnosis in the Ear Reconstruction Clinic.

    PubMed

    Telich-Tarriba, Jose E; Victor-Baldin, Andre; Apellaniz-Campo, Armando

    2017-07-01

    Mozart ear is a rare auricular deformity; clinically the auricle is characterized by the bulging appearance of the anterosuperior portion of the auricle due to fusion of the crura of the antihelix, an inversion in the normal form of the cavum conchae resulting in its convexity and a slit-like narrowing of the orifice of the external auditory meatus.A retrospective review of clinical and photographic records of patients attended at the ear reconstruction clinic of our hospital between June of 2010 and May 2016 was performed; out of 576 consecutive patients only 3 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, with a prevalence of 0.5%. The authors present these patients.Surgical interventions mainly focus on the correction of the convex concha; however, the procedure should be tailored to the severity of the deformity and the wishes of the patient.

  11. LobeFinder: A Convex Hull-Based Method for Quantitative Boundary Analyses of Lobed Plant Cells1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tzu-Ching; Belteton, Samuel A.; Szymanski, Daniel B.; Umulis, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Dicot leaves are composed of a heterogeneous mosaic of jigsaw puzzle piece-shaped pavement cells that vary greatly in size and the complexity of their shape. Given the importance of the epidermis and this particular cell type for leaf expansion, there is a strong need to understand how pavement cells morph from a simple polyhedral shape into highly lobed and interdigitated cells. At present, it is still unclear how and when the patterns of lobing are initiated in pavement cells, and one major technological bottleneck to addressing the problem is the lack of a robust and objective methodology to identify and track lobing events during the transition from simple cell geometry to lobed cells. We developed a convex hull-based algorithm termed LobeFinder to identify lobes, quantify geometric properties, and create a useful graphical output of cell coordinates for further analysis. The algorithm was validated against manually curated images of pavement cells of widely varying sizes and shapes. The ability to objectively count and detect new lobe initiation events provides an improved quantitative framework to analyze mutant phenotypes, detect symmetry-breaking events in time-lapse image data, and quantify the time-dependent correlation between cell shape change and intracellular factors that may play a role in the morphogenesis process. PMID:27288363

  12. Recurrent syncope and chronic ear pain

    PubMed Central

    Clegg, Andrew; Daverede, Luis; Wong, Winson; Loney, Elizabeth; Young, John

    2010-01-01

    An elderly gentleman presented to hospital with recurrent blackout episodes consistent with syncope and a 3-month history of right ear pain. Significant postural hypotension was recorded. White cell count and C reactive protein were elevated. MRI of the head and neck revealed a soft tissue abnormality in the right nasopharynx and base of skull. Tissue biopsies were obtained and microbiology specimens revealed a mixed growth of pseudomonas and diphtheroids. There was no histological evidence of malignancy. A diagnosis of skull base infection was made. Infective involvement of the carotid sinus was considered to be the cause of the recurrent syncope and postural hypotension. The patient responded well to a 12-week course of intravenous meropenem. Inflammatory markers returned to normal and a repeat MRI after 3 months of treatment showed significant resolution of infection. The syncopal episodes and orthostatic hypotension resolved in parallel with treatment of infection. PMID:22791782

  13. Tuberculosis of the ear, a professional disease?

    PubMed

    Sens, Patrícia Maria; Almeida, Clemente I R; Valle, Lupércio O do; Costa, Luís H C; Angeli, Miguel L S

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a rare cause of chronic suppurative otitis media and mastoiditis; the predisposing factors of this association, however, are not commonly described. There has been an alarming increase in the incidence of tuberculosis in Brazil, including tuberculous otitis media. These patients typically present multiple perforations of the tympanic membrane, an ear discharge, and progressive hearing loss. This diagnosis should be taken into account in patients that do not respond to routine therapy for fungal external otitis or bacterial otitis media. In this retrospective study, the authors describe four cases of patients with tuberculous otitis media. This sample consisted of two physicians, a chemical engineer and an underage child in whose family there were cases of active tuberculosis. Predisposing factors for tuberculous otitis were contact with family members that had tuberculosis, professional contact with patients and exposure to pathogenic microorganisms in airways.

  14. The comparative anatomy of the pig middle ear cavity: a model for middle ear inflammation in the human?

    PubMed Central

    PRACY, J. P.; WHITE, A.; MUSTAFA, Y.; SMITH, D.; PERRY, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a functional model of otitis media with effusion (OME) in the pig (Sus scrofa), with the purpose of investigating the origin of lymphocytes populating the middle ear during the course of an inflammatory process. The relevance of the model to the human condition of OME is to a large extent dependent on the anatomical and physiological similarities between the middle ear cavity and the pharyngeal lymphoid tissue of the pig and man. Anatomical specimens were collected from 7 young Large White pigs to determine the gross anatomy of the middle ear cavity and the histological characteristics of the middle ear mucosa. It was found that the anatomy of the 3 parts of the middle ear cavity in man and in the pig is broadly similar, although some minor differences were observed. The porcine eustachian tube was seen to be cartilaginous throughout its length in contrast to the part osseous, part cartilaginous structure found in man; the porcine ossicles were slightly different in shape to those of man and the air cell system was situated inferior to the tympanic cavity in the pig as opposed to posteriorly in man. This paper describes the structure and morphology of the pig middle ear cavity and compares and contrasts it with that of man. The minor differences observed are of anatomical importance but do not diminish the usefulness of the pig middle ear cleft as a potential model for human middle ear disorders. PMID:9688502

  15. Communication routes between intracranial spaces and inner ear: function, pathophysiologic importance and relations with inner ear diseases.

    PubMed

    Ciuman, Raphael R

    2009-01-01

    There exist 3 communication routes between the intracranial space and the inner ear, the vestibular aqueduct, the cochlear aqueduct, and the internal auditory canal. They possess a key role in inner ear pressure regulation and fluid homeostasis and are related to inner ear diseases. Relevant literature was reviewed, and the current knowledge of the anatomy, physiologic importance, and relations to inner ear diseases were described. Pathologic communication routes such as semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome were highlighted as well. Abnormalities in all 3 communication routes may predispose or be the cause of distinct inner ear pathologic condition and involved in other cochlear and vestibular syndromes, in which their role is not completely clear. The increasing knowledge of the underlying mechanisms encourages promising approaches for possible intervention in the future.

  16. Passage of albumin from the middle ear to the inner ear in otitis media in the chinchilla

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, B.; Goycoolea, M.V.; Schleivert, P.M.

    1981-08-01

    A study of the permeability of the middle ear-inner ear interface for macromolecules was carried out in chinchillas with open and obstructed eustachian tubes utilizing tritiated human serum albumin and immunoelectrophoresis. Tritiated albumin was placed in the round window niche area or normal animals and animals in which the eustachian tubes had been obstructed for 24 hours or 14 days. The tritiated albumin was allowed to remain in the middle ear cavity for 24 hours, Samples of middle ear effusion, perilymph, blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected and measured for radioactivity. Radioactivity was demonstrated in the perilymph. Samples of middlemore » ear effusions and perilymph were also studied by immunoelectrophoresis with goat antihuman albumin. Albumin placed in the round window niche of an experimental animal could be recovered unchanged in the perilymph. The results suggest a pathophysiologic explanation for the association of otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss or endolymphatic hydrops.« less

  17. [Two cases of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with old intracerebral hemorrhage in the lateral temporal lobe without "dual pathology"].

    PubMed

    Morioka, T; Nishio, S; Hisada, K; Muraishi, M; Ishibashi, H; Mamiya, K; Ohfu, M; Fukui, M

    1998-05-01

    Two cases of intractable temporal lobe epilepsy associated with old intracerebral hemorrhage in the lateral temporal lobe were reported. Although preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) failed to reveal hippocampal atrophy with T2 hyperintensity, electrocorticographic (ECoG) recording with chronic invasive subdural electrodes indicated the mesial temporal lobe to be an ictal onset zone. After anterior temporal lobectomy involving the lesion and hippocampectomy, the patients became seizure-free. Hippocampal sclerosis, namely "dual pathology", was not noted on histological examination. Careful ECoG recording with chronic subdural electrodes is mandatory even when the preoperative MRI does not demonstrate the radiological hippocampal sclerosis.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain are involved in many critical functions, including reasoning, planning, judgment, and problem-solving. It is unclear ... E, Montagna P. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. A clinical and polygraphic overview of 100 consecutive cases. Brain. ...

  19. Vestibular sensory functional status of cochlear implanted ears versus non-implanted ears in bilateral profound deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Cozma, Romică Sebastian; Dima-Cozma, Lucia Corina; Rădulescu, Luminiţa Mihaela; Hera, Maria Cristina; Mârţu, Cristian; Olariu, Raluca; Cobzeanu, Bogdan Mihail; Bitere, Oana Roxana; Cobzeanu, Mihail Dan

    2018-01-01

    Patients with hearing loss who underwent cochlear implantation can present symptomatic or asymptomatic vestibular damages earlier or later after the surgery. The vestibular permanent lesions could be acute, produced by surgical trauma or could be progressive due to local morphological changes made by the presence of the portelectrode in the inner ear (fibrosis related, ossification, basilar membrane distortion, endolymphatic hydrops). Besides histopathological findings in inner ear of cochlear implanted patients, the vestibular permanent damages could be found by assessment of clinical vestibular status. This study reports the sensorial vestibular functional findings for adults in cochlear implanted ears related to the electrode insertion type (cochleostomy or round window approach) and comparing to non-implanted deaf ears. A total of 20 adult patients with 32 cochlear implanted ears (12 patients with binaural cochlear implant and eight with monoaural) were selected for postoperatory vestibular examination by cervical and ocular vestibular myogenic potentials and vestibular caloric tests. The same tests were made for a control group of 22 non-implanted deaf ears. Functional testing results were reported related to the electrode insertion approach. For the cochleostomy group, we found different deficits: in 40% for saccular function, 44% for utricular function, and 12% horizontal canal dysfunction. In round window group, the deficit was present in 14.29% for saccular function, 28.57% for utricular function, and 28.58% for horizontal canal. In 46.88% of implanted ears, the vestibular function was completely preserved on all tested sensors. In conclusion, the vestibular functional status after inner ear surgery presents sensorial damages in 53.12% ears compare with the vestibular dysfunction existing in 50% of deaf non-operated ears. Round window insertion allows for better conservation of the vestibular function.

  20. Spike voltage topography in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Asadollahi, Marjan; Shimamoto, Shoichi; Lorenzo, Matthew; Sperling, Michael R

    2016-07-15

    We investigated the voltage topography of interictal spikes in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to see whether topography was related to etiology for TLE. Adults with TLE, who had epilepsy surgery for drug-resistant seizures from 2011 until 2014 at Jefferson Comprehensive Epilepsy Center were selected. Two groups of patients were studied: patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) on MRI and those with other MRI findings. The voltage topography maps of the interictal spikes at the peak were created using BESA software. We classified the interictal spikes as polar, basal, lateral, or others. Thirty-four patients were studied, from which the characteristics of 340 spikes were investigated. The most common type of spike orientation was others (186 spikes; 54.7%), followed by lateral (146; 42.9%), polar (5; 1.5%), and basal (3; 0.9%). Characteristics of the voltage topography maps of the spikes between the two groups of patients were somewhat different. Five spikes in patients with MTS had polar orientation, but none of the spikes in patients with other MRI findings had polar orientation (odds ratio=6.98, 95% confidence interval=0.38 to 127.38; p=0.07). Scalp topographic mapping of interictal spikes has the potential to offer different information than visual inspection alone. The present results do not allow an immediate clinical application of our findings; however, detecting a polar spike in a patient with TLE may increase the possibility of mesial temporal sclerosis as the underlying etiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Patterns of verbal learning and memory in children with intractable temporal lobe or frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Amanda; Smith, Mary Lou

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a better understanding of the verbal learning and memory (VLM) patterns that might differentiate children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) from children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and to examine the impact of variables thought to influence outcomes (seizure laterality, age at seizure onset, age at assessment, epilepsy duration, number of antiepileptic drugs). Retrospective analyses were carried out for children with intractable unilateral TLE (n=100) and FLE (n=27) who completed standardized measures of VLM entailing lists of single words or lists of word pairs. Mean intelligent quotients and VLM scores on single words fell within the average range for both groups, whereas scores fell within the low average to borderline range on word pairs. No significant overall differences in VLM were found between the group with TLE and the group with FLE. Older age at assessment and older age at seizure onset were generally associated with better VLM in both groups but were related to better performance in a number of indices in the group with TLE and only fewer intrusions in the group with FLE. The VLM profiles of children with TLE and FLE are generally similar. Older age at assessment and older age at seizure onset have a favorable impact on both groups but are related to better encoding, retrieval, and monitoring processes for the group with TLE and improved memory monitoring (i.e., as indicated by fewer intrusions) in the group with FLE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Topographic and Stochastic Influences on Pahoehoe Lava Lobe Emplacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Christopher W.; Glaze, Lori S.; James, Mike R.; Baloga, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed understanding of pahoehoe emplacement is necessary for developing accurate models of flow field development, assessing hazards, and interpreting the significance of lava morphology on Earth and other planetary surfaces. Active pahoehoe lobes on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, were examined on 21-26 February 2006 using oblique time-series stereo-photogrammetry and differential global positioning system (DGPS) measurements. During this time, the local discharge rate for peripheral lava lobes was generally constant at 0.0061 +/- 0.0019 m3/s, but the areal coverage rate of the lobes exhibited a periodic increase every 4.13 +/- 0.64 minutes. This periodicity is attributed to the time required for the pressure within the liquid lava core to exceed the cooling induced strength of its margins. The pahoehoe flow advanced through a series of down slope and cross-slope breakouts, which began as approximately 0.2 m-thick units (i.e., toes) that coalesced and inflated to become approximately meter-thick lobes. The lobes were thickest above the lowest points of the initial topography and above shallow to reverse facing slopes, defined relative to the local flow direction. The flow path was typically controlled by high-standing topography, with the zone directly adjacent to the final lobe margin having an average relief that was a few centimeters higher than the lava inundated region. This suggests that toe-scale topography can, at least temporarily, exert strong controls on pahoehoe flow paths by impeding the lateral spreading of the lobe. Observed cycles of enhanced areal spreading and inflated lobe morphology are also explored using a model that considers the statistical likelihood of sequential breakouts from active flow margins and the effects of topographic barriers.

  3. The Comparative Osteology of the Petrotympanic Complex (Ear Region) of Extant Baleen Whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti)

    PubMed Central

    Ekdale, Eric G.; Berta, Annalisa; Deméré, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Anatomical comparisons of the ear region of baleen whales (Mysticeti) are provided through detailed osteological descriptions and high-resolution photographs of the petrotympanic complex (tympanic bulla and petrosal bone) of all extant species of mysticete cetaceans. Salient morphological features are illustrated and identified, including overall shape of the bulla, size of the conical process of the bulla, morphology of the promontorium, and the size and shape of the anterior process of the petrosal. We place our comparative osteological observations into a phylogenetic context in order to initiate an exploration into petrotympanic evolution within Mysticeti. Principal Findings The morphology of the petrotympanic complex is diagnostic for individual species of baleen whale (e.g., sigmoid and conical processes positioned at midline of bulla in Balaenoptera musculus; confluence of fenestra cochleae and perilymphatic foramen in Eschrichtius robustus), and several mysticete clades are united by derived characteristics. Balaenids and neobalaenids share derived features of the bulla, such as a rhomboid shape and a reduced anterior lobe (swelling) in ventral aspect, and eschrichtiids share derived morphologies of the petrosal with balaenopterids, including loss of a medial promontory groove and dorsomedial elongation of the promontorium. Monophyly of Balaenoidea (Balaenidae and Neobalaenidae) and Balaenopteroidea (Balaenopteridae and Eschrichtiidae) was recovered in phylogenetic analyses utilizing data exclusively from the petrotympanic complex. Significance This study fills a major gap in our knowledge of the complex structures of the mysticete petrotympanic complex, which is an important anatomical region for the interpretation of the evolutionary history of mammals. In addition, we introduce a novel body of phylogenetically informative characters from the ear region of mysticetes. Our detailed anatomical descriptions, illustrations, and comparisons provide

  4. The comparative osteology of the petrotympanic complex (ear region) of extant baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti).

    PubMed

    Ekdale, Eric G; Berta, Annalisa; Deméré, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    Anatomical comparisons of the ear region of baleen whales (Mysticeti) are provided through detailed osteological descriptions and high-resolution photographs of the petrotympanic complex (tympanic bulla and petrosal bone) of all extant species of mysticete cetaceans. Salient morphological features are illustrated and identified, including overall shape of the bulla, size of the conical process of the bulla, morphology of the promontorium, and the size and shape of the anterior process of the petrosal. We place our comparative osteological observations into a phylogenetic context in order to initiate an exploration into petrotympanic evolution within Mysticeti. The morphology of the petrotympanic complex is diagnostic for individual species of baleen whale (e.g., sigmoid and conical processes positioned at midline of bulla in Balaenoptera musculus; confluence of fenestra cochleae and perilymphatic foramen in Eschrichtius robustus), and several mysticete clades are united by derived characteristics. Balaenids and neobalaenids share derived features of the bulla, such as a rhomboid shape and a reduced anterior lobe (swelling) in ventral aspect, and eschrichtiids share derived morphologies of the petrosal with balaenopterids, including loss of a medial promontory groove and dorsomedial elongation of the promontorium. Monophyly of Balaenoidea (Balaenidae and Neobalaenidae) and Balaenopteroidea (Balaenopteridae and Eschrichtiidae) was recovered in phylogenetic analyses utilizing data exclusively from the petrotympanic complex. This study fills a major gap in our knowledge of the complex structures of the mysticete petrotympanic complex, which is an important anatomical region for the interpretation of the evolutionary history of mammals. In addition, we introduce a novel body of phylogenetically informative characters from the ear region of mysticetes. Our detailed anatomical descriptions, illustrations, and comparisons provide valuable data for current and future

  5. Combined Effect of Fluid and Pressure on Middle Ear Function

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Chenkai; Wood, Mark W.; Gan, Rong Z.

    2008-01-01

    In our previous studies, the effects of effusion and pressure on sound transmission were investigated separately. The aim of this study is to investigate the combined effect of fluid and pressure on middle ear function. An otitis media with effusion model was created by injecting saline solution and air pressure simultaneously into the middle ear of human temporal bones. Tympanic membrane displacement in response to 90 dB SPL sound input was measured by a laser vibrometer and the compliance of the middle ear was measured by a tympanometer. The movement of the tympanic membrane at the umbo was reduced up to 17 dB by the combination of fluid and pressure in the middle ear over the auditory frequency range. The fluid and pressure effects on the umbo movement in the fluid-pressure combination are not additive. The combined effect of fluid and pressure on the umbo movement is different compared with that of only fluid or pressure change in the middle ear. Negative pressure in fluid-pressure combination had more effect on middle ear function than positive pressure. Tympanometry can detect the middle ear pressure of the fluid-pressure combination. This study provides quantitative information for analysis of the combined effect of fluid and pressure on tympanic membrane movement. PMID:18162348

  6. Surgical and Technical Modalities for Hearing Restoration in Ear Malformations.

    PubMed

    Dazert, Stefan; Thomas, Jan Peter; Volkenstein, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Malformations of the external and middle ear often go along with an aesthetic and functional handicap. Independent of additional aesthetic procedures, a successful functional hearing restoration leads to a tremendous gain in quality of life for affected patients. The introduction of implantable hearing systems (bone conduction and middle ear devices) offers new therapeutic options in this field. We focus on functional rehabilitation of patients with malformations, either by surgical reconstruction or the use of different implantable hearing devices, depending on the disease itself and the severity of malformation as well as hearing impairment. Patients with an open ear canal and minor malformations are good candidates for surgical hearing restoration of middle ear structures with passive titanium or autologous implants. In cases with complete fibrous or bony atresia of the ear canal, the most promising functional outcome and gain in quality of life can be expected with an active middle ear implant or a bone conduction device combined with a surgical aesthetic rehabilitation in a single or multi-step procedure. Although the surgical procedure for bone conduction devices is straightforward and safe, more sophisticated operations for active middle ear implants (e.g., Vibrant Soundbridge, MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria) provide an improved speech discrimination in noise and the ability of sound localization compared with bone conduction devices where the stimulation reaches both cochleae. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Comparison of Middle Ear Visualization With Endoscopy and Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Marc L; Zhang, Dongqing; Labadie, Robert F; Noble, Jack H

    2016-04-01

    The primary goal of chronic ear surgery is the creation of a safe, clean dry ear. For cholesteatomas, complete removal of disease is dependent on visualization. Conventional microscopy is adequate for most dissection, but various subregions of the middle ear are better visualized with endoscopy. The purpose of the present study was to quantitatively assess the improved visualization that endoscopes afford as compared with operating microscopes. Microscopic and endoscopic views were simulated using a three-dimensional model developed from temporal bone scans. Surface renderings of the ear canal and middle ear subsegments were defined and the percentage of visualization of each middle ear subsegment, both with and without ossicles, was then determined for the microscope as well as for 0-, 30-, and 45-degree endoscopes. Using this information, we analyzed which mode of visualization is best suited for dissection within a particular anatomical region. Using a 0-degree scope provides significantly more visualization of every subregion, except the antrum, compared with a microscope. In addition, angled scopes permit visualizing significantly more surface area of every subregion of the middle ear than straight scopes or microscopes. Endoscopes offer advantages for cholesteatoma dissection in difficult-to-visualize areas including the sinus tympani and epitympanum.

  8. Inverse solution of ear-canal area function from reflectance

    PubMed Central

    Rasetshwane, Daniel M.; Neely, Stephen T.

    2011-01-01

    A number of acoustical applications require the transformation of acoustical quantities, such as impedance and pressure that are measured at the entrance of the ear canal, to quantities at the eardrum. This transformation often requires knowledge of the shape of the ear canal. Previous attempts to measure ear-canal area functions were either invasive, non-reproducible, or could only measure the area function up to a point mid-way along the canal. A method to determine the area function of the ear canal from measurements of acoustic impedance at the entrance of the ear canal is described. The method is based on a solution to the inverse problem in which measurements of impedance are used to calculate reflectance, which is then used to determine the area function of the canal. The mean ear-canal area function determined using this method is similar to mean ear-canal area functions measured by other researchers using different techniques. The advantage of the proposed method over previous methods is that it is non- invasive, fast, and reproducible. PMID:22225043

  9. An in vitro model of murine middle ear epithelium.

    PubMed

    Mulay, Apoorva; Akram, Khondoker M; Williams, Debbie; Armes, Hannah; Russell, Catherine; Hood, Derek; Armstrong, Stuart; Stewart, James P; Brown, Steve D M; Bingle, Lynne; Bingle, Colin D

    2016-11-01

    Otitis media (OM), or middle ear inflammation, is the most common paediatric disease and leads to significant morbidity. Although understanding of underlying disease mechanisms is hampered by complex pathophysiology it is clear that epithelial abnormalities underpin the disease. There is currently a lack of a well-characterised in vitro model of the middle ear (ME) epithelium that replicates the complex cellular composition of the middle ear. Here, we report the development of a novel in vitro model of mouse middle ear epithelial cells (mMECs) at an air-liquid interface (ALI) that recapitulates the characteristics of the native murine ME epithelium. We demonstrate that mMECs undergo differentiation into the varied cell populations seen within the native middle ear. Proteomic analysis confirmed that the cultures secrete a multitude of innate defence proteins from their apical surface. We showed that the mMECs supported the growth of the otopathogen, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), suggesting that the model can be successfully utilised to study host-pathogen interactions in the middle ear. Overall, our mMEC culture system can help to better understand the cell biology of the middle ear and improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of OM. The model also has the potential to serve as a platform for validation of treatments designed to reverse aspects of epithelial remodelling that underpin OM development. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Effects of obstructive sleep apnea surgery on middle ear function.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Ching; Friedman, Michael; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Shao, Chi-Hsin; Pulver, Tanya M; Chen, Yung-Che

    2011-04-01

    To study the effect of Z-palatopharyngoplasty plus radiofrequency of the base of the tongue on middle ear function. A retrospective review of a prospective data set at a tertiary care center. University-affiliated medical center. The study population included 47 patients (42 men and 5 women; mean age, 40.8 years) who underwent Z-palatopharyngoplasty plus radiofrequency of the base of the tongue for obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. All patients had healthy eardrums and no previous history of chronic ear disease. Pure-tone audiometric and tympanometric assessments were performed preoperatively and at 3 days, 7 days, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively. Levels of baseline and postoperative middle ear pressure were compared. Twelve patients (26%) reported otologic concerns, such as ear pressure and/or otalgia, within 1 week postoperatively. No permanent otologic discomfort occurred. A trend toward reduced middle ear pressure was noted in this study. The decrease in middle ear pressure became apparent on day 3. However, mean pressure changes were no longer significantly different than preoperative values by 1 week after surgery. We found that Z-palatopharyngoplasty plus radiofrequency of the base of the tongue for obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome induces changes in middle ear function. However, the changes were temporary and not significant after 3 months of follow-up.

  11. Musical ear syndrome in adult cochlear implant patients.

    PubMed

    Low, W-K; Tham, C A; D'Souza, V-D; Teng, S-W

    2013-09-01

    Except for a single case report, musical ear syndrome in cochlear implantees has not been studied. We aimed to study the prevalence and nature of musical ear syndrome among adult cochlear implant patients, as well as the effect on their emotional well-being. STUDY DESIGN, PATIENTS AND INTERVENTION: A cross-sectional survey of patients aged 18 years and above who had received cochlear implants for profound hearing loss between 1997 and 2010. Of the 82 patients studied, 18 (22 per cent) were found to have experienced musical ear syndrome. Seven and 11 patients had musical ear syndrome prior to and after cochlear implantation, respectively. The character of musical ear syndrome symptoms was described as instrumental music (n = 2), singing (6) or both (10). Fourteen patients reported an adverse emotional effect, with three expressing ‘intolerance’. In this study, 22 per cent of cochlear implantees experienced musical ear syndrome. These symptoms affected patients’ emotional state, but most coped well. Musical ear syndrome can occur prior to and after cochlear implantation.

  12. Astrocyte uncoupling as a cause of human temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Bedner, Peter; Dupper, Alexander; Hüttmann, Kerstin; Müller, Julia; Herde, Michel K.; Dublin, Pavel; Deshpande, Tushar; Schramm, Johannes; Häussler, Ute; Haas, Carola A.; Henneberger, Christian; Theis, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Glial cells are now recognized as active communication partners in the central nervous system, and this new perspective has rekindled the question of their role in pathology. In the present study we analysed functional properties of astrocytes in hippocampal specimens from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy without (n = 44) and with sclerosis (n = 75) combining patch clamp recording, K+ concentration analysis, electroencephalography/video-monitoring, and fate mapping analysis. We found that the hippocampus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis is completely devoid of bona fide astrocytes and gap junction coupling, whereas coupled astrocytes were abundantly present in non-sclerotic specimens. To decide whether these glial changes represent cause or effect of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis, we developed a mouse model that reproduced key features of human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis. In this model, uncoupling impaired K+ buffering and temporally preceded apoptotic neuronal death and the generation of spontaneous seizures. Uncoupling was induced through intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide, prevented in Toll-like receptor4 knockout mice and reproduced in situ through acute cytokine or lipopolysaccharide incubation. Fate mapping confirmed that in the course of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis, astrocytes acquire an atypical functional phenotype and lose coupling. These data suggest that astrocyte dysfunction might be a prime cause of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis and identify novel targets for anti-epileptogenic therapeutic intervention. PMID:25765328

  13. Near-death experiences and the temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Britton, Willoughby B; Bootzin, Richard R

    2004-04-01

    Many studies in humans suggest that altered temporal lobe functioning, especially functioning in the right temporal lobe, is involved in mystical and religious experiences. We investigated temporal lobe functioning in individuals who reported having transcendental "near-death experiences" during life-threatening events. These individuals were found to have more temporal lobe epileptiform electroencephalographic activity than control subjects and also reported significantly more temporal lobe epileptic symptoms. Contrary to predictions, epileptiform activity was nearly completely lateralized to the left hemisphere. The near-death experience was not associated with dysfunctional stress reactions such as dissociation, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance abuse, but rather was associated with positive coping styles. Additional analyses revealed that near-death experiencers had altered sleep patterns, specifically, a shorter duration of sleep and delayed REM sleep relative to the control group. These results suggest that altered temporal lobe functioning may be involved in the near-death experience and that individuals who have had such experiences are physiologically distinct from the general population.

  14. Cauliflower Ear and Skin Infections among Wrestlers in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Kordi, Ramin; Mansournai, Mohammad Ali; Nourian, Roh Allah; Wallace, W. Angus

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the magnitude of the selected sports medicine problems (i.e. cauliflower ear and skin infections) among wrestlers in Tehran. A number of 411 wrestlers were randomly selected from wrestling clubs in Tehran employing cluster sample setting method. The participants were interviewed using a specially designed and validated questionnaire. Nearly half of the participants (44%) had “cauliflower ears”. Only 23% of these participants had received any kind of treatment for their acute ear haematomas that are known to result in “cauliflower ears”. The prevalence of reported hearing loss among participants with cauliflower ears (11.5%, 95%CI: 6.9 to 16.2) was significantly more than this prevalence among those participants without cauliflower ears (1.8%, 95%CI: 0.1 to 3.5) (p < 0.05). More than half of the participants (52%) had skin infection diagnosed by a physician during the previous year. This study has identified evidence of an increase in hearing loss as a possible side effect of either cauliflower ear or ear injury in wrestling in Iran. There has been an outbreak of ringworm and there is a significant potential for an outbreak of impetigo among wrestlers in Tehran. Key points Skin infections are prevalent among wrestlers in Tehran. Commonly wrestlers in Tehran continue to carry out wrestling training while affected by skin infections. Cauliflower ear ”is common among wrestlers in Tehran. More research is needed to investigate hearing loss as a possible side effect of either cauliflower ear or ear injury in wrestling in Iran. PMID:24198702

  15. 3D visualization of middle ear structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Uwe; Schmitt, Thomas

    1998-06-01

    The achievement of volume geometry data from middle ear structures and surrounding components performs a necessary supposition for the finite element simulation of the vibrational and transfer characteristics of the ossicular chain. So far those models base on generalized figures and size data from anatomy textbooks or particular manual and one- or two-dimensional distance measurements of single ossicles, mostly obtained by light microscopy, respectively. Therefore the goal of this study is to create a procedure for complete three-dimensional imaging of real middle ear structures (tympanic membrane, ossicles, ligaments) in vitro or even in vivo. The main problems are their microscopic size with relevant structures from 10 micrometer to 5 mm, representing various tissue properties (bone, soft tissue). Additionally, these structures are surrounded by the temporal bone, the most solid bone of the human body. Generally there exist several established diagnostic tools for medical imaging that could be used for geometry data acquisition, e.g., X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Basically they image different tissue parameters, either bony structures (ossicles), or soft tissue (tympanic membrane, ligaments). But considering this application those standard techniques allow low spatial resolution only, usually in the 0.5 - 1mm range, at least in one spatial direction. Thus particular structures of the middle ear region could even be missed completely because of their spatial location. In vitro there is a way out by collecting three complete data sets, each distinguished by 90 degree rotation of a cube-shaped temporal bone specimen. That allows high-resolution imaging in three orthogonal planes, which essentially supports the three-dimensional interpolation of the unknown elements, starting from the regularly set elements of the cubic grid with an edge extension given by the original two-dimensional matrix. A different approach represents the

  16. Shaping sound in space: the regulation of inner ear patterning.

    PubMed

    Groves, Andrew K; Fekete, Donna M

    2012-01-01

    The inner ear is one of the most morphologically elaborate tissues in vertebrates, containing a group of mechanosensitive sensory organs that mediate hearing and balance. These organs are arranged precisely in space and contain intricately patterned sensory epithelia. Here, we review recent studies of inner ear development and patterning which reveal that multiple stages of ear development - ranging from its early induction from the embryonic ectoderm to the establishment of the three cardinal axes and the fine-grained arrangement of sensory cells - are orchestrated by gradients of signaling molecules.

  17. Shaping sound in space: the regulation of inner ear patterning

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Andrew K.; Fekete, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    The inner ear is one of the most morphologically elaborate tissues in vertebrates, containing a group of mechanosensitive sensory organs that mediate hearing and balance. These organs are arranged precisely in space and contain intricately patterned sensory epithelia. Here, we review recent studies of inner ear development and patterning which reveal that multiple stages of ear development – ranging from its early induction from the embryonic ectoderm to the establishment of the three cardinal axes and the fine-grained arrangement of sensory cells – are orchestrated by gradients of signaling molecules. PMID:22186725

  18. Neonatal Hairy Ear Pinnae and Gestational Diabetes: Just a Coincidence?

    PubMed

    Valerio, Enrico; Riello, Laura; Chirico, Michela; Semenzato, Rossella; Cutrone, Mario

    2015-01-01

    A newborn girl of 36 weeks gestation was noted to have several anomalies, including bilateral low ear attachment with ear pinnae hypertrichosis, left preauricular pit, micrognathia, short lingual frenulum, and short neck. Pregnancy history revealed poorly controlled maternal gestational diabetes (GD). Localized hypertrichosis of the ear pinnae may represent a potential marker of GD and thereby alert physicians to suspect other potentially GD-associated conditions such as macrosomia, asphyxia, respiratory distress, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hyperbilirubinemia, polycythemia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and congenital anomalies, particularly those involving the central nervous system. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Preventing Cauliflower Ear With a Modified Tie-Through Technique.

    PubMed

    Dimeff, R J; Hough, D O

    1989-03-01

    In brief: Hematoma following trauma to the external ear is a common problem among wrestlers and boxers. If the hematoma is not treated promptly, infection, fibrosis, scarring, and calcification may develop, leading to the gross deformity known as cauliflower ear or wrestler's ear. Evacuation of the hematoma followed by compression of the auricle is commonly regarded as the treatment of choice. However, fluid frequently reaccumulates after this procedure. The authors describe a tie-through suture technique in which a collodion packing is secured to the auricle with two buttons. Multiple treatments for fluid reaccumulation are rarely necessary when this technique is used.

  20. [Lop ear - knife, tape, or nothing at all?].

    PubMed

    Klockars, Tuomas

    2013-01-01

    More than 200 different surgical techniques of correction of lop ear have been published. The operation is usually recommended to be performed at the age of six years or after. In addition, lop ear surgery involves risks, the most common complications being bleeding, infections, sensory alterations and scarring problems. Surgical preference and decision should always be based on realistic expectations of the patient or the parents, and prior to the decision they should have adequate information about the nature of the procedure and potential complications. Splint therapy of lop ear is possible for infants.

  1. Evolution of Gravity Receptors in the Ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popper, Arthur N. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The general status of a grant to investigate the origins and evolution of two hair cell types in the ears of a teleost fish, Astronotus ocellatus (the oscar), is presented. First, it was demonstrated that the cells in the rostral end of the saccule of the , Carassius auratus, are type 1-like, while those at the caudal end are type 2 cells. It was demonstrated that the dichotomy of hair cell types found in the utricle of the oscar is also found in the goldfish. Second, the lateral line system of the oscar was examined using gentamicin sulphate, an ototocix drug that destroys type 1- like hair cells but does not appear to damage type 2 hair cells. It was demonstrated that the hair cells found in neuromasts of lateral line canal organs were totally destroyed within 1 day of treatment, while the hair cells in free neuromasts were undamaged after 12 days of treatment. Third, it was demonstrated that the calyx, the specialized nerve ending, is not unique to amniotes and that it is present at least in the cristae of semicirular canals in goldfish. These results have demonstrated that: (1) there are multiple hair cell types in the vestibular endorgans of the ear of fishes, (2) these hair cell types are very similar to those found in the mammalian vestibular endorgans, (3) the nerve calyx is also present in fishes, and (4) multiple hair cell types and the calyx have evolved far earlier in the course of vertebrate evolution than heretofore thought. Understanding the structure of the vestibular endorgans has important implications for being able to understand how these organs respond to gravistatic, acceleration and acoustic input. The vestibular endorgans of fishes may provide an ideal system in which to analyze functional differences in hair cells. Not only are the two hair cell types similar to those found in mammals, they are located in very discrete regions in each endorgan. Thus, it is relatively easy to gain access to cells of one or the other type. The presence of two

  2. EARS : Repositioning data management near data acquisition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinquin, Jean-Marc; Sorribas, Jordi; Diviacco, Paolo; Vandenberghe, Thomas; Munoz, Raquel; Garcia, Oscar

    2016-04-01

    The EU FP7 Projects Eurofleets and Eurofleets2 are an European wide alliance of marine research centers that aim to share their research vessels, to improve information sharing on planned, current and completed cruises, on details of ocean-going research vessels and specialized equipment, and to durably improve cost-effectiveness of cruises. Within this context logging of information on how, when and where anything happens on board of the vessel is crucial information for data users in a later stage. This forms a primordial step in the process of data quality control as it could assist in the understanding of anomalies and unexpected trends recorded in the acquired data sets. In this way completeness of the metadata is improved as it is recorded accurately at the origin of the measurement. The collection of this crucial information has been done in very different ways, using different procedures, formats and pieces of software in the context of the European Research Fleet. At the time that the Eurofleets project started, every institution and country had adopted different strategies and approaches, which complicated the task of users that need to log general purpose information and events on-board whenever they access a different platform loosing the opportunity to produce this valuable metadata on-board. Among the many goals the Eurofleets project has, a very important task is the development of an "event log software" called EARS (Eurofleets Automatic Reporting System) that enables scientists and operators to record what happens during a survey. EARS will allow users to fill, in a standardized way, the gap existing at the moment in metadata description that only very seldom links data with its history. Events generated automatically by acquisition instruments will also be handled, enhancing the granularity and precision of the event annotation. The adoption of a common procedure to log survey events and a common terminology to describe them is crucial to provide

  3. Self-ear cleaning practices and the associated risk of ear injuries and ear-related symptoms in a group of university students.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nasim Banu; Thaver, Sivashnee; Govender, Samantha Marlene

    2017-12-31

    Self-ear cleaning is the insertion of objects into the ear canal to clean it, a widespread practice that has the potential to compromise its integrity as a natural, selfcleansing mechanism, and a risk factor for possible injuries. The practice is common among young adults and highest in university than any other graduates. This study aimed to determine the self-ear cleaning practices and associated risk of injury and related symptoms in undergraduate students at KwaZulu-Natal University. The descriptive survey utilized a self-administered questionnaire. Of the 206 participants that responded, 98% engaged in self-ear cleaning, with 75% indicating that it was beneficial. The commonest method (79.6%) being the use of cotton buds, with an associated injury rate of 2.4%. There was no statistically significant associations between those who used or did not use cotton buds and the symptoms experienced. The complications indicate that self-ear cleaning does pose a risk for injury, necessitating more community information and education.

  4. Mechanics and materials in middle ear reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lesser, T H; Williams, K R; Blayney, A W

    1991-02-01

    The normal anatomy and physiology of the middle ear is not reproduced in ossiculoplasty and an artificial mechanism for the transmission of sound results. This is true for all types of graft, be they of natural or man-made material. There are, therefore, 2 areas for consideration when looking at the problems encountered in such reconstructions: first, the materials' biocompatability and, secondly, the mechanical effects of the positioning of the graft in the reconstructed ossicular chain. The present work examines these mechanical effects using the finite element method to determine stress and displacement levels in the reconstructed ossicular chain. It is found that the stress levels at the implant-stapedial joint increases as the implant is gradually moved down the malleus. In contrast there is thought to be an increase in sound transmission as the implant is moved down the malleus. Changes in rigidity and hardness of the implant appear to make only modest stress attenuations at the implant-stapes interface.

  5. Laser vibrometer measurements and middle ear prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flock, Stephen T.; Dornhoffer, John; Ferguson, Scott

    1997-05-01

    One of us has developed an improved partial ossicular replacement prosthesis that is easier to implant and, based on pilot clinical measurements, results in better high-frequency hearing as compared to patients receiving one of the alternative prostheses. It is hypothesized that the primary reason for this is because of the relatively light weight (about 25 mg) and low compliance of the prosthesis, which could conceivably result in better high frequency vibrational characteristics. The purpose of our initial work was to develop an instrument suitable for objectively testing the vibrational characteristics of prostheses. We have developed a laser based device suitable for measuring the vibrational characteristics of the oval window or other structures of the middle ear. We have tested this device using a piezoelectric transducer excited at audio frequencies, as well as on the oval window in human temporal bones harvested from cadavers. The results illustrate that it is possible to non-invasively monitor the vibrational characteristics of anatomic structures with a very inexpensive photonic device.

  6. Gentamicin pharmacokinetics in the chicken inner ear.

    PubMed

    Bunting, Eric C; Park, Debra L; Durham, Dianne; Girod, Douglas A

    2004-06-01

    Avians have the unique ability to regenerate cochlear hair cells that are lost due to ototoxins or excessive noise. Many methodological techniques are available to damage the hair cells for subsequent scientific study. A recent method utilizes topical application of an ototoxic drug to the round window membrane. The current study examines the pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in the inner ear of chickens following topical application to the round window membrane or a single systemic high dose given intraperitoneally. Chickens were given gentamicin topically or systemically and survived for 1, 4, 12, 24, or 120 h (controls at 4 and 120 h). Serum and perilymph samples were obtained prior to sacrifice and measured for gentamicin levels. Results revealed higher levels of gentamicin in the perilymph of topically treated chickens than systemically treated chickens, with significant amounts of gentamicin still present in both at the latest survival time of 5 days. As expected, systemically treated chickens had much higher levels of gentamicin in the serum than topically treated chickens. Advantages and disadvantages to each method of drug administration are discussed.

  7. Why Internally Coupled Ears (ICE) Work Well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2014-03-01

    Many vertebrates, such as frogs and lizards, have an air-filled cavity between left and right eardrum, i.e., internally coupled ears (ICE). Depending on source direction, internal time (iTD) and level (iLD) difference as experienced by the animal's auditory system may greatly exceed [C. Vossen et al., JASA 128 (2010) 909-918] the external, or interaural, time and level difference (ITD and ILD). Sensory processing only encodes iTD and iLD. We present an extension of ICE theory so as to elucidate the underlying physics. First, the membrane properties of the eardrum explain why for low frequencies iTD dominates whereas iLD does so for higher frequencies. Second, the plateau of iTD = γ ITD for constant 1 < γ < 5 and variable input frequency <ν∘ follows; e.g., for the Tockay gecko ν∘ ~ 1 . 5 kHz. Third, we use a sectorial instead of circular membrane to quantify the effect of the extracolumella embedded in the tympanum and connecting with the cochlea. The main parameters can be adjusted so that the model is species independent. Work done in collaboration with A.P. Vedurmudi and J. Goulet; partially supported by BCCN-Munich.

  8. Blackbody for metrological control of ear thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas-García, D.; Méndez-Lango, E.

    2013-09-01

    Body temperature is an important parameter in medical practice, and most of health diagnoses are made based upon measured temperature values. Non-contact measurements are attractive to both patients and physicians, and ear thermometers (ET) are part of the set of infrared thermometers for medical applications. ETs sense the tympanic membrane temperature which best represents body temperature. They take advantage of the natural high effective emissivity cavity that is formed as radiation source. To calibrate or to check the performance of ETs, we designed a high-emissivity spherical cavity as a blackbody source which can be placed in a dry block oven. Although the blackbody cavity can have any shape, we decided to build it spherical because its effective emissivity can be easily calculated in a closed form. The cavity is made of Aluminum to take advantage of its high thermal conductivity while its inner side is covered with a black paint to increase the cavity effective emissivity. Based on paint emissivity measurements and the geometrical shape, we calculated that the cavity has an effective emissivity higher than 0.999. Blackbody temperature is measured with a calibrated contact thermometer placed inside the bottom wall of the cavity. We present the design of the cavity, the experimental setup, and results of three commercial ETs compared with this cavity.

  9. Green laser light activates the inner ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Gentiana I.; Balster, Sven; Zhang, Kaiyin; Lim, Hubert H.; Reich, Uta; Massow, Ole; Lubatschowski, Holger; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Lenarz, Thomas; Reuter, Guenter

    2009-07-01

    The hearing performance with conventional hearing aids and cochlear implants is dramatically reduced in noisy environments and for sounds more complex than speech (e. g. music), partially due to the lack of localized sensorineural activation across different frequency regions with these devices. Laser light can be focused in a controlled manner and may provide more localized activation of the inner ear, the cochlea. We sought to assess whether visible light with parameters that could induce an optoacoustic effect (532 nm, 10-ns pulses) would activate the cochlea. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded preoperatively in anesthetized guinea pigs to confirm normal hearing. After opening the bulla, a 50-μm core-diameter optical fiber was positioned in the round window niche and directed toward the basilar membrane. Optically induced ABRs (OABRs), similar in shape to those of acoustic stimulation, were elicited with single pulses. The OABR peaks increased with energy level (0.6 to 23 μJ/pulse) and remained consistent even after 30 minutes of continuous stimulation at 13 μJ, indicating minimal or no stimulation-induced damage within the cochlea. Our findings demonstrate that visible light can effectively and reliably activate the cochlea without any apparent damage. Further studies are in progress to investigate the frequency-specific nature and mechanism of green light cochlear activation.

  10. Ensemble training to improve recognition using 2D ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middendorff, Christopher; Bowyer, Kevin W.

    2009-05-01

    The ear has gained popularity as a biometric feature due to the robustness of the shape over time and across emotional expression. Popular methods of ear biometrics analyze the ear as a whole, leaving these methods vulnerable to error due to occlusion. Many researchers explore ear recognition using an ensemble, but none present a method for designing the individual parts that comprise the ensemble. In this work, we introduce a method of modifying the ensemble shapes to improve performance. We determine how different properties of an ensemble training system can affect overall performance. We show that ensembles built from small parts will outperform ensembles built with larger parts, and that incorporating a large number of parts improves the performance of the ensemble.

  11. Tympanostomy Tubes: A Rational Clinical Treatment for Middle Ear Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Peter S.; Brown, Orval

    1990-01-01

    The use of tympanostomy tubes to treat middle ear disease including otitis media is discussed with sections on the eustachian tube; acute otitis media; persistent effusion; changes in the tympanic membrane; special populations; and complications. (DB)

  12. Statistics about Hearing, Balance, Ear Infections and Deafness

    MedlinePlus

    ... You are here Home » Health Info Statistics about Hearing, Balance, Ear Infections, and Deafness Quick Statistics Charts ... What the Numbers Mean: An Epidemiological Perspective on Hearing References on Hearing Epidemiology Last Updated Date: October ...

  13. [Reconstruction of the ear in the burns patient].

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Córdova, Jorge Raúl; Jiménez Murat, Yusef; Apellaniz-Campo, Armando; Bracho-Olvera, Hazel; Carrillo Esper, Raúl

    Face burns are a singular pathology with great functional and psychological impact in the patients suffering them. The ears play a fundamental role in personal interactions and damage to this organ results in physical and emotional distress. The reconstructive treatment of the burned ear is a challenge. Multiple procedures have been described to achieve success in the reconstruction of the burned ear; immediate reconstruction with autologous rib cartilage, secondary reconstruction, alloplastic material reconstruction, tissue expansion, skin grafts and also microvascular flaps are some of the most common procedures used in this patients. All these techniques focus on giving a natural appearance to the patient. Burns to the ears affect 30% of the patients with facial burns, they require an excellent treatment given by a multidisciplinary team. Copyright © 2017 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. [The endoscopic anatomy of the middle ear (a dissection study)].

    PubMed

    Rzaev, R M; Rzaev, R R

    The objective of the present work was to study the specific endoscopic anatomical features of the middle ear using the dissected temporal bones with the intact tympanic membrane. The 18 cm long endoscopes 4 mm in diameter with a visual angle from 0 to 45 degrees in the combination with some other microinstruments, such as ear pincers, needles, curettes, elevators, and suction tubes, were used during the examination. It was shown that endomeato-transtympanic endosopy provides a panoramic view of almost all structures of the middle ear. After the resection of the posterior bone edge of 'annulus tympanicus', the use of the 45o endoscope ensured the panoramic view not only of certain structures of the middle ear (e.g. the tympanic chord, the stapedius muscle tendon, the entire pyramidal process) but also of the structures of the retrotympanic and anterior epitympanic spaces.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: scalp-ear-nipple syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... ear nipple syndrome Sources for This Page Marneros AG, Beck AE, Turner EH, McMillin MJ, Edwards MJ, ... qualified healthcare professional . About Selection Criteria for Links Data Files & API Site Map Subscribe Customer Support USA. ...

  16. Multi-resolution analysis for ear recognition using wavelet features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoaib, M.; Basit, A.; Faye, I.

    2016-11-01

    Security is very important and in order to avoid any physical contact, identification of human when they are moving is necessary. Ear biometric is one of the methods by which a person can be identified using surveillance cameras. Various techniques have been proposed to increase the ear based recognition systems. In this work, a feature extraction method for human ear recognition based on wavelet transforms is proposed. The proposed features are approximation coefficients and specific details of level two after applying various types of wavelet transforms. Different wavelet transforms are applied to find the suitable wavelet. Minimum Euclidean distance is used as a matching criterion. Results achieved by the proposed method are promising and can be used in real time ear recognition system.

  17. Ear Infection Treatment Shouldn't Be Shortened

    MedlinePlus

    ... no benefit in terms of adverse events or antibiotic resistance,” says study lead Dr. Alejandro Hoberman of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. The findings confirm that standard antibiotics prescribed for an ear infection should be taken ...

  18. How minute sooglossid frogs hear without a middle ear.

    PubMed

    Boistel, Renaud; Aubin, Thierry; Cloetens, Peter; Peyrin, Françoise; Scotti, Thierry; Herzog, Philippe; Gerlach, Justin; Pollet, Nicolas; Aubry, Jean-François

    2013-09-17

    Acoustic communication is widespread in animals. According to the sensory drive hypothesis [Endler JA (1993) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 340(1292):215-225], communication signals and perceptual systems have coevolved. A clear illustration of this is the evolution of the tetrapod middle ear, adapted to life on land. Here we report the discovery of a bone conduction-mediated stimulation of the ear by wave propagation in Sechellophryne gardineri, one of the world's smallest terrestrial tetrapods, which lacks a middle ear yet produces acoustic signals. Based on X-ray synchrotron holotomography, we measured the biomechanical properties of the otic tissues and modeled the acoustic propagation. Our models show how bone conduction enhanced by the resonating role of the mouth allows these seemingly deaf frogs to communicate effectively without a middle ear.

  19. Forgotten T-tube in the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Trinidade, Aaron; Khan, Imran; Ah-See, Kim Wong

    2012-05-01

    Retention within the middle ear cleft is an unusual complication of T-tube insertion. A 40-year-old woman with Kartagener's Syndrome presented with hearing impairment in the right ear. She was found to have a previously inserted Goode T-tube lying within the middle ear behind an intact drum. She underwent successful removal of the T-tube via a myringotomy, and a new tube was re-inserted. Migration of a T-tube into the middle ear cleft should always be kept in mind in patients who present with otological symptoms and have a history of T-tube insertion, even in the presence of an intact drum.

  20. Sonographic Measurement of Fetal Ear Length in Turkish Women with a Normal Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Mucize Eriç; Uzun, Işıl; Karahasanoğlu, Ayşe; Aygün, Mehmet; Akın, Hale; Yazıcıoğlu, Fehmi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abnormal fetal ear length is a feature of chromosomal disorders. Fetal ear length measurement is a simple measurement that can be obtained during ultrasonographic examinations. Aims: To develop a nomogram for fetal ear length measurements in our population and investigate the correlation between fetal ear length, gestational age, and other standard fetal biometric measurements. Study Design: Cohort study. Methods: Ear lengths of the fetuses were measured in normal singleton pregnancies. The relationship between gestational age and fetal ear length in millimetres was analysed by simple linear regression. In addition, the correlation of fetal ear length measurements with biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length were evaluated.Ear length measurements were obtained from fetuses in 389 normal singleton pregnancies ranging between 16 and 28 weeks of gestation. Results: A nomogram was developed by linear regression analysis of the parameters ear length and gestational age. Fetal ear length (mm) = y = (1.348 X gestational age)−12.265), where gestational ages is in weeks. A high correlation was found between fetal ear length and gestational age, and a significant correlation was also found between fetal ear length and the biparietal diameter (r=0.962; p<0.001). Similar correlations were found between fetal ear length and head circumference, and fetal ear length and femur length. Conclusion: The results of this study provide a nomogram for fetal ear length. The study also demonstrates the relationship between ear length and other biometric measurements. PMID:25667783

  1. Prevalence of external ear disorders in Belgian stray cats.

    PubMed

    Bollez, Anouck; de Rooster, Hilde; Furcas, Alessandra; Vandenabeele, Sophie

    2018-02-01

    Objectives Feline otitis externa is a multifactorial dermatological disorder about which very little is known. The objective of this study was to map the prevalence of external ear canal disorders and the pathogens causing otitis externa in stray cats roaming around the region of Ghent, Belgium. Methods One hundred and thirty stray cats were randomly selected during a local trap-neuter-return programme. All cats were European Shorthairs. This study included clinical, otoscopic and cytological evaluation of both external ears of each cat. Prospective data used as parameters in this study included the sex, age and body condition score of each cat, as well as the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge, and the results of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) Snap tests. Results Remarkably, very few (sub)clinical problems of the external ear canal were found in the stray cat population. Malassezia species was by far the most common organism found in the external ear canals of the 130 stray cats. A total of 96/130 (74%) cats were found to have Malassezia species organisms present in one or both ears based on the cytological examination. No correlation was found between the parameters of sex, age, body condition score, the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge and FIV and FeLV status, and the presence of parasites, bacteria or yeasts. Conclusions and relevance This study provides more information about the normal state of the external ear canal of stray cats. The ears of most stray cats are relatively healthy. The presence of Malassezia species organisms in the external ear canal is not rare among stray cats.

  2. Magnetic Nanoparticles as Mechanical Actuators of Inner Ear Hair Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-13

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0039 Magnetic nanoparticles as mechanical actuators of inner ear hair cells Dolores Bozovic UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Magnetic nanoparticles as mechanical actuators of inner ear hair cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N.A. 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The collaborative project was designed to edevelop the use of magnetic nanoparticles to manipulate auditory hair

  3. Prominent ears and their correction: a forty-year experience.

    PubMed

    Georgiade, G S; Riefkohl, R; Georgiade, N G

    1995-01-01

    The technique described in this article correcting the protruding ear deformity has evolved over 40 years. The original procedures and our subsequent modifications are described, including 20-year followup results. The possible pitfalls in carrying out this procedure and how to avoid them are also described. A relatively standardized short procedure with minimal morbidity and maximum long-term results yields an aesthetically satisfactory looking ear.

  4. A break-even analysis of major ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Wasson, J D; Phillips, J S

    2015-10-01

    To determine variables which affect cost and profit for major ear surgery and perform a break-even analysis. Retrospective financial analysis. UK teaching hospital. Patients who underwent major ear surgery under general anaesthesia performed by the senior author in main theatre over a 2-year period between dates of 07 September 2010 and 07 September 2012. Income, cost and profit for each major ear patient spell. Variables that affect major ear surgery profitability. Seventy-six patients met inclusion criteria. Wide variation in earnings, with a median net loss of £-1345.50 was observed. Income was relatively uniform across all patient spells; however, theatre time of major ear surgery at a cost of £953.24 per hour varied between patients and was the main determinant of cost and profit for the patient spell. Bivariate linear regression of earnings on theatre time identified 94% of variation in earnings was due to variation in theatre time (r = -0.969; P < 0.0001) and derived a break-even time for major ear surgery of 110.6 min. Theatre time was dependent on complexity of procedure and number of OPCS4 procedures performed, with a significant increase in theatre time when three or more procedures were performed during major ear surgery (P = 0.015). For major ear surgery to either break-even or return a profit, total theatre time should not exceed 110 min and 36 s. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Brain regions underlying word finding difficulties in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Trebuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnes; Guedj, Eric; Alario, F-Xavier; Laguitton, Virginie; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2009-10-01

    Word finding difficulties are often reported by epileptic patients with seizures originating from the language dominant cerebral hemisphere, for example, in temporal lobe epilepsy. Evidence regarding the brain regions underlying this deficit comes from studies of peri-operative electro-cortical stimulation, as well as post-surgical performance. This evidence has highlighted a role for the anterior part of the dominant temporal lobe in oral word production. These conclusions contrast with findings from activation studies involving healthy speakers or acute ischaemic stroke patients, where the region most directly related to word retrieval appears to be the posterior part of the left temporal lobe. To clarify the neural basis of word retrieval in temporal lobe epilepsy, we tested forty-three drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy patients (28 left, 15 right). Comprehensive neuropsychological and language assessments were performed. Single spoken word production was elicited with picture or definition stimuli. Detailed analysis allowed the distinction of impaired word retrieval from other possible causes of naming failure. Finally, the neural substrate of the deficit was assessed by correlating word retrieval performance and resting-state brain metabolism in 18 fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-Positron Emission Tomography. Naming difficulties often resulted from genuine word retrieval failures (anomic states), both in picture and in definition tasks. Left temporal lobe epilepsy patients showed considerably worse performance than right temporal lobe epilepsy patients. Performance was poorer in the definition than in the picture task. Across patients and the left temporal lobe epilepsy subgroup, frequency of anomic state was negatively correlated with resting-state brain metabolism in left posterior and basal temporal regions (Brodmann's area 20-37-39). These results show the involvement of posterior temporal regions, within a larger antero-posterior-basal temporal network, in

  6. Lumped parametric model of the human ear for sound transmission.

    PubMed

    Feng, Bin; Gan, Rong Z

    2004-09-01

    A lumped parametric model of the human auditoria peripherals consisting of six masses suspended with six springs and ten dashpots was proposed. This model will provide the quantitative basis for the construction of a physical model of the human middle ear. The lumped model parameters were first identified using published anatomical data, and then determined through a parameter optimization process. The transfer function of the middle ear obtained from human temporal bone experiments with laser Doppler interferometers was used for creating the target function during the optimization process. It was found that, among 14 spring and dashpot parameters, there were five parameters which had pronounced effects on the dynamic behaviors of the model. The detailed discussion on the sensitivity of those parameters was provided with appropriate applications for sound transmission in the ear. We expect that the methods for characterizing the lumped model of the human ear and the model parameters will be useful for theoretical modeling of the ear function and construction of the ear physical model.

  7. KGFR as a possible therapeutic target in middle ear cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Fukuda, Tomomi; Akiyama, Naotaro; Shibata, Yasuaki; Takahashi, Haruo; Ikeda, Tohru; Kohno, Michiaki; Koji, Takehiko

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrated that repression of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) receptor (KGFR) could be a potentially useful strategy in the conservative treatment of middle ear cholesteatoma. Recently, the use of a selective inhibitor of the KGFR, SU5402, in an in vitro experiment resulted in the inhibition of the differentiation and proliferation of epithelial cells through KGF secretion by fibroblasts isolated from the cholesteatoma. In this study, we investigated the effects of the KGFR inhibitor during middle ear cholesteatoma formation in vivo. Based on the role of KGF in the development of cholesteatoma, Flag-hKGF cDNA driven by CMV14 promoter was transfected through electroporation into the external auditory canal of rats five times on every fourth day. Ears transfected with empty vector were used as controls. KGFR selective inhibitor (SU5402) or MEK inhibitor (PD0325901) was administered in the right ear of five rats after vector transfection. In the control, 2% DMSO in PBS was administered in the other ears after vector transfection. The use of a selective KGFR inhibitor, SU5402, completely prevented middle ear cholesteatoma formation in the rats.

  8. Development of a finite element model of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Williams, K R; Blayney, A W; Rice, H J

    1996-01-01

    A representative finite element model of the healthy ear is developed commencing with a description of the decoupled isotropic tympanic membrane. This model was shown to vibrate in a manner similar to that found both numerically (1, 2) and experimentally (8). The introduction of a fibre system into the membrane matrix significantly altered the modes of vibration. The first mode "remains as a piston like movement as for the isotropic membrane. However, higher modes show a simpler vibration pattern similar to the second mode but with a varying axis of movement and lower amplitudes. The introduction of a malleus and incus does not change the natural frequencies or mode shapes of the membrane for certain support conditions. When constraints are imposed along the ossicular chain by simulation of a cochlear impedance term then significantly altered modes can occur. More recently a revised model of the ear has been developed by the inclusion of the outer ear canal. This discretisation uses geometries extracted from a Nuclear Magnetic resonance scan of a healthy subject and a crude inner ear model using stiffness parameters ultimately fixed through a parameter tuning process. The subsequently tuned model showed behaviour consistent with previous findings and should provide a good basis for subsequent modelling of diseased ears and assessment of the performance of middle ear prostheses.

  9. Continuous 24-hour measurement of middle ear pressure.

    PubMed

    Tideholm, B; Jönsson, S; Carlborg, B; Welinder, R; Grenner, J

    1996-07-01

    A new method was developed for continuous measurement of the middle ear pressure during a 24-h period. The equipment consisted of a piezo-electric pressure device and a digital memory. To allow continuous pressure recordings during normal every-day activities the equipment was made light and portable. The measurement accuracy of the equipment as well as the base-line and temperature stability were tested and found to meet to our requirements satisfactorily. In 4 volunteers with different middle ear conditions, a small perforation was made through the tympanic membrane. A rubber stopper containing a small polyethylene tube was fitted into the external ear canal. Tubal function tests were made to establish the equipment's ability to monitor fast pressure changes. The tests were well in accordance with other methods of direct pressure measurements. The equipment was carried by the volunteers for 24 h to monitor any slow or rapid dynamic pressure changes in the middle ear. Four continuous 24-h measurements are presented. The method was found to be suitable for valid measurements of dynamic pressure changes in the middle ear during normal every-day activities. It may become a useful instrument in the search for a better understanding of the development of chronic middle ear disease.

  10. Vitamin D receptor deficiency impairs inner ear development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye-Joo

    2016-09-16

    The biological actions of vitamin D are largely mediated through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, which regulates gene expression in a wide variety of tissues and cells. Mutations in VDR gene have been implicated in ear disorders (hearing loss and balance disorder) but the mechanisms are not well established. In this study, to investigate the role of VDR in inner ear development, morpholino-mediated gene knockdown approaches were used in zebrafish model system. Two paralogs for VDR, vdra and vdrb, have been identified in zebrafish. Knockdown of vdra had no effect on ear development, whereas knockdown of vdrb displayed morphological ear defects including smaller otic vesicles with malformed semicircular canals and abnormal otoliths. Loss-of-vdrb resulted in down-regulation of pre-otic markers, pax8 and pax2a, indicating impairment of otic induction. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos lacking vdrb produced fewer sensory hair cells in the ears and showed disruption of balance and motor coordination. These data reveal that VDR signaling plays an important role in ear development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Revisiting gender, race, and ear differences in peripheral auditory function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boothalingam, Sriram; Klyn, Niall A. M.; Stiepan, Samantha M.; Wilson, Uzma S.; Lee, Jungwha; Siegel, Jonathan H.; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2018-05-01

    Various measures of auditory function are reported to be superior in females as compared to males, in African American compared to Caucasian individuals, and in right compared to left ears. We re-examined the influence of these subject variables on hearing thresholds and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) in a sample of 887 human participants between 10 and 68 years of age. Even though the variables of interest here have been examined before, previous attempts have largely been limited to frequencies up to 8 kHz. We used state-of-the-art signal delivery and recording techniques that compensated for individual differences in ear canal acoustics, allowing us to measure hearing thresholds and OAEs up to 20 kHz. The use of these modern calibration and recording techniques provided the motivation for re-examining these commonly studied variables. While controlling for age, noise exposure history, and general health history, we attempted to isolate the effects of gender, race, and ear (left versus right) on hearing thresholds and OAEs. Our results challenge the notion of a right ear advantage and question the existence of a significant gender and race differences in both hearing thresholds and OAE levels. These results suggest that ear canal anatomy and acoustics should be important considerations when evaluating the influence of gender, race, and ear on peripheral auditory function.

  12. Sound pressure gain produced by the human middle ear.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, H; Goode, R L

    1995-10-01

    The acoustic function of the middle ear is to match sound passing from the low impedance of air to the high impedance of cochlear fluid. Little information is available on the actual middle ear pressure gain in human beings. This article describes experiments on middle ear pressure gain in six fresh human temporal bones. Stapes footplate displacement and phase were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer before and after removal of the tympanic membrane, malleus, and incus. Acoustic insulation of the round window with clay was performed. Umbo displacement was also measured before tympanic membrane removal to assess baseline tympanic membrane function. The middle ear has its major gain in the lower frequencies, with a peak near 0.9 kHz. The mean gain was 23.0 dB below 1.0 kHz, the resonant frequency of the middle ear; the mean peak gain was 26.6 dB. Above 1.0 kHz, the second pressure gain decreased at a rate of -8.6 dB/octave, with a mean gain of 6.5 dB at 4.0 kHz. Only a small amount of gain was present above 7.0 kHz. Significant individual differences in pressure gain were found between ears that appeared related to variations in tympanic membrane function and not to variations in cochlear impedance.

  13. Alternative splicing of inner-ear-expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanfei; Liu, Yueyue; Nie, Hongyun; Ma, Xin; Xu, Zhigang

    2016-09-01

    Alternative splicing plays a fundamental role in the development and physiological function of the inner ear. Inner-ear-specific gene splicing is necessary to establish the identity and maintain the function of the inner ear. For example, exon 68 of Cadherin 23 (Cdh23) gene is subject to inner-ear-specific alternative splicing, and as a result, Cdh23(+ 68) is only expressed in inner ear hair cells. Alternative splicing along the tonotopic axis of the cochlea contributes to frequency tuning, particularly in lower vertebrates, such as chickens and turtles. Differential splicing of Kcnma1, which encodes for the α subunit of the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (BK channel), has been suggested to affect the channel gating properties and is important for frequency tuning. Consequently, deficits in alternative splicing have been shown to cause hearing loss, as we can observe in Bronx Waltzer (bv) mice and Sfswap mutant mice. Despite the advances in this field, the regulation of alternative splicing in the inner ear remains elusive. Further investigation is also needed to clarify the mechanism of hearing loss caused by alternative splicing deficits.

  14. Inner ear test battery in guinea pig models - a review.

    PubMed

    Young, Yi-Ho

    2018-06-01

    This study reviewed the development of the inner ear test battery comprising auditory brainstem response (ABR), and caloric, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) tests in guinea pig models at our laboratory over the last 20 years. Detailed description of the methodology for testing the small animals is also included. Inner ear disorders, i.e. ototoxicity, noise exposure, or perilymph fistula were established in guinea pig models first. One to four weeks after operation, each animal underwent ABR, oVEMP, cVEMP, and caloric tests. Then, animals were sacrificed for morphological study in the temporal bones. Inner ear endorgans can be comprehensively evaluated in guinea pig models via an inner ear test battery, which provides thorough information on the cochlea, saccule, utricle, and semicircular canal function of guinea pigs. Coupled with morphological study in the temporal bones of the animals may help elucidate the mechanism of inner ear disorders in humans. The inner ear test battery in guinea pig models may encourage young researchers to perform basic study in animals and stimulate the progress of experimental otology which is in evolution.

  15. Auditory Brainstem Circuits That Mediate the Middle Ear Muscle Reflex

    PubMed Central

    Mukerji, Sudeep; Windsor, Alanna Marie; Lee, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    The middle ear muscle (MEM) reflex is one of two major descending systems to the auditory periphery. There are two middle ear muscles (MEMs): the stapedius and the tensor tympani. In man, the stapedius contracts in response to intense low frequency acoustic stimuli, exerting forces perpendicular to the stapes superstructure, increasing middle ear impedance and attenuating the intensity of sound energy reaching the inner ear (cochlea). The tensor tympani is believed to contract in response to self-generated noise (chewing, swallowing) and nonauditory stimuli. The MEM reflex pathways begin with sound presented to the ear. Transduction of sound occurs in the cochlea, resulting in an action potential that is transmitted along the auditory nerve to the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem (the first relay station for all ascending sound information originating in the ear). Unknown interneurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus project either directly or indirectly to MEM motoneurons located elsewhere in the brainstem. Motoneurons provide efferent innervation to the MEMs. Although the ascending and descending limbs of these reflex pathways have been well characterized, the identity of the reflex interneurons is not known, as are the source of modulatory inputs to these pathways. The aim of this article is to (a) provide an overview of MEM reflex anatomy and physiology, (b) present new data on MEM reflex anatomy and physiology from our laboratory and others, and (c) describe the clinical implications of our research. PMID:20870664

  16. Minnesota wolf ear lengths as possible indicators of taxonomic differences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Genetic findings suggest that 2 types of wolves, Canis lupus (Gray Wolf) and C. lycaon (Eastern Wolf), and/or their hybrids occupy Minnesota (MN), and this study examines adult wolf ear lengths as a possible distinguisher between these two. Photographic evidence suggested that the Eastern Wolf possesses proportionately longer ears than Gray Wolves. Ear lengths from 22 northwestern MN wolves from the early 1970s and 22 Alaskan wolves were used to represent Gray Wolves, and the greatest length of the sample (12.8 cm) was used as the least length to demarcate Eastern Wolf from Gray Wolf influence in the samples. Twenty-three percent of 112 adult wolves from Algonquin Park in eastern Ontario and 30% of 106 recent adult wolves in northeastern MN possessed ears >12.8 cm. The northeastern MN sample differed significantly from that of current and past northwestern MN wolves. Ear-lengths of wolves in the eastern half of the northeastern MN wolf population were significantly longer than those in the western half of that study area, even though the mean distance between the 2 areas was only 40 km, and the mean length of my 2004–2009 sample was significantly longer than that of 1999–2003. These findings support the hypothesis that Eastern Wolves tend to possess longer ears than do Gray Wolves and suggest a dynamic hybridization process is still underway in MN.

  17. Quantifying interictal metabolic activity in human temporal lobe epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, T.R.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Engel, J. Jr.

    1990-09-01

    The majority of patients with complex partial seizures of unilateral temporal lobe origin have interictal temporal hypometabolism on (18F)fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) studies. Often, this hypometabolism extends to ipsilateral extratemporal sites. The use of accurately quantified metabolic data has been limited by the absence of an equally reliable method of anatomical analysis of PET images. We developed a standardized method for visual placement of anatomically configured regions of interest on FDG PET studies, which is particularly adapted to the widespread, asymmetric, and often severe interictal metabolic alterations of temporal lobe epilepsy. This method was applied by a singlemore » investigator, who was blind to the identity of subjects, to 10 normal control and 25 interictal temporal lobe epilepsy studies. All subjects had normal brain anatomical volumes on structural neuroimaging studies. The results demonstrate ipsilateral thalamic and temporal lobe involvement in the interictal hypometabolism of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy. Ipsilateral frontal, parietal, and basal ganglial metabolism is also reduced, although not as markedly as is temporal and thalamic metabolism.« less

  18. Seizure semiology identifies patients with bilateral temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Loesch, Anna Mira; Feddersen, Berend; Tezer, F Irsel; Hartl, Elisabeth; Rémi, Jan; Vollmar, Christian; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2015-01-01

    Laterality in temporal lobe epilepsy is usually defined by EEG and imaging results. We investigated whether the analysis of seizure semiology including lateralizing seizure phenomena identifies bilateral independent temporal lobe seizure onset. We investigated the seizure semiology in 17 patients in whom invasive EEG-video-monitoring documented bilateral temporal seizure onset. The results were compared to 20 left and 20 right consecutive temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients who were seizure free after anterior temporal lobe resection. The seizure semiology was analyzed using the semiological seizure classification with particular emphasis on the sequence of seizure phenomena over time and lateralizing seizure phenomena. Statistical analysis included chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Bitemporal lobe epilepsy patients had more frequently different seizure semiology (100% vs. 40%; p<0.001) and significantly more often lateralizing seizure phenomena pointing to bilateral seizure onset compared to patients with unilateral TLE (67% vs. 11%; p<0.001). The sensitivity of identical vs. different seizure semiology for the identification of bilateral TLE was high (100%) with a specificity of 60%. Lateralizing seizure phenomena had a low sensitivity (59%) but a high specificity (89%). The combination of lateralizing seizure phenomena and different seizure semiology showed a high specificity (94%) but a low sensitivity (59%). The analysis of seizure semiology including lateralizing seizure phenomena adds important clinical information to identify patients with bilateral TLE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Epilepsy in multiple sclerosis: The role of temporal lobe damage.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, M; Castellaro, M; Bertoldo, A; De Luca, A; Pizzini, F B; Ricciardi, G K; Pitteri, M; Zimatore, S; Magliozzi, R; Benedetti, M D; Manganotti, P; Montemezzi, S; Reynolds, R; Gajofatto, A; Monaco, S

    2017-03-01

    Although temporal lobe pathology may explain some of the symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), its role in the pathogenesis of seizures has not been clarified yet. To investigate the role of temporal lobe damage in MS patients suffering from epilepsy, by the application of advanced multimodal 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis. A total of 23 relapsing remitting MS patients who had epileptic seizures (RRMS/E) and 23 disease duration matched RRMS patients without any history of seizures were enrolled. Each patient underwent advanced 3T MRI protocol specifically conceived to evaluate grey matter (GM) damage. This includes grey matter lesions (GMLs) identification, evaluation of regional cortical thickness and indices derived from the Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging model. Regional analysis revealed that in RRMS/E, the regions most affected by GMLs were the hippocampus (14.2%), the lateral temporal lobe (13.5%), the cingulate (10.0%) and the insula (8.4%). Cortical thinning and alteration of diffusion metrics were observed in several regions of temporal lobe, in insular cortex and in cingulate gyrus of RRMS/E compared to RRMS ( p< 0.05 for all comparisons). Compared to RRMS, RRMS/E showed more severe damage of temporal lobe, which exceeds what would be expected on the basis of the global GM damage observed.

  20. Neuropsychological deficits in temporal lobe epilepsy: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fengqing; Kang, Hai; You, LIbo; Rastogi, Priyanka; Venkatesh, D.; Chandra, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most prevalent form of complex partial seizures with temporal lobe origin of electrical abnormality. Studies have shown that recurrent seizures affect all aspects of cognitive functioning, including memory, language, praxis, executive functions, and social judgment, among several others. In this article, we will review these cognitive impairments along with their neuropathological correlates in a comprehensive manner. We will see that neuropsychological deficits are prevalent in TLE. Much of the effort has been laid on memory due to the notion that temporal lobe brain structures involved in TLE play a central role in consolidating information into memory. It seems that damage to the mesial structure of the temporal lobe, particularly the amygdale and hippocampus, has the main role in these memory difficulties and the neurobiological plausibility of the role of the temporal lobe in different aspects of memory. Here, we will cover the sub-domains of working memory and episodic memory deficits. This is we will further proceed to evaluate the evidences of executive function deficits in TLE and will see that set-shifting among other EFs is specifically affected in TLE as is social cognition. Finally, critical components of language related deficits are also found in the form of word-finding difficulties. To conclude, TLE affects several of cognitive function domains, but the etiopathogenesis of all these dysfunctions remain elusive. Further well-designed studies are needed for a better understanding of these disorders. PMID:25506156

  1. Lateralising value of experiential hallucinations in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Heydrich, Lukas; Marillier, Guillaume; Evans, Nathan; Blanke, Olaf; Seeck, Margitta

    2015-11-01

    Ever since John Hughlings Jackson first described the so-called 'dreamy state' during temporal lobe epilepsy, that is, the sense of an abnormal familiarity (déjà vu) or vivid memory-like hallucinations from the past (experiential hallucinations), these phenomena have been studied and repeatedly linked to mesial temporal lobe structures. However, little is known about the lateralising value of either déjà vu or experiential hallucinations. We analysed a sample of 28 patients with intractable focal epilepsy suffering from either déjà vu or experiential hallucinations. All the patients underwent thorough presurgical examination, including MRI, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission CT, EEG and neuropsychological examination. While déjà vu was due to right or left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, experiential hallucinations were strongly lateralised to the left mesial temporal lobe. Moreover, there was a significant effect for interictal language deficits being more frequent in patients suffering from experiential hallucinations. These results suggest a lateralising value for experiential hallucinations to the left temporal lobe. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Temporal order processing of syllables in the left parietal lobe.

    PubMed

    Moser, Dana; Baker, Julie M; Sanchez, Carmen E; Rorden, Chris; Fridriksson, Julius

    2009-10-07

    Speech processing requires the temporal parsing of syllable order. Individuals suffering from posterior left hemisphere brain injury often exhibit temporal processing deficits as well as language deficits. Although the right posterior inferior parietal lobe has been implicated in temporal order judgments (TOJs) of visual information, there is limited evidence to support the role of the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) in processing syllable order. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the left inferior parietal lobe is recruited during temporal order judgments of speech stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected on 14 normal participants while they completed the following forced-choice tasks: (1) syllable order of multisyllabic pseudowords, (2) syllable identification of single syllables, and (3) gender identification of both multisyllabic and monosyllabic speech stimuli. Results revealed increased neural recruitment in the left inferior parietal lobe when participants made judgments about syllable order compared with both syllable identification and gender identification. These findings suggest that the left inferior parietal lobe plays an important role in processing syllable order and support the hypothesized role of this region as an interface between auditory speech and the articulatory code. Furthermore, a breakdown in this interface may explain some components of the speech deficits observed after posterior damage to the left hemisphere.

  3. Temporal Order Processing of Syllables in the Left Parietal Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Julie M.; Sanchez, Carmen E.; Rorden, Chris; Fridriksson, Julius

    2009-01-01

    Speech processing requires the temporal parsing of syllable order. Individuals suffering from posterior left hemisphere brain injury often exhibit temporal processing deficits as well as language deficits. Although the right posterior inferior parietal lobe has been implicated in temporal order judgments (TOJs) of visual information, there is limited evidence to support the role of the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) in processing syllable order. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the left inferior parietal lobe is recruited during temporal order judgments of speech stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected on 14 normal participants while they completed the following forced-choice tasks: (1) syllable order of multisyllabic pseudowords, (2) syllable identification of single syllables, and (3) gender identification of both multisyllabic and monosyllabic speech stimuli. Results revealed increased neural recruitment in the left inferior parietal lobe when participants made judgments about syllable order compared with both syllable identification and gender identification. These findings suggest that the left inferior parietal lobe plays an important role in processing syllable order and support the hypothesized role of this region as an interface between auditory speech and the articulatory code. Furthermore, a breakdown in this interface may explain some components of the speech deficits observed after posterior damage to the left hemisphere. PMID:19812331

  4. Donor site reconstitution for ear reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fattah, Adel; Sebire, Neil J; Bulstrode, Neil W

    2010-09-01

    Current techniques of autologous ear reconstruction involve the soft tissue coverage of a carved costal cartilage framework. However, assessment of the morbidity associated with this donor site has been little documented. This study describes a method to reconstruct the defect and analyses the outcomes with or without donor site reconstitution. The donor site was reconstituted by wrapping morcelised cartilage in a vicryl mesh. Twenty-one patients with reconstitution and nine without were recruited to the study. Scar quality and length, dimensions of donor defect and visible deformity were recorded according to a modified Vancouver scar scale. Patients were also assessed by the SF36 questionnaire, a well-validated health survey. In a subset of our study group, we assessed the fate of the donor site reconstitution by direct visualisation in situ and histological analysis. Fifteen donor sites of patients without donor site reconstitution were compared to 23 reconstructed donor sites. In those without, all had a palpable defect with nearly half exhibiting visible chest deformity. In contrast, those that had rib reconstitution did not demonstrate significant chest wall deformity. Intraoperative examination demonstrated formation of a neo-rib, histologically proven to comprise hyaline cartilage admixed with fibrous tissue. Analysis of SF36 results showed a higher satisfaction in the reconstituted group, but in both groups, the donor site was of little overall morbidity. Although there is little difference between the groups in terms of subjectively perceived benefit, rib reconstitution is objectively associated with better costal margin contour and less chest wall deformity. Copyright 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Finite-Element Modelling of the Acoustic Input Admittance of the Newborn Ear Canal and Middle Ear.

    PubMed

    Motallebzadeh, Hamid; Maftoon, Nima; Pitaro, Jacob; Funnell, W Robert J; Daniel, Sam J

    2017-02-01

    Admittance measurement is a promising tool for evaluating the status of the middle ear in newborns. However, the newborn ear is anatomically very different from the adult one, and the acoustic input admittance is different than in adults. To aid in understanding the differences, a finite-element model of the newborn ear canal and middle ear was developed and its behaviour was studied for frequencies up to 2000 Hz. Material properties were taken from previous measurements and estimates. The simulation results were within the range of clinical admittance measurements made in newborns. Sensitivity analyses of the material properties show that in the canal model, the maximum admittance and the frequency at which that maximum admittance occurs are affected mainly by the stiffness parameter; in the middle-ear model, the damping is as important as the stiffness in influencing the maximum admittance magnitude but its effect on the corresponding frequency is negligible. Scaling up the geometries increases the admittance magnitude and shifts the resonances to lower frequencies. The results suggest that admittance measurements can provide more information about the condition of the middle ear when made at multiple frequencies around its resonance.

  6. Fumonisin B(1)-nonproducing strains of Fusarium verticillioides cause maize (Zea mays) ear infection and ear rot.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, A E; Plattner, R D

    2000-11-01

    Fumonisins are polyketide mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides (synonym F. moniliforme), a major pathogen of maize (Zea mays) worldwide. Most field strains produce high levels of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) and low levels of the less-oxygenated homologues FB(2) and FB(3), but fumonisin B(1)-nonproducing field strains have been obtained by natural variation. To test the role of various fumonisins in pathogenesis on maize under field conditions, one strain producing FB(1), FB(2), and FB(3), one strain producing only FB(2), one strain producing only FB(3), and one fumonisin-nonproducing strain were applied to ears via the silk channel and on seeds at planting. Disease severity on the harvested ears was evaluated by visible symptoms and by weight percent symptomatic kernels. Fumonisin levels in kernels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The presence of the applied FB(1)-nonproducing strains in kernels was determined by analysis of recovered strains for fumonisin production and other traits. All three FB(1)-nonproducing strains were able to infect ears following either silk-channel application or seed application at planting and were as effective as the FB(1)-producing strain in causing ear rot following silk-channel application. These results indicate that production of FB(1), FB(2), or FB(3) is not required for F. verticillioides to cause maize ear infection and ear rot.

  7. Atypical language representation in children with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Maulisova, Alice; Korman, Brandon; Rey, Gustavo; Bernal, Byron; Duchowny, Michael; Niederlova, Marketa; Krsek, Pavel; Novak, Vilem

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated language organization in children with intractable epilepsy caused by temporal lobe focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) alone or dual pathology (temporal lobe FCD and hippocampal sclerosis, HS). We analyzed clinical, neurological, fMRI, neuropsychological, and histopathologic data in 46 pediatric patients with temporal lobe lesions who underwent excisional epilepsy surgery. The frequency of atypical language representation was similar in both groups, but children with dual pathology were more likely to be left-handed. Atypical receptive language cortex correlated with lower intellectual capacity, verbal abstract conceptualization, receptive language abilities, verbal working memory, and a history of status epilepticus but did not correlate with higher seizure frequency or early seizure onset. Histopathologic substrate had only a minor influence on neuropsychological status. Greater verbal comprehension deficits were noted in children with atypical receptive language representation, a risk factor for cognitive morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Altered cortical anatomical networks in temporal lobe epilepsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Bin; He, Huiguang; Lu, Jingjing; Li, Wenjing; Dai, Dai; Li, Meng; Jin, Zhengyu

    2011-03-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most common epilepsy syndromes with focal seizures generated in the left or right temporal lobes. With the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), many evidences have demonstrated that the abnormalities in hippocampal volume and the distributed atrophies in cortical cortex. However, few studies have investigated if TLE patients have the alternation in the structural networks. In the present study, we used the cortical thickness to establish the morphological connectivity networks, and investigated the network properties using the graph theoretical methods. We found that all the morphological networks exhibited the small-world efficiency in left TLE, right TLE and normal groups. And the betweenness centrality analysis revealed that there were statistical inter-group differences in the right uncus region. Since the right uncus located at the right temporal lobe, these preliminary evidences may suggest that there are topological alternations of the cortical anatomical networks in TLE, especially for the right TLE.

  9. Thalamotemporal alteration and postoperative seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Mark P.; Schoene‐Bake, Jan‐Christoph; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Elkommos, Samia; Kreilkamp, Barbara; Goh, Yee Yen; Marson, Anthony G.; Elger, Christian; Weber, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Objective There are competing explanations for persistent postoperative seizures after temporal lobe surgery. One is that 1 or more particular subtypes of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) exist that are particularly resistant to surgery. We sought to identify a common brain structural and connectivity alteration in patients with persistent postoperative seizures using preoperative quantitative magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods We performed a series of studies in 87 patients with mTLE (47 subsequently rendered seizure free, 40 who continued to experience postoperative seizures) and 80 healthy controls. We investigated the relationship between imaging variables and postoperative seizure outcome. All patients had unilateral temporal lobe seizure onset, had ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis as the only brain lesion, and underwent amygdalohippocampectomy. Results Quantitative imaging factors found not to be significantly associated with persistent seizures were volumes of ipsilateral and contralateral mesial temporal lobe structures, generalized brain atrophy, and extent of resection. There were nonsignificant trends for larger amygdala and entorhinal resections to be associated with improved outcome. However, patients with persistent seizures had significant atrophy of bilateral dorsomedial and pulvinar thalamic regions, and significant alterations of DTI‐derived thalamotemporal probabilistic paths bilaterally relative to those patients rendered seizure free and controls, even when corrected for extent of mesial temporal lobe resection. Interpretation Patients with bihemispheric alterations of thalamotemporal structural networks may represent a subtype of mTLE that is resistant to temporal lobe surgery. Increasingly sensitive multimodal imaging techniques should endeavor to transform these group‐based findings to individualize prediction of patient outcomes. Ann Neurol 2015;77:760–774 PMID:25627477

  10. Astrocyte uncoupling as a cause of human temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Bedner, Peter; Dupper, Alexander; Hüttmann, Kerstin; Müller, Julia; Herde, Michel K; Dublin, Pavel; Deshpande, Tushar; Schramm, Johannes; Häussler, Ute; Haas, Carola A; Henneberger, Christian; Theis, Martin; Steinhäuser, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Glial cells are now recognized as active communication partners in the central nervous system, and this new perspective has rekindled the question of their role in pathology. In the present study we analysed functional properties of astrocytes in hippocampal specimens from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy without (n = 44) and with sclerosis (n = 75) combining patch clamp recording, K(+) concentration analysis, electroencephalography/video-monitoring, and fate mapping analysis. We found that the hippocampus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis is completely devoid of bona fide astrocytes and gap junction coupling, whereas coupled astrocytes were abundantly present in non-sclerotic specimens. To decide whether these glial changes represent cause or effect of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis, we developed a mouse model that reproduced key features of human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis. In this model, uncoupling impaired K(+) buffering and temporally preceded apoptotic neuronal death and the generation of spontaneous seizures. Uncoupling was induced through intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide, prevented in Toll-like receptor4 knockout mice and reproduced in situ through acute cytokine or lipopolysaccharide incubation. Fate mapping confirmed that in the course of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis, astrocytes acquire an atypical functional phenotype and lose coupling. These data suggest that astrocyte dysfunction might be a prime cause of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with sclerosis and identify novel targets for anti-epileptogenic therapeutic intervention. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Postencephalitic focal retrograde amnesia after bilateral anterior temporal lobe damage.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Y; Miyazawa, Y; Hashimoto, R; Nakano, I; Obayashi, T

    1999-07-22

    Marked retrograde amnesia with no or almost no anterograde amnesia is rare. Recently, a combination of ventrolateral prefrontal and temporopolar cortical lesions has been suggested as the cause of such isolated or focal retrograde amnesia. It is also assumed that when the right-sided cortical structures are damaged, autobiographical episodic memories are affected. To search for new anatomic substrates for focal retrograde amnesia. We performed extensive neuropsychological tests and obtained detailed neuroimages on a 43-year-old woman who showed a severe, persistent retrograde amnesia but only a limited anterograde amnesia after probable herpes simplex encephalitis. Tests of autobiographical memory revealed that she had a memory loss extending back to her childhood for both semantics and incidents; however, the ability to recall specific episodes appeared much more severely impaired than the ability to recall factual information about her past. The patient also showed profound impairments in recalling public memories; however, her scores improved nearly to a control level on forced-choice recognition memory tasks, although the recall of memories for a decade just before her illness remained mildly impaired. MRI revealed focal pathologies in the temporal poles and the anterior parts of the inferotemporal lobes on both sides, predominantly on the left, with some extension to the anterior parts of the medial temporal lobes. There was additional damage to the left insular cortex and its surrounding structures but no evidence of frontal lobe damage on MRIs or cognitive tests. A profound retrograde amnesia may be produced by damage to the bilateral temporal poles and anterior inferotemporal lobes in the absence of frontal lobe pathologies, and a dense and persistent episodic old memory loss can arise even with a relatively small lesion in the right anterior temporal lobe if it is combined with extensive damage to the left.

  12. Determinants of brain metabolism changes in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Chassoux, Francine; Artiges, Eric; Semah, Franck; Desarnaud, Serge; Laurent, Agathe; Landre, Elisabeth; Gervais, Philippe; Devaux, Bertrand; Helal, Ourkia Badia

    2016-06-01

    To determine the main factors influencing metabolic changes in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) due to hippocampal sclerosis (HS). We prospectively studied 114 patients with MTLE (62 female; 60 left HS; 15- to 56-year-olds) with (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and correlated the results with the side of HS, structural atrophy, electroclinical features, gender, age at onset, epilepsy duration, and seizure frequency. Imaging processing was performed using statistical parametric mapping. Ipsilateral hypometabolism involved temporal (mesial structures, pole, and lateral cortex) and extratemporal areas including the insula, frontal lobe, perisylvian regions, and thalamus, more extensively in right HS (RHS). A relative increase of metabolism (hypermetabolism) was found in the nonepileptic temporal lobe and in posterior areas bilaterally. Voxel-based morphometry detected unilateral hippocampus atrophy and gray matter concentration decrease in both frontal lobes, more extensively in left HS (LHS). Regardless of the structural alterations, the topography of hypometabolism correlated strongly with the extent of epileptic networks (mesial, anterior-mesiolateral, widespread mesiolateral, and bitemporal according to the ictal spread), which were larger in RHS. Notably, widespread perisylvian and bitemporal hypometabolism was found only in RHS. Mirror hypermetabolism was grossly proportional to the hypometabolic areas, coinciding partly with the default mode network. Gender-related effect was significant mainly in the contralateral frontal lobe, in which metabolism was higher in female patients. Epilepsy duration correlated with the contralateral temporal metabolism, positively in LHS and negatively in RHS. Opposite results were found with age at onset. High seizure frequency correlated negatively with the contralateral metabolism in LHS. Epileptic networks, as assessed by electroclinical correlations, appear to be the main determinant of

  13. Radiosurgery in the Management of Intractable Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Peñagarícano, José; Serletis, Demitre

    2015-09-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) describes recurrent seizure activity originating from the depths of the temporal lobe. MTLE patients who fail two trials of medication now require testing for surgical candidacy at an epilepsy center. For these individuals, temporal lobectomy offers the greatest likelihood for seizure-freedom (up to 80-90%); unfortunately, this procedure remains largely underutilized. Moreover, for select patients unable to tolerate open surgery, novel techniques are emerging for selective ablation of the mesial temporal structures, including stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). We present here a review of SRS as a potential therapy for MTLE, when open surgery is not an option.

  14. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Katelyn E.; Robbins, Jesse; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1) assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2) determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3) owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810) were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness (‘nature vs nurture task’), found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392) provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its ‘natural’ state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410) is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others. PMID:27348817

  15. Retroauricular skin: a flaps bank for ear reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Cordova, A; D'Arpa, S; Pirrello, R; Giambona, C; Moschella, F

    2008-01-01

    The retroauricular skin has always been given much attention by the reconstructive surgeon for ear and face reconstruction because it is richly vascularised, as many anatomical investigations show, it is hidden behind the ear, its skin is very similar to that of ear and face. All these reasons make it an ideal donor site for ear reconstruction. The authors propose their own algorithm for reconstruction of every kind of anterior defects of the auricle with different Retroauricular Island Flaps (RIFs) based on the location and size of the defect developed over a 16 years single institution's experience with a series of 216 consecutive cases. 216 patients have undergone ear reconstruction with RIFs from 1999 to 2006. In 52 a Superior Pedicle RIF (SP-RIF) was used for defects of the upper half of the auricle. In 68 cases a Perforator RIF (P-RIF) was used for conchal reconstruction. In 96 cases an Inferior Pedicle RIF (IP-RIF) was used for reconstruction of nonmarginal and superficial marginal defects of the auricle. No flap failure was recorded. Excellent morphological reconstruction was obtained with these flaps with no sequealae at the donor site in terms of form and function. Only in the case of P-RIFs the sulcus becomes flat in its central part, but this has never affected the possibility of wearing spectacles. The SP-RIFs may sometimes show some signs of venous stasis that invariably resolve in the first two postoperative days. The retroauricular skin may be considered a flaps bank for ear reconstruction. It offers in fact a great variety of island flaps that are suitable for every kind of loss of substance of the ear, have a safe vascularisation, skin of similar colour and texture, are easy to harvest under local anaesthesia on an outpatient basis and cause no relevant morbidity at the donor site. Location and size of the defects lead the choice between the different types of RIFs.

  16. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions.

    PubMed

    Mills, Katelyn E; Robbins, Jesse; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-01-01

    Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1) assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2) determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3) owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810) were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness ('nature vs nurture task'), found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392) provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its 'natural' state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410) is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others.

  17. Two stage ear/microtia reconstruction using costal cartilage.

    PubMed

    Balaji, S M

    2015-01-01

    Reconstruction of Grade III microtia is a challenging entity in maxillofacial esthetic rehabilitation. Several advocacies and philosophies exist in this field. The aim of the manuscript is to present a single South Indian Experience with Ear reconstruction among South Indian Population. Retrospective analysis of unilateral Grade III microtia reconstruction was performed. Using a set of predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, the population was selected. Outcome measures in terms of the ear size, auriculocephalic angle, and the conchal depth were measured in the reconstructed and normal side. Descriptive statistics is presented. Twenty-four patients formed the study group and had undergone the classical two-stage reconstruction in a similar fashion. The mean ear size in normal side was 65.8 ± 2.8 mm whereas on the reconstructed side, it was 61.3 ± 5.8 mm. The center's technique achieved above 75% similarity as that of the other normal ear. The mean auriculocephalic angle was 44.6 ± 5.2° whereas for the surgically reconstructed ear, it was 41.9 ± 2.6°. Overall, in these patients, we achieved a 79.94% similarity of auriculocephalic angle in the reconstructed ear as compared to the normal auricle. The conchal depth was 19.2 ± 2.1 mm and 16.6 ± 1.9 mm for normal and reconstructed ear, respectively. In terms of conchal depth, the present study group showed an achievement of 82.88% of accuracy even after a prolonged follow-up. The center employs a classic two stage reconstruction with a customized prosthesis that helps to avoid the loss of projection geometry and minimizes adhesion, infection, and early loss of structural stability.

  18. Three-Dimensional Analysis of the Ear Morphology.

    PubMed

    Modabber, Ali; Galster, Helmut; Peters, Florian; Möhlhenrich, Stephan Christian; Kniha, Kristian; Knobe, Matthias; Hölzle, Frank; Ghassemi, Alireza

    2018-06-01

    For surgical treatment of the face, detailed surgical planning is necessary to avoid later unaesthetic results. Most of the studies in the literature concentrate on the ears' anatomy during childhood and adolescence. Nearly no study evaluates the anatomy of ears of people aged 50 or older. It was our aim to measure and evaluate the ear's anatomy in Caucasians between the ages of 21 and 65. Three-dimensional scans of 240 volunteers were taken. The subjects were divided into groups of males and females and each of them into three groups by age (21-35, 36-50, 51-65). Landmarks were placed in these scans. Distances, relations and angles between them were recorded. The distance between the subaurale and superaurale significantly increases (p < 0.001) during the aging process in males and females. Also, the width of the ear, measured between the preaurale and postaurale, significantly increased (p = 0.007) with advancing age. When the length of the ear is divided into four parts by anatomical landmarks, it extended the most in the lower quadrant with increasing subject age. The ear of Caucasians does not stop changing its shape during adulthood. Even after the body has stopped growing, the ear still does. With the measured values in this study, it should be possible for the surgeon to plan the operation in advance and achieve satisfactory aesthetic outcomes. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  19. Human ear detection in the thermal infrared spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abaza, Ayman; Bourlai, Thirimachos

    2012-06-01

    In this paper the problem of human ear detection in the thermal infrared (IR) spectrum is studied in order to illustrate the advantages and limitations of the most important steps of ear-based biometrics that can operate in day and night time environments. The main contributions of this work are two-fold: First, a dual-band database is assembled that consists of visible and thermal profile face images. The thermal data was collected using a high definition middle-wave infrared (3-5 microns) camera that is capable of acquiring thermal imprints of human skin. Second, a fully automated, thermal imaging based ear detection method is developed for real-time segmentation of human ears in either day or night time environments. The proposed method is based on Haar features forming a cascaded AdaBoost classifier (our modified version of the original Viola-Jones approach1 that was designed to be applied mainly in visible band images). The main advantage of the proposed method, applied on our profile face image data set collected in the thermal-band, is that it is designed to reduce the learning time required by the original Viola-Jones method from several weeks to several hours. Unlike other approaches reported in the literature, which have been tested but not designed to operate in the thermal band, our method yields a high detection accuracy that reaches ~ 91.5%. Further analysis on our data set yielded that: (a) photometric normalization techniques do not directly improve ear detection performance. However, when using a certain photometric normalization technique (CLAHE) on falsely detected images, the detection rate improved by ~ 4%; (b) the high detection accuracy of our method did not degrade when we lowered down the original spatial resolution of thermal ear images. For example, even after using one third of the original spatial resolution (i.e. ~ 20% of the original computational time) of the thermal profile face images, the high ear detection accuracy of our method

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of the inner ear in Meniere's disease.

    PubMed

    Pyykkö, Ilmari; Zou, Jing; Poe, Dennis; Nakashima, Tsutomu; Naganawa, Shinji

    2010-10-01

    Recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have made it possible to examine the compartments of the cochlea using gadolidium-chelate (GdC) as a contrast agent. As GdC loads into the perilymph space without entering the endolymph in healthy inner ears, the technique provides possibilities to visualize the different cochlear compartments and evaluate the integrity of the inner ear barriers. This critical review presents the recent advancements in the inner ear MRI technology, contrast agent application and the correlated ototoxicity study, and the uptake dynamics of GdC in the inner ear. GdC causes inflammation of the mucosa of the middle ear, but there are no reports or evidence of toxicity-related changes in vivo either in animals or in humans. Intravenously administered GdC reached the guinea pig cochlea about 10 minutes after administration and loaded the scala tympani and scala vestibuli with the peak at 60 minutes. However, the perilymphatic loading peak was 80 to 100 minutes in mice after intravenous administration of GdC. In healthy animals the scala media did not load GdC. In mice in which GdC was administered topically onto the round window, loading of the cochlea peaked at 4 hours, at which time it reached the apex. The initial portions of the organ to be filled were the basal turn of the cochlea and vestibule. In animal models with endolymphatic hydrops (EH), bulging of the Reissner's membrane was observed as deficit of GdC in the scala vestibuli. Histologically the degree of bulging correlated with the MR images. In animals with immune reaction-induced EH, MRI showed that EH could be limited to restricted regions of the inner ear, and in the same inner ear both EH and leakage of GdC into the scala media were visualized. More than 100 inner ear MRI scans have been performed to date in humans. Loading of GdC followed the pattern seen in animals, but the time frame was different. In intravenous delivery of double-dose GdC, the inner ear compartments

  1. A miniaturized laser-Doppler-system in the ear canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, T.; Gerhardt, U.; Kupper, C.; Manske, E.; Witte, H.

    2013-03-01

    Gathering vibrational data from the human middle ear is quite difficult. To this date the well-known acoustic probe is used to estimate audiometric parameters, e.g. otoacoustic emissions, wideband reflectance and the measurement of the stapedius reflex. An acoustic probe contains at least one microphone and one loudspeaker. The acoustic parameter determination of the ear canal is essential for the comparability of test-retest measurement situations. Compared to acoustic tubes, the ear canal wall cannot be described as a sound hard boundary. Sound energy is partly absorbed by the ear canal wall. In addition the ear canal features a complex geometric shape (Stinson and Lawton1). Those conditions are one reason for the inter individual variability in input impedance measurement data of the tympanic membrane. The method of Laser-Doppler-Vibrometry is well described in literature. Using this method, the surface velocity of vibrating bodies can be determined contact-free. Conventional Laser-Doppler-Systems (LDS) for auditory research are mounted on a surgical microscope. Assuming a free line of view to the ear drum, the handling of those laser-systems is complicated. We introduce the concept of a miniaturized vibrometer which is supposed to be applied directly in the ear canal for contact-free measurement of the tympanic membrane surface vibration. The proposed interferometer is based on a Fabry-Perot etalon with a DFB laser diode as light source. The fiber-based Fabry-Perot-interferometer is characterized by a reduced size, compared to e.g. Michelson-, or Mach-Zehnder-Systems. For the determination of the phase difference in the interferometer, a phase generated carrier was used. To fit the sensor head in the ear canal, the required shape of the probe was generated by means of the geometrical data of 70 ear molds. The suggested prototype is built up by a singlemode optical fiber with a GRIN-lens, acting as a fiber collimator. The probe has a diameter of 1.8 mm and a

  2. A new method for correcting type I and type II constricted (cup and lop) ears.

    PubMed

    Xiaogeng, Hu; Hongxing, Zhuang; Qinghua, Yang; Haiyue, Jiang; Yanyong, Zhao

    2006-01-01

    Tanzer suggested the term "constricted ear," denoting a spectrum of deformities limited to the superior third of the ear. Tanzer classified the constricted ear into three types. Type I ears have involvement of the helix, which usually is flattened. Type II ears show involvement of both the helix and the scapha. With type III ears, the auricle is rolled into a nearly tubular form that some authors regard as a form of microtia. The authors' new method for correcting the constricted ear varies in accordance with the diverse degree of deformity. The new method was used to correct constricted ears through a one-stage operation in eight type I cases. For the remaining six type 2 cases, the methods were combined with composite grafting. Most of the patients were satisfied with the final results. Therefore, the authors conclude that their approach is suitable for the treatment of type I and type II constricted ears.

  3. Reconstruction following traumatic partial amputation of the ear.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Robert A; Sabbagh, Walid

    2011-02-01

    Reconstruction following traumatic amputation of the external ear remains a unique challenge to the plastic surgeon. The authors report a series of ear reconstructions with autologous costal cartilage in patients following traumatic partial amputation of the ear. Technical points regarding the carving of the cartilage framework and methods of skin coverage are discussed. Fifty partial ear reconstructions with autologous costal cartilage were performed over a 4-year period. All patients had suffered previous traumatic amputation of part of the external auricle due to bite injuries (n = 36), road traffic accidents (n = 6), burns (n = 5), or torture (n = 3). A two-stage technique of reconstruction with autologous cartilage graft was used based on Nagata's adaptations of Brent's original technique. In nine cases, skin shortage or extensive scarring required preoperative tissue expansion (n = 4) or a temporoparietal fascial flap (n = 5) to provide adequate coverage of the cartilage framework. Forty-seven patients had a successful surgical outcome without complication. Two patients developed small areas of skin necrosis resulting in exposure of the cartilage framework. These healed with conservative management with minor loss of definition. One case of wound infection resulted in significant loss of definition of the construct, which required a further surgical procedure with additional costal cartilage graft. Reconstruction of the external ear with autologous costal cartilage following traumatic amputation can produce high-quality auricles consistently and is becoming the treatment of choice for such injuries, given access to a specialist center with exposure to a high volume of cases.

  4. [Keloid scars of the external ear: a non solved problem].

    PubMed

    Bejarano Serrano, M; Parri Ferrandis, F J; García Smith, N I; Martínez-Herrada, S; Manzanares Quintela, A; Albert Cazalla, A

    2014-01-01

    The external ear is a location with high risk of keloid scar formation. Its incidence is growing since general use of piercings and performance of plastic surgery of the external ear. The external ear keloid can be a devasting process for adolescent population which is worried about their appearance. Our aim is to attract attention about the risk of keloid scars of the external ear, reviewing our experience. After dismissing radiotherapy, corticoid infiltration and surgical removal are the most used options, with a high recurrence risk. We have reviewed traumatic, surgical and piercing wounds of the external ear, with a subsequent keloid formation treated in our outpatient clinic, collecting data about wound etiology, treatment and results. During the last 10 years we have found 11 keloid scars, 2 of them improved with topical corticosteroid. Treatment has been surgical in 9 cases, 4 of them with skin graft: 5 recovered and 4 recurred; 2 of them were reoperated. 2 of them were treated with intralesional corticosteroid solely, one recovered and the other one had improved. Treatment management of keloid scars is complex and there isn't a procedure with superior results than the others. Risk of complication must be explained within adolescent population.

  5. The pathogenesis of cauliflower ear. An experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ohlsén, L; Skoog, T; Sohn, S A

    1975-01-01

    Appreciating an imcomplete understanding of the pathogenesis of cauliflower ear, an experimental study was designed to demonstrate the pathophysiology of this deformity. The investigation was conducted in 2-month-old rabbits. In one ear a collection of blood was placed under the raised perichondrium which was then sutured back in place and the skin closed. In the other ear an equal amount of blood was deposited between the intact perichondrium and skin. In the first study new cartilage developed under the perichondrium, but in the ear in which the blood was left above the surface of the perichondrium-covered cartilage, complete resorption of the clot occurred. The cauliflower ear was thus shown to be generating cartilage, arising from a layer of raised perichondrium which was further stimulated by a sero-sanguinous medium. The subperichondrial hematoma was extensively invaded by chondroblasts within 2 weeks, and over a period of 4 weeks the new tissue gradually changed into more mature cartilage. It was a consistent finding that the separated perichondrium retracted, thus causing the original cartilage to rise and buckle over the hamatoma, similar to the picture observed in the human pathology.

  6. Anisotropic yield function capable of predicting eight ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, J. H.; Cazacu, O.

    2011-08-01

    Deep drawing of a cylindrical cup from a rolled sheet is one of the typical forming operations where the effect of this anisotropy is most evident. Indeed, it is well documented in the literature that the number of ears and the shape of the earing pattern correlate with the r-values profile. For the strongly textured aluminum alloy AA 5042 (Numisheet Benchmark 2011), the experimental r-value distribution has two minima between the rolling and transverse direction data provided for this show that the r-value along the transverse direction (TD) is five times larger than the value corresponding to the rolling direction. Therefore, it is expected that there are more that the earing profile has more than four ears. The main objective of this paper is to assess whether a new form of CPB06ex2 yield function (Plunkett et al. (2008)) tailored for metals with no tension-compression asymmetry is capable of predicting more than four ears for this material.

  7. Extracellular and intracellular melanin in inflammatory middle ear disease.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Mark A; Roehm, Pamela C; Bannan, Michael A; Lalwani, Anil K

    2014-06-01

    Melanin is a pigmented polymer with a known role in dermal solar protection. In vertebrates, melanogenesis has been reported in leukocyte populations, suggesting a potential role in innate immunity. In this study, we report the novel finding of melanin associated with chronic inflammation and speculate on its potential role in the middle ear and mastoid. Retrospective review of case series. Medical records of six patients who demonstrated melanin in the ear were reviewed. Six patients from 1 to 63 years of age were identified with extracellular melanin and melanin-laden histiocytes within the middle ear and/or mastoid air cells at time of surgery. Concurrent intraoperative findings included cholesteatoma (n = 3), chronic suppurative otitis media (n = 2), and coalescent mastoiditis (n = 1). Histologically, extracellular melanin and melanin-laden histiocytes were identified by Fontana-Masson stain; absence of melanocytes was confirmed by the absence of Melan-A staining. One patient had a positive stain for CD163 (a marker for macrophages). This case series is the first demonstration of melanin within middle ear mucosa without melanocytes in immediate proximity or metastatic melanocytic lesions. Melanin's presence in the setting of inflammation suggests that there may be a heretofore unreported link between the pigmentary and immune systems in the middle ear. 4.

  8. An abbreviated history of the ear: from Renaissance to present.

    PubMed Central

    Hachmeister, Jorge E.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we discuss important discoveries in relation to the anatomy and physiology of the ear from Renaissance to present. Before the Renaissance, there was a paucity of knowledge of the anatomy of the ear, because of the relative inaccessibility of the temporal bone and the general perception that human dissections should not be conducted. It was not until the sixteenth century that the middle ear was described with detail. Further progress would be made between the sixteenth and eighteenth century in describing the inner ear. In the nineteenth century, technological advancement permitted a description of the cells and structures that constitute the cochlea. Von Helmholtz made further progress in hearing physiology when he postulated his resonance theory and later von Békésy when he observed a traveling wave in human cadavers within the cochlea. Brownell later made a major advance when he discovered that the ear has a mechanism for sound amplification, via outer hair cell electromotility. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:15369636

  9. Bilingualism Alters Children's Frontal Lobe Functioning for Attentional Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arredondo, Maria M.; Hu, Xiao-Su; Satterfield, Teresa; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2017-01-01

    Bilingualism is a typical linguistic experience, yet relatively little is known about its impact on children's cognitive and brain development. Theories of bilingualism suggest that early dual-language acquisition can improve children's cognitive abilities, specifically those relying on frontal lobe functioning. While behavioral findings present…

  10. Brain Regions Underlying Word Finding Difficulties in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trebuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnes; Guedj, Eric; Alario, F-Xavier; Laguitton, Virginie; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Word finding difficulties are often reported by epileptic patients with seizures originating from the language dominant cerebral hemisphere, for example, in temporal lobe epilepsy. Evidence regarding the brain regions underlying this deficit comes from studies of peri-operative electro-cortical stimulation, as well as post-surgical performance.…

  11. Medial Temporal Lobe Memory in Childhood: Developmental Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Elise L.; Richmond, Jenny L.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Thomas, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The medial temporal lobes (MTL) support declarative memory and mature structurally and functionally during the postnatal years in humans. Although recent work has addressed the development of declarative memory in early childhood, less is known about continued development beyond this period of time. The purpose of this investigation was to explore…

  12. Lung lobe torsion in dogs: 22 cases (1981-1999).

    PubMed

    Neath, P J; Brockman, D J; King, L G

    2000-10-01

    To identify breed disposition, postoperative complications, and outcome in dogs with lung lobe torsion. Retrospective study. 22 client-owned dogs. Information on signalment; history; clinical findings; results of clinicopathologic testing, diagnostic imaging, and pleural fluid analysis; surgical treatment; intra- and postoperative complications; histologic findings; and outcome were obtained from medical records. All 22 dogs had pleural effusion; dyspnea was the most common reason for examination. Fifteen dogs were large deep-chested breeds; 5 were toy breeds. Afghan Hounds were overrepresented, compared with the hospital population. One dog was euthanatized without treatment; the remaining dogs underwent exploratory thoracotomy and lung lobectomy. Eleven dogs recovered from surgery without complications, but 3 of these later died of thoracic disease. Four dogs survived to discharge but had clinically important complications within 2 months, including chylothorax, mediastinal mesothelioma, gastric dilatation, and a second lung lobe torsion. Six dogs died or were euthanatized within 2 weeks after surgery because of acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, septic shock, pneumothorax, or chylothorax. Chylothorax was diagnosed in 8 of the 22 dogs, including 4 Afghan Hounds. Results suggest that lung lobe torsion is rare in dogs and develops most frequently in large deep-chested dogs, particularly Afghan Hounds. Other predisposing causes were not identified, but an association with chylothorax was evident, especially in Afghan Hounds. Prognosis for dogs with lung lobe torsion was fair to guarded.

  13. Tumours of Deep Lobe of Parotid Gland: Our Experience.

    PubMed

    Dass, Arjun; Gupta, Nitin; Singhal, S K; Verma, Hitesh

    2015-12-01

    Parotidectomy surgeries are being routinely performed by ENT surgeons nowadays. Parotid tumours can present with a variety of manifestations ranging from a barely noticeable mass to a large tumour with facial paralysis. Most benign parotid tumours are located in the superficial lobe though rarely deep lobe may also be involved, while malignant tumours are generally seen to involve both the lobes of the gland. We present clinico-radiological-pathological profile of 25 patients who underwent parotid surgeries for tumours involving deep lobe alone or the whole gland, and were operated at our institute during the period from January 2011 to December 2012. This study was a retroprospective observational analysis with the aim of analyzing the epidemiology, radiological, surgical and histopathological profile of these patients. Among 25 patients who underwent parotid surgeries, 17 patients underwent total conservative parotidectomy, while 5 patients underwent radical parotidectomy. In 3 patients, extended radical parotidectomy was performed. We also report the complications and follow-up of these patients. We concluded that fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) findings and final histopathological report may not always correlate.

  14. Monitoring and analysis of frozen debris lobes, phase IB.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-09-01

    Frozen debris lobes (FDLs) are slow-moving landslides in permafrost, many of which are present within the Dalton Highway corridor in the Brooks Range of Alaska. During this phase of the research, we continued our investigations of FDL-A (the closest ...

  15. Monitoring and analysis of frozen debris lobes, phase I.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-12-01

    A slow-moving landslide (termed Frozen Debris Lobe-A (FDL-A)) is approaching the Dalton Highway near MP 219, at a distance of 195 ft from the northbound shoulder : as of November 2012. Previous analysis of images from 1955 through 2008 indicated an a...

  16. "No Longer Gage": Frontal Lobe Dysfunction and Emotional Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuss, Donald T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews changes in emotional response and personality occurring after damage to frontal systems, proposes operational definitions, and analyzes reports according to these definitions. Summarizes neurological causes of frontal lobe damage and associations of frontal dysfunction with psychiatric disturbances. Proposes that primary change after…

  17. Psychosis following temporal lobe surgery: a report of six cases.

    PubMed Central

    Mace, C J; Trimble, M R

    1991-01-01

    Six consecutive patients who had had temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy, and been referred for psychiatric assessment of psychotic symptoms, are reported. Their symptoms (a delusional depression, four schizophrenia-like illnesses, and a case of Capgras' syndrome) are discussed in relation to the possible role of their operations, all of which were on the right hemisphere. PMID:1895129

  18. The neurobiology of cognitive disorders in temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Brian; Lin, Jack J.; Seidenberg, Michael; Hermann, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairment and especially memory disruption is a major complicating feature of the epilepsies. In this review we begin with a focus on the problem of memory impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy. We start with a brief overview of the early development of knowledge regarding the anatomic substrates of memory disorder in temporal lobe epilepsy, followed by discussion of the refinement of that knowledge over time as informed by the outcomes of epilepsy surgery (anterior temporal lobectomy) and the clinical efforts to predict those patients at greatest risk of adverse cognitive outcomes following epilepsy surgery. These efforts also yielded new theoretical insights regarding the function of the human hippocampus and a few examples of these insights are touched on briefly. Finally, the vastly changing view of temporal lobe epilepsy is examined including findings demonstrating that anatomic abnormalities extend far outside the temporal lobe, cognitive impairments extend beyond memory function, with linkage of these distributed cognitive and anatomic abnormalities pointing to a new understanding of the anatomic architecture of cognitive impairment in epilepsy. Challenges remain in understanding the origin of these cognitive and anatomic abnormalities, their progression over time, and most importantly, how to intervene to protect cognitive and brain health in epilepsy. PMID:21304484

  19. Auditory temporal processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lavasani, Azam Navaei; Mohammadkhani, Ghassem; Motamedi, Mahmoud; Karimi, Leyla Jalilvand; Jalaei, Shohreh; Shojaei, Fereshteh Sadat; Danesh, Ali; Azimi, Hadi

    2016-07-01

    Auditory temporal processing is the main feature of speech processing ability. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, despite their normal hearing sensitivity, may present speech recognition disorders. The present study was carried out to evaluate the auditory temporal processing in patients with unilateral TLE. The present study was carried out on 25 patients with epilepsy: 11 patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy and 14 with left temporal lobe epilepsy with a mean age of 31.1years and 18 control participants with a mean age of 29.4years. The two experimental and control groups were evaluated via gap-in-noise and duration pattern sequence tests. One-way ANOVA was run to analyze the data. The mean of the threshold of the GIN test in the control group was observed to be better than that in participants with LTLE and RTLE. Also, it was observed that the percentage of correct responses on the DPS test in the control group and in participants with RTLE was better than that in participants with LTLE. Patients with TLE have difficulties in temporal processing. Difficulties are more significant in patients with LTLE, likely because the left temporal lobe is specialized for the processing of temporal information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Arousal Enhanced Memory Retention Is Eliminated Following Temporal Lobe Resection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahs, Fredrik; Kumlien, Eva; Fredrikson, Mats

    2010-01-01

    The amygdala, situated in the anterior medial temporal lobe (MTL), is involved in the emotional enhancement of memory. The present study evaluated whether anterior MTL-resections attenuated arousal induced memory enhancement for pictures. Also, the effect of MTL-resections on response latencies at retrieval was assessed. Thirty-one patients with…

  1. Medial Temporal Lobe Structures Contribute to On-Line Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, David

    2009-01-01

    For the last five decades, the medial temporal lobes have been generally understood to facilitate enduring representation of certain kinds of information. In particular, knowledge about the relations among items and concepts appears to rely on that region of the brain. Recent results suggest that those same structures also play a subtle role in…

  2. Memory Functions following Surgery for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambaque, Isabelle; Dellatolas, Georges; Fohlen, Martine; Bulteau, Christine; Watier, Laurence; Dorfmuller, Georg; Chiron, Catherine; Delalande, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Surgical treatment appears to improve the cognitive prognosis in children undergoing surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The beneficial effects of surgery on memory functions, particularly on material-specific memory, are more difficult to assess because of potentially interacting factors such as age range, intellectual level,…

  3. The anterior temporal lobes support residual comprehension in Wernicke's aphasia.

    PubMed

    Robson, Holly; Zahn, Roland; Keidel, James L; Binney, Richard J; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2014-03-01

    Wernicke's aphasia occurs after a stroke to classical language comprehension regions in the left temporoparietal cortex. Consequently, auditory-verbal comprehension is significantly impaired in Wernicke's aphasia but the capacity to comprehend visually presented materials (written words and pictures) is partially spared. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of written word and picture semantic processing in Wernicke's aphasia, with the wider aim of examining how the semantic system is altered after damage to the classical comprehension regions. Twelve participants with chronic Wernicke's aphasia and 12 control participants performed semantic animate-inanimate judgements and a visual height judgement baseline task. Whole brain and region of interest analysis in Wernicke's aphasia and control participants found that semantic judgements were underpinned by activation in the ventral and anterior temporal lobes bilaterally. The Wernicke's aphasia group displayed an 'over-activation' in comparison with control participants, indicating that anterior temporal lobe regions become increasingly influential following reduction in posterior semantic resources. Semantic processing of written words in Wernicke's aphasia was additionally supported by recruitment of the right anterior superior temporal lobe, a region previously associated with recovery from auditory-verbal comprehension impairments. Overall, the results provide support for models in which the anterior temporal lobes are crucial for multimodal semantic processing and that these regions may be accessed without support from classic posterior comprehension regions.

  4. [Kumagusu Minakata with temporal lobe epilepsy: a pathographic study].

    PubMed

    Sengoku, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Kumagusu Minakata (1867-1941), a Japanese genius devoted to natural history and folklore, is famous for his immense range of works (including 50 monographs in 'Nature') and his discovery of several varieties of mycetozoa. His diary and the observations of other persons reveal that he was affected by several grand mal epileptic seizures, and he complained himself of frequent déjà vu experiences which he called promnesia according to Myers. Promnesia means, for example, "I have lived through all this before, and I know what will happen this next minute." Minakata also had this rare type of aural sign. MRI analysis of his postmortem brain found evidence of right hippocampal atrophy. This result showed that he had temporal lobe epilepsy with focus of the right side, and this coincides with his déjà vu experiences which were the aura of the loss of consciousness. However, he did not notice that these were aural signs, and he also complained of memory disturbances due to frequent déjà vu. His behavioral characteristics were peculiar, and those of Dostoyevsky who also had temporal lobe epilepsy were similar. Temporal lobe epilepsies may influence behavioral patterns which control the emotions. As a positive point, some patients with temporal lobe epilepsy can exhibit their primordial mental actions and perform persistent works.

  5. Charting the Maturation of the Frontal Lobe: An Electrophysiological Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segalowitz, S. J.; Davies, Patricia L.

    2004-01-01

    Tracking the functional development of specific regions of the prefrontal cortex in children using event-related potentials (ERPs) is challenging for both technical and conceptual reasons. In this paper we outline our strategy for studying frontal lobe development and present preliminary results from children aged 7-17 years and young adults using…

  6. Time Ordering in Frontal Lobe Patients: A Stochastic Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magherini, Anna; Saetti, Maria Cristina; Berta, Emilia; Botti, Claudio; Faglioni, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    Frontal lobe patients reproduced a sequence of capital letters or abstract shapes. Immediate and delayed reproduction trials allowed the analysis of short- and long-term memory for time order by means of suitable Markov chain stochastic models. Patients were as proficient as healthy subjects on the immediate reproduction trial, thus showing spared…

  7. Naming and recognizing famous faces in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Glosser, G; Salvucci, A E; Chiaravalloti, N D

    2003-07-08

    To assess naming and recognition of faces of familiar famous people in patients with epilepsy before and after anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL). Color photographs of famous people were presented for naming and description to 63 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) either before or after ATL and to 10 healthy age- and education-matched controls. Spontaneous naming of photographed famous people was impaired in all patient groups, but was most abnormal in patients who had undergone left ATL. When allowed to demonstrate knowledge of the famous faces through verbal descriptions, rather than naming, patients with left TLE, left ATL, and right TLE improved to normal levels, but patients with right ATL were still impaired, suggesting a new deficit in identifying famous faces. Naming of famous people was related to naming of other common objects, verbal memory, and perceptual discrimination of faces. Recognition of the identity of pictured famous people was more related to visuospatial perception and memory. Lesions in anterior regions of the right temporal lobe impair recognition of the identities of familiar faces, as well as the learning of new faces. Lesions in the left temporal lobe, especially in anterior regions, disrupt access to the names of known people, but do not affect recognition of the identities of famous faces. Results are consistent with the hypothesized role of lateralized anterior temporal lobe structures in facial recognition and naming of unique entities.

  8. Memory, Metamemory and Their Dissociation in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Charlotte E.; Andres, Pilar; Broks, Paul; Noad, Rupert; Sadler, Martin; Coker, Debbie; Mazzoni, Giuliana

    2010-01-01

    Patients with temporal-lobe epilepsy (TLE) present with memory difficulties. The aim of the current study was to determine to what extent these difficulties could be related to a metamemory impairment. Fifteen patients with TLE and 15 matched healthy controls carried out a paired-associates learning task. Memory recall was measured at intervals of…

  9. Sub-Centimeter Language Organization in the Human Temporal Lobe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinker, A.; Chang, E. F.; Barbaro, N. M.; Berger, M. S.; Knight, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    The human temporal lobe is well known to be critical for language comprehension. Previous physiological research has focused mainly on non-invasive neuroimaging and electrophysiological techniques with each approach requiring averaging across many trials and subjects. The results of these studies have implicated extended anatomical regions in…

  10. Decreased occipital lobe metabolism by FDG-PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Solnes, Lilja; Nalluri, Abhinav; Cohen, Jesse; Jones, Krystyna M.; Zan, Elcin; Javadi, Mehrbod S.; Venkatesan, Arun

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare brain metabolism patterns on fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT in anti–NMDA receptor and other definite autoimmune encephalitis (AE) and to assess how these patterns differ between anti–NMDA receptor neurologic disability groups. Methods: Retrospective review of clinical data and initial dedicated brain FDG-PET/CT studies for neurology inpatients with definite AE, per published consensus criteria, treated at a single academic medical center over a 10-year period. Z-score maps of FDG-PET/CT were made using 3-dimensional stereotactic surface projections in comparison to age group–matched controls. Brain region mean Z scores with magnitudes ≥2.00 were interpreted as significant. Comparisons were made between anti–NMDA receptor and other definite AE patients as well as among patients with anti–NMDA receptor based on modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at the time of FDG-PET/CT. Results: The medial occipital lobes were markedly hypometabolic in 6 of 8 patients with anti–NMDA receptor encephalitis and as a group (Z = −4.02, interquartile range [IQR] 2.14) relative to those with definite AE (Z = −2.32, 1.46; p = 0.004). Among patients with anti–NMDA receptor encephalitis, the lateral and medial occipital lobes were markedly hypometabolic for patients with mRS 4–5 (lateral occipital lobe Z = −3.69, IQR 1; medial occipital lobe Z = −4.08, 1) compared with those with mRS 0–3 (lateral occipital lobe Z = −0.83, 2; p < 0.0005; medial occipital lobe Z = −1.07, 2; p = 0.001). Conclusions: Marked medial occipital lobe hypometabolism by dedicated brain FDG-PET/CT may serve as an early biomarker for discriminating anti–NMDA receptor encephalitis from other AE. Resolution of lateral and medial occipital hypometabolism may correlate with improved neurologic status in anti–NMDA receptor encephalitis. PMID:29159205

  11. Frontal mucocele with intracranial extension causing frontal lobe syndrome.

    PubMed

    Weidmayer, Sara

    2015-06-01

    Mucoceles are mucus-containing cysts that form in paranasal sinuses; although mucoceles themselves are benign, this case report highlights the extensive damage they can cause as their expansion may lead to bony erosion and extension of the mucocele into the orbit and cranium; it also presents a rarely reported instance of frontal sinus mucocele leading to frontal lobe syndrome. A thorough discussion and review of mucoceles is included. A 68-year-old white man presented with intermittent diplopia and a pressure sensation in the right eye. He had a history of chronic sinusitis and had had endoscopic sinus surgery 5 years prior. A maxillofacial computed tomography scan revealed a large right frontal sinus mucocele, which had caused erosion along the medial wall of the right orbit and the outer and inner tables of the right frontal sinus. The mucocele had protruded both into the right orbit and intracranially, causing mass effect on the frontal lobe, which led to frontal lobe syndrome. The patient was successfully treated with endoscopic right ethmoidectomy, radial frontal sinusotomy, marsupialization of the mucocele, and transcutaneous irrigation. Paranasal sinus mucoceles may expand and lead to bony erosion and can become very invasive in surrounding structures such as the orbit and cranium. This case not only exhibits a very rare presentation of frontal sinus mucocele with intracranial extension and frontal lobe mass effect causing a frontal lobe syndrome but also demonstrates many of the ocular and visual complications commonly associated with paranasal sinus mucoceles. Early identification and surgical intervention is vital for preventing and reducing morbidity associated with invasive mucoceles, and the patient must be followed regularly to monitor for recurrence.

  12. Sensory Cells of the Fish Ear: A Hairy Enigma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popper, A. N.; Saidel, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of the structure of the ears in teleost fishes has led to the tentative suggestion that otolithic endorgans may function differently, in different species. Recently, evidence has demonstrated different 'types' of sensory hair cells can be found in the ears of teleost fishes, and individual hair cell types are found in discrete regions of individual sensory, epithelia. The presence of multiple hair cell types in fishes provides strong support to the hypothesis of regional differences in the responses of individual otolithic sensory epithelia. The finding of hair cell types in fishes that closely resemble those found in amniote vestibular endorgans also suggests that hair cell heterogeneity arose earlier in the evolution of the vertebrate ear than previously thought.

  13. [Plastic surgery to correct deformities of the ear].

    PubMed

    Naumann, A

    2005-08-18

    For the plastic-surgical correction of mild deformities of the ears, well-proven incisional and suturing techniques are available. Only in exceptional cases is skin grafting or the use of cartilage ersatz material required. In the plastic surgical treatment of moderate to severe ear deformities, in contrast, not only incisional and suturing techniques, but also free skin grafts and ersatz materials are needed. At the ENT Department of the Ludwig-Maximilian University in Munich, plastic reconstruction of moderate to severe deformities of the external ear using porous polyethylene implants instead of rib cartilage grafts has been practiced with success for the past two years or so. Porous polyethylene implants provide good results and may help to avoid pre- and postoperative morbidity at donor site defects.

  14. Human Action Recognition Using Wireless Wearable In-Ear Microphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Jun; Kuroda, Tadahiro

    To realize the ubiquitous eating habits monitoring, we proposed the use of sounds sensed by an in-ear placed wireless wearable microphone. A prototype of wireless wearable in-ear microphone was developed by utilizing a common Bluetooth headset. We proposed a robust chewing action recognition algorithm which consists of two recognition stages: “chew-like” signal detection and chewing sound verification stages. We also provide empirical results on other action recognition using in-ear sound including swallowing, cough, belch, and etc. The average chewing number counting error rate of 1.93% is achieved. Lastly, chewing sound mapping is proposed as a new prototypical approach to provide an additional intuitive feedback on food groups to be able to infer the eating habits in their daily life context.

  15. A Ubiquitous Blood Pressure Sensor Worn at the Ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, Hiroshi; Shimada, Junichi; Uenishi, Yuji; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2009-12-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement and BP control are important for the prevention of lifestyle diseases, especially hypertension, which can lead to more serious conditions, such as cardiac infarction and cerebral apoplexy. The purpose of our study is to develop a ubiquitous blood pressure sensor that is more comfortable and less disruptive of users' daily activities than conventional blood pressure sensors. Our developed sensor is worn at an ear orifice and measures blood pressure at the tragus. This paper describes the concept, configuration, and the optical and electronic details of the developed ear-worn blood pressure sensor and presents preliminary evaluation results. The developed sensor causes almost no discomfort and produces signals whose quality is high enough for detecting BP at an ear, making it suitable for ubiquitous usage.

  16. Magnetically driven middle ear ossicles for optical measurement of vibrations in an ear with opened tympanic membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, J.; von Unge, M.; Dirckx, J.

    2013-12-01

    Vibrations of the middle ear ossicles are easily measured by means of laser vibrometry. However, laser vibrometry requires free visual access to the object under investigation, and acquiring free visual access to the ossicles through the ear canal requires the removal of the tympanic membrane (TM), with the result that the ossicles can no longer be stimulated acoustically. To overcome this, we devised a new setup in which the ossicles can be driven magnetically. After measuring the response of the TM to an acoustic signal, we then remove it and attach a small magnet to the exposed manubrium (a part of the most lateral auditory ossicle, the malleus, which is normally attached to the TM). An electromagnetic excitation coil is then used to drive the magnet, and the output to the coil adjusted until the vibration of the manubrium, as measured by the vibrometer, matches that measured in response to the acoustic signal. Such a setup may have uses in research on middle ear mechanics, such as the measurement of nonlinearities in their response, as well as applications in the diagnosis of middle ear conditions such as the fixation of the ossicles by otosclerosis or in chronic otitis media. We describe our setup and discuss the viability of our method and its future clinical potential by presenting some measurements on an artificially fixated ear.

  17. Insights into inner ear-specific gene regulation: epigenetics and non-coding RNAs in inner ear development and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Avraham, Karen B.

    2016-01-01

    The vertebrate inner ear houses highly specialized sensory organs, tuned to detect and encode sound, head motion and gravity. Gene expression programs under the control of transcription factors orchestrate the formation and specialization of the non-sensory inner ear labyrinth and its sensory constituents. More recently, epigenetic factors and non-coding RNAs emerged as an additional layer of gene regulation, both in inner ear development and disease. In this review, we provide an overview on how epigenetic modifications and non-coding RNAs, in particular microRNAs (miRNAs), influence gene expression and summarize recent discoveries that highlight their critical role in the proper formation of the inner ear labyrinth and its sensory organs. In contrast to non-mammalian vertebrates, adult mammals lack the ability to regenerate inner ear mechano-sensory hair cells. Finally, we discuss recent insights into how epigenetic factors and miRNAs may facilitate, or in the case of mammals, restrict sensory hair cell regeneration. PMID:27836639

  18. High-throughput method for ear phenotyping and kernel weight estimation in maize using ear digital imaging.

    PubMed

    Makanza, R; Zaman-Allah, M; Cairns, J E; Eyre, J; Burgueño, J; Pacheco, Ángela; Diepenbrock, C; Magorokosho, C; Tarekegne, A; Olsen, M; Prasanna, B M

    2018-01-01

    Grain yield, ear and kernel attributes can assist to understand the performance of maize plant under different environmental conditions and can be used in the variety development process to address farmer's preferences. These parameters are however still laborious and expensive to measure. A low-cost ear digital imaging method was developed that provides estimates of ear and kernel attributes i.e., ear number and size, kernel number and size as well as kernel weight from photos of ears harvested from field trial plots. The image processing method uses a script that runs in a batch mode on ImageJ; an open source software. Kernel weight was estimated using the total kernel number derived from the number of kernels visible on the image and the average kernel size. Data showed a good agreement in terms of accuracy and precision between ground truth measurements and data generated through image processing. Broad-sense heritability of the estimated parameters was in the range or higher than that for measured grain weight. Limitation of the method for kernel weight estimation is discussed. The method developed in this work provides an opportunity to significantly reduce the cost of selection in the breeding process, especially for resource constrained crop improvement programs and can be used to learn more about the genetic bases of grain yield determinants.

  19. Remote infarct of the temporal lobe with coexistent hippocampal sclerosis in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gales, Jordan M; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    In patients undergoing surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy, hippocampal sclerosis remains the most commonly observed pathology. In addition to hippocampal sclerosis, 5% to 30% of these resections on magnetic resonance imaging contain a second independently epileptogenic lesion, commonly referred to as dual pathology. A second etiology of seizure activity, as seen in dual pathology, may serve as an important cause of treatment failure in striving for post-operative seizure control. Dual pathology, consisting of hippocampal sclerosis and a remote infarct of the adjacent cortex, has been rarely reported. Cases of pathologically confirmed hippocampal sclerosis diagnosed between January 2000 and December 2012 (n = 349) were reviewed, and 7 cases of coexistent infarct (2%) formed the study group. Seven individuals (mean age, 29years; range, 5-47 years) with a mean epilepsy duration of 12.5years (3.3-25 years) and a mean pre-surgery frequency of 15 seizures per week (range, 0.5-56 seizures/week) were followed up postoperatively for a mean duration of 64months (range, 3-137 months). Pathologically, the most common form of hippocampal sclerosis observed was International League against Epilepsy type Ib or severe variant (n = 4). Four of the six individuals with post-surgery follow-up were seizure free at last encounter. The reported incidence of dual pathology, including hippocampal sclerosis and remote infarct, is low (2% in the present study) but may indicate a slightly increased risk of developing hippocampal sclerosis in the setting of a remote infarct. Surgical intervention for such cases anecdotally appears effective in achieving seizure control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. External ear anomalies and hearing impairment in Noonan Syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Trier, Dorothée C; van Nierop, Josephine; Draaisma, Jos M Th; van der Burgt, Ineke; Kunst, Henricus; Croonen, Ellen A; Admiraal, Ronald J C

    2015-06-01

    This is the first cohort in which hearing impairment and external ear anomalies in Noonan Syndrome are described extensively. Retrospective analysis of the otorhinolaryngological and clinical genetic data from 97 Noonan Syndrome (NS) patients. Forty-four NS patients were seen by an otorhinolaryngologist for the analysis of hearing impairment. In our cohort 80 of the 97 patients were genetically tested. In 71 of these mutations were found: in 48 patients a mutation in PTPN11, in 10 patients in SOS1, in 5 patients in SHOC2, in 5 patients in RAF1, in 1 patient in MAP2K2, in 1 patient in KRAS and in 1 patient in A2ML1. External ear anomalies were reported in 75 NS patients (77%). In 69 patients the ears were low-set, 28 patients had posteriorly rotated ears, 14 patients showed protruding ears and 18 had thickened helices. Hearing impairment was detected in 34 NS patients. Nine patients had sensorineural hearing impairment, two a permanent conductive hearing impairment, two other patients had mixed hearing impairment and 20 patients had conductive hearing impairment in the past, caused by otitis media with effusion. Their temporary conductive hearing impairment resolved between the ages of 2 and 18 years. Sensorineural hearing impairment varied between mild high-frequency hearing impairment and profound (uni- and bilateral) hearing impairment and was progressive in three patients. Four NS patients received cochlear implants for their severe sensorineural hearing impairment. The cohort is small for genotype-phenotype correlations, but sensorineural hearing impairment, especially the bilateral severe hearing impairment, was only seen in patients with a PTPN11 mutation. NS is characterized by dysmorphic external ear anomalies and both sensorineural and conductive hearing impairment. Audiological examinations are recommended in all patients with Noonan Syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of PDF-immunoreactive neurons in the optic lobe and cerebral lobe of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Abdelsalam, Salaheldin; Uemura, Hiroyuki; Umezaki, Yujiro; Saifullah, A S M; Shimohigashi, Miki; Tomioka, Kenji

    2008-07-01

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a neuropeptide playing important roles in insect circadian systems. In this study, we morphologically and physiologically characterized PDF-immunoreactive neurons in the optic lobe and the brain of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. PDF-immunoreactivity was detected in cells located in the proximal medulla (PDFMe cells) and those in the dorsal and ventral regions of the outer chiasma (PDFLa cells). The PDFMe cells had varicose processes spread over the frontal surface of the medulla and the PDFLa cells had varicose mesh-like innervations in almost whole lamina, suggesting their modulatory role in the optic lobe. Some of PDFMe cells had a hairpin-shaped axonal process running toward the lamina then turning back to project into the brain where they terminated at various protocerebral areas. The PDFMe cells had a low frequency spontaneous spike activity that was higher during the night and was often slightly increased by light pulses. Six pairs of PDF-immunoreactive neurons were also found in the frontal ganglion. Competitive ELISA with anti-PDF antibodies revealed daily cycling of PDF both in the optic lobe and cerebral lobe with an increase during the night that persisted in constant darkness. The physiological role of PDF is discussed based on these results.

  2. Energy localization and frequency analysis in the locust ear.

    PubMed

    Malkin, Robert; McDonagh, Thomas R; Mhatre, Natasha; Scott, Thomas S; Robert, Daniel

    2014-01-06

    Animal ears are exquisitely adapted to capture sound energy and perform signal analysis. Studying the ear of the locust, we show how frequency signal analysis can be performed solely by using the structural features of the tympanum. Incident sound waves generate mechanical vibrational waves that travel across the tympanum. These waves shoal in a tsunami-like fashion, resulting in energy localization that focuses vibrations onto the mechanosensory neurons in a frequency-dependent manner. Using finite element analysis, we demonstrate that two mechanical properties of the locust tympanum, distributed thickness and tension, are necessary and sufficient to generate frequency-dependent energy localization.

  3. Spectacle fitting with ear, nose and face deformities or abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Eng, Helen; Chiu, Roger Sin Fai

    2002-11-01

    Spectacle frame selection and dispensing remain significant components of optometry. Occasionally, we encounter patients who are unable to wear conventional spectacles due to abnormalities or deformities following injury and/or surgery to their nose, ears or head. In these cases, spectacle frame fitting may be more complex and customized frame adjustments may be required to account for the anatomical variations. A patient with a microtia (hypoplastic pinna) was fitted with a tailored spectacle frame. The details are presented together with a summary of different frames and modifications available for ears, nose and face abnormalities.

  4. An assessment of individualized technical ear training for audio production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungyoung

    2015-07-01

    An individualized technical ear training method is compared to a non-individualized method. The efficacy of the individualized method is assessed using a standardized test conducted before and after the training period. Participants who received individualized training improved better than the control group on the test. Results indicate the importance of individualized training for acquisition of spectrum-identification and spectrum-matching skills. Individualized training, therefore, should be implemented by default into technical ear training programs used in audio production industry and education.

  5. Nonsurgical correction of congenital ear abnormalities in the newborn: Case series.

    PubMed

    Smith, Wg; Toye, Jw; Reid, A; Smith, Rw

    2005-07-01

    To determine whether a simple, nonsurgical treatment for congenital ear abnormalities (lop-ear, Stahl's ear, protruding ear, cryptotia) improved the appearance of ear abnormalities in newborns at six weeks of age. This is a descriptive case series. All newborns with identified abnormalities were referred by their family physician to one paediatrician (WGS) in a small level 2 perinatal centre. The ears were waxed and taped in a standard manner within 10 days of birth. Pictures were taken before taping and at the end of taping (one month). All patients and pictures were assessed by one plastic surgeon (JWT) at six weeks of age and scored using a standard scoring system. A telephone survey of the nontreatment group was conducted. The total number of ears assessed was 90. Of this total, 69 ears were taped and fully evaluated in the study (77%). The refusal rate was 23%. In the treatment group, 59% had lop-ear, 19% had Stahl's ear, 17% had protruding ear and 3% had cryptotia. Overall correction (excellent/improved) for the treatment group was 90% (100% for lop-ear, 100% for Stahl's ear, 67% for protruding ear and 0% for cryptotia). In the nontreatment (refusal) group, 67% of the ears failed to correct spontaneously. No complications were recognized by the authors or parents by six weeks. The percentage of newborns in one year in the perinatal centre with recognized ear abnormalities was 6% (90 of 1600). A simple, nonsurgical treatment in a Caucasian population appeared to be very effective in correcting congenital ear abnormalities with no complications and high patient/parent satisfaction.

  6. The Structural Plasticity of White Matter Networks Following Anterior Temporal Lobe Resection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yogarajah, Mahinda; Focke, Niels K.; Bonelli, Silvia B.; Thompson, Pamela; Vollmar, Christian; McEvoy, Andrew W.; Alexander, Daniel C.; Symms, Mark R.; Koepp, Matthias J.; Duncan, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior temporal lobe resection is an effective treatment for refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. The structural consequences of such surgery in the white matter, and how these relate to language function after surgery remain unknown. We carried out a longitudinal study with diffusion tensor imaging in 26 left and 20 right temporal lobe epilepsy…

  7. Deriving the real-ear SPL of audiometric data using the "coupler to dial difference" and the "real ear to coupler difference".

    PubMed

    Munro, K J; Davis, J

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the measured real-ear sound pressure level (SPL) of audiometer output with the derived real-ear SPL obtained by adding the coupler to dial difference (CDD) and real-ear to coupler difference (RECD) to the audiometer dial reading. The real-ear SPL and RECD were measured in one ear of 16 normally hearing subjects using a probe-tube microphone. The CDD transform and the RECD transfer function were measured in an HA1 and an HA2 2-cc coupler using an EAR-LINK foam ear-tip or a customized earmold. The RECD transfer function was measured using the EARTone ER 3A and the Audioscan RE770 insert earphone. The procedures were very reliable with mean differences on retest of less than 1 dB. The mean difference between the measured and derived real-ear SPL was generally less than 1 dB and rarely exceeded 3 dB in any subject. The CDD measured for an individual audiometer and the RECD measured for an individual ear can be used to derive a valid estimate of real-ear SPL when it has not been possible to measure this directly.

  8. Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in the inner ear and middle ear in lipopolysaccharide-induced otitis media.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Hisashi; Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Zhao, Pengfei; Maeda, Yukihide; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    Significant expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its receptor (CD74) was observed in both the middle ear and inner ear in experimental otitis media in mice. Modulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its signaling pathway might be useful in the management of inner ear inflammation due to otitis media. Inner ear dysfunction secondary to otitis media has been reported. However, the specific mechanisms involved are not clearly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in the middle ear and inner ear in lipopolysaccharide-induced otitis media. BALB/c mice received a transtympanic injection of either lipopolysaccharide or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The mice were sacrificed 24 h after injection, and temporal bones were processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, histologic examination, and immunohistochemistry. PCR examination revealed that the lipopolysaccharide-injected mice showed a significant up-regulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in both the middle ear and inner ear as compared with the PBS-injected control mice. The immunohistochemical study showed positive reactions for macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in infiltrating inflammatory cells, middle ear mucosa, and inner ear in the lipopolysaccharide-injected mice.

  9. Hyperspectral imaging system for whole corn ear surface inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Haibo; Kincaid, Russell; Hruska, Zuzana; Brown, Robert L.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2013-05-01

    Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus (A.flavus) and Aspergillus parasitiucus fungi that grow naturally in corn. Very serious health problems such as liver damage and lung cancer can result from exposure to high toxin levels in grain. Consequently, many countries have established strict guidelines for permissible levels in consumables. Conventional chemical-based analytical methods used to screen for aflatoxin such as thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are time consuming, expensive, and require the destruction of samples as well as proper training for data interpretation. Thus, it has been a continuing effort within the research community to find a way to rapidly and non-destructively detect and possibly quantify aflatoxin contamination in corn. One of the more recent developments in this area is the use of spectral technology. Specifically, fluorescence hyperspectral imaging offers a potential rapid, and non-invasive method for contamination detection in corn infected with toxigenic A.flavus spores. The current hyperspectral image system is designed for scanning flat surfaces, which is suitable for imaging single or a group of corn kernels. In the case of a whole corn cob, it is preferred to be able to scan the circumference of the corn ear, appropriate for whole ear inspection. This paper discusses the development of a hyperspectral imaging system for whole corn ear imaging. The new instrument is based on a hyperspectral line scanner using a rotational stage to turn the corn ear.

  10. English Vocabulary for Chinese Learners: Words in Your Ear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Monica

    1998-01-01

    This article describes "Words in Your Ear," a vocabulary learning program for tertiary Chinese students who are learners of English at the University of Hong Kong, noting the University's 3-year partnership agreement with IBM to provide notebook computers to first-year students and provide new collaborative research opportunities for…

  11. Future Approaches for Inner Ear Protection and Repair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Seiji B.; Raphael, Yehoash

    2010-01-01

    Health care professionals tending to patients with inner ear disease face inquiries about therapy options, including treatments that are being developed for future use but not yet available. The devastating outcome of sensorineural hearing loss, combined with the permanent nature of the symptoms, make these inquiries demanding and frequent. The…

  12. Tuberculosis of the middle ear with post auricular abscess.

    PubMed

    Arya, Manoj; Dixit, Ramakant; Paramez, A R; Sharma, Sidharth; Rathore, Dilip Singh

    2009-07-01

    A case of tuberculous otitis media with post auricular abscess is being described in a 14-year-old female patient in view of its rare occurrence. The diagnosis was made on demonstration of acid fast bacilli (AFB) in the ear discharge and characteristic cytological features of post auricular abscess aspirate.

  13. Immunolocalization of aquaporin CHIP in the guinea pig inner ear.

    PubMed

    Stanković, K M; Adams, J C; Brown, D

    1995-12-01

    Aquaporin CHIP (AQP-CHIP) is a water channel protein previously identified in red blood cells and water transporting epithelia. The inner ear is an organ of hearing and balance whose normal function depends critically on maintenance of fluid homeostasis. In this study, AQP-CHIP, or a close homologue, was found in specific cells of the inner ear, as assessed by immunocytochemistry with the use of affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies against AQP-CHIP.AQP-CHIP was predominantly found in fibrocytes in close association with bone, including most of the cells lining the bony labyrinth and in fibrocytes lining the endolymphatic duct and sac. AQP-CHIP-positive cells not directly apposing bone include cells under the basilar membrane, some type III fibrocytes of the spiral ligament, fibrocytes of the spiral limbus, and the trabecular perilymphatic tissue extending from the membranous to the bony labyrinth. AQP-CHIP was also found in the periosteum of the middle ear and cranial bones, as well as in chondrocytes of the oval window and stapes. The distribution of AQP-CHIP in the inner ear suggests that AQP-CHIP may have special significance for maintenance of bone and the basilar membrane, and for function of the spiral ligament.

  14. Ear, nose and throat problems in Accident and Emergency.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Tanya

    Nurses working in A&E departments throughout the UK frequently encounter patients with ear, nose and throat conditions. While the majority of these are straightforward, a small number are serious and even life-threatening. Tanya Reynolds discusses the nursing management of this group of patients and stresses the importance of appropriate assessment, pain management and referral.

  15. Closed anterior scoring for prominent-ear correction revisited.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S S; Fatah, F

    2001-10-01

    The closed-anterior-scoring technique has been used over the past 3 years to correct 56 prominent ears in 32 patients at the West Midlands Regional Plastic Surgery Unit at Wordsley Hospital. A review was carried out to assess the result of this surgical procedure. We briefly discuss the historical development of other surgical techniques for prominent-ear correction, and describe in detail the operative technique for this procedure, which includes closed scoring and suturing of the cartilage. We used this technique to treat 24 patients with bilateral prominent ears and eight patients with unilateral prominent ears. The series comprised 20 females and 12 males, 26 children and six adults. The age range was from 4 to 24 years old. There were two complications (an upper-pole recurrence and protrusion of a buried prolene suture). Patients were followed up for between 6 months and 3 years (mean: 1.5 years). This procedure is quick and technically easy to learn, with no anterior scars or posterior cartilage overlap. Minimal dissection is involved, leading to a low rate of complications. The learning curve is rapid; this paper represents the experience of a specialist trainee (SST) after he was taught the technique by the senior author. Copyright 2001 The British Association of Plastic Surgeons.

  16. Extinction of auditory stimuli in hemineglect: Space versus ear.

    PubMed

    Spierer, Lucas; Meuli, Reto; Clarke, Stephanie

    2007-02-01

    Unilateral extinction of auditory stimuli, a key feature of the neglect syndrome, was investigated in 15 patients with right (11), left (3) or bilateral (1) hemispheric lesions using a verbal dichotic condition, in which each ear received simultaneously one word, and a interaural-time-difference (ITD) diotic condition, in which both ears received both words lateralised by means of ITD. Additional investigations included sound localisation, visuo-spatial attention and general cognitive status. Five patients presented a significant asymmetry in the ITD diotic test, due to a decrease of left hemispace reporting but no asymmetry was found in dichotic listening. Six other patients presented a significant asymmetry in the dichotic test due to a significant decrease of left or right ear reporting, but no asymmetry in diotic listening. Ten of the above patients presented mild to severe deficits in sound localisation and eight signs of visuo-spatial neglect (three with selective asymmetry in the diotic and five in the dichotic task). Four other patients presented a significant asymmetry in both the diotic and dichotic listening tasks. Three of them presented moderate deficits in localisation and all four moderate visuo-spatial neglect. Thus, extinction for left ear and left hemispace can double dissociate, suggesting distinct underlying neural processes. Furthermore, the co-occurrence with sound localisation disturbance and with visuo-spatial hemineglect speaks in favour of the involvement of multisensory attentional representations.

  17. Compensating for ear-canal acoustics when measuring otoacoustic emissions

    PubMed Central

    Charaziak, Karolina K.; Shera, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) provide an acoustic fingerprint of the inner ear, and changes in this fingerprint may indicate changes in cochlear function arising from efferent modulation, aging, noise trauma, and/or exposure to harmful agents. However, the reproducibility and diagnostic power of OAE measurements is compromised by the variable acoustics of the ear canal, in particular, by multiple reflections and the emergence of standing waves at relevant frequencies. Even when stimulus levels are controlled using methods that circumvent standing-wave problems (e.g., forward-pressure-level calibration), distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) levels vary with probe location by 10–15 dB near half-wave resonant frequencies. The method presented here estimates the initial outgoing OAE pressure wave at the eardrum from measurements of the conventional OAE, allowing one to separate the emitted OAE from the many reflections trapped in the ear canal. The emitted pressure level (EPL) represents the OAE level that would be recorded were the ear canal replaced by an infinite tube with no reflections. When DPOAEs are expressed using EPL, their variation with probe location decreases to the test–retest repeatability of measurements obtained at similar probe positions. EPL provides a powerful way to reduce the variability of OAE measurements and improve their ability to detect cochlear changes. PMID:28147590

  18. Principles of ear nose and throat surgery for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Baruah, Paramita; Jasraj, Kailey; Ahmad, Ijaz

    2017-04-02

    Management of the pregnant surgical patient is challenging. The surgical procedure is usually postponed until the postpartum period, although this may not be possible in emergency situations. This article highlights the optimal management of the pregnant woman requiring ear nose and throat surgery.

  19. Development and Validation of the Musical Ear Training Assessment (META)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Anna; Kopiez, Reinhard

    2018-01-01

    In the following study, we have developed an assessment instrument for the practice-dependent skill of analytical hearing following a strict test theoretical validation, resulting in the Musical Ear Training Assessment (META). By means of three pilot studies, a developmental study, and a validation study, we verified a one-dimensional test model…

  20. 15 CFR 734.3 - Items subject to the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and foreign-made technology that is commingled with controlled U.S.-origin technology: (i) In any....S. origin technology or software, as described in § 736.2(b)(3) of the EAR. The term “direct product... technology or software; and Note to paragraph (a)(4): Certain foreign-manufactured items developed or...