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Sample records for ear radiologic-surgical correlation

  1. Great Ears: Low-Frequency Sensitivity Correlates in Land and Marine Leviathans.

    PubMed

    Ketten, D R; Arruda, J; Cramer, S; Yamato, M

    2016-01-01

    Like elephants, baleen whales produce low-frequency (LF) and even infrasonic (IF) signals, suggesting they may be particularly susceptible to underwater anthropogenic sound impacts. Analyses of computerized tomography scans and histologies of the ears in five baleen whale and two elephant species revealed that LF thresholds correlate with basilar membrane thickness/width and cochlear radii ratios. These factors are consistent with high-mass, low-stiffness membranes and broad spiral curvatures, suggesting that Mysticeti and Proboscidea evolved common inner ear adaptations over similar time scales for processing IF/LF sounds despite operating in different media.

  2. Correlations of fatty acid supplementation, aeroallergens, shampoo, and ear cleanser with multiple parameters in pruritic dogs.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Gene H; Freeman, Lisa M; Hannah, Steven S

    2004-01-01

    Seventy-two pruritic dogs were fed one of four diets controlled for n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios and total dietary intake of fatty acids. Multiple parameters were evaluated, including clinical and cytological findings, aeroallergen testing, microbial sampling techniques, and effects of an anti-fungal/antibacterial shampoo and ear cleanser. Significant correlations were observed between many clinical parameters, anatomical sampling sites, and microbial counts when data from the diet groups was combined. There were no statistically significant differences between individual diets for any of the clinical parameters. The importance of total clinical management in the control of pruritus was demonstrated.

  3. Correlation between the characteristics of resonance and aging of the external ear.

    PubMed

    Silva, Aline Papin Roedas da; Blasca, Wanderléia Quinhoneiro; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Oliveira, Jerusa Roberta Massola de

    2014-01-01

    Aging causes changes in the external ear as a collapse of the external auditory canal and tympanic membrane senile. Knowing them is appropriate for the diagnosis of hearing loss and selection of hearing aids. For this reason, the study aimed to verify the influence of the anatomical changes of the external ear resonance in the auditory canal in the elderly. The sample consisted of objective measures of the external ear of elderly with collapse (group A), senile tympanic membrane (group B) and without changing the external auditory canal or tympanic membrane (group C) and adults without changing the external ear (group D). In the retrospective/clinical study were performed comparisons of measures of individuals with and without alteration of the external ear through the gain and response external ear resonant frequency and the primary peak to the right ear. In groups A, B and C was no statistically significant difference between Real Ear Unaided Response (REUR) and Real Ear Unaided Gain (REUG), but not for the peak frequency. For groups A and B were shown significant differences in REUR and REUG. Between the C and D groups were significant statistics to the REUR and REUG, but not for the frequency of the primary peak. Changes influence the external ear resonance, decreasing its amplitude. However, the frequency of the primary peak is not affected.

  4. Ear Infection (Middle Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    ... secretions from the middle ear Swelling, inflammation and mucus in the eustachian tubes from an upper respiratory ... your baby for at least six months. Breast milk contains antibodies that may offer protection from ear ...

  5. Morphological correlation between caloric tests and vestibular hydrops in Ménière's disease using intravenous Gd enhanced inner ear MRI.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Eun; Kim, Yi-Kyung; Cho, Young Sang; Lee, Kieun; Park, Hyun Woo; Yoon, Sung Hoon; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Chung, Won-Ho

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prove the hypothesis that caloric response in Ménière's disease (MD) is reduced by hydropic expansion of the vestibular labyrinth, not by vestibular hypofunction, by evaluating the correlation morphologically using an intravenous Gadolinium (IV-Gd) inner ear MRI. In study I, the prevalence of abnormal video Head Impulse Test (vHIT) results among the patients with definite unilateral MD (n = 24) and vestibular neuritis (VN) (n = 22) were investigated. All patients showed abnormal canal paresis (CP) (> 26%) on caloric tests. The prevalence of abnormal vHIT in patients with abnormal CP was significantly lower in MD patients (12.5%) than that in VN patients (81.8%) (p < 0.001). In study II, morphological correlation between caloric tests and vestibular hydrops level was evaluated in unilateral MD patients (n = 16) who had normal vHIT results. Eleven patients (61%) had abnormal CP. After taking the images of IV-Gd inner ear MRI, the vestibular hydrops ratio (endolymph volume/total lymph volume = %VH) was measured. In addition, the relative vestibular hydrops ratio (%RVH = (%VHaffected ear-%VHunaffected ear) / (%VHaffected ear + %VHunaffected ear)) was calculated. Each ratio (%VH and %RVH) was compared with average peak slow phase velocity (PSPV) and CP, respectively. In the MD patients, %VH of the affected ear correlated significantly with mean PSPV on the same side (rs = -0.569, p = 0.024), while %RVH correlated significantly with CP (rs = 0.602, p = 0.014). In most MD patients (87.5%) compared to VN patients, vHIT results were normal even though the caloric function was reduced. In addition, the reduced caloric function with normal vHIT was related to the severity of the vestibular hydrops measured by the IV-Gd inner ear MRI. These findings concluded that the abnormal caloric tests with normal vHIT in MD indicated severe endolymphatic hydrops rather than vestibular hypofunction.

  6. Ear Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... most common illness in infants and young children. Tinnitus, a roaring in your ears, can be the ... problems in your inner ear; its symptoms include tinnitus and dizziness. Ear barotrauma is an injury to ...

  7. Swimmer's Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eardrum Taking Care of Your Ears Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Your Ears What's Earwax? How Do Pain Relievers Work? View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  8. Optical diffusion property of cerumen from ear canal and correlation to metal content measured by synchrotron x-ray absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Todd; Dehipawala, Sumudu; Cheung, E.; Golebiewska, U.; Schneider, P.; Tremberger, G., Jr.; Kokkinos, D.; Lieberman, D.; Dehipawala, Sunil; Cheung, T.

    2012-03-01

    Human (and other mammals) would secrete cerumen (ear wax) to protect the skin of the ear canal against pathogens and insects. The studies of biodiversity of pathogen in human include intestine microbe colony, belly button microbe colony, etc. Metals such as zinc and iron are essentials to bio-molecular pathways and would be related to the underlying pathogen vitality. This project studies the biodiversity of cerumen via its metal content and aims to develop an optical probe for metal content characterization. The optical diffusion mean free path and absorption of human cerumen samples dissolved in solvent have been measured in standard transmission measurements. EXFAS and XANES have been measured at Brookhaven Synchrotron Light Source for the determination of metal contents, presumably embedded within microbes/insects/skin cells. The results show that a calibration procedure can be used to correlate the optical diffusion parameters to the metal content, thus expanding the diagnostic of cerumen in the study of human pathogen biodiversity without the regular use of a synchrotron light source. Although biodiversity measurements would not be seriously affected by dead microbes and absorption based method would do well, the scattering mean free path method would have potential to further study the cell based scattering centers (dead or live) via the information embedded in the speckle pattern in the deep-Fresnel zone.

  9. Ear wax

    MedlinePlus

    See your provider if your ears are blocked with wax and you are unable to remove the wax. Also call if you have an ear wax blockage and you develop new symptoms, such as: Drainage from the ear Ear pain Fever Hearing loss that continues after you clean the wax

  10. Ear Pieces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

  11. Ear discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... swabs or other small objects into the ear Middle ear infection Other causes of ear discharge include: Eczema ... tube surgery - what to ask your doctor Images Ear anatomy Eardrum repair - series References Bauer CA, Jenkins HA. Otologic symptoms and syndromes. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et ...

  12. Correlative mRNA and Protein Expression of Middle and Inner Ear Inflammatory Cytokines during Mouse Acute Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Trune, Dennis R.; Kempton, Beth; Hausman, Frances A.; Larrain, Barbara E.; MacArthur, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    Although the inner ear has long been reported to be susceptible to middle ear disease, little is known of the inflammatory mechanisms that might cause permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Recent studies have shown inner ear tissues are capable of expressing inflammatory cytokines during otitis media. However, little quantitative information is available concerning cytokine gene expression in the inner ear and the protein products that result. Therefore, this study was conducted of mouse middle and inner ear during acute otitis media to measure the relationship between inflammatory cytokine genes and their protein products with quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Balb/c mice were inoculated transtympanically with heat-killed Haemophilus influenzae and middle and inner ear tissues collected for either quantitative RT-PCR microarrays or ELISA multiplex arrays. mRNA for several cytokine genes was significantly increased in both the middle and inner ear at 6 hours. In the inner ear, these included MIP-2 (448 fold), IL-6 (126 fold), IL-1β (7.8 fold), IL-10 (10.7 fold), TNFα (1.8 fold), and IL-1α (1.5 fold). The 24 hour samples showed a similar pattern of gene expression, although generally at lower levels. In parallel, the ELISA showed the related cytokines were present in the inner ear at concentrations higher by 2 to 122 fold higher at 18 hours, declining slightly from there at 24 hours. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies to a number of these cytokines demonstrated they occurred in greater amounts in the inner ear tissues. These findings demonstrate considerable inflammatory gene expression and gene products in the inner ear following acute otitis media. These higher cytokine levels suggest one potential mechanism for the permanent hearing loss seen in some cases of acute and chronic otitis media. PMID:25922207

  13. Correlative mRNA and protein expression of middle and inner ear inflammatory cytokines during mouse acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Trune, Dennis R; Kempton, Beth; Hausman, Frances A; Larrain, Barbara E; MacArthur, Carol J

    2015-08-01

    Although the inner ear has long been reported to be susceptible to middle ear disease, little is known of the inflammatory mechanisms that might cause permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Recent studies have shown inner ear tissues are capable of expressing inflammatory cytokines during otitis media. However, little quantitative information is available concerning cytokine gene expression in the inner ear and the protein products that result. Therefore, this study was conducted of mouse middle and inner ear during acute otitis media to measure the relationship between inflammatory cytokine genes and their protein products with quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Balb/c mice were inoculated transtympanically with heat-killed Haemophilus influenzae and middle and inner ear tissues collected for either quantitative RT-PCR microarrays or ELISA multiplex arrays. mRNA for several cytokine genes was significantly increased in both the middle and inner ear at 6 h. In the inner ear, these included MIP-2 (448 fold), IL-6 (126 fold), IL-1β (7.8 fold), IL-10 (10.7 fold), TNFα (1.8 fold), and IL-1α (1.5 fold). The 24 h samples showed a similar pattern of gene expression, although generally at lower levels. In parallel, the ELISA showed the related cytokines were present in the inner ear at concentrations higher by 2-122 fold higher at 18 h, declining slightly from there at 24 h. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies to a number of these cytokines demonstrated they occurred in greater amounts in the inner ear tissues. These findings demonstrate considerable inflammatory gene expression and gene products in the inner ear following acute otitis media. These higher cytokine levels suggest one potential mechanism for the permanent hearing loss seen in some cases of acute and chronic otitis media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Airplane Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... to severe hearing loss Ringing in your ear (tinnitus) Spinning sensation (vertigo) Vomiting resulting from vertigo Bleeding ... complications may include: Permanent hearing loss Ongoing (chronic) tinnitus Prevention Follow these tips to avoid airplane ear: ...

  15. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... ear anatomy Otoscopic exam of the ear References King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ...

  16. Elephant ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002867.htm Elephant ear poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Elephant ear plants are indoor or outdoor plants with ...

  17. Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protect your hearing by wearing earplugs at loud music concerts and around noisy machinery, like in wood ... More on this topic for: Kids Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? ...

  18. Ear Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  19. Ear Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... may have OTITIS MEDIA, an infection of the middle ear. Self CareSee your doctor. Many ear infections will ... half-alcohol, half-white vinegar solution in the ear before and after swimming or ... JOINT (TMJ) SYNDROME, a disorder that affects the jaw joint, may ...

  20. The expression and correlation of Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 in serous middle ear effusion fluids of pediatric patients-a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Min, Hyun Jin; Choe, Ji Won; Chang, Moon Young; Kim, Kyung Soo; Lee, Sei Young; Mun, Seog-Kyun

    2017-10-01

    Several cytokines and innate immune-associated molecules are present in middle ear effusions, but damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in middle ear effusion have not been studied. Therefore, we evaluated the role of heat shock proteins (Hsps) in the development of otitis media with effusion (OME). Serous middle ear effusions from 22 pediatric patients who were diagnosed with OME and underwent ventilation tube insertion from June 2015 to March 2017 were evaluated in our study. The levels of Hsp 90, 70, 27, IL-8, and TNF-α in effusion fluids were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The associations between the levels of these molecules and the degree of tympanic membrane inflammation were statistically evaluated. Finally, the relationships among these molecules were also evaluated. Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 were detected in all middle ear effusions, but Hsp 90 was detected in only five effusion fluid samples. IL-8 was also detected in all middle ear effusions, but TNF-α was detected in only four effusion fluid samples. When we compared the degree of tympanic membrane inflammation with the levels of Hsp 70, Hsp 27, and IL-8, which were detected in all effusion fluids, we could not find statistical significance. However, Hsp 70, Hsp 27, and IL-8 were significantly associated with each other (p < 0.05). Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 were expressed in middle ear effusions. Furthermore, the levels of Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 were positively correlated with each other, and were also positively associated with the neutrophil chemoattractant, IL-8. Our findings suggested that Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 might be involved in the pathophysiology of pediatric OME. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ear wax

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Ear wax only becomes a problem if it causes a hearing impairment or other ear-related symptoms. Ear wax is more likely to accumulate and cause a hearing impairment when normal extrusion is prevented — for example, by the use of hearing aids, or by the use of cotton buds to clean the ears. Ear wax can visually obscure the ear drum, and may need to be removed for diagnostic purposes. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of methods to remove ear wax? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found nine systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: ear syringing; manual removal (other than ear syringing); and wax softeners (alone or prior to syringing). PMID:19450340

  2. Ear Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1/20th of an inch) that could allow water to enter the middle ear, research studies show no benefit in keeping the ears dry and current guidelines do not recommend routine water precautions. Therefore, you do not need to restrict ...

  3. Comparative evaluation of rivastigmine permeation from a transdermal system in the Franz cell using synthetic membranes and pig ear skin with in vivo-in vitro correlation.

    PubMed

    Simon, Alice; Amaro, Maria Inês; Healy, Anne Marie; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; de Sousa, Valeria Pereira

    2016-10-15

    In the present study, in vitro permeation experiments in a Franz diffusion cell were performed using different synthetic polymeric membranes and pig ear skin to evaluate a rivastigmine (RV) transdermal drug delivery system. In vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVC) were examined to determine the best model membrane. In vitro permeation studies across different synthetic membranes and skin were performed for the Exelon(®) Patch (which contains RV), and the results were compared. Deconvolution of bioavailability data using the Wagner-Nelson method enabled the fraction of RV absorbed to be determined and a point-to-point IVIVC to be established. The synthetic membrane, Strat-M™, showed a RV permeation profile similar to that obtained with pig ear skin (R(2)=0.920). Studies with Strat-M™ resulted in a good and linear IVIVC (R(2)=0.991) when compared with other synthetic membranes that showed R(2) values less than 0.90. The R(2) for pig ear skin was 0.982. Strat-M™ membrane was the only synthetic membrane that adequately simulated skin barrier performance and therefore it can be considered to be a suitable alternative to human or animal skin in evaluating transdermal drug transport, potentially reducing the number of studies requiring human or animal samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ear tag

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ear tag or pit are: An inherited tendency to have this facial feature A genetic syndrome ... Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2016:chap 19. Review Date 4/24/2017 Updated by: Liora C Adler, MD, ...

  5. Swimmer's ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... often gets better with the proper treatment. Possible Complications The infection may spread to other areas around the ear, including the skull bone. In older people or those who have diabetes, the infection may become severe. This condition is ...

  6. Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... but they are less common. The infection usually affects the middle ear and is called otitis media. ... become clogged with fluid and mucus. This can affect hearing, because sound cannot get through all that ...

  7. Pierced Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... weeks. Then you can start enjoying your pierced ears again! Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: September ... All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, ...

  8. Ear emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... and ruptured eardrums can be caused by: Inserting cotton swabs, toothpicks, pins, pens, or other objects into ... The person will have severe pain. Place sterile cotton gently in the outer ear canal to keep ...

  9. Swimmer's Ear (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... scratching the ear canal, vigorous ear cleaning with cotton swabs, or putting foreign objects like bobby pins ... Also, never put objects into kids' ears, including cotton-tipped swabs. How Is Swimmer's Ear Treated? Treatment ...

  10. Different behavioural responses of larval fish under microgravity and morphological correlates in the inner ear -a drop-tower study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbig, Reinhard; Weigele, Jochen; Knie, Miriam; Hendrik Anken, Ralf

    during centrifugation in the drop-tower capsule LQM ranged between those of PF LQM the fish displayed comparable types of behaviour (normal and kine-totic swimming). This indicates that some normally swimming fish during PFs and drop-tower LQM use the residual gravity as a cue for orientation. Whereas kinetoses were exhibited by some 90 The present findings on otolith asymmetry support the concept, according to which kinetosis susceptibility is based on highly asymmetric inner ear stones.

  11. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Debris removal, antibiotic ear drops, keeping water and cotton swabs out of the ear, and pain relievers ... Injuring the ear canal while cleaning it (using cotton swabs) or getting water or irritants, such as ...

  12. Ear Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Inserting something into the ear. Things like a cotton swab, fingernail, or pencil can scratch the ear ... Never stick anything in their ears — not even cotton swabs or their fingers. Regular bathing should be ...

  13. Correlation between eye and ear symptoms and lack of teeth, bruxism and other parafunctions in a population of 1006 patients in 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Maciej; Wysokińska-Miszczuk, Joanna; Wilczak, Magdalena; Paulo, Michał; Bożyk, Andrzej; Borowicz, Janusz

    2012-02-29

    Parafunctions (harmful habits) play a crucial role in the formation of temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction syndrome with disc displacement. Disorder symptoms in temporo-mandibular joints manifest themselves in the eye and ear but are usually not associated with the dysfunction of temporo-mandibular joints and that might lead to errors in diagnosis. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of missing teeth and parafunctions on the occurrence of ear and eye symptoms in patients treated in the Department of Prosthodontics of the Medical University of Lublin. The patient group consisted of 753 women and 253 men aged 10 to 82 years who had been treated in the Department of Prosthodontics, Medical University of Lublin in the years 2003-2008 due to various symptoms associated with temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction. Eye (24.84%, n = 785) and ear (33.38%, n = 785) syndromes occur on average more often in patients with parafunctions than without them (15.98%, n = 219 and 23.29%, n = 219). However, only parafunctions involving tooth contact should be taken into consideration when diagnosing eye and ear syndromes. The data presented here show that the number of missing teeth does not have a significant influence on the frequency of occurrence of parafunctions. Parafunctions have become a very important factor in the diagnosis of diseases and pathological symptoms of eye and ear as the rate at which they occur is growing. The kind of parafunction is very important. Only those involving tooth contact should be taken into consideration when diagnosing eye and ear syndromes.

  14. Correlation between eye and ear symptoms and lack of teeth, bruxism and other parafunctions in a population of 1006 patients in 2003-2008

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, Maciej; Wysokińska-Miszczuk, Joanna; Paulo, Michał; Bożyk, Andrzej; Borowicz, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Parafunctions (harmful habits) play a crucial role in the formation of temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction syndrome with disc displacement. Disorder symptoms in temporo-mandibular joints manifest themselves in the eye and ear but are usually not associated with the dysfunction of temporo-mandibular joints and that might lead to errors in diagnosis. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of missing teeth and parafunctions on the occurrence of ear and eye symptoms in patients treated in the Department of Prosthodontics of the Medical University of Lublin. Material and methods The patient group consisted of 753 women and 253 men aged 10 to 82 years who had been treated in the Department of Prosthodontics, Medical University of Lublin in the years 2003-2008 due to various symptoms associated with temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction. Results Eye (24.84%, n = 785) and ear (33.38%, n = 785) syndromes occur on average more often in patients with parafunctions than without them (15.98%, n = 219 and 23.29%, n = 219). However, only parafunctions involving tooth contact should be taken into consideration when diagnosing eye and ear syndromes. The data presented here show that the number of missing teeth does not have a significant influence on the frequency of occurrence of parafunctions. Parafunctions have become a very important factor in the diagnosis of diseases and pathological symptoms of eye and ear as the rate at which they occur is growing. Conclusions The kind of parafunction is very important. Only those involving tooth contact should be taken into consideration when diagnosing eye and ear syndromes. PMID:22457683

  15. Ear infection - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... Chole RA. Chronic otitis media, mastoiditis, and petrositis. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. ...

  16. Ear drainage culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... needed. Your health care provider will use a cotton swab to collect the sample from inside the ... Using a cotton swab to take a sample of drainage from the outer ear is not painful. However, ear pain may ...

  17. Swimmer's Ear (External Otitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... t help, your doctor might prescribe a stronger pain reliever. You'll use this only for a short time — until the ear drops and antibiotics begin to work. To protect your ear while it heals, your ...

  18. Taking Care of Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Audiologist Perforated Eardrum What's Hearing Loss? Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? Swimmer's Ear Your Ears What's Earwax? View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  19. Sonographic Measurement of Fetal Ear Length in Turkish Women with a Normal Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Mucize Eriç; Uzun, Işıl; Karahasanoğlu, Ayşe; Aygün, Mehmet; Akın, Hale; Yazıcıoğlu, Fehmi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abnormal fetal ear length is a feature of chromosomal disorders. Fetal ear length measurement is a simple measurement that can be obtained during ultrasonographic examinations. Aims: To develop a nomogram for fetal ear length measurements in our population and investigate the correlation between fetal ear length, gestational age, and other standard fetal biometric measurements. Study Design: Cohort study. Methods: Ear lengths of the fetuses were measured in normal singleton pregnancies. The relationship between gestational age and fetal ear length in millimetres was analysed by simple linear regression. In addition, the correlation of fetal ear length measurements with biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length were evaluated.Ear length measurements were obtained from fetuses in 389 normal singleton pregnancies ranging between 16 and 28 weeks of gestation. Results: A nomogram was developed by linear regression analysis of the parameters ear length and gestational age. Fetal ear length (mm) = y = (1.348 X gestational age)−12.265), where gestational ages is in weeks. A high correlation was found between fetal ear length and gestational age, and a significant correlation was also found between fetal ear length and the biparietal diameter (r=0.962; p<0.001). Similar correlations were found between fetal ear length and head circumference, and fetal ear length and femur length. Conclusion: The results of this study provide a nomogram for fetal ear length. The study also demonstrates the relationship between ear length and other biometric measurements. PMID:25667783

  20. Cauliflower ear dissection.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Masao; Suzuki, Ayano; Nagata, Takeshi; Fukamizu, Hidekazu

    2011-11-01

    Cauliflower ear (CE) is caused by repeated direct trauma to the external ear. Surgical correction of an established CE is one of the most challenging problems in ear reconstruction. However, no reports have clarified the dissection of an established CE in detail. In this report, the dissection of a CE is described based on macroscopic, microscopic and imaging features. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Facial Asymmetry: Brow and Ear Position.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Balaji; Meyer, Dale R

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to analyze brow and ear position, and examine the relationship between these structures in patients presenting for blepharoplasty evaluation. A retrospective chart review was performed, which included all patients presenting to one oculoplastic physician for a blepharoplasty evaluation from November, 2012 to March, 2014. The prevalence of brow ptosis and brow and ear asymmetry was calculated; the proportional distribution was determined, and chi-square analysis and the z-test of proportions were used to calculate the significance. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for this study. A total of 133 patients met the inclusion criteria. Some degree of brow ptosis was noted in 83% of patients. Brow asymmetry was found in 88% of patients, and ear asymmetry in 77%. Of those patients who had asymmetry, 61% had the right brow lower and 75% had the right ear lower; 73% of all patients had the brow and ear lower on the same side ( p  < 0.001). In this study, brow ptosis and asymmetry were quite common. In addition, the side of the lower brow correlated strongly with the side of the lower ear, and the right side structures were lower more often than the left. Patients presenting for blepharoplasty evaluation may have an element of generalized facial asymmetry which includes the brows and ears. These observations can be important for preoperative planning and patient counseling. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Ear tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    ... eardrum may cause some hearing loss. But most children do not have long-term damage to their hearing or speech, even when the ... not go away with treatment, or if a child has many ear infections ... or that damages nearby nerves Injury to the ear after sudden ...

  3. Inner ear disorders.

    PubMed

    Smouha, Eric

    2013-01-01

    To present a framework for the diagnosis and treatment of inner ear disorders, with an emphasis on problems common to neuro-rehabilitation. Disorders of the inner ear can cause hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo and imbalance. Hearing loss can be conductive, sensorineural, or mixed; conductive hearing loss arises from the ear canal or middle ear, while sensorineural hearing loss arises from the inner ear or auditory nerve. Vertigo is a hallucination of motion, and is the cardinal symptom of vestibular system disease. It should be differentiated from other causes of dizziness: gait imbalance, disequilibrium, lightheadedness (pre-syncope). Vertigo can be caused by problems in the inner ear or central nervous system. The diagnosis of inner ear disorders begins with a targeted physical examination. The initial work-up of hearing loss is made by audiometry, and vertigo by electronystagmography (ENG). Supplemental tests and MRI are obtained when clinically indicated. The clinical pattern and duration of vertigo are the most important clinical features in the diagnosis. Common inner ear causes of vertigo include: vestibular neuritis (sudden, unilateral vestibular loss), Meniere's disease (episodic vertigo), benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), and bilateral vestibular loss. Common central nervous system causes of vertigo include: post concussion syndrome, cervical vertigo, vestibular migraine, cerebrovascular disease, and acoustic neuroma. A basic knowledge of vestibular physiology, coupled with a understanding of common vestibular syndromes, will lead to correct diagnosis and treatment in most cases.

  4. Effectiveness of Ear Splint Therapy for Ear Deformities

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To present our experience with ear splint therapy for babies with ear deformities, and thereby demonstrate that this therapy is an effective and safe intervention without significant complications. Methods This was a retrospective study of 54 babies (35 boys and 19 girls; 80 ears; age ≤3 months) with ear deformities who had received ear splint therapy at the Center for Torticollis, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ajou University Hospital between December 2014 and February 2016. Before the initiation of ear splint therapy, ear deformities were classified with reference to the standard terminology. We compared the severity of ear deformity before and after ear splint therapy by using the physician's ratings. We also compared the physician's ratings and the caregiver's ratings on completion of ear splint therapy. Results Among these 54 babies, 41 children (58 ears, 72.5%) completed the ear splint therapy. The mean age at initiation of therapy was 52.91±18.26 days and the treatment duration was 44.27±32.06 days. Satyr ear, forward-facing ear lobe, Darwinian notch, overfolded ear, and cupped ear were the five most common ear deformities. At the completion of therapy, the final physician's ratings of ear deformities were significantly improved compared to the initial ratings (8.28±1.44 vs. 2.51±0.92; p<0.001). There was no significant difference between the physician's ratings and the caregiver's ratings at the completion of ear splint therapy (8.28±1.44 vs. 8.0±1.61; p=0.297). Conclusion We demonstrated that ear splint therapy significantly improved ear deformities in babies, as measured by quantitative rating scales. Ear splint therapy is an effective and safe intervention for babies with ear deformities. PMID:28289646

  5. The constricted ear.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Alfredo A; Williams, J Kerwin; Elsahy, Nabil I

    2002-04-01

    The constricted ear may be described best as a pursestring closure of the ear. The deformity may include lidding of the upper pole with downward folding, protrusion of the concha, decreased vertical height, and low ear position relative to the face. The goals of surgical correction should include obtaining symmetry and correcting the intra-auricular anatomy. The degree of intervention is based on the severity of the deformity and may range from simple repositioning, soft tissue rearrangement, or manipulation of the cartilage. Multiple surgical techniques are described.

  6. Red ear syndrome.

    PubMed

    Purdy, R Allan; Dodick, David W

    2007-08-01

    The red ear syndrome is a rare syndrome originally described by Lance in 1994. It involves pain in and around the ear and associated autonomic phenomena, the most significant of which is cutaneous erythema of the ear ipsilateral to the pain and obvious to the patient and examiner during the attack. It may well represent an auriculo-autonomic cephalgia and/or be part of the group of disorders recognized as trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. As a syndrome, it still lacks specificity in regard to etiology, mechanisms, and treatment but is important to recognize clinically because of its associations.

  7. Ionizing Radiation and the Ear

    SciTech Connect

    Borsanyi, Steven J.

    The effects of ionizing radiation on the ears of 100 patients were studied in the course of treatment of malignant head and neck tumors by teleradiation using Co 60. Early changes consisted of radiation otitis media and a transient vasculitis of the vessels of the inner ear, resulting in hearing loss, tinnitus, and temporary recruitment. While no permanent changes were detected microscopically shortly after the completion of radiation in the cochlea or labyrinth, late changes sometimes occurred in the temporal bone as a result of an obliterating endarteritis. The late changes were separate entities caused primarily by obliterating endarteritis andmore » alterations in the collagen. Radiation affected the hearing of individuals selectively. When hearing threshold shift did occur, the shift was not great. The 4000 cps frequency showed a greater deficit in hearing capacity during the tests, while the area least affected appeared to be in the region of 2000 cps. The shift in speech reception was not significant and it was correlated with the over-all change in response to pure tones. Discrimination did not appear to be affected. Proper shielding of the ear with lead during radiation, when possible, eliminated most complications. (H.R.D.)« less

  8. Cosmetic ear surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... ear reduction. In: Rubin JP, Neligan PC, eds. Plastic Surgery: Volume 2: Aesthetic Surgery . 4th ed. Philadelphia, ... Tang Ho, MD, Assistant Professor, Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology – Head and ...

  9. Complications of ear rings.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jennifer C E; O'Toole, Gregory

    2012-06-01

    In this paper the complications of ear piercing are considered and the treatment of resultant deformities is described. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... more than 6 children) Changes in altitude or climate Cold climate Exposure to smoke Family history of ear infections ... Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Internal review and update ...

  11. EAR Program Research Results

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-01-01

    The Exploratory Advanced Research (EAR) Program addresses the need for longer term, higher risk research with the potential for longterm improvements to transportation systems-improvements in planning, building, renewing, and operating safe, congesti...

  12. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Middle Ear Infections KidsHealth / For Parents / Middle Ear Infections What's ... en español Infecciones del oído medio What Are Middle Ear Infections? Ear infections happen when viruses or bacteria ...

  13. Inner ear problems of Thai priest at Priest Hospital.

    PubMed

    Karnchanakas, Taweporn; Tantanavat, Are; Sinsakontavat, Jamjan

    2008-01-01

    The inner ear problems of Thai priest at Priest Hospital had never been reported previously, so Department of Ear Nose Throat try to correlate the metebotic disorder with inner ear problems. 1) To study the fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol (T. Chol), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglyceride (TG), the factors expected to involve in inner ear problems of priests at Priest Hospital. 2) To compare the FBS, T. Chol, HDL, LDL, and TG of priests with inner ear problems at Priest Hospital. 3) To find the percentage of abnormal from FBS, T. Chol, LDL, and TG. The study using 83 sampling of priests with inner ear problems and 107 priests as a controlled group. The research instruments used to collect data was the questionnaire which composed of general information, physical, ear-nose-throat and neurological examination, pure tone audiometry, brainstem evoke response audiometry (BERA) and the blood tests:FBS, T. Chol, TG, and LDL. The inner ear problems were composed of: 1) Dizziness 2) Hearing Loss 3) Tinnitus Aurium. The descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data from questionnaires and utilized frequency, percentage, standard deviation (S.D.) and t-test to achieve desired results. Priest at middle age and elderly with inner ear problems had greater FBS and TG than expected values of the control group. The middle age and elderly priests who had greater FBS and TG than expected values were sick with inner ear problems that causing dizziness, hearing loss and tinnitus aurium.

  14. Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infection? Swimmer's Ear Perforated Eardrum Hearing Impairment Swimmer's Ear (External ... All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, ...

  15. Listening to the ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shera, Christopher A.

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics-termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models-that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  16. Listening to the Ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shera, Christopher Alan

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics--termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models--that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus -frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  17. [Basics of Ear Surgery].

    PubMed

    Lailach, S; Zahnert, T

    2016-12-01

    The present article about the basics of ear surgery is a short overview of current indications, the required diagnostics and surgical procedures of common otologic diseases. In addition to plastic and reconstructive surgery of the auricle, principles of surgery of the external auditory canal, basics of middle ear surgery and the tumor surgery of the temporal bone are shown. Additionally, aspects of the surgical hearing rehabilitation (excluding implantable hearing systems) are presented considering current study results. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Fly-ear inspired acoustic sensors for gunshot localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haijun; Currano, Luke; Gee, Danny; Yang, Benjamin; Yu, Miao

    2009-05-01

    The supersensitive ears of the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea have inspired researchers to develop bio-inspired directional microphone for sound localization. Although the fly ear is optimized for localizing the narrow-band calling song of crickets at 5 kHz, experiments and simulation have shown that it can amplify directional cues for a wide frequency range. In this article, a theoretical investigation is presented to study the use of fly-ear inspired directional microphones for gunshot localization. Using an equivalent 2-DOF model of the fly ear, the time responses of the fly ear structure to a typical shock wave are obtained and the associated time delay is estimated by using cross-correlation. Both near-field and far-field scenarios are considered. The simulation shows that the fly ear can greatly amplify the time delay by ~20 times, which indicates that with an interaural distance of only 1.2 mm the fly ear is able to generate a time delay comparable to that obtained by a conventional microphone pair with a separation as large as 24 mm. Since the parameters of the fly ear structure can also be tuned for muzzle blast and other impulse stimulus, fly-ear inspired acoustic sensors offers great potential for developing portable gunshot localization systems.

  19. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    MedlinePlus

    ... ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... to the eardrum) and the back of the nose and upper throat. ... down from high altitudes. Chewing gum the entire time you are ...

  20. What Is an Ear Infection?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hearing Loss? Taking Care of Your Ears Swimmer's Ear Perforated Eardrum What's Earwax? View ... All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, ...

  1. From Ear to Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

  2. Ear-protector ratings.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1973-12-01

    Twenty-one brands of ear protectors, including custom-molded, wearer-molded, and pre-molded types, were evaluated according to American-standard procedures. Earplugs are described and are listed in the order of their low-frequency (below 1000 Hz) att...

  3. Ear surgery - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Ear Disorders ...

  4. Klippel-Feil syndrome and associated ear anomalies.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Nadir; Arslanoğlu, Atilla; Mahiroğullari, Mahir; Sahan, Murat; Ozkan, Hüseyin

    2008-01-01

    Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) is a congenital segmentation anomaly of the cervical vertebrae that manifests as short neck, low hair line, and limited neck mobility. Various systemic malformations may also accompany the syndrome including wide variety of otopathologies affecting all 3 compartments of the ear (external, middle, and inner ear) as well as internal acoustic canal and vestibular aqueduct. We aimed to investigate these involvements and their clinical correlates in a group of patients with KFS. We present 20 KFS cases, of which 12 (% 60) displayed most of the reported ear abnormalities such as microtia, external ear canal stenosis, chronic ear inflammations and their sequels, anomalies of the tympanic cavity and ossicles, inner ear dysplasies, deformed internal acoustic canal, and wide vestibular aqueduct, which are demonstrated using the methods of otoscopy, audiologic testing, and temporal bone computed tomography. This series represents one of the highest reported rate of ear involvement in KFS. We found no correlation between the identified ear pathologies and the skeletal and extraskeletal malformations. The genetic nature of the syndrome was supported by the existence of affected family members in 4 (20%) of the cases.

  5. Ear Infections and Language Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.

    Ear infections in infants and preschoolers can cause mild or moderate temporary hearing loss, which may in turn affect a child's ability to understand and learn language. Noting that providing children with proper medical treatment for ear infections or middle ear fluid is important in preventing possible problems with language development, this…

  6. Ear Scaffold Reconstruction Using Ultrasonic Aspirator for Cauliflower Ear.

    PubMed

    Hao, Scarlett; Angster, Kristen; Hubbard, Fleesie; Greywoode, Jewel; Vakharia, Kalpesh T

    2018-04-01

    Untreated auricular hematomas from ear trauma can result in an ear deformation known as cauliflower ear, secondary to fibrosis and new cartilage overgrowth. Cauliflower ear reconstruction has traditionally utilized tools such as a drill or a scalpel in order to improve auricular cosmesis. We present a case report utilizing an ultrasonic aspirator to recontour the fibrosed cartilage of a cauliflower ear. The ultrasonic aspirator has advantages over traditional tools in its ability to provide finely controlled bone removal without damage to surrounding soft tissue. The patient in this case report underwent multistage reconstruction using the ultrasonic aspirator with excellent cosmetic result and patient satisfaction.

  7. Inner ear abnormalities in patients with Goldenhar syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bisdas, Sotirios; Lenarz, Minoo; Lenarz, Thomas; Becker, Hartmut

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the inner ear malformations in patients with Goldenhar syndrome and to hypothesize the potential embryopathogenesis of these malformations. Retrospective case review. Tertiary referral center. Fourteen patients with Goldenhar syndrome. Each patient underwent hearing tests and high-resolution computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone. In six patients, magnetic resonance imaging of the temporal bone also was performed. Among the 14 patients with Goldenhar syndrome, 13 had outer and middle ear anomalies and 5 (36%) had inner ear malformations, including one case of common cavity. Our observations regarding inner ear anomalies in Goldenhar syndrome correlate with the reported cases in the literature and may help to hypothesize the embryological origin of these malformations, which can caused by an early developmental arrest in the fourth gestational week. Specialists evaluating patients with Goldenhar syndrome should be aware of the possibility of inner ear malformations, which could be diagnosed earlier with appropriate imaging studies.

  8. Ear Infections - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Nepali (नेपाली) Russian (Русский) ... हिन्दी (Hindi) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Japanese (日本語) Expand Section Middle Ear Infection - 日本語 (Japanese) ...

  9. Gain affected by the interior shape of the ear canal.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jen-Fang; Chen, Yen-Sheng; Cheng, Wei-De

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the correlation of gain distribution and the interior shape of the human external ear canal. Cross-sectional study of gain measurement at the first bend and second bend. Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University. There were 15 ears in patients aged between 20 and 30 years (8 men/7 women) with normal hearing and middle ears. Stimulus frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz were based on the standard clinical hearing test. Measurements closer to the tympanic membrane and the positions at the first and second bends were confirmed by using otoscope. Real ear measurement to analyze the canal resonance in human external ears was adopted. This study found that gain at stimulus frequencies of 4000 Hz was affected by the interior shape of the ear canal (P < .005), particularly at the first and second bends, whereas gain was only affected by the length of the ear canal for stimulus frequencies of 2000 Hz (P < .005). This study found that gain was affected not only by the length of the external auditory canal (EAC) but also by the interior shape of the EAC significantly. The findings of this study may have potential clinical applications in canalplasty and congenital aural atresia surgery and may be used to guide surgeries that attempt to reshape the ear canal to achieve more desirable hearing outcomes.

  10. Identifying position, visibility, dimensions, and angulation of the ear.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Kasim; Christian, Jayanth; Jeyapalan, Karthigeyan; Natarajan, Shanmuganathan; Banu, Fathima; Veeravalli, Padmanabhan T

    2014-01-01

    We selected 254 subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 yr to assess the ear position, angulations of the ear in relation to the nose, visibility from the frontal view, and dimensions of the ear by using various anthropometric points of the face. Subjects were divided into four groups based on facial form. A reference plane indicator, facial topographical measurements, metal ruler, and digital photography were used. While considering the position of the ear, in all facial forms except square tapering, the most samples showed a tendency for the subaurale being in line with subnasale. Regression analysis showed a tendency to gnathion distance is the most dependent variable with length of the ear kept as a constant predictor, while both interalar distance and exocanthion to endocanthion distance correlate highly significantly to the width of the ear. In all subjects, the visibility of the ear when viewed from the front was an average of 1.5 mm. Regardless of facial form, ear angulation was generally less than nose angulation.

  11. Cilia and Ear.

    PubMed

    Piatti, Gioia; De Santi, Maria Margherita; Torretta, Sara; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Soi, Daniela; Ambrosetti, Umberto

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of otological complications derived from primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) in adulthood. Twenty-three patients with diagnosed PCD underwent medical history aimed at recording the presence of ear, nose, and throat manifestations (ENT) and any surgical treatments. The ENT objectivity was annotated, and then patients were subjected to audiometric test, tympanometry, registration of otoacoustic emission, and vestibular evaluation. Otitis media with chronic middle ear effusion (OME) during childhood was reported in 52% of the subjects, no patient had undergone ear surgery, and only 2 patients had an episode of otitis in the last year. Eleven of 23 patients showed normal hearing, 11 had a conductive hearing impairment, and 1 showed a severe sensorineural hearing loss unrelated to the syndrome. The bilateral stapedial reflex was only found in all cases of normoacusia and type A tympanogram, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) were present in 8 patients, and no patient had vestibular alterations. Our study confirms a very frequent prevalence of OME in PCD during childhood. Careful monitoring of otological complications of the syndrome is always desirable, also given the high presence in adults of other manifestations in the upper airways, such as chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis.

  12. Audiometric Predictions Using SFOAE and Middle-Ear Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, John C.; Keefe, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective The goals of the study are to determine how well stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) identify hearing loss, classify hearing loss as mild or moderate-severe, and correlate with pure-tone thresholds in a population of adults with normal middle-ear function. Other goals are to determine if middle-ear function as assessed by wideband acoustic transfer function (ATF) measurements in the ear canal account for the variability in normal thresholds, and if the inclusion of ATFs improves the ability of SFOAEs to identify hearing loss and predict pure-tone thresholds. Design The total suppressed SFOAE signal and its corresponding noise were recorded in 85 ears (22 normal ears and 63 ears with sensorineural hearing loss) at octave frequencies from 0.5 – 8 kHz using a nonlinear residual method. SFOAEs were recorded a second time in three impaired ears to assess repeatability. Ambient-pressure ATFs were obtained in all but one of these 85 ears, and were also obtained from an additional 31 normal-hearing subjects in whom SFOAE data were not obtained. Pure-tone air-and bone-conduction thresholds and 226-Hz tympanograms were obtained on all subjects. Normal tympanometry and the absence of air-bone gaps were used to screen subjects for normal middle-ear function. Clinical decision theory was used to assess the performance of SFOAE and ATF predictors in classifying ears as normal or impaired, and linear regression analysis was used to test the ability of SFOAE and ATF variables to predict the air-conduction audiogram. Results The ability of SFOAEs to classify ears as normal or hearing impaired was significant at all test frequencies. The ability of SFOAEs to classify impaired ears as either mild or moderate-severe was significant at test frequencies from 0.5 to 4 kHz. SFOAEs were present in cases of severe hearing loss. SFOAEs were also significantly correlated with air-conduction thresholds from 0.5 to 8 kHz. The best performance occurred using the SFOAE

  13. Morphological Variations and Biometrics of Ear: An Aid to Personal Identification.

    PubMed

    Verma, Pradhuman; Sandhu, Harpreet Kaur; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Goyal, Sharry; Sudan, Madhu; Ladgotra, Amit

    2016-05-01

    The morphological characteristics and dimensions of external ear vary in different human ethnic races which can be utilized in forensics for personal identification of living or deceased. To determine uniqueness of morphological and biometric variations of both ears for individualization among North East (NE) and North West (NW) subpopulation of India. The study was conducted on randomly selected 80 students, 40 from each subgroup. Nine ear parameters were recorded twice using digital Vernier's caliper by single investigator and two indices (Ear Index and Lobule Index) were calculated for both the ears. Morphological ear shapes and lobule attachment were also noted. Pearson's coefficient correlation test was performed on cross-tabulations to evaluate significant relationship between different variables. Of the total 35% free and 65% attached ear lobes were noted in both population groups. Oval ear shape was most commonly noted followed by triangular, rectangular and round in both populations. On comparing anthropometric measurements of ears in two populations it was found that except the tragus length and lobule index all other values were noted more in NW population. No statistical difference was found in ear and lobular indices of males and females although the left ear index and lobule index were found to be higher than right in both populations except in NW females where right lobule index was recorded more than left. The results obtained can be used in anthropological and forensic sciences for the inclusion and exclusion of persons for identification on the basis of ear variations.

  14. Histologic characterization of the cat middle ear: in sickness and in health.

    PubMed

    Sula, M M; Njaa, B L; Payton, M E

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish microscopic normal in the middle ear of the cat while concurrently characterizing gross and microscopic lesions reflecting spontaneous otitis media. Both ears from 50 cats were examined grossly and processed for histologic examination of the external, middle, and internal ear on a single slide. Gross lesions of the middle ear were present in 14 of 100 (14%) and included turbid fluid, frank pus, hemorrhage, and fibrous thickening of the auricular mucoperiosteum. Histologically, 48 of 100 (48%) ears had evidence of ongoing or previous inflammatory middle ear disease, including proteinaceous fluid; vascular ectasia; expansion of the auricular mucoperiosteum by neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages; cholesterol clefts; hemorrhage; fibrin; granulation tissue; membranous pseudo-glands; fibrosis; proliferation and/or osteolysis of the tympanic and septum bullae. Histologic lesions were identified in 34 of 100 ears (34%) lacking gross evidence of disease. Ears were classified histologically as either normal (52/100 [52%]) or diseased (48/100 [48%]). Diseased ears were further classified as mild to moderate (37/100 [37%]) or severely (11/100 [11%]) affected. Internal ear involvement was present in 11 of 100 (11%) ears. Histologic evidence of middle ear disease in cats is far greater than gross lesions or clinical literature suggests; further investigation and correlation of clinical and histologic disease are warranted. With minimal additional preparation, diagnostic specimens may be readily prepared and evaluated for this integral sensing organ. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. The ear: Diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Vignaud, J.; Jardin, C.; Rosen, L.

    1986-01-01

    This is an English translation of volume 17-1 of Traite de radiodiagnostic and represents a reasonably complete documentation of the diseases of the temporal bone that have imaging manifestations. The book begins with chapters on embryology, anatomy and radiography anatomy; it continues with blood supply and an overview of temporal bone pathology. Subsequent chapters cover malformations, trauma, infections, tumors, postoperative changes, glomus tumors, vertebasilar insufficiency, and facial nerve canal lesions. A final chapter demonstrates and discusses magnetic resonance images of the ear and cerebellopontine angle.

  16. Surgical correction of cauliflower ear.

    PubMed

    Yotsuyanagi, T; Yamashita, K; Urushidate, S; Yokoi, K; Sawada, Y; Miyazaki, S

    2002-07-01

    We have classified the cauliflower ear into different types according to the zone and the degree of deformity. One major group is deformity without change in the outline of the ear, and this is divided into four subgroups according to the zone. All of these subgroups can be treated by shaving the deformed cartilage through suitable incision lines. For deformities accompanied by a skin deficit, a postauricular skin flap should be used. The other major group is deformity accompanied by a change in the outline of the ear, which is divided into two subgroups. If the ear is rigid, a conchal cartilage graft is used. If the structural integrity of the ear is poor, costal cartilage is used to provide rigidity.

  17. Genetic Architecture of Ear Fasciation in Maize (Zea mays) under QTL Scrutiny

    PubMed Central

    Mendes-Moreira, Pedro; Alves, Mara L.; Satovic, Zlatko; dos Santos, João Pacheco; Santos, João Nina; Souza, João Cândido; Pêgo, Silas E.; Hallauer, Arnel R.; Vaz Patto, Maria Carlota

    2015-01-01

    Maize ear fasciation Knowledge of the genes affecting maize ear inflorescence may lead to better grain yield modeling. Maize ear fasciation, defined as abnormal flattened ears with high kernel row number, is a quantitative trait widely present in Portuguese maize landraces. Material and Methods Using a segregating population derived from an ear fasciation contrasting cross (consisting of 149 F2:3 families) we established a two location field trial using a complete randomized block design. Correlations and heritabilities for several ear fasciation-related traits and yield were determined. Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) involved in the inheritance of those traits were identified and candidate genes for these QTL proposed. Results and Discussion Ear fasciation broad-sense heritability was 0.73. Highly significant correlations were found between ear fasciation and some ear and cob diameters and row number traits. For the 23 yield and ear fasciation-related traits, 65 QTL were identified, out of which 11 were detected in both environments, while for the three principal components, five to six QTL were detected per environment. Detected QTL were distributed across 17 genomic regions and explained individually, 8.7% to 22.4% of the individual traits or principal components phenotypic variance. Several candidate genes for these QTL regions were proposed, such as bearded-ear1, branched silkless1, compact plant1, ramosa2, ramosa3, tasselseed4 and terminal ear1. However, many QTL mapped to regions without known candidate genes, indicating potential chromosomal regions not yet targeted for maize ear traits selection. Conclusions Portuguese maize germplasm represents a valuable source of genes or allelic variants for yield improvement and elucidation of the genetic basis of ear fasciation traits. Future studies should focus on fine mapping of the identified genomic regions with the aim of map-based cloning. PMID:25923975

  18. Optoacoustic induced vibrations within the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Zhang, K Y; Wenzel, G I; Balster, S; Lim, H H; Lubatschowski, H; Lenarz, T; Ertmer, W; Reuter, G

    2009-12-07

    An acoustic transient can be generated inside an absorbing tissue as a result of laser-tissue interaction after pulsed laser irradiation. Herein we report a novel application of this physical process, the optoacoustic wave generation in the inner ear and subsequently the induction of basilar membrane vibrations. These laser induced vibrations show a direct correlation to the laser energy and an indirect correlation to the distance from the irradiation focus. Through these characteristics they may be used, in a new generation of cochlear implants, to improve the frequency specific cochlear activation and consequently improve speech perception in hearing impaired patients with residual hearing.

  19. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect - pinna; Congenital defect - pinna Images Ear abnormalities Pinna of the newborn ear References Haddad J, Keesecker S. Congenital malformations. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ...

  20. Anomalies of the middle and inner ear.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Kimsey; Shah, Rahul K; Kenna, Margaret

    2007-02-01

    The development of the middle and inner ear highlights the intricacy of embryology. As early as 3 weeks after fertilization, the inner ear begins taking form. This process, along with development of the middle ear, continues throughout gestation. At birth, the middle ear, inner ear, and associated structures are almost adult size. An understanding of the embryologic development of the ear serves as a foundation for evaluating and managing congenital malformations of these structures. The focus of this article is the normal, abnormal, and arrested development of the middle and inner ear, with a clinical emphasis on malformed middle and inner ear structures and a discussion of associated syndromes.

  1. Teasing in younger and older children with microtia before and after ear reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Johns, Alexis L; Lewin, Sheryl L; Im, Daniel D

    2017-06-01

    This study prospectively measured teasing and emotional adjustment before and after ear reconstruction in younger and older children with microtia. Participants with isolated microtia (n = 28) were divided into two groups by age at surgery, with a younger group aged 3-5 years (n = 13) with a mean age of 4.0 (0.71) years at the time of surgery and an older group aged 6-10 years old (n = 15) with a mean age of 7.87 (1.30) years. Children and their parents were interviewed preoperatively and a year after surgery about teasing and emotions about their ear(s). Teasing began between the ages of 2.4-4.8 years. A third of the younger group and all of the older group reported preoperative teasing. Before surgery, the older group reported higher rates of negative emotions about their ear(s) and teasing was correlated for all ages with feeling sad, worried, and mad about their ear(s). After surgery, teasing and negative emotions significantly decreased with increased happiness about their ear(s). Postoperative teasing was correlated with trying to hide their ear(s). There were significant interactions from before to after surgery based on surgery age for frequency of teasing, sadness, and feeling mad, with the older group showing relatively greater change postoperatively. Teasing and negative emotions about their ear(s) decreased for all ages after surgery, with a potential protective factor seen in younger surgery age.

  2. Genetic Architecture of Ear Fasciation in Maize (Zea mays) under QTL Scrutiny.

    PubMed

    Mendes-Moreira, Pedro; Alves, Mara L; Satovic, Zlatko; Dos Santos, João Pacheco; Santos, João Nina; Souza, João Cândido; Pêgo, Silas E; Hallauer, Arnel R; Vaz Patto, Maria Carlota

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the genes affecting maize ear inflorescence may lead to better grain yield modeling. Maize ear fasciation, defined as abnormal flattened ears with high kernel row number, is a quantitative trait widely present in Portuguese maize landraces. Using a segregating population derived from an ear fasciation contrasting cross (consisting of 149 F2:3 families) we established a two location field trial using a complete randomized block design. Correlations and heritabilities for several ear fasciation-related traits and yield were determined. Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) involved in the inheritance of those traits were identified and candidate genes for these QTL proposed. Ear fasciation broad-sense heritability was 0.73. Highly significant correlations were found between ear fasciation and some ear and cob diameters and row number traits. For the 23 yield and ear fasciation-related traits, 65 QTL were identified, out of which 11 were detected in both environments, while for the three principal components, five to six QTL were detected per environment. Detected QTL were distributed across 17 genomic regions and explained individually, 8.7% to 22.4% of the individual traits or principal components phenotypic variance. Several candidate genes for these QTL regions were proposed, such as bearded-ear1, branched silkless1, compact plant1, ramosa2, ramosa3, tasselseed4 and terminal ear1. However, many QTL mapped to regions without known candidate genes, indicating potential chromosomal regions not yet targeted for maize ear traits selection. Portuguese maize germplasm represents a valuable source of genes or allelic variants for yield improvement and elucidation of the genetic basis of ear fasciation traits. Future studies should focus on fine mapping of the identified genomic regions with the aim of map-based cloning.

  3. [Preoperative CT Scan in middle ear cholesteatoma].

    PubMed

    Sethom, Anissa; Akkari, Khemaies; Dridi, Inès; Tmimi, S; Mardassi, Ali; Benzarti, Sonia; Miled, Imed; Chebbi, Mohamed Kamel

    2011-03-01

    To compare preoperative CT scan finding and per-operative lesions in patients operated for middle ear cholesteatoma, A retrospective study including 60 patients with cholesteatoma otitis diagnosed and treated within a period of 5 years, from 2001 to 2005, at ENT department of Military Hospital of Tunis. All patients had computed tomography of the middle and inner ear. High resolution CT scan imaging was performed using millimetric incidences (3 to 5 millimetres). All patients had surgical removal of their cholesteatoma using down wall technic. We evaluated sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of CT-scan comparing otitic damages and CT finding, in order to examine the real contribution of computed tomography in cholesteatoma otitis. CT scan analysis of middle ear bone structures shows satisfaction (with 83% of sensibility). The rate of sensibility decrease (63%) for the tympanic raff. Predictive value of CT scan for the diagnosis of cholesteatoma was low. However, we have noticed an excellent sensibility in the analysis of ossicular damages (90%). Comparative frontal incidence seems to be less sensible for the detection of facial nerve lesions (42%). But when evident on CT scan findings, lesions of facial nerve were usually observed preoperatively (spécificity 78%). Predictive value of computed tomography for the diagnosis of perilymphatic fistulae (FL) was low. In fact, CT scan imaging have showed FL only for four patients among eight. Best results can be obtained if using inframillimetric incidences with performed high resolution computed tomography. Preoperative computed tomography is necessary for the diagnosis and the evaluation of chronic middle ear cholesteatoma in order to show extending lesion and to detect complications. This CT analysis and surgical correlation have showed that sensibility, specificity and predictive value of CT-scan depend on the anatomic structure implicated in cholesteatoma damages.

  4. Classification of Newborn Ear Malformations and their Treatment with the EarWell Infant Ear Correction System.

    PubMed

    Daniali, Lily N; Rezzadeh, Kameron; Shell, Cheryl; Trovato, Matthew; Ha, Richard; Byrd, H Steve

    2017-03-01

    A single practice's treatment protocol and outcomes following molding therapy on newborn ear deformations and malformations with the EarWell Infant Ear Correction System were reviewed. A classification system for grading the severity of constricted ear malformations was created on the basis of anatomical findings. A retrospective chart/photograph review of a consecutive series of infants treated with the EarWell System from 2011 to 2014 was undertaken. The infants were placed in either deformation or malformation groups. Three classes of malformation were identified. Data regarding treatment induction, duration of treatment, and quality of outcome were collected for all study patients. One hundred seventy-five infant ear malformations and 303 infant ear deformities were treated with the EarWell System. The average age at initiation of treatment was 12 days; the mean duration of treatment was 37 days. An average of six office visits was required. Treated malformations included constricted ears [172 ears (98 percent)] and cryptotia [three ears (2 percent)]. Cup ear (34 ears) was considered a constricted malformation, in contrast to the prominent ear deformity. Constricted ears were assigned to one of three classes, with each subsequent class indicating increasing severity: class I, 77 ears (45 percent); class II, 81 ears (47 percent); and class III, 14 ears (8 percent). Molding therapy with the EarWell System reduced the severity by an average of 1.2 points (p < 0.01). Complications included minor superficial excoriations and abrasions. The EarWell System was shown to be effective in eliminating or reducing the need for surgery in all but the most severe malformations. Therapeutic, IV.

  5. Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... never change the dose or stop giving your child a medicine without talking to your doctor first. Reviewed by: Robert C. ... Hearing Loss? Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Going to the Audiologist Hearing ...

  6. Principles of endoscopic ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Tarabichi, Muaaz; Kapadia, Mustafa

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this review is to study the rationale, limitations, techniques, and long-term outcomes of endoscopic ear surgery. The article discusses the advantages of endoscopic ear surgery in treating cholesteatoma and how the hidden sites like facial recess, sinus tympani, and anterior epitympanum are easily accessed using the endoscope. Transcanal endoscopic approach allows minimally invasive removal of cholesteatoma with results that compare well to traditional postauricular tympanomastoidectomy.

  7. Prevalence of external ear disorders in Belgian stray cats.

    PubMed

    Bollez, Anouck; de Rooster, Hilde; Furcas, Alessandra; Vandenabeele, Sophie

    2018-02-01

    Objectives Feline otitis externa is a multifactorial dermatological disorder about which very little is known. The objective of this study was to map the prevalence of external ear canal disorders and the pathogens causing otitis externa in stray cats roaming around the region of Ghent, Belgium. Methods One hundred and thirty stray cats were randomly selected during a local trap-neuter-return programme. All cats were European Shorthairs. This study included clinical, otoscopic and cytological evaluation of both external ears of each cat. Prospective data used as parameters in this study included the sex, age and body condition score of each cat, as well as the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge, and the results of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) Snap tests. Results Remarkably, very few (sub)clinical problems of the external ear canal were found in the stray cat population. Malassezia species was by far the most common organism found in the external ear canals of the 130 stray cats. A total of 96/130 (74%) cats were found to have Malassezia species organisms present in one or both ears based on the cytological examination. No correlation was found between the parameters of sex, age, body condition score, the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge and FIV and FeLV status, and the presence of parasites, bacteria or yeasts. Conclusions and relevance This study provides more information about the normal state of the external ear canal of stray cats. The ears of most stray cats are relatively healthy. The presence of Malassezia species organisms in the external ear canal is not rare among stray cats.

  8. Surgical correction of constricted ear combined with Stahl's ear.

    PubMed

    Bi, Ye; Lin, Lin; Yang, Qinhua; Pan, Bo; Zhao, Yanyong; He, Leren; Jiang, Haiyue

    2015-07-01

    Constricted ear combined with Stahl's ear is a rare ear deformity, which is a kind of complex congenital auricular deformity. From 1 January 2007 to 1 January 2014, 19 patients with constricted ear combined with Stahl's ear (Spock ear) were enrolled in this study, most of which were unilaterally deformed. To correct the deformity, a double Z-shaped skin incision was made on the posterior side of the auricle, with the entire layer of cartilage cut parallel to the helix traversing the third crus to form a fan-shaped cartilage flap. The superior crura of the antihelix were shaped by the folding cartilage rim. The cartilage of the abnormal third crus was made part of the new superior crura of antihelix, and the third crus was eliminated. The postoperative aesthetic assessment of the reshaped auricle was graded by both doctors and patients (or their parents). Out of the 19 patients, the number of satisfying cases of the symmetry, helix stretch, elimination of the third crus, the cranioauricular angle, and the substructure of the reshaped ears was 14 (nine excellent and five good), 16 (six excellent and 10 good), 17 (eight excellent and nine good), 15 (five excellent and 10 good), and 13 (two excellent and 11 good), respectively. With a maximum of a 90-month follow-up, no complication was observed. The results of the study suggested that this rare deformity could be corrected by appropriate surgical treatment, with a satisfied postoperative appearance. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  10. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  11. 3D finite element model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing middle ear functions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuelin; Gan, Rong Z.

    2016-01-01

    Chinchilla is a commonly used animal model for research of sound transmission through the ear. Experimental measurements of the middle ear transfer function in chinchillas have shown that the middle ear cavity greatly affects the tympanic membrane (TM) and stapes footplate (FP) displacements. However, there is no finite element (FE) model of the chinchilla ear available in the literature to characterize the middle ear functions with the anatomical features of the chinchilla ear. This paper reports a recently completed 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear based on X-ray micro-computed tomography images of a chinchilla bulla. The model consisted of the ear canal, TM, middle ear ossicles and suspensory ligaments, and the middle ear cavity. Two boundary conditions of the middle ear cavity wall were simulated in the model as the rigid structure and the partially flexible surface, and the acoustic-mechanical coupled analysis was conducted with these two conditions to characterize the middle ear function. The model results were compared with experimental measurements reported in the literature including the TM and FP displacements and the middle ear input admittance in chinchilla ear. An application of this model was presented to identify the acoustic role of the middle ear septa - a unique feature of chinchilla middle ear cavity. This study provides the first 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing the middle ear functions through the acoustic-mechanical coupled FE analysis. PMID:26785845

  12. Ear-EEG detects ictal and interictal abnormalities in focal and generalized epilepsy - A comparison with scalp EEG monitoring.

    PubMed

    Zibrandtsen, I C; Kidmose, P; Christensen, C B; Kjaer, T W

    2017-12-01

    Ear-EEG is recording of electroencephalography from a small device in the ear. This is the first study to compare ictal and interictal abnormalities recorded with ear-EEG and simultaneous scalp-EEG in an epilepsy monitoring unit. We recorded and compared simultaneous ear-EEG and scalp-EEG from 15 patients with suspected temporal lobe epilepsy. EEGs were compared visually by independent neurophysiologists. Correlation and time-frequency analysis was used to quantify the similarity between ear and scalp electrodes. Spike-averages were used to assess similarity of interictal spikes. There were no differences in sensitivity or specificity for seizure detection. Mean correlation coefficient between ear-EEG and nearest scalp electrode was above 0.6 with a statistically significant decreasing trend with increasing distance away from the ear. Ictal morphology and frequency dynamics can be observed from visual inspection and time-frequency analysis. Spike averages derived from ear-EEG electrodes yield a recognizable spike appearance. Our results suggest that ear-EEG can reliably detect electroencephalographic patterns associated with focal temporal lobe seizures. Interictal spike morphology from sufficiently large temporal spike sources can be sampled using ear-EEG. Ear-EEG is likely to become an important tool in clinical epilepsy monitoring and diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dichotic Hearing in Elderly Hearing Aid Users Who Choose to Use a Single-Ear Device

    PubMed Central

    Ribas, Angela; Mafra, Nicoli; Marques, Jair; Mottecy, Carla; Silvestre, Renata; Kozlowski, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Elderly individuals with bilateral hearing loss often do not use hearing aids in both ears. Because of this, dichotic tests to assess hearing in this group may help identify peculiar degenerative processes of aging and hearing aid selection. Objective To evaluate dichotic hearing for a group of elderly hearing aid users who did not adapt to using binaural devices and to verify the correlation between ear dominance and the side chosen to use the device. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study involving 30 subjects from 60 to 81 years old, of both genders, with an indication for bilateral hearing aids for over 6 months, but using only a single device. Medical history, pure tone audiometry, and dichotic listening tests were all completed. Results All subjects (100%) of the sample failed the dichotic digit test; 94% of the sample preferred to use the device in one ear because bilateral use bothered them and affected speech understanding. In 6%, the concern was aesthetics. In the dichotic digit test, there was significant predominance of the right ear over the left, and there was a significant correlation between the dominant side with the ear chosen by the participant for use of the hearing aid. Conclusion In elderly subjects with bilateral hearing loss who have chosen to use only one hearing aid, there is dominance of the right ear over the left in dichotic listening tasks. There is a correlation between the dominant ear and the ear chosen for hearing aid fitting. PMID:25992120

  14. Unclassified congenital deformities of the external ear.

    PubMed

    Vathulya, Madhubari

    2018-01-01

    Congenital ear deformities are a common entity. They are found in isolation or as a part of syndrome in patients. They may involve the external, middle or inner ear or in any of these combinations. Three patients of different ages presented with deformities including mirror image duplication of the superior auricle, unclassified deformities of ear lobule (wavy lobule) and deformity of superior auricle with unclassified variety of lateral ear pit. This article highlights that there are further cases of ear deformities that are noticed in the general population who come for cosmetic correction, and hence, there is a need for further modifying the classification of ear deformities.

  15. Learning to perform ear reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Gordon H

    2009-08-01

    Learning how to perform ear reconstruction is very difficult. There are no standardized teaching methods. This has resulted in many ear reconstructions being suboptimal. Learning requires a major commitment by the surgeon. Factors to be seriously considered by those considering performing this surgery are (1) commitment, (2) aptitude, (3) training methods available, (4) surgical skills and experience, and (5) additional equipment needs. Unless all these factors are addressed in a surgeon's decision to perform this form of reconstruction, the end result will be compromised, and patient care will not be optimized. It is hoped that considering these factors and following this approach will result in a higher quality of aesthetic result. The future of ear reconstruction lies in the use of advanced digital technologies and tissue engineering. Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the inner ear in Meniere's disease.

    PubMed

    Pyykkö, Ilmari; Zou, Jing; Poe, Dennis; Nakashima, Tsutomu; Naganawa, Shinji

    2010-10-01

    Recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have made it possible to examine the compartments of the cochlea using gadolidium-chelate (GdC) as a contrast agent. As GdC loads into the perilymph space without entering the endolymph in healthy inner ears, the technique provides possibilities to visualize the different cochlear compartments and evaluate the integrity of the inner ear barriers. This critical review presents the recent advancements in the inner ear MRI technology, contrast agent application and the correlated ototoxicity study, and the uptake dynamics of GdC in the inner ear. GdC causes inflammation of the mucosa of the middle ear, but there are no reports or evidence of toxicity-related changes in vivo either in animals or in humans. Intravenously administered GdC reached the guinea pig cochlea about 10 minutes after administration and loaded the scala tympani and scala vestibuli with the peak at 60 minutes. However, the perilymphatic loading peak was 80 to 100 minutes in mice after intravenous administration of GdC. In healthy animals the scala media did not load GdC. In mice in which GdC was administered topically onto the round window, loading of the cochlea peaked at 4 hours, at which time it reached the apex. The initial portions of the organ to be filled were the basal turn of the cochlea and vestibule. In animal models with endolymphatic hydrops (EH), bulging of the Reissner's membrane was observed as deficit of GdC in the scala vestibuli. Histologically the degree of bulging correlated with the MR images. In animals with immune reaction-induced EH, MRI showed that EH could be limited to restricted regions of the inner ear, and in the same inner ear both EH and leakage of GdC into the scala media were visualized. More than 100 inner ear MRI scans have been performed to date in humans. Loading of GdC followed the pattern seen in animals, but the time frame was different. In intravenous delivery of double-dose GdC, the inner ear compartments

  17. Middle-Ear Pressure Gain and Cochlear Partition Differential Pressure in Chinchilla

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Slama, Michaël C.C.; Rosowski, John J.

    2009-01-01

    An important step to describe the effects of inner-ear impedance and pathologies on middle- and inner-ear mechanics is to quantify middle- and inner-ear function in the normal ear. We present middle-ear pressure gain GMEP and trans-cochlear-partition differential sound pressure ΔPCP in chinchilla from 100 Hz to 30 kHz derived from measurements of intracochlear sound pressures in scala vestibuli PSV and scala tympani PST and ear-canal sound pressure near the tympanic membrane PTM. These measurements span the chinchilla's auditory range. GMEP had constant magnitude of about 20 dB between 300 Hz and 20 kHz and phase that implies a 40-μs delay, values with some similarities to previous measurements in chinchilla and other species. ΔPCP was similar to GMEP below about 10 kHz and lower in magnitude at higher frequencies, decreasing to 0 dB at 20 kHz. The high-frequency rolloff correlates with the audiogram and supports the idea that middle-ear transmission limits high-frequency hearing, providing a stronger link between inner-ear macromechanics and hearing. We estimate the cochlear partition impedance ZCP from these and previous data. The chinchilla may be a useful animal model for exploring the effects of nonacoustic inner-ear stimulation such as “bone conduction” on cochlear mechanics. PMID:19945521

  18. Anisotropic yield function capable of predicting eight ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, J. H.; Cazacu, O.

    2011-08-01

    Deep drawing of a cylindrical cup from a rolled sheet is one of the typical forming operations where the effect of this anisotropy is most evident. Indeed, it is well documented in the literature that the number of ears and the shape of the earing pattern correlate with the r-values profile. For the strongly textured aluminum alloy AA 5042 (Numisheet Benchmark 2011), the experimental r-value distribution has two minima between the rolling and transverse direction data provided for this show that the r-value along the transverse direction (TD) is five times larger than the value corresponding to the rolling direction. Therefore, it is expected that there are more that the earing profile has more than four ears. The main objective of this paper is to assess whether a new form of CPB06ex2 yield function (Plunkett et al. (2008)) tailored for metals with no tension-compression asymmetry is capable of predicting more than four ears for this material.

  19. Inner Ear Drug Delivery for Auditory Applications

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Erin E. Leary; Mescher, Mark J.; Sewell, William F.; Tao, Sarah L.; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.

    2008-01-01

    Many inner ear disorders cannot be adequately treated by systemic drug delivery. A blood-cochlear barrier exists, similar physiologically to the blood-brain barrier, which limits the concentration and size of molecules able to leave the circulation and gain access to the cells of the inner ear. However, research in novel therapeutics and delivery systems has led to significant progress in the development of local methods of drug delivery to the inner ear. Intratympanic approaches, which deliver therapeutics to the middle ear, rely on permeation through tissue for access to the structures of the inner ear, whereas intracochlear methods are able to directly insert drugs into the inner ear. Innovative drug delivery systems to treat various inner ear ailments such as ototoxicity, sudden sensorineural hearing loss, autoimmune inner ear disease, and for preserving neurons and regenerating sensory cells are being explored. PMID:18848590

  20. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Otitis media is an inflammation or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs when there is ... which causes production of fluid or pus. Chronic otitis media occurs when the eustachian tube becomes blocked ...

  1. Physiological functioning of the ear and masking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The physiological functions of the ear and the role masking plays in speech communication are examined. Topics under investigation include sound analysis of the ear, the aural reflex, and various types of noise masking.

  2. The unpredictability of lymphatic drainage from the ear in melanoma patients, and its implications for management.

    PubMed

    Peach, Howard S; van der Ploeg, Augustinus P T; Haydu, Lauren E; Stretch, Jonathan R; Shannon, Kerwin F; Uren, Roger F; Thompson, John F

    2013-05-01

    The ear is known to have variable lymphatic drainage. The purpose of this study was to define better the lymphatic drainage patterns of the ear by correlating the location of primary tumors, classified according to the embryologically derived anatomical subunits of the ear, with their mapped sentinel nodes (SNs) identified by lymphoscintigraphy (LS). Lymphatic drainage data for patients with a primary melanoma of the ear were reviewed and correlated with the precise primary melanoma site. Between 1993 and 2010, LS was performed in 111 patients with a primary melanoma on the ear, identifying 281 SNs in 195 lymph node (LN) fields. The mean numbers of SNs and LN fields identified by LS per patient were 2.65 and 1.76. SN biopsy was performed in 71 patients (64 %). The mean number of SNs removed was 2.36. The 111 ear melanomas were mostly located on the helical rim (55 %), followed by the lobule (24.3 %). The five different primary ear sites drained mainly to SNs in level CII, level CV and the preauricular region. Drainage was most often to level CII (36.4 %). Drainage to the contralateral neck was not observed. Lymphatic drainage of the ear has no predictable pattern and can be to SNs anywhere in the ipsilateral neck. Most commonly drainage is to cervical level II and the preauricular and postauricular LN fields. LS defines the lymphatic drainage pattern in individual melanoma patients and is essential for accurate SN identification and reliable SN biopsy.

  3. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear...

  4. Immunologic Disorders of the Inner Ear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, William C.; Hughes, Gordon B.

    1997-01-01

    Immune inner ear disease represents a series of immune system mediated problems that can present with hearing loss, dizziness, or both. The etiology, presentation, testing, and treatment of primary immune inner ear disease is discussed. A review of secondary immune inner ear disease is presented for comparison. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  5. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear...

  6. Treating "cauliflower ear" with silicone mold.

    PubMed

    Gross, C G

    1978-01-01

    Acute hematoma of the ear (cauliflower ear) can be satisfactorily treated with aspiration and the use of the silicone mold to prevent reaccumulation of the blood or serum in the ear. Advantages of the silicone mold over other dressings appears to be ease of application, patient acceptance, and prevention of reoccurrence of reaccumulation of the hematoma.

  7. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth / For Kids / Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Print en español La música ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  8. External ear anomalies and hearing impairment in Noonan Syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Trier, Dorothée C; van Nierop, Josephine; Draaisma, Jos M Th; van der Burgt, Ineke; Kunst, Henricus; Croonen, Ellen A; Admiraal, Ronald J C

    2015-06-01

    This is the first cohort in which hearing impairment and external ear anomalies in Noonan Syndrome are described extensively. Retrospective analysis of the otorhinolaryngological and clinical genetic data from 97 Noonan Syndrome (NS) patients. Forty-four NS patients were seen by an otorhinolaryngologist for the analysis of hearing impairment. In our cohort 80 of the 97 patients were genetically tested. In 71 of these mutations were found: in 48 patients a mutation in PTPN11, in 10 patients in SOS1, in 5 patients in SHOC2, in 5 patients in RAF1, in 1 patient in MAP2K2, in 1 patient in KRAS and in 1 patient in A2ML1. External ear anomalies were reported in 75 NS patients (77%). In 69 patients the ears were low-set, 28 patients had posteriorly rotated ears, 14 patients showed protruding ears and 18 had thickened helices. Hearing impairment was detected in 34 NS patients. Nine patients had sensorineural hearing impairment, two a permanent conductive hearing impairment, two other patients had mixed hearing impairment and 20 patients had conductive hearing impairment in the past, caused by otitis media with effusion. Their temporary conductive hearing impairment resolved between the ages of 2 and 18 years. Sensorineural hearing impairment varied between mild high-frequency hearing impairment and profound (uni- and bilateral) hearing impairment and was progressive in three patients. Four NS patients received cochlear implants for their severe sensorineural hearing impairment. The cohort is small for genotype-phenotype correlations, but sensorineural hearing impairment, especially the bilateral severe hearing impairment, was only seen in patients with a PTPN11 mutation. NS is characterized by dysmorphic external ear anomalies and both sensorineural and conductive hearing impairment. Audiological examinations are recommended in all patients with Noonan Syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [SOX10 mutation is relevant to inner ear malformation in patients with Waardenburg syndrome].

    PubMed

    Xu, G Y; Hao, Q Q; Zhong, L L; Ren, W; Yan, Y; Liu, R Y; Li, J N; Guo, W W; Zhao, H; Yang, S M

    2016-11-07

    Objective: To determine the relevance between the SOX 10 mutation and Waardenburg syndrome (WS) accompanied with inner ear abnormality by analyzing the inner ear imaging results and molecular and genetic results of the WS patients with the SOX 10 mutation. Methods: This study included 36 WS in patients during 2001 and 2015 in the department of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery, Chinese Peoples's Liberation Army General Hospital. The condition of the inner ear of each patient was assessed by analyzing HRCT scans of the temporal bone and MRI scans of the brain and internal auditory canal. Meanwhile, the possible pathogenic genes of WS, including SOX10, MITF , and PAX 3, were also screened. Patients were divided into two groups according to SOX 10 mutation.The Fisher accuracy test was used to determine statistical difference of inner ear deformation incidence between the two groups. Results: Among all 36 patients, 12 were found to have inner ear abnormality. Most abnormalities were posterior semicircular canal deformations, some accompanied with cochlear deformation and an enlarged vestibule. Among all patients, 9 patients were SOX 10 heterozygous mutation carriers, among which six showed bilateral inner ear abnormality. Fisher accuracy test results suggested a significant correlation between the SOX 10 mutation and inner ear abnormality in WS patients ( P =0.036). Conclusion: This study found that WS patients with the SOX 10 mutation are more likely to have deformed inner ears when compared to WS patients without the SOX 10 mutation.

  10. Ear abnormalities in patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (Goldenhar syndrome).

    PubMed

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano Machado; Silva, Alessandra Pawelec da; Goetze, Thayse Bienert; Bier, Bianca de Almeida; Almeida, Sheila Tamanini de; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano; Zen, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola

    2011-01-01

    Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) is a rare condition characterized by the involvement of the first branchial arches. To investigate the ear abnormalities of a sample of patients with OAVS. The sample consisted of 12 patients with OAVS seen at the Clinical Genetics Unit, UFCSPA/CHSCPA. The study included only patients who underwent mastoid computed tomography and with normal karyotype. We performed a review of its clinical features, giving emphasis to the ear findings. Nine patients were male, the ages ranged from 1 day to 17 years. Ear abnormalities were observed in all patients and involved the external (n = 12), middle (n = 10) and inner ear (n = 3). Microtia was the most frequent finding (n = 12). The most common abnormalities of the middle ear were: opacification (n = 2), displacement (n = 2) and malformation of the ossicular chain. Agenesis of the internal auditory canal (n = 2) was the most frequent alteration of the inner ear. Ear abnormalities are variable in patients with OAVS and often there is no correlation between findings in the external, middle and inner ear. The evaluation of these structures is important in the management of individuals with OAVS.

  11. Pathogenesis of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto-Fukuda, Tomomi; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Shibata, Yasuaki; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Takahashi, Haruo; Koji, Takehiko

    2010-01-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma is characterized by enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells with aberrant morphological characteristics. To investigate the origin of the cholesteatoma cells, we analyzed spontaneously occurring cholesteatomas associated with a new transplantation model in Mongolian gerbils (gerbils). Cholesteatomas were induced in gerbils with a transplanted tympanic membrane by using the external auditory canal (EAC) ligation method. After the pars flaccida of the tympanic membranes were completely removed from male gerbils, corresponding portions of tympanic membranes of female gerbils were transplanted to the area of defect, and then we ligated the EAC (hybrid-model group). As a control group, the EAC of normal male and female gerbils was ligated without myringoplasty. In all ears of each group, the induced cholesteatomas were seen. In situ PCR was then performed to detect the mouse X chromosome-linked phosphoglycerate kinase-1 (pgk-1) gene on the paraffin sections. One pgk-1 spot in the epithelial nuclei was detected in male cholesteatoma, and two pgk-1 spots were detected in female cholesteatoma, respectively. On the other hand, in the hybrid-model group, we detected not only one but also two pgk-1 spots in the epithelial nuclei of cholesteatoma. These results strengthened the evidence that the origin of epithelial cells in cholesteatoma is the tympanic membrane in this model, but not the residential middle ear epithelial cells or the skin of the EAC. PMID:20413684

  12. A morphometric study of the human ear.

    PubMed

    Alexander, K Skaria; Stott, David J; Sivakumar, Branavan; Kang, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    We examined variations in the shape of the human ear according to age, sex and ethnic group with particular attention to ear prominence. 420 volunteers were recruited. Measurements included; head height and length, ear height and axis, antihelix taken off angle, earlobe length and width, ear width at the helical root and tragus. Prominence was measured at the helical root and tragus (conchomastoid angle, conchal bowl depth and helical-mastoid distance). Good symmetry was shown for all measurements. Ethnically Indian volunteers had the largest ears (both length and width), followed by Caucasians, and Afro-Caribbeans. This trend was significant in males (p<0.001), but not significant in females (p=0.087). Ears increased in size throughout life. Subjectively, only 2% of volunteers felt their ears were prominent compared to 10% in the opinion of the principal investigator. No objective measurements were identified that accurately predicted subjective perceptions of prominence. We found consistent trends in ear morphology depending on ethnic group, age and sex. Our study was unable to define an objective method for assessing ear prominence. Decisions about what constitutes a prominent ear should be left to personal and aesthetic choice. Copyright © 2010 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ear canal dynamic motion as a source of power for in-ear devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delnavaz, Aidin; Voix, Jérémie

    2013-02-01

    Ear canal deformation caused by temporomandibular joint (jaw joint) activity, also known as "ear canal dynamic motion," is introduced in this paper as a candidate source of power to possibly recharge hearing aid batteries. The geometrical deformation of the ear canal is quantified in 3D by laser scanning of different custom ear moulds. An experimental setup is proposed to measure the amount of power potentially available from this source. The results show that 9 mW of power is available from a 15 mm3 dynamic change in the ear canal volume. Finally, the dynamic motion and power capability of the ear canal are investigated in a group of 12 subjects.

  14. Detectability and anatomical correlation of middle ear cholesteatoma using fused thin slice non-echo planar imaging diffusion-weighted image and magnetic resonance cisternography (FTS-nEPID).

    PubMed

    Kanoto, Masafumi; Sugai, Yukio; Hosoya, Takaaki; Toyoguchi, Yuuki; Konno, Yoshihiro; Watarai, Fumika; Ito, Tsukasa; Watanabe, Tomoo; Kakehata, Seiji

    2015-12-01

    Cholesteatomas show high intensity in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). We performed fused thin slice non-echo planar imaging (EPI) DWI and magnetic resonance cisternography (FTS-nEPID) for cholesteatoma patients to increase the detectability of FTS-nEPID for cholesteatoma. The subjects are 77 consecutive patients who underwent FTS-nEPID as a preoperative study (mean age: 53.3±21.8, 47 men and 30 women). Otorhinolaryngologists performed the operations. We anatomically classified the middle ear into four portions. A radiologist evaluated the images for cholesteatoma and assessed the anatomical invasive range in four portions using only FTS-nEPID. We classified large cholesteatomas that invaded more than three portions and small ones that invaded less than two portions based on the results obtained from surgery, and calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). For all cholesteatomas with an existing diagnosis, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 71%, 70%, 94%, and 27%, respectively. In anatomical evaluation, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 49%, 85%, 77%, and 64%, respectively. For large cholesteatomas with an existing diagnosis, the sensitivity was 86%. In anatomical evaluation, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 51%, 57%, 88%, and 18%, respectively. For small cholesteatomas with an existing diagnosis, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 59%, 78%, 92%, and 30%, respectively. In anatomical evaluation, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 40%, 85%, 60%, and 71%, respectively. FTS-nEPID may be useful for diagnosing cholesteatomas. Further research is needed for anatomical evaluation because there were many false-negative results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Impedance characteristics of ear acupoints in identifying excess or deficiency syndrome of stroke].

    PubMed

    Wang, Pin; Yang, Hua-Yuan; Wang, Yi-Qin

    2010-06-01

    To explore the impedance characteristics of ear acupoints in stroke patients with excess or deficiency syndrome, and to provide basis data for objective study of the syndromes of stroke. The data of electrical characteristics of ear acupoints in stroke patients and healthy people were collected, and excess syndrome and deficiency syndrome of stroke were identified by quantifying the syndromes of stroke using scales. The differences in impedance characteristics of ear acupoints between stroke patients and healthy people were analyzed, and the differences in impedance characteristics of ear acupoints between stroke patients with excess syndrome and stroke patients with deficiency syndrome were analyzed too. The correlation among impedance characteristics of ear acupoints, stroke and the syndromes was also analyzed. There were significant differences in impedance characteristics of ear acupoints between stroke patients and healthy people (P<0.05,P<0.01). The ear acupoints CO12 (Gan) and CO13 (Pi) had a significant role in diagnosing stroke as compared with CO18 (Neifenmi), AT3.4.AH12i (Naogan), CO10 (Shen), TG2p (Shenshangxian), AH6a (Jiaogan), AT4 (Pizhixia), and CO15 (Xin). There were significant differences in impedance characteristics of ear acupoints between stroke patients with excess syndrome and stroke patients with deficiency syndrome (P<0.05, P<0.01). The ear acupoints AH6a (Jiaogan) and CO10 (Shen) played an important role in differentiation diagnosis of excess syndrome and deficiency syndrome of stroke, followed by CO18 (Neifenmi), TF4 (Shenmen) and TG2p (Shenshangxian). Some ear acupoints with diagnostic value for stroke may provide basis of objective research for stroke diagnosis as well as identifying excess syndrome and deficiency syndrome of stroke.

  16. Molecular Mechanisms of Inner Ear Development

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Doris K.; Kelley, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    The inner ear is a structurally complex vertebrate organ built to encode sound, motion, and orientation in space. Given its complexity, it is not surprising that inner ear dysfunction is a relatively common consequence of human genetic mutation. Studies in model organisms suggest that many genes currently known to be associated with human hearing impairment are active during embryogenesis. Hence, the study of inner ear development provides a rich context for understanding the functions of genes implicated in hearing loss. This chapter focuses on molecular mechanisms of inner ear development derived from studies of model organisms. PMID:22855724

  17. Molecular mechanisms of inner ear development.

    PubMed

    Wu, Doris K; Kelley, Matthew W

    2012-08-01

    The inner ear is a structurally complex vertebrate organ built to encode sound, motion, and orientation in space. Given its complexity, it is not surprising that inner ear dysfunction is a relatively common consequence of human genetic mutation. Studies in model organisms suggest that many genes currently known to be associated with human hearing impairment are active during embryogenesis. Hence, the study of inner ear development provides a rich context for understanding the functions of genes implicated in hearing loss. This chapter focuses on molecular mechanisms of inner ear development derived from studies of model organisms.

  18. Listening to Nature's orchestra with peculiar ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, David D.

    2003-04-01

    Insects use hearing for the crucial tasks of communicating with conspecifics and avoiding predators. Although all are based on the same acoustic principles, the diversity of insect ears is staggering and instructive. For instance, a South African grasshopper demonstrates that hearing conspecific calls is possible over distances 1 km with ears that do not have tympana. Actually, these creatures have six pairs of ears that play different roles in behavior. In numerical contrast, praying mantises have just a single ear in the ventral midline. The ear is very effective at detecting ultrasonic bat cries. However, the bioacoustics of sound transduction by two tympana facing each other in a deep, narrow slit is a puzzle. Tachinid flies demonstrate that directional hearing at 5 kHz is possible with a pair of ears fused together to give a total size of 1 mm. The ears are under the fly's chin. Hawk moths have their ears built into their mouthparts and the tympanum is more like a hollow ball than the usual membrane. As an apt last example, cicada ears are actually part of the orchestra: their tympana function both in sound reception and sound production.

  19. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553

  20. Could ionizing radiation forestall cauliflower ear?

    PubMed

    Hwang, K; Kim, C W; Lee, S I; Park, I S; Kim, W C; Loh, J J

    2001-02-01

    Repeated trauma to the ear very often results in "cauliflower ear." Many methods have been suggested to prevent an injured ear from demonstrating a cauliflowerlike deformity. The principles of treatment are evacuation of the hematoma, control of the reaccumulation of fluid, and maintenance of the cartilage contour. The authors studied the effect of ionizing radiation on deformed rabbit ears induced by repeated trauma. Twenty ears (10 rabbits) were used in the experiment. The animals were divided into four groups (control, preradiation, low dose, and high dose). Hematoma was produced by pounding the lateral side of the auricle 10 times with a 50-g weight at a height of 15 cm. The thickness of the injured and uninjured sites was measured, and histological analysis was performed for each group. The thickness of the ears of the irradiated groups was significantly less than the control group. The authors think that radiation treatment of repeatedly injured ears could prevent ear deformity, and could possibly be an adjunctive form of management of cauliflower ear in addition to hematoma evacuation and compression therapy.

  1. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.

  2. CT of the ear in Pendred syndrome.

    PubMed

    Goldfeld, Moshe; Glaser, Benjamin; Nassir, Elias; Gomori, John Moshe; Hazani, Elitsur; Bishara, Nassir

    2005-05-01

    To prospectively determine the structural anomalies of the inner ear by using thin-section computed tomography (CT) in an extended family with Pendred syndrome. Ethics committee approved the study, and informed consent was obtained from every patient or from parents of patients under legal age. Twelve patients (three females and nine males aged 7-47 years) with Pendred syndrome (all from the same ethnic isolate and with the same mutation in the PDS gene) were evaluated for inner-ear malformation at thin-section CT. Both ears were evaluated. Presence or absence of interscalar septum between upper and middle turns of the cochlea was evaluated, and vestibule and vestibular aqueduct were examined for enlargement. Modiolus was determined to be present or absent (modiolar deficiency). CT scans were evaluated in consensus by two radiologists (M.G., J.M.G.). All patients had inner ear malformation on both sides. Modiolus was absent and vestibule was enlarged on both sides in all 12 patients. Interscalar septum was absent in 18 (75%) of 24 ears. In eight patients, interscalar septum was absent in both ears, whereas in two patients, it was absent on only one side. Aqueduct was enlarged in 20 (80%) of 24 ears. In nine patients, both ears had enlarged aqueducts, while in two patients, only one side was abnormal. Inner ear malformation is an invariable finding in Pendred syndrome. Modiolus deficiency and vestibular enlargement were the most consistent anomalies in this population with Pendred syndrome. (c) RSNA, 2005.

  3. A 3-D analysis of the protympanum in human temporal bones with chronic ear disease.

    PubMed

    Pauna, Henrique F; Monsanto, Rafael C; Schachern, Patricia; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2017-03-01

    Eustachian tube dysfunction is believed to be an important factor to cholesteatoma development and recurrence of disease after surgical treatment. Although many studies have described prognostic factors, evaluation methods, or surgical techniques for Eustachian tube dysfunction, they relied on the soft tissues of its structure; little is known about its bony structure-the protympanum-which connects the Eustachian tube to the tympanic cavity, and can also be affected by several inflammatory conditions, both from the middle ear or from the nasopharynx. We studied temporal bones from patients with cholesteatoma, chronic otitis media (with and without retraction pockets), purulent otitis media, and non-diseased ears, looking for differences between the volume of the protympanum, the diameter of the Eustachian tube isthmus, and the distance between the anterior tympanic annulus and the promontory. Light microscopy and 3-D reconstruction software were used for the measurements. We observed a decrease of volume in the lumen of the four middle ear diseased ears compared to the control group. We observed a significant decrease in the volume of the protympanic space in the cholesteatoma group compared to the chronic otitis media group. We also observed a decrease in the bony space (protympanum space) in cholesteatoma, chronic otitis media with retraction pockets, and purulent otitis media compared to the control group. We found a correlation in middle ear diseases and a decrease in the middle ear space. Our findings may suggest that a smaller bony volume in the protympanic area may trigger middle ear dysventilation problems.

  4. Temporal bone changes in patients with Goldenhar syndrome with special emphasis on inner ear abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Hennersdorf, Florian; Friese, Natascha; Löwenheim, Hubert; Tropitzsch, Anke; Ernemann, Ulrike; Bisdas, Sotirios

    2014-06-01

    Goldenhar syndrome is a developmental disorder presenting with orofacial and vertebral anomalies, which are also accompanied by abnormalities in other organs. We examined temporal bone changes with special emphasis on inner ear abnormalities in these patients. A retrospective review of 7 new cases in addition to a previously published series of 14 cases with clinically diagnosed Goldenhar syndrome was carried out to search for inner ear anomalies. In addition, temporal bone imaging studies from the literature were summarized and compared with our results. Departments of Neuroradiology and Otorhinolaryngology at a university hospital. In addition to the previous series of 14 patients, 7 new patients with Goldenhar syndrome were identified. Patients underwent otologic examination, audiometric studies, and high-resolution computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the temporal bone. Temporal bone changes and specifically inner ear malformations. Nineteen of 21 patients showed changes of the external and middle ear correlating with the literature. Seven of 21 patients showed inner ear abnormalities constituting one-third of all patients. These ranged from mild such as vestibular enlargement to severe defects such as cochlear hypoplasia and common cavity. Inner ear abnormalities were present in one-third of patients. Although in some cases, these might not be of clinical significance, some patients show severe defects of the inner ear requiring more complex hearing loss therapy. Therefore, imaging of the temporal bone structures is important in the care of these patients.

  5. Playing by Ear: Foundation or Frill?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Many people divide musicians into two types: those who can read music and those who play by ear. Formal music education tends to place great emphasis on producing musically literate performers but devotes much less attention to teaching students to make music without notation. Some would suggest that playing by ear is a specialized skill that is…

  6. The ideal ear position in Caucasian females.

    PubMed

    Broer, P Niclas; Thiha, Aung; Ehrl, Denis; Sinno, Sammy; Juran, Sabrina; Szpalski, Caroline; Ng, Reuben; Ninkovic, Milomir; Prantl, Lukas; Heidekrueger, Paul I

    2018-03-01

    Ear position contributes significantly to facial appearance. However, while objective measurements remain the foundation for esthetic evaluations, little is known about how an ear should ideally be positioned regarding its rotational axis. This study aimed to further evaluate whether there exists a universally applicable ideal ear axis, and how sociodemographic factors impact such preferences. An interactive online survey was designed, enabling participants to change the axis of a female model's ear in terms of its forward and backward rotation. The questionnaire was sent out internationally to plastic surgeons and the general public. Demographic data were collected and analysis of variance was used to investigate respective preferences. A total of 1016 responses from 35 different countries (response rate: 18.5%) were gathered. Overall, 60% of survey takers chose the minus 10 or 5° angles to be most attractive. Significant differences were found regarding sex, ethnicity, country of residence, profession and respective ear axis preferences. Across multiple countries and ethnicities, an ear position in slight reclination of minus 5-10° is considered most pleasing in Caucasian females. However, sociodemographic factors significantly impact individual ear axis preferences and should be taken into consideration when performing reconstructive ear surgery. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stem Cell Therapy for the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    In vertebrates, perception of sound, motion, and balance is mediated through mechanosensory hair cells located within the inner ear. In mammals, hair cells are only generated during a short period of embryonic development. As a result, loss of hair cells as a consequence of injury, disease, or genetic mutation, leads to permanent sensory deficits. At present, cochlear implantation is the only option for profound hearing loss. However, outcomes are still variable and even the best implant cannot provide the acuity of a biological ear. The recent emergence of stem cell technology has the potential to open new approaches for hair cell regeneration. The goal of this review is to summarize the current state of inner ear stem cell research from a viewpoint of its clinical application for inner ear disorders to illustrate how complementary studies have the potential to promote and refine stem cell therapies for inner ear diseases. The review initially discusses our current understanding of the genetic pathways that regulate hair cell formation from inner ear progenitors during normal development. Subsequent sections discuss the possible use of endogenous inner ear stem cells to induce repair as well as the initial studies aimed at transplanting stem cells into the ear. PMID:22514095

  8. Is Attention Shared Between the Ears?1

    PubMed Central

    Shiffrin, Richard M.; Pisoni, David B.; Castaneda-Mendez, Kicab

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the locus of attention during selective listening for speech-like stimuli. Can processing be differentially allocated to the two ears? Two conditions were used. The simultaneous condition involved one of four randomly chosen stop-consonants being presented to one of the ears chosen at random. The sequential condition involved two intervals; in the first S listened to the right ear; in the second S listened to the left ear. One of the four consonants was presented to an attended ear during one of these intervals. Experiment I used no distracting stimuli. Experiment II utilized a distracting consonant not confusable with any of the four target consonants. This distractor was always presented to any ear not containing a target. In both experiments, simultaneous and sequential performance were essentially identical, despite the need for attention sharing between the two ears during the simultaneous condition. We conclude that selective attention does not occur during perceptual processing of speech sounds presented to the two ears. We suggest that attentive effects arise in short-term memory following processing. PMID:23226838

  9. Ultrasound characterization of middle ear effusion.

    PubMed

    Seth, Rahul; Discolo, Christopher M; Palczewska, Grazyna M; Lewandowski, Jan J; Krakovitz, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    To further enhance and assess the ability to characterize middle ear effusion (MEE) using non-invasive ultrasound technology. This is a prospective unblinded comparison study. Fifty-six children between the ages of 6 months and 17 years scheduled to undergo bilateral myringotomy with pressure equalization tube placement were enrolled. With the child anesthetized, the probe was placed into the external ear canal after sterile water was inserted. Ultrasound recordings of middle ear contents were analyzed by computer algorithm. Middle ear fluid was collected during myringotomy and analyzed for bacterial culture and viscosity. Ultrasound waveforms yielded a computer algorithm interpretation of middle ear contents in 66% of ears tested. When a result was obtained, the sensitivity and specificity for successfully characterizing middle ear fluid content as either void of fluid, thick fluid (mucoid), or thin fluid (serous or purulent) were at least 94%. Mucoid effusions had higher measured viscosity values (P=.002). Viscosity measures were compared to culture result, and those with low viscosity (thin consistency) had a higher likelihood of having a positive culture (P=.048). The device sensitivity and specificity for fluid detection were 94% or greater among interpretable waveforms (66% of those tested). Although this technology provides important information of the middle ear effusion presence and characteristic, further technological improvements are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An...

  11. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An...

  12. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An...

  13. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An...

  14. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An...

  15. INNER EAR EMBRYOGENESIS: GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The anatomy and developmental molecular genetics of the inner ear from establishment of the otic placode to formation of the definitive cochlea and vestibular apparatus will be reviewed and the complex 3-D structural changes that shape the developing inner ear will be illustrated...

  16. Ultrasound Characterization of Middle Ear Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Rahul; Discolo, Christopher M; Palczewska, Grazyna M; Lewandowski, Jan J; Krakovitz, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To further enhance and assess the ability to characterize middle ear effusion (MEE) using non-invasive ultrasound technology. Materials and Methods This is a prospective unblinded comparison study. Fifty-six children between the ages of 6 months and 17 years scheduled to undergo bilateral myringotomy with pressure equalization tube placement were enrolled. With the child anesthetized, the probe was placed into the external ear canal after sterile water was inserted. Ultrasound recordings of middle ear contents were analyzed by computer algorithm. Middle ear fluid was collected during myringotomy and analyzed for bacterial culture and viscosity. Results Ultrasound waveforms yielded a computer algorithm interpretation of middle ear contents in 66% of ears tested. When a result was obtained, the sensitivity and specificity for successfully characterizing middle ear fluid content as either void of fluid, thick fluid (mucoid), or thin fluid (serous or purulent) was at least 94%. Mucoid effusions had higher measured viscosity values (P=0.002). Viscosity measures were compared to culture result, and those with low viscosity (thin consistency) had a higher likelihood of having a positive culture (P=0.048). Conclusion The device sensitivity and specificity for fluid detection was 94% or greater among interpretable waveforms (66% of those tested). Although this technology provides important information of the middle ear effusion presence and characteristic, further technological improvements are needed. PMID:23084430

  17. Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and ... loss. How does otitis media affect a child’s hearing? All children with middle ear infection or fluid ...

  18. Ear asymmetries in middle-ear, cochlear, and brainstem responses in human infants

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, Douglas H.; Gorga, Michael P.; Jesteadt, Walt; Smith, Lynette M.

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, Sininger and Cone-Wesson examined asymmetries in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of otoacoustic emissions (OAE) in infants, reporting that distortion-product (DP)OAE SNR was larger in the left ear, whereas transient-evoked (TE)OAE SNR was larger in the right. They proposed that cochlear and brainstem asymmetries facilitate development of brain-hemispheric specialization for sound processing. Similarly, in 2006 Sininger and Cone-Wesson described ear asymmetries mainly favoring the right ear in infant auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). The present study analyzed 2640 infant responses to further explore these effects. Ear differences in OAE SNR, signal, and noise were evaluated separately and across frequencies (1.5, 2, 3, and 4 kHz), and ABR asymmetries were compared with cochlear asymmetries. Analyses of ear-canal reflectance and admittance showed that asymmetries in middle-ear functioning did not explain cochlear and brainstem asymmetries. Current results are consistent with earlier studies showing right-ear dominance for TEOAE and ABR. Noise levels were higher in the right ear for OAEs and ABRs, causing ear asymmetries in SNR to differ from those in signal level. No left-ear dominance for DPOAE signal was observed. These results do not support a theory that ear asymmetries in cochlear processing mimic hemispheric brain specialization for auditory processing. PMID:18345839

  19. Biometric recognition using 3D ear shape.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ping; Bowyer, Kevin W

    2007-08-01

    Previous works have shown that the ear is a promising candidate for biometric identification. However, in prior work, the preprocessing of ear images has had manual steps and algorithms have not necessarily handled problems caused by hair and earrings. We present a complete system for ear biometrics, including automated segmentation of the ear in a profile view image and 3D shape matching for recognition. We evaluated this system with the largest experimental study to date in ear biometrics, achieving a rank-one recognition rate of 97.8 percent for an identification scenario and an equal error rate of 1.2 percent for a verification scenario on a database of 415 subjects and 1,386 total probes.

  20. The effect of high flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy on middle ear pressure.

    PubMed

    Piastro, Kristina; Chaskes, Mark; Agarwal, Jay; Parnes, Steven

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of high flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFOT) on middle ear pressure. Ten patients (eight males and two females) with oxygen desaturations requiring HFOT were recruited with 19 ears available for our study. The study group was aged 29-90years (mean 65.3±16.5). All patients underwent a review of medical history, questioned about subjective hearing loss and underwent a standard otologic exam, with middle ear pressures measured with a GSI TympStar tympanometer. The middle ear peak pressures in our study group ranged from 25 to -200daPa (mean -13.7±56.3daPa). Volume of HFOT was delivered at 20-40L (mean 30.5±9L) and fraction of inspired oxygen required was 30-70% (mean 58±13%). There was a positive correlation between liters of oxygen delivery and middle ear pressure with a Pearson coefficient (R) of 0.436, although lacking statistical significance (p=0.06). Previous studies have shown that HFOT delivered in the range of 35-40L/min produces pharyngeal pressures at or above 5cm H2O. Since pharyngeal pressures of 5cm H2O produced via CPAP have shown to produce middle ear pressures above 40daPa, we expected HFOT to result in similar middle ear pressures of 35-40L/min. However, although our results show an increase in middle ear pressures with flow volume, HFOT did not produce significant increases in middle ear pressures. This may make HFOT an appropriate option of oxygen delivery to patients who require otologic procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Microbiomes of the normal middle ear and ears with chronic otitis media.

    PubMed

    Minami, Shujiro B; Mutai, Hideki; Suzuki, Tomoko; Horii, Arata; Oishi, Naoki; Wasano, Koichiro; Katsura, Motoyasu; Tanaka, Fujinobu; Takiguchi, Tetsuya; Fujii, Masato; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to profile and compare the middle ear microbiomes of human subjects with and without chronic otitis media. Prospective multicenter cohort study. All consecutive patients undergoing tympanoplasty surgery for chronic otitis media or ear surgery for conditions other than otitis media were recruited. Sterile swab samples were collected from the middle ear mucosa during surgery. The variable region 4 of the 16S rRNA gene in each sample were amplified using region-specific primers adapted for the Illumina MiSeq sequencer (Illumina, CA, USA)). The sequences were subjected to local blast and classified using Metagenome@KIN (World Fusion, Tokyo, Japan). In total, 155 participants were recruited from seven medical centers. Of these, 88 and 67 had chronic otitis media and normal middle ears, respectively. The most abundant bacterial phyla on the mucosal surfaces of the normal middle ears were Proteobacteria, followed by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The children and adults with normal middle ears differed significantly in terms of middle ear microbiomes. Subjects with chronic otitis media without active inflammation (dry ear) had similar middle ear microbiomes as the normal middle ears group. Subjects with chronic otitis media with active inflammation (wet ear) had a lower prevalence of Proteobacteria and a higher prevalence of Firmicutes than the normal middle ears. The human middle ear is inhabited by more diverse microbial communities than was previously thought. Alteration of the middle ear microbiome may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media with active inflammation. 2b. Laryngoscope, 127:E371-E377, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Middle ear tuberculosis: diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Jesić, Snezana; Stosić, Svetlana; Milenković, Branislava; Nesić, Vladimir; Dudvarski, Zoran; Jotić, Ana; Slijepcević, Nikola

    2009-01-01

    Tuberculous otitis is a diagnostic problem due to the difficulty to obtain microbiological, histomorphological and cytological confirmation of the disease. Our objective was to compare clinical and radiological characteristic and development of otogenic complications in patients with tuberculous otitis and otitis with cholesteatoma as the most destructive form of chronic nonspecific otitis in the purpose of establishing the diagnostic criteria for tuberculous otitis. Medical records of 12 patients with tuberculous otitis and 163 patients with cholesteatoma treated at the Institute of Otorhinolaryngology and Maxillofacial Surgery in Belgrade during the eight-year period were analyzed. All of the patients underwent otomicroscopic, audiological and radiological examination of the thorax and temporal bone, microbiological examination of the secretion and histomorphological examination of the tissue taken during middle ear surgery. Statistical analysis was done using chi2 test with Yates correction. Otogenic complication as facial palsy and sensorineural hearing loss were more frequent in tuberculous otitis patients, than in cholesteatoma. Also, fistulas of the labyrinth and facial canal bone destruction were also more frequent in tuberculous otitis than in cholesteatoma. A larger extent of temporal bone destruction was noticed on CT scans of the temporal bone in half of the patents with tuberculous otitis. Coexistence with miliary pulmonary tuberculosis was detected in one third of the patients. There were no microbiological or histomorphological confirmations of the disease, except in one case with positive ZiehI-Neelsen staining. Tuberculous otitis media should be considered in patients with serious otogenic complications and with shorter duration of ear discharge, and in association with diagnosed miliary pulmonary tuberculosis and extensive temporal bone destruction. Polymerase chain reaction still is not reliable for diagnosis.

  3. Numerical analysis of ossicular chain lesion of human ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingxi; Li, Sheng; Sun, Xiuzhen

    2009-04-01

    Lesion of ossicular chain is a common ear disease impairing the sense of hearing. A comprehensive numerical model of human ear can provide better understanding of sound transmission. In this study, we propose a three-dimensional finite element model of human ear that incorporates the canal, tympanic membrane, ossicular bones, middle ear suspensory ligaments/muscles, middle ear cavity and inner ear fluid. Numerical analysis is conducted and employed to predict the effects of middle ear cavity, malleus handle defect, hypoplasia of the long process of incus, and stapedial crus defect on sound transmission. The present finite element model is shown to be reasonable in predicting the ossicular mechanics of human ear.

  4. Real-time estimation of horizontal gaze angle by saccade integration using in-ear electrooculography

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The manuscript proposes and evaluates a real-time algorithm for estimating eye gaze angle based solely on single-channel electrooculography (EOG), which can be obtained directly from the ear canal using conductive ear moulds. In contrast to conventional high-pass filtering, we used an algorithm that calculates absolute eye gaze angle via statistical analysis of detected saccades. The estimated eye positions of the new algorithm were still noisy. However, the performance in terms of Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients was significantly better than the conventional approach in some instances. The results suggest that in-ear EOG signals captured with conductive ear moulds could serve as a basis for light-weight and portable horizontal eye gaze angle estimation suitable for a broad range of applications. For instance, for hearing aids to steer the directivity of microphones in the direction of the user’s eye gaze. PMID:29304120

  5. Real-time estimation of horizontal gaze angle by saccade integration using in-ear electrooculography.

    PubMed

    Hládek, Ľuboš; Porr, Bernd; Brimijoin, W Owen

    2018-01-01

    The manuscript proposes and evaluates a real-time algorithm for estimating eye gaze angle based solely on single-channel electrooculography (EOG), which can be obtained directly from the ear canal using conductive ear moulds. In contrast to conventional high-pass filtering, we used an algorithm that calculates absolute eye gaze angle via statistical analysis of detected saccades. The estimated eye positions of the new algorithm were still noisy. However, the performance in terms of Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients was significantly better than the conventional approach in some instances. The results suggest that in-ear EOG signals captured with conductive ear moulds could serve as a basis for light-weight and portable horizontal eye gaze angle estimation suitable for a broad range of applications. For instance, for hearing aids to steer the directivity of microphones in the direction of the user's eye gaze.

  6. Association of microRNA 146 with middle ear hyperplasia in pediatric otitis media.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Tina L; Yan, Justin; Khampang, Pawjai; MacKinnon, Alexander; Hong, Wenzhou; Johnston, Nikki; Kerschner, Joseph E

    2016-09-01

    Toll-like receptor signaling activated by bacterial otitis media pathogens in the middle ear has been shown to play a key role in OM susceptibility, pathogenesis and recovery. Recent studies implicate microRNA 146 (miR-146) in regulation of inflammation via negative feedback of toll-like receptor signaling (TLR) in a wide variety of tissues, however its involvement in otitis media is unknown. Human middle ear epithelial cells were stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin 1 beta or tumor necrosis factor alpha, for two to twenty-four hours. Middle ear biopsies were collected from children with otitis media with effusion (n = 20), recurrent otitis media (n = 9), and control subjects undergoing cochlear implantation (n = 10). miR-146a, miR-146b expression was assayed by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Expression of miR-146 targets involved in TLR signaling, IRAK1 and TRAF6, was assayed by qPCR in middle ear biopsies. Middle ear biopsies were cryosectioned and epithelial thickness measured by a certified pathologist. Proinflammatory cytokines induced expression of miR-146 in middle ear epithelial cells in vitro. Middle ear miR-146a and miR-146b expression was elevated in otitis media patients relative to control subjects and correlated with middle ear epithelial thickness. A trend towards inverse correlation was observed between miR-146 and TRAF6 expression in the clinical population. This report is the first to assess miRNA expression in a clinical population with OM. Findings herein suggest miR-146 may play a role in OM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Acceleration induced water removal from ear canals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hosung; Averett, Katelee; Jung, Sunghwan

    2017-11-01

    Children and adults commonly experience having water trapped in the ear canals after swimming. To remove the water, individuals will shake their head sideways. Since a child's ear canal has a smaller diameter, it requires more acceleration of the head to remove the trapped water. In this study, we theoretically and experimentally investigated the acceleration required to break the surface meniscus of the water in artificial ear canals and hydrophobic-coated glass tubes. In experiments, ear canal models were 3D-printed from a CT-scanned human head. Also, glass tubes were coated with silane to match the hydrophobicity in ear canals. Then, using a linear stage, we measured the acceleration values required to forcefully eject the water from the artificial ear canals and glass tubes. A theoretical model was developed to predict the critical acceleration at a given tube diameter and water volume by using a modified Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Furthermore, this research can shed light on the potential of long-term brain injury and damage by shaking the head to push the water out of the ear canal. This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grant CBET-1604424.

  8. Middle ear impedance measurements in large vestibular aqueduct syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bilgen, Cem; Kirkim, Günay; Kirazli, Tayfun

    2009-06-01

    To assess the effect of inner ear pressure on middle ear impedance in patients with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS). Data from admittance tympanometry and multifrequency tympanometry on 8 LVAS patients and control subjects were studied. Static acoustic compliance (SAC) values for the ears with stable sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) were within the limits of the mean values of control groups except for two ears. The resonance frequency (RF) values of the ears with stable SNHL were lower than the mean values of control groups except for three ears. SAC values for the two ears with fluctuating SNHL were lower and the RF values were higher than the mean values of control groups. Decreased SAC values and increased RF values found in the ears with fluctuating SNHL might be an indirect indicator of increased inner ear pressure, while low RF values in the ears with stable SNHL might reflect the decreased inner ear impedance.

  9. EARS: Electronic Access to Reference Service.

    PubMed Central

    Weise, F O; Borgendale, M

    1986-01-01

    Electronic Access to Reference Service (EARS) is a front end to the Health Sciences Library's electronic mail system, with links to the online public catalog. EARS, which became operational in September 1984, is accessed by users at remote sites with either a terminal or microcomputer. It is menu-driven, allowing users to request: a computerized literature search, reference information, a photocopy of a journal article, or a book. This paper traces the history of EARS and discusses its use, its impact on library staff and services, and factors that influence the diffusion of new technology. PMID:3779167

  10. EARS: Electronic Access to Reference Service.

    PubMed

    Weise, F O; Borgendale, M

    1986-10-01

    Electronic Access to Reference Service (EARS) is a front end to the Health Sciences Library's electronic mail system, with links to the online public catalog. EARS, which became operational in September 1984, is accessed by users at remote sites with either a terminal or microcomputer. It is menu-driven, allowing users to request: a computerized literature search, reference information, a photocopy of a journal article, or a book. This paper traces the history of EARS and discusses its use, its impact on library staff and services, and factors that influence the diffusion of new technology.

  11. The effect of continuous positive airway pressure on middle ear pressure.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fred Y; Gurgel, Richard K; Popelka, Gerald R; Capasso, Robson

    2012-03-01

    While continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is commonly used for obstructive sleep apnea treatment, its effect on middle ear pressure is unknown. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of CPAP on middle ear pressure and describe the correlation between CPAP levels and middle ear pressures. Retrospective review of normal tympanometry values and a prospective cohort evaluation of subjects' tympanometric values while using CPAP at distinct pressure levels. A total of 3,066 tympanograms were evaluated to determine the normal range of middle ear pressures. Ten subjects with no known history of eustachian tube dysfunction or obstructive sleep apnea had standard tympanometry measurements while wearing a CPAP device. Measurements were taken at baseline and with CPAP air pressures of 0, 5, 10, and 15 cm H(2)O. The percentage of normal control patients with middle ear pressures above 40 daPa was 0.03%. In the study population, prior to a swallowing maneuver to open the eustachian tube, average middle ear pressures were 21.67 daPa, 22.63 daPa, 20.42, daPa, and 21.58 daPa with CPAP pressures of 0, 5, 10, and 15 cm H(2) 0, respectively. After swallowing, average middle ear air pressures were 18.83 daPa, 46.75 daPa, 82.17 daPa, and 129.17 daPa with CPAP pressures of 0, 5, 10, and 15 cm H(2)0, respectively. The postswallow Pearson correlation coefficient correlating CPAP and middle ear pressures was 0.783 (P < 0.001). Middle ear air pressure is directly proportional to CPAP air pressure in subjects with normal eustachian tube function. Middle ear pressure reaches supraphysiologic levels at even minimal CPAP levels. Although further investigation is necessary, there may be otologic implications for patients who are chronically CPAP dependent. These findings may also influence the perioperative practice of otologic and skull base surgeons. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Neonatal Ear Molding: Timing and Technique.

    PubMed

    Anstadt, Erin Elizabeth; Johns, Dana Nicole; Kwok, Alvin Chi-Ming; Siddiqi, Faizi; Gociman, Barbu

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of auricular deformities is believed to be ∼11.5 per 10,000 births, excluding children with microtia. Although not life-threatening, auricular deformities can cause undue distress for patients and their families. Although surgical procedures have traditionally been used to reconstruct congenital auricular deformities, ear molding has been gaining acceptance as an efficacious, noninvasive alternative for the treatment of newborns with ear deformations. We present the successful correction of bilateral Stahl's ear deformity in a newborn through a straightforward, nonsurgical method implemented on the first day of life. The aim of this report is to make pediatric practitioners aware of an effective and simple molding technique appropriate for correction of congenital auricular anomalies. In addition, it stresses the importance of very early initiation of ear cartilage molding for achieving the desired outcome. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Animal models of middle ear cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Fukuda, Tomomi; Takahashi, Haruo; Koji, Takehiko

    2011-01-01

    Middle ear acquired cholesteatoma is a pathological condition associated with otitis media, which may be associated with temporal bone resorption, otorrhea and hearing loss, and occasionally various other complications. Cholesteatoma is characterized by the enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells with aberrant morphologic characteristics. Unfortunately, our understanding of the mechanism underlying its pathogenesis is limited. To investigate its pathogenesis, different animal models have been used. This paper provides a brief overview of the current status of research in the field of pathogenesis of middle ear acquired cholesteatoma, four types of animal models previously reported on, up-to-date cholesteatoma research using these animal models, our current studies of the local hybrid ear model, and the future prospect of new animal models of middle ear cholesteatoma.

  14. Animal Models of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto-Fukuda, Tomomi; Takahashi, Haruo; Koji, Takehiko

    2011-01-01

    Middle ear acquired cholesteatoma is a pathological condition associated with otitis media, which may be associated with temporal bone resorption, otorrhea and hearing loss, and occasionally various other complications. Cholesteatoma is characterized by the enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells with aberrant morphologic characteristics. Unfortunately, our understanding of the mechanism underlying its pathogenesis is limited. To investigate its pathogenesis, different animal models have been used. This paper provides a brief overview of the current status of research in the field of pathogenesis of middle ear acquired cholesteatoma, four types of animal models previously reported on, up-to-date cholesteatoma research using these animal models, our current studies of the local hybrid ear model, and the future prospect of new animal models of middle ear cholesteatoma. PMID:21541229

  15. Milestones in the History of Ear Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Berghaus, Alexander; Nicoló, Marion San

    2015-12-01

    The reconstruction of ear deformities has been challenging plastic surgeons since centuries. However, it is only in the 19th century that reports on partial and total ear reconstruction start increasing. In the quest for an aesthetically pleasing and natural-looking result, surgeons worked on the perfect framework and skin coverage. Different materials and flap techniques have evolved. Some were abandoned out of frustration, while others kept evolving over the years. In this article, we discuss the milestones in ear reconstruction-from ancient times to early attempts in Western civilization to the key chapters of ear reconstruction in the 20th century leading to the current techniques. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. EAR Program Research Results : Updated through 2013

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-12-31

    The Exploratory Advanced Research (EAR) Program addresses the need for longer term, higher risk research with the potential for long-term improvements to transportation systemsimprovements in planning, building, renewing, and operating safe, conge...

  17. EAR Program Research Results: Updated through 2014

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-12-31

    The Exploratory Advanced Research (EAR) Program addresses the need for longer term, higher risk research with the potential for long-term improvements to transportation systemsimprovements in planning, building, renewing, and operating safe, conge...

  18. Diode Laser Ear Piercing: A Novel Technique.

    PubMed

    Suseela, Bibilash Babu; Babu, Preethitha; Chittoria, Ravi Kumar; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Earlobe piercing is a common office room procedure done by a plastic surgeon. Various methods of ear piercing have been described. In this article, we describe a novel method of laser ear piercing using the diode laser. An 18-year-old female patient underwent an ear piercing using a diode laser with a power of 2.0 W in continuous mode after topical local anaesthetic and pre-cooling. The diode laser was fast, safe, easy to use and highly effective way of ear piercing. The advantages we noticed while using the diode laser over conventional methods were more precision, minimal trauma with less chances of hypertrophy and keloids, no bleeding with coagulation effect of laser, less time taken compared to conventional method and less chance of infection due to thermal heat effect of laser.

  19. Torsion of partial cleft of ear lobule.

    PubMed

    Kumaraswamy, M; Waiker, Veena P

    2014-02-01

    Torsion is a well-known phenomenon involving organs with long mesentery. Torsion in the ear lobule is rare. Ear lobule is very well vascularized. In cases of partial cleft ear lobule, there is a small segment of lobule inferior to the cleft which is vascularized through the pedicles on either side of the cleft. A lady aged 89 years presented with discoloration of the ear lobule. She was diagnosed as having gangrene of the central part of lobule. The segment of the lobule had undergone more than 360° torsion. She underwent debridement of gangrenous part and lobuloplasty. In our case laxity of the stretched lobule caused the torsion of the segment followed by gangrene. This rare complication indicates the need for correction of the cleft lobule not only for esthetic purpose, but also for the prevention of torsion. Copyright © 2013 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. EAR Program Research Results: Updated through 2016

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-12-31

    The Exploratory Advanced Research (EAR) Program addresses the need for longer term, higher risk research with the potential for long-term improvements to transportation systemsimprovements in planning, building, renewing, and operating safe, conge...

  1. Middle ear abnormalities in Van Maldergem syndrome.

    PubMed

    Verheij, Emmy; Thomeer, Henricus G X M; Pameijer, Frank A; Topsakal, Vedat

    2017-01-01

    Van Maldergem syndrome (VMS) is a very rare syndrome that was first described in 1992. The main features of this syndrome comprise intellectual disability, blepharo-naso-facial malformation, and hand anomalies. Almost all nine described patients have been shown to be affected by conductive hearing impairment attributed to microtia, and atresia of the outer ear canal. Here, we present a VMS patient with congenital malformations of the middle ear as the main reason for severe conductive bilateral hearing impairment. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe middle ear abnormalities in VMS. These malformations were seen on high resolution Computed Tomography scanning and during an exploratory tympanotomy. Due to the severity of the middle ear abnormalities and the risk for facial nerve damage, the patient was not offered an ossicular chain reconstruction but a bone conduction device after this exploratory tympanotomy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Middle Ear Fluid Cytokine and Inflammatory Cell Kinetics in the Chinchilla Otitis Media Model

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Katsuro; Liebeler, Carol L.; Quartey, Moses K.; Le, Chap T.; Giebink, G. Scott

    1999-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent microbe causing middle ear infection. The pathophysiology of pneumococcal otitis media has been characterized by measurement of local inflammatory mediators such as inflammatory cells, lysozyme, oxidative metabolic products, and inflammatory cytokines. The role of cytokines in bacterial infection has been elucidated with animal models, and interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) are recognized as being important local mediators in acute inflammation. We characterized middle ear inflammatory responses in the chinchilla otitis media model after injecting a very small number of viable pneumococci into the middle ear, similar to the natural course of infection. Middle ear fluid (MEF) concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α were measured by using anti-human cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reagents. IL-1β showed the earliest peak, at 6 h after inoculation, whereas IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α concentrations were increasing 72 h after pneumococcal inoculation. IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α but not IL-1β concentrations correlated significantly with total inflammatory cell numbers in MEF, and all four cytokines correlated significantly with MEF neutrophil concentration. Several intercytokine correlations were significant. Cytokines, therefore, participate in the early middle ear inflammatory response to S. pneumoniae. PMID:10085040

  3. Larval western bean cutworm feeding damage encourages the development of Gibberella ear rot on field corn.

    PubMed

    Parker, Nicole S; Anderson, Nolan R; Richmond, Douglas S; Long, Elizabeth Y; Wise, Kiersten A; Krupke, Christian H

    2017-03-01

    A 2 year study was conducted to determine whether western bean cutworm (Striacosta albicosta Smith) (WBC) larval feeding damage increases severity of the fungal disease Gibberella ear rot [Fusarium graminearum (Schwein.) Petch] in field corn (Zea mays L.). The effect of a quinone-outside inhibiting fungicide, pyraclostrobin, on Gibberella ear rot severity and mycotoxin production, both with and without WBC pressure, was also evaluated. The impact of each variable was assessed individually and in combination to determine the effect of each upon ear disease severity. There was a positive correlation between the presence of WBC larvae in field corn and Gibberella ear rot severity under inoculated conditions in the 2 years of the experiment. An application of pyraclostrobin did not impact Gibberella ear rot development when applied at corn growth stage R1 (silks first emerging). Feeding damage from WBC larvae significantly increases the development of F. graminearum in field corn. We conclude that an effective integrated management strategy for Gibberella ear rot should target the insect pest first, in an effort to limit disease severity and subsequent mycotoxin production by F. graminearum in kernels. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. High-resolution microendoscope images of middle ear cholesteatoma and surrounding tissue: evaluation of interobserver concordance.

    PubMed

    Bradley, James; Jiang, Nancy; Levy, Lauren; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Sikora, Andrew; Smouha, Eric

    2014-04-01

    Investigate how accurately otolaryngologists could differentiate between images obtained with high-resolution microendoscopy (HRME) of ex vivo cholesteatoma specimens and surrounding middle ear epithelium. HRME images of surgically resected cholesteatoma and middle ear epithelium were obtained and otolaryngologists classified these images. Tertiary medical center. Resected cholesteatoma and middle ear epithelium were stained with a contrast agent, proflavine, and HRME images were captured. Specimens were sent for standard histopathology and compared with HRME images. Quality-controlled images were used to assemble a training set. After viewing training images, otolaryngologists without prior cholesteatoma HRME experience reviewed and classified test images. Ten cholesteatoma and 9 middle ear specimens were collected, of which 17 representative cholesteatoma and 19 middle ear epithelium images were extracted for a testing set. Qualitative analysis for concordance between HRME images and histological images yielded a strong correlation between modalities. The mean accuracy of all reviewers in correctly identifying images was 95% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92%-98%). The sensitivity to correctly detect cholesteatoma images was 98% (95% CI, 93%-100%), and the specificity was 92% (95% CI, 87%-97%). The Fleiss kappa interrater reliability score was 0.83, (95% CI, 0.77-0.89). Medical professionals can quickly be trained to accurately distinguish between HRME images of cholesteatoma and normal middle ear epithelium, both of which have distinct imaging characteristics. Real-time HRME optical imaging can potentially improve the results of otologic surgery by allowing for extirpation of cholesteatomas while eliminating residual disease.

  5. The association of middle ear effusion with trigeminal nerve mass lesions in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wessmann, A; Hennessey, A; Goncalves, R; Benigni, L; Hammond, G; Volk, H A

    2013-11-09

    The trigeminal nerve is involved in the opening of the pharyngeal orifice of the Eustachian tube by operating the tensor veli palatini muscle. The hypothesis was investigated that middle ear effusion occurs in a more severe disease phenotype of canine trigeminal nerve mass lesions compared with dogs without middle ear effusion. Three observers reviewed canine MRIs with an MRI-diagnosis of trigeminal nerve mass lesion from three institutions. Various parameters describing the musculature innervated by the trigeminal nerve were scored and compared between dogs with and without middle ear effusion. Nineteen dogs met the inclusion criteria. Ipsilateral middle ear effusion was observed in 63 per cent (95% CI 48.4 per cent to 77.6 per cent) of the dogs. The size of the trigeminal nerve mass lesions was positively correlated with the severity of masticatory muscle mass loss (Spearman r=0.5, P=0.03). Dogs with middle ear effusion had a significantly increased generalised masticatory muscle mass loss (P=0.02) or tensor veli palatini muscle loss score (P=0.03) compared with those without. Larger trigeminal nerve mass lesions were associated with a greater degree of masticatory muscle mass loss. Masticatory muscle mass and, importantly, tensor veli palatini muscle mass was more severely affected in dogs with middle ear effusion suggesting an associated Eustachian tube dysfunction.

  6. Verrucous carcinoma of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Woodson, G E; Jurco, S; Alford, B R; McGavran, M H

    1981-01-01

    A case of a highly destructive, cytologically nondysplastic squamous epithelial lesion of the middle ear is presented. The cranial nerve involvement and bone destruction are more extensive than has been seen in cholesteatoma. Cultures are negative for Pseudomonas, and the patient does not have the reported diathesis for malignant otitis externa. The gross and microscopic features are those of verrucous carcinoma. To our knowledge, the middle ear has not been previously reported as a site of involvement by verrucous carcinoma.

  7. Visualization of Middle Ear Ossicles in Elder Subjects with Ultra-short Echo Time MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Naganawa, Shinji; Nakane, Toshiki; Kawai, Hisashi; Taoka, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Kojiro; Iwano, Shingo; Satake, Hiroko; Grodzki, David

    2017-04-10

    To evaluate the visualization of middle ear ossicles by ultra-short echo time magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 3T in subjects over 50 years old. Sixty ears from 30 elder patients that underwent surgical or interventional treatment for neurovascular diseases were included (ages: 50-82, median age: 65; 10 men, 20 women). Patients received follow-up MR imaging including routine T 1 - and T 2 -weighted images, time-of-flight MR angiography, and ultra-short echo time imaging (PETRA, pointwise encoding time reduction with radial acquisition). All patients underwent computed tomography (CT) angiography before treatment. Thin-section source CT images were correlated with PETRA images. Scan parameters for PETRA were: TR 3.13, TE 0.07, flip angle 6 degrees, 0.83 × 0.83 × 0.83 mm resolution, 3 min 43 s scan time. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated the visibility of each ossicular structure as positive or negative using PETRA images. The structures evaluated included the head of the malleus, manubrium of the malleus, body of the incus, long process of the incus, and the stapes. Signal intensity of the ossicles was classified as: between labyrinthine fluid and air, similar to labyrinthine fluid, between labyrinthine fluid and cerebellar parenchyma, or higher than cerebellar parenchyma. In all ears, the body of the incus was visible. The head of the malleus was visualized in 36/60 ears. The manubrium of the malleus and long process of the incus was visualized in 1/60 and 4/60 ears, respectively. The stapes were not visualized in any ear. Signal intensity of the visible structures was between labyrinthine fluid and air in all ears. The body of the incus was consistently visualized with intensity between air and labyrinthine fluid on PETRA images in aged subjects. Poor visualization of the manubrium of the malleus, long process of the incus, and the stapes limits clinical significance of middle ear imaging with current PETRA methods.

  8. [Constricted ear therapy with free auricular composite grafts].

    PubMed

    Liu, Tun; Zhang, Lian-sheng; Zhuang, Hong-xing; Zhang, Ke-yuan

    2004-03-01

    A simple and effective therapy for single side constricted ear. Transplanting normal side free composite auricular grafts to constricted ear (15 patients and 15 sides), then lengthening the helix, exposing the scapha, correcting deformity. The 15 patients composite grafts all survived. The helix has been lengthened, the scapha exposed, the normal ear reduced, the constricted ear augmented and two sides ear have become symmetry. This method is simple and results are satisfied.

  9. Comparison of high-resolution microendoscope images and histopathological sections in ex vivo middle ear cholesteatomas and surrounding tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, James; Levy, Lauren; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Sikora, Andrew G.; Smouha, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Objective: To investigate the concordance between optical images obtained with high-resolution microendoscopy (HRME) and conventional histopathology for ex vivo cholesteatoma specimens and surrounding middle ear epithelium. Methods: After resection of cholesteatoma and surrounding middle ear epithelium from surgical patients, tissues were stained with a contrast agent, proflavine, and the HRME fiberoptic scope was placed directly on each tissue specimen. 4- 10 short movie clips were recorded for both the cholesteatoma and surrounding middle ear epithelium specimens. The imaged areas were sent for standard histopathology, and the stained specimens were correlated with the HRME images. IRB approval was obtained, and each patient was consented for the study. Results: Ten cholesteatoma specimens and 9 middle ear specimens were collected from 10 patients. In each case, cholesteatoma was easily discriminated from normal middle ear epithelium by its hyperfluorescence and loss of cellular detail. Qualitative analysis for concordance between HRME images and histological images from the same surgical specimen yielded a strong correlation between imaging modalities. Conclusions: Keratinizing cholesteatoma and surrounding middle ear epithelium have distinct imaging characteristics. Loss of cellular detail and hyperfluorescence with proflavine are the hallmark characteristics of cholesteatoma which allow for differentiation from normal middle ear epithelium. Real-time optical imaging can potentially improve the results of otologic surgery by allowing for extirpation of cholesteatomas while eliminating residual disease. We anticipate performing an in vivo study to test this hypothesis.

  10. [Atypical inflammation of the middle ear].

    PubMed

    Garov, E V; Kryukov, A I; Zelenkova, V N; Sidorina, N G; Kaloshina, A S

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the patients presenting with atypical inflammation of the middle ear and consider the currently available methods for their examination. A total of 20 patients at the age from 16 to 66 years were admitted to the Department of Ear Microsurgery during the period from 2008 and 2016 for the treatment of atypical inflammation of the middle ear. Eleven of them (18 ears) were found to have tuberculous lesions (TL) of the middle ear while the remaining 9 patients (11 ears) suffered giant cell vasculitis (GCV). All the patients underwent the general clinical and otorhinolaryngological examination, computed tomography of the temporal bones and the thoracic cavity organs, cytological, bacteriological, pathomorphological, and molecular-genetic studies including PCR diagnostics, rheumatological tests, as well as counseling by a phthisiotherapist and rheumatologist. The primary localization of TL in the middle ear was documented in 6 patients including its association with lung lesions in 5 cases. The clinical picture of the disease in 5 patients was that of smoldering exudative pathology and in 6 ones was accompanied by suppurative perforative otitis media. According to the laboratory analyses, bacteriological diagnostics proved efficient in 9% of the patients, pathomorphological and cytological diagnostics in 18% and 27.3% of the cases respectively while the effectiveness of PCR diagnostics was estimated at 55%. The diagnosis in individual patients was established within the period from 1 month to 1.5 years after they first sought medical advice in connection with complaints of the ear disease. Tuberculosis of the middle ear began to develop as exudative middle otitis that acquired the form of bilateral pathology in 4 patients. Three patients had a concomitant pulmonary disease. In 4 patuents, the diagnois of middle ear tuberculosis was established based on the presence of the specific antibodies and in 5 ones based on the

  11. Middle Ear Pressures in Wind Instrument Musicians.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Max Sallis; Morris, Simon; Clark, Matthew P; Begg, Philip

    2018-05-22

    This study aimed to assess if playing wind instruments leads to a measurable increase in middle ear pressure during note generation and to provide evidence to clinicians to advise musicians undergoing middle ear surgery. An observational cohort study of 40 volunteers in 7 different wind instrument categories underwent tympanometry at rest and during note production. Community. Recreational musicians aged over 18 years recruited from the student body attending Birmingham University, UK. None. Tympanometry is used as a noninvasive measure of middle ear pressure. The pressure at which peak compliance occurred was taken as an indirect measure of middle ear pressure. The data produced at rest and during note production was statistically analysed with paired t testing and significance set at a p value less than 0.01. Overall a statistically significant increase in middle ear pressure change of 0.63 mm Hg (p = 0.0001) during note production was identified. Musicians playing the oboe and trumpet demonstrate the largest increase in middle ear pressure of 1.46 mm Hg (p = 0.0053) and 0.78 mm Hg (p = 0.0005) respectively. The data provided by this study gives evidence for the first time that playing wind instruments does increase middle ear pressure. Although the clinical significance of this is yet to be determined the authors would advise that musicians who undergo otological procedures should refrain from playing their instruments until full recovery has been achieved as advised by their clinician following direct microscopic review.

  12. Structure and function of the mammalian middle ear. I: Large middle ears in small desert mammals.

    PubMed

    Mason, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Many species of small desert mammals are known to have expanded auditory bullae. The ears of gerbils and heteromyids have been well described, but much less is known about the middle ear anatomy of other desert mammals. In this study, the middle ears of three gerbils (Meriones, Desmodillus and Gerbillurus), two jerboas (Jaculus) and two sengis (elephant-shrews: Macroscelides and Elephantulus) were examined and compared, using micro-computed tomography and light microscopy. Middle ear cavity expansion has occurred in members of all three groups, apparently in association with an essentially 'freely mobile' ossicular morphology and the development of bony tubes for the middle ear arteries. Cavity expansion can occur in different ways, resulting in different subcavity patterns even between different species of gerbils. Having enlarged middle ear cavities aids low-frequency audition, and several adaptive advantages of low-frequency hearing to small desert mammals have been proposed. However, while Macroscelides was found here to have middle ear cavities so large that together they exceed brain volume, the bullae of Elephantulus are considerably smaller. Why middle ear cavities are enlarged in some desert species but not others remains unclear, but it may relate to microhabitat. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  13. Prenatal evaluation of the middle ear and diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia using MRI.

    PubMed

    Katorza, Eldad; Nahama-Allouche, Catherine; Castaigne, Vanina; Gonzales, Marie; Galliani, Eva; Marlin, Sandrine; Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Rosenblatt, Jonathan; le Pointe, Hubert Ducou; Garel, Catherine

    2011-05-01

    Analysis of the middle ear with fetal MRI has not been previously reported. To show the contribution of fetal MRI to middle ear imaging. The tympanic cavity was evaluated in 108 fetal cerebral MRI examinations (facial and/or cerebral malformation excluded) and in two cases, one of Treacher Collins syndrome (case 1) and the other of oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OUV) spectrum (case 2) with middle ear hypoplasia identified by MRI at 27 and 36 weeks' gestation, respectively. In all 108 fetuses (mean gestational age 32.5 weeks), the tympanic cavity and T2 hypointensity related to the ossicles were well visualised on both sides. Case 1 had micro/retrognathia and bilateral external ear deformity and case 2 had retrognathism with a left low-set and deformed ear. MRI made it possible to recognize the marked hypoplasia of the tympanic cavity, which was bilateral in case 1 and unilateral in case 2. Both syndromes are characterized by craniofacial abnormalities including middle ear hypoplasia, which cannot be diagnosed with US. The middle ear cavity can be visualized with fetal MRI. We emphasize the use of this imaging modality in the diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia.

  14. QTL Mapping of Kernel Number-Related Traits and Validation of One Major QTL for Ear Length in Maize.

    PubMed

    Huo, Dongao; Ning, Qiang; Shen, Xiaomeng; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Zuxin

    2016-01-01

    The kernel number is a grain yield component and an important maize breeding goal. Ear length, kernel number per row and ear row number are highly correlated with the kernel number per ear, which eventually determines the ear weight and grain yield. In this study, two sets of F2:3 families developed from two bi-parental crosses sharing one inbred line were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for four kernel number-related traits: ear length, kernel number per row, ear row number and ear weight. A total of 39 QTLs for the four traits were identified in the two populations. The phenotypic variance explained by a single QTL ranged from 0.4% to 29.5%. Additionally, 14 overlapping QTLs formed 5 QTL clusters on chromosomes 1, 4, 5, 7, and 10. Intriguingly, six QTLs for ear length and kernel number per row overlapped in a region on chromosome 1. This region was designated qEL1.10 and was validated as being simultaneously responsible for ear length, kernel number per row and ear weight in a near isogenic line-derived population, suggesting that qEL1.10 was a pleiotropic QTL with large effects. Furthermore, the performance of hybrids generated by crossing 6 elite inbred lines with two near isogenic lines at qEL1.10 showed the breeding value of qEL1.10 for the improvement of the kernel number and grain yield of maize hybrids. This study provides a basis for further fine mapping, molecular marker-aided breeding and functional studies of kernel number-related traits in maize.

  15. Identification of Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors That Target Neonatal and Adult Mammalian Inner Ear Cell Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Yilai; Tao, Yong; Wang, Zhengmin; Tang, Yong; Li, Huawei; Dai, Pu; Gao, Guangping; Chen, Zheng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian inner ear consists of diverse cell types with important functions. Gene mutations in these diverse cell types have been found to underlie different forms of genetic hearing loss. Targeting these mutations for gene therapy development represents a future therapeutic strategy to treat hearing loss. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors have become the vector of choice for gene delivery in animal models in vivo. To identify AAV vectors that target inner ear cell subtypes, we systemically screened 12 AAV vectors with different serotypes (AAV1, 2, 5, 6, 6.2, 7, 8, 9, rh.8, rh.10, rh.39, and rh.43) that carry a reporter gene GFP in neonatal and adult mice by microinjection in vivo. We found that most AAVs infect both neonatal and adult inner ear, with different specificities and expression levels. The inner ear cochlear sensory epithelial region, which includes auditory hair cells and supporting cells, is most frequently targeted for gene delivery. Expression of the transgene is sustained, and neonatal inner ear delivery does not adversely affect hearing. Adult inner ear injection of AAV has a similar infection pattern as the younger inner ear, with the exception that outer hair cell death caused by the injection procedure can lead to hearing loss. In the adult, more so than in the neonatal mice, cell types infected and efficiency of infection are correlated with the site of injection. Most infected cells survive in neonatal and adult inner ears. The study adds to the list of AAV vectors that transduce the mammalian inner ear efficiently, providing the tools that are important to study inner ear gene function and for the development of gene therapy to treat hearing loss. PMID:27342665

  16. [Effect size on resonance of the outer ear canal by simulation of middle ear lesions using a temporal bone preparation].

    PubMed

    Scheinpflug, L; Vorwerk, U; Begall, K

    1995-01-01

    By means of a model of the external and the middle ear it is possible to simulate various, exactly defined pathological conditions of the middle ear and to describe their influence on ear canal resonance. Starting point of the investigations are fresh postmortem preparations of 8 human temporal bones with an intact ear drum and a retained skin of the ear canal. The compliance of the middle ear does not significantly differ from the clinical data of probands with healthy ears. After antrotomy it is possible to simulate pathological conditions of the middle ear one after the other at the same temporal bone. The influence of the changed middle ear conditions on ear drum compliance, ear canal volume and on the resonance curve of the external ear canal was investigated. For example, the middle ear was filled with water to create approximately the same conditions as in acute serous otitis media. In this middle ear condition a significant increase of the sound pressure amplification was found, on an average by 4 decibels compared to the unchanged temporal bone model. A small increase in resonance frequency was also measured. The advantages of this model are the approximately physiological conditions and the constant dimensions of the external and middle ear.

  17. Maintaining ear aesthetics in helical rim reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Taylor, James M; Rajan, Ruchika; Dickson, John K; Mahajan, Ajay L

    2014-03-01

    Wedge resections of the helical rim may result in a significant deformity of the ear with the ear not only smaller but cupped and prominent too. Our technique involves resection of the wedge in the scaphal area without extending into the concha followed by advancement of the helical rim into the defect. This technique is most suitable for peripheral defects of the helical rim, in the middle third. Our modified surgical technique was applied to reconstruction of the pinna after resection of the tumor in 12 patients. Free cartilaginous helical rim, length of helical rim to be resected, and projection of the ear from the mastoid was measured. This was then compared with measurements after the operation, and the patient satisfaction assessed with a visual analog scale. The free cartilaginous rim was 91.67 ± 5.61 mm. Of this, 21.92 ± 3.78 mm was resected, which amounted to 23.84% ± 3.35% of the rim. Although this resulted in a mean increase in ear projection of 6.42 ± 1.68 mm, the aesthetic outcome was good (visual analog scale, 9.08 ± 0.9). This technique reduces cupping and does not make the ear as prominent as it may do after a conventional wedge resection and results in high patient satisfaction.

  18. Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

    2001-01-01

    This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

  19. Ear molding in newborn infants with auricular deformities.

    PubMed

    Byrd, H Steve; Langevin, Claude-Jean; Ghidoni, Lorraine A

    2010-10-01

    A review of a single physician's experience in managing over 831 infant ear deformities (488 patients) is presented. The authors' methods of molding have advanced from the use of various tapes, glues, and stents, to a comprehensive yet simple system that shapes the antihelix, the triangular fossa, the helical rim, and the overly prominent conchal-mastoid angle (EarWell Infant Ear Correction System). The types of deformities managed, and their relative occurrence, are as follows: (1) prominent/cup ear, 373 ears (45 percent); (2) lidding/lop ear, 224 ears (27 percent); (3) mixed ear deformities, 83 ears (10 percent) (all had associated conchal crus); (4) Stahl's ear, 66 ears (8 percent); (5) helical rim abnormalities, 58 ears (7 percent); (6) conchal crus, 25 ears (3 percent); and (7) cryptotia, two ears (0.2 percent). Bilateral deformities were present in 340 patients (70 percent), with unilateral deformities in 148 patients (30 percent). Fifty-eight infant ears (34 patients) were treated using the final version of the EarWell Infant Ear Correction System with a success rate exceeding 90 percent (good to excellent results). The system was found to be most successful when begun in the first week of the infant's life. When molding was initiated after 3 weeks from birth, only approximately half of the infants had a good response. Congenital ear deformities are common and only approximately 30 percent self-correct. These deformities can be corrected by initiating appropriate molding in the first week of life. Neonatal molding reduces the need for surgical correction with results that often exceed what can be achieved with the surgical alternative.

  20. Ear-Canal Reflectance, Umbo Velocity and Tympanometry in Normal Hearing Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rosowski, John J; Nakajima, Hideko H.; Hamade, Mohamad A.; Mafoud, Lorice; Merchant, Gabrielle R.; Halpin, Christopher F.; Merchant, Saumil N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study compares measurements of ear-canal reflectance (ECR) to other objective measurements of middle-ear function including, audiometry, umbo velocity (VU), and tympanometry in a population of strictly defined normal hearing ears. Design Data were prospectively gathered from 58 ears of 29 normal hearing subjects, 16 female and 13 male, aged 22–64 years. Subjects met all of the following criteria to be considered as having normal hearing. (1) No history of significant middle-ear disease. (2) No history of otologic surgery. (3) Normal tympanic membrane (TM) on otoscopy. (4) Pure-tone audiometric thresholds of 20 dB HL or better for 0.25 – 8 kHz. (5) Air-bone gaps no greater than 15 dB at 0.25 kHz and 10 dB for 0.5 – 4 kHz. (6) Normal, type-A peaked tympanograms. (7) All subjects had two “normal” ears (as defined by these criteria). Measurements included pure-tone audiometry for 0.25 – 8 kHz, standard 226 Hz tympanometry, Ear canal reflectance(ECR) for 0.2 – 6 kHz at 60 dB SPL using the Mimosa Acoustics HearID system, and Umbo Velocity (VU ) for 0.3 – 6 kHz at 70–90 dB SPL using the HLV-1000 laser Doppler vibrometer (Polytec Inc). Results Mean power reflectance (|ECR|2) was near 1.0 at 0.2– 0.3 kHz, decreased to a broad minimum of 0.3 to 0.4 between 1 and 4 kHz, and then sharply increased to almost 0.8 by 6 kHz. The mean pressure reflectance phase angle (∠ECR) plotted on a linear frequency scale showed a group delay of approximately 0.1 ms for 0.2 – 6 kHz. Small significant differences were observed in |ECR|2 at the lowest frequencies between right and left ears, and between males and females at 4 kHz. |ECR|2 decreased with age, but reached significance only at 1 kHz. Our ECR measurements were generally similar to previous published reports. Highly significant negative correlations were found between |ECR|2 and VU for frequencies below 1 kHz. Significant correlations were also found between the tympanometrically determined peak

  1. Mature middle and inner ears express Chd7 and exhibit distinctive pathologies in a mouse model of CHARGE syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Elizabeth A.; Adams, Meredith E.; Layman, Wanda S.; Swiderski, Donald L.; Beyer, Lisa A.; Halsey, Karin E.; Benson, Jennifer M.; Gong, Tzy-Wen; Dolan, David F.; Raphael, Yehoash; Martin, Donna M.

    2011-01-01

    Heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding chromodomain-DNA-binding-protein 7 (CHD7) cause CHARGE syndrome, a multiple anomaly condition which includes vestibular dysfunction and hearing loss. Mice with heterozygous Chd7 mutations exhibit semicircular canal dysgenesis and abnormal inner ear neurogenesis, and are an excellent model of CHARGE syndrome. Here we characterized Chd7 expression in mature middle and inner ears, analyzed morphological features of mutant ears and tested whether Chd7 mutant mice have altered responses to noise exposure and correlated those responses to inner and middle ear structure. We found that Chd7 is highly expressed in mature inner and outer hair cells, spiral ganglion neurons, vestibular sensory epithelia and middle ear ossicles. There were no obvious defects in individual hair cell morphology by Prestin immunostaining or scanning electron microscopy, and cochlear innervation appeared normal in Chd7Gt/+ mice. Hearing thresholds by auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing were elevated at 4 and 16 kHz in Chd7Gt/+ mice, and there were reduced distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE). Exposure of Chd7Gt/+ mice to broadband noise resulted in variable degrees of hair cell loss which inversely correlated with severity of stapedial defects. The degrees of hair cell loss and threshold shifts after noise exposure were more severe in wild type mice than in mutants. Together, these data indicate that Chd7Gt/+ mice have combined conductive and sensorineural hearing loss, correlating with changes in both middle and inner ears. PMID:21875659

  2. Precise individualized armature for ear reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenhouse, Raymond J.; Chen, Xiaoming

    1991-04-01

    The cosmetic result of an ear restored surgically or via prosthetics is dependent on the surgeon''s ability to carve a precise cartilage armature at the time of surgery or the prosthetist''s ability to sculpt in wax an exact duplicate of the patient''s " missing" ear. Introducing CAD/CAM technology into the process benefits the esthetic outcome of these procedures. By utilizing serial section information derived from CAT MRI or moulage techniques a mirrorimage of the patient''s " donor" ear is generated. The resulting earform data is then used for the design of a cartilage armature produced by multi-axis milling or to produce by stereolithography a model which serves as the basis for a prosthesis.

  3. Building an endoscopic ear surgery program.

    PubMed

    Golub, Justin S

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses background, operative details, and outcomes of endoscopic ear surgery. This information will be helpful for those establishing a new program. Endoscopic ear surgery is growing in popularity. The ideal benefit is in totally transcanal access that would otherwise require a larger incision. The endoscope carries a number of advantages over the microscope, as well as some disadvantages. Several key maneuvers can minimize disadvantages. There is a paucity of studies directly comparing outcomes between endoscopic and microscopic approaches for the same procedure. The endoscope is gaining acceptance as a tool for treating otologic diseases. For interested surgeons, this article can help bridge the transition from microscopic to totally transcanal endoscopic ear surgery for appropriate disease.

  4. Assessment of Masses of the External Ear With Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel

    2018-02-01

    To assess masses of the external ear with diffusion-weighted MR imaging. Retrospective analysis of 43 consecutive patients with soft tissue mass of the external ear. They underwent single shot diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the ear. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the mass of the external ear was calculated. The final diagnosis was performed by biopsy. The ADC value correlated with the biopsy results. The mean ADC value of malignancy (=27) of external ear (0.95 ± 0.19 × 10 mm/s) was significantly lower (p = 0.001) than that of benign (n = 16) lesions (1.49 ± 0.08 × 10 mm/s). The cutoff ADC used for differentiation of malignancy from benign lesions was 1.18 × 10 mm/s with an area under the curve of 0.959, an accuracy of 93%, a sensitivity of 92%, and specificity of 93%. There was a significant difference in the ADC of well and moderately differentiated malignancy versus poorly and undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.001), and stages I and II versus stages III and IV (p = 0.04) of squamous cell carcinoma. ADC value is a non-invasive promising imaging parameter that can be used for differentiation of malignancy of the external ear from benign lesions, and grading and staging of squamous cell carcinoma of the external ear.

  5. Expansion method in secondary total ear reconstruction for undesirable reconstructed ear.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tun; Hu, Jintian; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Qingguo

    2014-09-01

    Ear reconstruction by autologous costal cartilage grafting is the most widely applied technique with fewer complications. However, undesirable ear reconstruction brings more problems to plastic surgeons. Some authors resort to free flap or osseointegration technique with prosthetic ear. In this article, we introduce a secondary total ear reconstruction with expanded skin flap method. From July 2010 to April 2012, 7 cases of undesirable ear reconstruction were repaired by tissue expansion method. Procedures including removal of previous cartilage framework, soft tissue expander insertion, and second stage of cartilage framework insertion were performed to each case regarding their local conditions. The follow-up time ranged from 6 months to 2.5 years. All of the cases recovered well with good 3-dimensional forms, symmetrical auriculocephalic angle, and stable fixation. All these evidence showed that this novel expansion method is safe, stable, and less traumatic for secondary total ear reconstruction. With sufficient expanded skin flap and refabricated cartilage framework, lifelike appearance of reconstructed ear could be acquired without causing additional injury.

  6. Active middle ear implant after lateral petrosectomy and radiotherapy for ear cancer.

    PubMed

    Cristalli, Giovanni; Sprinzl, Georg M; Wolf-Magele, Astrid; Marchesi, Paolo; Mercante, Giuseppe; Spriano, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    Tumor of the temporal bone is a rare disease with a very poor prognosis. Surgery and postoperative radiotherapy are usually the recommended treatments for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the external and middle ear, which may cause conductive hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the audiologic results and compliance of active middle ear implant (AMEI) and establish the feasibility of the procedure in a patient treated for middle ear cancer. A 73-year-old patient treated with lateral petrosectomy, neck dissection, reconstruction/obliteration by pedicled pectoralis major myocutaneous flap, and postoperative full dose radiotherapy for external and middle ear SCC was selected for AMEI. Preoperative audiometric and speech audiometry tests were performed on both ears before and after the activation. Pure tone free field audiometry. Binaural free field speech audiogram. Aided pure tone free field audiometry AMEI results show an increase in air conduction. Speech audiogram showed better discrimination scores in AMEI-aided situations. No complications were observed. AMEI after surgery followed by radiotherapy for middle ear cancer is feasible. Acoustic results in obliterated ear are satisfactory.

  7. Gustatory otalgia and wet ear syndrome: a possible cross-innervation after ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Saito, H

    1999-04-01

    The chorda tympani and Arnold's nerves have close approximation to each other and their cross-innervation is possible after ear surgery. A retrospective study was performed with a temporal bone pathology case and two clinical cases as representatives of such a possibility. Patients had severe otalgia and wet ear during gustatory stimulation. A temporal bone pathology case was studied under a light microscope. Earache and/or wet ear were provoked during gustatory stimulation. Wet ear was tested with iodine-starch reaction after the subject tasted lemon juice. The temporal bone specimen has clusters of regenerated fibers in the tympanic cavity in the area of the chorda tympani and Arnold's nerves, suggesting a possibility of mixing. There are regenerated fibers in the iter chordae anterius, showing successful bridging of the chorda tympani nerves across a long gap. Detachment of the skin over the operated mastoid bowl obscured signs in one clinical case. Another clinical case of gustatory wet ear showed objective evidence of cross-innervation with iodine-starch reaction. The detachment procedure and iodine-starch reaction were the proofs that the signs were related to regenerated fibers. This is the first report of gustatory otalgia and wet ear after ear surgery.

  8. Hyperspectral and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging to analyse the impact of Fusarium culmorum on the photosynthetic integrity of infected wheat ears.

    PubMed

    Bauriegel, Elke; Giebel, Antje; Herppich, Werner B

    2011-01-01

    Head blight on wheat, caused by Fusarium spp., is a serious problem for both farmers and food production due to the concomitant production of highly toxic mycotoxins in infected cereals. For selective mycotoxin analyses, information about the on-field status of infestation would be helpful. Early symptom detection directly on ears, together with the corresponding geographic position, would be important for selective harvesting. Hence, the capabilities of various digital imaging methods to detect head blight disease on winter wheat were tested. Time series of images of healthy and artificially Fusarium-infected ears were recorded with a laboratory hyperspectral imaging system (wavelength range: 400 nm to 1,000 nm). Disease-specific spectral signatures were evaluated with an imaging software. Applying the 'Spectral Angle Mapper' method, healthy and infected ear tissue could be clearly classified. Simultaneously, chlorophyll fluorescence imaging of healthy and infected ears, and visual rating of the severity of disease was performed. Between six and eleven days after artificial inoculation, photosynthetic efficiency of infected compared to healthy ears decreased. The severity of disease highly correlated with photosynthetic efficiency. Above an infection limit of 5% severity of disease, chlorophyll fluorescence imaging reliably recognised infected ears. With this technique, differentiation of the severity of disease was successful in steps of 10%. Depending on the quality of chosen regions of interests, hyperspectral imaging readily detects head blight 7 d after inoculation up to a severity of disease of 50%. After beginning of ripening, healthy and diseased ears were hardly distinguishable with the evaluated methods.

  9. Dysmorphism of the middle ear: case report

    PubMed Central

    Solero, P; Ferrara, M; Musto, R; Pira, A; Di Lisi, D

    2005-01-01

    Summary Although there are numerous publications in the literature describing the wide range of diagnosis, classifications and treatment of malformations of the hearing apparatus, even more variations can be found in clinical practice. Indeed, each individual case is unique as far as concerns pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment. The case reported herein describes a 12-year-old boy affected by cranio-facial dysmorphism and monolateral conductive hearing loss in the right ear: followed from radiological diagnosis – carried out to study a malformation of the ear pinna – to surgical treatment. PMID:16602328

  10. Correcting prominent ears with the island technique.

    PubMed

    DeMoura, L F

    1977-01-01

    A surgical procedure is described which corrects the ansiform ear by repositioning and reconstructing the anthelix and the anterior crus with the formation of the triangular fossa. This corrects the scaphoconchal angle and improves the cephaloauricular angle, overcoming the problem of prominent ears. Correction in early childhood is recommended in order to avoid personality problems that may result from the deformity, particularly in boys. The technique employed yields important advantages: (1) prolonged use of the helmet-type of surgical dressing is unnecessary; (2) scars are less conspicuous; (3) the outcome is attractive and normal; (4) bleeding and inflammatory complications are avoided; and (5) recurrence of the malformation is unlikely.

  11. Are two ears not better than one?

    PubMed

    McArdle, Rachel A; Killion, Mead; Mennite, Monica A; Chisolm, Theresa H

    2012-03-01

    The decision to fit one or two hearing aids in individuals with binaural hearing loss has been debated for years. Although some 78% of U.S. hearing aid fittings are binaural (Kochkin , 2010), Walden and Walden (2005) presented data showing that 82% (23 of 28 patients) of their sample obtained significantly better speech recognition in noise scores when wearing one hearing aid as opposed to two. To conduct two new experiments to fuel the monaural/binaural debate. The first experiment was a replication of Walden and Walden (2005), whereas the second experiment examined the use of binaural cues to improve speech recognition in noise. A repeated measures experimental design. Twenty veterans (aged 59-85 yr), with mild to moderately severe binaurally symmetrical hearing loss who wore binaural hearing aids were recruited from the Audiology Department at the Bay Pines VA Healthcare System. Experiment 1 followed the procedures of the Walden and Walden study, where signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss was measured using the Quick Speech-in-Noise (QuickSIN) test on participants who were aided with their current hearing aids. Signal and noise were presented in the sound booth at 0° azimuth under five test conditions: (1) right ear aided, (2) left ear aided, (3) both ears aided, (4) right ear aided, left ear plugged, and (5) unaided. The opposite ear in (1) and (2) was left open. In Experiment 2, binaural Knowles Electronics Manikin for Acoustic Research (KEMAR) manikin recordings made in Lou Malnati's pizza restaurant during a busy period provided a typical real-world noise, while prerecorded target sentences were presented through a small loudspeaker located in front of the KEMAR manikin. Subjects listened to the resulting binaural recordings through insert earphones under the following four conditions: (1) binaural, (2) diotic, (3) monaural left, and (4) monaural right. Results of repeated measures ANOVAs demonstrated that the best speech recognition in noise performance was

  12. A different type of 'glue ear': report of an unusual case of prominent ears.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Elizabeth M; O'Neill, Ann C; Regan, Padraic J

    2003-09-01

    Prominent ears is a condition that can cause extreme psychological distress in young people. This cosmetic deformity can be corrected by otoplasty, an outpatient surgical procedure that is associated with a high rate of patient satisfaction. We report the unusual case of a teenage boy who had repeatedly applied cyanoacrylate adhesive ("superglue") to his postauricular skin in an attempt to pin back his prominent ears. This case of "glue ear" was ultimately resolved by successful otoplasty, although the residual effects of the glue resulted in delayed healing of the surgical wound.

  13. The measurement of Eustachian tube function in a hyperbaric chamber using an ear canal microphone.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Hans-Georg; Koch, Andreas; Kähler, Wataru; Pohl, Michael; Pau, Hans-Wilhelm; Zehlicke, Thorsten

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to further the understanding of the opening of the Eustachian tube in relation to changes in barometric pressure. An ear canal microphone was used to measure the specific sounds related to tube opening and possible eardrum movements. Five subjects with normal tube function were examined in a hyperbaric chamber (up to 304 kPa). All active and passive equalization events were recorded and correlated with the subjectively perceived pressure regulation in the measured ear. The signals recorded were clear and reproducible. The acoustic analysis distinguished between the different kinds of equalization. Subjective impressions were confirmed by the recorded frequency of acoustic phenomena (clicks). During compression, the sequence of active equalization manoeuvres was in a more regular and steady pattern than during decompression, when the click sounds varied. The study established a simple technical method for analyzing the function of the Eustachian tube and provided new information about barometric pressure regulation of the middle ear.

  14. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Early Arithmetic, Reading, and Learning Indicators (EARLI)☆

    PubMed Central

    Norwalk, Kate E.; DiPerna, James Clyde; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing interest in early intervention, there are few measures available to monitor the progress of early academic skills in preschoolers. The Early Arithmetic, Reading, and Learning Indicators (EARLI; DiPerna, Morgan, & Lei, 2007) were developed as brief assessments of critical early literacy and numeracy skills. The purpose of the current study was to examine the factor structure of the EARLI probes via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in a sample of Head Start preschoolers (N = 289). A two-factor model with correlated error terms and a bifactor model provided comparable fit to the data, although there were some structural problems with the latter model. The utility of the bifactor model for explaining the structure of early academic skills as well as the utility of the EARLI probes as measures of literacy and numeracy skills in preschool are discussed. PMID:24495496

  15. Effect of middle ear fluid on sound transmission and auditory brainstem response in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiying; Gan, Rong Z

    2011-07-01

    Combined measurements of middle ear transfer function and auditory brainstem response (ABR) in live guinea pigs with middle ear effusion (MEE) are reported in this paper. The MEE model was created by injecting saline into the middle ear cavity. Vibrations of the tympanic membrane (TM), the tip of the incus, and the round window membrane (RWM) were measured with a laser vibrometer at frequencies of 0.2-40 kHz when the middle ear fluid increased from 0 to 0.2 ml (i.e., full fill of the cavity). The click and pure tone ABRs were recorded as the middle ear fluid increased. Fluid introduction reduced mobility of the TM, incus and RWM mainly at high frequencies (f > 1 kHz). The magnitude of this reduction was related to the volume of fluid. The displacement transmission ratio of the TM to incus varied with frequency and fluid level. The volume displacement ratio of the oval window to round window was approximately 1.0 over most frequencies. Elevation of ABR thresholds and prolongation of ABR latencies were observed as fluid level increased. Reduction of TM displacement correlated well with elevation of ABR threshold at 0.5-8 kHz. Alterations in the ratio of ossicular displacements before and after fluid induction are consistent with fluid-induced changes in complex ossicular motions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Optical Imaging with a High Resolution Microendoscope to Identify Cholesteatoma of the Middle Ear

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Lauren L.; Jiang, Nancy; Smouha, Eric; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Sikora, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective High resolution optical imaging is an imaging modality which allows visualization of structural changes in epithelial tissue in real time. Our prior studies using contrast-enhanced microendoscopy to image squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck demonstrated that the contrast agent, proflavine, has high affinity for keratinized tissue. Thus, high-resolution microendoscopy with proflavine provides a potential mechanism to identify ectopic keratin production, such as that associated with cholesteatoma formation and distinguish between uninvolved mucosa and residual keratin at the time of surgery. Study Design Ex vivo imaging of histopathologically-confirmed samples of cholesteatoma and uninvolved middle-ear epithelium. Methods Seven separate specimens collected from patients who underwent surgical treatment for cholesteatoma were imaged ex vivo with the fiberoptic endoscope after surface staining with proflavine. Following imaging, the specimens were submitted for hematoxylin &eosin staining to allow histopathological correlation. Results Cholesteatoma and surrounding middle ear epithelium have distinct imaging characteristics. Keratin-bearing areas of cholesteatoma lack nuclei and appear as confluent hyperfluorescence, while nuclei are easily visualized in specimens containing normal middle ear epithelium. Hyperfluorescence and loss of cellular detail is the imaging hallmark of keratin allowing for discrimination of cholesteatoma from normal middle ear epithelium. Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of high-resolution optical imaging to discriminate cholesteatoma from uninvolved middle ear mucosa, based on the unique staining properties of keratin. Use of real-time imaging may facilitate more complete extirpation of cholesteatoma by identifying areas of residual disease. PMID:23299781

  17. [An ear thermometer based on infrared thermopiles sensor].

    PubMed

    Xie, Haiyuan; Qian, Mingli

    2013-09-01

    According to the development of body temperature measurement mode, an ear thermometer with infrared thermopiles sensor is designed for body thermometry Compared with oral thermometer, the accuracy of ear thermometer is acceptable.

  18. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders Pediatric Obesity ... self-esteem, and isolation from their peers. Pediatric obesity and otolaryngic problems Otolaryngologists, or ear, nose, and ...

  19. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Although there is no proven medical link between middle ear infections and pediatric obesity there may be a behavioral association between the two conditions. Some studies have found that when a child is rubbing or massaging the infected ear the ...

  20. Transmission matrix analysis of the chinchilla middle ear

    PubMed Central

    Songer, Jocelyn E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the common use of the chinchilla as an animal model in auditory research, a complete characterization of the chinchilla middle ear using transmission matrix analysis has not been performed. In this paper we describe measurements of middle-ear input admittance and stapes velocity in ears with the middle-ear cavity opened under three conditions: intact tympano-ossicular system and cochlea, after the cochlea has been drained, and after the stapes has been fixed. These measurements, made with stimulus frequencies of 100–8000 Hz, are used to define the transmission matrix parameters of the middle ear and to calculate the cochlear input impedance as well as the middle-ear output impedance. This transmission characterization of the chinchilla middle ear will be useful for modeling auditory sensitivity in the normal and pathological chinchilla ear. PMID:17672642

  1. Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your doctor about ear tube surgery; Tympanostomy - what to ask your doctor; Myringotomy - what to ask your doctor ... need ear tubes? Can we try other treatments? What are the risks of the surgery? Is it ...

  2. Field screening of experimental corn hybrids and inbred lines for multiple ear-feeding insect resistance.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xinzhi; Xu, Wenwei; Krakowsky, Matthew D; Buntin, G David; Brown, Steve L; Lee, R Dewey; Coy, Anton E

    2007-10-01

    Identifying and using native insect resistance genes is the core of integrated pest management. In this study, 10 experimental corn, Zea mays L., hybrids and 10 inbred lines were screened for resistance to major ear-feeding insects in the southeastern Coastal Plain region of the United States during 2004 and 2005. Ear-feeding insect damage was assessed at harvest by visual damage rating for the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and by the percentage of kernels damaged by the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, and stink bugs [combination of Euschistus servus (Say) and southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.)]. Among the eight inbred lines and two control populations examined, C3S1B73-5b was resistant to corn earworm, maize weevil, and stink bugs. In contrast, C3S1B73-4 was resistant to corn earworm and stink bugs, but not to maize weevil. In a similar manner, the corn hybrid S1W*CML343 was resistant to all three ear-feeding insects, whereas hybrid C3S1B73-3*Tx205 was resistant to corn earworm and maize weevil in both growing seasons, but susceptible to stink bugs in 2005. The silk-feeding bioassay showed that corn earworm developed better on corn silk than did fall armyworm. Among all phenotypic traits examined (i.e., corn ear size, husk extension, and husk tightness), only corn ear size was negatively correlated to corn earworm damage in the inbred lines examined, whereas only husk extension (i.e., coverage) was negatively correlated to both corn earworm and maize weevil damage on the experimental hybrids examined. Such information could be used to establish a baseline for developing agronomically elite corn germplasm that confers multiple ear-feeding insect resistance.

  3. Phylogenetic distribution and expression of a penicillin-binding protein homologue, Ear and its significance in virulence of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vineet K; Ring, Robert P; Aswani, Vijay; Stemper, Mary E; Kislow, Jennifer; Ye, Zhan; Shukla, Sanjay K

    2017-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic human pathogen that can cause serious infections in humans. A plethora of known and putative virulence factors are produced by staphylococci that collectively orchestrate pathogenesis. Ear protein (Escherichia coli ampicillin resistance) in S. aureus is an exoprotein in COL strain, predicted to be a superantigen, and speculated to play roles in antibiotic resistance and virulence. The goal of this study was to determine if expression of ear is modulated by single nucleotide polymorphisms in its promoter and coding sequences and whether this gene plays roles in antibiotic resistance and virulence. Promoter, coding sequences and expression of the ear gene in clinical and carriage S. aureus strains with distinct genetic backgrounds were analysed. The JE2 strain and its isogenic ear mutant were used in a systemic infection mouse model to determine the competiveness of the ear mutant.Results/Key findings. The ear gene showed a variable expression, with USA300FPR3757 showing a high-level expression compared to many of the other strains tested including some showing negligible expression. Higher expression was associated with agr type 1 but not correlated with phylogenetic relatedness of the ear gene based upon single nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter or coding regions suggesting a complex regulation. An isogenic JE2 (USA300 background) ear mutant showed no significant difference in its growth, antibiotic susceptibility or virulence in a mouse model. Our data suggests that despite being highly expressed in a USA300 genetic background, Ear is not a significant contributor to virulence in that strain.

  4. Getting Teens to Read with Their Ears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fues, Marianne Cole

    2009-01-01

    Audiobooks have been around for years in various formats, like cassette tapes and CDs. This article describes a new type of audiobook on the market which is generating an interest in "reading." The device, called Playaway, is the size of a MP3 player and comes with a lanyard and ear buds. Buttons on the back of the player control the…

  5. Congenital tuberculosis localised to the ear.

    PubMed Central

    Naranbhai, R C; Mathiassen, W; Malan, A F

    1989-01-01

    We report two infants who had localised congenital tuberculous otitis. In both cases the infants presented with an ear discharge and both mothers had been diagnosed as having miliary tuberculosis. Infection is thought to have occurred in utero or during birth. Images Figure PMID:2786383

  6. A systematic review on external ear melanoma.

    PubMed

    Toia, Francesca; Garbo, Giuseppe; Tripoli, Massimiliano; Rinaldi, Gaetana; Moschella, Francesco; Cordova, Adriana

    2015-07-01

    External ear melanoma accounts for only 1% of all cutaneous melanomas, and data on its optimal management and prognosis are limited. We aim to review the literature on external ear melanoma to guide surgeons in the treatment of this uncommon and peculiar pathology. A systematic review of English language studies on ear melanoma published from 1993 to 2013 was performed using the PubMed electronic database. Data on epidemiology, oncological treatment (tumor resection and regional lymph nodes management), and reconstruction were extrapolated from selected papers. The total number of patients was 858 (30 studies). The helix was the most common location (57%); superficial spreading melanoma was the most common histopathological subtype (41%). The mean Breslow thickness was 2.01 mm, with 88% of stage I-II patients. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed in 45% of patients, with 8% of positive nodes. Available data on its prognosis are fragmentary and contrasting, but the Breslow thickness appears to be the main prognostic factor. There is a tendency towards reduced resection margins and preservation of the underlying perichondrium and cartilage. Local flaps are the most popular reconstructive option. To the best of our knowledge, this systematic review presents the largest data series on external ear melanoma. There is no general agreement on its surgical management, but a favorable prognosis seems to justify the tendency towards conservative treatments. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Surgical correction of the cauliflower ear.

    PubMed

    Vogelin, E; Grobbelaar, A O; Chana, J S; Gault, D T

    1998-07-01

    The cauliflower ear presents a challenge to the surgeon. Patients complain of discomfort and appearance. Three patients were treated surgically via a posterior approach to remove the hardened segment and re-sculpture a leaf of cartilage left in place. An acceptable cosmetic result was achieved and all patients are currently pain free.

  8. Interaction Between Allergy and Middle Ear Infection.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Woo Jin

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have attempted to identify interactions among the causes of otitis media with effusion (OME). This review discusses the interaction between allergy and infection with regard to host and environmental factors in terms of the development of OME. Protection of the upper airway against microbial invasion requires active interaction between the defense mechanisms of the respiratory epithelium, including innate and adaptive immunity, and mechanical factors. The impairment of these defenses due to allergy and/or increased bacterial resistance may lead to increased susceptibility to infectious organisms in the respiratory tract and middle ear mucosa. Recent genetic studies have provided valuable information about the association of Toll-like receptor signaling variations with clinical phenotypes and the risk of infection in the middle ear. Among the causal factors of OME, allergy not only induces an inflammatory reaction in the middle ear cavity but also facilitates the invasion of infectious pathogens. There is also evidence that allergy can affect the susceptibility of patients to infection of the upper respiratory tract, including the middle ear cavity.

  9. A review of microvascular ear replantation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung Won; Lee, Junsang; Oh, Suk Joon; Koh, Sung Hoon; Chung, Chul Hoon; Lee, Jong Wook

    2013-03-01

    Microvascular ear replantation is a significant challenge because of the small size of the vessels and the fact that traumatic amputations are frequently avulsed. The zone of trauma is therefore extended and the primary repair of the injured vessel is rendered unlikely. The purpose of this study is to review the literature of ear replantation. A review of the relevant literature that has been published since 1980 revealed 47 cases reported in 37 publications. We present 5 cases from our own experience and analyze a total 52 cases of microvascular ear replantation. The patient's age, sex, degree of amputation, cause of injury, ischemic time, method of arterial and venous anastomosis, complications, any additional outflow used, postoperative medications, the requirement for transfusions, and the number of hospital admission days are described. Successful microvascular ear replantations require anastomosis of the vessels if possible. Rather than a vein graft, primary repair of the vessels, or at least pedicled repair of the artery, should be considered to ensure flap survival. In addition, vein repair should be considered if possible to ensure the secure drainage of blood from the replant. With secure circulation, the replant can survive, resulting in a very satisfactory outcome. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Keep Your Ear-Lids Open.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrington, Gary

    1994-01-01

    This article suggests that the development of listening skills should extend to the "soundscape" of nonspeech acoustical information. It presents a model for effective aural processing, identifies categories of information obtained from nonverbal sound, and explores "ear-tuning" or listening exercises that use sound to glean…

  11. [The effect of OSAHS on middle ear and inner ear vestibule function advances].

    PubMed

    Li, K L; Li, J R

    2016-05-20

    Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome(OSAHS) as a common frequentlyoccurring disease, it can cause repeated episodes of hypoxaemia and hypercapnia during sleep. With long period of hypoxaemia, obvious pathological changes and dysfunction emerged in heart,brain and lung then all kinds of clinical symptoms appear. Because of the middle ear and inner ear themselves anatomical characteristics and blood supply of regulating mechanism, they often has been damaged before the other important organ damage. As scholars have indepth study of the auditory system complications in patients with OSAHS, various influence of OSAHS on the middle ear,inner ear also gradually be known.This paper will review the effect of OSAHS on middle ear, inner ear and vestibule function, hope to have some application value for clinical work. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

  12. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation of...

  13. The middle ear mass: a rare but important diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pankhania, Miran; Rourke, Thomas; Draper, Mark R

    2011-12-02

    The authors report a rare case of primary intracranial meningioma presenting as a middle ear mass with conductive hearing loss. The authors aim to highlight the importance of diagnosing a middle ear mass, which although rare, may have a substantial impact on ongoing patient management. A discussion of other middle ear pathologies is made in order to demonstrate the subtle differences in presentation.

  14. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation of...

  15. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation of...

  16. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation of...

  17. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation of...

  18. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... technology and software not subject to the EAR are described in §§ 734.7 through 734.11 and supplement no. 1... of items subject to the EAR out of the United States, or release of technology or software subject to... source code and object code software subject to the EAR. (2) Export of technology or software. (See...

  19. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... technology and software not subject to the EAR are described in §§ 734.7 through 734.11 and supplement no. 1... of items subject to the EAR out of the United States, or release of technology or software subject to... source code and object code software subject to the EAR. (2) Export of technology or software. (See...

  20. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... technology and software not subject to the EAR are described in §§ 734.7 through 734.11 and supplement no. 1... of items subject to the EAR out of the United States, or release of technology or software subject to... source code and object code software subject to the EAR. (2) Export of technology or software. (See...

  1. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... technology and software not subject to the EAR are described in §§ 734.7 through 734.11 and supplement no. 1... of items subject to the EAR out of the United States, or release of technology or software subject to... source code and object code software subject to the EAR. (2) Export of technology or software. (See...

  2. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... technology and software not subject to the EAR are described in §§ 734.7 through 734.11 and supplement no. 1... of items subject to the EAR out of the United States, or release of technology or software subject to... source code and object code software subject to the EAR. (2) Export of technology or software. (See...

  3. Role of skeletal muscle in ear development.

    PubMed

    Rot, Irena; Baguma-Nibasheka, Mark; Costain, Willard J; Hong, Paul; Tafra, Robert; Mardesic-Brakus, Snjezana; Mrduljas-Djujic, Natasa; Saraga-Babic, Mirna; Kablar, Boris

    2017-10-01

    The current paper is a continuation of our work described in Rot and Kablar, 2010. Here, we show lists of 10 up- and 87 down-regulated genes obtained by a cDNA microarray analysis that compared developing Myf5-/-:Myod-/- (and Mrf4-/-) petrous part of the temporal bone, containing middle and inner ear, to the control, at embryonic day 18.5. Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses entirely lack skeletal myoblasts and muscles. They are unable to move their head, which interferes with the perception of angular acceleration. Previously, we showed that the inner ear areas most affected in Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses were the vestibular cristae ampullaris, sensitive to angular acceleration. Our finding that the type I hair cells were absent in the mutants' cristae was further used here to identify a profile of genes specific to the lacking cell type. Microarrays followed by a detailed consultation of web-accessible mouse databases allowed us to identify 6 candidate genes with a possible role in the development of the inner ear sensory organs: Actc1, Pgam2, Ldb3, Eno3, Hspb7 and Smpx. Additionally, we searched for human homologues of the candidate genes since a number of syndromes in humans have associated inner ear abnormalities. Mutations in one of our candidate genes, Smpx, have been reported as the cause of X-linked deafness in humans. Our current study suggests an epigenetic role that mechanical, and potentially other, stimuli originating from muscle, play in organogenesis, and offers an approach to finding novel genes responsible for altered inner ear phenotypes.

  4. [European Portuguese EARS test battery adaptation].

    PubMed

    Alves, Marisa; Ramos, Daniela; Oliveira, Graça; Alves, Helena; Anderson, Ilona; Magalhães, Isabel; Martins, Jorge H; Simões, Margarida; Ferreira, Raquel; Fonseca, Rita; Andrade, Susana; Silva, Luís; Ribeiro, Carlos; Ferreira, Pedro Lopes

    2014-01-01

    The use of adequate assessment tools in health care is crucial for the management of care. The lack of specific tools in Portugal for assessing the performance of children who use cochlear implants motivated the translation and adaptation of the EARS (Evaluation of Auditory Responses to Speech) test battery into European Portuguese. This test battery is today one of the most commonly used by (re)habilitation teams of deaf children who use cochlear implants worldwide. The goal to be achieved with the validation of EARS was to provide (re)habilitation teams an instrument that enables: (i) monitoring the progress of individual (re)habilitation, (ii) managing a (re)habilitation program according to objective results, comparable between different (re)habilitation teams, (iii) obtaining data that can be compared with the results of international teams, and (iv) improving engagement and motivation of the family and other professionals from local teams. For the test battery translation and adaptation process, the adopted procedures were the following: (i) translation of the English version into European Portuguese by a professional translator, (ii) revision of the translation performed by an expert panel, including doctors, speech-language pathologists and audiologists, (iii) adaptation of the test stimuli by the team's speechlanguage pathologist, and (iv) further review by the expert panel. For each of the tests that belong to the EARS battery, the introduced adaptations and adjustments are presented, combining the characteristics and objectives of the original tests with the linguistic and cultural specificities of the Portuguese population. The difficulties that have been encountered during the translation and adaptation process and the adopted solutions are discussed. Comparisons are made with other versions of the EARS battery. We defend that the translation and the adaptation process followed for the EARS test battery into European Portuguese was correctly conducted

  5. Petrosal anatomy and inner ear structures of the Late Jurassic Henkelotherium (Mammalia, Cladotheria, Dryolestoidea): insight into the early evolution of the ear region in cladotherian mammals

    PubMed Central

    Ruf, Irina; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Wible, John R; Martin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The petrosal anatomy and inner ear structure of Jurassic cladotherian mammals represent the ancestral morphological conditions (groundplan) from which modern therian mammals (marsupials and placentals) have evolved. We present the reconstruction of the petrosal and inner ear features of the Late Jurassic dryolestoid mammal Henkelotherium guimarotae from high-resolution computed tomography and three-dimensional imaging analysis. This study of Henkelotherium revealed a combination of derived and primitive features, including: cladotherian apomorphies, such as the promontorial sulcus for the internal carotid artery and reduced lateral trough; trechnotherian characters, such as an enclosed cochlear canaliculus for the perilymphatic duct, post-promontorial tympanic sinus and caudal tympanic process; in addition to plesiomorphic mammalian features, such as the cavum supracochleare and prootic canal. The inner ear of Henkelotherium shows a division between the utricle and saccule, a cochlear canal coiled through at least 270°, a distinctive primary bony lamina for the basilar membrane, and a secondary bony lamina. The development of the primary and secondary bony laminae in the cochlear canal is suggested here to be correlated with the concurrent coiling of the bony canal and membranous duct of the inner ear cochlea, apomorphies of the more inclusive cladotherian clade that also represent the ancestral morphotype of modern therian mammals. Because these features are crucial for high-frequency hearing in extant therian mammals, their early appearance in Late Jurassic cladotherians suggests a more ancient origination for high-frequency hearing in mammalian history than previously thought. PMID:19438763

  6. Naturopathic treatment for ear pain in children.

    PubMed

    Sarrell, E Michael; Cohen, Herman Avner; Kahan, Ernesto

    2003-05-01

    Otitis media is 1 of the most frequent diseases of early infancy and childhood and 1 of the most common reasons for children to visit a physician. In the past 2 decades, there has been a substantial increase in the diagnosis of otitis media worldwide. In the United States, 93% of all children have had at least 1 episode of acute otitis media (AOM) by 7 years of age. Otalgia is the hallmark of AOM. Most affected children either complain of earache or manifest behavior that the parents interpret as indicating ear pain. Treatment of the ear pain early in the course of AOM decreases both parental anxiety and the child's discomfort and accelerates the healing process. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and tolerability of naturopathic versus traditional treatment for the management of otalgia commonly associated with AOM in children. The study was designed as a double-blind trial in an outpatient community clinic. A total of 171 children who were aged 5 to 18 years and had otalgia and clinical findings associated with middle-ear infection were studied. The children were randomly assigned to receive treatment with Naturopathic Herbal Extract Ear Drops (NHED) or anesthetic ear drops, with or without amoxicillin. On enrollment, the children were assigned by computer-numbered randomization to receive NHED (contents: allium sativum, verbascum thapsus, calendula flores, hypericum perfoliatum, lavender, and vitamin E in olive oil) 5 drops 3 times daily, alone (group A) or together with a topical anesthetic (amethocaine and phenazone in glycerin) 5 drops 3 times daily (group B), or oral amoxicillin 80 mg/kg/d (maximum 500 mg/dose) divided into 3 doses with either NHED 5 drops 3 times daily (group C) or topical anesthetic 5 drops 3 times daily (group D). A double-blind design was used, and all ear drops were placed in identical bottles. Treatment was initiated by the nurse in all cases. A single physician (M.S.) evaluated and treated all of the patients

  7. Chinchilla middle ear transmission matrix model and middle-ear flexibilitya)

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2017-01-01

    The function of the middle ear (ME) in transforming ME acoustic inputs and outputs (sound pressures and volume velocities) can be described with an acoustic two-port transmission matrix. This description is independent of the load on the ME (cochlea or ear canal) and holds in either direction: forward (from ear canal to cochlea) or reverse (from cochlea to ear canal). A transmission matrix describing ME function in chinchilla, an animal commonly used in auditory research, is presented, computed from measurements of forward ME function: input admittance YTM, ME pressure gain GMEP, ME velocity transfer function HV, and cochlear input admittance YC, in the same set of ears [Ravicz and Rosowski (2012b). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 2437–2454; (2013a). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 2208–2223; (2013b). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 2852–2865]. Unlike previous estimates, these computations require no assumptions about the state of the inner ear, effectiveness of ME manipulations, or measurements of sound transmission in the reverse direction. These element values are generally consistent with physical constraints and the anatomical ME “transformer ratio.” Differences from a previous estimate in chinchilla [Songer and Rosowski (2007). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 932–942] may be due to a difference in ME flexibility between the two subject groups. PMID:28599566

  8. Chinchilla middle ear transmission matrix model and middle-ear flexibility.

    PubMed

    Ravicz, Michael E; Rosowski, John J

    2017-05-01

    The function of the middle ear (ME) in transforming ME acoustic inputs and outputs (sound pressures and volume velocities) can be described with an acoustic two-port transmission matrix. This description is independent of the load on the ME (cochlea or ear canal) and holds in either direction: forward (from ear canal to cochlea) or reverse (from cochlea to ear canal). A transmission matrix describing ME function in chinchilla, an animal commonly used in auditory research, is presented, computed from measurements of forward ME function: input admittance Y TM , ME pressure gain G MEP , ME velocity transfer function H V , and cochlear input admittance Y C , in the same set of ears [Ravicz and Rosowski (2012b). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 2437-2454; (2013a). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 2208-2223; (2013b). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 2852-2865]. Unlike previous estimates, these computations require no assumptions about the state of the inner ear, effectiveness of ME manipulations, or measurements of sound transmission in the reverse direction. These element values are generally consistent with physical constraints and the anatomical ME "transformer ratio." Differences from a previous estimate in chinchilla [Songer and Rosowski (2007). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 932-942] may be due to a difference in ME flexibility between the two subject groups.

  9. Associations of planting date, drought stress, and insects with Fusarium ear rot and fumonisin B1 contamination in California maize.

    PubMed

    Parsons, M W; Munkvold, G P

    2010-05-01

    Fusarium ear rot, caused by Fusarium verticillioides, is one of the most common diseases of maize, causing yield and quality reductions and contamination of grain by fumonisins and other mycotoxins. Drought stress and various insects have been implicated as factors affecting disease severity. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the interactions and relative influences of drought stress, insect infestation, and planting date upon Fusarium ear rot severity and fumonisin B1 contamination. Three hybrids varying in partial resistance to Fusarium ear rot were sown on three planting dates and subjected to four irrigation regimes to induce differing levels of drought stress. A foliar-spray insecticide treatment was imposed to induce differing levels of insect injury. Populations of thrips (Frankliniella spp.), damage by corn earworm (Helicoverpa zeae), Fusarium ear rot symptoms, and fumonisin B1 levels were assessed. There were significant effects of hybrid, planting date, insecticide treatment, and drought stress on Fusarium ear rot symptoms and fumonisin B1 contamination, and these factors also had significant interacting effects. The most influential factors were hybrid and insecticide treatment, but their effects were influenced by planting date and drought stress. The more resistant hybrids and the insecticide-treated plots consistently had lower Fusarium ear rot severity and fumonisin B1 contamination. Later planting dates typically had higher thrips populations, more Fusarium ear rot, and higher levels of fumonisin B1. Insect activity was significantly correlated with disease severity and fumonisin contamination, and the correlations were strongest for thrips. The results of this study confirm the influence of thrips on Fusarium ear rot severity in California, USA, and also establish a strong association between thrips and fumonisin B1 levels.

  10. Does perinatal asphyxia induce apoptosis in the inner ear?

    PubMed

    Schmutzhard, Joachim; Glueckert, Rudolf; Sergi, Consolato; Schwentner, Ilona; Abraham, Irene; Schrott-Fischer, Annelies

    2009-04-01

    Pre- and perinatal asphyxia is known to be an important risk factor in the development of neonatal hearing impairment. This study aims to evaluate the role of apoptosis, which is known to play an essential role in the development of the inner ear structures, in the development of neonatal hearing loss caused by pre- and perinatal asphyxia. Eight temporal bones of six different newborns were included. We performed a morphologic analysis by both light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, as well as immunohistochemical staining to detect the cleaved form of caspase 3 as apoptosis marker and Bcl 2 as anti-apoptotic marker. Early and late phases of apoptosis were evidenced by condensation of chromatin (electron-dense, black structure along nuclear membrane) and fragmentation of the nucleus, respectively. Changes in nuclear morphology during apoptosis correlate with cleavage by caspase 3 located downstream of Bcl 2 action. The immunohistochemistry for cleaved caspase 3 showed a particular predilection for the inner and outer hair cells, spiral ganglion cells and the marginal cells of the stria vascularis. The brain of all examined cases did not show signs of apoptosis. In summary, this investigation suggests that apoptosis takes place before brain tissue apoptosis and is probably an earlier event than thought. Apoptosis of the cochlea is known to play an essential role in the development of the inner ear. Additionally, this study shows that apoptosis may play an important role in the development of hearing impairment, caused by pre- and perinatal asphyxia.

  11. Mechanisms of Hearing Loss after Blast Injury to the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Il; Gao, Simon S.; Xia, Anping; Wang, Rosalie; Salles, Felipe T.; Raphael, Patrick D.; Abaya, Homer; Wachtel, Jacqueline; Baek, Jongmin; Jacobs, David; Rasband, Matthew N.; Oghalai, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the frequent use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) around the world, the study of traumatic blast injuries is of increasing interest. The ear is the most common organ affected by blast injury because it is the body’s most sensitive pressure transducer. We fabricated a blast chamber to re-create blast profiles similar to that of IEDs and used it to develop a reproducible mouse model to study blast-induced hearing loss. The tympanic membrane was perforated in all mice after blast exposure and found to heal spontaneously. Micro-computed tomography demonstrated no evidence for middle ear or otic capsule injuries; however, the healed tympanic membrane was thickened. Auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission threshold shifts were found to be correlated with blast intensity. As well, these threshold shifts were larger than those found in control mice that underwent surgical perforation of their tympanic membranes, indicating cochlear trauma. Histological studies one week and three months after the blast demonstrated no disruption or damage to the intra-cochlear membranes. However, there was loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) within the basal turn of the cochlea and decreased spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and afferent nerve synapses. Using our mouse model that recapitulates human IED exposure, our results identify that the mechanisms underlying blast-induced hearing loss does not include gross membranous rupture as is commonly believed. Instead, there is both OHC and SGN loss that produce auditory dysfunction. PMID:23840874

  12. Anthropometric growth study of the ear in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shichun; Li, Dianguo; Liu, Zhenzhong; Wang, Yibiao; Liu, Lei; Jiang, Duyin; Pan, Bo

    2018-04-01

    A large number of anthropometric studies of the auricle have been reported in different nations, but little data were available in the Chinese population. The aim of this study was to analyze growth changes in the ear by measuring the width and length of ears in a Chinese population. A total of 480 participants were enrolled and classified into 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, 9-, 12-, 14-, and 18-year groups (half were boys and half were girls in each group). Ear length, ear width, body weight, and body length were measured and recorded; ear index was calculated according to ear length and ear width. The growth of auricle and differences between genders were analyzed. Growth of ear in relation to body height and weight and the degree of emphasis on the length and width of the auricle were also analyzed. Ear length and width increased with age. Ear length achieved its mature size in both 14-year-old males and females. Ear width reached its mature size in males at 7 years and in females at 5 years. Different trends of ear index were shown between males and females. People in this population paid more attention to the length than the width of the auricle. The data indicated that ear development followed increase in age. There were gender and ethnic difference in the development of ear. These results may have potential implications for the diagnosis of congenital malformations, syndromes, and planning of ear reconstruction surgery. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Ear Care in Coastal Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Dosemane, Deviprasad; Ganapathi, Keerthan; Kanthila, Jayashree

    2015-12-01

    Ear as an organ is necessary for the perception of sound and body balance. Ear infection, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and excessive use of mobile phone for listening to music at high volume all can reduce hearing. No earlier study was available in the costal Karnataka population, regarding the practice of ear care. The study objective was to ascertain the level of knowledge of the community regarding ear care, to find out whether some of the common conditions affecting hearing are known and to find out the common practices involved in maintaining ear hygiene. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 subjects in two tertiary care hospitals by convenient sampling, using self-administered questionnaire. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice across the age groups, religion & education background were studied. Across different education groups, 66.7%-90% did not know that 'cold' can cause ear infection and 46.7%-75.0% did not know that diabetes and hypertension can reduce hearing. When there is ear pain or discharge, people put ear drops available at home in 48.3%-75.0% across 3 age groups; 58.5%-61.5% across 3 religions and 44.8%-67.9% across 5 education groups. No statistically significant difference was found in the practice of pouring oil into ears across religions. A total of 58.6%-100% daily clean inside the ear and 70-100% use cotton buds. General perception of the people is that ear is necessary only for hearing. Majority did not know that nasal infection can affect the ear and that DM and hypertension can cause hearing loss. When there is ear pain and discharge, most of the adults put drops that are available at home. Pouring oil into the ears and cleaning inside the ear canals is routinely practiced in costal Karnataka.

  14. Correction of Lying Ears by Augmentation of the Conchoscaphal Angle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Eun; Yeo, Chi-Ho; Kim, Taegon; Kim, Yong-Ha; Lee, Jun Ho; Chung, Kyu-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Lying ears are defined as ears that protrude less from the head, and in frontal view, are characterized by lateral positioning of antihelical contour relative to the helical rim. These aesthetically displeasing ears require correction in accord with the goals of otoplasty stated by McDowell. The authors present a case of lying ears treated by correcting the conchomastoid angle using Z-plasty, resection of posterior auricular muscle, and correction of the conchoscaphal angle by releasing cartilage using 2 full-thickness incisions and grafting of a conchal cartilage spacer. By combining these techniques, the authors efficiently corrected lying ears and produced aesthetically pleasing results.

  15. Management of auricular hematoma and the cauliflower ear.

    PubMed

    Greywoode, Jewel D; Pribitkin, Edmund A; Krein, Howard

    2010-12-01

    Acute auricular hematoma is common after blunt trauma to the side of the head. A network of vessels provides a rich blood supply to the ear, and the ear cartilage receives its nutrients from the overlying perichondrium. Prompt management of hematoma includes drainage and prevention of reaccumulation. If left untreated, an auricular hematoma can result in complications such as perichondritis, infection, and necrosis. Cauliflower ear may result from long-standing loss of blood supply to the ear cartilage and formation of neocartilage from disrupted perichondrium. Management of cauliflower ear involves excision of deformed cartilage and reshaping of the auricle. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  16. THE POTENTIAL ROLE OF ENDOGENOUS STEM CELLS IN REGENERATION OF THE INNER EAR

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Monedero, Rodrigo; Oshima, Kazuo; Heller, Stefan; Edge, Albert S.B.

    2007-01-01

    Stem cells in various mammalian tissues retain the capacity to renew themselves and may be able to restore damaged tissue. Their existence has been proven by genetic tracer studies that demonstrate their differentiation into multiple tissue types and by their ability to self-renew through proliferation. Stem cells from the adult nervous system proliferate to form clonal floating colonies called spheres in vitro, and recent studies have demonstrated sphere formation by cells in the cochlea in addition to the vestibular system and the auditory ganglia, indicating that these tissues contain cells with stem cell properties. The presence of stem cells in the inner ear raises the hope of regeneration of mammalian inner ear cells but is difficult to correlate with the lack spontaneous regeneration seen in the inner ear after tissue damage. Loss of stem cells postnatally in the cochlea may correlate with the loss of regenerative capacity and may limit our ability to stimulate regeneration. Retention of sphere forming capacity in adult vestibular tissues suggests that the limited capacity for repair may be attributed to the continued presence of progenitor cells. Future strategies for regeneration must consider the distribution of endogenous stem cells in the inner ear and whether cells with the capacity for regeneration are retained. PMID:17321086

  17. Breeding maize for resistance to ear rot caused by Fusarium moniliforme.

    PubMed

    Hefny, M; Attaa, S; Bayoumi, T; Ammar, S; El-Bramawy, M

    2012-01-15

    Maize ear rots are among the most important impediments to increased maize production in Egypt. The present research was conducted to estimate combining abilities, heterosis and correlation coefficients for resistance to ear rot disease in seven corn inbred lines and their 21 crosses under field conditions. Results demonstrated that both additive and non-additive gene actions were responsible for the genetic expression of all characters with the preponderance of non-additive actions for days to 50% silking. The parental line L51 was the best combiner for earliness, low infection severity %, high phenols content, short plants and reasonable grain yield, while L101 was good combiner for low ear rot infection only. The cross: L122 x L84, L122 x L101, L51 x L101, L76 x L36, L76 x L84, L36 x L84, L36 x L81 and L36 x L101 which involved one or both parents with good General Combining Ability (GCA) effects expressed useful significant heterosis and Specific Combining Ability (SCA) effects for low infection severity %, high phenol contents, early silking, tall plants and high grain yield. Phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficients suggest that selection for resistance to ear rot should identify lines with high yielding ability, early silking, tall plants, high phenols content and chitinase activity.

  18. Estimation of outer-middle ear transmission using DPOAEs and fractional-order modeling of human middle ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghibolhosseini, Maryam

    Our ability to hear depends primarily on sound waves traveling through the outer and middle ear toward the inner ear. Hence, the characteristics of the outer and middle ear affect sound transmission to/from the inner ear. The role of the middle and outer ear in sound transmission is particularly important for otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), which are sound signals generated in a healthy cochlea, and recorded by a sensitive microphone placed in the ear canal. OAEs are used to evaluate the health and function of the cochlea; however, they are also affected by outer and middle ear characteristics. To better assess cochlear health using OAEs, it is critical to quantify the impact of the outer and middle ear on sound transmission. The reported research introduces a noninvasive approach to estimate outer-middle ear transmission using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). In addition, the role of the outer and middle ear on sound transmission was investigated by developing a physical/mathematical model, which employed fractional-order lumped elements to include the viscoelastic characteristics of biological tissues. Impedance estimations from wideband refectance measurements were used for parameter fitting of the model. The model was validated comparing its estimates of the outer-middle ear sound transmission with those given by DPOAEs. The outer-middle ear transmission by the model was defined as the sum of forward and reverse outer-middle ear transmissions. To estimate the reverse transmission by the model, the probe-microphone impedance was calculated through estimating the Thevenin-equivalent circuit of the probe-microphone. The Thevenin-equivalent circuit was calculated using measurements in a number of test cavities. Such modeling enhances our understanding of the roles of different parts of the outer and middle ear and how they work together to determine their function. In addition, the model would be potentially helpful in diagnosing pathologies of

  19. Improving Measurement Efficiency of the Inner EAR Scale with Item Response Theory.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Annika; Ho, Andrew D; Corrales, C Eduardo; Yueh, Bevan; Shin, Jennifer J

    2018-02-01

    Objectives (1) To assess the 11-item Inner Effectiveness of Auditory Rehabilitation (Inner EAR) instrument with item response theory (IRT). (2) To determine whether the underlying latent ability could also be accurately represented by a subset of the items for use in high-volume clinical scenarios. (3) To determine whether the Inner EAR instrument correlates with pure tone thresholds and word recognition scores. Design IRT evaluation of prospective cohort data. Setting Tertiary care academic ambulatory otolaryngology clinic. Subjects and Methods Modern psychometric methods, including factor analysis and IRT, were used to assess unidimensionality and item properties. Regression methods were used to assess prediction of word recognition and pure tone audiometry scores. Results The Inner EAR scale is unidimensional, and items varied in their location and information. Information parameter estimates ranged from 1.63 to 4.52, with higher values indicating more useful items. The IRT model provided a basis for identifying 2 sets of items with relatively lower information parameters. Item information functions demonstrated which items added insubstantial value over and above other items and were removed in stages, creating a 8- and 3-item Inner EAR scale for more efficient assessment. The 8-item version accurately reflected the underlying construct. All versions correlated moderately with word recognition scores and pure tone averages. Conclusion The 11-, 8-, and 3-item versions of the Inner EAR scale have strong psychometric properties, and there is correlational validity evidence for the observed scores. Modern psychometric methods can help streamline care delivery by maximizing relevant information per item administered.

  20. Structures that Contribute to Middle-Ear Admittance in Chinchilla

    PubMed Central

    Rosowski, John J.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Songer, Jocelyn E.

    2009-01-01

    We describe measurements of middle-ear input admittance in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) before and after various manipulations that define the contributions of different middle-ear components to function. The chinchilla’s middle-ear air spaces have a large effect on the low-frequency compliance of the middle ear, and removing the influences of these spaces reveals a highly admittant tympanic membrane and ossicular chain. Measurements of the admittance of the air spaces reveal that the high-degree of segmentation of these spaces has only a small effect on the admittance. Draining the cochlea further increases the middle-ear admittance at low frequencies and removes a low-frequency (less than 300 Hz) level dependence in the admittance. Spontaneous or sound-driven contractions of the middle-ear muscles in deeply anesthetized animals were associated with significant changes in middle-ear admittance. PMID:16944166

  1. Passive smoking, salivary cotinine concentrations, and middle ear effusion in 7 year old children.

    PubMed

    Strachan, D P; Jarvis, M J; Feyerabend, C

    1989-06-10

    To assess the contribution of passive exposure to tobacco smoke to the development of middle ear underpressure and effusion. Cross sectional observational study. One third of the primary schools in Edinburgh. 892 Children aged 6 1/2 to 7 1/2 were examined, and satisfactory tympanograms were obtained in 872. Results of assay of salivary cotinine concentrations were available for 770 children, and satisfactory tympanograms were available for 736 of these. Correlation of the prevalence of middle ear underpressure and effusion with concentrations of the marker of nicotine, cotinine, in the saliva of the children. Middle ear pressure and compliance were measured in both ears by impedance tympanometry. Salivary cotinine concentrations were assayed by gas-liquid chromatography. Cotinine concentrations increased with the number of smokers in the household. Girls had higher concentrations than boys, and children living in rented housing had higher concentrations than those living in housing owned by their parents. There was a trend towards more abnormal tympanometric findings with increasing cotinine concentration, the odds ratio for a doubling of the cotinine concentration being 1.14 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.27). After adjustment for the sex of the child and housing tenure the odds ratio for a doubling of the cotinine concentration was 1.13 (1.00 to 1.28). The results of this study are consistent with those of case-control studies of children attending for an operation to relieve middle ear effusion. They indicate that the disease should be added to the list of recognised hazards associated with passive smoking. About one third of the cases of middle ear effusion in this study were statistically attributable to exposure to tobacco smoke.

  2. YouTube as an information source for pediatric adenotonsillectomy and ear tube surgery.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Jeffrey A; Pusz, Max D; Brietzke, Scott E

    2014-01-01

    Assess the overall quality of information on adenotonsillectomy and ear tube surgery presented on YouTube (www.youtube.com) from the perspective of a parent or patient searching for information on surgery. The YouTube website was systematically searched on select dates with a formal search strategy to identify videos pertaining to pediatric adenotonsillectomy and ear tube surgery. Only videos with at least 5 (ear tube surgery) or 10 (adenotonsillectomy) views per day were included. Each video was viewed and scored by two independent scorers. Videos were categorized by goal and scored for video/audio quality, accuracy, comprehensiveness, and procedure-specific content. Cross-sectional study. Public domain website. Fifty-five videos were scored for adenotonsillectomy and forty-seven for ear tube surgery. The most common category was educational (65.3%) followed by testimonial (28.4%), and news program (9.8%). Testimonials were more common for adenotonsillectomy than ear tube surgery (41.8% vs. 12.8%, p=0.001). Testimonials had a significantly lower mean accuracy (2.23 vs. 2.62, p=0.02), comprehensiveness (1.71 vs. 2.22, p=0.007), and TA specific content (0.64 vs. 1.69, p=0.001) score than educational type videos. Only six videos (5.9%) received high scores in both video/audio quality and accuracy/comprehensiveness of content. There was no significant association between the accuracy and comprehensive score and views, posted "likes", posted "dislikes", and likes/dislikes ratio. There was an association between "likes" and mean video quality (Spearman's rho=0.262, p=0.008). Parents/patients searching YouTube for information on pediatric adenotonsillectomy and ear tube surgery will generally encounter low quality information with testimonials being common but of significantly lower quality. Viewer perceived quality ("likes") did not correlate to formally scored content quality. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Management of prominent ears: personal approach.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Macias, José Manuel

    2008-03-01

    Various methods for correcting prominent ears have been reported. Although anterior cartilage antihelix abrasion combined with posterior retention sutures is a conventional procedure, it does not include anterior conchal cartilage abrasion and thus allows easier reduction of the condromastoid angle. A simple and effective technique is described that involves using a rasp to score the whole anterior surface of the auricular cartilage, including the concha, in combination with Mustarde-type conchal-antihelical and conchal-mastoid retention sutures. This method was applied to 342 patients (675 ears) over 23 years, who were followed up for periods varying from 18 to 24 months. Good results were obtained for all patients with minimal complications.

  4. A rare case of petrified ear.

    PubMed

    Buikema, Kathryn E; Adams, Erin G

    2012-01-01

    Calcification or ossification of the auricle, also referred to as petrified ear, is a rare diagnosis in dermatology. In medical literature, it has most often been attributed to trauma, hypothermia and frostbite, or hypercalcemia secondary to a metabolic or endocrine disorder, such as Addison's disease. Here, we report the clinical and radiologic findings of a 79-year-old African American male whose unilateral petrified auricle was an incidental finding. He had a preceding history of hyperparathyroidism and subsequent hypercalcemia treated with a subtotal parathyroidectomy three years prior to presentation. In addition to laboratory analysis, a history and physical examination was performed which revealed no other signs of hypercalcemia. Radiologic studies demonstrated partial ossification of the external auricular cartilage on the left side. The patient was diagnosed with the rare occurrence of a petrified ear. In light of this case, we provide a discussion concerning the possible etiologies of this diagnosis including appropriate patient evaluation and possible treatment recommendations.

  5. A Rare Case of Petrified Ear

    PubMed Central

    Buikema, Kathryn E.; Adams, Erin G.

    2012-01-01

    Calcification or ossification of the auricle, also referred to as petrified ear, is a rare diagnosis in dermatology. In medical literature, it has most often been attributed to trauma, hypothermia and frostbite, or hypercalcemia secondary to a metabolic or endocrine disorder, such as Addison's disease. Here, we report the clinical and radiologic findings of a 79-year-old African American male whose unilateral petrified auricle was an incidental finding. He had a preceding history of hyperparathyroidism and subsequent hypercalcemia treated with a subtotal parathyroidectomy three years prior to presentation. In addition to laboratory analysis, a history and physical examination was performed which revealed no other signs of hypercalcemia. Radiologic studies demonstrated partial ossification of the external auricular cartilage on the left side. The patient was diagnosed with the rare occurrence of a petrified ear. In light of this case, we provide a discussion concerning the possible etiologies of this diagnosis including appropriate patient evaluation and possible treatment recommendations. PMID:23259082

  6. Ewing Sarcoma of the External Ear Canal

    PubMed Central

    Kecelioglu Binnetoglu, Kiymet; Gerin, Fatma; Sari, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a high-grade malignant tumor that has skeletal and extraskeletal forms and consists of small round cells. In the head and neck region, reported localization of extraskeletal ES includes the larynx, thyroid gland, submandibular gland, nasal fossa, pharynx, skin, and parotid gland, but not the external ear canal. Methods. We present the unique case of a 2-year-old boy with extraskeletal ES arising from the external ear canal, mimicking auricular hematoma. Results. Surgery was performed and a VAC/IE (vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide alternating with ifosfamide, and etoposide) regimen was used for adjuvant chemotherapy for 12 months. Conclusion. The clinician should consider extraskeletal ES when diagnosing tumors localized in the head and neck region because it may be manifested by a nonspecific clinical picture mimicking common otorhinolaryngologic disorders. PMID:27313930

  7. Structural Metadata Research in the Ears Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    detecting structural information in the word stream (the so-called “structural MDE” portion of the EARS program); other MDE efforts on speaker ... diarization are overviewed in [13]. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. We describe the structural MDE tasks, performance measurement, and corpora...tems have only recently been introduced, with NIST reporting re- sults with the Wilcoxon signed rank test for speaker -level average score differences

  8. Mechanistic basis of otolith formation during teleost inner ear development

    PubMed Central

    Wu, David; Freund, Jonathan B.; Fraser, Scott E.; Vermot, Julien

    2011-01-01

    Otoliths, which are connected to stereociliary bundles in the inner ear, serve as inertial sensors for balance. In teleostei, otolith development is critically dependant on flow forces generated by beating cilia; however, the mechanism by which flow controls otolith formation remains unclear. Here, we have developed a non-invasive flow probe using optical tweezers and a viscous flow model in order to demonstrate how the observed hydrodynamics influence otolith assembly. We show that rotational flow stirs and suppresses precursor agglomeration in the core of the cilia-driven vortex. The velocity field correlates with the shape of the otolith and we provide evidence that hydrodynamics is actively involved in controlling otolith morphogenesis. An implication of this hydrodynamic effect is that otolith self-assembly is mediated by the balance between Brownian motion and cilia-driven flow. More generally, this flow feature highlights an alternative biological strategy for controlling particle localization in solution. PMID:21316594

  9. Theory of forward and reverse middle-ear transmission applied to otoacoustic emissions in infant and adult ears

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, Douglas H.; Abdala, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand why otoacoustic emission (OAE) levels are higher in normal-hearing human infants relative to adults. In a previous study, distortion product (DP) OAE input/output (I/O) functions were shown to differ at f2=6 kHz in adults compared to infants through 6 months of age. These DPOAE I/O functions were used to noninvasively assess immaturities in forward/reverse transmission through the ear canal and middle ear [Abdala, C., and Keefe, D. H., (2006). J. Acoust Soc. Am. 120, 3832–3842]. In the present study, ear-canal reflectance and DPOAEs measured in the same ears were analyzed using a scattering-matrix model of forward and reverse transmission in the ear canal, middle ear, and cochlea. Reflectance measurements were sensitive to frequency-dependent effects of ear-canal and middle-ear transmission that differed across OAE type and subject age. Results indicated that DPOAE levels were larger in infants mainly because the reverse middle-ear transmittance level varied with ear-canal area, which differed by more than a factor of 7 between term infants and adults. The forward middle-ear transmittance level was −16 dB less in infants, so that the conductive efficiency was poorer in infants than adults. PMID:17348521

  10. Volumetric measurements of the inner ear in patients with Meniere's disease using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Inui, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Taeko; Kitahara, Tadashi

    2016-09-01

    This study described the lateralities of axial length of inner ear (ALIE), of the volume of inner ear (VIE) and age-related differences of the volume of inner ear components in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Age-related differences were found in ALIE and the positive correlation in ALIE and the volume of the cochlea (VC) of the affected ear in patients with Meniere's disease (MD). To identify side or sex-related differences in the ALIE, the length of the spiral canal of cochlea (LSCC), and the volume of components of the inner ear in MD and CRS. Thirty-two with unilateral MD and 14 with CRS were included. Images were acquired with a 3.0-tesla unit using SPACE sequences. The ALIE was measured and the VIE, VC, the volume of the vestibule (VV), and of the semi-circular canals (VSC) were also measured. In CRS, ALIE of the right ear in males was significantly longer than in females. Patients younger than 60 years old with CRS had a significantly larger VIE, VC, and VSC than older than 60. In MD, the ALIE in older than 60 was longer than below 60.

  11. Ear recognition from one sample per person.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Mu, Zhichun; Zhang, Baoqing; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP) in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP) available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC) ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods.

  12. Why Do Elephants Flap Their Ears?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffi, Moise; Jiji, Latif; Andreopoulos, Yiannis

    2009-11-01

    It is estimated that a 4200 kg elephant generates as much as 5.12 kW of heat. How the elephant dissipates its metabolic heat and regulates its body temperature has been investigated during the past seven decades. Findings and conclusions differ sharply. The high rate of metabolic heat coupled with low surface area to volume ratio and the absence of sweat glands eliminate surface convection as the primary mechanism for heat removal. Noting that the elephant ears have high surface area to volume ratio and an extensive vascular network, ear flapping is thought to be the principal thermoregulatory mechanism. A computational and experimental program is carried out to examine flow and heat transfer characteristics. The ear is modeled as a uniformly heated oscillating rectangular plate. Our computational work involves a three-dimensional time dependent CFD code with heat transfer capabilities to obtain predictions of the flow field and surface temperature distributions. This information was used to design an experimental setup with a uniformly heated plate of size 0.2m x 0.3m oscillating at 1.6 cycles per second. Results show that surface temperature increases and reaches a steady periodic oscillation after a period of transient oscillation. The role of the vortices shed off the plate in heat transfer enhancement will be discussed.

  13. Pathology of ear hematomas in swine.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Richard; Hélie, Pierre; D'Allaire, Sylvie

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of our study were to describe the pathology of ear hematomas in swine and to add to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of this condition. The pathogenesis of aural hematomas has been studied mainly in dogs; however, disagreements exist about the precise anatomic location of the hemorrhage. Sixteen pigs with ear hematoma at various stages of development were included in this study. The pigs were submitted for routine autopsy for various and unrelated reasons over a period of several years. Based on gross examination, the 16 cases of aural hematomas were subjectively classified as acute (n = 6), subacute (n = 3), and chronic (n = 7). The age of the animals at the time of autopsy ranged from 2 weeks to adulthood, with all acute cases being <7 weeks of age. Morphologic examination of all acute cases revealed that the hematoma developed predominantly in a subperichondral location on both sides of the cartilaginous plate simultaneously. Within these same cases, there were also some areas in which blood-filled clefts had formed within the cartilage itself. Besides fibroplasia, neoformation of cartilage was found to represent a significant part of the repair process. All chronic cases were characterized on cross-section of the ear by the presence of at least 2 distinct, wavy, focally folded, and roughly parallel plates of cartilage separated from each other by fibrous tissue. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. An investigation of ear necrosis in pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeonghwa; Friendship, Robert M; Poljak, Zvonimir; DeLay, Josepha; Slavic, Durda; Dewey, Catherine E

    2013-05-01

    Porcine ear necrosis was investigated in 23 conveniently chosen farms, consisting of 14 case farms and 9 control farms. Biopsies of lesions and oral swabs from pigs on 11 case farms were examined by histology and bacterial culture. All farms were visited for observations and a survey on management, housing, and the presence of other clinical signs or behavioral vices. Histological examination revealed that the lesions began on the surface and progressed to deeper layers, and that vascular damage did not appear to be the initiating cause. Spirochetes were only rarely observed in histological examination and were not cultured from biopsies and oral swabs. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus hyicus were cultured from 91% and 66% of samples, respectively. Ear biting and a humid environment were associated with ear necrosis. On some farms large numbers of pigs were affected and lesions were sometimes extensive. The condition appears to be an infectious disease beginning on the surface of the skin; contributing environmental and management factors are likely.

  15. An investigation of ear necrosis in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeonghwa; Friendship, Robert M.; Poljak, Zvonimir; DeLay, Josepha; Slavic, Durda; Dewey, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    Porcine ear necrosis was investigated in 23 conveniently chosen farms, consisting of 14 case farms and 9 control farms. Biopsies of lesions and oral swabs from pigs on 11 case farms were examined by histology and bacterial culture. All farms were visited for observations and a survey on management, housing, and the presence of other clinical signs or behavioral vices. Histological examination revealed that the lesions began on the surface and progressed to deeper layers, and that vascular damage did not appear to be the initiating cause. Spirochetes were only rarely observed in histological examination and were not cultured from biopsies and oral swabs. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus hyicus were cultured from 91% and 66% of samples, respectively. Ear biting and a humid environment were associated with ear necrosis. On some farms large numbers of pigs were affected and lesions were sometimes extensive. The condition appears to be an infectious disease beginning on the surface of the skin; contributing environmental and management factors are likely. PMID:24155434

  16. Pressure equilibration in the penguin middle ear.

    PubMed

    Sadé, Jacob; Handrich, Yves; Bernheim, Joelle; Cohen, David

    2008-01-01

    King penguins have a venous structure in the form of a corpus cavernosum (CC) in their middle ear (ME) submucosa. The CC may be viewed as a special organelle that can change ME volume for pressure equilibration during deep-sea diving it is a pressure regulating organelle (PRO). A similar CC and muscles also surround the external ear (EE) and may constrict it, isolating the tympanic membrane from the outside. A CC was previously found also in the ME of marine diving mammals and can be expected to exist in other deep diving animals, such as marine turtles. Marine animals require equalization of middle ear (ME) pressure when diving hundreds or thousands of meters to catch prey. We investigated what mechanism enables king penguins to protect their ME when they dive to great depths. Biopsies and serial sections of the ME and the EE of the deep diving king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) were examined microscopically. It was demonstrated that the penguin ME has an extensive network of small and large submucosal venous sinuses. This venous formation, a corpus cavernosum, can expand and potentially 'flood' the ME almost completely on diving, thus elevating ME pressure and reducing the ME space. The EE has a similar protective mechanism.

  17. Predicting skin deficits through surface area measurements in ear reconstruction and adult ear surface area norms.

    PubMed

    Yazar, Memet; Sevim, Kamuran Zeynep; Irmak, Fatih; Yazar, Sevgi Kurt; Yeşilada, Ayşin Karasoy; Karşidağğ, Semra Hacikerim; Tatlidede, Hamit Soner

    2013-07-01

    Ear reconstruction is one of the most challenging procedures in plastic surgery practice. Many studies and techniques have been described in the literature for carving a well-pronounced framework. However, just as important as the cartilage framework is the ample amount of delicate skin coverage of the framework. In this report, we introduce an innovative method of measuring the skin surface area of the auricle from a three-dimensional template created from the healthy ear.The study group consisted of 60 adult Turkish individuals who were randomly selected (30 men and 30 women). The participant ages ranged from 18 to 45 years (mean, 31.5 years), and they had no history of trauma or congenital anomalies. The template is created by dividing the ear into aesthetic subunits and using ImageJ software to estimate the necessary amount of total skin surface area required.Reconstruction of the auricle is a complicated process that requires experience and patience to provide the auricular details. We believe this estimate will shorten the learning curve for residents and surgeons interested in ear reconstruction and will help surgeons obtain adequate skin to drape over the well-sculpted cartilage frameworks by providing a reference list of total ear skin surface area measurements for Turkish men and women.

  18. Middle-ear velocity transfer function, cochlear input immittance, and middle-ear efficiency in chinchilla

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The transfer function HV between stapes velocity VS and sound pressure near the tympanic membrane PTM is a descriptor of sound transmission through the middle ear (ME). The ME power transmission efficiency (MEE), the ratio of sound power entering the cochlea to power entering the middle ear, was computed from HV measured in seven chinchilla ears and previously reported measurements of ME input admittance YTM and ME pressure gain GMEP [Ravicz and Rosowski, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 2437–2454 (2012); J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 2208–2223 (2013)] in the same ears. The ME was open, and a pressure sensor was inserted into the cochlear vestibule for most measurements. The cochlear input admittance YC computed from HV and GMEP is controlled by a combination of mass and resistance and is consistent with a minimum-phase system up to 27 kHz. The real part Re{YC}, which relates cochlear sound power to inner-ear sound pressure, decreased gradually with frequency up to 25 kHz and more rapidly above that. MEE was about 0.5 between 0.1 and 8 kHz, higher than previous estimates in this species, and decreased sharply at higher frequencies. PMID:24116422

  19. Middle-ear velocity transfer function, cochlear input immittance, and middle-ear efficiency in chinchilla.

    PubMed

    Ravicz, Michael E; Rosowski, John J

    2013-10-01

    The transfer function H(V) between stapes velocity V(S) and sound pressure near the tympanic membrane P(TM) is a descriptor of sound transmission through the middle ear (ME). The ME power transmission efficiency (MEE), the ratio of sound power entering the cochlea to power entering the middle ear, was computed from H(V) measured in seven chinchilla ears and previously reported measurements of ME input admittance Y(TM) and ME pressure gain G(MEP) [Ravicz and Rosowski, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 2437-2454 (2012); J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 2208-2223 (2013)] in the same ears. The ME was open, and a pressure sensor was inserted into the cochlear vestibule for most measurements. The cochlear input admittance Y(C) computed from H(V) and G(MEP) is controlled by a combination of mass and resistance and is consistent with a minimum-phase system up to 27 kHz. The real part Re{Y(C)}, which relates cochlear sound power to inner-ear sound pressure, decreased gradually with frequency up to 25 kHz and more rapidly above that. MEE was about 0.5 between 0.1 and 8 kHz, higher than previous estimates in this species, and decreased sharply at higher frequencies.

  20. Volatiles Emitted from Maize Ears Simultaneously Infected with Two Fusarium Species Mirror the Most Competitive Fungal Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Sherif, Mohammed; Becker, Eva-Maria; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Feussner, Ivo; Karlovsky, Petr; Splivallo, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Along with barley and rice, maize provides staple food for more than half of the world population. Maize ears are regularly infected with fungal pathogens of the Fusarium genus, which, besides reducing yield, also taint grains with toxic metabolites. In an earlier work, we have shown that maize ears infection with single Fusarium strains was detectable through volatile sensing. In nature, infection most commonly occurs with more than a single fungal strain; hence we tested how the interactions of two strains would modulate volatile emission from infected ears. For this purpose, ears of a hybrid and a dwarf maize variety were simultaneously infected with different strains of Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides and, the resulting volatile profiles were compared to the ones of ears infected with single strains. Disease severity, fungal biomass, and the concentration of the oxylipin 9-hydroxy octadecadienoic acid, a signaling molecule involved in plant defense, were monitored and correlated to volatile profiles. Our results demonstrate that in simultaneous infections of hybrid and dwarf maize, the most competitive fungal strains had the largest influence on the volatile profile of infected ears. In both concurrent and single inoculations, volatile profiles reflected disease severity. Additionally, the data further indicate that dwarf maize and hybrid maize might emit common (i.e., sesquiterpenoids) and specific markers upon fungal infection. Overall this suggests that volatile profiles might be a good proxy for disease severity regardless of the fungal competition taking place in maize ears. With the appropriate sensitivity and reliability, volatile sensing thus appears as a promising tool for detecting fungal infection of maize ears under field conditions. PMID:27729923

  1. Computational Modeling of Blast Wave Transmission Through Human Ear.

    PubMed

    Leckness, Kegan; Nakmali, Don; Gan, Rong Z

    2018-03-01

    Hearing loss has become the most common disability among veterans. Understanding how blast waves propagate through the human ear is a necessary step in the development of effective hearing protection devices (HPDs). This article presents the first 3D finite element (FE) model of the human ear to simulate blast wave transmission through the ear. The 3D FE model of the human ear consisting of the ear canal, tympanic membrane, ossicular chain, and middle ear cavity was imported into ANSYS Workbench for coupled fluid-structure interaction analysis in the time domain. Blast pressure waveforms recorded external to the ear in human cadaver temporal bone tests were applied at the entrance of the ear canal in the model. The pressure waveforms near the tympanic membrane (TM) in the canal (P1) and behind the TM in the middle ear cavity (P2) were calculated. The model-predicted results were then compared with measured P1 and P2 waveforms recorded in human cadaver ears during blast tests. Results show that the model-derived P1 waveforms were in an agreement with the experimentally recorded waveforms with statistic Kurtosis analysis. The FE model will be used for the evaluation of HPDs in future studies.

  2. Effects of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Middle Ear Pressure and Acoustic Stapedial Reflex.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinrang; Li, Keliang

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on middle ear pressure and acoustic stapedial reflex and the correlation between CPAP and middle ear pressure. Prospective cohort study. Tertiary hospitals. Fifty patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome were assigned to the study group, and 50 healthy volunteers were assigned to the control group. The subjects underwent standard tympanometry while wearing a CPAP device (ie, simulated CPAP treatment), which was set to 0, 5, 10, and 15 cm H2O, respectively. Tympanometry was performed before and after swallowing at each pressure of CPAP treatment. The mean middle ear pressures were 21.2, 22.6, 22.7, and 23.4 daPa (before swallowing) and 21.6, 42.6, 81.4, and 118.6 daPa (after swallowing) in the study group and 17.6, 18.7, 19.5, and 20.8 daPa (before swallowing) and 17.7, 44.2, 85.6, and 120.5 daPa (after swallowing) in the control group at the CPAPs of 0, 5, 10, and 15 cm H2O, respectively. While the CPAPs were at 0 and 15 cm H2O, the stapedial muscle reflex at 1.0 kHz did not have a significant difference between the 2 groups (χ(2) = 0.521, P = .470). The Pearson correlation coefficient of the CPAP pressure and the middle ear pressure after swallowing was 0.812 (P < .001). CPAP affected middle ear pressure and was directly proportional to the pressure of the CPAP. However, CPAP treatment had no significant effect on stapedial muscle reflex. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  3. Sheep as a large animal ear model: Middle-ear ossicular velocities and intracochlear sound pressure.

    PubMed

    Péus, Dominik; Dobrev, Ivo; Prochazka, Lukas; Thoele, Konrad; Dalbert, Adrian; Boss, Andreas; Newcomb, Nicolas; Probst, Rudolf; Röösli, Christof; Sim, Jae Hoon; Huber, Alexander; Pfiffner, Flurin

    2017-08-01

    Animals are frequently used for the development and testing of new hearing devices. Dimensions of the middle ear and cochlea differ significantly between humans and commonly used animals, such as rodents or cats. The sheep cochlea is anatomically more like the human cochlea in size and number of turns. This study investigated the middle-ear ossicular velocities and intracochlear sound pressure (ICSP) in sheep temporal bones, with the aim of characterizing the sheep as an experimental model for implantable hearing devices. Measurements were made on fresh sheep temporal bones. Velocity responses of the middle ear ossicles at the umbo, long process of the incus and stapes footplate were measured in the frequency range of 0.25-8 kHz using a laser Doppler vibrometer system. Results were normalized by the corresponding sound pressure level in the external ear canal (P EC ). Sequentially, ICSPs at the scala vestibuli and tympani were then recorded with custom MEMS-based hydrophones, while presenting identical acoustic stimuli. The sheep middle ear transmitted most effectively around 4.8 kHz, with a maximum stapes velocity of 0.2 mm/s/Pa. At the same frequency, the ICSP measurements in the scala vestibuli and tympani showed the maximum gain relative to the P EC (24 dB and 5 dB, respectively). The greatest pressure difference across the cochlear partition occurred between 4 and 6 kHz. A comparison between the results of this study and human reference data showed middle-ear resonance and best cochlear sensitivity at higher frequencies in sheep. In summary, sheep can be an appropriate large animal model for research and development of implantable hearing devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Benchmarks for the Dichotic Sentence Identification test in Brazilian Portuguese for ear and age.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Adriana Neves de; Gil, Daniela; Iorio, Maria Cecilia Martinelli

    2015-01-01

    Dichotic listening tests should be used in local languages and adapted for the population. Standardize the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Dichotic Sentence Identification test in normal listeners, comparing the performance for age and ear. This prospective study included 200 normal listeners divided into four groups according to age: 13-19 years (GI), 20-29 years (GII), 30-39 years (GIII), and 40-49 years (GIV). The Dichotic Sentence Identification was applied in four stages: training, binaural integration and directed sound from right and left. Better results for the right ear were observed in the stages of binaural integration in all assessed groups. There was a negative correlation between age and percentage of correct responses in both ears for free report and training. The worst performance in all stages of the test was observed for the age group 40-49 years old. Reference values for the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Dichotic Sentence Identification test in normal listeners aged 13-49 years were established according to age, ear, and test stage; they should be used as benchmarks when evaluating individuals with these characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Deep features for efficient multi-biometric recognition with face and ear images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omara, Ibrahim; Xiao, Gang; Amrani, Moussa; Yan, Zifei; Zuo, Wangmeng

    2017-07-01

    Recently, multimodal biometric systems have received considerable research interest in many applications especially in the fields of security. Multimodal systems can increase the resistance to spoof attacks, provide more details and flexibility, and lead to better performance and lower error rate. In this paper, we present a multimodal biometric system based on face and ear, and propose how to exploit the extracted deep features from Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) on the face and ear images to introduce more powerful discriminative features and robust representation ability for them. First, the deep features for face and ear images are extracted based on VGG-M Net. Second, the extracted deep features are fused by using a traditional concatenation and a Discriminant Correlation Analysis (DCA) algorithm. Third, multiclass support vector machine is adopted for matching and classification. The experimental results show that the proposed multimodal system based on deep features is efficient and achieves a promising recognition rate up to 100 % by using face and ear. In addition, the results indicate that the fusion based on DCA is superior to traditional fusion.

  6. Chinchilla middle-ear admittance and sound power: High-frequency estimates and effects of inner-ear modifications

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The middle-ear input admittance relates sound power into the middle ear (ME) and sound pressure at the tympanic membrane (TM). ME input admittance was measured in the chinchilla ear canal as part of a larger study of sound power transmission through the ME into the inner ear. The middle ear was open, and the inner ear was intact or modified with small sensors inserted into the vestibule near the cochlear base. A simple model of the chinchilla ear canal, based on ear canal sound pressure measurements at two points along the canal and an assumption of plane-wave propagation, enables reliable estimates of YTM, the ME input admittance at the TM, from the admittance measured relatively far from the TM. YTM appears valid at frequencies as high as 17 kHz, a much higher frequency than previously reported. The real part of YTM decreases with frequency above 2 kHz. Effects of the inner-ear sensors (necessary for inner ear power computation) were small and generally limited to frequencies below 3 kHz. Computed power reflectance was ∼0.1 below 3.5 kHz, lower than with an intact ME below 2.5 kHz, and nearly 1 above 16 kHz. PMID:23039439

  7. The velocity field of growing ear cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, R W; Peacock, M A

    1978-01-01

    The velocity vector field of the growing rabbit ear cartilage has been investigated between 12 and 299 days. Empirical curves have been computed for path lines and for velocities between 12 and 87 days. The tissue movement has been found to behave as an irrotational flow of material. Stream lines and velocity equipotential lines have been calculated and provide akinematic description of the changes during growth. The importance of a knowledge of the velocity vector in physical descriptions of growth and morphological differentiation at the tissue and cellular levels is emphasized. PMID:689993

  8. Vitamin D receptor deficiency impairs inner ear development in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Hye-Joo; Biology Department, Princess Nourah University, Riyadh 11671

    The biological actions of vitamin D are largely mediated through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, which regulates gene expression in a wide variety of tissues and cells. Mutations in VDR gene have been implicated in ear disorders (hearing loss and balance disorder) but the mechanisms are not well established. In this study, to investigate the role of VDR in inner ear development, morpholino-mediated gene knockdown approaches were used in zebrafish model system. Two paralogs for VDR, vdra and vdrb, have been identified in zebrafish. Knockdown of vdra had no effectmore » on ear development, whereas knockdown of vdrb displayed morphological ear defects including smaller otic vesicles with malformed semicircular canals and abnormal otoliths. Loss-of-vdrb resulted in down-regulation of pre-otic markers, pax8 and pax2a, indicating impairment of otic induction. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos lacking vdrb produced fewer sensory hair cells in the ears and showed disruption of balance and motor coordination. These data reveal that VDR signaling plays an important role in ear development. - Highlights: • VDR signaling is involved in ear development. • Knockdown of vdrb causes inner ear malformations during embryogenesis. • Knockdown of vdrb affects otic placode induction. • Knockdown of vdrb reduces the number of sensory hair cells in the inner ear. • Knockdown of vdrb disrupts balance and motor coordination.« less

  9. Piercing the upper ear: a simple infection, a difficult reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Cicchetti, S; Skillman, J; Gault, D T

    2002-04-01

    Piercing the upper ear to retain jewellery is now commonplace. When infection ensues, devastating chondritis leads to collapse of the ear. To our knowledge, the surgical reconstruction of post-piercing deformities has not been documented in the literature. We present five such cases referred for autogenous-tissue ear reconstruction. In four of these, the destroyed segments of ear cartilage were replaced with a carved costal-cartilage framework. One patient declined surgery. The importance of preventing infection is stressed. Copyright 2002 The British Association of Plastic Surgeons.

  10. Correction of Stahl ear deformity using a suture technique.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Adil Abbas; Jose, Rajive M; Ali, Syed Nadir; Yap, Lok Huei

    2010-09-01

    Correction of partial ear deformities can be a challenging task for the plastic surgeon. There are no standard techniques for correcting many of these deformities, and several different techniques are described in literature. Stahl ear is one such anomaly, characterized by an accessory third crus in the ear cartilage, giving rise to an irregular helical rim. The conventional techniques of correcting this deformity include either excision of the cartilage, repositioning of the cartilage, or scoring techniques. We recently encountered a case of Stahl ear deformity and undertook correction using internal sutures with very good results. The technical details of the surgery are described along with a review of literature on correcting similar anomalies.

  11. Incorporating anthropometry into design of ear-related products.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bor-Shong

    2008-01-01

    To achieve mass customization and collaborative product design, human factors and ergonomics should play a key development role. The purpose of this study was to provide product designers with the anthropometic dimensions of outer ears for different demographic data, including gender and age. The second purpose was to compare the dimensions of various ear-related products (i.e., earphone, bluetooth earphone and ear-cup earphone) with the anthropometic database and recommend appropriate solutions for design. Two hundred subjects aged 20-59 was selected for this study and divided into four age stratifications. Further, three different dimensions of the outer ear (i.e., the earhole length, the ear connection length and the length of the pinna) were measured by superimposed grid photographic technique. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate the effects of gender, and age on ear dimensions. The results showed that all ear dimensions had significant gender effects. A comparison between the anthropometric dimensions and those of current products revealed that most current ear-related products need to be redesigned using anthropometric data. The shapes of earhole and pinna are not circular. Consequently, ear products need to be elongated so that users may feel more comfortably and not have the product slip off easily.

  12. Magnetically driven middle ear ossicles for optical measurement of vibrations in an ear with opened eardrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, John; Von Unge, Magnus; Dirckx, Joris

    2012-06-01

    Vibrations of the middle ear ossicles are easily measured by means of laser vibrometry. However, exposing the ossicles requires the removal of the eardrum, with the result that the ossicles can no longer be stimulated acoustically. To overcome this we devised a new set up in which the ossicles can be driven magnetically. After measuring the response of the eardrum to an acoustic signal, we then remove the eardrum and attach a small magnet to the exposed manubrium (the part of the first auditory ossicle, the malleus, which is normally attached to the eardrum). An electromagnetic excitation coil is then used to drive the magnet, and the output to the coil adjusted until the vibration of the manubrium, as measured by the vibrometer, matches that measured in response to the acoustic signal. Such a set-up has uses in research on middle ear mechanics, such as the measurement of non-linearities in their response, as well as applications in the diagnosis of middle ear conditions such as the fixation of the ossicles by otosclerosis, or in chronic otitis media. We describe our set up in which the vibrometer unit is attached to a surgical microscope, offering accurate positioning of the laser beam. We discuss the viability of our method and its future potential by presenting some measurements on artificially fixated ears.

  13. Mature middle and inner ears express Chd7 and exhibit distinctive pathologies in a mouse model of CHARGE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Elizabeth A; Adams, Meredith E; Layman, Wanda S; Swiderski, Donald L; Beyer, Lisa A; Halsey, Karin E; Benson, Jennifer M; Gong, Tzy-Wen; Dolan, David F; Raphael, Yehoash; Martin, Donna M

    2011-12-01

    Heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding chromodomain-DNA-binding-protein 7 (CHD7) cause CHARGE syndrome, a multiple anomaly condition which includes vestibular dysfunction and hearing loss. Mice with heterozygous Chd7 mutations exhibit semicircular canal dysgenesis and abnormal inner ear neurogenesis, and are an excellent model of CHARGE syndrome. Here we characterized Chd7 expression in mature middle and inner ears, analyzed morphological features of mutant ears and tested whether Chd7 mutant mice have altered responses to noise exposure and correlated those responses to inner and middle ear structure. We found that Chd7 is highly expressed in mature inner and outer hair cells, spiral ganglion neurons, vestibular sensory epithelia and middle ear ossicles. There were no obvious defects in individual hair cell morphology by prestin immunostaining or scanning electron microscopy, and cochlear innervation appeared normal in Chd7(Gt)(/+) mice. Hearing thresholds by auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing were elevated at 4 and 16 kHz in Chd7(Gt)(/+) mice, and there were reduced distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE). Exposure of Chd7(Gt)(/+) mice to broadband noise resulted in variable degrees of hair cell loss which inversely correlated with severity of stapedial defects. The degrees of hair cell loss and threshold shifts after noise exposure were more severe in wild type mice than in mutants. Together, these data indicate that Chd7(Gt)(/+) mice have combined conductive and sensorineural hearing loss, correlating with changes in both middle and inner ears. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Frequent arousals from winter torpor in Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joseph S; Lacki, Michael J; Thomas, Steven C; Grider, John F

    2012-01-01

    Extensive use of torpor is a common winter survival strategy among bats; however, data comparing various torpor behaviors among species are scarce. Winter torpor behaviors are likely to vary among species with different physiologies and species inhabiting different regional climates. Understanding these differences may be important in identifying differing susceptibilities of species to white-nose syndrome (WNS) in North America. We fitted 24 Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) with temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters, and monitored 128 PIT-tagged big-eared bats, during the winter months of 2010 to 2012. We tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats use torpor less often than values reported for other North American cave-hibernators. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats arouse on winter nights more suitable for nocturnal foraging. Radio-tagged bats used short (2.4 d ± 0.3 (SE)), shallow (13.9°C ± 0.6) torpor bouts and switched roosts every 4.1 d ± 0.6. Probability of arousal from torpor increased linearly with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), and 83% (n=86) of arousals occurred within 1 hr of sunset. Activity of PIT-tagged bats at an artificial maternity/hibernaculum roost between November and March was positively correlated with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), with males more active at the roost than females. These data show Rafinesque's big-eared bat is a shallow hibernator and is relatively active during winter. We hypothesize that winter activity patterns provide Corynorhinus species with an ecological and physiological defense against the fungus causing WNS, and that these bats may be better suited to withstand fungal infection than other cave-hibernating bat species in eastern North America.

  15. Pneumatic low-coherence interferometry otoscope to quantify tympanic membrane mobility and middle ear pressure.

    PubMed

    Won, Jungeun; Monroy, Guillermo L; Huang, Pin-Chieh; Dsouza, Roshan; Hill, Malcolm C; Novak, Michael A; Porter, Ryan G; Chaney, Eric; Barkalifa, Ronit; Boppart, Stephen A

    2018-02-01

    Pneumatic otoscopy to assess the mobility of the tympanic membrane (TM) is a highly recommended diagnostic method of otitis media (OM), a widespread middle ear infection characterized by the fluid accumulation in the middle ear. Nonetheless, limited depth perception and subjective interpretation of small TM displacements have challenged the appropriate and efficient examination of TM dynamics experienced during OM. In this paper, a pneumatic otoscope integrated with low coherence interferometry (LCI) was adapted with a controlled pressure-generating system to record the pneumatic response of the TM and to estimate middle ear pressure (MEP). Forty-two ears diagnosed as normal (n = 25), with OM (n = 10), or associated with an upper respiratory infection (URI) (n = 7) were imaged with a pneumatic LCI otoscope with an axial, transverse, and temporal resolution of 6 µm, 20 µm, and 1 msec, respectively. The TM displacement under pneumatic pressure transients (a duration of 0.5 sec with an intensity of ± 150 daPa) was measured to compute two metrics (compliance and amplitude ratio). These metrics were correlated with peak acoustic admittance and MEP from tympanometry and statistically compared via Welch's t- test. As a result, the compliance represents pneumatic TM mobility, and the amplitude ratio estimates MEP. The presence of a middle ear effusion (MEE) significantly decreased compliance (p<0.001). The amplitude ratio of the OM group was statistically less than that of the normal group (p<0.01), indicating positive MEP. Unlike tympanometry, pneumatic LCI otoscopy quantifies TM mobility as well as MEP regardless of MEE presence. With combined benefits of pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry, pneumatic LCI otoscopy may provide new quantitative metrics for understanding TM dynamics and diagnosing OM.

  16. Pneumatic low-coherence interferometry otoscope to quantify tympanic membrane mobility and middle ear pressure

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jungeun; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Huang, Pin-Chieh; Dsouza, Roshan; Hill, Malcolm C.; Novak, Michael A.; Porter, Ryan G.; Chaney, Eric; Barkalifa, Ronit; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2018-01-01

    Pneumatic otoscopy to assess the mobility of the tympanic membrane (TM) is a highly recommended diagnostic method of otitis media (OM), a widespread middle ear infection characterized by the fluid accumulation in the middle ear. Nonetheless, limited depth perception and subjective interpretation of small TM displacements have challenged the appropriate and efficient examination of TM dynamics experienced during OM. In this paper, a pneumatic otoscope integrated with low coherence interferometry (LCI) was adapted with a controlled pressure-generating system to record the pneumatic response of the TM and to estimate middle ear pressure (MEP). Forty-two ears diagnosed as normal (n = 25), with OM (n = 10), or associated with an upper respiratory infection (URI) (n = 7) were imaged with a pneumatic LCI otoscope with an axial, transverse, and temporal resolution of 6 µm, 20 µm, and 1 msec, respectively. The TM displacement under pneumatic pressure transients (a duration of 0.5 sec with an intensity of ± 150 daPa) was measured to compute two metrics (compliance and amplitude ratio). These metrics were correlated with peak acoustic admittance and MEP from tympanometry and statistically compared via Welch’s t-test. As a result, the compliance represents pneumatic TM mobility, and the amplitude ratio estimates MEP. The presence of a middle ear effusion (MEE) significantly decreased compliance (p<0.001). The amplitude ratio of the OM group was statistically less than that of the normal group (p<0.01), indicating positive MEP. Unlike tympanometry, pneumatic LCI otoscopy quantifies TM mobility as well as MEP regardless of MEE presence. With combined benefits of pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry, pneumatic LCI otoscopy may provide new quantitative metrics for understanding TM dynamics and diagnosing OM. PMID:29552381

  17. Optical imaging with a high-resolution microendoscope to identify cholesteatoma of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Levy, Lauren L; Jiang, Nancy; Smouha, Eric; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Sikora, Andrew G

    2013-04-01

    High-resolution optical imaging is an imaging modality that allows visualization of structural changes in epithelial tissue in real time. Our prior studies using contrast-enhanced microendoscopy to image squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck demonstrated that the contrast agent, proflavine, has high affinity for keratinized tissue. Thus, high-resolution microendoscopy with proflavine provides a potential mechanism to identify ectopic keratin production, such as that associated with cholesteatoma formation, and distinguish between uninvolved mucosa and residual keratin at the time of surgery. Ex vivo imaging of histopathologically confirmed samples of cholesteatoma and uninvolved middle ear epithelium. Seven separate specimens collected from patients who underwent surgical treatment for cholesteatoma were imaged ex vivo with the fiberoptic endoscope after surface staining with proflavine. Following imaging, the specimens were submitted for hematoxylin and eosin staining to allow histopathological correlation. Cholesteatoma and surrounding middle ear epithelium have distinct imaging characteristics. Keratin-bearing areas of cholesteatoma lack nuclei and appear as confluent hyperfluorescence, whereas nuclei are easily visualized in specimens containing normal middle ear epithelium. Hyperfluorescence and loss of cellular detail is the imaging hallmark of keratin, allowing for discrimination of cholesteatoma from normal middle ear epithelium. This study demonstrates the feasibility of high-resolution optical imaging to discriminate cholesteatoma from uninvolved middle ear mucosa based on the unique staining properties of keratin. Use of real-time imaging may facilitate more complete extirpation of cholesteatoma by identifying areas of residual disease. Laryngoscope, 2012. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Alternative metrics for real-ear-to-coupler difference average values in children.

    PubMed

    Blumsack, Judith T; Clark-Lewis, Sandra; Watts, Kelli M; Wilson, Martha W; Ross, Margaret E; Soles, Lindsey; Ennis, Cydney

    2014-10-01

    Ideally, individual real-ear-to-coupler difference (RECD) measurements are obtained for pediatric hearing instrument-fitting purposes. When RECD measurements cannot be obtained, age-related average RECDs based on typically developing North American children are used. Evidence suggests that these values may not be appropriate for populations of children with retarded growth patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine if another metric, such as head circumference, height, or weight, can be used for prediction of RECDs in children. Design was a correlational study. For all participants, RECD values in both ears, head circumference, height, and weight were measured. The sample consisted of 68 North American children (ages 3-11 yr). Height, weight, head circumference, and RECDs were measured and were analyzed for both ears at 500, 750, 1000, 1500, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz. A backward elimination multiple-regression analysis was used to determine if age, height, weight, and/or head circumference are significant predictors of RECDs. For the left ear, head circumference was retained as the only statistically significant variable in the final model. For the right ear, head circumference was retained as the only statistically significant independent variable at all frequencies except at 2000 and 4000 Hz. At these latter frequencies, weight was retained as the only statistically significant independent variable after all other variables were eliminated. Head circumference can be considered as a metric for RECD prediction in children when individual measurements cannot be obtained. In developing countries where equipment is often unavailable and stunted growth can reduce the value of using age as a metric, head circumference can be considered as an alternative metric in the prediction of RECDs. American Academy of Audiology.

  19. Wearable ear EEG for brain interfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Eric D.; Walker, Nicholas; Danko, Amanda S.

    2017-02-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) measuring electrical activity via electroencephalogram (EEG) have evolved beyond clinical applications to become wireless consumer products. Typically marketed for meditation and neu- rotherapy, these devices are limited in scope and currently too obtrusive to be a ubiquitous wearable. Stemming from recent advancements made in hearing aid technology, wearables have been shrinking to the point that the necessary sensors, circuitry, and batteries can be fit into a small in-ear wearable device. In this work, an ear-EEG device is created with a novel system for artifact removal and signal interpretation. The small, compact, cost-effective, and discreet device is demonstrated against existing consumer electronics in this space for its signal quality, comfort, and usability. A custom mobile application is developed to process raw EEG from each device and display interpreted data to the user. Artifact removal and signal classification is accomplished via a combination of support matrix machines (SMMs) and soft thresholding of relevant statistical properties.

  20. Enhanced visualization of inner ear structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemczyk, Kazimierz; Kucharski, Tomasz; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Bruzgielewicz, Antoni

    2004-07-01

    Recently surgery requires extensive support from imaging technologies in order to increase effectiveness and safety of operations. One of important tasks is to enhance visualisation of quasi-phase (transparent) 3d structures. Those structures are characterized by very low contrast. It makes differentiation of tissues in field of view very difficult. For that reason the surgeon may be extremly uncertain during operation. This problem is connected with supporting operations of inner ear during which physician has to perform cuts at specific places of quasi-transparent velums. Conventionally during such operations medical doctor views the operating field through stereoscopic microscope. In the paper we propose a 3D visualisation system based on Helmet Mounted Display. Two CCD cameras placed at the output of microscope perform acquisition of stereo pairs of images. The images are processed in real-time with the goal of enhancement of quasi-phased structures. The main task is to create algorithm that is not sensitive to changes in intensity distribution. The disadvantages of existing algorithms is their lack of adaptation to occuring reflexes and shadows in field of view. The processed images from both left and right channels are overlaid on the actual images exported and displayed at LCD's of Helmet Mounted Display. A physician observes by HMD (Helmet Mounted Display) a stereoscopic operating scene with indication of the places of special interest. The authors present the hardware ,procedures applied and initial results of inner ear structure visualisation. Several problems connected with processing of stereo-pair images are discussed.

  1. Probing the Xenopus laevis inner ear transcriptome for biological function

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The senses of hearing and balance depend upon mechanoreception, a process that originates in the inner ear and shares features across species. Amphibians have been widely used for physiological studies of mechanotransduction by sensory hair cells. In contrast, much less is known of the genetic basis of auditory and vestibular function in this class of animals. Among amphibians, the genus Xenopus is a well-characterized genetic and developmental model that offers unique opportunities for inner ear research because of the amphibian capacity for tissue and organ regeneration. For these reasons, we implemented a functional genomics approach as a means to undertake a large-scale analysis of the Xenopus laevis inner ear transcriptome through microarray analysis. Results Microarray analysis uncovered genes within the X. laevis inner ear transcriptome associated with inner ear function and impairment in other organisms, thereby supporting the inclusion of Xenopus in cross-species genetic studies of the inner ear. The use of gene categories (inner ear tissue; deafness; ion channels; ion transporters; transcription factors) facilitated the assignment of functional significance to probe set identifiers. We enhanced the biological relevance of our microarray data by using a variety of curation approaches to increase the annotation of the Affymetrix GeneChip® Xenopus laevis Genome array. In addition, annotation analysis revealed the prevalence of inner ear transcripts represented by probe set identifiers that lack functional characterization. Conclusions We identified an abundance of targets for genetic analysis of auditory and vestibular function. The orthologues to human genes with known inner ear function and the highly expressed transcripts that lack annotation are particularly interesting candidates for future analyses. We used informatics approaches to impart biologically relevant information to the Xenopus inner ear transcriptome, thereby addressing the

  2. Cauliflower Ear and Skin Infections among Wrestlers in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Kordi, Ramin; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Nourian, Roh Allah; Wallace, W Angus

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the magnitude of the selected sports medicine problems (i.e. cauliflower ear and skin infections) among wrestlers in Tehran. A number of 411 wrestlers were randomly selected from wrestling clubs in Tehran employing cluster sample setting method. The participants were interviewed using a specially designed and validated questionnaire. Nearly half of the participants (44%) had "cauliflower ears". Only 23% of these participants had received any kind of treatment for their acute ear haematomas that are known to result in "cauliflower ears". The prevalence of reported hearing loss among participants with cauliflower ears (11.5%, 95%CI: 6.9 to 16.2) was significantly more than this prevalence among those participants without cauliflower ears (1.8%, 95%CI: 0.1 to 3.5) (p < 0.05). More than half of the participants (52%) had skin infection diagnosed by a physician during the previous year. This study has identified evidence of an increase in hearing loss as a possible side effect of either cauliflower ear or ear injury in wrestling in Iran. There has been an outbreak of ringworm and there is a significant potential for an outbreak of impetigo among wrestlers in Tehran. Key pointsSkin infections are prevalent among wrestlers in Tehran.Commonly wrestlers in Tehran continue to carry out wrestling training while affected by skin infections.Cauliflower ear "is common among wrestlers in Tehran.More research is needed to investigate hearing loss as a possible side effect of either cauliflower ear or ear injury in wrestling in Iran.

  3. Between-Frequency and Between-Ear Gap Detections and Their Relation to Perception of Stop Consonants.

    PubMed

    Mori, Shuji; Oyama, Kazuki; Kikuchi, Yousuke; Mitsudo, Takako; Hirose, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that between-channel gap detection, which includes between-frequency and between-ear gap detection, and perception of stop consonants, which is mediated by the length of voice-onset time (VOT), share common mechanisms, namely relative-timing operation in monitoring separate perceptual channels. The authors measured gap detection thresholds and identification functions of /ba/ and /pa/ along VOT in 49 native young adult Japanese listeners. There were three gap detection tasks. In the between-frequency task, the leading and trailing markers differed in terms of center frequency (Fc). The leading marker was a broadband noise of 10 to 20,000 Hz. The trailing marker was a 0.5-octave band-passed noise of 1000-, 2000-, 4000-, or 8000-Hz Fc. In the between-ear task, the two markers were spectrally identical but presented to separate ears. In the within-frequency task, the two spectrally identical markers were presented to the same ear. The /ba/-/pa/ identification functions were obtained in a task in which the listeners were presented synthesized speech stimuli of varying VOTs from 10 to 46 msec and asked to identify them as /ba/ or /pa/. The between-ear gap thresholds were significantly positively correlated with the between-frequency gap thresholds (except those obtained with the trailing marker of 4000-Hz Fc). The between-ear gap thresholds were not significantly correlated with the within-frequency gap thresholds, which were significantly correlated with all the between-frequency gap thresholds. The VOT boundaries and slopes of /ba/-/pa/ identification functions were not significantly correlated with any of these gap thresholds. There was a close relation between the between-ear and between-frequency gap detection, supporting the view that these two types of gap detection share common mechanisms of between-channel gap detection. However, there was no evidence for a relation between the perception of stop

  4. Inner ear contribution to bone conduction hearing in the human.

    PubMed

    Stenfelt, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    Bone conduction (BC) hearing relies on sound vibration transmission in the skull bone. Several clinical findings indicate that in the human, the skull vibration of the inner ear dominates the response for BC sound. Two phenomena transform the vibrations of the skull surrounding the inner ear to an excitation of the basilar membrane, (1) inertia of the inner ear fluid and (2) compression and expansion of the inner ear space. The relative importance of these two contributors were investigated using an impedance lumped element model. By dividing the motion of the inner ear boundary in common and differential motion it was found that the common motion dominated at frequencies below 7 kHz but above this frequency differential motion was greatest. When these motions were used to excite the model it was found that for the normal ear, the fluid inertia response was up to 20 dB greater than the compression response. This changed in the pathological ear where, for example, otosclerosis of the stapes depressed the fluid inertia response and improved the compression response so that inner ear compression dominated BC hearing at frequencies above 400 Hz. The model was also able to predict experimental and clinical findings of BC sensitivity in the literature, for example the so called Carhart notch in otosclerosis, increased BC sensitivity in superior semicircular canal dehiscence, and altered BC sensitivity following a vestibular fenestration and RW atresia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL OTIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 344.12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of isopropyl...

  6. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL OTIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 344.12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of isopropyl...

  7. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL OTIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 344.12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of isopropyl...

  8. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL OTIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 344.12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of isopropyl...

  9. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL OTIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 344.12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of isopropyl...

  10. The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

  11. Single-stage autologous ear reconstruction for microtia.

    PubMed

    Kasrai, Leila; Snyder-Warwick, Alison K; Fisher, David M

    2014-03-01

    The authors have been using the Nagata technique since 2002. In this review of 100 consecutive ear reconstructions, the authors present technique modifications that have evolved over this period that have contributed to improved auricular contour and that now allow for auricular reconstruction in a single stage. This study is a retrospective review of a prospectively acquired database. The series is restricted to primary reconstructions performed for congenital microtia. Photographs of 10 consecutive patients are presented to demonstrate the results of the technique. Surgical complication rates are discussed. One hundred ear reconstructions were performed in 96 patients. There were 75 primary cases of congenital microtia. Twenty-four ears underwent a two-stage reconstruction, and 51 ears were reconstructed with a Nagata stage I procedure or a single-stage reconstruction. There was a gradual shift in technique, with a trend to perform fewer Nagata stage II outsetting procedures and more single-stage reconstructions. In patients who underwent an ear reconstruction in two stages, the surgical complication rate was 22 percent. In the last 40 consecutive ear reconstructions since abandoning the two-stage approach, the surgical complication rate is now 15 percent. A modification of Nagata's technique of autologous ear reconstruction for microtia is described. Modifications of the three-dimensional framework address the contour of the inferior crus and control tragal projection and position. Inclusion of a projection block and recruitment of retroauricular skin allow for symmetric projection of the ear in a single stage. Therapeutic, IV.

  12. Surgical correction of the expanded earlobe after ear gauging.

    PubMed

    Henderson, James; Malata, Charles M

    2010-10-01

    Expansion of the earlobe by ear gauging or plugging is an increasingly fashionable practice. As patients get older, some seek to have their ears restored to normal. This report presents a simple local flap technique that has been successful in achieving uneventful healing with acceptable cosmetic results.

  13. [Adaptability of sweet corn ears to a frozen process].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Matheus, Alejandra O; Martínez, Norelkys Maribel; de Bertorelli, Ligia O; De Venanzi, Frank

    2004-12-01

    The effects of frozen condition on the quality of three sweet corn ears (2038, 2010, 2004) and the pattern (Bonanza), were evaluated. Biometrics characteristics like ear size, ear diameter, row and kernel deep were measured as well as chemical and physical measurement in fresh and frozen states. The corn ears were frozen at -95 degrees C by 7 minutes. The yield and stability of the frozen ears were evaluated at 45 and 90 days of frozen storage (-18 degrees C). The average commercial yield as frozen corn ear for all the hybrids was 54.2%. The industry has a similar value range of 48% to 54%. The ear size average was 21.57 cm, row number was 15, ear diameter 45.54 mm and the kernel corn deep was 8.57 mm. All these measurements were found not different from commercial values found for the industry. All corn samples evaluated showed good stability despites the frozen processing and storage. Hybrid 2038 ranked higher in quality.

  14. Long-eared owls nesting in Badlands National Park

    Treesearch

    Deborah D. Paulson; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1985-01-01

    Long-eared Owls nest at high densities locally over the Great Plains where suitable habitat is limited (Bent 1938), yet , according to Whitney et al. (1978), this species is rare to uncommon in South Dakota. Especially west of the Missouri River, few nesting records have been reported. This paper reports the occurrence of Long-eared Owls in the Badlands National Park...

  15. Preventing Cauliflower Ear with a Modified Tie-Through Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimeff, Robert J.; Hough, David O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a quick, simple tie-through suture technique (in which a collodion packing is secured to the auricle with two buttons) for preventing cauliflower ear following external ear trauma in wrestlers and boxers. The technique ensures constant compression; multiple treatments for fluid reaccumulation are rarely necessary. (SM)

  16. Redefinition of the helical rim in cauliflower-ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Schonauer, F; La Rusca, I; Pereira, J A; Molea, G

    2002-01-01

    Cauliflower ear is a serious deformity of the auricle induced by single or repeated injury to the external ear. Few papers deal with surgical techniques for correcting this deformity. We describe the use of ipsilateral excess cartilage to restore the helical rim. Copyright 2002 The British Association of Plastic Surgeons.

  17. Replantation of an avulsed ear, using a single arterial anastamosis.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, G; Bhatti, K; Masood, S

    2008-01-01

    Avulsion of the ear is relatively uncommon and replantation a technical challenge. A case in which an avulsed ear was successfully replanted using a single arterial anastamosis is described. The surgical difficulties encountered, the pharmaceutical approach to postoperative care and the problems which resulted from the lack of venous drainage are discussed.

  18. Can you hear me now? Understanding vertebrate middle ear development

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Susan Caroline

    2010-01-01

    The middle ear is a composite organ formed from all three germ layers and the neural crest. It provides the link between the outside world and the inner ear, where sound is transduced and routed to the brain for processing. Extensive classical and modern studies have described the complex morphology and origin of the middle ear. Non-mammalian vertebrates have a single ossicle, the columella. Mammals have three functionally equivalent ossicles, designated the malleus, incus and stapes. In this review, I focus on the role of genes known to function in the middle ear. Genetic studies are beginning to unravel the induction and patterning of the multiple middle ear elements including the tympanum, skeletal elements, the air-filled cavity, and the insertion point into the inner ear oval window. Future studies that elucidate the integrated spatio-temporal signaling mechanisms required to pattern the middle ear organ system are needed. The longer-term translational benefits of understanding normal and abnormal ear development will have a direct impact on human health outcomes. PMID:21196256

  19. Major evolutionary transitions and innovations: the tympanic middle ear

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    One of the most amazing transitions and innovations during the evolution of mammals was the formation of a novel jaw joint and the incorporation of the original jaw joint into the middle ear to create the unique mammalian three bone/ossicle ear. In this review, we look at the key steps that led to this change and other unusual features of the middle ear and how developmental biology has been providing an understanding of the mechanisms involved. This starts with an overview of the tympanic (air-filled) middle ear, and how the ear drum (tympanic membrane) and the cavity itself form during development in amniotes. This is followed by an investigation of how the ear is connected to the pharynx and the relationship of the ear to the bony bulla in which it sits. Finally, the novel mammalian jaw joint and versatile dentary bone will be discussed with respect to evolution of the mammalian middle ear. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evo-devo in the genomics era, and the origins of morphological diversity’. PMID:27994124

  20. Comparison of Microbiological Flora in the External Auditory Canal of Normal Ear and an Ear with Acute Otitis Externa.

    PubMed

    Ghanpur, Asheesh Dora; Nayak, Dipak Ranjan; Chawla, Kiran; Shashidhar, V; Singh, Rohit

    2017-09-01

    Acute Otitis Externa (AOE) is also known as swimmer's ear. Investigations initiated during World War II firmly established the role of bacteria in the aetiology of Acute Otitis Externa. To culture the microbiological flora of the normal ear and compare it with the flora causing AOE and to know the role of normal ear canal flora and anaerobes in the aetiology. A prospective observational study was conducted on 64 patients clinically diagnosed with unilateral AOE. Ear swabs were taken from both the ears. Microbiological flora was studied considering diseased ear as test ear and the normal ear as the control. Aerobic and anaerobic cultures were done. Severity of the disease was assessed by subjective and objective scores. Effect of topical treatment with ichthammol glycerine pack was assessed after 48 hours and scores were calculated again. Patients with scores < 4 after pack removal were started on systemic antibiotics and were assessed after seven days of antibiotics course. Data was analysed using Paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Chi-square test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (33%) was the most common bacteria cultured from the ear followed by Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (18%). Patients with anaerobic organism in the test ear had severe symptoms and needed systemic antibiotic therapy. Most of the cases may respond to empirical antibiotic therapy. In cases with severe symptoms and the ones refractory to empirical treatment, a culture from the ear canal will not be a tax on the patient. This helps in giving a better understanding about the disease, causative organisms and helps in avoiding the use of inappropriate antibiotics that usually result in developing resistant strains of bacteria.

  1. Can I Prevent Ear Infections When My Child Swims? (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ear Your Ears Perforated Eardrum What's Earwax? Swimmer's Ear (External ... All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, ...

  2. Determining the distribution loss of brown eared-pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) using historical data and potential distribution estimates

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zitan

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the synchronous relationship between forest cover and species distribution to explain the contraction in the distribution range of the brown eared-pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) in China. Historical resources can provide effective records for reconstructing long-term distribution dynamics. The brown eared-pheasant’s historical distribution from 25 to 1947 CE, which included the three provinces of Shaanxi, Shanxi, and Hebei based on this species’ habitat selection criteria, the history of the forests, ancient climate change records, and fossil data. The current species distribution covers Shaanxi, Shanxi, and Hebei provinces, as well as Beijing city, while Shanxi remains the center of the distribution area. MaxEnt model indicated that the suitable conditions of the brown eared-pheasant had retreated to the western regions of Shanxi and that the historical distribution area had reduced synchronously with the disappearance of local forest cover in Shanxi. We built a correlative relationship between the presence/absence of brown eared-pheasants and forest coverage and found that forest coverage in the north, northeast, central, and southeast areas of the Shanxi province were all less than 10% in 1911. Wild brown eared-pheasants are stable in the Luliang Mountains, where forest coverage reached 13.2% in 2000. Consequently, we concluded that the distribution of this species is primarily determined by vegetation conditions and that forest cover was the most significant determining factor. PMID:27781161

  3. Bilateral external ear canal osteomas - discussion on a clinical case.

    PubMed

    Gheorghe, D C; Stanciu, A E; Ulici, A; Zamfir-Chiru-Anton, A

    2016-01-01

    Osteomas of the external ear are uncommon benign tumors that need to be differentiated from the external ear canal exostoses, bony proliferations that are linked mainly to cold-water exposure. Clinical manifestations vary from no symptoms to recurrent local infections and external ear cholesteatoma. Objective: presenting a rare case that we did not find described in the published literature. A patient with multiple long-term asymptomatic osteomas of both external ear canals presented to our department. Material: Data recorded from the patient's medical record was reviewed and analyzed. Surgery was performed and histology confirmed the presumptive diagnosis. Results: There was a discrepancy between the local severity of the disease, with a complete obstruction of his ear canals, and the long-term disease-free status of the patient. Conclusion: We hypothesized about the etiology of these multiple bilateral osteomas of the EAC, in light of the clinical and surgical findings.

  4. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions upon ear canal pressurization.

    PubMed

    Zebian, Makram; Schirkonyer, Volker; Hensel, Johannes; Vollbort, Sven; Fedtke, Thomas; Janssen, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the change in distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) level upon ear canal pressurization. DPOAEs were measured on 12 normal-hearing human subjects for ear canal static pressures between -200 and +200 daPa in (50 ± 5) daPa steps. A clear dependence of DPOAE levels on the pressure was observed, with levels being highest at the maximum compliance of the middle ear, and decreasing on average by 2.3 dB per 50 daPa for lower and higher pressures. Ear canal pressurization can serve as a tool for improving the detectability of DPOAEs in the case of middle-ear dysfunction.

  5. Inner ear symptoms and disease: Pathophysiological understanding and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Ciuman, Raphael R.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, huge advances have taken place in understanding of inner ear pathophysiology causing sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Advances in understanding comprise biochemical and physiological research of stimulus perception and conduction, inner ear homeostasis, and hereditary diseases with underlying genetics. This review describes and tabulates the various causes of inner ear disease and defines inner ear and non-inner ear causes of hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. The aim of this review was to comprehensively breakdown this field of otorhinolaryngology for specialists and non-specialists and to discuss current therapeutic options in distinct diseases and promising research for future therapies, especially pharmaceutic, genetic, or stem cell therapy. PMID:24362017

  6. Direct cost comparison of totally endoscopic versus open ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Patel, N; Mohammadi, A; Jufas, N

    2018-02-01

    Totally endoscopic ear surgery is a relatively new method for managing chronic ear disease. This study aimed to test the null hypothesis that open and endoscopic approaches have similar direct costs for the management of attic cholesteatoma, from an Australian private hospital setting. A retrospective direct cost comparison of totally endoscopic ear surgery and traditional canal wall up mastoidectomy for the management of attic cholesteatoma in a private tertiary setting was undertaken. Indirect and future costs were excluded. A direct cost comparison of anaesthetic setup and resources, operative setup and resources, and surgical time was performed between the two techniques. Totally endoscopic ear surgery has a mean direct cost reduction of AUD$2978.89 per operation from the hospital perspective, when compared to canal wall up mastoidectomy. Totally endoscopic ear surgery is more cost-effective, from an Australian private hospital perspective, than canal wall up mastoidectomy for attic cholesteatoma.

  7. Prospective study of inner ear radiation dose and hearing loss in head-and-neck cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Charlie C.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Lee, Julia S.

    Purpose: To determine the relationship between the radiation dose to the inner ear and long-term hearing loss. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients included those receiving curative radiotherapy (RT) for head-and-neck cancer. After enrollment, patients underwent three-dimensional conformal RT planning and delivery (180-200 cGy/fraction) appropriate for their disease site and stage. The inner ear was contoured on axial CT planning images. Dose-volume histograms, as well as the mean and maximal dose for each structure, were calculated. Patients underwent pure tone audiometry at baseline (before treatment) and 1, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after RT. The threshold level (the greater themore » value, the more hearing loss) in decibels was recorded for 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, and 8000 Hz. For patients receiving predominantly unilateral RT, the contralateral ear served as the de facto control. The differences in threshold level between the ipsilateral and contralateral ears were calculated, and the temporal pattern and dose-response relation of hearing loss were analyzed using statistical methods that take into account the correlation between two ears in the same subject and repeated, sequential measurements of each subject. Results: Of the 40 patients enrolled in this study, 35 qualified for analysis. Four patients who received concurrent chemotherapy and RT were analyzed separately. The 31 unilaterally treated patients received a median dose of 47.4 Gy (range, 14.1-68.8 Gy) to the ipsilateral inner ear and 4.2 Gy (range, 0.5-31.3 Gy) to the contralateral inner ear. Hearing loss was associated with the radiation dose received by the inner ear (loss of 210dB was observed in ears receiving {>=}45 Gy) and was most appreciable in the higher frequencies ({>=}2000 Hz). For a 60-year-old patient with no previous hearing loss in either ear, after receiving 45 Gy, the ipsilateral ear, according to our clinical model, would have a 19.3-dB (95% confidence interval [CI], 15

  8. Physiological artifacts in scalp EEG and ear-EEG.

    PubMed

    Kappel, Simon L; Looney, David; Mandic, Danilo P; Kidmose, Preben

    2017-08-11

    A problem inherent to recording EEG is the interference arising from noise and artifacts. While in a laboratory environment, artifacts and interference can, to a large extent, be avoided or controlled, in real-life scenarios this is a challenge. Ear-EEG is a concept where EEG is acquired from electrodes in the ear. We present a characterization of physiological artifacts generated in a controlled environment for nine subjects. The influence of the artifacts was quantified in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) deterioration of the auditory steady-state response. Alpha band modulation was also studied in an open/closed eyes paradigm. Artifacts related to jaw muscle contractions were present all over the scalp and in the ear, with the highest SNR deteriorations in the gamma band. The SNR deterioration for jaw artifacts were in general higher in the ear compared to the scalp. Whereas eye-blinking did not influence the SNR in the ear, it was significant for all groups of scalps electrodes in the delta and theta bands. Eye movements resulted in statistical significant SNR deterioration in both frontal, temporal and ear electrodes. Recordings of alpha band modulation showed increased power and coherence of the EEG for ear and scalp electrodes in the closed-eyes periods. Ear-EEG is a method developed for unobtrusive and discreet recording over long periods of time and in real-life environments. This study investigated the influence of the most important types of physiological artifacts, and demonstrated that spontaneous activity, in terms of alpha band oscillations, could be recorded from the ear-EEG platform. In its present form ear-EEG was more prone to jaw related artifacts and less prone to eye-blinking artifacts compared to state-of-the-art scalp based systems.

  9. Pinnaplasty: reshaping ears to improve hearing aid retention.

    PubMed

    Gault, David; Grob, Marion; Odili, Joy

    2007-01-01

    The hearing aid is extremely important to the deaf. A small number have difficulty in retaining the device because the ear is prominent or cup-shaped. This report describes 11 children whose ear shape was modified to improve hearing aid retention and one adult in whom an over set back ear was released to allow fitment of a postaural device. In eight of the 11 children treated, conservative measures such as double-sided tape and retention bands (Huggies) had been tried previously without success. The creation of an antihelical fold in a misshapen ear lacking such a fold provides a reinforcing strut which is useful to support a hearing aid. In patients whose ear had been excessively tethered by previous surgery, projection was restored by inserting a cartilage block behind the ear. In one child with ears tethered by previous surgery, costal cartilage was used not only to release both ears, but also to reconstruct a new helical rim on one side. Surgery enabled a normal postaural hearing aid to be worn in 17 of the 19 ears treated. The two failures deserve special mention. In one patient with a unilateral deformity and severe mental retardation, the dressings were pulled off immediately after surgery. In another patient with a bilateral problem, the appearance and hearing aid retention was improved, but there was not enough room in the postauricular sulcus on one side for the battery component to fit comfortably and an in-the-ear device is now used on that side. Pinnaplasty is a helpful strategy to improve hearing aid retention. Care must be taken not to overdo the set back so that enough room is left to retain the hearing device.

  10. Ear Infection in Isolated Cleft Lip: Etiological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Ruegg, Teresa A.; Cooper, Margaret E.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Ford, Matthew D.; Wehby, George L.; Deleyiannis, Frederic W.B.; Czeizel, Andrew E.; Hecht, Jacqueline T.; Marazita, Mary L.; Weinberg, Seth M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Hypothesis Chronic ear infections are a common occurrence in children with orofacial clefts involving the secondary palate. Less is known about the middle ear status of individuals with isolated clefts of the lip, although several studies have reported elevated rates of ear infection in this group. The purpose of this retrospective study was to test the hypothesis that chronic ear infections occur more frequently in isolated cleft lip cases (n=94) compared with controls (n=183). Methods A questionnaire was used to obtain information on history of chronic ear infection. The association between ear infection status (present/absent) and cleft lip status (cleft lip case/control) was tested using both chi-square and logistic regression. Results and Conclusions The reported occurrence of chronic ear infection was significantly greater in cleft lipcases (31%) compared to unaffected controls (11%). After adjusting for age and sex, having a cleft lip increased the odds of being positive for ear infection by a factor greater than three (OR=3.698; 95%CI=1.91–7.14). Within cleft lipcases, there was no difference in the occurrence of ear infection by defect laterality or by the type of clefting present in the family history. Although velopharyngeal insufficiency was present in 18.4% of our cleft lip sample, there was no statistical association between ear infection and abnormal speech patterns. These results may have potential implications both for the clinical management of isolated cleft lip cases and for understanding the etiology of orofacial clefting. PMID:26153759

  11. Ear Infection in Isolated Cleft Lip: Etiological Implications.

    PubMed

    Ruegg, Teresa A; Cooper, Margaret E; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Ford, Matthew D; Wehby, George L; Deleyiannis, Frederic W B; Czeizel, Andrew E; Hecht, Jacqueline T; Marazita, Mary L; Weinberg, Seth M

    2017-03-01

      Chronic ear infections are a common occurrence in children with orofacial clefts involving the secondary palate. Less is known about the middle ear status of individuals with isolated clefts of the lip, although several studies have reported elevated rates of ear infection in this group. The purpose of this retrospective study was to test the hypothesis that chronic ear infections occur more frequently in isolated cleft lip cases (n = 94) compared with controls (n = 183).   A questionnaire was used to obtain information on history of chronic ear infection. The association between ear infection status (present/absent) and cleft lip status (cleft lip case/control) was tested using both chi-square and logistic regression.   The reported occurrence of chronic ear infection was significantly greater in cleft lip cases (31%) compared with unaffected controls (11%). After adjusting for age and sex, having a cleft lip increased the odds of being positive for ear infection by a factor greater than 3 (odds ratio = 3.698; 95% confidence interval = 1.91 to 7.14). Within cleft lip cases, there was no difference in the occurrence of ear infection by defect laterality or by the type of clefting present in the family history. Although velopharyngeal insufficiency was present in 18.4% of our cleft lip sample, there was no statistical association between ear infection and abnormal speech patterns. These results may have potential implications both for the clinical management of isolated cleft lip cases and for understanding the etiology of orofacial clefting.

  12. Multicollinearity in canonical correlation analysis in maize.

    PubMed

    Alves, B M; Cargnelutti Filho, A; Burin, C

    2017-03-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of multicollinearity under two methods of canonical correlation analysis (with and without elimination of variables) in maize (Zea mays L.) crop. Seventy-six maize genotypes were evaluated in three experiments, conducted in a randomized block design with three replications, during the 2009/2010 crop season. Eleven agronomic variables (number of days from sowing until female flowering, number of days from sowing until male flowering, plant height, ear insertion height, ear placement, number of plants, number of ears, ear index, ear weight, grain yield, and one thousand grain weight), 12 protein-nutritional variables (crude protein, lysine, methionine, cysteine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, histidine, and arginine), and 6 energetic-nutritional variables (apparent metabolizable energy, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen, ether extract, crude fiber, starch, and amylose) were measured. A phenotypic correlation matrix was first generated among the 29 variables for each of the experiments. A multicollinearity diagnosis was later performed within each group of variables using methodologies such as variance inflation factor and condition number. Canonical correlation analysis was then performed, with and without the elimination of variables, among groups of agronomic and protein-nutritional, and agronomic and energetic-nutritional variables. The canonical correlation analysis in the presence of multicollinearity (without elimination of variables) overestimates the variability of canonical coefficients. The elimination of variables is an efficient method to circumvent multicollinearity in canonical correlation analysis.

  13. Mozart Ear Deformity: a Rare Diagnosis in the Ear Reconstruction Clinic.

    PubMed

    Telich-Tarriba, Jose E; Victor-Baldin, Andre; Apellaniz-Campo, Armando

    2017-07-01

    Mozart ear is a rare auricular deformity; clinically the auricle is characterized by the bulging appearance of the anterosuperior portion of the auricle due to fusion of the crura of the antihelix, an inversion in the normal form of the cavum conchae resulting in its convexity and a slit-like narrowing of the orifice of the external auditory meatus.A retrospective review of clinical and photographic records of patients attended at the ear reconstruction clinic of our hospital between June of 2010 and May 2016 was performed; out of 576 consecutive patients only 3 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, with a prevalence of 0.5%. The authors present these patients.Surgical interventions mainly focus on the correction of the convex concha; however, the procedure should be tailored to the severity of the deformity and the wishes of the patient.

  14. Recurrent syncope and chronic ear pain

    PubMed Central

    Clegg, Andrew; Daverede, Luis; Wong, Winson; Loney, Elizabeth; Young, John

    2010-01-01

    An elderly gentleman presented to hospital with recurrent blackout episodes consistent with syncope and a 3-month history of right ear pain. Significant postural hypotension was recorded. White cell count and C reactive protein were elevated. MRI of the head and neck revealed a soft tissue abnormality in the right nasopharynx and base of skull. Tissue biopsies were obtained and microbiology specimens revealed a mixed growth of pseudomonas and diphtheroids. There was no histological evidence of malignancy. A diagnosis of skull base infection was made. Infective involvement of the carotid sinus was considered to be the cause of the recurrent syncope and postural hypotension. The patient responded well to a 12-week course of intravenous meropenem. Inflammatory markers returned to normal and a repeat MRI after 3 months of treatment showed significant resolution of infection. The syncopal episodes and orthostatic hypotension resolved in parallel with treatment of infection. PMID:22791782

  15. Tuberculosis of the ear, a professional disease?

    PubMed

    Sens, Patrícia Maria; Almeida, Clemente I R; Valle, Lupércio O do; Costa, Luís H C; Angeli, Miguel L S

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a rare cause of chronic suppurative otitis media and mastoiditis; the predisposing factors of this association, however, are not commonly described. There has been an alarming increase in the incidence of tuberculosis in Brazil, including tuberculous otitis media. These patients typically present multiple perforations of the tympanic membrane, an ear discharge, and progressive hearing loss. This diagnosis should be taken into account in patients that do not respond to routine therapy for fungal external otitis or bacterial otitis media. In this retrospective study, the authors describe four cases of patients with tuberculous otitis media. This sample consisted of two physicians, a chemical engineer and an underage child in whose family there were cases of active tuberculosis. Predisposing factors for tuberculous otitis were contact with family members that had tuberculosis, professional contact with patients and exposure to pathogenic microorganisms in airways.

  16. The comparative anatomy of the pig middle ear cavity: a model for middle ear inflammation in the human?

    PubMed Central

    PRACY, J. P.; WHITE, A.; MUSTAFA, Y.; SMITH, D.; PERRY, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a functional model of otitis media with effusion (OME) in the pig (Sus scrofa), with the purpose of investigating the origin of lymphocytes populating the middle ear during the course of an inflammatory process. The relevance of the model to the human condition of OME is to a large extent dependent on the anatomical and physiological similarities between the middle ear cavity and the pharyngeal lymphoid tissue of the pig and man. Anatomical specimens were collected from 7 young Large White pigs to determine the gross anatomy of the middle ear cavity and the histological characteristics of the middle ear mucosa. It was found that the anatomy of the 3 parts of the middle ear cavity in man and in the pig is broadly similar, although some minor differences were observed. The porcine eustachian tube was seen to be cartilaginous throughout its length in contrast to the part osseous, part cartilaginous structure found in man; the porcine ossicles were slightly different in shape to those of man and the air cell system was situated inferior to the tympanic cavity in the pig as opposed to posteriorly in man. This paper describes the structure and morphology of the pig middle ear cavity and compares and contrasts it with that of man. The minor differences observed are of anatomical importance but do not diminish the usefulness of the pig middle ear cleft as a potential model for human middle ear disorders. PMID:9688502

  17. Communication routes between intracranial spaces and inner ear: function, pathophysiologic importance and relations with inner ear diseases.

    PubMed

    Ciuman, Raphael R

    2009-01-01

    There exist 3 communication routes between the intracranial space and the inner ear, the vestibular aqueduct, the cochlear aqueduct, and the internal auditory canal. They possess a key role in inner ear pressure regulation and fluid homeostasis and are related to inner ear diseases. Relevant literature was reviewed, and the current knowledge of the anatomy, physiologic importance, and relations to inner ear diseases were described. Pathologic communication routes such as semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome were highlighted as well. Abnormalities in all 3 communication routes may predispose or be the cause of distinct inner ear pathologic condition and involved in other cochlear and vestibular syndromes, in which their role is not completely clear. The increasing knowledge of the underlying mechanisms encourages promising approaches for possible intervention in the future.

  18. Passage of albumin from the middle ear to the inner ear in otitis media in the chinchilla

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, B.; Goycoolea, M.V.; Schleivert, P.M.

    1981-08-01

    A study of the permeability of the middle ear-inner ear interface for macromolecules was carried out in chinchillas with open and obstructed eustachian tubes utilizing tritiated human serum albumin and immunoelectrophoresis. Tritiated albumin was placed in the round window niche area or normal animals and animals in which the eustachian tubes had been obstructed for 24 hours or 14 days. The tritiated albumin was allowed to remain in the middle ear cavity for 24 hours, Samples of middle ear effusion, perilymph, blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected and measured for radioactivity. Radioactivity was demonstrated in the perilymph. Samples of middlemore » ear effusions and perilymph were also studied by immunoelectrophoresis with goat antihuman albumin. Albumin placed in the round window niche of an experimental animal could be recovered unchanged in the perilymph. The results suggest a pathophysiologic explanation for the association of otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss or endolymphatic hydrops.« less

  19. Vestibular sensory functional status of cochlear implanted ears versus non-implanted ears in bilateral profound deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Cozma, Romică Sebastian; Dima-Cozma, Lucia Corina; Rădulescu, Luminiţa Mihaela; Hera, Maria Cristina; Mârţu, Cristian; Olariu, Raluca; Cobzeanu, Bogdan Mihail; Bitere, Oana Roxana; Cobzeanu, Mihail Dan

    2018-01-01

    Patients with hearing loss who underwent cochlear implantation can present symptomatic or asymptomatic vestibular damages earlier or later after the surgery. The vestibular permanent lesions could be acute, produced by surgical trauma or could be progressive due to local morphological changes made by the presence of the portelectrode in the inner ear (fibrosis related, ossification, basilar membrane distortion, endolymphatic hydrops). Besides histopathological findings in inner ear of cochlear implanted patients, the vestibular permanent damages could be found by assessment of clinical vestibular status. This study reports the sensorial vestibular functional findings for adults in cochlear implanted ears related to the electrode insertion type (cochleostomy or round window approach) and comparing to non-implanted deaf ears. A total of 20 adult patients with 32 cochlear implanted ears (12 patients with binaural cochlear implant and eight with monoaural) were selected for postoperatory vestibular examination by cervical and ocular vestibular myogenic potentials and vestibular caloric tests. The same tests were made for a control group of 22 non-implanted deaf ears. Functional testing results were reported related to the electrode insertion approach. For the cochleostomy group, we found different deficits: in 40% for saccular function, 44% for utricular function, and 12% horizontal canal dysfunction. In round window group, the deficit was present in 14.29% for saccular function, 28.57% for utricular function, and 28.58% for horizontal canal. In 46.88% of implanted ears, the vestibular function was completely preserved on all tested sensors. In conclusion, the vestibular functional status after inner ear surgery presents sensorial damages in 53.12% ears compare with the vestibular dysfunction existing in 50% of deaf non-operated ears. Round window insertion allows for better conservation of the vestibular function.

  20. Combined Effect of Fluid and Pressure on Middle Ear Function

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Chenkai; Wood, Mark W.; Gan, Rong Z.

    2008-01-01

    In our previous studies, the effects of effusion and pressure on sound transmission were investigated separately. The aim of this study is to investigate the combined effect of fluid and pressure on middle ear function. An otitis media with effusion model was created by injecting saline solution and air pressure simultaneously into the middle ear of human temporal bones. Tympanic membrane displacement in response to 90 dB SPL sound input was measured by a laser vibrometer and the compliance of the middle ear was measured by a tympanometer. The movement of the tympanic membrane at the umbo was reduced up to 17 dB by the combination of fluid and pressure in the middle ear over the auditory frequency range. The fluid and pressure effects on the umbo movement in the fluid-pressure combination are not additive. The combined effect of fluid and pressure on the umbo movement is different compared with that of only fluid or pressure change in the middle ear. Negative pressure in fluid-pressure combination had more effect on middle ear function than positive pressure. Tympanometry can detect the middle ear pressure of the fluid-pressure combination. This study provides quantitative information for analysis of the combined effect of fluid and pressure on tympanic membrane movement. PMID:18162348

  1. Surgical and Technical Modalities for Hearing Restoration in Ear Malformations.

    PubMed

    Dazert, Stefan; Thomas, Jan Peter; Volkenstein, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Malformations of the external and middle ear often go along with an aesthetic and functional handicap. Independent of additional aesthetic procedures, a successful functional hearing restoration leads to a tremendous gain in quality of life for affected patients. The introduction of implantable hearing systems (bone conduction and middle ear devices) offers new therapeutic options in this field. We focus on functional rehabilitation of patients with malformations, either by surgical reconstruction or the use of different implantable hearing devices, depending on the disease itself and the severity of malformation as well as hearing impairment. Patients with an open ear canal and minor malformations are good candidates for surgical hearing restoration of middle ear structures with passive titanium or autologous implants. In cases with complete fibrous or bony atresia of the ear canal, the most promising functional outcome and gain in quality of life can be expected with an active middle ear implant or a bone conduction device combined with a surgical aesthetic rehabilitation in a single or multi-step procedure. Although the surgical procedure for bone conduction devices is straightforward and safe, more sophisticated operations for active middle ear implants (e.g., Vibrant Soundbridge, MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria) provide an improved speech discrimination in noise and the ability of sound localization compared with bone conduction devices where the stimulation reaches both cochleae. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Comparison of Middle Ear Visualization With Endoscopy and Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Marc L; Zhang, Dongqing; Labadie, Robert F; Noble, Jack H

    2016-04-01

    The primary goal of chronic ear surgery is the creation of a safe, clean dry ear. For cholesteatomas, complete removal of disease is dependent on visualization. Conventional microscopy is adequate for most dissection, but various subregions of the middle ear are better visualized with endoscopy. The purpose of the present study was to quantitatively assess the improved visualization that endoscopes afford as compared with operating microscopes. Microscopic and endoscopic views were simulated using a three-dimensional model developed from temporal bone scans. Surface renderings of the ear canal and middle ear subsegments were defined and the percentage of visualization of each middle ear subsegment, both with and without ossicles, was then determined for the microscope as well as for 0-, 30-, and 45-degree endoscopes. Using this information, we analyzed which mode of visualization is best suited for dissection within a particular anatomical region. Using a 0-degree scope provides significantly more visualization of every subregion, except the antrum, compared with a microscope. In addition, angled scopes permit visualizing significantly more surface area of every subregion of the middle ear than straight scopes or microscopes. Endoscopes offer advantages for cholesteatoma dissection in difficult-to-visualize areas including the sinus tympani and epitympanum.

  3. Inverse solution of ear-canal area function from reflectance

    PubMed Central

    Rasetshwane, Daniel M.; Neely, Stephen T.

    2011-01-01

    A number of acoustical applications require the transformation of acoustical quantities, such as impedance and pressure that are measured at the entrance of the ear canal, to quantities at the eardrum. This transformation often requires knowledge of the shape of the ear canal. Previous attempts to measure ear-canal area functions were either invasive, non-reproducible, or could only measure the area function up to a point mid-way along the canal. A method to determine the area function of the ear canal from measurements of acoustic impedance at the entrance of the ear canal is described. The method is based on a solution to the inverse problem in which measurements of impedance are used to calculate reflectance, which is then used to determine the area function of the canal. The mean ear-canal area function determined using this method is similar to mean ear-canal area functions measured by other researchers using different techniques. The advantage of the proposed method over previous methods is that it is non- invasive, fast, and reproducible. PMID:22225043

  4. An in vitro model of murine middle ear epithelium.

    PubMed

    Mulay, Apoorva; Akram, Khondoker M; Williams, Debbie; Armes, Hannah; Russell, Catherine; Hood, Derek; Armstrong, Stuart; Stewart, James P; Brown, Steve D M; Bingle, Lynne; Bingle, Colin D

    2016-11-01

    Otitis media (OM), or middle ear inflammation, is the most common paediatric disease and leads to significant morbidity. Although understanding of underlying disease mechanisms is hampered by complex pathophysiology it is clear that epithelial abnormalities underpin the disease. There is currently a lack of a well-characterised in vitro model of the middle ear (ME) epithelium that replicates the complex cellular composition of the middle ear. Here, we report the development of a novel in vitro model of mouse middle ear epithelial cells (mMECs) at an air-liquid interface (ALI) that recapitulates the characteristics of the native murine ME epithelium. We demonstrate that mMECs undergo differentiation into the varied cell populations seen within the native middle ear. Proteomic analysis confirmed that the cultures secrete a multitude of innate defence proteins from their apical surface. We showed that the mMECs supported the growth of the otopathogen, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), suggesting that the model can be successfully utilised to study host-pathogen interactions in the middle ear. Overall, our mMEC culture system can help to better understand the cell biology of the middle ear and improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of OM. The model also has the potential to serve as a platform for validation of treatments designed to reverse aspects of epithelial remodelling that underpin OM development. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Effects of obstructive sleep apnea surgery on middle ear function.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Ching; Friedman, Michael; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Shao, Chi-Hsin; Pulver, Tanya M; Chen, Yung-Che

    2011-04-01

    To study the effect of Z-palatopharyngoplasty plus radiofrequency of the base of the tongue on middle ear function. A retrospective review of a prospective data set at a tertiary care center. University-affiliated medical center. The study population included 47 patients (42 men and 5 women; mean age, 40.8 years) who underwent Z-palatopharyngoplasty plus radiofrequency of the base of the tongue for obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. All patients had healthy eardrums and no previous history of chronic ear disease. Pure-tone audiometric and tympanometric assessments were performed preoperatively and at 3 days, 7 days, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively. Levels of baseline and postoperative middle ear pressure were compared. Twelve patients (26%) reported otologic concerns, such as ear pressure and/or otalgia, within 1 week postoperatively. No permanent otologic discomfort occurred. A trend toward reduced middle ear pressure was noted in this study. The decrease in middle ear pressure became apparent on day 3. However, mean pressure changes were no longer significantly different than preoperative values by 1 week after surgery. We found that Z-palatopharyngoplasty plus radiofrequency of the base of the tongue for obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome induces changes in middle ear function. However, the changes were temporary and not significant after 3 months of follow-up.

  6. Musical ear syndrome in adult cochlear implant patients.

    PubMed

    Low, W-K; Tham, C A; D'Souza, V-D; Teng, S-W

    2013-09-01

    Except for a single case report, musical ear syndrome in cochlear implantees has not been studied. We aimed to study the prevalence and nature of musical ear syndrome among adult cochlear implant patients, as well as the effect on their emotional well-being. STUDY DESIGN, PATIENTS AND INTERVENTION: A cross-sectional survey of patients aged 18 years and above who had received cochlear implants for profound hearing loss between 1997 and 2010. Of the 82 patients studied, 18 (22 per cent) were found to have experienced musical ear syndrome. Seven and 11 patients had musical ear syndrome prior to and after cochlear implantation, respectively. The character of musical ear syndrome symptoms was described as instrumental music (n = 2), singing (6) or both (10). Fourteen patients reported an adverse emotional effect, with three expressing ‘intolerance’. In this study, 22 per cent of cochlear implantees experienced musical ear syndrome. These symptoms affected patients’ emotional state, but most coped well. Musical ear syndrome can occur prior to and after cochlear implantation.

  7. Cauliflower Ear and Skin Infections among Wrestlers in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Kordi, Ramin; Mansournai, Mohammad Ali; Nourian, Roh Allah; Wallace, W. Angus

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the magnitude of the selected sports medicine problems (i.e. cauliflower ear and skin infections) among wrestlers in Tehran. A number of 411 wrestlers were randomly selected from wrestling clubs in Tehran employing cluster sample setting method. The participants were interviewed using a specially designed and validated questionnaire. Nearly half of the participants (44%) had “cauliflower ears”. Only 23% of these participants had received any kind of treatment for their acute ear haematomas that are known to result in “cauliflower ears”. The prevalence of reported hearing loss among participants with cauliflower ears (11.5%, 95%CI: 6.9 to 16.2) was significantly more than this prevalence among those participants without cauliflower ears (1.8%, 95%CI: 0.1 to 3.5) (p < 0.05). More than half of the participants (52%) had skin infection diagnosed by a physician during the previous year. This study has identified evidence of an increase in hearing loss as a possible side effect of either cauliflower ear or ear injury in wrestling in Iran. There has been an outbreak of ringworm and there is a significant potential for an outbreak of impetigo among wrestlers in Tehran. Key points Skin infections are prevalent among wrestlers in Tehran. Commonly wrestlers in Tehran continue to carry out wrestling training while affected by skin infections. Cauliflower ear ”is common among wrestlers in Tehran. More research is needed to investigate hearing loss as a possible side effect of either cauliflower ear or ear injury in wrestling in Iran. PMID:24198702

  8. Relationship Between Audio-Vestibular Functional Tests and Inner Ear MRI in Meniere's Disease.

    PubMed

    Quatre, Raphaële; Attyé, Arnaud; Karkas, Alexandre; Job, Agnès; Dumas, Georges; Schmerber, Sébastien

    2018-04-25

    Meniere's disease is an inner ear disorder generally attributed to an endolymphatic hydrops. Different electrophysiological tests and imaging techniques have been developed to improve endolymphatic hydrops diagnosis. The goal of our study was to compare the sensitivity and the specificity of delayed inner ear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after intravenous injection of gadolinium with extratympanic clicks electrocochleography (EcochG), phase shift of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (shift-DPOAEs), and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP) for the diagnosis of Meniere's disease. Forty-one patients, with a total of 50 affected ears, were included prospectively from April 2015 to April 2016 in our institution. Patients included had definite or possible Meniere's disease based on the latest American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery guidelines revised in 2015. All patients went through delayed inner ear MRI after intravenous injection of gadolinium (three dimension-fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences), pure-tone audiometry, extratympanic clicks EcochG, shift-DPOAEs, and cVEMP on the same day. Endolymphatic hydrops was graded on MRI using the saccule to utricle ratio inversion defined as when the saccule appeared equal or larger than the utricle. Abnormal EcochG and shift-DPOAEs in patients with definite Meniere's disease (DMD) were found in 68 and 64.5%, respectively. The two methods were significantly associated in DMD group. In DMD group, 25.7% had a positive MRI. The correlation between MRI versus EcochG and MRI versus shift-DPOAEs was not significant. MRI hydrops detection was correlated with hearing loss. Finally, 22.9% of DMD group had positive cVEMP. EcochG and shift-DPOAEs were both well correlated with clinical criteria of Meniere's disease. Inner ear MRI showed hydrops when hearing loss was higher than 35 dB. The shift-DPOAEs presented the advantage of a rapid and easy measurement if DPOAEs could be

  9. 3D visualization of middle ear structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Uwe; Schmitt, Thomas

    1998-06-01

    The achievement of volume geometry data from middle ear structures and surrounding components performs a necessary supposition for the finite element simulation of the vibrational and transfer characteristics of the ossicular chain. So far those models base on generalized figures and size data from anatomy textbooks or particular manual and one- or two-dimensional distance measurements of single ossicles, mostly obtained by light microscopy, respectively. Therefore the goal of this study is to create a procedure for complete three-dimensional imaging of real middle ear structures (tympanic membrane, ossicles, ligaments) in vitro or even in vivo. The main problems are their microscopic size with relevant structures from 10 micrometer to 5 mm, representing various tissue properties (bone, soft tissue). Additionally, these structures are surrounded by the temporal bone, the most solid bone of the human body. Generally there exist several established diagnostic tools for medical imaging that could be used for geometry data acquisition, e.g., X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Basically they image different tissue parameters, either bony structures (ossicles), or soft tissue (tympanic membrane, ligaments). But considering this application those standard techniques allow low spatial resolution only, usually in the 0.5 - 1mm range, at least in one spatial direction. Thus particular structures of the middle ear region could even be missed completely because of their spatial location. In vitro there is a way out by collecting three complete data sets, each distinguished by 90 degree rotation of a cube-shaped temporal bone specimen. That allows high-resolution imaging in three orthogonal planes, which essentially supports the three-dimensional interpolation of the unknown elements, starting from the regularly set elements of the cubic grid with an edge extension given by the original two-dimensional matrix. A different approach represents the

  10. Congenital atresia of the external ear and tinnitus: a new syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Abraham; Strashun, Arnold M; Goldstein, Barbara; Lenhardt, Martin L

    2006-01-01

    Congenital atresia of the external ears and severe tinnitus has been reported by two patients to be contralateral to the atretic ear. The use of the nuclear medicine imaging technique of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of brain has demonstrated hypoperfusion in brain areas supplied by the middle cerebral artery on the side of the atretic ear. Ultrahigh-frequency audiometry (UHFA) has revealed a bilateral loss of hearing greater than expected for the age of affected patients. Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) has shown a significant central nervous system electrical dysfunction correlated with the SPECT of brain findings. One case is reported in detail at this time. Completion of the medical audiological tinnitus patient protocol, including SPECT of brain, UHFA, and QEEG, accurately established the clinical tinnitus diagnosis of predominantly a central-type tinnitus, a clinical hypothesis that the medical significance of the tinnitus is a "soft" sign of cerebrovascular disease, and provided a rationale for treatment directed to a presumed ischemia of brain based on a receptor-targeted therapy targeted to the GABA-A receptor, resulting in significant tinnitus relief. Questions that have arisen include (1) the incidence of occurrence of hypoperfusion of the middle cerebral artery in congenital atresia patients; (2) implications and long-term consequences of this finding in this patient population for development of cerebrovascular disease; (3) brain plasticity for tinnitus relief (i.e., neuronal reprogramming, particularly in response to treatment recommendations for complaints of the cochleovestibular system in general and specifically for tinnitus); (4) the clinical significance of the UHFA thresholds of bilateral hearing loss greater than expected for the age of the patient; and (5) whether congenital atresia of the external ear may be part of a syndrome that includes hypoperfusion in brain areas supplied by the middle cerebral artery on

  11. Shaping sound in space: the regulation of inner ear patterning.

    PubMed

    Groves, Andrew K; Fekete, Donna M

    2012-01-01

    The inner ear is one of the most morphologically elaborate tissues in vertebrates, containing a group of mechanosensitive sensory organs that mediate hearing and balance. These organs are arranged precisely in space and contain intricately patterned sensory epithelia. Here, we review recent studies of inner ear development and patterning which reveal that multiple stages of ear development - ranging from its early induction from the embryonic ectoderm to the establishment of the three cardinal axes and the fine-grained arrangement of sensory cells - are orchestrated by gradients of signaling molecules.

  12. Shaping sound in space: the regulation of inner ear patterning

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Andrew K.; Fekete, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    The inner ear is one of the most morphologically elaborate tissues in vertebrates, containing a group of mechanosensitive sensory organs that mediate hearing and balance. These organs are arranged precisely in space and contain intricately patterned sensory epithelia. Here, we review recent studies of inner ear development and patterning which reveal that multiple stages of ear development – ranging from its early induction from the embryonic ectoderm to the establishment of the three cardinal axes and the fine-grained arrangement of sensory cells – are orchestrated by gradients of signaling molecules. PMID:22186725

  13. Neonatal Hairy Ear Pinnae and Gestational Diabetes: Just a Coincidence?

    PubMed

    Valerio, Enrico; Riello, Laura; Chirico, Michela; Semenzato, Rossella; Cutrone, Mario

    2015-01-01

    A newborn girl of 36 weeks gestation was noted to have several anomalies, including bilateral low ear attachment with ear pinnae hypertrichosis, left preauricular pit, micrognathia, short lingual frenulum, and short neck. Pregnancy history revealed poorly controlled maternal gestational diabetes (GD). Localized hypertrichosis of the ear pinnae may represent a potential marker of GD and thereby alert physicians to suspect other potentially GD-associated conditions such as macrosomia, asphyxia, respiratory distress, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hyperbilirubinemia, polycythemia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and congenital anomalies, particularly those involving the central nervous system. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Preventing Cauliflower Ear With a Modified Tie-Through Technique.

    PubMed

    Dimeff, R J; Hough, D O

    1989-03-01

    In brief: Hematoma following trauma to the external ear is a common problem among wrestlers and boxers. If the hematoma is not treated promptly, infection, fibrosis, scarring, and calcification may develop, leading to the gross deformity known as cauliflower ear or wrestler's ear. Evacuation of the hematoma followed by compression of the auricle is commonly regarded as the treatment of choice. However, fluid frequently reaccumulates after this procedure. The authors describe a tie-through suture technique in which a collodion packing is secured to the auricle with two buttons. Multiple treatments for fluid reaccumulation are rarely necessary when this technique is used.

  15. [Lop ear - knife, tape, or nothing at all?].

    PubMed

    Klockars, Tuomas

    2013-01-01

    More than 200 different surgical techniques of correction of lop ear have been published. The operation is usually recommended to be performed at the age of six years or after. In addition, lop ear surgery involves risks, the most common complications being bleeding, infections, sensory alterations and scarring problems. Surgical preference and decision should always be based on realistic expectations of the patient or the parents, and prior to the decision they should have adequate information about the nature of the procedure and potential complications. Splint therapy of lop ear is possible for infants.

  16. Neural Representation of Scale Illusion: Magnetoencephalographic Study on the Auditory Illusion Induced by Distinctive Tone Sequences in the Two Ears

    PubMed Central

    Kuriki, Shinya; Yokosawa, Koichi; Takahashi, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The auditory illusory perception “scale illusion” occurs when a tone of ascending scale is presented in one ear, a tone of descending scale is presented simultaneously in the other ear, and vice versa. Most listeners hear illusory percepts of smooth pitch contours of the higher half of the scale in the right ear and the lower half in the left ear. Little is known about neural processes underlying the scale illusion. In this magnetoencephalographic study, we recorded steady-state responses to amplitude-modulated short tones having illusion-inducing pitch sequences, where the sound level of the modulated tones was manipulated to decrease monotonically with increase in pitch. The steady-state responses were decomposed into right- and left-sound components by means of separate modulation frequencies. It was found that the time course of the magnitude of response components of illusion-perceiving listeners was significantly correlated with smooth pitch contour of illusory percepts and that the time course of response components of stimulus-perceiving listeners was significantly correlated with discontinuous pitch contour of stimulus percepts in addition to the contour of illusory percepts. The results suggest that the percept of illusory pitch sequence was represented in the neural activity in or near the primary auditory cortex, i.e., the site of generation of auditory steady-state response, and that perception of scale illusion is maintained by automatic low-level processing. PMID:24086676

  17. Evolution of Gravity Receptors in the Ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popper, Arthur N. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The general status of a grant to investigate the origins and evolution of two hair cell types in the ears of a teleost fish, Astronotus ocellatus (the oscar), is presented. First, it was demonstrated that the cells in the rostral end of the saccule of the , Carassius auratus, are type 1-like, while those at the caudal end are type 2 cells. It was demonstrated that the dichotomy of hair cell types found in the utricle of the oscar is also found in the goldfish. Second, the lateral line system of the oscar was examined using gentamicin sulphate, an ototocix drug that destroys type 1- like hair cells but does not appear to damage type 2 hair cells. It was demonstrated that the hair cells found in neuromasts of lateral line canal organs were totally destroyed within 1 day of treatment, while the hair cells in free neuromasts were undamaged after 12 days of treatment. Third, it was demonstrated that the calyx, the specialized nerve ending, is not unique to amniotes and that it is present at least in the cristae of semicirular canals in goldfish. These results have demonstrated that: (1) there are multiple hair cell types in the vestibular endorgans of the ear of fishes, (2) these hair cell types are very similar to those found in the mammalian vestibular endorgans, (3) the nerve calyx is also present in fishes, and (4) multiple hair cell types and the calyx have evolved far earlier in the course of vertebrate evolution than heretofore thought. Understanding the structure of the vestibular endorgans has important implications for being able to understand how these organs respond to gravistatic, acceleration and acoustic input. The vestibular endorgans of fishes may provide an ideal system in which to analyze functional differences in hair cells. Not only are the two hair cell types similar to those found in mammals, they are located in very discrete regions in each endorgan. Thus, it is relatively easy to gain access to cells of one or the other type. The presence of two

  18. EARS : Repositioning data management near data acquisition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinquin, Jean-Marc; Sorribas, Jordi; Diviacco, Paolo; Vandenberghe, Thomas; Munoz, Raquel; Garcia, Oscar

    2016-04-01

    The EU FP7 Projects Eurofleets and Eurofleets2 are an European wide alliance of marine research centers that aim to share their research vessels, to improve information sharing on planned, current and completed cruises, on details of ocean-going research vessels and specialized equipment, and to durably improve cost-effectiveness of cruises. Within this context logging of information on how, when and where anything happens on board of the vessel is crucial information for data users in a later stage. This forms a primordial step in the process of data quality control as it could assist in the understanding of anomalies and unexpected trends recorded in the acquired data sets. In this way completeness of the metadata is improved as it is recorded accurately at the origin of the measurement. The collection of this crucial information has been done in very different ways, using different procedures, formats and pieces of software in the context of the European Research Fleet. At the time that the Eurofleets project started, every institution and country had adopted different strategies and approaches, which complicated the task of users that need to log general purpose information and events on-board whenever they access a different platform loosing the opportunity to produce this valuable metadata on-board. Among the many goals the Eurofleets project has, a very important task is the development of an "event log software" called EARS (Eurofleets Automatic Reporting System) that enables scientists and operators to record what happens during a survey. EARS will allow users to fill, in a standardized way, the gap existing at the moment in metadata description that only very seldom links data with its history. Events generated automatically by acquisition instruments will also be handled, enhancing the granularity and precision of the event annotation. The adoption of a common procedure to log survey events and a common terminology to describe them is crucial to provide

  19. Recent inner ear specialization for high-speed hunting in cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Grohé, Camille; Lee, Beatrice; Flynn, John J

    2018-02-02

    The cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, is the fastest living land mammal. Because of its specialized hunting strategy, this species evolved a series of specialized morphological and functional body features to increase its exceptional predatory performance during high-speed hunting. Using high-resolution X-ray computed micro-tomography (μCT), we provide the first analyses of the size and shape of the vestibular system of the inner ear in cats, an organ essential for maintaining body balance and adapting head posture and gaze direction during movement in most vertebrates. We demonstrate that the vestibular system of modern cheetahs is extremely different in shape and proportions relative to other cats analysed (12 modern and two fossil felid species), including a closely-related fossil cheetah species. These distinctive attributes (i.e., one of the greatest volumes of the vestibular system, dorsal extension of the anterior and posterior semicircular canals) correlate with a greater afferent sensitivity of the inner ear to head motions, facilitating postural and visual stability during high-speed prey pursuit and capture. These features are not present in the fossil cheetah A. pardinensis, that went extinct about 126,000 years ago, demonstrating that the unique and highly specialized inner ear of the sole living species of cheetah likely evolved extremely recently, possibly later than the middle Pleistocene.

  20. Finite element analysis of auditory characteristics in patients with middle ear diseases.

    PubMed

    Tu, Bo; Li, Xiaoping; Nie, Zhenhua; Shi, Changzheng; Li, Hengguo

    2017-07-01

    This study validates that a finite element model of the human ossicular chain and tympanic membrane can be used as an effective surgical assessment tool in clinics. The present study was performed to investigate the application of a finite element model of ossicular chain and tympanic membrane for fabrication of individualized artificial ossicles. Twenty patients (20 ears) who underwent surgery for middle ear disease (n = 20) and 10 healthy controls (10 ears) were enrolled in the hospital. Computed tomography (CT) and pure tone audiometry were performed before and after surgery. A finite element model was developed using CT scans, and correlation analysis was conducted between stapes displacement and surgical methods. An audiometric test was also performed for 14 patients before and after surgery. Stapes displacement in the healthy group (average = 3.31 × 10 -5  mm) was significantly greater than that in the impaired group (average = 1.41 × 10 -6 mm) prior to surgery. After surgery, the average displacement in the impaired group was 2.55 × 10 -6 mm, which represented a significant improvement. For the patients who underwent the audiometric test, 10 improved hearing after surgery, and stapes displacement increased in nine of these 10 patients.

  1. [Experimental investigations of CO2 laser application in middle ear ossicles].

    PubMed

    Dazert, S; Russ, D; Mlynski, R; Brors, D; Greiner, A; Aletsee, C; Helms, J

    2003-07-01

    During the last few years, several laser systems have been applied for procedures in middle ear surgery. In this study, we determined the technical parameters for the dissection of the middle ear ossicles with the CO(2) laser and analyzed the histological findings. The malleus necks of 16 human temporal bones were dissected under standardized conditions using a CO(2) laser with a power output between 35 and 55 kW/cm(2). The specimens were fixed and histological probes of 50- micro m thickness were prepared. The laser outputs led to crater diameters from 0.14 to 0.55 mm. As an analogy between laser energy and thermal tissue destruction, three zones of thermal damage were differentiated: a cinder zone, a carbonization zone, and a zone of dehydration. The metrical dimensions of these zones did not show any correlation to the applied laser energy. The data of this study show that commercially available CO(2) lasers are sufficient for a safe and effective partial resection of middle ear ossicles using a power output of 35 kW/cm(2).

  2. Self-ear cleaning practices and the associated risk of ear injuries and ear-related symptoms in a group of university students.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nasim Banu; Thaver, Sivashnee; Govender, Samantha Marlene

    2017-12-31

    Self-ear cleaning is the insertion of objects into the ear canal to clean it, a widespread practice that has the potential to compromise its integrity as a natural, selfcleansing mechanism, and a risk factor for possible injuries. The practice is common among young adults and highest in university than any other graduates. This study aimed to determine the self-ear cleaning practices and associated risk of injury and related symptoms in undergraduate students at KwaZulu-Natal University. The descriptive survey utilized a self-administered questionnaire. Of the 206 participants that responded, 98% engaged in self-ear cleaning, with 75% indicating that it was beneficial. The commonest method (79.6%) being the use of cotton buds, with an associated injury rate of 2.4%. There was no statistically significant associations between those who used or did not use cotton buds and the symptoms experienced. The complications indicate that self-ear cleaning does pose a risk for injury, necessitating more community information and education.

  3. Linked genetic variants on chromosome 10 control ear morphology and body mass among dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Webster, Matthew T; Kamgari, Nona; Perloski, Michele; Hoeppner, Marc P; Axelsson, Erik; Hedhammar, Åke; Pielberg, Gerli; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2015-06-23

    The domestic dog is a rich resource for mapping the genetic components of phenotypic variation due to its unique population history involving strong artificial selection. Genome-wide association studies have revealed a number of chromosomal regions where genetic variation associates with morphological characters that typify dog breeds. A region on chromosome 10 is among those with the highest levels of genetic differentiation between dog breeds and is associated with body mass and ear morphology, a common motif of animal domestication. We characterised variation in this region to uncover haplotype structure and identify candidate functional variants. We first identified SNPs that strongly associate with body mass and ear type by comparing sequence variation in a 3 Mb region between 19 breeds with a variety of phenotypes. We next genotyped a subset of 123 candidate SNPs in 288 samples from 46 breeds to identify the variants most highly associated with phenotype and infer haplotype structure. A cluster of SNPs that associate strongly with the drop ear phenotype is located within a narrow interval downstream of the gene MSRB3, which is involved in human hearing. These SNPs are in strong genetic linkage with another set of variants that correlate with body mass within the gene HMGA2, which affects human height. In addition we find evidence that this region has been under selection during dog domestication, and identify a cluster of SNPs within MSRB3 that are highly differentiated between dogs and wolves. We characterise genetically linked variants that potentially influence ear type and body mass in dog breeds, both key traits that have been modified by selective breeding that may also be important for domestication. The finding that variants on long haplotypes have effects on more than one trait suggests that genetic linkage can be an important determinant of the phenotypic response to selection in domestic animals.

  4. Rib Cartilage Assessment Relative to the Healthy Ear in Young Children with Microtia Guiding Operative Timing.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shen-Song; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Dong-Yi; Jiang, Du-Yin

    2015-08-20

    The optimal age at which to initiate for auricular reconstruction is controversial. Rib cartilage growth is closely related to age and determines the feasibility and outcomes of auricular reconstruction. We developed a method to guide the timing of auricular reconstruction in children with microtia ranging in age from 5 to 10 years. Rib cartilage and the healthy ear were assessed using low-dose multi-slice computed tomography. The lengths of the eighth rib cartilage and the helix of the healthy ear (from the helical crus to the joint of the helix and the earlobe) were measured. Surgery was performed when the two lengths were approximately equal. The preoperative eighth rib measurements significantly correlated with the intraoperative measurements (P < 0.05). From 5 to 10 years of age, eighth rib growth was not linear. In 76 (62.8%) of 121 patients, the eighth rib length was approximately equal to the helix length in the healthy ear; satisfactory outcomes were achieved in these patients. In 18 (14.9%) patients, the eighth rib was slightly shorter than the helix, helix fabrication was accomplished by adjusting the length of the helical crus of stent, and satisfactory outcomes were also achieved. Acceptable outcomes were achieved in 17 (14.0%) patients in whom helix fabrication was accomplished by cartilage splicing. In 9 (7.4%) patients with insufficient rib cartilage length, the operation was delayed. In one (0.8%) patient with insufficient rib cartilage length, which left no cartilage for helix splicing, the result was unsatisfactory. Eighth rib cartilage growth is variable. Rib cartilage assessment relative to the healthy ear can guide auricular reconstruction and personalize treatment in young patients with microtia.

  5. Mechanics and materials in middle ear reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lesser, T H; Williams, K R; Blayney, A W

    1991-02-01

    The normal anatomy and physiology of the middle ear is not reproduced in ossiculoplasty and an artificial mechanism for the transmission of sound results. This is true for all types of graft, be they of natural or man-made material. There are, therefore, 2 areas for consideration when looking at the problems encountered in such reconstructions: first, the materials' biocompatability and, secondly, the mechanical effects of the positioning of the graft in the reconstructed ossicular chain. The present work examines these mechanical effects using the finite element method to determine stress and displacement levels in the reconstructed ossicular chain. It is found that the stress levels at the implant-stapedial joint increases as the implant is gradually moved down the malleus. In contrast there is thought to be an increase in sound transmission as the implant is moved down the malleus. Changes in rigidity and hardness of the implant appear to make only modest stress attenuations at the implant-stapes interface.

  6. Laser vibrometer measurements and middle ear prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flock, Stephen T.; Dornhoffer, John; Ferguson, Scott

    1997-05-01

    One of us has developed an improved partial ossicular replacement prosthesis that is easier to implant and, based on pilot clinical measurements, results in better high-frequency hearing as compared to patients receiving one of the alternative prostheses. It is hypothesized that the primary reason for this is because of the relatively light weight (about 25 mg) and low compliance of the prosthesis, which could conceivably result in better high frequency vibrational characteristics. The purpose of our initial work was to develop an instrument suitable for objectively testing the vibrational characteristics of prostheses. We have developed a laser based device suitable for measuring the vibrational characteristics of the oval window or other structures of the middle ear. We have tested this device using a piezoelectric transducer excited at audio frequencies, as well as on the oval window in human temporal bones harvested from cadavers. The results illustrate that it is possible to non-invasively monitor the vibrational characteristics of anatomic structures with a very inexpensive photonic device.

  7. Gentamicin pharmacokinetics in the chicken inner ear.

    PubMed

    Bunting, Eric C; Park, Debra L; Durham, Dianne; Girod, Douglas A

    2004-06-01

    Avians have the unique ability to regenerate cochlear hair cells that are lost due to ototoxins or excessive noise. Many methodological techniques are available to damage the hair cells for subsequent scientific study. A recent method utilizes topical application of an ototoxic drug to the round window membrane. The current study examines the pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in the inner ear of chickens following topical application to the round window membrane or a single systemic high dose given intraperitoneally. Chickens were given gentamicin topically or systemically and survived for 1, 4, 12, 24, or 120 h (controls at 4 and 120 h). Serum and perilymph samples were obtained prior to sacrifice and measured for gentamicin levels. Results revealed higher levels of gentamicin in the perilymph of topically treated chickens than systemically treated chickens, with significant amounts of gentamicin still present in both at the latest survival time of 5 days. As expected, systemically treated chickens had much higher levels of gentamicin in the serum than topically treated chickens. Advantages and disadvantages to each method of drug administration are discussed.

  8. Why Internally Coupled Ears (ICE) Work Well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2014-03-01

    Many vertebrates, such as frogs and lizards, have an air-filled cavity between left and right eardrum, i.e., internally coupled ears (ICE). Depending on source direction, internal time (iTD) and level (iLD) difference as experienced by the animal's auditory system may greatly exceed [C. Vossen et al., JASA 128 (2010) 909-918] the external, or interaural, time and level difference (ITD and ILD). Sensory processing only encodes iTD and iLD. We present an extension of ICE theory so as to elucidate the underlying physics. First, the membrane properties of the eardrum explain why for low frequencies iTD dominates whereas iLD does so for higher frequencies. Second, the plateau of iTD = γ ITD for constant 1 < γ < 5 and variable input frequency <ν∘ follows; e.g., for the Tockay gecko ν∘ ~ 1 . 5 kHz. Third, we use a sectorial instead of circular membrane to quantify the effect of the extracolumella embedded in the tympanum and connecting with the cochlea. The main parameters can be adjusted so that the model is species independent. Work done in collaboration with A.P. Vedurmudi and J. Goulet; partially supported by BCCN-Munich.

  9. Blackbody for metrological control of ear thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas-García, D.; Méndez-Lango, E.

    2013-09-01

    Body temperature is an important parameter in medical practice, and most of health diagnoses are made based upon measured temperature values. Non-contact measurements are attractive to both patients and physicians, and ear thermometers (ET) are part of the set of infrared thermometers for medical applications. ETs sense the tympanic membrane temperature which best represents body temperature. They take advantage of the natural high effective emissivity cavity that is formed as radiation source. To calibrate or to check the performance of ETs, we designed a high-emissivity spherical cavity as a blackbody source which can be placed in a dry block oven. Although the blackbody cavity can have any shape, we decided to build it spherical because its effective emissivity can be easily calculated in a closed form. The cavity is made of Aluminum to take advantage of its high thermal conductivity while its inner side is covered with a black paint to increase the cavity effective emissivity. Based on paint emissivity measurements and the geometrical shape, we calculated that the cavity has an effective emissivity higher than 0.999. Blackbody temperature is measured with a calibrated contact thermometer placed inside the bottom wall of the cavity. We present the design of the cavity, the experimental setup, and results of three commercial ETs compared with this cavity.

  10. Green laser light activates the inner ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Gentiana I.; Balster, Sven; Zhang, Kaiyin; Lim, Hubert H.; Reich, Uta; Massow, Ole; Lubatschowski, Holger; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Lenarz, Thomas; Reuter, Guenter

    2009-07-01

    The hearing performance with conventional hearing aids and cochlear implants is dramatically reduced in noisy environments and for sounds more complex than speech (e. g. music), partially due to the lack of localized sensorineural activation across different frequency regions with these devices. Laser light can be focused in a controlled manner and may provide more localized activation of the inner ear, the cochlea. We sought to assess whether visible light with parameters that could induce an optoacoustic effect (532 nm, 10-ns pulses) would activate the cochlea. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded preoperatively in anesthetized guinea pigs to confirm normal hearing. After opening the bulla, a 50-μm core-diameter optical fiber was positioned in the round window niche and directed toward the basilar membrane. Optically induced ABRs (OABRs), similar in shape to those of acoustic stimulation, were elicited with single pulses. The OABR peaks increased with energy level (0.6 to 23 μJ/pulse) and remained consistent even after 30 minutes of continuous stimulation at 13 μJ, indicating minimal or no stimulation-induced damage within the cochlea. Our findings demonstrate that visible light can effectively and reliably activate the cochlea without any apparent damage. Further studies are in progress to investigate the frequency-specific nature and mechanism of green light cochlear activation.

  11. Ensemble training to improve recognition using 2D ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middendorff, Christopher; Bowyer, Kevin W.

    2009-05-01

    The ear has gained popularity as a biometric feature due to the robustness of the shape over time and across emotional expression. Popular methods of ear biometrics analyze the ear as a whole, leaving these methods vulnerable to error due to occlusion. Many researchers explore ear recognition using an ensemble, but none present a method for designing the individual parts that comprise the ensemble. In this work, we introduce a method of modifying the ensemble shapes to improve performance. We determine how different properties of an ensemble training system can affect overall performance. We show that ensembles built from small parts will outperform ensembles built with larger parts, and that incorporating a large number of parts improves the performance of the ensemble.

  12. Tympanostomy Tubes: A Rational Clinical Treatment for Middle Ear Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Peter S.; Brown, Orval

    1990-01-01

    The use of tympanostomy tubes to treat middle ear disease including otitis media is discussed with sections on the eustachian tube; acute otitis media; persistent effusion; changes in the tympanic membrane; special populations; and complications. (DB)

  13. Statistics about Hearing, Balance, Ear Infections and Deafness

    MedlinePlus

    ... You are here Home » Health Info Statistics about Hearing, Balance, Ear Infections, and Deafness Quick Statistics Charts ... What the Numbers Mean: An Epidemiological Perspective on Hearing References on Hearing Epidemiology Last Updated Date: October ...

  14. [Reconstruction of the ear in the burns patient].

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Córdova, Jorge Raúl; Jiménez Murat, Yusef; Apellaniz-Campo, Armando; Bracho-Olvera, Hazel; Carrillo Esper, Raúl

    Face burns are a singular pathology with great functional and psychological impact in the patients suffering them. The ears play a fundamental role in personal interactions and damage to this organ results in physical and emotional distress. The reconstructive treatment of the burned ear is a challenge. Multiple procedures have been described to achieve success in the reconstruction of the burned ear; immediate reconstruction with autologous rib cartilage, secondary reconstruction, alloplastic material reconstruction, tissue expansion, skin grafts and also microvascular flaps are some of the most common procedures used in this patients. All these techniques focus on giving a natural appearance to the patient. Burns to the ears affect 30% of the patients with facial burns, they require an excellent treatment given by a multidisciplinary team. Copyright © 2017 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. [The endoscopic anatomy of the middle ear (a dissection study)].

    PubMed

    Rzaev, R M; Rzaev, R R

    The objective of the present work was to study the specific endoscopic anatomical features of the middle ear using the dissected temporal bones with the intact tympanic membrane. The 18 cm long endoscopes 4 mm in diameter with a visual angle from 0 to 45 degrees in the combination with some other microinstruments, such as ear pincers, needles, curettes, elevators, and suction tubes, were used during the examination. It was shown that endomeato-transtympanic endosopy provides a panoramic view of almost all structures of the middle ear. After the resection of the posterior bone edge of 'annulus tympanicus', the use of the 45o endoscope ensured the panoramic view not only of certain structures of the middle ear (e.g. the tympanic chord, the stapedius muscle tendon, the entire pyramidal process) but also of the structures of the retrotympanic and anterior epitympanic spaces.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: scalp-ear-nipple syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... ear nipple syndrome Sources for This Page Marneros AG, Beck AE, Turner EH, McMillin MJ, Edwards MJ, ... qualified healthcare professional . About Selection Criteria for Links Data Files & API Site Map Subscribe Customer Support USA. ...

  17. Multi-resolution analysis for ear recognition using wavelet features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoaib, M.; Basit, A.; Faye, I.

    2016-11-01

    Security is very important and in order to avoid any physical contact, identification of human when they are moving is necessary. Ear biometric is one of the methods by which a person can be identified using surveillance cameras. Various techniques have been proposed to increase the ear based recognition systems. In this work, a feature extraction method for human ear recognition based on wavelet transforms is proposed. The proposed features are approximation coefficients and specific details of level two after applying various types of wavelet transforms. Different wavelet transforms are applied to find the suitable wavelet. Minimum Euclidean distance is used as a matching criterion. Results achieved by the proposed method are promising and can be used in real time ear recognition system.

  18. Ear Infection Treatment Shouldn't Be Shortened

    MedlinePlus

    ... no benefit in terms of adverse events or antibiotic resistance,” says study lead Dr. Alejandro Hoberman of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. The findings confirm that standard antibiotics prescribed for an ear infection should be taken ...

  19. How minute sooglossid frogs hear without a middle ear.

    PubMed

    Boistel, Renaud; Aubin, Thierry; Cloetens, Peter; Peyrin, Françoise; Scotti, Thierry; Herzog, Philippe; Gerlach, Justin; Pollet, Nicolas; Aubry, Jean-François

    2013-09-17

    Acoustic communication is widespread in animals. According to the sensory drive hypothesis [Endler JA (1993) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 340(1292):215-225], communication signals and perceptual systems have coevolved. A clear illustration of this is the evolution of the tetrapod middle ear, adapted to life on land. Here we report the discovery of a bone conduction-mediated stimulation of the ear by wave propagation in Sechellophryne gardineri, one of the world's smallest terrestrial tetrapods, which lacks a middle ear yet produces acoustic signals. Based on X-ray synchrotron holotomography, we measured the biomechanical properties of the otic tissues and modeled the acoustic propagation. Our models show how bone conduction enhanced by the resonating role of the mouth allows these seemingly deaf frogs to communicate effectively without a middle ear.

  20. Forgotten T-tube in the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Trinidade, Aaron; Khan, Imran; Ah-See, Kim Wong

    2012-05-01

    Retention within the middle ear cleft is an unusual complication of T-tube insertion. A 40-year-old woman with Kartagener's Syndrome presented with hearing impairment in the right ear. She was found to have a previously inserted Goode T-tube lying within the middle ear behind an intact drum. She underwent successful removal of the T-tube via a myringotomy, and a new tube was re-inserted. Migration of a T-tube into the middle ear cleft should always be kept in mind in patients who present with otological symptoms and have a history of T-tube insertion, even in the presence of an intact drum.

  1. Effect of the Yield Stress and r-value Distribution on the Earing Profile of Cup Drawing with Yld2000-2d Yield Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Yanshan; Bae, Gihyun; Lee, Changsoo; Huh, Hoon

    2010-06-01

    This paper deals with the effect of the yield stress and r-value distribution on the earing in the cup drawing. The anisotropic yield function, Yld2000-2d yield function, is selected to describe the anisotropy of two metal sheets, 719B and AA5182-O. The tool dimension is referred from the Benchmark problem of NUMISHEET'2002. The Downhill Simplex method is applied to identify the anisotropic coefficients in Yld2000-2d yield function. Simulations of the drawing process are performed to investigate the earing profile of two materials. The earing profiles obtained from simulations are compared with the analytical model developed by Hosford and Caddell. Simulations are conducted with respect to the change of the yield stress and r-value distribution, respectively. The correlation between the anisotropy and the earing tendency is investigated based on simulation data. Finally, the earing mechanism is analyzed through the deformation process of the blank during the cup deep drawing. It can be concluded that ears locate at angular positions with lower yield stress and higher r-value while the valleys appear at the angular position with higher yield stress and lower r-value. The effect of the yield stress distribution is more important for the cup height distribution than that of the r-value distribution.

  2. Magnetic Nanoparticles as Mechanical Actuators of Inner Ear Hair Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-13

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0039 Magnetic nanoparticles as mechanical actuators of inner ear hair cells Dolores Bozovic UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Magnetic nanoparticles as mechanical actuators of inner ear hair cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N.A. 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The collaborative project was designed to edevelop the use of magnetic nanoparticles to manipulate auditory hair

  3. Prominent ears and their correction: a forty-year experience.

    PubMed

    Georgiade, G S; Riefkohl, R; Georgiade, N G

    1995-01-01

    The technique described in this article correcting the protruding ear deformity has evolved over 40 years. The original procedures and our subsequent modifications are described, including 20-year followup results. The possible pitfalls in carrying out this procedure and how to avoid them are also described. A relatively standardized short procedure with minimal morbidity and maximum long-term results yields an aesthetically satisfactory looking ear.

  4. A break-even analysis of major ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Wasson, J D; Phillips, J S

    2015-10-01

    To determine variables which affect cost and profit for major ear surgery and perform a break-even analysis. Retrospective financial analysis. UK teaching hospital. Patients who underwent major ear surgery under general anaesthesia performed by the senior author in main theatre over a 2-year period between dates of 07 September 2010 and 07 September 2012. Income, cost and profit for each major ear patient spell. Variables that affect major ear surgery profitability. Seventy-six patients met inclusion criteria. Wide variation in earnings, with a median net loss of £-1345.50 was observed. Income was relatively uniform across all patient spells; however, theatre time of major ear surgery at a cost of £953.24 per hour varied between patients and was the main determinant of cost and profit for the patient spell. Bivariate linear regression of earnings on theatre time identified 94% of variation in earnings was due to variation in theatre time (r = -0.969; P < 0.0001) and derived a break-even time for major ear surgery of 110.6 min. Theatre time was dependent on complexity of procedure and number of OPCS4 procedures performed, with a significant increase in theatre time when three or more procedures were performed during major ear surgery (P = 0.015). For major ear surgery to either break-even or return a profit, total theatre time should not exceed 110 min and 36 s. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Lumped parametric model of the human ear for sound transmission.

    PubMed

    Feng, Bin; Gan, Rong Z

    2004-09-01

    A lumped parametric model of the human auditoria peripherals consisting of six masses suspended with six springs and ten dashpots was proposed. This model will provide the quantitative basis for the construction of a physical model of the human middle ear. The lumped model parameters were first identified using published anatomical data, and then determined through a parameter optimization process. The transfer function of the middle ear obtained from human temporal bone experiments with laser Doppler interferometers was used for creating the target function during the optimization process. It was found that, among 14 spring and dashpot parameters, there were five parameters which had pronounced effects on the dynamic behaviors of the model. The detailed discussion on the sensitivity of those parameters was provided with appropriate applications for sound transmission in the ear. We expect that the methods for characterizing the lumped model of the human ear and the model parameters will be useful for theoretical modeling of the ear function and construction of the ear physical model.

  6. KGFR as a possible therapeutic target in middle ear cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Fukuda, Tomomi; Akiyama, Naotaro; Shibata, Yasuaki; Takahashi, Haruo; Ikeda, Tohru; Kohno, Michiaki; Koji, Takehiko

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrated that repression of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) receptor (KGFR) could be a potentially useful strategy in the conservative treatment of middle ear cholesteatoma. Recently, the use of a selective inhibitor of the KGFR, SU5402, in an in vitro experiment resulted in the inhibition of the differentiation and proliferation of epithelial cells through KGF secretion by fibroblasts isolated from the cholesteatoma. In this study, we investigated the effects of the KGFR inhibitor during middle ear cholesteatoma formation in vivo. Based on the role of KGF in the development of cholesteatoma, Flag-hKGF cDNA driven by CMV14 promoter was transfected through electroporation into the external auditory canal of rats five times on every fourth day. Ears transfected with empty vector were used as controls. KGFR selective inhibitor (SU5402) or MEK inhibitor (PD0325901) was administered in the right ear of five rats after vector transfection. In the control, 2% DMSO in PBS was administered in the other ears after vector transfection. The use of a selective KGFR inhibitor, SU5402, completely prevented middle ear cholesteatoma formation in the rats.

  7. Development of a finite element model of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Williams, K R; Blayney, A W; Rice, H J

    1996-01-01

    A representative finite element model of the healthy ear is developed commencing with a description of the decoupled isotropic tympanic membrane. This model was shown to vibrate in a manner similar to that found both numerically (1, 2) and experimentally (8). The introduction of a fibre system into the membrane matrix significantly altered the modes of vibration. The first mode "remains as a piston like movement as for the isotropic membrane. However, higher modes show a simpler vibration pattern similar to the second mode but with a varying axis of movement and lower amplitudes. The introduction of a malleus and incus does not change the natural frequencies or mode shapes of the membrane for certain support conditions. When constraints are imposed along the ossicular chain by simulation of a cochlear impedance term then significantly altered modes can occur. More recently a revised model of the ear has been developed by the inclusion of the outer ear canal. This discretisation uses geometries extracted from a Nuclear Magnetic resonance scan of a healthy subject and a crude inner ear model using stiffness parameters ultimately fixed through a parameter tuning process. The subsequently tuned model showed behaviour consistent with previous findings and should provide a good basis for subsequent modelling of diseased ears and assessment of the performance of middle ear prostheses.

  8. Continuous 24-hour measurement of middle ear pressure.

    PubMed

    Tideholm, B; Jönsson, S; Carlborg, B; Welinder, R; Grenner, J

    1996-07-01

    A new method was developed for continuous measurement of the middle ear pressure during a 24-h period. The equipment consisted of a piezo-electric pressure device and a digital memory. To allow continuous pressure recordings during normal every-day activities the equipment was made light and portable. The measurement accuracy of the equipment as well as the base-line and temperature stability were tested and found to meet to our requirements satisfactorily. In 4 volunteers with different middle ear conditions, a small perforation was made through the tympanic membrane. A rubber stopper containing a small polyethylene tube was fitted into the external ear canal. Tubal function tests were made to establish the equipment's ability to monitor fast pressure changes. The tests were well in accordance with other methods of direct pressure measurements. The equipment was carried by the volunteers for 24 h to monitor any slow or rapid dynamic pressure changes in the middle ear. Four continuous 24-h measurements are presented. The method was found to be suitable for valid measurements of dynamic pressure changes in the middle ear during normal every-day activities. It may become a useful instrument in the search for a better understanding of the development of chronic middle ear disease.

  9. Vitamin D receptor deficiency impairs inner ear development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye-Joo

    2016-09-16

    The biological actions of vitamin D are largely mediated through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, which regulates gene expression in a wide variety of tissues and cells. Mutations in VDR gene have been implicated in ear disorders (hearing loss and balance disorder) but the mechanisms are not well established. In this study, to investigate the role of VDR in inner ear development, morpholino-mediated gene knockdown approaches were used in zebrafish model system. Two paralogs for VDR, vdra and vdrb, have been identified in zebrafish. Knockdown of vdra had no effect on ear development, whereas knockdown of vdrb displayed morphological ear defects including smaller otic vesicles with malformed semicircular canals and abnormal otoliths. Loss-of-vdrb resulted in down-regulation of pre-otic markers, pax8 and pax2a, indicating impairment of otic induction. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos lacking vdrb produced fewer sensory hair cells in the ears and showed disruption of balance and motor coordination. These data reveal that VDR signaling plays an important role in ear development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Revisiting gender, race, and ear differences in peripheral auditory function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boothalingam, Sriram; Klyn, Niall A. M.; Stiepan, Samantha M.; Wilson, Uzma S.; Lee, Jungwha; Siegel, Jonathan H.; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2018-05-01

    Various measures of auditory function are reported to be superior in females as compared to males, in African American compared to Caucasian individuals, and in right compared to left ears. We re-examined the influence of these subject variables on hearing thresholds and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) in a sample of 887 human participants between 10 and 68 years of age. Even though the variables of interest here have been examined before, previous attempts have largely been limited to frequencies up to 8 kHz. We used state-of-the-art signal delivery and recording techniques that compensated for individual differences in ear canal acoustics, allowing us to measure hearing thresholds and OAEs up to 20 kHz. The use of these modern calibration and recording techniques provided the motivation for re-examining these commonly studied variables. While controlling for age, noise exposure history, and general health history, we attempted to isolate the effects of gender, race, and ear (left versus right) on hearing thresholds and OAEs. Our results challenge the notion of a right ear advantage and question the existence of a significant gender and race differences in both hearing thresholds and OAE levels. These results suggest that ear canal anatomy and acoustics should be important considerations when evaluating the influence of gender, race, and ear on peripheral auditory function.

  11. Sound pressure gain produced by the human middle ear.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, H; Goode, R L

    1995-10-01

    The acoustic function of the middle ear is to match sound passing from the low impedance of air to the high impedance of cochlear fluid. Little information is available on the actual middle ear pressure gain in human beings. This article describes experiments on middle ear pressure gain in six fresh human temporal bones. Stapes footplate displacement and phase were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer before and after removal of the tympanic membrane, malleus, and incus. Acoustic insulation of the round window with clay was performed. Umbo displacement was also measured before tympanic membrane removal to assess baseline tympanic membrane function. The middle ear has its major gain in the lower frequencies, with a peak near 0.9 kHz. The mean gain was 23.0 dB below 1.0 kHz, the resonant frequency of the middle ear; the mean peak gain was 26.6 dB. Above 1.0 kHz, the second pressure gain decreased at a rate of -8.6 dB/octave, with a mean gain of 6.5 dB at 4.0 kHz. Only a small amount of gain was present above 7.0 kHz. Significant individual differences in pressure gain were found between ears that appeared related to variations in tympanic membrane function and not to variations in cochlear impedance.

  12. Alternative splicing of inner-ear-expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanfei; Liu, Yueyue; Nie, Hongyun; Ma, Xin; Xu, Zhigang

    2016-09-01

    Alternative splicing plays a fundamental role in the development and physiological function of the inner ear. Inner-ear-specific gene splicing is necessary to establish the identity and maintain the function of the inner ear. For example, exon 68 of Cadherin 23 (Cdh23) gene is subject to inner-ear-specific alternative splicing, and as a result, Cdh23(+ 68) is only expressed in inner ear hair cells. Alternative splicing along the tonotopic axis of the cochlea contributes to frequency tuning, particularly in lower vertebrates, such as chickens and turtles. Differential splicing of Kcnma1, which encodes for the α subunit of the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (BK channel), has been suggested to affect the channel gating properties and is important for frequency tuning. Consequently, deficits in alternative splicing have been shown to cause hearing loss, as we can observe in Bronx Waltzer (bv) mice and Sfswap mutant mice. Despite the advances in this field, the regulation of alternative splicing in the inner ear remains elusive. Further investigation is also needed to clarify the mechanism of hearing loss caused by alternative splicing deficits.

  13. Inner ear test battery in guinea pig models - a review.

    PubMed

    Young, Yi-Ho

    2018-06-01

    This study reviewed the development of the inner ear test battery comprising auditory brainstem response (ABR), and caloric, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) tests in guinea pig models at our laboratory over the last 20 years. Detailed description of the methodology for testing the small animals is also included. Inner ear disorders, i.e. ototoxicity, noise exposure, or perilymph fistula were established in guinea pig models first. One to four weeks after operation, each animal underwent ABR, oVEMP, cVEMP, and caloric tests. Then, animals were sacrificed for morphological study in the temporal bones. Inner ear endorgans can be comprehensively evaluated in guinea pig models via an inner ear test battery, which provides thorough information on the cochlea, saccule, utricle, and semicircular canal function of guinea pigs. Coupled with morphological study in the temporal bones of the animals may help elucidate the mechanism of inner ear disorders in humans. The inner ear test battery in guinea pig models may encourage young researchers to perform basic study in animals and stimulate the progress of experimental otology which is in evolution.

  14. Auditory Brainstem Circuits That Mediate the Middle Ear Muscle Reflex

    PubMed Central

    Mukerji, Sudeep; Windsor, Alanna Marie; Lee, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    The middle ear muscle (MEM) reflex is one of two major descending systems to the auditory periphery. There are two middle ear muscles (MEMs): the stapedius and the tensor tympani. In man, the stapedius contracts in response to intense low frequency acoustic stimuli, exerting forces perpendicular to the stapes superstructure, increasing middle ear impedance and attenuating the intensity of sound energy reaching the inner ear (cochlea). The tensor tympani is believed to contract in response to self-generated noise (chewing, swallowing) and nonauditory stimuli. The MEM reflex pathways begin with sound presented to the ear. Transduction of sound occurs in the cochlea, resulting in an action potential that is transmitted along the auditory nerve to the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem (the first relay station for all ascending sound information originating in the ear). Unknown interneurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus project either directly or indirectly to MEM motoneurons located elsewhere in the brainstem. Motoneurons provide efferent innervation to the MEMs. Although the ascending and descending limbs of these reflex pathways have been well characterized, the identity of the reflex interneurons is not known, as are the source of modulatory inputs to these pathways. The aim of this article is to (a) provide an overview of MEM reflex anatomy and physiology, (b) present new data on MEM reflex anatomy and physiology from our laboratory and others, and (c) describe the clinical implications of our research. PMID:20870664

  15. Minnesota wolf ear lengths as possible indicators of taxonomic differences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Genetic findings suggest that 2 types of wolves, Canis lupus (Gray Wolf) and C. lycaon (Eastern Wolf), and/or their hybrids occupy Minnesota (MN), and this study examines adult wolf ear lengths as a possible distinguisher between these two. Photographic evidence suggested that the Eastern Wolf possesses proportionately longer ears than Gray Wolves. Ear lengths from 22 northwestern MN wolves from the early 1970s and 22 Alaskan wolves were used to represent Gray Wolves, and the greatest length of the sample (12.8 cm) was used as the least length to demarcate Eastern Wolf from Gray Wolf influence in the samples. Twenty-three percent of 112 adult wolves from Algonquin Park in eastern Ontario and 30% of 106 recent adult wolves in northeastern MN possessed ears >12.8 cm. The northeastern MN sample differed significantly from that of current and past northwestern MN wolves. Ear-lengths of wolves in the eastern half of the northeastern MN wolf population were significantly longer than those in the western half of that study area, even though the mean distance between the 2 areas was only 40 km, and the mean length of my 2004–2009 sample was significantly longer than that of 1999–2003. These findings support the hypothesis that Eastern Wolves tend to possess longer ears than do Gray Wolves and suggest a dynamic hybridization process is still underway in MN.

  16. Heritability of articular cartilage regeneration and its association with ear wound healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Rai, Muhammad Farooq; Hashimoto, Shingo; Johnson, Eric E; Janiszak, Kara L; Fitzgerald, Jamie; Heber-Katz, Ellen; Cheverud, James M; Sandell, Linda J

    2012-07-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that genetic components contribute significantly to cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis pathophysiology, but little information is available on the genetics of cartilage regeneration. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate cartilage regeneration in genetic murine models using common inbred strains and a set of recombinant inbred (RI) lines generated from LG/J (healer of ear wounds) and SM/J (nonhealer) inbred mouse strains. An acute full-thickness cartilage injury was introduced in the trochlear groove of 8-week-old mice (n=265) through microsurgery. Mouse knee joints were sagittally sectioned and stained with toluidine blue to evaluate regeneration. For the ear wound phenotype, a bilateral 2-mm through-and-through puncture was created in 6-week-old mice (n=229), and healing outcomes were measured after 30 days. Broad-sense heritability and genetic correlations were calculated for both phenotypes. Time-course analysis of the RI mouse lines showed no significant regeneration until 16 weeks after surgery; at that time, the strains could be segregated into 3 categories: good, intermediate, and poor healers. Analysis of heritability (H2) showed that both cartilage regeneration (H2=26%; P=0.006) and ear wound closure (H2=53%; P<0.00001) were significantly heritable. The genetic correlations between the two healing phenotypes for common inbred mouse strains (r=0.92) and RI mouse lines (r=0.86) were found to be extremely high. Our findings indicate that articular cartilage regeneration in mice is heritable, the differences between the mouse lines are due to genetic differences, and a strong genetic correlation between the two phenotypes exists, indicating that they plausibly share a common genetic basis. We therefore surmise that LG/J by SM/J intercross mice can be used to dissect the genetic basis of variation in cartilage regeneration. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  17. EAR AND TAIL LESIONS ON CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER FAWNS (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS): A CASE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Treena L; Demarais, Stephen; Cooley, Jim; Fleming, Sherrill; Michel, Eric S; Flinn, Emily

    2016-06-01

    During the 2008-2011 time period, undiagnosed lesions were observed in 21 of 150 white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) that were part of a captive deer herd at Mississippi State University. Clinical findings in healthy and diseased fawns from 0 to 90 days of age included bite and scratch marks followed by moderate to severe ear and tail necrosis. Gross necropsy findings of necrotizing ulcerative dermatitis correlated with histopathologic findings that included focally severe multifocal vasculitis, vascular necrosis, and thrombosis. This article is a clinical description of these previously unreported lesions associated with tissue necrosis in young captive white-tailed deer.

  18. Donor site reconstitution for ear reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fattah, Adel; Sebire, Neil J; Bulstrode, Neil W

    2010-09-01

    Current techniques of autologous ear reconstruction involve the soft tissue coverage of a carved costal cartilage framework. However, assessment of the morbidity associated with this donor site has been little documented. This study describes a method to reconstruct the defect and analyses the outcomes with or without donor site reconstitution. The donor site was reconstituted by wrapping morcelised cartilage in a vicryl mesh. Twenty-one patients with reconstitution and nine without were recruited to the study. Scar quality and length, dimensions of donor defect and visible deformity were recorded according to a modified Vancouver scar scale. Patients were also assessed by the SF36 questionnaire, a well-validated health survey. In a subset of our study group, we assessed the fate of the donor site reconstitution by direct visualisation in situ and histological analysis. Fifteen donor sites of patients without donor site reconstitution were compared to 23 reconstructed donor sites. In those without, all had a palpable defect with nearly half exhibiting visible chest deformity. In contrast, those that had rib reconstitution did not demonstrate significant chest wall deformity. Intraoperative examination demonstrated formation of a neo-rib, histologically proven to comprise hyaline cartilage admixed with fibrous tissue. Analysis of SF36 results showed a higher satisfaction in the reconstituted group, but in both groups, the donor site was of little overall morbidity. Although there is little difference between the groups in terms of subjectively perceived benefit, rib reconstitution is objectively associated with better costal margin contour and less chest wall deformity. Copyright 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Finite-Element Modelling of the Acoustic Input Admittance of the Newborn Ear Canal and Middle Ear.

    PubMed

    Motallebzadeh, Hamid; Maftoon, Nima; Pitaro, Jacob; Funnell, W Robert J; Daniel, Sam J

    2017-02-01

    Admittance measurement is a promising tool for evaluating the status of the middle ear in newborns. However, the newborn ear is anatomically very different from the adult one, and the acoustic input admittance is different than in adults. To aid in understanding the differences, a finite-element model of the newborn ear canal and middle ear was developed and its behaviour was studied for frequencies up to 2000 Hz. Material properties were taken from previous measurements and estimates. The simulation results were within the range of clinical admittance measurements made in newborns. Sensitivity analyses of the material properties show that in the canal model, the maximum admittance and the frequency at which that maximum admittance occurs are affected mainly by the stiffness parameter; in the middle-ear model, the damping is as important as the stiffness in influencing the maximum admittance magnitude but its effect on the corresponding frequency is negligible. Scaling up the geometries increases the admittance magnitude and shifts the resonances to lower frequencies. The results suggest that admittance measurements can provide more information about the condition of the middle ear when made at multiple frequencies around its resonance.

  20. Fumonisin B(1)-nonproducing strains of Fusarium verticillioides cause maize (Zea mays) ear infection and ear rot.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, A E; Plattner, R D

    2000-11-01

    Fumonisins are polyketide mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides (synonym F. moniliforme), a major pathogen of maize (Zea mays) worldwide. Most field strains produce high levels of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) and low levels of the less-oxygenated homologues FB(2) and FB(3), but fumonisin B(1)-nonproducing field strains have been obtained by natural variation. To test the role of various fumonisins in pathogenesis on maize under field conditions, one strain producing FB(1), FB(2), and FB(3), one strain producing only FB(2), one strain producing only FB(3), and one fumonisin-nonproducing strain were applied to ears via the silk channel and on seeds at planting. Disease severity on the harvested ears was evaluated by visible symptoms and by weight percent symptomatic kernels. Fumonisin levels in kernels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The presence of the applied FB(1)-nonproducing strains in kernels was determined by analysis of recovered strains for fumonisin production and other traits. All three FB(1)-nonproducing strains were able to infect ears following either silk-channel application or seed application at planting and were as effective as the FB(1)-producing strain in causing ear rot following silk-channel application. These results indicate that production of FB(1), FB(2), or FB(3) is not required for F. verticillioides to cause maize ear infection and ear rot.

  1. Perception of suprasegmental speech features via bimodal stimulation: cochlear implant on one ear and hearing aid on the other.

    PubMed

    Most, Tova; Harel, Tamar; Shpak, Talma; Luntz, Michal

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the contribution of acoustic hearing to the perception of suprasegmental features by adults who use a cochlear implant (CI) and a hearing aid (HA) in opposite ears. 23 adults participated in this study. Perception of suprasegmental features-intonation, syllable stress, and word emphasis-was assessed. All tests were administered in 2 conditions: CI alone and CI + HA (bimodal). Scores were significantly higher in the bimodal condition in comparison to scores in CI alone for all 3 tests. In both conditions, there was great variability among the individual participants. Significant negative correlations emerged between perception of suprasegmental features and the unaided pure-tone average of the contralateral ear to the CI. This study found a significant bimodal advantage for perception of all suprasegmental features, most probably due to the better low-frequency acoustic hearing that is provided by the HA. Outcomes suggest that in cases of residual hearing in the contralateral ear to the implanted ear, HA use should be encouraged.

  2. Left ear dichotic listening performance on consonant-vowel combinations and digits in subtypes of reading-disabled children.

    PubMed

    Morton, L L; Siegel, L S

    1991-02-01

    Twenty reading comprehension-disabled (CD) and 20 reading comprehension and word recognition-disabled (CWRD), right-handed male children were matched with 20 normal-achieving age-matched controls and 20 normal-achieving reading level-matched controls and tested for left ear report on dichotic listening tasks using digits and consonant-vowel combinations (CVs). Left ear report for CVs and digits did not correlate for any of the groups. Both reading-disabled groups showed lower left ear report on digits. On CVs the CD group showed a high left ear report but only when there were no priming precursors, such as directions to attend right first and to process digits first. Priming effects interfered with the processing of both digits and CVs. Theoretically, the CWRD group seems to be characterized by a depressed right hemisphere, whereas the CD group may have a more labile right hemisphere, perhaps tending to overengagement for CV tasks but vulnerable to situational precursors in the form of priming effects. Implications extend to (1) subtyping practices in research with the learning-disabled, (2) inferences drawn from studies using different dichotic stimuli, and (3) the neuropsychology of reading disorders.

  3. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential according to middle ear condition in chronic otitis media with tympanic membrane perforation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Seok; Lee, Sun Kyu; Shin, Il Ho; Yeo, Seung Geun; Park, Moon Suh; Byun, Jae Yong

    2014-01-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) function results can vary between individuals with different middle ear conditions. Therefore, by analyzing VEMP results after paper patching, we can predict the condition of the middle ear in chronic otitis media (COM) patients. VEMP responses decrease with impairment of sound transmission, such as in conductive hearing loss (CHL). COM with tympanic membrane (TM) perforation is a common disorder that causes various degrees of CHL. The aim of this study was to evaluate and clarify the VEMP responses in patients with COM with different middle ear pathology. This study included 50 patients with unilateral COM with TM perforation. Initial pure-tone audiometry (PTA) and VEMP responses were recorded. After paper patching, PTA and VEMP were re-performed. Each VEMP response was compared with those of the healthy controls. Moreover, VEMP responses between pre- and post-paper patching were compared. There was a positive correlation between normalizing of VEMP parameters, such as p13 and VEMP asymmetry ratio (VAR), and reduction of air-bone gap in patients with COM after paper patching. The VEMP response in patients with COM with intact ossicle and clean mucosa was more normalized compared with those in patients with COM with different middle ear conditions.

  4. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis of agronomic traits in a maize recombinant inbred line population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H M; Hui, G Q; Luo, Q; Sun, Y; Liu, X H

    2014-01-21

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important crops in the world. In this study, 13 agronomic traits of a recombinant inbred line population that was derived from the cross between Mo17 and Huangzao4 were investigated in maize: ear diameter, ear length, ear axis diameter, ear weight, plant height, ear height, days to pollen shed (DPS), days to silking (DS), the interval between DPS and DS, 100-kernel weight, kernel test weight, ear kernel weight, and kernel rate. Furthermore, the descriptive statistics and correlation analysis of the 13 traits were performed using the SPSS 11.5 software. The results providing the phenotypic data here are needed for the quantitative trait locus mapping of these agronomic traits.

  5. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Katelyn E.; Robbins, Jesse; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1) assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2) determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3) owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810) were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness (‘nature vs nurture task’), found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392) provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its ‘natural’ state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410) is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others. PMID:27348817

  6. Retroauricular skin: a flaps bank for ear reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Cordova, A; D'Arpa, S; Pirrello, R; Giambona, C; Moschella, F

    2008-01-01

    The retroauricular skin has always been given much attention by the reconstructive surgeon for ear and face reconstruction because it is richly vascularised, as many anatomical investigations show, it is hidden behind the ear, its skin is very similar to that of ear and face. All these reasons make it an ideal donor site for ear reconstruction. The authors propose their own algorithm for reconstruction of every kind of anterior defects of the auricle with different Retroauricular Island Flaps (RIFs) based on the location and size of the defect developed over a 16 years single institution's experience with a series of 216 consecutive cases. 216 patients have undergone ear reconstruction with RIFs from 1999 to 2006. In 52 a Superior Pedicle RIF (SP-RIF) was used for defects of the upper half of the auricle. In 68 cases a Perforator RIF (P-RIF) was used for conchal reconstruction. In 96 cases an Inferior Pedicle RIF (IP-RIF) was used for reconstruction of nonmarginal and superficial marginal defects of the auricle. No flap failure was recorded. Excellent morphological reconstruction was obtained with these flaps with no sequealae at the donor site in terms of form and function. Only in the case of P-RIFs the sulcus becomes flat in its central part, but this has never affected the possibility of wearing spectacles. The SP-RIFs may sometimes show some signs of venous stasis that invariably resolve in the first two postoperative days. The retroauricular skin may be considered a flaps bank for ear reconstruction. It offers in fact a great variety of island flaps that are suitable for every kind of loss of substance of the ear, have a safe vascularisation, skin of similar colour and texture, are easy to harvest under local anaesthesia on an outpatient basis and cause no relevant morbidity at the donor site. Location and size of the defects lead the choice between the different types of RIFs.

  7. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions.

    PubMed

    Mills, Katelyn E; Robbins, Jesse; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-01-01

    Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1) assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2) determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3) owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810) were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness ('nature vs nurture task'), found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392) provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its 'natural' state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410) is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others.

  8. Two stage ear/microtia reconstruction using costal cartilage.

    PubMed

    Balaji, S M

    2015-01-01

    Reconstruction of Grade III microtia is a challenging entity in maxillofacial esthetic rehabilitation. Several advocacies and philosophies exist in this field. The aim of the manuscript is to present a single South Indian Experience with Ear reconstruction among South Indian Population. Retrospective analysis of unilateral Grade III microtia reconstruction was performed. Using a set of predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, the population was selected. Outcome measures in terms of the ear size, auriculocephalic angle, and the conchal depth were measured in the reconstructed and normal side. Descriptive statistics is presented. Twenty-four patients formed the study group and had undergone the classical two-stage reconstruction in a similar fashion. The mean ear size in normal side was 65.8 ± 2.8 mm whereas on the reconstructed side, it was 61.3 ± 5.8 mm. The center's technique achieved above 75% similarity as that of the other normal ear. The mean auriculocephalic angle was 44.6 ± 5.2° whereas for the surgically reconstructed ear, it was 41.9 ± 2.6°. Overall, in these patients, we achieved a 79.94% similarity of auriculocephalic angle in the reconstructed ear as compared to the normal auricle. The conchal depth was 19.2 ± 2.1 mm and 16.6 ± 1.9 mm for normal and reconstructed ear, respectively. In terms of conchal depth, the present study group showed an achievement of 82.88% of accuracy even after a prolonged follow-up. The center employs a classic two stage reconstruction with a customized prosthesis that helps to avoid the loss of projection geometry and minimizes adhesion, infection, and early loss of structural stability.

  9. Three-Dimensional Analysis of the Ear Morphology.

    PubMed

    Modabber, Ali; Galster, Helmut; Peters, Florian; Möhlhenrich, Stephan Christian; Kniha, Kristian; Knobe, Matthias; Hölzle, Frank; Ghassemi, Alireza

    2018-06-01

    For surgical treatment of the face, detailed surgical planning is necessary to avoid later unaesthetic results. Most of the studies in the literature concentrate on the ears' anatomy during childhood and adolescence. Nearly no study evaluates the anatomy of ears of people aged 50 or older. It was our aim to measure and evaluate the ear's anatomy in Caucasians between the ages of 21 and 65. Three-dimensional scans of 240 volunteers were taken. The subjects were divided into groups of males and females and each of them into three groups by age (21-35, 36-50, 51-65). Landmarks were placed in these scans. Distances, relations and angles between them were recorded. The distance between the subaurale and superaurale significantly increases (p < 0.001) during the aging process in males and females. Also, the width of the ear, measured between the preaurale and postaurale, significantly increased (p = 0.007) with advancing age. When the length of the ear is divided into four parts by anatomical landmarks, it extended the most in the lower quadrant with increasing subject age. The ear of Caucasians does not stop changing its shape during adulthood. Even after the body has stopped growing, the ear still does. With the measured values in this study, it should be possible for the surgeon to plan the operation in advance and achieve satisfactory aesthetic outcomes. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  10. Relationship between body temperature, weight, and hematological parameters of black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Lucas Cardoso; Barros, Marilia

    2016-06-01

    Basal thermal values of captive adult black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) in a thermoneutral environment were measured via different methods, along with body weight and hematological parameters. Body temperatures were recorded with rectal (RC), subcutaneous (SC) microchip transponder and infrared (left and right) tympanic membrane (TM) thermometries. Thermal values were correlated with body mass and some hematological data. Similar RC and SC temperatures were observed, these being significantly higher than the left and right TM values. SC temperature was positively correlated and in close agreement with RC measurements. Although body temperatures were not influenced by gender, capture time, or body weight, they were correlated with hematological parameters. Thus, body temperatures in this species seem to reflect some of the characteristics of the assessments' location, with SC microchip transponders being a less invasive method to assess body temperature in these small-bodied non-human primates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effects of ear acupuncture therapy for obesity on the depression of obese women.

    PubMed

    Set, Turan; Cayir, Yasemin; Pirim, Asuman Bihter Guven

    2014-10-01

    Obesity is one of the leading health risks worldwide, and depression is among the leading causes of the burden of disease. These disorders are increasingly prevalent as comorbidities. Depressive symptoms are associated with obesity, and are more common in women. To evaluate the effectiveness of ear acupuncture for obesity on the depression of obese women. After baseline testing, 30 eligible patients with body mass index (BMI) >29.9 kg/m(2) were included. The Beck Depression Inventory for Primary Care (BDI-PC) was used to assess changes in depression. BMI was also measured. Patients had six ear acupuncture sessions, every 15 days and were followed up for 3 months. Twenty four patients completed the study. The mean±SD age of patients was 42.9±9.0 years. Their mean±SD BMI was 39.0±4.7 kg/m(2) before acupuncture, decreasing to 37.2±4.3 kg/m(2) after acupuncture therapy (p<0.001). The mean depression score was 4.4±2.3 before acupuncture, decreasing to 2.7±1.4 (p<0.001) after treatment. There was no significant correlation between BMI and depression score before acupuncture therapy (p=0.104). After acupuncture therapy, no significant correlation was found between the percentage reduction of BMI and percentage reduction of the depression score (p=0.119). Further research into the effects of ear acupuncture in the management of obesity and depression is justified. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Human ear detection in the thermal infrared spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abaza, Ayman; Bourlai, Thirimachos

    2012-06-01

    In this paper the problem of human ear detection in the thermal infrared (IR) spectrum is studied in order to illustrate the advantages and limitations of the most important steps of ear-based biometrics that can operate in day and night time environments. The main contributions of this work are two-fold: First, a dual-band database is assembled that consists of visible and thermal profile face images. The thermal data was collected using a high definition middle-wave infrared (3-5 microns) camera that is capable of acquiring thermal imprints of human skin. Second, a fully automated, thermal imaging based ear detection method is developed for real-time segmentation of human ears in either day or night time environments. The proposed method is based on Haar features forming a cascaded AdaBoost classifier (our modified version of the original Viola-Jones approach1 that was designed to be applied mainly in visible band images). The main advantage of the proposed method, applied on our profile face image data set collected in the thermal-band, is that it is designed to reduce the learning time required by the original Viola-Jones method from several weeks to several hours. Unlike other approaches reported in the literature, which have been tested but not designed to operate in the thermal band, our method yields a high detection accuracy that reaches ~ 91.5%. Further analysis on our data set yielded that: (a) photometric normalization techniques do not directly improve ear detection performance. However, when using a certain photometric normalization technique (CLAHE) on falsely detected images, the detection rate improved by ~ 4%; (b) the high detection accuracy of our method did not degrade when we lowered down the original spatial resolution of thermal ear images. For example, even after using one third of the original spatial resolution (i.e. ~ 20% of the original computational time) of the thermal profile face images, the high ear detection accuracy of our method

  13. A miniaturized laser-Doppler-system in the ear canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, T.; Gerhardt, U.; Kupper, C.; Manske, E.; Witte, H.

    2013-03-01

    Gathering vibrational data from the human middle ear is quite difficult. To this date the well-known acoustic probe is used to estimate audiometric parameters, e.g. otoacoustic emissions, wideband reflectance and the measurement of the stapedius reflex. An acoustic probe contains at least one microphone and one loudspeaker. The acoustic parameter determination of the ear canal is essential for the comparability of test-retest measurement situations. Compared to acoustic tubes, the ear canal wall cannot be described as a sound hard boundary. Sound energy is partly absorbed by the ear canal wall. In addition the ear canal features a complex geometric shape (Stinson and Lawton1). Those conditions are one reason for the inter individual variability in input impedance measurement data of the tympanic membrane. The method of Laser-Doppler-Vibrometry is well described in literature. Using this method, the surface velocity of vibrating bodies can be determined contact-free. Conventional Laser-Doppler-Systems (LDS) for auditory research are mounted on a surgical microscope. Assuming a free line of view to the ear drum, the handling of those laser-systems is complicated. We introduce the concept of a miniaturized vibrometer which is supposed to be applied directly in the ear canal for contact-free measurement of the tympanic membrane surface vibration. The proposed interferometer is based on a Fabry-Perot etalon with a DFB laser diode as light source. The fiber-based Fabry-Perot-interferometer is characterized by a reduced size, compared to e.g. Michelson-, or Mach-Zehnder-Systems. For the determination of the phase difference in the interferometer, a phase generated carrier was used. To fit the sensor head in the ear canal, the required shape of the probe was generated by means of the geometrical data of 70 ear molds. The suggested prototype is built up by a singlemode optical fiber with a GRIN-lens, acting as a fiber collimator. The probe has a diameter of 1.8 mm and a

  14. A new method for correcting type I and type II constricted (cup and lop) ears.

    PubMed

    Xiaogeng, Hu; Hongxing, Zhuang; Qinghua, Yang; Haiyue, Jiang; Yanyong, Zhao

    2006-01-01

    Tanzer suggested the term "constricted ear," denoting a spectrum of deformities limited to the superior third of the ear. Tanzer classified the constricted ear into three types. Type I ears have involvement of the helix, which usually is flattened. Type II ears show involvement of both the helix and the scapha. With type III ears, the auricle is rolled into a nearly tubular form that some authors regard as a form of microtia. The authors' new method for correcting the constricted ear varies in accordance with the diverse degree of deformity. The new method was used to correct constricted ears through a one-stage operation in eight type I cases. For the remaining six type 2 cases, the methods were combined with composite grafting. Most of the patients were satisfied with the final results. Therefore, the authors conclude that their approach is suitable for the treatment of type I and type II constricted ears.

  15. Reconstruction following traumatic partial amputation of the ear.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Robert A; Sabbagh, Walid

    2011-02-01

    Reconstruction following traumatic amputation of the external ear remains a unique challenge to the plastic surgeon. The authors report a series of ear reconstructions with autologous costal cartilage in patients following traumatic partial amputation of the ear. Technical points regarding the carving of the cartilage framework and methods of skin coverage are discussed. Fifty partial ear reconstructions with autologous costal cartilage were performed over a 4-year period. All patients had suffered previous traumatic amputation of part of the external auricle due to bite injuries (n = 36), road traffic accidents (n = 6), burns (n = 5), or torture (n = 3). A two-stage technique of reconstruction with autologous cartilage graft was used based on Nagata's adaptations of Brent's original technique. In nine cases, skin shortage or extensive scarring required preoperative tissue expansion (n = 4) or a temporoparietal fascial flap (n = 5) to provide adequate coverage of the cartilage framework. Forty-seven patients had a successful surgical outcome without complication. Two patients developed small areas of skin necrosis resulting in exposure of the cartilage framework. These healed with conservative management with minor loss of definition. One case of wound infection resulted in significant loss of definition of the construct, which required a further surgical procedure with additional costal cartilage graft. Reconstruction of the external ear with autologous costal cartilage following traumatic amputation can produce high-quality auricles consistently and is becoming the treatment of choice for such injuries, given access to a specialist center with exposure to a high volume of cases.

  16. [Keloid scars of the external ear: a non solved problem].

    PubMed

    Bejarano Serrano, M; Parri Ferrandis, F J; García Smith, N I; Martínez-Herrada, S; Manzanares Quintela, A; Albert Cazalla, A

    2014-01-01

    The external ear is a location with high risk of keloid scar formation. Its incidence is growing since general use of piercings and performance of plastic surgery of the external ear. The external ear keloid can be a devasting process for adolescent population which is worried about their appearance. Our aim is to attract attention about the risk of keloid scars of the external ear, reviewing our experience. After dismissing radiotherapy, corticoid infiltration and surgical removal are the most used options, with a high recurrence risk. We have reviewed traumatic, surgical and piercing wounds of the external ear, with a subsequent keloid formation treated in our outpatient clinic, collecting data about wound etiology, treatment and results. During the last 10 years we have found 11 keloid scars, 2 of them improved with topical corticosteroid. Treatment has been surgical in 9 cases, 4 of them with skin graft: 5 recovered and 4 recurred; 2 of them were reoperated. 2 of them were treated with intralesional corticosteroid solely, one recovered and the other one had improved. Treatment management of keloid scars is complex and there isn't a procedure with superior results than the others. Risk of complication must be explained within adolescent population.

  17. The pathogenesis of cauliflower ear. An experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ohlsén, L; Skoog, T; Sohn, S A

    1975-01-01

    Appreciating an imcomplete understanding of the pathogenesis of cauliflower ear, an experimental study was designed to demonstrate the pathophysiology of this deformity. The investigation was conducted in 2-month-old rabbits. In one ear a collection of blood was placed under the raised perichondrium which was then sutured back in place and the skin closed. In the other ear an equal amount of blood was deposited between the intact perichondrium and skin. In the first study new cartilage developed under the perichondrium, but in the ear in which the blood was left above the surface of the perichondrium-covered cartilage, complete resorption of the clot occurred. The cauliflower ear was thus shown to be generating cartilage, arising from a layer of raised perichondrium which was further stimulated by a sero-sanguinous medium. The subperichondrial hematoma was extensively invaded by chondroblasts within 2 weeks, and over a period of 4 weeks the new tissue gradually changed into more mature cartilage. It was a consistent finding that the separated perichondrium retracted, thus causing the original cartilage to rise and buckle over the hamatoma, similar to the picture observed in the human pathology.

  18. Extracellular and intracellular melanin in inflammatory middle ear disease.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Mark A; Roehm, Pamela C; Bannan, Michael A; Lalwani, Anil K

    2014-06-01

    Melanin is a pigmented polymer with a known role in dermal solar protection. In vertebrates, melanogenesis has been reported in leukocyte populations, suggesting a potential role in innate immunity. In this study, we report the novel finding of melanin associated with chronic inflammation and speculate on its potential role in the middle ear and mastoid. Retrospective review of case series. Medical records of six patients who demonstrated melanin in the ear were reviewed. Six patients from 1 to 63 years of age were identified with extracellular melanin and melanin-laden histiocytes within the middle ear and/or mastoid air cells at time of surgery. Concurrent intraoperative findings included cholesteatoma (n = 3), chronic suppurative otitis media (n = 2), and coalescent mastoiditis (n = 1). Histologically, extracellular melanin and melanin-laden histiocytes were identified by Fontana-Masson stain; absence of melanocytes was confirmed by the absence of Melan-A staining. One patient had a positive stain for CD163 (a marker for macrophages). This case series is the first demonstration of melanin within middle ear mucosa without melanocytes in immediate proximity or metastatic melanocytic lesions. Melanin's presence in the setting of inflammation suggests that there may be a heretofore unreported link between the pigmentary and immune systems in the middle ear. 4.

  19. An abbreviated history of the ear: from Renaissance to present.

    PubMed Central

    Hachmeister, Jorge E.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we discuss important discoveries in relation to the anatomy and physiology of the ear from Renaissance to present. Before the Renaissance, there was a paucity of knowledge of the anatomy of the ear, because of the relative inaccessibility of the temporal bone and the general perception that human dissections should not be conducted. It was not until the sixteenth century that the middle ear was described with detail. Further progress would be made between the sixteenth and eighteenth century in describing the inner ear. In the nineteenth century, technological advancement permitted a description of the cells and structures that constitute the cochlea. Von Helmholtz made further progress in hearing physiology when he postulated his resonance theory and later von Békésy when he observed a traveling wave in human cadavers within the cochlea. Brownell later made a major advance when he discovered that the ear has a mechanism for sound amplification, via outer hair cell electromotility. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:15369636

  20. Right-Ear Advantage for Speech-in-Noise Recognition in Patients with Nonlateralized Tinnitus and Normal Hearing Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Tai, Yihsin; Husain, Fatima T

    2018-04-01

    Despite having normal hearing sensitivity, patients with chronic tinnitus may experience more difficulty recognizing speech in adverse listening conditions as compared to controls. However, the association between the characteristics of tinnitus (severity and loudness) and speech recognition remains unclear. In this study, the Quick Speech-in-Noise test (QuickSIN) was conducted monaurally on 14 patients with bilateral tinnitus and 14 age- and hearing-matched adults to determine the relation between tinnitus characteristics and speech understanding. Further, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), tinnitus loudness magnitude estimation, and loudness matching were obtained to better characterize the perceptual and psychological aspects of tinnitus. The patients reported low THI scores, with most participants in the slight handicap category. Significant between-group differences in speech-in-noise performance were only found at the 5-dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) condition. The tinnitus group performed significantly worse in the left ear than in the right ear, even though bilateral tinnitus percept and symmetrical thresholds were reported in all patients. This between-ear difference is likely influenced by a right-ear advantage for speech sounds, as factors related to testing order and fatigue were ruled out. Additionally, significant correlations found between SNR loss in the left ear and tinnitus loudness matching suggest that perceptual factors related to tinnitus had an effect on speech-in-noise performance, pointing to a possible interaction between peripheral and cognitive factors in chronic tinnitus. Further studies, that take into account both hearing and cognitive abilities of patients, are needed to better parse out the effect of tinnitus in the absence of hearing impairment.

  1. A robust, high-throughput method for computing maize ear, cob, and kernel attributes automatically from images.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nathan D; Haase, Nicholas J; Lee, Jonghyun; Kaeppler, Shawn M; de Leon, Natalia; Spalding, Edgar P

    2017-01-01

    Grain yield of the maize plant depends on the sizes, shapes, and numbers of ears and the kernels they bear. An automated pipeline that can measure these components of yield from easily-obtained digital images is needed to advance our understanding of this globally important crop. Here we present three custom algorithms designed to compute such yield components automatically from digital images acquired by a low-cost platform. One algorithm determines the average space each kernel occupies along the cob axis using a sliding-window Fourier transform analysis of image intensity features. A second counts individual kernels removed from ears, including those in clusters. A third measures each kernel's major and minor axis after a Bayesian analysis of contour points identifies the kernel tip. Dimensionless ear and kernel shape traits that may interrelate yield components are measured by principal components analysis of contour point sets. Increased objectivity and speed compared to typical manual methods are achieved without loss of accuracy as evidenced by high correlations with ground truth measurements and simulated data. Millimeter-scale differences among ear, cob, and kernel traits that ranged more than 2.5-fold across a diverse group of inbred maize lines were resolved. This system for measuring maize ear, cob, and kernel attributes is being used by multiple research groups as an automated Web service running on community high-throughput computing and distributed data storage infrastructure. Users may create their own workflow using the source code that is staged for download on a public repository. © 2016 The Authors. The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Two flaps and Z-plasty technique for correction of longitudinal ear lobe cleft.

    PubMed

    Lee, Paik-Kwon; Ju, Hong-Sil; Rhie, Jong-Won; Ahn, Sang-Tae

    2005-06-01

    Various surgical techniques have been reported for the correction of congenital ear lobe deformities. Our method, the two-flaps-and-Z-plasty technique, for correcting the longitudinal ear lobe cleft is presented. This technique is simple and easy to perform. It enables us to keep the bulkiness of the ear lobe with minimal tissue sacrifice, and to make a shorter operation scar. The small Z-plasty at the free ear lobe margin avoids notching deformity and makes the shape of the ear lobe smoother. The result is satisfactory in terms of matching the contralateral normal ear lobe in shape and symmetry.

  3. Genetic structure, spatial organization, and dispersal in two populations of bat-eared foxes

    PubMed Central

    Kamler, Jan F; Gray, Melissa M; Oh, Annie; Macdonald, David W

    2013-01-01

    We incorporated radio-telemetry data with genetic analysis of bat-eared foxes (Otocyon megalotis) from individuals in 32 different groups to examine relatedness and spatial organization in two populations in South Africa that differed in density, home-range sizes, and group sizes. Kin clustering occurred only for female dyads in the high-density population. Relatedness was negatively correlated with distance only for female dyads in the high-density population, and for male and mixed-sex dyads in the low-density population. Home-range overlap of neighboring female dyads was significantly greater in the high compared to low-density population, whereas overlap within other dyads was similar between populations. Amount of home-range overlap between neighbors was positively correlated with genetic relatedness for all dyad-site combinations, except for female and male dyads in the low-density population. Foxes from all age and sex classes dispersed, although females (mostly adults) dispersed farther than males. Yearlings dispersed later in the high-density population, and overall exhibited a male-biased dispersal pattern. Our results indicated that genetic structure within populations of bat-eared foxes was sex-biased, and was interrelated to density and group sizes, as well as sex-biases in philopatry and dispersal distances. We conclude that a combination of male-biased dispersal rates, adult dispersals, and sex-biased dispersal distances likely helped to facilitate inbreeding avoidance in this evolutionarily unique species of Canidae. PMID:24101981

  4. Sensory Cells of the Fish Ear: A Hairy Enigma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popper, A. N.; Saidel, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of the structure of the ears in teleost fishes has led to the tentative suggestion that otolithic endorgans may function differently, in different species. Recently, evidence has demonstrated different 'types' of sensory hair cells can be found in the ears of teleost fishes, and individual hair cell types are found in discrete regions of individual sensory, epithelia. The presence of multiple hair cell types in fishes provides strong support to the hypothesis of regional differences in the responses of individual otolithic sensory epithelia. The finding of hair cell types in fishes that closely resemble those found in amniote vestibular endorgans also suggests that hair cell heterogeneity arose earlier in the evolution of the vertebrate ear than previously thought.

  5. [Plastic surgery to correct deformities of the ear].

    PubMed

    Naumann, A

    2005-08-18

    For the plastic-surgical correction of mild deformities of the ears, well-proven incisional and suturing techniques are available. Only in exceptional cases is skin grafting or the use of cartilage ersatz material required. In the plastic surgical treatment of moderate to severe ear deformities, in contrast, not only incisional and suturing techniques, but also free skin grafts and ersatz materials are needed. At the ENT Department of the Ludwig-Maximilian University in Munich, plastic reconstruction of moderate to severe deformities of the external ear using porous polyethylene implants instead of rib cartilage grafts has been practiced with success for the past two years or so. Porous polyethylene implants provide good results and may help to avoid pre- and postoperative morbidity at donor site defects.

  6. Human Action Recognition Using Wireless Wearable In-Ear Microphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Jun; Kuroda, Tadahiro

    To realize the ubiquitous eating habits monitoring, we proposed the use of sounds sensed by an in-ear placed wireless wearable microphone. A prototype of wireless wearable in-ear microphone was developed by utilizing a common Bluetooth headset. We proposed a robust chewing action recognition algorithm which consists of two recognition stages: “chew-like” signal detection and chewing sound verification stages. We also provide empirical results on other action recognition using in-ear sound including swallowing, cough, belch, and etc. The average chewing number counting error rate of 1.93% is achieved. Lastly, chewing sound mapping is proposed as a new prototypical approach to provide an additional intuitive feedback on food groups to be able to infer the eating habits in their daily life context.

  7. A Ubiquitous Blood Pressure Sensor Worn at the Ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, Hiroshi; Shimada, Junichi; Uenishi, Yuji; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2009-12-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement and BP control are important for the prevention of lifestyle diseases, especially hypertension, which can lead to more serious conditions, such as cardiac infarction and cerebral apoplexy. The purpose of our study is to develop a ubiquitous blood pressure sensor that is more comfortable and less disruptive of users' daily activities than conventional blood pressure sensors. Our developed sensor is worn at an ear orifice and measures blood pressure at the tragus. This paper describes the concept, configuration, and the optical and electronic details of the developed ear-worn blood pressure sensor and presents preliminary evaluation results. The developed sensor causes almost no discomfort and produces signals whose quality is high enough for detecting BP at an ear, making it suitable for ubiquitous usage.

  8. Magnetically driven middle ear ossicles for optical measurement of vibrations in an ear with opened tympanic membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, J.; von Unge, M.; Dirckx, J.

    2013-12-01

    Vibrations of the middle ear ossicles are easily measured by means of laser vibrometry. However, laser vibrometry requires free visual access to the object under investigation, and acquiring free visual access to the ossicles through the ear canal requires the removal of the tympanic membrane (TM), with the result that the ossicles can no longer be stimulated acoustically. To overcome this, we devised a new setup in which the ossicles can be driven magnetically. After measuring the response of the TM to an acoustic signal, we then remove it and attach a small magnet to the exposed manubrium (a part of the most lateral auditory ossicle, the malleus, which is normally attached to the TM). An electromagnetic excitation coil is then used to drive the magnet, and the output to the coil adjusted until the vibration of the manubrium, as measured by the vibrometer, matches that measured in response to the acoustic signal. Such a setup may have uses in research on middle ear mechanics, such as the measurement of nonlinearities in their response, as well as applications in the diagnosis of middle ear conditions such as the fixation of the ossicles by otosclerosis or in chronic otitis media. We describe our setup and discuss the viability of our method and its future clinical potential by presenting some measurements on an artificially fixated ear.

  9. Insights into inner ear-specific gene regulation: epigenetics and non-coding RNAs in inner ear development and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Avraham, Karen B.

    2016-01-01

    The vertebrate inner ear houses highly specialized sensory organs, tuned to detect and encode sound, head motion and gravity. Gene expression programs under the control of transcription factors orchestrate the formation and specialization of the non-sensory inner ear labyrinth and its sensory constituents. More recently, epigenetic factors and non-coding RNAs emerged as an additional layer of gene regulation, both in inner ear development and disease. In this review, we provide an overview on how epigenetic modifications and non-coding RNAs, in particular microRNAs (miRNAs), influence gene expression and summarize recent discoveries that highlight their critical role in the proper formation of the inner ear labyrinth and its sensory organs. In contrast to non-mammalian vertebrates, adult mammals lack the ability to regenerate inner ear mechano-sensory hair cells. Finally, we discuss recent insights into how epigenetic factors and miRNAs may facilitate, or in the case of mammals, restrict sensory hair cell regeneration. PMID:27836639

  10. High-throughput method for ear phenotyping and kernel weight estimation in maize using ear digital imaging.

    PubMed

    Makanza, R; Zaman-Allah, M; Cairns, J E; Eyre, J; Burgueño, J; Pacheco, Ángela; Diepenbrock, C; Magorokosho, C; Tarekegne, A; Olsen, M; Prasanna, B M

    2018-01-01

    Grain yield, ear and kernel attributes can assist to understand the performance of maize plant under different environmental conditions and can be used in the variety development process to address farmer's preferences. These parameters are however still laborious and expensive to measure. A low-cost ear digital imaging method was developed that provides estimates of ear and kernel attributes i.e., ear number and size, kernel number and size as well as kernel weight from photos of ears harvested from field trial plots. The image processing method uses a script that runs in a batch mode on ImageJ; an open source software. Kernel weight was estimated using the total kernel number derived from the number of kernels visible on the image and the average kernel size. Data showed a good agreement in terms of accuracy and precision between ground truth measurements and data generated through image processing. Broad-sense heritability of the estimated parameters was in the range or higher than that for measured grain weight. Limitation of the method for kernel weight estimation is discussed. The method developed in this work provides an opportunity to significantly reduce the cost of selection in the breeding process, especially for resource constrained crop improvement programs and can be used to learn more about the genetic bases of grain yield determinants.

  11. Energy localization and frequency analysis in the locust ear.

    PubMed

    Malkin, Robert; McDonagh, Thomas R; Mhatre, Natasha; Scott, Thomas S; Robert, Daniel

    2014-01-06

    Animal ears are exquisitely adapted to capture sound energy and perform signal analysis. Studying the ear of the locust, we show how frequency signal analysis can be performed solely by using the structural features of the tympanum. Incident sound waves generate mechanical vibrational waves that travel across the tympanum. These waves shoal in a tsunami-like fashion, resulting in energy localization that focuses vibrations onto the mechanosensory neurons in a frequency-dependent manner. Using finite element analysis, we demonstrate that two mechanical properties of the locust tympanum, distributed thickness and tension, are necessary and sufficient to generate frequency-dependent energy localization.

  12. Spectacle fitting with ear, nose and face deformities or abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Eng, Helen; Chiu, Roger Sin Fai

    2002-11-01

    Spectacle frame selection and dispensing remain significant components of optometry. Occasionally, we encounter patients who are unable to wear conventional spectacles due to abnormalities or deformities following injury and/or surgery to their nose, ears or head. In these cases, spectacle frame fitting may be more complex and customized frame adjustments may be required to account for the anatomical variations. A patient with a microtia (hypoplastic pinna) was fitted with a tailored spectacle frame. The details are presented together with a summary of different frames and modifications available for ears, nose and face abnormalities.

  13. An assessment of individualized technical ear training for audio production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungyoung

    2015-07-01

    An individualized technical ear training method is compared to a non-individualized method. The efficacy of the individualized method is assessed using a standardized test conducted before and after the training period. Participants who received individualized training improved better than the control group on the test. Results indicate the importance of individualized training for acquisition of spectrum-identification and spectrum-matching skills. Individualized training, therefore, should be implemented by default into technical ear training programs used in audio production industry and education.

  14. Nonsurgical correction of congenital ear abnormalities in the newborn: Case series.

    PubMed

    Smith, Wg; Toye, Jw; Reid, A; Smith, Rw

    2005-07-01

    To determine whether a simple, nonsurgical treatment for congenital ear abnormalities (lop-ear, Stahl's ear, protruding ear, cryptotia) improved the appearance of ear abnormalities in newborns at six weeks of age. This is a descriptive case series. All newborns with identified abnormalities were referred by their family physician to one paediatrician (WGS) in a small level 2 perinatal centre. The ears were waxed and taped in a standard manner within 10 days of birth. Pictures were taken before taping and at the end of taping (one month). All patients and pictures were assessed by one plastic surgeon (JWT) at six weeks of age and scored using a standard scoring system. A telephone survey of the nontreatment group was conducted. The total number of ears assessed was 90. Of this total, 69 ears were taped and fully evaluated in the study (77%). The refusal rate was 23%. In the treatment group, 59% had lop-ear, 19% had Stahl's ear, 17% had protruding ear and 3% had cryptotia. Overall correction (excellent/improved) for the treatment group was 90% (100% for lop-ear, 100% for Stahl's ear, 67% for protruding ear and 0% for cryptotia). In the nontreatment (refusal) group, 67% of the ears failed to correct spontaneously. No complications were recognized by the authors or parents by six weeks. The percentage of newborns in one year in the perinatal centre with recognized ear abnormalities was 6% (90 of 1600). A simple, nonsurgical treatment in a Caucasian population appeared to be very effective in correcting congenital ear abnormalities with no complications and high patient/parent satisfaction.

  15. The morphology of the inner ear of squamate reptiles and its bearing on the origin of snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palci, Alessandro; Hutchinson, Mark N.; Caldwell, Michael W.; Lee, Michael S. Y.

    2017-08-01

    The inner ear morphology of 80 snake and lizard species, representative of a range of ecologies, is here analysed and compared to that of the fossil stem snake Dinilysia patagonica, using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Inner ear morphology is linked to phylogeny (we find here a strong phylogenetic signal in the data that can complicate ecological correlations), but also correlated with ecology, with Dinilysia resembling certain semi-fossorial forms (Xenopeltis and Cylindrophis), consistent with previous reports. We here also find striking resemblances between Dinilysia and some semi-aquatic snakes, such as Myron (Caenophidia, Homalopsidae). Therefore, the inner ear morphology of Dinilysia is consistent with semi-aquatic as well as semi-fossorial habits: the most similar forms are either semi-fossorial burrowers with a strong affinity to water (Xenopeltis and Cylindrophis) or amphibious, intertidal forms which shelter in burrows (Myron). Notably, Dinilysia does not cluster as closely with snakes with exclusively terrestrial or obligate burrowing habits (e.g. scolecophidians and uropeltids). Moreover, despite the above similarities, Dinilysia also occupies a totally unique morphospace, raising issues with linking it with any particular ecological category.

  16. Evaluation of rebound tonometry in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    PubMed

    Delgado, Cherlene; Mans, Christoph; McLellan, Gillian J; Bentley, Ellison; Sladky, Kurt K; Miller, Paul E

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate feasibility and accuracy of intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement by rebound tonometry in adult red-eared slider turtles and determine the effects of manual and chemical restraint on IOP. Seventeen adult red-eared slider turtles. Intraocular pressure was measured with TonoLab® and TonoVet® tonometers in conscious, unrestrained turtles. To evaluate the effects of manual restraint, turtles were restrained by digital pressure on the rostral head or proximal neck. The effect of two chemical restraint protocols (dexmedetomidine, ketamine, midazolam [DKM] and dexmedetomidine, ketamine [DK] subcutaneously) on IOP was evaluated. Triplicate TonoLab® and TonoVet® readings were compared with direct manometry in three ex vivo turtle eyes. TonoLab® correlated better with manometry at IOPs < 45 mmHg than TonoVet® (linear regression slopes of 0.89 and 0.30, respectively). Mean (±SD) IOP in unrestrained conscious turtles was significantly lower (P < 0.01) with TonoLab® (10.02 ± 0.66 mmHg) than with TonoVet® (11.32 ± 1.57 mmHg). Manual neck restraint caused a significant increase in IOP (+6.31 ± 5.59 mmHg), while manual rostral head restraint did not. Both chemical restraint protocols significantly reduced IOP (DKM: −1.0 ± 0.76 mmHg; DK: −1.79 ± 1.17) compared with measurements in conscious unrestrained turtles. Chemical and manual neck restraint affected IOP. Rostral head restraint had no significant effect on IOP and is, therefore, recommended as the appropriate restraint technique in red-eared slider turtles. TonoLab® measurements estimated actual IOP more accurately, within physiologic range, than measurements obtained using the TonoVet®. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  17. EVALUATION OF REBOUND TONOMETRY IN RED-EARED SLIDER TURTLES (TRACHEMYS SCRIPTA ELEGANS)

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Cherlene; Mans, Christoph; McLellan, Gillian J.; Bentley, Ellison; Sladky, Kurt K.; Miller, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate feasibility and accuracy of intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement by rebound tonometry in adult red-eared slider turtles and determine the effects of manual and chemical restraint on IOP. Animal studied Seventeen adult red-eared slider turtles. Procedures IOP was measured with TonoLab® and TonoVet® tonometers in conscious, unrestrained turtles. To evaluate the effects of manual restraint, turtles were restrained by digital pressure on the rostral head or proximal neck. The effect of two chemical restraint protocols (dexmedetomidine, ketamine, midazolam [DKM] and dexmedetomidine, ketamine [DK] subcutaneously) on IOP was evaluated. Triplicate TonoLab® and TonoVet® readings were compared to direct manometry in 3 ex vivo turtle eyes. Results TonoLab® correlated better with manometry at IOPs <45 mm Hg than TonoVet® (linear regression slopes of 0.89 and 0.30 respectively). Mean (±SD) IOP in unrestrained conscious turtles was significantly lower (P<0.01) with TonoLab® (10.02 ± 0.66 mmHg) than with TonoVet® (11.32 ± 1.57 mmHg). Manual neck restraint caused a significant increase in IOP (+6.31 ± 5.59 mmHg), while manual rostral head restraint did not. Both chemical restraint protocols significantly reduced IOP (DKM: −1.0 ± 0.76 mmHg,; DK: −1.79 ± 1.17) compared to measurements in conscious unrestrained turtles. Conclusions Chemical and manual neck restraint affected IOP. Rostral head restraint had no significant effect on IOP and is, therefore, recommended as the appropriate restraint technique in red-eared-slider turtles. TonoLab® measurements estimated actual IOP more accurately, within physiologic range, than measurements obtained using the TonoVet®. PMID:25097909

  18. Comparative Anatomy of the Bony Labyrinth (Inner Ear) of Placental Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Ekdale, Eric G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Variation is a naturally occurring phenomenon that is observable at all levels of morphology, from anatomical variations of DNA molecules to gross variations between whole organisms. The structure of the otic region is no exception. The present paper documents the broad morphological diversity exhibited by the inner ear region of placental mammals using digital endocasts constructed from high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT). Descriptions cover the major placental clades, and linear, angular, and volumetric dimensions are reported. Principal Findings The size of the labyrinth is correlated to the overall body mass of individuals, such that large bodied mammals have absolutely larger labyrinths. The ratio between the average arc radius of curvature of the three semicircular canals and body mass of aquatic species is substantially lower than the ratios of related terrestrial taxa, and the volume percentage of the vestibular apparatus of aquatic mammals tends to be less than that calculated for terrestrial species. Aspects of the bony labyrinth are phylogenetically informative, including vestibular reduction in Cetacea, a tall cochlear spiral in caviomorph rodents, a low position of the plane of the lateral semicircular canal compared to the posterior canal in Cetacea and Carnivora, and a low cochlear aspect ratio in Primatomorpha. Significance The morphological descriptions that are presented add a broad baseline of anatomy of the inner ear across many placental mammal clades, for many of which the structure of the bony labyrinth is largely unknown. The data included here complement the growing body of literature on the physiological and phylogenetic significance of bony labyrinth structures in mammals, and they serve as a source of data for future studies on the evolution and function of the vertebrate ear. PMID:23805251

  19. Deriving the real-ear SPL of audiometric data using the "coupler to dial difference" and the "real ear to coupler difference".

    PubMed

    Munro, K J; Davis, J

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the measured real-ear sound pressure level (SPL) of audiometer output with the derived real-ear SPL obtained by adding the coupler to dial difference (CDD) and real-ear to coupler difference (RECD) to the audiometer dial reading. The real-ear SPL and RECD were measured in one ear of 16 normally hearing subjects using a probe-tube microphone. The CDD transform and the RECD transfer function were measured in an HA1 and an HA2 2-cc coupler using an EAR-LINK foam ear-tip or a customized earmold. The RECD transfer function was measured using the EARTone ER 3A and the Audioscan RE770 insert earphone. The procedures were very reliable with mean differences on retest of less than 1 dB. The mean difference between the measured and derived real-ear SPL was generally less than 1 dB and rarely exceeded 3 dB in any subject. The CDD measured for an individual audiometer and the RECD measured for an individual ear can be used to derive a valid estimate of real-ear SPL when it has not been possible to measure this directly.

  20. Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in the inner ear and middle ear in lipopolysaccharide-induced otitis media.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Hisashi; Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Zhao, Pengfei; Maeda, Yukihide; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    Significant expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its receptor (CD74) was observed in both the middle ear and inner ear in experimental otitis media in mice. Modulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its signaling pathway might be useful in the management of inner ear inflammation due to otitis media. Inner ear dysfunction secondary to otitis media has been reported. However, the specific mechanisms involved are not clearly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in the middle ear and inner ear in lipopolysaccharide-induced otitis media. BALB/c mice received a transtympanic injection of either lipopolysaccharide or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The mice were sacrificed 24 h after injection, and temporal bones were processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, histologic examination, and immunohistochemistry. PCR examination revealed that the lipopolysaccharide-injected mice showed a significant up-regulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in both the middle ear and inner ear as compared with the PBS-injected control mice. The immunohistochemical study showed positive reactions for macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in infiltrating inflammatory cells, middle ear mucosa, and inner ear in the lipopolysaccharide-injected mice.

  1. Hyperspectral imaging system for whole corn ear surface inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Haibo; Kincaid, Russell; Hruska, Zuzana; Brown, Robert L.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2013-05-01

    Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus (A.flavus) and Aspergillus parasitiucus fungi that grow naturally in corn. Very serious health problems such as liver damage and lung cancer can result from exposure to high toxin levels in grain. Consequently, many countries have established strict guidelines for permissible levels in consumables. Conventional chemical-based analytical methods used to screen for aflatoxin such as thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are time consuming, expensive, and require the destruction of samples as well as proper training for data interpretation. Thus, it has been a continuing effort within the research community to find a way to rapidly and non-destructively detect and possibly quantify aflatoxin contamination in corn. One of the more recent developments in this area is the use of spectral technology. Specifically, fluorescence hyperspectral imaging offers a potential rapid, and non-invasive method for contamination detection in corn infected with toxigenic A.flavus spores. The current hyperspectral image system is designed for scanning flat surfaces, which is suitable for imaging single or a group of corn kernels. In the case of a whole corn cob, it is preferred to be able to scan the circumference of the corn ear, appropriate for whole ear inspection. This paper discusses the development of a hyperspectral imaging system for whole corn ear imaging. The new instrument is based on a hyperspectral line scanner using a rotational stage to turn the corn ear.

  2. English Vocabulary for Chinese Learners: Words in Your Ear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Monica

    1998-01-01

    This article describes "Words in Your Ear," a vocabulary learning program for tertiary Chinese students who are learners of English at the University of Hong Kong, noting the University's 3-year partnership agreement with IBM to provide notebook computers to first-year students and provide new collaborative research opportunities for…

  3. Future Approaches for Inner Ear Protection and Repair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Seiji B.; Raphael, Yehoash

    2010-01-01

    Health care professionals tending to patients with inner ear disease face inquiries about therapy options, including treatments that are being developed for future use but not yet available. The devastating outcome of sensorineural hearing loss, combined with the permanent nature of the symptoms, make these inquiries demanding and frequent. The…

  4. Tuberculosis of the middle ear with post auricular abscess.

    PubMed

    Arya, Manoj; Dixit, Ramakant; Paramez, A R; Sharma, Sidharth; Rathore, Dilip Singh

    2009-07-01

    A case of tuberculous otitis media with post auricular abscess is being described in a 14-year-old female patient in view of its rare occurrence. The diagnosis was made on demonstration of acid fast bacilli (AFB) in the ear discharge and characteristic cytological features of post auricular abscess aspirate.

  5. Immunolocalization of aquaporin CHIP in the guinea pig inner ear.

    PubMed

    Stanković, K M; Adams, J C; Brown, D

    1995-12-01

    Aquaporin CHIP (AQP-CHIP) is a water channel protein previously identified in red blood cells and water transporting epithelia. The inner ear is an organ of hearing and balance whose normal function depends critically on maintenance of fluid homeostasis. In this study, AQP-CHIP, or a close homologue, was found in specific cells of the inner ear, as assessed by immunocytochemistry with the use of affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies against AQP-CHIP.AQP-CHIP was predominantly found in fibrocytes in close association with bone, including most of the cells lining the bony labyrinth and in fibrocytes lining the endolymphatic duct and sac. AQP-CHIP-positive cells not directly apposing bone include cells under the basilar membrane, some type III fibrocytes of the spiral ligament, fibrocytes of the spiral limbus, and the trabecular perilymphatic tissue extending from the membranous to the bony labyrinth. AQP-CHIP was also found in the periosteum of the middle ear and cranial bones, as well as in chondrocytes of the oval window and stapes. The distribution of AQP-CHIP in the inner ear suggests that AQP-CHIP may have special significance for maintenance of bone and the basilar membrane, and for function of the spiral ligament.

  6. Ear, nose and throat problems in Accident and Emergency.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Tanya

    Nurses working in A&E departments throughout the UK frequently encounter patients with ear, nose and throat conditions. While the majority of these are straightforward, a small number are serious and even life-threatening. Tanya Reynolds discusses the nursing management of this group of patients and stresses the importance of appropriate assessment, pain management and referral.

  7. Closed anterior scoring for prominent-ear correction revisited.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S S; Fatah, F

    2001-10-01

    The closed-anterior-scoring technique has been used over the past 3 years to correct 56 prominent ears in 32 patients at the West Midlands Regional Plastic Surgery Unit at Wordsley Hospital. A review was carried out to assess the result of this surgical procedure. We briefly discuss the historical development of other surgical techniques for prominent-ear correction, and describe in detail the operative technique for this procedure, which includes closed scoring and suturing of the cartilage. We used this technique to treat 24 patients with bilateral prominent ears and eight patients with unilateral prominent ears. The series comprised 20 females and 12 males, 26 children and six adults. The age range was from 4 to 24 years old. There were two complications (an upper-pole recurrence and protrusion of a buried prolene suture). Patients were followed up for between 6 months and 3 years (mean: 1.5 years). This procedure is quick and technically easy to learn, with no anterior scars or posterior cartilage overlap. Minimal dissection is involved, leading to a low rate of complications. The learning curve is rapid; this paper represents the experience of a specialist trainee (SST) after he was taught the technique by the senior author. Copyright 2001 The British Association of Plastic Surgeons.

  8. Extinction of auditory stimuli in hemineglect: Space versus ear.

    PubMed

    Spierer, Lucas; Meuli, Reto; Clarke, Stephanie

    2007-02-01

    Unilateral extinction of auditory stimuli, a key feature of the neglect syndrome, was investigated in 15 patients with right (11), left (3) or bilateral (1) hemispheric lesions using a verbal dichotic condition, in which each ear received simultaneously one word, and a interaural-time-difference (ITD) diotic condition, in which both ears received both words lateralised by means of ITD. Additional investigations included sound localisation, visuo-spatial attention and general cognitive status. Five patients presented a significant asymmetry in the ITD diotic test, due to a decrease of left hemispace reporting but no asymmetry was found in dichotic listening. Six other patients presented a significant asymmetry in the dichotic test due to a significant decrease of left or right ear reporting, but no asymmetry in diotic listening. Ten of the above patients presented mild to severe deficits in sound localisation and eight signs of visuo-spatial neglect (three with selective asymmetry in the diotic and five in the dichotic task). Four other patients presented a significant asymmetry in both the diotic and dichotic listening tasks. Three of them presented moderate deficits in localisation and all four moderate visuo-spatial neglect. Thus, extinction for left ear and left hemispace can double dissociate, suggesting distinct underlying neural processes. Furthermore, the co-occurrence with sound localisation disturbance and with visuo-spatial hemineglect speaks in favour of the involvement of multisensory attentional representations.

  9. Compensating for ear-canal acoustics when measuring otoacoustic emissions

    PubMed Central

    Charaziak, Karolina K.; Shera, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) provide an acoustic fingerprint of the inner ear, and changes in this fingerprint may indicate changes in cochlear function arising from efferent modulation, aging, noise trauma, and/or exposure to harmful agents. However, the reproducibility and diagnostic power of OAE measurements is compromised by the variable acoustics of the ear canal, in particular, by multiple reflections and the emergence of standing waves at relevant frequencies. Even when stimulus levels are controlled using methods that circumvent standing-wave problems (e.g., forward-pressure-level calibration), distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) levels vary with probe location by 10–15 dB near half-wave resonant frequencies. The method presented here estimates the initial outgoing OAE pressure wave at the eardrum from measurements of the conventional OAE, allowing one to separate the emitted OAE from the many reflections trapped in the ear canal. The emitted pressure level (EPL) represents the OAE level that would be recorded were the ear canal replaced by an infinite tube with no reflections. When DPOAEs are expressed using EPL, their variation with probe location decreases to the test–retest repeatability of measurements obtained at similar probe positions. EPL provides a powerful way to reduce the variability of OAE measurements and improve their ability to detect cochlear changes. PMID:28147590

  10. Principles of ear nose and throat surgery for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Baruah, Paramita; Jasraj, Kailey; Ahmad, Ijaz

    2017-04-02

    Management of the pregnant surgical patient is challenging. The surgical procedure is usually postponed until the postpartum period, although this may not be possible in emergency situations. This article highlights the optimal management of the pregnant woman requiring ear nose and throat surgery.

  11. Development and Validation of the Musical Ear Training Assessment (META)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Anna; Kopiez, Reinhard

    2018-01-01

    In the following study, we have developed an assessment instrument for the practice-dependent skill of analytical hearing following a strict test theoretical validation, resulting in the Musical Ear Training Assessment (META). By means of three pilot studies, a developmental study, and a validation study, we verified a one-dimensional test model…

  12. 15 CFR 734.3 - Items subject to the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and foreign-made technology that is commingled with controlled U.S.-origin technology: (i) In any....S. origin technology or software, as described in § 736.2(b)(3) of the EAR. The term “direct product... technology or software; and Note to paragraph (a)(4): Certain foreign-manufactured items developed or...

  13. 15 CFR 734.3 - Items subject to the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., and foreign-made technology that is commingled with controlled U.S.-origin technology: (i) In any....S. origin technology or software, as described in § 736.2(b)(3) of the EAR. The term “direct product... technology or software; and Note to paragraph (a)(4): Certain foreign-manufactured items developed or...

  14. 15 CFR 734.3 - Items subject to the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., and foreign-made technology that is commingled with controlled U.S.-origin technology: (i) In any....S. origin technology or software, as described in § 736.2(b)(3) of the EAR. The term “direct product... technology or software; and Note to paragraph (a)(4): Certain foreign-manufactured items developed or...

  15. 15 CFR 734.3 - Items subject to the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and foreign-made technology that is commingled with controlled U.S.-origin technology: (i) In any....S. origin technology or software, as described in § 736.2(b)(3) of the EAR. The term “direct product... technology or software; and Note to paragraph (a)(4): Certain foreign-manufactured items developed or...

  16. 15 CFR 734.3 - Items subject to the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and foreign-made technology that is commingled with controlled U.S.-origin technology: (i) In any....S. origin technology or software, as described in § 736.2(b)(3) of the EAR. The term “direct product... technology or software; and Note to paragraph (a)(4): Certain foreign-manufactured items developed or...

  17. Zebrafish models of human eye and inner ear diseases.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Sánchez, B; Clément, A; Phillips, J B; Westerfield, M

    2017-01-01

    Eye and inner ear diseases are the most common sensory impairments that greatly impact quality of life. Zebrafish have been intensively employed to understand the fundamental mechanisms underlying eye and inner ear development. The zebrafish visual and vestibulo-acoustic systems are very similar to these in humans, and although not yet mature, they are functional by 5days post-fertilization (dpf). In this chapter, we show how the zebrafish has significantly contributed to the field of biomedical research and how researchers, by establishing disease models and meticulously characterizing their phenotypes, have taken the first steps toward therapies. We review here models for (1) eye diseases, (2) ear diseases, and (3) syndromes affecting eye and/or ear. The use of new genome editing technologies and high-throughput screening systems should increase considerably the speed at which knowledge from zebrafish disease models is acquired, opening avenues for better diagnostics, treatments, and therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effects of Middle Ear Pressure on Hearing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-30

    Miller, J,M.: Choline salicylate : Effects on cochlear function. Arch. Otolaryngol. 99: 304-308, 1974. *12. Miller, J.M. and Holmquist, J.: An animal model...for study of eustachian tube and middle ear function. Scand. Audiol. 3: 63-68, 1974. 13. McPherson, D. and Miller, J.: Salicylate ototoxicity in the

  19. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... medical certificate are: (a) The person shall demonstrate acceptable hearing by at least one of the... both ears, at a distance of 6 feet from the examiner, with the back turned to the examiner. (2) Demonstrate an acceptable understanding of speech as determined by audiometric speech discrimination testing...

  20. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... medical certificate are: (a) The person shall demonstrate acceptable hearing by at least one of the... both ears, at a distance of 6 feet from the examiner, with the back turned to the examiner. (2) Demonstrate an acceptable understanding of speech as determined by audiometric speech discrimination testing...

  1. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... medical certificate are: (a) The person shall demonstrate acceptable hearing by at least one of the... both ears, at a distance of 6 feet from the examiner, with the back turned to the examiner. (2) Demonstrate an acceptable understanding of speech as determined by audiometric speech discrimination testing...

  2. An outbreak of streptococcosis in eared grebes (Podiceps nigricollis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensen, Wayne I.

    1979-01-01

    An outbreak of streptococcosis (Streptococcus zooepidemicus), apparently the first recorded in wild birds, killed an estimated 7,500 eared grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) on Great Salt Lake (Utah) in November and December, 1977. Ducks and gulls feeding in the same area were unaffected.

  3. Association Between Hearing Loss And Cauliflower Ear in Wrestlers, a Case Control Study Employing Hearing Tests.

    PubMed

    Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Rostami, Mohsen; Nourian, Ruhollah; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Sarough Farahani, Saeed; Farahbakhsh, Farzin; Kordi, Ramin

    2015-06-01

    According to anecdotal findings, some wrestling coaches and wrestlers believe that cauliflower ear might lead to hearing loss. Our preliminary study showed that the prevalence of hearing loss reported by the wrestlers with cauliflower ear is significantly higher than this rate among wrestlers without cauliflower ear. To the best of our knowledge, no other study has confirmed this finding employing hearing tests. To evaluate and to compare the prevalence of hearing loss among wrestlers with and without cauliflower ears employing hearing tests. The subjects were randomly selected form 14 wrestling clubs in Tehran. Subjects were 201 wrestlers with cauliflower ears (100 wrestlers with one cauliflower ear and 101 wrestlers with two cauliflower ears) and 139 wrestlers without cauliflower ears. All the participants in this study were interviewed to collect information on demographic factors and medical history of risk factors and diseases related to hearing loss. The subjects in both groups underwent otoscopic and audiologic examinations. Audiometric examination results at the frequency range of 0.5 - 8 KHz showed that the prevalence of hearing loss among cauliflower ears was higher than this rate among non-cauliflower ears. Also, the percentage of positive history of ear infections among cauliflower ears (8.4%) was about two times more than this finding among non-cauliflower ears (4.9%). This difference tended to be significant (OR: 1.86, P = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.98 - 3.53). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that the prevalence of hearing loss among cauliflower ears is higher than this rate among non-cauliflower ears confirmed by audiological tests. This emphasizes that, more preventive measures such as mandatory ear gear for wrestlers are required.

  4. Association Between Hearing Loss And Cauliflower Ear in Wrestlers, a Case Control Study Employing Hearing Tests

    PubMed Central

    Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Rostami, Mohsen; Nourian, Ruhollah; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Sarough Farahani, Saeed; Farahbakhsh, Farzin; Kordi, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to anecdotal findings, some wrestling coaches and wrestlers believe that cauliflower ear might lead to hearing loss. Our preliminary study showed that the prevalence of hearing loss reported by the wrestlers with cauliflower ear is significantly higher than this rate among wrestlers without cauliflower ear. To the best of our knowledge, no other study has confirmed this finding employing hearing tests. Objectives: To evaluate and to compare the prevalence of hearing loss among wrestlers with and without cauliflower ears employing hearing tests. Patients and Methods: The subjects were randomly selected form 14 wrestling clubs in Tehran. Subjects were 201 wrestlers with cauliflower ears (100 wrestlers with one cauliflower ear and 101 wrestlers with two cauliflower ears) and 139 wrestlers without cauliflower ears. All the participants in this study were interviewed to collect information on demographic factors and medical history of risk factors and diseases related to hearing loss. The subjects in both groups underwent otoscopic and audiologic examinations. Results: Audiometric examination results at the frequency range of 0.5 - 8 KHz showed that the prevalence of hearing loss among cauliflower ears was higher than this rate among non-cauliflower ears. Also, the percentage of positive history of ear infections among cauliflower ears (8.4%) was about two times more than this finding among non-cauliflower ears (4.9%). This difference tended to be significant (OR: 1.86, P = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.98 - 3.53). Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that the prevalence of hearing loss among cauliflower ears is higher than this rate among non-cauliflower ears confirmed by audiological tests. This emphasizes that, more preventive measures such as mandatory ear gear for wrestlers are required. PMID:26448842

  5. Thumb carpometacarpal joint resurfacing with autologous ear cartilage.

    PubMed

    Nickell, William B

    2014-05-01

    A study was designed to ascertain the long-term effectiveness of using autologous full-thickness ear cartilage to resurface the arthritic face of the trapezium, leaving the body of the trapezium intact. The value of injection of the involved carpometacarpal (CMC) joint with local anesthetic in predicting improvement from the surgery was also studied. An operation was used to enter the CMC joint of the thumb between the thenar muscles and the abductor tendon. The articular surface of the trapezium was resected and resurfaced with full-thickness ear cartilage from the patient's ear. Patients were selected based on constant, unremitting pain. All patients also had x-ray evidence of severe arthritis at the CMC joint of the thumb. Both thumbs were evaluated for pain, range of motion, key and palmar pinch, and grip strength before the surgery and followed up for a minimum of 30 months to be included in the study. Fifty-nine patients had ear cartilage arthroplasty from 1997 to 2007 by the same surgeon with a total of 67 operations (8 patients, all women, had both thumbs operated). Forty-nine of these patients, 4 men and 45 women (53 hands), were available for follow-up and constitute the study group. Eight procedures were done on the left hand, and 45, on the right. There were no ear complications and no cartilage extrusions. All patients had improved range of motion and greatly decreased pain. Strength was equaled or exceeded the unoperated thumb. Preoperative joint injection was a good predictor of postoperative pain relief. All patients were pleased with the result and said that they would have the surgery again. Thumb CMC joint arthroplasty with autologous ear cartilage and preservation of the body of the trapezium is an effective alternative to existing procedures.There is no morbidity to the ear, and predictable long-term improvement in thumb pain and strength can be obtained. Injection of the CMC joint before surgery with local anesthetic is a reliable predictor of

  6. Spatial Patterns of Aflatoxin Levels in Relation to Ear-Feeding Insect Damage in Pre-Harvest Corn

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Xinzhi; Wilson, Jeffrey P.; Buntin, G. David; Guo, Baozhu; Krakowsky, Matthew D.; Lee, R. Dewey; Cottrell, Ted E.; Scully, Brian T.; Huffaker, Alisa; Schmelz, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    Key impediments to increased corn yield and quality in the southeastern US coastal plain region are damage by ear-feeding insects and aflatoxin contamination caused by infection of Aspergillus flavus. Key ear-feeding insects are corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, and brown stink bug, Euschistus servus. In 2006 and 2007, aflatoxin contamination and insect damage were sampled before harvest in three 0.4-hectare corn fields using a grid sampling method. The feeding damage by each of ear/kernel-feeding insects (i.e., corn earworm/fall armyworm damage on the silk/cob, and discoloration of corn kernels by stink bugs), and maize weevil population were assessed at each grid point with five ears. The spatial distribution pattern of aflatoxin contamination was also assessed using the corn samples collected at each sampling point. Aflatoxin level was correlated to the number of maize weevils and stink bug-discolored kernels, but not closely correlated to either husk coverage or corn earworm damage. Contour maps of the maize weevil populations, stink bug-damaged kernels, and aflatoxin levels exhibited an aggregated distribution pattern with a strong edge effect on all three parameters. The separation of silk- and cob-feeding insects from kernel-feeding insects, as well as chewing (i.e., the corn earworm and maize weevil) and piercing-sucking insects (i.e., the stink bugs) and their damage in relation to aflatoxin accumulation is economically important. Both theoretic and applied ramifications of this study were discussed by proposing a hypothesis on the underlying mechanisms of the aggregated distribution patterns and strong edge effect of insect damage and aflatoxin contamination, and by discussing possible management tactics for aflatoxin reduction by proper management of kernel-feeding insects. Future directions on basic and applied research related to aflatoxin contamination are also discussed. PMID

  7. Spatial patterns of aflatoxin levels in relation to ear-feeding insect damage in pre-harvest corn.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xinzhi; Wilson, Jeffrey P; Buntin, G David; Guo, Baozhu; Krakowsky, Matthew D; Lee, R Dewey; Cottrell, Ted E; Scully, Brian T; Huffaker, Alisa; Schmelz, Eric A

    2011-07-01

    Key impediments to increased corn yield and quality in the southeastern US coastal plain region are damage by ear-feeding insects and aflatoxin contamination caused by infection of Aspergillus flavus. Key ear-feeding insects are corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, and brown stink bug, Euschistus servus. In 2006 and 2007, aflatoxin contamination and insect damage were sampled before harvest in three 0.4-hectare corn fields using a grid sampling method. The feeding damage by each of ear/kernel-feeding insects (i.e., corn earworm/fall armyworm damage on the silk/cob, and discoloration of corn kernels by stink bugs), and maize weevil population were assessed at each grid point with five ears. The spatial distribution pattern of aflatoxin contamination was also assessed using the corn samples collected at each sampling point. Aflatoxin level was correlated to the number of maize weevils and stink bug-discolored kernels, but not closely correlated to either husk coverage or corn earworm damage. Contour maps of the maize weevil populations, stink bug-damaged kernels, and aflatoxin levels exhibited an aggregated distribution pattern with a strong edge effect on all three parameters. The separation of silk- and cob-feeding insects from kernel-feeding insects, as well as chewing (i.e., the corn earworm and maize weevil) and piercing-sucking insects (i.e., the stink bugs) and their damage in relation to aflatoxin accumulation is economically important. Both theoretic and applied ramifications of this study were discussed by proposing a hypothesis on the underlying mechanisms of the aggregated distribution patterns and strong edge effect of insect damage and aflatoxin contamination, and by discussing possible management tactics for aflatoxin reduction by proper management of kernel-feeding insects. Future directions on basic and applied research related to aflatoxin contamination are also discussed.

  8. Eustachian Tube Opening Measured by Sonotubometry is Poorer in Adults with a History of Past Middle Ear Disease

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Miriam S.; Banks, Juliane; Swarts, J. Douglas; Alper, Cuneyt M.; Doyle, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Test the hypothesis that active Eustachian tube opening efficiency as measured by sonotubometry is higher in adults with no extant middle-ear disease and no history of previous otitis media (Group-1) when compared to adults with no middle-ear disease but a positive history for otitis media (Group-2). Methods Eustachian tube function for 1 ear of 33 otherwise healthy adult subjects, 16 assigned to Group-1 and 17 to Group-2, was tested by sonotubometry using a standard protocol. For each test, the sound envelopes for 3 swallows were abstracted independently by 2 observers from the data stream and 7 descriptive parameters related to sound envelope “shape” were calculated. Interrelatedness among the values for the parameters was explored using correlation analysis. The contributions of swallow, observer and group to the variance in each parameter were evaluated for significance using a General Linear Model. Results The shape parameters reflecting envelope height, area and rise and fall rates were highly inter-correlated, but those reflecting envelope widths were not. There was no effect of “swallow” on any of the parameters; but there was a significant “observer” effect on all measures of envelope width, greater for observer-2, and a significant “group” effect for 5 of the 7 shape parameters, all greater in Group-1. Conclusions Quantifiable measures of the sound signal “shape” recorded by sonotubometry during swallowing were significantly different between the 2 groups of subjects. This is interpretable as evidencing a more efficient Eustachian tube opening-function in adults with healthy middle ears who do not have a previous history of otitis media when compared to similar adults with a history of prior otitis media. Inefficient Eustachian tube function as children may not be completely resolved by adulthood increasing adult otitis media risk when Eustachian tube function is down-graded by extant upper respiratory diseases that provoke

  9. Promoting Collaborative Playful Experimentation through Group Playing by Ear in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varvarigou, Maria

    2017-01-01

    A group of 46, first-year, primarily classically trained, undergraduate students took part in an exploratory research study on Group Ear Playing (GEP) in higher education. The students attended the "Playing by Ear" component of the Practical Musicianship module, which adopts the materials and strategies on playing by ear in the…

  10. Three cases of successful microvascular ear replantation after bite avulsion injury.

    PubMed

    Schonauer, Fabrizio; Blair, James W; Moloney, Dominique M; Teo, T C; Pickford, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    We present three cases of sub-total amputation of the external ear caused by bite avulsion injury. The ears were all successfully replanted despite us being unable to perform a venous anastomosis in one case. These outcomes support attempted microsurgical replantation for total or sub-total amputations of the ear, as successful replantation is the most effective surgical option.

  11. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... device includes the esophageal dilator; tracheal bistour (a long, narrow surgical knife); tracheal dilator; tracheal hook; laryngeal injection set; laryngeal knife; laryngeal saw; laryngeal trocar...; wire ear loop; microrule; mirror; mobilizer; ear, nose, and throat punch; ear, nose and throat knife...

  12. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. 874.5220 Section 874.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose...

  13. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. 874.5220 Section 874.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose...

  14. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. 874.5220 Section 874.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose...

  15. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. 874.5220 Section 874.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose...

  16. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. 874.5220 Section 874.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose...

  17. Semiautomated Middle Ear Volume Measurement as a Predictor of Postsurgical Outcomes for Congenital Aural Atresia.

    PubMed

    Kabadi, S J; Ruhl, D S; Mukherjee, S; Kesser, B W

    2018-02-01

    Middle ear space is one of the most important components of the Jahrsdoerfer grading system (J-score), which is used to determine surgical candidacy for congenital aural atresia. The purpose of this study was to introduce a semiautomated method for measuring middle ear volume and determine whether middle ear volume, either alone or in combination with the J-score, can be used to predict early postoperative audiometric outcomes. A retrospective analysis was conducted of 18 patients who underwent an operation for unilateral congenital aural atresia at our institution. Using the Livewire Segmentation tool in the Carestream Vue PACS, we segmented middle ear volumes using a semiautomated method for all atretic and contralateral normal ears on preoperative high-resolution CT imaging. Postsurgical audiometric outcome data were then analyzed in the context of these middle ear volumes. Atretic middle ear volumes were significantly smaller than those in contralateral normal ears ( P < .001). Patients with atretic middle ear volumes of >305 mm 3 had significantly better postoperative pure tone average and speech reception thresholds than those with atretic ears below this threshold volume ( P = .01 and P = .006, respectively). Atretic middle ear volume incorporated into the J-score offered the best association with normal postoperative hearing (speech reception threshold ≤ 30 dB; OR = 37.8, P = .01). Middle ear volume, calculated in a semiautomated fashion, is predictive of postsurgical audiometric outcomes, both independently and in combination with the conventional J-score. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  18. Postganglionic horner syndrome in three patients with coincident middle ear infection.

    PubMed

    Spector, Robert H

    2008-09-01

    Three patients developed a postganglionic Horner syndrome during the course of an ipsilateral uncomplicated middle ear infection. The mechanism may be an effect on the middle ear caroticotympanic sympathetic plexus, for which there is considerable anatomic and physiologic evidence. Why Horner syndrome does not occur more often after middle ear infection is a mystery.

  19. Effect of laryngoscopy on middle ear pressure during anaesthesia induction.

    PubMed

    Degerli, Semih; Acar, Baran; Sahap, Mehmet; Horasanlı, Eyup

    2013-01-01

    The procedure of laryngoscopic orotracheal intubation (LOTI) has many impacts on several parts of the body. But its effect on middle ear pressure (MEP) is not known well. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the MEP changes subsequent to insertion of endotracheal tube with laryngoscope. 44 patients were included in this study with a normal physical examination of ear, nose and throat. A standard general anaesthesia induction without any inhaler agent was performed to the all patients. The MEP measurements for both ears were applied under 1 minute; before induction (BI) and after intubation (AI) with a middle ear analyzer. Also hemodynamic parameters were recorded before induction and after intubation. Of the 44 patients were 25 women and 19 men with a 43.5±15.1 mean age. A statistically significant rise in MEP was seen in all patients subsequent to insertion of endotracheal tube (P<0.05). Mean right MEPs were BI: -9.5 and AI: 18.5 daPa. Also mean left MEPs were BI: -21.7 and AI: 29.1 daPa. The amount of increases in left and right MEPs were 50 daPa and 27 daPa, respectively. 20% increase in systolic blood pressure and 19% increase in diastolic blood pressure were determined after intubation. The mean heart rate was 76/min before intubation, whereas it was 102/min after intubation with a 34% increase. In this study bilateral significant increases in MEP were determined subsequent to LOTI. Possible factors affecting MEP may be auditory tube, size and type of the blades, drugs and face masking time. But on the other hand in our opinion cardiovascular and haemodynamic response to LOTI has the most impact over the middle ear mucosa with mucosal venous congestion.

  20. Ear surgery techniques results on hearing threshold improvement

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtarinejad, Farhad; Pour, Saeed Soheili; Nilforoush, Mohammad Hussein; Sepehrnejad, Mahsa; Mirelahi, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bone conduction (BC) threshold depression is not always by means of sensory neural hearing loss and sometimes it is an artifact caused by middle ear pathologies and ossicular chain problems. In this research, the influences of ear surgeries on bone conduction were evaluated. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a clinical trial study. The ear surgery performed on 83 patients classified in four categories: Stapedectomy, tympanomastoid surgery and ossicular reconstruction partially or totally; Partial Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis (PORP) and Total Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis (TORP). Bone conduction thresholds assessed in frequencies of 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz pre and post the surgery. Results: In stapedectomy group, the average of BC threshold in all frequencies improved approximately 6 dB in frequency of 2000 Hz. In tympanomastoid group, BC threshold in the frequency of 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz changed 4 dB (P-value < 0.05). Moreover, In the PORP group, 5 dB enhancement was seen in 1000 and 2000 Hz. In TORP group, the results confirmed that BC threshold improved in all frequencies especially at 4000 Hz about 6.5 dB. Conclusion: In according to results of this study, BC threshold shift was seen after several ear surgeries such as stapedectomy, tympanoplasty, PORP and TORP. The average of BC improvement was approximately 5 dB. It must be considered that BC depression might happen because of ossicular chain problems. Therefore; by resolving middle ear pathologies, the better BC threshold was obtained, the less hearing problems would be faced. PMID:24381615

  1. Salvage of Ear Framework Exposure in Total Auricular Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Soo; Yun, In Sik; Chung, Seum

    2017-02-01

    One of the most common complications of total auricular reconstruction is delayed wound healing, which results in skin necrosis and exposure of the ear framework. Various options exist for salvage of the exposed ear framework. From January 2009 to May 2014, 149 patients underwent total auricular reconstruction using an autogenous cartilage framework or porous polyethylene framework (Medpor; Stryker, USA). An autogenous cartilage framework was used in 48 patients, and a Medpor framework was used in 101 cases. Three cases of framework exposure (3/48, 6.3%) were observed among the patients treated with an autogenous cartilage framework. In contrast, framework exposure took place in 11 patients who were treated with a Medpor framework (11/101, 10.9%). Depending on the method of total ear reconstruction and the location of exposure, the authors used local skin flaps, temporoparietal fascia flaps, deep temporal fascia (DTF) flaps, or mastoid fascia (MF) flaps with skin grafting. Among the 11 patients who experienced framework exposure after being treated with a Medpor framework, a DTF flap with skin grafting was used in 6 patients and an MF flap with skin grafting in 6 patients; 1 patient was treated with both a DTF flap and an MF flap. All 3 cases of cartilage framework exposure were salvaged using a temporoparietal fascia flap with skin grafting, and a local skin flap was used in 1 case. In all 3 cases, the exposed framework was completely covered with the flap, and the reconstructed ears showed well-defined convolutions. Salvage of framework exposure remains a challenging issue in total auricular reconstruction. However, appropriate wound management using various flaps allows the reconstructed ear to be safely preserved.

  2. Bone Marrow Stem Cells and Ear Framework Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Hamid; Emami, Seyed-Abolhassan; Olad-Gubad, Mohammad-Kazem

    2016-11-01

    Repair of total human ear loss or congenital lack of ears is one of the challenging issues in plastic and reconstructive surgery. The aim of the present study was 3D reconstruction of the human ear with cadaveric ear cartilages seeded with human mesenchymal stem cells. We used cadaveric ear cartilages with preserved perichondrium. The samples were divided into 2 groups: group A (cartilage alone) and group B (cartilage seeded with a mixture of fibrin powder and mesenchymal stem cell [1,000,000 cells/cm] used and implanted in back of 10 athymic rats). After 12 weeks, the cartilages were removed and shape, size, weight, flexibility, and chondrocyte viability were evaluated. P value <0.05 was considered significant. In group A, size and weight of cartilages clearly reduced (P < 0.05) and then shape and flexibility (torsion of cartilages in clockwise and counterclockwise directions) were evaluated, which were found to be significantly reduced (P > 0.05). After staining with hematoxylin and eosin and performing microscopic examination, very few live chondrocytes were found in group A. In group B, size and weight of samples were not changed (P < 0.05); the shape and flexibility of samples were well maintained (P < 0.05) and on performing microscopic examination of cartilage samples, many live chondrocytes were found in cartilage (15-20 chondrocytes in each microscopic field). In samples with human stem cell, all variables (size, shape, weight, and flexibility) were significantly maintained and abundant live chondrocytes were found on performing microscopic examination. This method may be used for reconstruction of full defect of auricles in humans.

  3. Using the shortwave infrared to image middle ear pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Tulio A.; Bruns, Oliver T.; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2016-01-01

    Visualizing structures deep inside opaque biological tissues is one of the central challenges in biomedical imaging. Optical imaging with visible light provides high resolution and sensitivity; however, scattering and absorption of light by tissue limits the imaging depth to superficial features. Imaging with shortwave infrared light (SWIR, 1–2 μm) shares many advantages of visible imaging, but light scattering in tissue is reduced, providing sufficient optical penetration depth to noninvasively interrogate subsurface tissue features. However, the clinical potential of this approach has been largely unexplored because suitable detectors, until recently, have been either unavailable or cost prohibitive. Here, taking advantage of newly available detector technology, we demonstrate the potential of SWIR light to improve diagnostics through the development of a medical otoscope for determining middle ear pathologies. We show that SWIR otoscopy has the potential to provide valuable diagnostic information complementary to that provided by visible pneumotoscopy. We show that in healthy adult human ears, deeper tissue penetration of SWIR light allows better visualization of middle ear structures through the tympanic membrane, including the ossicular chain, promontory, round window niche, and chorda tympani. In addition, we investigate the potential for detection of middle ear fluid, which has significant implications for diagnosing otitis media, the overdiagnosis of which is a primary factor in increased antibiotic resistance. Middle ear fluid shows strong light absorption between 1,400 and 1,550 nm, enabling straightforward fluid detection in a model using the SWIR otoscope. Moreover, our device is easily translatable to the clinic, as the ergonomics, visual output, and operation are similar to a conventional otoscope. PMID:27551085

  4. Auditory function in normal-hearing, noise-exposed human ears

    PubMed Central

    Stamper, Greta C.; Johnson, Tiffany A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine if supra-threshold measures of auditory function, such as distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs), are correlated with noise exposure history in normal-hearing human ears. Recent data from animal studies have revealed significant deafferentation of auditory nerve fibers following full recovery from temporary noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Furthermore, these data report smaller ABR wave I amplitudes in noise-exposed animal ears when compared to non-noise exposed control animals or pre-noise exposure amplitudes in the same animal. It is unknown if a similar phenomenon exists in the normal-hearing, noise-exposed human ear. Design Thirty normal-hearing human subjects with a range of noise exposure backgrounds (NEBs) participated in this study. NEB was quantified by the use of a noise exposure questionnaire that extensively queried loud sound exposure over the previous 12 months. DPOAEs were collected at three f2’s (1, 2, and 4 kHz) over a range of L2’s. DPOAE stimulus level began at 80 dB FPL (forward-pressure level) and decreased in 10 dB steps. Two-channel ABRs were collected in response to click stimuli and 4 kHz tone bursts; one channel utilized an ipsilateral mastoid electrode and the other an ipsilateral tympanic membrane (TM) electrode. ABR stimulus level began at 90 dB nHL and was decreased in 10 dB steps. Amplitudes of waves I and V of the ABR were analyzed. Results A statistically significant relationship between ABR wave I amplitude and NEB was found for clicked-evoked ABRs recorded at a stimulus level of 90 dB nHL using a mastoid recording electrode. For this condition, ABR wave I amplitudes decreased as a function of NEB. Similar systematic trends were present for ABRs collected in response to clicks and 4 kHz tone bursts at additional supra-threshold stimulation levels (≥ 70 dB nHL). The relationship weakened and disappeared with decreases in stimulation level (≤ 60 dB n

  5. Continuous long-term measurements of the middle ear pressure in subjects without a history of ear disease.

    PubMed

    Tideholm, B; Carlborg, B; Jönsson, S; Bylander-Groth, A

    1998-06-01

    A new method was used for continuous measurement of the middle ear (ME) pressure during a 24-h period. In 10 subjects without a history of ear disease a small perforation was made through the tympanic membrane. A tight rubber stopper containing a small polyethylene tube was fitted into the external ear canal. Conventional tubal function tests were performed. The equipment was then carried by the subjects for 24 h of normal activity to monitor any slow or rapid dynamic pressure change in the ME. Body position was found to be the most important factor affecting ME pressure variation, during the 24-h continuous pressure measurements. A significant pressure rise occurred in the recumbent position in all but one subject. Few rapid pressure equilibrations were seen during the recordings, indicating few tubal openings. This implies that the pressure changes in the ME seen in this study were mainly the result of gas exchange over the mucosa. The investigation might be a base for reference when investigating different kinds of pathologic conditions in the ear.

  6. Local treatment of the inner ear: a study of three different polymers aimed for middle ear administration.

    PubMed

    Engmér Berglin, Cecilia; Videhult Pierre, Pernilla; Ekborn, Andreas; Bramer, Tobias; Edsman, Katarina; Hultcrantz, Malou; Laurell, Göran

    2015-01-01

    A formulation based on sodium hyaluronate (NaHYA) was the most promising candidate vehicle for intra-tympanic drug administration regarding conductive hearing loss, inflammatory reactions, and elimination. Recent advances in inner ear research support the idea of using the middle ear cavity for drug administration to target the inner ear. This paper presents rheological and safety assessments of three candidate polymer formulations for intra-tympanic drug administration. The formulations were based on sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC), sodium hyaluronate (NaHYA), and poloxamer 407 (POL). Rheological studies were performed with a controlled rate instrument of the couette type. Safety studies were performed in guinea pigs subjected to an intra-tympanic injection of the formulations. Hearing function was explored with ABR before and 1, 2, and 3 weeks after the injection. Elimination of the formulations marked with coal was explored with an endoscopic digital camera 1, 2, and 3 weeks after injection. Middle and inner ear morphology was examined with light microscopy 6 days after injection. The results speak in favor of NaHYA, since it did not cause prolonged hearing threshold elevations. The results of the elimination and morphological investigations support the conclusion of NaHYA being the most promising candidate for intra-tympanic administration.

  7. The inner ear of Megatherium and the evolution of the vestibular system in sloths

    PubMed Central

    Billet, G; Germain, D; Ruf, I; de Muizon, C; Hautier, L

    2013-01-01

    Extant tree sloths are uniquely slow mammals with a very specialized suspensory behavior. To improve our understanding of their peculiar evolution, we investigated the inner ear morphology of one of the largest and most popular fossil ground sloths, Megatherium americanum. We first address the predicted agility of this animal from the scaling of its semicircular canals (SC) relative to body mass, based on recent work that provided evidence that the size of the SC in mammals correlates with body mass and levels of agility. Our analyses predict intermediate levels of agility for Megatherium, contrasting with the extreme slowness of extant sloths. Secondly, we focus on the morphology of the SC at the inner ear scale and investigate the shape and proportions of these structures in Megatherium and in a large diversity of extant xenarthrans represented in our database. Our morphometric analyses demonstrate that the giant ground sloth clearly departs from the SC morphology of both extant sloth genera (Choloepus, Bradypus) and is in some aspects closer to that of armadillos and anteaters. Given the close phylogenetic relationships of Megatherium with the extant genus Choloepus, these results are evidence of substantial homoplasy of the SC anatomy in sloths. This homoplasy most likely corresponds to an outstanding convergent evolution between extant suspensory sloth genera. PMID:24111879

  8. The complex evolutionary history of the tympanic middle ear in frogs and toads (Anura)

    PubMed Central

    Pereyra, Martín O.; Womack, Molly C.; Barrionuevo, J. Sebastián; Blotto, Boris L.; Baldo, Diego; Targino, Mariane; Ospina-Sarria, Jhon Jairo; Guayasamin, Juan M.; Coloma, Luis A.; Hoke, Kim L.; Grant, Taran; Faivovich, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Most anurans possess a tympanic middle ear (TME) that transmits sound waves to the inner ear; however, numerous species lack some or all TME components. To understand the evolution of these structures, we undertook a comprehensive assessment of their occurrence across anurans and performed ancestral character state reconstructions. Our analysis indicates that the TME was completely lost at least 38 independent times in Anura. The inferred evolutionary history of the TME is exceptionally complex in true toads (Bufonidae), where it was lost in the most recent common ancestor, preceding a radiation of >150 earless species. Following that initial loss, independent regains of some or all TME structures were inferred within two minor clades and in a radiation of >400 species. The reappearance of the TME in the latter clade was followed by at least 10 losses of the entire TME. The many losses and gains of the TME in anurans is unparalleled among tetrapods. Our results show that anurans, and especially bufonid toads, are an excellent model to study the behavioural correlates of earlessness, extratympanic sound pathways, and the genetic and developmental mechanisms that underlie the morphogenesis of TME structures. PMID:27677839

  9. The complex evolutionary history of the tympanic middle ear in frogs and toads (Anura).

    PubMed

    Pereyra, Martín O; Womack, Molly C; Barrionuevo, J Sebastián; Blotto, Boris L; Baldo, Diego; Targino, Mariane; Ospina-Sarria, Jhon Jairo; Guayasamin, Juan M; Coloma, Luis A; Hoke, Kim L; Grant, Taran; Faivovich, Julián

    2016-09-28

    Most anurans possess a tympanic middle ear (TME) that transmits sound waves to the inner ear; however, numerous species lack some or all TME components. To understand the evolution of these structures, we undertook a comprehensive assessment of their occurrence across anurans and performed ancestral character state reconstructions. Our analysis indicates that the TME was completely lost at least 38 independent times in Anura. The inferred evolutionary history of the TME is exceptionally complex in true toads (Bufonidae), where it was lost in the most recent common ancestor, preceding a radiation of >150 earless species. Following that initial loss, independent regains of some or all TME structures were inferred within two minor clades and in a radiation of >400 species. The reappearance of the TME in the latter clade was followed by at least 10 losses of the entire TME. The many losses and gains of the TME in anurans is unparalleled among tetrapods. Our results show that anurans, and especially bufonid toads, are an excellent model to study the behavioural correlates of earlessness, extratympanic sound pathways, and the genetic and developmental mechanisms that underlie the morphogenesis of TME structures.

  10. a Middle-Ear Reverse Transfer Function Computed from Vibration Measurements of Otoacoustic Emissions on the Ear Drum of the Guinea PIG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalhoff, Ernst; Turcanu, Diana; Gummer, Anthony W.

    2009-02-01

    Using distortion products measured as vibration of the umbo and as sound pressure in the ear canal of guinea pigs, we calculated the corresponding reverse transfer function. We compare the measurements with a middle-ear model taken from the literature and adapted to the guinea pig. A reasonable fit could be achieved. We conclude that the reverse transfer function will be useful to aid fitting a middle-ear model to measured transfer functions of human subjects.

  11. Evidence for a Right-Ear Advantage in Newborn Hearing Screening Results.

    PubMed

    Ari-Even Roth, Daphne; Hildesheimer, Minka; Roziner, Ilan; Henkin, Yael

    2016-12-06

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ear asymmetry, order of testing, and gender on transient-evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) pass rates and response levels in newborn hearing screening. The screening results of 879 newborns, of whom 387 (study group) passed screening successfully in only one ear in the first TEOAE screening, but passed screening successfully in both ears thereafter, and 492 (control group) who passed screening successfully in both ears in the first TEOAE, were retrospectively examined for pass rates and TEOAE characteristics. Results indicated a right-ear advantage, as manifested by significantly higher pass rates in the right ear (61% and 39% for right and left ears, respectively) in the study group, and in 1.75 dB greater TEOAE response amplitudes in the control group. The right-ear advantage was enhanced when the first tested ear was the right ear (76%). When the left ear was tested first, pass rates were comparable in both ears. The right-ear advantage in pass rates was similar in females versus males, but manifested in 1.5 dB higher response amplitudes in females compared with males, regardless of the tested ear and order of testing in both study and control groups. The study provides further evidence for the functional lateralization of the auditory system at the cochlear level already apparent soon after birth in both males and females. While order of testing plays a significant role in the asymmetry in pass rates, the innate right-ear advantage seems to be a more dominant contributor. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Evidence for a Right-Ear Advantage in Newborn Hearing Screening Results

    PubMed Central

    Hildesheimer, Minka; Roziner, Ilan; Henkin, Yael

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ear asymmetry, order of testing, and gender on transient-evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) pass rates and response levels in newborn hearing screening. The screening results of 879 newborns, of whom 387 (study group) passed screening successfully in only one ear in the first TEOAE screening, but passed screening successfully in both ears thereafter, and 492 (control group) who passed screening successfully in both ears in the first TEOAE, were retrospectively examined for pass rates and TEOAE characteristics. Results indicated a right-ear advantage, as manifested by significantly higher pass rates in the right ear (61% and 39% for right and left ears, respectively) in the study group, and in 1.75 dB greater TEOAE response amplitudes in the control group. The right-ear advantage was enhanced when the first tested ear was the right ear (76%). When the left ear was tested first, pass rates were comparable in both ears. The right-ear advantage in pass rates was similar in females versus males, but manifested in 1.5 dB higher response amplitudes in females compared with males, regardless of the tested ear and order of testing in both study and control groups. The study provides further evidence for the functional lateralization of the auditory system at the cochlear level already apparent soon after birth in both males and females. While order of testing plays a significant role in the asymmetry in pass rates, the innate right-ear advantage seems to be a more dominant contributor. PMID:27927982

  13. Development of an ear cap in chronic suppurative otitis media using additive manufacturing and TRIZ.

    PubMed

    Mawale, Mahesh B; Kuthe, Abhaykumar; Mawale, Anupama M; Dahake, Sandeep W

    2018-06-01

    The prevalence rate of chronic suppurative otitis media is high and its treatment continues to be a challenge for the otorhinolaryngologists. Due to middle ear infection, there may be pain, hearing loss and spontaneous rupture of the eardrum which results in perforation. Infections can cause a hole in the eardrum as a side effect of otitis media. The patients suffering from ear perforation or having a hole in eardrum require preventing entry of water in the ear. This article describes the development of ear cap using additive manufacturing and TRIZ (a collaborative tool) to prevent the entry of water in the ear during chronic otitis media.

  14. Ear Deformations Give Bats a Physical Mechanism for Fast Adaptation of Ultrasonic Beam Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li; Balakrishnan, Sreenath; He, Weikai; Yan, Zhen; Müller, Rolf

    2011-11-01

    A large number of mammals, including humans, have intricate outer ear shapes that diffract incoming sound in a direction- and frequency-specific manner. Through this physical process, the outer ear shapes encode sound-source information into the sensory signals from each ear. Our results show that horseshoe bats could dynamically control these diffraction processes through fast nonrigid ear deformations. The bats’ ear shapes can alter between extreme configurations in about 100 ms and thereby change their acoustic properties in ways that would suit different acoustic sensing tasks.

  15. [Advances in genetics of congenital malformation of external and middle ear].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dayong; Wang, Qiuju

    2013-05-01

    Congenital malformation of external and middle ear is a common disease in ENT department, and the incidence of this disease is second only to cleft lip and palate in the whole congenital malformations of the head and face. The external and middle ear malformations may occur separately, or as an important ear symptom of the systemic syndrome. We systematically review and analysis the genetic research progress of congenital malformation of external and middle ear, which would be helpful to understand the mechanism of external and middle ear development, and to provide clues for the further discovery of new virulence genes.

  16. Handheld tympanometer measurements in conscious dogs for the evaluation of the middle ear and auditory tube.

    PubMed

    Strain, George M; Fernandes, Asia J

    2015-06-01

    Otitis externa is frequently accompanied by otitis media, yet it can be difficult to evaluate the tympanum, middle ear and auditory tube without the use of advanced radiographic imaging. The objective was to develop techniques for tympanometry testing in conscious dogs and to present normative data for clinical use of this equipment to enable assessment of the tympanum, middle ear and auditory tube. Sixteen hounds (14 female) from a school teaching colony. Dogs were gently restrained in a standing position. After cleaning of the ear canal, a tympanometer probe tip extension was placed in the vertical canal and automated testing performed using a handheld device. Both ears were tested in all dogs. Acceptable recordings were obtained from both ears of 13 dogs, from one ear in each of two dogs and from neither ear of one dog, resulting in data from 28 of 32 (88%) ears. Otoscopic examination confirmed the absence of inflammation or any other obvious explanation for the noncompliant dogs. No significant differences were seen between ears for any measure. Normative data are reported for peak compliance, peak compliance pressure, gradient and ear canal volume. Tympanograms can be recorded in conscious dogs to assist in the evaluation of the middle ear structures. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  17. Challenges in fitting a hearing aid to a severely collapsed ear canal and mixed hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Oeding, Kristi; Valente, Michael; Chole, Richard

    2012-04-01

    Collapsed ear canals typically occur when an outside force, such as a headset for audiometric testing, is present. However, when a collapsed ear canal occurs without external pressure, this creates a challenge not only for performing audiometric testing but also for coupling a hearing aid to the ear canal. This case report highlights the challenges associated with fitting a hearing aid on a patient with a severe anterior-posterior collapsed ear canal with a mixed hearing loss. A 67-yr-old female originally presented to Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine in 1996 with a long-standing history of bilateral otosclerosis. She had chronic ear infections in the right ear and a severely collapsed ear canal in the left ear and was fit with a bone anchored hearing aid (BAHA®) on the right side in 2003. However, benefit from the BAHA started to decrease due to changes in hearing, and a different hearing solution was needed. It was proposed that a hearing aid be fit to her collapsed left ear canal; however, trying to couple a hearing aid to the collapsed ear canal required unique noncustom earmold solutions. This case study highlights some of the obstacles and potential solutions for coupling a hearing aid to a severely collapsed ear canal. American Academy of Audiology.

  18. Does ear endoscopy provide advantages in the outpatient management of open mastoidectomy cavities?

    PubMed

    Freire, Gustavo Subtil Magalhães; Sampaio, Andre Luiz Lopes; Lopes, Rafaela Aquino Fernandes; Nakanishi, Márcio; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the use of ear endoscopy in the postoperative management of open mastoidectomy cavities, and to test whether ear endoscopy improves inspection and cleaning compared with ear microscopy. Prospective study. Thirty-two ears were divided into two groups: group 1, examination and cleaning of mastoid cavities under endoscopic visualization after microscopic standard ear cleaning; group 2, examination and cleaning of mastoid cavities under microscopic visualization after endoscope-assisted ear cleaning. We assessed the ability of each method to provide exposure and facilitate cleaning, comparing the benefits of microscopy and endoscopy when used sequentially and vice-versa. Endoscopy provided additional benefits for exposure in 61.1% of cases and cleaning in 66.7%. Microscopy provided no additional benefits in terms of exposure in any case, and provided added benefit for cleaning in only 21.4% of cases. For outpatient postoperative care of open mastoidectomy cavities, ear endoscopy provides greater benefit over ear microscopy than vice-versa. In over half of all cases, endoscopy was able to expose areas not visualized under the microscope. Furthermore, in two-thirds of cases, endoscopy enabled removal of material that could not be cleared under microscopy. Ear endoscopy was superior to microscopy in terms of enabling exposure and cleaning of hard-to-reach sites, due to its wider field of vision. Ear endoscopy is a feasible technique for the postoperative management of open mastoidectomy cavities. Ear endoscopy provided superior advantages in terms of exposure and aural cleaning compared with microscopy.

  19. Ear Rachis Xylem Occlusion and Associated Loss in Hydraulic Conductance Coincide with the End of Grain Filling for Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Neghliz, Hayet; Cochard, Hervé; Brunel, Nicole; Martre, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Seed dehydration is the normal terminal event in the development of orthodox seeds and is physiologically related to the cessation of grain dry mass accumulation and crop grain yield. For a better understanding of grain dehydration, we evaluated the hypothesis that hydraulic conductance of the ear decreases during the latter stages of development and that this decrease results from disruption or occlusion of xylem conduits. Whole ear, rachis, and stem nodes hydraulic conductance and percentage loss of xylem conductivity were measured from flowering to harvest-ripeness on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Récital grown under controlled environments. Flag leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content and grain and ear water potentials were also measured during grain development. We show that grain dehydration was not related with whole plant physiology and leaf senescence, but closely correlated with the hydraulic properties of the xylem conduits irrigating the grains. Indeed, there was a substantial decrease in rachis hydraulic conductance at the onset of the grain dehydration phase. This hydraulic impairment was not caused by the presence of air embolism in xylem conduits of the stem internodes or rachis but by the occlusion of the xylem lumens by polysaccharides (pectins and callose). Our results demonstrate that xylem hydraulics plays a key role during grain maturation. PMID:27446150

  20. Requirement for Jagged1-Notch2 signaling in patterning the bones of the mouse and human middle ear.

    PubMed

    Teng, Camilla S; Yen, Hai-Yun; Barske, Lindsey; Smith, Bea; Llamas, Juan; Segil, Neil; Go, John; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A; Maxson, Robert E; Crump, J Gage

    2017-05-31

    Whereas Jagged1-Notch2 signaling is known to pattern the sensorineural components of the inner ear, its role in middle ear development has been less clear. We previously reported a role for Jagged-Notch signaling in shaping skeletal elements derived from the first two pharyngeal arches of zebrafish. Here we show a conserved requirement for Jagged1-Notch2 signaling in patterning the stapes and incus middle ear bones derived from the equivalent pharyngeal arches of mammals. Mice lacking Jagged1 or Notch2 in neural crest-derived cells (NCCs) of the pharyngeal arches display a malformed stapes. Heterozygous Jagged1 knockout mice, a model for Alagille Syndrome (AGS), also display stapes and incus defects. We find that Jagged1-Notch2 signaling functions early to pattern the stapes cartilage template, with stapes malformations correlating with hearing loss across all frequencies. We observe similar stapes defects and hearing loss in one patient with heterozygous JAGGED1 loss, and a diversity of conductive and sensorineural hearing loss in nearly half of AGS patients, many of which carry JAGGED1 mutations. Our findings reveal deep conservation of Jagged1-Notch2 signaling in patterning the pharyngeal arches from fish to mouse to man, despite the very different functions of their skeletal derivatives in jaw support and sound transduction.

  1. Modeling Analysis of Biomechanical Changes of Middle Ear and Cochlea in Otitis Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Rong Z.; Zhang, Xiangming; Guan, Xiying

    2011-11-01

    A comprehensive finite element (FE) model of the human ear including the ear canal, middle ear, and spiral cochlea was developed using histological sections of human temporal bone. The cochlea was modeled with three chambers separated by the basilar membrane and Reissner's membrane and filled with perilymphatic fluid. The viscoelastic material behavior was applied to middle ear soft tissues based on dynamic measurements of tissues in our lab. The model was validated using the experimental data obtained in human temporal bones and then used to simulate various stages of otitis media (OM) including the changes of morphology, mechanical properties, pressure, and fluid level in the middle ear. Function alterations of the middle ear and cochlea in OM were derived from the model and compared with the measurements from temporal bones. This study indicates that OM can be simulated in the FE model to predict the hearing loss induced by biomechanical changes of the middle ear and cochlea.

  2. Structural Diversity in the Inner Ear of Teleost Fishes: Implications for Connections to the Mauthner Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Edds-Walton, Peggy L.

    1995-01-01

    A body of literature suggests that the Mauthner cell startle response can be elicited by stimulation of the ear. While we know that there are projections to the M-cell from the ear, the specific endorgan(s) of the ear projecting to the M-cell are not known. Moreover, there are many reasons to question whether there is one pattern of inner ear to M-cell connection or whether the endorgan(s) projection to the M-cell varies in species that have different hearing capabilities of hearing structures. In this paper, we briefly review the structure of fish ears, with an emphasis on structural regionalization within the ear. We also review the central projections of the ear, along with a discussion of the limited data on projections to the M-cell.

  3. Testing a Method for Quantifying the Output of Implantable Middle Ear Hearing Devices

    PubMed Central

    Rosowski, J.J.; Chien, W.; Ravicz, M.E.; Merchant, S.N.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes tests of a standard practice for quantifying the performance of implantable middle ear hearing devices (also known as implantable hearing aids). The standard and these tests were initiated by the Food and Drug Administration of the United States Government. The tests involved measurements on two hearing devices, one commercially available and the other home built, that were implanted into ears removed from human cadavers. The tests were conducted to investigate the utility of the practice and its outcome measures: the equivalent ear canal sound pressure transfer function that relates electrically driven middle ear velocities to the equivalent sound pressure needed to produce those velocities, and the maximum effective ear canal sound pressure. The practice calls for measurements in cadaveric ears in order to account for the varied anatomy and function of different human middle ears. PMID:17406105

  4. Fgf8 and Fgf3 are required for zebrafish ear placode induction, maintenance and inner ear patterning.

    PubMed

    Léger, Sophie; Brand, Michael

    2002-11-01

    The vertebrate inner ear develops from initially 'simple' ectodermal placode and vesicle stages into the complex three-dimensional structure which is necessary for the senses of hearing and equilibrium. Although the main morphological events in vertebrate inner ear development are known, the genetic mechanisms controlling them are scarcely understood. Previous studies have suggested that the otic placode is induced by signals from the chordamesoderm and the hindbrain, notably by fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) and Wnt proteins. Here we study the role of Fgf8 as a bona-fide hindbrain-derived signal that acts in conjunction with Fgf3 during placode induction, maintenance and otic vesicle patterning. Acerebellar (ace) is a mutant in the fgf8 gene that results in a non-functional Fgf8 product. Homozygous mutants for acerebellar (ace) have smaller ears that typically have only one otolith, abnormal semi-circular canals, and behavioral defects. Using gene expression markers for the otic placode, we find that ace/fgf8 and Fgf-signaling are required for normal otic placode formation and maintenance. Conversely, misexpression of fgf8 or Fgf8-coated beads implanted into the vicinity of the otic placode can increase ear size and marker gene expression, although competence to respond to the induction appears restricted. Cell transplantation experiments and expression analysis suggest that Fgf8 is required in the hindbrain in the rhombomere 4-6 area to restore normal placode development in ace mutants, in close neighbourhood to the forming placode, but not in mesodermal tissues. Fgf3 and Fgf8 are expressed in hindbrain rhombomere 4 during the stages that are critical for placode induction. Joint inactivation of Fgf3 and Fgf8 by mutation or antisense-morpholino injection causes failure of placode formation and results in ear-less embryos, mimicking the phenotype we observe after pharmacological inhibition of Fgf-signaling. Fgf8 and Fgf3 together therefore act during induction

  5. Use of a plastic eraser for ear reconstruction training.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Basar; Morioka, Daichi; Hamada, Taishi; Kusano, Taro; Win, Khin Malar

    2018-01-01

    Microtia reconstruction is a challenging procedure, especially in developing nations. The most complex part is learning how to fabricate a framework from costal cartilage. We herein propose a training regimen for ear reconstruction with the use of a plastic eraser. The texture of a plastic eraser made from polyvinyl chloride is similar to that of human costal cartilage. The first step of the training is carving out the sixth through eighth rib cartilages from a block of plastic eraser. The second step is a fabrication of the framework from plastic rib cartilages, referring to a template from the intact auricle. As plastic erasers are inexpensive and universally available, inexperienced surgeons can repeatedly perform this framework training. Following several of these training sessions in developing nations, the co-authors and local surgeons successfully performed their microtia reconstructions in a reasonable operative time. This realistic carving model allows surgeons to gain experience before performing an actual ear reconstruction, even in resource-constrained circumstances.

  6. Middle-ear microsurgery simulation to improve new robotic procedures.

    PubMed

    Kazmitcheff, Guillaume; Nguyen, Yann; Miroir, Mathieu; Péan, Fabien; Ferrary, Evelyne; Cotin, Stéphane; Sterkers, Olivier; Duriez, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Otological microsurgery is delicate and requires high dexterity in bad ergonomic conditions. To assist surgeons in these indications, a teleoperated system, called RobOtol, is developed. This robot enhances gesture accuracy and handiness and allows exploration of new procedures for middle ear surgery. To plan new procedures that exploit the capacities given by the robot, a surgical simulator is developed. The simulation reproduces with high fidelity the behavior of the anatomical structures and can also be used as a training tool for an easier control of the robot for surgeons. In the paper, we introduce the middle ear surgical simulation and then we perform virtually two challenging procedures with the robot. We show how interactive simulation can assist in analyzing the benefits of robotics in the case of complex manipulations or ergonomics studies and allow the development of innovative surgical procedures. New robot-based microsurgical procedures are investigated. The improvement offered by RobOtol is also evaluated and discussed.

  7. Foreign bodies in the ear, nose, and throat.

    PubMed

    Heim, Steven W; Maughan, Karen L

    2007-10-15

    Foreign bodies in the ear, nose, and throat are occasionally seen in family medicine, usually in children. The most common foreign bodies are food, plastic toys, and small household items. Diagnosis is often delayed because the causative event is usually unobserved, the symptoms are nonspecific, and patients often are misdiagnosed initially. Most ear and nose foreign bodies can be removed by a skilled physician in the office with minimal risk of complications. Common removal methods include use of forceps, water irrigation, and suction catheter. Pharyngeal or tracheal foreign bodies are medical emergencies requiring surgical consultation. Radiography results are often normal. Flexible or rigid endoscopy usually is required to confirm the diagnosis and to remove the foreign body. Physicians need to have a high index of suspicion for foreign bodies in children with unexplained upper airway symptoms. It is important to understand the anatomy and the indications for subspecialist referral. The evidence is inadequate to make strong recommendations for specific removal techniques.

  8. Anatomical influences on internally coupled ears in reptiles.

    PubMed

    Young, Bruce A

    2016-10-01

    Many reptiles, and other vertebrates, have internally coupled ears in which a patent anatomical connection allows pressure waves generated by the displacement of one tympanic membrane to propagate (internally) through the head and, ultimately, influence the displacement of the contralateral tympanic membrane. The pattern of tympanic displacement caused by this internal coupling can give rise to novel sensory cues. The auditory mechanics of reptiles exhibit more anatomical variation than in any other vertebrate group. This variation includes structural features such as diverticula and septa, as well as coverings of the tympanic membrane. Many of these anatomical features would likely influence the functional significance of the internal coupling between the tympanic membranes. Several of the anatomical components of the reptilian internally coupled ear are under active motor control, suggesting that in some reptiles the auditory system may be more dynamic than previously recognized.

  9. New onset of idiopathic bilateral ear tics in an adult.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Amit; Shrestha, Rabin

    2009-04-01

    Tic disorders are commonly considered to be childhood syndromes. Newly presenting tic disorders during adulthood are uncommon and mostly described in relation to an acquired brain lesion or as incidental tics, particularly in context with other neurological or psychiatric diseases. Tic disorder involving the ears is extremely uncommon with only few studies in English literature. In the present case, we describe an adult patient with new-onset idiopathic tics disorder involving both ears, causing social embarrassment. In addition, our patient had recent onset of the tics without any childhood or family history of tic disorders. The single most important component of management is an accurate diagnosis. At the same time, tics should be differentiated from other movement disorders such as chorea, stereotypy, and dystonias.

  10. Air-Leak Effects on Ear-Canal Acoustic Absorbance

    PubMed Central

    Rasetshwane, Daniel M.; Kopun, Judy G.; Gorga, Michael P.; Neely, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Accurate ear-canal acoustic measurements, such as wideband acoustic admittance, absorbance, and otoacoustic emissions, require that the measurement probe be tightly sealed in the ear canal. Air leaks can compromise the validity of the measurements, interfere with calibrations, and increase variability. There are no established procedures for determining the presence of air leaks or criteria for what size leak would affect the accuracy of ear-canal acoustic measurements. The purpose of this study was to determine ways to quantify the effects of air leaks and to develop objective criteria to detect their presence. Design: Air leaks were simulated by modifying the foam tips that are used with the measurement probe through insertion of thin plastic tubing. To analyze the effect of air leaks, acoustic measurements were taken with both modified and unmodified foam tips in brass-tube cavities and human ear canals. Measurements were initially made in cavities to determine the range of critical leaks. Subsequently, data were collected in ears of 21 adults with normal hearing and normal middle-ear function. Four acoustic metrics were used for predicting the presence of air leaks and for quantifying these leaks: (1) low-frequency admittance phase (averaged over 0.1–0.2 kHz), (2) low-frequency absorbance, (3) the ratio of compliance volume to physical volume (CV/PV), and (4) the air-leak resonance frequency. The outcome variable in this analysis was the absorbance change (Δabsorbance), which was calculated in eight frequency bands. Results: The trends were similar for both the brass cavities and the ear canals. ΔAbsorbance generally increased with air-leak size and was largest for the lower frequency bands (0.1–0.2 and 0.2–0.5 kHz). Air-leak effects were observed in frequencies up to 10 kHz, but their effects above 1 kHz were unpredictable. These high-frequency air leaks were larger in brass cavities than in ear canals. Each of the four predictor variables

  11. Air-leak effects on ear-canal acoustic absorbance.

    PubMed

    Groon, Katherine A; Rasetshwane, Daniel M; Kopun, Judy G; Gorga, Michael P; Neely, Stephen T

    2015-01-01

    Accurate ear-canal acoustic measurements, such as wideband acoustic admittance, absorbance, and otoacoustic emissions, require that the measurement probe be tightly sealed in the ear canal. Air leaks can compromise the validity of the measurements, interfere with calibrations, and increase variability. There are no established procedures for determining the presence of air leaks or criteria for what size leak would affect the accuracy of ear-canal acoustic measurements. The purpose of this study was to determine ways to quantify the effects of air leaks and to develop objective criteria to detect their presence. Air leaks were simulated by modifying the foam tips that are used with the measurement probe through insertion of thin plastic tubing. To analyze the effect of air leaks, acoustic measurements were taken with both modified and unmodified foam tips in brass-tube cavities and human ear canals. Measurements were initially made in cavities to determine the range of critical leaks. Subsequently, data were collected in ears of 21 adults with normal hearing and normal middle-ear function. Four acoustic metrics were used for predicting the presence of air leaks and for quantifying these leaks: (1) low-frequency admittance phase (averaged over 0.1-0.2 kHz), (2) low-frequency absorbance, (3) the ratio of compliance volume to physical volume (CV/PV), and (4) the air-leak resonance frequency. The outcome variable in this analysis was the absorbance change (Δabsorbance), which was calculated in eight frequency bands. The trends were similar for both the brass cavities and the ear canals. ΔAbsorbance generally increased with air-leak size and was largest for the lower frequency bands (0.1-0.2 and 0.2-0.5 kHz). Air-leak effects were observed in frequencies up to 10 kHz, but their effects above 1 kHz were unpredictable. These high-frequency air leaks were larger in brass cavities than in ear canals. Each of the four predictor variables exhibited consistent dependence on

  12. Active Coupled Oscillators in the Inner Ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strimbu, Clark Elliott

    Auditory and vestibular systems are endowed with an active process that enables them to detect signals as small as a few Angstroms; they also exhibit frequency selectivity; show strong nonlinearities; and can exhibit as spontaneous activity. Much of this active process comes from the sensory hair cells at the periphery of the auditory and vestibular systems. Each hair cell is capped by an eponymous hair bundle, a specialized structure that transduces mechanical forces into electrical signals. Experiments on mechanically decoupled cells from the frog sacculus have shown that individual hair bundles behave in an active manner analogous to an intact organ suggesting a common cellular basis for the active processes seen in many species. In particular, mechanically decoupled hair bundles show rapid active movements in response to transient stimuli and exhibit spontaneous oscillations. However, a single mechanosensitive hair cell is unable to match the performance of an entire organ. In vivo, hair bundles are often coupled to overlying membranes, gelatinous extracellular matrices. We used an in vitro preparation of the frog sacculus in which the otolithic membrane has been left intact. Under natural coupling conditions, there is a strong degree of correlation across the saccular epithelium, suggesting that the collective response of many cells contributes to the extreme sensitivity of this organ. When the membrane is left intact, the hair bundles do not oscillate spontaneously, showing that the natural coupling and loading tunes them into a quiescent regime. However, when stimulated by a pulse, the bundles show a rapid biphasic response that is abolished when the transduction channels are blocked. The active forces generated by the bundles are sufficient to move the overlying membrane.

  13. Chicken (Gallus domesticus) inner ear afferents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hara, H.; Chen, X.; Hartsfield, J. F.; Hara, J.; Martin, D.; Fermin, C. D.

    1998-01-01

    Neurons from the vestibular (VG) and the statoacoustic (SAG) ganglion of the chick (Gallus domesticus) were evaluated histologically and morphometrically. Embryos at stages 34 (E8 days), 39 (E13 days) and 44 (E18 days) were sacrificed and temporal bones microdissected. Specimens were embedded in JB-4 methacrylate plastic, and stained with a mixture of 0.2% toluidine blue (TB) and 0.1% basic Fuschin in 25% ethanol or with a mixture of 2% TB and 1% paraphenylenediamine (PDA) for axon and myelin measurement study. Images of the VIIIth nerve were produced by a V150 (R) color imaging system and the contour of 200-300 neuronal bodies (perikarya) was traced directly on a video screen with a mouse in real time. The cross-sectional area of VG perikarya was 67.29 micrometers2 at stage 34 (E8), 128.46 micrometers2 at stage 39 (E13) and 275.85 micrometers2 at stage 44 (E18). The cross-sectional area of SAG perikarya was 62.44 micrometers2 at stage 34 (E8), 102.05 micrometers2 at stage 39 (E13) and 165.02 micrometers2 at stage 44 (E18). A significant cross-sectional area increase of the VG perikarya between stage 39 (E13) and stage 44 (E18) was determined. We randomly measured the cross-sectional area of myelin and axoplasm of hatchling afferent nerves, and found a correspondence between axoplasmic and myelin cross-sectional area in the utricular, saccular and semicircular canal nerve branches of the nerve. The results suggest that the period between stage 34 (E8) and 39 (E13) is a critical period for afferent neuronal development. Physiological and behavioral vestibular properties of developing and maturing hatchlings may change accordingly. The results compliment previous work by other investigators and provide valuable anatomical measures useful to correlate physiological data obtained from stimulation of the whole nerve or its parts.

  14. The plastic ear and perceptual relearning in auditory spatial perception

    PubMed Central

    Carlile, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The auditory system of adult listeners has been shown to accommodate to altered spectral cues to sound location which presumably provides the basis for recalibration to changes in the shape of the ear over a life time. Here we review the role of auditory and non-auditory inputs to the perception of sound location and consider a range of recent experiments looking at the role of non-auditory inputs in the process of accommodation to these altered spectral cues. A number of studies have used small ear molds to modify the spectral cues that result in significant degradation in localization performance. Following chronic exposure (10–60 days) performance recovers to some extent and recent work has demonstrated that this occurs for both audio-visual and audio-only regions of space. This begs the questions as to the teacher signal for this remarkable functional plasticity in the adult nervous system. Following a brief review of influence of the motor state in auditory localization, we consider the potential role of auditory-motor learning in the perceptual recalibration of the spectral cues. Several recent studies have considered how multi-modal and sensory-motor feedback might influence accommodation to altered spectral cues produced by ear molds or through virtual auditory space stimulation using non-individualized spectral cues. The work with ear molds demonstrates that a relatively short period of training involving audio-motor feedback (5–10 days) significantly improved both the rate and extent of accommodation to altered spectral cues. This has significant implications not only for the mechanisms by which this complex sensory information is encoded to provide spatial cues but also for adaptive training to altered auditory inputs. The review concludes by considering the implications for rehabilitative training with hearing aids and cochlear prosthesis. PMID:25147497

  15. A rare neoplastic growth on the ear lobe.

    PubMed

    Rovere, R K; Hilgert, S F; da Costa, P Camara; de Lima, A S

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of an 83-year-old previously healthy female patient presenting with a swiftly evolving erythematous violaceous, infiltrative, ulcerated onion like mass with hyperkeratotic surface on the left ear lobe. The lesion was excised and resulted as an atypical fibroxanthoma, an extremely rare neoplastic growth, being a superficial variant of pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma. A brief review of dia-gnosis, treatment and prognosis is discussed.

  16. Ear Acupuncture for Acute Sore Throat: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ear acupuncture for acute sore throat. A randomized controlled trial...Auncular Acupuncture is a low risk option for acute pain control •Battlefield acupuncture (BFA) IS a specific auncular acupuncture technique •BFA IS...Strengths: Prospect1ve RCT •Weaknesses Small sample stze. no sham acupuncture performed, patients not blinded to treatment •Th1s study represents an

  17. Successful partial ear replantation after prolonged ischaemia time.

    PubMed

    Shelley, O P; Villafane, O; Watson, S B

    2000-01-01

    We present the case of a 34-year-old male patient who had successful replantation of upper pole of pinna 33 h after amputation. As no vein was anastomosed, systemic heparinisation and subcutaneous injection of heparin to the replanted ear were used to encourage outflow. Complications included arterial spasm and bleeding. Management of similar cases as planned urgent cases rather than emergency cases is discussed. Copyright 2000 The British Association of Plastic Surgeons.

  18. Cisplatin ototoxicity blocks sensory regeneration in the avian inner ear.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Eric L; Warchol, Mark E

    2010-03-03

    Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent that is widely used in the treatment of solid tumors. Ototoxicity is a common side effect of cisplatin therapy and often leads to permanent hearing loss. The sensory organs of the avian ear are able to regenerate hair cells after aminoglycoside ototoxicity. This regenerative response is mediated by supporting cells, which serve as precursors to replacement hair cells. Given the antimitotic properties of cisplatin, we examined whether the avian ear was also capable of regeneration after cisplatin ototoxicity. Using cell and organ cultures of the chick cochlea and utricle, we found that cisplatin treatment caused apoptosis of both auditory and vestibular hair cells. Hair cell death in the cochlea occurred in a unique pattern, progressing from the low-frequency (distal) region toward the high-frequency (proximal) region. We also found that cisplatin caused a dose-dependent reduction in the proliferation of cultured supporting cells as well as increased apoptosis in those cells. As a result, we observed no recovery of hair cells after ototoxic injury caused by cisplatin. Finally, we explored the potential for nonmitotic hair cell recovery via activation of Notch pathway signaling. Treatment with the gamma-secretase inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester failed to promote the direct transdifferentiation of supporting cells into hair cells in cisplatin-treated utricles. Taken together, our data show that cisplatin treatment causes maintained changes to inner ear supporting cells and severely impairs the ability of the avian ear to regenerate either via proliferation or by direct transdifferentiation.

  19. Development of optoelectronic monitoring system for ear arterial pressure waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasayama, Satoshi; Imachi, Yu; Yagi, Tamotsu; Imachi, Kou; Ono, Toshirou; Man-i, Masando

    1994-02-01

    Invasive intra-arterial blood pressure measurement is the most accurate method but not practical if the subject is in motion. The apparatus developed by Wesseling et al., based on a volume-clamp method of Penaz (Finapres), is able to monitor continuous finger arterial pressure waveforms noninvasively. The limitation of Finapres is the difficulty in measuring the pressure of a subject during work that involves finger or arm action. Because the Finapres detector is attached to subject's finger, the measurements are affected by inertia of blood and hydrostatic effect cause by arm or finger motion. To overcome this problem, the authors made a detector that is attached to subject's ear and developed and optoelectronic monitoring systems for ear arterial pressure waveform (Earpres). An IR LEDs, photodiode, and air cuff comprised the detector. The detector was attached to a subject's ear, and the space adjusted between the air cuff and the rubber plate on which the LED and photodiode were positioned. To evaluate the accuracy of Earpres, the following tests were conducted with participation of 10 healthy male volunteers. The subjects rested for about five minutes, then performed standing and squatting exercises to provide wide ranges of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure. Intra- and inter-individual standard errors were calculated according to the method of van Egmond et al. As a result, average, the averages of intra-individual standard errors for earpres appeared small (3.7 and 2.7 mmHg for systolic and diastolic pressure respectively). The inter-individual standard errors for Earpres were about the same was Finapres for both systolic and diastolic pressure. The results showed the ear monitor was reliable in measuring arterial blood pressure waveforms and might be applicable to various fields such as sports medicine and ergonomics.

  20. [Management of postoperative pain in ear-nose-throat surgery].

    PubMed

    Send, T; Bootz, F; Thudium, M O

    2013-10-01

    The degree of pain following different types of ear-nose-throat surgery varies greatly and must be adjusted on an individual basis. Post-operative pain therapy can be classified into basic pain therapy and additive pain therapy (as needed). Effective pain therapy can lead to lower morbidity and to considerable economic advantages. The subjective pain intensity experienced by patient should be the basis for the dose adaptation and is essential for rapid recovery.