Science.gov

Sample records for ear protective devices

  1. Real-ear output measures of ear level fluency devices.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Andrew; Butler, Alyson K; Jones, Sherri M; Jones, Timothy A

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure real-ear aided and saturated responses of SpeechEasy™ devices and compare responses while devices delivered altered auditory feedback (AAF) and non-altered feedback (NAF). A repeated measures quasi-experimental design was employed. Ten people fitted with completely-in-the-canal or open fit behind-the-ear devices participated. Probe microphone measures were obtained with speech, and 17 chirp stimuli presented at 75 dB and 85 dB SPL, respectively. Measurements were compared with devices delivering AAF (i.e. delayed and frequency shifted) versus NAF. Maximum outputs were approximately 100-105 dB SPL in the 2000-4000 Hz range. Statistically significant differences in device SPL output as a function of device setting (AAF vs. NAF) were found for seven chirp stimuli (p <.05) when levels were sampled at points that were not temporally aligned with the output chirps but not for speech stimulus (p = .17). Device output varied across individuals and with open fit devices dominated by ear canal resonance effects. Real-ear aided responses were equivalent with speech input when devices delivered AAF and NAF. Real-ear saturated responses were not, however, comparable between AAF and NAF settings and may be underestimated if AAF delay is not accounted for.

  2. Middle Ear Implantable Hearing Devices: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, David S.; Young, Jadrien A.; Wanna, George B.; Glasscock, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    Hearing loss affects approximately 30 million people in the United States. It has been estimated that only approximately 20% of people with hearing loss significant enough to warrant amplification actually seek assistance for amplification. A significant interest in middle ear implants has emerged over the years to facilitate patients who are noncompliant with conventional hearing aides, do not receive significant benefit from conventional aides, or are not candidates for cochlear implants. From the initial studies in the 1930s, the technology has greatly evolved over the years with a wide array of devices and mechanisms employed in the development of implantable middle ear hearing devices. Currently, these devices are generally available in two broad categories: partially or totally implantable using either piezoelectric or electromagnetic systems. The authors present an up-to-date overview of the major implantable middle ear devices. Although the current devices are largely in their infancy, indications for middle ear implants are ever evolving as promising studies show good results. The totally implantable devices provide the user freedom from the social and practical difficulties of using conventional amplification. PMID:19762429

  3. Design Factors and Use of Ear Protection*

    PubMed Central

    Rice, C. G.; Coles, R. R. A.

    1966-01-01

    The problems of protecting the ear against hazardous noise are the subject of a general review, supported where relevant by data from the authors' own researches. Ear protectors are classified into two main types−plugs and muffs—and the general principles of their function and limitations are stated. Examples of representative ear protectors are given in more detail, with particular respect to their relative merits and pure-tone attenuation characteristics. The effects of earplugs on speech communication are considered and the relationships between pure-tone attenuation and protection against continuous noise are discussed in some detail. The results of temporary threshold shift (T.T.S.) reduction studies of the efficiency of V.51R and Selectone-K earplugs in protecting against reverberant and non-reverberant impulsive noises are presented. The design requirements of ear protectors and some of the problems created by them are also outlined. Images PMID:5946129

  4. A field investigation of hearing protection and hearing enhancement in one device: for soldiers whose ears and lives depend upon it.

    PubMed

    Casali, John G; Ahroon, William A; Lancaster, Jeff A

    2009-01-01

    Operational hearing protection and maintenance of audibility of signals and speech are considered force multipliers in military operations, increasing Soldier survivability and lethality. The in-field research described in this paper was conducted to examine operational performance effects of three different hearing enhancement protection systems (HEPS) that are intended to provide both protection and audibility. The experiment utilized operationally-defined measures in full-scale, simulated combat scenarios with Army ROTC Cadet Soldiers as subjects. The Soldiers' operational performance was evaluated in two missions: reconnaissance and raid (attack on enemy camp). Both missions had substantial hearing requirements, including communications, signal detection/recognition, and distance judgments. Operational performance was measured by objective metrics of Squad performance, including the distances required to detect an enemy insurgent camp under each HEPS, and by subjective metrics, such as the Army's dimensions of combat-related mission success as evaluated by Army Officers who served as training leaders/observers. Other subjective ratings were obtained after each training exercise from both the Officers and the Soldiers, including detailed impressions about each HEPS after extended use. Two of the three HEPS were electronic sound transmission devices (comprising an ambient sound pass-through filtering and amplification circuit): a Peltor Comtac II circumaural headset (NRR=21; 16 dB maximum gain); and a Communications Enhancement Protection System (CEPS) (NRR=29; 36 dB maximum gain). One passive, level-dependent HEPS was used, the yellow end of the Combat Arms Earplug, which provides amplitude-sensitive attenuation that sharply increases when the ambient sound is above about 110 dB (e.g., due to a gunshot), but which provides an NRR of 0 and very little attenuation below 1000 Hz in lower ambient noise levels. In the military mission entailing location of and attack

  5. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  6. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  7. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  8. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat drug... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration...

  9. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat drug... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration...

  10. Middle ear implantable hearing device: ongoing animal and human evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hough, J; Dormer, K J; Baker, R S; Meikle, M; Himelick, T

    1988-01-01

    The first five patients have been permanently implanted with an electromagnetic middle ear implantable hearing device. Hearing tests were performed at the time of operation and at 8 weeks postoperatively with a coil held at the isthmus of the ear canal. All patients reported clear, high fidelity sound, as proven by speech discrimination scores. Improvements were seen in all frequencies, including 4,000 Hz. Improvement in pure tones as tested with an audiometer monitoring sounds amplified by a 3-V sound processor was as high as 50 dB sound pressure level. That which remains to be done is the final design of a compact, wearable sound processor with filtering and signal-processing capabilities to meet the needs of the sensorineural hearing-impaired population.

  11. 78 FR 63225 - Ear, Nose and Throat Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Ear, Nose and Throat Devices Panel of the Medical Devices... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Ear, Nose and Throat Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  12. Respiratory protection devices.

    PubMed

    Vesley, D L

    1995-04-01

    OSHA authority and responsibility have led to the requirement that health care workers potentially exposed to patients with active tuberculosis in situations where engineering controls are not feasible for protection must utilize personal protective equipment at least equivalent to HEPA respirators. ICPs generally believe that this approach is unnecessarily conservative and imposes undue burdens on patient care. The arguments on both sides of this controversy have some merit. Reported cases of tuberculosis and skin-test conversions among health care workers since 1988 and the absence of a demonstrated safe level of exposure have led many to the conclusion that HEPA respirators are justified. On the other side, tuberculosis currently is not a major problem in some areas of the country, and many believe that less stringent personal protective devices (e.g., DM respirators) may provide protection equivalent to HEPA filters--at least in terms of preventing infection if not in terms of filtration efficiency. They believe that the lesser discomfort and lower cost associated with DM respirators justify the argument for a more flexible standard. Perhaps additional research can help to resolve the remaining controversy. Definitive answers are unlikely to surface quickly, however, and it is likely that the controversy and confusion will continue for at least awhile longer.

  13. Ear canal dynamic motion as a source of power for in-ear devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delnavaz, Aidin; Voix, Jérémie

    2013-02-01

    Ear canal deformation caused by temporomandibular joint (jaw joint) activity, also known as "ear canal dynamic motion," is introduced in this paper as a candidate source of power to possibly recharge hearing aid batteries. The geometrical deformation of the ear canal is quantified in 3D by laser scanning of different custom ear moulds. An experimental setup is proposed to measure the amount of power potentially available from this source. The results show that 9 mW of power is available from a 15 mm3 dynamic change in the ear canal volume. Finally, the dynamic motion and power capability of the ear canal are investigated in a group of 12 subjects.

  14. Protecting short-term intravascular ear catheters in healthy rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Francesca; Orchard, Rekha N; Antonopoulos, Aphroditi J; Hamilton, Donald L

    2012-01-20

    Researchers may place a catheter in the ear vessel of a rabbit for a short period of time in order to collect repeated blood samples without extensive restraint of the animal. Maintaining such a catheter in a healthy rabbit can be challenging, as the animal may scratch at the ear, removing the catheter or forming a large hematoma that might impede blood sampling. The authors developed a technique for protecting the indwelling catheter by cutting a section of moleskin to the same shape as the ear and gluing it to the surface of the ear and the catheter. They applied this technique to collect multiple blood samples during 12-h periods from nine rabbits in a pharmacokinetics study. Catheters remained patent in five rabbits for 12 h, in two rabbits for 8 h, in one rabbit for 6 h and in one rabbit for 4 h. This technique allowed for collection of repeated blood samples and prevented the rabbits from interfering with the catheter while allowing them to move freely during the sampling period.

  15. A comprehensive model of human ear for analysis of implantable hearing devices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangming; Gan, Rong Z

    2011-10-01

    A finite element (FE) model of the human ear including the ear canal, middle ear, and spiral cochlea was constructed from histological sections of human temporal bone. Multiphysics analysis of the acoustics, structure, and fluid coupling in the ear was conducted in the model. The viscoelastic material behavior was applied to the middle ear soft tissues based on dynamic measurements of tissues in our laboratory. The FE model was first validated using the experimental data obtained in human cadaver ears, and then used to investigate the efficiency of the forward and reverse mechanical driving with middle ear implant, and the passive vibration of basilar membrane (BM) with cochlear implant placed in the cochlear scala tympani. The middle ear transfer function and the cochlear function of the BM vibration were derived from the model. This comprehensive ear model provides a novel computational tool to visualize and compute the implantable hearing devices and surgical procedures.

  16. Future approaches for inner ear protection and repair

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Seiji B.; Raphael, Yehoash

    2010-01-01

    Health care professionals tending to patients with inner ear disease face inquiries about therapy options, including treatments that are being developed for future use but not yet available. The devastating outcome of sensorineural hearing loss, combined with the permanent nature of the symptoms, make these inquiries demanding and frequent. The vast information accessible online and the publicity for breakthroughs in research add to patient requests for access to advanced and innovative therapies, even before these are available for clinical use. This can sometimes be taxing on the health care provider who is in contact with the patients. Here we aim to equip the provider with information about some of the progress made for protective and reparative approaches for treating inner ears. Learning outcomes (1) Readers will be able to explain why hearing loss is irreversible and common, (2) Readers will be able to explain the importance of protective measures and the progress made in discovery and design of novel biological protective molecules, (3) Readers will be able to describe reparative approaches currently under investigation (such as tissue engineering), the main difficulties in the design of such therapies and the major hurdles that remain for making novel technologies clinically viable, and (4) readers will be able to explain to their patients some of the progress in developing new treatments without making the promise of imminent clinical use. With this information, readers will be able to guide patients to make better choices for their treatment and to guide students toward research in this exciting field. PMID:20430401

  17. The Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR): a device for sampling naturalistic daily activities and conversations.

    PubMed

    Mehl, M R; Pennebaker, J W; Crow, D M; Dabbs, J; Price, J H

    2001-11-01

    A recording device called the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) is described. The EAR taperecords for 30 sec once every 12 min for 2-4 days. It is lightweight and portable, and it can be worn comfortably by participants in their natural environment. The acoustic data samples provide a nonobtrusive record of the language used and settings entered by the participant. Preliminary psychometric findings suggest that the EAR data accurately reflect individuals' natural social, linguistic, and psychological lives. The data presented in this article were collected with a first-generation EAR system based on analog tape recording technology, but a second generation digital EAR is now available.

  18. 77 FR 33688 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Personal Protective...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Personal Protective Equipment, Shelters, and Related Items the... controlled on the CCL and by the EAR. This proposed rule is being published in conjunction with a proposed... Control List (CCL) in Supplement No. 1 to Part 774 of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR)....

  19. Lightning protection devices for high frequencies equipments

    SciTech Connect

    Pierre, J.

    1983-01-01

    Contents: Mechanism of a Lightning Stroke from Antenna to Ground; Principles of Protection Devices for Feeders; Electrical Characteristics of H.F. Protection Devices; Calculation of H.F. Protection Devices; Catalogue Devices for High Frequency Protection; Some Measurement Results for Tees; Measurement Results for Decoupling Line Devices; Installation of High Frequency Devices.

  20. 76 FR 34845 - Medical Devices; Ear, Nose, and Throat Devices; Classification of the Wireless Air-Conduction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 874 Medical Devices; Ear, Nose, and Throat Devices; Classification of... established by this final rule create ``requirements'' for specific medical devices under 21 U.S.C. 360k, even..., 1976 (the date of enactment of the Medical Device Amendments of 1976), generally referred to...

  1. Dichotic Hearing in Elderly Hearing Aid Users Who Choose to Use a Single-Ear Device

    PubMed Central

    Ribas, Angela; Mafra, Nicoli; Marques, Jair; Mottecy, Carla; Silvestre, Renata; Kozlowski, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Elderly individuals with bilateral hearing loss often do not use hearing aids in both ears. Because of this, dichotic tests to assess hearing in this group may help identify peculiar degenerative processes of aging and hearing aid selection. Objective To evaluate dichotic hearing for a group of elderly hearing aid users who did not adapt to using binaural devices and to verify the correlation between ear dominance and the side chosen to use the device. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study involving 30 subjects from 60 to 81 years old, of both genders, with an indication for bilateral hearing aids for over 6 months, but using only a single device. Medical history, pure tone audiometry, and dichotic listening tests were all completed. Results All subjects (100%) of the sample failed the dichotic digit test; 94% of the sample preferred to use the device in one ear because bilateral use bothered them and affected speech understanding. In 6%, the concern was aesthetics. In the dichotic digit test, there was significant predominance of the right ear over the left, and there was a significant correlation between the dominant side with the ear chosen by the participant for use of the hearing aid. Conclusion In elderly subjects with bilateral hearing loss who have chosen to use only one hearing aid, there is dominance of the right ear over the left in dichotic listening tasks. There is a correlation between the dominant ear and the ear chosen for hearing aid fitting. PMID:25992120

  2. 29 CFR 1926.101 - Hearing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exposures to those specified in Table D-2, Permissible Noise Exposures, in § 1926.52, ear protective devices shall be provided and used. (b) Ear protective devices inserted in the ear shall be fitted or...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.101 - Hearing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exposures to those specified in Table D-2, Permissible Noise Exposures, in § 1926.52, ear protective devices shall be provided and used. (b) Ear protective devices inserted in the ear shall be fitted or...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.101 - Hearing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... exposures to those specified in Table D-2, Permissible Noise Exposures, in § 1926.52, ear protective devices shall be provided and used. (b) Ear protective devices inserted in the ear shall be fitted or...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.101 - Hearing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... exposures to those specified in Table D-2, Permissible Noise Exposures, in § 1926.52, ear protective devices shall be provided and used. (b) Ear protective devices inserted in the ear shall be fitted or...

  6. Offshore drilling platform protection device

    SciTech Connect

    Magill, J.M.

    1981-12-15

    A description is given of an offshore drilling platform protection device for use on an offshore oil well drilling vessel including a drilling platform supportable on a plurality of extendable legs wherein each leg is moved by a rack gear assembly. The rack gear assembly includes an otherwise exposed first gear which engages a second gear positioned in a housing having a rectangular corner opening through which the first gear extends, the protection device including first and second protective sections adapted for mounting over the first gear adjacent to the rectangular corner of the housing for the second gear, the first and second protective sections cooperating to provide an l-shaped opening which communicates with the opening at the second gear housing for protecting the first gear while allowing the first gear to mesh with the second gear.

  7. [Therapy of middle ear injuries caused by explosive devices].

    PubMed

    Lucić, M

    1995-01-01

    Forty nine wounded with the explosive injury of the middle ear were treated. The largest number of injuries were ruptures of the ear drum (79.35%), followed by the break of the ossicular chain (15.87%) and the fractures of the mastoid, along with the paralysis of the facial nerve (4.77%). In therapeutic procedure the reposition and connection of the eardrum parts and 'patch' technique were performed, and in case of perforation persistence longer than four months myringoplasty was done. Injuries of the auditory bones were solved by ossiculoplasty, and injuries of facial nerve by decompression and neuro suture. In 66% spontaneous healing of rupture occurred and the ossicular chain was successfully fixed in 80% of injuries while the reparation of the facial nerve was partially achieved. The acute secondary infection developed in 18% and the chronic otitis in 10% of cases. The early reposition of the eardrum rupture is recommended due to infection prevention of the middle ear and in order to stimulate the spontaneous improvement, while the surgical treatment is recommended in cases with persistent rupture or conductive loss of hearing lasting longer than four months.

  8. Protective laser beam viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Neil, George R.; Jordan, Kevin Carl

    2012-12-18

    A protective laser beam viewing system or device including a camera selectively sensitive to laser light wavelengths and a viewing screen receiving images from the laser sensitive camera. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the camera is worn on the head of the user or incorporated into a goggle-type viewing display so that it is always aimed at the area of viewing interest to the user and the viewing screen is incorporated into a video display worn as goggles over the eyes of the user.

  9. Future Approaches for Inner Ear Protection and Repair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Seiji B.; Raphael, Yehoash

    2010-01-01

    Health care professionals tending to patients with inner ear disease face inquiries about therapy options, including treatments that are being developed for future use but not yet available. The devastating outcome of sensorineural hearing loss, combined with the permanent nature of the symptoms, make these inquiries demanding and frequent. The…

  10. Future Approaches for Inner Ear Protection and Repair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Seiji B.; Raphael, Yehoash

    2010-01-01

    Health care professionals tending to patients with inner ear disease face inquiries about therapy options, including treatments that are being developed for future use but not yet available. The devastating outcome of sensorineural hearing loss, combined with the permanent nature of the symptoms, make these inquiries demanding and frequent. The…

  11. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  12. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  13. Hands-free device control using sound picked up in the ear canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhatpar, Siddharth R.; Ngia, Lester; Vlach, Chris; Lin, Dong; Birkhimer, Craig; Juneja, Amit; Pruthi, Tarun; Hoffman, Orin; Lewis, Tristan

    2008-04-01

    Hands-free control of unmanned ground vehicles is essential for soldiers, bomb disposal squads, and first responders. Having their hands free for other equipment and tasks allows them to be safer and more mobile. Currently, the most successful hands-free control devices are speech-command based. However, these devices use external microphones, and in field environments, e.g., war zones and fire sites, their performance suffers because of loud ambient noise: typically above 90dBA. This paper describes the development of technology using the ear as an output source that can provide excellent command recognition accuracy even in noisy environments. Instead of picking up speech radiating from the mouth, this technology detects speech transmitted internally through the ear canal. Discreet tongue movements also create air pressure changes within the ear canal, and can be used for stealth control. A patented earpiece was developed with a microphone pointed into the ear canal that captures these signals generated by tongue movements and speech. The signals are transmitted from the earpiece to an Ultra-Mobile Personal Computer (UMPC) through a wired connection. The UMPC processes the signals and utilizes them for device control. The processing can include command recognition, ambient noise cancellation, acoustic echo cancellation, and speech equalization. Successful control of an iRobot PackBot has been demonstrated with both speech (13 discrete commands) and tongue (5 discrete commands) signals. In preliminary tests, command recognition accuracy was 95% with speech control and 85% with tongue control.

  14. Amplification options in unilateral aural atresia: an active middle ear implant or a bone conduction device?

    PubMed

    Agterberg, Martijn J H; Frenzel, Henning; Wollenberg, Barbara; Somers, Thomas; Cremers, Cor W R J; Snik, Ad F M

    2014-01-01

    There is no consensus on treatment of patients with congenital unilateral aural atresia. Currently, 3 intervention options are available, namely, surgical reconstruction, application of a bone-conduction device (BCD), or application of a middle ear implant. The present study aims to compare the BCD with the application of a middle ear implant. We hypothesized that cross-hearing (stimulating the cochlea by means of bone conduction contralateral to the implanted side) would cause BCD users to have difficulty performing localization tasks. Audiologic data of 4 adult patients with a middle ear implant coupled directly to the cochlea were compared with data of 4 adult patients fitted with an osseointegrated BCD. All patients were fitted during adulthood. The emphasis of this study is on directional hearing. The middle ear implant and the BCD improved sound localization of patients with congenital unilateral aural atresia. Unaided scores demonstrate a large variation. Our results demonstrate that there was no advantage of the middle ear implant over the BCD for directional hearing in patients who had no amplification in childhood. The BCD users had the best bandwidth.

  15. Protection of horse ears against Simulid parasitism: Efficacy of a mammal semiochemical solution over 10hours.

    PubMed

    Creton, Benjamin; Pageat, Patrick; Robejean, Myriam; Lafont-Lecuelle, Céline; Cozzi, Alessandro

    2016-08-30

    Hematophagous insects can be vectors of pathogens and cause significant economic loss in zootechnical production. Among biting insects, many dipteran species feed on horse blood. The black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) group, is responsible for several disorders in horses and inflicts painful bites that lead to undesirable behaviours in horses, particularly when bites occur in sensitive areas such as the inner ear. A field study was conducted in a French equestrian center during which a semiochemical was applied on horses' ears to assess repellent efficacy against simulid infestation. During the first phase of the study, efficacy was evaluated over a one hour period. Then, during the second phase of the study, persistency of the effect was tested at 8, 9 and 10h after application. The results of the study's first phase showed 90% efficacy over one hour, with 121.5 insects found in control ears and 12 insects in treated ears (p=0.001). In the second phase of the study, a total amount of 411 insects were observed on control ears whereas only 2 insects were observed on treated ears (p<0.0001); the treatment remained over 98% effective up to 10hours after application. When using a slow release excipient, this semiochemical may offer at least 10h of protection against simulids. This safe, efficient, and long lasting protection could help horses and their owners to manage simulid parasitism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protect your hearing by wearing earplugs at loud music concerts and around noisy machinery, like in wood ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? ...

  17. Auditory Localization Performance with Gamma Integrated Eye and Ear Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person...front-back confusions). 15. SUBJECT TERMS auditory localization, TCAPS, hearing protection, eye protection, auditory situation awareness 16. SECURITY...documented effects have led to the inclusion of auditory localization ability as a measure of auditory “situation awareness ” for TCAPS, and it has been

  18. Epigenetic regulation in the inner ear and its potential roles in development, protection, and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Layman, Wanda S.; Zuo, Jian

    2014-01-01

    The burgeoning field of epigenetics is beginning to make a significant impact on our understanding of tissue development, maintenance, and function. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate the structure and activity of the genome in response to intracellular and environmental cues that direct cell-type specific gene networks. The inner ear is comprised of highly specialized cell types with identical genomes that originate from a single totipotent zygote. During inner ear development specific combinations of transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers must function in a coordinated manner to establish and maintain cellular identity. These epigenetic regulatory mechanisms contribute to the maintenance of distinct chromatin states and cell-type specific gene expression patterns. In this review, we highlight emerging paradigms for epigenetic modifications related to inner ear development, and how epigenetics may have a significant role in hearing loss, protection, and regeneration. PMID:25750614

  19. Protection of microelectronic devices during packaging

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Conley, William R.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of protecting a microelectronic device during device packaging, including the steps of applying a water-insoluble, protective coating to a sensitive area on the device; performing at least one packaging step; and then substantially removing the protective coating, preferably by dry plasma etching. The sensitive area can include a released MEMS element. The microelectronic device can be disposed on a wafer. The protective coating can be a vacuum vapor-deposited parylene polymer, silicon nitride, metal (e.g. aluminum or tungsten), a vapor deposited organic material, cynoacrylate, a carbon film, a self-assembled monolayered material, perfluoropolyether, hexamethyldisilazane, or perfluorodecanoic carboxylic acid, silicon dioxide, silicate glass, or combinations thereof. The present invention also relates to a method of packaging a microelectronic device, including: providing a microelectronic device having a sensitive area; applying a water-insoluble, protective coating to the sensitive area; providing a package; attaching the device to the package; electrically interconnecting the device to the package; and substantially removing the protective coating from the sensitive area.

  20. Protection Against Hearing Loss in General Aviation Operations, Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    An inflight evaluation of four aural protectors is presented. The hearing protection devices studied were ear muffs, plastic ear plugs, rubber ear plugs, and wax ear plugs. It is concluded that ear plugs are satisfactory for providing adequate sound attenuation in general aviation aircraft. However, two problems were found in the use of ear plugs; comfort and interference with cabin communications.

  1. Gas sensor protection device and method

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, David; Magera, Craig

    2016-11-08

    A gas sensor includes a sensor housing and a sensing element located within the sensor housing. The sensing element has a distal end and defines an axis. The gas sensor also includes a sensor protection device coupled to the sensor housing and at least partially surrounding the distal end of the sensing element. The sensor protection device includes a first member coupled to the housing, the first member having a generally rectangular cross-sectional shape in a plane perpendicular to the axis. The first member includes a gas inlet and a gas outlet. The sensor protection device also includes a second member coupled to the housing.

  2. Environmental awareness and level-dependent hearing protection devices.

    PubMed

    Lindley, G A; Palmer, C V; Goldstein, H; Pratt, S

    1997-02-01

    The effect of level-dependent hearing protection devices (HPDs) on subjects' ability to identify real-life environmental sounds was investigated. Eighteen subjects with no hunting experience attempted to identify sounds (crow, duck, turkey, deer, owl, goose, and person) recorded at various distances in the presence of the SoundScope and Sonic II level-dependent HPDs as well as in an open ear condition. Knowles Electronic's Manikin for Auditory Research was employed in making the experimental recordings. The Sonic II accomplishes level-dependent attenuation via a passive mechanism, whereas the SoundScope employs active circuitry that attenuates loud sounds while providing a small amount of high frequency amplification for soft sounds. Both devices are commercially available and are advertised for hunters/shooters. Sound identification scores (SISs) were determined for each condition. Mean SISs differed significantly among the three earplug conditions, collapsed over type of sound and distance, with the best SIS obtained under the open ear condition (96.43%) and the worst under the Sonic II condition (84.13%). Further analysis revealed that the listening conditions differed significantly only at the 100 yard distance. Auditory awareness was not maintained by either device investigated during the 100 yard condition. However, auditory awareness was maintained by both devices at a distance of 75 yards or closer. These devices may be appropriate for use in certain hunting/shooting situations depending on several factors including type of game being hunted, environment, and shooting range of the weapon. Further support also is provided for the usage of level-dependent HPDs during recreational shooting activities (i.e., at a shooting range).

  3. Manual accuracy in comparison with a miniature master slave device--preclinical evaluation for ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Runge, A; Hofer, M; Dittrich, E; Neumuth, T; Haase, R; Strauss, M; Dietz, A; Lüth, T; Strauss, G

    2011-01-01

    Manual accuracy in microsurgery is reduced by tremor and limited access. A surgical approach through the middle ear also puts delicate structures at risk, while the surgeon is often working at an unergonomic position. At this point a micromanipulator could have a positive influence. A system was developed to measure "working accuracy", time and precision during manipulation in the middle ear. 10 ENT-surgeons simulated a perforation of the stapedial footplate on a modified 3D print of a human skull in a mock OR. Each trial was repeated more than 200 times aiming manually and using a micro-manipulator. Data of over 4000 measurements was tested and graphically processed. Work strain was evaluated with a questionnaire. Accuracy for manual and micromanipulator perforation revealed a small difference. Learning curves showed a stronger decrease both in deviation and time when the micromanipulator was used. Also a lower work strain was apparent. The micromanipulator has the potential as an aiding device in ear surgery.

  4. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, J.M.; Whinery, L.D.; Gwinn, K.W.; McBride, D.D.; Luna, D.A.; Holder, J.P.; Bliton, R.J.

    1997-03-04

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion`s ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion`s ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored. 22 figs.

  5. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, J.M.; Whinery, L.D.; Gwinn, K.W.; McBride, D.D.; Luna, D.A.; Holder, J.P.; Bliton, R.J.

    1996-01-09

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion`s ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion`s ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored. 22 figs.

  6. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, James M.; Whinery, Larry D.; Gwinn, Kenneth W.; McBride, Donald D.; Luna, Daniel A.; Holder, Joseph P.; Bliton, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored.

  7. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, James M.; Whinery, Larry D.; Gwinn, Kenneth W.; McBride, Donald D.; Luna, Daniel A.; Holder, Joseph P.; Bliton, Richard J.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored.

  8. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, James M.; Whinery, Larry D.; Gwinn, Kenneth W.; McBride, Donald D.; Luna, Daniel A.; Holder, Joseph P.; Bliton, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being Joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored.

  9. Numerical evaluation of implantable hearing devices using a finite element model of human ear considering viscoelastic properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Tian, Jiabin; Ta, Na; Huang, Xinsheng; Rao, Zhushi

    2016-08-01

    Finite element method was employed in this study to analyze the change in performance of implantable hearing devices due to the consideration of soft tissues' viscoelasticity. An integrated finite element model of human ear including the external ear, middle ear and inner ear was first developed via reverse engineering and analyzed by acoustic-structure-fluid coupling. Viscoelastic properties of soft tissues in the middle ear were taken into consideration in this model. The model-derived dynamic responses including middle ear and cochlea functions showed a better agreement with experimental data at high frequencies above 3000 Hz than the Rayleigh-type damping. On this basis, a coupled finite element model consisting of the human ear and a piezoelectric actuator attached to the long process of incus was further constructed. Based on the electromechanical coupling analysis, equivalent sound pressure and power consumption of the actuator corresponding to viscoelasticity and Rayleigh damping were calculated using this model. The analytical results showed that the implant performance of the actuator evaluated using a finite element model considering viscoelastic properties gives a lower output above about 3 kHz than does Rayleigh damping model. Finite element model considering viscoelastic properties was more accurate to numerically evaluate implantable hearing devices.

  10. High energy overcurrent protective device

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1982-01-01

    Electrical loads connected to capacitance elements in high voltage direct current systems are protected from damage by capacitance discharge overcurrents by connecting between the capacitance element and the load, a longitudinal inductor comprising a bifilar winding wound about a magnetic core, which forms an incomplete magnetic circuit. A diode is connected across a portion of the bifilar winding which conducts a unidirectional current only. Energy discharged from the capacitance element is stored in the inductor and then dissipated in an L-R circuit including the diode and the coil winding. Multiple high voltage circuits having capacitance elements may be connected to loads through bifilar windings all wound about the aforementioned magnetic core.

  11. In-ear medical devices for acoustic therapies in tinnitus treatments, state of the art.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, David; Tavira-Sanchez, Francisco; Recuero-Lopez, Manuel; Anthony, Brian W

    2017-04-21

    Cochrane reviews indicate there is very limited support for all forms of sound therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy has the strongest support. American Academy of Otolaryngology (AAO) recently published some guidelines which recommends Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for tinnitus intervention, and only indicates that sound therapy should be considered an "option" for intervention. Nevertheless, acoustic therapy could lead to cause changes in the tinnitus perception and has been appreciated by the affected people for years. In the last decades, the use of sound or sound enrichment has become a central part of many tinnitus management programs used by audiologists, whether the intention was to mask tinnitus, suppress tinnitus, or interrupt the tinnitus generating neural activity. Several acoustic therapies have been developed and implemented in the last 40 years, but how can we determine which one is the most effective? We can determine the effects based on the results reported in many research studies, but in those studies are many factors that differ from one study to another, like in-ear medical devices used to apply acoustic therapy for tinnitus treatment. In this article, we review and analyze the different types of in-ear medical devices used in the most recently acoustic therapies in treatments against tinnitus, allowing us to identify the pros and cons. By our analysis, an optimal medical device could be characterized to enhance the application of acoustic therapies and in consequence the global results of the sound therapies that already exist. In this review, it was considered acoustic therapies, the technology implemented in medical devices and the clinical needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Don't Let Gun Sports Backfire on You: Use Ear Protection and Hang onto Your Hearing

    MedlinePlus

    ... or other firearm used in hunting and sport shooting. "Wearing ear protection is extremely important, not only ... a silver medalist in the 2005 national shotgun shooting championships in Colorado Springs, CO—always carries two ...

  13. Investigations of the Impact of Altered Auditory Feedback In-the-Ear Devices on the Speech of People Who Stutter: Initial Fitting and 4-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Andrew; Kalinowski, Joseph; Rastatter, Michael P.; Saltuklaroglu, Tim; Dayalu, Vikram

    2003-01-01

    Self-contained ear-level devices delivering altered auditory feedback (AAF) for the application with those who stutter have only been recently developed. The paper examines the first therapeutic application of self-contained ear-level devices in three experiments. The effect of the device on the proportion of stuttered syllables and speech…

  14. Performance Assessment of Passive Hearing Protection Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-24

    6 Figure 6. Facility used to measure the real- ear ...attenuation of hearing protectors .......................... 7 Figure 7. Acoustic test fixture with hearing protector inserted into artificial ear canals... ear ................................................ 9 Figure 11. Schematic of the set-up of the explosive charge for the creation of a shock wave

  15. Electrical overstress protection of submicron devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antinone, R. J.; Young, P. A.

    1984-09-01

    The objective of this program was to further define the electrical overstress (EOS) sensitivity characterization procedures for microelectric devices and to investigate the EOS sensitivity of micron and submicron linewidth circuit structures. Another objective was to investigate improved EOS protection schemes and evaluate their benefits versus performance and cost penalties. The approach chosen to achieve these objectives was to attempt to design input protection networks which would protect an MOS device fabricated from a submicron process from an electrostatic discharge (ESD) threat. The program included the definition of ESD threats, examination of the characteristics of existing input protection networks, a study of the factors which limit the effectiveness of protection networks, and consideration of alternate approaches to achieve ESD hardness. The limiting factors which are expected to determine the electrical overstress sensitivity of micron and submicron design rule microcircuit technologies were investigated using computer-aided modeling techiques. Network analysis codes were used to exercise lumped circuit analogs of the electrical and thermal properties of the devices under study when subjected to ESD stress. Simple time domain network analysis codes suitable for microcomputers were used and are discussed in the report. The minimum cross-sectional areas of aluminum and polysilicon interconnects and semiconductor devices which are capable of withstanding an ESD event were established. Two candidate submicron technologies were considered in this study, CMOS and NMOS.

  16. A micropower miniature piezoelectric actuator for implantable middle ear hearing device.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhigang; Mills, Robert; Luo, Hongyan; Zheng, Xiaolin; Hou, Wensheng; Wang, Lijun; Brown, Stuart I; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a small actuator using a miniature piezoelectric stack and a flextensional mechanical amplification structure for an implantable middle ear hearing device (IMEHD). A finite-element method was used in the actuator design. Actuator vibration displacement was measured using a laser vibrometer. Preliminary evaluation of the actuator for an IMEHD was conducted using a temporal bone model. Initial results from one temporal bone study indicated that the actuator was small enough to be implanted within the middle ear cavity, and sufficient stapes displacement can be generated for patients with mild to moderate hearing losses, especially at higher frequency range, by the actuator suspended onto the stapes. There was an insignificant mass-loading effect on normal sound transmission (<3 dB) when the actuator was attached to the stapes and switched off. Improved vibration performance is predicted by more firm attachment. The actuator power consumption and its generated equivalent sound pressure level are also discussed. In conclusion, the actuator has advantages of small size, lightweight, and micropower consumption for potential use as IMHEDs.

  17. Optoelectronic devices incorporating fluoropolymer compositions for protection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xuming; Chum, Pak-Wing S.; Howard, Kevin E.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Sumner, William C.; Wu, Shaofu

    2015-12-22

    The fluoropolymer compositions of the present invention generally incorporate ingredients comprising one or more fluoropolymers, an ultraviolet light protection component (hereinafter UV protection component), and optionally one or more additional ingredients if desired. The UV protection component includes a combination of at least one hindered tertiary amine (HTA) compound having a certain structure and a weight average molecular weight of at least 1000. This tertiary amine is used in combination with at least one organic, UV light absorbing compound (UVLA compound) having a weight average molecular weight greater than 500. When the HTA compound and the UVLA compound are selected according to principles of the present invention, the UV protection component provides fluoropolymer compositions with significantly improved weatherability characteristics for protecting underlying materials, features, structures, components, and/or the like. In particular, fluoropolymer compositions incorporating the UV protection component of the present invention have unexpectedly improved ability to resist blackening, coloration, or other de gradation that may be caused by UV exposure. As a consequence, devices protected by these compositions would be expected to have dramatically improved service life. The compositions have a wide range of uses but are particularly useful for forming protective layers in optoelectronic devices.

  18. Impact of hearing protection devices on sound localization performance

    PubMed Central

    Zimpfer, Véronique; Sarafian, David

    2014-01-01

    Hearing Protection Devices (HPDs) can protect the ear against loud potentially damaging sounds while allowing lower-level sounds such as speech to be perceived. However, the impact of these devices on the ability to localize sound sources is not well known. To address this question, we propose two different methods: one behavioral and one dealing with acoustical measurements. For the behavioral method, sound localization performance was measured with, and without, HPDs on 20 listeners. Five HPDs, including both passive (non-linear attenuation) and three active (talk-through) systems were evaluated. The results showed a significant increase in localization errors, especially front-back and up-down confusions relative to the “naked ear” test condition for all of the systems tested, especially for the talk-through headphone system. For the acoustic measurement method, Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs) were measured on an artificial head both without, and with the HPDs in place. The effects of the HPDs on the spectral cues for the localization of different sound sources in the horizontal plane were analyzed. Alterations of the Interaural Spectral Difference (ISD) cues were identified, which could explain the observed increase in front-back confusions caused by the talk-through headphone protectors. PMID:24966807

  19. Device Data Protection in Mobile Healthcare Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerasinghe, Dasun; Rajarajan, Muttukrishnan; Rakocevic, Veselin

    The rapid growth in mobile technology makes the delivery of healthcare data and services on mobile phones a reality. However, the healthcare data is very sensitive and has to be protected against unauthorized access. While most of the development work on security of mobile healthcare today focuses on the data encryption and secure authentication in remote servers, protection of data on the mobile device itself has gained very little attention. This paper analyses the requirements and the architecture for a secure mobile capsule, specially designed to protect the data that is already on the device. The capsule is a downloadable software agent with additional functionalities to enable secure external communication with healthcare service providers, network operators and other relevant communication parties.

  20. A new implantable middle ear hearing device for mixed hearing loss: A feasibility study in human temporal bones.

    PubMed

    Huber, Alexander M; Ball, Geoffrey R; Veraguth, Dorothe; Dillier, Norbert; Bodmer, Daniel; Sequeira, Damien

    2006-12-01

    To assess the feasibility of a new, active middle ear device in temporal bones (TB). This device is designed for patients with mixed hearing loss subsequent to chronic middle ear infection, surgery, or trauma. This Bell-Vibroplasty is built from a VIBRANT MED-EL Vibrant Soundbridge and a Kurz Bell titanium partial ossicular replacement prosthesis. In three fresh TBs, healthy and reconstructed middle ears were analyzed by means of laser Doppler interferometry. The sound transmission properties of a partial ossicular replacement prosthesis and a passive and an active Bell-Vibroplasty were compared with healthy middle ear function. The measurements provided reliable results with small standard deviations and good signal-to-noise ratios. The performance levels of the partial ossicular replacement prosthesis and of the passive Bell-Vibroplasty were comparable with that of healthy middle ear function. The activated Bell-Vibroplasty provided linear function and a flat frequency response within the measured frequency range (500 Hz-8 kHz), with peak deviations of less than 10 dB. The maximum output of the Bell-Vibroplasty was equivalent to 125-dB sound pressure level. Bell-Vibroplasty is feasible in TBs. Bell-Vibroplasty performance in TBs is sufficient to allow for a clinical trial as a next step.

  1. Ear Infection (Middle Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    Ear infection (middle ear) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff An ear infection (acute otitis media) is most often a bacterial or viral infection that affects the middle ear, the air-filled space behind the eardrum that ...

  2. Measurement of protection factor of respiratory protective devices toward nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Brochot, C; Michielsen, N; Chazelet, S; Thomas, D

    2012-07-01

    The use of nanoparticles in industry has increased spectacularly over the past few years. Additionally, nanoscale particles seem to be the cause of new professional exposure situations. Due to their size, these particles may build up within the respiratory tract and may even reach the nervous system via the nasal passages; for this reason, it is generally recommended to wear respiratory protective devices (RPDs) in situations where collective protection is impossible to implement or inadequate. Here, we present the test bench ETNA designed to study the efficiency of RPDs in the presence of nanoparticles. The results of the efficiency measurement of two RPDs for two positions (sealed and unsealed) on a Sheffield head, for two inhalation configurations (constant flow and cyclic flow), and for two different particle size distributions of NaCl aerosol (one centered on 13 nm and the other on 59 nm) are presented below. The measurements indicate that when the leaks are negligible at the interface mask/head, the efficiency of RPD is greater for nanoparticles. For major leaks, the device's protection factor changes independently of the size of the particles. Furthermore, no trends with respect to the effect of the respiration type (constant-flow and cyclic-flow tests) have been shown on the device's protection factor.

  3. Force estimation and failure detection based on disturbance observer for an ear surgical device.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenyu; Huang, Sunan; Chen, Silu; Tan, Kok Kiong

    2017-01-01

    The disturbance observer is one of the useful tools for estimating the contact force between the subject body and the environment in robotic and mechatronic systems. This paper introduced a novel automatic office-based ear surgical device for the treatment of Otitis Media with Effusion (OME) under the guidance of force sensing information. Since the force sensing information must be reliable so as to ensure the safety of the device, a contact force estimation method based on the disturbance observer is proposed. The system model is built and a control strategy is proposed and developed. In the control strategy, a composite motion controller for an ultrasonic motor (USM) stage is presented, and then the design and the stability analysis of an advanced disturbance observer is given. Furthermore, a contact estimator and a failure detector, aiming to enhance the safety and reliability enhancement, are designed. Finally, the proposed control strategy is studied with both simulation and experiment. The experimental results show that the advanced disturbance observer can estimate the actual contact force correctly and precisely, and the disturbance observer based force estimation and failure detection method is feasible which can be used in force sensing, contact detection and fault diagnosis.

  4. Endovascular arterial interventions with embolic protection devices.

    PubMed

    Cura, M; Cura, A

    2007-12-01

    Endovascular treatment of atherosclerotic lesions can provide a clinical benefit, but arterial interventions are not exempt from complications. Embolization in the peripheral circulation may result in unfavorable outcomes. The purpose of this article is to review the technical applications, the clinical indications, and the risks and benefits of different protection devices, occlusions balloons, and filters commonly used during endovascular interventions in the carotid circulation, renal arteries, and lower extremities.

  5. Devices to protect seedlings from deer browsing

    Treesearch

    David A. Marquis

    1977-01-01

    Studies on the Allegheny Plateau of Pennsylvania have shown that several types of wire or plastic tubes can be erected around tree seedlings to protect them from deer browsing. The two most promising devices are a 4- to 6-inch diameter plastic tube with small mesh and a 12-inch diameter tube constructed of chicken wire. Both types need to be at least 5 feet tall to...

  6. New implantable hearing device based on a micro-actuator that is directly coupled to the inner ear fluid.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Hans; Stieger, Christof; Perriard, Yves

    2006-01-01

    A new hearing therapy called direct acoustical cochlear stimulation (DACS) was developed and validated in a first clinical trial with four patients. The key component of this therapy based on an implantable hearing device is a micro-actuator that is implanted in the mastoid right behind the external auditory canal of a patient. It generates vibrations that are directly coupled to the inner ear fluids and bypass therefore the outer and the middle ear. This allows treating severe to profound mixed hearing loss. The actuator transfer function has to be similar to the transfer function of a normal human middle ear to guarantee high system efficiency. A balanced armature actuator was the ideal transducer type in order to meet this requirement considering the given restrictions in size and shape.

  7. Leupeptin, a calpain inhibitor, protects inner ear hair cells from aminoglycoside ototoxicity.

    PubMed

    Momiyama, Junko; Hashimoto, Toshimitsu; Matsubara, Atsushi; Futai, Kazunori; Namba, Atsushi; Shinkawa, Hideichi

    2006-06-01

    Inner ear hair cells play a major role in the auditory pathway that converts sound stimulation into electrical signals, and then into a neural code. However this function is often lost by aminoglycoside ototoxicity. The injury of inner ear hair cells from aminoglycoside treatment is considered apoptosis, and caspase is an important participant in the apoptosis pathway in many organs. It has been reported that calpain, a calcium-dependent protease, is essential for mediation and promotion of cell death. The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of caspase and calpain inhibitors on the inner ear hair cells after aminoglycoside treatment, and to explore the cell death pathway. Cochlea explant cultures were prepared from mice of postnatal 6 days, cultured with neomycin and/or protease inhibitors, and then stained with phalloidin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (phalloidin-FITC), which was used as a marker to identify surviving hair cells. We demonstrated that neomycin (0.1-1 mM) reduced the number of outer hair cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we showed that leupeptin, a calpain inhibitor, significantly protects against the neomycin-induced loss of outer hair cells, whereas a caspase inhibitor was effective only against a lower concentration of neomycin (0.2 mM). Using the TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick and labeling method, we also found that a calpain inhibitor, but not a caspase inhibitor, prevents apoptotic DNA fragmentation after treatment with 1 mM neomycin. These results suggest that calpain, rather than caspase, may be responsible for apoptosis induced by aminoglycoside. Thus, leupeptin may prevent hearing loss from aminoglycoside ototoxity.

  8. Soft Tissue Conduction as a Possible Contributor to the Limited Attenuation Provided by Hearing Protection Devices

    PubMed Central

    Chordekar, Shai; Adelman, Cahtia; Sohmer, Haim; Kishon-Rabin, Liat

    2016-01-01

    Context: Damage to the auditory system by loud sounds can be avoided by hearing protection devices (HPDs) such as earmuffs, earplugs, or both for maximum attenuation. However, the attenuation can be limited by air conduction (AC) leakage around the earplugs and earmuffs by the occlusion effect (OE) and by skull vibrations initiating bone conduction (BC). Aims: To assess maximum attenuation by HPDs and possible flanking pathways to the inner ear. Subjects and Methods: AC attenuation and resulting thresholds were assessed using the real ear attenuation at threshold (REAT) procedure on 15 normal-hearing participants in four free-field conditions: (a) unprotected ears, (b) ears covered with earmuffs, (c) ears blocked with deeply inserted customized earplugs, and (d) ears blocked with both earplugs and earmuffs. BC thresholds were assessed with and without earplugs to assess the OE. Results: Addition of earmuffs to earplugs did not cause significantly greater attenuation than earplugs alone, confirming minimal AC leakage through the external meatus and the absence of the OE. Maximum REATs ranged between 40 and 46 dB, leading to thresholds of 46–54 dB HL. Furthermore, calculation of the acoustic impedance mismatch between air and bone predicted at least 60 dB attenuation of BC. Conclusion: Results do not support the notion that skull vibrations (BC) contributed to the limited attenuation provided by traditional HPDs. An alternative explanation, supported by experimental evidence, suggests transmission of sound to inner ear via non-osseous pathways such as skin, soft tissues, and fluid. Because the acoustic impedance mismatch between air and soft tissues is smaller than that between air and bone, air-borne sounds would be transmitted to soft tissues more effectively than to bone, and therefore less attenuation is expected through soft tissue sound conduction. This can contribute to the limited attenuation provided by traditional HPDs. The present study has practical

  9. External unit for a semi-implantable middle ear hearing device.

    PubMed

    Garverick, S L; Kane, M; Ko, W H; Maniglia, A J

    1997-06-01

    A miniaturized, low-power external unit has been developed for the clinical trials of a semi-implantable middle ear electromagnetic hearing device (SIMEHD) which uses radio-frequency telemetry to couple sound signals to the internal unit. The external unit is based on a commercial hearing aid which provides proven audio amplification and compression. Its receiver is replaced by an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) which: 1) adjusts the direct-current bias of the audio input according to its peak value; 2) converts the audio signal to a one-bit digital form using sigma-delta modulation; 3) modulates the sigma-delta output with a radio-frequency (RF) oscillator; and 4) drives the external RF coil and tuning capacitor using a field-effect transistor operated in class D. The external unit functions as expected and has been used to operate bench-top tests to the SIMEHD. Measured current consumption is 1.65-2.15 mA, which projects to a battery lifetime of about 15 days. Bandwidth is 6 kHz and harmonic distortion is about 2%.

  10. 14 CFR 25.1717 - Circuit protective devices: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Circuit protective devices: EWIS. 25.1717... (EWIS) § 25.1717 Circuit protective devices: EWIS. Electrical wires and cables must be designed and installed so they are compatible with the circuit protection devices required by § 25.1357, so that a fire...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1717 - Circuit protective devices: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Circuit protective devices: EWIS. 25.1717... (EWIS) § 25.1717 Circuit protective devices: EWIS. Electrical wires and cables must be designed and installed so they are compatible with the circuit protection devices required by § 25.1357, so that a fire...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1717 - Circuit protective devices: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Circuit protective devices: EWIS. 25.1717... (EWIS) § 25.1717 Circuit protective devices: EWIS. Electrical wires and cables must be designed and installed so they are compatible with the circuit protection devices required by § 25.1357, so that a fire...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1717 - Circuit protective devices: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Circuit protective devices: EWIS. 25.1717... (EWIS) § 25.1717 Circuit protective devices: EWIS. Electrical wires and cables must be designed and installed so they are compatible with the circuit protection devices required by § 25.1357, so that a fire...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1717 - Circuit protective devices: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Circuit protective devices: EWIS. 25.1717... (EWIS) § 25.1717 Circuit protective devices: EWIS. Electrical wires and cables must be designed and installed so they are compatible with the circuit protection devices required by § 25.1357, so that a fire...

  15. Historical Aspects of Inner Ear Anatomy and Biology that Underlie the Design of Hearing and Balance Prosthetic Devices.

    PubMed

    Van De Water, Thomas R

    2012-11-01

    This review presents some of the major historical events that advanced the body of knowledge of the anatomy of the inner ear and its sensory receptors as well as the biology of these receptors that underlies the sensory functions of hearing and balance. This knowledge base of the inner ear's structure/function has been an essential factor for the design and construction of prosthetic devices to aid patients with deficits in their senses of hearing and balance. Prosthetic devices are now available for severely hearing impaired and deaf patients to restore hearing and are known as cochlear implants and auditory brain stem implants. A prosthetic device for patients with balance disorders is being perfected and is in an animal model testing phase with another prosthetic device for controlling intractable dizziness in Meniere's patients currently being evaluated in clinical testing. None of this would have been possible without the pioneering studies and discoveries of the investigators mentioned in this review and with the work of many other talented investigators to numerous to be covered in this review. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Clinical characteristics of acoustic trauma caused by gunshot noise in mass rifle drills without ear protection.

    PubMed

    Moon, In Seok; Park, Sang-Yong; Park, Hyun Jin; Yang, Hoon-Shik; Hong, Sung-Jong; Lee, Won-Sang

    2011-10-01

    One of the major occupational hazards of working in military service is being subjected to intense impulse noise. We analyzed the clinical presentation of acoustic traumas, induced by mass rifle gunshot noise during military training, in unprotected patients. We evaluated 189 soldiers who had otologic symptoms after rifle shooting exercises without using any hearing protection. All soldiers had been training on the K2 rifle. We took medical histories; conducted physical examinations and hearing evaluations (pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, and impedence audiometry); and distributed the Newmann's Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) survey. In addition, we evaluated a normal control group of 64 subjects of similar age who had never fired a rifle. In the patient group, the most common and irritating reported symptom was tinnitus (94.2%), and the average THI score in the patient group was 39.51 ± 14.87, which was significantly higher than the control group score (0.56 ± 3.94) (p < 0.001). Average outcomes of post-exposure air conduction thresholds were 21.33 ± 13.25 dB HL in the affected ears. These levels also were significantly higher than those of the control group (9.16 ± 4.07dB HL) (p < 0.001). Hearing loss was most prominent at high frequencies. An asymmetry of hearing loss related to head position during shooting was not observed. Acoustic trauma induced by gunshot noise can cause permanent tinnitus and hearing loss. Hearing protection (bilateral earplugs) and environmental reform are necessary.

  17. Torque shudder protection device and method

    SciTech Connect

    King, Robert D.; De Doncker, Rik W. A. A.; Szczesny, Paul M.

    1997-01-01

    A torque shudder protection device for an induction machine includes a flux command generator for supplying a steady state flux command and a torque shudder detector for supplying a status including a negative status to indicate a lack of torque shudder and a positive status to indicate a presence of torque shudder. A flux adapter uses the steady state flux command and the status to supply a present flux command identical to the steady state flux command for a negative status and different from the steady state flux command for a positive status. A limiter can receive the present flux command, prevent the present flux command from exceeding a predetermined maximum flux command magnitude, and supply the present flux command to a field oriented controller. After determining a critical electrical excitation frequency at which a torque shudder occurs for the induction machine, a flux adjuster can monitor the electrical excitation frequency of the induction machine and adjust a flux command to prevent the monitored electrical excitation frequency from reaching the critical electrical excitation frequency.

  18. Torque shudder protection device and method

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.D.; Doncker, R.W.A.A. De.; Szczesny, P.M.

    1997-03-11

    A torque shudder protection device for an induction machine includes a flux command generator for supplying a steady state flux command and a torque shudder detector for supplying a status including a negative status to indicate a lack of torque shudder and a positive status to indicate a presence of torque shudder. A flux adapter uses the steady state flux command and the status to supply a present flux command identical to the steady state flux command for a negative status and different from the steady state flux command for a positive status. A limiter can receive the present flux command, prevent the present flux command from exceeding a predetermined maximum flux command magnitude, and supply the present flux command to a field oriented controller. After determining a critical electrical excitation frequency at which a torque shudder occurs for the induction machine, a flux adjuster can monitor the electrical excitation frequency of the induction machine and adjust a flux command to prevent the monitored electrical excitation frequency from reaching the critical electrical excitation frequency. 5 figs.

  19. Torque shudder protection device and method

    DOEpatents

    King, R.D.; Doncker, R.W.A.A. De.; Szczesny, P.M.

    1997-03-11

    A torque shudder protection device for an induction machine includes a flux command generator for supplying a steady state flux command and a torque shudder detector for supplying a status including a negative status to indicate a lack of torque shudder and a positive status to indicate a presence of torque shudder. A flux adapter uses the steady state flux command and the status to supply a present flux command identical to the steady state flux command for a negative status and different from the steady state flux command for a positive status. A limiter can receive the present flux command, prevent the present flux command from exceeding a predetermined maximum flux command magnitude, and supply the present flux command to a field oriented controller. After determining a critical electrical excitation frequency at which a torque shudder occurs for the induction machine, a flux adjuster can monitor the electrical excitation frequency of the induction machine and adjust a flux command to prevent the monitored electrical excitation frequency from reaching the critical electrical excitation frequency. 5 figs.

  20. Pierced Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Pierced Ears KidsHealth > For Kids > Pierced Ears Print A A ... cool, but infected ears do not! Getting Your Ears Pierced It's important to get your ears pierced ...

  1. Morin hydrate promotes inner ear neural stem cell survival and differentiation and protects cochlea against neuronal hearing loss.

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Jia, Zhanwei; Zhang, Ying; Ren, Xiumin

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of morin hydrate on neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from mouse inner ear and its potential in protecting neuronal hearing loss. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays were employed to assess the effect of morin hydrate on the viability and proliferation of in vitro NSC culture. The NSCs were then differentiated into neurons, in which neurosphere formation and differentiation were evaluated, followed by neurite outgrowth and neural excitability measurements in the subsequent in vitro neuronal network. Mechanotransduction of cochlea ex vivo culture and auditory brainstem responses threshold and distortion product optoacoustic emissions amplitude in mouse ototoxicity model were also measured following gentamicin treatment to investigate the protective role of morin hydrate against neuronal hearing loss. Morin hydrate improved viability and proliferation, neurosphere formation and neuronal differentiation of inner ear NSCs, and promoted in vitro neuronal network functions. In both ex vivo and in vivo ototoxicity models, morin hydrate prevented gentamicin-induced neuronal hearing loss. Morin hydrate exhibited potent properties in promoting growth and differentiation of inner ear NSCs into functional neurons and protecting from gentamicin ototoxicity. Our study supports its clinical potential in treating neuronal hearing loss.

  2. Rifle impulse noise affects middle-ear compliance in soldiers wearing protective earplugs.

    PubMed

    Job, A; Hamery, P; De Mezzo, S; Fialaire, J-C; Roux, A; Untereiner, M; Cardinale, F; Michel, H; Klein, C; Belcourt, B

    2016-01-01

    We tested middle-ear functioning in humans following intense exposure to noise. Noise generated by small caliber firearms was thought to have no effect on the middle-ear. A cross-over design. We measured middle-ear impedance, acoustic reflex, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) before and after practice rounds performed twice per day. Fifty-nine soldiers equipped with earplugs undergoing regular training for a special mission. The mean noise exposure (LAeq8h) was estimated to be 106 ±1 dB SPL. Impedancemetry revealed a significant increase in the compliance and gradient of the tympano-ossicular chain after impulse noise exposure in the right and left ears. Acoustic reflex reactivity did not show a significant change. DPOAEs and TEOAEs were slightly decreased at 2 kHz, and showed a marked asymmetry in disfavor of the left ear. In soldiers with initial high reactivity of acoustic reflex, increased compliance was associated with a significant decrease in left TEOAEs at 1.5 and 2 kHz. Our results suggest that the use of small-caliber firearms, even while wearing earplugs, affects middle-ear function and may play a role in the early stage of auditory fatigue encompassing tinnitus.

  3. 30 CFR 75.1723 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. 75.1723 Section 75.1723 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1723 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... system or connected equipment. (b) The protective and control devices in the generating system must be... malfunctioning. (c) Each resettable circuit protective device must be designed so that, when an overload or circuit fault exists, it will open the circuit irrespective of the position of the operating control....

  5. 14 CFR 25.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... system or connected equipment. (b) The protective and control devices in the generating system must be... malfunctioning. (c) Each resettable circuit protective device must be designed so that, when an overload or circuit fault exists, it will open the circuit irrespective of the position of the operating control....

  6. 14 CFR 25.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... system or connected equipment. (b) The protective and control devices in the generating system must be... malfunctioning. (c) Each resettable circuit protective device must be designed so that, when an overload or circuit fault exists, it will open the circuit irrespective of the position of the operating control....

  7. 14 CFR 25.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... system or connected equipment. (b) The protective and control devices in the generating system must be... malfunctioning. (c) Each resettable circuit protective device must be designed so that, when an overload or circuit fault exists, it will open the circuit irrespective of the position of the operating control....

  8. 30 CFR 75.1723 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. 75.1723 Section 75.1723 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1723 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1723 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. 75.1723 Section 75.1723 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1723 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1723 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. 75.1723 Section 75.1723 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1723 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other...

  11. Cochlear implantation: strategies to protect the implanted cochlea from middle ear infection.

    PubMed

    Jackler, R K; O'Donoghue, G M; Schindler, R A

    1986-01-01

    A cochlear implant for use in children must take into account the high incidence of middle ear infection in this age group. A scala tympani electrode that traverses the middle ear and round window will likely act as a conduit by which infection can spread to the inner ear and potentially to the CNS. In this study an attempt was made to reestablish a separation of the cochlea from the middle ear by developing a seal around the implant at the level of the round window. A series of cats were implanted with simulated cochlear prostheses consisting of either a plain Silastic cylinder, a Silastic cylinder wrapped with autogenous fascia, or a Silastic cylinder with a cuff of bioactive ceramic. Middle ear infection was induced, followed by histologic examination. Bioactive ceramic appears to have some merit as a round window sealing material, while fascia was shown to be of no value. Intracochlear infection, when it did occur, was limited to the basal regions of the cochlea.

  12. Temporary coatings for protection of microelectronic devices during packaging

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Conley, William R.

    2005-01-18

    The present invention relates to a method of protecting a microelectronic device during device packaging, including the steps of applying a water-insoluble, temporary protective coating to a sensitive area on the device; performing at least one packaging step; and then substantially removing the protective coating, preferably by dry plasma etching. The sensitive area can include a released MEMS element. The microelectronic device can be disposed on a wafer. The protective coating can be a vacuum vapor-deposited parylene polymer, silicon nitride, metal (e.g. aluminum or tungsten), a vapor deposited organic material, cynoacrylate, a carbon film, a self-assembled monolayered material, perfluoropolyether, hexamethyldisilazane, or perfluorodecanoic carboxylic acid, silicon dioxide, silicate glass, or combinations thereof. The present invention also relates to a method of packaging a microelectronic device, including: providing a microelectronic device having a sensitive area; applying a water-insoluble, protective coating to the sensitive area; providing a package; attaching the device to the package; electrically interconnecting the device to the package; and substantially removing the protective coating from the sensitive area.

  13. Wireless behind-the-ear EEG recording device with wireless interface to a mobile device (iPhone/iPod touch).

    PubMed

    Do Valle, Bruno G; Cash, Sydney S; Sodini, Charlie G

    2014-01-01

    EEG remains the mainstay test for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with epilepsy. Unfortunately, ambulatory EEG systems are far from ideal for patients that have infrequent seizures. The systems only last up to 3 days and if a seizure is not captured during the recordings, the doctor cannot give a definite diagnosis of the patient's condition. The ambulatory systems also suffers from being too bulky and posing some constraints on the patient, such as not being able to shower during the recordings. This paper presents a novel behind-the-ear EEG recording device that uses an iPhone or iPod Touch to continuously upload the patient's data to a secure server. This device not only gives the doctors access to the EEG data in real time but it can be easily removed and re-applied by the patient at any time, thus reducing the interference with quality of life.

  14. Personal listening devices and the prevention of noise induced hearing loss in children: the Cheers for Ears Pilot Program.

    PubMed

    Taljaard, Dunay Schmulian; Leishman, Natalie F; Eikelboom, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether the Cheers for Ears Program on noise induced hearing loss prevention was effective in improving current knowledge of noise impact of personal listening devices on hearing, and in changing self-reported listening behavior of primary school students aged between 9 years and 13 years. A survey study was implemented at participating primary schools. Schools represented various levels of socio-economic status. Informed consent (parents and teachers) and informed assent (pupils) were obtained. All pupils participated in two interactive sessions (the second 6 weeks after first) and only those who provided assent and consent were surveyed at three points during the study: Prior to the first session (baseline), directly post-session and at 3 months post-session. A total of 318 pupils were surveyed. The median age of the participants was 11 years (nearly 50% of the total cohort). Significant changes are reported in their knowledge about hearing and in listening behavior of the participants as measured by pre- and post-measurement. The changes in behaviors were stable and sustained at 3 months post-intervention survey point and the success of the program can be attributed to the multimodal interactive nature of the sessions, the spacing of the sessions and the survey points. Wide-ranging support from schools and departments also played a role. The pilot Cheers for Ears Program is effective in increasing knowledge on the harmful effects of noise and therefore, it may prevent future noise-induced hearing loss.

  15. Safe Distances From a High-Energy Capacitor Bank for Ear and Lung Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    2000 Di st an ce  (c m ) Stored Energy (kJ) EAR FLASH LUNG 5 for stored energies greater than 122 kJ, and zero for lesser energies, but the NFPA...3) D is the incident energy dose in calories per square centimeter. The factor 4.184 has a unit of Joules/ calorie

  16. Swimmer's Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Swimmer's Ear KidsHealth > For Kids > Swimmer's Ear Print A ... continue How Do I Know if I Have Swimmer's Ear? Swimmer's ear may start with some itching, ...

  17. Ear Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Tubes Ear Tubes Patient Health Information News media ... and throat specialist) may be considered. What are ear tubes? Ear tubes are tiny cylinders placed through ...

  18. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  19. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  20. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  1. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  2. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  3. Ear diseases among secondary school students in Xi'an, China: The role of portable audio device use, insomnia and academic stress

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hearing impairment negatively impacts students' development of academic, language and social skills. Even minimal unilateral hearing loss can hinder educational performance. We investigated the prevalence of ear diseases among secondary school students in the city of Xi'an, China in order to provide a foundation for evidence-based hearing healthcare. Methods A stratified random sampling survey was conducted in 29 secondary schools. Demographics and medical histories were collected, and otologic examinations were performed. Questionnaires were administered to assess insomnia, academic stress and use of portable audio devices. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with hearing impairment, and the association of sensorineural hearing loss with insomnia, academic stress and the use of portable audio devices was analyzed with the chi-square test. Results The percentage of students with some form of ear disease was 3.32%. External ear disease, middle ear disease and sensorineural hearing loss occurred in 1.21%, 0.64% and 1.47% of the students, respectively. Boys had a relatively higher prevalence of ear disease than girls. According to our survey, the prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss increased significantly among the students with insomnia and extended use of portable audio devices, but not among those with elevated levels of academic stress. Hearing aids and surgical treatment were needed in 1.47% and 0.89% of the students, respectively. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of ear disease among secondary school students, and this should be given more attention. Insomnia and the excessive use of portable audio devices may be related to adolescent sensorineural hearing loss. It is important to establish and comply with an evidence-based preventive strategy. PMID:21649930

  4. 30 CFR 75.1723 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... devices. 75.1723 Section 75.1723 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1723 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than special bit grinders shall be equipped with: (1) Peripheral hoods (less than 90° throat openings) capable...

  5. 30 CFR 77.401 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... devices. 77.401 Section 77.401 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than special bit grinders shall be equipped with: (1) Peripheral hoods (less than 90° throat openings) capable of withstanding the force of a bursting...

  6. Leak-detection device is {open_quotes}all ears{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Malm, H.; Halpern, F.

    1996-04-01

    Ultrasonic detection devices for locating air or liquid leaks are described. Standard packages consist of a hand-held detection instrument, high-impedance headphones, a localization sound probe, an ultrasound transmitter, and a precision contact probe. The ultrasonic vibrations are converted into either an audible frequency or a digital readout. The use of ultrasonic devices in leak testing single-wall underground storage tanks is detailed.

  7. Performance Assessment of Active Hearing Protection Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-08

    devices selected for this study were all equipped with a hear-thru setting designed to amplify soft sounds and conversational speech while allowing loud...of sound under the hearing protector. This method offers several advantages over the well-known NRR. The NRR is designed to be subtracted from the...active components were designed to provide the user with enhanced face to face communication abilities and amplify low level sounds to allow

  8. Ion manipulation device with electrical breakdown protection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Tang, Keqi; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Smith, Richard D; Anderson, Gordon A; Baker, Erin M

    2014-12-02

    An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area. The surfaces are housed in a chamber, and at least one electrically insulative shield is coupled to an inner surface of the chamber for increasing a mean-free-path between two adjacent electrodes in the chamber.

  9. Measurement of impulse peak insertion loss for four hearing protection devices in field conditions.

    PubMed

    Murphy, William J; Flamme, Gregory A; Meinke, Deanna K; Sondergaard, Jacob; Finan, Donald S; Lankford, James E; Khan, Amir; Vernon, Julia; Stewart, Michael

    2012-02-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed an impulse noise reduction rating (NRR) for hearing protection devices based upon the impulse peak insertion loss (IPIL) methods in the ANSI S12.42-2010 standard. This study tests the ANSI S12.42 methods with a range of hearing protection devices measured in field conditions. The method utilizes an acoustic test fixture and three ranges for impulse levels: 130-134, 148-152, and 166-170 dB peak SPL. For this study, four different models of hearing protectors were tested: Bilsom 707 Impact II electronic earmuff, E·A·R Pod Express, E·A·R Combat Arms version 4, and the Etymotic Research, Inc. Electronic BlastPLG™ EB1. Five samples of each protector were fitted on the fixture or inserted in the fixture's ear canal five times for each impulse level. Impulses were generated by a 0.223 caliber rifle. The average IPILs increased with peak pressure and ranged between 20 and 38 dB. For some protectors, significant differences were observed across protector examples of the same model, and across insertions. The EPA's proposed methods provide consistent and reproducible results. The proposed impulse NRR rating should utilize the minimum and maximum protection percentiles as determined by the ANSI S12.42-2010 methods.

  10. Measurement of impulse peak insertion loss for four hearing protection devices in field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, William J.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Meinke, Deanna K.; Sondergaard, Jacob; Finan, Donald S.; Lankford, James E.; Khan, Amir; Vernon, Julia; Stewart, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective In 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed an impulse noise reduction rating (NRR) for hearing protection devices based upon the impulse peak insertion loss (IPIL) methods in the ANSI S12.42-2010 standard. This study tests the ANSI S12.42 methods with a range of hearing protection devices measured in field conditions. Design The method utilizes an acoustic test fixture and three ranges for impulse levels: 130–134, 148–152, and 166–170 dB peak SPL. For this study, four different models of hearing protectors were tested: Bilsom 707 Impact II electronic earmuff, E·A·R Pod Express, E·A·R Combat Arms version 4, and the Etymotic Research, Inc. Electronic BlastPLG™ EB1. Study sample Five samples of each protector were fitted on the fixture or inserted in the fixture's ear canal five times for each impulse level. Impulses were generated by a 0.223 caliber rifle. Results The average IPILs increased with peak pressure and ranged between 20 and 38 dB. For some protectors, significant differences were observed across protector examples of the same model, and across insertions. Conclusions The EPA's proposed methods provide consistent and reproducible results. The proposed impulse NRR rating should utilize the minimum and maximum protection percentiles as determined by the ANSI S12.42-2010 methods. PMID:22176308

  11. 30 CFR 77.401 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.401 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than special bit grinders shall be equipped with...

  12. 30 CFR 77.401 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.401 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than special bit grinders shall be equipped...

  13. 30 CFR 77.401 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.401 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than special bit grinders shall be equipped...

  14. 30 CFR 77.401 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.401 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than special bit grinders shall be equipped...

  15. Circuit protection devices for transient suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childers, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The Electromer Corporation has developed a series of transient voltage suppression components based on a patented, specially formulated PolyClamp (trademark) material. PolyClamp components are a new class of transient voltage surge suppressors that extend the range of protection offered by transients protectors. The PolyClamp transient surge suppressors provide low capacitance, high energy capability, and packaging flexibility. A wide variety of applications can be protected. A tube and ferrule configuration was designed to be used with MIL/Aerospace style connectors and is designed to meet the applicable environmental, mechanical, and electrical requirements as defined by the United States and European defence standards performance requirements. Here, PolyClamp is compared with current transient surge suppressors. Typical performance and design are discussed.

  16. Novel tamper-indicating protective devices

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1995-07-01

    Several novel tamper-indicating devices, originally developed under DOE auspices for arms control applications, might be useful in nonproliferation. Some devices that have reached the laboratory prototype stage could provide specialized alternatives to established seals. As locks and cables, the following might be useful: (1) a brittle ceramic lock--impervious to toxic, radiation, and thermal extremes--interrogated for identification and continuity by ultrasonic means, (2) a flexible ceramic-fiber seal that also tolerates severe environments, (3) an ultrasonic smart-material strip seal, and (4) an RF-resonant coaxial cable, verified by radio frequency and microwave signals. To validate the identity of secured surfaces, joints, welds, and fasteners--two techniques are applicable: (1) the scanning electron microscope, which examines three- dimensional micron-level topography, and (2) the plastic-casting fingerprint, a simple low-cost technique, analogous to human fingerprinting. The techniques mentioned above have one or more of the potential advantages of low cost, immediate availability, security for large-area enclosures, application to hazardous environments, usability in the FSU, or suitability for covert use.

  17. The middle ear bioelectronic microphone for a totally implantable cochlear hearing device for profound and total hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Maniglia, A J; Abbass, H; Azar, T; Kane, M; Amantia, P; Garverick, S; Ko, W H; Frenz, W; Falk, T

    1999-09-01

    A bioelectronic middle ear microphone (BMEM) has been developed in a laboratory bench model and successfully tested in fresh human temporal bones. A transducer actually has been bench-tested in our laboratory; it was implanted in chronic animal experiments (cats) as well as in humans for a period of 1 year as a driver of a semi-implantable electromagnetic middle ear hearing device (IDE, FDA approved). This BMEM is the result of the use of this same electromagnetic transducer used in a reverse mode. The applicability of the BMEM is for the development of a totally implantable cochlear implant using the eardrum as a diaphragm that transmits vibrations to a magnet cemented to the ossicles. This BMEM is to be powered by a lithium-ion implantable, rechargeable battery. To test the efficacy of this BMEM, the experiment was divided into two parts: (1) bench model, and (2) fresh human temporal bones, using an air-core electromagnetic (EM) coil and a ferrite core EM coil for comparison. In the bench model, the average displacement at 3 kHz was 0.95 microns (peak) for 4 V p-p and 1.65 microns (peak) for 10 V p-p. At 5 kHz, the measurements were somewhat higher. In fresh human temporal bones, with sound source in the ear canal (60 dB HL and 90 dB HL), the result was better with the magnet implanted on the head of the malleus with the incus removed. The ferrite core EM coil with the magnet implanted on the malleus with the incus removed was compared with the air-core EM coil. At 60 dB HL, the ferrite core EM coil yielded more than four times the amplitude of the EM coil. At 90 dB HL, the ferrite core EM coil produced more than five times the amplitude compared with the air-core coil. This BMEM using an EM ferrite coil and a permanent magnet on the head of the malleus is more efficient when compared with an EM air-core coil. This BMEM may be applicable to the construction of a totally implantable cochlear implant. Further research is necessary to integrate this BMEM with the

  18. [Middle ear physiology].

    PubMed

    Ayerbe, I; Négrevergne, M; Ucelay, R; Sanchez Fernandez, J M

    1999-01-01

    The middle ear forms part of the sound transformer mechanism, together with the outer ear and the conducting system of the inner ear. An intermediate sensory organ, sensitive to acoustic vibration, and linked to the inner ear, the middle ear made its appearance during the period of adaptation of marine creatures to a terrestrial habitat; its presence is therefore a phylogenetic requirement. It is classical to ascribe three functions to the middle ear: the transmission of acoustic vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the cochlea, impedance matching between the air in the external auditary meatus and the labyrinthine fluids, and protection of the inner ear by means of the acoustic reflex. If the classical mechanical explanation has been able to explain its function, the conceptualization of its physiology in terms of energy allows an even better understanding, as well as providing and explanation for the paradoxes which arise in clinical practice when the classical model is used.

  19. Effects of low speed wind on the recognition/identification and pass-through communication tasks of auditory situation awareness afforded by military hearing protection/enhancement devices and tactical communication and protective systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kichol; Casali, John G

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of controlled low-speed wind-noise on the auditory situation awareness performance afforded by military hearing protection/enhancement devices (HPED) and tactical communication and protective systems (TCAPS). Recognition/identification and pass-through communications tasks were separately conducted under three wind conditions (0, 5, and 10 mph). Subjects wore two in-ear-type TCAPS, one earmuff-type TCAPS, a Combat Arms Earplug in its 'open' or pass-through setting, and an EB-15LE electronic earplug. Devices with electronic gain systems were tested under two gain settings: 'unity' and 'max'. Testing without any device (open ear) was conducted as a control. Ten subjects were recruited from the student population at Virginia Tech. Audiometric requirements were 25 dBHL or better at 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, and 8000 Hz in both ears. Performance on the interaction of communication task-by-device was significantly different only in 0 mph wind speed. The between-device performance differences varied with azimuthal speaker locations. It is evident from this study that stable (non-gusting) wind speeds up to 10 mph did not significantly degrade recognition/identification task performance and pass-through communication performance of the group of HPEDs and TCAPS tested. However, the various devices performed differently as the test sound signal speaker location was varied and it appears that physical as well as electronic features may have contributed to this directional result.

  20. Ear Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... ear, where they make your eardrum vibrate. The vibrations are transmitted through three tiny bones, called ossicles, in your middle ear. The vibrations travel to your inner ear, a snail-shaped ...

  1. Ear emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ear injury, avoid nose blowing and getting water in the injured ear. Treat ear infections right ... FDR Medical Services/Millard Fillmore Suburban Hospital, Buffalo, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  2. Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... gross and useful. continue The Middle Ear: Good Vibrations After sound waves enter the outer ear, they ... take those sound waves and turn them into vibrations that are delivered to the inner ear. To ...

  3. Ear barotrauma

    MedlinePlus

    Barotitis media; Barotrauma; Ear popping - barotrauma; Pressure-related ear pain; Eustachian tube dysfunction - barotrauma ... The air pressure in the middle ear is most often the same as the air ... body. The Eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ...

  4. Ear Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... BMI Calculator myhealthfinder Immunization Schedules Nutrient Shortfall Questionnaire Ear ProblemsEar problems are often caused by an infection. However, other conditions may also cause ear pain or discomfort. Follow this chart for more ...

  5. Cauliflower Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray What's Cauliflower Ear? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cauliflower Ear? Print A A A Have you ever seen someone whose ear looks bumpy and lumpy? The person might have ...

  6. Laboratory Performance of the Single-Sided E-A-R (registered trademark) Combat Arms Hearing Protective Earplug

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    burst The sound attenuation was derived from the hearing thresholds With the device in the conventional?mode,rnanthlesholds were in the range of 36 2 dB...mdividu a eté evalue sans protection auditive ctaye.c port. binaural du protecteur dans chacun des deux modes. Les seuils auditifs en champ hbre...devices. Since sound reduction at the source is difficult and costly to achieve (Sheen and Hsiao, 2007), the Continuous unprotected exposure to

  7. Measurement of β-hydroxybutyrate in capillary blood obtained from an ear to detect hyperketonemia in dairy cows by using an electronic handheld device.

    PubMed

    Süss, D; Drillich, M; Klein-Jöbstl, D; Wagener, K; Krieger, S; Thiel, A; Meyer, L; Schwendenwein, I; Iwersen, M

    2016-09-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to test whether capillary blood obtained by puncturing the skin of an ear with a minimal invasive lancet technique is able to detect hyperketonemia (HYK) in dairy cows. Furthermore, test characteristics of a new available handheld device, the FreeStyle Precision Neo (FSP-Neo, Abbott GmbH & Co. KG, Wiesbaden, Germany) for determination of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in bovine blood were evaluated by comparing the measurements with a laboratory reference. The BHB concentration was determined with the FSP-Neo device in 720 capillary blood samples from 3 different sampling sites (left, right ear, and repeated measurement) and in 240 samples from a coccygeal vessel. The concentration of BHB in serum harvested from the coccygeal blood samples was analyzed at the laboratory and was used as reference. The Spearman correlation coefficient (ρs) between the BHB concentrations in capillary blood measured with the handheld device and the reference test was between 0.76 and 0.81. Using capillary blood, the mean ± standard deviation BHB difference compared with the reference test was 0.20±0.47 mmol/L for all 3 sampling locations at the ears. The receiver operating characteristic analyses for the FSP-Neo device resulted in an optimized threshold for the detection of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in capillary blood of 1.3 mmol/L (left and right ear) and 1.2 mmol/L (repeated measurements). Applying these adjusted threshold sensitivities (Se) for all 3 capillary sampling sites at the ear were 100%, and specificities (Sp) ranged between 93 and 94%. Hence, we conclude that all sampling locations were suitable to identify cows suffering from SCK. The reference test compared with BHB measurements in coccygeal blood resulted in a ρs of 0.92 with a mean ± standard deviation of 0.02±0.21 mmol/L. The receiver operating characteristic analyses for the FSP-Neo device resulted in an optimized threshold for the detection of SCK in

  8. How can the auditory efferent system protect our ears from noise-induced hearing loss? Let us count the ways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Lynne; Miller, Judi A. Lapsley

    2015-12-01

    It is a cause for some debate as to how the auditory olivocochlear (OC) efferent system could protect hearing from noise trauma. In this review, we examined physiological research to find mechanisms that could effectively attenuate the response to sound. For each purported mechanism, we indicate which part of the OC-efferent system is responsible for the function and the site of action. These mechanisms include basilar-membrane phase shifts at high stimulus levels; changes in outer-hair-cell stiffness and phase lag associated with efferent slow effects; small decreases in endocochlear potentials causing small decreases in outer- and inner-hair-cell output; low-spontaneous-rate and medium-spontaneous-rate fibers showing OC-induced decrements at high levels; auditory-nerve initial-peak reduction; OC effect increasing over minutes; cholinergic activation of anti-apoptotic pathways; and anti-excitotoxicity. There are clearly multiple opportunities for the OC-efferent system to protect the inner ear from noise trauma. From further exploration into the mechanisms outlined here, as well as to-be-discovered mechanisms, we will gain a greater understanding of the protective nature of the OC-efferent system. These findings could aid our ability to design better predictive tests for people at risk for noise-induced hearing loss.

  9. Evaluation of embolic protection devices for fat emboli prevention.

    PubMed

    Lanzinger, William; Caldwell, Joseph; Schoenfeld, Andrew; Horne, Walter; Sloan, Patricia; Stakleff, Kimberly Sloan; Zink, Jill; Netzley, Robert; Wright, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Patients with acutely treated femoral shaft fractures with reamed intramedullary nailing are at risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome due to liberation of bone marrow fat particles that travel to the lung and cause damage to the parenchyma. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate: (1) the ability of clinically applicable embolic protection devices to capture such particles; (2) how such a device affects cardiopulmonary function after reamed intramedullary nailing; and (3) evaluation of lung pathology to determine whether filtration affects pulmonary embolic load. A total of 12 canines were anesthetized, and hemodynamic monitoring was established. Carotid embolic protection devices were introduced into the iliac vein, and ipsilateral intramedullary reaming and nailing was performed. Cardiopulmonary parameters were recorded at timed intervals up to 60 minutes after the procedure. The control group (n = 4) was compared with groups treated with Accunet (n = 4) and Spider (n = 4) filters. A blinded histopathological review was performed on lung specimens to determine the average number of emboli per section and to measure the area (mm(2)) of embolic load by digital image analysis. Gross inspection of the embolic protection devices showed the presence of bone marrow debris. A significant change was observed in pH levels (control = -0.052, filters = +0.005; P < .05) within the 60 minutes after intramedullary nailing. Serum bicarbonate (meq/dL) values were noted to have similar changes of -2.7 and -1.8 at 10 and 60 minutes, whereas the experimental group was +0.6 and +0.8 at the same time intervals (P =.01 and .0004, respectively). Pulmonary measurements for pO2 and oxygen saturation were analogous to the serum parameters with decreases in the control group in comparison with the filter groups. The mean numbers of emboli and area measurements of embolic load were significantly reduced in the filter group (all P < .01). Embolic protection devices

  10. Brief Announcement: An OS Architecture for Device Self-protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ruan; Lacoste, Marc; Leneutre, Jean

    By introducing context-awareness in the system layer, pervasive computing is a turning point in OS design. Device mobility and dynamicity of situations raise strong challenges for run-time adaptability of embedded software, while at the same time inducing new, serious threats to device security. Paradoxically, due to the multiplicity of protection requirements specific to each environment illustrated by the heterogeneity of network security policies, the solution may come from applying context-awareness to security itself. The idea is to tune security mechanisms to match the protection needs of the current device environment, such as the estimated level of risk. A manual adaptation is ruled out by the administration overhead and error potential of human intervention. To automate reconfiguration, security needs to be autonomic [2]. But how?

  11. Ear Pieces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

  12. Ear Pieces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

  13. Ear trauma.

    PubMed

    Eagles, Kylee; Fralich, Laura; Stevenson, J Herbert

    2013-04-01

    Understanding basic ear anatomy and function allows an examiner to quickly and accurately identify at-risk structures in patients with head and ear trauma. External ear trauma (ie, hematoma or laceration) should be promptly treated with appropriate injury-specific techniques. Tympanic membrane injuries have multiple mechanisms and can often be conservatively treated. Temporal bone fractures are a common cause of ear trauma and can be life threatening. Facial nerve injuries and hearing loss can occur in ear trauma.

  14. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that is... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section...

  15. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that is... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section...

  16. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  17. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  18. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  19. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  20. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  1. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  2. Embolic Protection Devices During TAVI: Current Evidence and Uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Jawad Altisent, Omar; Puri, Rishi; Rodés-Cabau, Josep

    2016-10-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is now the principal therapeutic option in patients with severe aortic stenosis deemed inoperable or at high surgical risk. Implementing TAVI in a lower risk profile population could be limited by relatively high cerebrovascular event rates related to the procedure. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging studies have demonstrated the ubiquitous presence of silent embolic cerebral infarcts after TAVI, with some data relating these lesions to subsequent cognitive decline. Embolic protection devices provide a mechanical barrier against debris embolizing to the brain during TAVI. We review the current evidence and ongoing uncertainties faced with the 3 currently available devices (Embrella, TriGuard and Claret) in TAVI. Studies evaluated neurological damage at 3 levels: clinical, subclinical, and cognitive. Feasibility and safety were analyzed for the 3 devices. In terms of efficacy, all studies were exploratory, but none demonstrated significant reductions in clinical event rates. The Embrella and Claret devices demonstrated significant reductions of the total cerebral lesion volume on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Studies evaluating the effects on cognition were also somewhat inconclusive. In conclusion, despite embolic protection devices demonstrating reductions in the total cerebral lesion volume on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, the clinical efficacy in terms of preventing stroke/cognitive decline requires confirmation in larger studies.

  3. Response of surge protection devices to fast rising pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mindel, I. N.

    1980-01-01

    Two types of lightning protection modules incorporating leadless (pill type) Zener like devices were evaluated with regard to their ability to suppress EMP induced transients. Two series of tests were performed to evaluate the ability of these modules to react to fast rate of rise ( 1Kv/ns) transients, and the attenuation introduced and the ability to limit damped sinusoid pulses which may be induced due to an EMP resulting from a nuclear detonation.

  4. Response of surge protection devices to fast rising pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mindel, I. N.

    1980-01-01

    Two types of lightning protection modules incorporating leadless (pill type) Zener like devices were evaluated with regard to their ability to suppress EMP induced transients. Two series of tests were performed to evaluate the ability of these modules to react to fast rate of rise ( 1Kv/ns) transients, and the attenuation introduced and the ability to limit damped sinusoid pulses which may be induced due to an EMP resulting from a nuclear detonation.

  5. Rationale of cerebral protection devices in left atrial appendage occlusion.

    PubMed

    Meincke, Felix; Spangenberg, Tobias; Kreidel, Felix; Frerker, Christian; Virmani, Renu; Ladich, Elena; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Ghanem, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Aims of this case-series were to assess the feasibility of cerebral protection devices in interventional left atrial appendage occlusion (iLAAO) procedures and to yield insight into the pathomorphological correlate of early, procedural cerebral embolization during iLAAO. Five consecutive patients underwent iLLO flanked by the Sentinel CPS® (Claret Medical, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA) cerebral protection system. Placement and recapture of the Sentinel(®) device as well as the iLAAO were successful and safe in all cases. Histomorphometric analysis of the collected filters showed embolized debris in all patients. Acute thrombus was found in three patients, organizing thrombus in four. Interestingly, two patients had endocardial or myocardial tissue in their filters. Cerebral protection during iLAAO with the Sentinel CPS(®) device is feasible. Furthermore, this dataset identifies the formation and embolization of thrombus and cardiac tissue as emboligeneic sources and potential future targets to reduce procedural complications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Loaded with Edaravone for Inner Ear Protection After Noise Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Gang; Liu, Ya; Zhou, Chang-Hua; Jiang, Ping; Sun, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antioxidants and the duration of treatment after noise exposure on hearing recovery are important. We investigated the protective effects of an antioxidant substance, edaravone, and its slow-release dosage form, edaravone solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), in steady noise-exposed guinea pigs. Methods: SLNs loaded with edaravone were produced by an ultrasound technique. Edaravone solution or edaravone SLNs were administered by intratympanic or intravenous injection after the 1st day of noise exposure. Guinea pigs were exposed to 110 dB sound pressure level (SPL) noise, centered at 0.25–4.0 kHz, for 4 days at 2 h/d. After noise exposure, the guinea pigs underwent auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold measurements, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected in their cochleas with electron spin resonance (ESR), and outer hair cells (OHCs) were counted with silvernitrate (AgNO3) staining at 1, 4, and 6 days. Results: The ultrasound technique was able to prepare adequate edaravone SLNs with a mean particle size of 93.6 nm and entrapment efficiency of 76.7%. Acoustic stress-induced ROS formation and edaravone exerted a protective effect on the cochlea. Comparisons of hearing thresholds and ROS changes in different animal groups showed that the threshold shift and ROS generation were significantly lower in treated animals than in those without treatment, especially in the edaravone SLN intratympanic injection group. Conclusions: Edaravone SLNs show noticeable slow-release effects and have certain protective effects against noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). PMID:25591563

  7. [The radiation protection shield--a useful radiation protective device for stomatological routine radiodiagnosis].

    PubMed

    Wiltschke, F; Taschner, P; König, W; Menzel, B

    1975-10-01

    Starting from the shortcomings of the radioprotective devices at present used in routine stomatological radiodiagnosis, the authors describe the advantages of a radioprotective shield which has been produced in the Greifswald University Stomatological Clinic. On the basis of dosimetric studies, the State Board for Nuclear Safety and Radiological Protection of the GDR (Staatliches Amt fur Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz der DDR) could demonstrate the suitability of this shield as a radioprotective device for routine stomatological radiodiagnosis.

  8. Ear wax

    MedlinePlus

    ... water to drain. You may need to repeat irrigation several times. To avoid damaging your ear or ... who may remove the wax by: Repeating the irrigation attempts Suctioning the ear canal Using a small ...

  9. Ear tag

    MedlinePlus

    ... the opening of the ear are common in newborn infants. In most cases, these are normal. However, they ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Common Infant and Newborn Problems Ear Disorders Skin Conditions Browse the Encyclopedia ...

  10. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003340.htm Ear examination To use the sharing features on this page, ... ear References King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey ...

  11. Calibration of an In-Ear Dosimeter for a Single Hearing Protection Device

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    DoD) Hearing Conservation Programs ( HCPs ) [1-3] set safe noise exposure limits to reduce the risk for noise induced hearing loss. These daily noise...subjects participated in the study. Exposure levels throughout the experiment were within US DoD safe noise exposure guidelines (DoD HCP ) [1- 3...validate the new calibration factor is recommended. 1.0 INTRODUCTION US national and many international hearing conservation programs ( HCPs ) have

  12. Super Ears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stan

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students design, construct, and test "super ears" to investigate sound and hearing. Students work in groups of three and explore how the outer ear funnels sound waves to the inner ear and how human hearing compares to that of other animals. (NB)

  13. Cauliflower Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Cauliflower Ear? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cauliflower Ear? A A A Have you ever seen ... looks bumpy and lumpy? The person might have cauliflower ear. That sure is a funny name. Let's ...

  14. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound.... (1) The sound field characteristics -described in paragraph 3.1.1.3 are -“required.” (2) Sections 3.3... testing should not allow the subject to engage in any activity that may cause a Temporary Threshold...

  15. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound.... (1) The sound field characteristics -described in paragraph 3.1.1.3 are -“required.” (2) Sections 3.3... testing should not allow the subject to engage in any activity that may cause a Temporary Threshold...

  16. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound.... (1) The sound field characteristics -described in paragraph 3.1.1.3 are -“required.” (2) Sections 3.3... testing should not allow the subject to engage in any activity that may cause a Temporary Threshold...

  17. A perineal protection device designed to protect the perineum during labor: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lavesson, Tony; Griph, Inger D; Skärvad, Anna; Karlsson, Ann-Sofi; Nilsson, Helen B; Steinvall, Margareta; Haadem, Knut

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of a new device for reducing perineal tears during vaginal childbirth. A multicenter open randomized controlled trial (RCT) was performed in Helsingborg, Lund and Malmö, Sweden consisting of 1148 women. Women anticipating a vaginal delivery were either randomized to the intervention group (n=574 in which the perineal protection device was used, or a control group (n=574), in which the perineal protection device was not used. The main outcome measurements were incidence of vaginal and perineal tears (1st to 4th degree tears) and adverse effects on the parturient and newborn. The incidences of first- and second-degree tears of the vagina (p=0.018) and perineum (p=0.005) were significantly reduced in the intervention group compared with the controls. In the intervention- and control group, 184 women (34.9%) and 142 (26.6%) showed no perineal tearing, respectively (p=0.034). Numbers needed to treat to avoid any perianal tearing was 12. The incidence of anal sphincter rupture (ASR) was the same in both groups (n=19; 3.4%). No negative effects on mother or child from using the device were observed. The perineal protective device significantly reduced the incidence of first- and second-degree tears in the vagina and perineum during vaginal birth and also significantly increased the number of parturients with a fully intact posterior commissure. No significant reduction of ASR and no negative effects of the device were observed. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. A review of solid-state radar receiver protection devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Neil

    1991-02-01

    A review is presented of solid-state radar receiver protection devices. The protectors are based on PIN diodes where a layer of intrinsic (I) material is sandwiched between P and N doped layers. At zero bias, the diode impedance is greater than 1 kohm, but under forward bias, charge is injected into the I layer that reduces the impedance to a level of 1 ohm typically. This biased impedance change gives the PIN diode its switching action. For waveguide devices, the diode is usually mounted in a coaxial line that is turned to the waveguide impedance using a capacitive element. The maximum power handling capability of the PIN diodes is discussed. In order to maximize the power handling of the diode mounting structure, the RF current shunt through the diode transferred impedance with the diode forward biased must be minimized. The reliability requirements of the diodes are discussed when used under military environmental conditions with ambient temperatures up to 85 C.

  19. Respiratory protective device design using control system techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, W. A.; Yankovich, D.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of a control system analysis approach to provide a design base for respiratory protective devices is considered. A system design approach requires that all functions and components of the system be mathematically identified in a model of the RPD. The mathematical notations describe the operation of the components as closely as possible. The individual component mathematical descriptions are then combined to describe the complete RPD. Finally, analysis of the mathematical notation by control system theory is used to derive compensating component values that force the system to operate in a stable and predictable manner.

  20. Protection against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-caused inflammation in SENCAR mouse ear skin by polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, S K; Agarwal, R; Ekker, S; Wood, G S; Mukhtar, H

    1993-03-01

    Earlier studies conducted in our laboratory have shown that a polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea (GTP) possesses anti-skin tumor initiating and anti-skin tumor promoting activity in the two-stage skin tumorigenesis protocol in SENCAR mouse. We have also shown that topical application of GTP inhibits tumor promoter-caused induction of epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity in SENCAR mice in a dose-dependent manner, and that its oral feeding in drinking water to SKH-1 hairless mice enhances antioxidant and phase II enzyme activity in liver, lung, small bowel and skin. In this study, we show that single or multiple applications of GTP on SENCAR mouse ear prior to or after the application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) afford significant protection (P < 0.05) against TPA-induced edema. Pre-application of GTP also afforded significant protection against TPA-induced hyperplasia in the ear skin. The percentage protection by GTP both in terms of epidermal thickness and vertical cell layers was 75 and 90% respectively (P < 0.005). In further studies, we assessed the protective effect of GTP against TPA-caused infiltration of neutrophils in the ear skin of SENCAR mouse, by determining a naturally occurring constituent of neutrophils, myeloperoxidase, as a quantitative marker of tissue neutrophil content. Prior application of GTP resulted in significant protection against TPA-caused infiltration of neutrophils (P < 0.005). These results suggest that GTP possesses potential as a cancer chemopreventive agent against stage I tumor promotion.

  1. Cerebral protection during percutaneous carotid intervention: wich device should be used ?

    PubMed

    Hendriks, J M; Zindler, J D; Van Dijk, L C; Van Sambeek, M R H M

    2004-06-01

    Embolic complications remain the major and unpredictable clinical event during carotid angioplasty and stenting. Cerebral protection devices could play an important role in the prevention of such emboli. Protection devices such as occlusion balloons, filters and reversed flow devices are currently undergoing clinical evaluation and appear to be promising in reducing the incidence of embolic events. This article provides an overview of the three different types of embolic protection devices.

  2. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  3. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  4. Folded inflatable protective device and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Behr, V.L.; Nelsen, J.M.; Gwinn, K.W.

    1998-10-20

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for making an inflatable protective device made of lightweight material that can withstand the initial stress from inflation and enhance radial inflation. The device includes a cushion and an inflator port. The invention further includes several stacks of folded cushion material including a combination of full-width stacks and half-width stacks: a first full-width stack defined by one or more fan folds in a first lateral half of the cushion wherein the folds are substantially centered above a first center line and are substantially over the inflator port; a second full-width stack defined by one or more fan folds in a second lateral half of the cushion wherein the folds are substantially centered above the first center line and substantially over the inflator port in the first full-width stack; a first half-width stack defined by a plurality of fan folds in the bottom of the cushion where neither edge of each fold extends substantially over the second center line; and a second half-width stack defined by a plurality of fan folds in the top of the cushion wherein neither edge of each fold extends substantially over the second center line. 22 figs.

  5. Folded inflatable protective device and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Behr, Vance L.; Nelsen, James M.; Gwinn, Kenneth W.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for making an inflatable protective device made of lightweight material that can withstand the initial stress from inflation and enhance radial inflation. The device includes a cushion and an inflator port. The invention further includes several stacks of folded cushion material including a combination of full-width stacks and half-width stacks: a first full-width stack defined by one or more fan folds in a first lateral half of the cushion wherein the folds are substantially centered above a first center line and are substantially over the inflator port; a second full-width stack defined by one or more fan folds in a second lateral half of the cushion wherein the folds are substantially centered above the first center line and substantially over the inflator port in the first full-width stack; a first half-width stack defined by a plurality of fan folds in the bottom of the cushion where neither edge of each fold extends substantially over the second center line; and a second half-width stack defined by a plurality of fan folds in the top of the cushion wherein neither edge of each fold extends substantially over the second center line.

  6. 46 CFR 54.15-5 - Protective devices (modifies UG-125).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protective devices (modifies UG-125). 54.15-5 Section 54.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Pressure-Relief Devices § 54.15-5 Protective devices (modifies UG-125). (a) All pressure vessels...

  7. 46 CFR 54.15-5 - Protective devices (modifies UG-125).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protective devices (modifies UG-125). 54.15-5 Section 54.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Pressure-Relief Devices § 54.15-5 Protective devices (modifies UG-125). (a) All pressure vessels...

  8. 46 CFR 54.15-5 - Protective devices (modifies UG-125).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protective devices (modifies UG-125). 54.15-5 Section 54.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Pressure-Relief Devices § 54.15-5 Protective devices (modifies UG-125). (a) All pressure vessels...

  9. 46 CFR 54.15-5 - Protective devices (modifies UG-125).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protective devices (modifies UG-125). 54.15-5 Section 54.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Pressure-Relief Devices § 54.15-5 Protective devices (modifies UG-125). (a) All pressure vessels...

  10. 46 CFR 54.15-5 - Protective devices (modifies UG-125).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protective devices (modifies UG-125). 54.15-5 Section 54.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Pressure-Relief Devices § 54.15-5 Protective devices (modifies UG-125). (a) All pressure vessels...

  11. Aging assessment of surge protective devices in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.F.; Subudhi, M.; Carroll, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    An assessment was performed to determine the effects of aging on the performance and availability of surge protective devices (SPDs), used in electrical power and control systems in nuclear power plants. Although SPDs have not been classified as safety-related, they are risk-important because they can minimize the initiating event frequencies associated with loss of offsite power and reactor trips. Conversely, their failure due to age might cause some of those initiating events, e.g., through short circuit failure modes, or by allowing deterioration of the safety-related component(s) they are protecting from overvoltages, perhaps preventing a reactor trip, from an open circuit failure mode. From the data evaluated during 1980--1994, it was found that failures of surge arresters and suppressers by short circuits were neither a significant risk nor safety concern, and there were no failures of surge suppressers preventing a reactor trip. Simulations, using the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) were performed to determine the adequacy of high voltage surge arresters.

  12. Field evaluations of hearing protection devices at surface mining environments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of circumaural hearing protection devices and their predictability when they were being worn by mine employees performing normal work duties. The method employed relied on a physical measurement of the noise reduction of the hearing protectors by utilizing two FM-wireless transmitting and receiving systems. One system measured the outside hearing protector noise level, the second system measured the inside hearing protector noise level. The noise level data of both systems was transmitted back to the corresponding receivers and was recorded onto a two-channel tape recorder. Three methods of evaluating hearing protector performance were explored and compared to the Environmental Protection Agency, Noise Reduction Rating (EPA NRR) values. They were, (1) predicted National Institute for occupational Safety and Health`s (NIOSH) method No. 1 values, (2) field-calculated NIOSH No. 1 values, and (3) measured dBA reduction values, which was the arithmetic A-weighted differences between both microphone locations. The majority of the data was obtained on operators of mobile strip equipment, such as bulldozers, front-end-loaders, and overburden drills. A total of 107 individual tests were conducted using 11 different hearing protectors. The results indicate that the amount of protection, which can vary significantly, is related either to the spectrum shape of the noise, or the C-weighted minus the A-weighted (C-A) value. This is consistent with other researchers. The field measured noise reductions were equivalent to the EPA NRR values when the C-A values were negative or approaching zero. When the C-A values increased, the measured noise reductions significantly decreased.

  13. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  14. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  15. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  16. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  17. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  18. Passive Hearing Protection Systems and Their Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    However, these coustic energy. Additionally, earcups and earcushions offer a t often is not flat in the region in which the earcup contacts the he...to provide personnel with personal hearing protection. This protection may be in the form of either an earplug that occludes the ear canal or a ...circumaural protector that inserts a barrier between the ambient noise and the ear. For both devices the level of passive protection provided changes

  19. Swimmer's ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... or a respiratory infection such as a cold. Swimming in unclean water can lead to swimmer's ear. ... very well after it has gotten wet. Avoid swimming in polluted water. Use earplugs when swimming. Try ...

  20. Pierced Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... you run the risk of getting infected ears. Metal Matters Your first earrings should have gold posts ( ... infection and swelling. Later, you may find some metals cause an allergic reaction. You're probably wondering ...

  1. Airplane Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe hearing loss Ringing in your ear (tinnitus) Spinning sensation (vertigo) Vomiting resulting from vertigo Bleeding from ... the back of the nasal cavity and the top of the throat meet (nasopharynx). When an airplane ...

  2. Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... most common cause of ear infections. Get your child’s vaccinations on time.Practice routine hand washing and avoid sharing food and drinks, especially if your child is exposed to large groups of kids in ...

  3. Fabrication of Ocular Protective Devices against Laser Radiation and Ballistic Fragments for Evaluation in Military Scenarios

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-30

    protection against ballistic fragments. These methods were applied to a variety of specific eye protection devices including spectacles , aviator visors, the...and to provide protection against ballistic fragments. These methods were applied to a variety of specific eye protection devices including spectacles ...the time between treatment and coating . Also, a UV curable coating was cast against a glass mold which matched the front curve of a spectacle

  4. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose...; and ear, nose, and throat trocar. (b) Classification Class I (general controls). The device is exempt... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical...

  5. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose...; and ear, nose, and throat trocar. (b) Classification Class I (general controls). The device is exempt... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical...

  6. Graphene in NLO Devices for High Energy Laser Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-17

    including eye) protection can be achieved by blocking, scattering, diffracting, or absorbing incoming laser light. Current solutions include shutter...noticeable color distortion (filters), narrow band protection (filters), low saturation thresholds (Reverse-Saturable Absorbing (RSA) NLO dyes), and...protecting. Sensor (including eye) protection can be achieved by blocking, scattering, diffracting, or absorbing incoming laser light. Current solutions

  7. 49 CFR 195.428 - Overpressure safety devices and overfill protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Overpressure safety devices and overfill protection systems. 195.428 Section 195.428 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Overpressure safety devices and overfill protection systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this...

  8. 49 CFR 195.428 - Overpressure safety devices and overfill protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Overpressure safety devices and overfill protection systems. 195.428 Section 195.428 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Overpressure safety devices and overfill protection systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this...

  9. 49 CFR 195.428 - Overpressure safety devices and overfill protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Overpressure safety devices and overfill protection systems. 195.428 Section 195.428 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Overpressure safety devices and overfill protection systems. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this...

  10. [Stenting of subtotal conclusion of internal carotid artery and comparing the cerebral embolic load of proximal balloon protection device with distal filter protection device].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing-wei; Ji, Xun-ming; Li, Shen-mao; Zhu, Feng-shui; Chen, Yan-fei; Ye, Ming; Jiao, Li-qun

    2013-07-16

    To study the safety, efficacy and perioperative complications of endovascular therapy in the treatment of subtotal conclusion of internal carotid artery(ICA) in patients. To compare the cerebral embolic load of proximal balloon protection device versus distal filter protection device during the operation. Review all the operations of stenting for subtotal conclusion of ICA in Xuanwu hospital. New cerebral infarction after stenting was assessed by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Count the number of new ischemic lesions of every patient. 35 patients with subtotal conclusion of ICA received endovascular stenting. Proximal protective device was used for 21 patients. Distal protective device was used for 14 patients. All procedures succeeded. 32 patients received the cerebral MRI 1 week before and within 48 hours after the operation. Compared with filter protection(n = 14), proximal balloon device(n = 18) resulted in a significant reduction in the incidence of new cerebral infarction (6/18 vs 10/14, P = 0.03). The number of new cerebral ischemic lesions were significant reduced by proximal balloon device (1/18 vs 4/14, P = 0.0006) . There were no serious cardiovascular events in 35 patients during the operation and the following up 3 months. 3 patients had restenosis which was demonstrated by ultrasound of ICA at 3 months after stenting. Endovascular stenting may be a safe and valid method for the treatment of subtotal occlusion of ICA. For the stenting of subtotal occlusion of ICA, proximal balloon protection device as compared with filter protection may reduce the embolic load to the brain more effectively. The stenting of subtotal occlusion of ICA still needs the randomized trails to confirm the safety and validity.

  11. Self-Protection of Electrochemical Storage Devices via a Thermal Reversible Sol-Gel Transition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Liu, Zhiyuan; Chandran, Bevita K; Deng, Jiyang; Yu, Jiancan; Qi, Dianpeng; Li, Wenlong; Tang, Yuxin; Zhang, Chenguang; Chen, Xiaodong

    2015-10-07

    Thermal self-protected intelligent electrochemical storage devices are fabricated using a reversible sol-gel transition of the electrolyte, which can decrease the specific capacitance and increase and enable temperature-dependent charging and discharging rates in the device. This work represents proof of a simple and useful concept, which shows tremendous promise for the safe and controlled power delivery in electrochemical devices.

  12. The viability of hearing protection device fit-testing at navy and marine corps accession points.

    PubMed

    Federman, Jeremy; Duhon, Christon

    2016-01-01

    The viability of hearing protection device (HPD) verification (i.e., fit-testing) on a large scale was investigated to address this gap in a military accession environment. Personal Attenuation Ratings (PARs) following self-fitted (SELF-Fit) HPDs were acquired from 320 US Marine Corps training recruits (87.5% male, 12.5% female) across four test protocols (1-, 3-, 5-, and 7- frequency). SELF-Fit failures received follow-up to assess potential causes. Follow-up PARs were acquired (Experimenter fit [EXP-Fit], followed by Subject re-fit [SUB Re-Fit]). EXP-Fit was intended to provide a perception (dubbed "ear canal muscle memory") of what a correctly fitted HPD should feel like. SUB Re-Fit was completed following EXP-Fit to determine whether a training recruit could duplicate EXP-Fit on her/his own without assistance. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (N = 320) showed that SELF-Fit means differed significantly between protocols (P < 0.001). Post-hoc analyses showed that the 1-freq SELF-Fit mean was significantly lower than all other protocols (P < 0.03) by 5.6 dB or more. No difference was found between the multi-frequency protocols. For recruits who were followed up with EXP-Fit (n = 79), across all protocols, a significant (P < 0.001) mean improvement of 25.68 dB (10.99) was found, but PARs did not differ (P = 0.99) between EXP-Fit protocols. For recruits in the 3-freq and 5-freq protocol groups who experienced all three PAR test methods (n = 33), PAR methods differed (P < 0.001) but no method by protocol interaction was found (P = 0.46). Post hoc tests showed that both EXP-Fit and SUB Re-Fit had significantly better attenuation than SELF-Fit (P < 0.001), but no difference was found between EXPFit and SUB Re-Fit (P = 0.59). For SELF-Fit, the 1-freq protocol resulted in a 35% pass rate, whereas the 3-, 5-, and 7-freq protocols resulted in >60% pass rates. Results showed that once recruits experienced how HPDs should

  13. The Viability of Hearing Protection Device Fit-Testing at Navy and Marine Corps Accession Points

    PubMed Central

    Federman, Jeremy; Duhon, Christon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The viability of hearing protection device (HPD) verification (i.e., fit-testing) on a large scale was investigated to address this gap in a military accession environment. Materials and Methods: Personal Attenuation Ratings (PARs) following self-fitted (SELF-Fit) HPDs were acquired from 320 US Marine Corps training recruits (87.5% male, 12.5% female) across four test protocols (1-, 3-, 5-, and 7- frequency). SELF-Fit failures received follow-up to assess potential causes. Follow-up PARs were acquired (Experimenter fit [EXP-Fit], followed by Subject re-fit [SUB Re-Fit]). EXP-Fit was intended to provide a perception (dubbed “ear canal muscle memory”) of what a correctly fitted HPD should feel like. SUB Re-Fit was completed following EXP-Fit to determine whether a training recruit could duplicate EXP-Fit on her/his own without assistance. Results: A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (N=320) showed that SELF-Fit means differed significantly between protocols (P < 0.001). Post-hoc analyses showed that the 1-freq SELF-Fit mean was significantly lower than all other protocols (P < 0.03) by 5.6 dB or more. No difference was found between the multi-frequency protocols. For recruits who were followed up with EXP-Fit (n=79), across all protocols, a significant (P < 0.001) mean improvement of 25.68 dB (10.99) was found, but PARs did not differ (P = 0.99) between EXP-Fit protocols. For recruits in the 3-freq and 5-freq protocol groups who experienced all three PAR test methods (n=33), PAR methods differed (P < 0.001) but no method by protocol interaction was found (P = 0.46). Post hoc tests showed that both EXP-Fit and SUB Re-Fit had significantly better attenuation than SELF-Fit (P < 0.001), but no difference was found between EXPFit and SUB Re-Fit (P = 0.59). For SELF-Fit, the 1-freq protocol resulted in a 35% pass rate, whereas the 3-, 5-, and 7-freq protocols resulted in >60% pass rates. Results showed that once recruits experienced how HPDs should

  14. 14 CFR 27.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...” device in which the tripping mechanism cannot be overridden by the operating control) must be designed so that— (1) A manual operation is required to restore service after trippling; and (2) If an overload or circuit fault exists, the device will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating...

  15. 14 CFR 27.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...” device in which the tripping mechanism cannot be overridden by the operating control) must be designed so that— (1) A manual operation is required to restore service after trippling; and (2) If an overload or circuit fault exists, the device will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating...

  16. 14 CFR 27.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...” device in which the tripping mechanism cannot be overridden by the operating control) must be designed so that— (1) A manual operation is required to restore service after trippling; and (2) If an overload or circuit fault exists, the device will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating...

  17. 14 CFR 27.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...” device in which the tripping mechanism cannot be overridden by the operating control) must be designed so that— (1) A manual operation is required to restore service after trippling; and (2) If an overload or circuit fault exists, the device will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating...

  18. 14 CFR 27.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...” device in which the tripping mechanism cannot be overridden by the operating control) must be designed so that— (1) A manual operation is required to restore service after trippling; and (2) If an overload or circuit fault exists, the device will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating...

  19. Ear Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brain Damage in Boxers (News) Which High School Sport Has the Most Concussions? Additional Content Medical News Ear Injury By Sam ... often... More News News HealthDay Which High School Sport Has the Most Concussions? WEDNESDAY, March 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Female soccer ...

  20. Development of a new standard laboratory protocol for estimation of the field attenuation of hearing protection devices: sample size necessary to provide acceptable reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Murphy, William J; Franks, John R; Berger, Elliott H; Behar, Alberto; Casali, John G; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Krieg, Edward F; Mozo, Ben T; Royster, Julia D; Royster, Larry H; Simon, Stephen D; Stephenson, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The mandate of ASA Working Group S12/WG11 has been to develop "laboratory and/or field procedure(s) that yield useful estimates of field performance" of hearing protection devices (HPDs). A real-ear attenuation at threshold procedure was selected, devised, tested for one earmuff and three earplugs via an interlaboratory study involving five laboratories and 147 subjects, and incorporated into a new standard that was approved in 1997 [Royster et al., "Development of a new standard laboratory protocol for estimating the field attenuation of hearing protection devices. Part I. Research of Working Group 11, Accredited Standards Committee S 12, Noise," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 1506-1526; ANSI, S12.6-1997, "American National Standard method for measuring real-ear attenuation of hearing protectors" (American National Standards Institute, New York, 1997)]. The subject-fit methodology of ANSI S12.6-1997 relies upon listeners who are audiometrically proficient, but inexperienced in the use of HPDs. Whenever a new method is adopted, it is important to know the effects of variability on the power of the measurements. In evaluation of protector noise reduction determined by experimenter-fit, informed-user-fit, and subject-fit methods, interlaboratory reproducibility was found to be best for the subject-fit method. Formulas were derived for determining the minimum detectable difference between attenuation measurements and for determining the number of subjects necessary to achieve a selected level of precision. For a precision of 6 dB, the study found that the minimum number of subjects was 4 for the Bilsom UF-1 earmuff, 10 for the E.A.R Classic earplug, 31 for the Willson EP100 earplug, and 22 for the PlasMed V-51R earplug.

  1. Cosmetic ear surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...

  2. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News media ... who suffer from the most common type of ear infection, called middle ear infection or otitis media ( ...

  3. Ear Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  4. Better Ear Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Better Ear Health Better Ear Health Patient Health Information News ... often helpful to those with this condition. Swimmer’s Ear An infection of the outer ear structures caused ...

  5. 46 CFR 111.50-5 - Location of overcurrent protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location of overcurrent protective devices. 111.50-5 Section 111.50-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Overcurrent Protection § 111.50-5 Location of overcurrent protective...

  6. 46 CFR 111.50-5 - Location of overcurrent protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location of overcurrent protective devices. 111.50-5 Section 111.50-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Overcurrent Protection § 111.50-5 Location of overcurrent protective...

  7. 46 CFR 111.50-5 - Location of overcurrent protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location of overcurrent protective devices. 111.50-5 Section 111.50-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Overcurrent Protection § 111.50-5 Location of overcurrent protective...

  8. 30 CFR 77.600 - Trailing cables; short-circuit protection; disconnecting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trailing cables; short-circuit protection... AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.600 Trailing cables; short-circuit protection; disconnecting devices. Short-circuit protection for trailing cables shall be provided by an automatic circuit...

  9. 30 CFR 77.600 - Trailing cables; short-circuit protection; disconnecting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trailing cables; short-circuit protection... AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.600 Trailing cables; short-circuit protection; disconnecting devices. Short-circuit protection for trailing cables shall be provided by an automatic circuit...

  10. 30 CFR 77.600 - Trailing cables; short-circuit protection; disconnecting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trailing cables; short-circuit protection... AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.600 Trailing cables; short-circuit protection; disconnecting devices. Short-circuit protection for trailing cables shall be provided by an automatic circuit...

  11. 30 CFR 77.600 - Trailing cables; short-circuit protection; disconnecting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trailing cables; short-circuit protection... AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.600 Trailing cables; short-circuit protection; disconnecting devices. Short-circuit protection for trailing cables shall be provided by an automatic circuit...

  12. 30 CFR 77.600 - Trailing cables; short-circuit protection; disconnecting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trailing cables; short-circuit protection... AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.600 Trailing cables; short-circuit protection; disconnecting devices. Short-circuit protection for trailing cables shall be provided by an automatic circuit...

  13. Reliability Through Life of Internal Protection Devices in Small-Cell ABSL Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Ng, Ka Lok; Bennetti, Andrea; Pearson, Chris; Rao, gopal

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews a reliability analysis of small cell protection batteries. The contents include: 1) The s-p Topology; 2) Cell Level Protection Devices; 3) Battery Level Fault Protection; 4) Large Cell Comparison; and 5) Battery Level Testing and Results.

  14. Clinical Analysis Comparing Efficacy between a Distal Filter Protection Device and Proximal Balloon Occlusion Device during Carotid Artery Stenting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Hyeok; Sohn, Hee Eon; Chung, Seung Young; Park, Moon Sun; Kim, Seong Min; Lee, Do Sung

    2015-10-01

    The main concern during transfemoral carotid artery stenting (CAS) is preventing cerebral embolus dislodgement. We compared clinical outcomes and intraprocedural embolization rates of CAS using a distal filter protection device or proximal balloon occlusion device. From January 2011 to March 2015, a series of 58 patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis ≥70% were treated with CAS with embolic protection device in single center. All patients underwent post-CAS diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) to detect new ischemic lesions. We compared clinical outcomes and postprocedural embolization rates. CAS was performed in all 61 patients. Distal filter protection success rate was 96.6% (28/29), whose mean age was 70.9 years, and mean stenosis was 81%. Their preprocedural infarction rate was 39% (11/28). Subsequent DW-MRI revealed 96 new ischemic lesions in 71% (20/28) patients. In contrast, the proximal balloon occlusion device success rate was 93.8% (30/32), whose mean age was 68.8 years and mean stenosis was 86%. Preprocedure infarction rate was 47% (14/30). DW-MRI revealed 45 new ischemic lesions in 57% (17/30) patients. Compared with distal filter protection device, proximal balloon occlusion device resulted in fewer ischemic lesions per patient (p=0.028). In each group, type of stent during CAS had no significant effect on number of periprocedural embolisms. Only 2 neurologic events occurred in the successfully treated patients (one from each group). Transfemoral CAS with proximal balloon occlusion device achieves good results. Compared with distal filter protection, proximal balloon occlusion might be more effective in reducing cerebral embolism during CAS.

  15. Short protection device for stack of electrolytic cells

    DOEpatents

    Katz, M.; Schroll, C.R.

    1984-11-29

    The present invention relates to a device for preventing the electrical shorting of a stack of electrolytic cells during an extended period of operation. The device has application to fuel cell and other electrolytic cell stacks operating in low or high temperature corrosive environments. It is of particular importance for use in a stack of fuel cells operating with molten metal carbonate electrolyte for the production of electric power. Also, the device may have application in similar technology involving stacks of electrolytic cells for electrolysis to decompose chemical compounds.

  16. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source...

  17. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and...

  18. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and...

  19. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source...

  20. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  1. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  2. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  3. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  4. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  5. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  6. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  7. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  8. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  9. Seismic Protection of an Ancient Aqueduct Using SMA Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Chrysostomou, Christis Z.; Demetriou, Themos; Stassis, Andreas; Hamdaoui, Karim

    2008-07-08

    The effectiveness of the use of Cu-based shape memory alloy (SMA) prestressing devices on an ancient aqueduct is examined in this paper. The dynamic characteristics of the aqueduct were measured within the span of three years and computational models were developed that matched very closely its dynamic behaviour. Using this as a bench mark, SMA prestressing devices were applied on the structure and the effects on its dynamic characteristics were assessed. It was noted that the SMA prestressing devices have a significant effect on the dynamic response of the structure. This is attributed to the stiffening of the structure due to the increase in contact between the masonry units and hence the increase of its stiffness through the increase of the modulus of elasticity of the masonry matrix. It can be concluded that the SMA prestressing devices can provide an inconspicuous means of stiffening masonry structures and increase their resistance to earthquake loads.

  10. Seismic Protection of an Ancient Aqueduct Using SMA Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysostomou, Christis Z.; Demetriou, Themos; Stassis, Andreas; Hamdaoui, Karim

    2008-07-01

    The effectiveness of the use of Cu-based shape memory alloy (SMA) prestressing devices on an ancient aqueduct is examined in this paper. The dynamic characteristics of the aqueduct were measured within the span of three years and computational models were developed that matched very closely its dynamic behaviour. Using this as a bench mark, SMA prestressing devices were applied on the structure and the effects on its dynamic characteristics were assessed. It was noted that the SMA prestressing devices have a significant effect on the dynamic response of the structure. This is attributed to the stiffening of the structure due to the increase in contact between the masonry units and hence the increase of its stiffness through the increase of the modulus of elasticity of the masonry matrix. It can be concluded that the SMA prestressing devices can provide an inconspicuous means of stiffening masonry structures and increase their resistance to earthquake loads.

  11. Experimental evaluation of personal protection devices against graphite nanoaerosols: fibrous filter media, masks, protective clothing, and gloves.

    PubMed

    Golanski, L; Guiot, A; Rouillon, F; Pocachard, J; Tardif, F

    2009-06-01

    In this study, different conventional personal protection devices (fibrous filters, cartridges for respirators, protective clothing, and gloves) well qualified for micron particles were tested with graphite nanoparticles ranging from 10 to 100 nm (electrical mobility diameter). For this purpose, two specific test benches were designed: one for filter-based devices which are tested under a controlled air flow and other for gloves and protective clothing based on the "through diffusion method." The penetration versus particle size shows for most tested filter media the behavior predicted by the theoretical Brownian capture: penetration decreases when particle diameter decreases. No thermal rebound was detected until 10 nm for graphite nanoparticles. Protective clothes were tested by two methods and same trends were obtained. Nonwoven fabrics (air-tight materials) are much more efficient against nanoparticles than cotton and paper. Gloves tested by "through diffusion technique," in static condition seem to efficiently protect against graphite nanoparticles in spite of their important porosity.

  12. A survey of Canadian Alpine ski racing coaches regarding spinal protective devices for their athletes

    PubMed Central

    Stainsby, Brynne; Law, Jeremy; Mackinnon, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Spinal protective devices are a recent addition to the protective equipment worn by competitive and recreational alpine skiers and snowboarders. Their rate of use is not documented at the time of publication. The objective of this study was to examine the current attitudes and recommendations of Canadian alpine ski racing coaches towards spinal protective devices. Methods: A convenience sample of alpine ski racing coaches across Canada were contacted in each provincial sport governing body in the ski racing community. A ten question online survey was attached to the initial email. Descriptive statistical analysis was utilized. Results: A total of 29 Canadian alpine ski racing coaches completed the study survey. All participants were familiar with spinal protective devices and 51.7% of respondents reported that they do not actively enforce spinal protective device use with their ski racing athletes. 80% of respondents reported that their Canadian ski racing club did not have guidelines or policies regarding spinal protective device use. 86.2% of respondents were unaware if their provincial sport organization had a policy regarding their use. Discussion: The majority of coaches reporting training athletes aged 10–15, which may help to explain why only half of those surveyed enforce the use of spinal protective devices. This group of athletes may not participate in speed events as frequently as older athletes, where the use of spinal protective devices is more common. Conclusion: The majority of Canadian Alpine ski coaches report a belief that spinal protective device use is important, however, far fewer enforce their use, or work in an environment with a policy requiring it. Further research is required to determine the differences in beliefs and practice. PMID:25550668

  13. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... device includes the esophageal dilator; tracheal bistour (a long, narrow surgical knife); tracheal dilator; tracheal hook; laryngeal injection set; laryngeal knife; laryngeal saw; laryngeal trocar...; wire ear loop; microrule; mirror; mobilizer; ear, nose, and throat punch; ear, nose and throat...

  14. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... device includes the esophageal dilator; tracheal bistour (a long, narrow surgical knife); tracheal dilator; tracheal hook; laryngeal injection set; laryngeal knife; laryngeal saw; laryngeal trocar...; wire ear loop; microrule; mirror; mobilizer; ear, nose, and throat punch; ear, nose and throat...

  15. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... device includes the esophageal dilator; tracheal bistour (a long, narrow surgical knife); tracheal dilator; tracheal hook; laryngeal injection set; laryngeal knife; laryngeal saw; laryngeal trocar...; wire ear loop; microrule; mirror; mobilizer; ear, nose, and throat punch; ear, nose and throat...

  16. Encapsulants for protecting MEMS devices during post-packaging release etch

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2005-10-18

    The present invention relates to methods to protect a MEMS or microsensor device through one or more release or activation steps in a "package first, release later" manufacturing scheme: This method of fabrication permits wirebonds, other interconnects, packaging materials, lines, bond pads, and other structures on the die to be protected from physical, chemical, or electrical damage during the release etch(es) or other packaging steps. Metallic structures (e.g., gold, aluminum, copper) on the device are also protected from galvanic attack because they are protected from contact with HF or HCL-bearing solutions.

  17. Foam ear protectors for burnt ears.

    PubMed

    Harries, C A; Pegg, S P

    1989-01-01

    Foam ear protectors were developed at the Royal Brisbane Hospital for use with selected patients with burns to the ears. The protectors assist in preventing pressure necrosis of the ear and damage to skin grafts. They permit visualization of the ears after grafting and allow the patient to sleep in a side-lying position if desired.

  18. Development of Pinhole-Free Amorphous Aluminum Oxide Protective Layers for Biomedical Device Applications

    PubMed Central

    Litvinov, Julia; Wang, Yi-Ju; George, Jinnie; Chinwangso, Pawilai; Brankovic, Stanko; Willson, Richard C.; Litvinov, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes synthesis of ultrathin pinhole-free insulating aluminum oxide layers for electronic device protection in corrosive liquid environments, such as phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or clinical fluids, to enable emerging biomedical applications such as biomolecular sensors. A pinhole-free 25-nm thick amorphous aluminum oxide layer has been achieved using ultra-high vacuum DC magnetron reactive sputtering of aluminum in oxygen/argon plasma followed by oxygen plasma post-processing. Deposition parameters were optimized to achieve the best corrosion protection of lithographically defined device structures. Electrochemical deposition of copper through the aluminum oxide layers was used to detect the presence (or absence) of pinholes. FTIR, XPS, and spectroscopic ellipsometry were used to characterize the material properties of the protective layers. Electrical resistance of the copper device structures protected by the aluminum oxide layers and exposed to a PBS solution was used as a metric to evaluate the long-term stability of these device structures. PMID:23682201

  19. Development of Pinhole-Free Amorphous Aluminum Oxide Protective Layers for Biomedical Device Applications.

    PubMed

    Litvinov, Julia; Wang, Yi-Ju; George, Jinnie; Chinwangso, Pawilai; Brankovic, Stanko; Willson, Richard C; Litvinov, Dmitri

    2013-06-15

    This paper describes synthesis of ultrathin pinhole-free insulating aluminum oxide layers for electronic device protection in corrosive liquid environments, such as phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or clinical fluids, to enable emerging biomedical applications such as biomolecular sensors. A pinhole-free 25-nm thick amorphous aluminum oxide layer has been achieved using ultra-high vacuum DC magnetron reactive sputtering of aluminum in oxygen/argon plasma followed by oxygen plasma post-processing. Deposition parameters were optimized to achieve the best corrosion protection of lithographically defined device structures. Electrochemical deposition of copper through the aluminum oxide layers was used to detect the presence (or absence) of pinholes. FTIR, XPS, and spectroscopic ellipsometry were used to characterize the material properties of the protective layers. Electrical resistance of the copper device structures protected by the aluminum oxide layers and exposed to a PBS solution was used as a metric to evaluate the long-term stability of these device structures.

  20. 14 CFR 23.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cannot be overridden by the operating control) must be designed so that— (1) A manual operation is required to restore service after tripping; and (2) If an overload or circuit fault exists, the device will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating control. (d) If the ability to reset...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cannot be overridden by the operating control) must be designed so that— (1) A manual operation is required to restore service after tripping; and (2) If an overload or circuit fault exists, the device will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating control. (d) If the ability to reset...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cannot be overridden by the operating control) must be designed so that— (1) A manual operation is required to restore service after tripping; and (2) If an overload or circuit fault exists, the device will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating control. (d) If the ability to reset...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... cannot be overridden by the operating control) must be designed so that— (1) A manual operation is required to restore service after tripping; and (2) If an overload or circuit fault exists, the device will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating control. (d) If the ability to reset...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cannot be overridden by the operating control) must be designed so that— (1) A manual operation is required to restore service after tripping; and (2) If an overload or circuit fault exists, the device will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating control. (d) If the ability to reset...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 25.1357... electrical system and hazard to the airplane in the event of wiring faults or serious malfunction of the... associated busses with sufficient rapidity to provide protection from hazardous over-voltage and other...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 29.1357... electrical system and hazard to the rotorcraft system and hazard to the rotorcraft in the event of wiring... power transmission equipment from their associated buses with sufficient rapidity to provide protection...

  7. Glass encapsulation provides extra protection for IC semiconductor devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doelp, W. L., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Oxide-passivated semiconductor chip is given protective glass coating by means of vapor deposition over metallic substrate of integrated circuit (IC). Method provides more reliable oxide-passivation and hermetic sealing in current use. Chips and scratches incurred during dicing, testing, and assembly are markedly reduced.

  8. 14 CFR 29.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... faults or serious malfunction of the system or connected equipment. (b) The protective and control... be designed so that, when an overload or circuit fault exists, it will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating control. (d) If the ability to reset a circuit breaker or replace a...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... faults or serious malfunction of the system or connected equipment. (b) The protective and control... be designed so that, when an overload or circuit fault exists, it will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating control. (d) If the ability to reset a circuit breaker or replace a...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... faults or serious malfunction of the system or connected equipment. (b) The protective and control... be designed so that, when an overload or circuit fault exists, it will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating control. (d) If the ability to reset a circuit breaker or replace a...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... faults or serious malfunction of the system or connected equipment. (b) The protective and control... be designed so that, when an overload or circuit fault exists, it will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating control. (d) If the ability to reset a circuit breaker or replace a...

  12. Energy Dissipating Devices in Falling Rock Protection Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanon-Jano, L.; Blanco-Fernandez, E.; Castro-Fresno, D.; Ballester-Muñoz, F.

    2017-03-01

    Rockfall is a phenomenon which, when uncontrolled, may cause extensive material damage and personal injury. One of the structures used to avoid accidents caused by debris flows or rockfalls is flexible barriers. The energy dissipating devices which absorb the energy generated by rock impact and reduce the mechanical stresses in the rest of the elements of the structure are an essential part of these kinds of structures. This document proposes an overview of the performance of energy dissipating devices, as well as of the role that they fulfil in the barrier. Furthermore, a compilation and a description of the dissipating elements found in the literature are proposed. Additionally, an analysis has been performed of the aspects taken into account in the design, such as experimental (quasi-static and dynamic) tests observing the variation of the behaviour curve depending on the test speed and numerical simulations by means of several finite element software packages.

  13. Evaluating Tree Protection Devices: Effects on Growth and Survival–First-Year Results

    Treesearch

    L. R. Costello; R. H. Schmidt; Gregory A. Giusti

    1991-01-01

    The protection of seedlings from animal browsing is critical for the survival and growth of many tree species. This is particularly true in wildland areas and arid areas (McAuliffe, 1986), and oftentimes in urban areas. A variety of techniques and devices have been used to protect seedlings, from using straw stubble to milk cartons to plastic or metal screens. Recently...

  14. Testing of high voltage surge protection devices for use in liquid argon TPC detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaadi, J.; Conrad, J. M.; Gollapinni, S.; Jones, B. J. P.; Jostlein, H.; St. John, J. M.; Strauss, T.; Wolbers, S.; Zennamo, J.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the capability of high voltage varistors and gas discharge tube arrestors for use as surge protection devices in liquid argon time projection chamber detectors. The insulating and clamping behavior of each type of device is characterized in air (room temperature), and liquid argon (90 K), and their robustness under high voltage and high energy surges in cryogenic conditions is verified. The protection of vulnerable components in liquid argon during a 150 kV high voltage discharge is also demonstrated. Each device is tested for argon contamination and light emission effects, and both are constrained to levels where no significant impact upon liquid argon time projection chamber functionality is expected. Both devices investigated are shown to be suitable for HV surge protection applications in cryogenic detectors.

  15. [Use of a filtering protective device during angioplasty and stenting of the brachiocephalic trunk].

    PubMed

    Tsygankov, V N; Frantsevich, A M

    The authors carried out a pilot study aimed at assessing the possibility and efficacy of using filtering systems for protection of cerebral arteries from distal embolism during angioplasty and stenting of the brachiocephalic trunk. A total of five patients presenting with lesions of the brachiocephalic trunk underwent 5 roentgenoendovascular interventions with the use of the filtering protective device Spider FX. Angiographic and clinical success was achieved in 100% of cases. Particles of debris were obtained from the protective device in all cases. All the five patients were found to have symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency. During follow-up in the medium-term period at check examinations the implanted stents were patent, with neither major nor minor neurological complications observed. The patients turned out to be free from cerebrovascular insufficiency relapses. Presented herein are clinical case reports describing technical peculiarities of using the protective device in different variants of the anatomy and vascular lesion.

  16. Ear Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... burst. previous continue Signs of Hearing Loss or Balance Problems Ear injuries can affect kids differently. Some ... both ears, kids with ear injuries that affect balance may have symptoms like: falling or stumbling a ...

  17. Ear drainage culture (image)

    MedlinePlus

    An ear drainage culture is collected by placing a cotton swab gently in the ear canal. The sample is sent to the laboratory for testing to isolate and identify the type of organism causing the ear infection.

  18. Ears and Altitude

    MedlinePlus

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ears and Altitude Ears and Altitude Patient Health Information ... uncomfortable feeling of fullness or pressure. Why do ears pop? Normally, swallowing causes a little click or ...

  19. Ear tube insertion - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100045.htm Ear tube insertion - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 4 Overview The eardrum (tympanic membrane) separates the ear canal from the middle ear. Review Date 8/ ...

  20. Ear Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... burst. previous continue Signs of Hearing Loss or Balance Problems Ear injuries can affect kids differently. Some ... both ears, kids with ear injuries that affect balance may have symptoms like: falling or stumbling a ...

  1. Short protection device for stack of electrolytic cells

    DOEpatents

    Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1985-10-22

    Electrical short protection is provided in an electrolytic cell stack by the combination of a thin, nonporous ceramic shield and a noble metal foil disposed on opposite sides of the sealing medium in a gas manifold gasket. The thin ceramic shield, such as alumina, is placed between the porous gasket and the cell stack face at the margins of the negative end plate to the most negative cells to impede ion current flow. The noble metal foil, for instance gold, is electrically coupled to the negative potential of the stack to collect positive ions at a harmless location away from the stack face. Consequently, corrosion products from the stack structure deposit on the foil rather than on the stack face to eliminate electrical shorting of cells at the negative end of the stack.

  2. Rear-impact neck protection devices for adult wheelchair users.

    PubMed

    Simms, Ciaran K; Madden, Brian; Fitzpatrick, David; Tiernan, John

    2009-01-01

    Many wheelchair users remain in their wheelchairs during transit. Safety research for wheelchair users has focused mainly on frontal impact. However, although they are generally less severe, rear-impact injuries are expensive and difficult to treat and whiplash injury protection for adult wheelchair users remains poorly understood. In this article, 10 g (16 km/h) rear-impact sled tests conducted with the Biofidelic Rear Impact Dummy II or BioRID-II (Denton ATD Inc and Chalmers University of Technology; Gothenburg, Sweden) seated in a rigid wheelchair with no head restraint showed that Abbreviated Injury Scale-score 1 neck injury risk evaluated with the neck injury criterion (NIC) and Nkm criterion is substantially above proposed threshold levels. A prototype wheelchair head restraint was developed and tested together with an existing commercial head restraint (Rolko; Borgholzhausen, Germany) in the same 10 g (16 km/h) rear impact. Both head restraints reduced the injury scores substantially. NIC test scores for the head restraints with no gap ranged from 18 to 24 (approximately 20%-30% chance of neck injury symptoms of duration >1 month) compared with test scores for no head restraints that ranged from 34 to 37 (approximately 95% chance of neck injury). The corresponding extension-posterior Nkm scores with no gap ranged from 0.30 to 0.35 (approximately 5% chance of neck injury) compared with no head restraint of 1.16 (approximately 45% chance of neck injury symptoms). However, the number of sled tests performed was small (three with no head restraint and six with a head restraint), and these results should be considered mainly trends. Preliminary results also showed that the horizontal gap between the head and the wheelchair head-restraint cushion should be as small possible.

  3. Antimicrobial coating of devices for prevention of infection: principles and protection.

    PubMed

    Darouiche, R O

    2007-09-01

    Device-associated infections are responsible for about half of nosocomial infections and can cause major medical and economical sequelae. Despite adherence to basic infection control measures, which constitute the mainstay for preventing infection, infections associated with certain devices continue to exist at unacceptably high rates. Potentially-preventive, antimicrobial-utilizing strategies include systemic antibiotic prophylaxis and local administration of antimicrobial agents (antibiotics or antiseptics), which includes antimicrobial irrigation of the surgical field, placement of antimicrobial carriers, antiseptic cleansing of the skin, dipping of surgical implants in antimicrobial solutions, and inserting antimicrobial-coated implants. Since bacterial colonization of the indwelling device is a prelude to infection, prevention of device colonization may lead to a lower rate of clinical infection. Different approaches for antimicrobial coating of devices have been variably successful in preventing device-associated infections. Optimal characteristics of antimicrobial coating can help predict the likelihood and degree of clinical protection against infection. This review addresses the impact of device-related infection, antimicrobial-utilizing approaches for preventing infection, clinical protection afforded by different types of antimicrobial coating, characteristics that predict the ability of antimicrobial coating of devices to prevent clinical infection, and future directions of antimicrobial coating.

  4. Smart Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices with Self-Protection and Self-Adaptation Abilities.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun; Yu, Dandan; Wang, Hua; Guo, Lin

    2017-08-24

    Currently, with booming development and worldwide usage of rechargeable electrochemical energy storage devices, their safety issues, operation stability, service life, and user experience are garnering special attention. Smart and intelligent energy storage devices with self-protection and self-adaptation abilities aiming to address these challenges are being developed with great urgency. In this Progress Report, we highlight recent achievements in the field of smart energy storage systems that could early-detect incoming internal short circuits and self-protect against thermal runaway. Moreover, intelligent devices that are able to take actions and self-adapt in response to external mechanical disruption or deformation, i.e., exhibiting self-healing or shape-memory behaviors, are discussed. Finally, insights into the future development of smart rechargeable energy storage devices are provided. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. What practical factors guide the choice of stent and protection device during carotid angioplasty?

    PubMed

    Bosiers, M; Deloose, K; Verbist, J; Peeters, P

    2008-06-01

    The importance of angioplasty and stenting in the treatment of carotid artery disease cannot be underestimated. Successful carotid stenting does not only depend of the operator's skills and experience, but also an adequate selection of cerebral protection devices and carotid stents can help avoiding neurological complications. A broad spectrum of carotid devices is currently on the market and since all have their assets and downsides, it is virtually impossible to acclaim one specific device as being the best. The individual characteristics of each specific protection system or stent may make it an attractive choice in one circumstance, but render it a less desirable option in others situations. The applicability depends primarily on the arterial anatomy and the specific details of the lesion being treated. But certainly, personal preferences and familiarity with a specific device may legitimately influence the decision to choose one over another.

  6. The impact of embolic protection device and stent design on the outcome of CAS.

    PubMed

    Bosiers, Marc; Deloose, Koen; Verbist, Jürgen; Peeters, Patrick

    2008-09-01

    The importance of angioplasty and stenting in the treatment of carotid artery disease cannot be underestimated. Successful carotid stenting does not only depend on the operator's skills and experience but also on an adequate selection of cerebral protection devices, and carotid stents can help avoid neurological complications. A broad spectrum of carotid devices is currently on the market, and because each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages, it is virtually impossible to claim that one specific device is the best. The individual characteristics of each specific protection system or stent may make it an attractive choice in one circumstance but render it a less desirable option in other situations. The applicability depends primarily on the arterial anatomy and the specific details of the lesion being treated. But certainly, personal preferences and familiarity with a specific device may legitimately influence the decision to choose one over another.

  7. Performance Assessment of Hearing Protection and Communication Enhancement Devices: Peltor Comtac III and IV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    designed to amplify soft sounds and conversational speech while allowing loud sounds to pass though without amplification. To normalize the hear-thru...2015; 88ABW-2015-4423. 14. ABSTRACT Hearing Protection and communication enhancement devices were designed for those who want to maintain natural...noise. The devices also reduced critical aural cues required to localize sounds essential to maintaining situational awareness. The active headsets

  8. Evaluation of Lightweight and Low Profile Communications Devices for Respiratory Protective System 21 (RESPO 21)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    AD-A253 393 Ir ic EREP ORT ELECTE" S JUL2,3 992 C FINAL REPORT Evaluation of Lightweight and Low Profile Communications Devices for Respiratory ...Evaluation of Lightweight and Low Profile Communications Devices for Respiratory Protective System 21 (RESPO21) to U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development...1 INTRODUCTION The Chemical Research, Development, and Engineering Center (CRDEC) is entering development of the next generation of respiratory

  9. What Is an Ear Infection?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the germs bother your outer ear, it's called swimmer's ear. The middle ear is a small pocket ... What's Hearing Loss? Taking Care of Your Ears Swimmer's Ear Perforated Eardrum What's Earwax? Contact Us Print ...

  10. Shape-memory alloy overload protection device for osseointegrated transfemoral implant prosthetic limb attachment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Shao, Fei; Hughes, Steven

    2002-11-01

    The osseointegrated trans-femoral implant system provides a direct anchoring technique to attach prosthetic limb. This technique was first introduced PI Brenmark in Sweden. The UK had the first clinical trial in 1997 and currently has 6 active limb wearers. The success of this procedure has the potential for improved gait function and mobility, increased employability and significant long-term improvements in the quality of life for above knee amputees. However, the significant load involved in the trans-femoral implant system has caused permanent deformation and/or fractures of the implant abutment in several occasions. To protect the implant system, the implant abutment in particularly, an overloading protection device was introduced. The device uses mechanical mechanism to release torsion overload on the abutment. However, the bending overload protection remains unsolved. To solve the problem, a new overload protection device was developed. This device uses SMA component for bending overload protection. In this paper, the results of non-linear finite element modelling of the SMA and steel (AISI 1040) components were presented. Experiments were also carried out using steel components to assess the design which is based on the non-linear property of the materials.

  11. Thermoplastic Elastomer-Enabled Smart Electrolyte for Thermoresponsive Self-Protection of Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ye; Ha, Heonjoo; Al-Sudani, Atheer; Ellison, Christopher J; Yu, Guihua

    2016-09-01

    Thermoresponsive smart electrolytes based on Pluronic solution are developed for active control and thermal self-protection of electrochemical energy-storage devices. Mechanistic studies reveal that the highly effective and reversible self-protection behavior is attributed to the sol-gel transition of the Pluronic solution upon temperature change. The transition temperature and the degree of performance suppression can be tuned over a wide range.

  12. Low cost, combined radio frequency and electrostatic protection for electroexplosive devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Attenuation Technology Inc. (ATI) has developed a series of ferrite attenuators for protecting electroexplosive devices (EED's) from inadvertent actuation due to RF exposure. ATI's first attenuator was fabricated using the MN 67 ferrite formulation. That attenuator protected EED's from both pin-to-pin and pin-to-case RF exposure. Those attenuators passed MIL STD 1385B testing when used in electric blasting caps (EBC), electric squibs, and firing line filters made for the US Navy.

  13. Swimmer's Ear (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Swimmer's Ear (Otitis Externa) KidsHealth > For Parents > Swimmer's Ear (Otitis ... español Otitis del nadador (otitis externa) About Swimmer's Ear Otitis externa (OE) — commonly known as swimmer's ear — ...

  14. Gender and other factors associated with the use of hearing protection devices at work

    PubMed Central

    Meira, Tatiane Costa; Santana, Vilma Sousa; Ferrite, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze whether sociodemographic, occupational, and health-related data are associated with the use of hearing protection devices at work, according to gender. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2006, using a random sample of 2,429 workers, aged between 18 and 65 years old, from residential sub-areas in Salvador, BA, Northeastern Brazil. Questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic, occupational, and health-related data. Workers who reported that they worked in places where they needed to shout in order to be heard were considered to be exposed to noise. Exposed workers were asked whether they used hearing protection devices, and if so, how frequently. Analyses were conducted according to gender, with estimates made about prevalence of the use of hearing protection devices, prevalence ratios, and their respective 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS Twelve percent (12.3%) of study subjects reported that they were exposed to noise while working. Prevalence of the use of hearing protection devices was 59.3% for men and 21.4% for women. Men from higher socioeconomic levels (PR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.14;1.90) and who had previous audiometric tests (PR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.15;1.88) were more likely to use hearing protection devices. For women, greater perceived safety was associated with the use of protection devices (PR = 2.92; 95%CI 1.34;6.34). This perception was specifically related to the presence of supervisors committed to safety (PR = 2.09; 95%CI 1.04;4.21), the existence of clear rules to prevent workplace injuries (PR = 2.81; 95%CI 1.41;5.59), and whether they were informed about workplace safety (PR = 2.42; 95%CI 1.23;4.76). CONCLUSIONS There is a gender bias regarding the use of hearing protection devices that is less favorable to women. The use of such devices among women is positively influenced by their perception of a safe workplace, suggesting that gender should be considered as a factor in hearing conservation programs. PMID:26487294

  15. Tuning in the bullfrog ear.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, E R

    1988-01-01

    When electrical resonances were observed in acoustic sensory cells of lower vertebrates, the hearing research community was presented with the exciting possibility that tuning in the ears of those animals might be explained directly in terms of familiar molecular devices. It is reported here that in the frog sacculus, where electrical resonances have been observed in isolated hair cells, the effects of those resonances are completely obscured in the tuning properties of the sacculus in the intact ear. This observation has important implications not only for students of the ear, but for reductionist biologists in general. All of the dynamic properties of a system of connected, bidirectional processes are consequences of all of those processes at once; in such a system, the properties of an experimentally isolated subsystem may be totally obscured in the operation of the system as a whole. PMID:3258166

  16. 46 CFR 111.50-5 - Location of overcurrent protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location of overcurrent protective devices. 111.50-5 Section 111.50-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING...: (i) Exposed to mechanical damage; and (ii) Near an easily ignitable material or where explosive gas...

  17. Conceptual Design by TRIZ: An Application to a Rear Underrun Protective Device for Industrial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerniglia, D.; Lombardo, E.; Nigrelli, Vincenzo

    2008-11-01

    The paper describes results of methodical activity performed by employing inventive principles of the theory for the inventive resolution of problems (TRIZ), in order to obtain concept of rear underrun protective device for an industrial vehicle. A screening with concepts proposed in previous papers is also performed.

  18. Remote sensing applied to the evaluation of crop freeze protection devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Thermal images from an aircraft-mounted scanner are used to evaluate the effectiveness of crop freeze protection devices. Fuel oil heaters, wind machines and irrigation systems are evaluated from flights at an altitude of 450 m over an experimental citrus grove of 1.5 hectares.

  19. 16 CFR 1211.10 - Requirements for all entrapment protection devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inside a garage 3 feet or less above the floor shall withstand a water exposure as described in paragraph...) External entrapment protection devices are to be indirectly sprayed using a hose having the free end fitted with a nozzle as illustrated in figure 2 and connected to a water supply capable of maintaining a flow...

  20. 16 CFR § 1211.10 - Requirements for all entrapment protection devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inside a garage 3 feet or less above the floor shall withstand a water exposure as described in paragraph...) External entrapment protection devices are to be indirectly sprayed using a hose having the free end fitted with a nozzle as illustrated in figure 2 and connected to a water supply capable of maintaining a flow...

  1. Design of real-time encryption module for secure data protection of wearable healthcare devices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungchae; Lee, Byuck Jin; Yoo, Sun K

    2013-01-01

    Wearable devices for biomedical instrumentation could generate the medical data and transmit to a repository on cloud service through wireless networks. In this process, the private medical data will be disclosed by man in the middle attack. Thus, the archived data for healthcare services would be protected by non-standardized security policy by healthcare service provider (HSP) because HIPAA only defines the security rules. In this paper, we adopted the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) for security framework on wearable devices, so healthcare applications using this framework could support the confidentiality easily. The framework developed as dynamic loadable module targeted for lightweight microcontroller such as msp430 within embedded operating system. The performance was shown that the module can support the real-time encryption using electrocardiogram and photoplethysmogram. In this regard, the processing load for enabling security is distributed to wearable devices, and the customized data protection method could be composed by HSP for a trusted healthcare service.

  2. “Hydraulic Cushion” Type Overload Protection Devices Usable in Mechanical Presses. A Patent Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioară, R.

    2016-11-01

    The possible consequences of machine-tool overload are well-known. In order to prevent such, machine-tools are equipped with various overload protection devices. Mechanical presses, intensively strained machine-tools, are typically equipped with three protection systems: against accidental access to the working area during machine deployment, against torque overload and force overload. Force overload protection systems include either destructible parts and are used in small to medium nominal force mechanical presses, or non-destructible ones used mostly in medium to large nominal force (H-frame) presses. A particular class of force overload protection systems without destructible parts are “hydraulic cushion” type devices. While such systems do not necessarily cause the machine to stop, the slide's stroke does not reach the initial dead centre and consequently cannot exert the designed technological force on the workpiece. By a patent study referencing 19 relevant patents the paper captures both the diversity of the constrictive solutions of “hydraulic cushion” type protection devices and their positioning modalities within the structure of a mechanical press. An important aim of the study is to highlight the reserve of creativity existing in this field, at least from the viewpoint of the hydraulic cushion positioning, as well as to emphasize the essential requirement of a relative motion between the mobile and the fixed parts of the tool, a motion of opposite sense to that of the slide-crank mechanism.

  3. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  4. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  5. Safety Outcomes Using a Proximal Protection Device in Carotid Stenting of Long Carotid Stenoses

    PubMed Central

    Atchaneeyasakul, Kunakorn; Khandelwal, Priyank; Ambekar, Sudheer; Ramdas, Kevin; Guada, Luis; Yavagal, Dileep

    2016-01-01

    Background Embolic protection devices can prevent atherosclerotic emboli during carotid stenting. Newer proximal protection devices reverse flow in the internal carotid artery (ICA), leading to reduction in perioperative microemboli. The risk of stroke is high for carotid stenting of ICA lesions with a length >10 mm and/or angiographic string sign. Objective We aimed to evaluate the safety outcomes of proximal embolic protection device usage in this high-risk group. Methods This is a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent carotid stenting procedures with proximal embolic protection devices at a tertiary care center. High-risk features for adverse events with carotid stenting were identified. Peri- and postprocedural outcomes were recorded. We further compared outcomes in patients with a carotid stenosis length >10 mm to those with shorter stenosis. Results From January 2011 to December 2014, we included 27 patients; 96.3% were symptomatic and 3.7% were asymptomatic. There was a stent placement technical success rate of 100%. No major stroke or coronary events were recorded. One minor stroke event developed in one patient. A carotid lesion length >10 mm and/or angiographic string sign was noted in 21/27 patients, with an average lesion length of 14.4 mm. One patient (4.8%) in this group developed a minor stroke event. Neither a coronary nor a major stroke event was recorded in this group. There was no significant difference in the complication rate between the long lesion and the control group. Conclusion In our patient cohort, it was found that a proximal embolic protection device is safe for patients with carotid stenosis, including those with a carotid lesion length >10 mm and/or angiographic string sign. PMID:27781040

  6. Patterns of Facial Fractures and Protective Device Use in Motor Vehicle Collisions From 2007 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Hyman, David A; Saha, Sandeep; Nayar, Harry S; Doyle, John F; Agarwal, Suresh K; Chaiet, Scott R

    2016-12-01

    Facial fractures after motor vehicle collisions are a significant source of facial trauma in patients seen at trauma centers. With recent changes in use of seat belts and advances in airbag technology, new patterns in the incidence of facial fractures after motor vehicle collisions have yet to be quantified. To evaluate the incidence of facial fractures and assess the influence of protective device use in motor vehicle collisions in patients treated at trauma centers in the United States. Using a data set from the National Trauma Data Bank, we retrospectively assessed facial fractures in motor vehicle collisions occurring from 2007 through 2012, reported by level I, II, III, and IV trauma centers. Data analysis was performed from March 13 to September 22, 2015. We characterized the data set by subsite of facial injury using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes including mandible, midface, and nasal fractures. We assessed the influence of variables such as age, sex, race/ethnicity, crash occupant (driver or passenger), use of protective device, and presence or suspicion of alcohol use. A total of 518 106 patients required assessment at a trauma center after a motor vehicle collision, with 56 422 (10.9%) experiencing at least 1 facial fracture. Nasal fracture was the most common facial fracture (5.6%), followed by midface (3.8%), other (3.2%), orbital (2.6%), mandible (2.2%), and panfacial fractures (0.8%). Of the subset sustaining at least 1 facial fracture, 5.8% had airbag protection only, 26.9% used a seat belt only, and 9.3% used both protective devices, while 57.6% used no protective device. Compared with no protective device, the use of an airbag alone significantly reduced the likelihood of facial fracture after a motor vehicle collision (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.79-0.86); use of a seat belt alone had a greater effect (odds ratio, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.56-0.58) and use of both devices provided the greatest odds reduction (odds ratio

  7. Low body mass index and jaw movement are protective of hearing in users of personal listening devices.

    PubMed

    Li, Lieber Po-Hung; Chuang, Ann Yi Chiun; McMahon, Catherine; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Chen, Joshua Kuang-Chao

    2013-08-01

    Sound pressure level delivered through personal listening devices (PLDs) and reaching the ear drum might be affected by body size and jaw movements. This study aimed to investigate whether jaw movement and/or smaller body mass index (BMI) resulted in decrease of sound pressure level within the ear canals of PLD users via an earbud earphone. Case series. Forty-five normal-hearing subjects (16 males; mean age, 23.3 years) participated in this study. A probe-microphone system was used to measure sound pressure level in the external ear canal with music delivered from a media player via an earbud earphone. Test materials consisted of two 20-second excerpts from a heavy metal music piece. Subjects were instructed to adjust the volume of the media player to conform to three conditions for sound pressure measurement: comfortable, loud, and maximum. Measurements were then repeated while subjects mimicked chewing action under the same listening conditions. Sound pressure levels were significantly lower when measured with jaw movement than without jaw movement (P < .05). Sound pressure levels monitored with/without jaw movement were generally lower in subjects with a BMI<23 than those with a BMI ≥ 23 (P < .05). Jaw movement and low BMI (<23) reduced the overall sound level of PLDs at the ear canal. Sound pressure levels detected in the external ear canal of our subjects using earbud earphones were significantly lower under conditions of jaw movement/BMI <23. Our research invites further studies on a larger group of PLD users to correlate these variables with hearing threshold shifts over time. © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Tympanic ear thermometer assessment of body temperature among patients with cognitive disturbances. An acceptable and ethically desirable alternative?

    PubMed

    Aadal, Lena; Fog, Lisbet; Pedersen, Asger Roer

    2016-12-01

    Investigation of a possible relation between body temperature measurements by the current generation of tympanic ear and rectal thermometers. In Denmark, a national guideline recommends the rectal measurement. Subsequently, the rectal thermometers and tympanic ear devices are the most frequently used and first choice in Danish hospital wards. Cognitive changes constitute challenges with cooperating in rectal temperature assessments. With regard to diagnosing, ethics, safety and the patients' dignity, the tympanic ear thermometer might comprise a desirable alternative to rectal noninvasive measurement of body temperature during in-hospital-based neurorehabilitation. A prospective, descriptive cohort study. Consecutive inclusion of 27 patients. Linear regression models were used to analyse 284 simultaneous temperature measurements. Ethical approval for this study was granted by the Danish Data Protection Agency, and the study was completed in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration 2008. About 284 simultaneous rectal and ear temperature measurements on 27 patients were analysed. The patient-wise variability of measured temperatures was significantly higher for the ear measurements. Patient-wise linear regressions for the 25 patients with at least three pairs of simultaneous ear and rectal temperature measurements showed large interpatient variability of the association. A linear relationship between the rectal body temperature assessment and the temperature assessment employing the tympanic thermometer is weak. Both measuring methods reflect variance in temperature, but ear measurements showed larger variation. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  9. Ear Infections in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... the malleus, incus, and stapes that transmit sound vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear. The ... is a snail-shaped organ that converts sound vibrations from the middle ear into electrical signals. The ...

  10. Ear drainage culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... needed. Your health care provider will use a cotton swab to collect the sample from inside the ... Using a cotton swab to take a sample of drainage from the outer ear is not painful. However, ear pain may ...

  11. Swimmer's Ear (External Otitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ears. This is especially true if they use cotton swabs or dangerously sharp small objects, like hair ... all objects out of your ear canals — including cotton swabs — unless your doctor has told you it's ...

  12. Otoplasty (Cosmetic Ear Surgery)

    MedlinePlus

    ... By Mayo Clinic Staff Otoplasty — also known as cosmetic ear surgery — is a procedure to change the ... Society of Plastic Surgeons. http://www.plasticsurgery.org/Cosmetic-Procedures/Ear-Surgery.html. Accessed June 16, 2015. ...

  13. Middle ear infection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A middle ear infection is also known as otitis media. It is one of the most common of childhood infections. With this illness, the middle ear becomes red, swollen, and inflamed because of bacteria ...

  14. Ear surgery - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100016.htm Ear surgery - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Overview This image demonstrates normal appearance of the ears in relation to the face. Review Date 10/ ...

  15. Performance Assessment of the Invisio V60 Tactical System with the X5 Dual In-Ear Headset

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-30

    The Invisio V60 Tactical Headset System was equipped with a hear-thru setting designed to amplify soft sounds and conversational speech while...14. ABSTRACT Communication enhancement devices are designed for those who want to maintain natural hearing while protecting their ears from... designed to allow for enhanced communication and situational awareness, while at the same time protecting the auditory system from noise. It is

  16. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Healthy Water Home Ear Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Print- ... ear infections, swimmer's ear, and healthy swimming. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) What are the symptoms of swimmer's ...

  17. The solar ultraviolet B radiation protection provided by shading devices with regard to its diffuse component.

    PubMed

    Kudish, Avraham I; Harari, Marco; Evseev, Efim G

    2011-10-01

    The composition of the incident solar global ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation with regard to its beam and diffuse radiation fractions is highly relevant with regard to outdoor sun protection. This is especially true with respect to sun protection during leisure-time outdoor sun exposure at the shore and pools, where people tend to escape the sun under shade trees or different types of shading devices, e.g., umbrellas, overhangs, etc., believing they offer protection from the erythemal solar radiation. The degree of sun protection offered by such devices is directly related to the composition of the solar global UVB radiation, i.e., its beam and diffuse fractions. The composition of the incident solar global UVB radiation can be determined by measuring the global UVB (using Solar Light Co. Inc., Model 501A UV-Biometer) and either of its components. The beam component of the UVB radiation was determined by measuring the normal incidence beam radiation using a prototype, tracking instrument consisting of a Solar Light Co. Inc. Model 501A UV-Biometer mounted on an Eppley Solar Tracker Model St-1. The horizontal beam component of the global UVB radiation was calculated from the measured normal incidence using a simple geometric correlation and the diffuse component is determined as the difference between global and horizontal beam radiations. Horizontal and vertical surfaces positioned under a horizontal overhang/sunshade or an umbrella are not fully protected from exposure to solar global UVB radiation. They can receive a significant fraction of the UVB radiation, depending on their location beneath the shading device, the umbrella radius and the albedo (reflectance) of the surrounding ground surface in the case of a vertical surface. Shading devices such as an umbrella or horizontal overhang/shade provide relief from the solar global radiation and do block the solar global UVB radiation to some extent; nevertheless, a significant fraction of the solar global UVB

  18. Swimmer's Ear (External Otitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be caused by many different types of bacteria or fungi. It usually develops in ears that are exposed to moisture. People who get OE often have been diving or swimming for long periods of time. This can bring infectious bacteria directly into the ear canal. Swimmer's ear occurs ...

  19. PROTECTION DEVICE ON THE REPAIR OF RUPTURES OF KNEE EXTENSOR MECHANISM

    PubMed Central

    Arguello Frutos, Carlos Francisco; Arbix Camargo, Osmar Pedro; Severino, Nilson Roberto; Leite Cury, Ricardo de Paula; de Oliveira, Victor Marques; Aihara, Tatsuo; Avakian, Roger

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate results obtained using the protection device technique for osteosintesis or suture of extensor mechanism lesions. Material and Methods: The authors reviewed 18 charts of patients submitted to protection device technique due to traumatic lesion of extensor mechanism that had occurred between the anterior tibial tuberosity and the apical portion of patella. Age ranged from 22 to 69 years, with a mean of 44 years. Male patients prevailed, with 67% of the cases. The most affected spot was, in 83% of the cases, the apical distal third. A protocol was created to collect data, listing the patients and the clinical history from their medical records. Results: The authors observed consolidation of the patella fracture in all 17 patients, and cicatrization of the patellar ligament in one patient. Pain was described in four patients. There were no complications related to the procedure. Conclusion: The protection device showed to be efficient when used in surgical treatment of lesions between the apical patella and the anterior tibial tuberosity, providing active and passive mobility in the early postoperative time. PMID:26998454

  20. Assessment of Four Passive Hearing Protection Devices for Continuous Noise Attenuation, Impulsive Noise Insertion Loss, and Auditory Localization Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-17

    2 3. Etymotic EB-15 BlastPLG™ and ear tips...29 A-7. Attenuation – EB-15 – Passive, Flanged Ear Tip ................................................................. 30 A-8...Attenuation – EB-15 – Passive, Foam Ear Tip ..................................................................... 31 vii

  1. Improvement of Electrostatic Discharge Protection by Introducing a Spindt-Type Silicon Field Emission Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Liann-Be; Ferng, Yi-Cherng; Liao, Jhong-Wei; Lin, Ching-Chi

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, an original Spindt-type silicon field emission device (FED) with electrostatic discharge (ESD) regulation capability is proposed. The fabricated FED characteristics, including process parameters, capacitance-voltage (C-V), current-voltage (I-V), and frequency response, are investigated. To verify its capability of ESD protection, we replace the metal oxide varistor (MOV) in a state-of-the-art protection configuration with the fabricated FED under the application conditions of system-level ESD tests. The measured results show that the proposed ESD protection circuit composed of a prestage gas arrestor, an intermediate resistor, and an introduced FED can suppress an injected ESD pulse voltage of 6000 to 3193 V, a reduction of 46.8%, whereas suppression is to 5606 V, a reduction of 6.57%, when using only a gas arrestor.

  2. Key Technologies Development of Transient Signals Based Protection Device Using DSP and S-Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingmao; Zheng, Gao

    2017-05-01

    The correctness of new principle of transient signal based protection used to be verified by simulating. In order to further introduce the dynamic simulation experiments for the transient signal based protection algorithm, the key technologies of transient signal based protection device were developed. The hardware of the synchronous multi-channel data acquisition and high-speed data processing was designed with kernel of high speed floating point digital signal processor TMS320C6748 and simultaneous sampling analog-to-digital converter. The sampling program reads the AD conversion data using DMA mode, which reduce the consumption of CPU time. The S transform was used to extract the fault traveling wave signals from the sampled data. The time consumption of algorithm which extract the traveling wave was analyzed when it ran on TMS320C6748. The test result shows that the hardware and software design is feasible.

  3. Reconstruction of middle ear malformations

    PubMed Central

    Schwager, Konrad

    2008-01-01

    Malformations of the middle ear are classified as minor and major malformations. Minor malformations appear with regular external auditory canal, tympanic membrane and aerated middle ear space. The conducting hearing loss is due to fixation or interruption of the ossicular chain. The treatment is surgical, following the rules of ossiculoplasty and stapes surgery. In major malformations (congenital aural atresia) there is no external auditory canal and a deformed or missing pinna. The mastoid and the middle ear space may be underdevelopped, the ossicular chain is dysplastic. Surgical therapy is possible in patients with good aeration of the temporal bone, existing windows, a near normal positioned facial nerve and a mobile ossicular chain. Plastic and reconstructive surgery of the pinna should proceed the reconstruction of the external auditory canal and middle ear. In cases of good prognosis unilateral aural atresia can be approached already in childhood. In patients with high risk of surgical failure, bone anchored hearing aids are the treatment of choice. Recent reports of implantable hearing devices may be discussed as an alternative treatment for selected patients. PMID:22073077

  4. Fish-protection devices at unscreened water diversions can reduce entrainment: evidence from behavioural laboratory investigations

    PubMed Central

    Poletto, Jamilynn B.; Cocherell, Dennis E.; Mussen, Timothy D.; Ercan, Ali; Bandeh, Hossein; Kavvas, M. Levent; Cech, Joseph J.; Fangue, Nann A.

    2015-01-01

    Diversion (i.e. extraction) of water from rivers and estuaries can potentially affect native wildlife populations if operation is not carefully managed. For example, open, unmodified water diversions can act as a source of injury or mortality to resident or migratory fishes from entrainment and impingement, and can cause habitat degradation and fragmentation. Fish-protection devices, such as exclusion screens, louvres or sensory deterrents, can physically or behaviourally deter fish from approaching or being entrained into water diversions. However, empirical assessment of their efficacy is often lacking or is investigated only for particular economically or culturally important fishes, such as salmonids. The Southern population of anadromous green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) is listed as threatened in California, and there is a high density of water diversions located within their native range (the Sacramento–San Joaquin watershed). Coupled with their unique physiology and behaviour compared with many other fishes native to California, the green sturgeon is susceptible to entrainment into diversions and is an ideal species with which to study the efficacy of mitigation techniques. Therefore, we investigated juvenile green sturgeon (188–202 days post-hatch) in the presence of several fish-protection devices to assess behaviour and entrainment risk. Using a large experimental flume (∼500 kl), we found that compared with an open diversion pipe (control), the addition of a trash-rack box, louvre box, or perforated cylinder on the pipe inlet all significantly reduced the proportion of fish that were entrained through the pipe (P = 0.03, P = 0.028, and P = 0.028, respectively). Likewise, these devices decreased entrainment risk during a single movement past the pipe by between 60 and 96%. These fish-protection devices should decrease the risk of fish entrainment during water-diversion activities. PMID:27293725

  5. Two simple leg net devices designed to protect lower-extremity skin grafts and donor sites and prevent decubitus ulcer.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Travis L; Chapman, Ted T; Dewey, William S; Quick, Charles D; Wolf, Steven E; Holcomb, John B

    2007-01-01

    Burn therapists routinely are tasked to position the lower extremities of burn patients for pressure ulcer prevention, skin graft protection, donor site ventilation, and edema reduction. We developed two durable and low-maintenance devices that allow effective positioning of the lower extremities. The high-profile and low-profile leg net devices were simple to fabricate and maintain. The frame was assembled using a three-quarter-inch diameter copper pipe and copper fittings (45 degrees, 90 degrees, and tees). A double layer of elasticized tubular netting was pulled over the frame and doubled back for leg support to complete the devices. The devices can be placed on any bed surface. The netting can be exchanged when soiled and the frame can be disinfected between patients using standard techniques. Both devices were used on approximately 250 patients for a total of 1200 treatment days. No incidence of pressure ulcer was observed, and graft take was not adversely affected. The devices have not required repairs or replacement. Medical providers reported they are easy to apply and effectively maintain proper positioning throughout application. Neither device interfered with the application of other positioning devices. Both devices were found to be an effective method of positioning lower extremities to prevent pressure ulcer, minimize graft loss and donor site morbidity, and reduce edema. The devices allowed for proper wound ventilation and protected grafted lower extremities on any bed surface. The devices are simple to fabricate and maintain. Both devices can be effectively used simultaneously with other positioning devices.

  6. Comparative Cost of Stockpiling Various Types of Respiratory Protective Devices to Protect the Health Care Workforce During an Influenza Pandemic.

    PubMed

    Baracco, Gio; Eisert, Sheri; Eagan, Aaron; Radonovich, Lewis

    2015-06-01

    Specific guidance on the size and composition of respiratory protective device (RPD) stockpiles for use during a pandemic is lacking. We explore the economic aspects of stockpiling various types and combinations of RPDs by adapting a pandemic model that estimates the impact of a severe pandemic on a defined population, the number of potential interactions between patients and health care personnel, and the potential number of health care personnel needed to fulfill those needs. Our model calculates the number of the different types of RPDs that should be stockpiled and the consequent cost of purchase and storage, prorating this cost over the shelf life of the inventory. Compared with disposable N95 or powered air-purifying respirators, we show that stockpiling reusable elastomeric half-face respirators is the least costly approach. Disposable N95 respirators take up significantly more storage space, which increases relative costs. Reusing or extending the usable period of disposable devices may diminish some of these costs. We conclude that stockpiling a combination of disposable N95 and reusable half-face RPDs is the best approach to preparedness for most health care organizations. We recommend against stockpiling powered air-purifying respirators as they are much more costly than alternative approaches.

  7. Sample Bytes to Protect Important Data from Unintentional Transmission in Advanced Embedded Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Bo-Heung; Kim, Jung-Nye

    Illegal or unintentional file transmission of important data is a sensitive and main security issue in embedded and mobile devices. Within restricted resources such as small memory size and low battery capacity, simple and efficient method is needed to lessen much effort for preventing this illegal activity. Therefore, we discuss a protection technique taking into account these considerations. In our method, sample bytes are extracted from an important file and then it is used to prohibit illegal file transfer and modification. To avoid attacker's easy prediction about the selection position of the sample bytes, it is selected within whole extent of the file by equal distribution and at the random location. To avoid huge increase of the number of the sample bytes, candidate sampling area size of the file is chosen carefully after the analysis of the length and number of files. Also, considering computational overhead to calculate the number and position of the sample bytes to be selected, we propose three types of sampling methods. And we will show the evaluation result of these methods and recommend proper sampling approach to embedded device with low computational power. With the help of this technique, it has advantages that data leakage can be protected and prohibited effectively and the device can be managed securely within low overhead.

  8. Estimating core temperature with external devices after exertional heat stress in thermal protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Riana R; Seitz, Jennifer R; Morley, Julia; Suyama, Joe; Guyette, Francis X; Reis, Steven E; Hostler, David

    2012-01-01

    Temperature measurement is important for emergency medical services (EMS) providers when identifying and treating heat illness or infection. Direct measures of body core temperature (T(c)) are often expensive (ingestible capsules) or impractical (rectal probes) in the field. Multiple devices for estimating T(c) have been adopted by EMS providers, with little understanding of the agreement between these devices and T(c). To examine the agreement between the results of five external thermometers and T(c) after subjects experienced physical exertion while wearing protective clothing. Fifty firefighters completed treadmill walking in thermal protective clothing in a hot environment. Measurements of core, temporal, tympanic, forehead, and skin temperatures were obtained during a 20-minute recovery period simulating emergency incident rehabilitation. The mean bias of external thermometers ranged from -1.31°C to -3.28°C when compared with T(c) and exceeded the predetermined clinical cutoff of ±0.5°C from T(c). The 95% limits of agreement ranged from 2.75°C to 5.00°C. External measuring devices failed to accurately predict T(c) in hyperthermic individuals following exertion. Confidence intervals around the bias were too large to allow for reasonable estimation of T(c). EMS providers should exercise caution when using any of these temperature estimation techniques.

  9. A model for the breakdown characteristics of p-channel MOS transistor protection devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, H.; Six, P.; Sansen, W.

    1981-06-01

    Gate controlled diodes, MOS transistors with grounded gate, source and substrate and gate controlled pnn + structures are compared when used as a protective input device on p-channel MOS integrated circuits. For this purpose two pulse techniques are developed which allow an accurate determination of the dynamic resistance by minimizing the walk-out of the breakdown voltage during the measurement. While the breakdown voltage does not differ much for the different types of devices, the dynamic resistance however is found to be considerably lower for the MOS transistor than for both other devices. For these low values the series resistance of the drain and source diffusion is shown to constitute already an important contribution. The lower dynamic resistance of MOST's can be ascribed to parasitic bipolar transistor operation during breakdown. The identification of this mechanism leads to a simple model for the MOS transistor in breakdown which has been experimentally verified and confirmed. Guidelines for the definition of the source diffusion for an optimal protective functioning can be obtained from this model.

  10. Creation of a head and face protection device for children undergoing procedures in prone position.

    PubMed

    Wenk, Manuel; Pöpping, Daniel; Henning, Martin; Wenk, Melanie; Liljenqvist, Ulf; Möllmann, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Positioning the head of patients undergoing procedures in lateral or prone position remains a difficult task for the anesthesiologists. Associated risks have attracted increasing attention because they range from minor facial soft tissue injuries to catastrophic complications such as stroke or postoperative blindness. Earlier, we reported on the use of a boxing sports helmet for simple and easy positioning of the head. However, as available helmets are limited in sizes and materials, that system is not easily transferable to children. Therefore, we sought to create a face and head protection device for children undergoing procedures in prone position. We re-engineered a standard boxing sports helmet making it suitable as an on-head support cushion. By using WHO standard growth charts, various sizes were calculated and prototypes of different foam materials produced. Facial surface pressures were measured in 15 volunteers. A lightweight foam-based face mask was created. Minimum necessary foam thickness was 2.5 cm. Different materials were tested and pressure in different facial zones never exceeded 30 mmHg. Bringing a face protection device onto the patient's face instead of placing the face into support cushions is an elegant way of keeping control over airway devices and providing support for facial structures in various positions simultaneously. Skin surface pressure on facial structures remained low due to the specific mask design and choice of foam materials, which could lead to decreased incidences of undesired sequelae of prone position such as skin damage or even more devastating complications.

  11. [Bone Conduction and Active Middle Ear Implants].

    PubMed

    Volkenstein, S; Thomas, J P; Dazert, S

    2016-05-01

    The majority of patients with moderate to severe hearing loss can be supplied with conventional hearing aids depending on severity and cause for hearing loss in a satisfying way. However, some patients either do not benefit enough from conventional hearing aids or cannot wear them due to inflammatory reactions and chronic infections of the external auditory canal or due to anatomical reasons. For these patients there are fully- and semi-implantable middle ear and bone conduction implants available. These devices either directly stimulate the skull (bone conduction devices), middle ear structures (active middle ear implants) or the cochlea itself (direct acoustic stimulation). Patients who failed surgical hearing rehabilitation or do not benefit from conventional hearing aids may achieve a significant better speech understanding and tremendous improvement in quality of life by implantable hearing devices with careful attention to the audiological and anatomical indication criteria. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Ear cleaning: the UK and US perspective.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Tim; Cole, Lynette K

    2004-04-01

    Ear cleaning helps maintain the normal otic environment and is important in the treatment of otitis. Over cleaning, however, may trigger otitis through maceration of the epidermal lining. Simple manual cleaning is useful for routine cleansing but doesn't remove tightly adherent debris. Bulb syringes are more vigorous but may damage the ear in inexperienced hands. Devices using mains water pressure or dental machines are also available. Thorough cleaning of the ear canals and middle ear cavity can only be achieved by retrograde flushing using specially adapted catheters, feeding tubes or video otoscopes under anaesthesia. Myringotomy, inspection and cleaning of the middle should be performed if the tympanic membrane appears abnormal. There are a wide variety of cleaning fluids available. Ceruminolytics soften and dissolve cerumen to facilitate cleaning. Surfactants emulsify debris, breaking it up and keeping it in solution. Astringents dry the ear canal surface, preventing maceration. Maintaining a low pH and incorporating antimicrobial agents can inhibit microbial proliferation and glucocorticoids can be used to reduce inflammation. Adverse effects and contraindications following ear cleaning can include maceration, contact reactions, otitis media, ear canal avulsion, vestibular syndrome, Horner's syndrome, facial nerve paralysis and deafness. Care should be exercised in selecting cleaning fluids if the tympanic membranes are ruptured.

  13. A simple device to protect against osteoradionecrosis induced by interstitial irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Levendag, P.C.; Visch, L.L.; Driver, N. )

    1990-06-01

    The incidence of osteoradionecrosis has declined since the introduction of preventive oral hygiene programs and meticulous dental evaluations before and after irradiation. Nevertheless, radiation dose per se still remains an important factor in osteoradionecrosis. Interstitial radiation has received much attention in the past decade since the use of flexible afterloading systems. It has become common practice in large oncology centers to implant radiation carriers in bulky tumor in the oral cavity and/or oropharynx. For interstitial radiation, with or without external radiation, minimal tumor doses are often cited to be more than 70 Gy. Unfortunately, if the mandible receives more than 70 Gy, it is at risk for the development of osteoradionecrosis. Therefore a simple protective lead device has been designed for routine use in brachytherapy in oral cavity tumors to reduce the dose to the mandible. This device will diminish the potential risk of osteoradionecrosis development.

  14. Research on Experiment of Islanding Protection Device of Grid-connected Photovoltaic System Based on RTDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ning; Yang, Jia; Cheng, Zheng; Chen, Bo; Su, Yong Chun; Shu, Zhan; Zou, Jin

    2017-06-01

    Solar photovoltaic power generation is the power generation using solar cell module converting sunlight into DC electric energy. In the paper an equivalent model of solar photovoltaic power generation system is built in RTDS. The main circuit structure of the two-stage PV grid-connected system consists of the DC-DC, DC-AC circuit. The MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) control of the PV array is controlled by adjusting the duty ratio of the DC-DC circuit. The proposed control strategy of constant voltage/constant reactive power (V/Q) control is successfully implemented grid-connected control of the inverter when grid-connected operation. The closed-loop experiment of islanding protection device of photovoltaic power plant on RTDS, verifies the correctness of the simulation model, and the experimental verification can be applied to this type of device.

  15. Prevalence of Respiratory Protective Devices in U.S. Health Care Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Wizner, Kerri; Stradtman, Lindsay; Novak, Debra; Shaffer, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    An online questionnaire was developed to explore respiratory protective device (RPD) prevalence in U.S. health care facilities. The survey was distributed to professional nursing society members in 2014 and again in 2015 receiving 322 and 232 participant responses, respectively. The purpose of this study was to explore if the emergency preparedness climate associated with Ebola virus disease changed the landscape of RPD use and awareness. Comparing response percentages from the two sampling time frames using bivariate analysis, no significant changes were found in types of RPDs used in health care settings. N95 filtering facepiece respirators continue to be the most prevalent RPD used in health care facilities, but powered air-purifying respirators are also popular, with regional use highest in the West and Midwest. Understanding RPD use prevalence could ensure that health care workers receive appropriate device trainings as well as improve supply matching for emergency RPD stockpiling. PMID:27462029

  16. Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Year-Old Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery KidsHealth > For Parents > Middle Ear Infections and Ear ... medio y colocación de tubos de ventilación Why Surgery? Many kids get middle ear infections (known as ...

  17. Procedural Tests of Anti-G Protective Devices. Volume I. Procedural Tests for Anti-G Valves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    ANTI-G PROTECTIVE DEVICES VOLUME I: PROCEDURAL TESTS FOR ANTI-G VALVES 1. INTRODUCTION The Procedural Tests for Anti-G Protective Devices ( PTAP ...Division (BR) were used. This publication documents the PTAP investigations and fulfills the final report requirements of the contract. The PTAP report...evaluations on various equipment related to the USAFSAM/VNB- PTAP missions. Appendix A, Anti-C Valve Performance Analysis (GVALVPGM), completely

  18. Low-impedance cable for parallel-connected surge protective devices

    SciTech Connect

    Bulson, J.M.

    1995-10-01

    A coaxial low-impedance cable is described for surge protective device (SPD) wiring applications. The cable is designed to replace conventional wiring when parallel connecting any SPD which depends on the applied transient voltage to function. The cable is designed to minimize the transmission loss (voltage drop) of lightning and switching transients from the point of protection to the SPD components. This is accomplished primarily by minimizing the cable inductance through a reduced coaxial aspect ratio (major to minor diameter). The resultant cable has a very low characteristic impedance (2--15 {Omega}). The suppression performance of an SPD installed with 10 AWG coaxial cables provides an improvement of a factor of 2--4 over that using conventional wiring. The cable design details are discussed along with sure suppression performance.

  19. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874... throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill is a rotating drilling device, including the handpiece, that... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or...

  20. On hearing with more than one ear: lessons from evolution

    PubMed Central

    Schnupp, Jan W H; Carr, Catherine E

    2011-01-01

    Although ears capable of detecting airborne sound have arisen repeatedly and independently in different species, most animals that are capable of hearing have a pair of ears. We review the advantages that arise from having two ears and discuss recent research on the similarities and differences in the binaural processing strategies adopted by birds and mammals. We also ask how these different adaptations for binaural and spatial hearing might inform and inspire the development of techniques for future auditory prosthetic devices. PMID:19471267

  1. Pathology of the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Orengo, Ida; Robbins, Kerri; Marsch, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The external ear is exposed to weathering and trauma; it also has sparse vascularity, making it prone to infection and disease. The external location of the cutaneous ear makes it easily visible for diagnosis and accessible for treatment. In this article, the authors focus on diseases of the ear that are most commonly encountered and may be subject to surgical and medical evaluation and/or treatment. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and treatment for each disease entity are discussed. PMID:23115534

  2. Clinician Beliefs and Attitudes Regarding Use of Respiratory Protective Devices and Surgical Masks for Influenza.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Satish K; Beekmann, Susan E; Babcock, Hilary M; Pavia, Andrew T; Koonin, Lisa M; Polgreen, Philip M

    2015-01-01

    While influenza transmission is thought to occur primarily by droplet spread, the role of airborne spread remains uncertain. Understanding the beliefs and attitudes of infectious disease physicians regarding influenza transmission and respiratory and barrier protection preferences can provide insights into workplace decisions regarding respiratory protection planning. Physicians participating in the Infectious Diseases Society of America's Emerging Infections Network were queried in November 2013 to determine beliefs and attitudes on influenza transmission. A subset of physicians involved in their facility's respiratory protection decision making were queried about respirator and surgical mask choices under various pandemic scenarios; availability of, and challenges associated with, respirators in their facility; and protective strategies during disposable N95 shortages. The majority of 686 respondents (98%) believed influenza transmission occurs frequently or occasionally via droplets; 44% of respondents believed transmission occurs via small particles frequently (12%) or occasionally (32%). Among the subset of respondents involved in respiratory protection planning at their facility, over 90% preferred surgical masks during provision of non-aerosol-generating patient care for seasonal influenza. However, for the same type of care during an influenza pandemic, two-thirds of respondents opted for disposable N95 filtering facepiece respirators. In settings where filtering facepiece (disposable) N95 respirators were in short supply, preferred conservation strategies included extended use and reuse of disposable N95s. Use of reusable (elastomeric facepiece) respirator types was viewed less favorably. While respondents identified droplets as the primary mode of influenza transmission, during a high-severity pandemic scenario there was increased support for devices that reduced aerosol-based transmission. Use of potentially less familiar respirator types may partially

  3. Transcatheter occlusion of left atrial appendage with persistent thrombus using a trans-radial embolic protection device.

    PubMed

    Cammalleri, Valeria; Ussia, Gian Paolo; Muscoli, Saverio; De Vico, Pasquale; Romeo, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    : The image describes a case of left atrial appendage occlusion in a patient with atrial fibrillation, previous haemorrhagic stroke, and left atrial appendage thrombosis. A cerebral vascular filter was used during the device implantation. The use of cerebral embolic protection device can increase the safety of left atrial appendage occlusion, in selected high-risk patients.

  4. Effect of Lightning Protective Devices Attached to Pole Transformers on Reduction of Overvoltage on Distribution Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaoka, Yoshinobu; Asakawa, Akira; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Nakada, Kazuo; Sugimoto, Hitoshi

    : Class-10A solid-core insulators (BIL 90kV) have been used instead of class-6A pin insulators (BIL 60kV) in order to improve the insulation level of distribution lines. However, lightning protective devices attached to pole transformers may have the effect of reducing the overvoltages on phase conductors. We have investigated the lightning protection effect of devices attached to pole transformers by experiment and analysis using the EMTP (Electro-Magnetic Transients Program). The sparkover rate changes from 2.0˜3.3% to 5.5˜9.9% and increases 2.4˜2.8 times when the line insulator of the phase conductors is changed from class-10A to class-6A. It is thought that the insulation level of the line insulator can be reduced depending upon the local particularities, such as number of installed transformers, frequency of direct lightning stroke to the distribution line, and so on although the overall fault rate may increase to some extent.

  5. Superhydrophobic SAM Modified Electrodes for Enhanced Current Limiting Properties in Intrinsic Conducting Polymer Surge Protection Devices.

    PubMed

    Jabarullah, Noor H; Verrelli, Emanuele; Mauldin, Clayton; Navarro, Luis A; Golden, Josh H; Madianos, Leonidas M; Kemp, Neil T

    2015-06-09

    Surface interface engineering using superhydrophobic gold electrodes made with 1-dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) has been used to enhance the current limiting properties of novel surge protection devices based on the intrinsic conducting polymer, polyaniline doped with methanesulfonic acid. The resulting devices show significantly enhanced current limiting characteristics, including current saturation, foldback, and negative differential effects. We show how SAM modification changes the morphology of the polymer film directly adjacent to the electrodes, leading to the formation of an interfacial compact thin film that lowers the contact resistance at the Au-polymer interface. We attribute the enhanced current limiting properties of the devices to a combination of lower contact resistance and increased Joule heating within this interface region which during a current surge produces a current blocking resistive barrier due to a thermally induced dedoping effect caused by the rapid diffusion of moisture away from this region. The effect is exacerbated at higher applied voltages as the higher temperature leads to stronger depletion of charge carriers in this region, resulting in a negative differential resistance effect.

  6. Solute diffusion through fibrotic tissue formed around protective cage system for implantable devices.

    PubMed

    Prihandana, Gunawan Setia; Ito, Hikaru; Tanimura, Kohei; Yagi, Hiroshi; Hori, Yuki; Soykan, Orhan; Sudo, Ryo; Miki, Norihisa

    2015-08-01

    This article presents the concept of an implantable cage system that can house and protect implanted biomedical sensing and therapeutic devices in the body. Cylinder-shaped cages made of porous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sheets with an 80-µm pore size and/or stainless steel meshes with 0.54-mm openings were implanted subcutaneously in the dorsal region of rats for 5 weeks. Analysis of the explanted cages showed the formation of fibrosis tissue around the cages. PVA cages had fibrotic tissue growing mostly along the outer surface of cages, while stainless steel cages had fibrotic tissue growing into the inside surface of the cage structure, due to the larger porosity of the stainless steel meshes. As the detection of target molecules with short time lags for biosensors and mass transport with low diffusion resistance into and out of certain therapeutic devices are critical for the success of such devices, we examined whether the fibrous tissue formed around the cages were permeable to molecules of our interest. For that purpose, bath diffusion and microfluidic chamber diffusion experiments using solutions containing the target molecules were performed. Diffusion of sodium, potassium and urea through the fibrosis tissue was confirmed, thus suggesting the potential of these cylindrical cages surrounded by fibrosis tissue to successfully encase implantable sensors and therapeutic apparatus.

  7. Physiological and subjective responses to cooling devices on firefighting protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chinmei; Tochihara, Yutaka; Kim, Taegyou

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of ice-packs (ICE) and phase change material (PCM) cooling devices in reducing physiological load based on subjects' physiological and subjective responses while the subjects exercised on a bicycle ergometer while wearing firefighting protective clothing in a relatively high temperature environment (30 degrees C, 50%RH). Subjects were eight graduate students, aged 25.9 years (SD 3.2). Each subject participated in four 50-min exposures: control (CON), ICE, PCM of 5 degrees C [PCM(5)] and 20 degrees C [PCM(20)]. Each subject rested in a pre-test room for 10 min before entering the test-room where they rested for another 10 min, followed by 30 min-exercise and a 10 min-recovery period. The exercise intensity was set at 55%VO(2max). Cooling effects were evaluated by measuring rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk), body weight loss and subjective responses. An increase in Tre for PCM(5) and PCM(20) which was less than that for CON and ICE was observed. The increases in Tsk were depressed using cooling devices, but the cooling effects of PCMs were greater than ICE. The subjects with CON felt hotter and wetter than those in the other conditions. The larger surface cooling area, higher melting temperature and softer material of PCMs which reduces absorption capacity caused a decrease in Tre and Tsk for PCM(5) and PCM(20) which was more than that for CON and ICE. Furthermore, PCM(20) does not require refrigeration. These results suggest that PCM(20) is more effective than other cooling devices in reducing the physiological load while wearing firefighting protective clothing.

  8. Development of thermal runaway preventing ZnO varistor for surge protective device.

    PubMed

    Jeoung, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Young-Sung; Nam, Sung-Pill; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kang, Jeong-Wook; Kim, Jea-Chul; Lee, Sung-Gap

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the centre of electrode is suggested for heat conduction. Therefore, the specific reflow soldering process is needed. The comparison of temperature difference among the different areas of ZnO varistors is analyzed. With the nominal surge current, thermal behavior is analyzed. The operation point of temperature for disconnection is proposed. Accordingly, the thermal runaway-preventing ZnO varistors were covered with a fusible alloy, i.e., a thermal fuse, in the process of manufacture, which is expected to ensure there the liability of being resistant to lightning discharge and to ensure stability against thermal runaway in the failure mode. Additionally, it is expected to reduce much more limit voltage than the existing products to which the fuse was separately applied. The thermal runaway-preventing ZnO varistor of the surge protection devices can be widely used as part of the protection provisions of lightning discharge and surge protection demanded in connection with power IT about Green Growth which is nowadays becoming the buzzword in the electric power industry.

  9. Avoiding Infection After Ear Piercing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Avoiding Infection After Ear Piercing Page Content Article Body What is the best way to avoid infection after ear piercing? Ears may be pierced for cosmetic reasons ...

  10. Effectiveness of Ear Splint Therapy for Ear Deformities

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To present our experience with ear splint therapy for babies with ear deformities, and thereby demonstrate that this therapy is an effective and safe intervention without significant complications. Methods This was a retrospective study of 54 babies (35 boys and 19 girls; 80 ears; age ≤3 months) with ear deformities who had received ear splint therapy at the Center for Torticollis, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ajou University Hospital between December 2014 and February 2016. Before the initiation of ear splint therapy, ear deformities were classified with reference to the standard terminology. We compared the severity of ear deformity before and after ear splint therapy by using the physician's ratings. We also compared the physician's ratings and the caregiver's ratings on completion of ear splint therapy. Results Among these 54 babies, 41 children (58 ears, 72.5%) completed the ear splint therapy. The mean age at initiation of therapy was 52.91±18.26 days and the treatment duration was 44.27±32.06 days. Satyr ear, forward-facing ear lobe, Darwinian notch, overfolded ear, and cupped ear were the five most common ear deformities. At the completion of therapy, the final physician's ratings of ear deformities were significantly improved compared to the initial ratings (8.28±1.44 vs. 2.51±0.92; p<0.001). There was no significant difference between the physician's ratings and the caregiver's ratings at the completion of ear splint therapy (8.28±1.44 vs. 8.0±1.61; p=0.297). Conclusion We demonstrated that ear splint therapy significantly improved ear deformities in babies, as measured by quantitative rating scales. Ear splint therapy is an effective and safe intervention for babies with ear deformities. PMID:28289646

  11. Validation of an Acoustic Head Simulator for the Evaluation of Personal Hearing Protection Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    Difuse -Field Flat Frequency E-A-R...3000 Muff 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 16 25 40 63 10 0 16 0 25 0 40 0 63 0 10 00 16 00 25 00 40 00 63 00 10 00 0 16 00 0 Difuse -Field Flat Frequency E...10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 16 25 40 63 10 0 16 0 25 0 40 0 63 0 10 00 16 00 25 00 40 00 63 00 10 00 0 16 00 0 Difuse -Field Flat Frequency E-A-R 3000

  12. Getting Teens to Read with Their Ears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fues, Marianne Cole

    2009-01-01

    Audiobooks have been around for years in various formats, like cassette tapes and CDs. This article describes a new type of audiobook on the market which is generating an interest in "reading." The device, called Playaway, is the size of a MP3 player and comes with a lanyard and ear buds. Buttons on the back of the player control the…

  13. Getting Teens to Read with Their Ears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fues, Marianne Cole

    2009-01-01

    Audiobooks have been around for years in various formats, like cassette tapes and CDs. This article describes a new type of audiobook on the market which is generating an interest in "reading." The device, called Playaway, is the size of a MP3 player and comes with a lanyard and ear buds. Buttons on the back of the player control the…

  14. Surgical and Technical Modalities for Hearing Restoration in Ear Malformations.

    PubMed

    Dazert, Stefan; Thomas, Jan Peter; Volkenstein, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Malformations of the external and middle ear often go along with an aesthetic and functional handicap. Independent of additional aesthetic procedures, a successful functional hearing restoration leads to a tremendous gain in quality of life for affected patients. The introduction of implantable hearing systems (bone conduction and middle ear devices) offers new therapeutic options in this field. We focus on functional rehabilitation of patients with malformations, either by surgical reconstruction or the use of different implantable hearing devices, depending on the disease itself and the severity of malformation as well as hearing impairment. Patients with an open ear canal and minor malformations are good candidates for surgical hearing restoration of middle ear structures with passive titanium or autologous implants. In cases with complete fibrous or bony atresia of the ear canal, the most promising functional outcome and gain in quality of life can be expected with an active middle ear implant or a bone conduction device combined with a surgical aesthetic rehabilitation in a single or multi-step procedure. Although the surgical procedure for bone conduction devices is straightforward and safe, more sophisticated operations for active middle ear implants (e.g., Vibrant Soundbridge, MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria) provide an improved speech discrimination in noise and the ability of sound localization compared with bone conduction devices where the stimulation reaches both cochleae.

  15. Investigation of Vehicle Rear Under Run Protection Device (RUPD) Using Aluminium Foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraj Goud, B.; pachori, Avinash

    2017-08-01

    Whenever the passenger cars meet with accidents with the heavy duty truck from rear, it will tend to penetrate under the truck bed called truck trailer under-ride crash. This is responsible for the thousands of accidents, causing severe injuries and spot death. This is mostly due to the lack of effective guarding system. The Present paper gives an importance on energy absorption mechanism of a Rear under Run Protection Device (RUPD) under crash effect of the truck. The aim of the study is to replace Steel RUPD with aluminum foam, which promises an improvement of vehicle crashworthiness as well as to reduce weight of the vehicle. The aluminum foam is selected due to the high specific strength and specific stiffness. This inborn character makes it a promising candidate in the modern lightweight structures in the automotive engineering which can contribute to the improvement of mileage in addition to safety of the occupants.

  16. [The effects of wearing protective devices among residents and volunteers participating in the cleanup of the Hebei Spirit oil spill].

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Min; Ha, Mina; Kim, Eun-Jung; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Hur, Jongil; Park, Seok Gun; Kwon, Hojang; Hong, Yun-Chul; Ha, Eun-Hee; Lee, Jong Seung; Chung, Bong Chul; Lee, Jeongae; Im, Hosub; Choi, Yeyong; Cho, Yong-Min; Cheong, Hae-Kwan

    2009-03-01

    To assess the protective effects of wearing protective devices among the residents and volunteers who participated in the cleanup of the Hebei Spirit oil spill. A total of 288 residents and 724 volunteers were surveyed about symptoms, whether they were wearing protective devices and potential confounding variables. The questionnaires were administered from the second to the sixth week following the accident. Spot urine samples were collected and analyzed for metabolites of 4 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 2 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 6 heavy metals. The association between the wearing of protective devices and various symptoms was assessed using a multiple logistic regression adjusted for confounding variables. A multiple generalized linear regression model adjusted for the covariates was used to test for a difference in least-square mean concentration of urinary biomarkers between residents who wore protective devices and those who did not. Thirty nine to 98% of the residents and 62-98% of volunteers wore protective devices. Levels of fatigue and fever were higher among residents not wearing masks than among those who did wear masks (odds ratio 4.5; 95% confidence interval 1.23-19.86). Urinary mercury levels were found to be significantly higher among residents not wearing work clothes or boots (p<0.05). Because the survey was not performed during the initial high-exposure period, no significant difference was found in metabolite levels between people who wore protective devices and those who did not, except for mercury, whose biological half-life is more than 6 weeks.

  17. Ear problems in swimmers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mao-Che; Liu, Chia-Yu; Shiao, An-Suey; Wang, Tyrone

    2005-08-01

    Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear), otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane.

  18. Ear wax management.

    PubMed

    Poulton, Skye; Yau, Stephanie; Anderson, Daniel; Bennett, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    Ear syringing is a very common practice among general practitioners (GPs). It is used by many as the treatment of choice for cerumen (ear wax), and is usually effective and safe. However, complications from syringing are an increasingly common reason for presentation to ear, nose and throat (ENT) specialists and medico-legal complaints against GPs. The aim of this article is to provide GPs with the knowledge to safely manage cerumen. Ear wax is an important part of a normal functioning ear. It is mostly asymptomatic and requires no treatment. Softening ear drops may be necessary to help the ear fulfil its self-cleaning function, and should be considered first-line treatment. Syringing can be safely performed if this fails by taking a thorough history and examination to exclude contraindications, gaining patient consent and ensuring the appropriate use of equipment. Referral to an ENT clinic for manual removal with microsuctioning may be necessary in the event of contraindications, complications or failure.

  19. Modeling and simulation of the current quenching behavior of a line lightning protection device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mürmann, Mario; Chusov, Alexander; Fuchs, Roman; Nefedov, Alexander; Nordborg, Henrik

    2017-03-01

    We develop a consistent model for a line lightning protection device (LLPD) and demonstrate that it can explain the two modes of current quenching—impulse quenching and current zero quenching—observed in such devices. A dimensional analysis shows that impulse quenching can always be obtained if the power loss from the electric arcs is large enough as compared to {{U}0}{{I}f} , where U 0 is the grid voltage and I f is the maximum follow current after a lightning strike. We further show that the two modes of quenching can be reproduced in a full 3D arc simulation coupled to the appropriate circuit model, which allows us to analyze the power loss from the arc in greater detail. Because of the high temperature, the main mechanism of power loss is radiation which has to be correctly modeled in order to obtain physically meaningful results. The results will allow us to use numerical simulations to optimize the quenching ability to LLPDs in the future.

  20. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear, nose...

  1. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear, nose...

  2. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear, nose...

  3. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear, nose...

  4. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear, nose...

  5. Dysfunctional thinking patterns and immigration status as predictors of hearing protection device usage.

    PubMed

    Kushnir, Talma; Avin, Lela; Neck, Alexandra; Sviatochevski, Anna; Polak, Svetlana; Peretz, Chava

    2006-10-01

    There is limited research on the role of dysfunctional/irrational thinking processes and immigration status on hearing protection device (HPD) usage. The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of low frustration tolerance (LFT) and immigration status on HPD usage among employees exposed to hazardous industrial noise. A total of 117 Israeli-borns and 80 new immigrants from former Soviet Union completed a questionnaire. The association between HPD usage and barriers to action, self-efficacy, and LFT (accounting for age, years of exposure, and immigration status) were assessed using ordered logistic regression models. LFT was associated negatively (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=.25, 95%; confidence interval [CI]=.15-.41) with HPD usage. Self-efficacy was a modifier (adjusted OR=1.47, 95%; CI=1.34-1.63): the higher the self-efficacy for a given LFT level, the higher the extent of HPD usage. Immigration status was not a significant predictor. HPD usage is associated with both rational and irrational motivations. The role of LFT in hearing protection should be further investigated.

  6. Gender Differences in Use of Hearing Protection Devices among Farm Operators

    PubMed Central

    McCullagh, Marjorie C.; Banerjee, Tanima; Yang, James J.; Bernick, Janice; Duffy, Sonia; Redman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Although farm operators have frequent exposure to hazardous noise and high rates of noise-induced hearing loss, they have low use of hearing protection devices (HPDs). Women represent about one-third of farm operators, and their numbers are climbing. However, among published studies examining use of HPDs in this worker group, none have examined gender-related differences. The purpose of this study was to examine gender-related differences in use of hearing protection and related predictors among farm operators. Materials and Methods: Data previously collected at farm shows and by telephone were analyzed using t-tests and generalized linear model with zero inflated negative binomial (ZINB) distribution. Findings: The difference in rate of hearing protector use between men and women farm operators was not significant. There was no difference between men and women in most hearing protector-related attitudes and beliefs. Conclusion: Although men and women farm operators had similar rates of use of hearing protectors when working in high-noise environments, attitudes about HPD use differed. Specifically, interpersonal role modeling was a predictor of HPD use among women, but not for men. This difference suggests that while farm operators of both genders may benefit from interventions designed to reduce barriers to HPD use (e.g., difficulty communicating with co-workers and hearing warning sounds), farm women have unique needs in relation to cognitive-perceptual factors that predict HPD use. Women farm operators may lack role models for use of HPDs (e.g., in peers and advertising), contributing to their less frequent use of protection. PMID:27991469

  7. Water penetration into middle ear through ventilation tubes in children while swimming.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mao-Che; Liu, Chia-Yu; Shiao, An-Suey

    2009-02-01

    Ventilation tube insertion is a common treatment for children with persistent otitis media with effusion. Parents are concerned about the morbidity of this procedure and the influence of ventilation tubes on daily activities. Permissibility of swimming is a question that is most often asked. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of water penetration through ventilation tubes into the middle ear while swimming in children with ventilation tubes under immediate observation. We included 14 patients who had otitis media with effusion who received ventilation tube insertion. They had complete ear, nose and throat physical examination. All 14 patients were taken to enjoy surface swimming for 1 hour without ear protection. Before and after swimming, we checked the tympanic membrane and external ear canal using a videotelescope and monitor immediately at the poolside to discover if there was fluid in the external ear canal and middle ear. Patients were followed-up 2 weeks later to check if otorrhea had occurred. The 14 patients were from 5 to 14 years old. Nine were male and 5 were female. Nine patients had bilateral ventilation tubes and 5 had unilateral ones. One ear was excluded due to the tube nearly dropping out. A total of 22 ears were included. Eight ears were noted to be dry after swimming. Five ears were noted to have water over the outer 1 third of the external ear canal. Two ears were noted to have water over the inner 2 thirds of the external ear canal. Water on the tube or tympanic membrane was found in 6 ears. Only 1 ear with water penetration into the middle ear was found. No otorrhea had occurred in any ears after 2 weeks. Water penetration into the middle ear through ventilation tubes and middle ear infection are not likely when surface swimming. Children with ventilation tubes can enjoy swimming without protection in clean chlorinated swimming pools.

  8. Pinnaplasty: reshaping ears to improve hearing aid retention.

    PubMed

    Gault, David; Grob, Marion; Odili, Joy

    2007-01-01

    The hearing aid is extremely important to the deaf. A small number have difficulty in retaining the device because the ear is prominent or cup-shaped. This report describes 11 children whose ear shape was modified to improve hearing aid retention and one adult in whom an over set back ear was released to allow fitment of a postaural device. In eight of the 11 children treated, conservative measures such as double-sided tape and retention bands (Huggies) had been tried previously without success. The creation of an antihelical fold in a misshapen ear lacking such a fold provides a reinforcing strut which is useful to support a hearing aid. In patients whose ear had been excessively tethered by previous surgery, projection was restored by inserting a cartilage block behind the ear. In one child with ears tethered by previous surgery, costal cartilage was used not only to release both ears, but also to reconstruct a new helical rim on one side. Surgery enabled a normal postaural hearing aid to be worn in 17 of the 19 ears treated. The two failures deserve special mention. In one patient with a unilateral deformity and severe mental retardation, the dressings were pulled off immediately after surgery. In another patient with a bilateral problem, the appearance and hearing aid retention was improved, but there was not enough room in the postauricular sulcus on one side for the battery component to fit comfortably and an in-the-ear device is now used on that side. Pinnaplasty is a helpful strategy to improve hearing aid retention. Care must be taken not to overdo the set back so that enough room is left to retain the hearing device.

  9. Bats as the main prey of wintering long-eared owl (Asio otus) in Beijing: Integrating biodiversity protection and urban management.

    PubMed

    Tian, Long; Zhou, Xuwei; Shi, Yang; Guo, Yumin; Bao, Weidong

    2015-03-01

    The loss of biodiversity from urbanized areas is a major environmental problem challenging policy-makers throughout the world. Solutions to this problem are urgently required in China. We carried out a case study of wintering long-eared owls (Asio otus) and their main prey to illustrate the negative effects of urbanization combined with ineffective conservation of biodiversity in Beijing. Field monitoring of owl numbers at two roosting sites from 2004 to 2012 showed that the owl population had fallen rapidly in metropolitan Beijing. Analysis of pellet contents identified only seven individuals of two species of shrew. The majority of mammalian prey comprised four bat and seven rodent species, making up 29.3% and 29.5% of the prey items, respectively. Prey composition varied significantly among years at the two sample sites. At the urban site the consumption of bats and rodents declined gradually over time, while predation on birds increased. In contrast, at the suburban site the prey composition showed an overall decrease in the number of bats, a sharp increase and a subsequent decrease in bird prey, and the number of rodent prey fell to a low point. Rapid development of real estate and inadequate greenfield management in city parks resulted in negative effects on the bird and small mammal habitat of urban areas in Beijing. We suggest that measures to conserve biodiversity should be integrated into future urban planning to maintain China's rich biodiversity while also achieving sustainable economic development.

  10. Protective effects of a standard extract of Mangifera indica L. (VIMANG) against mouse ear edemas and its inhibition of eicosanoid production in J774 murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Garrido, G; González, D; Lemus, Y; Delporte, C; Delgado, R

    2006-06-01

    A standard aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L., used in Cuba as antioxidant under the brand name VIMANG, was tested in vivo for its anti-inflammatory activity, using commonly accepted assays. The standard extract of M. indica, administered orally (50-200mg/kg body wt.), reduced ear edema induced by arachidonic acid (AA) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) in mice. In the PMA model, M. indica extract also reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In vitro studies were performed using macrophage cell line J774 stimulated with pro-inflammatory stimuli lipopolysaccharide-interferon gamma (LPS-IFNgamma) or calcium ionophore A23187 to determine prostaglandin PGE(2) or leukotriene LTB(4) release, respectively. The extract inhibited the induction of PGE(2) and LTB(4) with IC(50) values of 21.7 and 26.0microg/ml, respectively. Mangiferin (a glucosylxanthone isolated from the extract) also inhibited these AA metabolites (PGE(2), IC(50) value=17.2microg/ml and LTB(4), IC(50) value=2.1microg/ml). These results represent an important contribution to the elucidation of the mechanism involved in the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects reported for the standard extract of M. indica VIMANG.

  11. Ear tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor Review Date 8/5/2015 Updated by: Sumana Jothi ... Otolaryngology, NCHCS VA, SFVA, San Francisco, CA. Internal review and update on 09/01/2016 by David ...

  12. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    ... otitis (otomycosis), typically caused by Aspergillus niger or Candida albicans, is less common. Boils are usually caused ... form in the ear canal. Otomycosis caused by Candida albicans does not cause any visible fungi to ...

  13. Middle Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... US are prescribed for ear infections. Using an observation option could reduce antibiotic prescriptions annually by up ... to 2 years - for AOM with severe symptoms; observation is an option for AOM if non-severe. ...

  14. Ear infection - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Paralysis of the face Inflammation around the brain ( epidural abscess ) or in the brain Damage to the part ... pubmed/23818543 . Read More Cholesteatoma Ear infection - acute Epidural abscess Mastoiditis Otitis Review Date 4/21/2015 Updated ...

  15. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... more than 6 children) Changes in altitude or climate Cold climate Exposure to smoke Family history of ear infections ... or fewer children. This can reduce your child's chances of getting a cold or other infection, and ...

  16. Play It by Ear. Hearing Conservation Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Dianne R.

    This curriculum was designed to help teachers teach their fourth-grade students about hearing and the effects of loud noises on hearing. The program describes the human ear and how it works, explains the health effects of noise, and offers ways for students to protect their hearing from unsafe noise levels. Students are taught how hearing is…

  17. [Middle ear deafness and noise trauma. Animal studies with the surface specimen technique (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Leidenfrost, U

    1976-12-01

    The pertinent clinical literature concerning the research project is reviewed. The middle ear of guinea pigs was first damaged on one side (inflicting a subtotal perforation of the tympanic membrane, dislocation of the incudo-stapedial joint followed by otitis media) and the animals were then exposed to a specified narrow-band noise. The induced inner ear changes were quantified by means of cochleographic studies using the surface specimen technique. In spite of the inner ear changes due to middle ear manipulation prior to the noise exposure, the cochleographic studies revealed an obvious protective effect of the induced middle ear changes upon the inner ear during noise exposure.

  18. U.S. Marine Corps Level-Dependent Hearing Protector Assessment: Objective Measures of Hearing Protection Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    earplug (EB15) is an “active” device designed to use electronic limiters and compression to provide hearing of low-level ambient sounds while protecting...so designated by other authorized documents. Citation of manufacturer’s or trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of...incorporation of a filter that allows the user to hear ambient sounds with minimal attenuation but protects against impulsive noises above about 105-dB

  19. Self-reported efficacy of an all in-the-ear-canal prosthetic device to inhibit stuttering during one hundred hours of university teaching: an autobiographical clinical commentary.

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, J

    2003-01-21

    This manuscript outlines the lifelong battle with severe stuttering and describes a new modality of effective amelioration of the disorder from the standpoint of a university professor and researcher in the field of stuttering. Childhood reactions to stuttering are discussed, along with the educational and vocational impact of stuttering. Ongoing therapy was received throughout the formative years and into adulthood, emphasizing reduced rates of speech. The use of Delayed Auditory Feedback (DAF) was found to induce fluent speech, but was considered only as a tool for decreasing the speech rate to achieve fluency. When fluency under DAF was discovered to be possible at faster speech rates, the possibility that the use of DAF and other forms of altered auditory feedback could themselves have an inhibitory effect on stuttering, without concomitant rate reduction was investigated. An In-The-Canal (ITC) fluency-enhancing device was used that provided DAF and Frequency Altered Feedback (FAF) to produce more fluent speech. After 10 months of use, the author was relatively free from stuttering. Speech was natural sounding, relatively spontaneous and unlaboured with an absence of fear. However, further testing (that is currently underway at various centres) is necessary before generalizations can be made.

  20. Controlled release insecticide devices for protection of sheep against head strike caused by Lucilia cuprina.

    PubMed

    James, P J; Mitchell, H K; Cockrum, K S; Ancell, P M

    1994-03-01

    The effectiveness of polymer matrix tags containing (w/w) 8.5% cypermethrin, 7.5% flucythrinate, 13.7% tetrachlorvinphos or 20.0% diazinon in protecting sheep against head strike by the sheep blowfly (Lucilia cuprina Wiedemann) was investigated in larval implant, fly cage and field studies. Tags impregnated with cypermethrin reduced the total number of egg masses deposited on the heads of sheep in fly cage studies over a 6 week period by 73.3% compared with no treatment. Tags impregnated with flucythrinate reduced the number of egg masses by 25.3% over 21 weeks but there were no significant differences (P < 0.05) between treated and untreated sheep at individual exposures. Egg masses were found on the majority of tagged sheep and no protection was provided against implants with first instar L. cuprina larvae by either cypermethrin or flucythrinate tags. Tags impregnated with diazinon gave longer protection than treatment with a liquid formulation containing 400 ppm diazinon in larval implant, fly cage and field studies. Over a 12 week period in field studies, 6.6% of rams treated with diazinon tags became struck compared with 30% treated by diazinon jetting, 35.7% treated with plastic tags not impregnated with insecticide and 24.2% of untreated rams. When the rams were exposed to high populations of L. cuprina in an exposure house from 13 to 18 weeks after treatment, 3.3% of rams treated with diazinon tags, 57.1% treated by diazinon jetting, 43.8% treated with plastic tags and 23.5% of untreated rams became struck. Most strikes in the diazinon tagged sheep occurred at sites which were not contacted by the tags. Tags impregnated with tetrachlorvinphos reduced the number of strikes in comparison with no treatment in larval implant and fly cage studies but the results were inconsistent and not as good as those from diazinon tags. It is concluded that well designed controlled release devices that reliably contact the wool on the heads of sheep at sites of flystrike

  1. Isolating the auditory system from acoustic noise during functional magnetic resonance imaging: Examination of noise conduction through the ear canal, head, and bodya)

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Melcher, Jennifer R.

    2007-01-01

    Approaches were examined for reducing acoustic noise levels heard by subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a technique for localizing brain activation in humans. Specifically, it was examined whether a device for isolating the head and ear canal from sound (a “helmet”) could add to the isolation provided by conventional hearing protection devices (i.e., earmuffs and earplugs). Both subjective attenuation (the difference in hearing threshold with versus without isolation devices in place) and objective attenuation (difference in ear-canal sound pressure) were measured. In the frequency range of the most intense fMRI noise (1–1.4 kHz), a helmet, earmuffs, and earplugs used together attenuated perceived sound by 55–63 dB, whereas the attenuation provided by the conventional devices alone was substantially less: 30–37 dB for earmuffs, 25–28 dB for earplugs, and 39–41 dB for earmuffs and earplugs used together. The data enabled the clarification of the relative importance of ear canal, head, and body conduction routes to the cochlea under different conditions: At low frequencies (≤500 Hz), the ear canal was the dominant route of sound conduction to the cochlea for all of the device combinations considered. At higher frequencies (>500 Hz), the ear canal was the dominant route when either earmuffs or earplugs were worn. However, the dominant route of sound conduction was through the head when both earmuffs and earplugs were worn, through both ear canal and body when a helmet and earmuffs were worn, and through the body when a helmet, earmuffs, and earplugs were worn. It is estimated that a helmet, earmuffs, and earplugs together will reduce the most intense fMRI noise levels experienced by a subject to 60–65 dB SPL. Even greater reductions in noise should be achievable by isolating the body from the surrounding noise field. PMID:11206150

  2. A NEW CROWBAR SYSTEM FOR THE PROTECTION OF HIGH POWER GRIDDED TUBES AND MICROWAVE DEVICES

    SciTech Connect

    S.G.E. PRONKO; T.E.HARRIS

    2001-04-01

    As part of the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) facility upgrade at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility, two 8.4 MW modulator/regulator power systems were designed and constructed (Ref. 1). Each power system uses a high power tetrode to modulate and regulate the cathode voltage for two 1 MW-class 110 GHz gyrotrons (Ref. 2). A critical element in the power system is the fault energy divertor, or crowbar switch, that protects the tetrode and the gyrotrons in the event of an arc fault. Traditionally, mercury filled ignitron switches are used for this application, but it was desired to eliminate hazardous materials and improve overall switching performance. The new crowbar switch system was required to meet the following requirements: Operating voltage: -105 kVdc; Peak current (750 ms e-fold): 1.6 kA; Follow-on current: <1 kA (25 ms); Charge transfer per shot: <15 Cb; and Turn-on time: <1 {micro}s. The switch that was chosen for the new design is a low pressure deuterium filled device, called a metal-arc thyratron, manufactured by Marconi Applied Technologies (Ref. 3). In addition to the new crowbar switch assembly, improved fault signal processing circuitry was developed. This new circuitry uses fiber-optics for signal and trigger transmission and a complex programmable logic device for high speed signal and logic processing. Two generations of metal-arc thyratrons have been commissioned in the two ECH power systems constructed at DIII-D. In the first, the crowbar system performed extremely well, meeting all of the operating requirements and demonstrating its ability to protect a 36 gauge copper wire from fusing (energy let-through <10 J). However, after accumulating over 500 shots, the metal-arc thyratrons lost their ability to reliably hold-off voltage. This problem was solved by Marconi with a design modification of the thyratron electrodes. The second generation tubes were installed in the second ECH power system. The crowbar system was fully commissioned and all

  3. Inner ear disturbances related to middle ear inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sone, Michihiko

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The inner and middle ear are connected mainly through round and oval windows, and inflammation in the middle ear cavity can spread into the inner ear, which might induce a disturbance. In cases with intractable otitis media, attention should also be paid to symptoms related to the inner ear. In this paper, middle ear inflammation and related inner ear disturbances are reviewed with a focus on representative middle ear diseases (such as acute otitis media, chronic otitis media, otitis media with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, eosinophilic otitis media, cholesteatoma with labyrinthine fistula, and reflux-related otitis media). Their clinical concerns are then discussed with reference to experimental studies. In these diseases, early diagnosis and adequate treatment are required to manage not only middle ear but also inner ear conditions. PMID:28303055

  4. Impact of wound edge protection devices on surgical site infection after laparotomy: multicentre randomised controlled trial (ROSSINI Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Calvert, Melanie; Bartlett, David C; Gheorghe, Adrian; Redman, Val; Dowswell, George; Hawkins, William; Mak, Tony; Youssef, Haney; Richardson, Caroline; Hornby, Steven; Magill, Laura; Haslop, Richard; Wilson, Sue; Morton, Dion

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the clinical effectiveness of wound edge protection devices in reducing surgical site infection after abdominal surgery. Design Multicentre observer blinded randomised controlled trial. Participants Patients undergoing laparotomy at 21 UK hospitals. Interventions Standard care or the use of a wound edge protection device during surgery. Main outcome measures Surgical site infection within 30 days of surgery, assessed by blinded clinicians at seven and 30 days and by patient’s self report for the intervening period. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, duration of stay in hospital, and the effect of characteristics of the patient and operation on the efficacy of the device. Results 760 patients were enrolled with 382 patients assigned to the device group and 378 to the control group. Six patients in the device group and five in the control group did not undergo laparotomy. Fourteen patients, seven in each group, were lost to follow-up. A total of 184 patients experienced surgical site infection within 30 days of surgery, 91/369 (24.7%) in the device group and 93/366 (25.4%) in the control group (odds ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.69 to 1.36; P=0.85). This lack of benefit was consistent across wound assessments performed by clinicians and those reported by patients and across all secondary outcomes. In the secondary analyses no subgroup could be identified in which there was evidence of clinical benefit associated with use of the device. Conclusions Wound edge protection devices do not reduce the rate of surgical site infection in patients undergoing laparotomy, and therefore their routine use for this role cannot be recommended. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN 40402832 PMID:23903454

  5. Impact of wound edge protection devices on surgical site infection after laparotomy: multicentre randomised controlled trial (ROSSINI Trial).

    PubMed

    Pinkney, Thomas D; Calvert, Melanie; Bartlett, David C; Gheorghe, Adrian; Redman, Val; Dowswell, George; Hawkins, William; Mak, Tony; Youssef, Haney; Richardson, Caroline; Hornby, Steven; Magill, Laura; Haslop, Richard; Wilson, Sue; Morton, Dion

    2013-07-31

    To determine the clinical effectiveness of wound edge protection devices in reducing surgical site infection after abdominal surgery. Multicentre observer blinded randomised controlled trial. Patients undergoing laparotomy at 21 UK hospitals. Standard care or the use of a wound edge protection device during surgery. Surgical site infection within 30 days of surgery, assessed by blinded clinicians at seven and 30 days and by patient's self report for the intervening period. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, duration of stay in hospital, and the effect of characteristics of the patient and operation on the efficacy of the device. 760 patients were enrolled with 382 patients assigned to the device group and 378 to the control group. Six patients in the device group and five in the control group did not undergo laparotomy. Fourteen patients, seven in each group, were lost to follow-up. A total of 184 patients experienced surgical site infection within 30 days of surgery, 91/369 (24.7%) in the device group and 93/366 (25.4%) in the control group (odds ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.69 to 1.36; P=0.85). This lack of benefit was consistent across wound assessments performed by clinicians and those reported by patients and across all secondary outcomes. In the secondary analyses no subgroup could be identified in which there was evidence of clinical benefit associated with use of the device. Wound edge protection devices do not reduce the rate of surgical site infection in patients undergoing laparotomy, and therefore their routine use for this role cannot be recommended. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN 40402832.

  6. Efficiency of different respiratory protective devices for removal of particulate and gaseous reactive oxygen species from welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Chung, Shih-Hsiang; Jhuo, Ming-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light inherent to welding processes generates ozone (O(3)) with subsequent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through photochemical reactions when UV light is present with O(3). This study aimed to determine the performance of filters used as respiratory protective devices by welding personnel to simultaneously mitigate particulate and gaseous inhalation hazards. Four respiratory protective devices were selected for this study, including a surgical facemask, a cotton-fabric facemask, an activated-carbon facemask, and an N95 respirator. The removal efficiencies for the particulates in welding fumes were all above 98%. For particulate-phase ROS, the removal efficiencies of the different respiratory protective devices ranged from 83.5% to 94.1%; however, the removal efficiencies for gaseous ROS were only 1.3% (active carbon facemask) to 21.1% (N95 respirator). The data indicated that the respiratory protective devices commercially available cannot block the passage of the gas-phase ROS found in welding fumes.

  7. Optical-electronic device based on diffraction optical element for control of special protective tags executed from luminophor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, M.; Odinokov, S.

    2017-05-01

    The report focuses on special printing industry, which is called secure printing, which uses printing techniques to prevent forgery or falsification of security documents. The report considered the possibility of establishing a spectral device for determining the authenticity of certain documents that are protected by machine-readable luminophor labels. The device works in two spectral ranges - visible and near infrared that allows to register Stokes and anti-Stokes spectral components of protective tags. The proposed device allows verification of the authenticity of security documents based on multiple criteria in different spectral ranges. It may be used at enterprises related to the production of security printing products, expert units of law enforcement bodies at check of authenticity of banknotes and other structures.

  8. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss].

    PubMed

    Hesse, G

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most dominant handicaps in modern societies, which additionally very often is not realized or not admitted. About one quarter of the general population suffers from inner ear hearing loss and is therefore restricted in communicational skills. Demographic factors like increasing age play an important role as well as environmental influences and an increasing sound and noise exposure especially in leisure activities. Thus borders between a "classical" presbyacusis - if it ever existed - and envirionmentally induced hearing loss disappear. Today restrictions in hearing ability develop earlier in age but at the same time they are detected and diagnosed earlier. This paper can eventually enlighten the wide field of inner ear hearing loss only fragmentarily; therefore mainly new research, findings and developments are reviewed. The first part discusses new aspects of diagnostics of inner ear hearing loss and different etiologies.

  9. Suction-generated noise in an anatomic silicon ear model.

    PubMed

    Luxenberger, Wolfgang; Lahousen, T; Walch, C

    2012-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate noise levels generated during micro-suction aural toilet using an anatomic silicon ear model. It is an experimental study. In an anatomic ear model made of silicone, the eardrum was replaced by a 1-cm diameter microphone of a calibrated sound-level measuring device. Ear wax was removed using the sucker of a standard ENT treatment unit (Atmos Servant 5(®)). Mean and peak sound levels during the suction procedure were recorded with suckers of various diameters (Fergusson-Frazier 2.7-4 mm as well as Rosen 1.4-2.5 mm). Average noise levels during normal suction in a distance of 1 cm in front of the eardrum ranged between 97 and 103.5 dB(A) (broadband noise). Peak noise levels reached 118 dB(A). During partial obstruction of the sucker by cerumen or dermal flakes, peak noise levels reached 146 dB(A). Peak noise levels observed during the so-called clarinet phenomena were independent of the diameter or type of suckers used. Although micro-suction aural toilet is regarded as an established, widespread and usually safe method to clean the external auditory canal, some caution seems advisable. The performance of long-lasting suction periods straight in front of the eardrum without sound-protecting earwax between sucker and eardrum should be avoided. In particular, when clarinet phenomena are occurring (as described above), the suction procedure should be aborted immediately. In the presence of dermal flakes blocking the auditory canal, cleaning with micro-forceps or other non-suctioning instruments might represent a reasonable alternative.

  10. Multicriteria Analysis model for the comparison of different rockfalls protection devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignelli, C.; Pomarico, S.; Peila, D.

    2012-04-01

    which provides a comparison of the considered options. The developed model takes into account five different aspects of the decision-making process (economic, environmental, design, transport and social aspects) that have been organized according the hierarchical framework of the AHP technique. The criteria that were identified in the analysis and their weights, in the decision-making process, have been discussed and determined by means of specific focus groups with technical experts in the geo-engineering field. Three different protection devices, usually used for rockfall protection (embankment, shelter topped by rockfall barrier and tunnel), are compared through the AHP method, in a specific "geo" environment to show the feasibility of the method. The application of the AHP technique, which was performed using the Expert Choice software, allowed the most relevant aspects of the decision-making process to be highlighted and showing how the proposed method can be a valuable tool for public administration. Furthermore, in order to test the robustness of the proposed model a sensitivity analysis was carried out. The research has an originality value since it focuses on a participative methodological approach thus making the decision process more traceable and reliable.

  11. Listening to the Ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shera, Christopher Alan

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics--termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models--that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus -frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  12. Listening to the ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shera, Christopher A.

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics-termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models-that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  13. Social marketing campaign promoting the use of respiratory protection devices among farmers.

    PubMed

    Pounds, Lea; Duysen, Ellen; Romberger, Debra; Cramer, Mary E; Wendl, Mary; Rautiainen, Risto

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the formal use of marketing concepts in a systematic approach to influence farmers to voluntarily increase respiratory protective device (RPD) use. The planning process for the project incorporated six key decision or action points, each informed by formative research or health behavior theory. The planning process included developing behavior change strategies based on a 4P model (product, price, place, and promotion). The resulting campaign elements included print and e-mail messages that leveraged motivators related to family and health in order to increase farmers' knowledge about the risks of exposure to dusty environments, four instructional videos related to the primary barriers identified in using RPDs, and a brightly colored storage bag to address barriers to using RPDs related to mask storage. Campaign implementation included a series of e-mails using a bulk e-mail subscription service, use of social media in the form of posting instructional videos on a YouTube channel, and in-person interactions with members of the target audience at farm shows throughout the Central States Center for Agricultural Safety and Health seven-state region. Evaluation of the e-mail campaigns indicated increased knowledge about RPD use and intent to use RPDs in dusty conditions. YouTube analytic data indicated continuing exposure of the instructional videos beyond the life of the campaign. The project demonstrates the efficacy of a planning process that incorporates formative research and clear decision points throughout. This process could be used to plan health behavior change interventions to address other agriculture-related health and safety issues.

  14. Risk Factors and Complications Associated with Difficult Retrieval of Embolic Protection Devices in Carotid Artery Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Lian Xuegan; Liu Wenhua; Li Min; Lin Min; Zhu Shuanggen; Sun Wen; Yin Qin; Xu Gelin; Zhang Renliang; Liu Xinfeng

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to investigate the risk factors and complications of difficult retrieval (DR) of embolic protection devices (EPDs) in carotid artery stenting (CAS). Methods: A total of 195 consecutive patients who underwent CAS between December 2007 and March 2010 in a general hospital were enrolled and divided into two groups: with DR and without DR. The risk factors of DR were analyzed with univariate and multivariate analyses. The complications of DR were recorded and analyzed. Results: A total of 30 (15.4%) patients with DR of EPDs were observed, of whom EPDs were successfully retrieved in 29, and in 1 was it taken out by surgical treatment. The retrieval time was significantly longer in patients with DR (490.5 {+-} 143.9 s) than in patients without DR (157.2 {+-} 15.7 s, p = 0.000). Vasospasm was observed more frequently in patients with DR than in patients without DR (55.2% vs. 14.5%, p = 0.000). Intracranial compilations were more frequent in patients with DR than in those without DR (17.2% vs. 0.6%, p = 0.000). Calcified plaques, degree of residual stenosis, types of the stents, and tortuosity index (TI > 80 Degree-Sign) were all associated with DR. A logistic regression analysis indicated that calcified plaques (odds ratio (OR) = 6.5; p = 0.000) and TI > 80 Degree-Sign (OR = 18.8; p = 0.000) were independent predictors of DR. Conclusions: Calcified plaques and TI > 80 Degree-Sign may be related to DR in patients with CAS. DR may lengthen the retrieving time and increase the complications of the procedure.

  15. How to Use Ear Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and warm water. Gently clean your ear with a damp facecloth and then dry your ear. Warm the drops to near body temperature by holding the container in the palm of ...

  16. Fusion of the ear bones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Images Ear anatomy Medical findings based on ear anatomy References House JW, Cunningham CD. Otosclerosis. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  17. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    MedlinePlus

    ... ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... to the eardrum) and the back of the nose and upper throat. ... down from high altitudes. Chewing gum the entire time you are ...

  18. Shield Yourself from 'Swimmer's Ear'

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_167094.html Shield Yourself From 'Swimmer's Ear' Water left behind after a swim can give ... season for the painful infection known as swimmer's ear, but it shouldn't spoil your fun if ...

  19. The red ear syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Red Ear Syndrome (RES) is a very rare disorder, with approximately 100 published cases in the medical literature. Red ear (RE) episodes are characterised by unilateral or bilateral attacks of paroxysmal burning sensations and reddening of the external ear. The duration of these episodes ranges from a few seconds to several hours. The attacks occur with a frequency ranging from several a day to a few per year. Episodes can occur spontaneously or be triggered, most frequently by rubbing or touching the ear, heat or cold, chewing, brushing of the hair, neck movements or exertion. Early-onset idiopathic RES seems to be associated with migraine, whereas late-onset idiopathic forms have been reported in association with trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). Secondary forms of RES occur with upper cervical spine disorders or temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction. RES is regarded refractory to medical treatments, although some migraine preventative treatments have shown moderate benefit mainly in patients with migraine-related attacks. The pathophysiology of RES is still unclear but several hypotheses involving peripheral or central nervous system mechanisms have been proposed. PMID:24093332

  20. From Ear to Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

  1. From Ear to Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

  2. 46 CFR 111.50-5 - Location of overcurrent protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... primary side of a single phase transformer (two wire with single-voltage secondary) also protects the... secondary conductor by the secondary to primary transformer voltage ratio, and this protection meets § 111...

  3. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... The outer ear or "pinna" forms when the baby is growing in the mother's womb. The growth of this ear part ...

  4. Performance of two respiratory protective devices used by home-attending health care workers (a pilot study).

    PubMed

    Elmashae, Reported By Yousef; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Reponen, Tiina; Yermakov, Michael; Riddle, Robert

    2017-09-01

    This pilot study aimed at determining the Workplace Protection Factor (WPF) for respiratory protective devices widely used by health care workers to reduce exposure to potentially hazardous aerosols when attending patients in their homes. Two devices were tested, an N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) and a surgical mask (SM). Three home-attending health care workers were recruited, medically cleared and fit tested. At the workplace, the aerosol concentrations outside (Cout) and inside (Cin) of the tested respiratory protective device worn by a subject were measured using two simultaneously operating P-Trak condensation particle counters within the particle size range of approximately 20-1,000 nm. Real-time and integrated (time-weighted average, TWA) values of WPF = Cout/Cin were determined. This pilot study demonstrated that the WPF of the tested N95 FFR consistently exceeded that of the SM. The WPFTWA(C) values calculated for the entire test time (based on the TWA aerosol concentration values) ranged from 29 to 40 and 2 to 9, respectively. In all cases, the N95 FFR provided protection above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) assigned protection factor of 10, whereas the SM often offered little or essentially no protection against the measured sub-micrometer aerosol particles. For both devices, the protection level was found to depend on activity. For example, the WPFTWA(C) for one subject wearing the N95 FFR was 56 during normal activity but fell almost 70% during tracheal suctioning. It is explicable considering that different procedures implemented by health care workers in homes generate particles of different sizes and require different body movements; both factors are anticipated to affect the WPF. Wearing an N95-certified respirator helps significantly reduce the aerosol inhalation exposure of home-attending health care workers. An SM offers much lower protection. The WPF depends on several factors, including, but not limited

  5. Ear Infections and Language Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.

    Ear infections in infants and preschoolers can cause mild or moderate temporary hearing loss, which may in turn affect a child's ability to understand and learn language. Noting that providing children with proper medical treatment for ear infections or middle ear fluid is important in preventing possible problems with language development, this…

  6. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... also can cause painful pressure changes in the middle ear, so a child may eat less than normal or have trouble ... There's no single best approach for treating all middle ear infections. In deciding how to manage your child's ear infection, your doctor will consider many things, ...

  7. The analysis of ear canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Gen

    In this thesis complex 3-D ear canal finite element models are simplified using transfer matrices to 1-D models. This simplification allows analysis on the sound propagation in the ear, which results in potentially using a non-invasive probe to determine the acoustical properties of the ear.

  8. Taking Care of Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... it to get better by itself. Tips for Swimmers Sometimes, swimming can lead to a case of swimmer's ear . That's when your outer ear gets infected, ... cause an infection. If you think you have swimmer's ear, your mom or dad needs to call ...

  9. Thin-film encapsulation of organic electronic devices based on vacuum evaporated lithium fluoride as protective buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yingquan; Ding, Sihan; Wen, Zhanwei; Xu, Sunan; Lv, Wenli; Xu, Ziqiang; Yang, Yuhuan; Wang, Ying; Wei, Yi; Tang, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Encapsulation is indispensable for organic thin-film electronic devices to ensure reliable operation and long-term stability. For thin-film encapsulating organic electronic devices, insulating polymers and inorganic metal oxides thin films are widely used. However, spin-coating of insulating polymers directly on organic electronic devices may destroy or introduce unwanted impurities in the underlying organic active layers. And also, sputtering of inorganic metal oxides may damage the underlying organic semiconductors. Here, we demonstrated that by utilizing vacuum evaporated lithium fluoride (LiF) as protective buffer layer, spin-coated insulating polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and sputtered inorganic material Er2O3, can be successfully applied for thin film encapsulation of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)-based organic diodes. By encapsulating with LiF/PVA/LiF trilayer and LiF/Er2O3 bilayer films, the device lifetime improvements of 10 and 15 times can be achieved. These methods should be applicable for thin-film encapsulation of all kinds of organic electronic devices. Moisture-induced hole trapping, and Al top electrode oxidation are suggest to be the origins of current decay for the LiF/PVA/LiF trilayer and LiF/Er2O3 bilayer films encapsulated devices, respectively.

  10. Reconfigurable ultra-thin film GDNMOS device for ESD protection in 28 nm FD-SOI technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanasiou, Sotirios; Legrand, Charles-Alexandre; Cristoloveanu, Sorin; Galy, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    We propose a novel ESD protection device (GDNMOS: Gated Diode merged NMOS) fabricated with 28 nm UTBB FD-SOI high-k metal gate technology. By modifying the combination of the diode and transistor gate stacks, the robustness of the device is optimized, achieving a maximum breakdown voltage (VBR) of 4.9 V. In addition, modifications of the gate length modulate the trigger voltage (Vt1) with a minimum value of 3.5 V. Variable electrostatic doping (gate-induced) in diode and transistor body enables reconfigurable operation. A lower doping of the base enhances the bipolar gain, leading to thyristor behavior. This innovative architecture demonstrates excellent capability for high-voltage protection while maintaining a latch-up free behavior.

  11. THE DYNACELL AND FOCAL PLANE CONCEPTS OF PHOTOTROPIC SYSTEMS APPLICATION TO OPHTHALMIC NUCLEAR FLASH-PROTECTIVE DEVICES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Two concepts of phototropic systems application are presented in this report. These concepts, when considered individually or in combination, make...possible the development of improved, directly or indirectly actuated, phototropic , ophthalmic, nuclear flash-protective devices. By the application...of a phototropic filter at the focal plane of an optical system, the attenuation of the phototropic response due to distance is minimized. Using a

  12. Transarterial Thrombin Injection Secured with an Embolic Protection Device as a Treatment for a Superior Mesenteric Artery Pseudoaneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Juszkat, Robert Krasinski, Zbigniew; Wykretowicz, Mateusz; Staniszewski, Ryszard; Majewski, Waclaw

    2011-02-15

    A pseudoaneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare and life-threatening condition of various etiology. Even unruptured it can cause severe health problems or death. We report a 71-year-old male with a SMA pseudoaneurysm who was successfully treated with a transarterial thrombin injection secured with an embolic protection device used in carotid angioplasty. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a SMA pseudoaneurysm treated by this method.

  13. Percutaneous Thrombin Injection with a Distal Embolic Protection Device for Treatment of a Common Carotid Artery Pseudoaneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J.H.; Tseng, I.K.; Siegel, R.L.; Roychowdhury, S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Carotid artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication from placement of an internal jugular triple lumen catheter. Endovascular stenting is the favored treatment option in the setting of traumatic carotid injury. In other parts of the body, specifically the femoral artery, thrombin injection has become the standard of care. We intend to show that effective management of carotid pseudoaneurysms can also be achieved with thrombin injection after placement of a distal embolic protection device. PMID:23693049

  14. Two Simple Leg Net Devices Designed to Protect Lower-Extremity Skin Grafts and Donor Sites and Prevent Decubitus Ulcer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    Two Simple Leg Net Devices Designed to Protect Lower-Extremity Skin Grafts and Donor Sites and Prevent Decubitus Ulcer Travis L. Hedman, MPT, OCS... decubitus . Pressure ulcer is a serious health prob- lem and can cause pain, suffering, disability, and even death.1,2 The cost of treatment for a...single pressure decubitus has been estimated to be as high as $70,000.3 Therefore, prevention is paramount. The prevention of pressure ulcers is far less

  15. 30 CFR 77.802 - Protection of high-voltage circuits; neutral grounding resistors; disconnecting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... grounding resistors; disconnecting devices. 77.802 Section 77.802 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... of high-voltage circuits; neutral grounding resistors; disconnecting devices. High-voltage circuits supplying portable or mobile equipment shall contain either a direct or derived neutral which shall be...

  16. Neurologic evaluation of the ear.

    PubMed

    Cook, Laurie B

    2004-03-01

    Diseases of the ear often cause signs of neurologic dysfunction because of damage of peripheral nervous system structures associated with the middle and inner ear. Vestibular dysfunction, facial paralysis, Horner's syndrome, and hearing deficits are the most common neurologic deficits that accompany middle and inner ear disease. Differentiating these signs from disease of the central nervous system is crucial for an accurate diagnosis and prognosis but can be difficult. Understanding the normal anatomy of the ear and its association with the brain is crucial to interpretation of the neurologic examination. This article reviews neurologic dysfunction commonly associated with diseases of the ear and differentiating these signs from central disease.

  17. The Potential Protective Effects of 2-aminoethyl Diphenylborinate against Inner Ear Acoustic Trauma: Experimental Study Using Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kaymakçı, Mustafa; Acar, Mustafa; Burukoglu, Dilek; Kutlu, Hatice Mehtap; Shojaolsadati, Paria; Cingi, Cemal; Bayar Muluk, Nuray

    2015-04-01

    In this prospective experimental study, we investigated the preventive effects of 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2-APB) in rats exposed to acoustic trauma (AT). Light microscopic, transmission electron microscopic (TEM), and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examinations were performed. Eighteen healthy Wistar albino rats were divided into the following three groups: groups 1 (control), 2 (AT), and 3 (AT+APB). The rats in groups 2 and 3 were exposed to AT; in group 3 rats, 2-APB at 2 mg/kg was also administered, initially transperitoneally, after 10 min. During the light microscopic, TEM, and SEM examinations, the structures of the cochlear hair cells, stereocilia, and Deiter's cells were normal in the control group. In the AT group, the organ of Corti and proximate structures were damaged according to the light microscopic examination. During the TEM examination, intense cellular damage and stereocilia loss were detected, while during the SEM examination, extensive damage and stereocilia loss were observed. Decreased damage with preserved cochlear structure was detected during the light microscopic examination in the AT+APB group than in the AT group. During the TEM and SEM examinations, although stereocilia loss occurred in the AT+APB group, near-normal cell, cilia, and tectorial membrane structures were also observed in the AT+APB group compared with the AT group. 2-APB may have protective effects against AT damage of the cochlea. The main mechanism underlying this effect is the inhibition of the vasoconstriction of the cochlear spiral modiolar artery, thereby improving cochlear blood flow. We conclude that 2-APB may also be effective if used immediately following AT.

  18. The contralateral ear in cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Sady Selaimen; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro; Rosito, Letícia Petersen Schmidt

    2016-07-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma has been extensively studied. Theories of cholesteatoma pathogenesis involving previous tympanic membrane retraction are the most widely accepted, but the contralateral ear in patients with cholesteatoma remains unstudied. This study aimed to investigate the contralateral ear in patients with cholesteatoma, and to determine whether the characteristics of it differ according to patient age and cholesteatoma growth patterns. This study was cross sectional. We evaluated 356 patients with middle ear cholesteatoma in at least one ear, and no history of surgery, between August 2000 and March 2013. Otoendoscopy was conducted on both the affected and the contralateral ear. They were classified as normal, tympanic membrane perforation, moderate to severe tympanic membrane retraction and cholesteatoma. The mean age of the patients was 32.77 years, and 53.1 % of the cohort were female. Only 34.8 % of the contralateral ears were normal. The most common abnormality was moderate to severe tympanic membrane retraction (41.6 %). Cholesteatoma was identified in 16 %. Children exhibited a greater frequency of tympanic membrane retractions, whereas adults exhibited a greater frequency of cholesteatoma. All of the contralateral ears in the anterior epitympanic group were normal, but otherwise there were no differences in the contralateral ear when we compared the cholesteatoma growth patterns. We conclude that patients diagnosed with acquired cholesteatoma of one ear are significantly more likely to exhibit abnormalities of the contralateral ear.

  19. Drug delivery to the ear.

    PubMed

    Hoskison, E; Daniel, M; Al-Zahid, S; Shakesheff, K M; Bayston, R; Birchall, J P

    2013-01-01

    Drug delivery to the ear is used to treat conditions of the middle and inner ear such as acute and chronic otitis media, Ménière's disease, sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus. Drugs used include antibiotics, antifungals, steroids, local anesthetics and neuroprotective agents. A literature review was conducted searching Medline (1966-2012), Embase (1988-2012), the Cochrane Library and Ovid (1966-2012), using search terms 'drug delivery', 'middle ear', 'inner ear' and 'transtympanic'. There are numerous methods of drug delivery to the middle ear, which can be categorized as topical, systemic (intravenous), transtympanic and via the Eustachian tube. Localized treatments to the ear have the advantages of targeted drug delivery allowing higher therapeutic doses and minimizing systemic side effects. The ideal scenario would be a carrier system that could cross the intact tympanic membrane loaded with drugs or biochemical agents for the treatment of middle and inner ear conditions.

  20. Protecting computer-based medical devices: defending against viruses and other threats.

    PubMed

    2005-07-01

    The increasing integration of computer hardware has exposed medical devices to greater risks than ever before. More and more devices rely on commercial off-the-shelf software and operating systems, which are vulnerable to the increasing proliferation of viruses and other malicious programs that target computers. Therefore, it is necessary for hospitals to take steps such as those outlined in this article to ensure that their computer-based devices are made safe and continue to remain safe in the future. Maintaining the security of medical devices requires planning, careful execution, and a commitment of resources. A team should be created to develop a process for surveying the security status of all computerized devices in the hospital and making sure that patches and other updates are applied as needed. These patches and updates should be approved by the medical system supplier before being implemented. The team should consider using virtual local area networks to isolate susceptible devices on the hospital's network. All security measures should be carefully documented, and the documentation should be kept up-to-date. Above all, care must be taken to ensure that medical device security involves a collaborative, supportive partnership between the hospital's information technology staff and biomedical engineering personnel.

  1. Wearable ear EEG for brain interfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Eric D.; Walker, Nicholas; Danko, Amanda S.

    2017-02-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) measuring electrical activity via electroencephalogram (EEG) have evolved beyond clinical applications to become wireless consumer products. Typically marketed for meditation and neu- rotherapy, these devices are limited in scope and currently too obtrusive to be a ubiquitous wearable. Stemming from recent advancements made in hearing aid technology, wearables have been shrinking to the point that the necessary sensors, circuitry, and batteries can be fit into a small in-ear wearable device. In this work, an ear-EEG device is created with a novel system for artifact removal and signal interpretation. The small, compact, cost-effective, and discreet device is demonstrated against existing consumer electronics in this space for its signal quality, comfort, and usability. A custom mobile application is developed to process raw EEG from each device and display interpreted data to the user. Artifact removal and signal classification is accomplished via a combination of support matrix machines (SMMs) and soft thresholding of relevant statistical properties.

  2. [The autonomic system reactivity of airport technical personnel using individual protective devices against noise].

    PubMed

    Soldatov, S K; Chistov, S D; Zinkin, V N; Ryzhenkov, S P; Poliakov, N M

    2014-01-01

    The study covered cardiac rhythm variability and hemodynamic parameters in airfield technical personnel under exposure to aviation noise and with use of individual protective measures against noise. Individual protective means remove unfavorable stressful external effects of noise--that is manifested by more stable parameters of sympathetic nervous system activity.

  3. 78 FR 12664 - Human Subject Protection; Acceptance of Data From Clinical Studies for Medical Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 807, 812, and 814 RIN 0910-AG48 Human Subject... ensure the protection of human subjects and the quality and integrity of data obtained from these studies... the protection of human subjects and the quality and integrity of data obtained from these...

  4. Description of modular devices for the measurement of external dosimetry in radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Genicot, Jean Louis; Boogers, Eric; Van Iersel, Mark

    2015-04-01

    In 2002 the Group of Radiation Dosimetry and Calibration of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN) has developed an experimental device based on the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) working with Al2O3:C detectors (TLD-500 and Luxel) stimulated with an argon laser. A set of devices made from different modules have been developed to permit external dosimetry measurements with thermoluminescence (TL) and OSL techniques under different conditions. This study describes these measurement devices that can be made with these modules and some of the characteristics of the different systems. These devices present several advantages in terms of measurement possibilities: a small number of modules allow the use of different detection materials (Al2O3:C, BeO, quartz electronic components and tiles) and different measurement methods (TL, CW-OSL and pulsed OSL). Some applications are commented.

  5. 16 CFR 1211.10 - Requirements for all entrapment protection devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... sprayed for 1 minute. EC03OC91.042 (d) Ultraviolet light exposure test. A polymeric material used as a functional part of a device that is exposed to outdoor weather conditions shall comply with the...

  6. 16 CFR 1211.10 - Requirements for all entrapment protection devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... rate of 5 gallons (19 liters) per minute as measured at the outlet orifice of the nozzle. The water from the hose is to be played, from all sides and at any angle against the floor under the device...

  7. Zwislocki's model of the middle ear re-visited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withnell, Robert H.; Fields, Taylor N.

    2015-12-01

    Zwislocki's circuit model of the middle ear [11] has been used, in original or modified form, in subsequent studies modeling the ear [4, 6]. The model includes two eardrum modes of vibration, a shunt for flexible coupling between the incus and stapes, and a single tuned oscillator for ossicular vibration. The contribution of each of these mechanisms was examined by fitting a model of the ear to acoustic input impedance data from healthy human ears. The circuit elements for a non-ossicular eardrum vibration and a flexible coupling between the incus and stapes were found to be detrimental or non-essential for the model-fit-to-data. A single mode of eardrum vibration for sound transmission to the middle ear is consistent with the eardrum acting as an impedance-matching device, with pars-tensa eardrum vibration coupled to the ossicles [1]. A single-tuned oscillator was insufficient to account for the bandwidth of the ear. The frequency response of the ear suggests multiple resonant modes of ossicular vibration.

  8. Occluded-ear simulator with variable acoustic properties.

    PubMed

    Egolf, D P; Kennedy, W A; Larson, V D

    1992-05-01

    Ear simulators were designed to replicate acoustical characteristics of the average adult ear. Due to variability of ear-canal geometry and eardrum impedance among individuals, the possibility of any one person exhibiting such "average" characteristics--especially if that person is a child and/or has a conductive pathology--is remote. Thus, ear simulators have been of only peripheral value when prescribing a hearing aid (a high output impedance device) to fit the acoustical requirements of a particular patient. Reported herein is development of a programmable artificial ear (PAE) that can account for individual differences in ear-canal geometry and eardrum impedance. It consists of a 2.0-cc coupler, microphone, amplifier, computer, PAE code, and a computer card and/or software for digitization and Fourier transformation. Required input data includes ear-canal dimensions, eardrum impedance, and output impedance of the hearing aid being tested. Sound-pressure recordings produced in the 2.0-cc coupler by the hearing aid are adjusted by the computer to what they would have been had the recordings been made at the eardrum of a particular patient wearing the same hearing aid. Good agreement was observed between experiment and theory for one test case involving a totally occluding miniature earphone.

  9. Diseases of the middle ear in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Minovi, Amir; Dazert, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Middle ear diseases in childhood play an important role in daily ENT practice due to their high incidence. Some of these like acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion have been studied extensively within the last decades. In this article, we present a selection of important childhood middle ear diseases and discuss the actual literature concerning their treatment, management of complications and outcome. Another main topic of this paper deals with the possibilities of surgical hearing rehabilitation in childhood. The bone-anchored hearing aid BAHA® and the active partially implantable device Vibrant Soundbridge® could successfully be applied for children. In this manuscript, we discuss the actual literature concerning clinical outcomes of these implantable hearing aids. PMID:25587371

  10. Weapon and Sighting System Compatibility Assessment for Prototype Maxillofacial Protection Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    maxillofacial protection on sighting of standard issue small arms and sighting systems organic to combat vehicles. System front and side spatial breadth were...system, across several small arms firing postures and combat vehicle sighting interfaces. 15. SUBJECT TERMS facial protection, helmets, shooting...performance, sighting offset, human factors, small arms , vehicle optics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF

  11. Effects of in-the-ear microphone directionality on sound direction identification.

    PubMed

    Chung, King; Neuman, Arlene C; Higgins, Michael

    2008-04-01

    As advanced signal processing algorithms have been proposed to enhance hearing protective device (HPD) performance, it is important to determine how directional microphones might affect the localization ability of users and whether they might cause safety hazards. The effect of in-the-ear microphone directivity was assessed by measuring sound source identification of speech in the horizontal plane. Recordings of speech in quiet and in noise were made with Knowles Electronic Manikin for Acoustic Research wearing bilateral in-the-ear hearing aids with microphones having adjustable directivity (omnidirectional, cardioid, hypercardioid, supercardioid). Signals were generated from 16 locations in a circular array. Sound direction identification performance of eight normal hearing listeners and eight hearing-impaired listeners revealed that directional microphones did not degrade localization performance and actually reduced the front-back and lateral localization errors made when listening through omnidirectional microphones. The summed rms speech level for the signals entering the two ears appear to serve as a cue for making front-back discriminations when using directional microphones in the experimental setting. The results of this study show that the use of matched directional microphones when worn bilaterally do not have a negative effect on the ability to localize speech in the horizontal plane and may thus be useful in HPD design.

  12. Protection from steam at high pressures: development of a test device and protocol.

    PubMed

    Sati, Rohit; Crown, Elizabeth M; Ackerman, Mark; Gonzalez, Jose; Dale, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Extensive use of pressurized steam in the oil and gas sectors has led to incidents where workers were seriously injured. In this study a test device and procedure to measure heat transfer through fabrics during steam exposure were developed and evaluated. Several factors were considered while designing the test device to simulate work site conditions. Fabrics were exposed to steam at 2 distances (50 and 100 mm) and 2 pressures (207 and 69 kPa). Theoretical considerations included heat and mass transfer, and fabric structure and performance properties. The test device and procedure differentiated well among both fabrics and exposure conditions. For all fabrics, maximum heat transfer was observed at highest steam pressure and shortest distance. Laminated and coated fabrics performed better than a fabric without such treatments.

  13. Ear syringing: minimising the risks.

    PubMed

    Bird, Sara

    2008-05-01

    The patient, 61 years of age, saw the general practitioner for a repeat prescription for her blood pressure medication. During the consultation, the patient mentioned that she had some discomfort in her left ear. The GP examined the patient's ears and noted that both external auditory canals were blocked by wax. He recommended that the patient have her ears syringed and arranged for the practice nurse to perform the procedure. The GP did not see the patient again.

  14. Endovascular cerebral protection and revascularization of innominate artery stenosis through single-site access, with device entrapment and rescue: technical case report.

    PubMed

    Gordhan, Ajeet

    2013-07-01

    We describe a novel technique for cerebral embolic device placement with inadvertent entrapment and subsequent rescue in the endovascular treatment of innominate artery stenosis. A 62-year-old female presented with symptomatic right-sided subclavian steal syndrome. Single-site access for revascularization of critical innominate artery stenosis with simultaneous cerebral embolic protection performed for this diagnosis has not been previously reported. Initial nontarget self-expanding stent deployment within the right subclavian artery resulted in entrapment of the embolic protection device. The device was retrieved through snare fixation and resheathing within a 6-French guide catheter navigated through common femoral artery access. Innominate artery balloon-mounted stent angioplasty was performed preceded by the embolic device retrieval, with complete resolution of symptoms. Endovascular distal protection device placement for prevention of cerebral atherothromboembolism during innominate artery stent angioplasty is not without risk and utilization needs to be carefully considered. Copyright © 2011 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  15. The ear: Diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Vignaud, J.; Jardin, C.; Rosen, L.

    1986-01-01

    This is an English translation of volume 17-1 of Traite de radiodiagnostic and represents a reasonably complete documentation of the diseases of the temporal bone that have imaging manifestations. The book begins with chapters on embryology, anatomy and radiography anatomy; it continues with blood supply and an overview of temporal bone pathology. Subsequent chapters cover malformations, trauma, infections, tumors, postoperative changes, glomus tumors, vertebasilar insufficiency, and facial nerve canal lesions. A final chapter demonstrates and discusses magnetic resonance images of the ear and cerebellopontine angle.

  16. Sustained Inner Ear Steroid Delivery via Bioabsorbable Stent: A Tolerability and Feasibility Study on Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, Philippe; Lavigne, François; Saliba, Issam

    2016-10-01

    To determine the feasibility and tolerability of a steroid-eluting middle ear device on an animal model. Prospective experimental. Experimental animal study. Mometasone furoate (MF)-eluting miniature sticks were implanted through a myringotomy incision into the middle ear of 10 guinea pigs. Two additional ears of 2 animals served as controls. Fourteen days after implantation, perilymphatic fluid was collected through an endaural cochleostomy. MF concentrations were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography, and the middle ear mucosal inflammation was graded with hematoxylin and eosin colorations. Fourteen days after implantation, all tympanic membranes had fully healed. An average of 165 ng/mL of MF was detected in the perilymphatic fluid of the experimental ears, and none was measured in control ears. Microscopic residues of the ministicks were found in 90% of the samples, confirming the bioabsorbable properties of this device. Histologic analysis of the middle ear mucosa found similar inflammation profiles in both groups, thereby suggesting middle ear tolerability. MF-coated bioabsorbable miniature stick allows for prolonged delivery over 14 days without injuring the middle ear mucosa. Middle ear-sustained steroid delivery may prove to be beneficial in numerous neurotologic conditions. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  17. 21 CFR 874.5840 - Antistammering device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5840 Antistammering device. (a) Identification. An antistammering device is a device that electronically generates a noise when activated or when... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antistammering device. 874.5840 Section...

  18. 21 CFR 874.5840 - Antistammering device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5840 Antistammering device. (a) Identification. An antistammering device is a device that electronically generates a noise when activated or when... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Antistammering device. 874.5840 Section...

  19. An integrative radiation protection control system based on a CAN bus for the HT-7U tokamak fusion device.

    PubMed

    Chai, Zhuxin; Huang, Qunying; Wu, Yican; Liu, Xiaoping; Liao, Zhuhua

    2004-06-01

    A radiation protection control system has been designed, based on distributed computers and consideration of the features of the radiation source of the HT-7U fusion experimental device, for protecting the workers and the public against neutron and photon radiation, and especially for ensuring that workers cannot unexpectedly enter an area of high radiation level in any case. A multisubsystem (irradiation monitoring subsystem, access control subsystem, safety interlock subsystem and other related facilities) integration concept is proposed for the design. This system has been implemented on the basis of the up-to-date industrial field bus CAN, featuring simplicity and flexibility of installation and maintenance, capability for real-time long distance communication and multi-master protocol.

  20. Selection of wires and circuit protective devices for STS Orbiter vehicle payload electrical circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaston, Darilyn M.

    1991-01-01

    Electrical designers of Orbiter payloads face the challenge of determining proper circuit protection/wire size parameters to satisfy Orbiter engineering and safety requirements. This document is the result of a program undertaken to review test data from all available aerospace sources and perform additional testing to eliminate extrapolation errors. The resulting compilation of data was used to develop guidelines for the selection of wire sizes and circuit protection ratings. The purpose is to provide guidance to the engineering to ensure a design which meets Orbiter standards and which should be applicable to any aerospace design.

  1. Flexible fire retardant polyisocyanate modified neoprene foam. [for thermal protective devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Riccitiello, S. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Lightweight, fire resistant foams have been developed through the modification of conventional neoprene-isocyanate foams by the addition of an alkyl halide polymer. Extensive tests have shown that the modified/neoprene-isocyanate foams are much superior in heat protection properties than the foams heretofore employed both for ballistic and ablative purposes.

  2. 49 CFR 195.428 - Overpressure safety devices and overfill protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... valve, pressure regulator, or other item of pressure control equipment to determine that it is... section for inspection and testing of pressure control equipment apply to the inspection and testing of... protection systems. 195.428 Section 195.428 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

  3. The development of technologies and devices for protection from noise generated by power equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, V. E.; Khomenok, L. A.; Yablonik, L. R.

    2010-01-01

    The main lines of currently conducted research and development activities on suppressing noise produced by power-generating equipment are presented. Matters related to preventing the occurrence of aeroacoustic self-excited vibrations, optimizing dissipative noise silencers, using structural methods for damping acoustic vibrations, suppressing low-frequency noise, and analyzing the effectiveness of soundproof coatings are considered. The process diagrams and parameters of devices for suppressing noise generated during discharge into the atmosphere of high-pressure gaseous media are discussed.

  4. Comparison of performance of three different types of respiratory protection devices.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Robert B; Duling, Matthew G; Calvert, Catherine A; Coffey, Christopher C

    2006-09-01

    Respiratory protection is offered to American workers in a variety of ways to guard against potential inhalation hazards. Two of the most common ways are elastomeric N95 respirators and N95 filtering-facepiece respirators. Some in the health care industry feel that surgical masks provide an acceptable level of protection in certain situations against particular hazards. This study compared the performance of these types of respiratory protection during a simulated workplace test that measured both filter penetration and face-seal leakage. A panel of 25 test subjects with varying face sizes tested 15 models of elastomeric N95 respirators, 15 models of N95 filtering-facepiece respirators, and 6 models of surgical masks. Simulated workplace testing was conducted using a TSI PORTACOUNT Plus model 8020, and consisted of a series of seven exercises. Six simulated workplace tests were performed with redonning of the respirator/mask occurring between each test. The results of these tests produced a simulated workplace protection factor (SWPF). The geometric mean (GM) and the 5th percentile values of the SWPFs were computed by category of respiratory protection using the six overall SWPF values. The level of protection provided by each of the three respiratory protection types was compared. The GM and 5th percentile SWPF values without fit testing were used for the comparison, as surgical masks were not intended to be fit tested. The GM values were 36 for elastomeric N95 respirators, 21 for N95 filtering-facepiece respirators, and 3 for surgical masks. An analysis of variance demonstrated a statistically significant difference between all three. Elastomeric N95 respirators had the highest 5th percentile SWPF of 7. N95 filtering-facepiece respirators and surgical masks had 5th percentile SWPFs of 3 and 1, respectively. A Fisher Exact Test revealed that the 5th percentile SWPFs for all three types of respiratory protection were statistically different. In addition, both

  5. Correction of Lobule-type Microtia: Part 2: The Stage of Ear Elevation

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Makoto; Yamashita, Ken; Yamada, Tetsuo; Kato, Shinji; Suzuki, Akiyo; Saito, Tamotsu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Here, we introduce our recent operative technique for ear elevation that results in (1) minimal morbidity for patients, (2) symmetric appearance, (3) clearer 3-dimensional structure with a deep concha, (4) good aesthetic appearance by hiding the grafted area behind the ear, and (5) maintenance of deep temporoauricular sulcus and angle. Methods: After a skin incision, the ear is elevated with temporoparietal fascia underlying the cartilage. On the conchal area, undermining is performed just below the skin so that the deep concavity can be maintained. Scalp and neck skin behind the ear is undermined subcutaneously and lifted up cranially to hide the entire area of grafted skin behind the ear. The postauricular surface is covered by full-thickness skin from the lower abdomen. A protective splint is applied for 3 months while sleeping. Results: A total of 137 ears in 121 patients were corrected with our technique and followed up for at least 3 years. All of the scar tissue could be hidden behind the ear, an aesthetically excellent result. Conclusions: Our technique made it possible to acquire an excellent and symmetrical shape of the ear. The important points in our procedure are as follows: (1) subcutaneous posterior undermining to enlarge the conchal cavity, (2) careful arrangement of the temporoauricular angle and auriculo-earlobe angle, (3) reduction in the area of temporally grafted skin to hide all scars behind the ear, and (4) protection of the ear to maintain the shape using a postoperative splint. PMID:25426391

  6. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... surgical drill. 874.4250 Section 874.4250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH....4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill is a rotating drilling device, including the handpiece, that...

  7. Benign ear cyst or tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bony tumor of the ear canal Images Ear anatomy References Nicolai P, Castelnuovo P. Benign tumors of the sinonasal tract. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  8. Beware of dogs licking ears.

    PubMed

    Godey, B; Morandi, X; Bourdinière, J; Heurtin, C

    1999-10-09

    A patient with right-sided chronic purulent otorrhoea developed meningitis due to Pasteurella multocida transmitted by a dog that frequently licked his ear. We suggest that patients with a perforated tympanic membrane should avoid being licked on their ears by animals.

  9. Pathogenesis of middle ear adhesions.

    PubMed

    Cayé-Thomasen, P; Hermansson, A; Tos, M; Prellner, K

    1996-04-01

    Middle ear adhesions are well-known to the ear surgeon, although data on etiology, pathogenesis, and significance are lacking in current literature. This study on experimental acute otitis media presents histopathological data on these aspects. Pneumococci were inoculated in the right middle ear bulla of 25 rats; the left ear served as control. At days 4, 8, 16, 90, and 180, respectively, 5 rats were decapitated, and the bullae were removed, opened, and stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)/alcian blue. The entire middle ear mucosae were dissected from the bone, embedded as whole mounts in colophonium chambers, and examined by light microscopy. Representative parts of the mucosae were sectioned and examined in the same way. All inoculated ears from day 8 and later (20 in total), contained mucosal adhesions of various sizes, shapes, and locations. None were found in control ears. The site of predilection for the development of adhesions was the hypotympanum, followed by the anterior epitympanum, the attic, the drum, the interossicular spaces, and the tubal orifice. Based on present histopathological findings, we conclude that the middle ear adhesion is a pathological phenomenon caused by infection, and we propose a six-stage hypothesis of pathogenesis: 1. Localized epithelial rupture; 2. Prolapse of subepithelial tissue; 3. Epithelialization of the prolapse; resulting in a polypous/fold-like prominence; 4. Growth and elongation of the prominence; 5. Fusion of the end/tip of the prominence with another part of the mucosa; 6. Formation of an adhesion.

  10. Assaying Benefits of Poly[styrene-4-(trimethylammonium)methyl Triiodide] in Respiratory Protection Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    common laboratory mouse, Mus musculus , and treated and mechanically equivalent untreated filter media to measure infection rates as a function of...to determine viable counts. Data noise in the control experiment prevented drawing a firm conclusion but loss of viability in the aerosol phase ...protection, Triosyn U U U UU 35 Joseph Wander Reset iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Page 1.0 Overview

  11. Otoscopic exam of the ear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... intrument which is used to look into the ear canal. The ear speculum (a cone-shaped viewing piece of the otoscope) is slowly inserted into the ear canal while looking into the otoscope. The speculum ...

  12. Wax blockage in the ear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The ear canal is lined with hair follicles and glands that produce a waxy oil called cerumen. Sometimes the ... wax than can be easily excreted out the ear. This extra wax may harden within the ear ...

  13. Frequent Embolization in Peripheral Angioplasty: Detection with an Embolism Protection Device (Angio Guard) and Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, Claudius W. Pusich, Benjamin; Tepe, Gunnar; Wendel, Hans-Peter; Hahn, Ulrich; Schneider, Wilke; Claussen, Claus D.; Duda, Stephan H.

    2003-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the deliverability and protection capabilities of an embolism protection filter in angioplasty of peripheral arteries. Methods: The Angioguard emboli capture guidewire system was applied in 11 patients with femoropopliteal lesions (6 stenoses, 3 occlusions, 2 controls).Data on lesion crossing, flow deceleration and macroembolization were recorded. Filter membranes were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: System delivery was successful in all patients. Primary lesion crossing was feasible in four of six stenoses; predilatation was required in two of six. Marked flow deceleration was recorded in six patients. Emboli next to the filter were detected in each patient with concentric plaques, but could not reliably be removed with the filter. Downstream macroembolization was also present in all patients with concentric stenoses, but in none with chronic occlusion. None of the patients had clinical signs of ischemia. SEM analysis demonstrated only small particles on control group filters and non-obliterating fibrinous conglomerates on filters used in chronic occlusion. Substantial obliteration was seen on several filters used in stenotic lesions. Conclusion:Microembolization of fibrin aggregates is a common incident in balloon angioplasty of femoropopliteal stenoses. Macroembolization occurred more frequently than previously reported. The use of embolism protection filters aided in the detection but not in the removal of larger emboli.

  14. Effects of ear-canal pressurization on middle-ear bone- and air-conduction responses

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Kenji; Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Kim, Namkeun; Du, Yu; Puria, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    In extremely loud noise environments, it is important to not only protect one’s hearing against noise transmitted through the air-conduction (AC) pathway, but also through the bone-conduction (BC) pathways. Much of the energy transmitted through the BC pathways is concentrated in the mid-frequency range around 1.5–2 kHz, which is likely due to the structural resonance of the middle ear. One potential approach for mitigating this mid-frequency BC noise transmission is to introduce a positive or negative static pressure in the ear canal, which is known to reduce BC as well as AC hearing sensitivity. In the present study, middle-ear ossicular velocities at the umbo and stapes were measured using human cadaver temporal bones in response to both BC and AC excitations, while static air pressures of ±400 mm H2O were applied in the ear canal. For the maximum negative pressure of −400 mm H2O, mean BC stapes-velocity reductions of about 5–8 dB were observed in the frequency range from 0.8 to 2.5 kHz, with a peak reduction of 8.6(± 4.7) dB at 1.6 kHz. Finite-element analysis indicates that the peak BC-response reduction tends to be in the mid-frequency range because the middle-ear BC resonance, which is typically around 1.5–2 kHz, is suppressed by the pressure-induced stiffening of the middle-ear structure. The measured data also show that the BC responses are reduced more for negative static pressures than for positive static pressures. This may be attributable to a difference in the distribution of the stiffening among the middle-ear components depending on the polarity of the static pressure. The characteristics of the BC-response reductions are found to be largely consistent with the available psychoacoustic data, and are therefore indicative of the relative importance of the middle-ear mechanism in BC hearing. PMID:19944139

  15. Factors leading to chronic middle ear disease.

    PubMed

    Canty, A A; Prestwood, U; Dugdale, A E; Lewis, A N

    1975-05-10

    In an Australian Aboriginal community, 65% of all people examined had clinical evidence of pathology in the ear drum or middle ear, but active ear disease was found mainly in children. In most people, both ears showed similar clinical changes. Clinical nutritional status and hygienic factors did not correlate with the presence of ear disease. Some families had significantly more ear disease than did others, suggesting that there is some as yet unidentified familial factor.

  16. Exploiting heat treatment effects on SMAs macro and microscopic properties in developing fire protection devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlacu, L.; Cimpoeşu, N.; Bujoreanu, L. G.; Lohan, N. M.

    2017-08-01

    Ni-Ti shape memory alloys (SMAs) are intelligent alloys which demonstrate unique properties, such as shape memory effect, two-way shape memory effect, super-elasticity and vibration damping which, accompanied by good processability, excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility as well as fair wear resistance and cyclic stability, enabled the development of important industrial applications (such as sensors, actuators, fasteners, couplings and valves), medical applications (such as stents, bone implants, orthodontic archwires, minimal invasive surgical equipment) as well as environmental health and safety devices (anti-seismic dampers, fire safety devices). The phase transitions in Ni-Ti SMAs are strongly influenced by processing methods, chemical compositions and thermomechanical history. This paper presents a study of the effects of heat treatment on the mechanical and thermal properties of commercial Ni-Ti shape memory alloy (SMA). The experimental work involved subjecting a SMA rod to heat-treatment consisting in heating up to 500°C, 10 minutes-maintaining and water quenching. Mechanical properties were highlighted by microhardness tests while thermal characteristics were emphasized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The presence of chemical composition fluctuations was checked by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy performed with an EDAX Bruker analyzer.

  17. Indications and candidacy for active middle ear implants.

    PubMed

    Wagner, F; Todt, I; Wagner, J; Ernst, A

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there are two active middle ear implants available commercially: the Vibrant Soundbridge system and the Carina system. A third active middle ear implant, the Esteem, is under clinical evaluation. All devices are indicated for patients with moderate-to-severe hearing loss. Because active middle ear implants are directly coupled to middle ear structures, many of the problems that patients with conventional hearing aids report, such as acoustic feedback, occlusion, and irritation of the outer ear canal, are avoided. In addition, AMEI patients perform well in background noise. However, indications for AMEIs are selective and candidates should be carefully evaluated before surgery. Before considering an AMEI, patients should be provided with conventional hearing aids. Only when benefit is insufficient and audiological selection criteria are met is further candidacy evaluation indicated. Since Colletti described coupling the Vibrant Soundbridge directly onto the round window membrane in 2006, the indications for the Vibrant Soundbridge have expanded and the VSB is implanted in patients with conductive and mixed hearing losses. Patients have often undergone middle ear surgery before. Especially mixed hearing loss cases with 30-60 dB HL sensorineural hearing impairment and 30-40 dB HL air-bone gaps may be helped by this new application.

  18. Stentriever thrombectomy with distal protection device for carotid free floating thrombus: a technical case report.

    PubMed

    Giragani, Suresh; Balani, Ankit; Agrawal, Vikas

    2017-01-18

    We report the clinical details, imaging findings and management of a 45-year-old man who presented with recurrent transient ischemic attacks due to carotid free floating thrombus. Free floating thrombus of the carotid artery is a very rare condition with a high risk of distal embolic shower. The optimal treatment options are debatable and include medical management, surgical thrombectomy and endovascular thrombectomy. We describe the use of a stentriever with filter protection in the management of carotid free floating thrombus as a novel treatment option. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  19. Stentriever thrombectomy with distal protection device for carotid free floating thrombus: a technical case report.

    PubMed

    Giragani, Suresh; Balani, Ankit; Agrawal, Vikas

    2017-01-25

    We report the clinical details, imaging findings and management of a 45-year-old man who presented with recurrent transient ischemic attacks due to carotid free floating thrombus. Free floating thrombus of the carotid artery is a very rare condition with a high risk of distal embolic shower. The optimal treatment options are debatable and include medical management, surgical thrombectomy and endovascular thrombectomy. We describe the use of a stentriever with filter protection in the management of carotid free floating thrombus as a novel treatment option.

  20. Polysaccharides as protectants for paper-based analytical devices with antibody.

    PubMed

    Cao, Rong; Tian, Wendy; Shen, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Paper with immobilized protein can provide a low-cost platform for diagnostics, but evidence is emerging that the instability of protein on paper during shipping and storage severely limits its commercial development. Of these, paper-immobilized antibody, though widely used, is in urgent need of improvement in the shelf life. Herein we provided a detailed investigation of a simple and versatile approach for achieving stable antibody on paper to improve bioassay performance. Anti-Blood Group A IgM was chosen as the model antibody and its activity was tested via agglutination reactions. Representative polysaccharides (i.e., chitosan, sodium alginate and dextran) were used as protectants and their ability to stabilize antibody under heat and desiccation stresses was investigated. It was found that the presence of dextran with high concentration markedly stabilized paper-immobilized IgM for at least 120 days. Our results indicate that dextran with good film-forming ability could be a protectant for paper-immobilized antibody.

  1. The Nimbus Hemopump: a new left ventricular assist device that combines myocardial protection with circulatory support.

    PubMed

    Mooney, M R; Mooney, J F; Van Tassel, R A; Goldenberg, I F; Madison, J D; Johnson, K E; Von Ruedon, T; Joyce, L D; Emery, R W; Pritzker, M R

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in hemodynamic support can allow patients at high risk for cardiovascular collapse to become candidates for coronary interventions. A new axial blood flow pump has recently been developed and made available for clinical testing. This intravascular pump utilizes an Archimedes screw pump rotating at 25,000 rpms to provide a flow of 2 to 3.5 liters/minute. The 7 mm inlet cannula of the cable driven pump is delivered across the aortic valve. The pump discharges blood into the descending aorta. This design does not require a membrane oxygenator. This pump would be expected to: 1) provide circulatory support irrespective of heart arrhythmias; 2) provide left ventricular unloading and 3) lack the fluid and coagulation abnormalities of prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass. This unique device offers great promise to the interventional cardiologist.

  2. A universal procedure for evaluation and application of surge-protective devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The source, nature, and frequency of occurrence of transients must be identified and a representative standard test wave chosen for proof testing. The performance of candidate suppressor devices then can be evaluated against the withstand goals set for the equipment. The various suppressors divide into two classes of generic behavior. The key to a universal procedure for evaluating both classes lies in representing transients as quasi-current sources of defined current impulse duration. The available surge current is established by the Thevenin equivalent transient voltage and source impedance. A load line drawn on the V-I characteristic graph of the suppressor quickly determines the clamping voltage and peak current. These values then can be compared to the requirement. The deposited energy and average power dissipation for multiple transients also can be calculated. The method is illustrated with a design example for motor vehicle alternator load dump suppression.

  3. Use of Spider Filter Embolic Protection Device During Endovascular Revascularization of Acute Thromboembolic Occlusion of Superficial Femoral Artery.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhongzhi; Zhao, Jinwei; Tian, Feng; Wang, Kai; Li, Shaoqin; Jiang, Guomin; Wang, Weiping

    2015-12-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Spider filter embolic protection device (EPD) in protecting patients from distal migration of thromboemboli during revascularization of acute superficial femoral artery (SFA) occlusion secondary to thromboemboli. Data from all patients at our institution who had EPD placement for embolic protection during endovascular revascularization for acute thromboembolic occlusion of the SFA were analyzed. From April 2007 to June 2014, a total of 14 patients had EPD placement during endovascular revascularization for acute SFA occlusion secondary to thromboemboli. All patients presented with acute onset of limb ischemia, and further work-up with imaging studies demonstrated thromboembolic occlusions. The duration from onset of symptoms to revascularization was 7.0 ± 2.7 h (range 2-14 h). An aspiration technique for thrombectomy was used in all 14 cases (aspiration alone, 6 cases; aspiration plus urokinase, 7 cases; additional angioplasty after urokinase, 1 case). Spider filter EPDs were successfully placed at the target in all 14 cases, and the thromboemboli were captured in 13/14 (92.9%) cases. Successful reestablishment of the SFA flow without distal branch embolism occurred in all 14 cases. There were no EPD-related complications. During a mean 32.2 ± 20.2 months of follow-up, 13 patients remained asymptomatic; one patient who underwent PTA during the procedure reported limb coolness and fatigue 6 months later because of recurrent atherosclerotic stenosis. The Spider filter EPD can be safe and effective in protecting patients from distal branch embolism when they undergo an endovascular thrombectomy procedure.

  4. Passive protection devices for high-voltage equipment: Design procedures and performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Serino, G.; Bonacina, G.; Bettinali, F.

    1995-12-31

    A 420 kV High-Voltage Alternating Current Circuit-Breaker, a typical element of an open-air electrical substation, is considered. Experimental tests carried out on such a piece of equipment by ISMES, under ENEL support, clearly pointed out its inability to withstand the seismic qualification level of highest severity indicated by the standards. The design of a seismic isolation system for the switch-gear composed of spring units and dampers is developed in this paper, and the dynamic earthquake response of the isolated circuit-breaker is compared numerically to the one obtained without the seismic protection system. The remarkable reduction of stresses in the porcelain insulators are shown, evidencing that this occurs to the detriment of a certain increment of displacements at the top of the apparatus.

  5. Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... will finish by inserting a small metal or plastic tube into the hole in the eardrum. Afterward, ... air into the middle ear. Other substances, including water, may sometimes enter through the tube, but this ...

  6. Outcomes in Endoscopic Ear Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kiringoda, Ruwan; Kozin, Elliott D; Lee, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    Endoscopic ear surgery (EES) provides several advantages compared with traditional binocular microscopy, including a wide-field view, improved resolution with high magnification, and visual access to hidden corridors of the middle ear. Although binocular microscopic-assisted surgical techniques remain the gold standard for most otologists, EES is slowly emerging as a viable alternative for performing otologic surgery at several centers in the United States and abroad. In this review, we evaluate the current body of literature regarding EES outcomes, summarize our EES outcomes at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, and compare these results with data for microscopic-assisted otologic surgery.

  7. Objective Metric Based Assessments for Efficient Evaluation of Auditory Situation Awareness Characteristics of Tactical Communications and Protective Systems (TCAPS) and Augmented Hearing Protective Devices (HPDs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-30

    in a 40 dBA pink noise background, SNR of +10. (No statistical differences implied with percentage data.) Figure 46. Recognition/Identification...to-noise ratio of -10, and signal speaker located in front of the subject at 12 o’clock. (No statistical differences implied with percentage data...and signal speaker located at 3 o’clock. (No statistical differences implied with percentage data.) 9. Percent Worse/Better than Open Ear

  8. Captured Macro-embolus of Fractured Atheromatous Plaque by the Embolic Protection Device during Carotid Stent Assisted Angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mun Chul; Bennett, Shelby; Farb, Richard; Croul, Sydney; Lee, Seon-Kyu

    2013-02-01

    The authors present a case in which macro-embolus from the ruptured atheromatous plaque developed during carotid artery stenting (CAS). A 63-year-old man who had suffered a left middle cerebral artery territory infarction had significant proximal left internal carotid artery stenosis required CAS procedure. Immediate after stent deployment, the patient showed abrupt neurological deterioration with 12 × 3 mm sized macro-embolus which was caught by the embolus protection device (EPD). Retrieval of the macro-embolus was performed safely and the patient recovered to pre-procedure status. Macro-embolus can be resulted during the CAS. The EPD can capture the macro-embolus and safe removal is technically feasible.

  9. Isopropyl Myristate-Modified Polyether-Urethane Coatings as Protective Barriers for Implantable Medical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Roohpour, Nima; Wasikiewicz, Jaroslaw M.; Moshaverinia, Alireza; Paul, Deepen; Rehman, Ihtesham U.; Vadgama, Pankaj

    2009-01-01

    Polyurethane films have potential applications in medicine, especially for packaging implantable medical devices. Although polyether-urethanes have superior mechanical properties and are biocompatible, achieving water resistance is still a challenge. Polyether based polyurethanes with two different molecular weights (PTMO1000, PTMO2000) were prepared from 4,4’-diphenylmethane diisocyanate and poly(tetra-methylene oxide). Polymer films were introduced using different concentrations (0.5-10 wt %) of isopropyl myristate lipid (IPM) as a non-toxic modifying agent. The physical and mechanical properties of these polymers were characterised using physical and spectroscopy techniques (FTIR, Raman, DSC, DMA, tensile testing). Water contact angle and water uptake of the membranes as a function of IPM concentration was also determined accordingly. The FTIR and Raman data indicate that IPM is dispersed in polyurethane at ≤ 2wt% and thermal analysis confirmed this miscibility to be dependent on soft segment length. Modified polymers showed increased tensile strength and failure strain as well as reduced water uptake by up to 24% at 1-2 wt% IPM.

  10. Perspectives on the failure of pharmaceutical and medical device industries to fully protect public health interests.

    PubMed

    Maron, Barry J; Hauser, Robert G

    2007-07-01

    This discussion raises a fundamental, yet simple, public health issue--failure by the pharmaceutical and device industries to institute proper informed consent and full disclosure of critical medical information to patients (through their physicians) and recognize the autonomous right of patients to participate in important medical decisions that may affect their well-being, including the risk of death or injury. In this discussion, 2 recent affairs with high public visibility were analyzed as models illustrating these issues involving Merck and Co. (Whitehouse Station, New Jersey; for Vioxx) and Guidant Corp. (Indianapolis, Indiana; for implantable defibrillators). These scenarios proved to be remarkably similar with regard to their themes and parallel pathways and the pitfalls they illustrate. In conclusion, the focus of this review emphasizes the lessons learned and the changes already underway that will promote improved communication between industry and the physician community (and their patients) so that ultimately patient trust in the medical establishment can be restored and maintained and the errors of the past not repeated.

  11. Hydrophobic Organic Skin as a Protective Shield for Moisture-Sensitive Phosphor-Based Optoelectronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, Paulraj; Kim, Yoon Hwa; Kim, Ha Jun; Unithrattil, Sanjith; Im, Won Bin

    2017-03-01

    A moisture-stable, red-emitting fluoride phosphor with an organic hydrophobic skin is reported. A simple strategy was employed to form a metal-free, organic, passivating skin using oleic acid (OA) as a hydrophobic encapsulant via solvothermal treatment. Unlike other phosphor coatings that suffer from initial efficiency loss, the OA-passivated K2SiF6:Mn(4+) (KSF-OA) phosphor exhibited the unique property of stable emission efficiency. Control of thickness and a highly transparent passivating layer helped to retain the emission efficiency of the material after encapsulation. A moisture-stable KSF-OA phosphor could be synthesized because of the exceptionally hydrophobic nature of OA and the formation of hydrogen bonds (F···H) resulting from the strong interactions between the fluorine in KSF and hydrogen in OA. The KSF-OA phosphor exhibited excellent moisture stability and maintained 85% of its emission intensity even after 450 h at high temperature (85 °C) and humidity (85%). As a proof-of-concept, this strategy was used for another moisture-sensitive SrSi2O2N2:Eu(2+) phosphor which showed enhanced moisture stability, retaining 85% of emission intensity after 500 h under the same conditions. White light-emitting devices were fabricated using surface-passivated KSF and Y3Al5O12:Ce(3+) which exhibited excellent color rendering index of 86, under blue LED excitation.

  12. Systems and methods for biometric identification using the acoustic properties of the ear canal

    DOEpatents

    Bouchard, Ann Marie; Osbourn, Gordon Cecil

    1998-01-01

    The present invention teaches systems and methods for verifying or recognizing a person's identity based on measurements of the acoustic response of the individual's ear canal. The system comprises an acoustic emission device, which emits an acoustic source signal s(t), designated by a computer, into the ear canal of an individual, and an acoustic response detection device, which detects the acoustic response signal f(t). A computer digitizes the response (detected) signal f(t) and stores the data. Computer-implemented algorithms analyze the response signal f(t) to produce ear-canal feature data. The ear-canal feature data obtained during enrollment is stored on the computer, or some other recording medium, to compare the enrollment data with ear-canal feature data produced in a subsequent access attempt, to determine if the individual has previously been enrolled. The system can also be adapted for remote access applications.

  13. Systems and methods for biometric identification using the acoustic properties of the ear canal

    DOEpatents

    Bouchard, A.M.; Osbourn, G.C.

    1998-07-28

    The present invention teaches systems and methods for verifying or recognizing a person`s identity based on measurements of the acoustic response of the individual`s ear canal. The system comprises an acoustic emission device, which emits an acoustic source signal s(t), designated by a computer, into the ear canal of an individual, and an acoustic response detection device, which detects the acoustic response signal f(t). A computer digitizes the response (detected) signal f(t) and stores the data. Computer-implemented algorithms analyze the response signal f(t) to produce ear-canal feature data. The ear-canal feature data obtained during enrollment is stored on the computer, or some other recording medium, to compare the enrollment data with ear-canal feature data produced in a subsequent access attempt, to determine if the individual has previously been enrolled. The system can also be adapted for remote access applications. 5 figs.

  14. Evaluation of the Survivability of Microorganisms Deposited on Filtering Respiratory Protective Devices under Varying Conditions of Humidity.

    PubMed

    Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Skóra, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-01-04

    Bioaerosols are common biological factors in work environments, which require routine use of filtering respiratory protective devices (FRPDs). Currently, no studies link humidity changes in the filter materials of such devices, during use, with microorganism survivability. Our aim was to determine the microclimate inside FRPDs, by simulating breathing, and to evaluate microorganism survivability under varying humidity conditions. Breathing was simulated using commercial filtering facepiece respirators in a model system. Polypropylene melt-blown nonwoven fabrics with moisture contents of 40%, 80%, and 200%, were used for assessment of microorganisms survivability. A modified AATCC 100-2004 method was used to measure the survivability of ATCC and NCAIM microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. During simulation relative humidity under the facepiece increased after 7 min of usage to 84%-92% and temperature increased to 29-30 °C. S. aureus survived the best on filter materials with 40%-200% moisture content. A decrease in survivability was observed for E. coli and C. albicans when mass humidity decreased. We found that B. subtilis and A. niger proliferated for 48-72 h of incubation and then died regardless of the moisture content. In conclusion, our tests showed that the survivability of microorganisms on filter materials depends on the amount of accumulated moisture and microorganism type.

  15. Effects of Active and Passive Hearing Protection Devices on Sound Source Localization, Speech Recognition, and Tone Detection

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew D.; Beemer, Brianne T.; Greene, Nathaniel T.; Argo, Theodore; Meegan, G. Douglas; Tollin, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Hearing protection devices (HPDs) such as earplugs offer to mitigate noise exposure and reduce the incidence of hearing loss among persons frequently exposed to intense sound. However, distortions of spatial acoustic information and reduced audibility of low-intensity sounds caused by many existing HPDs can make their use untenable in high-risk (e.g., military or law enforcement) environments where auditory situational awareness is imperative. Here we assessed (1) sound source localization accuracy using a head-turning paradigm, (2) speech-in-noise recognition using a modified version of the QuickSIN test, and (3) tone detection thresholds using a two-alternative forced-choice task. Subjects were 10 young normal-hearing males. Four different HPDs were tested (two active, two passive), including two new and previously untested devices. Relative to unoccluded (control) performance, all tested HPDs significantly degraded performance across tasks, although one active HPD slightly improved high-frequency tone detection thresholds and did not degrade speech recognition. Behavioral data were examined with respect to head-related transfer functions measured using a binaural manikin with and without tested HPDs in place. Data reinforce previous reports that HPDs significantly compromise a variety of auditory perceptual facilities, particularly sound localization due to distortions of high-frequency spectral cues that are important for the avoidance of front-back confusions. PMID:26313145

  16. Evaluation of the Survivability of Microorganisms Deposited on Filtering Respiratory Protective Devices under Varying Conditions of Humidity

    PubMed Central

    Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Skóra, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Bioaerosols are common biological factors in work environments, which require routine use of filtering respiratory protective devices (FRPDs). Currently, no studies link humidity changes in the filter materials of such devices, during use, with microorganism survivability. Our aim was to determine the microclimate inside FRPDs, by simulating breathing, and to evaluate microorganism survivability under varying humidity conditions. Breathing was simulated using commercial filtering facepiece respirators in a model system. Polypropylene melt-blown nonwoven fabrics with moisture contents of 40%, 80%, and 200%, were used for assessment of microorganisms survivability. A modified AATCC 100-2004 method was used to measure the survivability of ATCC and NCAIM microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. During simulation relative humidity under the facepiece increased after 7 min of usage to 84%–92% and temperature increased to 29–30 °C. S. aureus survived the best on filter materials with 40%–200% moisture content. A decrease in survivability was observed for E. coli and C. albicans when mass humidity decreased. We found that B. subtilis and A. niger proliferated for 48–72 h of incubation and then died regardless of the moisture content. In conclusion, our tests showed that the survivability of microorganisms on filter materials depends on the amount of accumulated moisture and microorganism type. PMID:26742049

  17. Shock attenuation of various protective devices for prevention of fall-related injuries of the forearm/hand complex.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu-Jung; Alian, Ali M; Morris, William S; Lee, Young-Hwa

    2006-04-01

    Attenuation of the peak impact force is essential in any protective devices for prevention of fall-related injuries. Common wrist guards have limited effectiveness because of the multifaceted nature of wrist injury mechanisms, and other modalities may provide enhanced shock-absorbing functions. Controlled laboratory study. A free-fall device was constructed using a mechanical surrogate to simulate falling impact. At 4 different falling heights, 5 different hand conditions were tested: bare hand, a generic-brand wrist guard, a Sorbothane glove, an air cell, and an air bladder condition. The impact force from the ground and the transmitted impact force to the forearm/hand complex were simultaneously measured. The falling height and hand condition significantly modulated the impact responses. The padded conditions always had significantly smaller peak impact forces compared with the bare-hand condition. The wrist guard became ineffective in impact force attenuation beyond the falling height of 51 cm. On the other hand, the air bladder condition maintained less than 45% of the peak impact force of the bare-hand condition and remained below the critical value, whereas other conditions were all ineffective. It was reconfirmed that common wrist guard design could provide limited impact force attenuation, whereas damped pneumatic springs would provide substantially enhanced shock-absorbing functions. A wrist guard incorporating volar padding with the pneumatic spring design principle might be more effective at preventing injuries than are currently available designs.

  18. Safety Climate and Use of Personal Protective Equipment and Safety Medical Devices among Home Care and Hospice Nurses

    PubMed Central

    LEISS, Jack K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and safety medical devices is mandated for healthcare workers to reduce the risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) from exposure to patients’ blood. Research has shown that a strong safety climate may promote increased use of PPE. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the association between safety climate and use of PPE among homecare/hospice nurses in North Carolina. To this end, a mail survey was conducted in 2006. The response rate, adjusted on the assumption that the proportion of eligible nurses from among those who did not return the questionnaire or could not be contacted was similar to the proportion among those who did return the questionnaire, was 69% (n=833 eligibles). The percentage of nurses who used the specified PPE was two to three times greater among nurses who had a strong safety climate. Safety climate was only weakly associated with using safety devices. These results suggest that improving safety climate may be a powerful tool for increasing use of PPE. PMID:25055845

  19. Application of magnetic devices in otiatria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Anatoly A.; Yunin, Alexander M.; Savichev, Alexander A.; Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Dmitriev, Nikolai S.; Palchun, Victor T.

    2001-01-01

    Several implantable prostheses and other devices based on permanent magnets and using magneto-mechanical forces for their operation were developed for treating middle ear diseases and hearing rehabilitation. Methods of surgical application of the devices were developed and in clinical trials more than 85% of 127 patients with different degrees of middle ear system degradation have shown stable improvement.

  20. Beryllium heat shield technology in the area of thermal protection devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhl, A. E.; Rupert, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    For future space applications, it is important that thermal protection systems be reusable for space shuttle flights. Beryllium offers a unique combination of properties for use as a heat shield material (stiffness, lightweight, ability to absorb heat). In order to adequately test these properties, it was necessary to fabricate heat shields. The concept used was a two-section test panel 99.1 x 99.1 cm (39 x 39 inch) with each section made of two 0.051 cm (0.020 inch) thick beryllium corrugations brazed together as a mirror image, with titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) used as standoffs to support the panel structure. The work prior to fabrication included brazability of both beryllium and titanium, forming of beryllium and titanium, machining processes involving beryllium and chem-milling beryllium. Sub-scale samples were made of all details before actual fabrication of the large panel. The full scale test panel was hot-formed at 950 K, chem-milled to 0.041 + or - 0.005 cm (0.016 + or - 0.002 inches), trimmed, vacuum brazed, drilled and assembled.

  1. Radiation protection for an intra-operative X-ray device

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, D J; Gonzalez, R; Duck, S; Keshtgar, M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Therapeutic partial breast irradiation can be delivered intra-operatively using the Intrabeam 50 kVp compact X-ray device. Spherical applicators are added to the source to give an isotropic radiation dose. The low energy of this unit leads to rapid attenuation with distance, but dose rates are much greater than for diagnostic procedures. Methods To investigate the shielding requirements for this unit, attenuation measurements were carried out with manufacturer-provided tungsten–rubber sheets, lead, plasterboard and bricks. A prospective environmental dose rate survey was also conducted in the designated theatre. Results As a result of isotropic geometry, the scattered dose around shielding can be 1% of primary and thus often dominates measured dose rates compared with transmission. The absorbed dose rate of the unshielded source at 1 m was 11.6 mGy h−1 but this was reduced by 95% with the shielding sheets. Measured values for the common shielding materials were similar to reference data for the attenuation of a 50 kVp diagnostic X-ray beam. Two lead screens were constructed to shield operators remaining in the theatre and an air vent into a service corridor. A lead apron would also provide suitable attenuation, although a screen allows greater flexibility for treatment operators. With these measures, staff doses were reduced to negligible quantities. Survey measurements taken during patient treatments confirmed no additional measures were required, but the theatre should be a controlled area and access restricted. Conclusion Results from this study and reference data can be used for planning other facilities. PMID:21304003

  2. Measuring attentional bias in children with prominent ears: A prospective eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Haworth, Rebecca; Sobey, Stephanie; Chorney, Jill M; Bezuhly, Michael; Hong, Paul

    2015-12-01

    When observing new faces, most people focus their attention on the central triangle of the face containing the eyes, nose and mouth. When viewing faces with prominent ears, observers may divert their attention from the central triangle. The objective of this study was to determine whether there was an objective attentional bias to prominent ears in comparison to non-prominent ears. A total of 24 naïve participants (13 female; mean age 22.88 years) viewed 15 photographs of children with bilateral prominent ears, unilateral prominent ears and non-prominent ears. Both pre- and post-otoplasty photographs of two patients were included. The eye movements of participants were recorded using the EyeLink 1000, a table-mounted eye-tracking device. Overall, the participants spent more time looking at the ear regions for faces with prominent ears in comparison to faces without prominent ears (p = 0.007, Z = -2.688). The attentional bias to the ear region of the patient who underwent bilateral otoplasty was significantly reduced in the post-operative photograph (p = 0.011, Z = -2.534). The patient who underwent unilateral otoplasty had no significant change in fixation times towards the ear region (p = 0.594, Z = -0.533). This study presents objective data to support the notion that observers show attentional bias to the ear region when viewing faces of children with prominent ears. The scope of this finding requires further research in both extent and impact. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... up of invisible waves of energy, causes these vibrations. Every time you hear a sound, the various ... When the eardrum vibrates, the ossicles amplify these vibrations and carry them to the inner ear. The ...

  4. Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Speech or Language Development Speech-Language Therapy Physical Therapy Hearing Evaluation in Children The Danger of Antibiotic Overuse Eardrum Injuries What's Hearing Loss? Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Going to the Audiologist Hearing ...

  5. Deformity of Ears and Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, W. C.

    1965-01-01

    Ten children with gross deformity of the external ear were observed. In six the facial bones were underdeveloped on the same side as the deformed ear. In all six there was a congenital abnormality of the kidney or upper urinary tract, usually on the same side as the deformed ear. In addition there were usually other associated congenital defects in each case. In the remaining four children the facial bones appeared normal, and pyelography showed no abnormality of the urinary tract. In these four children there were no other associated defects. These observations emphasize the importance of investigating the urinary tract in children with gross deformity of the external ear, especially where there is an associated underdevelopment of the facial bones. PMID:14317453

  6. Research Project on Ear Infections Dramatizes Challenge of Conflicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordes, Colleen

    1993-01-01

    An unusual conflict-of-interest case involving the federal government, a university researcher on ear infections, and the pharmaceutical industry has renewed the debate over what constitutes unacceptable conflict of interest, federal review of medical treatment, government protection against research bias, and disclosure of research project…

  7. Classification of Newborn Ear Malformations and their Treatment with the EarWell Infant Ear Correction System.

    PubMed

    Daniali, Lily N; Rezzadeh, Kameron; Shell, Cheryl; Trovato, Matthew; Ha, Richard; Byrd, H Steve

    2017-03-01

    A single practice's treatment protocol and outcomes following molding therapy on newborn ear deformations and malformations with the EarWell Infant Ear Correction System were reviewed. A classification system for grading the severity of constricted ear malformations was created on the basis of anatomical findings. A retrospective chart/photograph review of a consecutive series of infants treated with the EarWell System from 2011 to 2014 was undertaken. The infants were placed in either deformation or malformation groups. Three classes of malformation were identified. Data regarding treatment induction, duration of treatment, and quality of outcome were collected for all study patients. One hundred seventy-five infant ear malformations and 303 infant ear deformities were treated with the EarWell System. The average age at initiation of treatment was 12 days; the mean duration of treatment was 37 days. An average of six office visits was required. Treated malformations included constricted ears [172 ears (98 percent)] and cryptotia [three ears (2 percent)]. Cup ear (34 ears) was considered a constricted malformation, in contrast to the prominent ear deformity. Constricted ears were assigned to one of three classes, with each subsequent class indicating increasing severity: class I, 77 ears (45 percent); class II, 81 ears (47 percent); and class III, 14 ears (8 percent). Molding therapy with the EarWell System reduced the severity by an average of 1.2 points (p < 0.01). Complications included minor superficial excoriations and abrasions. The EarWell System was shown to be effective in eliminating or reducing the need for surgery in all but the most severe malformations. Therapeutic, IV.

  8. Optical devices and methods of quality control of security materials and documents with protection from fakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenko, Alexander; Korachkin, Leon; Pliska, Serge; Shlyk, Helen

    2004-08-01

    The protection of security papers and documents from a fake is the important state problem. In a system of Department of Goznak Belarus of the Ministry of Finance of Republic of Belarus the laboratory on development of means of a guard of valuable papers and documents in frameworks URDE "CRYPTOTECH" is created. The responsibilities of a realization of examination of authenticity of valuable papers and documents are assigned to above-stated laboratory. The laboratory of means of a guard is equipped with the modern equipment intended for detail examination of the passports, driver's certificates, identification cards, technical and other documents with a special guard, revealing of indications of a partial fake of the documents. Among them television spectral, comparator lamp of a UF-radiation etc. Equipment is supported program system "VideoScope", which represents a software product permitting to eneter in the computer a videoimages to make their processing, comparison and archiving. The system of a comparison of images is intended for detection of distinctions (differences) between standard and researched by images of object. The comparison can be made by methods of mutual subtraction, addition of images and method of visual overlapping of a researched image with a part standard. In a mode of mutual subtraction an outcome of a comparison is the difference image received for want of subtraction of one image from other. For want of it the most distinguished plots will have color closer to black and white, and least distinguished -- gray. An outcome of full concurrence with be gray image. In a mode of addition of images an outcome will be their sum. For want of it the details of both images will be looked through, that enables of an additional visual comparison of images. The system is intended for a grouping on the certain principle, description and storage of images.

  9. Operation Dominic Christmas and Fish Bowl series. Project Officers report. Project 4. 1. Production of chorioretinal burns by nuclear detonations and tests of protective devices and phototropic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.G.

    1985-04-01

    The two primary objectives of this project were: (1) to test and improve methods for predicting the threshold distances at which chorioretinal burns will be produced by nuclear detonations, and (2) to test the response of and protection afforded by various protective devices. Rabbits and primates were used to achieve the first objective. They were exposed, at different altitudes and various distances from ground zero, to the radiant energy from four high-altitude nuclear detonations and eight low-altitude detonations. The animals were then examined for chorioretinal lesions. To achieve the second objective, the devices to be tested were exposed at the same distances and altitudes as the animals. Thermal data were obtained which appear adequate to specify: (1) the thermal stimuli responsible for the retinal burns; (2) the performance of the eye-protective devices; and (3) atmospheric transmission factors.

  10. Approaches to Inflight Ear Oximetry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    of arterial oxygen saturation. For centri- fuge experiments the floe,! ett-Packard ear oximeter, Model 47201A, has been successfully used both at...These difficulties are perhaps even more significant with respect to inflight experimental use. The difficulties are: 1. The bloodless ear is not truly...available (9), and a number of papers on both the clini- cal use (10-17) and the experimental use (1, 2, 18) of this equipment have been published since its

  11. Effect of Cerebral Embolic Protection Devices on CNS Infarction in Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Mack, Michael J; Acker, Michael A; Gelijns, Annetine C; Overbey, Jessica R; Parides, Michael K; Browndyke, Jeffrey N; Groh, Mark A; Moskowitz, Alan J; Jeffries, Neal O; Ailawadi, Gorav; Thourani, Vinod H; Moquete, Ellen G; Iribarne, Alexander; Voisine, Pierre; Perrault, Louis P; Bowdish, Michael E; Bilello, Michel; Davatzikos, Christos; Mangusan, Ralph F; Winkle, Rachelle A; Smith, Peter K; Michler, Robert E; Miller, Marissa A; O'Sullivan, Karen L; Taddei-Peters, Wendy C; Rose, Eric A; Weisel, Richard D; Furie, Karen L; Bagiella, Emilia; Moy, Claudia Scala; O'Gara, Patrick T; Messé, Steven R

    2017-08-08

    Stroke is a major complication of surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). To determine the efficacy and adverse effects of cerebral embolic protection devices in reducing ischemic central nervous system (CNS) injury during SAVR. A randomized clinical trial of patients with calcific aortic stenosis undergoing SAVR at 18 North American centers between March 2015 and July 2016. The end of follow-up was December 2016. Use of 1 of 2 cerebral embolic protection devices (n = 118 for suction-based extraction and n = 133 for intra-aortic filtration device) vs a standard aortic cannula (control; n = 132) at the time of SAVR. The primary end point was freedom from clinical or radiographic CNS infarction at 7 days (± 3 days) after the procedure. Secondary end points included a composite of mortality, clinical ischemic stroke, and acute kidney injury within 30 days after surgery; delirium; mortality; serious adverse events; and neurocognition. Among 383 randomized patients (mean age, 73.9 years; 38.4% women; 368 [96.1%] completed the trial), the rate of freedom from CNS infarction at 7 days was 32.0% with suction-based extraction vs 33.3% with control (between-group difference, -1.3%; 95% CI, -13.8% to 11.2%) and 25.6% with intra-aortic filtration vs 32.4% with control (between-group difference, -6.9%; 95% CI, -17.9% to 4.2%). The 30-day composite end point was not significantly different between suction-based extraction and control (21.4% vs 24.2%, respectively; between-group difference, -2.8% [95% CI, -13.5% to 7.9%]) nor between intra-aortic filtration and control (33.3% vs 23.7%; between-group difference, 9.7% [95% CI, -1.2% to 20.5%]). There were no significant differences in mortality (3.4% for suction-based extraction vs 1.7% for control; and 2.3% for intra-aortic filtration vs 1.5% for control) or clinical stroke (5.1% for suction-based extraction vs 5.8% for control; and 8.3% for intra-aortic filtration vs 6.1% for control). Delirium at postoperative

  12. Ear candles--efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Seely, D R; Quigley, S M; Langman, A W

    1996-10-01

    Ear candles are a popular and inexpensive alternative health treatment advocated for cerumen removal. A hollow candle is burned with one end in the ear canal with the intent of creating negative pressure and drawing cerumen from the ear. If effective, significant savings could result from the use of ear candles. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of this alternative method for cerumen management. Tympanometric measurements in an ear canal model demonstrated that ear candles do not produce negative pressure. A limited clinical trial (eight ears) showed no removal of cerumen from the external auditory canal. Candle wax was actually deposited in some. A survey of 122 otolaryngologists identified 21 ear injuries resulting from ear candle use. Ear candles have no benefit in the management of cerumen and may result in serious injury.

  13. First-in-man Percutaneous LAA Closure With an Amplatzer Amulet and TriGuard Embolic Protection Device in a Patient With LAA Thrombus.

    PubMed

    Del Furia, Francesca; Ancona, Marco B; Giannini, Francesco; Jabbour, Richard J; Regazzoli, Damiano; Mangieri, Antonio; Latib, Azeem; Colombo, Antonio; Montorfano, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    Percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) closure is currently utilized for the prophylaxis of thromboembolic cerebrovascular accidents in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. The presence of LAA thrombus is usually considered a contraindication for the procedure, since there is a high risk of thrombus embolization. While reports in the literature have shown the feasibility of LAA closure in the presence of LAA thrombus with certain cerebral embolic protection devices, we present the first-in-man LAA closure of a patient with LAA thrombus using the TriGuard Embolic Protection Device.

  14. Sport Injuries of the Ear and Temporal Bone.

    PubMed

    Osetinsky, L Mariel; Hamilton, Grant S; Carlson, Matthew L

    2017-04-01

    In cases of head trauma, the ear should be evaluated in all of its components. A good understanding of otologic and skull base anatomy enables a thorough trauma assessment of this complex anatomic region. Auricular laceration, abrasion, avulsion, hematoma, frostbite, otitis externa, exostosis, tympanic membrane perforation, ossicular discontinuity, perilymphatic fistula, labyrinthine concussion, temporal bone fracture, facial nerve paresis, and sensorineural hearing loss are a few of the more common otologic injuries seen in active patients. Prevention of otologic trauma by wearing protective equipment during activity is the best way of maintaining the long-term health of the ear and audiovestibular function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) evaluation of the gyroscopic wheel cover device under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1983-06-01

    This report announces the conclusions of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluation of the Gyroscopic Wheel Cover under the provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. The evaluation of the Gyroscopic Wheel Cover device was conducted upon the application of Simmer Wheels, Incorporated. The device is a mechanical assembly which replaces each of the standard wheel covers on a vehicle. The device is claimed to improve fuel economy, handling and braking characteristics, and the life of the brakes and tires.

  16. Target Speaker Detection with Concealed EEG Around the Ear.

    PubMed

    Mirkovic, Bojana; Bleichner, Martin G; De Vos, Maarten; Debener, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Target speaker identification is essential for speech enhancement algorithms in assistive devices aimed toward helping the hearing impaired. Several recent studies have reported that target speaker identification is possible through electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. If the EEG system could be reduced to acceptable size while retaining the signal quality, hearing aids could benefit from the integration with concealed EEG. To compare the performance of a multichannel around-the-ear EEG system with high-density cap EEG recordings an envelope tracking algorithm was applied in a competitive speaker paradigm. The data from 20 normal hearing listeners were concurrently collected from the traditional state-of-the-art laboratory wired EEG system and a wireless mobile EEG system with two bilaterally-placed around-the-ear electrode arrays (cEEGrids). The results show that the cEEGrid ear-EEG technology captured neural signals that allowed the identification of the attended speaker above chance-level, with 69.3% accuracy, while cap-EEG signals resulted in the accuracy of 84.8%. Further analyses investigated the influence of ear-EEG signal quality and revealed that the envelope tracking procedure was unaffected by variability in channel impedances. We conclude that the quality of concealed ear-EEG recordings as acquired with the cEEGrid array has potential to be used in the brain-computer interface steering of hearing aids.

  17. Target Speaker Detection with Concealed EEG Around the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Mirkovic, Bojana; Bleichner, Martin G.; De Vos, Maarten; Debener, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Target speaker identification is essential for speech enhancement algorithms in assistive devices aimed toward helping the hearing impaired. Several recent studies have reported that target speaker identification is possible through electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. If the EEG system could be reduced to acceptable size while retaining the signal quality, hearing aids could benefit from the integration with concealed EEG. To compare the performance of a multichannel around-the-ear EEG system with high-density cap EEG recordings an envelope tracking algorithm was applied in a competitive speaker paradigm. The data from 20 normal hearing listeners were concurrently collected from the traditional state-of-the-art laboratory wired EEG system and a wireless mobile EEG system with two bilaterally-placed around-the-ear electrode arrays (cEEGrids). The results show that the cEEGrid ear-EEG technology captured neural signals that allowed the identification of the attended speaker above chance-level, with 69.3% accuracy, while cap-EEG signals resulted in the accuracy of 84.8%. Further analyses investigated the influence of ear-EEG signal quality and revealed that the envelope tracking procedure was unaffected by variability in channel impedances. We conclude that the quality of concealed ear-EEG recordings as acquired with the cEEGrid array has potential to be used in the brain-computer interface steering of hearing aids. PMID:27512364

  18. 21 CFR 874.5840 - Antistammering device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Antistammering device. 874.5840 Section 874.5840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5840 Antistammering device....

  19. 21 CFR 874.5840 - Antistammering device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Antistammering device. 874.5840 Section 874.5840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5840 Antistammering device....

  20. 21 CFR 874.5840 - Antistammering device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antistammering device. 874.5840 Section 874.5840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5840 Antistammering device....

  1. Better protection from blasts without sacrificing situational awareness.

    PubMed

    Killion, Mead C; Monroe, Tim; Drambarean, Viorel

    2011-03-01

    A large number of soldiers returning from war report hearing loss and/or tinnitus. Many deployed soldiers decline to wear their hearing protection devices (HPDs) because they feel that earplugs interfere with their ability to detect and localize the enemy and their friends. The detection problem is easily handled in electronic devices with low-noise microphones. The localization problem is not as easy. In this paper, the factors that reduce situational awareness--hearing loss and restricted bandwidth in HPD devices--are discussed in light of available data, followed by a review of the cues to localization. Two electronic blast plug earplugs with 16-kHz bandwidth are described. Both provide subjectively transparent sound with regard to sound quality and localization, i.e., they sound almost as if nothing is in the ears, while protecting the ears from blasts. Finally, two formal experiments are described which investigated localization performance compared to popular existing military HPDs and the open ear. The tested earplugs performed well regarding maintaining situational awareness. Detection-distance and acceptance studies are underway.

  2. A custom-made silicon mold for pressure therapy to ear keloids.

    PubMed

    Yigit, B; Yazar, M; Alyanak, A; Guven, E

    2009-11-01

    Keloids are raised reddish nodules that develop at the site of an injury. They are characterized histologically by an abundance of fibroblasts, thick collagen bundles, and ground substance. Auricular keloid formation is a known complication of ear piercing. Many types of treatments have been described for auricular keloids.Pressure therapy in combination with surgery, corticosteroid injection, or both is widely used to manage and prevent hypertrophic scarring. Many pressure devices and procedures have been developed. However, all of them are designed for the earlobe region. If a keloid grows in the posterior auricular region, none of the devices described in the literature will be effective. The authors developed a custom-made silicon ear mold that covers whole ear. With this mold, pressure can be applied homogeneously to the lobule and cartilaginous region, which the other devices described in the literature cannot affect. The preparation technique includes making the negative cast mold of the patient's ear, creating the positive cast mold from the negative cast mold, and forming the negative silicon mold from the positive cast. After all the processes, a silicon sheet has been designed according to the region needing to be pressurized. The designed silicon sheet is applied to the region, followed by placement of the silicon mold. A simple tennis head band can be used to stabilize the silicon cast. If the keloid extends to the posterior auricular region, pressurizing with clips or other devices described previously will be difficult. Application of pressure to the cartilaginous auricle needs custom-made devices. At this point, a pressure sore caused by a device applied to the ear is the most important problem. To prevent the ear from developing a pressure sore, the device should press to whole area homogeneously. For this reason, the device applied for pressure therapy to the ear must be custom made.

  3. 3D finite element model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing middle ear functions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuelin; Gan, Rong Z.

    2016-01-01

    Chinchilla is a commonly used animal model for research of sound transmission through the ear. Experimental measurements of the middle ear transfer function in chinchillas have shown that the middle ear cavity greatly affects the tympanic membrane (TM) and stapes footplate (FP) displacements. However, there is no finite element (FE) model of the chinchilla ear available in the literature to characterize the middle ear functions with the anatomical features of the chinchilla ear. This paper reports a recently completed 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear based on X-ray micro-computed tomography images of a chinchilla bulla. The model consisted of the ear canal, TM, middle ear ossicles and suspensory ligaments, and the middle ear cavity. Two boundary conditions of the middle ear cavity wall were simulated in the model as the rigid structure and the partially flexible surface, and the acoustic-mechanical coupled analysis was conducted with these two conditions to characterize the middle ear function. The model results were compared with experimental measurements reported in the literature including the TM and FP displacements and the middle ear input admittance in chinchilla ear. An application of this model was presented to identify the acoustic role of the middle ear septa - a unique feature of chinchilla middle ear cavity. This study provides the first 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing the middle ear functions through the acoustic-mechanical coupled FE analysis. PMID:26785845

  4. 3D finite element model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing middle ear functions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuelin; Gan, Rong Z

    2016-10-01

    Chinchilla is a commonly used animal model for research of sound transmission through the ear. Experimental measurements of the middle ear transfer function in chinchillas have shown that the middle ear cavity greatly affects the tympanic membrane (TM) and stapes footplate (FP) displacements. However, there is no finite element (FE) model of the chinchilla ear available in the literature to characterize the middle ear functions with the anatomical features of the chinchilla ear. This paper reports a recently completed 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear based on X-ray micro-computed tomography images of a chinchilla bulla. The model consisted of the ear canal, TM, middle ear ossicles and suspensory ligaments, and the middle ear cavity. Two boundary conditions of the middle ear cavity wall were simulated in the model as the rigid structure and the partially flexible surface, and the acoustic-mechanical coupled analysis was conducted with these two conditions to characterize the middle ear function. The model results were compared with experimental measurements reported in the literature including the TM and FP displacements and the middle ear input admittance in chinchilla ear. An application of this model was presented to identify the acoustic role of the middle ear septa-a unique feature of chinchilla middle ear cavity. This study provides the first 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing the middle ear functions through the acoustic-mechanical coupled FE analysis.

  5. Extracellular and intracellular melanin in inflammatory middle ear disease.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Mark A; Roehm, Pamela C; Bannan, Michael A; Lalwani, Anil K

    2014-06-01

    Melanin is a pigmented polymer with a known role in dermal solar protection. In vertebrates, melanogenesis has been reported in leukocyte populations, suggesting a potential role in innate immunity. In this study, we report the novel finding of melanin associated with chronic inflammation and speculate on its potential role in the middle ear and mastoid. Retrospective review of case series. Medical records of six patients who demonstrated melanin in the ear were reviewed. Six patients from 1 to 63 years of age were identified with extracellular melanin and melanin-laden histiocytes within the middle ear and/or mastoid air cells at time of surgery. Concurrent intraoperative findings included cholesteatoma (n = 3), chronic suppurative otitis media (n = 2), and coalescent mastoiditis (n = 1). Histologically, extracellular melanin and melanin-laden histiocytes were identified by Fontana-Masson stain; absence of melanocytes was confirmed by the absence of Melan-A staining. One patient had a positive stain for CD163 (a marker for macrophages). This case series is the first demonstration of melanin within middle ear mucosa without melanocytes in immediate proximity or metastatic melanocytic lesions. Melanin's presence in the setting of inflammation suggests that there may be a heretofore unreported link between the pigmentary and immune systems in the middle ear. 4.

  6. Acid-base control of hemilabile proton-responsive protecting devices in dimolybdenum, thiolate-bridged complexes.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Alan; Vénec, David; Le Roy, Christine; Pétillon, François Y; Schollhammer, Philippe; Talarmin, Jean

    2014-02-17

    Dimolybdenum thiolate-bridged complexes [Mo2Cp2(μ-SMe)2(μ-SCH2CH2E)] (E = O (2) or NH (4)) with a proton-dependent protecting device have been synthesized by reaction of [Mo2Cp2(μ-SMe)2(μ-Cl)2] (1) with SCH2CH2EH. The reactivity of the resultant quadruply bridged complexes with acid was investigated in the absence and in the presence of a potential ligand (N2, MeCN, RNC). While the protonation of complexes 2 and 4 under N2 in dichloromethane produced only the oxidized derivatives instead of the desired diazenido compound, ligand binding was observed in MeCN or in the presence of RNC (R = t-Bu, Xyl). Whereas acetonitrile loss from [Mo2Cp2(μ-SMe)2(μ-SCH2CH2OH)(MeCN)2](+) (8(+)) prevented the isolation and characterization of this species, the t-BuNC analogue (6(+)) could be characterized by an X-ray crystal structure. The electrochemistry of 2 and 2(+) was investigated in CH2Cl2 and in MeCN, both in the absence and in the presence of acid. While the addition of HBF4·Et2O to a dichloromethane solution of 2 only produced 2(+) (and presumably H2), 8(+) was the major product of the protonation in MeCN.

  7. Protective effects of melatonin against oxidative injury in rat testis induced by wireless (2.45 GHz) devices.

    PubMed

    Oksay, T; Naziroğlu, M; Doğan, S; Güzel, A; Gümral, N; Koşar, P A

    2014-02-01

    Wireless devices have become part of everyday life and mostly located near reproductive organs while they are in use. The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of melatonin on oxidative stress-dependent testis injury induced by 2.45-GHz electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Thirty-two rats were equally divided into four different groups, namely cage control (A1), sham control (A2), 2.45-GHz EMR (B) and 2.45-GHz EMR+melatonin (C). Group B and C were exposed to 2.45-GHz EMR during 60 min day(-1) for 30 days. Lipid peroxidation levels were higher in Group B than in Group A1 and A2. Melatonin treatment prevented the increase in the lipid peroxidation induced by EMR. Also reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels in Group D were higher than that of exposure group. Vitamin A and E concentrations decreased in exposure group, and melatonin prevented the decrease in vitamin E levels. In conclusion, wireless (2.45 GHz) EMR caused oxidative damage in testis by increasing the levels of lipid peroxidation and decreasing in vitamin A and E levels. Melatonin supplementation prevented oxidative damage induced by EMR and also supported the antioxidant redox system in the testis.

  8. Development of the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Tanya T

    2015-06-01

    The vertebrate inner ear is a sensory organ of exquisite design and sensitivity. It responds to sound, gravity and movement, serving both auditory (hearing) and vestibular (balance) functions. Almost all cell types of the inner ear, including sensory hair cells, sensory neurons, secretory cells and supporting cells, derive from the otic placode, one of the several ectodermal thickenings that arise around the edge of the anterior neural plate in the early embryo. The developmental patterning mechanisms that underlie formation of the inner ear from the otic placode are varied and complex, involving the reiterative use of familiar signalling pathways, together with roles for transcription factors, transmembrane proteins, and extracellular matrix components. In this review, I have selected highlights that illustrate just a few of the many recent discoveries relating to the development of this fascinating organ system.

  9. 21 CFR 874.1600 - Olfactory test device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1600 Olfactory test device. (a) Identification. An olfactory test device is used to determine whether an olfactory loss is present. The device... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Olfactory test device. 874.1600 Section...

  10. 21 CFR 874.5350 - Suction antichoke device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5350 Suction antichoke device. (a) Identification. A suction antichoke device is a device intended to be used in an emergency situation to remove... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suction antichoke device. 874.5350 Section...

  11. 21 CFR 874.5370 - Tongs antichoke device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5370 Tongs antichoke device. (a) Identification. A tongs antichoke device is a device that is intended to be used in an emergency situation to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tongs antichoke device. 874.5370 Section...

  12. 21 CFR 874.5370 - Tongs antichoke device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5370 Tongs antichoke device. (a) Identification. A tongs antichoke device is a device that is intended to be used in an emergency situation to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tongs antichoke device. 874.5370 Section...

  13. 21 CFR 874.1600 - Olfactory test device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1600 Olfactory test device. (a) Identification. An olfactory test device is used to determine whether an olfactory loss is present. The device... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Olfactory test device. 874.1600 Section...

  14. 21 CFR 874.5350 - Suction antichoke device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5350 Suction antichoke device. (a) Identification. A suction antichoke device is a device intended to be used in an emergency situation to remove... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suction antichoke device. 874.5350 Section...

  15. [Inheritance of notched ears in Highland cattle].

    PubMed

    Scheider, A; Schmidt, P; Distl, O

    1994-10-01

    The present study describes an anomaly of the pinna of the ear and its distribution in Highland Cattle. The investigation is based on a questionnaire survey in farms in Bavaria keeping robust breeds and on registering data in 15 selected farms. In the year 1991, there were registered 548 Highland stud book cows in 108 farms. In four herds animals of the breed Highland Cattle were observed which showed crop ears. Always both ears were affected and this ear defect could be already observed in newborn calves. Crop ears appeared in very different forms. In some cases only small changes of the external ear could be recognized, in more severe cases, grooves in the external ear could be found and in the most severe case, the external ear was totally deformed and drastically reduced in size. In one herd, 45 animals out of the progeny of 46 of one affected breeding bull showed crop ears. The pedigrees indicated that this defect of the ear pinna is inherited and a single autosomal gene with nearly additive (incomplete dominant) action may be involved. Homozygote recessive animals are free from crop ears, animals homozygote for the mutated allele carry totally deformed external ears and heterozygote animals do not show as severe forms of crop ears as homozygote ones.

  16. Transcanal Endoscopic Ear Surgery for Middle Ear Cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Glikson, Eran; Yousovich, Ruth; Mansour, Jobran; Wolf, Michael; Migirov, Lela; Shapira, Yisgav

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical parameters, outcomes, and complications of transcanal endoscopic ear surgeries for middle ear cholesteatoma. Retrospective study. Tertiary university-affiliated medical center. Adult patients (age >18) who underwent transcanal endoscopic ear surgeries for cholesteatoma, between March 2009 and March 2015. Transcanal endoscopic surgery was indicated when the cholesteatoma did not extend posterior to the anterior limb of the lateral semicircular canal. Rigid endoscopes 4 and 2.7 mm in diameter, 0, 30, 45, and 70 degrees were used with angled picks, suction, and forceps.Preoperative assessment included high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bones and/or non echo-planar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and pure-tone audiometry. Residual or recurrent disease was diagnosed by clinical examination and/or magnetic resonance imaging findings consistent with cholesteatoma. Intra- and postoperative complications, pre- and postoperative audiometric results were recorded. Sixty operations (56 patients, mean age = 43.6) were included.Six operations (10%) were performed under local anesthesia. The most common sites of cholesteatoma involvement were: posterior epitympanum (n = 51, 91%), anterior epitympanum (n = 19, 33.9%), posterior mesotympanum (n = 13, 23.2%), and sinus tympani (n = 11, 19.6%). Intraoperative ossicular chain reconstruction was performed in 18 (30%) cases.Our overall residual and recurrence rates were 10% (n = 6) and 8.3% (n = 5), respectively, with mean duration of follow up of 35 months. The most common sites of residual disease were the mastoid cavity/antrum (n = 3, 50%), tympanic cavity, and posterior mesotympanum. Overall minor and major complication rates were 16.6 and 6%, respectively. Transcanal endoscopic ear surgery was found to be an acceptable and safe technique for the exposure and eradication of middle ear and/or attic cholesteatoma.

  17. How to Use Ear Drops Properly

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water. 2 Gently clean your ear with a damp facecloth and then dry your ear. 3 Warm the drops to near body temperature by holding the container in the palm of ...

  18. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Otitis media is an inflammation or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs when there is ... which causes production of fluid or pus. Chronic otitis media occurs when the eustachian tube becomes blocked ...

  19. Inner Ear Drug Delivery for Auditory Applications

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Erin E. Leary; Mescher, Mark J.; Sewell, William F.; Tao, Sarah L.; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.

    2008-01-01

    Many inner ear disorders cannot be adequately treated by systemic drug delivery. A blood-cochlear barrier exists, similar physiologically to the blood-brain barrier, which limits the concentration and size of molecules able to leave the circulation and gain access to the cells of the inner ear. However, research in novel therapeutics and delivery systems has led to significant progress in the development of local methods of drug delivery to the inner ear. Intratympanic approaches, which deliver therapeutics to the middle ear, rely on permeation through tissue for access to the structures of the inner ear, whereas intracochlear methods are able to directly insert drugs into the inner ear. Innovative drug delivery systems to treat various inner ear ailments such as ototoxicity, sudden sensorineural hearing loss, autoimmune inner ear disease, and for preserving neurons and regenerating sensory cells are being explored. PMID:18848590

  20. Physiological functioning of the ear and masking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The physiological functions of the ear and the role masking plays in speech communication are examined. Topics under investigation include sound analysis of the ear, the aural reflex, and various types of noise masking.