Science.gov

Sample records for ear protective devices

  1. Middle Ear Implantable Hearing Devices: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, David S.; Young, Jadrien A.; Wanna, George B.; Glasscock, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    Hearing loss affects approximately 30 million people in the United States. It has been estimated that only approximately 20% of people with hearing loss significant enough to warrant amplification actually seek assistance for amplification. A significant interest in middle ear implants has emerged over the years to facilitate patients who are noncompliant with conventional hearing aides, do not receive significant benefit from conventional aides, or are not candidates for cochlear implants. From the initial studies in the 1930s, the technology has greatly evolved over the years with a wide array of devices and mechanisms employed in the development of implantable middle ear hearing devices. Currently, these devices are generally available in two broad categories: partially or totally implantable using either piezoelectric or electromagnetic systems. The authors present an up-to-date overview of the major implantable middle ear devices. Although the current devices are largely in their infancy, indications for middle ear implants are ever evolving as promising studies show good results. The totally implantable devices provide the user freedom from the social and practical difficulties of using conventional amplification. PMID:19762429

  2. Design Factors and Use of Ear Protection*

    PubMed Central

    Rice, C. G.; Coles, R. R. A.

    1966-01-01

    The problems of protecting the ear against hazardous noise are the subject of a general review, supported where relevant by data from the authors' own researches. Ear protectors are classified into two main types−plugs and muffs—and the general principles of their function and limitations are stated. Examples of representative ear protectors are given in more detail, with particular respect to their relative merits and pure-tone attenuation characteristics. The effects of earplugs on speech communication are considered and the relationships between pure-tone attenuation and protection against continuous noise are discussed in some detail. The results of temporary threshold shift (T.T.S.) reduction studies of the efficiency of V.51R and Selectone-K earplugs in protecting against reverberant and non-reverberant impulsive noises are presented. The design requirements of ear protectors and some of the problems created by them are also outlined. Images PMID:5946129

  3. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  4. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  5. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  6. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat drug... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration...

  7. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat drug... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration...

  8. 78 FR 63225 - Ear, Nose and Throat Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Ear, Nose and Throat Devices Panel of the Medical Devices... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Ear, Nose and Throat Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  9. Ear canal dynamic motion as a source of power for in-ear devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delnavaz, Aidin; Voix, Jérémie

    2013-02-01

    Ear canal deformation caused by temporomandibular joint (jaw joint) activity, also known as "ear canal dynamic motion," is introduced in this paper as a candidate source of power to possibly recharge hearing aid batteries. The geometrical deformation of the ear canal is quantified in 3D by laser scanning of different custom ear moulds. An experimental setup is proposed to measure the amount of power potentially available from this source. The results show that 9 mW of power is available from a 15 mm3 dynamic change in the ear canal volume. Finally, the dynamic motion and power capability of the ear canal are investigated in a group of 12 subjects.

  10. Protecting short-term intravascular ear catheters in healthy rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Francesca; Orchard, Rekha N; Antonopoulos, Aphroditi J; Hamilton, Donald L

    2012-01-20

    Researchers may place a catheter in the ear vessel of a rabbit for a short period of time in order to collect repeated blood samples without extensive restraint of the animal. Maintaining such a catheter in a healthy rabbit can be challenging, as the animal may scratch at the ear, removing the catheter or forming a large hematoma that might impede blood sampling. The authors developed a technique for protecting the indwelling catheter by cutting a section of moleskin to the same shape as the ear and gluing it to the surface of the ear and the catheter. They applied this technique to collect multiple blood samples during 12-h periods from nine rabbits in a pharmacokinetics study. Catheters remained patent in five rabbits for 12 h, in two rabbits for 8 h, in one rabbit for 6 h and in one rabbit for 4 h. This technique allowed for collection of repeated blood samples and prevented the rabbits from interfering with the catheter while allowing them to move freely during the sampling period.

  11. A comprehensive model of human ear for analysis of implantable hearing devices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangming; Gan, Rong Z

    2011-10-01

    A finite element (FE) model of the human ear including the ear canal, middle ear, and spiral cochlea was constructed from histological sections of human temporal bone. Multiphysics analysis of the acoustics, structure, and fluid coupling in the ear was conducted in the model. The viscoelastic material behavior was applied to the middle ear soft tissues based on dynamic measurements of tissues in our laboratory. The FE model was first validated using the experimental data obtained in human cadaver ears, and then used to investigate the efficiency of the forward and reverse mechanical driving with middle ear implant, and the passive vibration of basilar membrane (BM) with cochlear implant placed in the cochlear scala tympani. The middle ear transfer function and the cochlear function of the BM vibration were derived from the model. This comprehensive ear model provides a novel computational tool to visualize and compute the implantable hearing devices and surgical procedures.

  12. 76 FR 34845 - Medical Devices; Ear, Nose, and Throat Devices; Classification of the Wireless Air-Conduction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 874 Medical Devices; Ear, Nose, and Throat Devices; Classification of... established by this final rule create ``requirements'' for specific medical devices under 21 U.S.C. 360k, even..., 1976 (the date of enactment of the Medical Device Amendments of 1976), generally referred to...

  13. Dichotic Hearing in Elderly Hearing Aid Users Who Choose to Use a Single-Ear Device

    PubMed Central

    Ribas, Angela; Mafra, Nicoli; Marques, Jair; Mottecy, Carla; Silvestre, Renata; Kozlowski, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Elderly individuals with bilateral hearing loss often do not use hearing aids in both ears. Because of this, dichotic tests to assess hearing in this group may help identify peculiar degenerative processes of aging and hearing aid selection. Objective To evaluate dichotic hearing for a group of elderly hearing aid users who did not adapt to using binaural devices and to verify the correlation between ear dominance and the side chosen to use the device. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study involving 30 subjects from 60 to 81 years old, of both genders, with an indication for bilateral hearing aids for over 6 months, but using only a single device. Medical history, pure tone audiometry, and dichotic listening tests were all completed. Results All subjects (100%) of the sample failed the dichotic digit test; 94% of the sample preferred to use the device in one ear because bilateral use bothered them and affected speech understanding. In 6%, the concern was aesthetics. In the dichotic digit test, there was significant predominance of the right ear over the left, and there was a significant correlation between the dominant side with the ear chosen by the participant for use of the hearing aid. Conclusion In elderly subjects with bilateral hearing loss who have chosen to use only one hearing aid, there is dominance of the right ear over the left in dichotic listening tasks. There is a correlation between the dominant ear and the ear chosen for hearing aid fitting. PMID:25992120

  14. 29 CFR 1926.101 - Hearing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exposures to those specified in Table D-2, Permissible Noise Exposures, in § 1926.52, ear protective devices shall be provided and used. (b) Ear protective devices inserted in the ear shall be fitted or...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.101 - Hearing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... exposures to those specified in Table D-2, Permissible Noise Exposures, in § 1926.52, ear protective devices shall be provided and used. (b) Ear protective devices inserted in the ear shall be fitted or...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.101 - Hearing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exposures to those specified in Table D-2, Permissible Noise Exposures, in § 1926.52, ear protective devices shall be provided and used. (b) Ear protective devices inserted in the ear shall be fitted or...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.101 - Hearing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... exposures to those specified in Table D-2, Permissible Noise Exposures, in § 1926.52, ear protective devices shall be provided and used. (b) Ear protective devices inserted in the ear shall be fitted or...

  18. Offshore drilling platform protection device

    SciTech Connect

    Magill, J.M.

    1981-12-15

    A description is given of an offshore drilling platform protection device for use on an offshore oil well drilling vessel including a drilling platform supportable on a plurality of extendable legs wherein each leg is moved by a rack gear assembly. The rack gear assembly includes an otherwise exposed first gear which engages a second gear positioned in a housing having a rectangular corner opening through which the first gear extends, the protection device including first and second protective sections adapted for mounting over the first gear adjacent to the rectangular corner of the housing for the second gear, the first and second protective sections cooperating to provide an l-shaped opening which communicates with the opening at the second gear housing for protecting the first gear while allowing the first gear to mesh with the second gear.

  19. Future Approaches for Inner Ear Protection and Repair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Seiji B.; Raphael, Yehoash

    2010-01-01

    Health care professionals tending to patients with inner ear disease face inquiries about therapy options, including treatments that are being developed for future use but not yet available. The devastating outcome of sensorineural hearing loss, combined with the permanent nature of the symptoms, make these inquiries demanding and frequent. The…

  20. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  1. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  2. Protective laser beam viewing device

    DOEpatents

    Neil, George R.; Jordan, Kevin Carl

    2012-12-18

    A protective laser beam viewing system or device including a camera selectively sensitive to laser light wavelengths and a viewing screen receiving images from the laser sensitive camera. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the camera is worn on the head of the user or incorporated into a goggle-type viewing display so that it is always aimed at the area of viewing interest to the user and the viewing screen is incorporated into a video display worn as goggles over the eyes of the user.

  3. Hands-free device control using sound picked up in the ear canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhatpar, Siddharth R.; Ngia, Lester; Vlach, Chris; Lin, Dong; Birkhimer, Craig; Juneja, Amit; Pruthi, Tarun; Hoffman, Orin; Lewis, Tristan

    2008-04-01

    Hands-free control of unmanned ground vehicles is essential for soldiers, bomb disposal squads, and first responders. Having their hands free for other equipment and tasks allows them to be safer and more mobile. Currently, the most successful hands-free control devices are speech-command based. However, these devices use external microphones, and in field environments, e.g., war zones and fire sites, their performance suffers because of loud ambient noise: typically above 90dBA. This paper describes the development of technology using the ear as an output source that can provide excellent command recognition accuracy even in noisy environments. Instead of picking up speech radiating from the mouth, this technology detects speech transmitted internally through the ear canal. Discreet tongue movements also create air pressure changes within the ear canal, and can be used for stealth control. A patented earpiece was developed with a microphone pointed into the ear canal that captures these signals generated by tongue movements and speech. The signals are transmitted from the earpiece to an Ultra-Mobile Personal Computer (UMPC) through a wired connection. The UMPC processes the signals and utilizes them for device control. The processing can include command recognition, ambient noise cancellation, acoustic echo cancellation, and speech equalization. Successful control of an iRobot PackBot has been demonstrated with both speech (13 discrete commands) and tongue (5 discrete commands) signals. In preliminary tests, command recognition accuracy was 95% with speech control and 85% with tongue control.

  4. Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protect your hearing by wearing earplugs at loud music concerts and around noisy machinery, like in wood ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? ...

  5. Epigenetic regulation in the inner ear and its potential roles in development, protection, and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Layman, Wanda S.; Zuo, Jian

    2014-01-01

    The burgeoning field of epigenetics is beginning to make a significant impact on our understanding of tissue development, maintenance, and function. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate the structure and activity of the genome in response to intracellular and environmental cues that direct cell-type specific gene networks. The inner ear is comprised of highly specialized cell types with identical genomes that originate from a single totipotent zygote. During inner ear development specific combinations of transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers must function in a coordinated manner to establish and maintain cellular identity. These epigenetic regulatory mechanisms contribute to the maintenance of distinct chromatin states and cell-type specific gene expression patterns. In this review, we highlight emerging paradigms for epigenetic modifications related to inner ear development, and how epigenetics may have a significant role in hearing loss, protection, and regeneration. PMID:25750614

  6. Protection Against Hearing Loss in General Aviation Operations, Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    An inflight evaluation of four aural protectors is presented. The hearing protection devices studied were ear muffs, plastic ear plugs, rubber ear plugs, and wax ear plugs. It is concluded that ear plugs are satisfactory for providing adequate sound attenuation in general aviation aircraft. However, two problems were found in the use of ear plugs; comfort and interference with cabin communications.

  7. Manual accuracy in comparison with a miniature master slave device--preclinical evaluation for ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Runge, A; Hofer, M; Dittrich, E; Neumuth, T; Haase, R; Strauss, M; Dietz, A; Lüth, T; Strauss, G

    2011-01-01

    Manual accuracy in microsurgery is reduced by tremor and limited access. A surgical approach through the middle ear also puts delicate structures at risk, while the surgeon is often working at an unergonomic position. At this point a micromanipulator could have a positive influence. A system was developed to measure "working accuracy", time and precision during manipulation in the middle ear. 10 ENT-surgeons simulated a perforation of the stapedial footplate on a modified 3D print of a human skull in a mock OR. Each trial was repeated more than 200 times aiming manually and using a micro-manipulator. Data of over 4000 measurements was tested and graphically processed. Work strain was evaluated with a questionnaire. Accuracy for manual and micromanipulator perforation revealed a small difference. Learning curves showed a stronger decrease both in deviation and time when the micromanipulator was used. Also a lower work strain was apparent. The micromanipulator has the potential as an aiding device in ear surgery.

  8. Protection of microelectronic devices during packaging

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Conley, William R.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of protecting a microelectronic device during device packaging, including the steps of applying a water-insoluble, protective coating to a sensitive area on the device; performing at least one packaging step; and then substantially removing the protective coating, preferably by dry plasma etching. The sensitive area can include a released MEMS element. The microelectronic device can be disposed on a wafer. The protective coating can be a vacuum vapor-deposited parylene polymer, silicon nitride, metal (e.g. aluminum or tungsten), a vapor deposited organic material, cynoacrylate, a carbon film, a self-assembled monolayered material, perfluoropolyether, hexamethyldisilazane, or perfluorodecanoic carboxylic acid, silicon dioxide, silicate glass, or combinations thereof. The present invention also relates to a method of packaging a microelectronic device, including: providing a microelectronic device having a sensitive area; applying a water-insoluble, protective coating to the sensitive area; providing a package; attaching the device to the package; electrically interconnecting the device to the package; and substantially removing the protective coating from the sensitive area.

  9. Gas sensor protection device and method

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, David; Magera, Craig

    2016-11-08

    A gas sensor includes a sensor housing and a sensing element located within the sensor housing. The sensing element has a distal end and defines an axis. The gas sensor also includes a sensor protection device coupled to the sensor housing and at least partially surrounding the distal end of the sensing element. The sensor protection device includes a first member coupled to the housing, the first member having a generally rectangular cross-sectional shape in a plane perpendicular to the axis. The first member includes a gas inlet and a gas outlet. The sensor protection device also includes a second member coupled to the housing.

  10. Numerical evaluation of implantable hearing devices using a finite element model of human ear considering viscoelastic properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Tian, Jiabin; Ta, Na; Huang, Xinsheng; Rao, Zhushi

    2016-08-01

    Finite element method was employed in this study to analyze the change in performance of implantable hearing devices due to the consideration of soft tissues' viscoelasticity. An integrated finite element model of human ear including the external ear, middle ear and inner ear was first developed via reverse engineering and analyzed by acoustic-structure-fluid coupling. Viscoelastic properties of soft tissues in the middle ear were taken into consideration in this model. The model-derived dynamic responses including middle ear and cochlea functions showed a better agreement with experimental data at high frequencies above 3000 Hz than the Rayleigh-type damping. On this basis, a coupled finite element model consisting of the human ear and a piezoelectric actuator attached to the long process of incus was further constructed. Based on the electromechanical coupling analysis, equivalent sound pressure and power consumption of the actuator corresponding to viscoelasticity and Rayleigh damping were calculated using this model. The analytical results showed that the implant performance of the actuator evaluated using a finite element model considering viscoelastic properties gives a lower output above about 3 kHz than does Rayleigh damping model. Finite element model considering viscoelastic properties was more accurate to numerically evaluate implantable hearing devices.

  11. Performance Assessment of Passive Hearing Protection Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-24

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2014-0148 Performance Assessment of Passive Hearing Protection Devices Hilary L. Gallagher Richard L. McKinley...Assessment of Passive Hearing Protection Devices 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-14-D-6501 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62202F 6. AUTHOR(S...is essential. Passive hearing protectors, capable of attenuating both continuous and impulsive noise, have been designed to reduce the risk of

  12. Don't Let Gun Sports Backfire on You: Use Ear Protection and Hang onto Your Hearing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Inside NIDCD Newsletter » Spring 2006 Don't Let Gun Sports Backfire on You: Use Ear Protection and ... in the skeet event, would never fire a gun without them. Likewise, Dave Henderson, a nationally recognized ...

  13. Investigations of the Impact of Altered Auditory Feedback In-the-Ear Devices on the Speech of People Who Stutter: Initial Fitting and 4-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Andrew; Kalinowski, Joseph; Rastatter, Michael P.; Saltuklaroglu, Tim; Dayalu, Vikram

    2003-01-01

    Self-contained ear-level devices delivering altered auditory feedback (AAF) for the application with those who stutter have only been recently developed. The paper examines the first therapeutic application of self-contained ear-level devices in three experiments. The effect of the device on the proportion of stuttered syllables and speech…

  14. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, J.M.; Whinery, L.D.; Gwinn, K.W.; McBride, D.D.; Luna, D.A.; Holder, J.P.; Bliton, R.J.

    1997-03-04

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion`s ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion`s ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored. 22 figs.

  15. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, J.M.; Whinery, L.D.; Gwinn, K.W.; McBride, D.D.; Luna, D.A.; Holder, J.P.; Bliton, R.J.

    1996-01-09

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion`s ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion`s ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored. 22 figs.

  16. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, James M.; Whinery, Larry D.; Gwinn, Kenneth W.; McBride, Donald D.; Luna, Daniel A.; Holder, Joseph P.; Bliton, Richard J.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored.

  17. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, James M.; Whinery, Larry D.; Gwinn, Kenneth W.; McBride, Donald D.; Luna, Daniel A.; Holder, Joseph P.; Bliton, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being Joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored.

  18. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOEpatents

    Nelsen, James M.; Whinery, Larry D.; Gwinn, Kenneth W.; McBride, Donald D.; Luna, Daniel A.; Holder, Joseph P.; Bliton, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored.

  19. High energy overcurrent protective device

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1982-01-01

    Electrical loads connected to capacitance elements in high voltage direct current systems are protected from damage by capacitance discharge overcurrents by connecting between the capacitance element and the load, a longitudinal inductor comprising a bifilar winding wound about a magnetic core, which forms an incomplete magnetic circuit. A diode is connected across a portion of the bifilar winding which conducts a unidirectional current only. Energy discharged from the capacitance element is stored in the inductor and then dissipated in an L-R circuit including the diode and the coil winding. Multiple high voltage circuits having capacitance elements may be connected to loads through bifilar windings all wound about the aforementioned magnetic core.

  20. A micropower miniature piezoelectric actuator for implantable middle ear hearing device.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhigang; Mills, Robert; Luo, Hongyan; Zheng, Xiaolin; Hou, Wensheng; Wang, Lijun; Brown, Stuart I; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a small actuator using a miniature piezoelectric stack and a flextensional mechanical amplification structure for an implantable middle ear hearing device (IMEHD). A finite-element method was used in the actuator design. Actuator vibration displacement was measured using a laser vibrometer. Preliminary evaluation of the actuator for an IMEHD was conducted using a temporal bone model. Initial results from one temporal bone study indicated that the actuator was small enough to be implanted within the middle ear cavity, and sufficient stapes displacement can be generated for patients with mild to moderate hearing losses, especially at higher frequency range, by the actuator suspended onto the stapes. There was an insignificant mass-loading effect on normal sound transmission (<3 dB) when the actuator was attached to the stapes and switched off. Improved vibration performance is predicted by more firm attachment. The actuator power consumption and its generated equivalent sound pressure level are also discussed. In conclusion, the actuator has advantages of small size, lightweight, and micropower consumption for potential use as IMHEDs.

  1. Ear Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis Tumors of the ... Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis NOTE: This is ...

  2. Ear Infection (Middle Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    Ear infection (middle ear) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff An ear infection (acute otitis media) is most often a bacterial or viral infection that affects the middle ear, the air-filled space behind the eardrum that ...

  3. Sound Localization with an Army Helmet Worn in Combination with an In-Ear Advanced Communications System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    hearing with head and ear protection Figure 1: Nacre QUIETPRO® communications earplug. The left panel shows the controller with the in-ear system...was the Nacre QUIETPRO® in push-to-talk mode, with the volume for external sounds set at 0 dB gain. This device is one of several currently under review...the 10 subjects. The two ear conditions are labeled unoccluded (no ear protection) and occluded ( Nacre QUIETPRO® in-ear communications system). The

  4. Optoelectronic devices incorporating fluoropolymer compositions for protection

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Xuming; Chum, Pak-Wing S.; Howard, Kevin E.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Sumner, William C.; Wu, Shaofu

    2015-12-22

    The fluoropolymer compositions of the present invention generally incorporate ingredients comprising one or more fluoropolymers, an ultraviolet light protection component (hereinafter UV protection component), and optionally one or more additional ingredients if desired. The UV protection component includes a combination of at least one hindered tertiary amine (HTA) compound having a certain structure and a weight average molecular weight of at least 1000. This tertiary amine is used in combination with at least one organic, UV light absorbing compound (UVLA compound) having a weight average molecular weight greater than 500. When the HTA compound and the UVLA compound are selected according to principles of the present invention, the UV protection component provides fluoropolymer compositions with significantly improved weatherability characteristics for protecting underlying materials, features, structures, components, and/or the like. In particular, fluoropolymer compositions incorporating the UV protection component of the present invention have unexpectedly improved ability to resist blackening, coloration, or other de gradation that may be caused by UV exposure. As a consequence, devices protected by these compositions would be expected to have dramatically improved service life. The compositions have a wide range of uses but are particularly useful for forming protective layers in optoelectronic devices.

  5. Impact of hearing protection devices on sound localization performance

    PubMed Central

    Zimpfer, Véronique; Sarafian, David

    2014-01-01

    Hearing Protection Devices (HPDs) can protect the ear against loud potentially damaging sounds while allowing lower-level sounds such as speech to be perceived. However, the impact of these devices on the ability to localize sound sources is not well known. To address this question, we propose two different methods: one behavioral and one dealing with acoustical measurements. For the behavioral method, sound localization performance was measured with, and without, HPDs on 20 listeners. Five HPDs, including both passive (non-linear attenuation) and three active (talk-through) systems were evaluated. The results showed a significant increase in localization errors, especially front-back and up-down confusions relative to the “naked ear” test condition for all of the systems tested, especially for the talk-through headphone system. For the acoustic measurement method, Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs) were measured on an artificial head both without, and with the HPDs in place. The effects of the HPDs on the spectral cues for the localization of different sound sources in the horizontal plane were analyzed. Alterations of the Interaural Spectral Difference (ISD) cues were identified, which could explain the observed increase in front-back confusions caused by the talk-through headphone protectors. PMID:24966807

  6. Force estimation and failure detection based on disturbance observer for an ear surgical device.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenyu; Huang, Sunan; Chen, Silu; Tan, Kok Kiong

    2017-01-01

    The disturbance observer is one of the useful tools for estimating the contact force between the subject body and the environment in robotic and mechatronic systems. This paper introduced a novel automatic office-based ear surgical device for the treatment of Otitis Media with Effusion (OME) under the guidance of force sensing information. Since the force sensing information must be reliable so as to ensure the safety of the device, a contact force estimation method based on the disturbance observer is proposed. The system model is built and a control strategy is proposed and developed. In the control strategy, a composite motion controller for an ultrasonic motor (USM) stage is presented, and then the design and the stability analysis of an advanced disturbance observer is given. Furthermore, a contact estimator and a failure detector, aiming to enhance the safety and reliability enhancement, are designed. Finally, the proposed control strategy is studied with both simulation and experiment. The experimental results show that the advanced disturbance observer can estimate the actual contact force correctly and precisely, and the disturbance observer based force estimation and failure detection method is feasible which can be used in force sensing, contact detection and fault diagnosis.

  7. Device Data Protection in Mobile Healthcare Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerasinghe, Dasun; Rajarajan, Muttukrishnan; Rakocevic, Veselin

    The rapid growth in mobile technology makes the delivery of healthcare data and services on mobile phones a reality. However, the healthcare data is very sensitive and has to be protected against unauthorized access. While most of the development work on security of mobile healthcare today focuses on the data encryption and secure authentication in remote servers, protection of data on the mobile device itself has gained very little attention. This paper analyses the requirements and the architecture for a secure mobile capsule, specially designed to protect the data that is already on the device. The capsule is a downloadable software agent with additional functionalities to enable secure external communication with healthcare service providers, network operators and other relevant communication parties.

  8. Measurement of protection factor of respiratory protective devices toward nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Brochot, C; Michielsen, N; Chazelet, S; Thomas, D

    2012-07-01

    The use of nanoparticles in industry has increased spectacularly over the past few years. Additionally, nanoscale particles seem to be the cause of new professional exposure situations. Due to their size, these particles may build up within the respiratory tract and may even reach the nervous system via the nasal passages; for this reason, it is generally recommended to wear respiratory protective devices (RPDs) in situations where collective protection is impossible to implement or inadequate. Here, we present the test bench ETNA designed to study the efficiency of RPDs in the presence of nanoparticles. The results of the efficiency measurement of two RPDs for two positions (sealed and unsealed) on a Sheffield head, for two inhalation configurations (constant flow and cyclic flow), and for two different particle size distributions of NaCl aerosol (one centered on 13 nm and the other on 59 nm) are presented below. The measurements indicate that when the leaks are negligible at the interface mask/head, the efficiency of RPD is greater for nanoparticles. For major leaks, the device's protection factor changes independently of the size of the particles. Furthermore, no trends with respect to the effect of the respiration type (constant-flow and cyclic-flow tests) have been shown on the device's protection factor.

  9. Soft Tissue Conduction as a Possible Contributor to the Limited Attenuation Provided by Hearing Protection Devices

    PubMed Central

    Chordekar, Shai; Adelman, Cahtia; Sohmer, Haim; Kishon-Rabin, Liat

    2016-01-01

    Context: Damage to the auditory system by loud sounds can be avoided by hearing protection devices (HPDs) such as earmuffs, earplugs, or both for maximum attenuation. However, the attenuation can be limited by air conduction (AC) leakage around the earplugs and earmuffs by the occlusion effect (OE) and by skull vibrations initiating bone conduction (BC). Aims: To assess maximum attenuation by HPDs and possible flanking pathways to the inner ear. Subjects and Methods: AC attenuation and resulting thresholds were assessed using the real ear attenuation at threshold (REAT) procedure on 15 normal-hearing participants in four free-field conditions: (a) unprotected ears, (b) ears covered with earmuffs, (c) ears blocked with deeply inserted customized earplugs, and (d) ears blocked with both earplugs and earmuffs. BC thresholds were assessed with and without earplugs to assess the OE. Results: Addition of earmuffs to earplugs did not cause significantly greater attenuation than earplugs alone, confirming minimal AC leakage through the external meatus and the absence of the OE. Maximum REATs ranged between 40 and 46 dB, leading to thresholds of 46–54 dB HL. Furthermore, calculation of the acoustic impedance mismatch between air and bone predicted at least 60 dB attenuation of BC. Conclusion: Results do not support the notion that skull vibrations (BC) contributed to the limited attenuation provided by traditional HPDs. An alternative explanation, supported by experimental evidence, suggests transmission of sound to inner ear via non-osseous pathways such as skin, soft tissues, and fluid. Because the acoustic impedance mismatch between air and soft tissues is smaller than that between air and bone, air-borne sounds would be transmitted to soft tissues more effectively than to bone, and therefore less attenuation is expected through soft tissue sound conduction. This can contribute to the limited attenuation provided by traditional HPDs. The present study has practical

  10. External unit for a semi-implantable middle ear hearing device.

    PubMed

    Garverick, S L; Kane, M; Ko, W H; Maniglia, A J

    1997-06-01

    A miniaturized, low-power external unit has been developed for the clinical trials of a semi-implantable middle ear electromagnetic hearing device (SIMEHD) which uses radio-frequency telemetry to couple sound signals to the internal unit. The external unit is based on a commercial hearing aid which provides proven audio amplification and compression. Its receiver is replaced by an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) which: 1) adjusts the direct-current bias of the audio input according to its peak value; 2) converts the audio signal to a one-bit digital form using sigma-delta modulation; 3) modulates the sigma-delta output with a radio-frequency (RF) oscillator; and 4) drives the external RF coil and tuning capacitor using a field-effect transistor operated in class D. The external unit functions as expected and has been used to operate bench-top tests to the SIMEHD. Measured current consumption is 1.65-2.15 mA, which projects to a battery lifetime of about 15 days. Bandwidth is 6 kHz and harmonic distortion is about 2%.

  11. 14 CFR 25.1717 - Circuit protective devices: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Circuit protective devices: EWIS. 25.1717... (EWIS) § 25.1717 Circuit protective devices: EWIS. Electrical wires and cables must be designed and installed so they are compatible with the circuit protection devices required by § 25.1357, so that a...

  12. Pierced Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Pierced Ears KidsHealth > For Kids > Pierced Ears A A A ... cool, but infected ears do not! Getting Your Ears Pierced It's important to get your ears pierced ...

  13. Morin hydrate promotes inner ear neural stem cell survival and differentiation and protects cochlea against neuronal hearing loss.

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Jia, Zhanwei; Zhang, Ying; Ren, Xiumin

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of morin hydrate on neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from mouse inner ear and its potential in protecting neuronal hearing loss. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays were employed to assess the effect of morin hydrate on the viability and proliferation of in vitro NSC culture. The NSCs were then differentiated into neurons, in which neurosphere formation and differentiation were evaluated, followed by neurite outgrowth and neural excitability measurements in the subsequent in vitro neuronal network. Mechanotransduction of cochlea ex vivo culture and auditory brainstem responses threshold and distortion product optoacoustic emissions amplitude in mouse ototoxicity model were also measured following gentamicin treatment to investigate the protective role of morin hydrate against neuronal hearing loss. Morin hydrate improved viability and proliferation, neurosphere formation and neuronal differentiation of inner ear NSCs, and promoted in vitro neuronal network functions. In both ex vivo and in vivo ototoxicity models, morin hydrate prevented gentamicin-induced neuronal hearing loss. Morin hydrate exhibited potent properties in promoting growth and differentiation of inner ear NSCs into functional neurons and protecting from gentamicin ototoxicity. Our study supports its clinical potential in treating neuronal hearing loss.

  14. Torque shudder protection device and method

    DOEpatents

    King, Robert D.; De Doncker, Rik W. A. A.; Szczesny, Paul M.

    1997-01-01

    A torque shudder protection device for an induction machine includes a flux command generator for supplying a steady state flux command and a torque shudder detector for supplying a status including a negative status to indicate a lack of torque shudder and a positive status to indicate a presence of torque shudder. A flux adapter uses the steady state flux command and the status to supply a present flux command identical to the steady state flux command for a negative status and different from the steady state flux command for a positive status. A limiter can receive the present flux command, prevent the present flux command from exceeding a predetermined maximum flux command magnitude, and supply the present flux command to a field oriented controller. After determining a critical electrical excitation frequency at which a torque shudder occurs for the induction machine, a flux adjuster can monitor the electrical excitation frequency of the induction machine and adjust a flux command to prevent the monitored electrical excitation frequency from reaching the critical electrical excitation frequency.

  15. Torque shudder protection device and method

    DOEpatents

    King, R.D.; Doncker, R.W.A.A. De.; Szczesny, P.M.

    1997-03-11

    A torque shudder protection device for an induction machine includes a flux command generator for supplying a steady state flux command and a torque shudder detector for supplying a status including a negative status to indicate a lack of torque shudder and a positive status to indicate a presence of torque shudder. A flux adapter uses the steady state flux command and the status to supply a present flux command identical to the steady state flux command for a negative status and different from the steady state flux command for a positive status. A limiter can receive the present flux command, prevent the present flux command from exceeding a predetermined maximum flux command magnitude, and supply the present flux command to a field oriented controller. After determining a critical electrical excitation frequency at which a torque shudder occurs for the induction machine, a flux adjuster can monitor the electrical excitation frequency of the induction machine and adjust a flux command to prevent the monitored electrical excitation frequency from reaching the critical electrical excitation frequency. 5 figs.

  16. Swimmer's Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Swimmer's Ear KidsHealth > For Kids > Swimmer's Ear Print A ... continue How Do I Know if I Have Swimmer's Ear? Swimmer's ear may start with some itching, ...

  17. Ear Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Tubes Ear Tubes Patient Health Information News media interested ... throat specialist) may be considered. What are ear tubes? Ear tubes are tiny cylinders placed through the ...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1723 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. 75.1723 Section 75.1723 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1723 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1723 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. 75.1723 Section 75.1723 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1723 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1723 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. 75.1723 Section 75.1723 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1723 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... system or connected equipment. (b) The protective and control devices in the generating system must be... malfunctioning. (c) Each resettable circuit protective device must be designed so that, when an overload or circuit fault exists, it will open the circuit irrespective of the position of the operating control....

  2. 14 CFR 25.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... system or connected equipment. (b) The protective and control devices in the generating system must be... malfunctioning. (c) Each resettable circuit protective device must be designed so that, when an overload or circuit fault exists, it will open the circuit irrespective of the position of the operating control....

  3. 14 CFR 25.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... system or connected equipment. (b) The protective and control devices in the generating system must be... malfunctioning. (c) Each resettable circuit protective device must be designed so that, when an overload or circuit fault exists, it will open the circuit irrespective of the position of the operating control....

  4. 14 CFR 25.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... system or connected equipment. (b) The protective and control devices in the generating system must be... malfunctioning. (c) Each resettable circuit protective device must be designed so that, when an overload or circuit fault exists, it will open the circuit irrespective of the position of the operating control....

  5. 14 CFR 25.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... system or connected equipment. (b) The protective and control devices in the generating system must be... malfunctioning. (c) Each resettable circuit protective device must be designed so that, when an overload or circuit fault exists, it will open the circuit irrespective of the position of the operating control....

  6. Wireless behind-the-ear EEG recording device with wireless interface to a mobile device (iPhone/iPod touch).

    PubMed

    Do Valle, Bruno G; Cash, Sydney S; Sodini, Charlie G

    2014-01-01

    EEG remains the mainstay test for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with epilepsy. Unfortunately, ambulatory EEG systems are far from ideal for patients that have infrequent seizures. The systems only last up to 3 days and if a seizure is not captured during the recordings, the doctor cannot give a definite diagnosis of the patient's condition. The ambulatory systems also suffers from being too bulky and posing some constraints on the patient, such as not being able to shower during the recordings. This paper presents a novel behind-the-ear EEG recording device that uses an iPhone or iPod Touch to continuously upload the patient's data to a secure server. This device not only gives the doctors access to the EEG data in real time but it can be easily removed and re-applied by the patient at any time, thus reducing the interference with quality of life.

  7. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  8. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  9. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  10. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  11. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  12. Safe Distances From a High-Energy Capacitor Bank for Ear and Lung Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    2000 Di st an ce  (c m ) Stored Energy (kJ) EAR FLASH LUNG 5 for stored energies greater than 122 kJ, and zero for lesser energies, but the NFPA...3) D is the incident energy dose in calories per square centimeter. The factor 4.184 has a unit of Joules/ calorie

  13. Personal listening devices and the prevention of noise induced hearing loss in children: the Cheers for Ears Pilot Program.

    PubMed

    Taljaard, Dunay Schmulian; Leishman, Natalie F; Eikelboom, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether the Cheers for Ears Program on noise induced hearing loss prevention was effective in improving current knowledge of noise impact of personal listening devices on hearing, and in changing self-reported listening behavior of primary school students aged between 9 years and 13 years. A survey study was implemented at participating primary schools. Schools represented various levels of socio-economic status. Informed consent (parents and teachers) and informed assent (pupils) were obtained. All pupils participated in two interactive sessions (the second 6 weeks after first) and only those who provided assent and consent were surveyed at three points during the study: Prior to the first session (baseline), directly post-session and at 3 months post-session. A total of 318 pupils were surveyed. The median age of the participants was 11 years (nearly 50% of the total cohort). Significant changes are reported in their knowledge about hearing and in listening behavior of the participants as measured by pre- and post-measurement. The changes in behaviors were stable and sustained at 3 months post-intervention survey point and the success of the program can be attributed to the multimodal interactive nature of the sessions, the spacing of the sessions and the survey points. Wide-ranging support from schools and departments also played a role. The pilot Cheers for Ears Program is effective in increasing knowledge on the harmful effects of noise and therefore, it may prevent future noise-induced hearing loss.

  14. Temporary coatings for protection of microelectronic devices during packaging

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Conley, William R.

    2005-01-18

    The present invention relates to a method of protecting a microelectronic device during device packaging, including the steps of applying a water-insoluble, temporary protective coating to a sensitive area on the device; performing at least one packaging step; and then substantially removing the protective coating, preferably by dry plasma etching. The sensitive area can include a released MEMS element. The microelectronic device can be disposed on a wafer. The protective coating can be a vacuum vapor-deposited parylene polymer, silicon nitride, metal (e.g. aluminum or tungsten), a vapor deposited organic material, cynoacrylate, a carbon film, a self-assembled monolayered material, perfluoropolyether, hexamethyldisilazane, or perfluorodecanoic carboxylic acid, silicon dioxide, silicate glass, or combinations thereof. The present invention also relates to a method of packaging a microelectronic device, including: providing a microelectronic device having a sensitive area; applying a water-insoluble, protective coating to the sensitive area; providing a package; attaching the device to the package; electrically interconnecting the device to the package; and substantially removing the protective coating from the sensitive area.

  15. Ear diseases among secondary school students in Xi'an, China: The role of portable audio device use, insomnia and academic stress

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hearing impairment negatively impacts students' development of academic, language and social skills. Even minimal unilateral hearing loss can hinder educational performance. We investigated the prevalence of ear diseases among secondary school students in the city of Xi'an, China in order to provide a foundation for evidence-based hearing healthcare. Methods A stratified random sampling survey was conducted in 29 secondary schools. Demographics and medical histories were collected, and otologic examinations were performed. Questionnaires were administered to assess insomnia, academic stress and use of portable audio devices. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with hearing impairment, and the association of sensorineural hearing loss with insomnia, academic stress and the use of portable audio devices was analyzed with the chi-square test. Results The percentage of students with some form of ear disease was 3.32%. External ear disease, middle ear disease and sensorineural hearing loss occurred in 1.21%, 0.64% and 1.47% of the students, respectively. Boys had a relatively higher prevalence of ear disease than girls. According to our survey, the prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss increased significantly among the students with insomnia and extended use of portable audio devices, but not among those with elevated levels of academic stress. Hearing aids and surgical treatment were needed in 1.47% and 0.89% of the students, respectively. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of ear disease among secondary school students, and this should be given more attention. Insomnia and the excessive use of portable audio devices may be related to adolescent sensorineural hearing loss. It is important to establish and comply with an evidence-based preventive strategy. PMID:21649930

  16. Leak-detection device is {open_quotes}all ears{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Malm, H.; Halpern, F.

    1996-04-01

    Ultrasonic detection devices for locating air or liquid leaks are described. Standard packages consist of a hand-held detection instrument, high-impedance headphones, a localization sound probe, an ultrasound transmitter, and a precision contact probe. The ultrasonic vibrations are converted into either an audible frequency or a digital readout. The use of ultrasonic devices in leak testing single-wall underground storage tanks is detailed.

  17. [Middle ear physiology].

    PubMed

    Ayerbe, I; Négrevergne, M; Ucelay, R; Sanchez Fernandez, J M

    1999-01-01

    The middle ear forms part of the sound transformer mechanism, together with the outer ear and the conducting system of the inner ear. An intermediate sensory organ, sensitive to acoustic vibration, and linked to the inner ear, the middle ear made its appearance during the period of adaptation of marine creatures to a terrestrial habitat; its presence is therefore a phylogenetic requirement. It is classical to ascribe three functions to the middle ear: the transmission of acoustic vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the cochlea, impedance matching between the air in the external auditary meatus and the labyrinthine fluids, and protection of the inner ear by means of the acoustic reflex. If the classical mechanical explanation has been able to explain its function, the conceptualization of its physiology in terms of energy allows an even better understanding, as well as providing and explanation for the paradoxes which arise in clinical practice when the classical model is used.

  18. Measurement of impulse peak insertion loss for four hearing protection devices in field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, William J.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Meinke, Deanna K.; Sondergaard, Jacob; Finan, Donald S.; Lankford, James E.; Khan, Amir; Vernon, Julia; Stewart, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective In 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed an impulse noise reduction rating (NRR) for hearing protection devices based upon the impulse peak insertion loss (IPIL) methods in the ANSI S12.42-2010 standard. This study tests the ANSI S12.42 methods with a range of hearing protection devices measured in field conditions. Design The method utilizes an acoustic test fixture and three ranges for impulse levels: 130–134, 148–152, and 166–170 dB peak SPL. For this study, four different models of hearing protectors were tested: Bilsom 707 Impact II electronic earmuff, E·A·R Pod Express, E·A·R Combat Arms version 4, and the Etymotic Research, Inc. Electronic BlastPLG™ EB1. Study sample Five samples of each protector were fitted on the fixture or inserted in the fixture's ear canal five times for each impulse level. Impulses were generated by a 0.223 caliber rifle. Results The average IPILs increased with peak pressure and ranged between 20 and 38 dB. For some protectors, significant differences were observed across protector examples of the same model, and across insertions. Conclusions The EPA's proposed methods provide consistent and reproducible results. The proposed impulse NRR rating should utilize the minimum and maximum protection percentiles as determined by the ANSI S12.42-2010 methods. PMID:22176308

  19. 30 CFR 75.1723 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... devices. 75.1723 Section 75.1723 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1723 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than special bit grinders shall be equipped with: (1) Peripheral hoods (less than 90° throat openings)...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1723 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... devices. 75.1723 Section 75.1723 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1723 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than special bit grinders shall be equipped with: (1) Peripheral hoods (less than 90° throat openings)...

  1. Ion manipulation device with electrical breakdown protection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Tang, Keqi; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Smith, Richard D; Anderson, Gordon A; Baker, Erin M

    2014-12-02

    An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area. The surfaces are housed in a chamber, and at least one electrically insulative shield is coupled to an inner surface of the chamber for increasing a mean-free-path between two adjacent electrodes in the chamber.

  2. Ear Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... ear, where they make your eardrum vibrate. The vibrations are transmitted through three tiny bones, called ossicles, in your middle ear. The vibrations travel to your inner ear, a snail-shaped ...

  3. Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... gross and useful. continue The Middle Ear: Good Vibrations After sound waves enter the outer ear, they ... take those sound waves and turn them into vibrations that are delivered to the inner ear. To ...

  4. Ear emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ear injury, avoid nose blowing and getting water in the injured ear. Treat ear infections right ... FDR Medical Services/Millard Fillmore Suburban Hospital, Buffalo, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  5. Ear barotrauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ear popping - barotrauma; Pressure-related ear pain; Eustachian tube dysfunction - barotrauma ... air pressure outside of the body. The Eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ear and ...

  6. 30 CFR 77.401 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.401 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than special bit grinders shall be equipped...

  7. 30 CFR 77.401 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.401 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than special bit grinders shall be equipped...

  8. 30 CFR 77.401 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.401 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than special bit grinders shall be equipped...

  9. Circuit protection devices for transient suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childers, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The Electromer Corporation has developed a series of transient voltage suppression components based on a patented, specially formulated PolyClamp (trademark) material. PolyClamp components are a new class of transient voltage surge suppressors that extend the range of protection offered by transients protectors. The PolyClamp transient surge suppressors provide low capacitance, high energy capability, and packaging flexibility. A wide variety of applications can be protected. A tube and ferrule configuration was designed to be used with MIL/Aerospace style connectors and is designed to meet the applicable environmental, mechanical, and electrical requirements as defined by the United States and European defence standards performance requirements. Here, PolyClamp is compared with current transient surge suppressors. Typical performance and design are discussed.

  10. Novel tamper-indicating protective devices

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1995-07-01

    Several novel tamper-indicating devices, originally developed under DOE auspices for arms control applications, might be useful in nonproliferation. Some devices that have reached the laboratory prototype stage could provide specialized alternatives to established seals. As locks and cables, the following might be useful: (1) a brittle ceramic lock--impervious to toxic, radiation, and thermal extremes--interrogated for identification and continuity by ultrasonic means, (2) a flexible ceramic-fiber seal that also tolerates severe environments, (3) an ultrasonic smart-material strip seal, and (4) an RF-resonant coaxial cable, verified by radio frequency and microwave signals. To validate the identity of secured surfaces, joints, welds, and fasteners--two techniques are applicable: (1) the scanning electron microscope, which examines three- dimensional micron-level topography, and (2) the plastic-casting fingerprint, a simple low-cost technique, analogous to human fingerprinting. The techniques mentioned above have one or more of the potential advantages of low cost, immediate availability, security for large-area enclosures, application to hazardous environments, usability in the FSU, or suitability for covert use.

  11. Ear Pieces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

  12. Measurement of β-hydroxybutyrate in capillary blood obtained from an ear to detect hyperketonemia in dairy cows by using an electronic handheld device.

    PubMed

    Süss, D; Drillich, M; Klein-Jöbstl, D; Wagener, K; Krieger, S; Thiel, A; Meyer, L; Schwendenwein, I; Iwersen, M

    2016-09-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to test whether capillary blood obtained by puncturing the skin of an ear with a minimal invasive lancet technique is able to detect hyperketonemia (HYK) in dairy cows. Furthermore, test characteristics of a new available handheld device, the FreeStyle Precision Neo (FSP-Neo, Abbott GmbH & Co. KG, Wiesbaden, Germany) for determination of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in bovine blood were evaluated by comparing the measurements with a laboratory reference. The BHB concentration was determined with the FSP-Neo device in 720 capillary blood samples from 3 different sampling sites (left, right ear, and repeated measurement) and in 240 samples from a coccygeal vessel. The concentration of BHB in serum harvested from the coccygeal blood samples was analyzed at the laboratory and was used as reference. The Spearman correlation coefficient (ρs) between the BHB concentrations in capillary blood measured with the handheld device and the reference test was between 0.76 and 0.81. Using capillary blood, the mean ± standard deviation BHB difference compared with the reference test was 0.20±0.47 mmol/L for all 3 sampling locations at the ears. The receiver operating characteristic analyses for the FSP-Neo device resulted in an optimized threshold for the detection of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in capillary blood of 1.3 mmol/L (left and right ear) and 1.2 mmol/L (repeated measurements). Applying these adjusted threshold sensitivities (Se) for all 3 capillary sampling sites at the ear were 100%, and specificities (Sp) ranged between 93 and 94%. Hence, we conclude that all sampling locations were suitable to identify cows suffering from SCK. The reference test compared with BHB measurements in coccygeal blood resulted in a ρs of 0.92 with a mean ± standard deviation of 0.02±0.21 mmol/L. The receiver operating characteristic analyses for the FSP-Neo device resulted in an optimized threshold for the detection of SCK in

  13. How can the auditory efferent system protect our ears from noise-induced hearing loss? Let us count the ways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Lynne; Miller, Judi A. Lapsley

    2015-12-01

    It is a cause for some debate as to how the auditory olivocochlear (OC) efferent system could protect hearing from noise trauma. In this review, we examined physiological research to find mechanisms that could effectively attenuate the response to sound. For each purported mechanism, we indicate which part of the OC-efferent system is responsible for the function and the site of action. These mechanisms include basilar-membrane phase shifts at high stimulus levels; changes in outer-hair-cell stiffness and phase lag associated with efferent slow effects; small decreases in endocochlear potentials causing small decreases in outer- and inner-hair-cell output; low-spontaneous-rate and medium-spontaneous-rate fibers showing OC-induced decrements at high levels; auditory-nerve initial-peak reduction; OC effect increasing over minutes; cholinergic activation of anti-apoptotic pathways; and anti-excitotoxicity. There are clearly multiple opportunities for the OC-efferent system to protect the inner ear from noise trauma. From further exploration into the mechanisms outlined here, as well as to-be-discovered mechanisms, we will gain a greater understanding of the protective nature of the OC-efferent system. These findings could aid our ability to design better predictive tests for people at risk for noise-induced hearing loss.

  14. Ear trauma.

    PubMed

    Eagles, Kylee; Fralich, Laura; Stevenson, J Herbert

    2013-04-01

    Understanding basic ear anatomy and function allows an examiner to quickly and accurately identify at-risk structures in patients with head and ear trauma. External ear trauma (ie, hematoma or laceration) should be promptly treated with appropriate injury-specific techniques. Tympanic membrane injuries have multiple mechanisms and can often be conservatively treated. Temporal bone fractures are a common cause of ear trauma and can be life threatening. Facial nerve injuries and hearing loss can occur in ear trauma.

  15. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that is... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section...

  16. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that is... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section...

  17. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  18. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  19. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  20. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  1. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  2. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  3. 30 CFR 77.401 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.401 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than special bit grinders shall be equipped with... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines;...

  4. 30 CFR 77.401 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.401 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than special bit grinders shall be equipped with... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines;...

  5. Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery. An ENT surgically inserts tubes inside your child’s middle ear. The tubes relieve the pressure and allow ... the risks of surgically inserting tubes inside my child's middle ear? What are the risks of not?Should ...

  6. Ear tag

    MedlinePlus

    ... the opening of the ear are common in newborn infants. In most cases, these are normal. However, they ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Common Infant and Newborn Problems Ear Disorders Skin Conditions Browse the Encyclopedia ...

  7. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003340.htm Ear examination To use the sharing features on this page, ... ear References King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey ...

  8. Ear wax

    MedlinePlus

    ... wax plug. Tip your head to allow the water to drain. You may need to repeat irrigation several times. To avoid damaging your ear or causing an infection: Never irrigate the ear if the eardrum may have a hole in it. Do not irrigate the ear with ...

  9. Cauliflower Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Cauliflower Ear? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cauliflower Ear? A A A Have you ever seen ... looks bumpy and lumpy? The person might have cauliflower ear. That sure is a funny name. Let's ...

  10. Cauliflower Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray What's Cauliflower Ear? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cauliflower Ear? Print A A A Have you ever ... looks bumpy and lumpy? The person might have cauliflower ear. That sure is a funny name. Let's ...

  11. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Loaded with Edaravone for Inner Ear Protection After Noise Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Gang; Liu, Ya; Zhou, Chang-Hua; Jiang, Ping; Sun, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antioxidants and the duration of treatment after noise exposure on hearing recovery are important. We investigated the protective effects of an antioxidant substance, edaravone, and its slow-release dosage form, edaravone solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), in steady noise-exposed guinea pigs. Methods: SLNs loaded with edaravone were produced by an ultrasound technique. Edaravone solution or edaravone SLNs were administered by intratympanic or intravenous injection after the 1st day of noise exposure. Guinea pigs were exposed to 110 dB sound pressure level (SPL) noise, centered at 0.25–4.0 kHz, for 4 days at 2 h/d. After noise exposure, the guinea pigs underwent auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold measurements, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected in their cochleas with electron spin resonance (ESR), and outer hair cells (OHCs) were counted with silvernitrate (AgNO3) staining at 1, 4, and 6 days. Results: The ultrasound technique was able to prepare adequate edaravone SLNs with a mean particle size of 93.6 nm and entrapment efficiency of 76.7%. Acoustic stress-induced ROS formation and edaravone exerted a protective effect on the cochlea. Comparisons of hearing thresholds and ROS changes in different animal groups showed that the threshold shift and ROS generation were significantly lower in treated animals than in those without treatment, especially in the edaravone SLN intratympanic injection group. Conclusions: Edaravone SLNs show noticeable slow-release effects and have certain protective effects against noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). PMID:25591563

  12. Embolic Protection Devices During TAVI: Current Evidence and Uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Jawad Altisent, Omar; Puri, Rishi; Rodés-Cabau, Josep

    2016-10-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is now the principal therapeutic option in patients with severe aortic stenosis deemed inoperable or at high surgical risk. Implementing TAVI in a lower risk profile population could be limited by relatively high cerebrovascular event rates related to the procedure. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging studies have demonstrated the ubiquitous presence of silent embolic cerebral infarcts after TAVI, with some data relating these lesions to subsequent cognitive decline. Embolic protection devices provide a mechanical barrier against debris embolizing to the brain during TAVI. We review the current evidence and ongoing uncertainties faced with the 3 currently available devices (Embrella, TriGuard and Claret) in TAVI. Studies evaluated neurological damage at 3 levels: clinical, subclinical, and cognitive. Feasibility and safety were analyzed for the 3 devices. In terms of efficacy, all studies were exploratory, but none demonstrated significant reductions in clinical event rates. The Embrella and Claret devices demonstrated significant reductions of the total cerebral lesion volume on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Studies evaluating the effects on cognition were also somewhat inconclusive. In conclusion, despite embolic protection devices demonstrating reductions in the total cerebral lesion volume on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, the clinical efficacy in terms of preventing stroke/cognitive decline requires confirmation in larger studies.

  13. Calibration of an In-Ear Dosimeter for a Single Hearing Protection Device

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    DoD) Hearing Conservation Programs ( HCPs ) [1-3] set safe noise exposure limits to reduce the risk for noise induced hearing loss. These daily noise...subjects participated in the study. Exposure levels throughout the experiment were within US DoD safe noise exposure guidelines (DoD HCP ) [1- 3...validate the new calibration factor is recommended. 1.0 INTRODUCTION US national and many international hearing conservation programs ( HCPs ) have

  14. Response of surge protection devices to fast rising pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mindel, I. N.

    1980-01-01

    Two types of lightning protection modules incorporating leadless (pill type) Zener like devices were evaluated with regard to their ability to suppress EMP induced transients. Two series of tests were performed to evaluate the ability of these modules to react to fast rate of rise ( 1Kv/ns) transients, and the attenuation introduced and the ability to limit damped sinusoid pulses which may be induced due to an EMP resulting from a nuclear detonation.

  15. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound.... (1) The sound field characteristics -described in paragraph 3.1.1.3 are -“required.” (2) Sections 3.3... testing should not allow the subject to engage in any activity that may cause a Temporary Threshold...

  16. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound.... (1) The sound field characteristics -described in paragraph 3.1.1.3 are -“required.” (2) Sections 3.3... testing should not allow the subject to engage in any activity that may cause a Temporary Threshold...

  17. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound.... (1) The sound field characteristics -described in paragraph 3.1.1.3 are -“required.” (2) Sections 3.3... testing should not allow the subject to engage in any activity that may cause a Temporary Threshold...

  18. Protection against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-caused inflammation in SENCAR mouse ear skin by polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, S K; Agarwal, R; Ekker, S; Wood, G S; Mukhtar, H

    1993-03-01

    Earlier studies conducted in our laboratory have shown that a polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea (GTP) possesses anti-skin tumor initiating and anti-skin tumor promoting activity in the two-stage skin tumorigenesis protocol in SENCAR mouse. We have also shown that topical application of GTP inhibits tumor promoter-caused induction of epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity in SENCAR mice in a dose-dependent manner, and that its oral feeding in drinking water to SKH-1 hairless mice enhances antioxidant and phase II enzyme activity in liver, lung, small bowel and skin. In this study, we show that single or multiple applications of GTP on SENCAR mouse ear prior to or after the application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) afford significant protection (P < 0.05) against TPA-induced edema. Pre-application of GTP also afforded significant protection against TPA-induced hyperplasia in the ear skin. The percentage protection by GTP both in terms of epidermal thickness and vertical cell layers was 75 and 90% respectively (P < 0.005). In further studies, we assessed the protective effect of GTP against TPA-caused infiltration of neutrophils in the ear skin of SENCAR mouse, by determining a naturally occurring constituent of neutrophils, myeloperoxidase, as a quantitative marker of tissue neutrophil content. Prior application of GTP resulted in significant protection against TPA-caused infiltration of neutrophils (P < 0.005). These results suggest that GTP possesses potential as a cancer chemopreventive agent against stage I tumor promotion.

  19. Respiratory protective device design using control system techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, W. A.; Yankovich, D.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of a control system analysis approach to provide a design base for respiratory protective devices is considered. A system design approach requires that all functions and components of the system be mathematically identified in a model of the RPD. The mathematical notations describe the operation of the components as closely as possible. The individual component mathematical descriptions are then combined to describe the complete RPD. Finally, analysis of the mathematical notation by control system theory is used to derive compensating component values that force the system to operate in a stable and predictable manner.

  20. Ear Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... YesNoDo you have thick pus-filled or bloody drainage from the ear canal that started after a ... bone behind the ear, or from an ENLARGED LYMPH NODE.Self CareURGENTSEE YOUR DOCTOR RIGHT AWAY.Start ...

  1. Laboratory Performance of the Single-Sided E-A-R (registered trademark) Combat Arms Hearing Protective Earplug

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    by telephone fOr a listoa’y of ear disease, hearing loss and tinnitus , excessive wx in the outer ear canal, claustrophobia and difficulty concentrating...a rate of 2.5 per second. The pulse duration was 250 ins including a rise/decay time of 50 ms. Subjects were instructed to depress an on/off push...increased in steps of 1 dB until the switch was 13-Vol. 38 No.2(2010) Canadian Acoustics lAcoustique canadionne depressed and then decreased at the same

  2. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  3. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  4. Cerebral protection during percutaneous carotid intervention: wich device should be used ?

    PubMed

    Hendriks, J M; Zindler, J D; Van Dijk, L C; Van Sambeek, M R H M

    2004-06-01

    Embolic complications remain the major and unpredictable clinical event during carotid angioplasty and stenting. Cerebral protection devices could play an important role in the prevention of such emboli. Protection devices such as occlusion balloons, filters and reversed flow devices are currently undergoing clinical evaluation and appear to be promising in reducing the incidence of embolic events. This article provides an overview of the three different types of embolic protection devices.

  5. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  6. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  7. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  8. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  9. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  10. Swimmer's ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... or a respiratory infection such as a cold. Swimming in unclean water can lead to swimmer's ear. ... very well after it has gotten wet. Avoid swimming in polluted water. Use earplugs when swimming. Try ...

  11. Pierced Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... you run the risk of getting infected ears. Metal Matters Your first earrings should have gold posts ( ... infection and swelling. Later, you may find some metals cause an allergic reaction. You're probably wondering ...

  12. Ear Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... or it can be bought separately). Wear ear protection at concerts, especially when sitting near the stage or speakers (they'll still be able to hear with earplugs — it just won't be as deafening), mowing the lawn or using machinery (like in metal or wood shop at school), or playing a loud instrument ( ...

  13. Passive Hearing Protection Systems and Their Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    However, these coustic energy. Additionally, earcups and earcushions offer a t often is not flat in the region in which the earcup contacts the he...to provide personnel with personal hearing protection. This protection may be in the form of either an earplug that occludes the ear canal or a ...circumaural protector that inserts a barrier between the ambient noise and the ear. For both devices the level of passive protection provided changes

  14. Aging assessment of surge protective devices in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.F.; Subudhi, M.; Carroll, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    An assessment was performed to determine the effects of aging on the performance and availability of surge protective devices (SPDs), used in electrical power and control systems in nuclear power plants. Although SPDs have not been classified as safety-related, they are risk-important because they can minimize the initiating event frequencies associated with loss of offsite power and reactor trips. Conversely, their failure due to age might cause some of those initiating events, e.g., through short circuit failure modes, or by allowing deterioration of the safety-related component(s) they are protecting from overvoltages, perhaps preventing a reactor trip, from an open circuit failure mode. From the data evaluated during 1980--1994, it was found that failures of surge arresters and suppressers by short circuits were neither a significant risk nor safety concern, and there were no failures of surge suppressers preventing a reactor trip. Simulations, using the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) were performed to determine the adequacy of high voltage surge arresters.

  15. Field evaluations of hearing protection devices at surface mining environments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of circumaural hearing protection devices and their predictability when they were being worn by mine employees performing normal work duties. The method employed relied on a physical measurement of the noise reduction of the hearing protectors by utilizing two FM-wireless transmitting and receiving systems. One system measured the outside hearing protector noise level, the second system measured the inside hearing protector noise level. The noise level data of both systems was transmitted back to the corresponding receivers and was recorded onto a two-channel tape recorder. Three methods of evaluating hearing protector performance were explored and compared to the Environmental Protection Agency, Noise Reduction Rating (EPA NRR) values. They were, (1) predicted National Institute for occupational Safety and Health`s (NIOSH) method No. 1 values, (2) field-calculated NIOSH No. 1 values, and (3) measured dBA reduction values, which was the arithmetic A-weighted differences between both microphone locations. The majority of the data was obtained on operators of mobile strip equipment, such as bulldozers, front-end-loaders, and overburden drills. A total of 107 individual tests were conducted using 11 different hearing protectors. The results indicate that the amount of protection, which can vary significantly, is related either to the spectrum shape of the noise, or the C-weighted minus the A-weighted (C-A) value. This is consistent with other researchers. The field measured noise reductions were equivalent to the EPA NRR values when the C-A values were negative or approaching zero. When the C-A values increased, the measured noise reductions significantly decreased.

  16. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose...; and ear, nose, and throat trocar. (b) Classification Class I (general controls). The device is exempt... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical...

  17. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose...; and ear, nose, and throat trocar. (b) Classification Class I (general controls). The device is exempt... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical...

  18. Fabrication of Ocular Protective Devices against Laser Radiation and Ballistic Fragments for Evaluation in Military Scenarios

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-30

    protection against ballistic fragments. These methods were applied to a variety of specific eye protection devices including spectacles , aviator visors, the...and to provide protection against ballistic fragments. These methods were applied to a variety of specific eye protection devices including spectacles ...the time between treatment and coating . Also, a UV curable coating was cast against a glass mold which matched the front curve of a spectacle

  19. Cosmetic ear surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...

  20. Graphene in NLO Devices for High Energy Laser Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-17

    including eye) protection can be achieved by blocking, scattering, diffracting, or absorbing incoming laser light. Current solutions include shutter...noticeable color distortion (filters), narrow band protection (filters), low saturation thresholds (Reverse-Saturable Absorbing (RSA) NLO dyes), and...protecting. Sensor (including eye) protection can be achieved by blocking, scattering, diffracting, or absorbing incoming laser light. Current solutions

  1. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source...

  2. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source...

  3. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and...

  4. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and...

  5. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  6. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  7. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  8. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  9. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  10. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  11. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  12. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  13. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  14. The Viability of Hearing Protection Device Fit-Testing at Navy and Marine Corps Accession Points

    PubMed Central

    Federman, Jeremy; Duhon, Christon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The viability of hearing protection device (HPD) verification (i.e., fit-testing) on a large scale was investigated to address this gap in a military accession environment. Materials and Methods: Personal Attenuation Ratings (PARs) following self-fitted (SELF-Fit) HPDs were acquired from 320 US Marine Corps training recruits (87.5% male, 12.5% female) across four test protocols (1-, 3-, 5-, and 7- frequency). SELF-Fit failures received follow-up to assess potential causes. Follow-up PARs were acquired (Experimenter fit [EXP-Fit], followed by Subject re-fit [SUB Re-Fit]). EXP-Fit was intended to provide a perception (dubbed “ear canal muscle memory”) of what a correctly fitted HPD should feel like. SUB Re-Fit was completed following EXP-Fit to determine whether a training recruit could duplicate EXP-Fit on her/his own without assistance. Results: A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (N=320) showed that SELF-Fit means differed significantly between protocols (P < 0.001). Post-hoc analyses showed that the 1-freq SELF-Fit mean was significantly lower than all other protocols (P < 0.03) by 5.6 dB or more. No difference was found between the multi-frequency protocols. For recruits who were followed up with EXP-Fit (n=79), across all protocols, a significant (P < 0.001) mean improvement of 25.68 dB (10.99) was found, but PARs did not differ (P = 0.99) between EXP-Fit protocols. For recruits in the 3-freq and 5-freq protocol groups who experienced all three PAR test methods (n=33), PAR methods differed (P < 0.001) but no method by protocol interaction was found (P = 0.46). Post hoc tests showed that both EXP-Fit and SUB Re-Fit had significantly better attenuation than SELF-Fit (P < 0.001), but no difference was found between EXPFit and SUB Re-Fit (P = 0.59). For SELF-Fit, the 1-freq protocol resulted in a 35% pass rate, whereas the 3-, 5-, and 7-freq protocols resulted in >60% pass rates. Results showed that once recruits experienced how HPDs should

  15. Self-Protection of Electrochemical Storage Devices via a Thermal Reversible Sol-Gel Transition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Liu, Zhiyuan; Chandran, Bevita K; Deng, Jiyang; Yu, Jiancan; Qi, Dianpeng; Li, Wenlong; Tang, Yuxin; Zhang, Chenguang; Chen, Xiaodong

    2015-10-07

    Thermal self-protected intelligent electrochemical storage devices are fabricated using a reversible sol-gel transition of the electrolyte, which can decrease the specific capacitance and increase and enable temperature-dependent charging and discharging rates in the device. This work represents proof of a simple and useful concept, which shows tremendous promise for the safe and controlled power delivery in electrochemical devices.

  16. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... device includes the esophageal dilator; tracheal bistour (a long, narrow surgical knife); tracheal dilator; tracheal hook; laryngeal injection set; laryngeal knife; laryngeal saw; laryngeal trocar...; wire ear loop; microrule; mirror; mobilizer; ear, nose, and throat punch; ear, nose and throat...

  17. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... device includes the esophageal dilator; tracheal bistour (a long, narrow surgical knife); tracheal dilator; tracheal hook; laryngeal injection set; laryngeal knife; laryngeal saw; laryngeal trocar...; wire ear loop; microrule; mirror; mobilizer; ear, nose, and throat punch; ear, nose and throat...

  18. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... device includes the esophageal dilator; tracheal bistour (a long, narrow surgical knife); tracheal dilator; tracheal hook; laryngeal injection set; laryngeal knife; laryngeal saw; laryngeal trocar...; wire ear loop; microrule; mirror; mobilizer; ear, nose, and throat punch; ear, nose and throat...

  19. 14 CFR 27.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...” device in which the tripping mechanism cannot be overridden by the operating control) must be designed so that— (1) A manual operation is required to restore service after trippling; and (2) If an overload or circuit fault exists, the device will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating...

  20. 14 CFR 27.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...” device in which the tripping mechanism cannot be overridden by the operating control) must be designed so that— (1) A manual operation is required to restore service after trippling; and (2) If an overload or circuit fault exists, the device will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating...

  1. 14 CFR 27.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...” device in which the tripping mechanism cannot be overridden by the operating control) must be designed so that— (1) A manual operation is required to restore service after trippling; and (2) If an overload or circuit fault exists, the device will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...” device in which the tripping mechanism cannot be overridden by the operating control) must be designed so that— (1) A manual operation is required to restore service after trippling; and (2) If an overload or circuit fault exists, the device will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...” device in which the tripping mechanism cannot be overridden by the operating control) must be designed so that— (1) A manual operation is required to restore service after trippling; and (2) If an overload or circuit fault exists, the device will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating...

  4. Reliability Through Life of Internal Protection Devices in Small-Cell ABSL Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Ng, Ka Lok; Bennetti, Andrea; Pearson, Chris; Rao, gopal

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews a reliability analysis of small cell protection batteries. The contents include: 1) The s-p Topology; 2) Cell Level Protection Devices; 3) Battery Level Fault Protection; 4) Large Cell Comparison; and 5) Battery Level Testing and Results.

  5. Short protection device for stack of electrolytic cells

    DOEpatents

    Katz, M.; Schroll, C.R.

    1984-11-29

    The present invention relates to a device for preventing the electrical shorting of a stack of electrolytic cells during an extended period of operation. The device has application to fuel cell and other electrolytic cell stacks operating in low or high temperature corrosive environments. It is of particular importance for use in a stack of fuel cells operating with molten metal carbonate electrolyte for the production of electric power. Also, the device may have application in similar technology involving stacks of electrolytic cells for electrolysis to decompose chemical compounds.

  6. Seismic Protection of an Ancient Aqueduct Using SMA Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Chrysostomou, Christis Z.; Demetriou, Themos; Stassis, Andreas; Hamdaoui, Karim

    2008-07-08

    The effectiveness of the use of Cu-based shape memory alloy (SMA) prestressing devices on an ancient aqueduct is examined in this paper. The dynamic characteristics of the aqueduct were measured within the span of three years and computational models were developed that matched very closely its dynamic behaviour. Using this as a bench mark, SMA prestressing devices were applied on the structure and the effects on its dynamic characteristics were assessed. It was noted that the SMA prestressing devices have a significant effect on the dynamic response of the structure. This is attributed to the stiffening of the structure due to the increase in contact between the masonry units and hence the increase of its stiffness through the increase of the modulus of elasticity of the masonry matrix. It can be concluded that the SMA prestressing devices can provide an inconspicuous means of stiffening masonry structures and increase their resistance to earthquake loads.

  7. Seismic Protection of an Ancient Aqueduct Using SMA Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysostomou, Christis Z.; Demetriou, Themos; Stassis, Andreas; Hamdaoui, Karim

    2008-07-01

    The effectiveness of the use of Cu-based shape memory alloy (SMA) prestressing devices on an ancient aqueduct is examined in this paper. The dynamic characteristics of the aqueduct were measured within the span of three years and computational models were developed that matched very closely its dynamic behaviour. Using this as a bench mark, SMA prestressing devices were applied on the structure and the effects on its dynamic characteristics were assessed. It was noted that the SMA prestressing devices have a significant effect on the dynamic response of the structure. This is attributed to the stiffening of the structure due to the increase in contact between the masonry units and hence the increase of its stiffness through the increase of the modulus of elasticity of the masonry matrix. It can be concluded that the SMA prestressing devices can provide an inconspicuous means of stiffening masonry structures and increase their resistance to earthquake loads.

  8. Experimental evaluation of personal protection devices against graphite nanoaerosols: fibrous filter media, masks, protective clothing, and gloves.

    PubMed

    Golanski, L; Guiot, A; Rouillon, F; Pocachard, J; Tardif, F

    2009-06-01

    In this study, different conventional personal protection devices (fibrous filters, cartridges for respirators, protective clothing, and gloves) well qualified for micron particles were tested with graphite nanoparticles ranging from 10 to 100 nm (electrical mobility diameter). For this purpose, two specific test benches were designed: one for filter-based devices which are tested under a controlled air flow and other for gloves and protective clothing based on the "through diffusion method." The penetration versus particle size shows for most tested filter media the behavior predicted by the theoretical Brownian capture: penetration decreases when particle diameter decreases. No thermal rebound was detected until 10 nm for graphite nanoparticles. Protective clothes were tested by two methods and same trends were obtained. Nonwoven fabrics (air-tight materials) are much more efficient against nanoparticles than cotton and paper. Gloves tested by "through diffusion technique," in static condition seem to efficiently protect against graphite nanoparticles in spite of their important porosity.

  9. Encapsulants for protecting MEMS devices during post-packaging release etch

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2005-10-18

    The present invention relates to methods to protect a MEMS or microsensor device through one or more release or activation steps in a "package first, release later" manufacturing scheme: This method of fabrication permits wirebonds, other interconnects, packaging materials, lines, bond pads, and other structures on the die to be protected from physical, chemical, or electrical damage during the release etch(es) or other packaging steps. Metallic structures (e.g., gold, aluminum, copper) on the device are also protected from galvanic attack because they are protected from contact with HF or HCL-bearing solutions.

  10. Development of Pinhole-Free Amorphous Aluminum Oxide Protective Layers for Biomedical Device Applications.

    PubMed

    Litvinov, Julia; Wang, Yi-Ju; George, Jinnie; Chinwangso, Pawilai; Brankovic, Stanko; Willson, Richard C; Litvinov, Dmitri

    2013-06-15

    This paper describes synthesis of ultrathin pinhole-free insulating aluminum oxide layers for electronic device protection in corrosive liquid environments, such as phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or clinical fluids, to enable emerging biomedical applications such as biomolecular sensors. A pinhole-free 25-nm thick amorphous aluminum oxide layer has been achieved using ultra-high vacuum DC magnetron reactive sputtering of aluminum in oxygen/argon plasma followed by oxygen plasma post-processing. Deposition parameters were optimized to achieve the best corrosion protection of lithographically defined device structures. Electrochemical deposition of copper through the aluminum oxide layers was used to detect the presence (or absence) of pinholes. FTIR, XPS, and spectroscopic ellipsometry were used to characterize the material properties of the protective layers. Electrical resistance of the copper device structures protected by the aluminum oxide layers and exposed to a PBS solution was used as a metric to evaluate the long-term stability of these device structures.

  11. 14 CFR 23.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cannot be overridden by the operating control) must be designed so that— (1) A manual operation is required to restore service after tripping; and (2) If an overload or circuit fault exists, the device will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating control. (d) If the ability to reset...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cannot be overridden by the operating control) must be designed so that— (1) A manual operation is required to restore service after tripping; and (2) If an overload or circuit fault exists, the device will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating control. (d) If the ability to reset...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cannot be overridden by the operating control) must be designed so that— (1) A manual operation is required to restore service after tripping; and (2) If an overload or circuit fault exists, the device will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating control. (d) If the ability to reset...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... cannot be overridden by the operating control) must be designed so that— (1) A manual operation is required to restore service after tripping; and (2) If an overload or circuit fault exists, the device will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating control. (d) If the ability to reset...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cannot be overridden by the operating control) must be designed so that— (1) A manual operation is required to restore service after tripping; and (2) If an overload or circuit fault exists, the device will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating control. (d) If the ability to reset...

  16. Ear tube insertion - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100045.htm Ear tube insertion - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 4 Overview The eardrum (tympanic membrane) separates the ear canal from the middle ear. Review Date 8/ ...

  17. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4500 Ear..., and throat area. The device is used, for example, in microsurgical procedures to excise lesions and... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... faults or serious malfunction of the system or connected equipment. (b) The protective and control... be designed so that, when an overload or circuit fault exists, it will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating control. (d) If the ability to reset a circuit breaker or replace a...

  19. 14 CFR 29.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... faults or serious malfunction of the system or connected equipment. (b) The protective and control... be designed so that, when an overload or circuit fault exists, it will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating control. (d) If the ability to reset a circuit breaker or replace a...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... faults or serious malfunction of the system or connected equipment. (b) The protective and control... be designed so that, when an overload or circuit fault exists, it will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating control. (d) If the ability to reset a circuit breaker or replace a...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... faults or serious malfunction of the system or connected equipment. (b) The protective and control... be designed so that, when an overload or circuit fault exists, it will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating control. (d) If the ability to reset a circuit breaker or replace a...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... faults or serious malfunction of the system or connected equipment. (b) The protective and control... be designed so that, when an overload or circuit fault exists, it will open the circuit regardless of the position of the operating control. (d) If the ability to reset a circuit breaker or replace a...

  3. Energy Dissipating Devices in Falling Rock Protection Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanon-Jano, L.; Blanco-Fernandez, E.; Castro-Fresno, D.; Ballester-Muñoz, F.

    2017-03-01

    Rockfall is a phenomenon which, when uncontrolled, may cause extensive material damage and personal injury. One of the structures used to avoid accidents caused by debris flows or rockfalls is flexible barriers. The energy dissipating devices which absorb the energy generated by rock impact and reduce the mechanical stresses in the rest of the elements of the structure are an essential part of these kinds of structures. This document proposes an overview of the performance of energy dissipating devices, as well as of the role that they fulfil in the barrier. Furthermore, a compilation and a description of the dissipating elements found in the literature are proposed. Additionally, an analysis has been performed of the aspects taken into account in the design, such as experimental (quasi-static and dynamic) tests observing the variation of the behaviour curve depending on the test speed and numerical simulations by means of several finite element software packages.

  4. What Is an Ear Infection?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the germs bother your outer ear, it's called swimmer's ear. The middle ear is a small pocket ... What's Hearing Loss? Taking Care of Your Ears Swimmer's Ear Perforated Eardrum What's Earwax? Contact Us Print ...

  5. Swimmer's Ear (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Swimmer's Ear (Otitis Externa) KidsHealth > For Parents > Swimmer's Ear (Otitis ... español Otitis del nadador (otitis externa) About Swimmer's Ear Otitis externa (OE) — commonly known as swimmer's ear — ...

  6. Short protection device for stack of electrolytic cells

    DOEpatents

    Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1985-10-22

    Electrical short protection is provided in an electrolytic cell stack by the combination of a thin, nonporous ceramic shield and a noble metal foil disposed on opposite sides of the sealing medium in a gas manifold gasket. The thin ceramic shield, such as alumina, is placed between the porous gasket and the cell stack face at the margins of the negative end plate to the most negative cells to impede ion current flow. The noble metal foil, for instance gold, is electrically coupled to the negative potential of the stack to collect positive ions at a harmless location away from the stack face. Consequently, corrosion products from the stack structure deposit on the foil rather than on the stack face to eliminate electrical shorting of cells at the negative end of the stack.

  7. Tuning in the bullfrog ear.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, E R

    1988-01-01

    When electrical resonances were observed in acoustic sensory cells of lower vertebrates, the hearing research community was presented with the exciting possibility that tuning in the ears of those animals might be explained directly in terms of familiar molecular devices. It is reported here that in the frog sacculus, where electrical resonances have been observed in isolated hair cells, the effects of those resonances are completely obscured in the tuning properties of the sacculus in the intact ear. This observation has important implications not only for students of the ear, but for reductionist biologists in general. All of the dynamic properties of a system of connected, bidirectional processes are consequences of all of those processes at once; in such a system, the properties of an experimentally isolated subsystem may be totally obscured in the operation of the system as a whole. PMID:3258166

  8. Antimicrobial coating of devices for prevention of infection: principles and protection.

    PubMed

    Darouiche, R O

    2007-09-01

    Device-associated infections are responsible for about half of nosocomial infections and can cause major medical and economical sequelae. Despite adherence to basic infection control measures, which constitute the mainstay for preventing infection, infections associated with certain devices continue to exist at unacceptably high rates. Potentially-preventive, antimicrobial-utilizing strategies include systemic antibiotic prophylaxis and local administration of antimicrobial agents (antibiotics or antiseptics), which includes antimicrobial irrigation of the surgical field, placement of antimicrobial carriers, antiseptic cleansing of the skin, dipping of surgical implants in antimicrobial solutions, and inserting antimicrobial-coated implants. Since bacterial colonization of the indwelling device is a prelude to infection, prevention of device colonization may lead to a lower rate of clinical infection. Different approaches for antimicrobial coating of devices have been variably successful in preventing device-associated infections. Optimal characteristics of antimicrobial coating can help predict the likelihood and degree of clinical protection against infection. This review addresses the impact of device-related infection, antimicrobial-utilizing approaches for preventing infection, clinical protection afforded by different types of antimicrobial coating, characteristics that predict the ability of antimicrobial coating of devices to prevent clinical infection, and future directions of antimicrobial coating.

  9. What practical factors guide the choice of stent and protection device during carotid angioplasty?

    PubMed

    Bosiers, M; Deloose, K; Verbist, J; Peeters, P

    2008-06-01

    The importance of angioplasty and stenting in the treatment of carotid artery disease cannot be underestimated. Successful carotid stenting does not only depend of the operator's skills and experience, but also an adequate selection of cerebral protection devices and carotid stents can help avoiding neurological complications. A broad spectrum of carotid devices is currently on the market and since all have their assets and downsides, it is virtually impossible to acclaim one specific device as being the best. The individual characteristics of each specific protection system or stent may make it an attractive choice in one circumstance, but render it a less desirable option in others situations. The applicability depends primarily on the arterial anatomy and the specific details of the lesion being treated. But certainly, personal preferences and familiarity with a specific device may legitimately influence the decision to choose one over another.

  10. The impact of embolic protection device and stent design on the outcome of CAS.

    PubMed

    Bosiers, Marc; Deloose, Koen; Verbist, Jürgen; Peeters, Patrick

    2008-09-01

    The importance of angioplasty and stenting in the treatment of carotid artery disease cannot be underestimated. Successful carotid stenting does not only depend on the operator's skills and experience but also on an adequate selection of cerebral protection devices, and carotid stents can help avoid neurological complications. A broad spectrum of carotid devices is currently on the market, and because each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages, it is virtually impossible to claim that one specific device is the best. The individual characteristics of each specific protection system or stent may make it an attractive choice in one circumstance but render it a less desirable option in other situations. The applicability depends primarily on the arterial anatomy and the specific details of the lesion being treated. But certainly, personal preferences and familiarity with a specific device may legitimately influence the decision to choose one over another.

  11. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  12. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  13. Evaluation of Lightweight and Low Profile Communications Devices for Respiratory Protective System 21 (RESPO 21)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    AD-A253 393 Ir ic EREP ORT ELECTE" S JUL2,3 992 C FINAL REPORT Evaluation of Lightweight and Low Profile Communications Devices for Respiratory ...Evaluation of Lightweight and Low Profile Communications Devices for Respiratory Protective System 21 (RESPO21) to U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development...1 INTRODUCTION The Chemical Research, Development, and Engineering Center (CRDEC) is entering development of the next generation of respiratory

  14. Shape-memory alloy overload protection device for osseointegrated transfemoral implant prosthetic limb attachment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Shao, Fei; Hughes, Steven

    2002-11-01

    The osseointegrated trans-femoral implant system provides a direct anchoring technique to attach prosthetic limb. This technique was first introduced PI Brenmark in Sweden. The UK had the first clinical trial in 1997 and currently has 6 active limb wearers. The success of this procedure has the potential for improved gait function and mobility, increased employability and significant long-term improvements in the quality of life for above knee amputees. However, the significant load involved in the trans-femoral implant system has caused permanent deformation and/or fractures of the implant abutment in several occasions. To protect the implant system, the implant abutment in particularly, an overloading protection device was introduced. The device uses mechanical mechanism to release torsion overload on the abutment. However, the bending overload protection remains unsolved. To solve the problem, a new overload protection device was developed. This device uses SMA component for bending overload protection. In this paper, the results of non-linear finite element modelling of the SMA and steel (AISI 1040) components were presented. Experiments were also carried out using steel components to assess the design which is based on the non-linear property of the materials.

  15. Thermoplastic Elastomer-Enabled Smart Electrolyte for Thermoresponsive Self-Protection of Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ye; Ha, Heonjoo; Al-Sudani, Atheer; Ellison, Christopher J; Yu, Guihua

    2016-09-01

    Thermoresponsive smart electrolytes based on Pluronic solution are developed for active control and thermal self-protection of electrochemical energy-storage devices. Mechanistic studies reveal that the highly effective and reversible self-protection behavior is attributed to the sol-gel transition of the Pluronic solution upon temperature change. The transition temperature and the degree of performance suppression can be tuned over a wide range.

  16. Gender and other factors associated with the use of hearing protection devices at work

    PubMed Central

    Meira, Tatiane Costa; Santana, Vilma Sousa; Ferrite, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze whether sociodemographic, occupational, and health-related data are associated with the use of hearing protection devices at work, according to gender. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2006, using a random sample of 2,429 workers, aged between 18 and 65 years old, from residential sub-areas in Salvador, BA, Northeastern Brazil. Questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic, occupational, and health-related data. Workers who reported that they worked in places where they needed to shout in order to be heard were considered to be exposed to noise. Exposed workers were asked whether they used hearing protection devices, and if so, how frequently. Analyses were conducted according to gender, with estimates made about prevalence of the use of hearing protection devices, prevalence ratios, and their respective 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS Twelve percent (12.3%) of study subjects reported that they were exposed to noise while working. Prevalence of the use of hearing protection devices was 59.3% for men and 21.4% for women. Men from higher socioeconomic levels (PR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.14;1.90) and who had previous audiometric tests (PR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.15;1.88) were more likely to use hearing protection devices. For women, greater perceived safety was associated with the use of protection devices (PR = 2.92; 95%CI 1.34;6.34). This perception was specifically related to the presence of supervisors committed to safety (PR = 2.09; 95%CI 1.04;4.21), the existence of clear rules to prevent workplace injuries (PR = 2.81; 95%CI 1.41;5.59), and whether they were informed about workplace safety (PR = 2.42; 95%CI 1.23;4.76). CONCLUSIONS There is a gender bias regarding the use of hearing protection devices that is less favorable to women. The use of such devices among women is positively influenced by their perception of a safe workplace, suggesting that gender should be considered as a factor in hearing conservation programs. PMID:26487294

  17. 46 CFR 111.50-5 - Location of overcurrent protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location of overcurrent protective devices. 111.50-5 Section 111.50-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING...: (i) Exposed to mechanical damage; and (ii) Near an easily ignitable material or where explosive...

  18. Remote sensing applied to the evaluation of crop freeze protection devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Thermal images from an aircraft-mounted scanner are used to evaluate the effectiveness of crop freeze protection devices. Fuel oil heaters, wind machines and irrigation systems are evaluated from flights at an altitude of 450 m over an experimental citrus grove of 1.5 hectares.

  19. Conceptual Design by TRIZ: An Application to a Rear Underrun Protective Device for Industrial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerniglia, D.; Lombardo, E.; Nigrelli, Vincenzo

    2008-11-01

    The paper describes results of methodical activity performed by employing inventive principles of the theory for the inventive resolution of problems (TRIZ), in order to obtain concept of rear underrun protective device for an industrial vehicle. A screening with concepts proposed in previous papers is also performed.

  20. 46 CFR 54.15-5 - Protective devices (modifies UG-125).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... evaporator or heat exchanger (see § 54.01-10) shall be equipped with protective devices as required by § 54... unexpected source of heat. (d) Where an additional hazard can be created by exposure of a pressure vessel to fire or other unexpected sources of external heat (for example, vessels used to store...

  1. 46 CFR 54.15-5 - Protective devices (modifies UG-125).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... evaporator or heat exchanger (see § 54.01-10) shall be equipped with protective devices as required by § 54... unexpected source of heat. (d) Where an additional hazard can be created by exposure of a pressure vessel to fire or other unexpected sources of external heat (for example, vessels used to store...

  2. Otoplasty (Cosmetic Ear Surgery)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is typically done on both ears to optimize symmetry. Otoplasty can be done at any age after ... your ears — including their placement, size, shape and symmetry. The doctor might also take pictures of your ...

  3. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  4. Ear drainage culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... needed. Your health care provider will use a cotton swab to collect the sample from inside the ... Using a cotton swab to take a sample of drainage from the outer ear is not painful. However, ear pain may ...

  5. Swimmer's Ear (External Otitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ears. This is especially true if they use cotton swabs or dangerously sharp small objects, like hair ... all objects out of your ear canals — including cotton swabs — unless your doctor has told you it's ...

  6. Middle ear infection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A middle ear infection is also known as otitis media. It is one of the most common of childhood infections. With this illness, the middle ear becomes red, swollen, and inflamed because of bacteria ...

  7. Swimmer's Ear (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... or inserting foreign objects like bobby pins or paper clips into the ear can all increase the ... discharge from the ear to help identify which bacteria or fungi are causing the infection. Over-the- ...

  8. Ear surgery - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100016.htm Ear surgery - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Overview This image demonstrates normal appearance of the ears in relation to the face. Review Date 10/ ...

  9. Design of real-time encryption module for secure data protection of wearable healthcare devices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungchae; Lee, Byuck Jin; Yoo, Sun K

    2013-01-01

    Wearable devices for biomedical instrumentation could generate the medical data and transmit to a repository on cloud service through wireless networks. In this process, the private medical data will be disclosed by man in the middle attack. Thus, the archived data for healthcare services would be protected by non-standardized security policy by healthcare service provider (HSP) because HIPAA only defines the security rules. In this paper, we adopted the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) for security framework on wearable devices, so healthcare applications using this framework could support the confidentiality easily. The framework developed as dynamic loadable module targeted for lightweight microcontroller such as msp430 within embedded operating system. The performance was shown that the module can support the real-time encryption using electrocardiogram and photoplethysmogram. In this regard, the processing load for enabling security is distributed to wearable devices, and the customized data protection method could be composed by HSP for a trusted healthcare service.

  10. “Hydraulic Cushion” Type Overload Protection Devices Usable in Mechanical Presses. A Patent Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioară, R.

    2016-11-01

    The possible consequences of machine-tool overload are well-known. In order to prevent such, machine-tools are equipped with various overload protection devices. Mechanical presses, intensively strained machine-tools, are typically equipped with three protection systems: against accidental access to the working area during machine deployment, against torque overload and force overload. Force overload protection systems include either destructible parts and are used in small to medium nominal force mechanical presses, or non-destructible ones used mostly in medium to large nominal force (H-frame) presses. A particular class of force overload protection systems without destructible parts are “hydraulic cushion” type devices. While such systems do not necessarily cause the machine to stop, the slide's stroke does not reach the initial dead centre and consequently cannot exert the designed technological force on the workpiece. By a patent study referencing 19 relevant patents the paper captures both the diversity of the constrictive solutions of “hydraulic cushion” type protection devices and their positioning modalities within the structure of a mechanical press. An important aim of the study is to highlight the reserve of creativity existing in this field, at least from the viewpoint of the hydraulic cushion positioning, as well as to emphasize the essential requirement of a relative motion between the mobile and the fixed parts of the tool, a motion of opposite sense to that of the slide-crank mechanism.

  11. Safety Outcomes Using a Proximal Protection Device in Carotid Stenting of Long Carotid Stenoses

    PubMed Central

    Atchaneeyasakul, Kunakorn; Khandelwal, Priyank; Ambekar, Sudheer; Ramdas, Kevin; Guada, Luis; Yavagal, Dileep

    2016-01-01

    Background Embolic protection devices can prevent atherosclerotic emboli during carotid stenting. Newer proximal protection devices reverse flow in the internal carotid artery (ICA), leading to reduction in perioperative microemboli. The risk of stroke is high for carotid stenting of ICA lesions with a length >10 mm and/or angiographic string sign. Objective We aimed to evaluate the safety outcomes of proximal embolic protection device usage in this high-risk group. Methods This is a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent carotid stenting procedures with proximal embolic protection devices at a tertiary care center. High-risk features for adverse events with carotid stenting were identified. Peri- and postprocedural outcomes were recorded. We further compared outcomes in patients with a carotid stenosis length >10 mm to those with shorter stenosis. Results From January 2011 to December 2014, we included 27 patients; 96.3% were symptomatic and 3.7% were asymptomatic. There was a stent placement technical success rate of 100%. No major stroke or coronary events were recorded. One minor stroke event developed in one patient. A carotid lesion length >10 mm and/or angiographic string sign was noted in 21/27 patients, with an average lesion length of 14.4 mm. One patient (4.8%) in this group developed a minor stroke event. Neither a coronary nor a major stroke event was recorded in this group. There was no significant difference in the complication rate between the long lesion and the control group. Conclusion In our patient cohort, it was found that a proximal embolic protection device is safe for patients with carotid stenosis, including those with a carotid lesion length >10 mm and/or angiographic string sign. PMID:27781040

  12. Swimmer's Ear (External Otitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be caused by many different types of bacteria or fungi. It usually develops in ears that are exposed to moisture. People who get OE often have been diving or swimming for long periods of time. This can bring infectious bacteria directly into the ear canal. Swimmer's ear occurs ...

  13. Reconstruction of middle ear malformations

    PubMed Central

    Schwager, Konrad

    2008-01-01

    Malformations of the middle ear are classified as minor and major malformations. Minor malformations appear with regular external auditory canal, tympanic membrane and aerated middle ear space. The conducting hearing loss is due to fixation or interruption of the ossicular chain. The treatment is surgical, following the rules of ossiculoplasty and stapes surgery. In major malformations (congenital aural atresia) there is no external auditory canal and a deformed or missing pinna. The mastoid and the middle ear space may be underdevelopped, the ossicular chain is dysplastic. Surgical therapy is possible in patients with good aeration of the temporal bone, existing windows, a near normal positioned facial nerve and a mobile ossicular chain. Plastic and reconstructive surgery of the pinna should proceed the reconstruction of the external auditory canal and middle ear. In cases of good prognosis unilateral aural atresia can be approached already in childhood. In patients with high risk of surgical failure, bone anchored hearing aids are the treatment of choice. Recent reports of implantable hearing devices may be discussed as an alternative treatment for selected patients. PMID:22073077

  14. PROTECTION DEVICE ON THE REPAIR OF RUPTURES OF KNEE EXTENSOR MECHANISM

    PubMed Central

    Arguello Frutos, Carlos Francisco; Arbix Camargo, Osmar Pedro; Severino, Nilson Roberto; Leite Cury, Ricardo de Paula; de Oliveira, Victor Marques; Aihara, Tatsuo; Avakian, Roger

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate results obtained using the protection device technique for osteosintesis or suture of extensor mechanism lesions. Material and Methods: The authors reviewed 18 charts of patients submitted to protection device technique due to traumatic lesion of extensor mechanism that had occurred between the anterior tibial tuberosity and the apical portion of patella. Age ranged from 22 to 69 years, with a mean of 44 years. Male patients prevailed, with 67% of the cases. The most affected spot was, in 83% of the cases, the apical distal third. A protocol was created to collect data, listing the patients and the clinical history from their medical records. Results: The authors observed consolidation of the patella fracture in all 17 patients, and cicatrization of the patellar ligament in one patient. Pain was described in four patients. There were no complications related to the procedure. Conclusion: The protection device showed to be efficient when used in surgical treatment of lesions between the apical patella and the anterior tibial tuberosity, providing active and passive mobility in the early postoperative time. PMID:26998454

  15. Ear cleaning: the UK and US perspective.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Tim; Cole, Lynette K

    2004-04-01

    Ear cleaning helps maintain the normal otic environment and is important in the treatment of otitis. Over cleaning, however, may trigger otitis through maceration of the epidermal lining. Simple manual cleaning is useful for routine cleansing but doesn't remove tightly adherent debris. Bulb syringes are more vigorous but may damage the ear in inexperienced hands. Devices using mains water pressure or dental machines are also available. Thorough cleaning of the ear canals and middle ear cavity can only be achieved by retrograde flushing using specially adapted catheters, feeding tubes or video otoscopes under anaesthesia. Myringotomy, inspection and cleaning of the middle should be performed if the tympanic membrane appears abnormal. There are a wide variety of cleaning fluids available. Ceruminolytics soften and dissolve cerumen to facilitate cleaning. Surfactants emulsify debris, breaking it up and keeping it in solution. Astringents dry the ear canal surface, preventing maceration. Maintaining a low pH and incorporating antimicrobial agents can inhibit microbial proliferation and glucocorticoids can be used to reduce inflammation. Adverse effects and contraindications following ear cleaning can include maceration, contact reactions, otitis media, ear canal avulsion, vestibular syndrome, Horner's syndrome, facial nerve paralysis and deafness. Care should be exercised in selecting cleaning fluids if the tympanic membranes are ruptured.

  16. Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Year-Old Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery KidsHealth > For Parents > Middle Ear Infections and Ear ... medio y colocación de tubos de ventilación Why Surgery? Many kids get middle ear infections (known as ...

  17. Improvement of Electrostatic Discharge Protection by Introducing a Spindt-Type Silicon Field Emission Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Liann-Be; Ferng, Yi-Cherng; Liao, Jhong-Wei; Lin, Ching-Chi

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, an original Spindt-type silicon field emission device (FED) with electrostatic discharge (ESD) regulation capability is proposed. The fabricated FED characteristics, including process parameters, capacitance-voltage (C-V), current-voltage (I-V), and frequency response, are investigated. To verify its capability of ESD protection, we replace the metal oxide varistor (MOV) in a state-of-the-art protection configuration with the fabricated FED under the application conditions of system-level ESD tests. The measured results show that the proposed ESD protection circuit composed of a prestage gas arrestor, an intermediate resistor, and an introduced FED can suppress an injected ESD pulse voltage of 6000 to 3193 V, a reduction of 46.8%, whereas suppression is to 5606 V, a reduction of 6.57%, when using only a gas arrestor.

  18. Pathology of the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Orengo, Ida; Robbins, Kerri; Marsch, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The external ear is exposed to weathering and trauma; it also has sparse vascularity, making it prone to infection and disease. The external location of the cutaneous ear makes it easily visible for diagnosis and accessible for treatment. In this article, the authors focus on diseases of the ear that are most commonly encountered and may be subject to surgical and medical evaluation and/or treatment. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and treatment for each disease entity are discussed. PMID:23115534

  19. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874... throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill is a rotating drilling device, including the handpiece, that... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or...

  20. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874... throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill is a rotating drilling device, including the handpiece, that... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or...

  1. Fish-protection devices at unscreened water diversions can reduce entrainment: evidence from behavioural laboratory investigations

    PubMed Central

    Poletto, Jamilynn B.; Cocherell, Dennis E.; Mussen, Timothy D.; Ercan, Ali; Bandeh, Hossein; Kavvas, M. Levent; Cech, Joseph J.; Fangue, Nann A.

    2015-01-01

    Diversion (i.e. extraction) of water from rivers and estuaries can potentially affect native wildlife populations if operation is not carefully managed. For example, open, unmodified water diversions can act as a source of injury or mortality to resident or migratory fishes from entrainment and impingement, and can cause habitat degradation and fragmentation. Fish-protection devices, such as exclusion screens, louvres or sensory deterrents, can physically or behaviourally deter fish from approaching or being entrained into water diversions. However, empirical assessment of their efficacy is often lacking or is investigated only for particular economically or culturally important fishes, such as salmonids. The Southern population of anadromous green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) is listed as threatened in California, and there is a high density of water diversions located within their native range (the Sacramento–San Joaquin watershed). Coupled with their unique physiology and behaviour compared with many other fishes native to California, the green sturgeon is susceptible to entrainment into diversions and is an ideal species with which to study the efficacy of mitigation techniques. Therefore, we investigated juvenile green sturgeon (188–202 days post-hatch) in the presence of several fish-protection devices to assess behaviour and entrainment risk. Using a large experimental flume (∼500 kl), we found that compared with an open diversion pipe (control), the addition of a trash-rack box, louvre box, or perforated cylinder on the pipe inlet all significantly reduced the proportion of fish that were entrained through the pipe (P = 0.03, P = 0.028, and P = 0.028, respectively). Likewise, these devices decreased entrainment risk during a single movement past the pipe by between 60 and 96%. These fish-protection devices should decrease the risk of fish entrainment during water-diversion activities. PMID:27293725

  2. Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2-Year-Old Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery KidsHealth > For Parents > Middle Ear Infections and ... to 18 months or longer. previous continue Tympanostomy Tube Surgery If your child is old enough to ...

  3. Performance Assessment of Hearing Protection and Communication Enhancement Devices: Peltor Comtac III and IV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    may amplify low level sounds, but the localization performance was degraded in comparison to the open ear performance. The results from the speech...active headsets may amplify low level sounds, but the localization performance was degraded in comparison to the open ear performance. The results...designed to amplify soft sounds and conversational speech while allowing loud sounds to pass though without amplification. To normalize the hear-thru

  4. Caring for Pierced Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... close. Regularly wash your ears with soap and water. Carefully do this at least once a day to avoid infection. Twist the earrings a few times daily. This will help keep the pierced holes open. Put rubbing alcohol on your ears. Using ...

  5. Avoiding Infection After Ear Piercing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Avoiding Infection After Ear Piercing Page Content Article Body What is the best way to avoid infection after ear piercing? Ears may be pierced for cosmetic reasons ...

  6. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    MedlinePlus

    ... and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... The eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ear (the space deep to the eardrum) and the back of the ...

  7. Prevalence of Respiratory Protective Devices in U.S. Health Care Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Wizner, Kerri; Stradtman, Lindsay; Novak, Debra; Shaffer, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    An online questionnaire was developed to explore respiratory protective device (RPD) prevalence in U.S. health care facilities. The survey was distributed to professional nursing society members in 2014 and again in 2015 receiving 322 and 232 participant responses, respectively. The purpose of this study was to explore if the emergency preparedness climate associated with Ebola virus disease changed the landscape of RPD use and awareness. Comparing response percentages from the two sampling time frames using bivariate analysis, no significant changes were found in types of RPDs used in health care settings. N95 filtering facepiece respirators continue to be the most prevalent RPD used in health care facilities, but powered air-purifying respirators are also popular, with regional use highest in the West and Midwest. Understanding RPD use prevalence could ensure that health care workers receive appropriate device trainings as well as improve supply matching for emergency RPD stockpiling. PMID:27462029

  8. A simple device to protect against osteoradionecrosis induced by interstitial irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Levendag, P.C.; Visch, L.L.; Driver, N. )

    1990-06-01

    The incidence of osteoradionecrosis has declined since the introduction of preventive oral hygiene programs and meticulous dental evaluations before and after irradiation. Nevertheless, radiation dose per se still remains an important factor in osteoradionecrosis. Interstitial radiation has received much attention in the past decade since the use of flexible afterloading systems. It has become common practice in large oncology centers to implant radiation carriers in bulky tumor in the oral cavity and/or oropharynx. For interstitial radiation, with or without external radiation, minimal tumor doses are often cited to be more than 70 Gy. Unfortunately, if the mandible receives more than 70 Gy, it is at risk for the development of osteoradionecrosis. Therefore a simple protective lead device has been designed for routine use in brachytherapy in oral cavity tumors to reduce the dose to the mandible. This device will diminish the potential risk of osteoradionecrosis development.

  9. Effectiveness of Ear Splint Therapy for Ear Deformities

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To present our experience with ear splint therapy for babies with ear deformities, and thereby demonstrate that this therapy is an effective and safe intervention without significant complications. Methods This was a retrospective study of 54 babies (35 boys and 19 girls; 80 ears; age ≤3 months) with ear deformities who had received ear splint therapy at the Center for Torticollis, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ajou University Hospital between December 2014 and February 2016. Before the initiation of ear splint therapy, ear deformities were classified with reference to the standard terminology. We compared the severity of ear deformity before and after ear splint therapy by using the physician's ratings. We also compared the physician's ratings and the caregiver's ratings on completion of ear splint therapy. Results Among these 54 babies, 41 children (58 ears, 72.5%) completed the ear splint therapy. The mean age at initiation of therapy was 52.91±18.26 days and the treatment duration was 44.27±32.06 days. Satyr ear, forward-facing ear lobe, Darwinian notch, overfolded ear, and cupped ear were the five most common ear deformities. At the completion of therapy, the final physician's ratings of ear deformities were significantly improved compared to the initial ratings (8.28±1.44 vs. 2.51±0.92; p<0.001). There was no significant difference between the physician's ratings and the caregiver's ratings at the completion of ear splint therapy (8.28±1.44 vs. 8.0±1.61; p=0.297). Conclusion We demonstrated that ear splint therapy significantly improved ear deformities in babies, as measured by quantitative rating scales. Ear splint therapy is an effective and safe intervention for babies with ear deformities. PMID:28289646

  10. Low-impedance cable for parallel-connected surge protective devices

    SciTech Connect

    Bulson, J.M.

    1995-10-01

    A coaxial low-impedance cable is described for surge protective device (SPD) wiring applications. The cable is designed to replace conventional wiring when parallel connecting any SPD which depends on the applied transient voltage to function. The cable is designed to minimize the transmission loss (voltage drop) of lightning and switching transients from the point of protection to the SPD components. This is accomplished primarily by minimizing the cable inductance through a reduced coaxial aspect ratio (major to minor diameter). The resultant cable has a very low characteristic impedance (2--15 {Omega}). The suppression performance of an SPD installed with 10 AWG coaxial cables provides an improvement of a factor of 2--4 over that using conventional wiring. The cable design details are discussed along with sure suppression performance.

  11. Getting Teens to Read with Their Ears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fues, Marianne Cole

    2009-01-01

    Audiobooks have been around for years in various formats, like cassette tapes and CDs. This article describes a new type of audiobook on the market which is generating an interest in "reading." The device, called Playaway, is the size of a MP3 player and comes with a lanyard and ear buds. Buttons on the back of the player control the…

  12. Surgical and Technical Modalities for Hearing Restoration in Ear Malformations.

    PubMed

    Dazert, Stefan; Thomas, Jan Peter; Volkenstein, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Malformations of the external and middle ear often go along with an aesthetic and functional handicap. Independent of additional aesthetic procedures, a successful functional hearing restoration leads to a tremendous gain in quality of life for affected patients. The introduction of implantable hearing systems (bone conduction and middle ear devices) offers new therapeutic options in this field. We focus on functional rehabilitation of patients with malformations, either by surgical reconstruction or the use of different implantable hearing devices, depending on the disease itself and the severity of malformation as well as hearing impairment. Patients with an open ear canal and minor malformations are good candidates for surgical hearing restoration of middle ear structures with passive titanium or autologous implants. In cases with complete fibrous or bony atresia of the ear canal, the most promising functional outcome and gain in quality of life can be expected with an active middle ear implant or a bone conduction device combined with a surgical aesthetic rehabilitation in a single or multi-step procedure. Although the surgical procedure for bone conduction devices is straightforward and safe, more sophisticated operations for active middle ear implants (e.g., Vibrant Soundbridge, MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria) provide an improved speech discrimination in noise and the ability of sound localization compared with bone conduction devices where the stimulation reaches both cochleae.

  13. Ear problems in swimmers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mao-Che; Liu, Chia-Yu; Shiao, An-Suey; Wang, Tyrone

    2005-08-01

    Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear), otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane.

  14. Solute diffusion through fibrotic tissue formed around protective cage system for implantable devices.

    PubMed

    Prihandana, Gunawan Setia; Ito, Hikaru; Tanimura, Kohei; Yagi, Hiroshi; Hori, Yuki; Soykan, Orhan; Sudo, Ryo; Miki, Norihisa

    2015-08-01

    This article presents the concept of an implantable cage system that can house and protect implanted biomedical sensing and therapeutic devices in the body. Cylinder-shaped cages made of porous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sheets with an 80-µm pore size and/or stainless steel meshes with 0.54-mm openings were implanted subcutaneously in the dorsal region of rats for 5 weeks. Analysis of the explanted cages showed the formation of fibrosis tissue around the cages. PVA cages had fibrotic tissue growing mostly along the outer surface of cages, while stainless steel cages had fibrotic tissue growing into the inside surface of the cage structure, due to the larger porosity of the stainless steel meshes. As the detection of target molecules with short time lags for biosensors and mass transport with low diffusion resistance into and out of certain therapeutic devices are critical for the success of such devices, we examined whether the fibrous tissue formed around the cages were permeable to molecules of our interest. For that purpose, bath diffusion and microfluidic chamber diffusion experiments using solutions containing the target molecules were performed. Diffusion of sodium, potassium and urea through the fibrosis tissue was confirmed, thus suggesting the potential of these cylindrical cages surrounded by fibrosis tissue to successfully encase implantable sensors and therapeutic apparatus.

  15. Superhydrophobic SAM Modified Electrodes for Enhanced Current Limiting Properties in Intrinsic Conducting Polymer Surge Protection Devices.

    PubMed

    Jabarullah, Noor H; Verrelli, Emanuele; Mauldin, Clayton; Navarro, Luis A; Golden, Josh H; Madianos, Leonidas M; Kemp, Neil T

    2015-06-09

    Surface interface engineering using superhydrophobic gold electrodes made with 1-dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) has been used to enhance the current limiting properties of novel surge protection devices based on the intrinsic conducting polymer, polyaniline doped with methanesulfonic acid. The resulting devices show significantly enhanced current limiting characteristics, including current saturation, foldback, and negative differential effects. We show how SAM modification changes the morphology of the polymer film directly adjacent to the electrodes, leading to the formation of an interfacial compact thin film that lowers the contact resistance at the Au-polymer interface. We attribute the enhanced current limiting properties of the devices to a combination of lower contact resistance and increased Joule heating within this interface region which during a current surge produces a current blocking resistive barrier due to a thermally induced dedoping effect caused by the rapid diffusion of moisture away from this region. The effect is exacerbated at higher applied voltages as the higher temperature leads to stronger depletion of charge carriers in this region, resulting in a negative differential resistance effect.

  16. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  17. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  18. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  19. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  20. Physiological and subjective responses to cooling devices on firefighting protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chinmei; Tochihara, Yutaka; Kim, Taegyou

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of ice-packs (ICE) and phase change material (PCM) cooling devices in reducing physiological load based on subjects' physiological and subjective responses while the subjects exercised on a bicycle ergometer while wearing firefighting protective clothing in a relatively high temperature environment (30 degrees C, 50%RH). Subjects were eight graduate students, aged 25.9 years (SD 3.2). Each subject participated in four 50-min exposures: control (CON), ICE, PCM of 5 degrees C [PCM(5)] and 20 degrees C [PCM(20)]. Each subject rested in a pre-test room for 10 min before entering the test-room where they rested for another 10 min, followed by 30 min-exercise and a 10 min-recovery period. The exercise intensity was set at 55%VO(2max). Cooling effects were evaluated by measuring rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk), body weight loss and subjective responses. An increase in Tre for PCM(5) and PCM(20) which was less than that for CON and ICE was observed. The increases in Tsk were depressed using cooling devices, but the cooling effects of PCMs were greater than ICE. The subjects with CON felt hotter and wetter than those in the other conditions. The larger surface cooling area, higher melting temperature and softer material of PCMs which reduces absorption capacity caused a decrease in Tre and Tsk for PCM(5) and PCM(20) which was more than that for CON and ICE. Furthermore, PCM(20) does not require refrigeration. These results suggest that PCM(20) is more effective than other cooling devices in reducing the physiological load while wearing firefighting protective clothing.

  1. Ear Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... head, sports injuries, and even listening to loud music can cause ear damage, which can affect hearing ... But for kids and teens, listening to loud music (at concerts, in the car, through headphones) is ...

  2. Ear infection - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Paralysis of the face Inflammation around the brain ( epidural abscess ) or in the brain Damage to the part ... pubmed/23818543 . Read More Cholesteatoma Ear infection - acute Epidural abscess Mastoiditis Otitis Review Date 4/21/2015 Updated ...

  3. Ear tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor Review Date 8/5/2015 Updated by: Sumana Jothi ... Otolaryngology, NCHCS VA, SFVA, San Francisco, CA. Internal review and update on 09/01/2016 by David ...

  4. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... more than 6 children) Changes in altitude or climate Cold climate Exposure to smoke Family history of ear infections ... or fewer children. This can reduce your child's chances of getting a cold or other infection, and ...

  5. How to Use Ear Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... the dropper tip down. Tilt the affected ear up or lie on your side. Pull the ear backward and upward (or if giving ... into the ear canal. Keep your ear tilted up for a few minutes or insert a soft ... from the Michigan Pharmacists Association's Patient Education Program.

  6. Play It by Ear. Hearing Conservation Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Dianne R.

    This curriculum was designed to help teachers teach their fourth-grade students about hearing and the effects of loud noises on hearing. The program describes the human ear and how it works, explains the health effects of noise, and offers ways for students to protect their hearing from unsafe noise levels. Students are taught how hearing is…

  7. Protective effects of a standard extract of Mangifera indica L. (VIMANG) against mouse ear edemas and its inhibition of eicosanoid production in J774 murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Garrido, G; González, D; Lemus, Y; Delporte, C; Delgado, R

    2006-06-01

    A standard aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L., used in Cuba as antioxidant under the brand name VIMANG, was tested in vivo for its anti-inflammatory activity, using commonly accepted assays. The standard extract of M. indica, administered orally (50-200mg/kg body wt.), reduced ear edema induced by arachidonic acid (AA) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) in mice. In the PMA model, M. indica extract also reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In vitro studies were performed using macrophage cell line J774 stimulated with pro-inflammatory stimuli lipopolysaccharide-interferon gamma (LPS-IFNgamma) or calcium ionophore A23187 to determine prostaglandin PGE(2) or leukotriene LTB(4) release, respectively. The extract inhibited the induction of PGE(2) and LTB(4) with IC(50) values of 21.7 and 26.0microg/ml, respectively. Mangiferin (a glucosylxanthone isolated from the extract) also inhibited these AA metabolites (PGE(2), IC(50) value=17.2microg/ml and LTB(4), IC(50) value=2.1microg/ml). These results represent an important contribution to the elucidation of the mechanism involved in the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects reported for the standard extract of M. indica VIMANG.

  8. Bats as the main prey of wintering long-eared owl (Asio otus) in Beijing: Integrating biodiversity protection and urban management.

    PubMed

    Tian, Long; Zhou, Xuwei; Shi, Yang; Guo, Yumin; Bao, Weidong

    2015-03-01

    The loss of biodiversity from urbanized areas is a major environmental problem challenging policy-makers throughout the world. Solutions to this problem are urgently required in China. We carried out a case study of wintering long-eared owls (Asio otus) and their main prey to illustrate the negative effects of urbanization combined with ineffective conservation of biodiversity in Beijing. Field monitoring of owl numbers at two roosting sites from 2004 to 2012 showed that the owl population had fallen rapidly in metropolitan Beijing. Analysis of pellet contents identified only seven individuals of two species of shrew. The majority of mammalian prey comprised four bat and seven rodent species, making up 29.3% and 29.5% of the prey items, respectively. Prey composition varied significantly among years at the two sample sites. At the urban site the consumption of bats and rodents declined gradually over time, while predation on birds increased. In contrast, at the suburban site the prey composition showed an overall decrease in the number of bats, a sharp increase and a subsequent decrease in bird prey, and the number of rodent prey fell to a low point. Rapid development of real estate and inadequate greenfield management in city parks resulted in negative effects on the bird and small mammal habitat of urban areas in Beijing. We suggest that measures to conserve biodiversity should be integrated into future urban planning to maintain China's rich biodiversity while also achieving sustainable economic development.

  9. Inner ear disturbances related to middle ear inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sone, Michihiko

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The inner and middle ear are connected mainly through round and oval windows, and inflammation in the middle ear cavity can spread into the inner ear, which might induce a disturbance. In cases with intractable otitis media, attention should also be paid to symptoms related to the inner ear. In this paper, middle ear inflammation and related inner ear disturbances are reviewed with a focus on representative middle ear diseases (such as acute otitis media, chronic otitis media, otitis media with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, eosinophilic otitis media, cholesteatoma with labyrinthine fistula, and reflux-related otitis media). Their clinical concerns are then discussed with reference to experimental studies. In these diseases, early diagnosis and adequate treatment are required to manage not only middle ear but also inner ear conditions. PMID:28303055

  10. Isolating the auditory system from acoustic noise during functional magnetic resonance imaging: Examination of noise conduction through the ear canal, head, and bodya)

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Melcher, Jennifer R.

    2007-01-01

    Approaches were examined for reducing acoustic noise levels heard by subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a technique for localizing brain activation in humans. Specifically, it was examined whether a device for isolating the head and ear canal from sound (a “helmet”) could add to the isolation provided by conventional hearing protection devices (i.e., earmuffs and earplugs). Both subjective attenuation (the difference in hearing threshold with versus without isolation devices in place) and objective attenuation (difference in ear-canal sound pressure) were measured. In the frequency range of the most intense fMRI noise (1–1.4 kHz), a helmet, earmuffs, and earplugs used together attenuated perceived sound by 55–63 dB, whereas the attenuation provided by the conventional devices alone was substantially less: 30–37 dB for earmuffs, 25–28 dB for earplugs, and 39–41 dB for earmuffs and earplugs used together. The data enabled the clarification of the relative importance of ear canal, head, and body conduction routes to the cochlea under different conditions: At low frequencies (≤500 Hz), the ear canal was the dominant route of sound conduction to the cochlea for all of the device combinations considered. At higher frequencies (>500 Hz), the ear canal was the dominant route when either earmuffs or earplugs were worn. However, the dominant route of sound conduction was through the head when both earmuffs and earplugs were worn, through both ear canal and body when a helmet and earmuffs were worn, and through the body when a helmet, earmuffs, and earplugs were worn. It is estimated that a helmet, earmuffs, and earplugs together will reduce the most intense fMRI noise levels experienced by a subject to 60–65 dB SPL. Even greater reductions in noise should be achievable by isolating the body from the surrounding noise field. PMID:11206150

  11. Modeling and simulation of the current quenching behavior of a line lightning protection device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mürmann, Mario; Chusov, Alexander; Fuchs, Roman; Nefedov, Alexander; Nordborg, Henrik

    2017-03-01

    We develop a consistent model for a line lightning protection device (LLPD) and demonstrate that it can explain the two modes of current quenching—impulse quenching and current zero quenching—observed in such devices. A dimensional analysis shows that impulse quenching can always be obtained if the power loss from the electric arcs is large enough as compared to {{U}0}{{I}f} , where U 0 is the grid voltage and I f is the maximum follow current after a lightning strike. We further show that the two modes of quenching can be reproduced in a full 3D arc simulation coupled to the appropriate circuit model, which allows us to analyze the power loss from the arc in greater detail. Because of the high temperature, the main mechanism of power loss is radiation which has to be correctly modeled in order to obtain physically meaningful results. The results will allow us to use numerical simulations to optimize the quenching ability to LLPDs in the future.

  12. Flexible Display and Integrated Communication Devices (FDICD) Technology. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    this, the following modifications shall be accomplished: SLA enclosure will be redesigned and replaced with an injection- molded housing for more...gloved-hand operation Over molding on bottom, top ears, and middle: •Protects display •Protects unit in drop and impact Figure 5: WAVE Spiral 3 ports...This hardshell case was a commercially procured hard plastic case suited for electronic devices with a custom black foam insert to hold the

  13. Gender Differences in Use of Hearing Protection Devices among Farm Operators

    PubMed Central

    McCullagh, Marjorie C.; Banerjee, Tanima; Yang, James J.; Bernick, Janice; Duffy, Sonia; Redman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Although farm operators have frequent exposure to hazardous noise and high rates of noise-induced hearing loss, they have low use of hearing protection devices (HPDs). Women represent about one-third of farm operators, and their numbers are climbing. However, among published studies examining use of HPDs in this worker group, none have examined gender-related differences. The purpose of this study was to examine gender-related differences in use of hearing protection and related predictors among farm operators. Materials and Methods: Data previously collected at farm shows and by telephone were analyzed using t-tests and generalized linear model with zero inflated negative binomial (ZINB) distribution. Findings: The difference in rate of hearing protector use between men and women farm operators was not significant. There was no difference between men and women in most hearing protector-related attitudes and beliefs. Conclusion: Although men and women farm operators had similar rates of use of hearing protectors when working in high-noise environments, attitudes about HPD use differed. Specifically, interpersonal role modeling was a predictor of HPD use among women, but not for men. This difference suggests that while farm operators of both genders may benefit from interventions designed to reduce barriers to HPD use (e.g., difficulty communicating with co-workers and hearing warning sounds), farm women have unique needs in relation to cognitive-perceptual factors that predict HPD use. Women farm operators may lack role models for use of HPDs (e.g., in peers and advertising), contributing to their less frequent use of protection. PMID:27991469

  14. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss].

    PubMed

    Hesse, G

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most dominant handicaps in modern societies, which additionally very often is not realized or not admitted. About one quarter of the general population suffers from inner ear hearing loss and is therefore restricted in communicational skills. Demographic factors like increasing age play an important role as well as environmental influences and an increasing sound and noise exposure especially in leisure activities. Thus borders between a "classical" presbyacusis - if it ever existed - and envirionmentally induced hearing loss disappear. Today restrictions in hearing ability develop earlier in age but at the same time they are detected and diagnosed earlier. This paper can eventually enlighten the wide field of inner ear hearing loss only fragmentarily; therefore mainly new research, findings and developments are reviewed. The first part discusses new aspects of diagnostics of inner ear hearing loss and different etiologies.

  15. Analysis of Nonlinear Insertion Loss of Hearing Protection Devices using an Acoustic Test Fixture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    tips (Etymotic). ................................................................ 4 4. TEA Invisio® ( TEA ...the Combat Arms Earplug™ (double-ended type), the Etymotic EB15, the TEA Invisio®, and the TEA Invisio® push to talk (PTT) module with an MSA Sordin...triple-flanged tip was used. Figure 3. Etymotic EB-15 BlastPLG™ and ear tips (Etymotic). 5 The TEA Invisio® is an electronic hearing

  16. Controlled release insecticide devices for protection of sheep against head strike caused by Lucilia cuprina.

    PubMed

    James, P J; Mitchell, H K; Cockrum, K S; Ancell, P M

    1994-03-01

    The effectiveness of polymer matrix tags containing (w/w) 8.5% cypermethrin, 7.5% flucythrinate, 13.7% tetrachlorvinphos or 20.0% diazinon in protecting sheep against head strike by the sheep blowfly (Lucilia cuprina Wiedemann) was investigated in larval implant, fly cage and field studies. Tags impregnated with cypermethrin reduced the total number of egg masses deposited on the heads of sheep in fly cage studies over a 6 week period by 73.3% compared with no treatment. Tags impregnated with flucythrinate reduced the number of egg masses by 25.3% over 21 weeks but there were no significant differences (P < 0.05) between treated and untreated sheep at individual exposures. Egg masses were found on the majority of tagged sheep and no protection was provided against implants with first instar L. cuprina larvae by either cypermethrin or flucythrinate tags. Tags impregnated with diazinon gave longer protection than treatment with a liquid formulation containing 400 ppm diazinon in larval implant, fly cage and field studies. Over a 12 week period in field studies, 6.6% of rams treated with diazinon tags became struck compared with 30% treated by diazinon jetting, 35.7% treated with plastic tags not impregnated with insecticide and 24.2% of untreated rams. When the rams were exposed to high populations of L. cuprina in an exposure house from 13 to 18 weeks after treatment, 3.3% of rams treated with diazinon tags, 57.1% treated by diazinon jetting, 43.8% treated with plastic tags and 23.5% of untreated rams became struck. Most strikes in the diazinon tagged sheep occurred at sites which were not contacted by the tags. Tags impregnated with tetrachlorvinphos reduced the number of strikes in comparison with no treatment in larval implant and fly cage studies but the results were inconsistent and not as good as those from diazinon tags. It is concluded that well designed controlled release devices that reliably contact the wool on the heads of sheep at sites of flystrike

  17. Listening to the Ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shera, Christopher Alan

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics--termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models--that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus -frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  18. Listening to the ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shera, Christopher A.

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics-termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models-that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  19. Impact of wound edge protection devices on surgical site infection after laparotomy: multicentre randomised controlled trial (ROSSINI Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Calvert, Melanie; Bartlett, David C; Gheorghe, Adrian; Redman, Val; Dowswell, George; Hawkins, William; Mak, Tony; Youssef, Haney; Richardson, Caroline; Hornby, Steven; Magill, Laura; Haslop, Richard; Wilson, Sue; Morton, Dion

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the clinical effectiveness of wound edge protection devices in reducing surgical site infection after abdominal surgery. Design Multicentre observer blinded randomised controlled trial. Participants Patients undergoing laparotomy at 21 UK hospitals. Interventions Standard care or the use of a wound edge protection device during surgery. Main outcome measures Surgical site infection within 30 days of surgery, assessed by blinded clinicians at seven and 30 days and by patient’s self report for the intervening period. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, duration of stay in hospital, and the effect of characteristics of the patient and operation on the efficacy of the device. Results 760 patients were enrolled with 382 patients assigned to the device group and 378 to the control group. Six patients in the device group and five in the control group did not undergo laparotomy. Fourteen patients, seven in each group, were lost to follow-up. A total of 184 patients experienced surgical site infection within 30 days of surgery, 91/369 (24.7%) in the device group and 93/366 (25.4%) in the control group (odds ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.69 to 1.36; P=0.85). This lack of benefit was consistent across wound assessments performed by clinicians and those reported by patients and across all secondary outcomes. In the secondary analyses no subgroup could be identified in which there was evidence of clinical benefit associated with use of the device. Conclusions Wound edge protection devices do not reduce the rate of surgical site infection in patients undergoing laparotomy, and therefore their routine use for this role cannot be recommended. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN 40402832 PMID:23903454

  20. Fusion of the ear bones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Images Ear anatomy Medical findings based on ear anatomy References House JW, Cunningham CD. Otosclerosis. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  1. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work: Healthy Swimming Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... painful. How is swimmer's ear spread at recreational water venues? Swimmer’s ear can occur when water stays ...

  2. Efficiency of different respiratory protective devices for removal of particulate and gaseous reactive oxygen species from welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Chung, Shih-Hsiang; Jhuo, Ming-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light inherent to welding processes generates ozone (O(3)) with subsequent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through photochemical reactions when UV light is present with O(3). This study aimed to determine the performance of filters used as respiratory protective devices by welding personnel to simultaneously mitigate particulate and gaseous inhalation hazards. Four respiratory protective devices were selected for this study, including a surgical facemask, a cotton-fabric facemask, an activated-carbon facemask, and an N95 respirator. The removal efficiencies for the particulates in welding fumes were all above 98%. For particulate-phase ROS, the removal efficiencies of the different respiratory protective devices ranged from 83.5% to 94.1%; however, the removal efficiencies for gaseous ROS were only 1.3% (active carbon facemask) to 21.1% (N95 respirator). The data indicated that the respiratory protective devices commercially available cannot block the passage of the gas-phase ROS found in welding fumes.

  3. The red ear syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Red Ear Syndrome (RES) is a very rare disorder, with approximately 100 published cases in the medical literature. Red ear (RE) episodes are characterised by unilateral or bilateral attacks of paroxysmal burning sensations and reddening of the external ear. The duration of these episodes ranges from a few seconds to several hours. The attacks occur with a frequency ranging from several a day to a few per year. Episodes can occur spontaneously or be triggered, most frequently by rubbing or touching the ear, heat or cold, chewing, brushing of the hair, neck movements or exertion. Early-onset idiopathic RES seems to be associated with migraine, whereas late-onset idiopathic forms have been reported in association with trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). Secondary forms of RES occur with upper cervical spine disorders or temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction. RES is regarded refractory to medical treatments, although some migraine preventative treatments have shown moderate benefit mainly in patients with migraine-related attacks. The pathophysiology of RES is still unclear but several hypotheses involving peripheral or central nervous system mechanisms have been proposed. PMID:24093332

  4. From Ear to Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

  5. Taking Care of Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... it to get better by itself. Tips for Swimmers Sometimes, swimming can lead to a case of swimmer's ear . That's when your outer ear gets infected, ... cause an infection. If you think you have swimmer's ear, your mom or dad needs to call ...

  6. Ear Infections and Language Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.

    Ear infections in infants and preschoolers can cause mild or moderate temporary hearing loss, which may in turn affect a child's ability to understand and learn language. Noting that providing children with proper medical treatment for ear infections or middle ear fluid is important in preventing possible problems with language development, this…

  7. Multicriteria Analysis model for the comparison of different rockfalls protection devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignelli, C.; Pomarico, S.; Peila, D.

    2012-04-01

    which provides a comparison of the considered options. The developed model takes into account five different aspects of the decision-making process (economic, environmental, design, transport and social aspects) that have been organized according the hierarchical framework of the AHP technique. The criteria that were identified in the analysis and their weights, in the decision-making process, have been discussed and determined by means of specific focus groups with technical experts in the geo-engineering field. Three different protection devices, usually used for rockfall protection (embankment, shelter topped by rockfall barrier and tunnel), are compared through the AHP method, in a specific "geo" environment to show the feasibility of the method. The application of the AHP technique, which was performed using the Expert Choice software, allowed the most relevant aspects of the decision-making process to be highlighted and showing how the proposed method can be a valuable tool for public administration. Furthermore, in order to test the robustness of the proposed model a sensitivity analysis was carried out. The research has an originality value since it focuses on a participative methodological approach thus making the decision process more traceable and reliable.

  8. The contralateral ear in cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Sady Selaimen; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro; Rosito, Letícia Petersen Schmidt

    2016-07-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma has been extensively studied. Theories of cholesteatoma pathogenesis involving previous tympanic membrane retraction are the most widely accepted, but the contralateral ear in patients with cholesteatoma remains unstudied. This study aimed to investigate the contralateral ear in patients with cholesteatoma, and to determine whether the characteristics of it differ according to patient age and cholesteatoma growth patterns. This study was cross sectional. We evaluated 356 patients with middle ear cholesteatoma in at least one ear, and no history of surgery, between August 2000 and March 2013. Otoendoscopy was conducted on both the affected and the contralateral ear. They were classified as normal, tympanic membrane perforation, moderate to severe tympanic membrane retraction and cholesteatoma. The mean age of the patients was 32.77 years, and 53.1 % of the cohort were female. Only 34.8 % of the contralateral ears were normal. The most common abnormality was moderate to severe tympanic membrane retraction (41.6 %). Cholesteatoma was identified in 16 %. Children exhibited a greater frequency of tympanic membrane retractions, whereas adults exhibited a greater frequency of cholesteatoma. All of the contralateral ears in the anterior epitympanic group were normal, but otherwise there were no differences in the contralateral ear when we compared the cholesteatoma growth patterns. We conclude that patients diagnosed with acquired cholesteatoma of one ear are significantly more likely to exhibit abnormalities of the contralateral ear.

  9. Drug delivery to the ear.

    PubMed

    Hoskison, E; Daniel, M; Al-Zahid, S; Shakesheff, K M; Bayston, R; Birchall, J P

    2013-01-01

    Drug delivery to the ear is used to treat conditions of the middle and inner ear such as acute and chronic otitis media, Ménière's disease, sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus. Drugs used include antibiotics, antifungals, steroids, local anesthetics and neuroprotective agents. A literature review was conducted searching Medline (1966-2012), Embase (1988-2012), the Cochrane Library and Ovid (1966-2012), using search terms 'drug delivery', 'middle ear', 'inner ear' and 'transtympanic'. There are numerous methods of drug delivery to the middle ear, which can be categorized as topical, systemic (intravenous), transtympanic and via the Eustachian tube. Localized treatments to the ear have the advantages of targeted drug delivery allowing higher therapeutic doses and minimizing systemic side effects. The ideal scenario would be a carrier system that could cross the intact tympanic membrane loaded with drugs or biochemical agents for the treatment of middle and inner ear conditions.

  10. Risk Factors and Complications Associated with Difficult Retrieval of Embolic Protection Devices in Carotid Artery Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Lian Xuegan; Liu Wenhua; Li Min; Lin Min; Zhu Shuanggen; Sun Wen; Yin Qin; Xu Gelin; Zhang Renliang; Liu Xinfeng

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to investigate the risk factors and complications of difficult retrieval (DR) of embolic protection devices (EPDs) in carotid artery stenting (CAS). Methods: A total of 195 consecutive patients who underwent CAS between December 2007 and March 2010 in a general hospital were enrolled and divided into two groups: with DR and without DR. The risk factors of DR were analyzed with univariate and multivariate analyses. The complications of DR were recorded and analyzed. Results: A total of 30 (15.4%) patients with DR of EPDs were observed, of whom EPDs were successfully retrieved in 29, and in 1 was it taken out by surgical treatment. The retrieval time was significantly longer in patients with DR (490.5 {+-} 143.9 s) than in patients without DR (157.2 {+-} 15.7 s, p = 0.000). Vasospasm was observed more frequently in patients with DR than in patients without DR (55.2% vs. 14.5%, p = 0.000). Intracranial compilations were more frequent in patients with DR than in those without DR (17.2% vs. 0.6%, p = 0.000). Calcified plaques, degree of residual stenosis, types of the stents, and tortuosity index (TI > 80 Degree-Sign) were all associated with DR. A logistic regression analysis indicated that calcified plaques (odds ratio (OR) = 6.5; p = 0.000) and TI > 80 Degree-Sign (OR = 18.8; p = 0.000) were independent predictors of DR. Conclusions: Calcified plaques and TI > 80 Degree-Sign may be related to DR in patients with CAS. DR may lengthen the retrieving time and increase the complications of the procedure.

  11. Social marketing campaign promoting the use of respiratory protection devices among farmers.

    PubMed

    Pounds, Lea; Duysen, Ellen; Romberger, Debra; Cramer, Mary E; Wendl, Mary; Rautiainen, Risto

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the formal use of marketing concepts in a systematic approach to influence farmers to voluntarily increase respiratory protective device (RPD) use. The planning process for the project incorporated six key decision or action points, each informed by formative research or health behavior theory. The planning process included developing behavior change strategies based on a 4P model (product, price, place, and promotion). The resulting campaign elements included print and e-mail messages that leveraged motivators related to family and health in order to increase farmers' knowledge about the risks of exposure to dusty environments, four instructional videos related to the primary barriers identified in using RPDs, and a brightly colored storage bag to address barriers to using RPDs related to mask storage. Campaign implementation included a series of e-mails using a bulk e-mail subscription service, use of social media in the form of posting instructional videos on a YouTube channel, and in-person interactions with members of the target audience at farm shows throughout the Central States Center for Agricultural Safety and Health seven-state region. Evaluation of the e-mail campaigns indicated increased knowledge about RPD use and intent to use RPDs in dusty conditions. YouTube analytic data indicated continuing exposure of the instructional videos beyond the life of the campaign. The project demonstrates the efficacy of a planning process that incorporates formative research and clear decision points throughout. This process could be used to plan health behavior change interventions to address other agriculture-related health and safety issues.

  12. 46 CFR 111.50-5 - Location of overcurrent protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... primary side of a single phase transformer (two wire with single-voltage secondary) also protects the... secondary conductor by the secondary to primary transformer voltage ratio, and this protection meets §...

  13. 46 CFR 111.50-5 - Location of overcurrent protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... primary side of a single phase transformer (two wire with single-voltage secondary) also protects the... secondary conductor by the secondary to primary transformer voltage ratio, and this protection meets §...

  14. 46 CFR 111.50-5 - Location of overcurrent protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... primary side of a single phase transformer (two wire with single-voltage secondary) also protects the... secondary conductor by the secondary to primary transformer voltage ratio, and this protection meets §...

  15. 46 CFR 111.50-5 - Location of overcurrent protective devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... primary side of a single phase transformer (two wire with single-voltage secondary) also protects the... secondary conductor by the secondary to primary transformer voltage ratio, and this protection meets §...

  16. Thin-film encapsulation of organic electronic devices based on vacuum evaporated lithium fluoride as protective buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yingquan; Ding, Sihan; Wen, Zhanwei; Xu, Sunan; Lv, Wenli; Xu, Ziqiang; Yang, Yuhuan; Wang, Ying; Wei, Yi; Tang, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Encapsulation is indispensable for organic thin-film electronic devices to ensure reliable operation and long-term stability. For thin-film encapsulating organic electronic devices, insulating polymers and inorganic metal oxides thin films are widely used. However, spin-coating of insulating polymers directly on organic electronic devices may destroy or introduce unwanted impurities in the underlying organic active layers. And also, sputtering of inorganic metal oxides may damage the underlying organic semiconductors. Here, we demonstrated that by utilizing vacuum evaporated lithium fluoride (LiF) as protective buffer layer, spin-coated insulating polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and sputtered inorganic material Er2O3, can be successfully applied for thin film encapsulation of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)-based organic diodes. By encapsulating with LiF/PVA/LiF trilayer and LiF/Er2O3 bilayer films, the device lifetime improvements of 10 and 15 times can be achieved. These methods should be applicable for thin-film encapsulation of all kinds of organic electronic devices. Moisture-induced hole trapping, and Al top electrode oxidation are suggest to be the origins of current decay for the LiF/PVA/LiF trilayer and LiF/Er2O3 bilayer films encapsulated devices, respectively.

  17. Reconfigurable ultra-thin film GDNMOS device for ESD protection in 28 nm FD-SOI technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanasiou, Sotirios; Legrand, Charles-Alexandre; Cristoloveanu, Sorin; Galy, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    We propose a novel ESD protection device (GDNMOS: Gated Diode merged NMOS) fabricated with 28 nm UTBB FD-SOI high-k metal gate technology. By modifying the combination of the diode and transistor gate stacks, the robustness of the device is optimized, achieving a maximum breakdown voltage (VBR) of 4.9 V. In addition, modifications of the gate length modulate the trigger voltage (Vt1) with a minimum value of 3.5 V. Variable electrostatic doping (gate-induced) in diode and transistor body enables reconfigurable operation. A lower doping of the base enhances the bipolar gain, leading to thyristor behavior. This innovative architecture demonstrates excellent capability for high-voltage protection while maintaining a latch-up free behavior.

  18. Zwislocki's model of the middle ear re-visited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withnell, Robert H.; Fields, Taylor N.

    2015-12-01

    Zwislocki's circuit model of the middle ear [11] has been used, in original or modified form, in subsequent studies modeling the ear [4, 6]. The model includes two eardrum modes of vibration, a shunt for flexible coupling between the incus and stapes, and a single tuned oscillator for ossicular vibration. The contribution of each of these mechanisms was examined by fitting a model of the ear to acoustic input impedance data from healthy human ears. The circuit elements for a non-ossicular eardrum vibration and a flexible coupling between the incus and stapes were found to be detrimental or non-essential for the model-fit-to-data. A single mode of eardrum vibration for sound transmission to the middle ear is consistent with the eardrum acting as an impedance-matching device, with pars-tensa eardrum vibration coupled to the ossicles [1]. A single-tuned oscillator was insufficient to account for the bandwidth of the ear. The frequency response of the ear suggests multiple resonant modes of ossicular vibration.

  19. Two Simple Leg Net Devices Designed to Protect Lower-Extremity Skin Grafts and Donor Sites and Prevent Decubitus Ulcer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    Two Simple Leg Net Devices Designed to Protect Lower-Extremity Skin Grafts and Donor Sites and Prevent Decubitus Ulcer Travis L. Hedman, MPT, OCS... decubitus . Pressure ulcer is a serious health prob- lem and can cause pain, suffering, disability, and even death.1,2 The cost of treatment for a...single pressure decubitus has been estimated to be as high as $70,000.3 Therefore, prevention is paramount. The prevention of pressure ulcers is far less

  20. Percutaneous Thrombin Injection with a Distal Embolic Protection Device for Treatment of a Common Carotid Artery Pseudoaneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J.H.; Tseng, I.K.; Siegel, R.L.; Roychowdhury, S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Carotid artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication from placement of an internal jugular triple lumen catheter. Endovascular stenting is the favored treatment option in the setting of traumatic carotid injury. In other parts of the body, specifically the femoral artery, thrombin injection has become the standard of care. We intend to show that effective management of carotid pseudoaneurysms can also be achieved with thrombin injection after placement of a distal embolic protection device. PMID:23693049

  1. Transarterial Thrombin Injection Secured with an Embolic Protection Device as a Treatment for a Superior Mesenteric Artery Pseudoaneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Juszkat, Robert Krasinski, Zbigniew; Wykretowicz, Mateusz; Staniszewski, Ryszard; Majewski, Waclaw

    2011-02-15

    A pseudoaneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare and life-threatening condition of various etiology. Even unruptured it can cause severe health problems or death. We report a 71-year-old male with a SMA pseudoaneurysm who was successfully treated with a transarterial thrombin injection secured with an embolic protection device used in carotid angioplasty. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a SMA pseudoaneurysm treated by this method.

  2. Diseases of the middle ear in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Minovi, Amir; Dazert, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Middle ear diseases in childhood play an important role in daily ENT practice due to their high incidence. Some of these like acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion have been studied extensively within the last decades. In this article, we present a selection of important childhood middle ear diseases and discuss the actual literature concerning their treatment, management of complications and outcome. Another main topic of this paper deals with the possibilities of surgical hearing rehabilitation in childhood. The bone-anchored hearing aid BAHA® and the active partially implantable device Vibrant Soundbridge® could successfully be applied for children. In this manuscript, we discuss the actual literature concerning clinical outcomes of these implantable hearing aids. PMID:25587371

  3. Ear syringing: minimising the risks.

    PubMed

    Bird, Sara

    2008-05-01

    The patient, 61 years of age, saw the general practitioner for a repeat prescription for her blood pressure medication. During the consultation, the patient mentioned that she had some discomfort in her left ear. The GP examined the patient's ears and noted that both external auditory canals were blocked by wax. He recommended that the patient have her ears syringed and arranged for the practice nurse to perform the procedure. The GP did not see the patient again.

  4. Protecting computer-based medical devices: defending against viruses and other threats.

    PubMed

    2005-07-01

    The increasing integration of computer hardware has exposed medical devices to greater risks than ever before. More and more devices rely on commercial off-the-shelf software and operating systems, which are vulnerable to the increasing proliferation of viruses and other malicious programs that target computers. Therefore, it is necessary for hospitals to take steps such as those outlined in this article to ensure that their computer-based devices are made safe and continue to remain safe in the future. Maintaining the security of medical devices requires planning, careful execution, and a commitment of resources. A team should be created to develop a process for surveying the security status of all computerized devices in the hospital and making sure that patches and other updates are applied as needed. These patches and updates should be approved by the medical system supplier before being implemented. The team should consider using virtual local area networks to isolate susceptible devices on the hospital's network. All security measures should be carefully documented, and the documentation should be kept up-to-date. Above all, care must be taken to ensure that medical device security involves a collaborative, supportive partnership between the hospital's information technology staff and biomedical engineering personnel.

  5. [The autonomic system reactivity of airport technical personnel using individual protective devices against noise].

    PubMed

    Soldatov, S K; Chistov, S D; Zinkin, V N; Ryzhenkov, S P; Poliakov, N M

    2014-01-01

    The study covered cardiac rhythm variability and hemodynamic parameters in airfield technical personnel under exposure to aviation noise and with use of individual protective measures against noise. Individual protective means remove unfavorable stressful external effects of noise--that is manifested by more stable parameters of sympathetic nervous system activity.

  6. 78 FR 12664 - Human Subject Protection; Acceptance of Data From Clinical Studies for Medical Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 807, 812, and 814 RIN 0910-AG48 Human Subject... ensure the protection of human subjects and the quality and integrity of data obtained from these studies... the protection of human subjects and the quality and integrity of data obtained from these...

  7. 16 CFR 1211.10 - Requirements for all entrapment protection devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... sprayed for 1 minute. EC03OC91.042 (d) Ultraviolet light exposure test. A polymeric material used as a functional part of a device that is exposed to outdoor weather conditions shall comply with the...

  8. Description of modular devices for the measurement of external dosimetry in radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Genicot, Jean Louis; Boogers, Eric; Van Iersel, Mark

    2015-04-01

    In 2002 the Group of Radiation Dosimetry and Calibration of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN) has developed an experimental device based on the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) working with Al2O3:C detectors (TLD-500 and Luxel) stimulated with an argon laser. A set of devices made from different modules have been developed to permit external dosimetry measurements with thermoluminescence (TL) and OSL techniques under different conditions. This study describes these measurement devices that can be made with these modules and some of the characteristics of the different systems. These devices present several advantages in terms of measurement possibilities: a small number of modules allow the use of different detection materials (Al2O3:C, BeO, quartz electronic components and tiles) and different measurement methods (TL, CW-OSL and pulsed OSL). Some applications are commented.

  9. 16 CFR 1211.10 - Requirements for all entrapment protection devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... rate of 5 gallons (19 liters) per minute as measured at the outlet orifice of the nozzle. The water from the hose is to be played, from all sides and at any angle against the floor under the device...

  10. Correction of Lobule-type Microtia: Part 2: The Stage of Ear Elevation

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Makoto; Yamashita, Ken; Yamada, Tetsuo; Kato, Shinji; Suzuki, Akiyo; Saito, Tamotsu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Here, we introduce our recent operative technique for ear elevation that results in (1) minimal morbidity for patients, (2) symmetric appearance, (3) clearer 3-dimensional structure with a deep concha, (4) good aesthetic appearance by hiding the grafted area behind the ear, and (5) maintenance of deep temporoauricular sulcus and angle. Methods: After a skin incision, the ear is elevated with temporoparietal fascia underlying the cartilage. On the conchal area, undermining is performed just below the skin so that the deep concavity can be maintained. Scalp and neck skin behind the ear is undermined subcutaneously and lifted up cranially to hide the entire area of grafted skin behind the ear. The postauricular surface is covered by full-thickness skin from the lower abdomen. A protective splint is applied for 3 months while sleeping. Results: A total of 137 ears in 121 patients were corrected with our technique and followed up for at least 3 years. All of the scar tissue could be hidden behind the ear, an aesthetically excellent result. Conclusions: Our technique made it possible to acquire an excellent and symmetrical shape of the ear. The important points in our procedure are as follows: (1) subcutaneous posterior undermining to enlarge the conchal cavity, (2) careful arrangement of the temporoauricular angle and auriculo-earlobe angle, (3) reduction in the area of temporally grafted skin to hide all scars behind the ear, and (4) protection of the ear to maintain the shape using a postoperative splint. PMID:25426391

  11. Benign ear cyst or tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bony tumor of the ear canal Images Ear anatomy References Nicolai P, Castelnuovo P. Benign tumors of the sinonasal tract. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  12. Otoscopic exam of the ear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... intrument which is used to look into the ear canal. The ear speculum (a cone-shaped viewing piece of the otoscope) is slowly inserted into the ear canal while looking into the otoscope. The speculum ...

  13. Wax blockage in the ear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... hair follicles and glands that produce a waxy oil called cerumen. Sometimes the glands produce more wax than can be easily excreted out the ear. This extra wax may harden within the ear canal and block the ear.

  14. Weapon and Sighting System Compatibility Assessment for Prototype Maxillofacial Protection Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    maxillofacial protection on sighting of standard issue small arms and sighting systems organic to combat vehicles. System front and side spatial breadth were...system, across several small arms firing postures and combat vehicle sighting interfaces. 15. SUBJECT TERMS facial protection, helmets, shooting...performance, sighting offset, human factors, small arms , vehicle optics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF

  15. 21 CFR 874.5840 - Antistammering device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5840 Antistammering device. (a) Identification. An antistammering device is a device that electronically generates a noise when activated or when... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Antistammering device. 874.5840 Section...

  16. 21 CFR 874.5840 - Antistammering device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5840 Antistammering device. (a) Identification. An antistammering device is a device that electronically generates a noise when activated or when... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antistammering device. 874.5840 Section...

  17. Factors leading to chronic middle ear disease.

    PubMed

    Canty, A A; Prestwood, U; Dugdale, A E; Lewis, A N

    1975-05-10

    In an Australian Aboriginal community, 65% of all people examined had clinical evidence of pathology in the ear drum or middle ear, but active ear disease was found mainly in children. In most people, both ears showed similar clinical changes. Clinical nutritional status and hygienic factors did not correlate with the presence of ear disease. Some families had significantly more ear disease than did others, suggesting that there is some as yet unidentified familial factor.

  18. Effects of ear-canal pressurization on middle-ear bone- and air-conduction responses

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Kenji; Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Kim, Namkeun; Du, Yu; Puria, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    In extremely loud noise environments, it is important to not only protect one’s hearing against noise transmitted through the air-conduction (AC) pathway, but also through the bone-conduction (BC) pathways. Much of the energy transmitted through the BC pathways is concentrated in the mid-frequency range around 1.5–2 kHz, which is likely due to the structural resonance of the middle ear. One potential approach for mitigating this mid-frequency BC noise transmission is to introduce a positive or negative static pressure in the ear canal, which is known to reduce BC as well as AC hearing sensitivity. In the present study, middle-ear ossicular velocities at the umbo and stapes were measured using human cadaver temporal bones in response to both BC and AC excitations, while static air pressures of ±400 mm H2O were applied in the ear canal. For the maximum negative pressure of −400 mm H2O, mean BC stapes-velocity reductions of about 5–8 dB were observed in the frequency range from 0.8 to 2.5 kHz, with a peak reduction of 8.6(± 4.7) dB at 1.6 kHz. Finite-element analysis indicates that the peak BC-response reduction tends to be in the mid-frequency range because the middle-ear BC resonance, which is typically around 1.5–2 kHz, is suppressed by the pressure-induced stiffening of the middle-ear structure. The measured data also show that the BC responses are reduced more for negative static pressures than for positive static pressures. This may be attributable to a difference in the distribution of the stiffening among the middle-ear components depending on the polarity of the static pressure. The characteristics of the BC-response reductions are found to be largely consistent with the available psychoacoustic data, and are therefore indicative of the relative importance of the middle-ear mechanism in BC hearing. PMID:19944139

  19. Indications and candidacy for active middle ear implants.

    PubMed

    Wagner, F; Todt, I; Wagner, J; Ernst, A

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there are two active middle ear implants available commercially: the Vibrant Soundbridge system and the Carina system. A third active middle ear implant, the Esteem, is under clinical evaluation. All devices are indicated for patients with moderate-to-severe hearing loss. Because active middle ear implants are directly coupled to middle ear structures, many of the problems that patients with conventional hearing aids report, such as acoustic feedback, occlusion, and irritation of the outer ear canal, are avoided. In addition, AMEI patients perform well in background noise. However, indications for AMEIs are selective and candidates should be carefully evaluated before surgery. Before considering an AMEI, patients should be provided with conventional hearing aids. Only when benefit is insufficient and audiological selection criteria are met is further candidacy evaluation indicated. Since Colletti described coupling the Vibrant Soundbridge directly onto the round window membrane in 2006, the indications for the Vibrant Soundbridge have expanded and the VSB is implanted in patients with conductive and mixed hearing losses. Patients have often undergone middle ear surgery before. Especially mixed hearing loss cases with 30-60 dB HL sensorineural hearing impairment and 30-40 dB HL air-bone gaps may be helped by this new application.

  20. An integrative radiation protection control system based on a CAN bus for the HT-7U tokamak fusion device.

    PubMed

    Chai, Zhuxin; Huang, Qunying; Wu, Yican; Liu, Xiaoping; Liao, Zhuhua

    2004-06-01

    A radiation protection control system has been designed, based on distributed computers and consideration of the features of the radiation source of the HT-7U fusion experimental device, for protecting the workers and the public against neutron and photon radiation, and especially for ensuring that workers cannot unexpectedly enter an area of high radiation level in any case. A multisubsystem (irradiation monitoring subsystem, access control subsystem, safety interlock subsystem and other related facilities) integration concept is proposed for the design. This system has been implemented on the basis of the up-to-date industrial field bus CAN, featuring simplicity and flexibility of installation and maintenance, capability for real-time long distance communication and multi-master protocol.

  1. Selection of wires and circuit protective devices for STS Orbiter vehicle payload electrical circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaston, Darilyn M.

    1991-01-01

    Electrical designers of Orbiter payloads face the challenge of determining proper circuit protection/wire size parameters to satisfy Orbiter engineering and safety requirements. This document is the result of a program undertaken to review test data from all available aerospace sources and perform additional testing to eliminate extrapolation errors. The resulting compilation of data was used to develop guidelines for the selection of wire sizes and circuit protection ratings. The purpose is to provide guidance to the engineering to ensure a design which meets Orbiter standards and which should be applicable to any aerospace design.

  2. Flexible fire retardant polyisocyanate modified neoprene foam. [for thermal protective devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Riccitiello, S. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Lightweight, fire resistant foams have been developed through the modification of conventional neoprene-isocyanate foams by the addition of an alkyl halide polymer. Extensive tests have shown that the modified/neoprene-isocyanate foams are much superior in heat protection properties than the foams heretofore employed both for ballistic and ablative purposes.

  3. Comparison of performance of three different types of respiratory protection devices.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Robert B; Duling, Matthew G; Calvert, Catherine A; Coffey, Christopher C

    2006-09-01

    Respiratory protection is offered to American workers in a variety of ways to guard against potential inhalation hazards. Two of the most common ways are elastomeric N95 respirators and N95 filtering-facepiece respirators. Some in the health care industry feel that surgical masks provide an acceptable level of protection in certain situations against particular hazards. This study compared the performance of these types of respiratory protection during a simulated workplace test that measured both filter penetration and face-seal leakage. A panel of 25 test subjects with varying face sizes tested 15 models of elastomeric N95 respirators, 15 models of N95 filtering-facepiece respirators, and 6 models of surgical masks. Simulated workplace testing was conducted using a TSI PORTACOUNT Plus model 8020, and consisted of a series of seven exercises. Six simulated workplace tests were performed with redonning of the respirator/mask occurring between each test. The results of these tests produced a simulated workplace protection factor (SWPF). The geometric mean (GM) and the 5th percentile values of the SWPFs were computed by category of respiratory protection using the six overall SWPF values. The level of protection provided by each of the three respiratory protection types was compared. The GM and 5th percentile SWPF values without fit testing were used for the comparison, as surgical masks were not intended to be fit tested. The GM values were 36 for elastomeric N95 respirators, 21 for N95 filtering-facepiece respirators, and 3 for surgical masks. An analysis of variance demonstrated a statistically significant difference between all three. Elastomeric N95 respirators had the highest 5th percentile SWPF of 7. N95 filtering-facepiece respirators and surgical masks had 5th percentile SWPFs of 3 and 1, respectively. A Fisher Exact Test revealed that the 5th percentile SWPFs for all three types of respiratory protection were statistically different. In addition, both

  4. The development of technologies and devices for protection from noise generated by power equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, V. E.; Khomenok, L. A.; Yablonik, L. R.

    2010-01-01

    The main lines of currently conducted research and development activities on suppressing noise produced by power-generating equipment are presented. Matters related to preventing the occurrence of aeroacoustic self-excited vibrations, optimizing dissipative noise silencers, using structural methods for damping acoustic vibrations, suppressing low-frequency noise, and analyzing the effectiveness of soundproof coatings are considered. The process diagrams and parameters of devices for suppressing noise generated during discharge into the atmosphere of high-pressure gaseous media are discussed.

  5. Outcomes in Endoscopic Ear Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kiringoda, Ruwan; Kozin, Elliott D; Lee, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    Endoscopic ear surgery (EES) provides several advantages compared with traditional binocular microscopy, including a wide-field view, improved resolution with high magnification, and visual access to hidden corridors of the middle ear. Although binocular microscopic-assisted surgical techniques remain the gold standard for most otologists, EES is slowly emerging as a viable alternative for performing otologic surgery at several centers in the United States and abroad. In this review, we evaluate the current body of literature regarding EES outcomes, summarize our EES outcomes at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, and compare these results with data for microscopic-assisted otologic surgery.

  6. Systems and methods for biometric identification using the acoustic properties of the ear canal

    DOEpatents

    Bouchard, A.M.; Osbourn, G.C.

    1998-07-28

    The present invention teaches systems and methods for verifying or recognizing a person`s identity based on measurements of the acoustic response of the individual`s ear canal. The system comprises an acoustic emission device, which emits an acoustic source signal s(t), designated by a computer, into the ear canal of an individual, and an acoustic response detection device, which detects the acoustic response signal f(t). A computer digitizes the response (detected) signal f(t) and stores the data. Computer-implemented algorithms analyze the response signal f(t) to produce ear-canal feature data. The ear-canal feature data obtained during enrollment is stored on the computer, or some other recording medium, to compare the enrollment data with ear-canal feature data produced in a subsequent access attempt, to determine if the individual has previously been enrolled. The system can also be adapted for remote access applications. 5 figs.

  7. Systems and methods for biometric identification using the acoustic properties of the ear canal

    DOEpatents

    Bouchard, Ann Marie; Osbourn, Gordon Cecil

    1998-01-01

    The present invention teaches systems and methods for verifying or recognizing a person's identity based on measurements of the acoustic response of the individual's ear canal. The system comprises an acoustic emission device, which emits an acoustic source signal s(t), designated by a computer, into the ear canal of an individual, and an acoustic response detection device, which detects the acoustic response signal f(t). A computer digitizes the response (detected) signal f(t) and stores the data. Computer-implemented algorithms analyze the response signal f(t) to produce ear-canal feature data. The ear-canal feature data obtained during enrollment is stored on the computer, or some other recording medium, to compare the enrollment data with ear-canal feature data produced in a subsequent access attempt, to determine if the individual has previously been enrolled. The system can also be adapted for remote access applications.

  8. Assaying Benefits of Poly[styrene-4-(trimethylammonium)methyl Triiodide] in Respiratory Protection Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    common laboratory mouse, Mus musculus , and treated and mechanically equivalent untreated filter media to measure infection rates as a function of...to determine viable counts. Data noise in the control experiment prevented drawing a firm conclusion but loss of viability in the aerosol phase ...protection, Triosyn U U U UU 35 Joseph Wander Reset iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Page 1.0 Overview

  9. Frequent Embolization in Peripheral Angioplasty: Detection with an Embolism Protection Device (Angio Guard) and Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, Claudius W. Pusich, Benjamin; Tepe, Gunnar; Wendel, Hans-Peter; Hahn, Ulrich; Schneider, Wilke; Claussen, Claus D.; Duda, Stephan H.

    2003-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the deliverability and protection capabilities of an embolism protection filter in angioplasty of peripheral arteries. Methods: The Angioguard emboli capture guidewire system was applied in 11 patients with femoropopliteal lesions (6 stenoses, 3 occlusions, 2 controls).Data on lesion crossing, flow deceleration and macroembolization were recorded. Filter membranes were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: System delivery was successful in all patients. Primary lesion crossing was feasible in four of six stenoses; predilatation was required in two of six. Marked flow deceleration was recorded in six patients. Emboli next to the filter were detected in each patient with concentric plaques, but could not reliably be removed with the filter. Downstream macroembolization was also present in all patients with concentric stenoses, but in none with chronic occlusion. None of the patients had clinical signs of ischemia. SEM analysis demonstrated only small particles on control group filters and non-obliterating fibrinous conglomerates on filters used in chronic occlusion. Substantial obliteration was seen on several filters used in stenotic lesions. Conclusion:Microembolization of fibrin aggregates is a common incident in balloon angioplasty of femoropopliteal stenoses. Macroembolization occurred more frequently than previously reported. The use of embolism protection filters aided in the detection but not in the removal of larger emboli.

  10. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... up of invisible waves of energy, causes these vibrations. Every time you hear a sound, the various ... When the eardrum vibrates, the ossicles amplify these vibrations and carry them to the inner ear. The ...

  11. Deformity of Ears and Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, W. C.

    1965-01-01

    Ten children with gross deformity of the external ear were observed. In six the facial bones were underdeveloped on the same side as the deformed ear. In all six there was a congenital abnormality of the kidney or upper urinary tract, usually on the same side as the deformed ear. In addition there were usually other associated congenital defects in each case. In the remaining four children the facial bones appeared normal, and pyelography showed no abnormality of the urinary tract. In these four children there were no other associated defects. These observations emphasize the importance of investigating the urinary tract in children with gross deformity of the external ear, especially where there is an associated underdevelopment of the facial bones. PMID:14317453

  12. Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... part of the ear responsible for receiving/sending sounds and controlling balance. The degree of damage depends ... have trouble hearing certain things, from high-pitched sounds to talking if there's background noise. Or they ...

  13. "Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)

    MedlinePlus

    ... previously covered by swimsuit > Pus-filled blisters around hair follicles Swimmer’s Ear (Otitis externa) > Pain when infected ear ... ear. You can find this product at your drug store. > Avoid putting objects in the ear (for ... levels drop, so testing your pool or hot tub’s disinfectant and pH ...

  14. Research Project on Ear Infections Dramatizes Challenge of Conflicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordes, Colleen

    1993-01-01

    An unusual conflict-of-interest case involving the federal government, a university researcher on ear infections, and the pharmaceutical industry has renewed the debate over what constitutes unacceptable conflict of interest, federal review of medical treatment, government protection against research bias, and disclosure of research project…

  15. Approaches to Inflight Ear Oximetry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    of arterial oxygen saturation. For centri- fuge experiments the floe,! ett-Packard ear oximeter, Model 47201A, has been successfully used both at...These difficulties are perhaps even more significant with respect to inflight experimental use. The difficulties are: 1. The bloodless ear is not truly...available (9), and a number of papers on both the clini- cal use (10-17) and the experimental use (1, 2, 18) of this equipment have been published since its

  16. Stentriever thrombectomy with distal protection device for carotid free floating thrombus: a technical case report.

    PubMed

    Giragani, Suresh; Balani, Ankit; Agrawal, Vikas

    2017-01-18

    We report the clinical details, imaging findings and management of a 45-year-old man who presented with recurrent transient ischemic attacks due to carotid free floating thrombus. Free floating thrombus of the carotid artery is a very rare condition with a high risk of distal embolic shower. The optimal treatment options are debatable and include medical management, surgical thrombectomy and endovascular thrombectomy. We describe the use of a stentriever with filter protection in the management of carotid free floating thrombus as a novel treatment option.

  17. Stentriever thrombectomy with distal protection device for carotid free floating thrombus: a technical case report.

    PubMed

    Giragani, Suresh; Balani, Ankit; Agrawal, Vikas

    2017-01-25

    We report the clinical details, imaging findings and management of a 45-year-old man who presented with recurrent transient ischemic attacks due to carotid free floating thrombus. Free floating thrombus of the carotid artery is a very rare condition with a high risk of distal embolic shower. The optimal treatment options are debatable and include medical management, surgical thrombectomy and endovascular thrombectomy. We describe the use of a stentriever with filter protection in the management of carotid free floating thrombus as a novel treatment option.

  18. Polysaccharides as protectants for paper-based analytical devices with antibody.

    PubMed

    Cao, Rong; Tian, Wendy; Shen, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Paper with immobilized protein can provide a low-cost platform for diagnostics, but evidence is emerging that the instability of protein on paper during shipping and storage severely limits its commercial development. Of these, paper-immobilized antibody, though widely used, is in urgent need of improvement in the shelf life. Herein we provided a detailed investigation of a simple and versatile approach for achieving stable antibody on paper to improve bioassay performance. Anti-Blood Group A IgM was chosen as the model antibody and its activity was tested via agglutination reactions. Representative polysaccharides (i.e., chitosan, sodium alginate and dextran) were used as protectants and their ability to stabilize antibody under heat and desiccation stresses was investigated. It was found that the presence of dextran with high concentration markedly stabilized paper-immobilized IgM for at least 120 days. Our results indicate that dextran with good film-forming ability could be a protectant for paper-immobilized antibody.

  19. The Nimbus Hemopump: a new left ventricular assist device that combines myocardial protection with circulatory support.

    PubMed

    Mooney, M R; Mooney, J F; Van Tassel, R A; Goldenberg, I F; Madison, J D; Johnson, K E; Von Ruedon, T; Joyce, L D; Emery, R W; Pritzker, M R

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in hemodynamic support can allow patients at high risk for cardiovascular collapse to become candidates for coronary interventions. A new axial blood flow pump has recently been developed and made available for clinical testing. This intravascular pump utilizes an Archimedes screw pump rotating at 25,000 rpms to provide a flow of 2 to 3.5 liters/minute. The 7 mm inlet cannula of the cable driven pump is delivered across the aortic valve. The pump discharges blood into the descending aorta. This design does not require a membrane oxygenator. This pump would be expected to: 1) provide circulatory support irrespective of heart arrhythmias; 2) provide left ventricular unloading and 3) lack the fluid and coagulation abnormalities of prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass. This unique device offers great promise to the interventional cardiologist.

  20. Passive protection devices for high-voltage equipment: Design procedures and performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Serino, G.; Bonacina, G.; Bettinali, F.

    1995-12-31

    A 420 kV High-Voltage Alternating Current Circuit-Breaker, a typical element of an open-air electrical substation, is considered. Experimental tests carried out on such a piece of equipment by ISMES, under ENEL support, clearly pointed out its inability to withstand the seismic qualification level of highest severity indicated by the standards. The design of a seismic isolation system for the switch-gear composed of spring units and dampers is developed in this paper, and the dynamic earthquake response of the isolated circuit-breaker is compared numerically to the one obtained without the seismic protection system. The remarkable reduction of stresses in the porcelain insulators are shown, evidencing that this occurs to the detriment of a certain increment of displacements at the top of the apparatus.

  1. Captured Macro-embolus of Fractured Atheromatous Plaque by the Embolic Protection Device during Carotid Stent Assisted Angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mun Chul; Bennett, Shelby; Farb, Richard; Croul, Sydney; Lee, Seon-Kyu

    2013-02-01

    The authors present a case in which macro-embolus from the ruptured atheromatous plaque developed during carotid artery stenting (CAS). A 63-year-old man who had suffered a left middle cerebral artery territory infarction had significant proximal left internal carotid artery stenosis required CAS procedure. Immediate after stent deployment, the patient showed abrupt neurological deterioration with 12 × 3 mm sized macro-embolus which was caught by the embolus protection device (EPD). Retrieval of the macro-embolus was performed safely and the patient recovered to pre-procedure status. Macro-embolus can be resulted during the CAS. The EPD can capture the macro-embolus and safe removal is technically feasible.

  2. Hydrophobic Organic Skin as a Protective Shield for Moisture-Sensitive Phosphor-Based Optoelectronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, Paulraj; Kim, Yoon Hwa; Kim, Ha Jun; Unithrattil, Sanjith; Im, Won Bin

    2017-03-01

    A moisture-stable, red-emitting fluoride phosphor with an organic hydrophobic skin is reported. A simple strategy was employed to form a metal-free, organic, passivating skin using oleic acid (OA) as a hydrophobic encapsulant via solvothermal treatment. Unlike other phosphor coatings that suffer from initial efficiency loss, the OA-passivated K2SiF6:Mn(4+) (KSF-OA) phosphor exhibited the unique property of stable emission efficiency. Control of thickness and a highly transparent passivating layer helped to retain the emission efficiency of the material after encapsulation. A moisture-stable KSF-OA phosphor could be synthesized because of the exceptionally hydrophobic nature of OA and the formation of hydrogen bonds (F···H) resulting from the strong interactions between the fluorine in KSF and hydrogen in OA. The KSF-OA phosphor exhibited excellent moisture stability and maintained 85% of its emission intensity even after 450 h at high temperature (85 °C) and humidity (85%). As a proof-of-concept, this strategy was used for another moisture-sensitive SrSi2O2N2:Eu(2+) phosphor which showed enhanced moisture stability, retaining 85% of emission intensity after 500 h under the same conditions. White light-emitting devices were fabricated using surface-passivated KSF and Y3Al5O12:Ce(3+) which exhibited excellent color rendering index of 86, under blue LED excitation.

  3. Target Speaker Detection with Concealed EEG Around the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Mirkovic, Bojana; Bleichner, Martin G.; De Vos, Maarten; Debener, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Target speaker identification is essential for speech enhancement algorithms in assistive devices aimed toward helping the hearing impaired. Several recent studies have reported that target speaker identification is possible through electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. If the EEG system could be reduced to acceptable size while retaining the signal quality, hearing aids could benefit from the integration with concealed EEG. To compare the performance of a multichannel around-the-ear EEG system with high-density cap EEG recordings an envelope tracking algorithm was applied in a competitive speaker paradigm. The data from 20 normal hearing listeners were concurrently collected from the traditional state-of-the-art laboratory wired EEG system and a wireless mobile EEG system with two bilaterally-placed around-the-ear electrode arrays (cEEGrids). The results show that the cEEGrid ear-EEG technology captured neural signals that allowed the identification of the attended speaker above chance-level, with 69.3% accuracy, while cap-EEG signals resulted in the accuracy of 84.8%. Further analyses investigated the influence of ear-EEG signal quality and revealed that the envelope tracking procedure was unaffected by variability in channel impedances. We conclude that the quality of concealed ear-EEG recordings as acquired with the cEEGrid array has potential to be used in the brain-computer interface steering of hearing aids. PMID:27512364

  4. Effects of Active and Passive Hearing Protection Devices on Sound Source Localization, Speech Recognition, and Tone Detection

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew D.; Beemer, Brianne T.; Greene, Nathaniel T.; Argo, Theodore; Meegan, G. Douglas; Tollin, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Hearing protection devices (HPDs) such as earplugs offer to mitigate noise exposure and reduce the incidence of hearing loss among persons frequently exposed to intense sound. However, distortions of spatial acoustic information and reduced audibility of low-intensity sounds caused by many existing HPDs can make their use untenable in high-risk (e.g., military or law enforcement) environments where auditory situational awareness is imperative. Here we assessed (1) sound source localization accuracy using a head-turning paradigm, (2) speech-in-noise recognition using a modified version of the QuickSIN test, and (3) tone detection thresholds using a two-alternative forced-choice task. Subjects were 10 young normal-hearing males. Four different HPDs were tested (two active, two passive), including two new and previously untested devices. Relative to unoccluded (control) performance, all tested HPDs significantly degraded performance across tasks, although one active HPD slightly improved high-frequency tone detection thresholds and did not degrade speech recognition. Behavioral data were examined with respect to head-related transfer functions measured using a binaural manikin with and without tested HPDs in place. Data reinforce previous reports that HPDs significantly compromise a variety of auditory perceptual facilities, particularly sound localization due to distortions of high-frequency spectral cues that are important for the avoidance of front-back confusions. PMID:26313145

  5. Evaluation of the Survivability of Microorganisms Deposited on Filtering Respiratory Protective Devices under Varying Conditions of Humidity

    PubMed Central

    Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Skóra, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Bioaerosols are common biological factors in work environments, which require routine use of filtering respiratory protective devices (FRPDs). Currently, no studies link humidity changes in the filter materials of such devices, during use, with microorganism survivability. Our aim was to determine the microclimate inside FRPDs, by simulating breathing, and to evaluate microorganism survivability under varying humidity conditions. Breathing was simulated using commercial filtering facepiece respirators in a model system. Polypropylene melt-blown nonwoven fabrics with moisture contents of 40%, 80%, and 200%, were used for assessment of microorganisms survivability. A modified AATCC 100-2004 method was used to measure the survivability of ATCC and NCAIM microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. During simulation relative humidity under the facepiece increased after 7 min of usage to 84%–92% and temperature increased to 29–30 °C. S. aureus survived the best on filter materials with 40%–200% moisture content. A decrease in survivability was observed for E. coli and C. albicans when mass humidity decreased. We found that B. subtilis and A. niger proliferated for 48–72 h of incubation and then died regardless of the moisture content. In conclusion, our tests showed that the survivability of microorganisms on filter materials depends on the amount of accumulated moisture and microorganism type. PMID:26742049

  6. Evaluation of the Survivability of Microorganisms Deposited on Filtering Respiratory Protective Devices under Varying Conditions of Humidity.

    PubMed

    Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Skóra, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-01-04

    Bioaerosols are common biological factors in work environments, which require routine use of filtering respiratory protective devices (FRPDs). Currently, no studies link humidity changes in the filter materials of such devices, during use, with microorganism survivability. Our aim was to determine the microclimate inside FRPDs, by simulating breathing, and to evaluate microorganism survivability under varying humidity conditions. Breathing was simulated using commercial filtering facepiece respirators in a model system. Polypropylene melt-blown nonwoven fabrics with moisture contents of 40%, 80%, and 200%, were used for assessment of microorganisms survivability. A modified AATCC 100-2004 method was used to measure the survivability of ATCC and NCAIM microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. During simulation relative humidity under the facepiece increased after 7 min of usage to 84%-92% and temperature increased to 29-30 °C. S. aureus survived the best on filter materials with 40%-200% moisture content. A decrease in survivability was observed for E. coli and C. albicans when mass humidity decreased. We found that B. subtilis and A. niger proliferated for 48-72 h of incubation and then died regardless of the moisture content. In conclusion, our tests showed that the survivability of microorganisms on filter materials depends on the amount of accumulated moisture and microorganism type.

  7. Radiation protection for an intra-operative X-ray device

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, D J; Gonzalez, R; Duck, S; Keshtgar, M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Therapeutic partial breast irradiation can be delivered intra-operatively using the Intrabeam 50 kVp compact X-ray device. Spherical applicators are added to the source to give an isotropic radiation dose. The low energy of this unit leads to rapid attenuation with distance, but dose rates are much greater than for diagnostic procedures. Methods To investigate the shielding requirements for this unit, attenuation measurements were carried out with manufacturer-provided tungsten–rubber sheets, lead, plasterboard and bricks. A prospective environmental dose rate survey was also conducted in the designated theatre. Results As a result of isotropic geometry, the scattered dose around shielding can be 1% of primary and thus often dominates measured dose rates compared with transmission. The absorbed dose rate of the unshielded source at 1 m was 11.6 mGy h−1 but this was reduced by 95% with the shielding sheets. Measured values for the common shielding materials were similar to reference data for the attenuation of a 50 kVp diagnostic X-ray beam. Two lead screens were constructed to shield operators remaining in the theatre and an air vent into a service corridor. A lead apron would also provide suitable attenuation, although a screen allows greater flexibility for treatment operators. With these measures, staff doses were reduced to negligible quantities. Survey measurements taken during patient treatments confirmed no additional measures were required, but the theatre should be a controlled area and access restricted. Conclusion Results from this study and reference data can be used for planning other facilities. PMID:21304003

  8. Optical devices and methods of quality control of security materials and documents with protection from fakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenko, Alexander; Korachkin, Leon; Pliska, Serge; Shlyk, Helen

    2004-08-01

    The protection of security papers and documents from a fake is the important state problem. In a system of Department of Goznak Belarus of the Ministry of Finance of Republic of Belarus the laboratory on development of means of a guard of valuable papers and documents in frameworks URDE "CRYPTOTECH" is created. The responsibilities of a realization of examination of authenticity of valuable papers and documents are assigned to above-stated laboratory. The laboratory of means of a guard is equipped with the modern equipment intended for detail examination of the passports, driver's certificates, identification cards, technical and other documents with a special guard, revealing of indications of a partial fake of the documents. Among them television spectral, comparator lamp of a UF-radiation etc. Equipment is supported program system "VideoScope", which represents a software product permitting to eneter in the computer a videoimages to make their processing, comparison and archiving. The system of a comparison of images is intended for detection of distinctions (differences) between standard and researched by images of object. The comparison can be made by methods of mutual subtraction, addition of images and method of visual overlapping of a researched image with a part standard. In a mode of mutual subtraction an outcome of a comparison is the difference image received for want of subtraction of one image from other. For want of it the most distinguished plots will have color closer to black and white, and least distinguished -- gray. An outcome of full concurrence with be gray image. In a mode of addition of images an outcome will be their sum. For want of it the details of both images will be looked through, that enables of an additional visual comparison of images. The system is intended for a grouping on the certain principle, description and storage of images.

  9. 3D finite element model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing middle ear functions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuelin; Gan, Rong Z

    2016-10-01

    Chinchilla is a commonly used animal model for research of sound transmission through the ear. Experimental measurements of the middle ear transfer function in chinchillas have shown that the middle ear cavity greatly affects the tympanic membrane (TM) and stapes footplate (FP) displacements. However, there is no finite element (FE) model of the chinchilla ear available in the literature to characterize the middle ear functions with the anatomical features of the chinchilla ear. This paper reports a recently completed 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear based on X-ray micro-computed tomography images of a chinchilla bulla. The model consisted of the ear canal, TM, middle ear ossicles and suspensory ligaments, and the middle ear cavity. Two boundary conditions of the middle ear cavity wall were simulated in the model as the rigid structure and the partially flexible surface, and the acoustic-mechanical coupled analysis was conducted with these two conditions to characterize the middle ear function. The model results were compared with experimental measurements reported in the literature including the TM and FP displacements and the middle ear input admittance in chinchilla ear. An application of this model was presented to identify the acoustic role of the middle ear septa-a unique feature of chinchilla middle ear cavity. This study provides the first 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing the middle ear functions through the acoustic-mechanical coupled FE analysis.

  10. A custom-made silicon mold for pressure therapy to ear keloids.

    PubMed

    Yigit, B; Yazar, M; Alyanak, A; Guven, E

    2009-11-01

    Keloids are raised reddish nodules that develop at the site of an injury. They are characterized histologically by an abundance of fibroblasts, thick collagen bundles, and ground substance. Auricular keloid formation is a known complication of ear piercing. Many types of treatments have been described for auricular keloids.Pressure therapy in combination with surgery, corticosteroid injection, or both is widely used to manage and prevent hypertrophic scarring. Many pressure devices and procedures have been developed. However, all of them are designed for the earlobe region. If a keloid grows in the posterior auricular region, none of the devices described in the literature will be effective. The authors developed a custom-made silicon ear mold that covers whole ear. With this mold, pressure can be applied homogeneously to the lobule and cartilaginous region, which the other devices described in the literature cannot affect. The preparation technique includes making the negative cast mold of the patient's ear, creating the positive cast mold from the negative cast mold, and forming the negative silicon mold from the positive cast. After all the processes, a silicon sheet has been designed according to the region needing to be pressurized. The designed silicon sheet is applied to the region, followed by placement of the silicon mold. A simple tennis head band can be used to stabilize the silicon cast. If the keloid extends to the posterior auricular region, pressurizing with clips or other devices described previously will be difficult. Application of pressure to the cartilaginous auricle needs custom-made devices. At this point, a pressure sore caused by a device applied to the ear is the most important problem. To prevent the ear from developing a pressure sore, the device should press to whole area homogeneously. For this reason, the device applied for pressure therapy to the ear must be custom made.

  11. Development of the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Tanya T

    2015-06-01

    The vertebrate inner ear is a sensory organ of exquisite design and sensitivity. It responds to sound, gravity and movement, serving both auditory (hearing) and vestibular (balance) functions. Almost all cell types of the inner ear, including sensory hair cells, sensory neurons, secretory cells and supporting cells, derive from the otic placode, one of the several ectodermal thickenings that arise around the edge of the anterior neural plate in the early embryo. The developmental patterning mechanisms that underlie formation of the inner ear from the otic placode are varied and complex, involving the reiterative use of familiar signalling pathways, together with roles for transcription factors, transmembrane proteins, and extracellular matrix components. In this review, I have selected highlights that illustrate just a few of the many recent discoveries relating to the development of this fascinating organ system.

  12. First-in-man Percutaneous LAA Closure With an Amplatzer Amulet and TriGuard Embolic Protection Device in a Patient With LAA Thrombus.

    PubMed

    Del Furia, Francesca; Ancona, Marco B; Giannini, Francesco; Jabbour, Richard J; Regazzoli, Damiano; Mangieri, Antonio; Latib, Azeem; Colombo, Antonio; Montorfano, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    Percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) closure is currently utilized for the prophylaxis of thromboembolic cerebrovascular accidents in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. The presence of LAA thrombus is usually considered a contraindication for the procedure, since there is a high risk of thrombus embolization. While reports in the literature have shown the feasibility of LAA closure in the presence of LAA thrombus with certain cerebral embolic protection devices, we present the first-in-man LAA closure of a patient with LAA thrombus using the TriGuard Embolic Protection Device.

  13. 21 CFR 874.5840 - Antistammering device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Antistammering device. 874.5840 Section 874.5840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5840 Antistammering device....

  14. 21 CFR 874.5840 - Antistammering device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Antistammering device. 874.5840 Section 874.5840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5840 Antistammering device....

  15. 21 CFR 874.5840 - Antistammering device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antistammering device. 874.5840 Section 874.5840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5840 Antistammering device....

  16. Better protection from blasts without sacrificing situational awareness.

    PubMed

    Killion, Mead C; Monroe, Tim; Drambarean, Viorel

    2011-03-01

    A large number of soldiers returning from war report hearing loss and/or tinnitus. Many deployed soldiers decline to wear their hearing protection devices (HPDs) because they feel that earplugs interfere with their ability to detect and localize the enemy and their friends. The detection problem is easily handled in electronic devices with low-noise microphones. The localization problem is not as easy. In this paper, the factors that reduce situational awareness--hearing loss and restricted bandwidth in HPD devices--are discussed in light of available data, followed by a review of the cues to localization. Two electronic blast plug earplugs with 16-kHz bandwidth are described. Both provide subjectively transparent sound with regard to sound quality and localization, i.e., they sound almost as if nothing is in the ears, while protecting the ears from blasts. Finally, two formal experiments are described which investigated localization performance compared to popular existing military HPDs and the open ear. The tested earplugs performed well regarding maintaining situational awareness. Detection-distance and acceptance studies are underway.

  17. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) evaluation of the gyroscopic wheel cover device under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1983-06-01

    This report announces the conclusions of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluation of the Gyroscopic Wheel Cover under the provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. The evaluation of the Gyroscopic Wheel Cover device was conducted upon the application of Simmer Wheels, Incorporated. The device is a mechanical assembly which replaces each of the standard wheel covers on a vehicle. The device is claimed to improve fuel economy, handling and braking characteristics, and the life of the brakes and tires.

  18. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... most cases, a health care provider finds pinna abnormalities during the first well-baby exam. This exam ...

  19. Physiological functioning of the ear and masking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The physiological functions of the ear and the role masking plays in speech communication are examined. Topics under investigation include sound analysis of the ear, the aural reflex, and various types of noise masking.

  20. Ear dominance and telephone sales.

    PubMed

    Furnham, A; Richardson, S; Miller, T

    1997-10-01

    In a field study, three equally sized sales teams used on of three head-sets--left, right, both ears--for a day's selling of insurance by telephone. This had no effect on sales. In a retrospective study of records, daily sales performance including the percentage conversion rate for sales divided by the number of calls and the number and duration of calls was related to preference for type of head-set. Sales were markedly influenced by the choice of head-set. People who chose to wear the left earpiece significantly out sold the others wearing right and stereohead-sets. Neither the number of incoming calls nor the time spent on the telephone were influenced by the choice of head-set. When sales are analysed in terms of individual differences in personal preference for type of head-set, those who chose the left ear had an advantage. Forced use of the left, versus right ear or both ears for one day had no effect.

  1. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... en español Infecciones del oído medio After the common cold , ear infections are the most frequently diagnosed childhood ... winter season, when lots of people get upper respiratory tract infections or colds. Signs and Symptoms The signs and ...

  2. Mechanics of the frog ear

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Pim; Mason, Matthew J.; Schoffelen, Richard L. M.; Narins, Peter M.; Meenderink, Sebastiaan W. F.

    2010-01-01

    The frog inner ear contains three regions that are sensitive to airborne sound and which are functionally distinct. (1) The responses of nerve fibres innervating the low-frequency, rostral part of the amphibian papilla (AP) are complex. Electrical tuning of hair cells presumably contributes to the frequency selectivity of these responses. (2) The caudal part of the AP covers the mid-frequency portion of the frog's auditory range. It shares the ability to generate both evoked and spontaneous otoacoustic emissions with the mammalian cochlea and other vertebrate ears. (3) The basilar papilla functions mainly as a single auditory filter. Its simple anatomy and function provide a model system for testing hypotheses concerning emission generation. Group delays of stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) from the basilar papilla are accounted for by assuming that they result from forward and reverse transmission through the middle ear, a mechanical delay due to tectorial membrane filtering and a rapid forward and reverse propagation through the inner ear fluids, with negligible delay. PMID:20149854

  3. Adenomatous tumors of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Stanley; Koss, Shira

    2015-04-01

    Adenomatous tumors are an uncommon cause of a middle ear mass. Clinical findings may be nonspecific, leading to difficulties in differentiation from other middle ear tumors. Controversy also exists whether to classify middle ear adenoma and carcinoid as separate neoplasms, or alternatively within a spectrum of the same pathologic entity. Most adenomatous middle ear tumors are indolent in behavior, with a benign histologic appearance and slowly progressive growth. The mainstay of treatment is complete surgical resection, which affords the greatest likelihood of cure.

  4. 21 CFR 874.1600 - Olfactory test device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1600 Olfactory test device. (a) Identification. An olfactory test device is used to determine whether an olfactory loss is present. The device... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Olfactory test device. 874.1600 Section...

  5. 21 CFR 874.1600 - Olfactory test device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1600 Olfactory test device. (a) Identification. An olfactory test device is used to determine whether an olfactory loss is present. The device... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Olfactory test device. 874.1600 Section...

  6. 21 CFR 874.5370 - Tongs antichoke device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5370 Tongs antichoke device. (a) Identification. A tongs antichoke device is a device that is intended to be used in an emergency situation to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tongs antichoke device. 874.5370 Section...

  7. 21 CFR 874.5350 - Suction antichoke device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5350 Suction antichoke device. (a) Identification. A suction antichoke device is a device intended to be used in an emergency situation to remove... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suction antichoke device. 874.5350 Section...

  8. Ear recognition based on Gabor features and KFDA.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Mu, Zhichun

    2014-01-01

    We propose an ear recognition system based on 2D ear images which includes three stages: ear enrollment, feature extraction, and ear recognition. Ear enrollment includes ear detection and ear normalization. The ear detection approach based on improved Adaboost algorithm detects the ear part under complex background using two steps: offline cascaded classifier training and online ear detection. Then Active Shape Model is applied to segment the ear part and normalize all the ear images to the same size. For its eminent characteristics in spatial local feature extraction and orientation selection, Gabor filter based ear feature extraction is presented in this paper. Kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis (KFDA) is then applied for dimension reduction of the high-dimensional Gabor features. Finally distance based classifier is applied for ear recognition. Experimental results of ear recognition on two datasets (USTB and UND datasets) and the performance of the ear authentication system show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  9. Handedness and Preferred Ear for Telephoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Stephen M.

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship between handedness and preferred ear for telephoning in 140 college students. Increased degree of sinistrality was associated with increased tendency to use left ear for telephoning. Found tendency to pick up telephone receiver with preferred hand and hold earpiece to ipsilateral ear. Results may relate to reports of reduced…

  10. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth > For Kids > Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? A A A en español ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  11. Immunologic Disorders of the Inner Ear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, William C.; Hughes, Gordon B.

    1997-01-01

    Immune inner ear disease represents a series of immune system mediated problems that can present with hearing loss, dizziness, or both. The etiology, presentation, testing, and treatment of primary immune inner ear disease is discussed. A review of secondary immune inner ear disease is presented for comparison. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  12. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth > For Kids > Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Print A A A en ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  13. Protective effects of melatonin against oxidative injury in rat testis induced by wireless (2.45 GHz) devices.

    PubMed

    Oksay, T; Naziroğlu, M; Doğan, S; Güzel, A; Gümral, N; Koşar, P A

    2014-02-01

    Wireless devices have become part of everyday life and mostly located near reproductive organs while they are in use. The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of melatonin on oxidative stress-dependent testis injury induced by 2.45-GHz electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Thirty-two rats were equally divided into four different groups, namely cage control (A1), sham control (A2), 2.45-GHz EMR (B) and 2.45-GHz EMR+melatonin (C). Group B and C were exposed to 2.45-GHz EMR during 60 min day(-1) for 30 days. Lipid peroxidation levels were higher in Group B than in Group A1 and A2. Melatonin treatment prevented the increase in the lipid peroxidation induced by EMR. Also reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels in Group D were higher than that of exposure group. Vitamin A and E concentrations decreased in exposure group, and melatonin prevented the decrease in vitamin E levels. In conclusion, wireless (2.45 GHz) EMR caused oxidative damage in testis by increasing the levels of lipid peroxidation and decreasing in vitamin A and E levels. Melatonin supplementation prevented oxidative damage induced by EMR and also supported the antioxidant redox system in the testis.

  14. Acid-base control of hemilabile proton-responsive protecting devices in dimolybdenum, thiolate-bridged complexes.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Alan; Vénec, David; Le Roy, Christine; Pétillon, François Y; Schollhammer, Philippe; Talarmin, Jean

    2014-02-17

    Dimolybdenum thiolate-bridged complexes [Mo2Cp2(μ-SMe)2(μ-SCH2CH2E)] (E = O (2) or NH (4)) with a proton-dependent protecting device have been synthesized by reaction of [Mo2Cp2(μ-SMe)2(μ-Cl)2] (1) with SCH2CH2EH. The reactivity of the resultant quadruply bridged complexes with acid was investigated in the absence and in the presence of a potential ligand (N2, MeCN, RNC). While the protonation of complexes 2 and 4 under N2 in dichloromethane produced only the oxidized derivatives instead of the desired diazenido compound, ligand binding was observed in MeCN or in the presence of RNC (R = t-Bu, Xyl). Whereas acetonitrile loss from [Mo2Cp2(μ-SMe)2(μ-SCH2CH2OH)(MeCN)2](+) (8(+)) prevented the isolation and characterization of this species, the t-BuNC analogue (6(+)) could be characterized by an X-ray crystal structure. The electrochemistry of 2 and 2(+) was investigated in CH2Cl2 and in MeCN, both in the absence and in the presence of acid. While the addition of HBF4·Et2O to a dichloromethane solution of 2 only produced 2(+) (and presumably H2), 8(+) was the major product of the protonation in MeCN.

  15. LDV measurement of bird ear vibrations to determine inner ear impedance and middle ear power flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muyshondt, Pieter G. G.; Pires, Felipe; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical behavior of the middle ear structures in birds and mammals is affected by the fluids in the inner ear (IE) that are present behind the oval window. In this study, the aim was to gather knowledge of the acoustic impedance of the IE in the ostrich, to be able to determine the effect on vibrations and power flow in the single-ossicle bird middle ear for future studies. To determine the IE impedance, vibrations of the ossicle were measured for both the quasi-static and acoustic stimulus frequencies. In the acoustic regime, vibrations were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer and electromagnetic stimulation of the ossicle. The impedance of the inner ear could be determined by means of a simple RLC model in series, which resulted in a stiffness reactance of KIE = 0.20.1012 Pa/m3, an inertial impedance of MIE = 0.652.106 Pa s2/m3, and a resistance of RIE = 1.57.109 Pa s/m. The measured impedance is found to be considerably smaller than what is found for the human IE.

  16. Ear Infection and Its Associated Risk Factors in First Nations and Rural School-Aged Canadian Children

    PubMed Central

    Karunanayake, Chandima P.; Albritton, William; Rennie, Donna C.; Lawson, Joshua A.; McCallum, Laura; Gardipy, P. Jenny; Seeseequasis, Jeremy; Naytowhow, Arnold; Hagel, Louise; McMullin, Kathleen; Ramsden, Vivian; Abonyi, Sylvia; Episkenew, Jo-Ann; Dosman, James A.; Pahwa, Punam; Project Research Team, The First Nations Lung Health; Study Team, The Saskatchewan Rural Health

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ear infections in children are a major health problem and may be associated with hearing impairment and delayed language development. Objective. To determine the prevalence and the associated risk factors of ear infections in children 6–17 years old residing on two reserves and rural areas in the province of Saskatchewan. Methodology. Data were provided from two rural cross-sectional children studies. Outcome variable of interest was presence/absence of an ear infection. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between ear infection and the other covariates. Results. The prevalence of ear infection was 57.8% for rural Caucasian children and 43.6% for First Nations children living on-reserve. First Nations children had a lower risk of ear infection. Ear infection prevalence was positively associated with younger age; first born in the family; self-reported physician-diagnosed tonsillitis; self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma; and any respiratory related allergy. Protective effect of breastfeeding longer than three months was observed on the prevalence of ear infection. Conclusions. While ear infection is a prevalent condition of childhood, First Nations children were less likely to have a history of ear infections when compared to their rural Caucasian counterparts. PMID:26977160

  17. A helpful technique for water precautions following ear surgery; Utilising the anaesthetic air cushion mask.

    PubMed

    Osborne, M S; Clark, M P A

    2017-03-17

    Water avoidance in the immediate post-operative period following ear surgery is vital to prevent infection, allow incisions to heal and so lead to an improvement in recovery rates. Advice regarding this is varied from 24 hours - several weeks depending on the surgical approach and surgeon preference. Advice is usually given to prevent water from entering the ear canal by barrier methods such as cotton wool covered in petroleum jelly, custom ear plugs, putty or bathing caps. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of Flow Impairment during Carotid Artery Stenting Using Two Types of Eccentric Filter Embolic Protection Devices

    PubMed Central

    NII, Kouhei; TSUTSUMI, Masanori; MAEDA, Hitoshi; AIKAWA, Hiroshi; INOUE, Ritsuro; ETO, Ayumu; SAKAMOTO, Kimiya; MITSUTAKE, Takafumi; HANADA, Hayatsura; KAZEKAWA, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the angiographic findings and the clinical outcomes after carotid artery stenting (CAS) using two different, eccentric filter embolic protection devices (EPDs). Between July 2010 and August 2015, 175 CAS procedures were performed using a self-expandable closed-cell stent and a simple eccentric filter EPD (FilterWire EZ in 86 and Spider FX in 89 procedures). The angiographic findings (i.e., flow impairment and vasospasm) at the level of EPDs, neurologic events, and post-operative imaging results were compared between the FilterWire EZ and the Spider FX groups. The CAS was angiographically successful in all 175 procedures. However, the angiographs were obtained immediately after CAS-detected flow impairment in the distal internal carotid artery (ICA) in 11 (6.3%) and ICA spasms at the level of the EPD in 40 cases (22.9%). The incidence of these complications was higher with FilterWire EZ than Spider FX (ICA flow impairment of 10.5% vs. 2.2%, P = 0.03; vasospasm 30.2% vs. 15.7%, P = 0.03). There were nine neurologic events (5.1%); five patients were presented with transient ischemic attacks, three had minor strokes, and one had a major stroke. New MRI lesions were seen in 25 (29.1%) FilterWire-group and in 36 (40.4%) Spider-group patients. The neurologic events and new MRI lesions were not associated with the type of EPD used. Although the ICA flow impairment may result in neurologic events, there was no significant association between the FilterWire EZ and the Spider FX CAS with respect to the incidence of neurologic events by the prompt treatment such as catheter aspiration. PMID:27319302

  19. The War of Jenkins’ Ear

    PubMed Central

    Graboyes, Evan M.; Hullar, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective In 1731, Spanish sailors boarded the British brig Rebecca off the coast of Cuba and sliced off the left ear of its captain, Robert Jenkins. This traumatic auriculectomy was used as a pretext by the British to declare war on Spain in 1739, a conflict that is now known as the War of Jenkins’ Ear. Here, we examine the techniques available for auricular repair at the time of Jenkins’ injury and relate them to the historical events surrounding the incident. Methods Review of relevant original published manuscripts and monographs. Results Surgeons in the mid-18th century did not have experience with repair of traumatic total auriculectomies. Some contemporary surgeons favored auricular prostheses over surgical treatment. Methods for the reconstruction of partial defects were available, and most authors advocated a local post-auricular flap instead of a free tissue transfer. Techniques for repair of defects of the auricle lagged behind those for repair of the nose. Conclusion Limitations in care of traumatic auricular defects may have intensified the significance of Jenkins’ injury and helped lead to the War of Jenkins’ Ear, but conflict between Britain and Spain was probably unavoidable due to their conflicting commercial interests in the Caribbean. PMID:23444484

  20. Wind noise within and across behind-the-ear and miniature behind-the-ear hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Zakis, Justin A; Hawkins, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies investigated wind noise with Behind-The-Ear (BTE) hearing aids, but not the more common mini-BTE style of device, which typically has a smaller shell and microphones located more deeply behind the pinna. The current study investigated wind-noise levels across one BTE and two mini-BTE devices, and between the front and rear omni-directional microphones within devices. Levels were measured at two wind speeds (3 and 6 m/s) and 36 wind azimuths (10° increments). The pattern of wind-noise level versus azimuth was similar across mini-BTE devices, and differed for the BTE device. However, mean levels were markedly different across mini-BTE devices, and could be higher, lower, or similar to those of the BTE device. For within-device level differences, the pattern and mean across azimuth were similar across mini-BTE devices, and differed for the BTE device. Wind noise had the potential to slightly or severely reduce speech intelligibility at 3 or 6 m/s, respectively, across all devices.

  1. Portable hyperspectral device as a valuable tool for the detection of protective agents applied on hystorical buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vettori, S.; Pecchioni, E.; Camaiti, M.; Garfagnoli, F.; Benvenuti, M.; Costagliola, P.; Moretti, S.

    2012-04-01

    In the recent past, a wide range of protective products (in most cases, synthetic polymers) have been applied to the surfaces of ancient buildings/artefacts to preserve them from alteration [1]. The lack of a detailed mapping of the permanence and efficacy of these treatments, in particular when applied on large surfaces such as building facades, may be particularly noxious when new restoration treatments are needed and the best choice of restoration protocols has to be taken. The presence of protective compounds on stone surfaces may be detected in laboratory by relatively simple diagnostic tests, which, however, normally require invasive (or micro-invasive) sampling methodologies and are time-consuming, thus limiting their use only to a restricted number of samples and sampling sites. On the contrary, hyperspectral sensors are rapid, non-invasive and non-destructive tools capable of analyzing different materials on the basis of their different patterns of absorption at specific wavelengths, and so particularly suitable for the field of cultural heritage [2,3]. In addition, they can be successfully used to discriminate between inorganic (i.e. rocks and minerals) and organic compounds, as well as to acquire, in short times, many spectra and compositional maps at relatively low costs. In this study we analyzed a number of stone samples (Carrara Marble and biogenic calcarenites - "Lecce Stone" and "Maastricht Stone"-) after treatment of their surfaces with synthetic polymers (synthetic wax, acrylic, perfluorinated and silicon based polymers) of common use in conservation-restoration practice. The hyperspectral device used for this purpose was ASD FieldSpec FR Pro spectroradiometer, a portable, high-resolution instrument designed to acquire Visible and Near-Infrared (VNIR: 350-1000 nm) and Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR: 1000-2500 nm) punctual reflectance spectra with a rapid data collection time (about 0.1 s for each spectrum). The reflectance spectra so far obtained in

  2. Microsystems Technologies for Drug Delivery to the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Leary Pararas, Erin E.; Borkholder, David A.; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    The inner ear represents one of the most technologically challenging targets for local drug delivery, but its clinical significance is rapidly increasing. The prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss and other auditory diseases, along with balance disorders and tinnitus, has spurred broad efforts to develop therapeutic compounds and regenerative approaches to treat these conditions, necessitating advances in systems capable of targeted and sustained drug delivery. The delicate nature of hearing structures combined with the relative inaccessibility of the cochlea by means of conventional delivery routes together necessitate significant advancements in both the precision and miniaturization of delivery systems, and the nature of the molecular and cellular targets for these therapies suggests that multiple compounds may need to be delivered in a time-sequenced fashion over an extended duration. Here we address the various approaches being developed for inner ear drug delivery, including micropump-based devices, reciprocating systems, and cochlear prosthesis-mediated delivery, concluding with an analysis of emerging challenges and opportunities for the first generation of technologies suitable for human clinical use. These developments represent exciting advances that have the potential to repair and regenerate hearing structures in millions of patients for whom no currently available medical treatments exist, a situation that requires them to function with electronic hearing augmentation devices or to live with severely impaired auditory function. These advances also have the potential for broader clinical applications that share similar requirements and challenges with the inner ear, such as drug delivery to the central nervous system. PMID:22386561

  3. Design of a dynamic sensor inspired by bat ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Rolf; Pannala, Mittu; Reddy, O. Praveen K.; Meymand, Sajjad Z.

    2012-09-01

    In bats, the outer ear shapes act as beamforming baffles that create a spatial sensitivity pattern for the reception of the biosonar signals. Whereas technical receivers for wave-based signals usually have rigid geometries, the outer ears of some bat species, such as horseshoe bats, can undergo non-rigid deformations as a result of muscular actuation. It is hypothesized that these deformations provide the animals with a mechanism to adapt their spatial hearing sensitivity on short, sub-second time scales. This biological approach could be of interest to engineering as an inspiration for the design of beamforming devices that combine flexibility with parsimonious implementation. To explore this possibility, a biomimetic dynamic baffle was designed based on a simple shape overall geometry based on an average bat ear. This shape was augmented with three different biomimetic local shape features, a ridge on its exposed surface as well as a flap and an incision along its rim. Dynamic non-rigid deformations of the shape were accomplished through a simple actuation mechanism based on linear actuation inserted at a single point. Despite its simplicity, the prototype device was able to reproduce the dynamic functional characteristics that have been predicted for its biological paragon in a qualitative fashion.

  4. Using the shortwave infrared to image middle ear pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Tulio A.; Bruns, Oliver T.; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2016-01-01

    Visualizing structures deep inside opaque biological tissues is one of the central challenges in biomedical imaging. Optical imaging with visible light provides high resolution and sensitivity; however, scattering and absorption of light by tissue limits the imaging depth to superficial features. Imaging with shortwave infrared light (SWIR, 1–2 μm) shares many advantages of visible imaging, but light scattering in tissue is reduced, providing sufficient optical penetration depth to noninvasively interrogate subsurface tissue features. However, the clinical potential of this approach has been largely unexplored because suitable detectors, until recently, have been either unavailable or cost prohibitive. Here, taking advantage of newly available detector technology, we demonstrate the potential of SWIR light to improve diagnostics through the development of a medical otoscope for determining middle ear pathologies. We show that SWIR otoscopy has the potential to provide valuable diagnostic information complementary to that provided by visible pneumotoscopy. We show that in healthy adult human ears, deeper tissue penetration of SWIR light allows better visualization of middle ear structures through the tympanic membrane, including the ossicular chain, promontory, round window niche, and chorda tympani. In addition, we investigate the potential for detection of middle ear fluid, which has significant implications for diagnosing otitis media, the overdiagnosis of which is a primary factor in increased antibiotic resistance. Middle ear fluid shows strong light absorption between 1,400 and 1,550 nm, enabling straightforward fluid detection in a model using the SWIR otoscope. Moreover, our device is easily translatable to the clinic, as the ergonomics, visual output, and operation are similar to a conventional otoscope. PMID:27551085

  5. CT appearances of external ear canal cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, P N; Francis, I S; Wareing, M J; Cox, T C

    1997-09-01

    External ear canal cholesteatoma (EECC) is rare in ear, nose and throat (ENT) practice. Two cases, one bilateral, are described. Computed tomography demonstrates the extent of bony involvement. Erosion of the external canal should not be overlooked when reviewing CT of the petrous bone in cases of discharge from the ear. EECC may necessitate surgery and delay in the diagnosis of EECC can result in progressive bony destruction.

  6. Listening to Nature's orchestra with peculiar ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, David D.

    2003-04-01

    Insects use hearing for the crucial tasks of communicating with conspecifics and avoiding predators. Although all are based on the same acoustic principles, the diversity of insect ears is staggering and instructive. For instance, a South African grasshopper demonstrates that hearing conspecific calls is possible over distances 1 km with ears that do not have tympana. Actually, these creatures have six pairs of ears that play different roles in behavior. In numerical contrast, praying mantises have just a single ear in the ventral midline. The ear is very effective at detecting ultrasonic bat cries. However, the bioacoustics of sound transduction by two tympana facing each other in a deep, narrow slit is a puzzle. Tachinid flies demonstrate that directional hearing at 5 kHz is possible with a pair of ears fused together to give a total size of 1 mm. The ears are under the fly's chin. Hawk moths have their ears built into their mouthparts and the tympanum is more like a hollow ball than the usual membrane. As an apt last example, cicada ears are actually part of the orchestra: their tympana function both in sound reception and sound production.

  7. Molecular Mechanisms of Inner Ear Development

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Doris K.; Kelley, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    The inner ear is a structurally complex vertebrate organ built to encode sound, motion, and orientation in space. Given its complexity, it is not surprising that inner ear dysfunction is a relatively common consequence of human genetic mutation. Studies in model organisms suggest that many genes currently known to be associated with human hearing impairment are active during embryogenesis. Hence, the study of inner ear development provides a rich context for understanding the functions of genes implicated in hearing loss. This chapter focuses on molecular mechanisms of inner ear development derived from studies of model organisms. PMID:22855724

  8. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.

  9. Development and Integration of the Ear.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jennifer C; Tucker, Abigail S

    2015-01-01

    The perception of our environment via sensory organs plays a crucial role in survival and evolution. Hearing, one of our most developed senses, depends on the proper function of the auditory system and plays a key role in social communication, integration, and learning ability. The ear is a composite structure, comprised of the external, middle, and inner ear. During development, the ear is formed from the integration of a number of tissues of different embryonic origin, which initiate in distinct areas of the embryo at different time points. Functional connections between the components of the hearing apparatus have to be established and maintained during development and adulthood to allow proper sound submission from the outer to the middle and inner ear. This highly organized and intimate connectivity depends on intricate spatiotemporal signaling between the various tissues that give rise to the structures of the ear. Any alterations in this chain of events can lead to the loss of integration, which can subsequently lead to conductive hearing loss, in case of outer and middle ear defects or sensorineural hearing loss, if inner ear structures are defective. This chapter aims to review the current knowledge concerning the development of the three ear compartments as well as mechanisms and signaling pathways that have been implicated in the coordination and integration process of the ear.

  10. Milestones in the History of Ear Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Berghaus, Alexander; Nicoló, Marion San

    2015-12-01

    The reconstruction of ear deformities has been challenging plastic surgeons since centuries. However, it is only in the 19th century that reports on partial and total ear reconstruction start increasing. In the quest for an aesthetically pleasing and natural-looking result, surgeons worked on the perfect framework and skin coverage. Different materials and flap techniques have evolved. Some were abandoned out of frustration, while others kept evolving over the years. In this article, we discuss the milestones in ear reconstruction-from ancient times to early attempts in Western civilization to the key chapters of ear reconstruction in the 20th century leading to the current techniques.

  11. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553

  12. Intraear Compensation of Field Corn, Zea mays, from Simulated and Naturally Occurring Injury by Ear-Feeding Larvae.

    PubMed

    Steckel, S; Stewart, S D

    2015-06-01

    Ear-feeding larvae, such as corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), can be important insect pests of field corn, Zea mays L., by feeding on kernels. Recently introduced, stacked Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) traits provide improved protection from ear-feeding larvae. Thus, our objective was to evaluate how injury to kernels in the ear tip might affect yield when this injury was inflicted at the blister and milk stages. In 2010, simulated corn earworm injury reduced total kernel weight (i.e., yield) at both the blister and milk stage. In 2011, injury to ear tips at the milk stage affected total kernel weight. No differences in total kernel weight were found in 2013, regardless of when or how much injury was inflicted. Our data suggested that kernels within the same ear could compensate for injury to ear tips by increasing in size, but this increase was not always statistically significant or sufficient to overcome high levels of kernel injury. For naturally occurring injury observed on multiple corn hybrids during 2011 and 2012, our analyses showed either no or a minimal relationship between number of kernels injured by ear-feeding larvae and the total number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, or the size of individual kernels. The results indicate that intraear compensation for kernel injury to ear tips can occur under at least some conditions.

  13. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of a Hydrogel Reservoir as a Continuous Drug Delivery System for Inner Ear Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hessler, Roland; Stöver, Timo; Esser, Karl-Heinz; Möller, Martin; Lenarz, Thomas; Jolly, Claude; Groll, Jürgen; Scheper, Verena

    2014-01-01

    Fibrous tissue growth and loss of residual hearing after cochlear implantation can be reduced by application of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone-21-phosphate-disodium-salt (DEX). To date, sustained delivery of this agent to the cochlea using a number of pharmaceutical technologies has not been entirely successful. In this study we examine a novel way of continuous local drug application into the inner ear using a refillable hydrogel functionalized silicone reservoir. A PEG-based hydrogel made of reactive NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) prepolymers was evaluated as a drug conveying and delivery system in vitro and in vivo. Encapsulating the free form hydrogel into a silicone tube with a small opening for the drug diffusion resulted in delayed drug release but unaffected diffusion of DEX through the gel compared to the free form hydrogel. Additionally, controlled DEX release over several weeks could be demonstrated using the hydrogel filled reservoir. Using a guinea-pig cochlear trauma model the reservoir delivery of DEX significantly protected residual hearing and reduced fibrosis. As well as being used as a device in its own right or in combination with cochlear implants, the hydrogel-filled reservoir represents a new drug delivery system that feasibly could be replenished with therapeutic agents to provide sustained treatment of the inner ear. PMID:25105670

  14. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a hydrogel reservoir as a continuous drug delivery system for inner ear treatment.

    PubMed

    Hütten, Mareike; Dhanasingh, Anandhan; Hessler, Roland; Stöver, Timo; Esser, Karl-Heinz; Möller, Martin; Lenarz, Thomas; Jolly, Claude; Groll, Jürgen; Scheper, Verena

    2014-01-01

    Fibrous tissue growth and loss of residual hearing after cochlear implantation can be reduced by application of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone-21-phosphate-disodium-salt (DEX). To date, sustained delivery of this agent to the cochlea using a number of pharmaceutical technologies has not been entirely successful. In this study we examine a novel way of continuous local drug application into the inner ear using a refillable hydrogel functionalized silicone reservoir. A PEG-based hydrogel made of reactive NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO) prepolymers was evaluated as a drug conveying and delivery system in vitro and in vivo. Encapsulating the free form hydrogel into a silicone tube with a small opening for the drug diffusion resulted in delayed drug release but unaffected diffusion of DEX through the gel compared to the free form hydrogel. Additionally, controlled DEX release over several weeks could be demonstrated using the hydrogel filled reservoir. Using a guinea-pig cochlear trauma model the reservoir delivery of DEX significantly protected residual hearing and reduced fibrosis. As well as being used as a device in its own right or in combination with cochlear implants, the hydrogel-filled reservoir represents a new drug delivery system that feasibly could be replenished with therapeutic agents to provide sustained treatment of the inner ear.

  15. Green laser light activates the inner ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Gentiana I.; Balster, Sven; Zhang, Kaiyin; Lim, Hubert H.; Reich, Uta; Massow, Ole; Lubatschowski, Holger; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Lenarz, Thomas; Reuter, Guenter

    2009-07-01

    The hearing performance with conventional hearing aids and cochlear implants is dramatically reduced in noisy environments and for sounds more complex than speech (e. g. music), partially due to the lack of localized sensorineural activation across different frequency regions with these devices. Laser light can be focused in a controlled manner and may provide more localized activation of the inner ear, the cochlea. We sought to assess whether visible light with parameters that could induce an optoacoustic effect (532 nm, 10-ns pulses) would activate the cochlea. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded preoperatively in anesthetized guinea pigs to confirm normal hearing. After opening the bulla, a 50-μm core-diameter optical fiber was positioned in the round window niche and directed toward the basilar membrane. Optically induced ABRs (OABRs), similar in shape to those of acoustic stimulation, were elicited with single pulses. The OABR peaks increased with energy level (0.6 to 23 μJ/pulse) and remained consistent even after 30 minutes of continuous stimulation at 13 μJ, indicating minimal or no stimulation-induced damage within the cochlea. Our findings demonstrate that visible light can effectively and reliably activate the cochlea without any apparent damage. Further studies are in progress to investigate the frequency-specific nature and mechanism of green light cochlear activation.

  16. The ability to listen with independent ears.

    PubMed

    Gallun, Frederick J; Mason, Christine R; Kidd, Gerald

    2007-11-01

    In three experiments, listeners identified speech processed into narrow bands and presented to the right ("target") ear. The ability of listeners to ignore (or even use) conflicting contralateral stimulation was examined by presenting various maskers to the target ear ("ipsilateral") and nontarget ear ("contralateral"). Theoretically, an absence of contralateral interference would imply selectively attending to only the target ear; the presence of interference from the contralateral stimulus would imply that listeners were unable to treat the stimuli at the two ears independently; and improved performance in the presence of informative contralateral stimulation would imply that listeners can process the signals at both ears and keep them separate rather than combining them. Experiments showed evidence of the ability to selectively process (or respond to) only the target ear in some, but not all, conditions. No evidence was found for improved performance due to contralateral stimulation. The pattern of interference found across experiments supports an interaction of stimulus-based factors (auditory grouping) and task-based factors (demand for processing resources) and suggests that listeners may not always be able to listen to the "better" ear even when it would be beneficial to do so.

  17. Playing by Ear: Foundation or Frill?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Many people divide musicians into two types: those who can read music and those who play by ear. Formal music education tends to place great emphasis on producing musically literate performers but devotes much less attention to teaching students to make music without notation. Some would suggest that playing by ear is a specialized skill that is…

  18. INNER EAR EMBRYOGENESIS: GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The anatomy and developmental molecular genetics of the inner ear from establishment of the otic placode to formation of the definitive cochlea and vestibular apparatus will be reviewed and the complex 3-D structural changes that shape the developing inner ear will be illustrated...

  19. Stem Cell Therapy for the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    In vertebrates, perception of sound, motion, and balance is mediated through mechanosensory hair cells located within the inner ear. In mammals, hair cells are only generated during a short period of embryonic development. As a result, loss of hair cells as a consequence of injury, disease, or genetic mutation, leads to permanent sensory deficits. At present, cochlear implantation is the only option for profound hearing loss. However, outcomes are still variable and even the best implant cannot provide the acuity of a biological ear. The recent emergence of stem cell technology has the potential to open new approaches for hair cell regeneration. The goal of this review is to summarize the current state of inner ear stem cell research from a viewpoint of its clinical application for inner ear disorders to illustrate how complementary studies have the potential to promote and refine stem cell therapies for inner ear diseases. The review initially discusses our current understanding of the genetic pathways that regulate hair cell formation from inner ear progenitors during normal development. Subsequent sections discuss the possible use of endogenous inner ear stem cells to induce repair as well as the initial studies aimed at transplanting stem cells into the ear. PMID:22514095

  20. Cutaneous lesions of the external ear

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Michael; Sand, Daniel; Brors, Dominik; Altmeyer, Peter; Mann, Benno; Bechara, Falk G

    2008-01-01

    Skin diseases on the external aspect of the ear are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, othorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners, general and plastic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the ear. This article will focus on those diseases wherefore surgery or laser therapy is considered as a possible treatment option or which are potentially subject to surgical evaluation. PMID:18261212

  1. 21 CFR 874.5370 - Tongs antichoke device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tongs antichoke device. 874.5370 Section 874.5370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5370 Tongs antichoke device....

  2. 21 CFR 874.5370 - Tongs antichoke device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tongs antichoke device. 874.5370 Section 874.5370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5370 Tongs antichoke device....

  3. 21 CFR 874.1600 - Olfactory test device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Olfactory test device. 874.1600 Section 874.1600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1600 Olfactory test device....

  4. 21 CFR 874.1600 - Olfactory test device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Olfactory test device. 874.1600 Section 874.1600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1600 Olfactory test device....

  5. 21 CFR 874.1600 - Olfactory test device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Olfactory test device. 874.1600 Section 874.1600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1600 Olfactory test device....

  6. 21 CFR 874.5350 - Suction antichoke device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suction antichoke device. 874.5350 Section 874.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5350 Suction antichoke device....

  7. 21 CFR 874.5350 - Suction antichoke device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suction antichoke device. 874.5350 Section 874.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5350 Suction antichoke device....

  8. Objective Metric Based Assessments for Efficient Evaluation of Auditory Situation Awareness Characteristics of Tactical Communications and Protective Systems (TCAPS) and Augmented Hearing Protective Devices (HPDs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-30

    AUTHOR(S) 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...auditory situation awareness (ASA) that objectively quantified the ASA performance afforded by various Tactical Communications and Protection Systems... performance on each element of ASA could be ascertained, and via statistical analysis, the individual elements’ sets of scores were applied to

  9. [The estimation of penetrating of microbes by the protective clothing and textile medical devices, according to obligatory norms].

    PubMed

    Zareba, Tomasz; Zych, Magdalena; Kruszewska, Hanna; Mrówka, Agnieszka; Wasińska, Ewa; Tyski, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Textile medical products can be widely used as barrier materials and individual protection against biological threats. Rules of introducing such products to market are regulated by the Directive 93/42/ EEC. Detailed requirements and testing methods of textile medical products are presented in obligatory norms. The required level of protection of these products against the penetration of microbes depends on the risk connected with planned type surgical procedure, the duration of the surgical intervention, risks of bleeding or presences of other body liquids of the patient and susceptibilities of the patient to infection. The aim of the study was to establish resistance of medical textiles to wet bacterial penetration. Materials were examined by the apparatus dedicated to this type of testing and obtained results were rated with reference to obligatory contracted requirements. assured Textiles laminated with foils possessed best protective proprieties, whereas medical products made from the cotton do not provide the sufficient level of the protection against microbes.

  10. Mechanised spraying device a novel technology for spraying fire protective coating material in the benches of opencast coal mines for preventing spontaneous combustion

    SciTech Connect

    R.V.K. Singh; V.K. Singh

    2004-10-15

    Spontaneous combustion in coal mines plays a vital role in occurrences of fire. Fire in coal, particularly in opencast mines, not only causes irreparable loss of national wealth but damages the surface structure and pollutes the environment. The problem of spontaneous combustion/fire in opencast coal benches is acute. Presently over 75% of the total production of coal in Indian mines is being carried out by opencast mining. Accordingly a mechanised spraying device has been developed for spraying the fire protective coating material for preventing spontaneous combustion in coal benches of opencast mines jointly by Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad and M/s Signum Fire Protection (India) Pvt. Ltd., Nagpur under Science & Technology (S&T) project funded by Ministry of Coal, Govt. of India. The objective of this paper is to describe in detail about the mechanised spraying device and its application for spraying fire protective coating material in the benches of opencast coal mines for preventing spontaneous combustion/fire.

  11. Ear-EEG from generic earpieces: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Kidmose, P; Looney, D; Jochumsen, L; Mandic, D P

    2013-01-01

    The use of brain monitoring based on EEG, in natural environments and over long time periods, is hindered by the limited portability of current wearable systems, and the invasiveness of implanted systems. To that end, we introduce an ear-EEG recording device based on generic earpieces which meets key patient needs (discreet, unobstrusive, user-friendly, robust) and that is low-cost and suitable for off-the-shelf use; thus promising great advantages for healthcare applications. Its feasibility is validated in a comprehensive comparative study with our established prototype, based on a personalized earpiece, for a key EEG paradigm.

  12. Numerical analysis of ossicular chain lesion of human ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingxi; Li, Sheng; Sun, Xiuzhen

    2009-04-01

    Lesion of ossicular chain is a common ear disease impairing the sense of hearing. A comprehensive numerical model of human ear can provide better understanding of sound transmission. In this study, we propose a three-dimensional finite element model of human ear that incorporates the canal, tympanic membrane, ossicular bones, middle ear suspensory ligaments/muscles, middle ear cavity and inner ear fluid. Numerical analysis is conducted and employed to predict the effects of middle ear cavity, malleus handle defect, hypoplasia of the long process of incus, and stapedial crus defect on sound transmission. The present finite element model is shown to be reasonable in predicting the ossicular mechanics of human ear.

  13. Subcutaneous emphysema and pneumolabyrinth plus pneumocephalus as complications of middle ear implant and cochlear implant surgery.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Brian J; Watts, Tamara

    2013-07-01

    We conducted a retrospective case review at a tertiary academic medical center for the complications of pneumolabyrinth with pneumocephalus and subcutaneous emphysema after surgery for middle ear and cochlear implants. Charts of 76 cochlear implant and 2 middle ear implant patients from January 2001 through June 2009 were reviewed. We identified 1 cochlear implant recipient with pneumolabyrinth and pneumocephalus, and 1 middle ear implant recipient with subcutaneous emphysema. Surgical exploration was performed for the pneumolabyrinth with pneumocephalus; the subcutaneous emphysema was managed conservatively. The patient with the cochlear implant, who had had a ventriculoperitoneal shunt placed, experienced pneumolabyrinth with pneumocephalus 6 years after uneventful surgery. Middle ear exploration revealed no residual fibrous tissue seal at the cochleostomy. The middle ear and cochleostomy were obliterated with muscle, fat, and fibrin glue. The ventriculoperitoneal shunt was deactivated, with clinical and radiographic resolution. On postoperative day 5, the patient who had undergone the middle ear implant reported crepitance over the mastoid and implant device site after repeated Valsalva maneuvers. Computed tomography showed air surrounding the internal processor. A mastoid pressure dressing was applied and the subcutaneous emphysema resolved. These 2 cases support the importance of recognizing the clinical presentation of pneumolabyrinth with associated pneumocephalus, as well as subcutaneous emphysema. Securing the internal processor, adequately sealing the cochleostomy, and providing preoperative counseling regarding Valsalva maneuvers and the potential risk of cochlear implantation in the presence of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt may prevent adverse sequelae.

  14. Drug Delivery for Treatment of Inner Ear Disease: Current State of Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Andrew A.; Leary Swan, Erin E.; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.; Sewell, William F.; Kujawa, Sharon G.; McKenna, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Delivery of medications to the inner ear has been an area of considerable growth in both the research and clinical realms over the past several decades. Systemic delivery of medication destined for treatment of the inner ear is the foundation upon which newer delivery techniques have been developed. Due to systemic side effects, investigators and clinicians have begun developing and utilizing techniques to deliver therapeutic agents locally. Alongside the now commonplace use of intratympanic gentamicin for Meniere's disease and the emerging use of intratympanic steroids for sudden sensorineural hearing loss, novel technologies, such as hydrogels and nanoparticles, are being explored. At the horizon of inner ear drug delivery techniques, intracochlear devices that leverage recent advances in microsystems technology are being developed to apply medications directly into the inner ear. Potential uses for such devices include neurotrophic factor and steroid delivery with cochlear implantation, RNA interference technologies, and stem cell therapy. The historical, current, and future delivery techniques and uses of drug delivery for treatment of inner ear disease serve as the basis for this review. PMID:19952751

  15. [Ear keloid and clinical research progress].

    PubMed

    Du, Guangyuan; Zhu, Jiang

    2014-04-01

    Keloid refers to the damaged skin due to excessive fibroblast proliferation. Ear is one predilection site. The pathogenesis of ear keloid is not very clear, and the treatment is also varied. Surgery, postoperative radiotherapy and laser treatment, steroid hormones, pressure therapy are the basic treatment methods. Integrated application of a variety of treatments, classification research and new materials using revealed the prospect for the treatment of the disease. This thesis reviews literature about ear keloid in recent 10 years, and introduces this disease and clinical research progress.

  16. Surgical Management of Ear Diseases in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Csomos, Rebecca; Bosscher, Georgia; Mans, Christoph; Hardie, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Otitis externa and media are frequently diagnosed disorders in rabbits and are particularly common in lop-eared breeds because of the specific anatomy of the ear canal. Medical management for otitis externa and media often provides only a temporary improvement in clinical signs. Surgery by means of partial or total ear canal ablation (PECA or TECA) combined with lateral bulla osteotomy (LBO) represents a feasible approach that is well tolerated and provides a good clinical outcome. Short-term complications associated with PECA/TECA-LBO include facial nerve paralysis and vestibular disease.

  17. Development of a test device to characterize thermal protective performance of fabrics against hot steam and thermal radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yun; Li, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Steam burns severely threaten the life of firefighters in the course of their fire-ground activities. The aim of this paper was to characterize thermal protective performance of flame-retardant fabrics exposed to hot steam and low-level thermal radiation. An improved testing apparatus based on ASTM F2731-11 was developed in order to simulate the routine fire-ground conditions by controlling steam pressure, flow rate and temperature of steam box. The thermal protective performance of single-layer and multi-layer fabric system with/without an air gap was studied based on the calibrated tester. It was indicated that the new testing apparatus effectively evaluated thermal properties of fabric in hot steam and thermal radiation. Hot steam significantly exacerbated the skin burn injuries while the condensed water on the skin’s surface contributed to cool down the skin tissues during the cooling. Also, the absorbed thermal energy during the exposure and the cooling was mainly determined by the fabric’s configuration, the air gap size, the exposure time and the existence of hot steam. The research provides a effective method to characterize the thermal protection of fabric in complex conditions, which will help in optimization of thermal protection performance of clothing and reduction of steam burn.

  18. A Novel Technique Using a Protection Filter During Fibrin Sheath Removal for Implanted Venous Access Device Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sotiriadis, Charalampos; Hajdu, Steven David; Degrauwe, Sophie; Barras, Heloise; Qanadli, Salah Dine

    2016-08-01

    With the increased use of implanted venous access devices (IVADs) for continuous long-term venous access, several techniques such as percutaneous endovascular fibrin sheath removal, have been described, to maintain catheter function. Most standard techniques do not capture the stripped fibrin sheath, which is subsequently released in the pulmonary circulation and may lead to symptomatic pulmonary embolism. The presented case describes an endovascular technique which includes stripping, capture, and removal of fibrin sheath using a novel filter device. A 64-year-old woman presented with IVAD dysfunction. Stripping was performed using a co-axial snare to the filter to capture the fibrin sheath. The captured fragment was subsequently removed for visual and pathological verification. No immediate complication was observed and the patient was discharged the day of the procedure.

  19. Modification of a Braided Support Catheter into a Rapid Exchange System for Navigation of a Distal Protection Device through Significant Vascular Tortuosity

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Dale; Starke, Robert M.; Durst, Christopher R.; Evans, Avery J

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cerebral embolic protection devices (EPD) reduce the rate of periprocedural thromboembolic complications and are currently used in all carotid artery stenting (CAS) procedures. However, tortuous vascular anatomy of the internal carotid artery (ICA) may prevent navigation of distal EPDs, thereby leading to inadequate cerebral protection. We present a case in which significant tortuosity of the ICA distal to the stenotic lesion precluded navigation of currently available distal EPDs. During a CAS procedure, significant vascular tortuosity of the distal cervical ICA was noted which prevented navigation of currently available distal EPDs due to catheter kinking. In order to overcome this anatomic barrier, a novel rapid exchange catheter system (RECS) was created using a modified DAC 038 braided catheter through which a distal EPD and microguidewire were placed. This newly devised RECS allowed navigation of the distal EPD past the tortuous ICA bend and successful completion of the CAS procedure without periprocedural complications. We demonstrate that modification of currently available devices can, in select cases, effectively address cases of significant vascular tortuosity which limit the use of conventional distal EPDs. PMID:25496675

  20. Assessment of thermal treatment via irrigation of external ear to reduce cisplatin-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Spankovich, Christopher; Lobarinas, Edward; Ding, Dalian; Salvi, Richard; Le Prell, Colleen G

    2016-02-01

    Systemic and local changes in body temperature can have a profound effect on traumatic injuries including those to the inner ear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of acutely increasing or decreasing the temperature of the external ear canal on cisplatin-induced hearing loss. The external auditory canals of male guinea pigs were acutely irrigated with warm (44 °C), euthermic (37 °C), or cool (30 °C) water and subsequently injected with cisplatin (12 mg/kg, i.p.). Hearing was assessed by the auditory brainstem response and cochleograms were prepared to determine loss of hair cells. Ear canal irrigation with warm water potentiated cisplatin-induced hearing loss and outer hair cell loss whereas cool ear canal irrigation showed significant protection from cisplatin-induced hearing loss and outer hair cell loss. These results suggest that non-invasive cool water ear canal irrigation may be highly effective clinical procedure for protecting against cisplatin-induced hearing loss.

  1. Need for and evaluation of hail protection devices for solar flat plate collectors. Final report, June 1978-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P R; Cox, M; de Winter, F

    1980-03-01

    A brief summary of the hail risk work previously done under this contract is given, and a summary evaluation of hail impact resistance standards currently being developed is presented. Simulated hail impact test data, field data, and the impact resistance of commercially available glazings are discussed. The use of screens for protection against hail and the threat of vandalism to solar flat plate collectors are discussed. (WHK)

  2. Research on Modelling the Effects of Personal Hearing Protection and Communications Devices on Speech Intelligibility in Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    environnemental et la protection auditive et ainsi créer des conditions terrains sous-optimales. L’avènement d’appareils de communication avancés avec...ont participé à des essais de perception de la parole dans deux environnements sonores militaires recréés dans une salle de simulation sonore à des...situational awareness, such as the directional characteristics of microphones, compression parameters, internal noise, and harmonic distortion of

  3. Can Smartphones and Privacy Coexist Assessing Technologies and Regulations Protecting Personal Data on Android and iOS Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    C O R P O R A T I O N Can Smartphones and Privacy Coexist? Assessing Technologies and Regulations Protecting Personal Data on Android and iOS...depend on policymakers gaining greater insights into technological, social , and governmental forces that shape today’s evolving smartphone environment...over how their personal information is shared. The challenge with defining privacy is that often what is considered personal or private may

  4. Evolution: Fossil Ears and Underwater Sonar.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Olivier

    2016-08-22

    A key innovation in the history of whales was the evolution of a sonar system together with high-frequency hearing. Fossils of an archaic toothed whale's inner ear bones provide clues for a stepwise emergence of underwater echolocation ability.

  5. Ear Infection Treatment: Do Alternative Therapies Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... recommended for use in children — some have dangerous side effects or may interfere with conventional treatments. By Mayo Clinic Staff Alternative ear infection treatments abound on the internet and in books and magazines. They include chiropractic adjustments, homeopathy, herbal ...

  6. Diode Laser Ear Piercing: A Novel Technique.

    PubMed

    Suseela, Bibilash Babu; Babu, Preethitha; Chittoria, Ravi Kumar; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Earlobe piercing is a common office room procedure done by a plastic surgeon. Various methods of ear piercing have been described. In this article, we describe a novel method of laser ear piercing using the diode laser. An 18-year-old female patient underwent an ear piercing using a diode laser with a power of 2.0 W in continuous mode after topical local anaesthetic and pre-cooling. The diode laser was fast, safe, easy to use and highly effective way of ear piercing. The advantages we noticed while using the diode laser over conventional methods were more precision, minimal trauma with less chances of hypertrophy and keloids, no bleeding with coagulation effect of laser, less time taken compared to conventional method and less chance of infection due to thermal heat effect of laser.

  7. Inner ear malformations: a practical diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Mazón, M; Pont, E; Montoya-Filardi, A; Carreres-Polo, J; Más-Estellés, F

    2016-12-29

    Pediatric sensorineural hearing loss is a major cause of disability; although inner ear malformations account for only 20-40% of all cases, recognition and characterization will be vital for the proper management of these patients. In this article relevant anatomy and development of inner ear are surveyed. The role of neuroimaging in pediatric sensorineural hearing loss and cochlear preimplantation study are assessed. The need for a universal system of classification of inner ear malformations with therapeutic and prognostic implications is highlighted. And finally, the radiological findings of each type of malformation are concisely described and depicted. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging play a crucial role in the characterization of inner ear malformations and allow the assessment of the anatomical structures that enable the selection of appropriate treatment and surgical approach.

  8. Diode Laser Ear Piercing: A Novel Technique

    PubMed Central

    Suseela, Bibilash Babu; Babu, Preethitha; Chittoria, Ravi Kumar; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Earlobe piercing is a common office room procedure done by a plastic surgeon. Various methods of ear piercing have been described. In this article, we describe a novel method of laser ear piercing using the diode laser. An 18-year-old female patient underwent an ear piercing using a diode laser with a power of 2.0 W in continuous mode after topical local anaesthetic and pre-cooling. The diode laser was fast, safe, easy to use and highly effective way of ear piercing. The advantages we noticed while using the diode laser over conventional methods were more precision, minimal trauma with less chances of hypertrophy and keloids, no bleeding with coagulation effect of laser, less time taken compared to conventional method and less chance of infection due to thermal heat effect of laser. PMID:28163460

  9. 38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Schedule of ratings-ear...—ear. Diseases of the Ear Rating 6200Chronic suppurative otitis media, mastoiditis, or cholesteatoma... of the substance 10 6208Malignant neoplasm of the ear (other than skin only) 100 Note: A rating...

  10. Design, kinematic optimization, and evaluation of a teleoperated system for middle ear microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Miroir, Mathieu; Nguyen, Yann; Szewczyk, Jérôme; Sterkers, Olivier; Bozorg Grayeli, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Middle ear surgery involves the smallest and the most fragile bones of the human body. Since microsurgical gestures and a submillimetric precision are required in these procedures, the outcome can be potentially improved by robotic assistance. Today, there is no commercially available device in this field. Here, we describe a method to design a teleoperated assistance robotic system dedicated to the middle ear surgery. Determination of design specifications, the kinematic structure, and its optimization are detailed. The robot-surgeon interface and the command modes are provided. Finally, the system is evaluated by realistic tasks in experimental dedicated settings and in human temporal bone specimens.

  11. Comparison of active cooling devices to passive cooling for rehabilitation of firefighters performing exercise in thermal protective clothing: A report from the Fireground Rehab Evaluation (FIRE) trial

    PubMed Central

    Hostler, David; Reis, Steven E; Bednez, James C; Kerin, Sarah; Suyama, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Background Thermal protective clothing (TPC) worn by firefighters provides considerable protection from the external environment during structural fire suppression. However, TPC is associated with physiological derangements that may have adverse cardiovascular consequences. These derangements should be treated during on-scene rehabilitation periods. Objective The present study examined heart rate and core temperature responses during the application of four active cooling devices, currently being marketed to the fire service for on-scene rehab, and compared them to passive cooling in a moderate temperature (approximately 24°C) and to an infusion of cold (4°C) saline. Methods Subjects exercised in TPC in a heated room. Following an initial exercise period (BOUT 1) the subjects exited the room, removed TPC, and for 20 minutes cooled passively at room temperature, received an infusion of cold normal saline, or were cooled by one of four devices (fan, forearm immersion in water, hand cooling, water perfused cooling vest). After cooling, subjects donned TPC and entered the heated room for another 50-minute exercise period (BOUT 2). Results Subjects were not able to fully recover core temperature during a 20-minute rehab period when provided rehydration and the opportunity to completely remove TPC. Exercise duration was shorter during BOUT 2 when compared to BOUT 1 but did not differ by cooling intervention. The overall magnitude and rate of cooling and heart rate recovery did not differ by intervention. Conclusions No clear advantage was identified when active cooling devices and cold intravenous saline were compared to passive cooling in a moderate temperature after treadmill exercise in TPC. PMID:20397868

  12. Middle Ear Surgery in Only Hearing Ears and Postoperative Hearing Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Myung Hoon; Kang, Byung Chul; Park, Hong Ju

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate surgical interventions and hearing rehabilitation in patients with chronic middle ear disease of only hearing ears. Subjects and Methods Thirty-one patients with chronic middle ear disease of only hearing ears were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patients were classified into three groups according to the hearing level: groups A [pure tone audiometry (PTA)<40], B (40≤PTA<70), and C (PTA≥70). We evaluated hearing results and patterns of auditory rehabilitation. Results The main consideration for a surgical procedure was the presence of recurrent otorrhea and structural destruction. The reasons for surgical intervention in only hearing ears were otorrhea caused by chronic otitis media (68%), cholesteatoma (29%), and cholesterol granuloma (3%). The causes of contralateral deaf ears were chronic otitis media (81%) and sensorineural hearing loss (19%). Although there was hearing deterioration in some patients with severe hearing loss (PTA≥70), all patients achieved dry ears after surgery and functional hearing using auditory rehabilitation. Hearing aids were used in most patients with moderate to moderately severe hearing loss and cochlear implants were used for auditory rehabilitation in patients with severe to profound hearing loss. Conclusions Proper evaluation and indications for surgery in only hearing ears are important for successful eradication of inflammation and hearing preservation. Surgical interventions can achieve dry ear and enable further auditory rehabilitations using hearing aids and cochlear implantation. PMID:25279226

  13. Inheritance of ear wax types, ear lobe attachment and tongue rolling ability.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Gonzalez, L; Lisker, R

    1982-01-01

    The mode of inheritance of ear wax type, ear lobe attachment and tongue rolling ability were studied in 77 families with a total of 293 children. The results clearly showed that the dry ear wax type and the attached ear lobe type represent the homozygous state for two pairs of autosomal recessive genes. The evidence for the same being true regarding the lack of ability to roll the tongue was less conclusive in our material, but this could be due to difficulties in communication between the examined individuals and the examiners.

  14. Electromagnetic Pulse/Transient Threat Testing of Protection Devices for Amateur/Military Affiliate Radio System Equipment. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-31

    source im- pedlance), the type Z1-V2 varistor should be connectpd in series with the A.C. CFlo aaiac V or ae odr Hle SVP, as shown in fig. 13 on page 7...unidirec- * taySaepwrd5i.l~tional or bidiroctional applications. &t T, = 75*C, Lead Length =I- These devices ae designed to disso- a Reetiionrat icuty...CI.ARACTIRIS1)CS so Molded case to-GV *Soldei’able leads GNVA At Body marked with LOWo* and - 0 type number 1- a4.’t AE ULN APPLICATION j. ti-6" The GHV

  15. Binaural versus better-ear listening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpaci, Jacob W.; Durlach, N. I.; Colburn, H. Steven

    2003-04-01

    Advantages of binaural over monaural hearing in noisy environments are reduced when the monaural stimulation is derived from the monaural signal with the better signal-to-noise ratio (better-ear listening). In the reported experiments, conducted in a soundproof room with two speakers and a custom-designed, noise-cancellation headset, speech intelligibility in the presence of interference was measured for both binaural and better-ear configurations. The headset, which incorporated two microphones (located at the two ears) and two insert earphones, was used to present binaural stimulation or better-ear (better-microphone) monaural stimulation. Although the results varied significantly with the locations of the target and interference sources, the advantage of binaural listening over better-ear listening was no more than a few dB. In addition to reporting the data obtained in these experiments, relations to previous work on better-ear listening and CROS hearing aids, as well as to current work on cochlear implants, are discussed. [Work supported by NIDCD (00100).

  16. A new model for non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae middle ear infection in the Junbo mutant mouse

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Derek; Moxon, Richard; Purnell, Tom; Richter, Caroline; Williams, Debbie; Azar, Ali; Crompton, Michael; Wells, Sara; Fray, Martin; Brown, Steve D. M.; Cheeseman, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acute otitis media, inflammation of the middle ear, is the most common bacterial infection in children and, as a consequence, is the most common reason for antimicrobial prescription to this age group. There is currently no effective vaccine for the principal pathogen involved, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). The most frequently used and widely accepted experimental animal model of middle ear infection is in chinchillas, but mice and gerbils have also been used. We have established a robust model of middle ear infection by NTHi in the Junbo mouse, a mutant mouse line that spontaneously develops chronic middle ear inflammation in specific pathogen-free conditions. The heterozygote Junbo mouse (Jbo/+) bears a mutation in a gene (Evi1, also known as Mecom) that plays a role in host innate immune regulation; pre-existing middle ear inflammation promotes NTHi middle ear infection. A single intranasal inoculation with NTHi produces high rates (up to 90%) of middle ear infection and bacterial titres (104-105 colony-forming units/µl) in bulla fluids. Bacteria are cleared from the majority of middle ears between day 21 and 35 post-inoculation but remain in approximately 20% of middle ears at least up to day 56 post-infection. The expression of Toll-like receptor-dependent response cytokine genes is elevated in the middle ear of the Jbo/+ mouse following NTHi infection. The translational potential of the Junbo model for studying antimicrobial intervention regimens was shown using a 3 day course of azithromycin to clear NTHi infection, and its potential use in vaccine development studies was shown by demonstrating protection in mice immunized with killed homologous, but not heterologous, NTHi bacteria. PMID:26611891

  17. A new model for non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae middle ear infection in the Junbo mutant mouse.

    PubMed

    Hood, Derek; Moxon, Richard; Purnell, Tom; Richter, Caroline; Williams, Debbie; Azar, Ali; Crompton, Michael; Wells, Sara; Fray, Martin; Brown, Steve D M; Cheeseman, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Acute otitis media, inflammation of the middle ear, is the most common bacterial infection in children and, as a consequence, is the most common reason for antimicrobial prescription to this age group. There is currently no effective vaccine for the principal pathogen involved, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). The most frequently used and widely accepted experimental animal model of middle ear infection is in chinchillas, but mice and gerbils have also been used. We have established a robust model of middle ear infection by NTHi in the Junbo mouse, a mutant mouse line that spontaneously develops chronic middle ear inflammation in specific pathogen-free conditions. The heterozygote Junbo mouse (Jbo/+) bears a mutation in a gene (Evi1, also known as Mecom) that plays a role in host innate immune regulation; pre-existing middle ear inflammation promotes NTHi middle ear infection. A single intranasal inoculation with NTHi produces high rates (up to 90%) of middle ear infection and bacterial titres (10(4)-10(5) colony-forming units/µl) in bulla fluids. Bacteria are cleared from the majority of middle ears between day 21 and 35 post-inoculation but remain in approximately 20% of middle ears at least up to day 56 post-infection. The expression of Toll-like receptor-dependent response cytokine genes is elevated in the middle ear of the Jbo/+ mouse following NTHi infection. The translational potential of the Junbo model for studying antimicrobial intervention regimens was shown using a 3 day course of azithromycin to clear NTHi infection, and its potential use in vaccine development studies was shown by demonstrating protection in mice immunized with killed homologous, but not heterologous, NTHi bacteria.

  18. A 5-Fr Externalized Nephroureteral Catheter as the Sole Protective Device for Pediatric Pyeloplasty: The Experiences of 142 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mollaeian, Mansour; Ghavami-Adel, Maryam; Eskandari, Farid; Mollaeian, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Background Pyeloplasty for ureteropelvic junction obstruction correction is a common procedure, but the optimal method for protective diversion after pyeloplasty is still a matter of debate. Objectives Here, we present our clinical trial experience using a single percutaneous externalized nephroureteral (NU) 5-Fr catheter (infant feeding tube) with multiple side holes as the sole instrument of drainage to provide a protective mechanism. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, we analyzed the charts of 142 patients who underwent pyeloplasty from August 2001 through October 2008. We used a single externalized NU 5-Fr catheter with multiple side holes for postoperative upper tract diversion. The catheter was removed in the office after 10 - 14 days. Complications from the use of this catheter, including poor catheter function, premature dislodgement, urinary tract infection, leakage, urinoma, and anastomotic stenosis, were evaluated. The operations were performed by two surgeons at two separate centers. Results In all, 148 pyeloplasty procedures were performed on 142 patients. The mean hospital stay length was 2 (1 - 3) days. A contrast study through a catheter demonstrated excellent drainage with no leakage in all patients. Immediately after catheter removal, febrile urinary tract infection and transient obstructive symptoms and signs occurred in 15 patients. Conclusions Using a percutaneous externalized NU 5-Fr catheter was sufficient as a protective measure after open pyeloplasty. It costs less than other diverting systems, such as DJ, and can be removed in the office. Therefore, it can be a safe and cost effective procedure, especially in developing countries where cystoscopic set ups are not readily available. There were only a few notable complications. PMID:28203336

  19. Assessment of the Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer Through Protective Garments Using Manikins and Other Advanced Measurement Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, René M.; Psikuta, Agnes

    The assessment of the coupled heat and mass transfer in protective clothing is very complex as the layers of the system are a combination of fabric and air layers that constantly change with the movements of the wearer. The methods to measure these mechanisms become more and more sophisticated which increases the precision of models to predict the impact of heat and moisture fluxes on the human thermal physiology. The simulation of the human thermoregulatory mechanisms requires the combination of physical models representing the body (manikins) with physiological (mathematical) models. This chapter gives different examples of advanced measurement methods to characterize the thermal properties of fabrics and garments.

  20. Comparison of speech intelligibility measures for an electronic amplifying earmuff and an identical passive attenuation device.

    PubMed

    Byrne, David C; Palmer, Catherine V

    2012-01-09

    The purpose of this study was to identify any differences between speech intelligibility measures obtained with MineEars electronic earmuffs (ProEars, Westcliffe, CO, USA) and the Bilsom model 847 (Sperian Hearing Protection, San Diego, CA, USA), which is a conventional passive-attenuation earmuff. These two devices are closely related, since the MineEars device consisted of a Bilsom 847 earmuff with the addition of electronic amplification circuits. Intelligibility scores were obtained by conducting listening tests with 15 normal-hearing human subject volunteers wearing the earmuffs. The primary research objective was to determine whether speech understanding differs between the passive earmuffs and the electronic earmuffs (with the volume control set at three different positions) in a background of 90 dB(A) continuous noise. As expected, results showed that speech intelligibility increased with higher speech-to-noise ratios; however, the electronic earmuff with the volume control set at full-on performed worse than when it was set to off or the lowest on setting. This finding suggests that the maximum volume control setting for these electronic earmuffs may not provide any benefits in terms of increased speech intelligibility in the background noise condition that was tested. Other volume control settings would need to be evaluated for their ability to produce higher speech intelligibility scores. Additionally, since an extensive electro-acoustic evaluation of the electronic earmuff was not performed as a part of this study, the exact cause of the reduced intelligibility scores at full volume remains unknown.

  1. Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect protects from pulmonary edema: septal occluder device gradually reduces LR shunt.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tsutomu; Nakazawa, Gaku; Horinouchi, Hitomi; Torii, Sho; Ijichi, Takeshi; Ohno, Yohei; Amino, Mari; Shinozaki, Norihiko; Ogata, Nobuhiko; Yoshimachi, Fuminobu; Yoshioka, Koichiro; Ikari, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman was diagnosed as atrial septal defect (ASD) with pulmonary hypertension; pulmonary blood flow/systemic blood flow (Qp/Qs) of 2.3, pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) of 71/23(39) mmHg and diastolic dysfunction of left ventricle. PAP was improved after medical therapy; therefore, transcatheter ASD closure was performed. Seven days later, left-sided heart failure occurred, however, the improvement of Qp/Qs (1.7) and PAP of 51/21(32) was confirmed. Diuretic therapy was introduced which led to further decrease of PAP 40/12(25) and Qp/Qs (1.1). Because of gradual decrease of Qp/Qs, this patient appeared to be protected from acute pulmonary edema.

  2. Structure and function of the mammalian middle ear. I: Large middle ears in small desert mammals.

    PubMed

    Mason, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Many species of small desert mammals are known to have expanded auditory bullae. The ears of gerbils and heteromyids have been well described, but much less is known about the middle ear anatomy of other desert mammals. In this study, the middle ears of three gerbils (Meriones, Desmodillus and Gerbillurus), two jerboas (Jaculus) and two sengis (elephant-shrews: Macroscelides and Elephantulus) were examined and compared, using micro-computed tomography and light microscopy. Middle ear cavity expansion has occurred in members of all three groups, apparently in association with an essentially 'freely mobile' ossicular morphology and the development of bony tubes for the middle ear arteries. Cavity expansion can occur in different ways, resulting in different subcavity patterns even between different species of gerbils. Having enlarged middle ear cavities aids low-frequency audition, and several adaptive advantages of low-frequency hearing to small desert mammals have been proposed. However, while Macroscelides was found here to have middle ear cavities so large that together they exceed brain volume, the bullae of Elephantulus are considerably smaller. Why middle ear cavities are enlarged in some desert species but not others remains unclear, but it may relate to microhabitat.

  3. Multiwavelength Fluorescence Otoscope for Video-Rate Chemical Imaging of Middle Ear Pathology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A common motif in otolaryngology is the lack of certainty regarding diagnosis for middle ear conditions, resulting in many patients being overtreated under the worst-case assumption. Although pneumatic otoscopy and adjunctive tests offer additional information, white light otoscopy has been the main tool for diagnosis of external auditory canal and middle ear pathologies for over a century. In middle ear pathologies, the inability to avail high-resolution structural and/or molecular imaging is particularly glaring, leading to a complicated and erratic decision analysis. Here, we propose a novel multiwavelength fluorescence-based video-rate imaging strategy that combines readily available optical elements and software components to create a novel otoscopic device. This modified otoscope enables low-cost, detailed and objective diagnosis of common middle ear pathological conditions. Using the detection of congenital cholesteatoma as a specific example, we demonstrate the feasibility of fluorescence imaging to differentiate this proliferative lesion from uninvolved middle ear tissue based on the characteristic autofluorescence signals. Availability of real-time, wide-field chemical information should enable more complete removal of cholesteatoma, allowing for better hearing preservation and substantially reducing the well-documented risks, costs and psychological effects of repeated surgical procedures. PMID:25226556

  4. Electrochemical device

    DOEpatents

    Grimes, Patrick G.; Einstein, Harry; Bellows, Richard J.

    1988-01-12

    A tunnel protected electrochemical device features channels fluidically communicating between manifold, tunnels and cells. The channels are designed to provide the most efficient use of auxiliary power. The channels have a greater hydraulic pressure drop and electrical resistance than the manifold. This will provide a design with the optimum auxiliary energy requirements.

  5. Prolonged Radiant Exposure of the Middle Ear during Transcanal Endoscopic Ear Surgery.

    PubMed

    Shah, Parth V; Kozin, Elliott D; Remenschneider, Aaron K; Dedmon, Matthew M; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Cohen, Michael S; Lee, Daniel J

    2015-07-01

    Transcanal endoscopic ear surgery (EES) provides a high-resolution, wide-field view of the middle ear compared with the conventional operating microscope, reducing the need for a postauricular incision or mastoidectomy. Our group has shown in cadaveric human temporal bone studies that radiant energy from the endoscope tip can quickly elevate temperatures of the tympanic cavity. Elevated temperatures of the middle ear are associated with acute auditory brainstem response shifts in animal models. In EES, proposed methods to decrease middle ear temperature include frequent removal of the endoscope and the use of suction to rapidly dissipate heat; however, the routine application of such cooling techniques remains unknown. Herein, we aim to quantify the duration that the tympanic cavity is typically exposed to the endoscope during routine endoscopic middle ear surgery. We find that the tympanic cavity is exposed to the endoscope without a cooling mechanism for a prolonged period of time.

  6. Successful Revascularization of an LCx CTO Lesion by Retrograde Approach From an Acute Thrombotic SVG Without Protection Device in an ACS Patient.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei Mei; Wang, Ji Hung

    2016-05-25

    We describe a patient who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery with the presentation of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The diagnostic coronary angiogram showed acute thrombotic and occluded saphenous vein graft (SVG) and proximal right coronary artery (RCA) drug eluting stent (DES) instent restenosis (ISR) with chronic total occlusion (CTO). Our strategy was to recanalize the native left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) CTO instead of SVG or RCA instent CTO. After heparinization for 5 days, the LCx antegrade approach and the retrograde approach from left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) septal branches were first attempted but failed, and the LCx CTO was successfully revascularized retrogradely via the acute thrombotic SVG without an embolic protection device (EPD).

  7. Passive and active middle ear implants

    PubMed Central

    Beutner, Dirk; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Besides eradication of chronic middle ear disease, the reconstruction of the sound conduction apparatus is a major goal of modern ear microsurgery. The material of choice in cases of partial ossicular replacement prosthesis is the autogenous ossicle. In the event of more extensive destruction of the ossicular chain diverse alloplastic materials, e.g. metals, ceramics, plastics or composits are used for total reconstruction. Their specialised role in conducting sound energy within a half-open implant bed sets high demands on the biocompatibility as well as the acoustic-mechanic properties of the prosthesis. Recently, sophisticated titanium middle ear implants allowing individual adaptation to anatomical variations are widely used for this procedure. However, despite modern developments, hearing restoration with passive implants often faces its limitations due to tubal-middle-ear dysfunction. Here, implantable hearing aids, successfully used in cases of sensorineural hearing loss, offer a promising alternative. This article reviews the actual state of affairs of passive and active middle ear implants. PMID:22073102

  8. Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

    2001-01-01

    This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

  9. The Cost-Effectiveness of Wound-Edge Protection Devices Compared to Standard Care in Reducing Surgical Site Infection after Laparotomy: An Economic Evaluation alongside the ROSSINI Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gheorghe, Adrian; Roberts, Tracy E.; Pinkney, Thomas D.; Bartlett, David C.; Morton, Dion; Calvert, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Background Wound-edge protection devices (WEPDs) have been used in surgery for more than 40 years to reduce surgical site infection (SSI). No economic evaluation of WEPDs against any comparator has ever been conducted. The aim of the paper was to assess whether WEPDs are cost-effective in reducing SSI compared to standard care alone in the United Kingdom. Methods and Findings An economic evaluation was conducted alongside the ROSSINI trial. The study perspective was that of the UK National Health Service and the time horizon was 30 days post-operatively. The study was conducted in 21 UK hospitals. 760 patients undergoing laparotomy were randomised to either WEPD or standard care and 735 were included in the primary analysis. The main economic outcome was cost-effectiveness based on incremental cost (£) per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Patients in the WEPD arm accessed health care worth £5,420 on average and gained 0.02131 QALYs, compared to £5,130 and 0.02133 QALYs gained in the standard care arm. The WEPD strategy was more costly and equally effective compared to standard care, but there was significant uncertainty around incremental costs and QALYs. The findings were robust to a range of sensitivity analyses. Conclusions There is no evidence to suggest that WEPDs can be considered a cost effective device to reduce SSI. Their continued use is a waste of limited health care resources. PMID:24748154

  10. The protective properties of ultra-thin diamond like carbon films for high density magnetic storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Min; Zhang, Chenhui; Luo, Jianbin; Lu, Xinchun

    2009-10-01

    With the increase of magnetic storage density, the thickness of the protective diamond like carbon (DLC) film on the surfaces of head and disk is required as thin as possible. In this paper, the structure, mechanical properties and corrosion and oxidation resistance of ultra-thin DLC films are investigated. The ultra-thin DLC films were deposited by using filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) technique. The exact thickness of the ultra-thin DLC film was determined by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). Raman analysis indicates that the ultra-thin DLC film presents ta-C structure with high sp 3 fraction. In the wear test, a diamond tip was used to simulate a single-asperity contact with the film surface and the wear marks were produced on the film surface. The wear depths decrease with film thickness increasing. If the film thickness was 1.4 nm or above, the wear depth was much lower than that of Si substrate. This indicates that the ultra-thin DLC film with thickness of 1.4 nm shows excellent wear resistance. Corrosion tests in water and oxidation tests in air were carried out to investigate the diffusion barrier effect of the ultra-thin DLC films. The results show that the DLC film with thickness of 1.4 nm provides adequate coverage on the substrate and has good corrosion and oxidation resistance.

  11. Experimental investigation of active adaptability of the SMArt (SMA reseTtable) dual-chamber pneumatic lift device for pedestrian protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, James; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann; Strom, Kenneth A.; Browne, Alan L.; Johnson, Nancy L.

    2008-03-01

    The rapid urbanization of the world has led to an increase in pedestrian involvement in automotive crashes, prompting some countries to establish pedestrian regulations. A promising approach to address pedestrian safety is the use of active lift devices to raise the hood upon detection of a pedestrian impact, thereby increasing the crush distance between the hood and vehicle hard points (i.e. engine). Current systems are generally not reusable or resettable and lack extrinsic effect compensation. The dual chamber SMArt (SMA ReseTtable) lift system presented in this paper is a fully automatically resettable system utilizing a stored energy approach with a pneumatic cylinder and a two stage ultrafast shape memory alloy (SMA) actuated valve. This active lift possesses the unique functionality to tailor lift performance and compensate for extrinsic effects such as changes in temperature, mass, and platform using cylinder pressure and exhaust valve opening timing profile as operating parameters. As a proof of concept, a dual chamber SMArt lift system was designed, fabricated, and installed in a vehicle hood bay testbed. Full cycle tests demonstrated the functions of lift, lower and reset within the proper timing. The effect of additional mass, was experimentally characterized and two insitu device parameters, pressure and valve profile, were investigated as means to mitigate these extrinsic effects. This experimental study indicates that the dual chamber SMArt lift device may be a feasible alternative for pedestrian protection with automatic reset/reusability along with capability to adapt in-situ to maintain performance within a narrow timing window by compensating for extrinsic effects.

  12. Impact of Distal Protection with Filter-Type Device on Long-term Outcome after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Acute Myocardial Infarction: Clinical Results with Filtrap®

    PubMed Central

    Teramoto, Ryota; Sakata, Kenji; Miwa, Kenji; Matsubara, Takao; Yasuda, Toshihiko; Inoue, Masaru; Okada, Hirofumi; Kanaya, Honin; Kawashiri, Masa-aki; Hayashi, Kenshi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Although distal embolization during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) deteriorates cardiac function, whether distal protection (DP) can improve prognosis is still controversial. We investigated whether a filter-type DP device, Filtrap®, could improve long-term outcomes after PCI for AMI. Method: We studied 164 patients (130 men, mean age: 65.7 years) who underwent PCI. Patients were divided into two groups based on the use of Filtrap®. The occurrence of congestive heart failure (CHF) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) defined as cardiac death, recurrent AMI, and target vessel revascularization were compared. Result: Between DP (n = 53, 41 men, mean age: 65.5 years) and non-DP (n = 111, 89 men, mean age: 65.8 years) groups, although there was significantly greater plaque area in the DP group than in the non-DP group, there were no significant differences in coronary reperfusion flow after PCI. Interestingly, patients with CHF in the non-DP group exhibited a higher CK level than those in the DP group. During a 2-year follow-up period, cumulative CHF was significantly lower in the DP group than in the non-DP group (log-rank p = 0.018), and there was no significant difference in the MACE rate (log-rank p = 0.238). The use of DP device could not predict MACE, but could predict CHF by multivariate analysis (odds ratio = 0.099, 95% CI: 0.02–0.42, p = 0.005). Conclusion: These results demonstrate that favorable clinical outcomes could be achieved by the filter-type DP device in AMI, particularly in patients with CHF. PMID:27251330

  13. ZnO-Decorated Carbon Nanotube Hybrids as Fillers Leading to Reversible Nonlinear I-V Behavior of Polymer Composites for Device Protection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenhu; Wang, Jian; Luo, Suibin; Yu, Shuhui; Huang, Haitao; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2016-12-28

    Overvoltage protection is becoming increasingly important because of miniaturization and multifunctionality of electronic devices. Flexible, easily processable materials with nonlinear and reversible I-V behavior are highly desired. In this study, hybrid nanoparticles of ZnO-decorated carbon nanotubes (CNT-ZnO) were synthesized via a sol-gel hydrothermal process employed in an epoxy matrix to prepare composites. Microstructure analysis demonstrated that ZnO nanoparticles were well-bonded to the surface of CNT. The CNT-ZnO/epoxy composites exhibited nonlinear I-V behavior under increasingly applied voltage with a nonlinear coefficient of 5.01 (10 wt % filler loading). More importantly, the composites possessed excellent reversibility from dielectric to conductor and vise versa in the recycling of increase and decrease of applied electric field, in contrast to the poor recoverability of pure CNT-filled epoxy. The mechanism of the nonlinear I-V behavior and reversibility was investigated and discussed. A simple circuit was fabricated, which verified well the protection function of the CNT-ZnO/polymer composites.

  14. Precise individualized armature for ear reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenhouse, Raymond J.; Chen, Xiaoming

    1991-04-01

    The cosmetic result of an ear restored surgically or via prosthetics is dependent on the surgeon''s ability to carve a precise cartilage armature at the time of surgery or the prosthetist''s ability to sculpt in wax an exact duplicate of the patient''s " missing" ear. Introducing CAD/CAM technology into the process benefits the esthetic outcome of these procedures. By utilizing serial section information derived from CAT MRI or moulage techniques a mirrorimage of the patient''s " donor" ear is generated. The resulting earform data is then used for the design of a cartilage armature produced by multi-axis milling or to produce by stereolithography a model which serves as the basis for a prosthesis.

  15. Endoscopic anatomy of the pediatric middle ear.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, otologists have aimed to produce a clean, dry, safe ear with the best possible hearing result. More recently, "less invasively" has been added to this list of goals. The development of small-diameter, high-quality rigid endoscopes and high-definition video systems has made totally endoscopic, transcanal surgery a reality in adult otology and a possibility in pediatric otology. This article reviews the anatomy of the pediatric middle ear and its surrounding airspaces and structures based on the work of dozens of researchers over the past 50 years. It will focus on the developmental changes in ear anatomy from birth through the first decade, when structure and function change most rapidly. Understanding the limits and possibilities afforded by new endoscopic technologies, the pediatric otologist can strive for results matching or exceeding those achieved by more invasive surgical approaches.

  16. A uniquely specialized ear in a very early tetrapod.

    PubMed

    Clack, J A; Ahlberg, P E; Finney, S M; Dominguez Alonso, P; Robinson, J; Ketcham, R A

    2003-09-04

    The Late Devonian genus Ichthyostega was for many decades the earliest known tetrapod, and the sole representative of a transitional form between a fish and a land vertebrate. However, despite being known since 1932 (ref. 1) from a large collection of specimens, its morphology remained enigmatic and not what was expected of a very primitive tetrapod. Its apparent specializations led it to be considered as a "blind offshoot" or "sidebranch" off the tetrapod family tree, and recent cladistic analyses have disagreed about its exact phylogenetic position within the tetrapod stem group. In particular, its braincase and ear region defied interpretation, such that conventional anatomical terms seemed inapplicable. Using new material collected in 1998 (ref. 9), preparation of earlier-collected material, and high-resolution computed tomography scanning, here we identify and interpret these problematic anatomical structures. They can now be seen to form part of a highly specialized ear, probably a hearing device for use in water. This represents a structurally and functionally unique modification of the tetrapod otic region, unlike anything seen in subsequent tetrapod evolution. The presence of deeply grooved gill bars as in its contemporary Acanthostega suggest that Ichthyostega may have been more aquatically adapted than previously believed.

  17. Mechanisms of Hearing Loss after Blast Injury to the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Il; Gao, Simon S.; Xia, Anping; Wang, Rosalie; Salles, Felipe T.; Raphael, Patrick D.; Abaya, Homer; Wachtel, Jacqueline; Baek, Jongmin; Jacobs, David; Rasband, Matthew N.; Oghalai, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the frequent use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) around the world, the study of traumatic blast injuries is of increasing interest. The ear is the most common organ affected by blast injury because it is the body’s most sensitive pressure transducer. We fabricated a blast chamber to re-create blast profiles similar to that of IEDs and used it to develop a reproducible mouse model to study blast-induced hearing loss. The tympanic membrane was perforated in all mice after blast exposure and found to heal spontaneously. Micro-computed tomography demonstrated no evidence for middle ear or otic capsule injuries; however, the healed tympanic membrane was thickened. Auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission threshold shifts were found to be correlated with blast intensity. As well, these threshold shifts were larger than those found in control mice that underwent surgical perforation of their tympanic membranes, indicating cochlear trauma. Histological studies one week and three months after the blast demonstrated no disruption or damage to the intra-cochlear membranes. However, there was loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) within the basal turn of the cochlea and decreased spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and afferent nerve synapses. Using our mouse model that recapitulates human IED exposure, our results identify that the mechanisms underlying blast-induced hearing loss does not include gross membranous rupture as is commonly believed. Instead, there is both OHC and SGN loss that produce auditory dysfunction. PMID:23840874

  18. The EarLens system: new sound transduction methods.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Rodney; Fay, Jonathan P; Rucker, Paul; Rosen, Micha; Olson, Lisa; Puria, Sunil

    2010-05-01

    The hypothesis is tested that an open-canal hearing device, with a microphone in the ear canal, can be designed to provide amplification over a wide bandwidth and without acoustic feedback. In the design under consideration, a transducer consisting of a thin silicone platform with an embedded magnet is placed directly on the tympanic membrane. Sound picked up by a microphone in the ear canal, including sound-localization cues thought to be useful for speech perception in noisy environments, is processed and amplified, and then used to drive a coil near the tympanic-membrane transducer. The perception of sound results from the vibration of the transducer in response the electromagnetic field produced by the coil. Sixteen subjects (ranging from normal-hearing to moderately hearing-impaired) wore this transducer for up to a 10-month period, and were monitored for any adverse reactions. Three key functional characteristics were measured: (1) the maximum equivalent pressure output (MEPO) of the transducer; (2) the feedback gain margin (GM), which describes the maximum allowable gain before feedback occurs; and (3) the tympanic-membrane damping effect (D(TM)), which describes the change in hearing level due to placement of the transducer on the eardrum. Results indicate that the tympanic-membrane transducer remains in place and is well tolerated. The system can produce sufficient output to reach threshold for those with as much as 60 dBHL of hearing impairment for up to 8 kHz in 86% of the study population, and up to 11.2 kHz in 50% of the population. The feedback gain margin is on average 30 dB except at the ear-canal resonance frequencies of 3 and 9 kHz, where the average was reduced to 12 dB and 23 dB, respectively. The average value of D(TM) is close to 0 dB everywhere except in the 2-4 kHz range, where it peaks at 8dB. A new alternative system that uses photonic energy to transmit both the signal and power to a photodiode and micro-actuator on an EarLens platform is

  19. The EarLens System: New Sound Transduction Methods

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Rodney; Fay, Jonathan P.; Rucker, Paul; Rosen, Micha; Olson, Lisa; Puria, Sunil

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis is tested that an open-canal hearing device, with a microphone in the ear canal, can be designed to provide amplification over a wide bandwidth and without acoustic feedback. In the design under consideration, a transducer consisting of a thin silicone platform with an embedded magnet is placed directly on the tympanic membrane. Sound picked up by a microphone in the ear canal, including sound-localization cues thought to be useful for speech perception in noisy environments, is processed and amplified, and then used to drive a coil near the tympanic-membrane transducer. The perception of sound results from the vibration of the transducer in response the electromagnetic field produced by the coil. Sixteen subjects (ranging from normal-hearing to moderately hearing-impaired) wore this transducer for up to a ten-month period, and were monitored for any adverse reactions. Three key functional characteristics were measured: 1) the maximum equivalent pressure output (MEPO) of the transducer; 2) the feedback gain margin (GM), which describes the maximum allowable gain before feedback occurs; and 3) the tympanic-membrane damping effect (DTM), which describes the change in hearing level due to placement of the transducer on the eardrum. Results indicate that the tympanic-membrane transducer remains in place and is well tolerated. The system can produce sufficient output to reach threshold for those with as much as 60 dBHL of hearing impairment for up to 8 kHz in 86% of the study population, and up to 11.2 kHz in 50% of the population. The feedback gain margin is on average 30 dB except at the ear canal resonance frequencies of 3 and 9 kHz, where the average was reduced to 12 dB and 23 dB respectively. The average value of DTM is close to 0 dB everywhere except in the 2–4 kHz range, where it peaks at 8 dB. A new alternative system that uses photonic energy to transmit both the signal and power to a photodiode and micro-actuator on an EarLens platform is

  20. Middle ear cholesteatoma in 11 dogs

    PubMed Central

    Greci, Valentina; Travetti, Olga; Di Giancamillo, Mauro; Lombardo, Rocco; Giudice, Chiara; Banco, Barbara; Mortellaro, Carlo M.

    2011-01-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma is a rare condition in dogs with chronic otitis. Otorrhea, otodinia, and pain on temporomandibular joint palpation are the most common clinical signs. Neurological abnormalities are often detectable. Computed tomography reveals the presence of an expansive and invasive unvascularized lesion involving the tympanic cavity and the bulla, with little or no contrast enhancement after administration of contrast mediu. Video-otoscopy may detect pearly growth or white/yellowish scales in the middle ear cavity. Surgery is the only therapy but is associated with a high risk of recurrence. PMID:22131579

  1. Systemic antibiotic prophylaxis and reconstructive ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Carlin, W V; Lesser, T H; John, D G; Fielder, C; Carrick, D G; Thomas, P L; Hill, S

    1987-12-01

    This paper reports a multicentre, controlled, blind, prospective, randomized study into the use of prophylactic systemic antibiotics in myringoplasty surgery. Seventy-one individuals were clinically and bacteriologically assessed both preoperatively, and for a period of 8 weeks postoperatively. The results showed that antibiotic prophylaxis did not eradicate bacterial pathogens already present in preoperative ears, nor did it prevent their development during the postoperative period. The observation that an ear was wet or dry gave no indication of the actual presence or absence of pathogenic organisms.

  2. Modeling of sound transmission from ear canal to cochlea.

    PubMed

    Gan, Rong Z; Reeves, Brian P; Wang, Xuelin

    2007-12-01

    A 3-D finite element (FE) model of the human ear consisting of the external ear canal, middle ear, and cochlea is reported in this paper. The acoustic-structure-fluid coupled FE analysis was conducted on the model which included the air in the ear canal and middle ear cavity, the fluid in the cochlea, and the middle ear and cochlea structures (i.e., bones and soft tissues). The middle ear transfer function such as the movements of tympanic membrane, stapes footplate, and round window, the sound pressure gain across the middle ear, and the cochlear input impedance in response to sound stimulus applied in the ear canal were derived and compared with the published experimental measurements in human temporal bones. The frequency sensitivity of the basilar membrane motion and intracochlear pressure induced by sound pressure in the ear canal was predicted along the length of the basilar membrane from the basal turn to the apex. The satisfactory agreements between the model and experimental data in the literature indicate that the middle ear function was well simulated by the model and the simplified cochlea was able to correlate sound stimulus in the ear canal with vibration of the basilar membrane and pressure variation of the cochlear fluid. This study is the first step toward the development of a comprehensive FE model of the entire human ear for acoustic-mechanical analysis.

  3. Acoustics of the human middle-ear air space.

    PubMed

    Stepp, Cara E; Voss, Susan E

    2005-08-01

    The impedance of the middle-ear air space was measured on three human cadaver ears with complete mastoid air-cell systems. Below 500 Hz, the impedance is approximately compliance-like, and at higher frequencies (500-6000 Hz) the impedance magnitude has several (five to nine) extrema. Mechanisms for these extrema are identified and described through circuit models of the middle-ear air space. The measurements demonstrate that the middle-ear air space impedance can affect the middle-ear impedance at the tympanic membrane by as much as 10 dB at frequencies greater than 1000 Hz. Thus, variations in the middle-ear air space impedance that result from variations in anatomy of the middle-ear air space can contribute to inter-ear variations in both impedance measurements and otoacoustic emissions, when measured at the tympanic membrane.

  4. [An ear thermometer based on infrared thermopiles sensor].

    PubMed

    Xie, Haiyuan; Qian, Mingli

    2013-09-01

    According to the development of body temperature measurement mode, an ear thermometer with infrared thermopiles sensor is designed for body thermometry Compared with oral thermometer, the accuracy of ear thermometer is acceptable.

  5. Is Ear Candling a Safe Way to Remove Earwax?

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Consumer health Is ear candling a safe way to remove earwax? Answers from Charles W. Beatty, ... 05, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/ear-candling/faq-20058212 . ...

  6. 38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... recurrent tinnitus, whether the sound is perceived in one ear, both ears, or in the head. Note (3): Do not evaluate objective tinnitus (in which the sound is audible to other people and has a definable cause...

  7. 38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recurrent tinnitus, whether the sound is perceived in one ear, both ears, or in the head. Note (3): Do not evaluate objective tinnitus (in which the sound is audible to other people and has a definable cause...

  8. 38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recurrent tinnitus, whether the sound is perceived in one ear, both ears, or in the head. Note (3): Do not evaluate objective tinnitus (in which the sound is audible to other people and has a definable cause...

  9. 38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recurrent tinnitus, whether the sound is perceived in one ear, both ears, or in the head. Note (3): Do not evaluate objective tinnitus (in which the sound is audible to other people and has a definable cause...

  10. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Although there is no proven medical link between middle ear infections and pediatric obesity there may be a behavioral association between the two conditions. Some studies have found that when a child is rubbing or massaging the infected ear the ...

  11. Keep Your Ear-Lids Open.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrington, Gary

    1994-01-01

    This article suggests that the development of listening skills should extend to the "soundscape" of nonspeech acoustical information. It presents a model for effective aural processing, identifies categories of information obtained from nonverbal sound, and explores "ear-tuning" or listening exercises that use sound to glean…

  12. Optimum management of the discharging ear.

    PubMed

    Ruddy, J; Bickerton, R C

    1992-02-01

    Discharge from the ear can be the result of many disease processes. The ear may discharge blood, pus, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or wax. Keratosis obturans, stenosis of the external meatus and benign tumours of the external meatus all lead to wax build-up, which may cause recurrent attacks of otitis externa. Malignant tumours, such as basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and tumours of ceruminous gland origin may also present with discharge. Tumours should be excluded by submitting all material removed from the external canal for histological examination. Single or multiple abscesses (known as furuncles) may occur in the hair follicles in the skin of the external acoustic meatus (EAM). Compulsive scratching, hearing aids and foreign bodies placed in the ear predispose to otitis externa, which is also often associated with infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and faecal organisms. Management may be with aluminium acetate 14%, topical antibiotic/steroid drops, a gauze wick soaked with icthammol 10% in glycerin or polymyxin B sulphate--neomycin sulphate--hydrocortisone acetate cream placed into the EAM and replaced every 24 to 48 hours, or systemic antibiotics according to severity. Malignant (necrotising) otitis externa causes progressive destruction of the temporal bone, and cranial nerve palsies (usually facial first). Treatment is limited debridement of infected bone, accompanied by intravenous aminoglycosides, and local antibiotic treatment and aural cleanout or oral ciprofloxacin. Middle ear conditions causing discharge include acute otitis media, infected grommets, traumatic perforations and chronic suppurative otitis media, as well as tumours of the ear canal skin and middle ear, radiation-induced otitis externa and osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone, tuberculosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, spontaneous or post-traumatic CSF leaks, Wegeners granulomatosis and immune deficiency states. Topical application of aminoglycoside

  13. The development of the mammalian outer and middle ear.

    PubMed

    Anthwal, Neal; Thompson, Hannah

    2016-02-01

    The mammalian ear is a complex structure divided into three main parts: the outer; middle; and inner ear. These parts are formed from all three germ layers and neural crest cells, which have to integrate successfully in order to form a fully functioning organ of hearing. Any defect in development of the outer and middle ear leads to conductive hearing loss, while defects in the inner ear can lead to sensorineural hearing loss. This review focuses on the development of the parts of the ear involved with sound transduction into the inner ear, and the parts largely ignored in the world of hearing research: the outer and middle ear. The published data on the embryonic origin, signalling, genetic control, development and timing of the mammalian middle and outer ear are reviewed here along with new data showing the Eustachian tube cartilage is of dual embryonic origin. The embryonic origin of some of these structures has only recently been uncovered (Science, 339, 2013, 1453; Development, 140, 2013, 4386), while the molecular mechanisms controlling the growth, structure and integration of many outer and middle ear components are hardly known. The genetic analysis of outer and middle ear development is rather limited, with a small number of genes often affecting either more than one part of the ear or having only very small effects on development. This review therefore highlights the necessity for further research into the development of outer and middle ear structures, which will be important for the understanding and treatment of conductive hearing loss.

  14. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles... OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the EAR” is a term used in the EAR to describe those items...

  15. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles... OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the EAR” is a term used in the EAR to describe those items...

  16. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles... OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the EAR” is a term used in the EAR to describe those items...

  17. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles... OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the EAR” is a term used in the EAR to describe those items...

  18. Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your doctor about ear tube surgery; Tympanostomy - what to ask your doctor; Myringotomy - what to ask your doctor ... Why does my child need ear tubes? Can we try other treatments? ... the surgery? Is it safe to wait before getting ear tubes? Will ...

  19. Role of skeletal muscle in ear development.

    PubMed

    Rot, Irena; Baguma-Nibasheka, Mark; Costain, Willard J; Hong, Paul; Tafra, Robert; Mardesic-Brakus, Snjezana; Mrduljas-Djujic, Natasa; Saraga-Babic, Mirna; Kablar, Boris

    2017-03-08

    The current paper is a continuation of our work described in Rot and Kablar, 2010. Here, we show lists of 10 up- and 87 down-regulated genes obtained by a cDNA microarray analysis that compared developing Myf5-/-:Myod-/- (and Mrf4-/-) petrous part of the temporal bone, containing middle and inner ear, to the control, at embryonic day 18.5. Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses entirely lack skeletal myoblasts and muscles. They are unable to move their head, which interferes with the perception of angular acceleration. Previously, we showed that the inner ear areas most affected in Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses were the vestibular cristae ampullaris, sensitive to angular acceleration. Our finding that the type I hair cells were absent in the mutants' cristae was further used here to identify a profile of genes specific to the lacking cell type. Microarrays followed by a detailed consultation of web-accessible mouse databases allowed us to identify 6 candidate genes with a possible role in the development of the inner ear sensory organs: Actc1, Pgam2, Ldb3, Eno3, Hspb7 and Smpx. Additionally, we searched for human homologues of the candidate genes since a number of syndromes in humans have associated inner ear abnormalities. Mutations in one of our candidate genes, Smpx, have been reported as the cause of X-linked deafness in humans. Our current study suggests an epigenetic role that mechanical, and potentially other, stimuli originating from muscle, play in organogenesis, and offers an approach to finding novel genes responsible for altered inner ear phenotypes.

  20. Nutrient-Enhanced Diet Reduces Noise-Induced Damage to the Inner Ear and Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Le Prell, C. G.; Gagnon, P. M; Bennett, D. C.; Ohlemiller, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been broadly implicated as a cause of cell death and neural degeneration in multiple disease conditions; however, the evidence for successful intervention with dietary antioxidant manipulations has been mixed. In this study, we investigated the potential for protection of cells in the inner ear using a dietary supplement with multiple antioxidant components, selected for their potential interactive effectiveness. Protection against permanent threshold shift (PTS) was observed in CBA/J mice maintained on a diet supplemented with a combination of β-carotene, vitamins C and E, and magnesium when compared to PTS in control mice maintained on a nutritionally complete control diet. Although hair cell survival was not enhanced, noise-induced loss of Type II fibrocytes in the lateral wall was significantly reduced (p<0.05), and there was a trend towards less noise-induced loss in strial cell density in animals maintained on the supplemented diet. Taken together, our data suggest that pre-noise oral treatment with the high-nutrient diet can protect cells in the inner ear and reduce PTS in mice. Demonstration of functional and morphological preservation of cells in the inner ear with oral administration of this antioxidant supplemented diet supports the possibility of translation to human patients, and suggests an opportunity to evaluate antioxidant protection in mouse models of oxidative stress-related disease and pathology. PMID:21708355

  1. Standardized measurements of the sound transmission of middle ear implants using a mechanical middle ear model.

    PubMed

    Meister, H; Walger, M; Mickenhagen, A; von Wedel, H; Stennert, E

    1999-01-01

    Several ways to evaluate the sound transmission properties of middle ear implants are now established. Besides computer-based simulations using acoustic and electrical analog circuits or finite element analysis, measurements can be performed with temporal bone preparations. Experiments with these preparations consider various anatomical properties, but a large number of parameters influence the outcome of measurements. To facilitate standardized measurements, a mechanical middle ear model was developed that allows comparison of the transfer function of middle ear implants on defined conditions. The model approximates the impedances of the tympanic membrane and inner ear with the aid of thin, flexible membranes. The implants are fit between the membranes, and displacement at an artificial stapes foot-plate is measured with an optical probe. Fundamental influences on the sound transmission properties of nine different middle ear implants (total ossicular replacement prostheses) were examined. Although the material and shape were different, some of the prostheses revealed very similar transfer functions. The mass of the implant showed the largest influence on sound conduction. With a higher mass, the frequency area above approximately 1 kHz was found to be significantly deteriorated. The lightest implant used was 4 mg and showed the best overall results. These findings show that middle ear prostheses should be as light as possible for optimum high-frequency transmission.

  2. Indications and outcome of subtotal petrosectomy for active middle ear implants.

    PubMed

    Verhaert, Nicolas; Mojallal, Hamidreza; Schwab, Burkard

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the outcome and possible complications of subtotal petrosectomy (SP) for Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) device surgery in a tertiary referral center. A secondary objective was the evaluation of hearing results in a subgroup of subjects who received the VSB device. Between 2009 and early 2011, 22 adult subjects with chronic otitis media (COM) underwent a SP, blind sac closure of the external auditory canal and abdominal fat obliteration to facilitate the application of an active middle ear implant (AMEI) in a staged procedure. Indications consisted of mixed hearing loss after previous tympanomastoplasty and failure of hearing rehabilitation with a hearing aid or bone conduction device in COM. Pre- and postoperative pure-tone audiograms were analyzed in respect to deterioration of inner ear function, unaided and aided (hearing aid, bone-anchored hearing aid and VSB) speech audiograms were compared to verify improvements in communications skills and functional gains. Incidence and type of complications were reviewed. No significant change was observed regarding mean bone conduction thresholds after the first stage procedure. Some minor wound healing problems were noted. Speech perception using the VSB (n = 16) showed a mean aided speech discrimination at 65-dB SPL of 75 % [standard deviation (SD) 28.7], at 80-dB SPL of 90 % (SD 25.1). Our results suggest that for selected patients with open mastoid cavities and chronic middle ear disease, SP with abdominal fat obliteration is an effective and safe technique to facilitate safe AMEI placement.

  3. Evaluation of implantable actuators by means of a middle ear simulation model.

    PubMed

    Bornitz, Matthias; Hardtke, Hans-Jürgen; Zahnert, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    The extension of indication of implantable hearing aids to cases of conductive hearing loss pushed the development of these devices. There is now a great variety of devices available with different actuator concepts and different attachment points to the middle ear or inner ear fluid. But there is little comparative data available about the devices to provide an insight into advantages and disadvantages of different types of actuators and attachment points at the ossicular chain. This paper investigates two principle (idealized) types of actuators in respect of attachments points at the ossicular chain and direction of excitation. Other parts of implantable hearing aids like microphone, amplifier and signal processing electronics were not incorporated into this study. Investigations were performed by means of a mathematical simulation model of the middle ear (finite element model). Actuator performance and theoretical gain were calculated by harmonic analysis in the frequency range of 100-6000 Hz and were compared for the different situations. The stapes head proofed to be an ideal attachment point for actuators of both types as this position is very insensitive to changes in the direction of excitation. The implantable actuators showed higher ratio of equivalent sound pressure to radiated sound pressure compared to an open hearing aid transducer and should therefore allow for more functional gain.

  4. Ear candles: a triumph of ignorance over science.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E

    2004-01-01

    Ear candles are hollow tubes coated in wax which are inserted into patients' ears and then lit at the far end. The procedure is used as a complementary therapy for a wide range of conditions. A critical assessment of the evidence shows that its mode of action is implausible and demonstrably wrong. There are no data to suggest that it is effective for any condition. Furthermore, ear candles have been associated with ear injuries. The inescapable conclusion is that ear candles do more harm than good. Their use should be discouraged.

  5. Blood microsampling from the ear capillary in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Arthur; Ballesta, Sébastien; Pozzobon, Mathieu; Charieau, Jean-Luc; Duperrier, Sandra; Sirigu, Angela; Duhamel, Jean-René

    2015-10-01

    Blood sampling from awake non-human primates (NHPs) is classically performed under constraint in the cephalic or saphenous vein. It is a challenging, potentially harmful and stressful procedure which may lead to biased results and raises ethical concerns. Laboratory NHPs undergo a head-restrained procedure allowing for a safer procedure of collecting blood from their ears. Using regular capillary blood collection devices 500 µL of blood can be easily withdrawn per puncture point, which is sufficient for performing most of the usual modern biological assays. This procedure has been validated by measuring total proteins, cortisol and vasopressin concentrations from concomitant blood samples taken from the saphenous vein and the ear capillary vessels of macaques (n = 16). We observed strong correlations between the blood concentrations of total proteins, cortisol and vasopressin (r = 0.72, r = 0.63, r = 0.83, respectively; all P values <0.01) taken from the saphenous vein and from the ear capillary. There were no significant differences between blood concentrations taken from the saphenous vein and the ear capillary. Our alternative to the classical blood collection procedure is harmless and can be routinely performed, which can therefore improve scientific results while increasing animal welfare in accordance with the 3R (replacement, reduction and refinement) principles.

  6. Evaluation of corn germplasm lines for multiple ear-colonizing insect and disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xinzhi; Xu, Wenwei; Blanco, Michael H; Wilson, Jeffrey P

    2012-08-01

    Ear-colonizing insects and diseases that reduce yield and impose health threats by mycotoxin contaminations in the grain, are critical impediments for corn (Zea mays L.) production in the southern United States. Ten germplasm lines from the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Program in Ames, IA, and Raleigh, NC, and 10 lines (derived from GEM germplasm) from the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station in Lubbock, TX, were examined in 2007 and 2008 with local resistant and susceptible controls. Four types of insect damage and smut disease (Ustilago maydis) infection, as well as gene X environment (G X E) interaction, was assessed on corn ears under field conditions. Insect damage on corn ears was further separated as cob and kernel damage. Cob penetration rating was used to assess corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)] and fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)] feeding on corn cobs, whereas kernel damage was assessed using three parameters: 1) percentage of kernels discolored by stink bugs (i.e., brown stink bug [Euschistus serous (Say)], southern green stink bug [Nezara viridula (L.)], and green stink bug [Chinavia (Acrosternum) hilare (Say)]; 2) percentage of maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky)-damaged kernels; and 3) percentage of kernels damaged by sap beetle (Carpophilus spp.), "chocolate milkworm" (Moodna spp.), and pink scavenger caterpillar [Pyroderces (Anatrachyntis) rileyi (Walsingham)]. The smut infection rates on ears, tassels, and nodes also were assessed. Ear protection traits (i.e., husk tightness and extension) in relation to insect damage and smut infection also were examined. Significant differences in insect damage, smut infection, and husk protection traits were detected among the germplasm lines. Three of the 20 germplasm lines were identified as being multiple insect and smut resistant. Of the three lines, entries 5 and 7 were derived from DKXL370, which was developed using corn germplasm from Brazil, whereas entry 14 was

  7. Medical devices: US medical device regulation.

    PubMed

    Jarow, Jonathan P; Baxley, John H

    2015-03-01

    Medical devices are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) within the Center for Devices and Radiological Health. Center for Devices and Radiological Health is responsible for protecting and promoting the public health by ensuring the safety, effectiveness, and quality of medical devices, ensuring the safety of radiation-emitting products, fostering innovation, and providing the public with accurate, science-based information about the products we oversee, throughout the total product life cycle. The FDA was granted the authority to regulate the manufacturing and marketing of medical devices in 1976. It does not regulate the practice of medicine. Devices are classified based on complexity and level of risk, and "pre-1976" devices were allowed to remain on the market after being classified without FDA review. Post-1976 devices of lower complexity and risk that are substantially equivalent to a marketed "predicate" device may be cleared through the 510(k) premarket notification process. Clinical data are typically not needed for 510(k) clearance. In contrast, higher-risk devices typically require premarket approval. Premarket approval applications must contain data demonstrating reasonable assurance of safety and efficacy, and this information typically includes clinical data. For novel devices that are not high risk, the de novo process allows FDA to simultaneously review and classify new devices. Devices that are not legally marketed are permitted to be used for clinical investigation purposes in the United States under the Investigational Device Exemptions regulation.

  8. Scaling of the mammalian middle ear.

    PubMed

    Nummela, S

    1995-05-01

    This study considers the general question how animal size limits the size and information receiving capacity of sense organs. To clarify this in the case of the mammalian middle ear, I studied 63 mammalian species, ranging from a small bat to the Indian elephant. I determined the skull mass and the masses of the ossicles malleus, incus and stapes (M, I and S), and measured the tympanic membrane area, A1. The ossicular mass (in mg) is generally negatively allometric to skull mass (in g), the regression equation for the whole material (excluding true seals) being y = 1.373 x(0.513). However, for very small mammals the allometry approaches isometry. Within a group of large mammals no distinct allometry can be discerned. The true seals (Phocidae) are exceptional by having massive ossicles. The size relations within the middle ear are generally rather constant. However, the I/M relation is slightly positively allometric, y = 0.554 x(1.162). Two particularly isometric relations were found; the S/(M + I) relation for the ossicles characterized by the regression equation y = 0.054 x(0.993), and the relation between a two-dimensional measure of the ossicles and the tympanic membrane ares, (M + I)2/3 /A1. As in isometric ears the sound energy collected by the tympanic membrane is linearly related to its area, the latter isometry suggests that, regardless of animal size, a given ossicular cross-sectional area is exposed to a similar sound-induced stress. Possible morphological middle ear adaptations to particular acoustic environments are discussed.

  9. Reconstruction of the burned nose and ear.

    PubMed

    Bernard, S L

    2000-01-01

    Patients who have survived thermal injuries to the face suffer from severe disfigurement. When the nose and ear are involved, the resulting deformities are immediately obvious to all who see the patient. This level of injury results in a self-imposed confinement; the patients never leave their homes. It is therefore important that we plastic surgeons know, understand, and use all options available to improve our patients' appearance and ultimately their mental and physical well being.

  10. Ear Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/languages/earinfections.html Other topics A-Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XYZ List of All Topics All Ear Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. French (français) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali ( ...

  11. Local anesthesia for middle ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Caner, Gül; Olgun, Levent; Gültekin, Gürol; Aydar, Levent

    2005-08-01

    The adequacy of anesthesia and comfort during surgery was assessed for 100 consecutive patients undergoing middle ear surgery using local anesthesia, both by the patients themselves and by the surgeon. The possibility of inducing an iatrogenic facial weakness was also evaluated. Both the surgeon and the majority of patients were pleased with the quality of anesthesia and little adverse effects occurred as a consequence of local anesthesia itself.

  12. Why Do Elephants Flap Their Ears?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffi, Moise; Jiji, Latif; Andreopoulos, Yiannis

    2009-11-01

    It is estimated that a 4200 kg elephant generates as much as 5.12 kW of heat. How the elephant dissipates its metabolic heat and regulates its body temperature has been investigated during the past seven decades. Findings and conclusions differ sharply. The high rate of metabolic heat coupled with low surface area to volume ratio and the absence of sweat glands eliminate surface convection as the primary mechanism for heat removal. Noting that the elephant ears have high surface area to volume ratio and an extensive vascular network, ear flapping is thought to be the principal thermoregulatory mechanism. A computational and experimental program is carried out to examine flow and heat transfer characteristics. The ear is modeled as a uniformly heated oscillating rectangular plate. Our computational work involves a three-dimensional time dependent CFD code with heat transfer capabilities to obtain predictions of the flow field and surface temperature distributions. This information was used to design an experimental setup with a uniformly heated plate of size 0.2m x 0.3m oscillating at 1.6 cycles per second. Results show that surface temperature increases and reaches a steady periodic oscillation after a period of transient oscillation. The role of the vortices shed off the plate in heat transfer enhancement will be discussed.

  13. Do Swiftlets have an ear for echolocation? The functional morphology of Swiftlets' middle ears.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Henri A; Gea, Stefan; Maas, Steve; Bout, Ron G; Dirckx, Joris J J; Decraemer, Willem F; Povel, G David E

    2007-03-01

    The Oilbird and many Swiftlet species are unique among birds for their ability to echolocate. Echolocaters may benefit from improved hearing sensitivity. Therefore, morphological adaptations to echolocation might be present in echolocating birds' middle ears. We studied the functional morphology of the tympano-ossicular chain of seven specimens of four echolocating Swiftlet species and one specimen each of five non-echolocating species. Three dimensional (3D) reconstructions were made from micro-Computer-Tomographic (muCT) scans. The reconstructions were used in functional morphological analyses and model calculations. A two dimensional (2D) rigid rod model with fixed rotational axes was developed to study footplate output-amplitudes and to describe how changes in the arrangement of the tympano-ossicular chain affect its function. A 3D finite element model was used to predict ossicular-chain movement and to investigate the justification of the 2D approach. No morphological adaptations towards echolocation were found in the middle-ear lever system or in the mass impedance of the middle ear. A wide range of middle-ear configurations result in maximum output-amplitudes and all investigated species are congruent with these predicted best configurations. Echolocation is unlikely to depend on adaptations in the middle ear tympano-ossicular chain.

  14. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) evaluation of the Cyclone-Z device under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the Cyclone-Z device under the provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. The evaluation of the Cyclone-Z device was conducted upon receiving an application from the marketer. The device is claimed to improve fuel economy and driveability and to reduce exhaust emissions. EPA fully considered all of the information submitted by the applicant. The evaluation of the Cyclone-Z device was based on that information, EPA's engineering judgement, and its experience with other air bleed devices.

  15. Use of inerter devices for weight reduction of tuned mass-dampers for seismic protection of multi-story building: the Tuned Mass-Damper-Interter (TMDI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaralis, Agathoklis; Marian, Laurentiu

    2016-04-01

    This paper explores the practical benefits of the recently proposed by the authors tuned mass-damper-inerter (TMDI) visà- vis the classical tuned mass-damper (TMD) for the passive vibration control of seismically excited linearly building structures assumed to respond linearly. Special attention is focused on showcasing that the TMDI requires considerably reduced attached mass/weight to achieve the same vibration suppression level as the classical TMD by exploiting the mass amplification effect of the ideal inerter device. The latter allows for increasing the inertial property of the TMDI without a significant increase to its physical weight. To this end, novel numerical results pertaining to a seismically excited 3-storey frame building equipped with optimally designed TMDIs for various values of attached mass and inertance (i.e., constant of proportionality of the inerter resisting force in mass units) are furnished. The seismic action is modelled by a non-stationary stochastic process compatible with the elastic acceleration response spectrum of the European seismic code (Eurocode 8), while the TMDIs are tuned to minimize the mean square top floor displacement. It is shown that the TMDI achieves the same level of performance as an unconventional "large mass" TMD for seismic protection (i.e., more than 10% of attached mass of the total building mass), by incorporating attached masses similar to the ones used for controlling wind-induced vibrations via TMDs (i.e., 1%-5% of the total building mass). Moreover, numerical data from response history analyses for a suite of Eurocode 8 compatible recorded ground motions further demonstrate that optimally tuned TMDIs for top floor displacement minimization achieve considerable reductions in terms of top floor acceleration and attached mass displacement (stroke) compared to the classical TMD with the same attached mass.

  16. Interplay of static and dynamic features in biomimetic smart ears.

    PubMed

    Pannala, Mittu; Meymand, Sajjad Zeinoddini; Müller, Rolf

    2013-06-01

    Horseshoe bats (family Rhinolophidae) have sophisticated biosonar systems with outer ears (pinnae) that are characterized by static local shape features as well as dynamic non-rigid changes to their overall shapes. Here, biomimetic prototypes fabricated from elastic rubber sheets have been used to study the impact of these static and dynamic features on the acoustic device characteristics. The basic shape of the prototypes was an obliquely truncated horn augmented with three static local shape features: vertical ridge, pinna-rim incision and frontal flap (antitragus). The prototype shape was deformed dynamically using a one-point actuation mechanism to produce a biomimetic bending of the prototype's tip. In isolation, the local shape features had little impact on the device beampattern. However, strong interactions were observed between these features and the overall deformation. The further the prototype tip was bent down, the stronger the beampatterns associated with combinations of multiple features differed from the upright configuration in the prominence of sidelobes. This behavior was qualitatively similar to numerical predictions for horseshoe bats. Hence, the interplay between static and dynamic features could be a bioinspired principle for affecting large changes through the dynamic manipulations of interactions that are sensitive to small geometrical changes.

  17. Wearable Sensing of In-Ear Pressure for Heart Rate Monitoring with a Piezoelectric Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jang-Ho; Jang, Dae-Geun; Park, Jung Wook; Youm, Se-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we developed a novel heart rate (HR) monitoring approach in which we measure the pressure variance of the surface of the ear canal. A scissor-shaped apparatus equipped with a piezoelectric film sensor and a hardware circuit module was designed for high wearability and to obtain stable measurement. In the proposed device, the film sensor converts in-ear pulse waves (EPW) into electrical current, and the circuit module enhances the EPW and suppresses noise. A real-time algorithm embedded in the circuit module performs morphological conversions to make the EPW more distinct and knowledge-based rules are used to detect EPW peaks. In a clinical experiment conducted using a reference electrocardiogram (ECG) device, EPW and ECG were concurrently recorded from 58 healthy subjects. The EPW intervals between successive peaks and their corresponding ECG intervals were then compared to each other. Promising results were obtained from the samples, specifically, a sensitivity of 97.25%, positive predictive value of 97.17%, and mean absolute difference of 0.62. Thus, highly accurate HR was obtained from in-ear pressure variance. Consequently, we believe that our proposed approach could be used to monitor vital signs and also utilized in diverse applications in the near future. PMID:26389912

  18. Wearable Sensing of In-Ear Pressure for Heart Rate Monitoring with a Piezoelectric Sensor.

    PubMed

    Park, Jang-Ho; Jang, Dae-Geun; Park, Jung Wook; Youm, Se-Kyoung

    2015-09-16

    In this study, we developed a novel heart rate (HR) monitoring approach in which we measure the pressure variance of the surface of the ear canal. A scissor-shaped apparatus equipped with a piezoelectric film sensor and a hardware circuit module was designed for high wearability and to obtain stable measurement. In the proposed device, the film sensor converts in-ear pulse waves (EPW) into electrical current, and the circuit module enhances the EPW and suppresses noise. A real-time algorithm embedded in the circuit module performs morphological conversions to make the EPW more distinct and knowledge-based rules are used to detect EPW peaks. In a clinical experiment conducted using a reference electrocardiogram (ECG) device, EPW and ECG were concurrently recorded from 58 healthy subjects. The EPW intervals between successive peaks and their corresponding ECG intervals were then compared to each other. Promising results were obtained from the samples, specifically, a sensitivity of 97.25%, positive predictive value of 97.17%, and mean absolute difference of 0.62. Thus, highly accurate HR was obtained from in-ear pressure variance. Consequently, we believe that our proposed approach could be used to monitor vital signs and also utilized in diverse applications in the near future.

  19. Sham Control Methods Used in Ear-Acupuncture/Ear-Acupressure Randomized Controlled Trials: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Yang, Angela Weihong; Zhang, Anthony Lin; May, Brian H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Ear-acupuncture/ear-acupressure (EAP) has been used for a range of health conditions with numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating its efficacy and safety. However, the design of sham interventions in these RCTs varied significantly. This study systematically reviewed RCTs on EAP for all clinical conditions involving a number of sham EAPs as a control intervention. The review is guided by the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.1.0 and investigated the types and differences of sham EAP interventions. Four electronic English databases (The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL®) and two Chinese databases (CQVIP, CNKI) were searched in December 2012 and 55 published RCTs comparing real and sham EAP for any clinical condition were included. Characteristics of participants, real and sham interventions, and outcomes were extracted. Four types of sham methods were identified. Among the 55 RCTs, 25 studies involved treatment on nonspecific ear acupoints as the sham method; seven studies used nonacupoints on the ear; nine studies selected placebo needles or placebo ear-acupressure on the same ear acupoints for the real treatment; 10 studies employed pseudo-intervention; and five studies combined two of the above methods to be the sham control. Other factors of treatment such as number of points, treatment duration, and frequency also varied greatly. Risk of bias assessment suggests that 32 RCTs were “high risk” in terms of participants blinding, and 45 RCTs were “high risk” in terms of personnel blinding. Meta-analysis was not conducted due to the high clinical heterogeneity across included studies. No relationship was found between the sham designs and efficacy outcomes, or between the sham types and dropout rate. No solid conclusion of which design is the most appropriate sham control of EAP could be drawn in this review. PMID:24138333

  20. Association between health information, use of protective devices and occurrence of acute health problems in the Prestige oil spill clean-up in Asturias and Cantabria (Spain): a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, José Miguel; Lope, Virginia; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; Suárez, Berta; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Pollán, Marina

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper examines the association between use of protective devices, frequency of acute health problems and health-protection information received by participants engaged in the Prestige oil spill clean-up in Asturias and Cantabria, Spain. Methods We studied 133 seamen, 135 bird cleaners, 266 volunteers and 265 paid workers selected by random sampling, stratified by type of worker and number of working days. Information was collected by telephone interview conducted in June 2003. The association of interest was summarized, using odds ratios (OR) obtained from logistic regression. Results Health-protection briefing was associated with use of protective devices and clothing. Uninformed subjects registered a significant excess risk of itchy eyes (OR:2.89; 95%CI:1.21–6.90), nausea/vomiting/dizziness (OR:2.25; 95%CI:1.17–4.32) and throat and respiratory problems (OR:2.30; 95%CI:1.15–4.61). There was a noteworthy significant excess risk of headaches (OR:3.86: 95%CI:1.74–8.54) and respiratory problems (OR:2.43; 95%CI:1.02–5.79) among uninformed paid workers. Seamen, the group most exposed to the fuel-oil, were the worst informed and registered the highest frequency of toxicological problems. Conclusion Proper health-protection briefing was associated with greater use of protective devices and lower frequency of health problems. Among seamen, however, the results indicate poorer dissemination of information and the need of specific guidelines for removing fuel-oil at sea. PMID:16390547

  1. Development and validation of a field microphone-in-real-ear approach for measuring hearing protector attenuation.

    PubMed

    Berger, E H; Voix, J; Kieper, R W; Le Cocq, C

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the reliability of using laboratory measurements to predict individual or even group hearing protector attenuation for occupationally exposed workers is quite poor. This makes it difficult to properly assign hearing protectors when one wishes to closely match attenuation to actual exposure. An alternative is the use of field-measurement methods, a number of which have been proposed and are beginning to be implemented. We examine one of those methods, namely the field microphone-in-real-ear (F-MIRE) approach in which a dual-element microphone probe is used to measure noise reduction by quickly sampling the difference in noise levels outside and under an earplug, with appropriate adjustments to predict real-ear attenuation at threshold (REAT). We report on experiments that validate the ability of one commercially available F-MIRE device to predict the REAT of an earplug fitted identically for two tests. Results are reported on a representative roll-down foam earplug, stemmed-style pod plug, and pre-molded earplug, demonstrating that the 95% confidence level of the Personal Attenuation Rating (PAR) as a function of the number of fits varies from ± 4.4 dB to ± 6.3 dB, depending on the plug type, which can be reduced to ± 3.1 dB to ± 4.5 dB with a single repeat measurement. The added measurement improves precision substantially. However, the largest portion of the error is due to the user's fitting variability and not the uncertainty of the measurement system. Further we evaluated the inherent uncertainty of F-MIRE vs. the putative "gold standard" REAT procedures finding, that F-MIRE measurement uncertainty is less than one-half that of REAT at most test frequencies. An American National Standards Institute (ANSI) working group (S12/WG11) is currently involved in developing methods similar to those in this paper so that procedures for evaluating and reporting uncertainty on all types of field attenuation measurement systems can be

  2. Chinchilla middle-ear admittance and sound power: high-frequency estimates and effects of inner-ear modifications.

    PubMed

    Ravicz, Michael E; Rosowski, John J

    2012-10-01

    The middle-ear input admittance relates sound power into the middle ear (ME) and sound pressure at the tympanic membrane (TM). ME input admittance was measured in the chinchilla ear canal as part of a larger study of sound power transmission through the ME into the inner ear. The middle ear was open, and the inner ear was intact or modified with small sensors inserted into the vestibule near the cochlear base. A simple model of the chinchilla ear canal, based on ear canal sound pressure measurements at two points along the canal and an assumption of plane-wave propagation, enables reliable estimates of Y(TM,) the ME input admittance at the TM, from the admittance measured relatively far from the TM. Y(TM) appears valid at frequencies as high as 17 kHz, a much higher frequency than previously reported. The real part of Y(TM) decreases with frequency above 2 kHz. Effects of the inner-ear sensors (necessary for inner ear power computation) were small and generally limited to frequencies below 3 kHz. Computed power reflectance was ~0.1 below 3.5 kHz, lower than with an intact ME below 2.5 kHz, and nearly 1 above 16 kHz.

  3. Piezo-earpiece for micro-power generation from ear canal dynamic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delnavaz, Aidin; Voix, Jérémie

    2013-11-01

    This paper focuses on improving the past performance of ear canal energy harvesting by developing a piezo-earpiece prototype and a multiphysics finite element method to integrate more complex and effective piezoelectric structures. The proposed handmade piezo-earpiece prototype is a custom-moulded soft earpiece wrapped in a layer of flexible polyvinylidene fluoride. A finite element model is developed in order to estimate the energy harvesting capability of the piezoelectric layer. A prototype of the energy harvester is fabricated and tested. The experimental results show that the proposed device is able to generate 44 μJ of energy corresponding to an average value of 70 μW per jaw opening and closing cycle. Simulation of energy harvesting based on the finite element method is validated by the experimental results, thus confirming it as a versatile tool to model, optimize and evaluate the performance of other types of flexible piezoelectric structures for in-ear energy harvesting applications.

  4. Electrical ear acupuncture reduces histamine-induced itch (alloknesis).

    PubMed

    Kesting, Marco Rainer; Thurmüller, Petra; Hölzle, Frank; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Holland-Letz, Tim; Stücker, Markus

    2006-01-01

    In order to assess an objective measure for the outcome of ear acupuncture, we evaluated the effect of electrical ear acupuncture on areas of histamine-induced alloknesis in 32 healthy volunteers. In a first assessment 5 min after histamine application on both volar forearms, 16 subjects received right ear and 16 left ear acupuncture. Immediately before and 5 min after acupuncture, alloknesis areas on both forearms were planimetrically evaluated. A second assessment was carried out 4 weeks later with the same patients. They underwent histamine application once more, but received no acupuncture. Alloknesis areas were then compared with reference to time, assessment and therapy side. Forearms relating to ipsilateral acupuncture showed significantly reduced or even no alloknesis areas after therapy. On the contralateral sides and during the "non-acupuncture" assessment 4 weeks later, alloknesis areas were significantly enlarged compared with sides ipsilateral to right and left ear acupuncture. Hence, results verify the effects of electrical ear acupuncture by objective measures.

  5. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) evaluation of the P. S. C. U. 01 device under section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1983-08-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'P.S.C.U. 01' device under the provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. The evaluation of the P.S.C.U. 01 was conducted upon the application of Dutch Pacific, Incorporated. The device is comprised of several mechanical and electrical components and is intended to generate steam and deliver it to the combustion chamber via an inline catalyst. The device is claimed to improve fuel economy and to reduce exhaust emissions. The P.S.C.U. 01 is classified by EPA as a Vapor bleed device.

  6. The use of polyethylene intramammary device in protection of the lactating bovine udder against experimental infection with Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, B W; Barnum, D A

    1982-01-01

    The susceptibility of lactating bovine udder quarters fitted with a polyethylene intramammary device to infection was investigated. Following experimental challenge with Streptococcus agalactiae or Staphylococcus aureus, the incidence of infection was significantly (p less than 0.05) lower in intramammary device-fitted quarters compared to control quarters. In general, total foremilk and strippings milk somatic cell counts for intramammary device-fitted and control quarters were not significantly (p less than 0.05) different. Differential foremilk and strippings milk somatic cell counts were significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in samples from intramammary device-fitted quarters compared to control quarters. PMID:7127192

  7. Chemical Ototoxicity of the Fish Inner Ear and Lateral Line.

    PubMed

    Coffin, Allison B; Ramcharitar, John

    2016-01-01

    Hair cell-driven mechanosensory systems are crucial for successful execution of a number of behaviors in fishes, and have emerged as good models for exploring questions relevant to human hearing. This review focuses on ototoxic effects in the inner ear and lateral line system of fishes. We specifically examine studies where chemical ototoxins such as aminoglycoside antibiotics have been employed as tools to disable the lateral line. Lateral line ablation results in alterations to feeding behavior and orientation to water current in a variety of species. However, neither behavior is abolished in the presence of additional sensory cues, supporting the hypothesis that many fish behaviors are driven by multisensory integration. Within biomedical research, the larval zebrafish lateral line has become an important model system for understanding signaling mechanisms that contribute to hair cell death and for developing novel pharmacological therapies that protect hair cells from ototoxic damage. Furthermore, given that fishes robustly regenerate damaged hair cells, ototoxin studies in fishes have broadened our understanding of the molecular and genetic events in an innately regenerative system, offering potential targets for mammalian hair cell regeneration. Collectively, studies of fish mechanosensory systems have yielded insight into fish behavior and in mechanisms of hair cell death, protection, and regeneration.

  8. Review of congenital inner ear abnormalities on CT temporal bone.

    PubMed

    Yiin, R S Z; Tang, P H; Tan, T Y

    2011-09-01

    The aetiology of profound hearing loss in children is complex and multifactorial. Congenital inner ear abnormality is a major cause of hearing loss in children. CT temporal bone imaging is the modality of choice in the investigation of hearing loss. Recognising the congenital abnormalities of the inner ear guides the clinician's management of the condition. This pictorial essay illustrates the congenital abnormalities of the inner ear on high resolution CT temporal bone images and correlation with developmental arrest during embryology.

  9. The HyPRP gene EARLI1 has an auxiliary role for germinability and early seedling development under low temperature and salt stress conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dan; Huang, Xuan; Xu, Zi-Qin; Schläppi, Michael

    2011-09-01

    The effect of the hybrid proline-rich protein (HyPRP) gene EARLI1 on the rate of germination (germinability) of Arabidopsis seeds and seedling growth under low temperature and salt stress conditions was investigated. EARLI1 was induced during germination in embryonic tissues, and was strongly expressed in certain parts of young seedlings. Comparisons of control, overexpressing (OX), and knockout (KO) lines indicated that higher than wild type levels of EARLI1 improved germinability, root elongation, and reduction of sodium accumulation in leaves under salt stress, as well as germinability under low-temperature stress. Abscisic acid (ABA) contents were relatively low after prolonged salt stress, suggesting that EARLI1 has an ABA-independent effect on germinability under these conditions. Overexpression of EARLI1 during germination enhanced the sensitivity of seeds to exogenously applied ABA, suggesting that EARLI1 has an ABA-dependent negative effect on seed germinability under high ABA stress conditions. Well-known stress response marker genes such as COR15a, KIN1, P5SC1, and RD29 were unaffected whereas P5SC2, RD22, or RAB18 were only slightly affected in OX and KO plants. The pleiotropic effects of EARLI1 during stress and an absence of strong regulatory effects on stress marker genes suggest that this HyPRP gene has an auxiliary role for various stress protection responses in Arabidopsis.

  10. Radioprotective Effect of Aminothiol PrC-210 on Irradiated Inner Ear of Guinea Pig

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Daniel I.; Riazuddin, Saima; Ahmed, Zubair M.

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy of individuals suffering with head & neck or brain tumors subserve the risk of sensorineural hearing loss. Here, we evaluated the protective effect of Aminothiol PrC-210 (3-(methyl-amino)-2-((methylamino)methyl)propane-1-thiol) on the irradiated inner ear of guinea pigs. An intra-peritoneal or intra-tympanic dose of PrC-210 was administered prior to receiving a dose of gamma radiation (3000 cGy) to each ear. Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABRs) were recorded one week and two weeks after the radiation and compared with the sham animal group. ABR thresholds of guinea pigs that received an intra-peritoneal dose of PrC-210 were significantly better compared to the non-treated, control animals at one week post-radiation. Morphologic analysis of the inner ear revealed significant inflammation and degeneration of the spiral ganglion in the irradiated animals not treated with PrC-210. In contrast, when treated with PrC-210 the radiation effect and injury to the spiral ganglion was significantly alleviated. PrC-210 had no apparent cytotoxic effect in vivo and did not affect the morphology or count of cochlear hair cells. These findings suggest that aminothiol PrC-210 attenuated radiation-induced cochlea damage for at least one week and protected hearing. PMID:26599238

  11. [Recurrent meningitis in inner ear malformations].

    PubMed

    Claros, Pedro; Matusialk, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Authors present two cases of children with reccurent meningitis and unilateral deafness. Implemented diagnostics (CT, NMR, ABR) revealed one side inner ear congenital malformation in one case and anterior fossa bony defect accompanied by labirynthine deformation in the other case. The presence of perilymphatic fistulae in oval and round windows and cerebrospinal fluid leakage has been confirmed in both cases during surgery. Carefull obliteration of the Eustachian tube and both windows has been performed. Non- complicated postoperative course (2 months and 6 years - respectively) has prooved the effectiveness of applied treatment.

  12. Otosclerosis associated with type B-1 inner ear malformation.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, A; Dispenza, F; Aggarwal, N; Russo, A

    2010-06-01

    Malformations of bony inner ear are rare anomalies occurring in approximately 20% of patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss. Conductive hearing loss is usually associated with abnormalities of the external and middle ear. Recent reports of patients with lateral semicircular canal malformations indicate inner ear malformations to be associated with sensorineural or conductive hearing loss. Differential diagnosis of conductive hearing loss should include otosclerosis, isolated ossicular deformities, inner ear anomalies or a combination of these. In this report, a case is described with right vestibule-lateral semicircular canal dysplasia presenting at our centre with bilateral otosclerosis.

  13. 3D ear identification based on sparse representation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics based personal authentication is an effective way for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a person's identity. Recently, 3D ear shape has attracted tremendous interests in research field due to its richness of feature and ease of acquisition. However, the existing ICP (Iterative Closet Point)-based 3D ear matching methods prevalent in the literature are not quite efficient to cope with the one-to-many identification case. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by proposing a novel effective fully automatic 3D ear identification system. We at first propose an accurate and efficient template-based ear detection method. By utilizing such a method, the extracted ear regions are represented in a common canonical coordinate system determined by the ear contour template, which facilitates much the following stages of feature extraction and classification. For each extracted 3D ear, a feature vector is generated as its representation by making use of a PCA-based local feature descriptor. At the stage of classification, we resort to the sparse representation based classification approach, which actually solves an l1-minimization problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work introducing the sparse representation framework into the field of 3D ear identification. Extensive experiments conducted on a benchmark dataset corroborate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. The associated Matlab source code and the evaluation results have been made publicly online available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/ear/srcear/srcear.htm.

  14. Neuroendocrine Adenoma of the Middle Ear: A Rare Histopathological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    McGinness, Sam; Coleman, Hedley; Varikatt, Winny; da Cruz, Melville

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours occur throughout the body but are rare in the head and neck region and particularly rare in the middle ear. Clinical findings are often nonspecific and therefore pose a diagnostic challenge. Furthermore, the nomenclature of neuroendocrine tumours of the middle ear is historically controversial. Herein a case is presented of a middle ear adenoma in a 33-year-old patient who presented with otalgia, hearing loss, and facial nerve palsy. A brief discussion is included regarding the histopathological features of middle ear adenomas and seeks to clarify the correct nomenclature for these tumours. PMID:27429819

  15. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) evaluation of the HYDRO-VAC device under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1983-08-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the HYDRO-VAC device under section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. The evaluation of the HYDRO-VAC device was conducted upon the application of the manufacturer. The product is claimed to improved fuel economy and performance for both gasoline and diesel fueled vehicles.

  16. Magnetically driven middle ear ossicles for optical measurement of vibrations in an ear with opened eardrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, John; Von Unge, Magnus; Dirckx, Joris

    2012-06-01

    Vibrations of the middle ear ossicles are easily measured by means of laser vibrometry. However, exposing the ossicles requires the removal of the eardrum, with the result that the ossicles can no longer be stimulated acoustically. To overcome this we devised a new set up in which the ossicles can be driven magnetically. After measuring the response of the eardrum to an acoustic signal, we then remove the eardrum and attach a small magnet to the exposed manubrium (the part of the first auditory ossicle, the malleus, which is normally attached to the eardrum). An electromagnetic excitation coil is then used to drive the magnet, and the output to the coil adjusted until the vibration of the manubrium, as measured by the vibrometer, matches that measured in response to the acoustic signal. Such a set-up has uses in research on middle ear mechanics, such as the measurement of non-linearities in their response, as well as applications in the diagnosis of middle ear conditions such as the fixation of the ossicles by otosclerosis, or in chronic otitis media. We describe our set up in which the vibrometer unit is attached to a surgical microscope, offering accurate positioning of the laser beam. We discuss the viability of our method and its future potential by presenting some measurements on artificially fixated ears.

  17. The distribution and contaminant exposure of Rafinesque's Big-Eared Bats in South Carolina with an emphasis on bridge surveys.

    SciTech Connect

    F.M. Bennett; S.C. Loeb; W.W. Bowerman

    2003-10-23

    Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), an insectivorous mammal indigenous to the southern United States, has long been referred to as one of the least known bats in North America. Although there has been a moderate increase in the number of peer-reviewed articles published on this species in the past 6 years, the basic ecology and status of Rafinesque's big-eared bat remains largely obscure. Prior to 1996, when the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) discontinued the list of Candidate Species, Rafinesque's big-eared bat was listed as a Federal Category 2 Candidate species. Currently, Rafinesque's big-eared bat is recognized as a ''species of special concern'' across most of its range but receives no legal protection. Nonetheless, the USFWS and numerous state agencies remain concerned about this species. Further biological research and field study are needed to resolve the conservation status of this taxona. In response to the paucity of information regarding the status and distribution of Rafinesque's big-eared bat, statewide survey of highway bridges used as roost sites was conducted.

  18. Topical antibiotic ear drops: are they safe?

    PubMed

    Pappas, S; Nikolopoulos, T P; Korres, S; Papacharalampous, G; Tzangarulakis, A; Ferekidis, E

    2006-09-01

    A discharging ear is a very common condition for the general practitioner and the ENT surgeon. Oral and intravenous antibiotics have potential complications, are costly, and exhibit increasing resistance. This study explores the advantages and disadvantages of all common otic preparations and compares effectiveness, safety, cost and complication rates. In chronic otitis media (chronic discharging ears), topical antibiotics seem to be the treatment of choice by comparison with oral or intravenous antibiotics. Cultures and antibiograms do not correspond directly to clinical efficacy, as laboratory determination of resistance does not take into account the high concentration of antibiotics in local preparations. It is safer to use quinolone drops as a first-line treatment, but it is still possible to use short courses of other drops if quinolones are either unavailable or contraindicated (e.g. allergy), or when bacteria are resistant to them. However, in such a situation, a round window membrane involved in an established inflammatory process and therefore less permeable to the passage of topical preparations is the preferred setting, as ototoxicity is a potential complication, especially in the case of gentamicin, in which case patients should be warned accordingly.

  19. Technical note: a technique for ear vein catheterization in group-housed sows.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C E; Li, Y Z; Johnston, L J; Goplen, A E; Shurson, G C

    2012-02-01

    No methods have been published for repeated blood sampling via an ear vein in group-housed sows. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a minimally invasive technique for the insertion of an ear vein catheter for repeated blood sampling in group-housed peripartum sows while minimizing any impact on production performance. Thirty-three multiparous pregnant sows were used including 18 catheterized sows and 15 control sows. In a group-farrowing barn, sows (8/room) shared a communal area and farrowed in individual, free-access pens. Treatment sows were anesthetized, and 1 ear was prepared aseptically 2 to 4 d before their expected farrowing date. A sterile needle was inserted into the largest and straightest portion of the vein, and the catheter, which was medical-grade microbore tubing, was inserted through the needle at least 24 cm. The needle was withdrawn, and the catheter was fixed into position and sutured to the ear. A blunt-end probe point cannula was glued onto the distal end of the catheter, and an adaptor injection cap with male Luer lock was placed on the end. The catheter was coiled and placed in a protective purse, which was cemented directly to the skin on the back of the shoulders. The catheter was flushed with heparinized saline to ensure patency. Once sows were able to stand, an elastic bandage was wrapped around the neck and upper body of the sow to hold the protective purse and exposed catheter in position. Blood samples were collected every 24 h, and catheters were flushed with heparinized saline after each collection. Fourteen of the 18 insertions were successful, and 11 of those remained functional for 4 d or more. Differences were not observed in reproductive performance between catheterized and noncatheterized sows.

  20. [European Portuguese EARS test battery adaptation].

    PubMed

    Alves, Marisa; Ramos, Daniela; Oliveira, Graça; Alves, Helena; Anderson, Ilona; Magalhães, Isabel; Martins, Jorge H; Simões, Margarida; Ferreira, Raquel; Fonseca, Rita; Andrade, Susana; Silva, Luís; Ribeiro, Carlos; Ferreira, Pedro Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A utilização de instrumentos de avaliação em saúde adequados é fundamental na gestão da prestação de cuidados. A escassez, em Portugal, de instrumentos específicos para a avaliação do desempenho de crianças utilizadoras de implantes cocleares motivou o trabalho de tradução e de adaptação da bateria de testes EARS (Evaluation of Auditory Responses to Speech) para o português europeu. Esta bateria de testes é hoje um dos instrumentos mais comummente utilizados por equipas de (re)habilitação de crianças surdas com implantes cocleares em todo o mundo. O objetivo a atingir com a validação do EARS foi fornecer às equipas de (re)habilitação um instrumento que permita: (i) monitorizar a evolução individual da reabilitação; (ii) gerir um programa de (re)habilitação de acordo com resultados objetivos, comparáveis entre diferentes equipas de (re)habilitação; (iii) obter dados comparáveis comequipas internacionais; e (iv) melhorar a adesão e a motivação da família e restantes profissionais no ambulatório.Material e Métodos: No processo de tradução e de adaptação da bateria de testes, os procedimentos adotados foram os seguintes: (i) tradução da versão inglesa para português europeu por um tradutor profissional; (ii) revisão dessa tradução realizada por um painel de especialistas constituído por otorrinolaringologistas, terapeutas da fala e técnicos de audiologia; (iii) adaptação dos estímulos de teste pela equipa de terapeutas da fala; e (iv) nova revisão por parte do painel de especialistas.Resultados: São apresentados, para cada um dos instrumentos que compõem a bateria EARS, as adaptações introduzidas, conciliando as características e os objetivos originais dos instrumentos com as particularidades linguísticas e culturais da população portuguesa.Discussão: São discutidas as dificuldades encontradas durante o processo de tradução e de adaptação e as soluções adotadas. São feitas