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Sample records for ear skin temperature

  1. Evaluation of the Cadi ThermoSENSOR wireless skin-contact thermometer against ear and axillary temperatures in children.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kim-Gau; Wong, Sook-Thow; Lim, Soh-Min; Goh, Zenton

    2010-06-01

    The Cadi ThermoSENSOR skin-contact thermometer measures body temperature continuously and transmits readings wirelessly to a central server. This study evaluated the ThermoSENSOR against ear temperatures (ETs) measured by a Braun ThermoScan ear thermometer and axillary temperatures (ATs) measured by a Terumo digital clinical thermometer. The test participants consisted of 109 children aged 6 months to 16 years from a pediatric ward. The sensor was attached to the lower abdomen at least 15 minutes before the first measurement. ET, AT, and ThermoSENSOR temperatures (TTs) were recorded up to three times at the usual measurement times. The TTs differed from ETs by -0.23 degrees C +/- 0.47 degrees C (mean +/- standard deviation, n = 271) and from ATs by +0.21 degrees C +/- 0.46 degrees C (n = 270). The ETs differed from ATs by +0.43 degrees C +/- 0.42 degrees C (n = 315). These results suggest that the TTs were comparable to the ETs and ATs.

  2. Measurement of facial skin temperature.

    PubMed

    Ariyaratnam, S; Rood, J P

    1990-10-01

    It is essential to know the pattern of facial skin temperatures in normal subjects to be able to objectively assess differences in cases of nerve injury. Thirty healthy adults were selected at random to investigate the pattern of facial temperature using liquid crystal thermography and an electronic thermocouple system. The highest temperature of the face was in the forehead area (c, 34 degrees C) and the lowest (c. 32 degrees C) in the cheek area. If ambient temperature and humidity are controlled in a draught-free environment, symmetry of the facial skin temperature can be maintained. It is concluded that measurements of facial skin temperature may be used to investigate and assess lesions of peripheral branches of cranial nerves supplying the face.

  3. Low temperature skin treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipping, G.; Krishna, A.; Ruppert, U.; Srinivasan, R.; Walter, H.

    Although freezing has been a successful method of curing various kinds of skin lesions for at least 80 years, little progress has been made regarding the techniques and instruments available to the dermatoligist for applying cold. The attempts to improve this technique are reviewed, and the requirements is for successful cryotreatment are discussed taking warts as an example. With these requirements in mind, a simple and effective cryoprobe has been developed by the authors. Its design is described, and the experiences from a year's routine application of the probe to the treatment of warts are discussed.

  4. Effect of Diving and Diving Hoods on the Bacterial Flora of the External Ear Canal and Skin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE BETHESDA, MARYLAND 82-22 EFFECT OF DIVING AND DIVING HOODS ON THE BACTERIAL FLORA OF THE EXTERNAL EAR CANAL AND SKIN...Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPeRT & PERIOD COVERED EFFECT OF DIVING AND DIVING HOODS ON THE BACTERIAL - PROGRESS FLORA OF THE EXTERNAL EAR CANAL AND SKIN MEDICAL...bacterial flora of the external ear canals and posterior auricular skin surface was investigated’in a group of 26 divers after 25 dry-suit dives in harbor

  5. Skin Temperature Recording with Phosphors

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Ray N.; Alt, Leslie L.

    1965-01-01

    New knowledge of temperature irregularities associated with various disease states has resulted in increasing interest in the recording of heat radiation from the human body. Infrared radiation from the skin is a surface phenomenon and the amount of such radiation increases with temperature. Previous recording techniques have been not only crude but difficult and expensive. An unconventional thermal imaging system is described which gives superior temperature patterns and is also simpler and cheaper than any of the other available procedures. This system is based on the employment of thermally sensitive phosphors which glow when exposed to ultraviolet illumination, in inverse proportion to the underlying temperature. The thermal image can be directly observed or more critically analyzed and photographed on a simple closed-circuit television monitor. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:14270208

  6. High temperature skin friction measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Holmes, Harlan K.; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Skin friction measurement in the NASA Langley hypersonic propulsion facility is described. The sensor configuration utilized an existing balance, modified to provide thermal isolation and an increased standoff distance. For test run times of about 20 sec and ambient-air cooling of the test section and balance, the modified balance performed satisfactorily, even when it was subjected to acoustic and structural vibration. The balance is an inertially balanced closed-loop servo system where the current to a moving-coil motor needed to restore or null the output from the position sensor is a measure of the force or skin friction tending to displace the moving element. The accuracy of the sensor is directly affected by the position sensor in the feedback loop, in this case a linear-variable differential transformer which has proven to be influenced by temperature gradients.

  7. Occurrence and distribution of Malassezia species on skin and external ear canal of horses.

    PubMed

    Shokri, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Malassezia species from the body skin and external ear canal of healthy horses. The samples were obtained by scraping the skin surface from the nose, groin and dorsum and swabbing from the external ear canal of 163 animals, and then incubated on sabouraud dextrose agar and modified Dixon agar. Malassezia species were isolated from 34.9% of horses. The percentages of Malassezia species were 64.3% for Arab, 35.7% for Persian, 35.4% for Thoroughbred and 27.1% for Turkmen breeds. The greatest abundance of Malassezia species was found in the external ear canal (47.7%, representing significant difference with other sites), followed by nose (26.3%), groin (15.8%) and dorsum (10.5%) (P < 0.05). A total of 57 strains from six Malassezia species were detected with a frequency rate as follows: M. pachydermatis (33.3%), M. globosa (26.3%), M. sympodialis (14.1%), M. restricta (10.5%), M. obtusa (8.8%) and M. furfur (7%). The most common age-group affected was 1-3 years (59.4%). This study confirmed that cutaneous Malassezia microbiota in healthy horses varies by body site and age but not by breed and gender, representing M. pachydermatis as the most prevalent species on horse skin.

  8. A new skin flap method for total auricular reconstruction in microtia patients with a reconstructed ear canal: extended scalp and extended mastoid postauricular skin flaps.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Euna; Kim, Young Soo; Chung, Seum

    2014-06-01

    Before visiting a plastic surgeon, some microtia patients may undergo canaloplasty for hearing improvement. In such cases, scarred tissues and the reconstructed external auditory canal in the postauricular area may cause a significant limitation in using the posterior auricular skin flap for ear reconstruction. In this article, we present a new method for auricular reconstruction in microtia patients with previous canaloplasty. By dividing a postauricular skin flap into an upper scalp extended skin flap and a lower mastoid extended skin flap at the level of a reconstructed external auditory canal, the entire anterior surface of the auricular framework can be covered with the two extended postauricular skin flaps. The reconstructed ear shows good color match and texture, with the entire anterior surface of the reconstructed ear being resurfaced with the skin flaps. Clinical question/level of evidence; therapeutic level IV.

  9. Ear tag

    MedlinePlus

    ... the opening of the ear are common in newborn infants. In most cases, these are normal. However, they ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Common Infant and Newborn Problems Ear Disorders Skin Conditions Browse the Encyclopedia ...

  10. Evaluation of the transdermal permeation of different paraben combinations through a pig ear skin model.

    PubMed

    Caon, Thiago; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira

    2010-05-31

    Although parabens have several features of ideal preservatives, different studies have shown that they may affect human health due to their estrogenic activity. Therefore, various strategies have been applied to reduce their skin penetration. However, the effect of paraben combinations on transdermal permeation has not yet been investigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate paraben permeation in pig ear skin using a Franz diffusion cell system with capillary electrophoresis detection, in order to identify which paraben combinations (defined by a factorial design) have the lowest skin permeation. The permeation of isolated parabens was also evaluated and the permeation characteristics, obtained by the Moser model, confirmed that lipophilicity and molecular weight may influence the systemic absorption of these compounds. In previous tests using isolated parabens, methyl and ethyl parabens presented greater retention in the epidermis compared to the dermis, while propyl and butyl parabens had similar retention profiles in these layers. An increase in ethanol concentration and experimental time promoted greater parabens retention in the dermis compared to the epidermis. The binary combinations of methyl and ethyl parabens as well as of methyl and propyl parabens (added to several cosmetic products in order to increase the antimicrobial spectrum) reduced significantly their permeation rates through pig ear skin (with the exception of EP), probably due to the high retention of these parabens in the epidermis and dermis.

  11. Skin Temperature Biofeedback in Children and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Steve; Loughry-Machado, Glenna

    1981-01-01

    Skin temperature biofeedback performance was studied in 38 6- to 10-year-old children and 38 of their parents across two sessions of audio biofeedback segments in which participants alternately attempted hand-warming and hand-cooling. Children were superior to adults in controlling skin temperature in the presence of biofeedback. (Author/DB)

  12. Turbine vane with high temperature capable skins

    DOEpatents

    Morrison, Jay A [Oviedo, FL

    2012-07-10

    A turbine vane assembly includes an airfoil extending between an inner shroud and an outer shroud. The airfoil can include a substructure having an outer peripheral surface. At least a portion of the outer peripheral surface is covered by an external skin. The external skin can be made of a high temperature capable material, such as oxide dispersion strengthened alloys, intermetallic alloys, ceramic matrix composites or refractory alloys. The external skin can be formed, and the airfoil can be subsequently bi-cast around or onto the skin. The skin and the substructure can be attached by a plurality of attachment members extending between the skin and the substructure. The skin can be spaced from the outer peripheral surface of the substructure such that a cavity is formed therebetween. Coolant can be supplied to the cavity. Skins can also be applied to the gas path faces of the inner and outer shrouds.

  13. Development of an infection screening system for entry inspection at airport quarantine stations using ear temperature, heart and respiration rates.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guanghao; Abe, Nobujiro; Sugiyama, Youhei; Nguyen, Quang Vinh; Nozaki, Kohei; Nakayama, Yosuke; Takei, Osamu; Hakozaki, Yukiya; Abe, Shigeto; Matsui, Takemi

    2013-01-01

    After the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003, many international airport quarantine stations conducted fever-based screening to identify infected passengers using infrared thermography for preventing global pandemics. Due to environmental factors affecting measurement of facial skin temperature with thermography, some previous studies revealed the limits of authenticity in detecting infectious symptoms. In order to implement more strict entry screening in the epidemic seasons of emerging infectious diseases, we developed an infection screening system for airport quarantines using multi-parameter vital signs. This system can automatically detect infected individuals within several tens of seconds by a neural-network-based discriminant function using measured vital signs, i.e., heart rate obtained by a reflective photo sensor, respiration rate determined by a 10-GHz non-contact respiration radar, and the ear temperature monitored by a thermography. In this paper, to reduce the environmental effects on thermography measurement, we adopted the ear temperature as a new screening indicator instead of facial skin. We tested the system on 13 influenza patients and 33 normal subjects. The sensitivity of the infection screening system in detecting influenza were 92.3%, which was higher than the sensitivity reported in our previous paper (88.0%) with average facial skin temperature.

  14. Second harmonic generation imaging of skin wound healing and scarring in a rabbit ear model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yiyan; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Xiong, Shuyuan; Chen, Jianxin

    2012-12-01

    Skin wound healing and scarring in rabbit ears was examined by second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. Rabbit ear wound model was created by punching from the ventral surface with removal of epidermis, dermis and perichondrium. The samples were collected weekly, and cut into 100 μm thickness sections for SHG imaging. SHG imaging system was operated at 810 nm, producing SHG signals at half the excitation wavelength 405 nm. A Plan-Neofluar objective (x40 and NA=0.75) was employed for focusing the excitation beam into tissue samples and was also used to collect the backscattered intrinsic SHG signals. Our results showed apparent difference in collagen content and microstructure at various wound healing and scarring time points. It suggested that SHG signals from collagen can serve as a good indicator for characterization of wound status. With the advancement on miniaturization, microscopy based on SHG will become a valuable tool for monitoring the wound healing and scarring in vivo, and help to guide the improvement of scar appearance with appropriate and subtle modulation during wound healing based on better understanding of scarring response mechanism.

  15. Enhanced comedo formation in rabbit ear skin by squalene and oleic acid peroxides.

    PubMed

    Motoyoshi, K

    1983-08-01

    The comedogenicity of UVA-irradiated and non-irradiated substances (squalene, oleic acid, tetradecane, isopropyl myristate, squalane and liquid paraffin) was evaluated by surface microscopy and histological examination after treating the ventral skin of rabbit ears with these substances. The lipid peroxide levels of these substances were also measured. Squalene itself was scarcely comedogenic but squalene peroxides were highly comedogenic. Both oleic acid and its peroxides were able to induce fairly large comedones and there was a good correlation between the lipid peroxide levels and the size of the comedones. The specimens biopsied from these comedones showed marked hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis of the epithelium in the follicular infundibulum and marked proliferation of the sebaceous glands. Although free fatty acids might play a role in the pathogenesis of acne, it is proposed that squalene and free fatty acids in sebum may be less comedogenic than their peroxides.

  16. Skin Temperature Recording with Phosphors

    PubMed Central

    Derse, Philip H.; Alt, Leslie L.

    1966-01-01

    In a previous communication in this journal, a method was described for converting invisible thermal patterns of the human skin into a detailed visible picture. At that time, the question of possible toxicity of the thermographic phosphor was raised. Toxicity studies conducted on laboratory animals indicate that the probability of toxic side reactions resulting from the use of zinc-cadmium sulfide phosphor spray is very low. PMID:5943198

  17. The role of connexins in ear and skin physiology - functional insights from disease-associated mutations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ji; Nicholson, Bruce J

    2013-01-01

    Defects in several different connexins have been associated with several different diseases. The most common of these is deafness, where a few mutations in connexin (Cx) 26 have been found to contribute to over 50% of the incidence of non-syndromic deafness in different human populations. Other mutations in Cx26 or Cx30 have also been associated with various skin phenotypes linked to deafness (palmoplanta keratoderma, Bart-Pumphrey syndrome, Vohwinkel syndrome, keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome, etc.). The large array of disease mutants offers unique opportunities to gain insights into the underlying function of gap junction proteins and their channels in the normal and pathogenic physiologies of the cochlea and epidermis. This review focuses on those mutants where the impact on channel function has been assessed, and correlated with the disease phenotype, or organ function in knock-out mouse models. These approaches have provided evidence supporting a role of gap junctions and hemichannels in K(+) removal and recycling in the ear, as well as possible roles for nutrient passage, in the cochlea. In contrast, increases in hemichannel opening leading to increased cell death, were associated with several keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome skin disease/hearing mutants. In addition to providing clues for therapeutic strategies, these findings allow us to better understand the specific functions of connexin channels that are important for normal tissue function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The communicating junctions, roles and dysfunctions.

  18. Signal and depth enhancement for in vivo flow cytometer measurement of ear skin by optical clearing agents

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yimin; Wang, Jing; Fan, Zhichao; Wei, Dan; Shi, Rui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan; Wei, Xunbin

    2013-01-01

    The in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC) has shown a great potential for detecting circulating tumor cells quantitatively in the bloodstream. However, the detection depth suffers from the strong light scattering of tissue. In this study, an innovative ear skin optical clearing agent (ESOCA) is employed to improve the signal quality of the IVFC. Our results show that compared with commonly used glycerol, topical application of ESOCA can enhance the transmittance of rat ear significantly in vivo. The labeled red blood cells can be detected by the IVFC with higher signal quality and greater detection depth. This study is very helpful for potential tumor metastasis studies by the IVFC in deep tissues. PMID:24298412

  19. Laser-induced skin temperature oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podtaev, S.; Dumler, A.; Muravyov, N.; Myasnikov, M.; Tsiberkin, K.

    2010-11-01

    Adaptive wavelet analysis algorithms are used to study skin temperature oscillations caused by periodic changes in the blood flow resulting from oscillations in the vasomotor smooth muscle tone. Reduction in the amplitude of temperature fluctuations with frequency arises because the skin, owing to its low thermal diffusivity, has the properties of a lowfrequency filter. In view of their small amplitude, oscillations in the spectral range, reflecting the influence of heartbeat and respiration, cannot be distinguished from the external thermal noise. To analyze changes in oscillations of skin temperature during the laser stimulation (10 mW/cm2, 630 nm) we extract three frequency bands, corresponding to myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial vascular tone regulation mechanisms. Red laser irradiation causes temperature fluctuations changes within spectral ranges corresponding endothelial functioning and neurogenic activity.

  20. Second Skin Protection against Low Temperature Exposure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    against injurious effects from exposure to low temperatures. Vinyl plastisols with good viscosity stability have been developed. Accelerators are...of plasticol or silicone rubber foamed on the skin for thermal insulation and thin dense covering layer of plastisol or silicone rubber for abrasion resistance.

  1. Skin temperature changes in wild chimpanzees upon hearing vocalizations of conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Zuberbühler, Klaus; Davila-Ross, Marina; Dahl, Christoph D.

    2017-01-01

    A growing trend of research using infrared thermography (IRT) has shown that changes in skin temperature, associated with activity of the autonomic nervous system, can be reliably detected in human and non-human animals. A contact-free method, IRT provides the opportunity to uncover emotional states in free-ranging animals during social interactions. Here, we measured nose and ear temperatures of wild chimpanzees of Budongo Forest, Uganda, when exposed to naturally occurring vocalizations of conspecifics. We found a significant temperature decrease over the nose after exposure to conspecifics' vocalizations, whereas we found a corresponding increase for ear temperature. Our study suggests that IRT can be used in wild animals to quantify changes in emotional states in response to the diversity of vocalizations, their functional significance and acoustical characteristics. We hope that it will contribute to more research on physiological changes associated with social interactions in wild animals. PMID:28280584

  2. Ex vivo decrease in uranium diffusion through intact and excoriated pig ear skin by a calixarene nanoemulsion.

    PubMed

    Spagnul, Aurélie; Bouvier-Capely, Céline; Phan, Guillaume; Landon, Géraldine; Tessier, Christine; Suhard, David; Rebière, François; Agarande, Michelle; Fattal, Elias

    2011-10-01

    Cutaneous contamination by radionuclides is a major concern in the nuclear industry. In case of skin exposure to uranium, no efficient emergency treatment is available to remove the actinide from the skin. For this purpose, we developed a nanoemulsion containing calixarene molecules displaying good chelating properties towards uranium. In this paper, we describe the ability of this formulation to trap uranium and limit its transfer from the cutaneous contaminated site into the blood. Uranium percutaneous diffusion kinetics was assessed with Franz cells over 24 h through intact and excoriated pig ear skin biopsies, after or without application of the nanoemulsion. Uranium distribution in the skin layers was analysed by SIMS microscopy. The results showed that prompt application of the calixarene nanoemulsion allows a 94% and 98% reduction of the amount of uranium diffused respectively through intact and excoriated skin. The formulation is still efficient in case of delayed application up to 30 minutes since the 24 h-uranium transfer through excoriated skin is reduced by 71%. Besides, no accumulation of uranium or uranium-calixarene chelate was observed in the different skin layers. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the efficiency of the calixarene nanoemulsion, which can be regarded as a promising treatment for uranium cutaneous contamination.

  3. The validity of mass body temperature screening with ear thermometers in a warm thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tatsuhiko; Wada, Koji; Wada, Yuko; Kagitani, Hideaki; Arioka, Tetsuya; Maeda, Koji; Kida, Kenichi

    2010-10-01

    Identification of people who have a fever in public places during the occurrence of emerging infectious diseases is essential for controlling disease spread. The measurement of body temperature could identify infected persons. The environment affects body temperature, but little is known about the validity of measurements under different thermal environments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the validity of measuring body temperature in cold and warm environments. We recruited 50 participants aged 18-69 years (26 males, 24 females) to measure body temperature using an axillary thermometer and an ear thermometer and by infrared thermal imaging (thermography). The body temperature obtained with an axillary thermometer was used as a reference; receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted to determine the validity of temperatures obtained by measurement with an ear thermometer and thermography at 36.7°C (median of the axillary body temperature). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) indicates the validity of measurements. The AUC for ear thermometers in a warm environment (mean temperature: 20.0°C) showed a fair accuracy (AUC: 0.74 [95% CI: 0.64-0.83]), while that (AUC: 0.62 [95% CI: 0.51-0.72]) in a cold environment (mean temperature: 12.6°C) and measurements with thermography used in both environments (AUC: 0.57 [95% CI: 0.45-0.68] in a warm environment and AUC: 0.65 [95% CI: 0.54-0.76] in a cold environment) showed a low accuracy. In conclusion, in a warm environment, measurement of body temperature with an ear thermometer is a valid procedure and effective for mass body temperature screening.

  4. Control of skin blood flow, sweating, and heart rate - Role of skin vs. core temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyss, C. R.; Brengelmann, G. L.; Johnson, J. M.; Rowell, L. B.; Niederberger, M.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to generate quantitative expressions for the influence of core temperature, skin temperature, and the rate of change of skin temperature on sweat rate, skin blood flow, and heart rate. A second goal of the study was to determine whether the use of esophageal temperature rather than the right atrial temperature as a measure of core temperature would lead to different conclusions about the control of measured effector variables.

  5. Ear Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis Tumors of the ... Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis NOTE: This is ...

  6. Ear Infection (Middle Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    Ear infection (middle ear) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff An ear infection (acute otitis media) is most often a bacterial or viral infection that affects the middle ear, the air-filled space behind the eardrum that ...

  7. High skin temperature and hypohydration impair aerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Sawka, Michael N; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W

    2012-03-01

    This paper reviews the roles of hot skin (>35°C) and body water deficits (>2% body mass; hypohydration) in impairing submaximal aerobic performance. Hot skin is associated with high skin blood flow requirements and hypohydration is associated with reduced cardiac filling, both of which act to reduce aerobic reserve. In euhydrated subjects, hot skin alone (with a modest core temperature elevation) impairs submaximal aerobic performance. Conversely, aerobic performance is sustained with core temperatures >40°C if skin temperatures are cool-warm when euhydrated. No study has demonstrated that high core temperature (∼40°C) alone, without coexisting hot skin, will impair aerobic performance. In hypohydrated subjects, aerobic performance begins to be impaired when skin temperatures exceed 27°C, and even warmer skin exacerbates the aerobic performance impairment (-1.5% for each 1°C skin temperature). We conclude that hot skin (high skin blood flow requirements from narrow skin temperature to core temperature gradients), not high core temperature, is the 'primary' factor impairing aerobic exercise performance when euhydrated and that hypohydration exacerbates this effect.

  8. Effect of tap-water iontophoresis on sweat gland recruitment, skin temperature and skin blood flow.

    PubMed

    Kolkhorst, Fred W; DiPasquale, Dana M; Buono, Michael J

    2002-02-01

    Our interest was to quantify the role of sweat gland activation on the maintenance of skin temperature during mild exercise in the heat. Seven days of tap-water iontophoresis decreased the number of active sweat glands by 72% which significantly increased forearm skin temperature and blood flow during mild exercise (70 W) in the heat (32 degrees C). Skin temperature of the treated forearm was 0.5 degrees C warmer (P=0.049); skin blood flow in the treated forearm was 13% higher than the control arm (P=0.021). These results illustrate the importance of sweat evaporation on skin temperature and blood flow during exercise.

  9. Evaluation of Skin Temperatures Retrieved from GOES-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Ronnie, J.; Jedlovec, G. J.; Lapenta, W. M.; Haines, S. L.

    2000-01-01

    Skin temperatures derived from geostationary satellites have the potential of providing the temporal and spatial resolution needed for model assimilation. To adequately assess the potential improvements in numerical model forecasts that can be made by assimilating satellite data, an estimate of the accuracy of the skin temperature product is necessary. A particular skin temperature algorithm, the Physical Split Window Technique, that uses the longwave infrared channels of the GOES Imager has shown promise in recent model assimilation studies to provide land surface temperatures with reasonable accuracy. A comparison of retrieved GOES-8 skin temperatures from this algorithm with in situ measurements is presented. Various retrieval algorithm issues are addressed including surface emissivity

  10. Effect of temperature on alpha-adrenoceptor affinity and contractility of rabbit ear blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M F; Chilgren, J D; Zygmunt, A C

    1989-01-01

    We have studied contractile responses to norepinephrine (NE) and K+ of isolated rabbit ear arteries and veins in an effort to determine how alpha-adrenoceptor affinity and smooth muscle contractility affect responsiveness at different temperatures. Arteries have predominantly alpha 1-adrenoceptors and veins have predominantly receptors of the alpha 2-type. We obtained dose-response curves to NE at 9, 16, 23, 30, 37 and 42 degrees C in the absence and presence of the irreversible alpha-adrenoceptor blocker phenoxybenzamine (POB). In both vessels, affinity of the alpha-adrenoceptors was determined by comparing equieffective doses of NE before and after blockade of the receptors. In other experiments, we obtained contractions to 80 mM KCl at the same temperatures. Affinity of the ear arterial alpha 1-receptors was maximal at 23 degrees C, while affinity of ear venous alpha 2-receptors increased linearly with cooling to 9 degrees C. Responses to K+ in both vessels decreased with cooling. Taken together, the changes in receptor affinity and response to K+ may explain the shape of curves relating contractile strength to temperature.

  11. High temperature effects on photosynthate partitioning and sugar metabolism during ear expansion in maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Ryuichi; Hakata, Hiroaki; Hara, Hiromichi; El-Shemy, Hany A; Adu-Gyamfi, Joseph J; Nguyen, Nguyen Tran; Kanai, Synsuke; Lightfoot, David A; Mohapatra, Pravat K; Fujita, Kounosuke

    2010-01-01

    Short hot and dry spells before, or during, silking have an inordinately large effect on maize (Zea mays L.; corn) grain yield. New high yielding genotypes could be developed if the mechanism of yield loss were more fully understood and new assays developed. The aim here was to determine the effects of high temperature (35/27 degrees C) compared to cooler (25/18 degrees C) temperatures (day/night). Stress was applied for a 14 d-period during reproductive stages prior to silking. Effects on whole plant biomass, ear development, photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism were measured in both dent and sweet corn genotypes. Results showed that the whole plant biomass was increased by the high temperature. However, the response varied among plant parts; in leaves and culms weights were slightly increased or stable; cob weights decreased; and other ear parts of dent corn also decreased by high temperature. Photosynthetic activity was not affected by the treatments. The (13)C export rate from an ear leaf was decreased by the high temperature treatment. The amount of (13)C partitioning to the ears decreased more than to other plant parts by the high temperature. Within the ear decreases were greatest in the cob than the shank within an ear. Sugar concentrations in both hemicellulose and cellulose fractions of cobs in sweet corn were decreased by high temperature, and the hemicellulose fraction in the shank also decreased. In dent corn there was no reduction of sugar concentration except in the in cellulose fraction, suggesting that synthesis of cell-wall components is impaired by high temperatures. The high temperature treatment promoted the growth of vegetative plant parts but reduced ear expansion, particularly suppression of cob extensibility by impairing hemicellulose and cellulose synthesis through reduction of photosynthate supply. Therefore, plant biomass production was enhanced and grain yield reduced by the high temperature treatment due to effects on sink

  12. Do Haematophagous Bugs Assess Skin Surface Temperature to Detect Blood Vessels?

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Raquel A.; Lazzari, Claudio R.; Lorenzo, Marcelo G.; Pereira, Marcos H.

    2007-01-01

    Background It is known that some blood-sucking insects have the ability to reach vessels under the host skin with their mouthparts to feed blood from inside them. However, the process by which they locate these vessels remains largely unknown. Less than 5% of the skin is occupied by blood vessels and thus, it is not likely that insects rely on a “random search strategy”, since it would increase the probability of being killed by their hosts. Indeed, heterogeneities along the skin surface might offer exploitable information for guiding insect's bites. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested whether the bug Rhodnius prolixus can evaluate temperature discontinuities along the body surface in order to locate vessels before piercing the host skin. When placed over a rabbit ear, the bug's first bites were mostly directed towards the main vessels. When insects were confronted to artificial linear heat sources presenting a temperature gradient against the background, most bites were directly addressed to the warmer linear source, notwithstanding the temperature of both, the source and the background. Finally, tests performed using uni- and bilaterally antennectomized insects revealed that the bilateral integration of thermal inputs from both antennae is necessary for precisely directing bites. Conclusions/Significance R. prolixus may be able to exploit the temperature differences observed over the skin surface to locate blood vessles. Bugs bite the warmest targets regardless of the target/background temperatures, suggesting that they do not bite choosing a preferred temperature, but select temperature discontinuities along the skin. This strategy seems to be an efficient one for finding blood vessels within a wide temperature range, allowing finding them on different hosts, as well as on different areas of the host body. Our study also adds new insight about the use of antennal thermal inputs by blood sucking bugs. PMID:17895973

  13. Estimation of Thermal Sensation Based on Wrist Skin Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Soo Young; Koh, Myung Jun; Joo, Kwang Min; Noh, Seungwoo; Park, Sangyun; Kim, Youn Ho; Park, Kwang Suk

    2016-01-01

    Thermal comfort is an essential environmental factor related to quality of life and work effectiveness. We assessed the feasibility of wrist skin temperature monitoring for estimating subjective thermal sensation. We invented a wrist band that simultaneously monitors skin temperatures from the wrist (i.e., the radial artery and ulnar artery regions, and upper wrist) and the fingertip. Skin temperatures from eight healthy subjects were acquired while thermal sensation varied. To develop a thermal sensation estimation model, the mean skin temperature, temperature gradient, time differential of the temperatures, and average power of frequency band were calculated. A thermal sensation estimation model using temperatures of the fingertip and wrist showed the highest accuracy (mean root mean square error [RMSE]: 1.26 ± 0.31). An estimation model based on the three wrist skin temperatures showed a slightly better result to the model that used a single fingertip skin temperature (mean RMSE: 1.39 ± 0.18). When a personalized thermal sensation estimation model based on three wrist skin temperatures was used, the mean RMSE was 1.06 ± 0.29, and the correlation coefficient was 0.89. Thermal sensation estimation technology based on wrist skin temperatures, and combined with wearable devices may facilitate intelligent control of one’s thermal environment. PMID:27023538

  14. Estimation of Thermal Sensation Based on Wrist Skin Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Sim, Soo Young; Koh, Myung Jun; Joo, Kwang Min; Noh, Seungwoo; Park, Sangyun; Kim, Youn Ho; Park, Kwang Suk

    2016-03-23

    Thermal comfort is an essential environmental factor related to quality of life and work effectiveness. We assessed the feasibility of wrist skin temperature monitoring for estimating subjective thermal sensation. We invented a wrist band that simultaneously monitors skin temperatures from the wrist (i.e., the radial artery and ulnar artery regions, and upper wrist) and the fingertip. Skin temperatures from eight healthy subjects were acquired while thermal sensation varied. To develop a thermal sensation estimation model, the mean skin temperature, temperature gradient, time differential of the temperatures, and average power of frequency band were calculated. A thermal sensation estimation model using temperatures of the fingertip and wrist showed the highest accuracy (mean root mean square error [RMSE]: 1.26 ± 0.31). An estimation model based on the three wrist skin temperatures showed a slightly better result to the model that used a single fingertip skin temperature (mean RMSE: 1.39 ± 0.18). When a personalized thermal sensation estimation model based on three wrist skin temperatures was used, the mean RMSE was 1.06 ± 0.29, and the correlation coefficient was 0.89. Thermal sensation estimation technology based on wrist skin temperatures, and combined with wearable devices may facilitate intelligent control of one's thermal environment.

  15. Evaluation of mean skin temperature formulas by infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J. K.; Miki, K.; Sagawa, S.; Shiraki, K.

    To study the reliabiliity of formulas for calculating mean skin temperature (Tsk), values were computed by 18 different techniques and were compared with the mean of 10,841 skin temperatures measured by infrared thermography. One hundred whole-body infrared thermograms were scanned in ten resting males while changing the air temperature from 40° C to 4° C. Local, regional average and mean skin temperatures were obtained using an image processing system. The agreement frequency, defined as the percentage of the calculated Tsk values which agreed with the corresponding infrared thermographic Tsk within +/-0.2° C, ranged for with the various formulas from 7% to 80%. In many sites, the local skin temperature did not coincide with the regional average skin temperature. When the local skin temperatures which showed the highest percentage similarity to the regional average skin temperature within +/-0.4° C were applied to the formula, the agreement frequency was markedly improved for all formulas. However, the agreement frequency was not affected by changing the weighting factors from specific constants to individually measured values of regional surface area. By applying the physiologically reliable accuracy range of +/-0.2° C in the moderate and +/-0.4° C in the cool condition, agreement frequencies of at least 95% were observed in formulas involving seven or more skin temperature measurement sites, including the hand and foot. We conclude that calculation of a reliable mean skin temperature must involve more than seven skin temperature measurement sites regardless of ambient temperature. Optimal sites for skin temperature measurement are proposed for various formulas.

  16. Optical Monitoring of Living Nerve Terminal Labeling in Hair Follicle Lanceolate Endings of the Ex Vivo Mouse Ear Skin

    PubMed Central

    Bewick, Guy S.; Banks, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    A novel dissection and recording technique is described for optical monitoring staining and de-staining of lanceolate terminals surrounding hair follicles in the skin of the mouse pinna. The preparation is simple and relatively fast, reliably yielding extensive regions of multiple labeled units of living nerve terminals to study uptake and release of styryl pyridinium dyes extensively used in studies of vesicle recycling. Subdividing the preparations before labeling allows test vs. control comparisons in the same ear from a single individual. Helpful tips are given for improving the quality of the preparation, the labeling and the imaging parameters. This new system is suitable for assaying pharmacologically and mechanically-induced uptake and release of these vital dyes in lanceolate terminals in both wild-type and genetically modified animals. Examples of modulatory influences on labeling intensity are given. PMID:27077818

  17. Optical Monitoring of Living Nerve Terminal Labeling in Hair Follicle Lanceolate Endings of the Ex Vivo Mouse Ear Skin.

    PubMed

    Bewick, Guy S; Banks, Robert W

    2016-04-05

    A novel dissection and recording technique is described for optical monitoring staining and de-staining of lanceolate terminals surrounding hair follicles in the skin of the mouse pinna. The preparation is simple and relatively fast, reliably yielding extensive regions of multiple labeled units of living nerve terminals to study uptake and release of styryl pyridinium dyes extensively used in studies of vesicle recycling. Subdividing the preparations before labeling allows test vs. control comparisons in the same ear from a single individual. Helpful tips are given for improving the quality of the preparation, the labeling and the imaging parameters. This new system is suitable for assaying pharmacologically and mechanically-induced uptake and release of these vital dyes in lanceolate terminals in both wild-type and genetically modified animals. Examples of modulatory influences on labeling intensity are given.

  18. Comparability of skin temperatures from three sites on the hand.

    PubMed

    Duckro, P N; Schultz, K; Shaffer, F

    1986-12-01

    Skin temperature from three recording sites (web dorsum and two digital sites) on one hand were compared over a 30-minute period during which room temperature was raised from 66 degrees to 80 degrees F causing skin temperatures to range from 78.5 degrees to 92.3 degrees F. The web dorsum remained significantly warmer than either digital site at the lowest skin temperatures; no significant inter-site differences were seen as skin temperature gradually increased. These findings imply that none of the three sites is more advantageous than the others when recording hand temperature values around or above 85 degrees F. However, at the lower levels of skin temperature, there is a "floor" below which the web dorsum is no longer a sensitive indicator. More generally, basic data of this type provide a necessary but often absent foundation for routine practice of clinical biofeedback.

  19. Comparison of air samples, nasal swabs, ear-skin swabs and environmental dust samples for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig herds.

    PubMed

    Agersø, Y; Vigre, H; Cavaco, L M; Josefsen, M H

    2014-08-01

    To identify a cost-effective and practical method for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig herds, the relative sensitivity of four sample types: nasal swabs, ear-skin (skin behind the ears) swabs, environmental dust swabs and air was compared. Moreover, dependency of sensitivity on within-herd prevalence was estimated. spa-typing was applied in order to study strain diversity. The sensitivity of one air sample was equal to the sensitivity of ten pools of five nasal swabs and relatively independent of within-herd prevalence [predicted to be nearly perfect (99%) for within-herd prevalence ⩾25%]. The results indicate that taking swabs of skin behind the ears (ten pools of five) was even more sensitive than taking nasal swabs (ten pools of five) at the herd level and detected significantly more positive samples. spa types t011, t034 and t4208 were observed. In conclusion, MRSA detection by air sampling is easy to perform, reduces costs and analytical time compared to existing methods, and is recommended for initial testing of herds. Ear-skin swab sampling may be more sensitive for MRSA detection than air sampling or nasal swab sampling.

  20. Treated-skin temperature regularities revealed by IR thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainer, Boris G.

    2001-03-01

    Experimental results disclosing temperature change of human skin affected by various unnatural factors are presented in detail. Thermograms are obtained with the IR thermograph containing high performance InAs CID FPA-based photosensitive unit. Using logarithmic scale of time, evolution of skin temperature after moistening, spirit sponging, and olive oil lubrication is investigated. A comparative analysis of the resulting effects of treatments including alpha-hydroxy acid, cosmetic regenerating cream, spirit, and water, is made. Quantitative distinctions between skin regions characterized by ordinary, and depleted blood supply, including areas located directly above surface main vessels, are revealed. Strongly logarithmic time- dependence of a skin temperature is discovered when the skin is cooled down after its preliminary heating with a hot wax. Non-monotonic change of a local temperature during electrically active procedure is described. Low level light therapy equipment is also applied. A special role of the temperature of nose is discussed.

  1. The role of connexins in ear and skin physiology – functional insights from disease-associated mutations

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ji; Nicholson, Bruce J.

    2012-01-01

    Defects in several different connexins have been associated with several different diseases. The most common of these is deafness, where a few mutations in connexin (Cx) 26 have been found to contribute to over 50% of the incidence of non-syndromic deafness in different human populations. Other mutations in Cx26 or Cx30 have also been associated with various skin phenotypes linked to deafness (PPK, BPS, VS, KID, etc.). The large array of disease mutants offer unique opportunities to gain insights into the underlying function of gap junction proteins and their channels in the normal and pathogenic physiology of the cochlea and epidermis. This review focuses on those mutants where the impact on channel function has been assessed, and correlated with the disease phenotype, or organ function in knock-out mouse models. These approaches have provided evidence supporting a role of gap junctions and hemichannels in K+ removal and recycling in the ear, as well as possible roles for nutrient passage, in the cochlea. In contrast, increases in hemichannel opening leading to increased cell death, was associated with several KID skin disease/hearing mutants. In addition to providing clues for therapeutic strategies, these findings allow us to better understand the specific functions of connexin channels that are important for normal tissue function. PMID:22796187

  2. Satellite Sensed Skin Sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donlon, Craig

    1997-01-01

    Quantitative predictions of spatial and temporal changes the global climate rely heavily on the use of computer models. Unfortunately, such models cannot provide the basis for climate prediction because key physical processes are inadequately treated. Consequently, fine tuning procedures are often used to optimize the fit between model output and observational data and the validation of climate models using observations is essential if model based predictions of climate change are to be treated with any degree of confidence. Satellite Sea Surface Temperature (SST) observations provide high spatial and temporal resolution data which is extremely well suited to the initialization, definition of boundary conditions and, validation of climate models. In the case of coupled ocean-atmosphere models, the SST (or more correctly the 'Skin' SST (SSST)) is a fundamental diagnostic variable to consider in the validation process. Daily global SST maps derived from satellite sensors also provide adequate data for the detection of global patterns of change which, unlike any other SST data set, repeatedly extend into the southern hemisphere extra-tropical regions. Such data are essential to the success of the spatial 'fingerprint' technique, which seeks to establish a north-south asymmetry where warming is suppressed in the high latitude Southern Ocean. Some estimates suggest that there is a greater than 80% chance of directly detecting significant change (97.5 % confidence level) after 10-12 years of consistent global observations of mean sea surface temperature. However, these latter statements should be qualified with the assumption that a negligible drift in the observing system exists and that biases between individual instruments required to derive a long term data set are small. Given that current estimates for the magnitude of global warming of 0.015 K yr(sup -1) - 0.025 K yr(sup -1), satellite SST data sets need to be both accurate and stable if such a warming trend is to

  3. Breathable and Stretchable Temperature Sensors Inspired by Skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Lu, Bingwei; Chen, Yihao; Feng, Xue

    2015-06-01

    Flexible electronics attached to skin for healthcare, such as epidermal electronics, has to struggle with biocompatibility and adapt to specified environment of skin with respect to breath and perspiration. Here, we report a strategy for biocompatible flexible temperature sensors, inspired by skin, possessing the excellent permeability of air and high quality of water-proof by using semipermeable film with porous structures as substrate. We attach such temperature sensors to underarm and forearm to measure the axillary temperature and body surface temperature respectively. The volunteer wears such sensors for 24 hours with two times of shower and the in vitro test shows no sign of maceration or stimulation to the skin. Especially, precise temperature changes on skin surface caused by flowing air and water dropping are also measured to validate the accuracy and dynamical response. The results show that the biocompatible temperature sensor is soft and breathable on the human skin and has the excellent accuracy compared to mercury thermometer. This demonstrates the possibility and feasibility of fully using the sensors in long term body temperature sensing for medical use as well as sensing function of artificial skin for robots or prosthesis.

  4. Breathable and Stretchable Temperature Sensors Inspired by Skin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Lu, Bingwei; Chen, Yihao; Feng, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Flexible electronics attached to skin for healthcare, such as epidermal electronics, has to struggle with biocompatibility and adapt to specified environment of skin with respect to breath and perspiration. Here, we report a strategy for biocompatible flexible temperature sensors, inspired by skin, possessing the excellent permeability of air and high quality of water-proof by using semipermeable film with porous structures as substrate. We attach such temperature sensors to underarm and forearm to measure the axillary temperature and body surface temperature respectively. The volunteer wears such sensors for 24 hours with two times of shower and the in vitro test shows no sign of maceration or stimulation to the skin. Especially, precise temperature changes on skin surface caused by flowing air and water dropping are also measured to validate the accuracy and dynamical response. The results show that the biocompatible temperature sensor is soft and breathable on the human skin and has the excellent accuracy compared to mercury thermometer. This demonstrates the possibility and feasibility of fully using the sensors in long term body temperature sensing for medical use as well as sensing function of artificial skin for robots or prosthesis. PMID:26095941

  5. Characterizing human skin blood flow regulation in response to different local skin temperature perturbations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Nieuwenhoff, M D; Huygen, F J P M; van der Helm, F C T; Niehof, S; Schouten, A C

    2017-05-01

    Small nerve fibers regulate local skin blood flow in response to local thermal perturbations. Small nerve fiber function is difficult to assess with classical neurophysiological tests. In this study, a vasomotor response model in combination with a heating protocol was developed to quantitatively characterize the control mechanism of small nerve fibers in regulating skin blood flow in response to local thermal perturbation. The skin of healthy subjects' hand dorsum (n=8) was heated to 42°C with an infrared lamp, and then naturally cooled down. The distance between the lamp and the hand was set to three different levels in order to change the irradiation intensity on the skin and implement three different skin temperature rise rates (0.03°C/s, 0.02°C/s and 0.01°C/s). A laser Doppler imager (LDI) and a thermographic video camera recorded the temporal profile of the skin blood flow and the skin temperature, respectively. The relationship between the skin blood flow and the skin temperature was characterized by a vasomotor response model. The model fitted the skin blood flow response well with a variance accounted for (VAF) between 78% and 99%. The model parameters suggested a similar mechanism for the skin blood flow regulation with the thermal perturbations at 0.03°C/s and 0.02°C/s. But there was an accelerated skin vasoconstriction after a slow heating (0.01°C/s) (p-value<0.05). An attenuation of the skin vasodilation was also observed in four out of the seven subjects during the slow heating (0.01°C/s). Our method provides a promising way to quantitatively assess the function of small nerve fibers non-invasively and non-contact.

  6. Skin and bulk temperature difference at Lake Tahoe: A case study on lake skin effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. Chris; Hook, Simon J.; Schneider, Philipp; Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    2013-09-01

    water, infrared radiometers on satellites measure radiation leaving from the surface skin layer and therefore the retrieved temperature is representative of the skin layer. This is slightly different from the bulk layer deeper in the water where various floating thermometers take temperature measurements to validate satellite measurements. The difference between the bulk and skin temperature (skin effect) must be understood to properly validate schemes that use surface skin temperature to infer bulk temperatures. Further skin temperatures retrieved over inland waters may show different patterns to those retrieved over oceans due to differences in conditions such as wind speed, aerosols, and elevation. We have analyzed the differences between the skin and bulk temperatures at four permanent monitoring stations (buoys) located on Lake Tahoe since 1999 and compared the results with similar studies over the ocean typically obtained from boat cruises. Skin effect distributions were found to be consistent across the buoys; however, the diurnal behavior of the skin effect was slightly different and shown to be related to wind speed measured at an individual buoy. When wind speed was less than 2 m s-1, the skin temperature osclillated and greatly increased the uncertainty in the skin effect reported over Lake Tahoe. When downwelling sky radiation was increased from clouds or high humidity, this led to nighttime skin temperatures that were warmer than bulk temperatures by as much as 0.5 K. The size of the warm skin effect is larger than other ocean studies that observed warm nighttime skin values around 0.1 K. The nighttime skin effect was seen to be more consistent with a smaller standard deviation compared to the daytime skin effect. The nighttime skin behavior had a mean and standard deviation that ranged between 0.3 and 0.5 K and between 0.3 and 0.4 K, respectively. In contrast, daytime skin effect was strongly influenced by direct solar illumination and typically had a

  7. Correlated fluctuations of daytime skin temperature and vigilance.

    PubMed

    Romeijn, Nico; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2011-02-01

    Skin temperature shows spontaneous ultradian fluctuations during everyday-life wakefulness. Previous work showed that mild manipulations of skin temperature affect human sleep and vigilance, presumably by influencing neuronal systems involved in both thermal sensing and arousal regulation. We therefore examined whether fluctuations in skin temperature are associated with those in vigilance level under conditions similar to everyday-life situations requiring sustained attention. Eight healthy participants (30.1 ± 8.1 years, M ± SD) participated in a 2-day protocol, during which vigilance and skin temperature were assessed 4 times per day in a silent, dimly lit, temperature-controlled room. Vigilance was assessed by measuring reaction speed and lapses on a novel sustained vigilance task specifically designed to increase lapse rate and range of reaction times. Skin temperature was sampled at 30-second intervals from 3 locations: distal, intermediate, and proximal temperatures were obtained from the middle finger (T(finger) ), the wrist (T(wrist)), and the infraclavicular area (T(chest)), respectively. Furthermore, 3 distal to proximal gradients were calculated. Mixed-effect regression analyses were used to evaluate the association of the fluctuations in temperatures and gradients and those in response speed and lapse probability. Especially the spontaneous fluctuations in proximal temperature were negatively associated with fluctuations in response speed and positively with lapse rate. If individual T(chest) temperature ranges were classified into 10 deciles, they accounted for 23% of the variance in response speed and 11% of the variance in lapse rate. The findings indicate coupling between the spontaneous fluctuations in skin temperature and vigilance during the day and are compatible with the hypothesis of overlap in brain networks involved in the regulation of temperature and vigilance. From an applied point of view, especially proximal skin temperature

  8. Skin temperature changes induced by strong static magnetic field exposure.

    PubMed

    Ichioka, Shigeru; Minegishi, Masayuki; Iwasaka, Masakazu; Shibata, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Ando, Joji; Ueno, Shoogo

    2003-09-01

    High intensity static magnetic fields, when applied to the whole body of the anesthetized rat, have previously been reported to decrease skin temperature. The hypothesis of the present study was that in diamagnetic water, molecules in the air play significant roles in the mechanism of skin temperature decrease. We used a horizontal cylindrical superconducting magnet. The magnet produced 8 T at its center. A thermistor probe was inserted in a subcutaneous pocket of the anesthetized rats to measure skin temperature. Animals (n=10) were placed in an open plastic holder in which the ambient air was free to move in any direction (group I). Animals (n=10) were placed in a closed holder in which the air circulation toward the direction of weak magnetic field was restricted (group II). Each holder was connected to a hydrometer to measure humidity around the animal in the holder. The data acquisition phase consisted of a 5 min baseline interval, followed by inserting the animal together with the holder into the center of the magnet bore for a 5 min exposure and a 5 min postexposure period outside the bore. In group I, skin temperature and humidity around the animal significantly decreased during exposure, followed by recovery after exposure. In group II, skin temperature and humidity did not decrease during the measurement. The skin temperature decrease was closely related to the decrease in humidity around the body of the animal in the holder, and the changes were completely blocked by restricting the air circulation in the direction of the bore entrance. Possible mechanisms responsible for the decrease in skin temperature may be associated with magnetically induced movement of water vapor at the skin surface, leading to skin temperature decrease.

  9. Pierced Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Pierced Ears KidsHealth > For Kids > Pierced Ears A A A ... cool, but infected ears do not! Getting Your Ears Pierced It's important to get your ears pierced ...

  10. Thermistor holder for skin-temperature measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Williams, B. A.

    1974-01-01

    Sensing head of thermistor probe is supported in center area of plastic ring which has tabs so that it can be anchored in place by rubber bands or adhesive tapes. Device attaches probes to human subjects practically, reliably, and without affecting characteristics of skin segment being measured.

  11. Protection against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-caused inflammation in SENCAR mouse ear skin by polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, S K; Agarwal, R; Ekker, S; Wood, G S; Mukhtar, H

    1993-03-01

    Earlier studies conducted in our laboratory have shown that a polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea (GTP) possesses anti-skin tumor initiating and anti-skin tumor promoting activity in the two-stage skin tumorigenesis protocol in SENCAR mouse. We have also shown that topical application of GTP inhibits tumor promoter-caused induction of epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity in SENCAR mice in a dose-dependent manner, and that its oral feeding in drinking water to SKH-1 hairless mice enhances antioxidant and phase II enzyme activity in liver, lung, small bowel and skin. In this study, we show that single or multiple applications of GTP on SENCAR mouse ear prior to or after the application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) afford significant protection (P < 0.05) against TPA-induced edema. Pre-application of GTP also afforded significant protection against TPA-induced hyperplasia in the ear skin. The percentage protection by GTP both in terms of epidermal thickness and vertical cell layers was 75 and 90% respectively (P < 0.005). In further studies, we assessed the protective effect of GTP against TPA-caused infiltration of neutrophils in the ear skin of SENCAR mouse, by determining a naturally occurring constituent of neutrophils, myeloperoxidase, as a quantitative marker of tissue neutrophil content. Prior application of GTP resulted in significant protection against TPA-caused infiltration of neutrophils (P < 0.005). These results suggest that GTP possesses potential as a cancer chemopreventive agent against stage I tumor promotion.

  12. Correlation analysis on alpha attenuation and nasal skin temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Akio; Tacano, Munecazu

    2009-01-01

    Some serious accidents caused by declines in arousal level, such as traffic accidents and mechanical control mistakes, have become issues of social concern. The physiological index obtained by human body measurement is expected to offer a leading tool for evaluating arousal level as an objective indicator. In this study, declines in temporal arousal levels were evaluated by nasal skin temperature. As arousal level declines, sympathetic nervous activity is decreased and blood flow in peripheral vessels is increased. Since peripheral vessels exist just under the skin on the fingers and nose, the psychophysiological state can be judged from the displacement of skin temperature caused by changing blood flow volume. Declining arousal level is expected to be observable as a temperature rise in peripheral parts of the body. The objective of this experiment was to obtain assessment criteria for judging declines in arousal level by nasal skin temperature using the alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC) of electroencephalography (EEG) as a reference benchmark. Furthermore, a psychophysical index of sleepiness was also measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Correlations between nasal skin temperature index and EEG index were analyzed. AAC and maximum displacement of nasal skin temperature displayed a clear negative correlation, with a correlation coefficient of -0.55.

  13. Dermal absorption and hydrolysis of methylparaben in different vehicles through intact and damaged skin: using a pig-ear model in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pažoureková, Silvia; Hojerová, Jarmila; Klimová, Zuzana; Lucová, Marianna

    2013-09-01

    Currently, there is a trend to reduce of parabens use due to concern about the safety of their unmetabolised forms. This paper focused on dermal absorption rate and effectiveness of first-pass biotransformation of methylparaben (MP) under in-use conditions of skincare products. 24-h exposure of previously frozen intact and tapestripped (20 strips) pig-ear skin to nine vehicles containing 0.1% MP (AD, applied dose of 10 μg/cm²), resulted in 2.0-5.8%AD and 2.9-7.6%AD of unmetabolised MP, and 37.0-73.0%AD and 56.0-95.0%AD of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, respectively, in the receptor fluid. The absorption rate of MP was higher from emulsions than from hydrogels, from enhancer-containing vehicles than from enhancer-free vehicles, and when skin was damaged. Experiments confirmed that the freezing of pig-ear skin slightly reduces hydrolysis of MP. After 4-h exposure of intact freshly excised and intact frozen stored skin, amount of skin with damaged barrier.

  14. Skin Temperature Measurements on Small Bodies of Water

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzeja, R.

    2002-11-26

    The temperature of the top millimeter of a water surface is generally a few tenths of a degree Celsius cooler than the 'bulk' temperature, i.e., the temperature approximately 1 meter deep, which is routinely measured by buoys and ships. This is because of a daytime temperature gradient between the bulk location and the surface, and because of the thin skin at the surface. This difference is important for climate and weather forecasting because of the atmospheric forcing by the oceans.

  15. Skin temperature increase caused by a mobile phone: a methodological infrared camera study.

    PubMed

    Straume, Aksel; Oftedal, Gunnhild; Johnsson, Anders

    2005-09-01

    Mobile phone users often complain about burning sensations or a heating of the ear region. The increase in temperature may be due to thermal insulation by the phone, heating of the mobile phone resulting from its electrical power dissipation, and radio frequency (RF) exposure. The main objective of this study was to use infrared (IR) camera techniques to find how much each of these factors contributes to the increase in skin temperature resulting from the use of one GSM 900 phone. One subject, a healthy male, took part in the study. He was holding the phone in a normal position when the phone was switched off, when it was switched on but with the antenna replaced by a 50 Omega load to eliminate the RF exposure, and when it was transmitting RF fields. The output power could be fixed, and the minimal and the maximal power levels of the phone were used. The study was designed as a double blind experiment. The changes in temperature after 15 and 30 min of mobile phone use were calculated on the exposed side of the head relative to the unexposed side. The insulation and the electrical power dissipation led to statistically significant rises in the skin temperature, while the RF exposure did not.

  16. THERMAL COMFORT IN RELATION TO MEAN SKIN TEMPERATURE,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Nude men were exposed to a range of ambient temperatures and were brought to a condition of thermal comfort by adjustment of the incident radiation...was evident that mean skin temperature, per se, was not a dependable criterion of thermal comfort . (Author)

  17. NONINVASIVE, CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF RAT TAIL SKIN TEMPERATURE BY RADIOTELEMETRY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tail skin temperature (Tsk) can provide a wealth of information on the thermoregulatory status of the rat. Drug- and toxic-induced changes in body temperature are often mediated by vasodilation or constriction of blood flow to the tail and Tsk can generally be used as an indica...

  18. Effects of graduated compression stockings on skin temperature after running.

    PubMed

    Priego Quesada, J I; Lucas-Cuevas, A G; Gil-Calvo, M; Giménez, J V; Aparicio, I; Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, R M; Salvador Palmer, R; Llana-Belloch, S; Pérez-Soriano, P

    2015-08-01

    High skin temperatures reduce the thermal gradient between the core and the skin and they can lead to a reduction in performance and increased risk of injury. Graduated compression stockings have become popular among runners in the last years and their use may influence the athlete's thermoregulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of graduated compression stockings on skin temperature during running in a moderate indoor environment. Forty-four runners performed two running tests lasting 30min (10min of warm-up and 20min at 75% of their maximal aerobic speed) with and without graduated compressive stockings. Skin temperature was measured in 12 regions of interest on the lower limb by infrared thermography before and after running. Heart rate and perception of fatigue were assessed during the last minute of the running test. Compression stockings resulted in greater increase of temperature (p=0.002 and ES=2.2, 95% CI [0.11-0.45°C]) not only in the body regions in contact (tibialis anterior, ankle anterior and gastrocnemius) but also in the body regions that were not in contact with the garment (vastus lateralis, abductor and semitendinosus). No differences were observed between conditions in heart rate and perception of fatigue (p>0.05 and ES<0.8). In conclusion, running with graduated compression stockings produces a greater increase of skin temperature without modifying the athlete's heart rate and perception of fatigue.

  19. Swimmer's Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Swimmer's Ear KidsHealth > For Kids > Swimmer's Ear Print A ... continue How Do I Know if I Have Swimmer's Ear? Swimmer's ear may start with some itching, ...

  20. Ear Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Tubes Ear Tubes Patient Health Information News media interested ... throat specialist) may be considered. What are ear tubes? Ear tubes are tiny cylinders placed through the ...

  1. Eye and Ear Temperature Using Infrared Thermography Are Related to Rectal Temperature in Dogs at Rest or With Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Zanghi, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    Rectal body temperature (BT) has been documented in exercising dogs to monitor thermoregulation, heat stress risk, and performance during physical activity. Eye (BTeye) and ear (BTear) temperature measured with infrared thermography (IRT) were compared to rectal (BTrec) temperature as the reference method and assess alternative sites to track hyperthermia, possibly to establish BTeye IRT as a passive and non-contact method. BT measures were recorded at 09:00, 11:30, 12:30, and 02:30 from Labrador Retrievers (N = 16) and Beagles (N = 16) while sedentary and with 30-min play-exercise (pre- and 0, 15, 30-min post-exercise). Total exercise locomotor activity counts were recorded to compare relative intensity of play-exercise between breeds. BTrec, BTeye, and BTear were measured within 5 min of the target time. Each BT method was analyzed by analysis of variance for main effects of breed and time. Method differences were compared using Bland–Altman plots and linear regression. Sedentary BT differed by breed for BTrec (p < 0.0001), BTear (p < 0.0001), and BTeye (p = 0.06) with Labs having on average 0.3–0.8°C higher BT compared to Beagles. Readings also declined over time for BTeye (p < 0.0001) and BTear (p < 0.0001), but not for BTrec (p = 0.63) for both breeds. Total exercise (30-min) activity counts did not differ (p = 0.53) between breeds. Time and breed interaction was significant in response to exercise for both BTrec and BTear (p = 0.035 and p = 0.005, respectively), with a marginal interaction (p = 0.09) for BTeye. All the three methods detected hyperthermia with Labs having a higher increase compared to Beagles. Both BTear and BTeye were significantly (p < 0.0001) related to BTrec in all dogs with sedentary or exercise activity. The relationship between BTeye and BTrec improved when monitoring exercise hyperthermia (r = 0.674) versus measures at rest (r = 0.381), whereas BTear was significantly

  2. Eye and Ear Temperature Using Infrared Thermography Are Related to Rectal Temperature in Dogs at Rest or With Exercise.

    PubMed

    Zanghi, Brian M

    2016-01-01

    Rectal body temperature (BT) has been documented in exercising dogs to monitor thermoregulation, heat stress risk, and performance during physical activity. Eye (BTeye) and ear (BTear) temperature measured with infrared thermography (IRT) were compared to rectal (BTrec) temperature as the reference method and assess alternative sites to track hyperthermia, possibly to establish BTeye IRT as a passive and non-contact method. BT measures were recorded at 09:00, 11:30, 12:30, and 02:30 from Labrador Retrievers (N = 16) and Beagles (N = 16) while sedentary and with 30-min play-exercise (pre- and 0, 15, 30-min post-exercise). Total exercise locomotor activity counts were recorded to compare relative intensity of play-exercise between breeds. BTrec, BTeye, and BTear were measured within 5 min of the target time. Each BT method was analyzed by analysis of variance for main effects of breed and time. Method differences were compared using Bland-Altman plots and linear regression. Sedentary BT differed by breed for BTrec (p < 0.0001), BTear (p < 0.0001), and BTeye (p = 0.06) with Labs having on average 0.3-0.8°C higher BT compared to Beagles. Readings also declined over time for BTeye (p < 0.0001) and BTear (p < 0.0001), but not for BTrec (p = 0.63) for both breeds. Total exercise (30-min) activity counts did not differ (p = 0.53) between breeds. Time and breed interaction was significant in response to exercise for both BTrec and BTear (p = 0.035 and p = 0.005, respectively), with a marginal interaction (p = 0.09) for BTeye. All the three methods detected hyperthermia with Labs having a higher increase compared to Beagles. Both BTear and BTeye were significantly (p < 0.0001) related to BTrec in all dogs with sedentary or exercise activity. The relationship between BTeye and BTrec improved when monitoring exercise hyperthermia (r = 0.674) versus measures at rest (r = 0.381), whereas BTear was significantly

  3. Incisions for cochlear implant flaps and superficial skin temperature. Skin temperature/blood circulation in CI flaps.

    PubMed

    Pau, Hans Wilhelm; Sievert, Uwe; Graumüller, Sylke; Wild, Ernst

    2004-01-01

    Healing and integration of a cochlear implant is largely influenced by good blood circulation in the covering skin, which, on the other hand, is closely correlated to skin temperature. Measuring superficial flap temperatures by thermography is an easy way to get some clues about the corresponding blood supply. These data should allow some implications for the design of skin flaps in cochlear implant surgery. In 15 patients thermography was carried out prior to and after cochlear implantation, using the Agema 550 Thermovision system. It was evident, that the anatomic courses of the major superficial arteries were represented by areas of increased temperature. The pattern of temperature distribution may allow some conclusions concerning site and shape of surgical incisions. From our data we concluded, that most types of incisions do not interfere too much with the arterial blood supply. However, some types like the extended retroauricular C-incision may eventually cause problems. Our data suggest, that the straight or slightly curved vertical retroauricular incision causes the least impairment of blood circulation. After surgery, directly along the incisions (and later along the scars) temperature was diminished, indicating reduced blood circulation. In our series, the thickness of the implant did not impede blood circulation significantly. So far, we could not examine patients with local circulation disorders. Probably local scars, skin atrophies, angiopathies etc. may present typical patterns of temperature distribution, which require individual design of skin flaps. Thermography is an easy method which can give impressions of local blood circulation in skin flaps. If the courses of the major arteries and their branches are respected, blood circulation within the flap should not be problematic. Thermography is likely to help designing optimal flaps in cases with impeded blood circulation e.g. by pre-existing scar formations.

  4. Fingertip skin-inspired microstructured ferroelectric skins discriminate static/dynamic pressure and temperature stimuli.

    PubMed

    Park, Jonghwa; Kim, Marie; Lee, Youngoh; Lee, Heon Sang; Ko, Hyunhyub

    2015-10-01

    In human fingertips, the fingerprint patterns and interlocked epidermal-dermal microridges play a critical role in amplifying and transferring tactile signals to various mechanoreceptors, enabling spatiotemporal perception of various static and dynamic tactile signals. Inspired by the structure and functions of the human fingertip, we fabricated fingerprint-like patterns and interlocked microstructures in ferroelectric films, which can enhance the piezoelectric, pyroelectric, and piezoresistive sensing of static and dynamic mechanothermal signals. Our flexible and microstructured ferroelectric skins can detect and discriminate between multiple spatiotemporal tactile stimuli including static and dynamic pressure, vibration, and temperature with high sensitivities. As proof-of-concept demonstration, the sensors have been used for the simultaneous monitoring of pulse pressure and temperature of artery vessels, precise detection of acoustic sounds, and discrimination of various surface textures. Our microstructured ferroelectric skins may find applications in robotic skins, wearable sensors, and medical diagnostic devices.

  5. Analysis of earing behaviour in deep drawing of ASS 304 at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Amit Kumar; Deole, Aditya; Kotkunde, Nitin; Singh, Swadesh Kumar; jella, Gangadhar

    2016-08-01

    Earing tendency in a deep drawn cup of circular blanks is one the most prominent characteristics observed due to anisotropy in a metal sheet. Such formation of uneven rim is mainly due to dissimilarity in yield stress as well as Lankford parameter (r- value) in different orientations. In this paper, an analytical function coupled with different yield functions viz., Hill 1948, Barlat 1989 and Barlat Yld 2000-2d has been used to provide an approximation of earing profile. In order to validate the results, material parameters for yield functions and hardening rule have been calibrated for ASS 304 at 250°C and deep drawing experiment is conducted to measure the earing profile. The predicted earing profiles based on analytical results have been validated using experimental earing profile. Based on this analysis, Barlat Yld 2000-2d has been observed to be a well suited yield model for deep drawing of ASS 304, which also confirms the reliability of analytical function for earing profile estimation.

  6. Uptake of topically applied 5-aminolevulinic acid and production of protoporphyrin IX in normal mouse skin: dependence on skin temperature.

    PubMed

    Juzenas, P; Sørensen, R; Iani, V; Moan, J

    1999-04-01

    The temperature dependence of the uptake phase of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and the following production phase of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in normal mouse skin was investigated. A cream containing 20% ALA was topically applied on the skin for 10 min. The amount of ALA-induced PpIX was evaluated by measuring the fluorescence of PpIX from the treated skin. No measurable amount of PpIX was found in the skin immediately after 10 min application of ALA. The penetration of ALA into the skin was almost temperature independent while the following production of PpIX was found to be a strongly temperature-dependent process. Practically no PpIX was formed in the skin as long as skin temperature was kept low (12 degrees C).

  7. Ear Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... ear, where they make your eardrum vibrate. The vibrations are transmitted through three tiny bones, called ossicles, in your middle ear. The vibrations travel to your inner ear, a snail-shaped ...

  8. Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... gross and useful. continue The Middle Ear: Good Vibrations After sound waves enter the outer ear, they ... take those sound waves and turn them into vibrations that are delivered to the inner ear. To ...

  9. Ear emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ear injury, avoid nose blowing and getting water in the injured ear. Treat ear infections right ... FDR Medical Services/Millard Fillmore Suburban Hospital, Buffalo, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  10. Ear barotrauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ear popping - barotrauma; Pressure-related ear pain; Eustachian tube dysfunction - barotrauma ... air pressure outside of the body. The Eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ear and ...

  11. Skin temperature reveals the intensity of acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Herborn, Katherine A.; Graves, James L.; Jerem, Paul; Evans, Neil P.; Nager, Ruedi; McCafferty, Dominic J.; McKeegan, Dorothy E.F.

    2015-01-01

    Acute stress triggers peripheral vasoconstriction, causing a rapid, short-term drop in skin temperature in homeotherms. We tested, for the first time, whether this response has the potential to quantify stress, by exhibiting proportionality with stressor intensity. We used established behavioural and hormonal markers: activity level and corticosterone level, to validate a mild and more severe form of an acute restraint stressor in hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We then used infrared thermography (IRT) to non-invasively collect continuous temperature measurements following exposure to these two intensities of acute handling stress. In the comb and wattle, two skin regions with a known thermoregulatory role, stressor intensity predicted the extent of initial skin cooling, and also the occurrence of a more delayed skin warming, providing two opportunities to quantify stress. With the present, cost-effective availability of IRT technology, this non-invasive and continuous method of stress assessment in unrestrained animals has the potential to become common practice in pure and applied research. PMID:26434785

  12. Gradient-dependent release of the model drug TRITC-dextran from FITC-labeled BSA hydrogel nanocarriers in the hair follicles of porcine ear skin.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngo Bich Nga Nathalie; Knorr, Fanny; Mak, Wing Cheung; Cheung, Kwan Yee; Richter, Heike; Meinke, Martina; Lademann, Jürgen; Patzelt, Alexa

    2016-09-29

    Hair follicle research is currently focused on the development of drug-loaded nanocarriers for the targeting of follicular structures in the treatment of skin and hair follicle-related disorders. In the present study, a dual-label nanocarrier system was implemented in which FITC-labeled BSA hydrogel nanocarriers loaded with the model drug and dye TRITC-dextran were applied topically to porcine ear skin. Follicular penetration and the distribution of both dyes corresponding to the nanocarriers and the model drug in the follicular ducts subsequent to administration to the skin were investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The release of TRITC-dextran from the particles was induced by washing of the nanocarriers, which were kept in a buffer containing TRITC-labeled dextran to balance out the diffusion of the dextran during storage, thereby changing the concentration gradient. The results showed a slightly but statistically significantly deeper follicular penetration of fluorescent signals corresponding to TRITC-dextran as opposed to fluorescence corresponding to the FITC-labeled particles. The different localizations of the dyes in the cross-sections of the skin samples evidenced the release of the model drug from the labeled nanoparticles.

  13. Liquid crystal skin thermometry: an accurate reflection of core temperature?

    PubMed

    Brull, S J; Cunningham, A J; Connelly, N R; O'Connor, T Z; Silverman, D G

    1993-04-01

    Oesophageal, rectal, bladder, tympanic and pulmonary artery sites are used intraoperatively to measure body temperature. However, the temperatures measured at each site have different physiological and practical importance. The present two-part study sought to compare liquid crystal (CR) skin temperature with other temperature monitors which are used routinely during surgery. The first part compared CR with oesophageal (OS) temperature during general inhalational anaesthesia. The second part compared CR with OS, pulmonary artery (PA), and bladder (BL) temperatures during the periods of rapid temperature change associated with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). During the first part, the mean difference between OS and CR was -0.14 +/- 0.85 degrees C; this difference remained consistent over time (P < 0.05 by repeated measures analysis of variance). During the second part, the difference in temperature readings between CR and each of the other monitors remained consistent except for CR vs PA and CR vs OS during the cooling period of CPB, when the iced cardioplegia slush directly affected the PA and OS temperatures. This study suggests that CR, an inexpensive and noninvasive means of temperature monitoring, reflects trends in temperature changes in the clinical setting.

  14. Sleep and Skin Temperature in Preschool Children and Their Mothers.

    PubMed

    Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Mizuno, Koh; Shirakawa, Shuichiro

    2016-05-11

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare sleep and skin temperature (Tsk) of preschool children with those of their mothers. The subjects included 18 pairs of preschool children and their mothers. The actigraphic measurement of sleep, Tsk, heart rate, bedroom climate, and the microclimate temperature and humidity (bed climate) were measured. Proximal and distal Tsk, the temperature gradient of distal and proximal Tsk (DPG), and bed climate temperature were significantly lower in the children. Approximately 70% of the children slept without bed covering. Heat dissipation during sleep in preschool children may primarily rely on the proximal Tsk. The lower Tsk than adults, and behavioral thermoregulation, may be important for sleep in preschoolers.

  15. Ear Pieces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

  16. Prediction of Skin Temperature Distribution in Cosmetic Laser Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Kuen; Chen, Kuen-Tasnn; Cheng, Shih-Feng; Lin, Wen-Shiung; Chang, Cheng-Ren

    2008-01-01

    The use of lasers in cosmetic surgery has increased dramatically in the past decade. To achieve minimal damage to tissues, the study of the temperature distribution of skin in laser irradiation is very important. The phenomenon of the thermal wave effect is significant due to the highly focused light energy of lasers in very a short time period. The conventional Pennes equation does not take the thermal wave effect into account, which the thermal relaxation time (τ) is neglected, so it is not sufficient to solve instantaneous heating and cooling problem. The purpose of this study is to solve the thermal wave equation to determine the realistic temperature distribution during laser surgery. The analytic solutions of the thermal wave equation are compared with those of the Pennes equation. Moreover, comparisons are made between the results of the above equations and the results of temperature measurement using an infrared thermal image instrument. The thermal wave equation could likely to predict the skin temperature distribution in cosmetic laser surgery.

  17. Ear trauma.

    PubMed

    Eagles, Kylee; Fralich, Laura; Stevenson, J Herbert

    2013-04-01

    Understanding basic ear anatomy and function allows an examiner to quickly and accurately identify at-risk structures in patients with head and ear trauma. External ear trauma (ie, hematoma or laceration) should be promptly treated with appropriate injury-specific techniques. Tympanic membrane injuries have multiple mechanisms and can often be conservatively treated. Temporal bone fractures are a common cause of ear trauma and can be life threatening. Facial nerve injuries and hearing loss can occur in ear trauma.

  18. The HyPRP gene EARLI1 has an auxiliary role for germinability and early seedling development under low temperature and salt stress conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dan; Huang, Xuan; Xu, Zi-Qin; Schläppi, Michael

    2011-09-01

    The effect of the hybrid proline-rich protein (HyPRP) gene EARLI1 on the rate of germination (germinability) of Arabidopsis seeds and seedling growth under low temperature and salt stress conditions was investigated. EARLI1 was induced during germination in embryonic tissues, and was strongly expressed in certain parts of young seedlings. Comparisons of control, overexpressing (OX), and knockout (KO) lines indicated that higher than wild type levels of EARLI1 improved germinability, root elongation, and reduction of sodium accumulation in leaves under salt stress, as well as germinability under low-temperature stress. Abscisic acid (ABA) contents were relatively low after prolonged salt stress, suggesting that EARLI1 has an ABA-independent effect on germinability under these conditions. Overexpression of EARLI1 during germination enhanced the sensitivity of seeds to exogenously applied ABA, suggesting that EARLI1 has an ABA-dependent negative effect on seed germinability under high ABA stress conditions. Well-known stress response marker genes such as COR15a, KIN1, P5SC1, and RD29 were unaffected whereas P5SC2, RD22, or RAB18 were only slightly affected in OX and KO plants. The pleiotropic effects of EARLI1 during stress and an absence of strong regulatory effects on stress marker genes suggest that this HyPRP gene has an auxiliary role for various stress protection responses in Arabidopsis.

  19. In-vivo and label-free imaging of cellular and tissue structures in mouse ear skin by using second- and third-harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eung Jang; Kim, Boram; Ahn, Hong-Gyu; Park, Seung-Han; Cheong, Eunji; Lee, Sangyoup

    2015-02-01

    A video-rate multimodal microscope, which can obtain second- and third- harmonic generation (SHG and THG) images simultaneously, is developed for investigating cellular and tissue structures in mouse ear skin. By utilizing in-vivo video-rate epi-detected SHG and THG microscopy, we successfully demonstrate that combined images of subcutaneous cellular components and peripheral nerve fibers, together with the collagen fiber, in the mouse ear pinna can be obtained without employing fluorescent probes. We also show that the flow of red blood cells and the diameter change of arteriole-like blood vessels can be visualized with femtosecond laser pulses with a wavelength of 1036 nm. In particular, the epi-THG contrast images of the blood-vessel walls display clearly the difference between the arteriole-like and the venule capillary-like blood-vessel types. We should emphasize that our newly-developed microscope system has a unique feature in that it can produce simultaneous in-vivo label-free SHG and THG images in contrast to the conventional confocal and two-photon microscopes.

  20. In vitro investigation of the follicular penetration of porcine ear skin using a nanoparticle-emulsion containing the antiseptic polihexanide In vitro investigation of the follicular penetration of porcine ear skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, M.; Patzelt, A.; Vergou, T.; Lademann, J.; Richter, H.; Kramer, A.; Müller, G.; Sterry, W.; Lange-Asschenfeldt, B.

    2012-05-01

    Earlier investigations regarding the distribution of the bacterial flora on the human skin demonstrate that the hair follicle acts as a bacterial reservoir, providing a quick source for secondary recontamination. These findings highlight the importance of the hair follicle as a target for modern antiseptics. In the present study, we have assessed the follicular penetration of a curcumin-labeled particle-associated antiseptic into porcine skin by laser scanning microscopy. Therefore, the follicular penetration depth of the curcumin-labeled particle-associated antiseptic was compared to the follicular penetration depth of curcumin-labeled particles without antiseptic. The investigation was performed in vitro using porcine skin biopsies. By superposition of the images acquired in the transmission and the fluorescent modus, it was possible to visualize the distribution of the fluorescent dye inside the hair follicles. Quantitative and qualitative results showed that both dispersions penetrated efficiently into the hair follicles. The average penetration depth of the particles with attached antiseptic polihexanide was significantly higher than that of particles without the attached antiseptic. Also, whilst very little sample preparation was needed, laser scanning microscopy was found to be an efficient tool to visualize the skin relief and in particular the hair follicle shaft and localize fluorescent markers within the skin tissue and hair follicles.

  1. Patellar Skin Surface Temperature by Thermography Reflects Knee Osteoarthritis Severity

    PubMed Central

    Denoble, Anna E.; Hall, Norine; Pieper, Carl F.; Kraus, Virginia B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Digital infrared thermal imaging is a means of measuring the heat radiated from the skin surface. Our goal was to develop and assess the reproducibility of serial infrared measurements of the knee and to assess the association of knee temperature by region of interest with radiographic severity of knee Osteoarthritis (rOA). Methods: A total of 30 women (15 Cases with symptomatic knee OA and 15 age-matched Controls without knee pain or knee OA) participated in this study. Infrared imaging was performed with a Meditherm Med2000™ Pro infrared camera. The reproducibility of infrared imaging of the knee was evaluated through determination of intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for temperature measurements from two images performed 6 months apart in Controls whose knee status was not expected to change. The average cutaneous temperature for each of five knee regions of interest was extracted using WinTes software. Knee x-rays were scored for severity of rOA based on the global Kellgren-Lawrence grading scale. Results: The knee infrared thermal imaging procedure used here demonstrated long-term reproducibility with high ICCs (0.50–0.72 for the various regions of interest) in Controls. Cutaneous temperature of the patella (knee cap) yielded a significant correlation with severity of knee rOA (R = 0.594, P = 0.02). Conclusion: The skin temperature of the patellar region correlated with x-ray severity of knee OA. This method of infrared knee imaging is reliable and as an objective measure of a sign of inflammation, temperature, indicates an interrelationship of inflammation and structural knee rOA damage. PMID:21151853

  2. The temperature difference across the cool skin of the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulson, C. A.; Simpson, J. J.

    1981-11-01

    The temperature difference ΔT across the cool skin of the ocean was determined from radiometric measurements of surface brightness temperature and conventional measurements of temperature at a depth of 1 m. Eleven days of measurements were made from the R/P Flip in February 1974 about 800 miles north of Hawaii (35°N, 155°W). The surface brightness temperature was corrected for nonblackness of the surface to obtain an estimate of the true surface temperature. The constant λ in Saunders' (1967a) formula, ΔT = λvQ/kU* was found to be λ = 6.5±0.6, where v is kinematic viscosity, Q the upward heat flux just below, the interface, k the thermal conductivity, and U* the friction velocity. The constant is independent of wind speed for winds ranging from 3 to 11 m/s. The use of subsurface rather than surface temperature in the bulk aerodynamic formulas results in an increase in the sum of the sensible and latent heat fluxes equal to 4-5% of Q. However, the percentage change in sensible and latent heat fluxes may be much greater. Spectra of surface and subsurface sea temperature exhibit a peak at low frequencies and fall off approximately proportional to ƒ-3/2; with increasing frequency ƒ. The variability of sea surface temperature was caused about equally by the variability of subsurface temperature and the variability of ΔT. Caution should therefore be exercised in the interpretation of radiometric surface temperature measurements as representative of subsurface temperature.

  3. Registered report: measuring unconscious deception detection by skin temperature.

    PubMed

    van ' T Veer, Anna E; Stel, Mariëlle; van Beest, Ilja; Gallucci, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Findings from the deception detection literature suggest that although people are not skilled in consciously detecting a liar, they may intuit that something about the person telling a lie is off. In the current proposal, we argue that observing a liar influences the observer's physiology even though the observer may not be consciously aware of being lied to (i.e., the observers' direct deception judgment does not accurately differentiate between liars and truth-tellers). To test this hypothesis, participants' finger temperature will be measured while they watch videos of persons who are either honest or dishonest about their identity. We hypothesize that skin temperature will be lower when observing a liar than when observing a truth-teller. Additionally, we test whether perceiving a liar influences finger skin temperature differently when an individual is, or is not, alerted to the possibility of deceit. We do this by varying participants' awareness of the fact that they might be lied to. Next to measuring physiological responses to liars and truth-tellers, self-reported direct and indirect veracity judgments (i.e., trustworthiness and liking) of the target persons will be assessed. We hypothesize that indirect veracity judgments will better distinguish between liars and truth-tellers than direct veracity judgments.

  4. Registered report: measuring unconscious deception detection by skin temperature

    PubMed Central

    van ’ t Veer, Anna E.; Stel, Mariëlle; van Beest, Ilja; Gallucci, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Findings from the deception detection literature suggest that although people are not skilled in consciously detecting a liar, they may intuit that something about the person telling a lie is off. In the current proposal, we argue that observing a liar influences the observer’s physiology even though the observer may not be consciously aware of being lied to (i.e., the observers’ direct deception judgment does not accurately differentiate between liars and truth-tellers). To test this hypothesis, participants’ finger temperature will be measured while they watch videos of persons who are either honest or dishonest about their identity. We hypothesize that skin temperature will be lower when observing a liar than when observing a truth-teller. Additionally, we test whether perceiving a liar influences finger skin temperature differently when an individual is, or is not, alerted to the possibility of deceit. We do this by varying participants’ awareness of the fact that they might be lied to. Next to measuring physiological responses to liars and truth-tellers, self-reported direct and indirect veracity judgments (i.e., trustworthiness and liking) of the target persons will be assessed. We hypothesize that indirect veracity judgments will better distinguish between liars and truth-tellers than direct veracity judgments. PMID:24904461

  5. Skin temperature as a thermal controller of exercise intensity.

    PubMed

    Schlader, Zachary J; Simmons, Shona E; Stannard, Stephen R; Mündel, Toby

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the role of skin temperature on self-selected exercise intensity (i.e., power output). Eight well-trained, male cyclists completed two 60 min self-paced cycling bouts during which they completed as much work as possible. Using a liquid-perfused suit, skin temperature (T (Sk)) was changed during the two trials such that T (Sk) either started hot and was cooled (H to C) or started cold and was heated (C to H) throughout exercise. Pre-exercise core temperatures (T (C)) and heart rates (HR) were similar between trials, while T (Sk), thermal comfort and thermal sensation were higher in H to C. The change in T (Sk) was similar in magnitude during the two trials. Work completed was greatest in C to H, which was attributed to a higher initial power output. T (C) was similar between trials. HR was similar until 35 min had elapsed, after which it became lower in H to C. The perception of effort increased similarly between the two trials, while thermal comfort and thermal sensation generally reflected the changes observed in T (Sk). These results indicate that upon exercise commencement T (Sk) and the accompanying thermal perceptions are important inputs in the initial selection of exercise intensity.

  6. The Histopathological Investigation of Red and Blue Light Emitting Diode on Treating Skin Wounds in Japanese Big-Ear White Rabbit.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhong; Zhang, Jigang; Xu, Yanfeng; Han, Yunlin; Jiang, Binbin; Huang, Lan; Zhu, Hua; Xu, Yuhuan; Yang, Weiling; Qin, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    The biological effects of different wavelengths of light emitting diode (LED) light tend to vary from each other. Research into use of photobiomodulation for treatment of skin wounds and the underlying mechanisms has been largely lacking. We explored the histopathological basis of the therapeutic effect of photobiomodulation and the relation between duration of exposure and photobiomodulation effect of different wavelengths of LED in a Japanese big-ear white rabbit skin-wound model. Skin wound model was established in 16 rabbits (three wounds per rabbit: one served as control, the other two wounds were irradiated by red and blue LED lights, respectively). Rabbits were then divided into 2 equal groups based on the duration of exposure to LED lights (15 and 30 min/exposure). The number of wounds that showed healing and the percentage of healed wound area were recorded. Histopathological examination and skin expression levels of fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), endothelial marker (CD31), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (Ki67) and macrophagocyte (CD68) infiltration, and the proliferation of skin collagen fibers was assessed. On days 16 and 17 of irradiation, the healing rates in red (15 min and 30 min) and blue (15 min and 30 min) groups were 50%, 37.5%, 25% and 37.5%, respectively, while the healing rate in the control group was 12.5%. The percentage healed area in the red light groups was significantly higher than those in other groups. Collagen fiber and skin thickness were significantly increased in both red light groups; expression of EGF, FGF, CD31 and Ki67 in the red light groups was significantly higher than those in other groups; the expression of FGF in red (30 min) group was not significantly different from that in the blue light and control groups. The effect of blue light on wound healing was poorer than that of red light. Red light appeared to hasten wound healing by promoting fibrous tissue, epidermal and endothelial cell

  7. The Histopathological Investigation of Red and Blue Light Emitting Diode on Treating Skin Wounds in Japanese Big-Ear White Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanfeng; Han, Yunlin; Jiang, Binbin; Huang, Lan; Zhu, Hua; Xu, Yuhuan; Yang, Weiling; Qin, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    The biological effects of different wavelengths of light emitting diode (LED) light tend to vary from each other. Research into use of photobiomodulation for treatment of skin wounds and the underlying mechanisms has been largely lacking. We explored the histopathological basis of the therapeutic effect of photobiomodulation and the relation between duration of exposure and photobiomodulation effect of different wavelengths of LED in a Japanese big-ear white rabbit skin-wound model. Skin wound model was established in 16 rabbits (three wounds per rabbit: one served as control, the other two wounds were irradiated by red and blue LED lights, respectively). Rabbits were then divided into 2 equal groups based on the duration of exposure to LED lights (15 and 30 min/exposure). The number of wounds that showed healing and the percentage of healed wound area were recorded. Histopathological examination and skin expression levels of fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), endothelial marker (CD31), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (Ki67) and macrophagocyte (CD68) infiltration, and the proliferation of skin collagen fibers was assessed. On days 16 and 17 of irradiation, the healing rates in red (15 min and 30 min) and blue (15 min and 30 min) groups were 50%, 37.5%, 25% and 37.5%, respectively, while the healing rate in the control group was 12.5%. The percentage healed area in the red light groups was significantly higher than those in other groups. Collagen fiber and skin thickness were significantly increased in both red light groups; expression of EGF, FGF, CD31 and Ki67 in the red light groups was significantly higher than those in other groups; the expression of FGF in red (30 min) group was not significantly different from that in the blue light and control groups. The effect of blue light on wound healing was poorer than that of red light. Red light appeared to hasten wound healing by promoting fibrous tissue, epidermal and endothelial cell

  8. Measurements of skin surface temperature during mobile phone use.

    PubMed

    Anderson, V; Rowley, J

    2007-02-01

    We measured maximum temperature rises on the side of the face after 6 min of continuous mobile phone operation using two models of AMPS analog phones operating in the 835 MHz band and three early model GSM digital phones operating in the 900 MHz band. For the GSM phones the highest recorded temperature rise difference was 2.3 degrees C and for the AMPS phones it was 4.5 degrees C, both at locations on the cheek. The higher differential temperature rise between AMPS and GSM may reflect the higher maximum average operating power of AMPS (600 mW) versus GSM900 (250 mW). Additionally, we compared temperature changes at a consistent location on the cheek for an AMPS phone that was inoperative (-0.7 degrees C), transmitting at full power (+2.6 degrees C) and in stand-by mode (+2.0 degrees C). Our results suggest that direct RF heating of the skin only contributes a small part of the temperature rise and that most is due to heat conduction from the handset.

  9. Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery. An ENT surgically inserts tubes inside your child’s middle ear. The tubes relieve the pressure and allow ... the risks of surgically inserting tubes inside my child's middle ear? What are the risks of not?Should ...

  10. Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protect your hearing by wearing earplugs at loud music concerts and around noisy machinery, like in wood ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? ...

  11. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003340.htm Ear examination To use the sharing features on this page, ... ear References King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey ...

  12. Ear wax

    MedlinePlus

    ... wax plug. Tip your head to allow the water to drain. You may need to repeat irrigation several times. To avoid damaging your ear or causing an infection: Never irrigate the ear if the eardrum may have a hole in it. Do not irrigate the ear with ...

  13. Cauliflower Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Cauliflower Ear? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cauliflower Ear? A A A Have you ever seen ... looks bumpy and lumpy? The person might have cauliflower ear. That sure is a funny name. Let's ...

  14. Cauliflower Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray What's Cauliflower Ear? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cauliflower Ear? Print A A A Have you ever ... looks bumpy and lumpy? The person might have cauliflower ear. That sure is a funny name. Let's ...

  15. Skin friction measurements in high temperature high speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schetz, J. A.; Diller, Thomas E.; Wicks, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to measure skin friction along the chamber walls of supersonic combustors. A direct force measurement device was used to simultaneously measure an axial and transverse component of the small tangential shear force passing over a non-intrusive floating element. The floating head is mounted to a stiff cantilever beam arrangement with deflection due to the flow on the order of 0.00254 mm (0.0001 in.). This allowed the instrument to be a non-nulling type. A second gauge was designed with active cooling of the floating sensor head to eliminate non-uniform temperature effects between the sensor head and the surrounding wall. Samples of measurements made in combustor test facilities at NASA Langley Research Center and at the General Applied Science Laboratory (GASL) are presented. Skin friction coefficients between 0.001 - 0.005 were measured dependent on the facility and measurement location. Analysis of the measurement uncertainties indicate an accuracy to within +/- 10-15 percent of the streamwise component.

  16. Depressed mitogen responsiveness of lymphocytes at skin temperature.

    PubMed Central

    Lauwasser, M; Shands, J W

    1979-01-01

    The responsiveness of murine lymphocytes and human peripheral blood lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, pokeweed mitogen, and endotoxin was tested in vitro at 32, 35, and 37 degrees C. The responses at 32 degrees C were delayed and often depressed. Mouse cells responded equally well at 35 and 37 degrees C. Human lymphocytes often responded more rapidly at 37 than at 35 degrees C. Since skin temperature, particularly that of the distal extremities, is usually 32 degrees C or less, a relative deficiency in cell-mediated immunity may exist in these sites. This may be part of the reason for the usual localization of certain infections, such as sporotrichosis, to these coller areas. PMID:457281

  17. Using skin temperature gradients or skin heat flux measurements to determine thresholds of vasoconstriction and vasodilatation.

    PubMed

    House, James R; Tipton, Michael J

    2002-11-01

    Forearm-fingertip skin temperature differentials (T(sk-diff)) are used to indicate vasomotor tone, vasoconstriction defined as having occurred when T(sk-diff)> or =4 degrees C (Sessler et al. 1987, 1988a, b). This study was conducted to determine whether T(sk-diff) or finger pad heat flux (HF) can be used to predict when vasoconstriction and vasodilatation occur. Seven subjects (one female) sat in water at [mean (SD)] 40.7 (0.8) degrees C until their core temperature (T(c)) increased by 1 degrees C, ensuring vasodilatation. The water was then cooled [at a rate of 0.6 (0.1) degrees C x min(-1)] until T(c) fell to 0.5 degrees C below pretesting values, causing vasoconstriction. Subjects were then rewarmed in water [41.2 (1.0) degrees C]. Skin blood flow (SkBF) was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) on the left second finger pad [immersed in water at 10.4 (1.4) degrees C as part of another experiment], and infrared plethysmography on the third finger pad of both hands. T(sk-diff) and HF were measured on the right upper limb, which remained in air. When vasodilated, the subjects had a stable T(sk-diff) and HF. During cooling, rapid-onset vasoconstriction occurred coincidental with large gradient changes in HF and T(sk-diff) (inflection points). In two subjects the original vasoconstriction definition (T(sk-diff)> or =4 degrees C) was not attained, in the other five this was achieved 31-51 min after vasoconstriction. During rewarming, the T(sk-diff) and HF inflection points less accurately reflected the onset of vasodilatation, although with one exception they were within 5 min of the LDF changes. We conclude that T(sk-diff) and HF inflection points predict vasoconstriction accurately, and better than T(sk-diff)> or =4 degrees C.

  18. Pathogenicity of frog virus 3-like virus in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) at two environmental temperatures.

    PubMed

    Allender, M C; Mitchell, M A; Torres, T; Sekowska, J; Driskell, E A

    2013-01-01

    Ranaviral disease has affected several species of reptiles, but disease progression and mortality in relation to environmental temperature has yet to be determined. In this study, two separate trials challenged adult female red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) with a ranavirus (frog virus 3-like virus; FV3) isolate at environmental temperatures of 22 °C (n = 4) and 28 °C (n = 4). The mortality rates in the turtles in the 22 °C and 28 °C trials were 100% and 50%, respectively. Median survival time for turtles exposed to FV3 at 22 °C was 24 days, while it was 30 days in the group kept at 28 °C. Consistent microscopical lesions were observed only in the group inoculated at 22 °C and included fibrinoid necrosis of vessels in the spleen, vascular and sinusoidal thrombi in the liver, necrotizing myositis and a mild heterophilic interstitial pneumonia. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, targeting a conserved portion of the major capsid protein, was able to detect virus copies in whole blood, oral and cloacal swabs, tongue, skeletal muscle, lung, heart, liver, spleen, ovary and kidney. Viral copy number in ante-mortem clinical samples was non-significantly highest in whole blood, while kidney had the highest viral copy number in post-mortem samples. All samples had higher virus copy number in turtles exposed to FV3 at 22 °C compared with 28 °C. This study determined that environmental temperature affects the survival and disease progression in ranavirus-infected red-eared slider turtles, which will aid in managing animals in a clinical or free-ranging setting.

  19. Skin temperature modifies the impact of hypohydration on aerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, R W; Cheuvront, S N; Palombo, L J; Ely, B R; Sawka, M N

    2010-07-01

    This study determined the effects of hypohydration on aerobic performance in compensable [evaporative cooling requirement (E(req)) < maximal evaporative cooling (E(max))] conditions of 10 degrees C [7 degrees C wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT)], 20 degrees C (16 degrees C WBGT), 30 degrees C (22 degrees C WBGT), and 40 degrees C (27 degrees C WBGT) ambient temperature (T(a)). Our hypothesis was that 4% hypohydration would impair aerobic performance to a greater extent with increasing heat stress. Thirty-two men [22 +/- 4 yr old, 45 +/- 8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) peak O(2) uptake (Vo(2 peak))] were divided into four matched cohorts (n = 8) and tested at one of four T(a) in euhydrated (EU) and hypohydrated (HYPO, -4% body mass) conditions. Subjects completed 30 min of preload exercise (cycle ergometer, 50% Vo(2 peak)) followed by a 15 min self-paced time trial. Time-trial performance (total work, change from EU) was -3% (P = 0.1), -5% (P = 0.06), -12% (P < 0.05), and -23% (P < 0.05) in 10 degrees C, 20 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 40 degrees C T(a), respectively. During preload exercise, skin temperature (T(sk)) increased by approximately 4 degrees C per 10 degrees C T(a), while core (rectal) temperature (T(re)) values were similar within EU and HYPO conditions across all T(a). A significant relationship (P < 0.05, r = 0.61) was found between T(sk) and the percent decrement in time-trial performance. During preload exercise, hypohydration generally blunted the increases in cardiac output and blood pressure while reducing blood volume over time in 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C T(a). Our conclusions are as follows: 1) hypohydration degrades aerobic performance to a greater extent with increasing heat stress; 2) when T(sk) is >29 degrees C, 4% hypohydration degrades aerobic performance by approximately 1.6% for each additional 1 degrees C T(sk); and 3) cardiovascular strain from high skin blood flow requirements combined with blood volume reductions induced by hypohydration

  20. Skin Temperature Processes in the Presence of Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumer, S. E.; Zappa, C. J.; Brown, S.; McGillis, W. R.; Loose, B.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring the sea-ice margins of polar oceans and understanding the physical processes at play at the ice-ocean-air interface is essential in the perspective of a changing climate in which we face an accelerated decline of ice caps and sea ice. Remote sensing and in particular InfraRed (IR) imaging offer a unique opportunity not only to observe physical processes at sea-ice margins, but also to measure air-sea exchanges near ice. It permits monitoring ice and ocean temperature variability, and can be used for derivation of surface flow field allowing investigating turbulence and shearing at the ice-ocean interface as well as ocean-atmosphere gas transfer. Here we present experiments conducted with the aim of gaining an insight on how the presence of sea ice affects the momentum exchange between the atmosphere and ocean and investigate turbulence production in the interplay of ice-water shear, convection, waves and wind. A set of over 200 high resolution IR imagery records was taken at the US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL, Hanover NH) under varying ice coverage, fan and pump settings. In situ instruments provided air and water temperature, salinity, subsurface currents and wave height. Air side profiling provided environmental parameters such as wind speed, humidity and heat fluxes. The study aims to investigate what can be gained from small-scale high-resolution IR imaging of the ice-ocean-air interface; in particular how sea ice modulates local physics and gas transfer. The relationship between water and ice temperatures with current and wind will be addressed looking at the ocean and ice temperature variance. Various skin temperature and gas transfer parameterizations will be evaluated at ice margins under varying environmental conditions. Furthermore the accuracy of various techniques used to determine surface flow will be assessed from which turbulence statistics will be determined. This will give an insight on how ice presence

  1. Limited efficacy of Fever Tag® temperature sensing ear tags in calves with naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease or induced bovine viral diarrhea virus infection

    PubMed Central

    McCorkell, Robert; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Windeyer, Claire; Schaefer, Al

    2014-01-01

    Temperature sensing ear tags were tested in 1) auction-derived calves with 50% incidence of bovine respiratory disease, and 2) specific pathogen-free calves infected with bovine virus diarrhea virus. There were no false positives, but tag placement, probe displacement, and a high threshold for activation all contributed to failure to reliably detect sick calves. PMID:24982523

  2. 38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Schedule of ratings-ear...—ear. Diseases of the Ear Rating 6200Chronic suppurative otitis media, mastoiditis, or cholesteatoma... of the substance 10 6208Malignant neoplasm of the ear (other than skin only) 100 Note: A rating...

  3. Visualizing Skin Temperature Before, During and After Exercise for Dynamic Area Telethermometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    paper, a specific exercise is designed; we visualize the skin temperature before, during and after the exercise. Over 2000 frames during the period...were captured, and the skin temperature of the regions of interest is analyzed statistically. In order to visualize the FFT to yield the relative

  4. Ear Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... YesNoDo you have thick pus-filled or bloody drainage from the ear canal that started after a ... bone behind the ear, or from an ENLARGED LYMPH NODE.Self CareURGENTSEE YOUR DOCTOR RIGHT AWAY.Start ...

  5. SU-E-J-273: Skin Temperature Recovery Rate as a Potential Predictor for Radiation-Induced Skin Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Biswal, N C; Wu, Z; Chu, J; Sun, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the potential of dynamic infrared imaging to evaluate early skin reactions during radiation therapy in cancer patients. Methods: Thermal images were captured by our home-built system consisting of two flash lamps and an infrared (IR) camera. The surface temperature of the skin was first raised by ∼ 6 °C from ∼1 ms short flashes; the camera then captured a series of IR images for 10 seconds. For each image series, a basal temperature was recorded for 0.5 seconds before flash was triggered. The temperature gradients (ε) were calculated between a reference point (immediately after the flash) and at a time point of 2sec, 4sec and 9sec after that. A 1.0 cm region of interest (ROI) on the skin was drawn; the mean and standard deviations of the ROIs were calculated. The standard ε values for normal human skins were evaluated by imaging 3 healthy subjects with different skin colors. All of them were imaged on 3 separate days for consistency checks. Results: The temperature gradient, which is the temperature recovery rate, depends on the thermal properties of underlying tissue, i.e. thermal conductivity. The average ε for three volunteers averaged over 3 measurements were 0.64±0.1, 0.72±0.2 and 0.80±0.3 at 2sec, 4sec and 9sec respectively. The standard deviations were within 1.5%–3.2%. One of the volunteers had a prior small skin burn on the left wrist and the ε values for the burned site were around 9% (at 4sec) and 13% (at 9sec) lower than that from the nearby normal skin. Conclusion: The temperature gradients from the healthy subjects were reproducible within 1.5%–3.2 % and that from a burned skin showed a significant difference (9%–13%) from the normal skin. We have an IRB approved protocol to image head and neck patients scheduled for radiation therapy.

  6. Continuous monitoring of skin temperature using a liquid-crystal thermometer during anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Burgess, G E; Cooper, J R; Marino, R J; Peuler, M J

    1978-05-01

    Forehead skin temperature measured by a stip of liquid-crystal material was compared to esophageal, rectal, and axillary temperatures measured by thermistor probes in patients having general anesthesia for coronary artery bypass grafting. Before extracorporeal circulation, forehead skin temperature was lower than axillary, rectal, and esophageal temperatures by approximately 2.2 C (4.0 F). During rapid warming, forehead skin temperature rose concurrently with the other temperatures measured but remained significantly different. The liquid-crystal strip may be useful as a safe, convenient method for routine monitoring of temperature trends during general anesthesia in patients whose exact core temperature need not be continuously monitored. We believe that infants, patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation, major abdominal, vascular, or neurosurgical procedures, or patients with a history of temperature regulatory problem are probably best monitored by a method which more exactly reflects core temperature.

  7. UHPH-processed O/W submicron emulsions stabilised with a lipid-based surfactant: physicochemical characteristics and behaviour on in vitro TC7-cell monolayers and ex vivo pig's ear skin.

    PubMed

    Benzaria, Amal; Gràcia-Julià, Alvar; Picart-Palmade, Laëtitia; Hue, Pauline; Chevalier-Lucia, Dominique; Marti-Mestres, Gilberte; Hodor, Nadège; Dumay, Eliane

    2014-04-01

    Submicron O/W emulsions formulated with sesame oil plus a lipid-base surfactant, and with or without retinyl acetate (RAC) as a model hydrophobic biomolecule, were prepared by single-pass homogenisation at ≥ 200 MPa (UHPH) and an initial fluid temperature (Tin) of 24°C. These emulsions were characterised by a monomodal distribution (peak maximum at 260 nm) and a 2-year potential physical stability at ambient temperature. Submicron droplets were investigated in term of (i) physicochemical characteristics (size distribution curves; ζ-potential value), and (ii) impact on TC7-cell monolayers (MTT-assay and cell LDH-leakage). Submicron droplets ± RAC did not affect or increased significantly (p=0.05) TC7-cell metabolic activity after 4-24h of exposure indicating absence of cellular impairment, except when high amounts of droplets were deposed on TC7-cells. Indeed, the lipid-based surfactant deposed alone on TC7-cells at high concentration, induced some significant (p=0.05) cell LDH-leakage, and therefore cell-membrane damage. Cellular uptake experiments revealed a significant (p=0.05) time-dependent internalisation of RAC from submicron droplets, and cellular transformation of RAC into retinol. The turnover of RAC into retinol and therefore RAC bioaccessibility appeared faster for RAC-micelles of similar size-range and prepared at atmospheric pressure with polysorbate 80, than for submicron O/W emulsions. Permeation experiments using pig's ear skin mounted on Franz-type diffusion cells, revealed RAC in dermis-epidermis, in significantly (p=0.05) higher amounts for submicron than coarse pre-emulsions. However, RAC amounts remained low for both emulsion-types and RAC was not detected in the receptor medium of Franz-type diffusion cells.

  8. Research of temperature field measurement using a flexible temperature sensor array for robot sensing skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ying; Wu, Siyu; Li, Ruiqi; Yang, Qinghua; Zhang, Yugang; Liu, Caixia

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a novel temperature sensor array by dispensing conductive composites on a flexible printed circuit board which is able to acquire the ambient temperature. The flexible temperature sensor array was fabricated by using carbon fiber-filled silicon rubber based composites on a flexible polyimide circuit board, which can both ensure their high flexibility. It found that CF with 12 wt% could be served as the best conductive filler for higher temperature sensitivity and better stability comparing with some other proportion for dynamic range from 30&° to 90°. The preparation of the temperature sensitive material has also been described in detail. Connecting the flexible sensor array with a data acquisition card and a personal computer (PC), some heat sources with different shapes were loaded on the sensor array; the detected results were shown in the interface by LabVIEW software. The measured temperature contours are in good agreement with the shapes and amplitudes of different heat sources. Furthermore, in consideration of the heat dissipation in the air, the relationship between the resistance and the distance of heat sources with sensor array was also detected to verify the accuracy of the sensor array, which is also a preparation for our future work. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the developed flexible sensor array, and it can be used as humanoid artificial skin for sensation system of robots.

  9. The use of infrared thermography to detect the skin temperature response to physical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanda, G.

    2015-11-01

    Physical activity has a noticeable effect on skin blood flow and temperature. The thermal regulatory and hemodynamic processes during physical activity are controlled by two conflicting mechanisms: the skin vasoconstriction induced by the blood flow demand to active muscles and the skin vasodilation required by thermoregulation to increase warm blood flow and heat conduction to the skin. The time-evolution of skin temperature during exercise can give useful information about the adaptation of the subject as a function of specific type, intensity and duration of exercise. In this paper, infrared thermography is used to investigate the thermal response of skin temperature during running exercise on treadmill for a group of seven healthy and trained runners. Two different treadmill exercises are considered: a graded load exercise and a constant load exercise; for both exercises the duration was 30 minutes. Within the limits due to the relatively small size of the sample group, results typically indicate a fall in skin temperature during the initial stage of running exercise. As the exercise progresses, the dynamics of the skin temperature response depends on the type of exercise (graded versus constant load) and probably on the level of training of the subject.

  10. Cryotherapy-Induced Persistent Vasoconstriction After Cutaneous Cooling: Hysteresis Between Skin Temperature and Blood Perfusion.

    PubMed

    Khoshnevis, Sepideh; Craik, Natalie K; Matthew Brothers, R; Diller, Kenneth R

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the persistence of cold-induced vasoconstriction following cessation of active skin-surface cooling. This study demonstrates a hysteresis effect that develops between skin temperature and blood perfusion during the cooling and subsequent rewarming period. An Arctic Ice cryotherapy unit (CTU) was applied to the knee region of six healthy subjects for 60 min of active cooling followed by 120 min of passive rewarming. Multiple laser Doppler flowmetry perfusion probes were used to measure skin blood flow (expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC)). Skin surface cooling produced a significant reduction in CVC (P < 0.001) that persisted throughout the duration of the rewarming period. In addition, there was a hysteresis effect between CVC and skin temperature during the cooling and subsequent rewarming cycle (P < 0.01). Mixed model regression (MMR) showed a significant difference in the slopes of the CVC-skin temperature curves during cooling and rewarming (P < 0.001). Piecewise regression was used to investigate the temperature thresholds for acceleration of CVC during the cooling and rewarming periods. The two thresholds were shown to be significantly different (P = 0.003). The results show that localized cooling causes significant vasoconstriction that continues beyond the active cooling period despite skin temperatures returning toward baseline values. The significant and persistent reduction in skin perfusion may contribute to nonfreezing cold injury (NFCI) associated with cryotherapy.

  11. Cryotherapy-Induced Persistent Vasoconstriction After Cutaneous Cooling: Hysteresis Between Skin Temperature and Blood Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Khoshnevis, Sepideh; Craik, Natalie K.; Matthew Brothers, R.; Diller, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the persistence of cold-induced vasoconstriction following cessation of active skin-surface cooling. This study demonstrates a hysteresis effect that develops between skin temperature and blood perfusion during the cooling and subsequent rewarming period. An Arctic Ice cryotherapy unit (CTU) was applied to the knee region of six healthy subjects for 60 min of active cooling followed by 120 min of passive rewarming. Multiple laser Doppler flowmetry perfusion probes were used to measure skin blood flow (expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC)). Skin surface cooling produced a significant reduction in CVC (P < 0.001) that persisted throughout the duration of the rewarming period. In addition, there was a hysteresis effect between CVC and skin temperature during the cooling and subsequent rewarming cycle (P < 0.01). Mixed model regression (MMR) showed a significant difference in the slopes of the CVC–skin temperature curves during cooling and rewarming (P < 0.001). Piecewise regression was used to investigate the temperature thresholds for acceleration of CVC during the cooling and rewarming periods. The two thresholds were shown to be significantly different (P = 0.003). The results show that localized cooling causes significant vasoconstriction that continues beyond the active cooling period despite skin temperatures returning toward baseline values. The significant and persistent reduction in skin perfusion may contribute to nonfreezing cold injury (NFCI) associated with cryotherapy. PMID:26632263

  12. Developing an Ear Prosthesis Fabricated in Polyvinylidene Fluoride by a 3D Printer with Sensory Intrinsic Properties of Pressure and Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Suaste-Gómez, Ernesto; Rodríguez-Roldán, Grissel; Reyes-Cruz, Héctor; Terán-Jiménez, Omar

    2016-01-01

    An ear prosthesis was designed in 3D computer graphics software and fabricated using a 3D printing process of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) for use as a hearing aid. In addition, the prosthesis response to pressure and temperature was observed. Pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties of this ear prosthesis were investigated using an astable multivibrator circuit, as changes in PVDF permittivity were observed according to variations of pressure and temperature. The results show that this prosthesis is reliable for use under different conditions of pressure (0 Pa to 16,350 Pa) and temperature (2 °C to 90 °C). The experimental results show an almost linear and inversely proportional behavior between the stimuli of pressure and temperature with the frequency response. This 3D-printed ear prosthesis is a promising tool and has a great potentiality in the biomedical engineering field because of its ability to generate an electrical potential proportional to pressure and temperature, and it is the first time that such a device has been processed by the additive manufacturing process (3D printing). More work needs to be carried out to improve the performance, such as electrical stimulation of the nervous system, thereby extending the purpose of a prosthesis to the area of sensory perception. PMID:26959026

  13. Developing an Ear Prosthesis Fabricated in Polyvinylidene Fluoride by a 3D Printer with Sensory Intrinsic Properties of Pressure and Temperature.

    PubMed

    Suaste-Gómez, Ernesto; Rodríguez-Roldán, Grissel; Reyes-Cruz, Héctor; Terán-Jiménez, Omar

    2016-03-04

    An ear prosthesis was designed in 3D computer graphics software and fabricated using a 3D printing process of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) for use as a hearing aid. In addition, the prosthesis response to pressure and temperature was observed. Pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties of this ear prosthesis were investigated using an astable multivibrator circuit, as changes in PVDF permittivity were observed according to variations of pressure and temperature. The results show that this prosthesis is reliable for use under different conditions of pressure (0 Pa to 16,350 Pa) and temperature (2 °C to 90 °C). The experimental results show an almost linear and inversely proportional behavior between the stimuli of pressure and temperature with the frequency response. This 3D-printed ear prosthesis is a promising tool and has a great potentiality in the biomedical engineering field because of its ability to generate an electrical potential proportional to pressure and temperature, and it is the first time that such a device has been processed by the additive manufacturing process (3D printing). More work needs to be carried out to improve the performance, such as electrical stimulation of the nervous system, thereby extending the purpose of a prosthesis to the area of sensory perception.

  14. Ice-water hand immersion causes a reflex decrease in skin temperature in the contralateral hand.

    PubMed

    Isii, Youzou; Matsukawa, Kanji; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Nakamoto, Tomoko

    2007-08-01

    Cutaneous receptors stimulated by ice-water immersion of one hand will increase sympathetic nerve activity to the palm skin in the nonimmersed contralateral hand and reduce blood flow, reflecting on a decrease in skin surface temperature under a constant ambient environment. To test the hypothesis that gender might affect the contralateral vasoconstrictor response, we analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern of palm skin surface temperature during ice-water immersion for 10 min using thermography in eight males and eight females. As soon as the left hand was immersed in ice-water, palm skin temperature in the nonimmersed right hand quickly decreased in all subjects, particularly in the periphery of the digits and palm. The reduction in skin temperature was short-lasting in 63% of males and 38% of females, but it lasted throughout immersion in the remaining subjects. The average decrease in palm skin temperature was not significantly different between males and females, though it tended to be greater in males. The mean arterial blood pressure significantly increased and heart rate decreased during immersion in males, whereas no substantial cardiovascular changes were observed in females. Cold sensation was well coincident with the appearance of a reduction in the palm skin temperature. In consideration of all these results, we suggest that cutaneous cold stimuli increased skin sympathetic nerve activity in the nonimmersed hand and reduced skin blood flow. We also contend that gender difference in the contralateral vasoconstrictor response was denied because the time course and magnitude of the decrease in palm skin temperature were not different between males and females.

  15. Swimmer's ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... or a respiratory infection such as a cold. Swimming in unclean water can lead to swimmer's ear. ... very well after it has gotten wet. Avoid swimming in polluted water. Use earplugs when swimming. Try ...

  16. Pierced Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... you run the risk of getting infected ears. Metal Matters Your first earrings should have gold posts ( ... infection and swelling. Later, you may find some metals cause an allergic reaction. You're probably wondering ...

  17. Skin blood flow and local temperature independently modify sweat rate during passive heat stress in humans.

    PubMed

    Wingo, Jonathan E; Low, David A; Keller, David M; Brothers, R Matthew; Shibasaki, Manabu; Crandall, Craig G

    2010-11-01

    Sweat rate (SR) is reduced in locally cooled skin, which may result from decreased temperature and/or parallel reductions in skin blood flow. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that decreased skin blood flow and decreased local temperature each independently attenuate sweating. In protocols I and II, eight subjects rested supine while wearing a water-perfused suit for the control of whole body skin and internal temperatures. While 34°C water perfused the suit, four microdialysis membranes were placed in posterior forearm skin not covered by the suit to manipulate skin blood flow using vasoactive agents. Each site was instrumented for control of local temperature and measurement of local SR (capacitance hygrometry) and skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry). In protocol I, two sites received norepinephrine to reduce skin blood flow, while two sites received Ringer solution (control). All sites were maintained at 34°C. In protocol II, all sites received 28 mM sodium nitroprusside to equalize skin blood flow between sites before local cooling to 20°C (2 sites) or maintenance at 34°C (2 sites). In both protocols, individuals were then passively heated to increase core temperature ~1°C. Both decreased skin blood flow and decreased local temperature attenuated the slope of the SR to mean body temperature relationship (2.0 ± 1.2 vs. 1.0 ± 0.7 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1)·°C(-1) for the effect of decreased skin blood flow, P = 0.01; 1.2 ± 0.9 vs. 0.07 ± 0.05 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1)·°C(-1) for the effect of decreased local temperature, P = 0.02). Furthermore, local cooling delayed the onset of sweating (mean body temperature of 37.5 ± 0.4 vs. 37.6 ± 0.4°C, P = 0.03). These data demonstrate that local cooling attenuates sweating by independent effects of decreased skin blood flow and decreased local skin temperature.

  18. Normal range and lateral symmetry in the skin temperature profile of pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Tânia; Nogueira-Silva, Cristina; Simoes, Ricardo

    2016-09-01

    Body skin temperature is a useful parameter for diagnosing diseases and infrared thermography can be a powerful tool in providing important information to detect body temperature changes in a noninvasive way. The aim of this work was to study the pattern of skin temperature during pregnancy, to establish skin temperature reference values and to find correlations between these and the pregnant population characteristics. Sixty-one healthy pregnant women (mean age 30.6 ± 5.1 years) in the 8th-40th gestational week with normal pregnancies were examined in 31 regions of interest (ROI). The ROIs were defined all over the body in order to determine the most influenced by factors such as age or body mass index (BMI). The results obtained in this work highlight that in normal pregnant women the skin temperature is symmetrically distributed, with the symmetrical areas differing less than 0.5 °C , with a mean value of 0.25 ± 0.23 °C . This study identified a significant negative correlation between the BMI and temperature. Age has been shown to have great influence on the skin temperature, with a significant increase of temperature observed with age. This work explores a novel medical application of infrared thermography and provides a characterization of thermal skin profile in human pregnancy for a large set of ROIs while also evaluating the effects of age and BMI.

  19. Determination of time-dependent skin temperature decrease rates in the case of abrupt changes of environmental temperature.

    PubMed

    Mall, G; Hubig, M; Beier, G; Büttner, A; Eisenmenger, W

    2000-09-11

    The present study deals with the development of a method for determining time-dependent temperature decrease rates and its application to postmortem surface cooling. The study concentrates on evaluating skin cooling behavior since data on skin cooling in the forensic literature are scarce. Furthermore, all heat transfer mechanisms strongly depend on the temperature gradient between body surface and environment. One of the main problems in modelling postmortem cooling processes is the dependence on the environmental temperature. All models for postmortem rectal cooling essentially presuppose a constant environmental temperature. In medico-legal practice, the temperature of the surrounding of a corpse mostly varies; therefore, an approach for extending the models to variable environmental temperatures is desirable. It consists in 'localizing' them to infinitesimal small intervals of time. An extended model differential equation is obtained and solved explicitly. The approach developed is applied to the single-exponential Newtonian model of surface cooling producing the following differential equation:T(S)'(t)=-lambda(t)(T(S)(t)-T(E)(t))(with T(S)(t) the surface/skin temperature, T(E)(t) the environmental temperature, lambda(t) the temperature decrease rate and T(S)'(t) the actual change of skin temperature or first-order derivative of T(S)). The differential equation directly provides an estimator:lambda(t)=-T(S)'(t)T(S)(t)-T(E)(t)for the time-dependent temperature decrease rate. The estimator is applied to two skin cooling experiments with different types of abrupt changes of environmental temperature, peak-like and step-like; the values of the time-dependent temperature decrease rate function were calculated. By reinserting them, the measured surface temperature curve could be accurately reconstructed, indicating that the extended model is well suited for describing surface cooling in the case of abrupt changes of environmental temperature.

  20. Microarray analysis of microRNA expression in mouse fetus at 13.5 and 14.5 days post-coitum in ear and back skin tissues.

    PubMed

    Torres, Leda; Juárez, Ulises; García, Laura; Miranda-Ríos, Juan; Frias, Sara

    2016-09-01

    There is no information regarding the role of microRNAs in the development of the external ear in mammals. The purpose of this study was to determine the stage-specific expression of microRNA during external ear development in mice under normal conditions. GeneChip miRNA 3.0 arrays by Affymetrix were used to obtain miRNA expression profiles from mice fetal pinnae and back skin tissues at 13.5 days-post-coitum (dpc) and 14.5 dpc. Biological triplicates for each tissue were analyzed; one litter represents one biological replica, each litter had 16 fetuses on average. The results were analyzed with Affymetrix's Transcriptome Analysis Console software to identify differentially expressed miRNAs. The inquiry showed significant differential expression of 25 miRNAs at 13.5 dpc and 31 at 14.5 dpc, some of these miRNAs were predicted to target genes implicated in external ear development. One example is mmu-miR-10a whose low expression in pinnae is known to impact ear development by modulating Hoxa1 mRNA levels Garzon et al. (2006), Gavalas et al. (1998) [1], [2]. Other findings like the upregulation of mmu-miR-200c and mmu-miR-205 in the pinnae tissues of healthy mice are in agreement with what has been reported in human patients with microtia, in which down regulation of both miRNAs has been found Li et al. (2013) [3]. This study uncovered a spatiotemporal pattern of miRNA expression in the external ear, which results from continuous transcriptional changes during normal development of body structures. All microarray data are available at the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) at NCBI under accession number GSE64945.

  1. Epigenetic control of gonadal aromatase (cyp19a1) in temperature-dependent sex determination of red-eared slider turtles.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yuiko; Buemio, Alvin; Chu, Randy; Vafaee, Mozhgon; Crews, David

    2013-01-01

    In the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), the expression of the aromatase gene during gonad development is strictly limited to the female-producing temperature. The underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we identified the upstream 5'-flanking region of the aromatase gene, gonad-specific promoter, and the temperature-dependent DNA methylation signatures during gonad development in the red-eared slider turtle. The 5'-flanking region of the slider aromatase exhibited sequence similarities to the aromatase genes of the American alligator, chicken, quail, and zebra finch. A putative TATA box was located 31 bp upstream of the gonad-specific transcription start site. DNA methylation at the CpG sites between the putative binding sites of the fork head domain factor (FOX) and vertebrate steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) and adjacent TATA box in the promoter region were significantly lower in embryonic gonads at the female-producing temperature compared the male-producing temperature. A shift from male- to female-, but not from female- to male-, producing temperature changed the level of DNA methylation in gonads. Taken together these results indicate that the temperature, particularly female-producing temperature, allows demethylation at the specific CpG sites of the promoter region which leads the temperature-specific expression of aromatase during gonad development.

  2. Epigenetic Control of Gonadal Aromatase (cyp19a1) in Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination of Red-Eared Slider Turtles

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yuiko; Buemio, Alvin; Chu, Randy; Vafaee, Mozhgon; Crews, David

    2013-01-01

    In the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), the expression of the aromatase gene during gonad development is strictly limited to the female-producing temperature. The underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we identified the upstream 5′-flanking region of the aromatase gene, gonad-specific promoter, and the temperature-dependent DNA methylation signatures during gonad development in the red-eared slider turtle. The 5′-flanking region of the slider aromatase exhibited sequence similarities to the aromatase genes of the American alligator, chicken, quail, and zebra finch. A putative TATA box was located 31 bp upstream of the gonad-specific transcription start site. DNA methylation at the CpG sites between the putative binding sites of the fork head domain factor (FOX) and vertebrate steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) and adjacent TATA box in the promoter region were significantly lower in embryonic gonads at the female-producing temperature compared the male-producing temperature. A shift from male- to female-, but not from female- to male-, producing temperature changed the level of DNA methylation in gonads. Taken together these results indicate that the temperature, particularly female-producing temperature, allows demethylation at the specific CpG sites of the promoter region which leads the temperature-specific expression of aromatase during gonad development. PMID:23762231

  3. Effect of Acupuncture Manipulations at LI4 or LI11 on Blood Flow and Skin Temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihui; Ahn, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Acupuncture induces physiological changes, and patients have reported warm or cool sensations with "Burning Fire" (BF) or "Penetrating Cool" (PC) manipulations. This study aimed to evaluate whether these techniques had distinct effects on skin temperature and blood flow and to examine whether skin temperature correlated with blood flow. The participants were 25 healthy volunteers, each receiving acupuncture manipulations on points LI4 and LI11 bilaterally. Skin temperatures and blood flow were recorded continuously on both arms. The study found that acupuncture significantly increased skin temperature on the needling arm by 0.3514°C on average, but decreased it on the contralateral arm by 0.2201°C on average. Blood flow decreased significantly in both arms during needling (-3.4% and -5.97% for the ipsilateral and the contralateral sides, respectively), but the changes in skin temperature did not correlate with the changes in blood flow. Furthermore, these changes were not significantly different between acupuncture techniques and acupuncture points. In conclusion, acupuncture changes local skin temperature and blood flow independent of the manipulation technique. Moreover, blood flow may not be affected by the increased temperature on the needling arm. These results help to verify traditional Chinese medicine concepts and may help in establishing standards for acupuncture treatments.

  4. Effects of pressure, cold and gloves on hand skin temperature and manual performance of divers.

    PubMed

    Zander, Joanna; Morrison, James

    2008-09-01

    Cold water immersion and protective gloves are associated with decreased manual performance. Although neoprene gloves slow hand cooling, there is little information on whether they provide sufficient protection when diving in cold water. Nine divers wearing three-fingered neoprene gloves and dry suits were immersed in water at 25 and 4 degrees C, at depths of 0.4 msw (101 kPa altitude adjusted) and 40 msw (497 kPa) in a hyperbaric chamber. Skin temperatures were measured at the fingers, hand, forearm, chest and head. Grip strength, tactile sensitivity and manual dexterity were measured at three time intervals. There was an exponential decay in finger and back of hand skin temperatures with exposure time in 4 degrees C water. Finger and back of hand skin temperatures were lower at 40 msw than at 0.4 msw (P < 0.05). There was no effect of pressure or temperature on grip strength. Tactile sensitivity decreased linearly with finger skin temperature at both pressures. Manual dexterity was not affected by finger skin temperature at 0.4 msw, but decreased with fall in finger skin temperature at 40 msw. Results show that neoprene gloves do not provide adequate thermal protection in 4 degrees C water and that impairment of manual performance is dependent on the type of task, depth and exposure time.

  5. Effect of skin temperature on the ion reabsorption capacity of sweat glands during exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Shamsuddin, A K M; Kuwahara, T; Oue, A; Nomura, C; Koga, S; Inoue, Y; Kondo, N

    2005-07-01

    The effect of skin temperature on the ion reabsorption capacity of sweat glands during exercise in humans is unknown. In this study, eight healthy subjects performed a 60-min cycling exercise at a constant intensity (60% VO(2max)) under moderate (25 degrees C) and cool (15 degrees C) ambient temperatures at a constant relative humidity of 40%. The sweating rate (SR), index of sweat ion concentration (ISIC) by using sweat conductivity, esophageal temperature (Tes), mean skin temperature, and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously under both ambient temperatures. The SR and ISIC were significantly lower at the cool ambient temperature versus the moderate temperature. There were no significant differences in the changes in HR and esophageal temperature between these ambient temperature conditions, while the mean skin temperature was significantly lower at the cool ambient temperature by almost 3 degrees C (P < 0.05). The slopes of the relationships between Tes and the SR and ISIC were significantly lower and the thresholds of these relationships were significantly higher at the cool ambient temperature (P < 0.05). The ion reabsorption capacity of the sweat glands was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in a cool environment (0.21 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.52 +/- 0.06 mg/cm(2)/min at 15 and 25 degrees C, respectively) as evaluated using the relationships for SR and ISIC. The results suggest that the ion reabsorption capacity of the sweat glands is influenced by skin temperature during exercise in humans.

  6. The use of thermal imaging to monitoring skin temperature during cryotherapy: A systematic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, Filipe; Neves, Eduardo Borba; Norte, Marco; Rosa, Claudio; Reis, Victor Machado; Vilaça-Alves, José

    2015-11-01

    Cryotherapy has been applied on clinical injuries and as a method for exercise recovery. It is aimed to reduce edema, nervous conduction velocity, and tissue metabolism, as well as to accelerate the recovery process of the muscle injury induced by exercise. Objective: This review aim to investigate the applicability of thermal imaging as a method for monitoring skin temperature during cryotherapy. Method: Search the Web of Science database using the terms "Cryotherapy", "Thermography", "Thermal Image" and "Cooling". Results: Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria and pass the PEDro scale quality evaluation. Evidence support the use of thermal imaging as a method for monitoring the skin temperature during cryotherapy, and it is superior to other contact methods and subjective methods of assessing skin temperature. Conclusion: Thermography seems to be an efficient, trustworthy and secure method in order to monitoring skin temperature during cryotherapy application. Evidence supports the use of thermography in detriment of contact methods as well as other subjective ones.

  7. Evaluation of insulated miniature thermistors for skin temperature measurement in the rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szlyk, Patricia C.; Sils, Ingrid V.; Ferguson, June D.; Matthew, William T.; Hubbard, Roger W.

    1986-08-01

    A miniature thermistor modified by covering its outer surface with insulating foam was evaluated as a temperature sensor at three skin sites in the adult male laboratory rat. A high precision thermistor was modified by covering the outer epoxy surface with about 1/4 inch of a commercially available insulating foam. Such foam thickness provided sufficient insulation to reduce the influence of ambient temperature on the thermistor reading yet contributed minimal additional probe weight. Results indicate that compared to the insulated thermistor, the uninsulated probe underestimated skin temperature measured at the midscapular region of the back, ventral surface of the foot, and dorsal base of the tail at cool ambient temperature (25c) and overestimated temperature at the back and tail skin sites at high ambient temperature (42c). The differences in temperature measured by the insulated and uninsulated thermistors were greastest at the back skin site, which was the only fur-covered and the least vascularized area of the rat that we studied. Using an insulated miniature thermistor to reduce the influence of environmental temperature on thermistor readings when measuring skin temperature in a furred laboratory animal is recommended.

  8. Human C-tactile afferents are tuned to the temperature of a skin-stroking caress.

    PubMed

    Ackerley, Rochelle; Backlund Wasling, Helena; Liljencrantz, Jaquette; Olausson, Håkan; Johnson, Richard D; Wessberg, Johan

    2014-02-19

    Human C-tactile (CT) afferents respond vigorously to gentle skin stroking and have gained attention for their importance in social touch. Pharmacogenetic activation of the mouse CT equivalent has positively reinforcing, anxiolytic effects, suggesting a role in grooming and affiliative behavior. We recorded from single CT axons in human participants, using the technique of microneurography, and stimulated a unit's receptive field using a novel, computer-controlled moving probe, which stroked the skin of the forearm over five velocities (0.3, 1, 3, 10, and 30 cm s(-1)) at three temperatures (cool, 18 °C; neutral, 32 °C; warm, 42 °C). We show that CTs are unique among mechanoreceptive afferents: they discharged preferentially to slowly moving stimuli at a neutral (typical skin) temperature, rather than at the cooler or warmer stimulus temperatures. In contrast, myelinated hair mechanoreceptive afferents proportionally increased their firing frequency with stroking velocity and showed no temperature modulation. Furthermore, the CT firing frequency correlated with hedonic ratings to the same mechano-thermal stimulus only at the neutral stimulus temperature, where the stimuli were felt as pleasant at higher firing rates. We conclude that CT afferents are tuned to respond to tactile stimuli with the specific characteristics of a gentle caress delivered at typical skin temperature. This provides a peripheral mechanism for signaling pleasant skin-to-skin contact in humans, which promotes interpersonal touch and affiliative behavior.

  9. Calculations of atmospheric transmittance in the 11 micrometer window for estimating skin temperature from VISSR infrared brightness temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, D.

    1984-01-01

    An algorithm for calculating the atmospheric transmittance in the 10 to 20 micro m spectral band from a known temperature and dewpoint profile, and then using this transmittance to estimate the surface (skin) temperature from a VISSR observation in the 11 micro m window is presented. Parameterizations are drawn from the literature for computing the molecular absorption due to the water vapor continuum, water vapor lines, and carbon dioxide lines. The FORTRAN code is documented for this application, and the sensitivity of the derived skin temperature to variations in the model's parameters is calculated. The VISSR calibration uncertainties are identified as the largest potential source of error.

  10. Improving the Accuracy of Satellite Sea Surface Temperature Measurements by Explicitly Accounting for the Bulk-Skin Temperature Difference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, Sandra L.; Emery, William J.

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this research was to determine whether the accuracy of satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST) could be improved by explicitly accounting for the complex temperature gradients at the surface of the ocean associated with the cool skin and diurnal warm layers. To achieve this goal, work centered on the development and deployment of low-cost infrared radiometers to enable the direct validation of satellite measurements of skin temperature. During this one year grant, design and construction of an improved infrared radiometer was completed and testing was initiated. In addition, development of an improved parametric model for the bulk-skin temperature difference was completed using data from the previous version of the radiometer. This model will comprise a key component of an improved procedure for estimating the bulk SST from satellites. The results comprised a significant portion of the Ph.D. thesis completed by one graduate student and they are currently being converted into a journal publication.

  11. A comparison of urban heat islands mapped using skin temperature, air temperature, and apparent temperature (Humidex), for the greater Vancouver area.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hung Chak; Knudby, Anders; Xu, Yongming; Hodul, Matus; Aminipouri, Mehdi

    2016-02-15

    Apparent temperature is more closely related to mortality during extreme heat events than other temperature variables, yet spatial epidemiology studies typically use skin temperature (also known as land surface temperature) to quantify heat exposure because it is relatively easy to map from satellite data. An empirical approach to map apparent temperature at the neighborhood scale, which relies on publicly available weather station observations and spatial data layers combined in a random forest regression model, was demonstrated for greater Vancouver, Canada. Model errors were acceptable (cross-validated RMSE=2.04 °C) and the resulting map of apparent temperature, calibrated for a typical hot summer day, corresponded well with past temperature research in the area. A comparison with field measurements as well as similar maps of skin temperature and air temperature revealed that skin temperature was poorly correlated with both air temperature (R(2)=0.38) and apparent temperature (R(2)=0.39). While the latter two were more similar (R(2)=0.87), apparent temperature was predicted to exceed air temperature by more than 5 °C in several urban areas as well as around the confluence of the Pitt and Fraser rivers. We conclude that skin temperature is not a suitable proxy for human heat exposure, and that spatial epidemiology studies could benefit from mapping apparent temperature, using an approach similar to the one reported here, to better quantify differences in heat exposure that exist across an urban landscape.

  12. Validation of the thermophysiological model by Fiala for prediction of local skin temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Natividad; Psikuta, Agnes; Kuklane, Kalev; Quesada, José Ignacio Priego; de Anda, Rosa María Cibrián Ortiz; Soriano, Pedro Pérez; Palmer, Rosario Salvador; Corberán, José Miguel; Rossi, René Michel; Annaheim, Simon

    2016-12-01

    The most complete and realistic physiological data are derived from direct measurements during human experiments; however, they present some limitations such as ethical concerns, time and cost burden. Thermophysiological models are able to predict human thermal response in a wide range of environmental conditions, but their use is limited due to lack of validation. The aim of this work was to validate the thermophysiological model by Fiala for prediction of local skin temperatures against a dedicated database containing 43 different human experiments representing a wide range of conditions. The validation was conducted based on root-mean-square deviation (rmsd) and bias. The thermophysiological model by Fiala showed a good precision when predicting core and mean skin temperature (rmsd 0.26 and 0.92 °C, respectively) and also local skin temperatures for most body sites (average rmsd for local skin temperatures 1.32 °C). However, an increased deviation of the predictions was observed for the forehead skin temperature (rmsd of 1.63 °C) and for the thigh during exercising exposures (rmsd of 1.41 °C). Possible reasons for the observed deviations are lack of information on measurement circumstances (hair, head coverage interference) or an overestimation of the sweat evaporative cooling capacity for the head and thigh, respectively. This work has highlighted the importance of collecting details about the clothing worn and how and where the sensors were attached to the skin for achieving more precise results in the simulations.

  13. Validation of the thermophysiological model by Fiala for prediction of local skin temperatures.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Natividad; Psikuta, Agnes; Kuklane, Kalev; Quesada, José Ignacio Priego; de Anda, Rosa María Cibrián Ortiz; Soriano, Pedro Pérez; Palmer, Rosario Salvador; Corberán, José Miguel; Rossi, René Michel; Annaheim, Simon

    2016-12-01

    The most complete and realistic physiological data are derived from direct measurements during human experiments; however, they present some limitations such as ethical concerns, time and cost burden. Thermophysiological models are able to predict human thermal response in a wide range of environmental conditions, but their use is limited due to lack of validation. The aim of this work was to validate the thermophysiological model by Fiala for prediction of local skin temperatures against a dedicated database containing 43 different human experiments representing a wide range of conditions. The validation was conducted based on root-mean-square deviation (rmsd) and bias. The thermophysiological model by Fiala showed a good precision when predicting core and mean skin temperature (rmsd 0.26 and 0.92 °C, respectively) and also local skin temperatures for most body sites (average rmsd for local skin temperatures 1.32 °C). However, an increased deviation of the predictions was observed for the forehead skin temperature (rmsd of 1.63 °C) and for the thigh during exercising exposures (rmsd of 1.41 °C). Possible reasons for the observed deviations are lack of information on measurement circumstances (hair, head coverage interference) or an overestimation of the sweat evaporative cooling capacity for the head and thigh, respectively. This work has highlighted the importance of collecting details about the clothing worn and how and where the sensors were attached to the skin for achieving more precise results in the simulations.

  14. A comparison of temperature profile depending on skin types for laser hair removal therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Gwi-Won; Youn, Jong-In

    2014-11-01

    Although numerous lasers with different wavelengths are available for laser hair removal, their use in individuals with dark-pigmented skin remains a challenge. The present study aims to develop a numerical heat diffusion model considering skin types over various wavelengths. This numerical mode uses Pennes approximation to represent heat from metabolism, blood perfusion and an external heating source. The heat diffusion model is experimentally validated by using agar-based skin tissue phantoms. Diode lasers with four different wavelengths were used with two antithetical skin models. The pulse width and beam spot size were set to 200 ms and 1 cm(2), respectively. Temperature distribution along the hair structure and skin tissue was examined to determine both thermal confinement and heat transfer to the hair follicle. Experimental results are well matched with the numerical results. The results show that for the light skin model, thermal confinement is well achieved over various wavelengths, and treatment efficacy is expected to be better at a shorter wavelength. Otherwise, for the dark skin model, thermal confinement is poorly achieved as the wavelength decreases (<808 nm) and the temperature gap between the hair tip and the hair root is significantly large compared with the light skin model, which may lead to adverse effects. We believe that the developed numerical model will help to establish optimal laser parameters for different individuals during laser hair removal.

  15. Cutaneous lesions of the external ear

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Michael; Sand, Daniel; Brors, Dominik; Altmeyer, Peter; Mann, Benno; Bechara, Falk G

    2008-01-01

    Skin diseases on the external aspect of the ear are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, othorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners, general and plastic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the ear. This article will focus on those diseases wherefore surgery or laser therapy is considered as a possible treatment option or which are potentially subject to surgical evaluation. PMID:18261212

  16. Assessment of model land skin temperature and surface-atmosphere coupling using remotely sensed estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, Isabel; Boussetta, Souhail; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Viterbo, Pedro; Beljaars, Anton; Sandu, Irina

    2016-04-01

    The coupling between land surface and the atmosphere is a key feature in Earth System Modelling for exploiting the predictability of slowly evolving geophysical variables (e.g., soil moisture or vegetation state), and for correctly representing rapid variations within the diurnal cycle, particularly relevant in data assimilation applications. Land Surface Temperature (LST) routinely estimated from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) by the LandSAF is used to assess the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) skin temperature. LST can be interpreted as a radiative temperature of the model surface, which is close to the ECMWF modelled skin temperature. It is shown that the model tends to slightly overestimate skin temperature during night-time and underestimate daytime values. Such underestimation of daily amplitudes is particularly pronounced in (semi-)arid regions, suggesting a misrepresentation of surface energy fluxes in those areas. The LST estimated from MSG is used to evaluate the impact of changes in some of the ECMWF model surface parameters. The introduction of more realistic model vegetation is shown to have a positive, but limited impact on skin temperature: long integration leads to an equilibrium state where changes in the latent heat flux and soil moisture availability compensate each other. Revised surface roughness lengths for heat and momentum, however, lead to overall positive impact on daytime skin temperature, mostly due to a reduction of sensible heat flux. This is particularly relevant in non-vegetated areas, unaffected by model vegetation. The reduction of skin conductivity, a parameter which controls the heat transfer to ground by diffusion, is shown to further improve the model skin temperature. A revision of the vertical soil discretization is also expected to improve the match to the LST, particularly over sparsely vegetated areas. The impact of a finer discretization (10-layer soil) is currently ongoing; preliminary

  17. Seeing the body produces limb-specific modulation of skin temperature.

    PubMed

    Sadibolova, Renata; Longo, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    Vision of the body, even when non-informative about stimulation, affects somatosensory processing. We investigated whether seeing the body also modulates autonomic control in the periphery by measuring skin temperature while manipulating vision. Using a mirror box, the skin temperature was measured from left hand dorsum while participants: (i) had the illusion of seeing their left hand, (ii) had the illusion of seeing an object at the same location or (iii) looked directly at their contralateral right hand. Skin temperature of the left hand increased when participants had the illusion of directly seeing that hand but not in the other two view conditions. In experiment 2, participants viewed directly their left or right hand, or the box while we recorded both hand dorsum temperatures. Temperature increased in the viewed hand but not the contralateral hand. These results show that seeing the body produces limb-specific modulation of thermal regulation.

  18. Epidermal photonic devices for quantitative imaging of temperature and thermal transport characteristics of the skin.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Zhang, Yihui; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Jia, Lin; Jang, Kyung-In; Webb, R Chad; Fu, Haoran; Shi, Yan; Zhou, Guoyan; Shi, Luke; Shah, Deesha; Huang, Xian; Xu, Baoxing; Yu, Cunjiang; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2014-09-19

    Characterization of temperature and thermal transport properties of the skin can yield important information of relevance to both clinical medicine and basic research in skin physiology. Here we introduce an ultrathin, compliant skin-like, or 'epidermal', photonic device that combines colorimetric temperature indicators with wireless stretchable electronics for thermal measurements when softly laminated on the skin surface. The sensors exploit thermochromic liquid crystals patterned into large-scale, pixelated arrays on thin elastomeric substrates; the electronics provide means for controlled, local heating by radio frequency signals. Algorithms for extracting patterns of colour recorded from these devices with a digital camera and computational tools for relating the results to underlying thermal processes near the skin surface lend quantitative value to the resulting data. Application examples include non-invasive spatial mapping of skin temperature with milli-Kelvin precision (±50 mK) and sub-millimetre spatial resolution. Demonstrations in reactive hyperaemia assessments of blood flow and hydration analysis establish relevance to cardiovascular health and skin care, respectively.

  19. Epidermal photonic devices for quantitative imaging of temperature and thermal transport characteristics of the skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li; Zhang, Yihui; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Jia, Lin; Jang, Kyung-In; Chad Webb, R.; Fu, Haoran; Shi, Yan; Zhou, Guoyan; Shi, Luke; Shah, Deesha; Huang, Xian; Xu, Baoxing; Yu, Cunjiang; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2014-09-01

    Characterization of temperature and thermal transport properties of the skin can yield important information of relevance to both clinical medicine and basic research in skin physiology. Here we introduce an ultrathin, compliant skin-like, or ‘epidermal’, photonic device that combines colorimetric temperature indicators with wireless stretchable electronics for thermal measurements when softly laminated on the skin surface. The sensors exploit thermochromic liquid crystals patterned into large-scale, pixelated arrays on thin elastomeric substrates; the electronics provide means for controlled, local heating by radio frequency signals. Algorithms for extracting patterns of colour recorded from these devices with a digital camera and computational tools for relating the results to underlying thermal processes near the skin surface lend quantitative value to the resulting data. Application examples include non-invasive spatial mapping of skin temperature with milli-Kelvin precision (±50 mK) and sub-millimetre spatial resolution. Demonstrations in reactive hyperaemia assessments of blood flow and hydration analysis establish relevance to cardiovascular health and skin care, respectively.

  20. The effects of sodium oxybate on core body and skin temperature regulation in narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, Astrid; Donjacour, Claire E H M; Pijl, Hanno; Reijntjes, Robert H A M; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Lammers, Gert J; Van Someren, Eus J W; Fronczek, Rolf

    2015-10-01

    Patients suffering from narcolepsy type 1 show altered skin temperatures, resembling the profile that is related to sleep onset in healthy controls. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of sodium oxybate, a widely used drug to treat narcolepsy, on the 24-h profiles of temperature and sleep-wakefulness in patients with narcolepsy and controls. Eight hypocretin-deficient male narcolepsy type 1 patients and eight healthy matched controls underwent temperature measurement of core body and proximal and distal skin twice, and the sleep-wake state for 24 h. After the baseline assessment, 2 × 3 g of sodium oxybate was administered for 5 nights, immediately followed by the second assessment. At baseline, daytime core body temperature and proximal skin temperature were significantly lower in patients with narcolepsy (core: 36.8 ± 0.05 °C versus 37.0 ± 0.05 °C, F = 8.31, P = 0.01; proximal: 33.4 ± 0.26 °C versus 34.3 ± 0.26 °C, F = 5.66, P = 0.03). In patients, sodium oxybate administration increased proximal skin temperature during the day (F = 6.46, P = 0.04) to a level similar as in controls, but did not affect core body temperature, distal temperature or distal-proximal temperature gradient. Sodium oxybate administration normalised the predictive value of distal skin temperature and distal-proximal temperature gradient for the onset of daytime naps (P < 0.01). In conclusion, sodium oxybate administration resulted in a partial normalisation of the skin temperature profile, by increasing daytime proximal skin temperature, and by strengthening the known relationship between skin temperature and daytime sleep propensity. These changes seem to be related to the clinical improvement induced by sodium oxybate treatment. A causal relationship is not proven.

  1. Cosmetic ear surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...

  2. Cooling-sensitive TRPM8 is thermostat of skin temperature against cooling.

    PubMed

    Tajino, Koji; Hosokawa, Hiroshi; Maegawa, Shingo; Matsumura, Kiyoshi; Dhaka, Ajay; Kobayashi, Shigeo

    2011-03-02

    We have shown that cutaneous cooling-sensitive receptors can work as thermostats of skin temperature against cooling. However, molecule of the thermostat is not known. Here, we studied whether cooling-sensitive TRPM8 channels act as thermostats. TRPM8 in HEK293 cells generated output (y) when temperature (T) was below threshold of 28.4°C. Output (y) is given by two equations: At T >28.4°C, y = 0; At T <28.4°C, y  =  -k(T - 28.4°C). These equations show that TRPM8 is directional comparator to elicits output (y) depending on negative value of thermal difference (ΔT  =  T - 28.4°C). If negative ΔT-dependent output of TRPM8 in the skin induces responses to warm the skin for minimizing ΔT recursively, TRPM8 acts as thermostats against cooling. With TRPM8-deficient mice, we explored whether TRPM8 induces responses to warm the skin against cooling. In behavioral regulation, when room temperature was 10°C, TRPM8 induced behavior to move to heated floor (35°C) for warming the sole skin. In autonomic regulation, TRPM8 induced activities of thermogenic brown adipose tissue (BAT) against cooling. When menthol was applied to the whole trunk skin at neutral room temperature (27°C), TRPM8 induced a rise in core temperature, which warmed the trunk skin slightly. In contrast, when room was cooled from 27 to 10°C, TRPM8 induced a small rise in core temperature, but skin temperature was severely reduced in both TRPM8-deficient and wild-type mice by a large heat leak to the surroundings. This shows that TRPM8-driven endothermic system is less effective for maintenance of skin temperature against cooling. In conclusion, we found that TRPM8 is molecule of thermostat of skin temperature against cooling.

  3. Investigating the underlying mechanisms of temperature-related skin diseases in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., as measured by quantitative histology, skin transcriptomics and composition.

    PubMed

    Jensen, L B; Boltana, S; Obach, A; McGurk, C; Waagbø, R; MacKenzie, S

    2015-11-01

    Skin integrity is recognized as of vital consideration for both animal welfare and final product quality of farmed fish. This study examines the effects of three different rearing temperatures (4, 10 and 16 °C) on the skin of healthy Atlantic salmon post-smolts. Changes in skin condition were assessed by the means of skin composition analyses, quantitative histology assessments and transcriptome analysis. Level of protein, vitamin C and vitamin E was significantly higher at 16 °C compared with 4 °C. Quantitative histology measurements showed that the epidermal thickness decreased from low to high temperature, whereas the epidermal area comprising mucous cells increased. The difference was only significant between 4 and 16 °C. Both high and low temperature exhibited significant changes in the skin transcriptome. A number of immune-related transcripts responded at both temperatures. Contrary to well-described immunosuppressive effects of low water temperature on systemic immunity, a subtle increase in skin-mediated immunity was observed, suggesting a pre-activation of the mucosal system at 4 °C. Upregulation of a number of heat-shock proteins correlating with a decrease in epidermal thickness suggested a stress response in the skin at high temperature. The results demonstrate distinctive temperature-related effects on the skin of Atlantic salmon.

  4. Different responses of the skin temperature to physical exercise: Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Neves, Eduardo B; Vilaca-Alves, Jose; Antunes, Natacha; Felisberto, Ivo M V; Rosa, Claudio; Reis, Victor M

    2015-08-01

    Studies suggest that skin temperature behavior varies according to the type of exercise, intensity, duration, muscle mass and subcutaneous fat layer. In this sense, the aim of this study was to investigate the skin temperature behavior in the active muscles and other body segments, during and after exercise, according to the type and intensity of the exercise. A systematic literature review was conducted between November 2014 and March 2015 in the Web of Science database, using the terms "thermography" and "exercise" and "muscle" to achieve the objective of this study. During the research were found 55 scientific articles which were subjected to a selection process. Inclusion criteria were: Studies in human beings and original research. The exclusion criterion was the presence of subjects with some kind of disease. The seven papers that make up the present review are dated between 2008 and 2015. From all analyzed studies, it was possible to understand the general behavior of the active muscle skin temperature during the exercise, immediately after and in the 48h after exercise, according to the type and intensity of the exercise performed, which are illustrated in two figures. It can be concluded that the skin temperature over active muscles increases during high intensity anaerobic exercise, decreases slowly after exercise and increases again in the days after the exercise. On the other hand, during low intensity aerobic exercise, skin temperature over active muscles decreases, returning to normal values a few minutes after it and present a small rise in the following days. With regard to the skin temperature over non-active muscles, it can be seen that it decreases during exercise, returning to normal values a few minutes after it and rise similarly to the skin temperature over active muscles in the following days, in all types of exercises studied.

  5. Wheelchair cushion effect on skin temperature, heat flux, and relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Stewart, S F; Palmieri, V; Cochran, G V

    1980-05-01

    For patients subject to decubitus ulcers, wheelchair cushions should be prescribed with knowledge of the cushion's effect on the thermal as well as mechanical environment of the skin. To define thermal effects that may be encountered during routine use, tests werr made on 24 commercially available cushions. Skin temperature, heat flux and relative humidity were measured under the ischial tuberosities of a normal 24-year-old man during a 1-hour period of sitting on each cushion. After 1 hour, skin temperatures increased by means of 3.4 C and 2.8 C on foams and viscoelastic foams and there were slight decreases in heat flux as compared with control values in air. On gels, skin temperatures remained constant and heat flux increased, while water "floatation" pads caused a mean skin temperature decreased of 2.7 C along with a marked increase in heat flux. Relative humidity at the skin cushion interface increased by 10.4%, 22.8% and 19.8% on foams, gels and water floatation pads, as compared with room air values. Representative cushions from each of the general types (foam, viscoelastic foam, gel and water floatation) also were subjected to 2-hour tests which indicated the measured parameters continued to change asymptotically.

  6. Skin temperature increase mediated by wearable, long duration, low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Matthew D.; Huang, Wenyi; Ghanem, Angi; Guo, Yuan; Lewis, George K.

    2017-03-01

    One of the safety concerns with the delivery of therapeutic ultrasound is overheating of the transducer-skin interface due to poor or improper coupling. The objective of this research was to define a model that could be used to calculate the heating in the skin as a result of a novel, wearable long-duration ultrasound device. This model was used to determine that the maximum heating in the skin remained below the minimum threshold necessary to cause thermal injury over multiple hours of use. In addition to this model data, a human clinical study used wire thermocouples on the skin surface to measure heating characteristics during treatment with the sustained ultrasound system. Parametric analysis of the model determined that the maximum temperature increase is at the surface of the skin ranged from 40-41.8° C when perfusion was taken into account. The clinical data agreed well with the model predictions. The average steady state temperature observed across all 44 subjects was 40°C. The maximum temperature observed was less than 44° C, which is clinically safe for over 5 hours of human skin contact. The resultant clinical temperature data paired well with the model data suggesting the model can be used for future transducer and ultrasound system design simulation. As a result, the device was validated for thermal safety for typical users and use conditions.

  7. Ontogeny and aging of the distal skin temperature rhythm in humans.

    PubMed

    Batinga, H; Martinez-Nicolas, A; Zornoza-Moreno, M; Sánchez-Solis, M; Larqué, E; Mondéjar, M T; Moreno-Casbas, M; García, F J; Campos, M; Rol, M A; Madrid, J A

    2015-01-01

    In circadian terms, human ontogeny is characterized by the emergence of a daily pattern, from a previous ultradian pattern, for most variables during the first 6 months of life. Circadian aging in humans is characterized by a phase advance, accompanied by rhythm fragmentation and flattening. Despite an expanding body of literature focused on distal skin temperature, little information is available about the ontogeny and practically nothing about age-related changes in this rhythm. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the degree of maturation and aging of the circadian pattern of distal skin temperature to identify those parameters that are modified throughout life and could be used to differentiate subjects according to their age. For this, distal skin temperature was measured in 197 volunteers (55 % women), including babies aged 15 days (30 subjects), 1 month (28 subjects), 3 months (31 subjects), and 6 months (10 subjects); young adults aged 19 years (37 subjects); middle-aged persons aged 46 years (27 subjects); older people aged 72 (34 subjects). Circadian system maturation was associated with an increase in amplitude and a reduction in skin temperature during sleep. During adulthood, women showed a more robust pattern (lower fragmentation, and higher night-time temperature, amplitude, circadian function index, and first harmonic relative power); however, these differences were lost with aging, a period of life that was consistently associated with a phase advance of the rhythm. In summary, distal skin temperature pattern can be used as a robust variable to discern between different ages throughout the life.

  8. Implementation of Coupled Skin Temperature Analysis and Bias Correction in a Global Atmospheric Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radakovich, Jon; Bosilovich, M.; Chern, Jiun-dar; daSilva, Arlindo

    2004-01-01

    The NASA/NCAR Finite Volume GCM (fvGCM) with the NCAR CLM (Community Land Model) version 2.0 was integrated into the NASA/GMAO Finite Volume Data Assimilation System (fvDAS). A new method was developed for coupled skin temperature assimilation and bias correction where the analysis increment and bias correction term is passed into the CLM2 and considered a forcing term in the solution to the energy balance. For our purposes, the fvDAS CLM2 was run at 1 deg. x 1.25 deg. horizontal resolution with 55 vertical levels. We assimilate the ISCCP-DX (30 km resolution) surface temperature product. The atmospheric analysis was performed 6-hourly, while the skin temperature analysis was performed 3-hourly. The bias correction term, which was updated at the analysis times, was added to the skin temperature tendency equation at every timestep. In this presentation, we focus on the validation of the surface energy budget at the in situ reference sites for the Coordinated Enhanced Observation Period (CEOP). We will concentrate on sites that include independent skin temperature measurements and complete energy budget observations for the month of July 2001. In addition, MODIS skin temperature will be used for validation. Several assimilations were conducted and preliminary results will be presented.

  9. Changes of skin temperature of parts of the body and serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in type-2 diabetes mellitus Indian patients.

    PubMed

    Anburajan, M; Sivanandam, S; Bidyarasmi, S; Venkatraman, B; Menaka, M; Raj, Baldev

    2011-01-01

    In India, number of people with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) would be 87 million by the year 2030. DM disturbs autonomic regulation of skin micro-circulation, and causes decrease in resting blood flows through the skin. The skin blood flow has a major effect on its temperature. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes of skin temperature of all parts of the body and serum asymmetric dimethylarginine, ADMA (μmol/L) in type-2 DM Indian patients. Group-I: Normal (n = 17; M/F: 10/15, mean ± SD = 43.2 ± 9.4 years); Group-II: Type-2 DM without cardiovascular (CV) complications (n = 15; M/F: 10/7, mean ± SD = 46.3 ± 14.0 years); Thermograms of all parts of the body were acquired using a non-contact infrared (IR) thermography camera (ThermaCAM T400, FLIR Systems, Sweden). Blood parameters and thyroid hormone were measured biochemically. Indian diabetic risk score (IDRS) was calculated for each subject. In type-2 DM patients without CV group (n = 15), there was a statistically significant (p = 0.01) negative correlations between HbA(1c) and skin temperature of eye and nose (r = -0.57 and r = -0.55 respectively). ADMA was correlated significantly (p = 0.01) with HbA(1c) (r = 0.65) and estimated average glucose, eAG (r = 0.63). In normal subjects, mean minimum and maximum values of skin temperatures were observed at posterior side of sole (26.89 °C) and ear (36.85 °C) respectively. In type-2 DM without CV, mean values of skin temperature in different parts of the body from head to toe were lesser than those values in control group; but this decreases were statistically significant in nose (32.66 Vs 33.99 °C, p = 0.024) as well as in tibia (32.78 Vs 33.13 °C, p = 0.036) regions.

  10. Time required to document temperature by electronic skin thermometer in a healthy neonate.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ananada Shankar; Chowdhury, T; Bandhopadhya, D; Ghosh, Gautam

    2009-12-01

    We studied the actual time taken to document temperature in a stable neonate by an electronic digital skin thermometer with automatic time beeper. We studied 100 neonates after initial stabilization. The mean time required for documenting the temperature by a electronic thermometer in axilla was 56.34+/-1.54 secs for term neonates (>2500g) and 54.87+/-1.23 secs for low birth weight (<2500g). The skin temperature measured simultaneously by the ordinary mercury thermometer kept for traditional 3 minutes supported the electronic measurement (P < 0.01).

  11. High Skin Temperature and Hypohydration Impair Aerobic Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    SkBF (I min-1) 38 30 8 1.1 38 32 6 1.5 38 34 4 2.2 38 36 2 4.4 39 30 9 1~ 39 32 7 1.3 39 34 5 1.8 39 36 3 2.9 * Equation for skin blood flow...significantly after 20 min of cycling when Tc was similar in both trials ( "-󈧪oC), while Tsk was already >5°C higher in the heat. Performance...common and not associated with reduced performance. Although Tsk was not measured, the Tsk prediction equation of Adams ( 1977) for outdoor running in

  12. Ambient temperature affects glabrous skin vasculature and sweating responses to mental task in humans.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Naoyuki; Someya, Nami; Hirooka, Yoshitaka; Koga, Shunsaku

    2008-09-01

    We compared responses in heart rate (HR), mean blood pressure (MAP), sweating rate (SR), sweating expulsion (SwE), and skin vascular conductance (VC) to mental task among different ambient temperature (Ta) conditions, i.e., 12, 16, 20, and 24 degrees C. Seven subjects (27+/-5 yrs, 64+/-14 kg) underwent a 2-min color word conflict test (CWT) after 2 mins of baseline data acquisition following a 20-min resting period. All subjects wore long sleeve shirts and long pants. The skin blood flow was measured with a laser Doppler probe on the left index finger pulp to calculate skin VC, and the SR and sweating expulsion (SwE) were measured with a ventilated capsule on the left thenar. CWT significantly increased the HR and MAP, while there was no significant effect of Ta on the magnitudes of these responses. CWT significantly decreased the skin VC when the Ta was 24 degrees C, whereas it significantly increased the skin VC when the Ta was 12 or 16 degrees C. CWT significantly increased SR and SwE in all Ta conditions, and the SwE was greater in warmer conditions. These findings suggest that different ambient temperatures induce different responses in finger skin vasculature to mental task, implying the independent response of cutaneous vasomotor tone and sweat glands in glabrous skin to mental task.

  13. Skin temperature profiles on the human chest and in the wrist area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissilae, Seppo M.; Ahola, Onni; Heikkilae, Ilkka; Ruha, Antti; Kopola, Harri K.

    1996-01-01

    Skin temperatures on the chest and in the wrist area are interesting for continuous monitoring because they can be easily instrumented using an elastic belt or wristband which do not hamper movement in sports, for example. An infrared thermograph camera and NTC thermistors were used to take temperature profiles at these sensing points with a resolution of 0.1 degrees Celsius, and colored thermograms were used to analyze and compare the results. The effect of environmental changes on the skin temperature in the wrist area was studied by cooling and heating the fingers in water at 10 degrees Celsius and 40 degrees Celsius, and the effects of a loading situation on the chest area and wrist area were tested by means of a 30 min bicycle ergometer exercise. NTC thermistors were also used to measure wrist and chest temperatures in two environmental tests at minus 10 degrees Celsius and plus 60 degrees Celsius. Cooling of the fingers naturally reduces the skin temperature in the wrist area and heating increases it due to the venous circulation. The area of the radial artery in the wrist seems to be the most stable temperature point, altering by only about 2 degrees Celsius, whereas the temperature change at other points is up to 4 degrees Celsius. The bicycle ergometer exercise caused a decrease in skin temperature on the chest because of sweating. At the same time the skin temperature on the wrist decreased by about 1.5 degrees Celsius after the first 20 minutes and then returned to its previous level. The area of the radial artery in the wrist seems to be an attractive point for continuous temperature monitoring, especially under normal conditions, and also seems to reflect body temperature quite well upon loading and under different environmental conditions.

  14. Relationship between skin temperature and muscle activation during incremental cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Priego Quesada, Jose I; Carpes, Felipe P; Bini, Rodrigo R; Salvador Palmer, Rosario; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, Rosa M

    2015-02-01

    While different studies showed that better fitness level adds to the efficiency of the thermoregulatory system, the relationship between muscular effort and skin temperature is still unknown. Therefore, the present study assessed the relationship between neuromuscular activation and skin temperature during cycle exercise. Ten physically active participants performed an incremental workload cycling test to exhaustion while neuromuscular activations were recorded (via surface electromyography - EMG) from rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius medialis. Thermographic images were recorded before, immediately after and 10 min after finishing the cycling test, at four body regions of interest corresponding to the muscles where neuromuscular activations were monitored. Frequency band analysis was conducted to assess spectral properties of EMG signals in order to infer on priority in recruitment of motor units. Significant inverse relationship between changes in skin temperature and changes in overall neuromuscular activation for vastus lateralis was observed (r<-0.5 and p<0.04). Significant positive relationship was observed between skin temperature and low frequency components of neuromuscular activation from vastus lateralis (r>0.7 and p<0.01). Participants with larger overall activation and reduced low frequency component for vastus lateralis activation presented a better adaptive response of their thermoregulatory system by showing fewer changes in skin temperature after incremental cycling test.

  15. Skin temperature, thermal comfort, sweating, clothing and activity of men sledging in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Budd, G. M.

    1966-01-01

    1. Three men were studied while dog-sledging 320 km in 12 days in Antarctica. Conventional Antarctic clothing (`sweaters and windproofs') was worn. Four hundred observations were made of medial thigh skin temperature, thermal comfort, sweating, clothing, activity and environmental conditions. 2. Work occupied an average of 11·0 hr/day and sleep 7·5 hr. Estimated daily energy expenditure averaged 5100 kcal (range 2740-6660 kcal). 3. Skin temperature fell on exposure to cold despite the clothing worn, but was not changed by the level of activity. Sweating, and thermal comfort, were directly related to both skin temperature and activity. 4. Inside the tent, the modal value of skin temperature was 33° C (range 27-36° C) and the men were comfortable in 94% of observations. 5. During the 9·2 hr/day spent outdoors the modal value of skin temperature was 27° C (range 18-33° C) and the men felt too cold (but did not shiver) in 11% (range 7-20%) of observations, suggesting that cold stress was not negligible. However, they also felt too hot in 20% of observations and were sweating in 23%. PMID:5914254

  16. Relationship of skin temperature to sympathetic dysfunction in diabetic at-risk feet.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pi-Chang; Lin, Hong-Da; Jao, Shyh-Hua Eric; Ku, Yan-Chiou; Chan, Rai-Chi; Cheng, Cheng-Kung

    2006-07-01

    The relationship of plantar skin temperature to diabetic neuropathy was studied using clinical, nerve conduction and autonomic evaluations. The sympathetic skin response (SSR) was found present in both feet of 25 control subjects and 29 (out of 69) diabetic patients (SSR+ group). For those diabetic patients absent with the SSR in both feet, 18 patients (at-risk group) had preulcerative skin lesions (dry and fissured skin) and 22 did not (SSR- group). The at-risk group showed significantly higher mean foot temperature (30.2+/-1.3 degrees Celsius) than the SSR- (27.9+/-1.7 degrees Celsius), the SSR+ (27.1+/-2.0 degrees Celsius) and the control group (26.8+/-1.8 degrees Celsius). The SSR- group had smaller temperature differences (7.2+/-1.7 degrees Celsius versus 8.6+/-1.6 degrees Celsius, p<0.05) and smaller normalized temperature (referencing to the forehead temperature) (0.19 versus 0.24, p<0.01) than the SSR+ group. Although the three diabetic groups had no significant differences in clinical and cardiovascular abnormalities, the at-risk group showed more nerve conduction abnormalities than the SSR- and SSR+ groups (55% versus 23% and 14%, p<0.02). This study indicated that the thermoregulatory sweating abnormality signified early sympathetic damage in diabetic feet. Assessing skin conditions and sudomotor activities should help identify small fiber neuropathy in diabetic patients with at-risk feet conditions.

  17. Integrating a human thermoregulatory model with a clothing model to predict core and skin temperatures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Weng, Wenguo; Wang, Faming; Song, Guowen

    2017-05-01

    This paper aims to integrate a human thermoregulatory model with a clothing model to predict core and skin temperatures. The human thermoregulatory model, consisting of an active system and a passive system, was used to determine the thermoregulation and heat exchanges within the body. The clothing model simulated heat and moisture transfer from the human skin to the environment through the microenvironment and fabric. In this clothing model, the air gap between skin and clothing, as well as clothing properties such as thickness, thermal conductivity, density, porosity, and tortuosity were taken into consideration. The simulated core and mean skin temperatures were compared to the published experimental results of subject tests at three levels of ambient temperatures of 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C. Although lower signal-to-noise-ratio was observed, the developed model demonstrated positive performance at predicting core temperatures with a maximum difference between the simulations and measurements of no more than 0.43 °C. Generally, the current model predicted the mean skin temperatures with reasonable accuracy. It could be applied to predict human physiological responses and assess thermal comfort and heat stress.

  18. Thermal imaging of exercise-associated skin temperature changes in trained and untrained female subjects.

    PubMed

    Formenti, Damiano; Ludwig, Nicola; Gargano, Marco; Gondola, Marco; Dellerma, Nicoletta; Caumo, Andrea; Alberti, Giampietro

    2013-04-01

    Heat dissipation during sport exercise is an important physiological mechanism that may influence athletic performance. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that differences exist in the dynamics of exercise-associated skin temperature changes between trained and untrained subjects. We investigated thermoregulation of a local muscle area (muscle-tendon unit) involved in a localized steady-load exercise (standing heels raise) using infrared thermography. Seven trained female subjects and seven untrained female controls were studied. Each subject performed standing heels raise exercise for 2 min. Thermal images were recorded prior to exercise (1 min), during exercise (2 min), and after exercise (7 min). The analysis of thermal images provided the skin temperature time course, which was characterized by a set of descriptive parameters. Two-way ANOVA for repeated measures detected a significant interaction (p = 0.03) between group and time, thus indicating that athletic subjects increased their skin temperature differently with respect to untrained subjects. This was confirmed by comparing the parameters describing the speed of rise of skin temperature. It was found that trained subjects responded to exercise more quickly than untrained controls (p < 0.05). In conclusion, physical training improves the ability to rapidly elevate skin temperature in response to a localized exercise in female subjects.

  19. Milestones in the History of Ear Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Berghaus, Alexander; Nicoló, Marion San

    2015-12-01

    The reconstruction of ear deformities has been challenging plastic surgeons since centuries. However, it is only in the 19th century that reports on partial and total ear reconstruction start increasing. In the quest for an aesthetically pleasing and natural-looking result, surgeons worked on the perfect framework and skin coverage. Different materials and flap techniques have evolved. Some were abandoned out of frustration, while others kept evolving over the years. In this article, we discuss the milestones in ear reconstruction-from ancient times to early attempts in Western civilization to the key chapters of ear reconstruction in the 20th century leading to the current techniques.

  20. Thermal time constant: optimising the skin temperature predictive modelling in lower limb prostheses using Gaussian processes

    PubMed Central

    Buis, Arjan

    2016-01-01

    Elevated skin temperature at the body/device interface of lower-limb prostheses is one of the major factors that affect tissue health. The heat dissipation in prosthetic sockets is greatly influenced by the thermal conductive properties of the hard socket and liner material employed. However, monitoring of the interface temperature at skin level in lower-limb prosthesis is notoriously complicated. This is due to the flexible nature of the interface liners used which requires consistent positioning of sensors during donning and doffing. Predicting the residual limb temperature by monitoring the temperature between socket and liner rather than skin and liner could be an important step in alleviating complaints on increased temperature and perspiration in prosthetic sockets. To predict the residual limb temperature, a machine learning algorithm – Gaussian processes is employed, which utilizes the thermal time constant values of commonly used socket and liner materials. This Letter highlights the relevance of thermal time constant of prosthetic materials in Gaussian processes technique which would be useful in addressing the challenge of non-invasively monitoring the residual limb skin temperature. With the introduction of thermal time constant, the model can be optimised and generalised for a given prosthetic setup, thereby making the predictions more reliable. PMID:27695626

  1. The effect of skin temperature on performance during a 7.5-km cycling time trial.

    PubMed

    Levels, Koen; de Koning, Jos J; Foster, Carl; Daanen, Hein A M

    2012-09-01

    Aerobic exercise performance is seriously compromised in the heat. Possibly, a high skin temperature causes a rating of perceived exertion (RPE)-mediated decrease in exercise intensity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of skin temperature on power output during a 7.5-km cycling time trial. Thirteen well-trained male subjects performed a 7.5-km cycling time trial at 15°C and 50% relative humidity (CONTROL), with radiative heat stress during the time trial, and with (PRECOOL) or without (HEAT) precooling. Heat stress was applied by infrared heaters positioned in front of the cycle ergometer between 1.5 and 6.0 km. Skin, rectal, and pill temperature, power output, heart rate, and RPE were measured during the trial. Despite the lower mean skin temperature at the start of the time trial for PRECOOL compared to HEAT (-2.1 ± 0.7°C; P < 0.01) and CONTROL (-1.8 ± 0.6°C; P < 0.05), and a greater increase in mean skin temperature during the heat stress period for PRECOOL (4.5 ± 1.0°C) and HEAT (3.9 ± 0.8°C) than for CONTROL (-0.3 ± 0.6°C; P < 0.01), no differences in power output were found between HEAT (273 ± 45 W) and CONTROL (284 ± 43 W; P = 0.11) and between HEAT and PRECOOL (266 ± 50 W; P = 0.47). Power output during the time trial was greater for CONTROL than for PRECOOL (P < 0.05). Additionally, no differences were observed in core temperature measures, HR, and RPE. Skin temperature does not affect the selection and modulation of exercise intensity in a 7.5-km cycling time trial.

  2. Facial cold-induced vasodilation and skin temperature during exposure to cold wind.

    PubMed

    Brajkovic, Dragan; Ducharme, Michel B

    2006-04-01

    One purpose of this study was to characterize the facial skin temperature and cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) response of 12 subjects (six males and six females) during exposure to cold wind (i.e., -10 to 10 degrees C; 2, 5, and 8 m/s wind speed). This study found that at each wind speed, facial skin temperature decreased as ambient temperature decreased. The percentage of subjects showing facial CIVD decreased significantly at an ambient temperature above -10 degrees C. A similar CIVD percentage was observed between 0 degrees C dry and 10 degrees C wet (face sprayed with fine water mist) at each wind speed. No CIVDs were observed during the 10 degrees C dry condition at any wind speed. The incidence of CIVD response was more uniform across facial sites when there was a greater cold stress (i.e., -10 degrees C and 8 m/s wind). Another objective of the study was to examine the effect of the thermal state of the body (as reflected by core temperature) on the facial skin temperature response during rest and exercise. This study found that nose skin temperature was significantly higher in exercising subjects with an elevated core temperature even though there was no significant difference in face skin temperature between the two conditions. Therefore, this finding suggests that acral regions of the face, such as the nose, are more sensitive to changes in the thermal state of the body, and hence will stay warmer relative to other parts of the face during exercise in the cold.

  3. Temperature and burn injury prediction of human skin exposed to microwaves: a model analysis.

    PubMed

    Ozen, Sukru; Helhel, Selcuk; Bilgin, Suleyman

    2011-08-01

    A one-dimensional multi-layer model is presented to characterize skin temperature rises and burn processes resulting from skin exposure to microwaves. Temperature variations and damage function analyses in the skin tissue exposed to microwaves were predicted depending on blood perfusion rate, thermal conductivity, power density, and exposure time. Thermal wave model was applied and the bio-heat transfer equation was solved using the finite difference time domain method. The thermal wave model of bio-heat transfer predicts a lower temperature rise than a model that uses Pennes' equation. When approaching steady state, the solutions overlaps with that obtained using the Pennes' equation. The results obtained may help to analyze the consequences of short-time high-power MW exposures in biological tissues.

  4. Characteristics of wettedness and equi-skin temperature line in the evaporative regulation region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochida, T.

    1983-07-01

    As a result of the analysis of physiological experimental data, the characteristics of the wettedness were clarified, i.e., the value of the wettedness is not constant but differs in accordance with the environmental humidity even when the skin temperature is the same, and it was shown that the evaporative heat loss from the skin surface is inversely proportional to the wetttedness. Based on the properties of the wetedness observed, a new thermal sensation chart in the evaporative regulation region was proposed as an index for evaluating the warmth or the coldness in the environment. The feature of the present chart is that the locus of the equal skin temperature appears as a curved line on the psychrometric chart and that the wettedness on the equi-skin temperature line is not constant but takes varying values. The curved equal skin temperature line means that the influence of the environmental humidity on thermal sensation becomes smaller as the humidity of the environmental humidity on thermal sensation becomes smaller as the humidity of the environment is lowered.

  5. An assessment of skin temperature gradients in a tropical primate using infrared thermography and subcutaneous implants.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Cynthia L; Scheidel, Caleb; Glander, Kenneth E; Williams, Susan H; Vinyard, Christopher J

    2017-01-01

    Infrared thermography has become a useful tool to assess surface temperatures of animals for thermoregulatory research. However, surface temperatures are an endpoint along the body's core-shell temperature gradient. Skin and fur are the peripheral tissues most exposed to ambient thermal conditions and are known to serve as thermosensors that initiate thermoregulatory responses. Yet relatively little is known about how surface temperatures of wild mammals measured by infrared thermography relate to subcutaneous temperatures. Moreover, this relationship may differ with the degree that fur covers the body. To assess the relationship between temperatures and temperature gradients in peripheral tissues between furred and bare areas, we collected data from wild mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in Costa Rica. We used infrared thermography to measure surface temperatures of the furred dorsum and bare facial areas of the body, recorded concurrent subcutaneous temperatures in the dorsum, and measured ambient thermal conditions via a weather station. Temperature gradients through cutaneous tissues (subcutaneous-surface temperature) and surface temperature gradients (surface-ambient temperature) were calculated. Our results indicate that there are differences in temperatures and temperature gradients in furred versus bare areas of mantled howlers. Under natural thermal conditions experienced by wild animals, the bare facial areas were warmer than temperatures in the furred dorsum, and cutaneous temperature gradients in the face were more variable than the dorsum, consistent with these bare areas acting as thermal windows. Cutaneous temperature gradients in the dorsum were more closely linked to subcutaneous temperatures, while facial temperature gradients were more heavily influenced by ambient conditions. These findings indicate that despite the insulative properties of fur, for mantled howling monkeys surface temperatures of furred areas still demonstrate a

  6. Effect of perspiration on skin temperature measurements by infrared thermography and contact thermometry during aerobic cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priego Quesada, Jose Ignacio; Martínez Guillamón, Natividad; Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, Rosa M.a.; Psikuta, Agnes; Annaheim, Simon; Rossi, René Michel; Corberán Salvador, José Miguel; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Salvador Palmer, Rosario

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare infrared thermography and thermal contact sensors for measuring skin temperature during cycling in a moderate environment. Fourteen cyclists performed a 45-min cycling test at 50% of peak power output. Skin temperatures were simultaneously recorded by infrared thermography and thermal contact sensors before and immediately after cycling activity as well as after 10 min cooling-down, representing different skin wetness and blood perfusion states. Additionally, surface temperature during well controlled dry and wet heat exchange (avoiding thermoregulatory responses) using a hot plate system was assessed by infrared thermography and thermal contact sensors. In human trials, the inter-method correlation coefficient was high when measured before cycling (r = 0.92) whereas it was reduced immediately after the cycling (r = 0.82) and after the cooling-down phase (r = 0.59). Immediately after cycling, infrared thermography provided lower temperature values than thermal contact sensors whereas it presented higher temperatures after the cooling-down phase. Comparable results as in human trials were observed for hot plate tests in dry and wet states. Results support the application of infrared thermography for measuring skin temperature in exercise scenarios where perspiration does not form a water film.

  7. The effect of change in skin temperature due to evaporative cooling on sweating response during exercise.

    PubMed

    Kondo, N; Nakadome, M; Zhang, K; Shiojiri, T; Shibasaki, M; Hirata, K; Iwata, A

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are any effects of skin temperature changes on sweating response in the first few minutes of mild exercise. Six healthy males performed a bicycle exercise at 100 W (50 rpm) for 30 min under an ambient temperature of 23 degrees C (40% RH). Esophageal temperature (Tes), mean skin temperature (Tsk), local skin temperature at the lower left scapula (Tsl), local sweating rate (Msw) and cutaneous blood flow by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) were measured continuously. Although Tsl decreased markedly just after the onset of sweating, Tsk did not change. Msw did not increase constantly in the early stages of exercise, and there was a temporary interruption in the increase of Msw. This interruption in sweating was affected by the rate of change in Tsl rather than by the absolute value of Tsl, since there was a positive and significant correlation between the time of the interruption in the increase of Msw and the rate of decrease in Tsl (y = 6.47 x +0.04; r = 0.86, P < 0.05). The results suggest that sweating response in the early stages of exercise may be influenced by changes in local skin temperature due to evaporative cooling.

  8. A generalized algorithm for retrieving cloudy sky skin temperature from satellite thermal infrared radiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Menglin; Dickinson, Robert E.

    2000-11-01

    A physical algorithm for calculating cloudy pixel skin temperature from its neighboring clear pixels is proposed generalizing that of Jin [2000]. Two neighboring pixels over the same land cover have a difference in temperature largely explained by surface insolation. Hence this algorithm starts from the surface energy balance equation (SEB) and expresses each energy term of SEB as a function of skin temperature. Then SEB is solved to derive cloudy pixel skin temperature from neighboring clear skin temperature plus a correction term determined by surface insolation, air temperature, and wind speed. This algorithm can be used for nights and winter hemisphere high latitudes where there is no surface insolation and is applicable to any surface where the principle of SEB is applicable. The algorithm is evaluated by using FIFE and BOREAS field experiments. Its global application has been examined through simulations with the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM) coupled with the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) simulations. The accuracy of the algorithm is encouraging: the rms error at a monthly pixel level is 1-2 K. Observed errors are greater when there is precipitation.

  9. The effect of change in skin temperature due to evaporative cooling on sweating response during exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, N.; Nakadome, Manabu; Zhang, Keren; Shiojiri, Tomoyuki; Shibasaki, Manabu; Hirata, Kozo; Iwata, Atsushi

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are any effects of skin temperature changes on sweating response in the first few minutes of mild exercise. Six healthy males performed a bicycle exercise at 100 W (50 rpm) for 30 min under an ambient temperature of 23° C (40% RH). Esophageal temperature (Tes), mean skin temperature (T-sk), local skin temperature at the lower left scapula (Tsl), local sweating rate (M.sw), and cutaneous blood flow by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) were measured continuously. Although Tsl decreased markedly just after the onset of sweating, T-sk did not change. M.sw did not increase constantly in the early stages of exercise, and there was a temporary interruption in the increase of M.sw. This interruption in sweating was affected by the rate of change in Tsl rather than by the absolute value of Tsl, since there was a positive and significant correlation between the time of the interruption in the increase of M.sw and the rate of decrease in Tsl (y=6.47x+0.04; r=0.86, P<0.05). The results suggest that sweating response in the early stages of exercise may be influenced by changes in local skin temperature due to evaporative cooling.

  10. Effects of Gloves, Temperature and Their Interaction on Finger, Hand, and Arm Blood Flow and Skin Temperature: A Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallbech, M. Susan

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of cold only, commercially available gloves only, and the combination of gloves and cold on the blood flow and surface (skin) temperature of the medial and proximal phalanxes of digit 3, the metacarpal region of the hand, and the forearm.

  11. The effect of environmental humidity and temperature on skin barrier function and dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Engebretsen, K A; Johansen, J D; Kezic, S; Linneberg, A; Thyssen, J P

    2016-02-01

    Physicians are aware that climatic conditions negatively affect the skin. In particular, people living in equator far countries such as the Northern parts of Europe and North America are exposed to harsh weather during the winter and may experience dry and itchy skin, or deterioration of already existing dermatoses. We searched the literature for studies that evaluated the mechanisms behind this phenomenon. Commonly used meteorological terms such as absolute humidity, relative humidity and dew point are explained. Furthermore, we review the negative effect of low humidity, low temperatures and different seasons on the skin barrier and on the risk of dermatitis. We conclude that low humidity and low temperatures lead to a general decrease in skin barrier function and increased susceptible towards mechanical stress. Since pro-inflammatory cytokines and cortisol are released by keratinocytes, and the number of dermal mast cells increases, the skin also becomes more reactive towards skin irritants and allergens. Collectively, published data show that cold and dry weather increase the prevalence and risk of flares in patients with atopic dermatitis.

  12. Multicenter study on the asymmetry of skin temperature in complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Chan Woo; Nahm, Francis Sahngun; Choi, Eunjoo; Lee, Pyung-Bok; Jang, In-Ki; Lee, Chul Joong; Kim, Yong Chul; Lee, Sang Chul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract According to the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) and American Medical Association (AMA), the diagnostic criteria for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) require the presence of skin temperature asymmetry. In CRPS, it is generally accepted that the temperature of skin of affected limbs changes from warm to cold; however, in our clinical practice, we have experienced many cases with different thermographic characteristics. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective multicenter study that examined the distribution of skin temperature in patients with CRPS and skin temperature asymmetry versus symptom duration. Patients diagnosed with type 1 or 2 CRPS were recruited. After confirming CRPS according to the IASP diagnostic criteria, infrared thermographic images were evaluated for skin temperature differences (ΔT) between the affected and unaffected limbs. A total of 296 patients with CRPS were included in this study. The median duration of symptoms was 6 months and the mean ± standard deviation of ΔT was –0.72 ± 1.65°C. A skin temperature difference between bilateral limbs (|ΔT|) of 1°C or less was seen in 131 patients (44.3%); thus, these 131 patients did not meet the IASP criteria for CRPS. Further, cool skin temperature was not observed in 88 patients (29.7%), meaning that these patients did not meet the AMA criteria for CRPS. There was no correlation between the symptom duration and ΔT (Spearman's rho = –0.075, P = 0.196) and there was no significant difference in the average ΔT among the 4 symptom duration groups (0–3 months, 4–6 months, 7–12 months, >12 months, P = 0.08). In conclusion, a considerable proportion of the patients that participated in this study did not meet the thermal criteria set forth by the IASP and AMA. Further, there was no correlation between symptom duration and skin temperature difference. PMID:28033251

  13. The effect of cushion properties on skin temperature and humidity at the body-support interface.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Tzu-Wen; Yang, Shu-Yu; Liu, Jung-Tai; Pan, Cheng-Tang; Yang, Yu-Sheng

    2016-09-29

    The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of various cushions on skin temperature and moisture at the body-seat interface during a 2-hour period of continuous sitting. Seventy-eight participants were randomly assigned to sit on one of the three types of wheelchair cushions for unrelieved sitting for over 2 hours. Skin temperature and relative humidity (RH) were measured under the subjects' ischial tuberosities and thighs bilaterally with digital temperature and humidity sensors. Data were collected before sitting and at 15-minute intervals thereafter. Participants sitting on foam-fluid hybrid cushions showed significantly lower skin temperatures than those sitting on air-filled and foam cushions (p < 0.05), but RH did not differ significantly among the cushions (p = 0.97). The three cushions produced a similar increasing trend in RH over time and RH reached a plateau during the 2-hour sitting period. To select the appropriate wheelchair cushion, the microclimate (heat and moisture control) between the body-seat interface should be considered as well as pressure distribution. In comparison with foam-fluid hybrid cushions, the air-filled rubber and foam cushions tended to increase skin temperature by several degrees after prolonged sitting. However, cushion materials did not have significant differences in moisture accumulations.

  14. Comparison of infrared versus contact thermometry for measuring skin temperature during exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Buono, Michael J; Jechort, Amy; Marques, Raquel; Smith, Carrie; Welch, Jessica

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of non-contact infrared thermometry to measure mean skin temperature in resting and exercising subjects in cold, thermo-neutral and hot environments. The subjects for the study were six healthy volunteers. Skin temperature was measured at three sites: the forearm, chest and calf on each subject using both contact thermistors and a non-contact infrared thermometer. Data were collected at rest and during exercise in three different air temperatures (15, 25 and 35 degrees C). The correlation of resting mean skin temperature using infrared thermometry and contact thermistors was r = 0.95, while the correlation obtained during exercise was r = 0.98. The results of the current study strongly suggest that infrared thermometry is a valid measure of skin temperature during rest and exercise in both hot and cold environments. It is hoped that the results of this study will encourage the use of non-contact infrared thermometry by both clinicians and exercise, environmental, and sleep researchers in the future.

  15. Transport lattice models of heat transport in skin with spatially heterogeneous, temperature-dependent perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Gowrishankar, TR; Stewart, Donald A; Martin, Gregory T; Weaver, James C

    2004-01-01

    Background Investigation of bioheat transfer problems requires the evaluation of temporal and spatial distributions of temperature. This class of problems has been traditionally addressed using the Pennes bioheat equation. Transport of heat by conduction, and by temperature-dependent, spatially heterogeneous blood perfusion is modeled here using a transport lattice approach. Methods We represent heat transport processes by using a lattice that represents the Pennes bioheat equation in perfused tissues, and diffusion in nonperfused regions. The three layer skin model has a nonperfused viable epidermis, and deeper regions of dermis and subcutaneous tissue with perfusion that is constant or temperature-dependent. Two cases are considered: (1) surface contact heating and (2) spatially distributed heating. The model is relevant to the prediction of the transient and steady state temperature rise for different methods of power deposition within the skin. Accumulated thermal damage is estimated by using an Arrhenius type rate equation at locations where viable tissue temperature exceeds 42°C. Prediction of spatial temperature distributions is also illustrated with a two-dimensional model of skin created from a histological image. Results The transport lattice approach was validated by comparison with an analytical solution for a slab with homogeneous thermal properties and spatially distributed uniform sink held at constant temperatures at the ends. For typical transcutaneous blood gas sensing conditions the estimated damage is small, even with prolonged skin contact to a 45°C surface. Spatial heterogeneity in skin thermal properties leads to a non-uniform temperature distribution during a 10 GHz electromagnetic field exposure. A realistic two-dimensional model of the skin shows that tissue heterogeneity does not lead to a significant local temperature increase when heated by a hot wire tip. Conclusions The heat transport system model of the skin was solved by

  16. Thermography for skin temperature evaluation during dynamic exercise: a case study on an incremental maximal test in elite male cyclists.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Nicola; Trecroci, Athos; Gargano, Marco; Formenti, Damiano; Bosio, Andrea; Rampinini, Ermanno; Alberti, Giampietro

    2016-12-01

    The use of thermal imaging in monitoring the dynamic of skin temperature during prolonged physical exercise is central to assess athletes' ability to dissipate heat from the skin surface to the environment. In this study, seven elite cyclists completed an incremental maximal cycling test to evaluate their skin temperature response under controlled-environment conditions. Thermal images have been analyzed using a method based on maxima detection (Tmax). Data confirmed a reduction in skin temperature due to vasoconstriction during the exercise, followed by a temperature increment after exhaustion. A characteristic hot-spotted thermal pattern was found over the skin surface in all subjects. This research confirmed also the notable ability by highly trained cyclists to modify skin temperature during an incremental muscular effort. This study gives additional contributions for understanding the capability of the Tmax method applied to the thermoregulatory physiological processes.

  17. Distributed landsurface skin temperature sensing in Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, N.; Baerenbold, F.; Nadeau, D. F.; Pardyjak, E.; Parlange, M. B.

    2010-12-01

    The ZyTemp TN9 is a mass-produced thermal infrared (TIR) sensor that is normally used to build handheld non-contact thermometers. The measurement principle of the TN9 is similar to that of very costly meteorological pyrgeometers. The costs of the TN9 are less than 10. The output of the TN9 consists of observed thermal radiation, the temperature of the measurement instrument, and the emissivity used. The output is provided through a Serial Peripheral Interface protocol. The TN9 was combined with an Arduino board that registered data onto a USB memory stick. A solar cell, lead acid battery, housing and stand completed the meausrement set up. Total costs per set was in the order of 200 Land surface atmosphere interactions in mountainous areas, such as the Swiss Alps, are spatially heterogeneous. Shading, multi-layer cloud formation, and up- and downdrafts make for a very dynamic exchange of mass and energy along and across slopes. In order to better understand these exchanges, the Swiss Slope Experiment at La Fouly (SELF) has built a distributed sensing network consisting of eight micro-met stations and two flux towers in the "La Fouly" watershed in the upper Alps. To obtain a better handle on surface temperature, fifteen TIR sensing stations were installed that made observations during the 2010 Summer. Methods and results will be presented. Overview La Fouly watershed (source: http://eflum.epfl.ch/research/images/fouly_2.jpg)

  18. Procedure of rectal temperature measurement affects brain, muscle, skin, and body temperatures and modulates the effects of intravenous cocaine.

    PubMed

    Bae, David D; Brown, P Leon; Kiyatkin, Eugene A

    2007-06-18

    Rectal probe thermometry is commonly used to measure body core temperature in rodents because of its ease of use. Although previous studies suggest that rectal measurement is stressful and results in long-lasting elevations in body temperatures, we evaluated how this procedure affects brain, muscle, skin, and core temperatures measured with chronically implanted thermocouple electrodes in rats. Our data suggest that the procedure of rectal measurement results in powerful locomotor activation, rapid and strong increases in brain, muscle, and deep body temperatures, as well as a biphasic, down-up fluctuation in skin temperature, matching the response pattern observed during tail-pinch, a representative stressful procedure. This response, moreover, did not habituate after repeated day-to-day testing. Repeated rectal probe insertions also modified temperature responses induced by intravenous cocaine. Under quiet resting conditions, cocaine moderately increased brain, muscle, and deep body temperatures. However, during repeated rectal measurements, which increased temperatures, cocaine induced both hyperthermic and hypothermic responses. Direct comparisons revealed that body temperatures measured by a rectal probe are typically lower (approximately 0.6 degrees C) and more variable than body temperatures recorded by chronically implanted electrodes; the difference is smaller at low and greater at high basal temperatures. Because of this difference and temperature increases induced by the rectal probe per se, cocaine had no significant effect on rectal temperatures compared to control animals exposed to repeated rectal probes. Therefore, although rectal temperature measurements provide a decent correlation with directly measured deep body temperatures, the arousing influence of this procedure may drastically modulate the effects of other arousing stimuli and drugs.

  19. Fingertip skin–inspired microstructured ferroelectric skins discriminate static/dynamic pressure and temperature stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jonghwa; Kim, Marie; Lee, Youngoh; Lee, Heon Sang; Ko, Hyunhyub

    2015-01-01

    In human fingertips, the fingerprint patterns and interlocked epidermal-dermal microridges play a critical role in amplifying and transferring tactile signals to various mechanoreceptors, enabling spatiotemporal perception of various static and dynamic tactile signals. Inspired by the structure and functions of the human fingertip, we fabricated fingerprint-like patterns and interlocked microstructures in ferroelectric films, which can enhance the piezoelectric, pyroelectric, and piezoresistive sensing of static and dynamic mechanothermal signals. Our flexible and microstructured ferroelectric skins can detect and discriminate between multiple spatiotemporal tactile stimuli including static and dynamic pressure, vibration, and temperature with high sensitivities. As proof-of-concept demonstration, the sensors have been used for the simultaneous monitoring of pulse pressure and temperature of artery vessels, precise detection of acoustic sounds, and discrimination of various surface textures. Our microstructured ferroelectric skins may find applications in robotic skins, wearable sensors, and medical diagnostic devices. PMID:26601303

  20. Wavelet-based correlations of skin temperature and blood flow oscillations.

    PubMed

    Podtaev, Sergey; Morozov, Matvey; Frick, Peter

    2008-09-01

    The wavelet transform-based correlation analysis has been used to study skin temperature fluctuations caused by periodic changes in blood flow resulting from oscillations in vasomotor smooth muscle tone. We considered two cases, one in which temperature measurements and blood flow recordings by laser Doppler flowmetry are made simultaneously and another in which two temperature signals are measured concurrently. Twelve healthy subjects participated in our study. The gapped wavelet technique was used to suppress artifacts caused by boundary effects. Simultaneous recordings of skin temperature fluctuations and the signal of the laser Doppler flowmeter provided correlation coefficients essentially exceeding the values obtained for noise signals within three spectral ranges corresponding to myogenic (0.05-0.14 Hz), neurogenic (0.02-0.05 Hz), and endothelial (0.0095-0.02 Hz) regulation mechanisms. Within the frequency range from 0.14 to 2 Hz the values of the correlation function are compatible with the values of noise correlations. The same results were obtained for two concurrently measured temperature signals. Reduction in the amplitude of temperature fluctuations and in the level of correlations with the frequency arises because the skin has the properties of a low-frequency filter. As temperature fluctuations propagate their amplitude decays as an exponential function of frequency. Hence small oscillations in the spectral range reflecting the influence of heartbeat and respiration cannot be distinguished from external thermal noise.

  1. Light and temperature effects on phenolics in dark-skinned grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past decade we refined our understanding of the effects of solar radiation and temperature on the accumulation of phenolic compounds in grapes in the field, particularly dark-skinned cultivars used for red wine. The work was precipitated by nearly universal prescriptive advice a decade pr...

  2. The relationship between local scalp skin temperature and cutaneous perfusion during scalp cooling.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Francis-Paul E M; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Gerard M J; van Steenhoven, Anton A

    2007-08-01

    Cooling the scalp during administration of chemotherapy can prevent hair loss. It reduces both skin blood flow and hair follicle temperature, thus affecting drug supply and drug effect in the hair follicle. The extent to which these mechanisms contribute to the hair preservative effect of scalp cooling remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to establish a relationship between local scalp skin temperature and cutaneous blood flow during scalp cooling. We measured skin temperature and cutaneous perfusion during a cooling and re-warming experiment. Experiments on a single subject showed that the measurements were reproducible and that the response was identical for the two positions that were measured. Inter-subject variability was investigated on nine subjects. We found that for the first 10 degrees C of cooling, perfusion of the scalp skin decreases to below 40%. Perfusion can be further reduced to below 30% by a few degrees more cooling, but a plateau is reached after that. We found that a generally accepted relation in thermal physiology between temperature and perfusion (i.e. Q(10) relation) does not describe the data well, but we found an alternative relation that describes the average behavior significantly better.

  3. Observations and Model Predictions of Water Skin Temperatures at MTI Core Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A.J.

    2001-01-26

    The work described in this paper focused on skin temperature measurement and prediction in heated and unheated lakes and reservoirs. This research is part of the ground truth program for the Department of Energy's Multi-spectral Thermal Imager demonstration satellite project.

  4. Inkjet-Printed Graphene/PEDOT:PSS Temperature Sensors on a Skin-Conformable Polyurethane Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuorinen, Tiina; Niittynen, Juha; Kankkunen, Timo; Kraft, Thomas M.; Mäntysalo, Matti

    2016-10-01

    Epidermal electronic systems (EESs) are skin-like electronic systems, which can be used to measure several physiological parameters from the skin. This paper presents materials and a simple, straightforward fabrication process for skin-conformable inkjet-printed temperature sensors. Epidermal temperature sensors are already presented in some studies, but they are mainly fabricated using traditional photolithography processes. These traditional fabrication routes have several processing steps and they create a substantial amount of material waste. Hence utilizing printing processes, the EES may become attractive for disposable systems by decreasing the manufacturing costs and reducing the wasted materials. In this study, the sensors are fabricated with inkjet-printed graphene/PEDOT:PSS ink and the printing is done on top of a skin-conformable polyurethane plaster (adhesive bandage). Sensor characterization was conducted both in inert and ambient atmosphere and the graphene/PEDOT:PSS temperature sensors (thermistors) were able reach higher than 0.06% per degree Celsius sensitivity in an optimal environment exhibiting negative temperature dependence.

  5. Stress Evaluation while Prolonged Driving Operation Using the Facial Skin Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Hirotoshi; Muto, Takumi; Ide, Hideto

    There is a relation to the accident of a car and the physiological and psychological state of a driver. The stress may lead to the fall of a fatigue or attentiveness. Therefore, it is an important subject from viewpoint such as accident prevention to evaluate the mental state of a driver. The study aimed at the development of a quantitative instrumentation technology of the stress when a subject is driving for a long time. First of all, we measured the physiological and psychological stress of a driver. The facial skin temperature and ventricular rate that was driver's physiological amount were measured and compared it with visual analog scale of the subjective amount. It was able to be obtaining of the high correlation in facial skin temperature and visual analog scale from the outcome of the experiment. Therefore, the possibility of appreciable of driver's stress at a facial skin temperature was shown. As a result of the experiment, we showed a possibility that facial skin temperature could evaluate long driving stress.

  6. Inkjet-Printed Graphene/PEDOT:PSS Temperature Sensors on a Skin-Conformable Polyurethane Substrate.

    PubMed

    Vuorinen, Tiina; Niittynen, Juha; Kankkunen, Timo; Kraft, Thomas M; Mäntysalo, Matti

    2016-10-18

    Epidermal electronic systems (EESs) are skin-like electronic systems, which can be used to measure several physiological parameters from the skin. This paper presents materials and a simple, straightforward fabrication process for skin-conformable inkjet-printed temperature sensors. Epidermal temperature sensors are already presented in some studies, but they are mainly fabricated using traditional photolithography processes. These traditional fabrication routes have several processing steps and they create a substantial amount of material waste. Hence utilizing printing processes, the EES may become attractive for disposable systems by decreasing the manufacturing costs and reducing the wasted materials. In this study, the sensors are fabricated with inkjet-printed graphene/PEDOT:PSS ink and the printing is done on top of a skin-conformable polyurethane plaster (adhesive bandage). Sensor characterization was conducted both in inert and ambient atmosphere and the graphene/PEDOT:PSS temperature sensors (thermistors) were able reach higher than 0.06% per degree Celsius sensitivity in an optimal environment exhibiting negative temperature dependence.

  7. Inkjet-Printed Graphene/PEDOT:PSS Temperature Sensors on a Skin-Conformable Polyurethane Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Vuorinen, Tiina; Niittynen, Juha; Kankkunen, Timo; Kraft, Thomas M.; Mäntysalo, Matti

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal electronic systems (EESs) are skin-like electronic systems, which can be used to measure several physiological parameters from the skin. This paper presents materials and a simple, straightforward fabrication process for skin-conformable inkjet-printed temperature sensors. Epidermal temperature sensors are already presented in some studies, but they are mainly fabricated using traditional photolithography processes. These traditional fabrication routes have several processing steps and they create a substantial amount of material waste. Hence utilizing printing processes, the EES may become attractive for disposable systems by decreasing the manufacturing costs and reducing the wasted materials. In this study, the sensors are fabricated with inkjet-printed graphene/PEDOT:PSS ink and the printing is done on top of a skin-conformable polyurethane plaster (adhesive bandage). Sensor characterization was conducted both in inert and ambient atmosphere and the graphene/PEDOT:PSS temperature sensors (thermistors) were able reach higher than 0.06% per degree Celsius sensitivity in an optimal environment exhibiting negative temperature dependence. PMID:27752050

  8. Effects of different sitting positions on skin temperature of the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Namkoong, Seung; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Shim, JungMyo

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of different sitting positions on the skin temperature of the lower extremity. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 23 healthy university students (8 males, 15 females). [Methods] Normal sitting (NS), upper leg cross (ULC) and ankle on knee (AOK) positions were conducted to measure the changes in skin temperature using digital infrared thermographic imaging (DITI). [Results] ULC upper ankle, NS upper shin, ULC upper shin and NS lower shin showed significant declines in temperature with time. [Conclusion] These finding suggest that the ULC and NS sitting positions cause decline of blood flow volume to the lower extremity resulting in decrease of temperature of the lower extremity. Especially, sitting with the legs crossed interferes with the circulation of blood flowing volume much more than just sitting in a chair.

  9. PERSPECTIVE Working towards a community-wide understanding of satellite skin temperature observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shreve, Cheney

    2010-12-01

    With more than sixty free and publicly available high-quality datasets, including ecosystem variables, radiation budget variables, and land cover products, the MODIS instrument and the MODIS scientific team have contributed significantly to scientific investigations of ecosystems across the globe. The MODIS instrument, launched in December 1999, has 36 spectral bands, a viewing swath of 2330 km, and acquires data at 250 m, 500 m, and 1000 m spatial resolution every one to two days. Radiation budget variables include surface reflectance, skin temperature, emissivity, and albedo, to list a few. Ecosystem variables include several vegetation indices and productivity measures. Land cover characteristics encompass land cover classifications as well as model parameters and vegetation classifications. Many of these products are instrumental in constraining global climate models and climate change studies, as well as monitoring events such as the recent flooding in Pakistan, the unprecedented oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, or phytoplankton bloom in the Barents Sea. While product validation efforts by the MODIS scientific team are both vigorous and continually improving, validation is unquestionably one of the most difficult tasks when dealing with remotely derived datasets, especially at the global scale. The quality and availability of MODIS data have led to widespread usage in the scientific community that has further contributed to validation and development of the MODIS products. In their recent paper entitled 'Land surface skin temperature climatology: benefitting from the strengths of satellite observations', Jin and Dickinson review the scientific theory behind, and demonstrate application of, a MODIS temperature product: surface skin temperature. Utilizing datasets from the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN), daily skin and air temperature from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, and MODIS products (skin temperature, albedo, land

  10. An instrument using a multiple layer Peltier device to change skin temperature rapidly.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, G L; Giesler, G J

    1984-01-01

    A thermal stimulator that uses multiple layer Peltier devices produces rapid heating or cooling of the skin of experimental animals. Rate of change of temperature can be controlled from 1 degree C/sec to 5 degrees/sec (cooling) or to 10 degrees/sec (heating). Rapid thermal transients are not accompanied by thermal overshoot. Maintenance of and return to a preset temperature are within +/- 0.05 degrees.

  11. Air conditioner operation behaviour based on students' skin temperature in a classroom.

    PubMed

    Song, Gook-Sup; Lim, Jae-Han; Ahn, Tae-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    A total of 25 college students participated in a study to determine when they would use an air conditioner during a lecture in a university classroom. The ambient temperature and relative humidity were measured 75 cm above the floor every minute. Skin temperatures were measured every minute at seven points, according to the recommendation of Hardy and Dubois. The average clothing insulation value (CLO) of subjects was 0.53 ± 0.07 CLO. The mean air velocity in the classroom was 0.13 ± 0.028 m/s. When the subjects turned the air conditioner both on and off, the average ambient temperatures, relative humidity and mean skin temperatures were 27.4 and 23.7 °C (p = 0.000), 40.9 and 40.0% (p = 0.528) and 32.7 and 32.2 °C (p = 0.024), respectively. When the status of the air conditioner was changed, the differences of skin temperatures in core body parts (head, abdomen and thigh) were not statistically significant. However, in the extremities (mid-lower arm, hand, shin and instep), the differences were statistically significant. Subjects preferred a fluctuating environment to a constant temperature condition. We found that a changing environment does not affect classroom study.

  12. Ear tube insertion - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100045.htm Ear tube insertion - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 4 Overview The eardrum (tympanic membrane) separates the ear canal from the middle ear. Review Date 8/ ...

  13. Wavelet-analysis of skin temperature oscillations during local heating for revealing endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Podtaev, Sergey; Stepanov, Rodion; Smirnova, Elena; Loran, Evgenia

    2015-01-01

    Skin microvessels have proven to be a model to investigate the mechanisms of vascular disease; in particular, endothelial dysfunction. To analyze skin blood flow, high-resolution thermometry can be used because low-amplitude skin temperature oscillations are caused by changes in the tone of skin vessels. The aim of our study was to test the possibilities of wavelet analysis of skin temperature (WAST) for the diagnosis of impaired regulation of microvascular tone in patients with type 2 diabetes. A local heating functional test was used for the assessment of microvascular tone regulation. A control group consisted of healthy male and female volunteers (n=5 each), aged 39.1±5.3years. A group of patients with type 2 diabetes comprised thirteen people, seven men and six women, aged 36 to 51years old (43.2±3.4years). The diagnosis of diabetes was made according to the criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO). The mean disease duration was 7.36±0.88years. Skin temperature oscillations, reflecting intrinsic myogenic activity (0.05-0.14Hz), neurogenic factors (0.02-0.05Hz) and endothelial activity (0.0095-0.02Hz) increase greatly during local heating for healthy subjects. In the group of patients with type 2 diabetes, no statistically significant differences in the amplitudes in the endothelial range were observed. Relative changes in the oscillation amplitudes in patients with type 2 diabetes were markedly lower compared to the control group. The latter indicates that the WAST method enables assessment of the state of vascular tone and the effects of mechanisms responsible for regulation of blood flow in the microvasculature.

  14. Aerobic bacteria from mucous membranes, ear canals, and skin wounds of feral cats in Grenada, and the antimicrobial drug susceptibility of major isolates.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Harry; Matthew, Vanessa; Fountain, Jacqueline; Snell, Alicia; Doherty, Devin; King, Brittany; Shemer, Eran; Oliveira, Simone; Sharma, Ravindra N

    2011-03-01

    In a 2-year period 54 feral cats were captured in Grenada, West Indies, and a total of 383 samples consisting of swabs from rectum, vagina, ears, eyes, mouth, nose and wounds/abscesses, were cultured for aerobic bacteria and campylobacters. A total of 251 bacterial isolates were obtained, of which 205 were identified to species level and 46 to genus level. A commercial bacterial identification system (API/Biomerieux), was used for this purpose. The most common species was Escherichia coli (N=60), followed by Staphylococcus felis/simulans (40), S. hominis (16), S. haemolyticus (12), Streptococcus canis (9), Proteus mirabilis (8), Pasteurella multocida (7), Streptococcus mitis (7), Staphylococcus xylosus (7), S. capitis (6), S. chromogenes (4), S. sciuri (3), S. auricularis (2), S. lentus (2), S. hyicus (2), Streptococcus suis (2) and Pseudomonas argentinensis (2). Sixteen other isolates were identified to species level. A molecular method using 16S rRNA sequencing was used to confirm/identify 22 isolates. Salmonella or campylobacters were not isolated from rectal swabs. E. coli and S. felis/simulans together constituted 50% of isolates from vagina. S. felis/simulans was the most common species from culture positive ear and eye samples. P. multocida was isolated from 15% of mouth samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most common isolates from nose and wound swabs. Staphylococcus aureus, or S. intemedius/S. pseudintermedius were not isolated from any sample. Antimicrobial drug resistance was minimal, most isolates being susceptible to all drugs tested against, including tetracycline.

  15. Estimating the time and temperature relationship for causation of deep-partial thickness skin burns.

    PubMed

    Abraham, John P; Plourde, Brian; Vallez, Lauren; Stark, John; Diller, Kenneth R

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to develop and present a simple procedure for evaluating the temperature and exposure-time conditions that lead to causation of a deep-partial thickness burn and the effect that the immediate post-burn thermal environment can have on the process. A computational model has been designed and applied to predict the time required for skin burns to reach a deep-partial thickness level of injury. The model includes multiple tissue layers including the epidermis, dermis, hypodermis, and subcutaneous tissue. Simulated exposure temperatures ranged from 62.8 to 87.8°C (145-190°F). Two scenarios were investigated. The first and worst case scenario was a direct exposure to water (characterized by a large convection coefficient) with the clothing left on the skin following the exposure. A second case consisted of a scald insult followed immediately by the skin being washed with cool water (20°C). For both cases, an Arrhenius injury model was applied whereby the extent and depth of injury were calculated and compared for the different post-burn treatments. In addition, injury values were compared with experiment data from the literature to assess verification of the numerical methodology. It was found that the clinical observations of injury extent agreed with the calculated values. Furthermore, inundation with cool water decreased skin temperatures more quickly than the clothing insulating case and led to a modest decrease in the burn extent.

  16. Low temperatures reduce skin healing in the Jacaré do Pantanal (Caiman yacare, Daudin 1802)

    PubMed Central

    Pressinotti, Leandro Nogueira; Borges, Ricardo Moraes; Alves De Lima, Angela Paula; Aleixo, Victor Manuel; Iunes, Renata Stecca; Borges, João Carlos Shimada; Cogliati, Bruno; Cunha Da Silva, José Roberto Machado

    2013-01-01

    Summary Studies of skin wound healing in crocodilians are necessary given the frequent occurrence of cannibalism in intensive farming systems. Air temperature affects tissue recovery because crocodilians are ectothermic. Therefore, the kinetics of skin wound healing in Caiman yacare were examined at temperatures of 33°C and 23°C. Sixteen caiman were selected and divided into two groups of eight maintained at 23°C or 33°C. The studied individuals' scars were photographed after 1, 2, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days of the experimental conditions, and samples were collected for histological processing after 3, 7, 15 and 30 days. Macroscopically, the blood clot (heterophilic granuloma) noticeably remained in place covering the wound longer for the caiman kept at 23°C. Microscopically, the temperature of 23°C slowed epidermal migration and skin repair. Comparatively, new blood vessels, labeled using von Willebrand factor (vWF) antibody staining, were more frequently found in the scars of the 33°C group. The collagen fibers in the dermis were denser in the 33°C treatment. Considering the delayed healing at 23°C, producers are recommended to keep wounded animals at 33°C, especially when tanks are cold, to enable rapid wound closure and better repair of collagen fibers because such lesions tend to compromise the use of their skin as leather. PMID:24244853

  17. Influence of blood flow and millimeter wave exposure on skin temperature in different thermal models.

    PubMed

    Alekseev, S I; Ziskin, M C

    2009-01-01

    Recently we showed that the Pennes bioheat transfer equation was not adequate to quantify mm wave heating of the skin at high blood flow rates. To do so, it is necessary to incorporate an "effective" thermal conductivity to obtain a hybrid bioheat equation (HBHE). The main aim of this study was to determine the relationship between non-specific tissue blood flow in a homogeneous unilayer model and dermal blood flow in multilayer models providing that the skin surface temperatures before and following mm wave exposure were the same. This knowledge could be used to develop multilayer models based on the fitting parameters obtained with the homogeneous tissue models. We tested four tissue models consisting of 1-4 layers and applied the one-dimensional steady-state HBHE. To understand the role of the epidermis in skin models we added to the one- and three-layer models an external thin epidermal layer with no blood flow. Only the combination of models containing the epidermal layer was appropriate for determination of the relationship between non-specific tissue and dermal blood flows giving the same skin surface temperatures. In this case we obtained a linear relationship between non-specific tissue and dermal blood flows. The presence of the fat layer resulted in the appearance of a significant temperature gradient between the dermis and muscle layer which increased with the fat layer thickness.

  18. Temperature-dependent interaction between vasoconstrictor and vasodilator mechanisms in human skin.

    PubMed

    Oberle, J; Elam, M; Karlsson, T; Wallin, B G

    1988-04-01

    The putative influence of the thermoregulatory state on skin blood-flow responses to various stimuli was studied in 17 healthy subjects exposed to different ambient temperatures. Skin blood flow was monitored by laser Doppler flowmeters and photoelectrical pulse plethysmographs. Stimuli included painful intraneural electrical stimulation (INS) in the median nerve at the wrist, mental stress, arousal stimuli and deep breaths. Intraneural electrical stimulation and mental stress were accompanied by virtually identical changes in skin blood flow, warm subjects responding with cutaneous vasoconstriction whereas cold subjects responded with vasodilatation. Similar but less pronounced responses were obtained with arousal stimuli and single deep breaths. The data indicate that the thermoregulatory state profoundly influences the extent and direction of various cutaneous vasomotor reflex responses. Furthermore, there were differences between responses in hands and feet, suggesting a spatial organization of vasomotor control.

  19. Ankle and Thigh Skin Surface Temperature Changes With Repeated Ice Pack Application

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Janice E.; Knight, Kenneth L.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Most of the research on cold applications has been performed on nonexercising supine subjects during a single cold pack application. Most athletic injuries occur during exercise, which increases skin temperature. Exercise before ice application will also increase ankle skin temperature during the rewarming phase. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of activity on subsequent ice pack applications and rewarming using standard immediate care procedures. Design and Setting: Three experimental conditions (20-, 30-, and 40-minute ice pack applications) were applied to 12 subjects in a repeated measures design. Subjects rode a bicycle ergometer for 15 minutes before ice application to the ankle and opposite thigh, and were active (walking with crutches, simulated showering and dressing) for 20 minutes following application. Subjects rested with the limb elevated for an additional 40 minutes. Ice packs were then reapplied for the appropriate time (20, 30, or 40 minutes) followed by 60 minutes of rest with the limb elevated. Subjects: Twelve (8 males, 4 females) college-aged volunteers. Only subjects with good-to-high fitness levels were accepted for this study. Measurements: Ankle skin, thigh skin, and atmospheric temperatures were measured every minute using an Isothermex (Columbus Instruments, Columbus, OH). Results: Thigh temperature changes during the first ice application were greater during the 30- and 40-minute conditions than the 20-minute condition. Ankle and thigh temperature changes during the first ice application and rewarming, and for the entire trial were greater during the 40-minute condition than the 20-or 30-minute conditions. Throughout the first ice application and rewarming, and the entire trial, thigh temperature changes were greater during the 30-minute condition than the 20-minute condition. Conclusions: During immediate care procedures following injury, ice packs should be reapplied immediately following showering

  20. Accuracy and response time comparisons of four skin temperature-monitoring devices.

    PubMed

    Krause, B F

    1993-06-01

    Although technological improvements in skin surface temperature-measurement devices have progressed since they were first used clinically, the question of their accuracy and reliability for skin temperature monitoring still remains. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy and response time to temperature change for four temperature-monitoring devices: liquid crystal (Crystaline ST, Sharn, Inc, Tampa, Fla), two different thermistor sensors (RSP, Respiratory Support Products, Inc, Irvine, Calif, and SHER-I-TEMP, Sheridan Catheter Corp, Argyle, NY), and one thermocouple-based temperature sensor (Mon-a-therm, Mallinckrodt, Inc, St. Louis, Mo). A temperature-controlled steel surface plate was used as the reference temperature source for test comparisons. The results showed that Crystaline ST (liquid crystal device) performed better in the accuracy and response time tests than the electronic thermistor and thermocouple temperature-sensor devices tested. Regression analysis of the reference temperature comparisons showed that although all four devices had high correlation coefficients Crystaline ST had the highest correlation (R = 0.99685). Also, the regression equation for Crystaline ST was closest to a perfect fit with reference temperatures, ie, slope = 1.00267 and intercept = 0.20333 (P = .0000). Crystaline ST responded consistently faster than the other devices for each change in temperature setting (5, 10, 15, and 20 degrees F). Crystaline ST responded within 3.5 to 4.4 seconds for every temperature gradient change tested. All three of the other sensor devices had increasingly longer response times as the temperature gradient increased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Residual limb skin temperature and thermal comfort in people with amputation during activity in a cold environment.

    PubMed

    Segal, Ava D; Klute, Glenn K

    2016-01-01

    Thermal comfort remains a common problem for people with lower-limb amputation. Both donning a prosthesis and engaging in activity at room temperature can increase residual limb skin temperature; however, the effects of activity on skin temperature and comfort in more extreme environments remain unknown. We examined residual limb skin temperatures and perceived thermal comfort (PTC; 11-point Likert scale) of participants with unilateral transtibial amputation (n = 8) who were snowshoeing in a cold environment. Residual limb skin temperature increased by 3.9°C [3.0°C to 4.7°C] (mean difference [95% confidence interval (CI)], p < 0.001) after two 30 min exercise sessions separated by a 5 min rest session. Minimal cooling (-0.2°C [-1.1°C to 0.6°C]) occurred during the rest period. Similar changes in PTC were found for the residual limb, intact limb, and whole body, with a mean scale increase of 1.6 [1.1 to 2.1] and 1.3 [0.8 to 1.8] for the first and second exercise sessions, respectively (p < 0.001). Activity in a cold environment caused similar increases in residual limb skin temperature as those found in studies conducted at room temperature. Participants with amputation perceived warming as their skin temperature increased during exercise followed by the perception of cooling during rest, despite minimal associated decreases in skin temperature.

  2. What Is an Ear Infection?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the germs bother your outer ear, it's called swimmer's ear. The middle ear is a small pocket ... What's Hearing Loss? Taking Care of Your Ears Swimmer's Ear Perforated Eardrum What's Earwax? Contact Us Print ...

  3. Using skin temperature variability to quantify surface and subsurface estuarine processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumer, S. E.; Zappa, C. J.; Anderson, S. P.; Dugan, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    IR imagery is a unique tool to study nearshore processes. It not only provides a measure for surface skin temperature, but also permits the determination of surface currents. Variations in the skin temperature arise from disruption and renewal of the thermal boundary layer (TBL) as a result of wind forcing at the air-water interface, or due to turbulent eddies generated from below. The TBL plays a critical role in nearshore processes, in particular air-water heat and gas exchanges. It is essential to characterize the spatio-temporal scales of the disruption of the TBL and the extent to which it is renewed, as well as to understand how environmental factors relate to skin temperature variability. Furthermore, it is necessary to evaluate the ability not only to derive surface currents, but also to infer subsurface properties and processes from IR images. Estuarine and inlet environments such as the Hudson River are more complex, with multitude of additional processes at play, compared to the open ocean. For instance, the atmospheric boundary layer is complicated by the fact that that air is moving over both land and water, flow is fetch limited and there is orographic steering of winds. In addition, the subsurface turbulence is enhanced due to the bottom boundary layer. Here, high resolution IR imagery was collected from a ship stationed roughly 12 miles upstream of the New York Harbor in November 2010. On a nearby piling, several in situ instruments were mounted both above and below water, measuring environmental parameters such as wind speed, heat fluxes, air and water temperature, humidity as well as subsurface currents, turbulence, temperature and salinity. An IR imager installed on the cliff overlooking the river provided a complete view of the experiment area, with both the ship and the steel piling in its field of view. This study aims not only to characterize the skin temperature variability, but also to assess the validity of the various models for surface

  4. Relationship between ambient temperature and heat flux in the scrotal skin.

    PubMed

    Song, G-S; Seo, J T

    2009-08-01

    Excessive scrotal heating or cooling may lead to the cessation of spermatogenesis. Data regarding heat exchange rates in scrotal skin can be used to control testicular temperature within the appropriate range. Heat flux (HF) in the scrotal skin surface is generated based on the surrounding environment. This study aims to elucidate the HF of scrotal skin by varying ambient temperature. Twenty college students including seven varicoceles volunteered as the subjects (mean age: 22.95 +/- SD 1.96 years; height: 175.00 +/- 5.17 cm; weight: 68.40 +/- 8.65 kg; body mass index: 22.28 +/- 2.15), and participated in the experiments from September 11 to October 4, 2006. The environmental temperature was controlled at 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C in the first and second experiment respectively. The HF and skin temperature on both sides of the scrotal surface were measured for 60 min in the environmental chamber. The results revealed that the HF was 87.64 +/- 12.69 W/m(2) and 78.91 +/- 12.09 W/m(2) in the left and right side of the scrotum respectively. The scrotal skin temperature (SST) was 30.28 +/- 0.75 degrees C and 30.24 +/- 0.62 degrees C on the left and right side of the scrotum in the 20 degrees C environment respectively. In the 25 degrees C environment the HF was 53.54 +/- 8.86 W/m(2) and 45.25 +/- 8.32 W/m(2), and the SST was 32.29 +/- 0.61 degrees C and 32.07 +/- 0.36 degrees C on the left and right side of the scrotum respectively. The cooling source power to decrease testicular temperature is suggested at 290 W/m(2). This suggested value could be adopted a cooling device as clinical therapy for a heat stress patient to decrease testicular temperature affecting spermatogenesis.

  5. [Ear keloid and clinical research progress].

    PubMed

    Du, Guangyuan; Zhu, Jiang

    2014-04-01

    Keloid refers to the damaged skin due to excessive fibroblast proliferation. Ear is one predilection site. The pathogenesis of ear keloid is not very clear, and the treatment is also varied. Surgery, postoperative radiotherapy and laser treatment, steroid hormones, pressure therapy are the basic treatment methods. Integrated application of a variety of treatments, classification research and new materials using revealed the prospect for the treatment of the disease. This thesis reviews literature about ear keloid in recent 10 years, and introduces this disease and clinical research progress.

  6. Swimmer's Ear (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Swimmer's Ear (Otitis Externa) KidsHealth > For Parents > Swimmer's Ear (Otitis ... español Otitis del nadador (otitis externa) About Swimmer's Ear Otitis externa (OE) — commonly known as swimmer's ear — ...

  7. The Effects of Skin-to-Skin Contact on Temperature and Breastfeeding Successfulness in Full-Term Newborns after Cesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Beiranvand, Shourangiz; Valizadeh, Fatemeh; Hosseinabadi, Reza; Pournia, Yadollah

    2014-01-01

    Background. The skin-to-skin contact (SSC) of mother and newborn is uncommon full-term newborns after delivering via cesarean section due to the possibility of hypothermia in the infants. The aim of this study was to compare mothers' and infant's temperatures after delivering via cesarean section. Material and Methods. In this randomized clinical trial, 90 infant/mothers dyads delivered via cesarean section were randomized to SSC (n = 46) and routine care (n = 44). In experimental group, skin-to-skin contact was performed for one hour and in the routine group the infant was dressed and put in the cot according to hospital routine care. The newborns' mothers' temperatures in both groups were taken at half-hour intervals. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, and chi-square tests. Results. The means of the newborns' temperatures immediately after SSC (P = 0.86), half an hour (P = 0.31), and one hour (P = 0.52) after the intervention did not show statistically significant differences between the two groups. The mean scores of the infants' breastfeeding assessment in SSC (8.76±3.63) and routine care (7.25±3.5) groups did not show significant differences (P = 0.048). Conclusion. Mother and infant's skin-to-skin contact is possible after delivering via cesarean section and does not increase the risk of hypothermia. PMID:25610472

  8. Role of reductase and aromatase in sex determination in the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta), a turtle with temperature-dependent sex determination.

    PubMed

    Crews, D; Bergeron, J M

    1994-11-01

    In many turtles the temperature during the middle of incubation determines the gonadal sex of the hatchling. In the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta), an incubation temperature of 26 degrees C results in all male offspring, whereas an incubation temperature of 31 degrees C results in all female offspring; at temperatures intermediate to these (e.g. 29, 29.2, 29.4 degrees C) a mixed sex ratio is obtained. Administration of exogenous oestrogens will overcome the effects of an all-male producing incubation temperature to cause female sex determination, whereas administration of exogenous dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or testosterone to eggs incubating at an all-female temperature will have no discernible effect. Administration of DHT will cause male sex determination only if administered at intermediate incubation temperatures whereas administration of testosterone to eggs incubating at all male-producing and male-biased intermediate temperatures results in a significant number of female offspring, an effect presumably due to aromatization of testosterone to oestradiol (OE2). Since testosterone serves as the precursor to both DHT and OE2, being metabolized by reductase and aromatase respectively, three experiments were conducted to determine whether various putative reductase and aromatase inhibitors would overcome the effect of incubation temperature. First, while administration of testosterone to eggs incubating at all male-producing and male-biased intermediate temperatures produced females in a dose- and temperature-dependent manner, significant numbers of intersex individuals resulted from high dosage testosterone treatment to eggs incubating at a female-biased intermediate temperature. The reductase inhibitors 4MA and MK906 were capable of producing female offspring if administered at intermediate temperatures, but not in a dose-dependent fashion. Administration of the aromatase inhibitors CGS16949A and CGS20267 resulted in male offspring at both female

  9. Feasibility study on driver's stress detection from differential skin temperature measurement.

    PubMed

    Yamakoshi, T; Yamakoshi, K; Tanaka, S; Nogawa, M; Park, S B; Shibata, M; Sawada, Y; Rolfe, P; Hirose, Y

    2008-01-01

    Prolonged monotonous driving may lower a driver's awareness level as well as increasing their stress level due to the compulsion to maintain safe driving, which may result in an increased risk of a traffic accident. There is therefore an opportunity for technological assessment of driver physiological status to be applied in-car, hopefully reducing the incidence of potentially dangerous situations. As part of our long-term aim to develop such a system, we describe here the investigation of differential skin temperature measurement as a possible marker of a driver's stress level. In this study, healthy male (n=18) & female (n=7) subjects were investigated under environment-controlled conditions, whilst being subjected to simulated monotonous travel at constant speed on a test-course. We acquired physiological variables, including facial skin temperature which consists of truncal and peripheral skin temperatures (Ts) using thermography, beat-by-beat blood pressure (BP), cardiac output (CO), total peripheral resistance (TPR), and normalized pulse volume (NPV) used as an indicator of local peripheral vascular tone. We then investigated the driver's reactivity in terms of skin temperatures with this background of cardiovascular haemodynamics. We found that the simulated monotonous driving produced a gradual drop in peripheral Ts following the driving stress, which, through interpretation of the TPR and NPV recordings, could be explained by peripheral sympathetic activation. On the other hand, the truncal Ts was not influenced by the stress. These findings lead us to suggest that truncal-peripheral differential Ts could be used as a possible index indicative of the driver's stress.

  10. Arterio-venous anastomoses in the human skin and their role in temperature control

    PubMed Central

    Walløe, Lars

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Arterio-venous anastomoses (AVAs) are direct connections between small arteries and small veins. In humans they are numerous in the glabrous skin of the hands and feet. The AVAs are short vessel segments with a large inner diameter and a very thick muscular wall. They are densely innervated by adrenergic axons. When they are open, they provide a low-resistance connection between arteries and veins, shunting blood directly into the venous plexuses of the limbs. The AVAs play an important role in temperature regulation in humans in their thermoneutral zone, which for a naked resting human is about 26°C to 36°C, but lower when active and clothed. From the temperature control center in the hypothalamus, bursts of nerve impulses are sent simultaneously to all AVAs. The AVAs are all closed near the lower end and all open near the upper end of the thermoneutral zone. The small veins in the skin of the arms and legs are also contracted near the lower end of the thermoneutral zone and relax to a wider cross section as the ambient temperature rises. At the cold end of the thermoneutral range, the blood returns to the heart through the deep veins and cools the arterial blood through a countercurrent mechanism. As the ambient temperature rises, more blood is returned through the superficial venous plexuses and veins and heats the skin surface of the full length of the 4 limbs. This skin surface is responsible for a large part of the loss of heat from the body toward the upper end of the thermoneutral zone. PMID:27227081

  11. [The graphic representation of the temperature field of the skin surface in the orbital area].

    PubMed

    Cherednichenko, V M; Barsukov, V V

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes results of researches on the possibility of graphic presentation of a temperature field of skin surface of the orbital area. A method of liquid crystal thermography and electron thermometry was used for examination of 30 patients with practically healthy eyes. It was shown that graphic presentation of data of liquid crystal thermography and electron thermometry remarkably facilitates documentation and analysis of the results obtained.

  12. Arterio-venous anastomoses in the human skin and their role in temperature control.

    PubMed

    Walløe, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Arterio-venous anastomoses (AVAs) are direct connections between small arteries and small veins. In humans they are numerous in the glabrous skin of the hands and feet. The AVAs are short vessel segments with a large inner diameter and a very thick muscular wall. They are densely innervated by adrenergic axons. When they are open, they provide a low-resistance connection between arteries and veins, shunting blood directly into the venous plexuses of the limbs. The AVAs play an important role in temperature regulation in humans in their thermoneutral zone, which for a naked resting human is about 26°C to 36°C, but lower when active and clothed. From the temperature control center in the hypothalamus, bursts of nerve impulses are sent simultaneously to all AVAs. The AVAs are all closed near the lower end and all open near the upper end of the thermoneutral zone. The small veins in the skin of the arms and legs are also contracted near the lower end of the thermoneutral zone and relax to a wider cross section as the ambient temperature rises. At the cold end of the thermoneutral range, the blood returns to the heart through the deep veins and cools the arterial blood through a countercurrent mechanism. As the ambient temperature rises, more blood is returned through the superficial venous plexuses and veins and heats the skin surface of the full length of the 4 limbs. This skin surface is responsible for a large part of the loss of heat from the body toward the upper end of the thermoneutral zone.

  13. Evaluation of Insulated Miniature Thermistors for Skin Temperature Measurement in the Rat,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    storage thermoregulatory mechanisms. Although the laboratory rat is used extensively as a model for human heat injury, no equation exists for... laboratory rat even though the hyperthermic rat is widely used as a research tool for studying the pathophysiology of human heatstroke. The present...heat storage calculation. Surprisingly, an equation for calculating mean skin temperature and hence, heat storage, has not been developed for the

  14. [An ear thermometer based on infrared thermopiles sensor].

    PubMed

    Xie, Haiyuan; Qian, Mingli

    2013-09-01

    According to the development of body temperature measurement mode, an ear thermometer with infrared thermopiles sensor is designed for body thermometry Compared with oral thermometer, the accuracy of ear thermometer is acceptable.

  15. Changes in skin surface temperature at an acupuncture point with moxibustion

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Li-Mei; Wang, Shu-Fang; Lee, Ru-Ping; Hsu, Bang-Gee; Tsai, Nu-Man; Peng, Tai-Chu

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study evaluates the thermographic changes associated with moxa burner moxibustion at the SP6 acupuncture point to establish an appropriate, safe distance of efficacy for moxibustion. Methods Baseline temperature changes using a moxa burner were obtained for a paper substrate at various distances and times, and the tested with volunteers in a pilot study. A single-group trial was then conducted with 36 healthy women to monitor temperature changes on the body surface at the acupuncture point (SP6). Results Based on the temperature changes seen for the paper substrate and in the pilot study, a distance of 3 cm was chosen as the intervention distance. Moxibustion significantly increased the SP6 point skin surface temperature, with a peak increase of 11°C at 4 min (p <0.001). This study also found that during moxibustion the temperature of the moxa burner's rubber layer and moxa cautery were 56.9±0.9°C and 65.8±1.2°C, as compared to baseline values of 35.1°C and 43.8°C (p<0.001). Conclusions We determined 3 cm was a safe distance between the moxa burner and acupuncture point. Moxibustion can increase the skin surface temperature at the SP6 point. This data will aid traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners in gauging safer treatment distances when using moxibustion treatments. PMID:23598824

  16. Peripheral Skin Temperature and Circadian Biological Clock in Shift Nurses after a Day off

    PubMed Central

    Bracci, Massimo; Ciarapica, Veronica; Copertaro, Alfredo; Barbaresi, Mariella; Manzella, Nicola; Tomasetti, Marco; Gaetani, Simona; Monaco, Federica; Amati, Monica; Valentino, Matteo; Rapisarda, Venerando; Santarelli, Lory

    2016-01-01

    The circadian biological clock is essentially based on the light/dark cycle. Some people working with shift schedules cannot adjust their sleep/wake cycle to the light/dark cycle, and this may result in alterations of the circadian biological clock. This study explored the circadian biological clock of shift and daytime nurses using non-invasive methods. Peripheral skin temperature, cortisol and melatonin levels in saliva, and Per2 expression in pubic hair follicle cells were investigated for 24 h after a day off. Significant differences were observed in peripheral skin temperature and cortisol levels between shift and daytime nurses. No differences in melatonin levels were obtained. Per2 maximum values were significantly different between the two groups. Shift nurses exhibited lower circadian variations compared to daytime nurses, and this may indicate an adjustment of the circadian biological clock to continuous shift schedules. Non-invasive procedures, such as peripheral skin temperature measurement, determination of cortisol and melatonin in saliva, and analysis of clock genes in hair follicle cells, may be effective approaches to extensively study the circadian clock in shift workers. PMID:27128899

  17. Low-temperature atmospheric plasma increases the expression of anti-aging genes of skin cells without causing cellular damages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Hae; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Jae-Koo; Hong, Jin-woo; Kim, Gyoo-cheon

    2013-03-01

    Efforts to employ various types of plasma in the field of skin care have increased consistently because it can regulate many biochemical reactions that are normally unaffected by light-based therapy. One method for skin rejuvenation adopted a high-temperature plasma generator to remove skin epithelial cells. In this case, the catalyzing effects of the plasma were rarely used due to the high temperature. Hence, the benefits of the plasma were not magnified. Recently, many types of low-temperature plasma devices have been developed for medical applications but their detailed functions and working mechanisms are unclear. The present study examined the effect of low-temperature microwave plasma on skin cells. Treatment with low-temperature plasma increased the expression of anti-aging genes in skin cells, including collagen, fibronectin and vascular endothelial growth factor. Furthermore, the plasma treatment did not cause cell death, but only induced slight cell growth arrest at the G2 phase. Although the cells treated with low-temperature plasma showed moderate growth arrest, there were no signs of thermal or genetic damage of skin cells. Overall, this low-temperature microwave plasma device induces the expressions of some anti-aging-related genes in skin cells without causing damage.

  18. Different vascular responses in glabrous and nonglabrous skin with increasing core temperature during exercise.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Sone, Ryoko

    2006-07-01

    To elucidate the characteristics of vasomotor control in glabrous and nonglabrous skin during dynamic exercise, we compared the vascular responses in both areas to increasing core temperature during the cycle exercise for 30 min at different intensities in the range 20-60% of peak oxygen consumption (VO(2peak)) in a total of 13 male and four female subjects in two experimental protocols. Skin blood flow was monitored using laser Doppler flowmetry. In protocol 1, the slope of the relationship between esophageal temperature (T (es)) and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) in the early phase of the exercise decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing exercise intensity at glabrous sites (palm) but not nonglabrous sites (dorsal hand). In protocol 2, to examine whether a difference in vascular responses in the two areas is due to the adrenergic vasoconstrictor system, the release of norepinephrine from adrenergic nerves in forearm and palmar skin was blocked locally by iontophoresis of bretylium tosylate (BT). The administration of BT diminished completely the change of CVC in the palm during the exercise but did not alter the response in the forearm compared with the untreated site. In the two areas, neither the T (es) threshold for vasodilation nor the change in CVC above the threshold in the middle and late phase of the exercise was influenced by the intensity of the exercise. These results suggest that, in the early phase of the exercise, light-to-moderate exercise reduces in an intensity-dependent manner the thermal sensitivity for vasodilation in glabrous skin but not nonglabrous skin via an adrenergic vasoconstrictor pathway.

  19. Correlation Study Of Diffenrential Skin Temperatures (DST) For Ovulation Detection Using Infra-Red Thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. H. S.; Shah, A. v.; Ruedi, B.

    1982-11-01

    The importance of ovulation time detection in the Practice of Natural Birth Control (NBC) as a contraceptive tool, and for natural/artificial insemination among women having the problem of in-fertility, is well known. The simple Basal Body Temperature (BBT) method of ovulation detection is so far unreliable. A newly proposed Differential Skin Temperature (DST) method may help minimize disturbing physiological effects and improve reliability. This paper explains preliminary results of a detailed correlative study on the DST method, using Infra-Red Thermography (IRT) imaging, and computer analysis techniques. Results obtained with five healthy, normally menstruating women volunteers will be given.

  20. Impact of skin temperature and hydration on plasma volume responses during exercise.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, Robert W; Sollanek, Kurt J; Charkoudian, Nisha; Sawka, Michael N

    2014-08-15

    Heat stress and hydration may both alter plasma volume (PV) responses during acute exercise; potential interactions have not been fully studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of graded elevations in skin temperature (Tsk) on PV changes during steady-state exercise under conditions of euhydration (EU) and hypohydration (HYPO, -4% of body mass). Thirty-two men (22 ± 4 yr) were divided into four cohorts (n = 8 each) and completed EU and HYPO trials in one environment [ambient temperature (Ta) 10, 20, 30, and 40°C]. Thirty minutes of cycle ergometry (50% V̇o2peak) was performed. Core (Tre) and mean skin (Tsk) temperatures were measured; changes in PV, total circulating protein (TCP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were calculated; and skin blood flow (SkBF) was estimated. Hypohydration decreased (P < 0.05) PV by 200 ml (-5.7%) but did not alter TCP. Plasma loss was not different between EU and HYPO during exercise at any Ta. Plasma losses were greater (P < 0.05) with elevated Ta with an average -130, -174, -294, and -445 ml losses during the 10, 20, 30, and 40°C trials, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05) correlations (r = 0.50 to 0.84) were found between ΔTCP and ΔPV during exercise when Tsk was cool/warm (<33°C; Ta 10, 20, and 30°C), but not at 40°C (high Tsk). We conclude that 1) graded skin warming proportionally accentuated plasma loss; 2) plasma loss was associated with plasma protein efflux at lower Tsk and SkBF; 3) at high Tsk, additional plasma loss likely results from increased net filtration at the capillaries; and 4) HYPO did not alter vascular fluid loss during exercise in any environment.

  1. PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM DT104 ON CHICKEN SKIN DURING TEMPERATURE ABUSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To better predict risk of Salmonella infection from chicken subjected to temperature abuse, a study was undertaken to develop a predictive model for survival and growth of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on chicken skin with native micro flora. For model development, chicken skin portions were inocula...

  2. Mathematical modeling of temperature mapping over skin surface and its implementation in thermal disease diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhong-Shan; Liu, Jing

    2004-09-01

    In non-invasive thermal diagnostics, accurate correlations between the thermal image on skin surface and interior human pathophysiology are often desired, which require general solutions for the bioheat equation. In this study, the Monte Carlo method was implemented to solve the transient three-dimensional bio-heat transfer problem with non-linear boundary conditions (simultaneously with convection, radiation and evaporation) and space-dependent thermal physiological parameters. Detailed computations indicated that the thermal states of biological bodies, reflecting physiological conditions, could be correlated to the temperature or heat flux mapping recorded at the skin surface. The effect of the skin emissivity and humidity, the convective heat transfer coefficient, the relative humidity and temperature of the surrounding air, the metabolic rate and blood perfusion rate in the tumor, and the tumor size and number on the sensitivity of thermography are comprehensively investigated. Moreover, several thermal criteria for disease diagnostic were proposed based on statistical principles. Implementations of this study for the clinical thermal diagnostics are discussed.

  3. Effect of storage time and temperature on Poisson ratio of tomato fruit skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuna-Broniowska, I.; Gładyszewska, B.; Ciupak, A.

    2012-02-01

    The results of studies investigating the effects of storage time and temperature on variations in Poisson ratio of the skin of two greenhouse tomato varieties - Admiro and Encore were presented. In the initial period of the study, Poisson ratio of the skin of tomato fruit cv. Admiro, stored at 13°C, varied between 0.7 and 0.8. After the successive 10 days of the experiment, it decreased to approximately 0.6 and was stabilized until the end of study. By contrast, the skin of tomatoes cv. Encore was characterized by lower values and lower variability of Poisson ratio in the range of 0.4 to 0.5 during storage. The examinations involving tomato fruit cv. Admiro stored at 21°C were completed after 12 days due to fruit softening and progressive difficulty with preparing analytical specimens. The value of Poisson ratio for both varieties stored at room temperature fluctuated throughout the experiment to approximate 0.5.

  4. Coupling of infraslow fluctuations in autonomic and central vigilance markers: skin temperature, EEG β power and ERP P300 latency.

    PubMed

    Ramautar, Jennifer R; Romeijn, Nico; Gómez-Herrero, Germán; Piantoni, Giovanni; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2013-08-01

    Even under thermoneutral conditions, skin temperature fluctuates spontaneously, most prominently at distal parts of the body. These fluctuations were shown to be associated with fluctuations in vigilance: mild manipulation of skin temperature during nocturnal sleep affects sleep depth and the power spectral density of the electroencephalogram (EEG), and fluctuations in skin temperature during daytime wakefulness are related to sleep propensity and task performance. The association of daytime skin temperature fluctuations with EEG markers of vigilance has not previously been investigated. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the association between daytime fluctuations in skin temperature with those in two quantitative EEG measures: the power spectral density of background EEG, and the event related potential (ERP) elicited by visual stimuli. High-density EEG and skin temperature were obtained in eight healthy adults five times a day while they performed a visual sustained-attention task. Assessments were made after a night of normal sleep and after the challenge of a night of total sleep deprivation. Fluctuations in the distal-to-proximal skin temperature gradient measured from the earlobe and mastoid were associated with fluctuations in parieto-occipital high beta band (20-40 Hz) power of the pre-stimulus background EEG, but only after sleep deprivation. The temperature fluctuations were moreover associated with fluctuations in the latency of the P300 elicited by the stimulus. The findings demonstrate close association between fluctuations in an autonomic correlate of the vigilance state (i.e. the distal-to-proximal skin temperature gradient), and fluctuations in central nervous system correlates of the vigilance state (i.e. background EEG and ERP). The findings are of theoretical and practical relevance for the assessment and manipulation of vigilance.

  5. Altered Impedance of Ear Acupuncture Point MT2 in Breast Cancer Patients: A Preliminary Observation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yine; Yang, Huayuan; Wang, Pin; Liu, Tangyi; Tang, Wenchao

    2015-01-01

    Skin impedance at acupuncture points (APs) has been used as a diagnostic aid for more than 50 years. In this study, we have a diagnostic tool (JXT-2008) to measure the skin impedance of ear APs of 30 breast cancer patients and the corresponding skin impedance of ear APs of 30 healthy humans, and then we compared these changes in ear AP impedance in breast cancer patients and healthy individuals. PMID:26504483

  6. No effect of skin temperature on human ventilation response to hypercapnia during light exercise with a normothermic core temperature.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Jesse G; Clegg, Miriam E; Walsh, Michael L; White, Matthew D

    2010-05-01

    Hyperthermia potentiates the influence of CO(2) on pulmonary ventilation (.V(E)). It remains to be resolved how skin and core temperatures contribute to the elevated exercise ventilation response to CO(2). This study was conducted to assess the influences of mean skin temperature (_T(SK)) and end-tidal PCO(2) (P(ET)CO(2)) on .V(E) during submaximal exercise with a normothermic esophageal temperature (T(ES)). Five males and three females who were 1.76 +/- 0.11 m tall (mean +/- SD), 75.8 +/- 15.6 kg in weight and 22.0 +/- 2.2 years of age performed three 1 h exercise trials in a climatic chamber with the relative humidity (RH) held at 31.5 +/- 9.5% and the ambient temperature (T (AMB)) maintained at one of 25, 30, or 35 degrees C. In each trial, the volunteer breathed eucapnic air for 5 min during a rest period and subsequently cycle ergometer exercised at 50 W until T (ES) stabilized at approximately 37.1 +/- 0.4 degrees C. Once T (ES) stabilized in each trial, the volunteer breathed hypercapnic air twice for approximately 5 min with P(ET)CO(2) elevated by approximately +4 or +7.5 mmHg. The significantly (P < 0.05) different increases of P(ET)CO(2) of +4.20 +/- 0.49 and +7.40 +/- 0.51 mmHg gave proportionately larger increases in .V(E) of 10.9 +/- 3.6 and 15.2 +/- 3.6 L min(-1) (P = 0.001). This hypercapnia-induced hyperventilation was uninfluenced by varying the _T(SK) to three significantly different levels (P < 0.001) of 33.2 +/- 1.2 degrees C, to 34.5 +/- 0.8 degrees C to 36.4 +/- 0.5 degrees C. In conclusion, the results support that skin temperature between approximately 33 and approximately 36 degrees C has neither effect on pulmonary ventilation nor on hypercapnia-induced hyperventilation during a light exercise with a normothermic core temperature.

  7. Comparison of model land skin temperature with remotely sensed estimates and assessment of surface-atmosphere coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, I. F.; Boussetta, S.; Viterbo, P.; Balsamo, G.; Beljaars, A.; Sandu, I.

    2015-12-01

    The coupling between land surface and the atmosphere is a key feature in Earth System Modeling for exploiting the predictability of slowly evolving geophysical variables (e.g., soil moisture or vegetation state), and for correctly representing rapid variations within the diurnal cycle, particularly relevant in data assimilation applications. In this study, land surface temperature (LST) estimated from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) is used to assess the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) skin temperature, which can be interpreted as a radiative temperature of the model surface. It is shown that the ECMWF model tends to slightly overestimate skin temperature during nighttime and underestimate daytime values. Such underestimation of daily amplitudes is particularly pronounced in (semiarid) arid regions, suggesting a misrepresentation of surface energy fluxes in those areas. The LST estimated from MSG is used to evaluate the impact of changes in some of the ECMWF model surface parameters. The introduction of more realistic model vegetation is shown to have a positive but limited impact on skin temperature: long integration leads to an equilibrium state where changes in the latent heat flux and soil moisture availability compensate each other. Revised surface roughness lengths for heat and momentum, however, lead to overall positive impact on daytime skin temperature, mostly due to a reduction of sensible heat flux. This is particularly relevant in nonvegetated areas, unaffected by model vegetation. The reduction of skin conductivity, a parameter which controls the heat transfer to ground by diffusion, is shown to further improve the model skin temperature.

  8. Spatial Mathematical Model of Heat Transfer in Human Skin Influenced by Heated up to High Temperatures Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranovskiy, Nikolay V.; Solodkin, Andrey S.; Stuparenko, Alexandr A.

    2016-02-01

    Numerical research results of heat transfer in system "air-heated particle-skin layer" presented. Skin was influenced by heated up to high temperatures particle. The problem is solved in tree-dimensional statement in Cartesian system of coordinates. The typical range of influence parameters of heated particle considered. Temperature distributions in different moments of time obtained. Condition of burn occurrence by heated particle is under consideration in this research.

  9. Impact of ultraviolet radiation and ozone on the transepidermal water loss as a function of skin temperature in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Thiele, J J; Dreher, F; Maibach, H I; Packer, L

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation or ozone leads to skin damage including oxidation of skin biomolecules, as well as to depletion of constitutive antioxidants. The highly organized stratum corneum forming the main barrier against most xenobiotics is particularly susceptible to such damage and possible barrier perturbation may be the consequence. Whereas ample evidence exists for an increased permeability for different solutes including water after exposure to ultraviolet radiation, such an effect has not yet been reported for ozone. This study reports on the effect of such oxidative stressors using the hairless mouse as the skin model and measuring temperature-controlled transepidermal water loss (TEWL) as an indicator for skin barrier integrity. First, a strong dependency of the TEWL on skin temperature was observed, an effect that was clearly more pronounced than that found in man. Given this temperature dependency in untreated animals, we proceeded to determine the effects of both ultraviolet radiation and ozone on TEWL over a relevant physiological skin temperature range. Solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation (0.75-3 minimal erythemal dose) resulted in a delayed and dose-dependent skin barrier disruption over the entire temperature range investigated. Conversely, daily ozone exposure at 2 ppm for 1 week, however, did not significantly alter TEWL up to 72 h after the last exposure. The results demonstrate a differential response of the epidermis to two environmental stressors associated with oxidative damage; they suggest that chronic ozone exposure at relevant environmental levels does not lead to a detectable skin barrier defect, while solar UV exposure was demonstrated to increase epidermal water loss. Furthermore, experimental evidence clearly suggests that future studies applying TEWL measurements in animal models should be performed under carefully controlled skin temperature conditions.

  10. Investigating the roles of core and local temperature on forearm skin blood flow.

    PubMed

    Mallette, Matthew M; Hodges, Gary J; McGarr, Gregory W; Gabriel, David A; Cheung, Stephen S

    2016-07-01

    We sought to isolate the contributions of core and local temperature on forearm skin blood flow (SkBF), and to examine the interaction between local- and reflexive-mechanisms of SkBF control. Forearm SkBF was assessed using laser-Doppler flowmetry in eight males and eight females during normothermia and hyperthermia (+1.2°C rectal temperature). Mean experimental forearm temperature was manipulated in four, 5min blocks between neutral (A: 33.0°C) and warm (B: 38.5°C) in an A-B-A-B fashion during normothermia, and B-A-B-A during hyperthermia. Mean control forearm skin temperature was maintained at ~33°C. Finally, local heating to 44°C was performed on both forearms to elicit maximal SkBF. Data are presented as a percentage of maximal cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC), calculated as laser-Doppler flux divided by mean arterial pressure. No sex differences were observed in any CVC measures (P>0.05). During normothermia, increasing experimental forearm temperature to 38.5°C elevated CVC by 42±8%max (d=3.1, P<0.001). Subsequently decreasing experimental forearm temperature back down to 33.0°C reduced CVC by 36±7%max (d=2.5, P<0.001). Finally, the second increase in experimental forearm temperature to 38.5°C increased CVC by 25±6%max (d=1.9, P<0.0001). During hyperthermia, decreasing experimental forearm temperature to 33.0°C reduced CVC by 6±1%max (d=0.5, P<0.001). Increasing experimental forearm temperature to 38.5°C increased CVC by 4±2%max (d=0.4, P<0.001). Finally, decreasing experimental forearm temperature to 33.0°C reduced CVC by 8±2%max (d=0.7, P<0.001). Compared to normothermia, CVC responses to local temperature changes during hyperthermia were almost abolished (normothermia: d=1.9-3.1; hyperthermia: d=0.4-0.7). These data indicate that local temperature drives SkBF during normothermia, while reflexive mechanisms regulate SkBF during hyperthermia.

  11. Improving the Accuracy of Satellite Sea Surface Temperature Measurements by Explicitly Accounting for the Bulk-Skin Temperature Difference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wick, Gary A.; Emery, William J.; Castro, Sandra L.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this research was to determine whether the accuracy of satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST) could be improved by explicitly accounting for the complex temperature gradients at the surface of the ocean associated with the cool skin and diurnal warm layers. To achieve this goal, work was performed in two different major areas. The first centered on the development and deployment of low-cost infrared radiometers to enable the direct validation of satellite measurements of skin temperature. The second involved a modeling and data analysis effort whereby modeled near-surface temperature profiles were integrated into the retrieval of bulk SST estimates from existing satellite data. Under the first work area, two different seagoing infrared radiometers were designed and fabricated and the first of these was deployed on research ships during two major experiments. Analyses of these data contributed significantly to the Ph.D. thesis of one graduate student and these results are currently being converted into a journal publication. The results of the second portion of work demonstrated that, with presently available models and heat flux estimates, accuracy improvements in SST retrievals associated with better physical treatment of the near-surface layer were partially balanced by uncertainties in the models and extra required input data. While no significant accuracy improvement was observed in this experiment, the results are very encouraging for future applications where improved models and coincident environmental data will be available. These results are included in a manuscript undergoing final review with the Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology.

  12. Land and Ocean Surface Skin Temperature from Geostationary and Low Earth Orbit Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarino, B. R.; Minnis, P.; Palikonda, R.; Heck, P.; Bedka, K.

    2013-12-01

    Observations from imagers aboard Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites allow for spatially detailed, near-real-time retrievals of cloud and surface radiation properties. Validating and improving the quality of these observations is important for the advancement of climate studies. Compared to GEO sensors, LEO-based instruments can typically provide higher-spatial-resolution datasets, but at the cost of limited areal coverage and reduced sampling frequency at any given location. Conversely, the persistence and coverage of GEO-based imagers offer the opportunity for more frequent retrievals of near-instantaneous, near-global surface properties. Among other cloud and clear-sky retrieval parameters, NASA Langley provides pixel-level land and ocean skin temperature datasets by comparing clear-pixel top-of-atmosphere infrared temperature observations with modeled, atmospheric-absorption-corrected surface temperature values. Depending on cloud-cover thresholds, this method yields surface temperature values that are within 0.5 to 2.0 K of measurements from ground-based networks including the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility, the U.S. Climate Reference Network, and the global Baseline Surface Radiation Network. Furthermore, monthly mean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are within 0.5 to 2.0 K of NOAA-based SST climatology records, and have an uncertainty of less than 1 K. These data will be useful for assimilation into atmospheric models, which offer improved performance when high-accuracy, high-resolution initial radiometric and surface conditions are included. Modelers should find the immediate availability and broad coverage of these skin temperature observations valuable, which can lead to improved forecasting and more advanced global climate models.

  13. Temperature dependence of the symmetry energy and neutron skins in Ni, Sn, and Pb isotopic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, A. N.; Kadrev, D. N.; Gaidarov, M. K.; Sarriguren, P.; de Guerra, E. Moya

    2017-02-01

    The temperature dependence of the symmetry energy for isotopic chains of even-even Ni, Sn, and Pb nuclei is investigated in the framework of the local density approximation (LDA). The Skyrme energy density functional with two Skyrme-class effective interactions, SkM* and SLy4, is used in the calculations. The temperature-dependent proton and neutron densities are calculated through the hfbtho code that solves the nuclear Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov problem by using the cylindrical transformed deformed harmonic-oscillator basis. In addition, two other density distributions of 208Pb, namely the Fermi-type density determined within the extended Thomas-Fermi (TF) method and symmetrized-Fermi local density obtained within the rigorous density functional approach, are used. The kinetic energy densities are calculated either by the hfbtho code or, for a comparison, by the extended TF method up to second order in temperature (with T2 term). Alternative ways to calculate the symmetry energy coefficient within the LDA are proposed. The results for the thermal evolution of the symmetry energy coefficient in the interval T =0 -4 MeV show that its values decrease with temperature. The temperature dependence of the neutron and proton root-mean-square radii and corresponding neutron skin thickness is also investigated, showing that the effect of temperature leads mainly to a substantial increase of the neutron radii and skins, especially in the more neutron-rich nuclei, a feature that may have consequences on astrophysical processes and neutron stars.

  14. About possibility of temperature trace observing on the human skin using commercially available IR camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Shestakov, Ivan L.; Blednov, Roman G.

    2016-09-01

    One of urgent security problems is a detection of objects placed inside the human body. Obviously, for safety reasons one cannot use X-rays for such object detection widely and often. Three years ago, we have demonstrated principal possibility to see a temperature trace, induced by food eating or water drinking, on the human body skin by using a passive THz camera. However, this camera is very expensive. Therefore, for practice it will be very convenient if one can use the IR camera for this purpose. In contrast to passive THz camera using, the IR camera does not allow to see the object under clothing, if an image, produced by this camera, is used directly. Of course, this is a big disadvantage for a security problem solution based on the IR camera using. To overcome this disadvantage we develop novel approach for computer processing of IR camera images. It allows us to increase a temperature resolution of IR camera as well as increasing of human year effective susceptibility. As a consequence of this, a possibility for seeing of a human body temperature changing through clothing appears. We analyze IR images of a person, which drinks water and eats chocolate. We follow a temperature trace on human body skin, caused by changing of temperature inside the human body. Some experiments were made with measurements of a body temperature covered by T-shirt. Shown results are very important for the detection of forbidden objects, cancelled inside the human body, by using non-destructive control without using X-rays.

  15. Conductive and evaporative precooling lowers mean skin temperature and improves time trial performance in the heat.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, S H; Hupperets, M; Hodder, S G; Havenith, G

    2015-06-01

    Self-paced endurance performance is compromised by moderate-to-high ambient temperatures that are evident in many competitive settings. It has become common place to implement precooling prior to competition in an attempt to alleviate perceived thermal load and performance decline. The present study aimed to investigate precooling incorporating different cooling avenues via either evaporative cooling alone or in combination with conductive cooling on cycling time trial performance. Ten trained male cyclists completed a time trial on three occasions in hot (35 °C) ambient conditions with the cooling garment prepared by (a) immersion in water (COOL, evaporative); (b) immersion in water and frozen (COLD, evaporative and conductive); or (c) no precooling (CONT). COLD improved time trial performance by 5.8% and 2.6% vs CONT and COOL, respectively (both P < 0.05). Power output was 4.5% higher for COLD vs CONT (P < 0.05). Mean skin temperature was lower at the onset of the time trial following COLD compared with COOL and CONT (both P < 0.05) and lasted for the first 20% of the time trial. Thermal sensation was perceived cooler following COOL and COLD. The combination of evaporative and conductive cooling (COLD) had the greatest benefit to performance, which is suggested to be driven by reduced skin temperature following cooling.

  16. Riverine skin temperature response to subsurface processes in low wind speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumer, Sophia E.; Zappa, Christopher J.; Anderson, Steven P.; Dugan, John P.

    2016-03-01

    Both surface and subsurface processes modulate the surface thermal skin and as such the skin temperature may serve as an indicator for coastal, estuarine, and alluvial processes. Infrared (IR) imagery offers the unique tool to survey such systems, allowing not only to assess temperature variability of the thermal boundary layer, but also to derive surface flow fields through digital particle image velocimetry, optical flow techniques, or spectral methods. In this study, IR time-series imagery taken from a boat moored in the Hudson River estuary is used to determine surface flow, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate, and characteristic temperature and velocity length scales. These are linked to subsurface measurements provided by in situ instruments. Under the low wind conditions and weak stratification, surface currents and dissipation rate are found to reflect subsurface mean flow (r2 = 0.89) and turbulence (r2 = 0.75). For relatively low dissipation rates, better correlations are obtained by computing dissipation rates directly from wavenumber spectra rather than when having to assume the validity of the Taylor hypothesis. Furthermore, the subsurface dissipation rate scales with the surface length scales (L) and mean flow (U) using ɛ ∝ U3/L (r2 = 0.9). The surface length scale derived from the thermal fields is found to have a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.88) to water depth (D) with (D/L) ˜ 13. Such a relation may prove useful for remote bathymetric surveys when no waves are present.

  17. Estimation of the Ocean Skin Temperature using the NASA GEOS Atmospheric Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal D.; Akella, Santha; Todling, Ricardo; Suarez, Max

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the status of the development of a sea surface temperature (SST) analysis for the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Version-5 atmospheric data assimilation system (ADAS). Its implementation is part of the steps being taken toward the development of an integrated earth system analysis. Currently, GEOS-ADAS SST is a bulk ocean temperature (from ocean boundary conditions), and is almost identical to the skin sea surface temperature. Here we describe changes to the atmosphere-ocean interface layer of the GEOS-atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) to include near surface diurnal warming and cool-skin effects. We also added SST relevant Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) observations to the GEOS-ADAS observing system. We provide a detailed description of our analysis of these observations, along with the modifications to the interface between the GEOS atmospheric general circulation model, gridpoint statistical interpolation-based atmospheric analysis and the community radiative transfer model. Our experiments (with and without these changes) show improved assimilation of satellite radiance observations. We obtained a closer fit to withheld, in-situ buoys measuring near-surface SST. Evaluation of forecast skill scores corroborate improvements seen in the observation fits. Along with a discussion of our results, we also include directions for future work.

  18. A reduced core to skin temperature gradient, not a critical core temperature, affects aerobic capacity in the heat.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, John S; Hailes, Walter S; Ruby, Brent C

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the core to skin temperature gradient during incremental running to volitional fatigue across varying environmental conditions. A secondary aim was to determine if a "critical" core temperature would dictate volitional fatigue during running in the heat. 60 participants (n=49 male, n=11 female; 24±5 yrs, 177±11 cm, 75±13 kg) completed the study. Participants were uniformly stratified into a specific exercise temperature group (18 °C, 26 °C, 34 °C, or 42 °C) based on a 3-mile run performance. Participants were equipped with core and chest skin temperature sensors and a heart rate monitor, entered an environmental chamber (18 °C, 26 °C, 34 °C, or 42 °C), and rested in the seated position for 10 min before performing a walk/run to volitional exhaustion. Initial treadmill speed was 3.2 km h(-1) with a 0% grade. Every 3 min, starting with speed, speed and grade increased in an alternating pattern (speed increased by 0.805 km h(-1), grade increased by 0.5%). Time to volitional fatigue was longer for the 18 °C and 26 °C group compared to the 42 °C group, (58.1±9.3 and 62.6±6.5 min vs. 51.3±8.3 min, respectively, p<0.05). At the half-way point and finish, the core to skin gradient for the 18 °C and 26 °C groups was larger compared to 42 °C group (halfway: 2.6±0.7 and 2.0±0.6 vs. 1.3±0.5 for the 18 °C, 26 °C and 42 °C groups, respectively; finish: 3.3±0.7 and 3.5±1.1 vs. 2.1±0.9 for the 26 °C, 34 °C, and 42 °C groups, respectively, p<0.05). Sweat rate was lower in the 18 °C group compared to the 26 °C, 34 °C, and 42 °C groups, 3.6±1.3 vs. 7.2±3.0, 7.1±2.0, and 7.6±1.7 g m(-2) min(-1), respectively, p<0.05. There were no group differences in core temperature and heart rate response during the exercise trials. The current data demonstrate a 13% and 22% longer run time to exhaustion for the 18 °C and 26 °C group, respectively, compared to the 42 °C group despite no differences

  19. Plant Canopy Temperature and Heat Flux Profiles: What Difference Does an Isothermal Skin Make?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crago, R. D.; Qualls, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface temperature Ts plays a vital role in the determination of sensible (H) and latent heat flux, upwelling long-wave radiation, and ground heat flux. While it is widely recognized that there is a range of skin temperatures represented in even a homogeneous canopy, it is often necessary or convenient to treat the surface as isothermal. This study investigates, at the sub-canopy scale, the implications of assuming that a canopy is isothermal. The focus is on profiles within the canopy of air, foliage, and soil surface temperature, and of sensible and latent heat flux source strength. Data from a dense grassland at the Southern Great Plains experiment in 1997 (SGP97) were used to assess the ability of a multi-layer canopy model to match measured sensible and latent heat fluxes along with radiometric surface temperatures. In its standard mode, the model solves the energy balance for each canopy layer and uses Localized Near Field (LNF) theory to model the turbulent transport. The results suggest the model captures the most important features of canopy flux generation and transport, and support its use to investigate scalar profiles within canopies. For 112 data points at SGP97, the model produced realistic temperature and sensible heat flux source profiles. In addition, it was run in a mode that seeks the isothermal (soil and foliage) skin temperature (Ti) that provides the same Hproduced by the model in its standard mode. This produces profiles of air and foliage temperature and of sensible heat source strength that differ significantly from profiles from the standard mode. Based on these simulations, realistic canopies may have a mixture of positive and negative sensible heat flux sources at various heights, typically with large contributions from the soil surface. There is frequently a discontinuity between foliage temperatures near the soil and the actual soil surface temperature. For isothermal canopies, heat sources at all levels had the same sign and

  20. A coupling system to predict the core and skin temperatures of human wearing protective clothing in hot environments.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Weng, Wenguo; Fu, Ming

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to predict the core and skin temperatures of human wearing protective clothing in hot environments using the coupling system. The coupling system consisted of a sweating manikin Newton controlled by a multi-node human thermal model, and responded dynamically to the thermal environment as human body. Validation of the coupling system results was conducted by comparison with the subject tests. Five healthy men wearing protective clothing were exposed to the thermal neutral and high temperature environments. The skin temperatures of seven body segments and the rectal temperatures were recorded continuously. The predictions of core temperatures made by the coupling system showed good agreement with the experimental data, with maximum difference of 0.19 °C and RMSD of 0.12 °C. The predicted mean skin temperatures fell outside of the 95% CI for most points, whereas the difference between the simulated results and measured data was no more than 1 °C which is acceptable. The coupling system predicted the local skin temperatures reasonably with the maximum local skin temperature of 1.30 °C. The coupling system has been validated and exhibited reasonable accuracy compared with the experimental results.

  1. Otoplasty (Cosmetic Ear Surgery)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is typically done on both ears to optimize symmetry. Otoplasty can be done at any age after ... your ears — including their placement, size, shape and symmetry. The doctor might also take pictures of your ...

  2. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  3. Ear drainage culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... needed. Your health care provider will use a cotton swab to collect the sample from inside the ... Using a cotton swab to take a sample of drainage from the outer ear is not painful. However, ear pain may ...

  4. Swimmer's Ear (External Otitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ears. This is especially true if they use cotton swabs or dangerously sharp small objects, like hair ... all objects out of your ear canals — including cotton swabs — unless your doctor has told you it's ...

  5. Middle ear infection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A middle ear infection is also known as otitis media. It is one of the most common of childhood infections. With this illness, the middle ear becomes red, swollen, and inflamed because of bacteria ...

  6. Swimmer's Ear (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... or inserting foreign objects like bobby pins or paper clips into the ear can all increase the ... discharge from the ear to help identify which bacteria or fungi are causing the infection. Over-the- ...

  7. Ear surgery - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100016.htm Ear surgery - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Overview This image demonstrates normal appearance of the ears in relation to the face. Review Date 10/ ...

  8. Dynamics of thermographic skin temperature response during squat exercise at two different speeds.

    PubMed

    Formenti, Damiano; Ludwig, Nicola; Trecroci, Athos; Gargano, Marco; Michielon, Giovanni; Caumo, Andrea; Alberti, Giampietro

    2016-07-01

    Low intensity resistance training with slow movement and tonic force generation has been shown to create blood flow restriction within muscles that may affect thermoregulation through the skin. We aimed to investigate the influence of two speeds of exercise execution on skin temperature dynamics using infrared thermography. Thirteen active males performed randomly two sessions of squat exercise (normal speed, 1s eccentric/1s concentric phase, 1s; slow speed, 5s eccentric/5s concentric phase, 5s), using ~50% of 1 maximal repetition. Thermal images of ST above muscles quadriceps were recorded at a rate of 0.05Hz before the exercise (to determine basal ST) and for 480s following the initiation of the exercise (to determine the nonsteady-state time course of ST). Results showed that ST changed more slowly during the 5s exercise (p=0.002), whereas the delta (with respect to basal) excursions were similar for the two exercises (p>0.05). In summary, our data provided a detailed nonsteady-state portrait of ST changes following squat exercises executed at two different speeds. These results lay the basis for further investigations entailing the joint use of infrared thermography and Doppler flowmetry to study the events taking place both at the skin and the muscle level during exercises executed at slow speed.

  9. Temperature Scanning SAXD/WAXD Measurements On Stratum Corneum Of Mammalian Skin To Separate Entangled Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatta, Ichiro; Ohta, Noboru; Yagi, Naoto

    2009-01-01

    The outermost layer of skin, the stratum corneum (SC), is composed of corneocytes and an intercellular lipid matrix. The matrix acts as the main barrier. In the SC, the longitudinal arrangement of the lipid molecules consists of long and short lamellar structures and the lateral arrangement consists of hexagonal and orthorhombic hydrocarbon-chain packings. From the temperature dependence of SAXD/WAXD, we revealed that a long lamellar structure is formed by hexagonal hydrocarbon-chain packing and a short lamellar structure by orthorhombic hydrocarbon-chain packing.

  10. Swimmer's Ear (External Otitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be caused by many different types of bacteria or fungi. It usually develops in ears that are exposed to moisture. People who get OE often have been diving or swimming for long periods of time. This can bring infectious bacteria directly into the ear canal. Swimmer's ear occurs ...

  11. Importance of a suitable working protocol for tape stripping experiments on porcine ear skin: Influence of lipophilic formulations and strip adhesion impairment.

    PubMed

    Nagelreiter, C; Mahrhauser, D; Wiatschka, K; Skipiol, S; Valenta, C

    2015-08-01

    The tape stripping method is a very important tool for dermopharmacokinetic experiments in vitro and the accurate measurement of the removed corneocytes is key for a reliable calculation of a drug's skin penetration behavior. Therefore, various methods to quantify the amount of corneocytes removed with each tape strip have been employed, ranging from gravimetric approaches to protein assays and recently near infrared densitometry (NIR) has become very widely used. As this method is based on a reduction of light intensity, interference of formulation components seems conceivable, as they could scatter light and change the results. In this study, NIR measurements were compared to a protein assay and in addition, the influence of highly lipophilic formulations on the results of tape stripping experiments was investigated as impairment of the adherence of strips has been reported. To this end, different tape stripping protocols were employed. The obtained results ensure suitability of the NIR method and moreover suggest a more pronounced influence on adherence with increasing lipophilicity in applied formulations. The results show that adaptation of the tape stripping protocol to the specifications of envisioned experiments is important for reliable results. Two protocols were found favorable and are presented in this work.

  12. Regional Skin Temperature Response to Moderate Aerobic Exercise Measured by Infrared Thermography

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Alex de Andrade; Amorim, Paulo Roberto dos Santos; Brito, Ciro José; Sillero-Quintana, Manuel; Bouzas Marins, João Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infrared thermography (IRT) does not require contact with the skin, and it is a convenient, reliable and non-invasive technique that can be used for monitoring the skin temperature (TSK). Objectives: The aim of this study was to monitor the variations in the regional TSK during exercise on 28 regions of interest (ROIs) (forehead, face, chest, abdomen, back, lumbar, anterior and posterior neck, and posterior and anterior views of the right and left hands, forearms, upper arms, thighs, and legs) with IRT. Patients and Methods: 12 physically active young males were monitored with IRT during the following three phases: a) 30 minutes before exercise b) while performing one hour of moderate intensity exercise on a treadmill at 60% of the VO2max, and c) 60 minutes after exercise. Results: During pre-exercise, all TSK reached a steady-state (P ≤ 0.05), which ensured adequate thermal stabilisation. At the beginning of exercise, there was a significant reduction in the TSK in most ROIs after 10 minutes of activity, except for the lower limbs (legs and thighs). After one hour of recovery, in the anterior view of the hands and thighs and in the posterior view of the legs, there were significant increases in the TSK compared to pre-exercise. Conclusions: There were significant distinctions in the skin temperature distribution during exercise according to the activity of the area under consideration during exercise, which may be important in the development of physiological models and heat flux analyses for different purposes. PMID:27217931

  13. Measuring skin temperature before, during and after exercise: a comparison of thermocouples and infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Alex de Andrade; Amorim, Paulo Roberto dos Santos; Brito, Ciro José; de Moura, Anselmo Gomes; Moreira, Danilo Gomes; Costa, Carlos Magno Amaral; Sillero-Quintana, Manuel; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas

    2014-02-01

    Measuring skin temperature (TSK) provides important information about the complex thermal control system and could be interesting when carrying out studies about thermoregulation. The most common method to record TSK involves thermocouples at specific locations; however, the use of infrared thermal imaging (IRT) has increased. The two methods use different physical processes to measure TSK, and each has advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the mean skin temperature (MTSK) measurements using thermocouples and IRT in three different situations: pre-exercise, exercise and post-exercise. Analysis of the residual scores in Bland-Altman plots showed poor agreement between the MTSK obtained using thermocouples and those using IRT. The averaged error was -0.75 °C during pre-exercise, 1.22 °C during exercise and -1.16 °C during post-exercise, and the reliability between the methods was low in the pre- (ICC = 0.75 [0.12 to 0.93]), during (ICC = 0.49 [-0.80 to 0.85]) and post-exercise (ICC = 0.35 [-1.22 to 0.81] conditions. Thus, there is poor correlation between the values of MTSK measured by thermocouples and IRT pre-exercise, exercise and post-exercise, and low reliability between the two forms of measurement.

  14. Changes of Locoregional Skin Temperature in Neonates Undergoing Laser Needle Acupuncture at the Acupuncture Point Large Intestine 4

    PubMed Central

    Kurath-Koller, Stefan; Gross, Anna; Freidl, Thomas; Urlesberger, Berndt; Raith, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Laser acupuncture bears a potential risk for the skin surface, especially in neonates whose skin has histological and physiological peculiarities. We evaluated thermal changes of skin temperature in neonates during laser acupuncture by using a thermal camera (Flir i5, Flir Systems Inc., Portland, USA). Laserneedles (Laserneedle GmbH, Glienicke/Nordbahn, Germany) were fixed to the skin at Large Intestine 4 (LI 4, Hegu), bilaterally. Before application of laser acupuncture (685 nm, 15 mW, 500 μm), as well as after 1, 5, and 10 min, thermographic pictures of both hands were taken. The measuring was carried out on the 23rd day after birth (20 neonates, mean postmenstrual gestational age 38 + 2, mean weight 2604 g). Compared to the initial temperature of 34.2°C on the right hand, the skin temperature had increased to 35.3°C (P < 0.05) after 5 min and up to 36.1°C (P < 0.05) after 10 min of stimulation. Equally, on the left hand, an increase of the skin temperature from 34.5°C to 35.9°C (P < 0.05) and 35.9°C (P < 0.05) was measured. The highest measured skin temperature after 10 min of stimulation amounted to 38.7°C, without any clinically visible changes on the skin surface. PMID:25922612

  15. [Middle ear physiology].

    PubMed

    Ayerbe, I; Négrevergne, M; Ucelay, R; Sanchez Fernandez, J M

    1999-01-01

    The middle ear forms part of the sound transformer mechanism, together with the outer ear and the conducting system of the inner ear. An intermediate sensory organ, sensitive to acoustic vibration, and linked to the inner ear, the middle ear made its appearance during the period of adaptation of marine creatures to a terrestrial habitat; its presence is therefore a phylogenetic requirement. It is classical to ascribe three functions to the middle ear: the transmission of acoustic vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the cochlea, impedance matching between the air in the external auditary meatus and the labyrinthine fluids, and protection of the inner ear by means of the acoustic reflex. If the classical mechanical explanation has been able to explain its function, the conceptualization of its physiology in terms of energy allows an even better understanding, as well as providing and explanation for the paradoxes which arise in clinical practice when the classical model is used.

  16. Relationships of skin depths and temperatures when varying pulse repetition frequencies from 2.0-μm laser light incident on pig skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaf, David; Johnson, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Human perception of 2.0-μm infrared laser irradiation has become significant in such disparate fields as law enforcement, neuroscience, and pain research. Several recent studies have found damage thresholds for single-pulse and continuous wave irradiations at this wavelength. However, the only publication using multiple-pulse irradiations was investigating the cornea rather than skin. Literature has claimed that the 2.0-μm light characteristic thermal diffusion time was as long as 300-ms. Irradiating the skin with 2.0-μm lasers to produce sensation should follow published recommendations to use pulses on the order of 10 to 100 ms, which approach the theoretical thermal diffusion time. Therefore, investigation of the heating of skin for a variety of laser pulse combinations was undertaken. Temperatures of ex vivo pig skin were measured at the surface and at three depths from pulse sequences of six different duty factors. Differences were found in temperature rise per unit exposure that did not follow a linear relation to duty factor. The differences can be explained by significant heat conduction during the pulses. Therefore, the common heat modeling assumption of thermal confinement during a pulse may need to be experimentally verified if the pulse approaches the theoretical thermal confinement time.

  17. Prolonged Radiant Exposure of the Middle Ear during Transcanal Endoscopic Ear Surgery.

    PubMed

    Shah, Parth V; Kozin, Elliott D; Remenschneider, Aaron K; Dedmon, Matthew M; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Cohen, Michael S; Lee, Daniel J

    2015-07-01

    Transcanal endoscopic ear surgery (EES) provides a high-resolution, wide-field view of the middle ear compared with the conventional operating microscope, reducing the need for a postauricular incision or mastoidectomy. Our group has shown in cadaveric human temporal bone studies that radiant energy from the endoscope tip can quickly elevate temperatures of the tympanic cavity. Elevated temperatures of the middle ear are associated with acute auditory brainstem response shifts in animal models. In EES, proposed methods to decrease middle ear temperature include frequent removal of the endoscope and the use of suction to rapidly dissipate heat; however, the routine application of such cooling techniques remains unknown. Herein, we aim to quantify the duration that the tympanic cavity is typically exposed to the endoscope during routine endoscopic middle ear surgery. We find that the tympanic cavity is exposed to the endoscope without a cooling mechanism for a prolonged period of time.

  18. Correction of Lobule-type Microtia: Part 2: The Stage of Ear Elevation

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Makoto; Yamashita, Ken; Yamada, Tetsuo; Kato, Shinji; Suzuki, Akiyo; Saito, Tamotsu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Here, we introduce our recent operative technique for ear elevation that results in (1) minimal morbidity for patients, (2) symmetric appearance, (3) clearer 3-dimensional structure with a deep concha, (4) good aesthetic appearance by hiding the grafted area behind the ear, and (5) maintenance of deep temporoauricular sulcus and angle. Methods: After a skin incision, the ear is elevated with temporoparietal fascia underlying the cartilage. On the conchal area, undermining is performed just below the skin so that the deep concavity can be maintained. Scalp and neck skin behind the ear is undermined subcutaneously and lifted up cranially to hide the entire area of grafted skin behind the ear. The postauricular surface is covered by full-thickness skin from the lower abdomen. A protective splint is applied for 3 months while sleeping. Results: A total of 137 ears in 121 patients were corrected with our technique and followed up for at least 3 years. All of the scar tissue could be hidden behind the ear, an aesthetically excellent result. Conclusions: Our technique made it possible to acquire an excellent and symmetrical shape of the ear. The important points in our procedure are as follows: (1) subcutaneous posterior undermining to enlarge the conchal cavity, (2) careful arrangement of the temporoauricular angle and auriculo-earlobe angle, (3) reduction in the area of temporally grafted skin to hide all scars behind the ear, and (4) protection of the ear to maintain the shape using a postoperative splint. PMID:25426391

  19. Tribute to R. G. Boutilier: skin colour and body temperature changes in basking Bokermannohyla alvarengai (Bokermann 1956).

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Glenn J; Eterovick, Paula C; de Andrade, Denis V

    2006-04-01

    In amphibians solar basking far from water sources is relatively uncommon since the highly permeable amphibian skin does not represent a significant barrier to the accompanying risk of losing water by evaporation. A South American frog, Bokermannohyla alvarengai (Bokermann 1956), however, spends a significant amount of the day exposed to full sun and relatively high temperatures. The means by which this frog copes with potentially high rates of evaporative water loss and high body temperatures are unknown. Thus, in this study, skin colour changes, body surface temperature, and evaporative water loss rates were examined under a mixture of field and laboratory conditions to ascertain whether changes in skin reflectivity play an important role in this animal's thermal and hydric balance. Field data demonstrated a tight correlation between the lightness of skin colour and frog temperature, with lighter frogs being captured possessing higher body temperatures. Laboratory experiments supported this relationship, revealing that frogs kept in the dark or at lower temperatures (20 degrees C) had darker skin colours, whereas frogs kept in the light or higher temperatures (30 degrees C) had skin colours of a lighter hue. Light exhibited a stronger influence on skin colour than temperature alone, suggesting that colour change is triggered by the increase in incident solar energy and in anticipation of changes in body temperature. This conclusion is corroborated by the observation that cold, darkly coloured frogs placed in the sun rapidly became lighter in colour during the initial warming up period (over the first 5 min), after which they warmed up more slowly and underwent a further, albeit slower, lightening of skin colour. Surprisingly, despite its natural disposition to bask in the sun, this species does not possess a ;waterproof' skin, since its rates of evaporative water loss were not dissimilar from many hylid species that live in arboreal or semi-aquatic environments

  20. Thermographic evaluation of hind paw skin temperature and functional recovery of locomotion after sciatic nerve crush in rats

    PubMed Central

    Z. Sacharuk, Viviane; A. Lovatel, Gisele; Ilha, Jocemar; Marcuzzo, Simone; Severo do Pinho, Alexandre; L. Xavier, Léder; A. Zaro, Milton; Achaval, Matilde

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Peripheral nerves are often damaged by direct mechanical injury, diseases, and tumors. The peripheral nerve injuries that result from these conditions can lead to a partial or complete loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic functions, which in turn are related to changes in skin temperature, in the involved segments of the body. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in hind paw skin temperature after sciatic nerve crush in rats in an attempt to determine whether changes in skin temperature correlate with the functional recovery of locomotion. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (n = 7), sham (n = 25), and crush (n = 25). All groups were subjected to thermographic, functional, and histological assessments. RESULTS: ΔT in the crush group was different from the control and sham groups at the 1st, 3rd and 7rd postoperative days (p<0.05). The functional recovery from the crush group returned to normal values between the 3rd and 4th week post-injury, and morphological analysis of the nerve revealed incomplete regeneration at the 4th week after injury. DISCUSSION: This study is the first demonstration that sciatic nerve crush in rats induces an increase in hind paw skin temperature and that skin temperature changes do not correlate closely with functional recovery PMID:21876984

  1. Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Year-Old Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery KidsHealth > For Parents > Middle Ear Infections and Ear ... medio y colocación de tubos de ventilación Why Surgery? Many kids get middle ear infections (known as ...

  2. Numerical modelling of salt diapirism and the surrounding temperature field during thin-skinned extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieulot, Cedric; Harms, Guido

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of salt diapirs is strongly associated with potential geothermal and hydrocarbon energy sources. Many numerical modelling studies of diapirism have been done in the past, though very few of these in fact use geologically realistic settings and materials. Besides, only analogue and structural studies have been done on full scale diapirism during thin-skinned extension. Two-dimensional numerical modelling of this problem using a Finite Element code aims at addressing the following questions: which geometrical or material parameters affect the growth rate and shape of the diapir and how? what is the effect of this diapirism on the temperature field and surface heat flux? How does the inclusion of simple surface processes influence these observations to first order ? Our results show that, in compliance with both analogue modelling and structural geological studies, a diapir formed during thin-skinned extension undergoes three phases: reactional piercement, active piercement and passive piercement. Extension rates directly influence the total time required for the diapir to reach the surface, as well as how long the system remains in a state of reactional diapirism, which both affect the shape of the resulting diapir. Erosion efficiency is found to affect the growth rate of the diapir during its active stage and the total rising time, which affects in turn its the shape. The density contrast between the salt and the sediments also influences the growth rate during active and passive piercement. Finally, the temperature surrounding a rising diapir (especially in the region above it) is found to be heightened by a few dozens of degrees.

  3. The influence of internal and skin temperatures on active cutaneous vasodilation under different levels of exercise and ambient temperatures in humans.

    PubMed

    Demachi, Koichi; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Kume, Masashi; Tsuji, Michio; Tsuneoka, Hideyuki

    2013-07-01

    To clarify the influence of internal and skin temperature on the active cutaneous vasodilation during exercise, the body temperature thresholds for the onset of active vasodilation during light or moderate exercise under different ambient temperature conditions were compared. Seven male subjects performed 30 min of a cycling exercise at 20 % or 50 % of peak oxygen uptake in a room maintained at 20, 24, or 28 °C. Esophageal (Tes) and mean skin temperature (Tsk) as measured by a thermocouple, deep thigh temperature (Tdt) by the zero-heat-flow (ZHF) method, and forearm skin blood flow by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) were monitored. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) was also monitored non-invasively, and the cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as the LDF/MAP. Throughout the experiment, the Tsk at ambient temperatures of 20, 24, and 28 °C were approximately 30, 32, and 34 °C, respectively, for both 20 % and 50 % exercise. During 50 % exercise, the Tes or Tdt thresholds for the onset of the increase in CVC were observed to be similar among the 20, 24, and 28 °C ambient conditions. During 20 % exercise, the increase in Tes and Tdt was significantly lower than those found at 50 %, and the onset of the increase in CVC was only observed at 28 °C. These results suggest that the onset of active vasodilation was affected more strongly by the internal or exercising tissue temperatures than by the skin temperatures during exercise performed at a moderate load in comparison to a light load under Tsk variations ranging from 30 °C to 34 °C. Therefore, the modification by skin temperature of the central control on cutaneous vasomotor tone during exercise may differ between different exercise loads.

  4. The influence of internal and skin temperatures on active cutaneous vasodilation under different levels of exercise and ambient temperatures in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demachi, Koichi; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Kume, Masashi; Tsuji, Michio; Tsuneoka, Hideyuki

    2013-07-01

    To clarify the influence of internal and skin temperature on the active cutaneous vasodilation during exercise, the body temperature thresholds for the onset of active vasodilation during light or moderate exercise under different ambient temperature conditions were compared. Seven male subjects performed 30 min of a cycling exercise at 20 % or 50 % of peak oxygen uptake in a room maintained at 20, 24, or 28 °C. Esophageal (Tes) and mean skin temperature (Tsk) as measured by a thermocouple, deep thigh temperature (Tdt) by the zero-heat-flow (ZHF) method, and forearm skin blood flow by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) were monitored. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) was also monitored non-invasively, and the cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as the LDF/MAP. Throughout the experiment, the Tsk at ambient temperatures of 20, 24, and 28 °C were approximately 30, 32, and 34 °C, respectively, for both 20 % and 50 % exercise. During 50 % exercise, the Tes or Tdt thresholds for the onset of the increase in CVC were observed to be similar among the 20, 24, and 28 °C ambient conditions. During 20 % exercise, the increase in Tes and Tdt was significantly lower than those found at 50 %, and the onset of the increase in CVC was only observed at 28 °C. These results suggest that the onset of active vasodilation was affected more strongly by the internal or exercising tissue temperatures than by the skin temperatures during exercise performed at a moderate load in comparison to a light load under Tsk variations ranging from 30 °C to 34 °C. Therefore, the modification by skin temperature of the central control on cutaneous vasomotor tone during exercise may differ between different exercise loads.

  5. Pathology of the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Orengo, Ida; Robbins, Kerri; Marsch, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The external ear is exposed to weathering and trauma; it also has sparse vascularity, making it prone to infection and disease. The external location of the cutaneous ear makes it easily visible for diagnosis and accessible for treatment. In this article, the authors focus on diseases of the ear that are most commonly encountered and may be subject to surgical and medical evaluation and/or treatment. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and treatment for each disease entity are discussed. PMID:23115534

  6. The porcine ear skin as a model system for the human integument: influence of storage conditions on basic features of epidermis structure and function--a histological and histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, W; Zschemisch, N H; Godynicki, S

    2003-01-01

    Based on careful tissue processing, detailed structural analysis, and histochemical as well as cytophotometrical evaluation of the epidermis, the study presents data with respect to changes of tissue integrity during two storing modes (room temperature and 4 degrees C) and various storage times of the porcine auricle. Structural degeneration was first noted in the barrier region of the epidermis from where such changes spread, independent of storage conditions, from small horizontal necrotic islands and continuously with increasing storage time. The histochemical results corroborated these observations, emphasizing, however, that the lower epidermal layers seemed intact for a longer time period than the upper layers. Cytophotometrical evaluation of histochemical stainings showed, with regard to the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, that oxidative metabolism was negatively affected in the early stages of storage, whereas epidermal lipids (neutral fats, glycolipids) remained relatively stable, even during storage at room temperature. In conclusion, it was obvious that the barrier region is the most sensitive element of the porcine ear epidermis. Taking into consideration that this part of the epidermis is most important for permeation studies, it seems reasonable to avoid any storage of porcine auricles at room temperature, and to use only auricles that have been stored at 4 degrees C for not more than 4 to 6 hours, immediately after delivery from the slaughter-house. In this way better tissue preservation can be achieved, whereby the use of shinkage-free water-soluble plastic embedding would generally improve the histological control of structural integrity, and the application of an easy to handle enzyme histochemical procedure (e.g. succinate dehydrogenase demonstration) to unfixed fresh-frozen sections would help to control basic aspects of tissue functions. The results are discussed in relation to the use of porcine integument as a model in human dermatological

  7. Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2-Year-Old Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery KidsHealth > For Parents > Middle Ear Infections and ... to 18 months or longer. previous continue Tympanostomy Tube Surgery If your child is old enough to ...

  8. Molecular and functional properties of gelatin from the skin of unicorn leatherjacket as affected by extracting temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kaewruang, Phanngam; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon

    2013-06-01

    Gelatins extracted from the skin of unicorn leatherjacket at different temperatures (45, 55, 65 and 75°C) in the presence and the absence of soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 units/g pretreated skin) for 12h were characterised. In general, the addition of SBTI resulted in the lower yield, regardless of extraction temperature. Higher yield was obtained when higher extraction temperature was used (P<0.05). Gelatin from skin extracted at 75°C in the absence of SBTI showed the highest yield (10.66 ± 0.41%) (based on dry weight). The highest α-amino group content was observed in gelatin extracted at 55°C without SBTI incorporated. The band intensity of β-chain and α-chains increased as the extraction temperature increased, particularly above 55°C. Gelatin extracted at 65°C with and without SBTI incorporation exhibited the highest gel strength (178.00 ± 7.50 g and 170.47 ± 1.30 g, respectively). FTIR spectra indicated that a greater loss of molecular order of triple helix with a higher degradation was found in gelatin extracted at 55°C in the absence SBTI. Gelatin extracted at 65°C, either with or without SBTI, had the highest EAI and ESI with high foam expansion and stability. Thus, the extraction of gelatin from the skin of unicorn leatherjacket at temperature sufficiently high could render the gelatin with less degradation.

  9. Comparison of abdominal skin temperature between fertile and infertile women by infrared thermography: A diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Jo, Junyoung; Kim, Hyunho

    2016-10-01

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the differences in abdominal temperature (AT) between fertile (n=206; age) and infertile (n=250) women between the ages of 30 and 39 years. We evaluated the differences in two distinctive skin temperatures by thermography: ΔT1 (CV8 index) - difference in temperature between the mid-abdomen (CV8 acupuncture area) and ventral upper arm (VUA) and ΔT2 (CV4 index) - difference in temperature between the lower abdomen (CV4 acupuncture area) and VUA. The results indicated that the ΔT1 and ΔT2 of infertile women were significantly lower (by 1.05°C and 0.79°C, respectively; p<0.001, both) compared to those of fertile women. Additionally, the area under the curve of ΔT1 (0.78) was greater compared to that of ΔT2 (0.736), and its threshold was set at 0.675°C, by which, the sensitivity and specificity of ΔT1 for determination of fertility were found to be 80.8% and 68.4%, respectively. In conclusion, infertility is associated with lower AT. The decrease in AT in infertile women might be due to poor blood perfusion to the core muscles and tissues of the body. These findings provide a basis for further research for evaluation of clinical feasibility of thermography for analysis of infertility in women. Further evaluation of the influence of AT on fertility outcomes is required to determine the causal relationship between AT and infertility.

  10. Steroid Signaling and Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination – Reviewing the Evidence for Early Action of Estrogen during Ovarian Determination in the Red-Eared Slider Turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans)

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Mary; Crews, David

    2009-01-01

    The developmental processes underlying gonadal differentiation are conserved across vertebrates, but the triggers initiating these trajectories are extremely variable. The red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), a system where incubation temperature during a temperature-sensitive period of development determines offspring sex. However, gonadal sex is sensitive to both temperature and hormones during this period – particularly estrogen. We present a model for temperature-based differences in aromatase expression as a critical step in ovarian determination. Localized estrogen production facilitates ovarian development while inhibiting male-specific gene expression. At male-producing temperatures aromatase is not upregulated, thereby allowing testis development. PMID:18992835

  11. Effects of caffeine on skin and core temperatures, alertness, and recovery sleep during circadian misalignment.

    PubMed

    McHill, Andrew W; Smith, Benjamin J; Wright, Kenneth P

    2014-04-01

    Caffeine promotes wakefulness during night shift work, although it also disturbs subsequent daytime sleep. Increased alertness by caffeine is associated with a higher core body temperature (CBT). A lower CBT and a narrow distal-to-proximal skin temperature gradient (DPG) have been reported to be associated with improved sleep, yet whether caffeine influences the DPG is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the use caffeine during nighttime total sleep deprivation would reduce the DPG, increase CBT and alertness, and disturb subsequent daytime recovery sleep. We also expected that a greater widening of the DPG prior to sleep would be associated with a greater degree of sleep disturbance. Thirty healthy adults (9 females) aged 21.6 ± 3.5 years participated in a double-blind, 28-h modified constant routine protocol. At 23 h of wakefulness, participants in the treatment condition (n = 10) were given 2.9 mg/kg caffeine, equivalent to ~200 mg (or 2 espressos) for a 70-kg adult, 5 h before a daytime recovery sleep episode. Throughout the protocol, core and skin body temperatures, DPG, sleep architecture, and subjective alertness and mood were measured. Prior to sleep, caffeine significantly widened the DPG and increased CBT, alertness, and clear-headedness (p < 0.05). Caffeine also disturbed daytime recovery sleep (p < 0.05). Increased CBT and a wider DPG prior to sleep were associated with a longer latency to sleep, and a wider DPG was associated with disturbed recovery sleep (i.e., increased wakefulness after sleep onset, increased stage 1 sleep, decreased sleep efficiency, and decreased slow wave sleep) (p < 0.05). A widening of the DPG following nighttime caffeine may represent a component of the integrated physiological response by which caffeine improves alertness and disturbs subsequent daytime recovery sleep. Furthermore, our findings highlight that sleep disturbances associated with caffeine consumed near the circadian trough of alertness are still present when

  12. The Human Touch: Skin Temperature during the Rubber Hand Illusion in Manual and Automated Stroking Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Marieke; Wold, Andrew; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Ernst, Marc O.

    2013-01-01

    A difference in skin temperature between the hands has been identified as a physiological correlate of the rubber hand illusion (RHI). The RHI is an illusion of body ownership, where participants perceive body ownership over a rubber hand if they see it being stroked in synchrony with their own occluded hand. The current study set out to replicate this result, i.e., psychologically induced cooling of the stimulated hand using an automated stroking paradigm, where stimulation was delivered by a robot arm (PHANToMTM force-feedback device). After we found no evidence for hand cooling in two experiments using this automated procedure, we reverted to a manual stroking paradigm, which is closer to the one employed in the study that first produced this effect. With this procedure, we observed a relative cooling of the stimulated hand in both the experimental and the control condition. The subjective experience of ownership, as rated by the participants, by contrast, was strictly linked to synchronous stroking in all three experiments. This implies that hand-cooling is not a strict correlate of the subjective feeling of hand ownership in the RHI. Factors associated with the differences between the two designs (differences in pressure of tactile stimulation, presence of another person) that were thus far considered irrelevant to the RHI appear to play a role in bringing about this temperature effect. PMID:24260454

  13. A real-time heat strain risk classifier using heart rate and skin temperature.

    PubMed

    Buller, Mark J; Latzka, William A; Yokota, Miyo; Tharion, William J; Moran, Daniel S

    2008-12-01

    Heat injury is a real concern to workers engaged in physically demanding tasks in high heat strain environments. Several real-time physiological monitoring systems exist that can provide indices of heat strain, e.g. physiological strain index (PSI), and provide alerts to medical personnel. However, these systems depend on core temperature measurement using expensive, ingestible thermometer pills. Seeking a better solution, we suggest the use of a model which can identify the probability that individuals are 'at risk' from heat injury using non-invasive measures. The intent is for the system to identify individuals who need monitoring more closely or who should apply heat strain mitigation strategies. We generated a model that can identify 'at risk' (PSI 7.5) workers from measures of heart rate and chest skin temperature. The model was built using data from six previously published exercise studies in which some subjects wore chemical protective equipment. The model has an overall classification error rate of 10% with one false negative error (2.7%), and outperforms an earlier model and a least squares regression model with classification errors of 21% and 14%, respectively. Additionally, the model allows the classification criteria to be adjusted based on the task and acceptable level of risk. We conclude that the model could be a valuable part of a multi-faceted heat strain management system.

  14. Caring for Pierced Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... close. Regularly wash your ears with soap and water. Carefully do this at least once a day to avoid infection. Twist the earrings a few times daily. This will help keep the pierced holes open. Put rubbing alcohol on your ears. Using ...

  15. Avoiding Infection After Ear Piercing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Avoiding Infection After Ear Piercing Page Content Article Body What is the best way to avoid infection after ear piercing? Ears may be pierced for cosmetic reasons ...

  16. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    MedlinePlus

    ... and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... The eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ear (the space deep to the eardrum) and the back of the ...

  17. Effectiveness of Ear Splint Therapy for Ear Deformities

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To present our experience with ear splint therapy for babies with ear deformities, and thereby demonstrate that this therapy is an effective and safe intervention without significant complications. Methods This was a retrospective study of 54 babies (35 boys and 19 girls; 80 ears; age ≤3 months) with ear deformities who had received ear splint therapy at the Center for Torticollis, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ajou University Hospital between December 2014 and February 2016. Before the initiation of ear splint therapy, ear deformities were classified with reference to the standard terminology. We compared the severity of ear deformity before and after ear splint therapy by using the physician's ratings. We also compared the physician's ratings and the caregiver's ratings on completion of ear splint therapy. Results Among these 54 babies, 41 children (58 ears, 72.5%) completed the ear splint therapy. The mean age at initiation of therapy was 52.91±18.26 days and the treatment duration was 44.27±32.06 days. Satyr ear, forward-facing ear lobe, Darwinian notch, overfolded ear, and cupped ear were the five most common ear deformities. At the completion of therapy, the final physician's ratings of ear deformities were significantly improved compared to the initial ratings (8.28±1.44 vs. 2.51±0.92; p<0.001). There was no significant difference between the physician's ratings and the caregiver's ratings at the completion of ear splint therapy (8.28±1.44 vs. 8.0±1.61; p=0.297). Conclusion We demonstrated that ear splint therapy significantly improved ear deformities in babies, as measured by quantitative rating scales. Ear splint therapy is an effective and safe intervention for babies with ear deformities. PMID:28289646

  18. Spatial Correlations of Anomaly Time Series of AIRS Version-6 Land Surface Skin Temperatures with the Nino-4 Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Lee, Jae N.; Iredell, Lena

    2013-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version-6 data set is a valuable resource for meteorological studies. Quality Controlled earth's surface skin temperatures are produced on a 45 km x 45 km spatial scale under most cloud cover conditions. The same retrieval algorithm is used for all surface types under all conditions. This study used eleven years of AIRS monthly mean surface skin temperature and cloud cover products to show that land surface skin temperatures have decreased significantly in some areas and increased significantly in other areas over the period September 2002 through August 2013. These changes occurred primarily at 1:30 PM but not at 1:30 AM. Cooling land areas contained corresponding increases in cloud cover over this time period, with the reverse being true for warming land areas. The cloud cover anomaly patterns for a given month are affected significantly by El Nino/La Nina activity, and anomalies in cloud cover are a driving force behind anomalies in land surface skin temperature.

  19. Effects of temperature on embryonic and early larval growth and development in the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa).

    PubMed

    Smith, Geoffrey D; Hopkins, Gareth R; Mohammadi, Shabnam; M Skinner, Heather; Hansen, Tyler; Brodie, Edmund D; French, Susannah S

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the effects of temperature on the growth and development of embryonic and early larval stages of a western North American amphibian, the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa). We assigned newt eggs to different temperatures (7, 14, or 21°C); after hatching, we re-assigned the newt larvae into the three different temperatures. Over the course of three to four weeks, we measured total length and developmental stage of the larvae. Our results indicated a strong positive relationship over time between temperature and both length and developmental stage. Importantly, individuals assigned to cooler embryonic temperatures did not achieve the larval sizes of individuals from the warmer embryonic treatments, regardless of larval temperature. Our investigation of growth and development at different temperatures demonstrates carry-over effects and provides a more comprehensive understanding of how organisms respond to temperature changes during early development.

  20. Determination of the amplitude and phase relationships between oscillations in skin temperature and photoplethysmography-measured blood flow in fingertips.

    PubMed

    Sagaidachnyi, A A; Skripal, A V; Fomin, A V; Usanov, D A

    2014-02-01

    It is well established that skin temperature oscillations in fingertips coexist with blood flow oscillations and there is a certain correlation between them. At the same time, the reasons for differences in waveform and the delay between the blood flow and temperature oscillations are far from being fully understood. In this study we determine the relationships between spectral components of the blood flow and temperature oscillations in fingertips, and we ascertain the frequency dependences of amplitude attenuation and delay time for the temperature oscillations. The blood flow oscillations were considered as a source of thermal waves propagating from micro-vessels towards the skin surface and manifesting as temperature oscillations. The finger temperature was measured by infrared thermography and blood flow was assessed by photoplethysmography for ten healthy subjects. The time-frequency analysis of oscillations was based on the Morlet wavelet transform. The frequency dependences of delay time and amplitude attenuation in temperature compared with blood flow oscillations have been determined in endothelial (0.005-0.02 Hz) and neurogenic (0.02-0.05 Hz) frequency bands using the wavelet spectra. We approximated the experimental frequency dependences by equations describing thermal wave propagation through the medium and taking into account the thermal properties and thickness of a tissue. Results of analysis show that with the increase of frequency f the delay time of temperature oscillations decreases inversely proportional to f(1/2), and the attenuation of the amplitude increases directly proportional to exp f(1/2). Using these relationships allows us to increase correlation between the processed temperature oscillations and blood flow oscillations from 0.2 to 0.7 within the frequency interval 0.005-0.05 Hz. The established experimental and theoretical relationships clarify an understanding of interrelation between the dynamics of blood flow and skin

  1. Observation of temperature trace, induced by changing of temperature inside the human body, on the human body skin using commercially available IR camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2015-05-01

    As it is well-known, application of the passive THz camera for the security problems is very promising way. It allows seeing concealed object without contact with a person and this camera is non-dangerous for a person. In previous papers, we demonstrate new possibility of the passive THz camera using for a temperature difference observing on the human skin if this difference is caused by different temperatures inside the body. For proof of validity of our statement we make the similar physical experiment using the IR camera. We show a possibility of temperature trace on human body skin, caused by changing of temperature inside the human body due to water drinking. We use as a computer code that is available for treatment of images captured by commercially available IR camera, manufactured by Flir Corp., as well as our developed computer code for computer processing of these images. Using both codes we demonstrate clearly changing of human body skin temperature induced by water drinking. Shown phenomena are very important for the detection of forbidden samples and substances concealed inside the human body using non-destructive control without X-rays using. Early we have demonstrated such possibility using THz radiation. Carried out experiments can be used for counter-terrorism problem solving. We developed original filters for computer processing of images captured by IR cameras. Their applications for computer processing of images results in a temperature resolution enhancing of cameras.

  2. A comparison of whole body vibration and moist heat on lower extremity skin temperature and skin blood flow in healthy older individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lohman, Everett B.; Sackiriyas, Kanikkai Steni Balan; Bains, Gurinder S.; Calandra, Giovanni; Lobo, Crystal; Nakhro, Daniel; Malthankar, Gauri; Paul, Sherwine

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Tissue healing is an intricate process that is regulated by circulation. Heat modalities have been shown to improve skin circulation. Recent research supports that passive vibration increases circulation without risk of burns. Study purpose is to compare and determine effects of short duration vibration, moist heat, and a combination of the two on skin blood flow (SBF) and skin temperature (ST) in elderly, non-diabetic individuals following short-term exposure. Material/Methods Ten subjects, 3 female and 7 male (55–73 years of age), received two interventions over three days: 1 – Active vibration, 2 – passive vibration, 3 – moist heat, 4 – moist heat combined with passive vibration (MHPV), 5 – a commercial massaging heating pad, and 6 – no intervention. SBF and ST were measured using a MOOR Laser Doppler before and after the intervention and the third measurement were taken 10 minutes following. Results Mean SBF following a ten-minute intervention were significantly different in the combination of moist heat and passive vibration from the control, active vibration, and the commercial massaging heating pad. Compared to baseline measurements, this resulted in mean SBF elevation to 450% (at conclusion of 10 minutes of intervention) and 379% (10 minutes post). MHPV (p=0.02) showed significant changes in ST from the commercial massaging heating pad, passive vibration, and active vibration interventions. Conclusions SBF in the lower legs showed greatest increase with MHPV. Interventions should be selected that are low risk while increasing lower extremity skin blood flow. PMID:22739731

  3. Ear problems in swimmers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mao-Che; Liu, Chia-Yu; Shiao, An-Suey; Wang, Tyrone

    2005-08-01

    Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear), otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane.

  4. Theoretical modeling of time-dependent skin temperature and heat losses during whole-body cryotherapy: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Polidori, G; Marreiro, A; Pron, H; Lestriez, P; Boyer, F C; Quinart, H; Tourbah, A; Taïar, R

    2016-11-01

    This article establishes the basics of a theoretical model for the constitutive law that describes the skin temperature and thermolysis heat losses undergone by a subject during a session of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC). This study focuses on the few minutes during which the human body is subjected to a thermal shock. The relationship between skin temperature and thermolysis heat losses during this period is still unknown and have not yet been studied in the context of the whole human body. The analytical approach here is based on the hypothesis that the skin thermal shock during a WBC session can be thermally modelled by the sum of both radiative and free convective heat transfer functions. The validation of this scientific approach and the derivation of temporal evolution thermal laws, both on skin temperature and dissipated thermal power during the thermal shock open many avenues of large scale studies with the aim of proposing individualized cryotherapy protocols as well as protocols intended for target populations. Furthermore, this study shows quantitatively the substantial imbalance between human metabolism and thermolysis during WBC, the explanation of which remains an open question.

  5. Fully printed flexible fingerprint-like three-axis tactile and slip force and temperature sensors for artificial skin.

    PubMed

    Harada, Shingo; Kanao, Kenichiro; Yamamoto, Yuki; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji; Takei, Kuniharu

    2014-12-23

    A three-axis tactile force sensor that determines the touch and slip/friction force may advance artificial skin and robotic applications by fully imitating human skin. The ability to detect slip/friction and tactile forces simultaneously allows unknown objects to be held in robotic applications. However, the functionalities of flexible devices have been limited to a tactile force in one direction due to difficulties fabricating devices on flexible substrates. Here we demonstrate a fully printed fingerprint-like three-axis tactile force and temperature sensor for artificial skin applications. To achieve economic macroscale devices, these sensors are fabricated and integrated using only printing methods. Strain engineering enables the strain distribution to be detected upon applying a slip/friction force. By reading the strain difference at four integrated force sensors for a pixel, both the tactile and slip/friction forces can be analyzed simultaneously. As a proof of concept, the high sensitivity and selectivity for both force and temperature are demonstrated using a 3×3 array artificial skin that senses tactile, slip/friction, and temperature. Multifunctional sensing components for a flexible device are important advances for both practical applications and basic research in flexible electronics.

  6. Temperature-controlled laser-soldering system and its clinical application for bonding skin incisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simhon, David; Gabay, Ilan; Shpolyansky, Gregory; Vasilyev, Tamar; Nur, Israel; Meidler, Roberto; Hatoum, Ossama Abu; Katzir, Abraham; Hashmonai, Moshe; Kopelman, Doron

    2015-12-01

    Laser tissue soldering is a method of repairing incisions. It involves the application of a biological solder to the approximated edges of the incision and heating it with a laser beam. A pilot clinical study was carried out on 10 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Of the four abdominal incisions in each patient, two were sutured and two were laser soldered. Cicatrization, esthetical appearance, degree of pain, and pruritus in the incisions were examined on postoperative days 1, 7, and 30. The soldered wounds were watertight and healed well, with no discharge from these wounds or infection. The total closure time was equal in both methods, but the net soldering time was much shorter than suturing. There was no difference between the two types of wound closure with respect to the pain and pruritus on a follow-up of one month. Esthetically, the soldered incisions were estimated as good as the sutured ones. The present study confirmed that temperature-controlled laser soldering of human skin incisions is clinically feasible, and the results obtained were at least equivalent to those of standard suturing.

  7. Habituation of thermal sensations, skin temperatures, and norepinephrine in men exposed to cold air.

    PubMed

    Leppäluoto, J; Korhonen, I; Hassi, J

    2001-04-01

    We studied habituation processes by exposing six healthy men to cold air (2 h in a 10 degrees C room) daily for 11 days. During the repeated cold exposures, the general cold sensations and those of hand and foot became habituated so that they were already significantly less intense after the first exposure and remained habituated to the end of the experiment. The decreases in skin temperatures and increases in systolic blood pressure became habituated after four to six exposures, but their habituations occurred only at a few time points during the 120-min cold exposure and vanished by the end of the exposures. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, total thyroxine and triiodothyronine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, cortisol, and total proteins were measured before and after the 120-min cold exposure on days 0, 5, and 10. The increase in norepinephrine response became reduced on days 5 and 10 and that of proteins on day 10, suggesting that the sympathetic nervous system became habituated and hemoconcentration became attenuated. Thus repeated cold-air exposures lead to habituations of cold sensation and norepinephrine response and to attenuation of hemoconcentration, which provide certain benefits to those humans who have to stay and work in cold environments.

  8. Comparison of Land Skin Temperature from a Land Model, Remote Sensing, and In-situ Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Aihui; Barlage, Michael; Zeng, Xubin; Draper, Clara Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Land skin temperature (Ts) is an important parameter in the energy exchange between the land surface and atmosphere. Here hourly Ts from the Community Land Model Version 4.0, MODIS satellite observations, and in-situ observations in 2003 were compared. Compared with the in-situ observations over four semi-arid stations, both MODIS and modeled Ts show negative biases, but MODIS shows an overall better performance. Global distribution of differences between MODIS and modeled Ts shows diurnal, seasonal, and spatial variations. Over sparsely vegetated areas, the model Ts is generally lower than the MODIS observed Ts during the daytime, while the situation is opposite at nighttime. The revision of roughness length for heat and the constraint of minimum friction velocity from Zeng et al. [2012] bring the modeled Ts closer to MODIS during the day, and have little effect on Ts at night. Five factors contributing to the Ts differences between the model and MODIS are identified, including the difficulty in properly accounting for cloud cover information at the appropriate temporal and spatial resolutions, and uncertainties in surface energy balance computation, atmospheric forcing data, surface emissivity, and MODIS Ts data. These findings have implications for the cross-evaluation of modeled and remotely sensed Ts, as well as the data assimilation of Ts observations into Earth system models.

  9. Inter-Comparison of GOES-8 Imager and Sounder Skin Temperature Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Stephanie L.; Suggs, Ronnie J.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Skin temperature (ST) retrievals derived from geostationary satellite observations have both high temporal and spatial resolutions and are therefore useful for applications such as assimilation into mesoscale forecast models, nowcasting, and diagnostic studies. Our retrieval method uses a Physical Split Window technique requiring at least two channels within the longwave infrared window. On current GOES satellites, including GOES-11, there are two Imager channels within the required spectral interval. However, beginning with the GOES-M satellite the 12-um channel will be removed, leaving only one longwave channel. The Sounder instrument will continue to have three channels within the longwave window, and therefore ST retrievals will be derived from Sounder measurements. This research compares retrievals from the two instruments and evaluates the effects of the spatial resolution and sensor calibration differences on the retrievals. Both Imager and Sounder retrievals are compared to ground-truth data to evaluate the overall accuracy of the technique. An analysis of GOES-8 and GOES-11 intercomparisons is also presented.

  10. Preliminary Study of Altered Skin Temperature at Body Sites Associated with Self-Injurious Behavior in Adults Who Have Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symons, Frank J.; Sutton, Kelly A.; Bodfish, James W.

    2001-01-01

    The sensory status of four nonverbal adults with mental retardation and severe self-injury was examined using skin temperature measures prior to opiate antagonist treatment. For each participant, the body site targeted most frequently for self-injury was associated with altered skin temperature and reduced by naltrexone treatment. In all cases,…

  11. Environment and activity affect skin temperature in breeding adult male elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    PubMed

    Norris, A L; Houser, D S; Crocker, D E

    2010-12-15

    The large body size and high rates of metabolic heat production associated with male mating success in polygynous systems creates potential thermoregulatory challenges for species breeding in warm climates. This is especially true for marine predators carrying large blubber reserves intended for thermoregulation in cold water and fuel provision during extended fasts. Thermographic images were used to measure changes in skin temperature (T(S)) in adult male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) over the breeding season. Environmental variables, primarily ambient temperature and solar radiation, were the principal determinants of mean and maximum T(S). When controlled for environmental variables, dominance rank significantly impacted mean T(S), being highest in alpha males. Behavioral activity significantly influenced T(S) but in a counter-intuitive way, with inactive males exhibiting the highest T(S). This was likely due to strong impacts of environmental variables on the kinds of behavior exhibited, with males being less active on warm, humid days at peak solar radiation. We classified thermal windows as areas in which T(S) was one standard deviation greater than mean T(S) for the individual seal within a thermograph. Thermal features suggest active physiological thermoregulation during and after combat and significant circulatory adaptations for heat dumping, as evidenced by recurring locations of thermal windows representing widely varying T(S) values. Frequent observations of localized T(S) above 37°C, particularly after combat, suggest the production of thermoregulatory stress during breeding behavior. Our findings demonstrate the importance of environmental drivers in shaping activity patterns during breeding and provide evidence for thermoregulatory costs of successful breeding in large polygynous males.

  12. Effect of temperature difference between manikin and wet fabric skin surfaces on clothing evaporative resistance: how much error is there?

    PubMed

    Wang, Faming; Kuklane, Kalev; Gao, Chuansi; Holmér, Ingvar

    2012-01-01

    Clothing evaporative resistance is one of the inherent factors that impede heat exchange by sweating evaporation. It is widely used as a basic input in physiological heat strain models. Previous studies showed a large variability in clothing evaporative resistance both at intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory testing. The errors in evaporative resistance may cause severe problems in the determination of heat stress level of the wearers. In this paper, the effect of temperature difference between the manikin nude surface and wet textile skin surface on clothing evaporative resistance was investigated by both theoretical analysis and thermal manikin measurements. It was found that the temperature difference between the skin surface and the manikin nude surface could lead to an error of up to 35.9% in evaporative resistance of the boundary air layer. Similarly, this temperature difference could also introduce an error of up to 23.7% in the real clothing total evaporative resistance (R ( et_real ) < 0.1287 kPa m(2)/W). Finally, it is evident that one major error in the calculation of evaporative resistance comes from the use of the manikin surface temperature instead of the wet textile fabric skin temperature.

  13. Effect of temperature difference between manikin and wet fabric skin surfaces on clothing evaporative resistance: how much error is there?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Faming; Kuklane, Kalev; Gao, Chuansi; Holmér, Ingvar

    2012-01-01

    Clothing evaporative resistance is one of the inherent factors that impede heat exchange by sweating evaporation. It is widely used as a basic input in physiological heat strain models. Previous studies showed a large variability in clothing evaporative resistance both at intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory testing. The errors in evaporative resistance may cause severe problems in the determination of heat stress level of the wearers. In this paper, the effect of temperature difference between the manikin nude surface and wet textile skin surface on clothing evaporative resistance was investigated by both theoretical analysis and thermal manikin measurements. It was found that the temperature difference between the skin surface and the manikin nude surface could lead to an error of up to 35.9% in evaporative resistance of the boundary air layer. Similarly, this temperature difference could also introduce an error of up to 23.7% in the real clothing total evaporative resistance ( R et_real < 0.1287 kPa m2/W). Finally, it is evident that one major error in the calculation of evaporative resistance comes from the use of the manikin surface temperature instead of the wet textile fabric skin temperature.

  14. Unconscious deception detection measured by finger skin temperature and indirect veracity judgments-results of a registered report.

    PubMed

    van 't Veer, Anna E; Gallucci, Marcello; Stel, Mariëlle; van Beest, Ilja

    2015-01-01

    A pre-registered experiment was conducted to examine psychophysiological responses to being lied to. Bridging research on social cognition and deception detection, we hypothesized that observing a liar compared to a truth-teller would decrease finger skin temperature of observers. Participants first watched two targets while not forewarned that they would later be asked to judge (direct and indirect) veracity, and then watched another two targets while forewarned about this. During both these phases finger skin temperature was measured. Findings pertaining to temperature partly confirmed our main hypothesis. When participants were observing a liar, irrespective of being forewarned, on average finger skin temperature declined over time. In the forewarned phase, temperature trajectories of truth-tellers were higher than those of liars, however, in the not forewarned phase, this pattern was reversed. Results confirmed our further hypotheses that participants judge liars as less likeable and less trustworthy than truth-tellers-an indication of indirect deception detection. Our hypothesis that the effect size for trustworthiness would be bigger than that of liking was not supported by the data. Additionally, and also confirming our hypothesis, participants performed around chance level when directly judging whether the target person was lying. Exploratory analyses are reported with regard to truth bias and dependency between direct and indirect veracity judgments. Limitations and directions for future work related to the existence of psychophysiological indicators of deception detection are discussed.

  15. Unconscious deception detection measured by finger skin temperature and indirect veracity judgments—results of a registered report

    PubMed Central

    van ’t Veer, Anna E.; Gallucci, Marcello; Stel, Mariëlle; van Beest, Ilja

    2015-01-01

    A pre-registered experiment was conducted to examine psychophysiological responses to being lied to. Bridging research on social cognition and deception detection, we hypothesized that observing a liar compared to a truth-teller would decrease finger skin temperature of observers. Participants first watched two targets while not forewarned that they would later be asked to judge (direct and indirect) veracity, and then watched another two targets while forewarned about this. During both these phases finger skin temperature was measured. Findings pertaining to temperature partly confirmed our main hypothesis. When participants were observing a liar, irrespective of being forewarned, on average finger skin temperature declined over time. In the forewarned phase, temperature trajectories of truth-tellers were higher than those of liars, however, in the not forewarned phase, this pattern was reversed. Results confirmed our further hypotheses that participants judge liars as less likeable and less trustworthy than truth-tellers—an indication of indirect deception detection. Our hypothesis that the effect size for trustworthiness would be bigger than that of liking was not supported by the data. Additionally, and also confirming our hypothesis, participants performed around chance level when directly judging whether the target person was lying. Exploratory analyses are reported with regard to truth bias and dependency between direct and indirect veracity judgments. Limitations and directions for future work related to the existence of psychophysiological indicators of deception detection are discussed. PMID:26106339

  16. The influence of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity and beta-1 receptor selectivity on the recovery of finger skin temperature after finger cooling in normotensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Lenders, J W; Salemans, J; de Boo, T; Lemmens, W A; Thien, T; van't Laar, A

    1986-03-01

    A double-blind randomized study was designed to investigate differences in the recovery of finger skin temperature after finger cooling during dosing with placebo or one of four beta-blockers: propranolol, atenolol, pindolol, and acebutolol. In 11 normotensive nonsmoking subjects, finger skin temperature was measured with a thermocouple before and 20 minutes after immersion of one hand in a water bath at 16 degrees C. This finger cooling test caused no significant changes in systemic hemodynamics such as arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and forearm blood flow. The recovery of finger skin temperature during propranolol dosing was better than that during pindolol and atenolol dosing. There were no differences between the recoveries of skin temperature during pindolol, atenolol, and acebutolol dosing. Thus we could demonstrate no favorable effect of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity or beta 1-selectivity on the recovery of finger skin temperature after finger cooling.

  17. Analysing visual pattern of skin temperature during submaximal and maximal exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Gorkem Aybars; Basaran, Tahsin; Colakoglu, Muzaffer

    2016-01-01

    Aims of this study were to examine our hypotheses assuming that (a) skin temperature patterns would differ between submaximal exercise (SE) and graded maximal exercise test (GXT) and (b) thermal kinetics of Tskin occurring in SE and GXT might be similar in a homogenous cohort. Core temperature (Tcore) also observed in order to evaluate thermoregulatory responses to SE and GXT. Eleven moderately to well-trained male athletes were volunteered for the study (age: 22.2 ± 3.7 years; body mass: 73.8 ± 6.9 kg; height: 181 ± 6.3 cm; body surface area 1.93 ± 0.1 m2; body fat: 12.6% ± 4.2%; V ˙ O2max: 54 ± 9.9 mL min-1 kg-1). Under stabilized environmental conditions in climatic chamber, GXT to volitional exhaustion and 20-min SE at 60% of VO2max were performed on cycle ergometer. Thermal analyses were conducted in 2-min intervals throughout exercise tests. Tskin was monitored by a thermal camera, while Tcore was recorded via an ingestible telemetric temperature sensor. Thermal kinetic analyses showed that Tskin gradually decreased till the 7.58 ± 1.03th minutes, and then initiated to increase till the end of SE (Rsqr = 0.97), while Tskin gradually decreased throughout the GXT (Rsqr = 0.89). Decrease in the level of Tskin during the GXT was significantly below from the SE [F (4, 40) = 2.67, p = 0.07, ηp2 = 0.211]. In the meantime, Tcore continuously increased throughout the SE and GXT (p < 0.05). Both GXT and SE were terminated at very close final Tcore values (37.8 ± 0.3 °C and 38.0 ± 0.3 °C, respectively; p > 0.05). However, total heat energies were calculated as 261.5 kJ/m2 and 416 kJ/m2 for GXT and SE, respectively (p < 0.05). Thus, it seems that SE may be more advantageous than GXT in thermoregulation. In conclusion, Tcore gradually increased throughout maximal and submaximal exercises as expected. Tskin curves patterns found to be associated amongst participants at both GXT and SE. Therefore, Tskin kinetics may ensure an important data for monitoring

  18. [Study on the skin-core evolvement of carbon fibers as a function of heat treatment temperature by Raman spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu-jie; Fan, Li-dong; Wang, Hao-jing; Zhu, Zhen-ping

    2008-08-01

    The skin-core evolvement of the carbon fibers was studied as a function of heat-treatment temperature though the analysis of Raman spectroscopy of the carbon fibers surface and core. It was found that the change of the Raman spectra of the carbon fibers core was similar to that on the surface with the increase in heat-treatment temperature. At 1600 degrees C, the Rs and Rc values were almost equal, indicating that the degrees of the graphitization of the carbon fibers surface and core were almost uniform. The Rs and Rc values decreased dramatically with the increase in heat-treatment temperature, and Rs decreased more. At 2800 degrees C, the Rs value came to 0.429, lowered 77.2%, while the Rc value then came to 1.101, lowered 38.7% only. It implied that the graphitization degree of the carbon fibers was enhanced with increasing the heat treatment temperature, and that of carbon fibers surface was enhanced more. The graphite characters of the carbon of the carbon fibers surface were different from that of the carbon fibers core. The former is close to soft carbon, which is easy to graphitize, while the latter is close to hard carbon, which is difficult to graphitize, and it may be resin carbon Skin-core structure gene Rsc (= Rs/Rc) which denoted the skin-core degree of the carbon fibers was first brought forward and adopted. The Rsc value is between 0 and 1. When the Rsc value is equal to 1, the carbon fibers are homogenous. When the Rsc value is close to zero, there are serious skin-core structures in the carbon fibers. The Rsc value reduced linearly with the increase in heat-treatment temperature, indicating that the homogeneous degrees of the carbon fibers decreased and the skin-core degrees of the carbon fibers increased. The crystallite size of the carbon fibers surface and core increased gradually with the increase in heat-treatment temperature, but the surface's increased more quickly, indicating that the carbon of the carbon fibers surface was easier to

  19. Ear Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... head, sports injuries, and even listening to loud music can cause ear damage, which can affect hearing ... But for kids and teens, listening to loud music (at concerts, in the car, through headphones) is ...

  20. Ear infection - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Paralysis of the face Inflammation around the brain ( epidural abscess ) or in the brain Damage to the part ... pubmed/23818543 . Read More Cholesteatoma Ear infection - acute Epidural abscess Mastoiditis Otitis Review Date 4/21/2015 Updated ...

  1. Ear tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor Review Date 8/5/2015 Updated by: Sumana Jothi ... Otolaryngology, NCHCS VA, SFVA, San Francisco, CA. Internal review and update on 09/01/2016 by David ...

  2. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... more than 6 children) Changes in altitude or climate Cold climate Exposure to smoke Family history of ear infections ... or fewer children. This can reduce your child's chances of getting a cold or other infection, and ...

  3. How to Use Ear Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... the dropper tip down. Tilt the affected ear up or lie on your side. Pull the ear backward and upward (or if giving ... into the ear canal. Keep your ear tilted up for a few minutes or insert a soft ... from the Michigan Pharmacists Association's Patient Education Program.

  4. [Problems of using a thermocouple for measurements of skin temperature rise during the exposure to millimeter waves].

    PubMed

    Alekseev, S I; Ziskin, M S; Fesenko, E E

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of using thermocouples for the artifact-free measurements of skin temperature during millimeter wave exposure was studied. The distributions of the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human skin were calculated for different orientations of the thermocouple relative to the E-field of exposure. It was shown that, at the parallel orientation of a thermocouple relative to the E-field, SAR significantly increased at the tip of the thermocouple. This can result in an overheating of the thermocouple. At the perpendicular orientation of a thermocouple, the distortions of the SAR were insignificant. The data obtained confirm that the skin temperature can be measured with a thermocouple during exposure under the condition that the thermocouple is located perpendicular to the E-vector of the electromagnetic field. For the accurate determination of SAR from the rate of the initial temperature rise, it is necessary to fit the temperature kinetics measured with the thermocouple to the solution of the bio-heat transfer equation.

  5. Effects of relative humidity and ambient temperature on the ballistic delivery of micro-particles to excised porcine skin.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Mark; Rishworth, Stephen; Carter, Fiona; Mitchell, Thomas

    2004-03-01

    The effectiveness of ballistic particle delivery to the skin is often dependent upon breaching the stratum corneum (SC) and targeting cells within defined layers of the viable epidermis. This paper experimentally determines the influence of relative humidity (RH) and temperature on the ballistic delivery of particles to the skin. Gold particles of radius 0.9+/-0.6 microm were accelerated by a hand-held supersonic device to impact freshly excised porcine skin at 410-665 m per s. Increasing the RH from 15% to 95% (temperature at 25 degrees C) led to a particle penetration increase by a factor of 1.8. Temperature increases from 20 degrees C to 40 degrees C (RH at 15%) enhanced particle penetration 2-fold. In both cases, these increases were sufficient to move the target layer from the SC to the viable epidermis. Relative trends in particle penetration compared well with predictions from a theoretical model well. Calculated absolute penetration depths are 6-fold greater than the measurements. The inversely calculated dynamic yield stress of the SC is up to a factor of 10 higher than reported quasi-static measurements, due to changes in tissue failure modes over a strain-rate range spanning 10 orders of magnitude. If targeted particle delivery is required, it is recommended that the environmental RH and temperature be monitored.

  6. Reliability and validity of skin temperature measurement by telemetry thermistors and a thermal camera during exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    James, C A; Richardson, A J; Watt, P W; Maxwell, N S

    2014-10-01

    New technologies afford convenient modalities for skin temperature (TSKIN) measurement, notably involving wireless telemetry and non-contact infrared thermometry. The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of skin temperature measurements using a telemetry thermistor system (TT) and thermal camera (TC) during exercise in a hot environment. Each system was compared against a certified thermocouple, measuring the surface temperature of a metal block in a thermostatically controlled waterbath. Fourteen recreational athletes completed two incremental running tests, separated by one week. Skin temperatures were measured simultaneously with TT and TC compared against a hard-wired thermistor system (HW) throughout rest and exercise. Post hoc calibration based on waterbath results displayed good validity for TT (mean bias [MB]=-0.18 °C, typical error [TE]=0.18 °C) and reliability (MB=-0.05 °C, TE=0.31 °C) throughout rest and exercise. Poor validity (MB=-1.4 °C, TE=0.35 °C) and reliability (MB=-0.65 °C, TE=0.52 °C) was observed for TC, suggesting it may be best suited to controlled, static situations. These findings indicate TT systems provide a convenient, valid and reliable alternative to HW, useful for measurements in the field where traditional methods may be impractical.

  7. Assimilation of Satellite-Derived Skin Temperature Observations into Land Surface Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Mahanama, P. P.; Koster, Randal D.; Liu, Q.

    2010-01-01

    Land surface (or "skin") temperature (LST) lies at the heart of the surface energy balance and is a key variable in weather and climate models. Here we assimilate LST retrievals from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) into the Noah and Catchment (CLSM) land surface models using an ensemble-based, off-line land data assimilation system. LST is described very differently in the two models. A priori scaling and dynamic bias estimation approaches are applied because satellite and model LST typically exhibit different mean values and variability. Performance is measured against 27 months of in situ measurements from the Coordinated Energy and Water Cycle Observations Project at 48 stations. LST estimates from Noah and CLSM without data assimilation ("open loop") are comparable to each other and superior to that of ISCCP retrievals. For LST, RMSE values are 4.9 K (CLSM), 5.6 K (Noah), and 7.6 K (ISCCP), and anomaly correlation coefficients (R) are 0.62 (CLSM), 0.61 (Noah), and 0.52 (ISCCP). Assimilation of ISCCP retrievals provides modest yet statistically significant improvements (over open loop) of up to 0.7 K in RMSE and 0.05 in anomaly R. The skill of surface turbulent flux estimates from the assimilation integrations is essentially identical to the corresponding open loop skill. Noah assimilation estimates of ground heat flux, however, can be significantly worse than open loop estimates. Provided the assimilation system is properly adapted to each land model, the benefits from the assimilation of LST retrievals are comparable for both models.

  8. Predictive model for survival and growth of Salmonella typhimurium DT104 on chicken skin during temperature abuse.

    PubMed

    Oscar, T P

    2009-02-01

    To better predict risk of Salmonella infection from chicken subjected to temperature abuse, a study was undertaken to develop a predictive model for survival and growth of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on chicken skin with native flora. For model development, chicken skin portions (2.14 cm2) were inoculated with 0.85 log of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (ATCC 700408) and then stored at 5 to 50 degrees C for 8 h. Kinetic data from the storage trials were fit to a primary model to determine lag time (lamda), specific growth rate (micrro), and the 95% prediction interval (PI). Secondary models for lamda, mu, and PI as a function of storage temperature were developed and then combined with the primary model to create a tertiary model. Performance of the tertiary model was evaluated against dependent data, independent data for interpolation, and independent data for extrapolation to kosher chicken skin by using an acceptable prediction zone from -1 (fail-safe) to 0.5 (fail-dangerous) log per skin portion. Survival of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on chicken skin was observed during 8 h of storage at 5 to 20 degrees C and at 50 degrees C, whereas growth was observed from 25 to 45 degrees C and was optimal at 40 degrees C with a lamda of 2.5 h and a mu of 1.1 log/h. Variation of pathogen growth, as assessed by PI, increased in a nonlinear manner as a function of temperature and was greater for growth conditions than no-growth conditions. The percentage of acceptable prediction errors was 82.6% for dependent data, 83.7% for independent data for interpolation, and 81.6% for independent data for extrapolation to kosher skin, which all exceeded the performance criterion of 70% acceptable predictions. Thus, it was concluded that the tertiary model provided valid predictions for survival and growth of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 from a low initial dose on both nonkosher and kosher chicken skin with native flora.

  9. Inner ear disturbances related to middle ear inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sone, Michihiko

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The inner and middle ear are connected mainly through round and oval windows, and inflammation in the middle ear cavity can spread into the inner ear, which might induce a disturbance. In cases with intractable otitis media, attention should also be paid to symptoms related to the inner ear. In this paper, middle ear inflammation and related inner ear disturbances are reviewed with a focus on representative middle ear diseases (such as acute otitis media, chronic otitis media, otitis media with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, eosinophilic otitis media, cholesteatoma with labyrinthine fistula, and reflux-related otitis media). Their clinical concerns are then discussed with reference to experimental studies. In these diseases, early diagnosis and adequate treatment are required to manage not only middle ear but also inner ear conditions. PMID:28303055

  10. Artery-Only Ear Replantation in a Child: A Case Report With Daily Photographic Documentation.

    PubMed

    Mendenhall, Shaun D; Sawyer, Justin D; Adkinson, Joshua M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Ear replantation poses a significant technical challenge even for the skilled microsurgeon. Many ear amputations result from avulsion and thus have damaged and often diminutive vessels with a paucity of veins. Artery-only replantation is an option for ear salvage, but little is published on the clinical course and appearance after this procedure. Methods: A subtotal ear replantation was performed on a 10-year-old boy without a venous anastomosis. Leech therapy was used to manage venous congestion postoperatively, and daily photography was performed to document the clinical course. Results: Postoperative venous congestion was successfully managed with leech therapy. Four days after the replantation, arterial thrombosis occurred that required a take back and salvage with an interposition vein graft for arterial repair. Native venous drainage and arterial revascularization from skin edges were evident by postoperative day 12, and leeches were discontinued on day 14. The patient required debridement of the posterior ear and superior helix necrotic skin, with burying of the upper portion of the ear in a superior auricular skin flap. The ear was subsequently released from the head, and the exposed portions were covered successfully with a full-thickness skin graft. Conclusions: While arterial and venous anastomoses should always be attempted, arterial-only ear replantation can provide excellent results when venous congestion is properly managed. Daily photography can be a useful tool to monitor subtle skin color changes that may indicate native venous drainage and arterial revascularization.

  11. Artery-Only Ear Replantation in a Child: A Case Report With Daily Photographic Documentation

    PubMed Central

    Mendenhall, Shaun D.; Sawyer, Justin D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Ear replantation poses a significant technical challenge even for the skilled microsurgeon. Many ear amputations result from avulsion and thus have damaged and often diminutive vessels with a paucity of veins. Artery-only replantation is an option for ear salvage, but little is published on the clinical course and appearance after this procedure. Methods: A subtotal ear replantation was performed on a 10-year-old boy without a venous anastomosis. Leech therapy was used to manage venous congestion postoperatively, and daily photography was performed to document the clinical course. Results: Postoperative venous congestion was successfully managed with leech therapy. Four days after the replantation, arterial thrombosis occurred that required a take back and salvage with an interposition vein graft for arterial repair. Native venous drainage and arterial revascularization from skin edges were evident by postoperative day 12, and leeches were discontinued on day 14. The patient required debridement of the posterior ear and superior helix necrotic skin, with burying of the upper portion of the ear in a superior auricular skin flap. The ear was subsequently released from the head, and the exposed portions were covered successfully with a full-thickness skin graft. Conclusions: While arterial and venous anastomoses should always be attempted, arterial-only ear replantation can provide excellent results when venous congestion is properly managed. Daily photography can be a useful tool to monitor subtle skin color changes that may indicate native venous drainage and arterial revascularization. PMID:28101290

  12. Tension responses to joule temperature jump in skinned rabbit muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Bershitsky, S Y; Tsaturyan, A K

    1992-01-01

    1. Joule temperature jumps (T-jumps) from 5-9 degrees C up to 40 degrees C were used to study the cross-bridge kinetics and thermodynamics in skinned rabbit muscle fibres. To produce a T-jump, an alternating current pulse was passed through a fibre 5 s after removing the activating solution (pCa congruent to 4.5) from the experimental trough. The pulse frequency was congruent to 30 kHz, amplitude less than or equal to 3 kV, and duration 0.2 ms. The pulse energy liberated in the fibre was calculated using a special analog circuit and then used for estimation of the T-jump amplitude. 2. The T-jump induced a tri-exponential tension transient. Phases 1 and 2 had rate constants k1 = 450-1750 s-1 and k2 = 60-250 s-1 respectively, characterizing the tension rise, whereas phase 3 had a rate constant k3 = 5-10 s-1 representing tension recovery due to the fibre cooling. 3. An increase from 13 to 40 degrees C for the final temperature achieved by the T-jump led to an increase in the amplitudes of phases 1 and 2. After T-jumps to 30-40 degrees C during phase 1, tension increased by 50-80%. During phase 2 an approximately 2-fold tension increase continued. Rate constants k1 and k2 increased with temperature and temperature coefficients (Q10) were 1.6 and 1.7, respectively. 4. To study which processes in the cross-bridges are involved in phases 1 and 2, a series of experiments were made where step length changes of -9 to +3 nm (hs)-1 (nanometres per half-sarcomere length) were applied to the fibre 4 ms before the T-jump. 5. After the step shortening, the rate constant of phase 1 increased, whereas its amplitude decreased compared to those without a length change. This indicates that phase 1 is determined by some force-generating process in the cross-bridges attached to the thin filaments. This process is, most probably, the same as that producing the early tension recovery following the length change. The enthalpy change (delta H) associated with the reaction controlling this

  13. Evolution of Skin Temperature after the Application of Compressive Forces on Tendon, Muscle and Myofascial Trigger Point

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Marina Figueiredo; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; de Oliveira Guirro, Elaine Caldeira; Girasol, Carlos Eduardo; de Oliveira, Alessandra Kelly; Dias, Fabiana Rodrigues Cancio; Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Some assessment and diagnosis methods require palpation or the application of certain forces on the skin, which affects the structures beneath, we highlight the importance of defining possible influences on skin temperature as a result of this physical contact. Thus, the aim of the present study is to determine the ideal time for performing thermographic examination after palpation based on the assessment of skin temperature evolution. Randomized and crossover study carried out with 15 computer-user volunteers of both genders, between 18 and 45 years of age, who were submitted to compressive forces of 0, 1, 2 and 3 kg/cm2 for 30 seconds with a washout period of 48 hours using a portable digital dynamometer. Compressive forces were applied on the following spots on the dominant upper limb: myofascial trigger point in the levator scapulae, biceps brachii muscle and palmaris longus tendon. Volunteers were examined by means of infrared thermography before and after the application of compressive forces (15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes). In most comparisons made over time, a significant decrease was observed 30, 45 and 60 minutes after the application of compressive forces (p < 0.05) on the palmaris longus tendon and biceps brachii muscle. However, no difference was observed when comparing the different compressive forces (p > 0.05). In conclusion, infrared thermography can be used after assessment or diagnosis methods focused on the application of forces on tendons and muscles, provided the procedure is performed 15 minutes after contact with the skin. Regarding to the myofascial trigger point, the thermographic examination can be performed within 60 minutes after the contact with the skin. PMID:26070073

  14. Effects of pressure exerted on the skin by elastic cord on the core temperature, body weight loss and salivary secretion rate at 35 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Sawako; Midorikawa, Tomoko; Tokura, Hiromi

    2006-03-01

    Effects of pressure exerted on the skin by elastic cord on the core temperature, body weight loss and salivary secretion rate were studied under conditions of ambient temperature of 35 degrees C and a relative humidity of 60%. Twelve healthy females, aged 18-23 years, served as subjects. The subjects entered a bioclimatic chamber and rested quietly in a chair for 80 min. Then, skin pressure was exerted by applying elastic cord (8.5 mm wide) to six different skin areas, such as axilla, under-bust, waist, inguines, thighs and ankles. The values of skin pressure by elastic cord ranged from 11.9 to 33.3 g/cm(2). In the control experiment, wrapping with an elastic cord was loosely performed without any skin pressure. Rectal and skin temperatures, body weight loss by sweating and salivary secretion rate were measured throughout the 160 min experimental period. Core temperature increased more significantly under pressure exerted on the skin. Body weight loss by mainly sweating and salivary secretion rate were significantly suppressed under pressure exerted on the skin. We discussed the physiological mechanisms in terms of suppression of central nervous activity as to why significant increase of core temperatures, inhibition of body weight loss mainly by sweating and of salivary secretion rate occurred, and furthermore practical significance of these findings for impairment of digestion, swallowing, vocalizing, defense against disease bacteria and sport activity.

  15. Optimum management of the discharging ear.

    PubMed

    Ruddy, J; Bickerton, R C

    1992-02-01

    Discharge from the ear can be the result of many disease processes. The ear may discharge blood, pus, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or wax. Keratosis obturans, stenosis of the external meatus and benign tumours of the external meatus all lead to wax build-up, which may cause recurrent attacks of otitis externa. Malignant tumours, such as basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and tumours of ceruminous gland origin may also present with discharge. Tumours should be excluded by submitting all material removed from the external canal for histological examination. Single or multiple abscesses (known as furuncles) may occur in the hair follicles in the skin of the external acoustic meatus (EAM). Compulsive scratching, hearing aids and foreign bodies placed in the ear predispose to otitis externa, which is also often associated with infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and faecal organisms. Management may be with aluminium acetate 14%, topical antibiotic/steroid drops, a gauze wick soaked with icthammol 10% in glycerin or polymyxin B sulphate--neomycin sulphate--hydrocortisone acetate cream placed into the EAM and replaced every 24 to 48 hours, or systemic antibiotics according to severity. Malignant (necrotising) otitis externa causes progressive destruction of the temporal bone, and cranial nerve palsies (usually facial first). Treatment is limited debridement of infected bone, accompanied by intravenous aminoglycosides, and local antibiotic treatment and aural cleanout or oral ciprofloxacin. Middle ear conditions causing discharge include acute otitis media, infected grommets, traumatic perforations and chronic suppurative otitis media, as well as tumours of the ear canal skin and middle ear, radiation-induced otitis externa and osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone, tuberculosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, spontaneous or post-traumatic CSF leaks, Wegeners granulomatosis and immune deficiency states. Topical application of aminoglycoside

  16. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss].

    PubMed

    Hesse, G

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most dominant handicaps in modern societies, which additionally very often is not realized or not admitted. About one quarter of the general population suffers from inner ear hearing loss and is therefore restricted in communicational skills. Demographic factors like increasing age play an important role as well as environmental influences and an increasing sound and noise exposure especially in leisure activities. Thus borders between a "classical" presbyacusis - if it ever existed - and envirionmentally induced hearing loss disappear. Today restrictions in hearing ability develop earlier in age but at the same time they are detected and diagnosed earlier. This paper can eventually enlighten the wide field of inner ear hearing loss only fragmentarily; therefore mainly new research, findings and developments are reviewed. The first part discusses new aspects of diagnostics of inner ear hearing loss and different etiologies.

  17. Listening to the Ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shera, Christopher Alan

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics--termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models--that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus -frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  18. Listening to the ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shera, Christopher A.

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics-termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models-that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  19. Skin temperature evaluation by infrared thermography: Comparison of two image analysis methods during the nonsteady state induced by physical exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formenti, Damiano; Ludwig, Nicola; Rossi, Alessio; Trecroci, Athos; Alberti, Giampietro; Gargano, Marco; Merla, Arcangelo; Ammer, Kurt; Caumo, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The most common method to derive a temperature value from a thermal image in humans is the calculation of the average of the temperature values of all the pixels confined within a demarcated boundary defined region of interest (ROI). Such summary measure of skin temperature is denoted as Troi in this study. Recently, an alternative method for the derivation of skin temperature from the thermal image has been developed. Such novel method (denoted as Tmax) is based on an automated (software-driven) selection of the warmest pixels within the ROI. Troi and Tmax have been compared under basal, steady-state conditions, resulting very well correlated and characterized by a bias of approximately 1 °C (Tmax > Troi). Aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between Tmax and Troi under the nonsteady-state conditions induced by physical exercise. Thermal images of quadriceps of 13 subjects performing a squat exercise were recorded for 120 s before (basal steady state) and for 480 s after the initiation of the exercise (nonsteady state). The thermal images were then analysed to extract Troi and Tmax. Troi and Tmax changed almost in parallel during the nonstead -state. At a closer inspection, it was found that during the nonsteady state the bias between the two methods slightly increased (from 0.7 to 1.1 °C) and the degree of association between them slightly decreased (from Pearson's r = 0.96 to 0.83). Troi and Tmax had different relationships with the skin temperature histogram. Whereas Tmax was the mean, which could be interpreted as the centre of gravity of the histogram, Tmax was related with the extreme upper tail of the histogram. During the nonsteady state, the histogram increased its spread and became slightly more asymmetric. As a result, Troi deviated a little from the 50th percentile, while Tmax remained constantly higher than the 95th percentile. Despite their differences, Troi and Tmax showed a substantial agreement in assessing the changes in skin

  20. Skin Temperature Feedback Increases Thermoregulatory Efficiency and Decreases Required Microclimate Cooling Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    and ratings of thermal comfort (TC) were measured at regular intervals. 3.0 RESULTS In study one, all IR1-4 paradigms significantly reduced... Thermal comfort and sensation in men wearing a cooling system controlled by skin temperatrure. Human Factors 49: 1033-1044, 2007. [7] Xu X

  1. The burned ear; possibilities and challenges in framework reconstruction and coverage.

    PubMed

    Bos, E J; Doerga, P; Breugem, C C; van Zuijlen, P P

    2016-11-01

    Ear reconstruction remains a challenging procedure, especially in burn victims. The ear is particularly vulnerable to thermal injury because of its location and the thin integument. The thermal injury could subsequently include skin and the deeper located auricular cartilage framework. This type of injury could have long lasting mutilating effect not only because the ear's morphology is mainly related to this framework but also because it will not recover or regenerate once injured. Grafts of costal cartilage or synthetic materials might replace missing cartilage. However, the poor quality of the adjacent skin and subcutaneous tissues makes the reconstruction of a burned ear an even more daunting procedure than congenital or many oncologic indications. As such, regeneration of the skin will be the next step in reconstruction of the burned ear. There is still much development and research to be done, but encouraging results have been shown in tissue engineering of skin and cartilage. Furthermore, 3D (bio)printing of cartilage to facilitate reproduction of the ear's complex shape certainly has potential and might find an interesting role in ear reconstruction. In this review, different clinical challenges and options for ear reconstruction in burn patients are described. Subsequently, although still far from large scale clinical application, state of the art developments in the field of tissue engineering and 3D (bio)printing are also discussed.

  2. Monitoring changes in skin temperature associated with exercise in horses on a water treadmill by use of infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Yarnell, Kelly; Fleming, Jennifer; Stratton, Tim D; Brassington, Rebecca

    2014-10-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) was used to assess surface temperature change as an indirect measure of muscle activity and exercise associated changes in blood flow in the working hind limb muscles of horses (n=7) undergoing water treadmill exercise. Three treatments were investigated including the treadmill ran dry (TD), water at the height of the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) and water at the height of the carpus (CP). Maximum skin surface temperature was recorded from the region of the semitendinosus muscle during exercise at each water height. There was a significant difference in surface hind limb temperature between exercise on the water treadmill ran dry and with water at the height of the PIP and CP (P<0.0001) with hotter temperatures recorded during the TD treatment. There was a greater increase in surface temperature of the hind limbs from pre exercise to maximum temperature during the PIP and CP treatments when compared to the TD treatment, however, this was not significant (P=0.58). There was no significant difference in surface hind limb temperature found between exercise in water at the height of the PIP and water at the height of the CP. The findings from this study suggest that IRT is able to non-invasively detect muscle activity and associated changes in blood flow whilst horses are exercised on a water treadmill. IRT could potentially be used as an alternative method to assess muscle activity and temperature change in an aquatic environment where existing methods present methodological challenges.

  3. Fusion of the ear bones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Images Ear anatomy Medical findings based on ear anatomy References House JW, Cunningham CD. Otosclerosis. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  4. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work: Healthy Swimming Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... painful. How is swimmer's ear spread at recreational water venues? Swimmer’s ear can occur when water stays ...

  5. Ear Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... or it can be bought separately). Wear ear protection at concerts, especially when sitting near the stage or speakers (they'll still be able to hear with earplugs — it just won't be as deafening), mowing the lawn or using machinery (like in metal or wood shop at school), or playing a loud instrument ( ...

  6. The red ear syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Red Ear Syndrome (RES) is a very rare disorder, with approximately 100 published cases in the medical literature. Red ear (RE) episodes are characterised by unilateral or bilateral attacks of paroxysmal burning sensations and reddening of the external ear. The duration of these episodes ranges from a few seconds to several hours. The attacks occur with a frequency ranging from several a day to a few per year. Episodes can occur spontaneously or be triggered, most frequently by rubbing or touching the ear, heat or cold, chewing, brushing of the hair, neck movements or exertion. Early-onset idiopathic RES seems to be associated with migraine, whereas late-onset idiopathic forms have been reported in association with trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). Secondary forms of RES occur with upper cervical spine disorders or temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction. RES is regarded refractory to medical treatments, although some migraine preventative treatments have shown moderate benefit mainly in patients with migraine-related attacks. The pathophysiology of RES is still unclear but several hypotheses involving peripheral or central nervous system mechanisms have been proposed. PMID:24093332

  7. From Ear to Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

  8. [Reconstruction of the ear in the burns patient].

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Córdova, Jorge Raúl; Jiménez Murat, Yusef; Apellaniz-Campo, Armando; Bracho-Olvera, Hazel; Carrillo Esper, Raúl

    2017-03-06

    Face burns are a singular pathology with great functional and psychological impact in the patients suffering them. The ears play a fundamental role in personal interactions and damage to this organ results in physical and emotional distress. The reconstructive treatment of the burned ear is a challenge. Multiple procedures have been described to achieve success in the reconstruction of the burned ear; immediate reconstruction with autologous rib cartilage, secondary reconstruction, alloplastic material reconstruction, tissue expansion, skin grafts and also microvascular flaps are some of the most common procedures used in this patients. All these techniques focus on giving a natural appearance to the patient. Burns to the ears affect 30% of the patients with facial burns, they require an excellent treatment given by a multidisciplinary team.

  9. Local Effects of Ice Floes on Skin Sea Surface Temperature in the Marginal Ice Zone from UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappa, C. J.; Brown, S.; Emery, W. J.; Adler, J.; Wick, G. A.; Steele, M.; Palo, S. E.; Walker, G.; Maslanik, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Recent years have seen extreme changes in the Arctic. Particularly striking are changes within the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean, and especially in the seas north of the Alaskan coast. These areas have experienced record warming, reduced sea ice extent, and loss of ice in areas that had been ice-covered throughout human memory. Even the oldest and thickest ice types have failed to survive through the summer melt period in areas such as the Beaufort Sea and Canada Basin, and fundamental changes in ocean conditions such as earlier phytoplankton blooms may be underway. Marginal ice zones (MIZ), or areas where the "ice-albedo feedback" driven by solar warming is highest and ice melt is extensive, may provide insights into the extent of these changes. Airborne remote sensing, in particular InfraRed (IR), offers a unique opportunity to observe physical processes at sea-ice margins. It permits monitoring the ice extent and coverage, as well as the ice and ocean temperature variability. It can also be used for derivation of surface flow field allowing investigation of turbulence and mixing at the ice-ocean interface. Here, we present measurements of visible and IR imagery of melting ice floes in the marginal ice zone north of Oliktok Point AK in the Beaufort Sea made during the Marginal Ice Zone Ocean and Ice Observations and Processes EXperiment (MIZOPEX) in July-August 2013. The visible and IR imagery were taken from the unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) ScanEagle. The visible imagery clearly defines the scale of the ice floes. The IR imagery show distinct cooling of the skin sea surface temperature (SST) as well as a intricate circulation and mixing pattern that depends on the surface current, wind speed, and near-surface vertical temperature/salinity structure. Individual ice floes develop turbulent wakes as they drift and cause transient mixing of an influx of colder surface (fresh) melt water. The upstream side of the ice floe shows the coldest skin SST, and

  10. Taking Care of Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... it to get better by itself. Tips for Swimmers Sometimes, swimming can lead to a case of swimmer's ear . That's when your outer ear gets infected, ... cause an infection. If you think you have swimmer's ear, your mom or dad needs to call ...

  11. Ear Infections and Language Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.

    Ear infections in infants and preschoolers can cause mild or moderate temporary hearing loss, which may in turn affect a child's ability to understand and learn language. Noting that providing children with proper medical treatment for ear infections or middle ear fluid is important in preventing possible problems with language development, this…

  12. Mathematical models to predict kinetic behavior and growth probabilities of Listeria monocytogenes on pork skin at constant and dynamic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soomin; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Joo-Yeon; Skandamis, Panagiotis; Park, Beom-Young; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Yoon, Yohan

    2013-11-01

    In this study, mathematical models were developed to predict the growth probability and kinetic behavior of Listeria monocytogenes on fresh pork skin during storage at different temperatures. A 10-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated on fresh pork skin (3 by 5 cm) at 4 log CFU/cm(2). The inoculated samples were stored aerobically at 4, 7, and 10 °C for 240 h, at 15 and 20 °C for 96 h, and at 25 and 30 °C for 12 h. The Baranyi model was fitted to L. monocytogenes growth data on PALCAM agar to calculate the maximum specific growth rate, lag-phase duration, the lower asymptote, and the upper asymptote. The kinetic parameters were then further analyzed as a function of storage temperature. The model simulated growth of L. monocytogenes under constant and changing temperatures, and the performances of the models were evaluated by the root mean square error and bias factor (Bf). Of the 49 combinations (temperature × sampling time), the combinations with significant growth (P < 0.05) of L. monocytogenes were assigned a value of 1, and the combinations with nonsignificant growth (P > 0.05) were given a value of 0. These data were analyzed by logistic regression to develop a model predicting the probabilities of L. monocytogenes growth. At 4 to 10 °C, obvious L. monocytogenes growth was observable after 24 h of storage; but, at other temperatures, the pathogen had obvious growth after 12 h of storage. Because the root mean square error value (0.184) and Bf (1.01) were close to 0 and 1, respectively, the performance of the developed model was acceptable, and the probabilistic model also showed good performance. These results indicate that the developed model should be useful in predicting kinetic behavior and calculating growth probabilities of L. monocytogenes as a function of temperature and time.

  13. A preliminary study on driver's stress index using a new method based on differential skin temperature measurement.

    PubMed

    Yamakoshi, T; Yamakoshi, K; Tanaka, S; Nogawa, M; Shibata, M; Sawada, Y; Rolfe, P; Hirose, Y

    2007-01-01

    Prolonged periods of driving in monotonous situations may lower a driver's activation state as well as increasing their stress level due to the compulsion to maintain safe driving, which may result in an increased risk of a traffic accident. There is therefore an opportunity for technological assessment of driver physiological status to be applied in-car, hopefully reducing the incidence of potentially dangerous situations. As part of our long-term aim to develop such a system, we describe here the investigation of differential skin temperature measurement as a possible marker of a driver's stress level. 10 healthy male subjects were studied, under environment-controlled conditions, whilst being subjected to simulated monotonous travel at constant speed on a test-course. We acquired measurements of relevant physiological variables, including truncal and peripheral skin temperatures (T(s)), beat-by-beat blood pressure (BP), cardiac output (CO), total peripheral resistance (TPR), and normalized pulse volume (NPV) used as an indicator of local peripheral vascular tone. We then investigated the driver's reactivity in terms of cardiovascular haemodynamics and skin temperatures. We found that the simulated monotonous driving produced a gradual drop in peripheral T(s) following the driving stress, which, through interpretation of the TPR and NPV recordings, could be explained by peripheral sympathetic activation. On the other hand, the truncal T(s) was not influenced by the stress. These findings lead us to suggest that truncal-peripheral differential T(s) might be used as a possible index indicative of the driver's stress.

  14. Comparison of changes in facial skin temperature caused by ethyl chloride spraying, ice block rubbing and cold gel packing in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Im, Y-G; Park, H-J; Chae, H-Y; Kim, B-G; Lim, H-S; Park, J-I; Kim, J-H

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of three cryotherapeutic modalities (ethyl chloride spraying, ice block rubbing and cold gel packing) on facial skin temperature. Thirty healthy volunteers (15 men, 15 women; mean age, 29·4 ± 3·2 years) participated in this study. Each of the three modalities was randomly applied to the skin over the right masseter muscle. The skin surface temperature was recorded at baseline and every 5 min for 60 min after the application of one of the three cryotherapeutic modalities. Immediately after application, cold gel packing demonstrated the greatest reduction in surface temperature (10·6 °C), followed by ethyl chloride spraying (4·3 °C) and ice block rubbing (3·7 °C) (P < 0·001). During the 60-min post-application period, ethyl chloride spraying and ice block rubbing produced similar skin surface temperature changes. The skin surface remained coldest for the longest period of time after cold gel packing. The median time for recovery of the baseline temperature after application of the cold gel pack was about three to four times longer than that for the other modalities (P < 0·001). Ethyl chloride spraying and ice block rubbing resulted in less reduction and faster recovery of skin surface temperature than did cold gel packing. In conclusion, ethyl chloride spraying and ice block rubbing had a limited cooling effect on the facial skin tissue and could not reduce the skin surface temperature enough for local analgesia. Moreover, the cooling effect of cold gel packing was remarkable, but not sufficient for local analgesia.

  15. Forearm-finger skin temperature gradient as an index of cutaneous perfusion during steady-state exercise.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Michail E; Geladas, Nickos D; Mekjavic, Igor B; Kounalakis, Stylianos N

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the forearm-finger skin temperature gradient (T(forearm-finger)), an index of vasomotor tone during resting conditions, can also be used during steady-state exercise. Twelve healthy men performed three cycling trials at an intensity of ~60% of their maximal oxygen uptake for 75 min separated by at least 48 h. During exercise, forearm skin blood flow (BFF ) was measured with a laser-Doppler flowmeter, and finger skin blood flow (PPG) was recorded from the left index fingertip using a pulse plethysmogram. T(forearm-finger) of the left arm was calculated from the values derived by two thermistors placed on the radial side of the forearm and on the tip of the middle finger. During exercise, PPG and BFF increased (P<0.001), and T(forearm-finger) decreased (P<0.001) from their resting values, indicating a peripheral vasodilatation. There was a significant correlation between T(forearm-finger) and both PPG (r = -0.68; P<0.001) and BFF (r = -0.50; P<0.001). It is concluded that T(forearm-finger) is a valid qualitative index of cutaneous vasomotor tone during steady-state exercise.

  16. Relationships Between the Bulk-Skin Sea Surface Temperature Difference, Wind, and Net Air-Sea Heat Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, William J.; Castro, Sandra L.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The primary purpose of this project was to evaluate and improve models for the bulk-skin temperature difference to the point where they could accurately and reliably apply under a wide variety of environmental conditions. To accomplish this goal, work was conducted in three primary areas. These included production of an archive of available data sets containing measurements of the skin and bulk temperatures and associated environmental conditions, evaluation of existing skin layer models using the compiled data archive, and additional theoretical work on the development of an improved model using the data collected under diverse environmental conditions. In this work we set the basis for a new physical model of renewal type, and propose a parameterization for the temperature difference across the cool skin of the ocean in which the effects of thermal buoyancy, wind stress, and microscale breaking are all integrated by means of the appropriate renewal time scales. Ideally, we seek to obtain a model that will accurately apply under a wide variety of environmental conditions. A summary of the work in each of these areas is included in this report. A large amount of work was accomplished under the support of this grant. The grant supported the graduate studies of Sandra Castro and the preparation of her thesis which will be completed later this year. This work led to poster presentations at the 1999 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting and 2000 IGARSS meeting. Additional work will be presented in a talk at this year's American Meteorological Society Air-Sea Interaction Meeting this May. The grant also supported Sandra Castro during a two week experiment aboard the R/P Flip (led by Dr. Andrew Jessup of the Applied Physics Laboratory) to help obtain additional shared data sets and to provide Sandra with a fundamental understanding of the physical processes needed in the models. In a related area, the funding also partially supported Dr. William Emery and Daniel

  17. Identification of functioning sweat pores and visualization of skin temperature patterns in X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia by whole body thermography.

    PubMed

    Clark, R P; Goff, M R; MacDermot, K D

    1990-11-01

    In this preliminary study, non-invasive infrared thermography has been used to visualize individual sweat pores and whole body skin temperature patterns in subjects with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XHED) and normal controls. The findings in eight obligate heterozygotes and four affected males were compared to six normal female controls and to six non-manifesting females at risk for carrier status. Sweat secretion from individual pores in circumscribed areas was imaged using a high spatial resolution SPRITE infrared detector system working in the 8-14 microns band. In seven out of eight obligate heterozygotes, skin areas devoid of active sweat glands were found on the face, the hands or the trunk. Tear front movement over the cornea was also visualized and abnormal patterns were identified in obligate heterozygotes. Whole body skin temperature patterns, obtained with an Agema 780 Medical Thermovision system, identified abnormal skin temperature distributions, including characteristic aberrant "cascade" back patterns, in obligate carriers. Two out of six "at risk" females had skin temperature patterns comparable with obligate heterozygotes and we have tentatively concluded that they are carriers. Thermal imaging may be used for the examination of "at risk" non-manifesting females in families with a single affected male. The results of this study suggest that the random X-inactivation in females with XHED, as well as producing relatively large skin areas with sweat pore aplasia, is also associated with abnormal temperature patterns that are consistent with altered peripheral vascular perfusion.

  18. The relevance of low skin temperature inhibiting histamine-induced itch to the location of contact urticarial symptoms in the fish processing industry.

    PubMed

    Halkier-Sørensen, L; Thestrup-Pedersen, K

    1989-09-01

    We have studied the influence of cold exposure on itch, erythema and wheal, in response to histamine scratch tests, in 14 volunteers. Cooling of the skin to less than 20 degrees C, by application of an ice cube for 30 min on the inside of the forearm, abolished itch and reduced erythema by approximately 50%, whereas the size of the wheal was unaffected by cooling. The observations bear significance for an explanation of the well-known observation that cold relieves itch. A normal itch response seems to require a continuous metabolic process in the skin, which is inhibited at temperatures less than 20 degrees C. The skin symptoms, itching and erythema, among workers in the fish processing industry are mainly localized to the forearms and backs of the hands, but only seldom to the fingers and palms, although they are in direct contact with fish products. Skin temperature measurements have shown that the temperature on the fingers and palms is less than 20 degrees C, while the temperature on the backs of the hands and forearms ranges from 25 to 30 degrees C. We therefore conclude that the skin temperature is an important factor for the location of skin symptoms among workers in the fish processing industry.

  19. The contralateral ear in cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Sady Selaimen; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro; Rosito, Letícia Petersen Schmidt

    2016-07-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma has been extensively studied. Theories of cholesteatoma pathogenesis involving previous tympanic membrane retraction are the most widely accepted, but the contralateral ear in patients with cholesteatoma remains unstudied. This study aimed to investigate the contralateral ear in patients with cholesteatoma, and to determine whether the characteristics of it differ according to patient age and cholesteatoma growth patterns. This study was cross sectional. We evaluated 356 patients with middle ear cholesteatoma in at least one ear, and no history of surgery, between August 2000 and March 2013. Otoendoscopy was conducted on both the affected and the contralateral ear. They were classified as normal, tympanic membrane perforation, moderate to severe tympanic membrane retraction and cholesteatoma. The mean age of the patients was 32.77 years, and 53.1 % of the cohort were female. Only 34.8 % of the contralateral ears were normal. The most common abnormality was moderate to severe tympanic membrane retraction (41.6 %). Cholesteatoma was identified in 16 %. Children exhibited a greater frequency of tympanic membrane retractions, whereas adults exhibited a greater frequency of cholesteatoma. All of the contralateral ears in the anterior epitympanic group were normal, but otherwise there were no differences in the contralateral ear when we compared the cholesteatoma growth patterns. We conclude that patients diagnosed with acquired cholesteatoma of one ear are significantly more likely to exhibit abnormalities of the contralateral ear.

  20. Drug delivery to the ear.

    PubMed

    Hoskison, E; Daniel, M; Al-Zahid, S; Shakesheff, K M; Bayston, R; Birchall, J P

    2013-01-01

    Drug delivery to the ear is used to treat conditions of the middle and inner ear such as acute and chronic otitis media, Ménière's disease, sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus. Drugs used include antibiotics, antifungals, steroids, local anesthetics and neuroprotective agents. A literature review was conducted searching Medline (1966-2012), Embase (1988-2012), the Cochrane Library and Ovid (1966-2012), using search terms 'drug delivery', 'middle ear', 'inner ear' and 'transtympanic'. There are numerous methods of drug delivery to the middle ear, which can be categorized as topical, systemic (intravenous), transtympanic and via the Eustachian tube. Localized treatments to the ear have the advantages of targeted drug delivery allowing higher therapeutic doses and minimizing systemic side effects. The ideal scenario would be a carrier system that could cross the intact tympanic membrane loaded with drugs or biochemical agents for the treatment of middle and inner ear conditions.

  1. Wrist skin temperature, motor activity, and body position as determinants of the circadian pattern of blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Blazquez, A; Martinez-Nicolas, A; Salazar, F J; Rol, M A; Madrid, J A

    2012-07-01

    Although the circadian blood pressure (BP) pattern has been extensively studied, the determinants of this rhythm are not fully understood. Peripheral vasodilatation is a regulatory mechanism for BP maintenance. However, it remains to be established whether the increase of nocturnal distal skin temperature associated with heat loss could also reflect the dipping status. For the first time, this paper investigates the relationship between BP and skin wrist temperature (WT), to evaluate whether the WT circadian rhythm can serve as screening procedure to detect dipping/non-dipping BP patterns. In addition, the authors compare the relationship between WT and other variables previously described as determinants of the BP pattern, such as physical activity and body position. Measurements of WT, motor activity, and body position for 5 d, plus ambulatory BP for 24-h during that span, were obtained from 28 diurnally active normotensive volunteers. WT was negatively correlated, whereas activity and body position were positively correlated, with systolic and diastolic BPs. However, these relationships were stronger during the rest than activity phase. In addition, a 78.6% concordance was detected between the observed dips in BP and the predicted BP pattern calculated based on the WT rhythm. Thus, these results suggest that the increase in WT produced by heat loss during the rest phase through peripheral skin blood vessels is the result of blood vessel vasodilatation reflexes in response to a shift from a standing to a supine position, together with shift in the circadian sympathetic/parasympathetic balance (nocturnal parasympathetic activation). In conclusion, WT could be considered as a potential new screening procedure to implement the diagnosis of non-dipping BP pattern.

  2. Satellite and Skin Layer Effects on the Accuracy of Sea Surface Temperature Measurements from the GOES Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wick, Gary A.; Bates, John J.; Scott, Donna J.

    2000-01-01

    The latest Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) have facilitated significant improvements in our ability to measure sea surface temperature (SST) from geostationary satellites. Nonetheless, difficulties associated with sensor calibration and oceanic near-surface temperature gradients affect the accuracy of the measurements and our ability to estimate and interpret the diurnal cycle of the bulk SST. Overall, measurements of SST from the GOES Imagers on the GOES 8-10 satellites are shown to have very small bias (less than 0.02 K) and rms differences of between 0.6 and 0.9 K relative to buoy observations. Separate consideration of individual measurement times, however, demonstrates systematic bias variations of over 0.6 K with measurement hour. These bias variations significantly affect both the amplitude and shape of estimates of the diurnal SST cycle. Modeled estimates of the temperature difference across the oceanic cool skin and diurnal thermocline show that bias variations up to 0.3 K can result from variability in the near-surface layer. Oceanic near-surface layer and known "satellite midnight" calibration effects, however, explain only a portion of the observed bias variations, suggesting other possible calibration concerns. Methods of explicitly incorporating skin layer and diurnal thermocline effects in satellite bulk SST measurements were explored in an effort to further improve the measurement accuracy. While the approaches contain more complete physics, they do not yet significantly improve the accuracy of bulk SST measurements due to remaining uncertainties in the temperature difference across the near-surface layer.

  3. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study of Skin Lipids: Effects of the Molar Ratio of Individual Components over a Wide Temperature Range.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rakesh; Rai, Beena

    2015-09-03

    Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were employed to systematically investigate the effects of the molar ratio of the individual components cholesterol (CHOL), free fatty acid (FFA), and ceramides (CER) on the properties of the skin lipid bilayer over a wide temperature range (300-400 K). Several independent simulations were performed for bilayers comprised of only CER, CHOL, or FFA molecules as well as those made up of a mixture of CER:CHOL:FFA molecules in different molar ratios. It was found that CHOL increases the stability of the bilayer, since the mixed (CER:CHOL:FFA) 1:1:0, 1:1:1, and 2:2:1 bilayers remained stable until 400 K while the pure ceramide bilayer disintegrated around ∼390 K. It was also observed that CHOL reduces the volume spanned by ceramide molecules, thereby leading to a higher area per CER and FFA molecule in the mixed bilayer system. The CHOL molecule provided more rigidity to the mixed bilayer and led to a more ordered phase at elevated temperatures. The CHOL molecule provided fluidity to the bilayer below the phase transition temperature of CER and kept the bilayer rigid above the phase transition temperature. The FFA interdigitizes with CER molecules and increases the thickness of the bilayer, while rigid CHOL decreases the bilayer thickness. The presence of CHOL increases the compressibility of the bilayer which is responsible for the high barrier function of skin. The CER molecule forms inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds, while CHOL only forms intermolecular hydrogen bonds.

  4. Temporal and spatial temperature distribution in the glabrous skin of rats induced by short-pulse CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Pen-Li; Hsu, Shu-Shen; Tsai, Meng-Li; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Wang, An-Bang; Yen, Chen-Tung

    2012-11-01

    Pain is a natural alarm that aids the body in avoiding potential danger and can also present as an important indicator in clinics. Infrared laser-evoked potentials can be used as an objective index to evaluate nociception. In animal studies, a short-pulse laser is crucial because it completes the stimulation before escape behavior. The objective of the present study was to obtain the temporal and spatial temperature distributions in the skin caused by the irradiation of a short-pulse laser. A fast speed infrared camera was used to measure the surface temperature caused by a CO2 laser of different durations (25 and 35 ms) and power. The measured results were subsequently implemented with a three-layer finite element model to predict the subsurface temperature. We found that stratum corneum was crucial in the modeling of fast temperature response, and escape behaviors correlated with predictions of temperature at subsurface. Results indicated that the onset latency and duration of activated nociceptors must be carefully considered when interpreting physiological responses evoked by infrared irradiation.

  5. Global clear-sky surface skin temperature from multiple satellites using a single-channel algorithm with angular anisotropy corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarino, Benjamin R.; Minnis, Patrick; Chee, Thad; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Yost, Christopher R.; Palikonda, Rabindra

    2017-01-01

    Surface skin temperature (Ts) is an important parameter for characterizing the energy exchange at the ground/water-atmosphere interface. The Satellite ClOud and Radiation Property retrieval System (SatCORPS) employs a single-channel thermal-infrared (TIR) method to retrieve Ts over clear-sky land and ocean surfaces from data taken by geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) and low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite imagers. GEO satellites can provide somewhat continuous estimates of Ts over the diurnal cycle in non-polar regions, while polar Ts retrievals from LEO imagers, such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), can complement the GEO measurements. The combined global coverage of remotely sensed Ts, along with accompanying cloud and surface radiation parameters, produced in near-realtime and from historical satellite data, should be beneficial for both weather and climate applications. For example, near-realtime hourly Ts observations can be assimilated in high-temporal-resolution numerical weather prediction models and historical observations can be used for validation or assimilation of climate models. Key drawbacks to the utility of TIR-derived Ts data include the limitation to clear-sky conditions, the reliance on a particular set of analyses/reanalyses necessary for atmospheric corrections, and the dependence on viewing and illumination angles. Therefore, Ts validation with established references is essential, as is proper evaluation of Ts sensitivity to atmospheric correction source.This article presents improvements on the NASA Langley GEO satellite and AVHRR TIR-based Ts product that is derived using a single-channel technique. The resulting clear-sky skin temperature values are validated with surface references and independent satellite products. Furthermore, an empirically adjusted theoretical model of satellite land surface temperature (LST) angular anisotropy is tested to improve satellite LST retrievals. Application of the anisotropic correction

  6. Infrared thermography for examination of skin temperature in the dorsal hand of office workers.

    PubMed

    Gold, Judith E; Cherniack, Martin; Buchholz, Bryan

    2004-10-01

    Reduced blood flow may contribute to the pathophysiology of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UEMSD), such as tendinitis and carpal tunnel syndrome. The study objective was to characterize potential differences in cutaneous temperature, among three groups of office workers assessed by dynamic thermography following a 9-min typing challenge: those with UEMSD, with ( n=6) or without ( n=10) cold hands exacerbated by keyboard use, and control subjects ( n=12). Temperature images of the metacarpal region of the dorsal hand were obtained 1 min before typing, and during three 2-min sample periods [0-2 min (early), 3-5 min (middle), and 8-10 min (late)] after typing. Mean temperature increased from baseline levels immediately after typing by a similar magnitude, 0.7 (0.3) degrees C in controls and 0.6 (0.2) degrees C in UEMSD cases without cold hands, but only by 0.1 (0.3) degrees C in those with cold hands. Using paired t-tests for within group comparisons of mean dorsal temperature between successive imaging periods, three patterns of temperature change were apparent during 10 min following typing. Controls further increased mean temperature by 0.1 degrees C ( t-test, P=0.001) at 3-5 min post-typing before a late temperature decline of -0.3 degrees C ( t-test, P=0.04), while cases without cold hands showed no change from initial post-typing mean temperature rise during middle or late periods. In contrast, subjects with keyboard-induced cold hands had no change from initial post-typing temperature until a decrease at the late period of -0.3 degrees C ( t-test, P=0.06). Infrared thermography appears to distinguish between the three groups of subjects, with keyboard-induced cold hand symptoms presumably due, at least partially, to reduced blood flow.

  7. Skin temperature evaluation by infrared thermography: Comparison of image analysis methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, N.; Formenti, D.; Gargano, M.; Alberti, G.

    2014-01-01

    Body temperature in medicine is a parameter indicating abnormal activity of human tissues; it is used to diagnose specific pathologies or as an indicator of the muscle activity during physical exercise.

  8. Skin Temperature Analysis and Bias Correction in a Coupled Land-Atmosphere Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Radakovich, Jon D.; daSilva, Arlindo; Todling, Ricardo; Verter, Frances

    2006-01-01

    In an initial investigation, remotely sensed surface temperature is assimilated into a coupled atmosphere/land global data assimilation system, with explicit accounting for biases in the model state. In this scheme, an incremental bias correction term is introduced in the model's surface energy budget. In its simplest form, the algorithm estimates and corrects a constant time mean bias for each gridpoint; additional benefits are attained with a refined version of the algorithm which allows for a correction of the mean diurnal cycle. The method is validated against the assimilated observations, as well as independent near-surface air temperature observations. In many regions, not accounting for the diurnal cycle of bias caused degradation of the diurnal amplitude of background model air temperature. Energy fluxes collected through the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) are used to more closely inspect the surface energy budget. In general, sensible heat flux is improved with the surface temperature assimilation, and two stations show a reduction of bias by as much as 30 Wm(sup -2) Rondonia station in Amazonia, the Bowen ratio changes direction in an improvement related to the temperature assimilation. However, at many stations the monthly latent heat flux bias is slightly increased. These results show the impact of univariate assimilation of surface temperature observations on the surface energy budget, and suggest the need for multivariate land data assimilation. The results also show the need for independent validation data, especially flux stations in varied climate regimes.

  9. Ear syringing: minimising the risks.

    PubMed

    Bird, Sara

    2008-05-01

    The patient, 61 years of age, saw the general practitioner for a repeat prescription for her blood pressure medication. During the consultation, the patient mentioned that she had some discomfort in her left ear. The GP examined the patient's ears and noted that both external auditory canals were blocked by wax. He recommended that the patient have her ears syringed and arranged for the practice nurse to perform the procedure. The GP did not see the patient again.

  10. Global Distribution and Variability of Surface Skin and Surface Air Temperatures as Depicted in the AIRS Version-6 Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Lee, Jae N.; Iredell, Lena

    2014-01-01

    In this presentation, we will briefly describe the significant improvements made in the AIRS Version-6 retrieval algorithm, especially as to how they affect retrieved surface skin and surface air temperatures. The global distribution of seasonal 1:30 AM and 1:30 PM local time 12 year climatologies of Ts,a will be presented for the first time. We will also present the spatial distribution of short term 12 year anomaly trends of Ts,a at 1:30 AM and 1:30 PM, as well as the spatial distribution of temporal correlations of Ts,a with the El Nino Index. It will be shown that there are significant differences between the behavior of 1:30 AM and 1:30 PM Ts,a anomalies in some arid land areas.

  11. Skin Temperatures During Unaided Egress: Unsuited and While Wearing the NASA Launch and Entry or Advanced Crew Escape Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Kristin K.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Greenisen, Michael C.; Schneider, Suzanne M.

    2000-01-01

    The two flight suits currently worn by crew members during Shuttle launch and landing, the Launch and Entry Suit (LES) and the Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES), are designed to protect crew members in the case of emergency. Although the Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG) worn under the flight suits was designed to counteract the heat storage of the suits, the suits may increase thermal stress and limit the astronaut's egress capabilities. The purpose of this study was to assess the thermal loads experienced by crew members during a simulated emergency egress before and after spaceflight. Comparisons of skin temperatures were made between the preflight unsuited and suited conditions. between the pre- and postflight suited conditions, and between the two flight suits.

  12. Differential regulation of dehydrin expression and trehalose levels in Cardinal table grape skin by low temperature and high CO2.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Sara; Vazquez-Hernandez, María; Rosales, Raquel; Sanchez-Ballesta, María Teresa; Merodio, Carmen; Escribano, María Isabel

    2015-05-01

    Dehydrins and trehalose are multifunctional protective biomolecules that play a role in counteracting cellular damage during dehydrative stresses. In this paper, we studied dehydrin isoform patterns, dehydrin gene expression and trehalose levels in the skin of Cardinal (Vitis vinifera L.) table grapes, along with their regulation by different cold postharvest storage conditions. Immunoanalysis with K-segment antibody recognizes four constitutive dehydrins (from 17 to 44 kDa) that are tightly regulated by low temperature and high CO2. Phosphatase treatment showed that DHN44 and DHN22 isoforms are phosphorylated polypeptides, while MALDI-TOF MS and MS/MS analysis suggested that 44 kDa polypeptide may be a dehydrin homodimer. At the transcriptional level, dehydrins are also regulated by low temperature and high CO2, showing a fairly good correlation with their mRNA levels. Trehalose was quantified by high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD), revealing a progressive increase of this metabolite throughout storage at 0 °C and the sudden transitory increases in short-term high CO2-treated fruit. We propose that the constitutive presence and up-regulation of dehydrins and trehalose during low temperature postharvest storage could be positively correlated with the relative chilling tolerance of table grapes and the adaptive responses activated by high CO2 levels to preserve cell water status and to counteract the disruption of physiological processes during cold storage.

  13. Association between skin surface pH, temperature and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in dogs with immunomodulatory-responsive lymphocytic-plasmacytic pododermatitis.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, Rory M; Quinn, Patrick J; Baker, Kenneth P; McGeady, Thomas; Strobl, Eric; Abbott, Yvonne; Jones, Boyd R

    2011-08-01

    Secondary bacterial infection is a frequent complication in lesional skin of dogs with immunomodulatory-responsive lymphocytic-plasmacytic pododermatitis (ImR-LPP). However, the influence of skin pH and temperature in determining the composition of the cutaneous microflora at lesional sites has not been investigated. The association between ImR-LPP and pedal skin temperature, pH and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates was thus evaluated. Temperature and pH were measured in 20 dogs with ImR-LPP and in 30 clinically healthy control dogs, and S. pseudintermedius was cultured from interdigital and palmoplantar swabs in both groups and scored semi-quantitatively for bacterial growth. In the ImR-LPP group, mean skin pH was slightly, but significantly, higher at both interdigital and palmoplantar sites. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was isolated more frequently, and scores for bacterial growth were also significantly higher. However, mean skin temperatures were not significantly different from those in the control group. The isolation of S. pseudintermedius was significantly associated with ImR-LPP, with the single exception of isolates on Columbia blood agar from the palmoplantar region. However, pH and temperature were not significantly associated with the disease, and were not associated with the isolation of S. pseudintermedius at most sites sampled. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was not isolated from all feet sampled in dogs with ImR-LPP. Taken together, these data would suggest that S. pseudintermedius infection is most likely to be a secondary phenomenon in dogs with ImR-LPP, and that changes in skin pH and temperature are not significant risk factors for this disease.

  14. Correlation between skin temperature and heart rate during exercise and recovery, and the influence of body position in these variables in untrained women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Eduardo Borba; Cunha, Raphael Martins; Rosa, Claudio; Antunes, Natacha Sousa; Felisberto, Ivo Miguel Vieira; Vilaça-Alves, José; Reis, Victor Machado

    2016-03-01

    It was known that the thermal response varies according to some variables. Until now, there are no studies that have investigated the relationship of skin temperature and heart rate during and after the workout, either the thermal behavior during postural changes. Objective: the aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of skin temperature and heart rate, during exercise and up to an hour of recovery (with postural change), performed in two different intensities sessions (70% and 85% of 10 repetitions maximum) and observe the correlation between them. Method: This was a short longitudinal study, carried out with women aged from 18 to 30 years. A sample of 31 untrained women, aged 18 and 30 was used. The volunteers were randomized into two groups: Biceps Group (BG), with 15 women, and Quadriceps Group (QG) with 16 women. Results: During and after completion of the exercise session, there was a significant reduction in skin temperature on the active muscles in both groups (BG and QG), with similar thermal responses for the two intensities studied (70% and 85%) to the minute 15 (which marks the end of the recovery in the standing position). From minute 15 to minute 20-60, the skin temperature increases abruptly and significantly, returning to levels close to those observed before exercise. Conclusion: There were no statistical differences in thermal response to exercises in 70% or 85% of 10RM. There is a negative correlation between heart rate and skin temperature when untrained women perform anaerobic exercise. It was observed that after a change of posture (from a standing position to a sitting posture) skin temperature increased abruptly and significantly.

  15. Skin Dictionary

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  16. Why Do Elephants Flap Their Ears?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffi, Moise; Jiji, Latif; Andreopoulos, Yiannis

    2009-11-01

    It is estimated that a 4200 kg elephant generates as much as 5.12 kW of heat. How the elephant dissipates its metabolic heat and regulates its body temperature has been investigated during the past seven decades. Findings and conclusions differ sharply. The high rate of metabolic heat coupled with low surface area to volume ratio and the absence of sweat glands eliminate surface convection as the primary mechanism for heat removal. Noting that the elephant ears have high surface area to volume ratio and an extensive vascular network, ear flapping is thought to be the principal thermoregulatory mechanism. A computational and experimental program is carried out to examine flow and heat transfer characteristics. The ear is modeled as a uniformly heated oscillating rectangular plate. Our computational work involves a three-dimensional time dependent CFD code with heat transfer capabilities to obtain predictions of the flow field and surface temperature distributions. This information was used to design an experimental setup with a uniformly heated plate of size 0.2m x 0.3m oscillating at 1.6 cycles per second. Results show that surface temperature increases and reaches a steady periodic oscillation after a period of transient oscillation. The role of the vortices shed off the plate in heat transfer enhancement will be discussed.

  17. Chronic transplantation immunity in newts: temperature susceptibility of an effector phase in allo-skin graft rejection.

    PubMed

    Kinefuchi, Kenjiroh; Kushida, Yoshihiro; Johnouchi, Masato; Shimizu, Yuiko; Ohneda, Hikaru; Fujii, Masato; Hosono, Masamichi

    2011-07-01

    Urodele amphibians are unique due to their greatly reduced immune responsiveness compared to bony fishes, which show acute immune responsiveness. In newts, the mean survival time of allogenic skin grafts in the transplantation immunity was 48.8 ± 8.3 days at 25°C, suggesting that it occurs in a chronic manner. The graft rejection process was categorized into three stages: a latent stage with frequent blood circulation, or the immune induction phase; a vascular stoppage stage with dominant infiltrating cells of T cells; and a rejection stage showing the change of the dominant cells to monocytes/macrophages, probably as effector cells, tetntatively referred to as the immune effector phase. The immune induction phase is susceptible to the cyclophosphamide (CY) mitosis inhibitor, but not to a temperature shift from 18 to 27°C, while the immune effector phase is susceptible to temperature shifts, but not CY-treatment, although the temperature shift failed to shorten the graft survival time to less than 25 days, which nearly equals that of the secondary set of grafts where the lack of complete blood circulation is remarkable and graft rejection is resistant to CY-treatment. In contrast, a very low temperature (5-10°C) completely prevented effector generation in newts; in frogs, however, it is reported that such low temperatures did not prevent the generation of effectors. Taken together, these data suggest that chronic responses in newts are due to effector cells other than cytotoxic T cells; possible effector cells are discussed.

  18. The cloning and expression analysis of Lhx9 during gonadal sex differentiation in the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, a species with temperature-dependent sex determination.

    PubMed

    Bieser, Kayla L; Wibbels, Thane; Mourad, George; Paladino, Frank

    2013-06-01

    Many reptiles, including the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta), possess a temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) mechanism where the temperature at which the developing embryos are incubated dictates the gonadal sex of the animal. A number of mammalian gene orthologues have been identified in the sex determination/differentiation cascade of reptiles with TSD although the exact trigger(s) is not well understood. A potential early regulator of gonadal differentiation, Lhx9, controls the proliferation of gonadal cells in mice and its absence prevents gonadal development and drastically reduces the expression of Sf-1, a gene that regulates the expression of steroidogenic enzymes in the bipotential gonad. In the current study, we cloned Lhx9 from T. scripta and analyzed its expression throughout the thermosensitive period of gonad development using quantitative PCR. We examined the expression profiles of Lhx9 in embryos incubated under control conditions at male- and female-producing temperatures and with the application of exogenous 17β-estradiol or an aromatase inhibitor, Letrozole, to induce sex reversal. The T. scripta Lhx9 cDNA and predicted amino acid sequence showed high homology to those of chicken, anole, and mouse. Lhx9 was expressed at both male- and female-producing temperatures with expression levels increasing throughout the thermosensitive period. Letrozole induced sex-reversal did not alter Lhx9 expression levels. 17β-estradiol treatments appeared to inhibit or delay gonadal differentiation and resulted in lower Lhx9 expression from the presumptive gonadal ridge region. The structural homology and temporal expression pattern of Lhx9 suggests that this represents a conserved element in the gonadal differentiation cascade of T. scripta.

  19. Erythema associated with pain and warmth on face and ears: a variant of erythermalgia or red ear syndrome?

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Chun; Xu, Qing-Fang; Luo, Di-Qing; Li, Xiang; He, Ding-Yang

    2014-03-26

    Erythermalgia is a rare cutaneous disorder characterized by attacking of erythema, pain and increased temperature, which primarily involves the extremities and may infrequently extend to the neck, face, ears and even the scrotum. We reported an 18-year-old woman who presented with 3 years history of sole involvement of attacking erythema, pain and warmth over her face and ears without any other associations. The frequency and severity of the flares progressed gradually during the course. Cutaneous examination revealed erythema, increased temperature and tenderness on the face and ears during the flare. The symptoms could be relieved rapidly by cooling. Dermatoscope showed that vessels inside the erythema were more dilated during the episode than after application of ice. The lesion is considered a rare variant of erythermalgia with sole involvement of face and ears. The symptoms had mild response to oral antihistamines, topical steroids and tacrolimus, but had excellent response to the combinative therapy of aspirin and paroxetins.

  20. Skin to skin care:heat balance.

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, H

    1996-01-01

    Skin to skin care has been practised in primitive and high technology cultures for body temperature preservation in neonates. Regional skin temperature and heat flow was measured in moderately hypothermic term neonates to quantitate the heat transfer occurring during one hour of skin to skin care. Nine healthy newborns with a mean rectal temperature of 36.3 degrees C were placed skin to skin on their mothers' chests. The mean (SD) rectal temperature increased by 0.7 (0.4) degrees C to 37.0 degrees C. The heat loss was high (70 Wm-2) from the unprotected skin of the head to the surrounding air. Minute heat losses occurred from covered areas; and heat was initially gained from areas in contact with the mother's skin. The total dry heat loss during skin to skin care corresponded to heat loss during incubator care at 32-32.5 degrees C. The reduced heat loss, and to a minor extent, the initial heat flux from the mothers allowed heat to be conserved, leading to rewarming. PMID:8949698

  1. Fabrication of High-Temperature Heat Exchangers by Plasma Spraying Exterior Skins on Nickel Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafeez, P.; Yugeswaran, S.; Chandra, S.; Mostaghimi, J.; Coyle, T. W.

    2016-06-01

    Thermal-sprayed heat exchangers were tested at high temperatures (750 °C), and their performances were compared to the foam heat exchangers made by brazing Inconel sheets to their surface. Nickel foil was brazed to the exterior surface of 10-mm-thick layers of 10 and 40 PPI nickel foam. A plasma torch was used to spray an Inconel coating on the surface of the foil. A burner test rig was built to produce hot combustion gases that flowed over exposed face of the heat exchanger. Cooling air flowed through the foam heat exchanger at rates of up to 200 SLPM. Surface temperature and air inlet/exit temperature were measured. Heat transfer to air flowing through the foam was significantly higher for the thermally sprayed heat exchangers than for the brazed heat exchangers. On an average, thermally sprayed heat exchangers show 36% higher heat transfer than conventionally brazed foam heat exchangers. At low flow rates, the convective resistance is large (~4 × 10-2 m2 K/W), and the effect of thermal contact resistance is negligible. At higher flow rates, the convective resistance decreases (~2 × 10-3 m2 K/W), and the lower contact resistance of the thermally sprayed heat exchanger provides better performance than the brazed heat exchangers.

  2. Benign ear cyst or tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bony tumor of the ear canal Images Ear anatomy References Nicolai P, Castelnuovo P. Benign tumors of the sinonasal tract. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  3. Otoscopic exam of the ear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... intrument which is used to look into the ear canal. The ear speculum (a cone-shaped viewing piece of the otoscope) is slowly inserted into the ear canal while looking into the otoscope. The speculum ...

  4. Wax blockage in the ear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... hair follicles and glands that produce a waxy oil called cerumen. Sometimes the glands produce more wax than can be easily excreted out the ear. This extra wax may harden within the ear canal and block the ear.

  5. [The rabbit ear model as comedogenic test. 3. Histologic and enzyme histochemical studies of the follicle and sebaceous gland epithelium].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, R

    1990-01-01

    A strongly comedogenic mineral oil induced histologically and enzyme-histochemically detectable changes in the follicles and sebaceous gland ducts in the skin of rabbit ears. These correlate to findings concerning acne vulgaris in humans. The rabbit ear model thus appears to be suitable for experimental studies into acne vulgaris.

  6. Factors leading to chronic middle ear disease.

    PubMed

    Canty, A A; Prestwood, U; Dugdale, A E; Lewis, A N

    1975-05-10

    In an Australian Aboriginal community, 65% of all people examined had clinical evidence of pathology in the ear drum or middle ear, but active ear disease was found mainly in children. In most people, both ears showed similar clinical changes. Clinical nutritional status and hygienic factors did not correlate with the presence of ear disease. Some families had significantly more ear disease than did others, suggesting that there is some as yet unidentified familial factor.

  7. Middle ear mucosal regeneration with three-dimensionally tissue-engineered autologous middle ear cell sheets in rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Yuichiro; Murakami, Daisuke; Yamato, Masayuki; Hama, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuhisa; Kojima, Hiromi; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Okano, Teruo

    2016-03-01

    The likelihood of recurrent retraction and adhesion of newly formed tympanic membrane is high when middle ear mucosa is extensively lost during cholesteatoma and adhesive otitis media surgery. If rapid postoperative regeneration of the mucosa on the exposed bone surface can be achieved, prevention of recurrent eardrum adhesion and cholesteatoma formation, for which there has been no definitive treatment, can be expected. Suture-less transplantation of tissue-engineered mucosal cell sheets was examined immediately after the operation of otitis media surgery in order to quickly regenerate middle ear mucosa lost during surgery in a rabbit model. Transplantable middle ear mucosal cell sheets with a three-dimensional tissue architecture very similar to native middle ear mucosa were fabricated from middle ear mucosal tissue fragments obtained in an autologous manner from middle ear bulla on temperature-responsive culture surfaces. Immediately after the mucosa was resected from middle ear bone bulla inner cavity, mucosal cell sheets were grafted at the resected site. Both bone hyperplasia and granulation tissue formation were inhibited and early mucosal regeneration was observed in the cell sheet-grafted group, compared with the control group in which only mucosal removal was carried out and the bone surface exposed. This result indicates that tissue engineered mucosal cell sheets would be useful to minimize complications after the surgical operation on otitis media and future clinical application is expected.

  8. Prediction of mean skin temperature for use as a heat strain scale by introducing an equation for sweating efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, H.; Kuwabara, K.; Hamada, Y.

    2014-09-01

    The present paper made the heat balance equation (HBE) for nude or minimally clad subjects a linear function of mean skin temperature ( t sk) by applying new equations for sweating efficiency ( η sw) and thermoregulatory sweat rate ( S wR). As the solution of the HBE, the equation predicting t sk was derived and used for a heat strain scale of subjects. The η sw was proportional to the reciprocal of S w/ E max ( S w, sweat rate; E max maximum evaporative capacity) and the S wR was proportional to t sk with a parameter of the sweating capacity of the subject. The errors of predicted t sk from observations due to the approximation of η sw were examined based on experimental data conducted on eight young male subjects. The value of errors of t sk was -0.10 ± 0.42 °C (mean ± sample standard deviation (SSD)). We aim to apply the predicted t sk of a subject at a level of sweating capacity as a heat strain scale of a function of four environmental factors (dry- and wet-bulb temperatures, radiation, and air velocity) and three human factors (metabolic rate, sweating capacity, and clothing (≤0.2clo)).

  9. [State temperature-pain sensitivity and morphological features of the skin back in patients with idiopathic scoliosis with stage III-IV].

    PubMed

    Gorbach, E N; Shchurova, E N; Kobyzev, A E; Ryabykh, S O; Ochirova, P V

    2015-03-01

    This study was aimed at revealing the features condition of thermal, pain sensitivity and morphological pattern of the skin of the human back at the apex of spinal deformity in the thoracic area in patients with idiopathic scoliosis with stage III-IV. The study included 41 adolescent with idiopathic scoliosis with stage III-IV. Temperature-pain sensitivity was studied in Th6-Th10 dermatomes on the right and the left. Biopsies (skin) for histological examination were taken intraoperatively in projection corresponding to the apex of the arc scoliosis of the spine. Significant disorders of the sensitivity to temperature and pain were found in the dermatomes to the apex of the thoracic spine deformity that were hyperesthesia, hypoesthesia, or absent thermal sensitivity. Histostrukturnye changes of the skin are significantly decreasing the thickness of the epidermis and dermis, reduction of capillaries and changing the structure of the small vessels, destruction of individual nerve fibers and free nerve endings.

  10. Thermography Examination of Abdominal Area Skin Temperatures in Individuals With and Without Focal-Onset Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    King, Hollis H; Cayce, Charles Thomas; Herrin, Jeph

    Early osteopathic theory and practice, and the work of the medical intuitive Edgar Cayce suggested that the abdominal areas of individuals with epilepsy would manifest "cold spots." The etiology for this phenomenon was thought to be abdominal adhesions caused by inflammation and viscero-somatic reflexes caused by adhesions or injury to visceral or musculoskeletal system structures. Indeed, until that advent of electroencephalography in the 1930s, medical practice regarding epilepsy focused on abdominal neural and visceral structures. Following two hypotheses were formulated to evaluate any abdominal temperature phenomena: (1) an abdominal quadrant division analysis would find one or more quadrants "colder" in the focal-onset epilepsy group (ICD9-CM 345.4 and 345.5) compared to controls. (2) Total abdominal areas of individuals with focal-onset epilepsy wound be colder than a control group.

  11. Effect of ThermaCare HeatWraps and Icy Hot Cream/Patches on Skin and Quadriceps Muscle Temperature and Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Petrofsky, Jerrold Scott; Laymon, Michael; Berk, Lee; Bains, Gurinder

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of over-the-counter treatments—ThermaCare HeatWraps (chemical reaction to produce heat above the skin), Icy Hot Patch, and Icy Hot Cream (topically applied menthol)—on skin and deep tissue temperature. Methods This was a longitudinal crossover study. On each of 3 days, a ThermaCare HeatWrap, Icy Hot Cream, or Icy Hot Patch was applied randomly over the quadriceps muscle in 15 healthy volunteers with normal body mass. Skin and muscle temperature and blood flow were measured by laser flowmetry every 15 minutes for 2 hours. Results After 2 hours, mean temperature decreased by 2.1°C (7.0%; P = .02) in skin and 1.0°C (2.9%; P = .01) in muscle with Icy Hot Cream. Icy Hot Patch decreased skin and muscle temperature by 1.7°C (5.4%; P = .03) and 1.3°C (3.8%; P = .01), respectively. In contrast, ThermaCare raised skin and muscle temperature by 7.8°C (25.8%; P = .001) and 2.7°C (7.7%; P = .002), respectively; both were significantly warmer with ThermaCare vs either Icy Hot product (all P < .007). Icy Hot products produced a net decrease in skin blood flow (Cream: 56.7 flux [39.3%; P = .003]; Patch: 19.1 flux [16.7%; P = .045]). Muscle blood flow decreased with the Patch (6.7 flux [7.0%; P = .02]). After a period of fluctuations, Icy Hot Cream produced a net increase vs baseline of 7.0 flux (16.9%; P = .02). ThermaCare more than doubled blood flow in skin (83.3 flux [109.7%; P = .0003]) and muscle (25.1 flux [148.5%; P = .004]). Conclusions In this group of 15 healthy volunteers, ThermaCare HeatWraps provided the greatest degree of tissue warming and increase in tissue blood flow. PMID:27069427

  12. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  13. Effect of joule temperature jump on tension and stiffness of skinned rabbit muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Bershitsky SYu; Tsaturyan, A K

    1989-11-01

    The effects of a temperature jump (T-jump) from 5-7 degrees C to 26-33 degrees C were studied on tension and stiffness of glycerol-extracted fibers from rabbit psoas muscle in rigor and during maximal Ca2+ activation. The T-jump was initiated by passing an alternating current pulse (30 kHz, up to 2.5 kV, duration 0.2 ms) through a fiber suspended in air. In rigor the T-jump induces a drop of both tension and stiffness. During maximal activation, the immediate stiffness dropped by (4.4 +/- 1.6) x 10(-3)/1 degree C (mean + SD) in response to the T-jump, and this was followed by a monoexponential stiffness rise by a factor of 1.59 +/- 0.14 with a rate constant ks = 174 +/- 42 s-1 (mean +/- SD, n = 8). The data show that the fiber stiffness, determined by the cross-bridge elasticity, in both rigor and maximal activation is not rubber-like. In the activated fibers the T-jump induced a biexponential tension rise by a factor of 3.45 +/- 0.76 (mean +/- SD, n = 8) with the rate constants 500-1,000 s-1 for the first exponent and 167 +/- 39 s-1 (mean +/- SD, n = 8) for the second exponent. The data are in accordance with the assumption that the first phase of the tension transient after the T-jump is due to a force-generating step in the attached cross-bridges, whereas the second one is related to detachment and reattachment of cross-bridges.

  14. Calcium-activated force responses in fast- and slow-twitch skinned muscle fibres of the rat at different temperatures.

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, D G; Williams, D A

    1981-01-01

    1. Force responses from mechanically skinned fibres of rat skeletal muscles (extensor digitorum longus and soleus) were measured at different temperatures in the range 3-35 degrees C following sudden changes in Ca2+ concentration in the preparations. 2. At all temperatures there were characteristic differences between the slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibres with respect to the relative steady-state force-[Ca2+] relation: such as a lower [Ca2+] threshold for activation and a less steep force-pCa curve in slow-twitch muscle fibres. 3. At 3-5 degrees C the force changes in both types of muscle fibres lagged considerably behind the estimated changes in [Ca2+] within the preparations and this enabled us to perform a comparative analysis of the Ca2+ kinetics in the process of force development in both muscle fibre types. This analysis suggest that two and six Ca2+ ions are involved in the regulatory unit for contraction of slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibres respectively. 4. The rate of relaxation following a sudden decrease in [Ca2+] was much lower in the slow-twitch than in the fast-twitch muscle at 5 degrees C, suggesting that properties of the contractile apparatus could play an essential role in determining the rate of relaxation in vivo. 5. There was substantial variation in Ca2+ sensitivity between muscle fibres of the same type from different animals at each temperature. However the steepness of the force-[Ca2+] relation was essentially the same for all fibres of the same type. 6. A change in temperature from 5 to 25 degrees C had a statistically significant effect on the sensitivity of the fast-twitch muscle fibres, rendering them less sensitive to Ca2+ by a factor of 2. However a further increase in temperature from 25 to 35 degrees C did not have any statistically significant effect on the force-[Ca2+] relation in fast-twitch muscle fibres. 7. The effect of temperature on the Ca2+ sensitivity of slow-twitch muscle fibres was not statistically significant

  15. A new technique for controlling the finger skin temperature in microcirculatory research demonstrated in a local cold stress test in healthy controls and patients with Raynaud's phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Hahn, M; Klyscz, T; Bohnenberger, G; Jünger, M

    1996-01-01

    Changes in skin temperature cause great changes in blood flow and capillary blood pressure. The new technique presented here makes it possible to control the temperature of the finger during nailfold capillaroscopy. Automatic temperature control, both for warming and cooling, is made possible with the aid of a temperature-controlled finger holder. The temperature of the finger holder can be automatically matched to the spontaneous skin temperature of the examined finger, or the finger holder temperature and temperature change velocity can be set digitally to a desired value. We used this new technique in a local cold stress test on 9 healthy controls (3 men, 6 women) and 9 patients (3 men, 6 women) with Raynaud's phenomenon due to systemic sclerosis. We simultaneously measured capillary red blood cell velocity (CBV) and laser Doppler flux (LDF) in adjacent areas of the finger nailfold with three different cooling procedures (8, 10, 12 degrees C for 5 min). CBV and LDF values showed the most pronounced differences between patients and controls at 12 degrees C. This new technique supplements capillaroscopy with full temperature control and defined temperature changes. It can also be combined with measurements of LDF and capillary blood pressure. In view of the disadvantages of other cooling methods we recommend this new and easy-to-handle technique for clinical practice and research.

  16. A Comparison of Skin Interface Temperature Response Between the ProHeat™ Instant Reusable Hot Pack and the Standard Hydrocollator Steam Pack

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewski, Donald; Dandorph, Michael J.; Manning, James

    1992-01-01

    The ProHeat™ reusable hot pack is being used increasingly as a substitute for the standard hydrocollator steam pack. This study evaluated the effects of these two modalities on skin temperature. Seventeen subjects were studied during separate 30-minute applications of a ProHeat pack with a wet barrier, a ProHeat pack with a dry barrier, a hydrocollator pack, and a control pack on their nondominant calf. We measured the skin interface temperature and pack surface temperature during each application with surface thermocouples. The skin interface temperature rise time to the minimum therapeutic temperature (104°F) and the total time at and above the minimum therapeutic temperature, for each application, were analyzed using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures (p<.05). The ProHeat pack application, with one layer of wet toweling as a barrier, was not significantly different from the hydrocollator steam pack application. We conclude that the ProHeat pack, prepared with a wet barrier, can be considered a viable alternative to the standard hydrocollator steam pack. PMID:16558193

  17. Outcomes in Endoscopic Ear Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kiringoda, Ruwan; Kozin, Elliott D; Lee, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    Endoscopic ear surgery (EES) provides several advantages compared with traditional binocular microscopy, including a wide-field view, improved resolution with high magnification, and visual access to hidden corridors of the middle ear. Although binocular microscopic-assisted surgical techniques remain the gold standard for most otologists, EES is slowly emerging as a viable alternative for performing otologic surgery at several centers in the United States and abroad. In this review, we evaluate the current body of literature regarding EES outcomes, summarize our EES outcomes at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, and compare these results with data for microscopic-assisted otologic surgery.

  18. Uncertainties of satellite-derived surface skin temperatures in the polar oceans: MODIS, AIRS/AMSU, and AIRS only

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, H.-J.; Yoo, J.-M.; Jeong, M.-J.; Won, Y.-I.

    2015-05-01

    Uncertainties in the satellite-derived Surface Skin Temperature (SST) data in the polar oceans during two periods (16-24 April and 15-23 September) of 2003-2014 were investigated and the three datasets were intercompared as follows: MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Ice Surface Temperature (MODIS IST), the SST of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AIRS/AMSU), and AIRS only. AIRS only algorithm was developed in preparation for the degradation of the AMSU-A. MODIS IST was systematically up to 1.65 K warmer at the sea ice boundary and up to 2.04 K colder in the polar sea ice regions of both the Arctic and Antarctic than that of the AIRS/AMSU. This difference in the results could have been caused by the surface classification method. The spatial correlation coefficient of the AIRS only to the AIRS/AMSU (0.992-0.999) method was greater than that of the MODIS IST to the AIRS/AMSU (0.968-0.994). The SST of the AIRS only compared to that of the AIRS/AMSU had a bias of 0.168 K with a RMSE of 0.590 K over the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and a bias of -0.109 K with a RMSE of 0.852 K over the Southern Hemisphere high latitudes. There was a systematic disagreement between the AIRS retrievals at the boundary of the sea ice, because the AIRS only algorithm utilized a~less accurate GCM forecast over the seasonally-varying frozen oceans than the microwave data. The three datasets (MODIS, AIRS/AMSU and AIRS only) showed significant warming rates (2.3 ± 1.7 ~2.8 ± 1.9 K decade-1) in the northern high latitude regions (70-80° N) as expected from the ice-albedo feedback. The systematic temperature disagreement associated with surface type classification had an impact on the resulting temperature trends.

  19. Uncertainties of satellite-derived surface skin temperatures in the polar oceans: MODIS, AIRS/AMSU, and AIRS only

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, H.-J.; Yoo, J.-M.; Jeong, M.-J.; Won, Y.-I.

    2015-10-01

    Uncertainties in the satellite-derived surface skin temperature (SST) data in the polar oceans during two periods (16-24 April and 15-23 September) 2003-2014 were investigated and the three data sets were intercompared as follows: MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Ice Surface Temperature (MODIS IST), the SST of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AIRS/AMSU), and AIRS only. The AIRS only algorithm was developed in preparation for the degradation of the AMSU-A. MODIS IST was systematically warmer up to 1.65 K at the sea ice boundary and colder down to -2.04 K in the polar sea ice regions of both the Arctic and Antarctic than that of the AIRS/AMSU. This difference in the results could have been caused by the surface classification method. The spatial correlation coefficient of the AIRS only to the AIRS/AMSU (0.992-0.999) method was greater than that of the MODIS IST to the AIRS/AMSU (0.968-0.994). The SST of the AIRS only compared to that of the AIRS/AMSU had a bias of 0.168 K with a RMSE of 0.590 K over the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and a bias of -0.109 K with a RMSE of 0.852 K over the Southern Hemisphere high latitudes. There was a systematic disagreement between the AIRS retrievals at the boundary of the sea ice, because the AIRS only algorithm utilized a less accurate GCM forecast over the seasonally varying frozen oceans than the microwave data. The three data sets (MODIS, AIRS/AMSU and AIRS only) showed significant warming rates (2.3 ± 1.7 ~ 2.8 ± 1.9 K decade-1) in the northern high regions (70-80° N) as expected from the ice-albedo feedback. The systematic temperature disagreement associated with surface type classification had an impact on the resulting temperature trends.

  20. Ear reconstruction with porous polyethylene implants.

    PubMed

    Berghaus, Alexander; Stelter, Klaus; Naumann, Andreas; Hempel, John Martin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a surgical technique using porous polyethylene as the framework material for ear reconstruction. In comparison to the use of rib cartilage, porous polyethylene - first described by Berghaus in 1982 - provides better definition and projection as well as congruency with the opposite side. Hospitalization time is significantly shorter. There are less surgical interventions than with traditional microtia operations that use rib cartilage, and the patient is spared the additional procedure needed to remove the rib cartilage, with all the associated complications as well as the resulting thorax scar. Also, reconstruction can take place at an earlier age, which is advantageous for those concerned. Using porous polyethylene as the frame material, a temporoparietal flap and full-thickness skin cover, we have been able to achieve very convincing results over recent years.

  1. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... up of invisible waves of energy, causes these vibrations. Every time you hear a sound, the various ... When the eardrum vibrates, the ossicles amplify these vibrations and carry them to the inner ear. The ...

  2. Deformity of Ears and Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, W. C.

    1965-01-01

    Ten children with gross deformity of the external ear were observed. In six the facial bones were underdeveloped on the same side as the deformed ear. In all six there was a congenital abnormality of the kidney or upper urinary tract, usually on the same side as the deformed ear. In addition there were usually other associated congenital defects in each case. In the remaining four children the facial bones appeared normal, and pyelography showed no abnormality of the urinary tract. In these four children there were no other associated defects. These observations emphasize the importance of investigating the urinary tract in children with gross deformity of the external ear, especially where there is an associated underdevelopment of the facial bones. PMID:14317453

  3. Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... part of the ear responsible for receiving/sending sounds and controlling balance. The degree of damage depends ... have trouble hearing certain things, from high-pitched sounds to talking if there's background noise. Or they ...

  4. "Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)

    MedlinePlus

    ... previously covered by swimsuit > Pus-filled blisters around hair follicles Swimmer’s Ear (Otitis externa) > Pain when infected ear ... ear. You can find this product at your drug store. > Avoid putting objects in the ear (for ... levels drop, so testing your pool or hot tub’s disinfectant and pH ...

  5. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  6. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  7. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  8. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  9. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  10. Approaches to Inflight Ear Oximetry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    of arterial oxygen saturation. For centri- fuge experiments the floe,! ett-Packard ear oximeter, Model 47201A, has been successfully used both at...These difficulties are perhaps even more significant with respect to inflight experimental use. The difficulties are: 1. The bloodless ear is not truly...available (9), and a number of papers on both the clini- cal use (10-17) and the experimental use (1, 2, 18) of this equipment have been published since its

  11. Determination of body heat storage: how to select the weighting of rectal and skin temperatures for clothed subjects.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Y; McLellan, T M; Shephard, R J

    1996-01-01

    Two methods of estimating body heat storage were compared under differing conditions of clothing and acclimation to heat. Sixteen male subjects underwent 6 consecutive days or two 6-day periods, separated by a 1-day rest period of heat acclimation, exercising 60 min.day-1 at 45%-55% of maximal aerobic power in a hot, dry environment (dry bulb temperature 40 degrees C; relative humidity 30%; and wind speed 0.3 m.s-1). Before and after acclimation, the subjects entered the same environment, wearing either normal light combat clothing or clothing protective against nuclear, biological, and chemical agents; they walked on a treadmill at 1.34 m.s-1, 0% slope continuously (n = 11 for normal clothing) or as repeated 15-min bouts of exercise followed by 15-min sitting rest (n = 5 for normal clothing and n = 16 for protective clothing). Average exposure times were 147 min (preacclimation) and 150 min (postacclimation) for continuous exercise and 150 min (both pre- and postacclimation) for intermittent exercise while wearing normal clothing, and 103 min (preacclimation) and 116 min (postacclimation) for intermittent exercise while wearing protective clothing. Heat storage was determined calorimetrically (from heat gains and heat losses) and thermometrically [using various weightings of rectal temperature (Tre) and mean skin temperature (Tsk)]. There were only minor (<5%) differences in estimated heat storage, whether calculations used a single specific heat (3.47 kJ.kg-1.degree C-1) or a value computed according to the subject's body composition. When wearing normal clothing, a formula with an invariant relative weighting for Tre to Tsk of 4:1 provided the best thermometric estimate of heat storage. When wearing protective clothing, the invariant relative weighting of 4:1 underestimated heat storage by 2%-12%; underestimation was attenuated by using respective relative weightings for a thermoneutral and hot environment of 2:1 and 2:1 or 4:1 and 9:1 before acclimation and 4

  12. Minimally Invasive Ear Reshaping With a 1450-nm Diode Laser Using Cryogen Spray Cooling in New Zealand White Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Paul K.; Chlebicki, Cara; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Otoplasty is the current standard of care for treating prominent ears, a psychologically and sometimes functionally disabling disorder. The technically demanding procedure carries many risks such as poor aesthetic outcome, need for revision surgery, and need for general anesthesia. This study investigates the use of laser irradiation combined with cryogen skin cooling and stenting to reshape cartilage in the ears of New Zealand white rabbits. Methods In this prospective, randomized, internally controlled animal study, the right ears of 9 rabbits were mechanically deformed with a jig and then irradiated with a 1450-nm diode laser combined with cryogen skin cooling (14 J/pulse with cryogen spray for 33 milliseconds per cycle and a 6-mm spot size). The left ear served as the control. The ears were splinted for 1, 3, or 4 weeks. The rabbits were then given a lethal dose of intravenous pentobarbital, and the splints were removed and ears examined and photographed. Light and confocal microscopy were performed on the specimens. Results Shape change was observed in all 9 treated rabbit ears, while none of the control ears (stenting alone) showed significant change. Qualitatively, reshaped ears were stiffer after 4 weeks of splinting than after 1 or 3 weeks. None of the rabbits showed evidence of skin injury nor did they show signs of postprocedural pain. Findings from histologic analysis in the treated areas showed evidence of an expanded chondrocyte population in the region of laser irradiation, along with some perichondrial thickening and some fibrosis of the deep dermis. Confocal microscopy revealed minimal cellular death at 1 week and none thereafter. Conclusions Cartilage reshaping using laser energy can be performed safely transcutaneously using cryogen spray cooling in rabbits. This animal model has similarity to human ears with regard to skin and cartilage thickness and is a stepping stone toward developing minimally invasive laser auricle reshaping in

  13. Modulation by glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives of TPA-induced mouse ear oedema.

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, H.; Mori, T.; Shibata, S.; Koshihara, Y.

    1989-01-01

    1. The anti-inflammatory effects of glycyrrhetinic acid and its derivatives on TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced mouse ear oedema were studied. The mechanisms of TPA-induced ear oedema were first investigated with respect to the chemical mediators. 2. The formation of ear oedema reached a maximum 5 h after TPA application (2 micrograms per ear) and the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production of mouse ear increased with the oedema formation. 3. TPA-induced ear oedema was prevented by actinomycin D and cycloheximide (0.1 mg per ear, respectively) when applied during 60 min after TPA treatment. 4. Of glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives examined, dihemiphthalate derivatives (IIe, IIe', IIIa, IIIa', IVa, IVa') most strongly inhibited ear oedema on both topical (ID50, 1.6 mg per ear for IIe, 2.0 mg per ear for IIIa and 1.6 mg per ear for IVa) and oral (ID50, 88 mg kg-1 for IIe', 130 mg kg-1 for IIIa' and 92 mg kg-1 for IVa') administration. 5. Glycyrrhetinic acid (Ia) and its derivatives applied 30 min before TPA treatment were much more effective in inhibiting oedema than when applied 30 min after TPA. A dihemiphthalate of triterpenoid compound IVa completely inhibited oedema, even when applied 3 h before TPA treatment. 6. Glycyrrhetinic acid (Ia) and deoxoglycyrrhetol (IIa), the parent compounds, produced little inhibition by oral administration at less than 200 mg kg-1. 7. These results suggest that the dihemiphthalate derivatives of triterpenes derived from glycyrrhetinic acid by chemical modification are useful for the treatment of skin inflammation by both topical and oral application. PMID:2924072

  14. Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature

    MedlinePlus

    ... instructions before putting it back in its case. Electronic ear thermometers measure the tympanic temperature (the amount ... a digital thermometer to take a rectal temperature. Electronic ear thermometers aren't recommended for infants younger ...

  15. Comparison of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and Gaussian processes for machine learning (GPML) algorithms for the prediction of skin temperature in lower limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Neha; Glesk, Ivan; Buis, Arjan

    2016-10-01

    Monitoring of the interface temperature at skin level in lower-limb prosthesis is notoriously complicated. This is due to the flexible nature of the interface liners used impeding the required consistent positioning of the temperature sensors during donning and doffing. Predicting the in-socket residual limb temperature by monitoring the temperature between socket and liner rather than skin and liner could be an important step in alleviating complaints on increased temperature and perspiration in prosthetic sockets. In this work, we propose to implement an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference strategy (ANFIS) to predict the in-socket residual limb temperature. ANFIS belongs to the family of fused neuro fuzzy system in which the fuzzy system is incorporated in a framework which is adaptive in nature. The proposed method is compared to our earlier work using Gaussian processes for machine learning. By comparing the predicted and actual data, results indicate that both the modeling techniques have comparable performance metrics and can be efficiently used for non-invasive temperature monitoring.

  16. A Dynamic Approach to Addressing Observation-Minus-Forecast Mean Differences in a Land Surface Skin Temperature Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, Clara; Reichle, Rolf; De Lannoy, Gabrielle; Scarino, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    In land data assimilation, bias in the observation-minus-forecast (O-F) residuals is typically removed from the observations prior to assimilation by rescaling the observations to have the same long-term mean (and higher-order moments) as the corresponding model forecasts. Such observation rescaling approaches require a long record of observed and forecast estimates, and an assumption that the O-F mean differences are stationary. A two-stage observation bias and state estimation filter is presented, as an alternative to observation rescaling that does not require a long data record or assume stationary O-F mean differences. The two-stage filter removes dynamic (nonstationary) estimates of the seasonal scale O-F mean difference from the assimilated observations, allowing the assimilation to correct the model for synoptic-scale errors without adverse effects from observation biases. The two-stage filter is demonstrated by assimilating geostationary skin temperature (Tsk) observations into the Catchment land surface model. Global maps of the O-F mean differences are presented, and the two-stage filter is evaluated for one year over the Americas. The two-stage filter effectively removed the Tsk O-F mean differences, for example the GOES-West O-F mean difference at 21:00 UTC was reduced from 5.1 K for a bias-blind assimilation to 0.3 K. Compared to independent in situ and remotely sensed Tsk observations, the two-stage assimilation reduced the unbiased Root Mean Square Difference (ubRMSD) of the modeled Tsk by 10 of the open-loop values.

  17. The use of torpor in reproductive female Hemprich's long-eared bats (Otonycteris hemprichii).

    PubMed

    Daniel, Shai; Korine, Carmi; Pinshow, Berry

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the patterns of torpor use and body temperature (T(b)) in reproductive Hemprich's long-eared bats (Otonycteris hemprichii; body mass approximately 20 g) in the central Negev Desert highlands. We hypothesized that T(b) regulation in female O. hemprichii during reproduction is shaped by a trade-off between the energy and temperature requirements of embryo and pup growth and the mother's own need to use torpor and passive rewarming to save energy and water. We predicted that patterns of torpor use change during pregnancy but change little if at all during nursing. We used radio telemetry to track, find the roosts of, and measure the skin temperatures of eight pregnant and 15 nursing bats during the years 2002-2004; we measured roost temperature (T(r)) using temperature data loggers. Before field data collection, we simultaneously measured skin temperature and T(b) in three female bats in the laboratory and derived field body temperatures (T(bf)) from these data. Female bats often used both deep and shallow daily torpor during the first two trimesters of pregnancy, with T(bf) frequently dropping as low as 15 degrees C. Pregnant females used only shallow torpor during the last trimester of pregnancy, perhaps to permit faster growth of the embryo. During nursing, the bats used only shallow torpor, with T(bf) always >29 degrees C, possibly to facilitate milk production. T(bf) of pregnant and nursing bats varied with daily oscillations in T(r). Passive rewarming was not evident before the animals exited their roosts to forage.

  18. Differential effects of dopamine and opioid receptor blockade on motivated Coca-Cola drinking behavior and associated changes in brain, skin and muscle temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kiyatkin, E A

    2010-05-05

    Although pharmacological blockade of both dopamine (DA) and opiate receptors has an inhibiting effect on appetitive motivated behaviors, it is still unclear which physiological mechanisms affected by these treatments underlie the behavioral deficit. To clarify this issue, we examined how pharmacological blockade of either DA (SCH23390+eticlopride at 0.2 mg/kg each) or opioid receptors (naloxone 1 mg/kg) affects motor activity and temperature fluctuations in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), temporal muscle, and facial skin associated with motivated Coca-Cola drinking behavior in rats. In drug-free conditions, presentation of a cup containing 5 ml of Coca-Cola induced locomotor activation and rapid NAcc temperature increases, which both transiently decreased during drinking, and phasically increased again after the cup was emptied. Muscle temperatures followed this pattern, but increases were weaker and more delayed than those in the NAcc. Skin temperature rapidly dropped after cup presentation, remained at low levels during consumption, and slowly restored during post-consumption behavioral activation. By itself, DA receptor blockade induced robust decrease in spontaneous locomotion, moderate increases in brain and muscle temperatures, and a relative increase in skin temperatures, suggesting metabolic activation coupled with adynamia. Following this treatment (approximately 180 min), motor activation to cup presentation and Coca-Cola consumption were absent, but rats showed NAcc and muscle temperature increases following cup presentation comparable to control. Therefore, DA receptor blockade does not affect significantly central and peripheral autonomic responses to appetitive stimuli, but eliminates their behavior-activating effects, thus disrupting appetitive behavior and blocking consumption. Naloxone alone slightly decreased brain and muscle temperatures and increased skin temperatures, pointing at the enhanced heat loss and possible minor inhibition of basal

  19. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Skin Cancer What is Skin Cancer? Skin cancer is the most common type ... of approximately 9,480 Americans in 2013. Can Skin Cancer Be Treated? Most basal cell and squamous ...

  20. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  1. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  2. 3D finite element model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing middle ear functions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuelin; Gan, Rong Z

    2016-10-01

    Chinchilla is a commonly used animal model for research of sound transmission through the ear. Experimental measurements of the middle ear transfer function in chinchillas have shown that the middle ear cavity greatly affects the tympanic membrane (TM) and stapes footplate (FP) displacements. However, there is no finite element (FE) model of the chinchilla ear available in the literature to characterize the middle ear functions with the anatomical features of the chinchilla ear. This paper reports a recently completed 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear based on X-ray micro-computed tomography images of a chinchilla bulla. The model consisted of the ear canal, TM, middle ear ossicles and suspensory ligaments, and the middle ear cavity. Two boundary conditions of the middle ear cavity wall were simulated in the model as the rigid structure and the partially flexible surface, and the acoustic-mechanical coupled analysis was conducted with these two conditions to characterize the middle ear function. The model results were compared with experimental measurements reported in the literature including the TM and FP displacements and the middle ear input admittance in chinchilla ear. An application of this model was presented to identify the acoustic role of the middle ear septa-a unique feature of chinchilla middle ear cavity. This study provides the first 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing the middle ear functions through the acoustic-mechanical coupled FE analysis.

  3. Efficacy of keishibukuryogan, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, in treating cold sensation and numbness after stroke: clinical improvement and skin temperature normalization in 22 stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Keishi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Kamezaki, Takao; Matsumura, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Cold sensation and numbness have been reported as post-stroke sensory sequelae attributable to distal axonopathy, which is caused by chronic ischemia of diseased limbs resulting from dysfunction of vasomotor regulatory systems. Keishibukuryogan is a traditional herbal medicine used to treat symptoms of peripheral ischemia such as cold extremities. This study investigated clinical improvement and skin temperature in peripheral ischemia patients to determine the efficacy of keishibukuryogan in alleviating post-stroke cold sensation and numbness. Twenty-two stroke patients with cold sensation and/or numbness were enrolled in this study. Subjective cold sensation and numbness, evaluated using the visual analogue scale, were found in 21 and 31 limbs, respectively. The skin temperature of diseased and healthy limbs was recorded. We observed all patients for 4 weeks and 17 patients for 8 weeks after administration of keishibukuryogan. The skin temperature of diseased limbs was significantly higher than baseline at 4 weeks and 8 weeks, whereas that of healthy limbs did not change significantly. Cold sensation and numbness were significantly improved at 4 weeks and 8 weeks compared to baseline. Keishibukuryogan administration resulted in warming of diseased limbs and improved cold sensation and numbness, probably by increasing peripheral blood flow.

  4. Development of the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Tanya T

    2015-06-01

    The vertebrate inner ear is a sensory organ of exquisite design and sensitivity. It responds to sound, gravity and movement, serving both auditory (hearing) and vestibular (balance) functions. Almost all cell types of the inner ear, including sensory hair cells, sensory neurons, secretory cells and supporting cells, derive from the otic placode, one of the several ectodermal thickenings that arise around the edge of the anterior neural plate in the early embryo. The developmental patterning mechanisms that underlie formation of the inner ear from the otic placode are varied and complex, involving the reiterative use of familiar signalling pathways, together with roles for transcription factors, transmembrane proteins, and extracellular matrix components. In this review, I have selected highlights that illustrate just a few of the many recent discoveries relating to the development of this fascinating organ system.

  5. Tuning in the bullfrog ear.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, E R

    1988-01-01

    When electrical resonances were observed in acoustic sensory cells of lower vertebrates, the hearing research community was presented with the exciting possibility that tuning in the ears of those animals might be explained directly in terms of familiar molecular devices. It is reported here that in the frog sacculus, where electrical resonances have been observed in isolated hair cells, the effects of those resonances are completely obscured in the tuning properties of the sacculus in the intact ear. This observation has important implications not only for students of the ear, but for reductionist biologists in general. All of the dynamic properties of a system of connected, bidirectional processes are consequences of all of those processes at once; in such a system, the properties of an experimentally isolated subsystem may be totally obscured in the operation of the system as a whole. PMID:3258166

  6. Ear wound regeneration in the African spiny mouse Acomys cahirinus

    PubMed Central

    Matias Santos, Dino; Rita, Ana Martins; Casanellas, Ignasi; Brito Ova, Adélia; Araújo, Inês Maria; Power, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract While regeneration occurs in a number of taxonomic groups across the Metazoa, there are very few reports of regeneration in mammals, which generally respond to wounding with fibrotic scarring rather than regeneration. A recent report described skin shedding, skin regeneration and extensive ear punch closure in two rodent species, Acomys kempi and Acomys percivali. We examined these striking results by testing the capacity for regeneration of a third species, Acomys cahirinus, and found a remarkable capacity to repair full thickness circular punches in the ear pinna. Four‐millimeter‐diameter wounds closed completely in 2 months in 100% of ear punches tested. Histology showed extensive formation of elastic cartilage, adipose tissue, dermis, epidermis and abundant hair follicles in the repaired region. Furthermore, we demonstrated abundant angiogenesis and unequivocal presence of both muscle and nerve fibers in the reconstituted region; in contrast, similar wounds in C57BL/6 mice simply healed the borders of the cut by fibrotic scarring. Our results confirm the regenerative capabilities of Acomys, and suggest this model merits further attention. PMID:27499879

  7. Ear wound regeneration in the African spiny mouse Acomys cahirinus.

    PubMed

    Matias Santos, Dino; Rita, Ana Martins; Casanellas, Ignasi; Brito Ova, Adélia; Araújo, Inês Maria; Power, Deborah; Tiscornia, Gustavo

    2016-02-01

    While regeneration occurs in a number of taxonomic groups across the Metazoa, there are very few reports of regeneration in mammals, which generally respond to wounding with fibrotic scarring rather than regeneration. A recent report described skin shedding, skin regeneration and extensive ear punch closure in two rodent species, Acomys kempi and Acomys percivali. We examined these striking results by testing the capacity for regeneration of a third species, Acomys cahirinus, and found a remarkable capacity to repair full thickness circular punches in the ear pinna. Four-millimeter-diameter wounds closed completely in 2 months in 100% of ear punches tested. Histology showed extensive formation of elastic cartilage, adipose tissue, dermis, epidermis and abundant hair follicles in the repaired region. Furthermore, we demonstrated abundant angiogenesis and unequivocal presence of both muscle and nerve fibers in the reconstituted region; in contrast, similar wounds in C57BL/6 mice simply healed the borders of the cut by fibrotic scarring. Our results confirm the regenerative capabilities of Acomys, and suggest this model merits further attention.

  8. Cytotoxicity due to corrosion of ear piercing studs.

    PubMed

    Rogero, S O; Higa, O Z; Saiki, M; Correa, O V; Costa, I

    2000-12-01

    It is well known that allergic and/or inflammatory reactions can be elicited from the use of gold-coated studs, particularly the type used for piercing ears, since they are left in contact with body fluids until the puncture heals. Inasmuch as gold is known as a non-toxic element, other elements of the substrate material may be responsible for some allergies. Therefore, characteristics of the coating, such as defects that expose the substrate to the human skin or body fluids, play an important role in the development of skin sensitization. In this study, the cytotoxicity of commercial studs used for ear piercing and laboratory-made studs was determined in a culture of mammalian cells. The corrosion performance of the studs was investigated by means of weight loss measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The elements that leached out into the medium were also analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Further, the surfaces of the studs were examined by scanning electron microscopy and analysed by energy dispersive spectroscopy to identify defects and reaction products on the surface, both before and after their exposure to the culture medium. The stud which showed lower corrosion performance resulted in higher cytotoxicity. Ti showed no cytotoxicity and high corrosion resistance, proving to be a potential material for the manufacture of ear piercing studs.

  9. Spatially defined modulation of skin temperature and hand ownership of both hands in patients with unilateral complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moseley, G Lorimer; Gallace, Alberto; Iannetti, Gian Domenico

    2012-12-01

    Numerous clinical conditions, including complex regional pain syndrome, are characterized by autonomic dysfunctions (e.g. altered thermoregulation, sometimes confined to a single limb), and disrupted cortical representation of the body and the surrounding space. The presence, in patients with complex regional pain syndrome, of a disruption in spatial perception, bodily ownership and thermoregulation led us to hypothesize that impaired spatial perception might result in a spatial-dependent modulation of thermoregulation and bodily ownership over the affected limb. In five experiments involving a total of 23 patients with complex regional pain syndrome of one arm and 10 healthy control subjects, we measured skin temperature of the hand with infrared thermal imaging, before and after experimental periods of either 9 or 10 min each, during which the hand was held on one or the other side of the body midline. Tactile processing was assessed by temporal order judgements of pairs of vibrotactile stimuli, delivered one to each hand. Pain and sense of ownership over the hand were assessed by self-report scales. Across experiments, when kept on its usual side of the body midline, the affected hand was 0.5 ± 0.3°C cooler than the healthy hand (P < 0.02 for all, a common finding in cold-type complex regional pain syndrome), and tactile stimuli delivered to the healthy hand were prioritized over those delivered to the affected hand. Simply crossing both hands over the midline resulted in (i) warming of the affected hand (the affected hand became 0.4 ± 0.3°C warmer than when it was in the uncrossed position; P = 0.01); (ii) cooling of the healthy hand (by 0.3 ± 0.3°C; P = 0.02); and (iii) reversal of the prioritization of tactile processing. When only the affected hand was crossed over the midline, it became warmer (by 0.5 ± 0.3°C; P = 0.01). When only the healthy hand was crossed over the midline, it became cooler (by 0.3 ± 0.3°C; P = 0.01). The temperature change of

  10. Phasic and tonic fluctuations in brain, muscle, and skin temperatures during motivated drinking behavior in rats: physiological correlates of motivation and reward.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Michael S; Kiyatkin, Eugene A

    2010-01-15

    Since brain metabolism is accompanied by heat production, measurement of brain temperature offers a method for assessing global alterations in metabolic neural activity. This approach, high-resolution (5-s bin) temperature recording from the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), temporal muscle, and facial skin, was used to study motivated drinking behavior in rats. Experienced animals were presented with a cup containing 5-ml of Coca-Cola(R) (Coke) beverage that resulted, within certain latencies, in initiation of a continuous chain of licking until all liquid was fully consumed. While cup presentation induced rapid, gradual NAcc temperature increase peaking at the start of drinking, temperatures slowly decreased during Coke consumption, but phasically increased again in the post-consumption period when rats were hyperactive, showing multiple interactions with an empty cup. Muscle temperatures followed a similar pattern, but the changes were weaker and delayed compared to those in the brain. Skin temperature rapidly dropped after cup presentation, steadily maintained at low levels during consumption, and slowly restored during the post-consumption period. Substitution of the expected Coke with either sugar-free Diet Coke(R) or water resulted in numerous drinking attempts but ultimately no consumption. During these tests, locomotor activation was much greater and more prolonged, brain and muscle temperatures increased monophasically, and their elevation was significantly greater than that with regular Coke tests. Food deprivation decreased drinking latencies, did not change the pattern of temperature fluctuations during Coke consumption, but temperature elevations were greater than in controls. Our data suggest sustained neural activation triggered by appetitive stimuli and associated with activational (seeking) aspects of appetitive motivated behavior. This seeking-related activation is rapidly ceased following consumption, suggesting this change as a neural correlate of

  11. Consumption of oxygen and blood flow during exercise and recovery phase evaluated by near-infrared spectroscopy and its relationship to skin forehead, quadriceps, tympanic, and rectal temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdaguer-Codina, Joan; Pujol, P.; Drobnic, F.; Galilea, P.; Riera, J.; Pons, V.; Banquells, M.; Ruiz, O.

    1995-12-01

    The availability of oxygen in the human vastus medialis muscle and the tympanic, skin forehead, quadriceps, and rectal temperatures has been investigated during exercise test and post-exercise with non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy, infrared thermometer, and an array of four thermistors, respectively. During exercise time rectal temperature was not recorded, before exercise basal values were obtained, and after exercise all the data for two hours were recorded. The signals from near-infrared spectroscopy have been studied by analogy to forced vibration and viscously damped free vibration. Other models have been used to evaluate the temperatures. The time necessary for the reoxygenation signal to cross the baseline during the post exercise period was from 30 min to over 100 min. The peak of pH values was 5 min post-exercise and to arrive at basal levels needed 25 min to more than 40 min. The peak of rectal temperature starts around 20 - 30 min post-exercise remaining 25 - 40 min at the same value, starting to slip down slowly at variable intervals of several minutes requiring over two hours to arrive at basal levels. The data obtained by near-infrared spectroscopy and skin quadriceps, rectal temperatures confirm that the oxygen consumption remains after exercise in the muscle studied.

  12. Leprosy with Atypical Skin Lesions Masquerading as Relapsing Polychondritis

    PubMed Central

    Munganda, Hariharan; Bangia, Amit; Rani, Uma; Budhiraja, Rajesh; Brajpuriya, Swapnil

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy can present with a variety of clinical manifestations depending on the immune status of the individual. After dermatological and neurological involvement, rheumatic features specially various forms of arthritis are the third most common manifestation of the disease. We describe a unique case of a 22-year-old patient presenting with external ear involvement mimicking relapsing polychondritis along with inflammatory joint symptoms and skin lesions. Ear involvement in relapsing polychondritis characteristically is painful and spares the noncartilaginous ear lobules, in contrast to painless ear involvement in leprosy affecting the lobules as well. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis, although the ear and skin lesions were not classical of leprosy. Such a presentation of leprosy closely mimicking relapsing polychondritis has not been described previously. Tissue diagnosis should always be attempted whenever possible in patients presenting with autoimmune features, so that inappropriate therapy with immunosuppressants is avoided. PMID:28116186

  13. Anti-confocal assessment of middle ear inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Jung, David S.; Crowe, John A.; Birchall, John P.; Somekh, Michael G.; See, Chung W.

    2016-01-01

    To improve the diagnostic prediction of recurrence of otitis media with effusion after surgery, an anti-confocal system combined with spectroscopic measurements is proposed to reject unwanted signals from the eardrum and assess the blood content. The anti-confocal system was experimentally evaluated on both optical middle ear phantom and human skin. Results showed effective rejection of signals from the eardrum using a central stop replacing the confocal pinhole, while still detecting signals from the middle ear mucosa. The system is sensitive to changes in blood content, but scattering and absorption characteristics of the eardrum can distort the measurement. Confocal detection of eardrum properties was shown to be a promising approach to correct measurements. PMID:28101414

  14. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... most cases, a health care provider finds pinna abnormalities during the first well-baby exam. This exam ...

  15. Physiological functioning of the ear and masking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The physiological functions of the ear and the role masking plays in speech communication are examined. Topics under investigation include sound analysis of the ear, the aural reflex, and various types of noise masking.

  16. Ear dominance and telephone sales.

    PubMed

    Furnham, A; Richardson, S; Miller, T

    1997-10-01

    In a field study, three equally sized sales teams used on of three head-sets--left, right, both ears--for a day's selling of insurance by telephone. This had no effect on sales. In a retrospective study of records, daily sales performance including the percentage conversion rate for sales divided by the number of calls and the number and duration of calls was related to preference for type of head-set. Sales were markedly influenced by the choice of head-set. People who chose to wear the left earpiece significantly out sold the others wearing right and stereohead-sets. Neither the number of incoming calls nor the time spent on the telephone were influenced by the choice of head-set. When sales are analysed in terms of individual differences in personal preference for type of head-set, those who chose the left ear had an advantage. Forced use of the left, versus right ear or both ears for one day had no effect.

  17. Reconstruction of middle ear malformations

    PubMed Central

    Schwager, Konrad

    2008-01-01

    Malformations of the middle ear are classified as minor and major malformations. Minor malformations appear with regular external auditory canal, tympanic membrane and aerated middle ear space. The conducting hearing loss is due to fixation or interruption of the ossicular chain. The treatment is surgical, following the rules of ossiculoplasty and stapes surgery. In major malformations (congenital aural atresia) there is no external auditory canal and a deformed or missing pinna. The mastoid and the middle ear space may be underdevelopped, the ossicular chain is dysplastic. Surgical therapy is possible in patients with good aeration of the temporal bone, existing windows, a near normal positioned facial nerve and a mobile ossicular chain. Plastic and reconstructive surgery of the pinna should proceed the reconstruction of the external auditory canal and middle ear. In cases of good prognosis unilateral aural atresia can be approached already in childhood. In patients with high risk of surgical failure, bone anchored hearing aids are the treatment of choice. Recent reports of implantable hearing devices may be discussed as an alternative treatment for selected patients. PMID:22073077

  18. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... en español Infecciones del oído medio After the common cold , ear infections are the most frequently diagnosed childhood ... winter season, when lots of people get upper respiratory tract infections or colds. Signs and Symptoms The signs and ...

  19. Mechanics of the frog ear

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Pim; Mason, Matthew J.; Schoffelen, Richard L. M.; Narins, Peter M.; Meenderink, Sebastiaan W. F.

    2010-01-01

    The frog inner ear contains three regions that are sensitive to airborne sound and which are functionally distinct. (1) The responses of nerve fibres innervating the low-frequency, rostral part of the amphibian papilla (AP) are complex. Electrical tuning of hair cells presumably contributes to the frequency selectivity of these responses. (2) The caudal part of the AP covers the mid-frequency portion of the frog's auditory range. It shares the ability to generate both evoked and spontaneous otoacoustic emissions with the mammalian cochlea and other vertebrate ears. (3) The basilar papilla functions mainly as a single auditory filter. Its simple anatomy and function provide a model system for testing hypotheses concerning emission generation. Group delays of stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) from the basilar papilla are accounted for by assuming that they result from forward and reverse transmission through the middle ear, a mechanical delay due to tectorial membrane filtering and a rapid forward and reverse propagation through the inner ear fluids, with negligible delay. PMID:20149854

  20. Adenomatous tumors of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Stanley; Koss, Shira

    2015-04-01

    Adenomatous tumors are an uncommon cause of a middle ear mass. Clinical findings may be nonspecific, leading to difficulties in differentiation from other middle ear tumors. Controversy also exists whether to classify middle ear adenoma and carcinoid as separate neoplasms, or alternatively within a spectrum of the same pathologic entity. Most adenomatous middle ear tumors are indolent in behavior, with a benign histologic appearance and slowly progressive growth. The mainstay of treatment is complete surgical resection, which affords the greatest likelihood of cure.

  1. Ear recognition based on Gabor features and KFDA.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Mu, Zhichun

    2014-01-01

    We propose an ear recognition system based on 2D ear images which includes three stages: ear enrollment, feature extraction, and ear recognition. Ear enrollment includes ear detection and ear normalization. The ear detection approach based on improved Adaboost algorithm detects the ear part under complex background using two steps: offline cascaded classifier training and online ear detection. Then Active Shape Model is applied to segment the ear part and normalize all the ear images to the same size. For its eminent characteristics in spatial local feature extraction and orientation selection, Gabor filter based ear feature extraction is presented in this paper. Kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis (KFDA) is then applied for dimension reduction of the high-dimensional Gabor features. Finally distance based classifier is applied for ear recognition. Experimental results of ear recognition on two datasets (USTB and UND datasets) and the performance of the ear authentication system show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  2. The mouse hairy ears mutation exhibits an extended growth (anagen) phase in hair follicles and altered Hoxc gene expression in the ears

    PubMed Central

    Mentzer, Sarah E.; Sundberg, John P.; Awgulewitsch, Alexander; Chao, Hanna HJ.; Carpenter, Donald A.; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Rinchik, Eugene M.; You, Yun

    2010-01-01

    The mouse In(15)2Rl (hairy ears, Eh) mutation is a paracentric inversion of the distal half of Chromosome 15 (Chr 15). Heterozygous Eh/+ mice display mis-shaped and hairy ears that have more and longer hair than the ears of their wild-type littermates. We mapped, cloned, and sequenced both inversion breakpoints. No protein-coding transcript was disrupted by either breakpoint. The proximal breakpoint is located between syntrophin basic 1 (Sntb1) and hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2), and the distal breakpoint maps between homeobox C4 (Hoxc4) and single-strand selective monofunctional uracil DNA glycosylase (Smug1), near the middle and the telomere ends of Chr 15, respectively. The inversion spans ~47 Megabases (Mb). Our genetic analysis suggests that the hairy-ear phenotype is caused by the proximal breakpoint of the inversion-bearing Chr 15. Quantitative RNA analysis by RT-PCR for the genes flanking the breakpoint indicated no changes in expression levels except for some homeobox C (Hoxc) genes whose expression was elevated in developing and mature skin of the ears but not of other body regions. The increased hair length on the ears of Eh/+ mice was due to an extension of the anagen stage in the hair cycle, as determined by histological analysis. Our data indicate that the Eh phenotype arises from mis-expression of Hoxc genes. PMID:19037915

  3. Handedness and Preferred Ear for Telephoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Stephen M.

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship between handedness and preferred ear for telephoning in 140 college students. Increased degree of sinistrality was associated with increased tendency to use left ear for telephoning. Found tendency to pick up telephone receiver with preferred hand and hold earpiece to ipsilateral ear. Results may relate to reports of reduced…

  4. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth > For Kids > Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? A A A en español ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  5. Immunologic Disorders of the Inner Ear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, William C.; Hughes, Gordon B.

    1997-01-01

    Immune inner ear disease represents a series of immune system mediated problems that can present with hearing loss, dizziness, or both. The etiology, presentation, testing, and treatment of primary immune inner ear disease is discussed. A review of secondary immune inner ear disease is presented for comparison. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  6. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth > For Kids > Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Print A A A en ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  7. Interrelationships in lactating Holsteins of rectal and skin temperatures, milk yield and composition, dry matter intake, body weight, and feed efficiency in summer in Alabama.

    PubMed

    Umphrey, J E; Moss, B R; Wilcox, C J; Van Horn, H H

    2001-12-01

    Thirty-two lactating, multiparous Holstein cows were utilized in a 91-d experiment in Auburn, Alabama, during summer to determine whether rectal and skin temperatures and respiration rates are repeatable and interrelated and whether whole cottonseed or calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co., Inc., Princeton, NJ) affected milk production or its constituents. Treatments were (I) control, (II) I plus 10.4% whole cottonseed, (III) I plus 2.6% Megalac, and (IV) I plus 5.2% whole cottonseed plus 1.3% Megalac. Data included 358 to 2644 measurements analyzed as a split-plot design of experiment. Only milk protein percentage and protein-to-fat ratio were significantly affected by dietary treatment. Milk protein percentage was depressed by dietary fat additions, especially by the combination of whole cottonseed and Megalac. Within lactation repeatabilities for milk, fat, protein, and SCM yields ranged from 0.44 to 0.66; two percentages and protein to fat ratio, 0.21 to 0.32; feed efficiency, 0.18; dry matter intake (DMI) and body weight, 0.98 and 0.84; rectal and skin temperatures and respiration rate, 0.001 to 0.055. Partial and simple correlations were similar in sign and magnitude. Noteworthy were partial correlations between milk yield and DMI, 0.367; milk yield and rectal temperature, -0.135; milkyield and respiration rate, 0.102. Skin temperature was unrelated to other variables. Respiration rate was correlated with DMI, 0.270. Results should help researchers designing future experiments involving these responses to predict the number of measures needed to detect differences.

  8. Biothermomechanics of skin tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, F.; Lu, T. J.; Seffen, K. A.

    Biothermomechanics of skin is highly interdisciplinary involving bioheat transfer, burn damage, biomechanics and neurophysiology. During heating, thermally induced mechanical stress arises due to the thermal denaturation of collagen, resulting in macroscale shrinkage. Thus, the strain, stress, temperature and thermal pain/damage are highly correlated; in other words, the problem is fully coupled. The aim of this study is to develop a computational approach to examine the heat transfer process and the heat-induced mechanical response, so that the differences among the clinically applied heating modalities can be quantified. Exact solutions for temperature, thermal damage and thermal stress for a single-layer skin model were first derived for different boundary conditions. For multilayer models, numerical simulations using the finite difference method (FDM) and finite element method (FEM) were used to analyze the temperature, burn damage and thermal stress distributions in the skin tissue. The results showed that the thermomechanical behavior of skin tissue is very complex: blood perfusion has little effect on thermal damage but large influence on skin temperature distribution, which, in turn, influences significantly the resulting thermal stress field; the stratum corneum layer, although very thin, has a large effect on the thermomechanical behavior of skin, suggesting that it should be properly accounted for in the modeling of skin thermal stresses; the stress caused by non-uniform temperature distribution in the skin may also contribute to the thermal pain sensation.

  9. LDV measurement of bird ear vibrations to determine inner ear impedance and middle ear power flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muyshondt, Pieter G. G.; Pires, Felipe; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical behavior of the middle ear structures in birds and mammals is affected by the fluids in the inner ear (IE) that are present behind the oval window. In this study, the aim was to gather knowledge of the acoustic impedance of the IE in the ostrich, to be able to determine the effect on vibrations and power flow in the single-ossicle bird middle ear for future studies. To determine the IE impedance, vibrations of the ossicle were measured for both the quasi-static and acoustic stimulus frequencies. In the acoustic regime, vibrations were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer and electromagnetic stimulation of the ossicle. The impedance of the inner ear could be determined by means of a simple RLC model in series, which resulted in a stiffness reactance of KIE = 0.20.1012 Pa/m3, an inertial impedance of MIE = 0.652.106 Pa s2/m3, and a resistance of RIE = 1.57.109 Pa s/m. The measured impedance is found to be considerably smaller than what is found for the human IE.

  10. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  11. Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  12. Is an increase in skin temperature predictive of neuropathic foot ulceration in people with diabetes? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the strength of the existing research to answer the question: Is an increase in skin temperature predictive of neuropathic foot ulceration in people with diabetes? Methods This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of temperature-monitoring in the prediction and prevention of diabetic foot ulceration. Two investigators conducted a literature search for all relevant articles from 1960 until July 2011. During this process the following data bases were searched: MEDLINE, Science Direct, AMED, Australian Medical Index, APAIS-Health, ATSIhealth, EMBASE, Web of Science and OneSearch. Keywords used in this search included diabetes, foot complications, ulceration, temperature-monitoring, prediction and prevention. Results Results of the meta-analysis support the theory that an increase in skin temperature is predictive of foot ulceration when compared with the same site on the contralateral limb. The theory that there is a mean norm foot temperature which can be used as a benchmark to monitor pathological change was unsupported by this meta-analysis. Conclusions The conclusions derived from this review are based on the best available scientific evidence in this field. It is intended that the results of this study will improve clinical decision-making and encourage the appropriate measures used to predict and prevent ulceration in people with diabetes at high risk of foot complications. Based on quality studies in this area, the results of this review have indicated that the use of temperature-monitoring is an effective way to predict, and thus prevent, diabetic foot ulceration. PMID:23919736

  13. Oxytetracycline depletion from skin-on fillet tissue of coho salmon fed oxytetracycline medicated feed in freshwater at temperatures less than 9°C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, Jeffery R.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Stehly, Guy R.; Gingerich, William H.; Evered, Joy A.

    2001-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) is a broad spectrum antibacterial agent approved in the USA for treating certain bacterial diseases in salmonids cultured in freshwater at temperatures greater than or equal to 9°C. This study was conducted to provide the information necessary to expand the OTC label to include treatment of diseased salmonids cultured in freshwater at temperatures below 9°C. The study was designed to treat juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) with OTC-medicated feed and determine the depletion of OTC from the skin-on fillet tissue. Oxytetracycline depletion was evaluated in juvenile coho salmon (weight range, 13–62 g) fed OTC-medicated feed at a rate of 88.2 mg OTC/kg body weight/day for 10 days. Pairs of skin-on fillets were taken from individual fish on days 4 and 10 during the treatment phase and on days 1, 4, 8, 14, and 19 during the depletion phase. Water temperatures during the study period ranged from 4.1°C to 8.5°C. The OTC concentrations in medicated feed and skin-on fillets were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography methods. The maximum mean OTC concentration in fillet tissue was 932 ng/g, 1 day after the last treatment and decreased to 32 ng/g 19 days after the last treatment. The log-linear loss of OTC from the fillet tissue was biphasic with a terminal phase half-life of 4.9 days.

  14. Primary Cutaneous Chrysosporium Infection following Ear Piercing: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Suchonwanit, Poonkiat; Chaiyabutr, Chayada; Vachiramon, Vasanop

    2015-01-01

    Chrysosporium is a large genus of saprophytic fungi that is commonly found in the soil. Infection caused by this organism is rare in humans and typically occurs in immunocompromised patients. Primary cutaneous Chrysosporium infection is relatively rare and has been reported in a heart transplant patient. The prognosis is usually favorable, but very poor in the setting of persistent profound immunosuppression. We herein report a case of primary cutaneous Chrysosporium infection following ear piercing in an immunocompetent patient. It is important for clinicians to consider this condition in patients with slow-onset skin and soft tissue infection following cutaneous injury, even in an immunocompetent setting.

  15. [Use of the rectal-skin temperature gradient for the rapid evaluation of the severity and prediction of the outcomes in critical states].

    PubMed

    Nazarenko, G I

    1986-10-01

    Results of the monitor observation of the recto-skin temperature gradient in 263 patients are described. Among them 199 patients were in critical condition (traumatic shock--in 51; burn--in 99; cardiogenic shock--in 33; septic collapse--in 11). The elevation of this parameter more than 9 degrees C shows the presence of shock. It can be used for control of the efficiency of the antishock therapy and represents a simple, reliable and highly informative method not requiring an expensive equipment.

  16. Skin abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Abscess - skin; Cutaneous abscess; Subcutaneous abscess; MRSA - abscess; Staph infection - abscess ... Skin abscesses are common and affect people of all ages. They occur when an infection causes pus ...

  17. The War of Jenkins’ Ear

    PubMed Central

    Graboyes, Evan M.; Hullar, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective In 1731, Spanish sailors boarded the British brig Rebecca off the coast of Cuba and sliced off the left ear of its captain, Robert Jenkins. This traumatic auriculectomy was used as a pretext by the British to declare war on Spain in 1739, a conflict that is now known as the War of Jenkins’ Ear. Here, we examine the techniques available for auricular repair at the time of Jenkins’ injury and relate them to the historical events surrounding the incident. Methods Review of relevant original published manuscripts and monographs. Results Surgeons in the mid-18th century did not have experience with repair of traumatic total auriculectomies. Some contemporary surgeons favored auricular prostheses over surgical treatment. Methods for the reconstruction of partial defects were available, and most authors advocated a local post-auricular flap instead of a free tissue transfer. Techniques for repair of defects of the auricle lagged behind those for repair of the nose. Conclusion Limitations in care of traumatic auricular defects may have intensified the significance of Jenkins’ injury and helped lead to the War of Jenkins’ Ear, but conflict between Britain and Spain was probably unavoidable due to their conflicting commercial interests in the Caribbean. PMID:23444484

  18. Serotoninergic system in hamster skin.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Andrzej; Pisarchik, Alexander; Semak, Igor; Sweatman, Trevor; Szczesniewski, Andre; Wortsman, Jacobo

    2002-10-01

    We have cloned the tryptophan hydroxylase cDNA from hamster pituitary and demonstrated its expression in the skin, melanotic and amelanotic melanomas, spleen, heart, and the eye. We further demonstrated that skin, melanomas, spleen, pituitary, and eye but not heart expressed arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase mRNA. The cutaneous expression of the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase gene was accompanied by enzymatic activity for the conversion of serotonin and tryptamine to N-acetylserotonin and N-acetyltryptamine, respectively. There was marked regional variation in the serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity, which was higher in ear skin than in corpus skin, and was lower in melanomas than in normal skin. Serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity was significantly inhibited by Cole bisubstrate at low concentration (skin. We also documented both the in vitro transformation of serotonin to N-acetylserotonin using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and the generation/storage of N-acetylserotonin in cultured melanoma cells. Thus, we have uncovered a cutaneous pathway displaying capabilities for serotonin biosynthesis and/or its metabolism to N-acetylserotonin in rodent skin. As serotonin has powerful vasodilator, immunomodulator, and growth factor actions, this pathway could be involved in skin physiology and/or pathology.

  19. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... and water, helps regulate body temperature through perspiration (sweating), and protects from the sun's damaging ultraviolet rays. ... skin contains thousands of cells and hundreds of sweat glands, oil glands, nerve endings, and blood vessels. ...

  20. Otophyma: a case report and review of the literature of lymphedema (elephantiasis) of the ear.

    PubMed

    Carlson, J Andrew; Mazza, Jill; Kircher, Kenneth; Tran, Tien Anh

    2008-02-01

    Phymas (swellings, masses, or bulbs) are considered the end-stage of rosacea and mostly affect the nose (rhinophyma), and rarely involve the chin (gnatophyma), the cheek (metophyma), eyelids (blepharophyma), or ears (otophyma). Herein, we report the case of a 57-year-old man who developed unilateral enlargement of his left ear over 2 years. Biopsy revealed changes of rosaceous lymphedema associated with Demodex infestation. Corticosteroid and minocycline therapies resulted in partial reduction of the ear enlargement. Literature review examining for cases of lymphedema (elephantiasis) of the ear revealed that chronic inflammatory disorders (rosacea (most frequent), psoriasis, eczema), bacterial cellulitis (erysipelas), pediculosis, trauma, and primary (congenital) lymphedema can all lead to localized, lymphedematous enlargement of the ear. Depending on the severity, medical treatment directed at the inflammatory condition for mild, diffuse enlargement to surgical debulking for extensive diffuse enlargement or tumor formation can improve the signs and symptoms of otophyma. Decreased immune surveillance secondary to rosaceous lymphedema may explain why Demodex infestation is common in rosacea and support the suspicion that phymatous skin is predisposed to skin cancer development.

  1. Ear canal dynamic motion as a source of power for in-ear devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delnavaz, Aidin; Voix, Jérémie

    2013-02-01

    Ear canal deformation caused by temporomandibular joint (jaw joint) activity, also known as "ear canal dynamic motion," is introduced in this paper as a candidate source of power to possibly recharge hearing aid batteries. The geometrical deformation of the ear canal is quantified in 3D by laser scanning of different custom ear moulds. An experimental setup is proposed to measure the amount of power potentially available from this source. The results show that 9 mW of power is available from a 15 mm3 dynamic change in the ear canal volume. Finally, the dynamic motion and power capability of the ear canal are investigated in a group of 12 subjects.

  2. Skin Biomes.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  3. Ambient Temperature and 17β-Estradiol Modify Fos Immunoreactivity in the Median Preoptic Nucleus, a Putative Regulator of Skin Vasomotion

    PubMed Central

    Dacks, Penny A.; Krajewski, Sally J.

    2011-01-01

    Estrogen has pronounced effects on thermoregulation, but the anatomic sites of integration between the reproductive and thermoregulatory axes are unknown. In this study, we tested whether estradiol-17β (E2) treatment would alter the activity of thermoregulatory brain regions responding to mild changes in ambient temperature (TAMBIENT). Core and tail skin temperatures were recorded at the ambient temperatures of 20, 24, or 31 C in ovariectomized (OVX) rats with and without E2. Neuronal activity was evaluated by counting the number of Fos-immunoreactive cells in the brains of rats killed 90 min after exposure to one of the three ambient temperatures. Of 14 brain areas examined, the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) was the only site that exhibited increased Fos immunoreactivity at the high TAMBIENT of 31 C. At 24 C, OVX rats exhibited increased numbers of MnPO Fos-immunoreactive cells, compared with OVX + E2 rats. Interestingly, tail skin vasomotion and MnPO Fos expression were affected in a similar manner by TAMBIENT and E2 treatment. In the arcuate nucleus and anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), Fos immunoreactivity was highest at the low TAMBIENT of 20 C, with inhibitory (arcuate nucleus) and stimulatory (AVPV) effects of E2. No other areas responded to both TAMBIENT and E2 treatment. These results implicate the MnPO, the arcuate nucleus, and the AVPV as sites of integration between the reproductive and thermoregulatory axes. Combined with studies showing the importance of MnPO neurons in heat-defense pathways, the MnPO emerges as a likely site for E2 modulation of thermoregulatory vasomotion. PMID:21521752

  4. Ambient temperature and 17β-estradiol modify Fos immunoreactivity in the median preoptic nucleus, a putative regulator of skin vasomotion.

    PubMed

    Dacks, Penny A; Krajewski, Sally J; Rance, Naomi E

    2011-07-01

    Estrogen has pronounced effects on thermoregulation, but the anatomic sites of integration between the reproductive and thermoregulatory axes are unknown. In this study, we tested whether estradiol-17β (E(2)) treatment would alter the activity of thermoregulatory brain regions responding to mild changes in ambient temperature (T(AMBIENT)). Core and tail skin temperatures were recorded at the ambient temperatures of 20, 24, or 31 C in ovariectomized (OVX) rats with and without E(2). Neuronal activity was evaluated by counting the number of Fos-immunoreactive cells in the brains of rats killed 90 min after exposure to one of the three ambient temperatures. Of 14 brain areas examined, the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) was the only site that exhibited increased Fos immunoreactivity at the high T(AMBIENT) of 31 C. At 24 C, OVX rats exhibited increased numbers of MnPO Fos-immunoreactive cells, compared with OVX + E(2) rats. Interestingly, tail skin vasomotion and MnPO Fos expression were affected in a similar manner by T(AMBIENT) and E(2) treatment. In the arcuate nucleus and anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), Fos immunoreactivity was highest at the low T(AMBIENT) of 20 C, with inhibitory (arcuate nucleus) and stimulatory (AVPV) effects of E(2). No other areas responded to both T(AMBIENT) and E(2) treatment. These results implicate the MnPO, the arcuate nucleus, and the AVPV as sites of integration between the reproductive and thermoregulatory axes. Combined with studies showing the importance of MnPO neurons in heat-defense pathways, the MnPO emerges as a likely site for E(2) modulation of thermoregulatory vasomotion.

  5. The mechanism of body temperature changes induced by intraventricular injections of adrenaline, noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the ox (bos taurus)

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, J. D.; Robertshaw, D.

    1967-01-01

    1. Adrenaline, noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were injected into the lateral ventricle of the ox. The effect of these drugs was measured on the respiratory rate, tidal volume, heat production, skin temperature of the ear, evaporative loss from the skin and the rectal temperature at 20 and 10° C ambient temperature. 2. Neither adrenaline (3 mg) nor noradrenaline (3 mg) had any effect on the temperature regulating mechanisms of the ox, except to produce vasoconstriction if vasodilatation was already present due to high ambient temperature or previous injection of 5-HT. 3. Injection of 5-HT (5 mg) caused a rise in respiratory rate, a fall in tidal volume and heat production, elevation of ear skin temperature and skin evaporative loss and a decrease in rectal temperature. Sedation of the animals occurred. 4. In its reaction to these monoamines the ox is similar to the goat, sheep and rabbit, but is unlike the cat and dog. 5. It was concluded that neither adrenaline nor noradrenaline has a role in the central control of temperature regulation in the ox, but that 5-HT may be involved in the control of heat dissipation mechanisms. PMID:6034117

  6. Oncoplastic technique for the elimination of the lateral "dog ear" during mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Clough, Krishna B; Massey, Eleanore J D; Mahadev, G K; Kaufman, Gabriel J; Nos, Claude; Sarfati, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Following a mastectomy, both the cosmetic and functional results can be impaired by the presence of a lateral "dog ear." This is a particular problem in women with a large body habitus giving an increased amount of adipose tissue lateral to the breast. The standard approaches to this operation of horizontal or oblique incisions often results in an uncomfortable, unsightly lateral "dog ear". We describe a modification to the standard mastectomy incision that allows extensive excision of the lateral adipose tissue, re-draping the skin over the chest wall, thus eliminating the "dog ear." The mastectomy is performed through two oblique incisions originating in the axillary skin crease encompassing the nipple areolar complex, followed by extensive lateral fat excision. A distance of 2-3 cm is kept between the superior limit of the two incisions. At closure the lateral skin flap is advanced superiomedially on the chest wall without tension. This simple and reproducible technique improves cosmesis and patient satisfaction following modified radical mastectomy by eliminating the lateral "dog ear."

  7. CT appearances of external ear canal cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, P N; Francis, I S; Wareing, M J; Cox, T C

    1997-09-01

    External ear canal cholesteatoma (EECC) is rare in ear, nose and throat (ENT) practice. Two cases, one bilateral, are described. Computed tomography demonstrates the extent of bony involvement. Erosion of the external canal should not be overlooked when reviewing CT of the petrous bone in cases of discharge from the ear. EECC may necessitate surgery and delay in the diagnosis of EECC can result in progressive bony destruction.

  8. Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J

    2012-02-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation.

  9. Free-Flight Skin Temperature and Pressure Measurements on a Slightly Blunted 25 Deg Cone-Cylinder-Flare Configuration to a Mach Number of 9.89

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Aleck C.; Rumsey, Charles B.

    1957-01-01

    Skin temperatures and surface pressures have been measured on a slightly blunted cone-cylinder-flare configuration to a maximum Mach number of 9.89 with a rocket-propelled model. The cone had a t o t a l angle of 25 deg and the flare had a 10 deg half-angle. Temperature data were obtained at eight cone locations, four cylinder locations, and seven flare locations; pressures were measured at one cone location, one cylinder location, and three flare locations. Four stages of propulsion were utilized and a reentry type of trajectory was employed in which the high-speed portion of flight was obtained by firing the last two stages during the descent of the model from a peak altitude of 99,400 feet. The Reynolds number at peak Mach number was 1.2 x 10(exp 6) per foot of model length. The model length was 6.68 feet. During the higher speed portions of flight, temperature measurements along one element of the nose cone indicated that the boundary layer was probably laminar, whereas on the opposite side of the nose the measurements indicated transitional or turbulent flow. Temperature distributions along one meridian of the model showed the flare to have the highest temperatures and the cylinder generally to have the lowest. A maximum temperature of 970 F was measured on the cone element showing the transitional or turbulent flow; along the opposite side of the model, the maximum temperatures of the cone, cylinder, and flare were 545 F, 340 F, and 680 F, respectively, at the corresponding time.

  10. Listening to Nature's orchestra with peculiar ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, David D.

    2003-04-01

    Insects use hearing for the crucial tasks of communicating with conspecifics and avoiding predators. Although all are based on the same acoustic principles, the diversity of insect ears is staggering and instructive. For instance, a South African grasshopper demonstrates that hearing conspecific calls is possible over distances 1 km with ears that do not have tympana. Actually, these creatures have six pairs of ears that play different roles in behavior. In numerical contrast, praying mantises have just a single ear in the ventral midline. The ear is very effective at detecting ultrasonic bat cries. However, the bioacoustics of sound transduction by two tympana facing each other in a deep, narrow slit is a puzzle. Tachinid flies demonstrate that directional hearing at 5 kHz is possible with a pair of ears fused together to give a total size of 1 mm. The ears are under the fly's chin. Hawk moths have their ears built into their mouthparts and the tympanum is more like a hollow ball than the usual membrane. As an apt last example, cicada ears are actually part of the orchestra: their tympana function both in sound reception and sound production.

  11. Molecular Mechanisms of Inner Ear Development

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Doris K.; Kelley, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    The inner ear is a structurally complex vertebrate organ built to encode sound, motion, and orientation in space. Given its complexity, it is not surprising that inner ear dysfunction is a relatively common consequence of human genetic mutation. Studies in model organisms suggest that many genes currently known to be associated with human hearing impairment are active during embryogenesis. Hence, the study of inner ear development provides a rich context for understanding the functions of genes implicated in hearing loss. This chapter focuses on molecular mechanisms of inner ear development derived from studies of model organisms. PMID:22855724

  12. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.

  13. Development and Integration of the Ear.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jennifer C; Tucker, Abigail S

    2015-01-01

    The perception of our environment via sensory organs plays a crucial role in survival and evolution. Hearing, one of our most developed senses, depends on the proper function of the auditory system and plays a key role in social communication, integration, and learning ability. The ear is a composite structure, comprised of the external, middle, and inner ear. During development, the ear is formed from the integration of a number of tissues of different embryonic origin, which initiate in distinct areas of the embryo at different time points. Functional connections between the components of the hearing apparatus have to be established and maintained during development and adulthood to allow proper sound submission from the outer to the middle and inner ear. This highly organized and intimate connectivity depends on intricate spatiotemporal signaling between the various tissues that give rise to the structures of the ear. Any alterations in this chain of events can lead to the loss of integration, which can subsequently lead to conductive hearing loss, in case of outer and middle ear defects or sensorineural hearing loss, if inner ear structures are defective. This chapter aims to review the current knowledge concerning the development of the three ear compartments as well as mechanisms and signaling pathways that have been implicated in the coordination and integration process of the ear.

  14. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553

  15. A bulk similarity approach in the atmospheric boundary layer using radiometric skin temperature to determine regional surface fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brutsaert, Wilfried; Sugita, Michiaki

    1991-01-01

    Profiles of wind velocity and temperature in the outer region of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) were used together with surface temperature measurements, to determine regional shear stress and sensible heat flux by means of transfer parameterizations on the basis of bulk similarity. The profiles were measured by means of radiosondes and the surface temperatures by infrared radiation thermometry over hilly prairie terrain in northeastern Kansas during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE). In the analysis, the needed similarity functions were determined and tested.

  16. In vivo laser soldering of incisions in juvenile pig skins using GaAs or CO2 lasers and a temperature control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simhon, David; Halpern, Marissa; Brosh, Tamar; Vasilyev, Tamar; Kariv, Naam; Argaman, Ronit; Katzir, Abraham; Nevo, Zvi

    2004-07-01

    Two temperature controlled laser soldering systems were compared, one based on a GaAs laser and the other on a CO2 laser. Both systems were used for bonding full thickness incisions. Methods: 47% bovine serum albumin (BSA) solder was used in the CO2 laser soldering experiments. BSA with 1.8 mg/ml Indocyanine Green (ICG) was used for the GaAs soldering experiments. In both cases the solder was applied onto cuts created in juvenile pig skin and an infrared fiberoptic system was used to monitor and control different temperature and time settings. Differences in tensile strength and wound reparative parameters were compared between GaAs laser, CO2 laser, and Dermabond glued incisions on the seventh day after the operation. Results: The tensile strength of CO2 laser-soldered and Dermabond glued incisions were found to be higher than that of the GaAs laser-soldered incisions. Histological study showed better and faster wound healing characteristics of the CO2 laser soldered incisions, as compared to the GaAs laser-soldered and glued incisions. Conclusions: Preliminary results of temperature controlled CO2 laser soldered incisions suggest a better wound reparative process over the temperature controlled GaAs laser soldered incisions. Laser soldering offers many advantages over gluing techniques.

  17. Mechanical sensibility of nociceptive and non-nociceptive fast-conducting afferents is modulated by skin temperature.

    PubMed

    Boada, M Danilo; Eisenach, James C; Ririe, Douglas G

    2016-01-01

    The ability to distinguish mechanical from thermal input is a critical component of peripheral somatosensory function. Polymodal C fibers respond to both stimuli. However, mechanosensitive, modality-specific fast-conducting tactile and nociceptor afferents theoretically carry information only about mechanical forces independent of the thermal environment. We hypothesize that the thermal environment can nonetheless modulate mechanical force sensibility in fibers that do not respond directly to change in temperature. To study this, fast-conducting mechanosensitive peripheral sensory fibers in male Sprague-Dawley rats were accessed at the soma in the dorsal root ganglia from T11 or L4/L5. Neuronal identification was performed using receptive field characteristics and passive and active electrical properties. Neurons responded to mechanical stimuli but failed to generate action potentials in response to changes in temperature alone, except for the tactile mechanical and cold sensitive neurons. Heat and cold ramps were utilized to determine temperature-induced modulation of response to mechanical stimuli. Mechanically evoked electrical activity in non-nociceptive, low-threshold mechanoreceptors (tactile afferents) decreased in response to changes in temperature while mechanically induced activity was increased in nociceptive, fast-conducting, high-threshold mechanoreceptors in response to the same changes in temperature. These data suggest that mechanical activation does not occur in isolation but rather that temperature changes appear to alter mechanical afferent activity and input to the central nervous system in a dynamic fashion. Further studies to understand the psychophysiological implications of thermal modulation of fast-conducting mechanical input to the spinal cord will provide greater insight into the implications of these findings.

  18. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the touch may have yellow drainage Of cellulitis: a red, inflamed area on the skin that is tender to the touch may occur in an area of a scratch or cut redness often spreads rapidly over the skin's surface ...

  19. Skin Pigment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy (News) Health Tip: Use Caution When Applying Hair Dye Additional ... Skin Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy THURSDAY, March 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Skin diseases ...

  20. Sagging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkles Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory ... Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkles Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory ...

  1. The ability to listen with independent ears.

    PubMed

    Gallun, Frederick J; Mason, Christine R; Kidd, Gerald

    2007-11-01

    In three experiments, listeners identified speech processed into narrow bands and presented to the right ("target") ear. The ability of listeners to ignore (or even use) conflicting contralateral stimulation was examined by presenting various maskers to the target ear ("ipsilateral") and nontarget ear ("contralateral"). Theoretically, an absence of contralateral interference would imply selectively attending to only the target ear; the presence of interference from the contralateral stimulus would imply that listeners were unable to treat the stimuli at the two ears independently; and improved performance in the presence of informative contralateral stimulation would imply that listeners can process the signals at both ears and keep them separate rather than combining them. Experiments showed evidence of the ability to selectively process (or respond to) only the target ear in some, but not all, conditions. No evidence was found for improved performance due to contralateral stimulation. The pattern of interference found across experiments supports an interaction of stimulus-based factors (auditory grouping) and task-based factors (demand for processing resources) and suggests that listeners may not always be able to listen to the "better" ear even when it would be beneficial to do so.

  2. Playing by Ear: Foundation or Frill?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Many people divide musicians into two types: those who can read music and those who play by ear. Formal music education tends to place great emphasis on producing musically literate performers but devotes much less attention to teaching students to make music without notation. Some would suggest that playing by ear is a specialized skill that is…

  3. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  4. INNER EAR EMBRYOGENESIS: GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The anatomy and developmental molecular genetics of the inner ear from establishment of the otic placode to formation of the definitive cochlea and vestibular apparatus will be reviewed and the complex 3-D structural changes that shape the developing inner ear will be illustrated...

  5. Stem Cell Therapy for the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    In vertebrates, perception of sound, motion, and balance is mediated through mechanosensory hair cells located within the inner ear. In mammals, hair cells are only generated during a short period of embryonic development. As a result, loss of hair cells as a consequence of injury, disease, or genetic mutation, leads to permanent sensory deficits. At present, cochlear implantation is the only option for profound hearing loss. However, outcomes are still variable and even the best implant cannot provide the acuity of a biological ear. The recent emergence of stem cell technology has the potential to open new approaches for hair cell regeneration. The goal of this review is to summarize the current state of inner ear stem cell research from a viewpoint of its clinical application for inner ear disorders to illustrate how complementary studies have the potential to promote and refine stem cell therapies for inner ear diseases. The review initially discusses our current understanding of the genetic pathways that regulate hair cell formation from inner ear progenitors during normal development. Subsequent sections discuss the possible use of endogenous inner ear stem cells to induce repair as well as the initial studies aimed at transplanting stem cells into the ear. PMID:22514095

  6. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  7. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  8. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  9. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  10. [The effect of aging on the peripheral functions in farmers and chain saw operators. Part 2. Age-related changes in skin temperature and hyperemia time after pressing the nail (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kasamatsu, T; Miyashita, K; Shiomi, S; Iwata, H

    1981-05-01

    Vibration hazards which arise after exposure to mechanical vibration comprise various types of disorders, the most common of which are peripheral circulatory disturbances. It is now well recognized that aging effects all organ systems of the human body. The present study was therefore performed to assess the effects of aging on finger skin temperature and on hyperemia time after pressing the nail, both of which reflect peripheral circulatory functions. The subjects were 88 farmers and 86 chain saw operators ranging in age from 30 to 69 years, and 27 healthy persons aged 21 to 37 years as controls. Data were evaluated before and after cold water immersion tests in which the hand was immersed in 10 degrees C water for 10 minutes. The results obtained were as follows: 1) Before the test, skin temperature was negatively correlated with age, and hyperemia time was positively correlated with age in both farmers and chain saw operators but not in the case of the control subjects. 2)The skin temperature became lower, and hyperemia time grew longer with advancing age in both farmers and chain saw operators before and after the immersion tests. In comparison of the average skin temperature and hyperemia time between farmers and chain saw operators classified by age, the average skin temperature in chain saw operators was significantly lower than that in farmers, and the average hyperemia time in chain saw operators was significantly longer than that in farmers of every age group after the immersion test. The results suggest that we should take age-related changes into consideration to some degree when we evaluate the finger skin temperature and hyperemia time in diagnosing peripheral circulatory disturbances.

  11. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  12. Sensitivity of Satellite-Based Skin Temperature to Different Surface Emissivity and NWP Reanalysis Sources Demonstrated Using a Single-Channel, Viewing-Angle-Corrected Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarino, B. R.; Minnis, P.; Yost, C. R.; Chee, T.; Palikonda, R.

    2015-12-01

    Single-channel algorithms for satellite thermal-infrared- (TIR-) derived land and sea surface skin temperature (LST and SST) are advantageous in that they can be easily applied to a variety of satellite sensors. They can also accommodate decade-spanning instrument series, particularly for periods when split-window capabilities are not available. However, the benefit of one unified retrieval methodology for all sensors comes at the cost of critical sensitivity to surface emissivity (ɛs) and atmospheric transmittance estimation. It has been demonstrated that as little as 0.01 variance in ɛs can amount to more than a 0.5-K adjustment in retrieved LST values. Atmospheric transmittance requires calculations that employ vertical profiles of temperature and humidity from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Selection of a given NWP model can significantly affect LST and SST agreement relative to their respective validation sources. Thus, it is necessary to understand the accuracies of the retrievals for various NWP models to ensure the best LST/SST retrievals. The sensitivities of the single-channel retrievals to surface emittance and NWP profiles are investigated using NASA Langley historic land and ocean clear-sky skin temperature (Ts) values derived from high-resolution 11-μm TIR brightness temperature measured from geostationary satellites (GEOSat) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR). It is shown that mean GEOSat-derived, anisotropy-corrected LST can vary by up to ±0.8 K depending on whether CERES or MODIS ɛs sources are used. Furthermore, the use of either NOAA Global Forecast System (GFS) or NASA Goddard Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) for the radiative transfer model initial atmospheric state can account for more than 0.5-K variation in mean Ts. The results are compared to measurements from the Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD), an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program ground

  13. An in situ-based analysis of the relationship between land surface "skin" and screen-level air temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Elizabeth Jane

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the relationship between land surface temperatures (LST) and screen-level air temperatures (T2m) using in situ observations from 19 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) deployments located in a range of geographical regimes. The diurnal cycle is resolved using 1 min observations: a particular focus of the study is on the relationship between daily extremes of LST (LSTmax, LSTmin) and T2m (Tmax, Tmin). Temperature differences are analyzed with respect to cloud, wind speed, and snow cover. Under cloud-free, low wind speed conditions, daytime LST is often several degrees Celsius (°C) higher than T2m at low-to-middle latitudes and at high latitudes during the summer months. In contrast, LST and T2m are often close (e.g., within 2°C) under cloudy and/or moderate-to-high wind speed conditions or when solar insolation is low or absent. LSTmin and Tmin are generally well correlated (r > 0.8, often r > 0.9), while seasonal correlations between LSTmax and Tmax are weaker (r > 0.6, often r > 0.8). At high latitudes, LST and T2m are well coupled in spring/autumn/winter; the relationship between LST and T2m tends to weaken with decreasing latitude. The timing of daily extremes is also investigated and it is found that LSTmin and Tmin typically occur close to sunrise, with Tmin occurring slightly after LSTmin. LSTmax occurs close to solar noon, with Tmax typically occurring 1-3 hours later. This study will inform temperature data users on differences between LST and T2m and aid development of methods to estimate T2m using satellite LSTs.

  14. Numerical analysis of ossicular chain lesion of human ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingxi; Li, Sheng; Sun, Xiuzhen

    2009-04-01

    Lesion of ossicular chain is a common ear disease impairing the sense of hearing. A comprehensive numerical model of human ear can provide better understanding of sound transmission. In this study, we propose a three-dimensional finite element model of human ear that incorporates the canal, tympanic membrane, ossicular bones, middle ear suspensory ligaments/muscles, middle ear cavity and inner ear fluid. Numerical analysis is conducted and employed to predict the effects of middle ear cavity, malleus handle defect, hypoplasia of the long process of incus, and stapedial crus defect on sound transmission. The present finite element model is shown to be reasonable in predicting the ossicular mechanics of human ear.

  15. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin.

  16. Accurate Measurements of the Skin Surface Area of the Healthy Auricle and Skin Deficiency in Microtia Patients

    PubMed Central

    van Doremalen, Rob F. M.; Melchels, Ferry P. W.; Kolodzynski, Michail N.; Pouran, Behdad; Malda, Jos; Kon, Moshe; Breugem, Corstiaan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The limited cranial skin covering auricular implants is an important yet underrated factor in auricular reconstruction for both reconstruction surgery and tissue engineering strategies. We report exact measurements on skin deficiency in microtia patients and propose an accessible preoperative method for these measurements. Methods: Plaster ear models (n = 11; male:female = 2:1) of lobular-type microtia patients admitted to the University Medical Center Utrecht in The Netherlands were scanned using a micro-computed tomographic scanner or a cone-beam computed tomographic scanner. The resulting images were converted into mesh models from which the surface area could be calculated. Results: The mean total skin area of an adult-size healthy ear was 47.3 cm2, with 49.0 cm2 in men and 44.3 cm2 in women. Microtia ears averaged 14.5 cm2, with 15.6 cm2 in men and 12.6 cm2 in women. The amount of skin deficiency was 25.4 cm2, with 26.7 cm2 in men and 23.1 cm2 in women. Conclusions: This study proposes a novel method to provide quantitative data on the skin surface area of the healthy adult auricle and the amount of skin deficiency in microtia patients. We demonstrate that the microtia ear has less than 50% of skin available compared with healthy ears. Limited skin availability in microtia patients can lead to healing problems after auricular reconstruction and poses a significant challenge in the development of tissue-engineered cartilage implants. The results of this study could be used to evaluate outcomes and investigate new techniques with regard to tissue-engineered auricular constructs. PMID:28293505

  17. Specialization for underwater hearing by the tympanic middle ear of the turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans

    PubMed Central

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Brandt, Christian; Willis, Katie L.; Christensen, Christian Bech; Ketten, Darlene; Edds-Walton, Peggy; Fay, Richard R.; Madsen, Peter T.; Carr, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    Turtles, like other amphibious animals, face a trade-off between terrestrial and aquatic hearing. We used laser vibrometry and auditory brainstem responses to measure their sensitivity to vibration stimuli and to airborne versus underwater sound. Turtles are most sensitive to sound underwater, and their sensitivity depends on the large middle ear, which has a compliant tympanic disc attached to the columella. Behind the disc, the middle ear is a large air-filled cavity with a volume of approximately 0.5 ml and a resonance frequency of approximately 500 Hz underwater. Laser vibrometry measurements underwater showed peak vibrations at 500–600 Hz with a maximum of 300 µm s−1 Pa−1, approximately 100 times more than the surrounding water. In air, the auditory brainstem response audiogram showed a best sensitivity to sound of 300–500 Hz. Audiograms before and after removing the skin covering reveal that the cartilaginous tympanic disc shows unchanged sensitivity, indicating that the tympanic disc, and not the overlying skin, is the key sound receiver. If air and water thresholds are compared in terms of sound intensity, thresholds in water are approximately 20–30 dB lower than in air. Therefore, this tympanic ear is specialized for underwater hearing, most probably because sound-induced pulsations of the air in the middle ear cavity drive the tympanic disc. PMID:22438494

  18. Comparative study of cryogen spray cooling with R-134a and R-404a: implications for laser treatment of dark human skin.

    PubMed

    Dai, Tianhong; Yaseen, Mohammad A; Diagaradjane, Parmeswaran; Chang, David W; Anvari, Bahman

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous laser treatment in dark skin patients is challenging due to significant light absorption by the melanin at the basal layer of epidermis, which can result in irreversible nonspecific thermal injury to the epidermis. Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) with R-134a (boiling point approximately -26.2 degrees C at 1 atm), which is currently used during cutaneous laser treatment, has shown poor efficacy in protecting dark human skin. We investigated the potential of CSC with R-404a (boiling point approximately -46.5 degrees C at 1 atm), which has a lower boiling point than R-134a, for improved therapeutic outcome in dark human skin at three levels: in vitro (epoxy resin skin phantom), ex vivo (normal dark human skin sample), and in vivo (skin of the rabbit external ear). The skin phantom was used to acquire the surface and internal temperature profiles in response to CSC with R-134a or R-404a at various spurt durations, based upon which CSC-induced heat removal from the skin phantom was estimated using an algorithm that solved a one-dimensional inverse heat conduction problem. CSC with R-404a increased the temperature reductions within the phantom and subsequently the amount of heat removal from the phantom in comparison to that with R-134a. Normal ex vivo Fitzpatrick types V-VI human skin samples were used to investigate the thermal response of dark human skin epidermis to CSC (R-134a or R-404a) at various spurt durations in conjunction with 595-nm pulsed dye laser irradiation at various radiant exposures. Cryogen R-404a increased the threshold radiant exposures for irreversible thermal injury to the epidermis in dark pigmentation skin. No obvious CSC-induced morphological changes to human skin was observed when sprayed with R404-a spurts using durations up to 300 ms. In vivo rabbit ear vasculature was used as a model of cutaneous anomalies to assess the influences of CSC (with R-134a or R-404a) on the photothermolysis of dermal blood vessels. CSC (R-134a or R-404a

  19. High ear-piercing: an increasingly popular procedure with serious complications. Is good clinical practice exercised?

    PubMed

    Lyons, Marie; Stephens, Joanna; Wasson, Joseph; DeZoysa, Nilantha; Vlastarakos, Petros V

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the current practice of performing high ear-piercing regarding consent protocols, and methods of practice using questionnaire-based survey in Hertfordshire and North London. Recommendations for good clinical practice are also made. 100 establishments performing ear piercing were identified. A 16-item questionnaire on techniques used, methods of high-ear piercing, methods of sterilization, consent issues and aftercare was completed. Seventy-six establishments agreed to participate. All practitioners prepared the skin before piercing. 58 (76%) used a needle for piercing, 11 (15%) used a spring-loaded gun and seven (9%) used both. 97% of the practitioners obtained written consent before proceeding. 9 (12%) had a lower age limit of 16 years and three (4%) of 18 years. 27 piercers (36%) provided an aftercare leaflet, 41 (54%) warned the patients about risks of infection, 16 (21%) warned about cosmetic deformity and 1 (1%) specifically mentioned cauliflower ear. Results indicated that high ear piercing is an invasive procedure with a significant risk of complications leading to cosmetic deformity. Establishments should be required to counsel patients properly about the risks and potential complications of the procedure. A code of practice should be drawn up with a minimum age for piercing, requirement for proper consent, excellent hygiene and good information for postoperative care.

  20. Local effects of ice floes and leads on skin sea surface temperature, mixing and gas transfer in the marginal ice zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappa, Christopher; Brumer, Sophia; Brown, Scott; LeBel, Deborah; McGillis, Wade; Schlosser, Peter; Loose, Brice

    2014-05-01

    Recent years have seen extreme changes in the Arctic. Marginal ice zones (MIZ), or areas where the "ice-albedo feedback" driven by solar warming is highest and ice melt is extensive, may provide insights into the extent of these changes. Furthermore, MIZ play a central role in setting the air-sea CO2 balance making them a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Incomplete understanding of how the sea-ice modulates gas fluxes renders it difficult to estimate the carbon budget in MIZ. Here, we investigate the turbulent mechanisms driving gas exchange in leads, polynyas and in the presence of ice floes using both field and laboratory measurements. Here, we present measurements of visible and IR imagery of melting ice floes in the marginal ice zone north of Oliktok Point AK in the Beaufort Sea made during the Marginal Ice Zone Ocean and Ice Observations and Processes EXperiment (MIZOPEX) in July-August 2013. The visible and IR imagery were taken from the unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) ScanEagle. The visible imagery clearly defines the scale of the ice floes. The IR imagery show distinct cooling of the skin sea surface temperature (SST) as well as an intricate circulation and mixing pattern that depends on the surface current, wind speed, and near-surface vertical temperature/salinity structure. Individual ice floes develop turbulent wakes as they drift and cause transient mixing of an influx of colder surface (fresh) melt water. We capture a melting and mixing event that explains the changing pattern observed in skin SST and is substantiated using laboratory experiments. The Gas Transfer through Polar Sea Ice experiment was performed at the US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (Hanover, NH) under varying ice coverage, winds speed, fetch and currents. Supporting measurements were made of air and water temperature, humidity, salinity and wave height. Air-side profiling provided momentum, heat, and CO2 fluxes. Transfer velocities are also

  1. Skin rubdown with a dry towel, 'kanpu-masatsu' is an aerobic exercise affecting body temperature, energy production, and the immune and autonomic nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Mayumi; Takano, Osamu; Tomiyama, Chikako; Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Urahigashi, Nobuatsu; Urahigashi, Nobuatsu; Abo, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Skin rubdown using a dry towel (SRDT) to scrub the whole body is a traditional therapy for health promotion. To investigate its mechanism, 24 healthy male volunteers were studied. Body temperature, pulse rate, red blood cells (RBCs), serum levels of catecholamines and cortisol, blood gases (PO(2), sO(2), PCO(2) and pH), lactate and glucose, and the ratio and number of white blood cells (WBCs) were assessed before and after SRDT. After SRDT, pulse rate and body temperature were increased. PO(2), sO(2) and pH were also increased and there was no Rouleaux formation by RBCs. Lactate level tended to increase, whereas that of glucose did not. Adrenaline and noradrenaline levels increased, indicating sympathetic nerve (SN) dominance with increase in granulocytes. WBC number and ratio were divided into two groups according to granulocyte ratio (≤ or < 60%) before SRDT: a normal group and a SN group. Only in the SN group did the granulocyte ratio decrease and the lymphocyte ratio and number increase after SRDT. It is suggested that SRDT is a mild aerobic, systemic exercise that might affect the immune system via the autonomic nervous system.

  2. Ear cleaning: the UK and US perspective.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Tim; Cole, Lynette K

    2004-04-01

    Ear cleaning helps maintain the normal otic environment and is important in the treatment of otitis. Over cleaning, however, may trigger otitis through maceration of the epidermal lining. Simple manual cleaning is useful for routine cleansing but doesn't remove tightly adherent debris. Bulb syringes are more vigorous but may damage the ear in inexperienced hands. Devices using mains water pressure or dental machines are also available. Thorough cleaning of the ear canals and middle ear cavity can only be achieved by retrograde flushing using specially adapted catheters, feeding tubes or video otoscopes under anaesthesia. Myringotomy, inspection and cleaning of the middle should be performed if the tympanic membrane appears abnormal. There are a wide variety of cleaning fluids available. Ceruminolytics soften and dissolve cerumen to facilitate cleaning. Surfactants emulsify debris, breaking it up and keeping it in solution. Astringents dry the ear canal surface, preventing maceration. Maintaining a low pH and incorporating antimicrobial agents can inhibit microbial proliferation and glucocorticoids can be used to reduce inflammation. Adverse effects and contraindications following ear cleaning can include maceration, contact reactions, otitis media, ear canal avulsion, vestibular syndrome, Horner's syndrome, facial nerve paralysis and deafness. Care should be exercised in selecting cleaning fluids if the tympanic membranes are ruptured.

  3. Skin aging and dry skin.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hideo

    2004-08-01

    Skin aging appears to be the result of both scheduled and continuous "wear and tear" processes that damage cellular DNA and proteins. Two types of aging, chronological skin aging and photoaging, have distinct clinical and histological features. Chronological skin aging is a universal and inevitable process characterized primarily by physiologic alterations in skin function. In this case, keratinocytes are unable to properly terminally differentiate to form a functional stratum corneum, and the rate of formation of neutral lipids that contribute to the barrier function slows, causing dry, pale skin with fine wrinkles. In contrast, photoaging results from the UVR of sunlight and the damage thus becomes apparent in sun-exposed skin. Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis and heliodermatitis. Understanding of the functions of the skin and the basic principles of moisturizer use and application is important for the prevention of skin aging. Successful treatment of dry skin with appropriate skin care products gives the impression of eternal youth.

  4. Surgical Management of Ear Diseases in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Csomos, Rebecca; Bosscher, Georgia; Mans, Christoph; Hardie, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Otitis externa and media are frequently diagnosed disorders in rabbits and are particularly common in lop-eared breeds because of the specific anatomy of the ear canal. Medical management for otitis externa and media often provides only a temporary improvement in clinical signs. Surgery by means of partial or total ear canal ablation (PECA or TECA) combined with lateral bulla osteotomy (LBO) represents a feasible approach that is well tolerated and provides a good clinical outcome. Short-term complications associated with PECA/TECA-LBO include facial nerve paralysis and vestibular disease.

  5. General regression neural network and Monte Carlo simulation model for survival and growth of Salmonella on raw chicken skin as a function of serotype, temperature and time for use in risk assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A general regression neural network and Monte Carlo simulation model for predicting survival and growth of Salmonella on raw chicken skin as a function of serotype (Typhimurium, Kentucky, Hadar), temperature (5 to 50C) and time (0 to 8 h) was developed. Poultry isolates of Salmonella with natural r...

  6. Skin optics

    SciTech Connect

    van Gemert, M.J.; Jacques, S.L.; Sterenborg, H.J.; Star, W.M.

    1989-12-01

    Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin layer. These activities are unified under the name skin optics. This paper first reviews the current status of tissue optics, distinguishing between the cases of: dominant absorption, dominant scattering, and scattering about equal to absorption. Then, previously published data as well as some current unpublished data on (human) stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis, have been collected and/or (re)analyzed in terms of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor of scattering. The results are that the individual skin layers show strongly forward scattering (anisotropy factors between 0.7 and 0.9). The absorption and scattering data show that for all wavelengths considered scattering is much more important than absorption. Under such circumstances, solutions to the transport equation for a multilayer skin model and finite beam laser irradiation are currently not yet available. Hence, any quantitative dosimetry for skin treated with (laser) light is currently lacking.

  7. Airborne ultrasound enters the ear through the eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhardt, Martin

    2005-09-01

    Musical spectrum above 20000 Hz has been demonstrated to influence human judgments and physiology. Moreover airborne ultrasonic noise has been implicated in hearing loss, tinnitus, and other subjective effects such as headaches and fullness in the ear. Contact ultrasound, i.e., with a transducer affixed to the skin of the head/neck, is audible; assumed by bone conduction. However, lightly touching the soft tissues of the head, avoiding bone, can also produce audibility. When contact ultrasound is applied to the head, energy from 25 to ~60 kHz can be recorded from the closed eyelid, with care to avoid sensor contact with the orbit. If the same frequency band of noise is passed through a transducer in from of the eye, with just air coupling, the same response is again recordable on the head. An acrylic barrier between the eye and the transducer eliminates the response. Once airborne ultrasound exceeds the impedance mismatch of the eye it readily propagates through the soft tissues of the eye and brain via one of the fluid windows (end lymphatic, perilymphatic or vascular) to the cochlea. The eye fenestration explains how people can detect airborne ultrasonic components in music and develop ear effects from airborne ultrasonic noise.

  8. Quantification of skin penetration of antioxidants of varying lipophilicity.

    PubMed

    Abla, M J; Banga, A K

    2013-02-01

    Antioxidants play a vital role in protecting the skin from environmental distress. As the skin is constantly exposed to harmful UV radiation, endogenous antioxidants present in the superficial layers of the skin neutralize reactive oxygen species. Over time, antioxidants become depleted and loss their protective effect on the skin. Therefore, supplementing skin with topical antioxidant can help replenish this loss and fight the oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to deliver antioxidants topically and quantify the amount permeated in the stratum corneum and underlying skin. Polyphenols (catechin, resveratrol and curcumin) and vitamin (retinol) with various lipophilic properties were delivered via porcine ear skin, using propylene glycol as a vehicle. The amount in the stratum corneum and underlying skin was quantified using tape stripping and skin extraction methods, respectively, and samples were analysed via HPLC. All four antioxidants permeated into the skin from the propylene glycol vehicle. The order of the amount of antioxidant in the stratum corneum was catechin > resveratrol~ retinol> curcumin, whereas that in the underlying skin was retinol > catechin~ resveratrol~ curcumin. Of the total amount of polyphenols in the skin, approximately 90% was retained in the stratum corneum whereas 10% was quantified in the underlying skin. In contrast, 10% of retinol was retained in the stratum corneum whereas 90% permeated in the underlying skin. Polyphenols (catechin, resveratrol and curcumin) showed high concentration in the stratum corneum whereas retinol showed high accumulation in the underlying layers of the skin.

  9. Evolution: Fossil Ears and Underwater Sonar.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Olivier

    2016-08-22

    A key innovation in the history of whales was the evolution of a sonar system together with high-frequency hearing. Fossils of an archaic toothed whale's inner ear bones provide clues for a stepwise emergence of underwater echolocation ability.

  10. Ear Infection Treatment: Do Alternative Therapies Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... recommended for use in children — some have dangerous side effects or may interfere with conventional treatments. By Mayo Clinic Staff Alternative ear infection treatments abound on the internet and in books and magazines. They include chiropractic adjustments, homeopathy, herbal ...

  11. Diode Laser Ear Piercing: A Novel Technique.

    PubMed

    Suseela, Bibilash Babu; Babu, Preethitha; Chittoria, Ravi Kumar; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Earlobe piercing is a common office room procedure done by a plastic surgeon. Various methods of ear piercing have been described. In this article, we describe a novel method of laser ear piercing using the diode laser. An 18-year-old female patient underwent an ear piercing using a diode laser with a power of 2.0 W in continuous mode after topical local anaesthetic and pre-cooling. The diode laser was fast, safe, easy to use and highly effective way of ear piercing. The advantages we noticed while using the diode laser over conventional methods were more precision, minimal trauma with less chances of hypertrophy and keloids, no bleeding with coagulation effect of laser, less time taken compared to conventional method and less chance of infection due to thermal heat effect of laser.

  12. Inner ear malformations: a practical diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Mazón, M; Pont, E; Montoya-Filardi, A; Carreres-Polo, J; Más-Estellés, F

    2016-12-29

    Pediatric sensorineural hearing loss is a major cause of disability; although inner ear malformations account for only 20-40% of all cases, recognition and characterization will be vital for the proper management of these patients. In this article relevant anatomy and development of inner ear are surveyed. The role of neuroimaging in pediatric sensorineural hearing loss and cochlear preimplantation study are assessed. The need for a universal system of classification of inner ear malformations with therapeutic and prognostic implications is highlighted. And finally, the radiological findings of each type of malformation are concisely described and depicted. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging play a crucial role in the characterization of inner ear malformations and allow the assessment of the anatomical structures that enable the selection of appropriate treatment and surgical approach.

  13. Design Factors and Use of Ear Protection*

    PubMed Central

    Rice, C. G.; Coles, R. R. A.

    1966-01-01

    The problems of protecting the ear against hazardous noise are the subject of a general review, supported where relevant by data from the authors' own researches. Ear protectors are classified into two main types−plugs and muffs—and the general principles of their function and limitations are stated. Examples of representative ear protectors are given in more detail, with particular respect to their relative merits and pure-tone attenuation characteristics. The effects of earplugs on speech communication are considered and the relationships between pure-tone attenuation and protection against continuous noise are discussed in some detail. The results of temporary threshold shift (T.T.S.) reduction studies of the efficiency of V.51R and Selectone-K earplugs in protecting against reverberant and non-reverberant impulsive noises are presented. The design requirements of ear protectors and some of the problems created by them are also outlined. Images PMID:5946129

  14. Diode Laser Ear Piercing: A Novel Technique

    PubMed Central

    Suseela, Bibilash Babu; Babu, Preethitha; Chittoria, Ravi Kumar; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Earlobe piercing is a common office room procedure done by a plastic surgeon. Various methods of ear piercing have been described. In this article, we describe a novel method of laser ear piercing using the diode laser. An 18-year-old female patient underwent an ear piercing using a diode laser with a power of 2.0 W in continuous mode after topical local anaesthetic and pre-cooling. The diode laser was fast, safe, easy to use and highly effective way of ear piercing. The advantages we noticed while using the diode laser over conventional methods were more precision, minimal trauma with less chances of hypertrophy and keloids, no bleeding with coagulation effect of laser, less time taken compared to conventional method and less chance of infection due to thermal heat effect of laser. PMID:28163460

  15. Investigation of body and udder skin surface temperature differentials as an early indicator of mastitis in Holstein Friesian crossbred cows using digital infrared thermography technique

    PubMed Central

    Sathiyabarathi, M.; Jeyakumar, S.; Manimaran, A.; Pushpadass, Heartwin A.; Sivaram, M.; Ramesha, K. P.; Das, D. N.; Kataktalware, Mukund A.; Jayaprakash, G.; Patbandha, Tapas Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of infrared thermography (IRT) technique and its interrelationship with conventional mastitis indicators for the early detection of mastitis in Holstein Friesian (HF) crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 quarters of lactating HF crossbred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cows (n=19) were monitored for body temperature (i.e., eye temperature) and udder skin surface temperature (USST) before milking using forward-looking infrared (FLIR) i5 camera. Milk samples were collected from each quarter and screened for mastitis using Somatic Cell Count (SCC), Electrical Conductivity (EC), and California mastitis test. Thermographic images were analyzed using FLIR Quick Report 1.2 image analysis software. Data on body and USST were compiled and analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 and Sigmaplot 11. Results: The mean±standard deviation (SD) body (37.23±0.08°C) and USST (37.22±0.04°C) of non-mastitic cow did not differ significantly; however, the mean USST of the mastitis-affected quarters were significantly higher than the body temperature and USST of unaffected quarters (p<0.001). The mean±SD USST of the subclinical mastitis (SCM) and clinical mastitis-affected quarters were 38.08±0.17 °C and 38.25±0.33 °C, respectively, which is 0.72 and 1.05 °C higher than the USST temperature of unaffected quarters. The USST was positively correlated with EC (r=0.95) and SCC (r=0.93). The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed a higher sensitivity for USST in early prediction of SCM with a cut-off value of >37.61°C. Conclusion: It is concluded that infrared thermal imaging technique could be used as a potential noninvasive, quick cow-side diagnostic technique for screening and early detection of SCM and clinical mastitis in crossbred cows. PMID:28096610

  16. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that is... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section...

  17. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that is... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section...

  18. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  19. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  20. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...