Science.gov

Sample records for earlier activities including

  1. Quadruple cancer including Bowen's disease after arsenic injections 40 years earlier: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Murata, K; Iwazawa, T; Takayama, T; Yamashita, K; Okagawa, K

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the successful treatment of quadruple cancer including Bowen's disease in a 71-year-old man who had been given injections of salvarsan, an arsenic compound, for syphilis more than 40 years earlier. Resection of a skin lesion on his chest subsequently confirmed a diagnosis of Bowen's disease, 3 years after which he was operated on for concurrent gastric cancer and sigmoid colon cancer. A fourth cancer was discovered on his left vocal cord 2 weeks after this operation; it was resected 2 years later. A discussion of multiple malignant neoplasms and the possible relationship between arsenic and cancer is presented following this case report.

  2. Earlier Vegetation Activity Onset Enhances Springtime Water-use Efficiency in Temperate and Boreal Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, J.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Ecosystem-scale water-use efficiency (EWUE), defined as the ratio of gross primary productivity (GPP) to evapotranspiration (ET), is an important indicator for understanding how water couples with the carbon cycle under global change. Relationships between EWUE and abiotic environmental factors (e.g. climatic factors, atmospheric CO2concentration and nitrogen deposition) have been widely investigated, but the variations in EWUE in response to biotic controls remain little understood. Here, we argue that phenology plays an important role in the regulation of EWUE by analyzing springtime EWUE responses to variability of the GPP-based vegetation activity onset (VAO) in temperate and boreal ecosystems using both satellite and flux-tower observations. Based on MODIS productions during 2000-2014, we found that spring EWUE widely significantly increased with the earlier VAO mainly in the mid- and high latitudes (over 50°N), southwestern China and mid-western North America. When AVO advanced a 10-day, the spring EWUE would increase on average by 0.17±0.09 g C kg-1 H2O in temperate and continental climates after removing the effect of environmental factors. The main response patterns of EWUE to phenology suggest that an increase in spring EWUE with an earlier VAO are mainly because the increase in GPP is relatively larger in magnitude compared to that of ET, or due to an increase in GPP accompanied by a decrease in ET, resulting from an advanced VAO. The credibility of the results is also supported by the local-scale observations. By analyzing 66 site-years of flux and meteorological data obtained from 8 temperate deciduous broadleaf forest sites across North America and Europe, spring EWUE increased 0.42±0.08 g C kg-1 H2O with a 10-day advance of VAO across all sites after controlling for environmental factors, mainly because an earlier VAO could lead to a steeper increase in GPP than in ET. Our results and conclusions highlight that phenological factors cannot be

  3. Warming and earlier spring increase Western U.S. forest wildfire activity

    Treesearch

    A.L. Westerling; H.G. Hidalgo; D.R. Cayan; T.W. Swetnam

    2006-01-01

    Western United States forest wildfire activity is widely thought to have increased in recent decades, yet neither the extent of recent changes nor the degree to which climate may be driving regional changes in wildfire has been systematically documented. Much of the public and scientific discussion of changes in western United States wildfire has focused instead on...

  4. M-Mode Ultrasound Reveals Earlier Gluteus Minimus Activity in Individuals With Chronic Hip Pain During a Step-down Task.

    PubMed

    Dieterich, Angela V; Deshon, Louise; Strauss, Geoffrey R; McKay, Jan; Pickard, Christine M

    2016-04-01

    Controlled laboratory study. The hip abductor muscles are important hip joint stabilizers. Hip joint pain may alter muscle recruitment. Motion-mode (M-mode) ultrasound enables noninvasive measurements of the onset of deep and superficial muscle motion, which is associated with activation onset. To compare (1) the onset of superficial and deep gluteus medius and gluteus minimus muscle motion relative to the instant of peak ground reaction force and (2) the level of swing-phase muscle motion during step-down between subjects with chronic hip pain and controls using M-mode ultrasound. Thirty-five subjects with anterior, nontraumatic hip pain for more than 6 months (mean ± SD age, 54 ± 9 years) and 35 controls (age, 57 ± 7 years) were scanned on the lateral hip of the leading leg during frontal step-down onto a force platform using M-mode ultrasound. Computerized motion detection with the Teager-Kaiser energy operator was applied on the gluteus minimus and the deep and superficial gluteus medius to determine the time lag between muscle motion onset and instant of peak ground reaction force and the level of gluteus minimus motion during the swing phase. Time lags and motion levels were averaged per subject, and t tests were used to determine between-group differences. In participants with hip pain, gluteus minimus motion onset was 103 milliseconds earlier (P = .002) and superficial gluteus medius motion was 70 milliseconds earlier (P = .047) than those in healthy control participants. The level of gluteus minimus swing-phase motion was higher with pain (P = .006). Increased gluteus minimus motion during the swing phase and earlier gluteus minimus and superficial gluteus medius motion in individuals with hip pain suggest an overall increase of muscle activity, possibly a protective behavior.

  5. Multidirectional Efficacy of Biologically Active Nitro Compounds Included in Medicines.

    PubMed

    Olender, Dorota; Żwawiak, Justyna; Zaprutko, Lucjusz

    2018-05-29

    The current concept in searching for new bioactive products, including mainly original active substances with potential application in pharmacy and medicine, is based on compounds with a previously determined structure, well-known properties, and biological activity profile. Nowadays, many commonly used drugs originated from natural sources. Moreover, some natural materials have become the source of leading structures for processing further chemical modifications. Many organic compounds with great therapeutic significance have the nitro group in their structure. Very often, nitro compounds are active substances in many well-known preparations belonging to different groups of medicines that are classified according to their pharmacological potencies. Moreover, the nitro group is part of the chemical structure of veterinary drugs. In this review, we describe many bioactive substances with the nitro group, divided into ten categories, including substances with exciting activity and that are currently undergoing clinical trials.

  6. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  7. Load-related brain activation predicts spatial working memory performance in youth aged 9-12 and is associated with executive function at earlier ages.

    PubMed

    Huang, Anna S; Klein, Daniel N; Leung, Hoi-Chung

    2016-02-01

    Spatial working memory is a central cognitive process that matures through adolescence in conjunction with major changes in brain function and anatomy. Here we focused on late childhood and early adolescence to more closely examine the neural correlates of performance variability during this important transition period. Using a modified spatial 1-back task with two memory load conditions in an fMRI study, we examined the relationship between load-dependent neural responses and task performance in a sample of 39 youth aged 9-12 years. Our data revealed that between-subject differences in task performance was predicted by load-dependent deactivation in default network regions, including the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Although load-dependent increases in activation in prefrontal and posterior parietal regions were only weakly correlated with performance, increased prefrontal-parietal coupling was associated with better performance. Furthermore, behavioral measures of executive function from as early as age 3 predicted current load-dependent deactivation in vACC and PCC. These findings suggest that both task positive and task negative brain activation during spatial working memory contributed to successful task performance in late childhood/early adolescence. This may serve as a good model for studying executive control deficits in developmental disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Load-related brain activation predicts spatial working memory performance in youth aged 9–12 and is associated with executive function at earlier ages

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Anna S.; Klein, Daniel N.; Leung, Hoi-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Spatial working memory is a central cognitive process that matures through adolescence in conjunction with major changes in brain function and anatomy. Here we focused on late childhood and early adolescence to more closely examine the neural correlates of performance variability during this important transition period. Using a modified spatial 1-back task with two memory load conditions in an fMRI study, we examined the relationship between load-dependent neural responses and task performance in a sample of 39 youth aged 9–12 years. Our data revealed that between-subject differences in task performance was predicted by load-dependent deactivation in default network regions, including the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Although load-dependent increases in activation in prefrontal and posterior parietal regions were only weakly correlated with performance, increased prefrontal-parietal coupling was associated with better performance. Furthermore, behavioral measures of executive function from as early as age 3 predicted current load-dependent deactivation in vACC and PCC. These findings suggest that both task positive and task negative brain activation during spatial working memory contributed to successful task performance in late childhood/early adolescence. This may serve as a good model for studying executive control deficits in developmental disorders. PMID:26562059

  9. Relation Between Crustal Deformations Caused by the 2000 Miyake-Kozu Seismovolcanic Activity and the 2000 Tokai Slow-Slip Event -- Which Crustal Deformation Occurred Earlier? --

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, M.; Yamaoka, K.

    2006-12-01

    The 2000 seismovolcanic activity between the Miyakejima and Kozushima islands, which are located south of the Japanese main island, and the 2000 slow-slip event, which was initiated on the plate boundary between the subducting Philippine Sea Plate and its overriding Eurasian (Amurian) Plate just beneath the Hamana Lake in the Tokai district, are typical overlapping geophysical processes in space and time around the Japanese islands. Which process affected the other one is an issue which is difficult to clear even now. It is important to resolve the issue in order to get insight into the tectonics of central Japan. For this purpose, we applied two statistical approaches, principal component analysis and mode rotation procedure, to the displacement field of central Japan to obtain the spatiotemporal crustal deformation structures characteristic of the above two processes. We divided time period into two spans: from 26th June, 1999 to 25th June, 2000 and from 26th June, 2000 to 26th June 2001. Secular and periodic components for each station were excluded beforehand by evaluating these components using the data of each station from 26th June, 1999 to 25th June, 2000. All of the spatial and temporal modes for the first half period didn't reveal any significant spatiotemporal changes accompanied by the two processes. This indicates that this time period didn't experience any nonstationary crustal deformations. On the contrary, the modes for the latter half period included the changes due to these processes. The 1st and 2nd modes corresponded to the spatiotemporal structures of the first and latter half periods of the Miyake-Kozu seismovolcanic activity, respectively. The 3rd mode, which was prominent later than the beginning of the Miyake-Kozu seismovolcanic activity, was characteristic of the structure of the Tokai slow-slip event. These results allow us to conclude that crustal deformation due to the Tokai slow-slip event was preceded by that due to the Miyake

  10. An earlier de motu cordis.

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Walter J.

    2004-01-01

    Thirteenth century medical science, like medieval scholarship in general, was directed at reconciliation of Greek philosophy/science with prevailing medieval theology and philosophy. Peter of Spain [later Pope John XXI] was the leading medical scholar of his time. Peter wrote a long book on the soul. Imbedded in it was a chapter on the motion of the heart. Peter's De Motu was based on his own medical experience and Galen's De Usu Partium and De Usu Respirationis and De Usu Pulsuum. This earlier De Motu defines a point on the continuum of intellectual development leading to us and into the future. Thirteenth century scholarship relied on past authority to a degree that continues to puzzle and beg explanation. Images Fig. 1 PMID:17060956

  11. [Effectiveness of mental health training including active listening for managers].

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Kazunori; Tagawa, Yoshimasa; Mafune, Kosuke; Hiro, Hisanori; Nagata, Shoji

    2008-07-01

    significant increases post-training in "Job demands", "Worksite support by supervisor" and "Worksite support by co-worker", subscales of the BJSQ 12 items version. Particularly, the "Worksite support by supervisor" subscale increased significantly in 8 of the 47 sections in a comparison among sections. In this present study, we investigated the effectiveness of mental health training including Active Listening for managers, and suggest that to train Active Listening and use it at the worksite possibly strengthens "Worksite support by supervisor".

  12. Classifying Cereal Data (Earlier Methods)

    Cancer.gov

    The DSQ includes questions about cereal intake and allows respondents up to two responses on which cereals they consume. We classified each cereal reported first by hot or cold, and then along four dimensions: density of added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium.

  13. Earlier initialization of highly active antiretroviral therapy is associated with long-term survival and is cost-effective: findings from a deterministic model of a 10-year Ugandan cohort.

    PubMed

    Mills, Fergal P; Ford, Nathan; Nachega, Jean B; Bansback, Nicholas; Nosyk, Bohdan; Yaya, Sanni; Mills, Edward J

    2012-11-01

    Raising the guidelines for the initiation of antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings at CD4 T-cell counts of 350 cells per microliter raises concerns about feasibility and cost. We examined costs of this shift using data from Uganda for almost 10 years. We projected total costs of earlier initiation with combined antiretroviral therapy, including inpatient and outpatient services, antiretroviral treatment and treatment for limited HIV-related opportunistic diseases, and benefits expressed in years-of-life-saved over 5- and 30-year time horizons using a deterministic economic model to examine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), expressed in cost per year-of-life-saved (YLS). The model generated ICERs for 5- and 30-year time horizons. Discounting both costs and benefits at 3% annually, for the 5-year analysis, the ICER was $695/YLS and $769 in the 30-year analysis. The results were most sensitive to program cost and the discount rate applied, but they were less sensitive to opportunistic infection treatment costs or the relative-risk reduction from earlier initiation. Program costs varied from 25% to 125%, and the ICER for the lower bound decreased to $491/YLS at 5-years and $574/YLS at 30 years. For the upper bound, the ICER increased to $899 for 5-years and $964 at 30-years. The budget impact of adoption, assuming the same level of program penetration in the community, is $261,651,942 for 5 years and $872,685,561 for 30 years. Our model showed that earlier initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy in Uganda is associated with improved long-term survival and is highly cost-effective, as defined by WHO-CHOICE.

  14. Toward Explaining Earlier Retirement after 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ippolito, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Rule changes in the social security system and pension plans suggest that labor force participation rates for men aged 55 to 64 fell by 20 percent from 1970 through 1986 because of the increase in social security benefits and a change in private pension rules encouraging earlier retirement. (Author/JOW)

  15. Earlier Age at Menopause, Work and Tobacco Smoke Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Lora E; Levis, Silvina; LeBlanc, William G; Dietz, Noella A; Arheart, Kristopher L; Wilkinson, James D; Clark, John; Serdar, Berrin; Davila, Evelyn P; Lee, David J

    2009-01-01

    Objective Earlier age at menopause onset has been associated with increased all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality risks. Risk of earlier age at menopause associated with primary and secondary tobacco smoke exposure was assessed. Design Cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of US women. Methods 7596 women participants (representing an estimated 79 million US women) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III were asked: time since last menstrual period, occupation, and tobacco use (including home and workplace secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure). Blood cotinine and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were assessed. Logistic regressions for the odds of earlier age at menopause, stratified on race/ethnicity in women 25-50 years and adjusted for survey design, were controlled for age, BMI, education, tobacco smoke exposure, and occupation. Results Among 5029 US women ≥ 25 years with complete data, earlier age at menopause was found among all smokers, and among service and manufacturing industry sector workers. Among women age 25-50 years, there was an increased risk of earlier age at menopause with both primary smoking and with SHS exposure, particularly among Black women. Conclusions Primary tobacco use and SHS exposure were associated with an increased odds of earlier age at menopause in a representative sample of US women. Earlier age at menopause was found for some women worker groups with greater potential occupational SHS exposure. Thus, control of SHS exposures in the workplace may decrease the risk of mortality and morbidity associated with earlier age at menopause in US women workers. PMID:18626414

  16. Earlier snowmelt and warming lead to earlier but not necessarily more plant growth.

    PubMed

    Livensperger, Carolyn; Steltzer, Heidi; Darrouzet-Nardi, Anthony; Sullivan, Patrick F; Wallenstein, Matthew; Weintraub, Michael N

    2016-01-01

    Climate change over the past ∼50 years has resulted in earlier occurrence of plant life-cycle events for many species. Across temperate, boreal and polar latitudes, earlier seasonal warming is considered the key mechanism leading to earlier leaf expansion and growth. Yet, in seasonally snow-covered ecosystems, the timing of spring plant growth may also be cued by snowmelt, which may occur earlier in a warmer climate. Multiple environmental cues protect plants from growing too early, but to understand how climate change will alter the timing and magnitude of plant growth, experiments need to independently manipulate temperature and snowmelt. Here, we demonstrate that altered seasonality through experimental warming and earlier snowmelt led to earlier plant growth, but the aboveground production response varied among plant functional groups. Earlier snowmelt without warming led to early leaf emergence, but often slowed the rate of leaf expansion and had limited effects on aboveground production. Experimental warming alone had small and inconsistent effects on aboveground phenology, while the effect of the combined treatment resembled that of early snowmelt alone. Experimental warming led to greater aboveground production among the graminoids, limited changes among deciduous shrubs and decreased production in one of the dominant evergreen shrubs. As a result, we predict that early onset of the growing season may favour early growing plant species, even those that do not shift the timing of leaf expansion. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  17. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Adrian J; Van Stralen, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Te Velde, Saskia J; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the relationship between country-level data on macroenvironmental factors (gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, public sector expenditure on health, percentage living in urban areas, and cars per 1000 population) with country-level physical activity prevalence obtained from previous pan-European studies. Studies that assessed leisuretime physical activity (n = 3 studies including 27 countries in adults, n = 2 studies including 28 countries in children) and total physical activity (n = 3 studies in adults including 16 countries) were analyzed separately as were studies among adults and children. Strong and consistent positive correlations were observed between country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and country GDP per capita in adults (average r = 0.70; all studies, P G 0.05). In multivariate analysis, country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity among adults remained associated with country GDP per capita (two of three studies) but not urbanization or educational attainment. Among school-age populations, no association was found between country GDP per capita and country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. In those studies that assessed total physical activity (which also includes occupational and transport physical activity), no association with country GDP per capita was observed. Clear differences in national leisure-time physical activity levels throughout Europe may be a consequence of economic development. Lack of economic development of some countries in Europe may make increasing leisure-time physical activity more difficult. Further examination of the link between country GDP per capita and national physical activity levels (across

  18. Including Students with Moderate and Severe Disabilities in Extracurricular and Community Recreation Activities: Steps to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinert, Harold L.; Miracle, Sally A.; Sheppard-Jones, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Recreation and leisure activities play a vital role in all people's lives, and educators have long recognized that such activities are an important instructional emphasis for students with moderate and severe disabilities. This article offers teachers practical strategies for including their students with disabilities in school extracurricular…

  19. Improvements to the FATOLA computer program including added actively controlled landing gear subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    Modifications to a multi-degree-of-freedom flexible aircraft take-off and landing analysis (FATOLA) computer program, including a provision for actively controlled landing gears to expand the programs simulation capabilities, are presented. Supplemental instructions for preparation of data and for use of the modified program are included.

  20. Including students with moderate and severe intellectual disabilities in school extracurricular and community recreation activities.

    PubMed

    Kleinert, Harold L; Miracle, Sally; Sheppard-Jones, Kathy

    2007-02-01

    We conducted an online statewide survey of teachers of students with moderate and severe intellectual disabilities to determine the extent to which their students were included in school extracurricular and community recreation activities. For the 252 teacher respondents who indicated that their primary caseload consisted of students with significant intellectual disabilities, we report the numbers of students participating in school and community activities and the primary type of support students required to participate in each activity. Finally, we identify implications for practitioners who want to increase the participation of students with significant disabilities in school and community activities.

  1. Alzheimer's and Dementia Testing for Earlier Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... focused on early detection of Alzheimer's disease. Imaging technologies used in Alzheimer's research Structural imaging provides information ... chemical changes linked to specific diseases. Molecular imaging technologies include PET, fMRI and single photon emission computed ...

  2. Implementation of the Project "Including Disabled Senior Citizens in Creative Activities in 2013-2015"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploch, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    This paper made an attempt to indicate the findings of the author's research from the experiences of the implementation of the project "Including disabled senior citizens in creative activities in 2013-2015". The issues of disabled senior citizens have been an object of interest over the recent years though it still has not had a proper…

  3. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities, and Bibliography. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.; Long, Alison T.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population matters. The document describes 15 class sessions which integrate information for sociology, anthropology, psychology, biology, animal behavior, and education. Topics include the history of human…

  4. Peptidase inhibitors reduce opiate narcotic withdrawal signs, including seizure activity, in the rat.

    PubMed

    Pinsky, C; Dua, A K; LaBella, F S

    1982-07-15

    Narcotic withdrawal was precipitated by administration of naloxone in a low dose at 2 h after the final dose of morphine in a 9-day dependency-inducing schedule. Withdrawal was characterized by leaps, increased nocifensor activity and by cerebral cortical epileptiform activity, the latter not generally reported to be prominent in narcotic withdrawal. Single large doses of morphine did not provoke epileptiform activity at 2 h postinjection but did induce an acute opioid dependency wherein a moderately high dose of naloxone, ineffective in non-dependent rats, provoked upward leaping and electrocortical epileptiform activity. Pretreatment of the 9-day dependent rats with peptidase inhibitors, administered intracerebroventricularly, significantly reduced withdrawal severity including the epileptiform activity. We propose that peptidase inhibitors protect certain species of endogenous opioids and/or other neuropeptides that tend to suppress expression of the narcotic withdrawal syndrome. Furthermore, our findings suggest that epileptiform activity is a nascent form of cerebral activity hitherto largely unnoticed in narcotic withdrawal and that neuropeptides may be involved in certain epileptic states.

  5. Plants as sources of airborne bacteria, including ice nucleation-active bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, J; Constantinidou, H A; Barchet, W R; Upper, C D

    1982-11-01

    Vertical wind shear and concentration gradients of viable, airborne bacteria were used to calculate the upward flux of viable cells above bare soil and canopies of several crops. Concentrations at soil or canopy height varied from 46 colony-forming units per m over young corn and wet soil to 663 colony-forming units per m over dry soil and 6,500 colony-forming units per m over a closed wheat canopy. In simultaneous samples, concentrations of viable bacteria in the air 10 m inside an alfalfa field were fourfold higher than those over a field with dry, bare soil immediately upwind. The upward flux of viable bacteria over alfalfa was three- to fourfold greater than over dry soil. Concentrations of ice nucleation-active bacteria were higher over plants than over soil. Thus, plant canopies may constitute a major source of bacteria, including ice nucleation-active bacteria, in the air.

  6. Measuring and Reducing Off-Target Activities of Programmable Nucleases Including CRISPR-Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Taeyoung; Lee, Jungjoon; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Programmable nucleases, which include zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) repurposed from the type II clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system are now widely used for genome editing in higher eukaryotic cells and whole organisms, revolutionising almost every discipline in biological research, medicine, and biotechnology. All of these nucleases, however, induce off-target mutations at sites homologous in sequence with on-target sites, limiting their utility in many applications including gene or cell therapy. In this review, we compare methods for detecting nuclease off-target mutations. We also review methods for profiling genome-wide off-target effects and discuss how to reduce or avoid off-target mutations. PMID:25985872

  7. Should Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Include the Cost of Consumption Activities? AN Empirical Investigation.

    PubMed

    Adarkwah, Charles Christian; Sadoghi, Amirhossein; Gandjour, Afschin

    2016-02-01

    There has been a debate on whether cost-effectiveness analysis should consider the cost of consumption and leisure time activities when using the quality-adjusted life year as a measure of health outcome under a societal perspective. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the effects of ill health on consumptive activities are spontaneously considered in a health state valuation exercise and how much this matters. The survey enrolled patients with inflammatory bowel disease in Germany (n = 104). Patients were randomized to explicit and no explicit instruction for the consideration of consumption and leisure effects in a time trade-off (TTO) exercise. Explicit instruction to consider non-health-related utility in TTO exercises did not influence TTO scores. However, spontaneous consideration of non-health-related utility in patients without explicit instruction (60% of respondents) led to significantly lower TTO scores. Results suggest an inclusion of consumption costs in the numerator of the cost-effectiveness ratio, at least for those respondents who spontaneously consider non-health-related utility from treatment. Results also suggest that exercises eliciting health valuations from the general public may include a description of the impact of disease on consumptive activities. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Discharging patients earlier in the day: a concept worth evaluating.

    PubMed

    Kravet, Steven J; Levine, Rachel B; Rubin, Haya R; Wright, Scott M

    2007-01-01

    Patient discharges from the hospital often occur late in the day and are frequently clustered after 4 PM. When inpatients leave earlier in the day, quality is improved because new admissions awaiting beds are able to leave the emergency department sooner and emergency department waiting room backlog is reduced. Nursing staff, whose work patterns traditionally result in high activity of discharge and admission between 5 PM and 8 PM, benefit by spreading out their work across a longer part of the day. Discharging patients earlier in the day also has the potential to increase patient satisfaction. Despite multiple stakeholders in the discharge planning process, physicians play the most important role. Getting physician buy-in requires an ability to teach physicians about the concept of early-in-the-day discharges and their impact on the process. We defined a new physician-centered discharge planning process and introduced it to an internal medicine team with an identical control team as a comparison. Discharge time of day was analyzed for 1 month. Mean time of day of discharge was 13:39 for the intervention group versus 15:45 for the control group (P<.001). If reproduced successfully, this process could improve quality at an important transition point in patient care.

  9. Should singing activities be included in speech and voice therapy for prepubertal children?

    PubMed

    Rinta, Tiija; Welch, Graham F

    2008-01-01

    Customarily, speaking and singing have tended to be regarded as two completely separate sets of behaviors in clinical and educational settings. The treatment of speech and voice disorders has focused on the client's speaking ability, as this is perceived to be the main vocal behavior of concern. However, according to a broader voice-science perspective, given that the same vocal structure is used for speaking and singing, it may be possible to include singing in speech and voice therapy. In this article, a theoretical framework is proposed that indicates possible benefits from the inclusion of singing in such therapeutic settings. Based on a literature review, it is demonstrated theoretically why singing activities can potentially be exploited in the treatment of prepubertal children suffering from speech and voice disorders. Based on this theoretical framework, implications for further empirical research and practice are suggested.

  10. Be BOLD: Encouraging Girls to Include Unstructured Bouts of Physical Activity into Daily Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kory; Williams, Gwynne M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent girls are less active than their male counterparts and physical activity levels tend to decline as one ages. One of the goals of concerned physical educators is to promote a physically active lifestyle and to teach skills and promote behaviors that will allow students to be active both in and out of school. This article presents a…

  11. MAO enzymes inhibitory activity of new benzimidazole derivatives including hydrazone and propargyl side chains.

    PubMed

    Can, Özgür Devrim; Osmaniye, Derya; Demir Özkay, Ümide; Sağlık, Begüm Nurpelin; Levent, Serkan; Ilgın, Sinem; Baysal, Merve; Özkay, Yusuf; Kaplancıklı, Zafer Asım

    2017-05-05

    In the present work, 15 new N'-(arylidene)-4-(1-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)benzohydrazide (4a-4o) were designed and synthesized. The structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated using FT-IR, 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, and HRMS spectral data. The inhibitory activity of the compounds 4a-4o against hMAO-A and hMAO-B enzymes was evaluated by using in vitro Amlex Red ® reagent based fluorometric method. Due to lots of high-cost kits including this assay, we determined the ingredients of the kits from the data sheets of several suppliers, and adjusted a protocol by working with various concentrations and volumes of these ingredients. As a result, a fast and sensitive assay was applied as in the commercially available MAO kits with lower costs and clearer ingredients than those of the kits. The enzyme inhibition assay revealed that synthesized compounds have selective inhibition potency against hMAO-B. The compound 4e and 4f displayed IC 50 values of 0.075 μM and 0.136 μM against hMAO-B, respectively. The reference drugs selegiline (IC 50  = 0.040 μM) and rasagiline (IC 50  = 0.066 μM) also displayed a significant inhibition against hMAO-B. The enzyme kinetic study was performed in order to observe the effect of the most active compound 4e on substrate-enzyme relationship and non-competitive inhibition of hMAO-B was determined. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies were carried out and the compound 4e was found as non-cytotoxic and non-genotixic. Theoretical calculation of ADME properties suggested that compound 4e may have a good pharmacokinetic profile. The docking study of compound 4e revealed that there is a strong interaction between the active sites of hMAO-B and analyzed compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the Supraglottic and Subglottic Activities Including Acoustic Assessment of the Opera-Chant Singers.

    PubMed

    Petekkaya, Emine; Yücel, Ahmet Hilmi; Sürmelioğlu, Özgür

    2017-12-28

    Opera and chant singers learn to effectively use aerodynamic components by breathing exercises during their education. Aerodynamic components, including subglottic air pressure and airflow, deteriorate in voice disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in aerodynamic parameters and supraglottic structures of men and women with different vocal registers who are in an opera and chant education program. Vocal acoustic characteristics, aerodynamic components, and supraglottic structures were evaluated in 40 opera and chant art branch students. The majority of female students were sopranos, and the male students were baritone or tenor vocalists. The acoustic analyses revealed that the mean fundamental frequency was 152.33 Hz in the males and 218.77 Hz in the females. The estimated mean subglottal pressures were similar in females (14.99 cmH 2 O) and in males (14.48 cmH 2 O). Estimated mean airflow rates were also similar in both groups. The supraglottic structure compression analyses revealed partial anterior-posterior compressions in 2 tenors and 2 sopranos, and false vocal fold compression in 2 sopranos. Opera music is sung in high-pitched sounds. Attempts to sing high-pitched notes and frequently using register transitions overstrain the vocal structures. This intense muscular effort eventually traumatizes the vocal structures and causes supraglottic activity. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reducing Older Driver Motor Vehicle Collisions via Earlier Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mennemeyer, Stephen T.; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Older adults who undergo cataract extraction have roughly half the rate of motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement per mile driven compared to cataract patients who do not elect cataract surgery. Currently in the U.S., most insurers do not allow payment for cataract surgery based upon the findings of a vision exam unless accompanied by an individual’s complaint of visual difficulties that seriously interfere with driving or other daily activities and individuals themselves may be slow or reluctant to complain and seek relief. As a consequence, surgery tends to occur after significant vision problems have emerged. We hypothesize that a proactive policy encouraging cataract surgery earlier for a lesser level of complaint would significantly reduce MVCs among older drivers. We used a Monte Carlo model to simulate the MVC experience of the U.S. population from age 60 to 89 under alternative protocols for the timing of cataract surgery which we call “Current Practice” (CP) and “Earlier Surgery” (ES). Our base model finds, from a societal perspective with undiscounted 2010 dollars, that switching to ES from CP reduces by about 21% the average number of MVCs, fatalities, and MVC cost per person. The net effect on total cost – all MVC costs plus cataract surgery expenditures -- is a reduction of about 16%. Quality Adjusted Life Years would increase by about 5%. From the perspective of payers for healthcare, the switch would increase cataract surgery expenditure for ages 65+ by about 8% and for ages 60 to 64 by about 47% but these expenditures are substantially offset after age 65 by reductions in the medical and emergency services component of MVC cost. Similar results occur with discounting at 3% and with various sensitivity analyses. We conclude that a policy of ES would significantly reduce MVCs and their associated consequences. PMID:23369786

  14. Scientific Knowledge Suppresses but Does Not Supplant Earlier Intuitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shtulman, Andrew; Valcarcel, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    When students learn scientific theories that conflict with their earlier, naive theories, what happens to the earlier theories? Are they overwritten or merely suppressed? We investigated this question by devising and implementing a novel speeded-reasoning task. Adults with many years of science education verified two types of statements as quickly…

  15. Interest Inventory. [Includes Academic Interest Measure, Pupil Activity Inventory, and Semantic Differential].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    This Interest Inventory contains three inventories: Academic Interest Measure (AIM), Pupil Activity Inventory (PAI), and Semantic Differential test (SD). The AIM measures six subscales of academic interests; the PAI measures non-school activities in science; and the SD measures attitudes toward science and physics. The inventories are designed for…

  16. Intracellular activity of clinical concentrations of phenothiazines including thioridiazine against phagocytosed Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Ordway, Diane; Viveiros, Miguel; Leandro, Clara; Arroz, Maria Jorge; Amaral, Leonard

    2002-07-01

    The effect of thioridazine (TZ) was studied on the killing activity of human peripheral blood monocyte derived macrophages (HPBMDM) and of human macrophage cell line THP-1 at extracellular concentrations below those achievable clinically. These macrophages have nominal killing activity against bacteria and therefore, would not influence any activity that the compounds may have against intracellular localised Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicated that whereas TZ has an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the strains of S. aureus of 18, 0.1 mg/l of TZ in the medium completely inhibits the growth of S. aureus that has been phagocytosed by macrophages. The latter concentration was non-toxic to macrophages, did not cause cellular expression of activation marker CD69 nor induction of CD3+ T cell production of IFN-gamma, but blocked cellular proliferation and down-regulated the production of T cell-derived cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-5). These results suggest that TZ induces intracellular bactericidal activities independent of the capacity to generate Type 1 responses against S. aureus.

  17. Electrode including porous particles with embedded active material for use in a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Nelson, Paul A.; Kaun, Thomas D.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1978-04-25

    Particles of carbonaceous matrices containing embedded electrode active material are prepared for vibratory loading within a porous electrically conductive substrate. In preparing the particles, active materials such as metal chalcogenides, solid alloys of alkali or alkaline earth metals along with other metals and their oxides in powdered or particulate form are blended with a thermosetting resin and particles of a volatile to form a paste mixture. The paste is heated to a temperature at which the volatile transforms into vapor to impart porosity at about the same time as the resin begins to cure into a rigid, solid structure. The solid structure is then comminuted into porous, carbonaceous particles with the embedded active material.

  18. In vitro and in vivo anti-plasmodial activity of essential oils, including hinokitiol.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Kamei, Kiyoko; Yamamura, Mariko; Nishiya, Hajime; Inouye, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Miki; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-03-01

    Abstract. The anti-plasmodial activity of 47 essential oils and 10 of their constituents were screened for in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Five of these essential oils (sandalwood, caraway, monarda, nutmeg, and Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondai) and 2 constituents (thymoquinone and hinokitiol) were found to be active against P. falciparum in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values equal to or less than 1.0 microg/ml. Furthermore, in vivo analysis using a rodent model confirmed the anti-plasmodial potential of subcutaneously administered sandalwood oil, and percutaneously administered hinokitiol and caraway oil against rodent P. berghei. Notably, these oils showed no efficacy when administered orally, intraperitoneally or intravenously. Caraway oil and hinokitiol dissolved in carrier oil, applied to the skin of hairless mice caused high levels in the blood, with concentrations exceeding their IC50 values.

  19. Diffractive laser beam homogenizer including a photo-active material and method of fabricating the same

    DOEpatents

    Bayramian, Andy J; Ebbers, Christopher A; Chen, Diana C

    2014-05-20

    A method of manufacturing a plurality of diffractive optical elements includes providing a partially transmissive slide, providing a first piece of PTR glass, and directing first UV radiation through the partially transmissive slide to impinge on the first piece of PTR glass. The method also includes exposing predetermined portions of the first piece of PTR glass to the first UV radiation and thermally treating the exposed first piece of PTR glass. The method further includes providing a second piece of PTR glass and directing second UV radiation through the thermally treated first piece of PTR glass to impinge on the second piece of PTR glass. The method additionally includes exposing predetermined portions of the second piece of PTR glass to the second UV radiation, thermally treating the exposed second piece of PTR glass, and repeating providing and processing of the second piece of PTR glass using additional pieces of PTR glass.

  20. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population concerns. Designed to educate general college audiences, it is also intended for use as a preservice course for teachers. In addition, the course can be modified for high school students. The course…

  1. Beyond Right or Wrong: Challenges of Including Creative Design Activities in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore challenges encountered by K-12 educators in establishing classroom cultures that support creative learning activities with the Scratch programming language. Providing opportunities for students to understand and to build capacities for creative work was described by many of the teachers that we interviewed as a central…

  2. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Stacie M.; Kirk, Erik P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Methods: Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA…

  3. Observing a fictitious stressful event: haematological changes, including circulating leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Mian, Rubina; Shelton-Rayner, Graham; Harkin, Brendan; Williams, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of watching a psychological stressful event on the activation of leukocytes in healthy human volunteers. Blood samples were obtained from 32 healthy male and female subjects aged between 20 and 26 years before, during and after either watching an 83-minute horror film that none of the subjects had previously seen (The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, 1974) or by sitting quietly in a room (control group). Total differential cell counts, leukocyte activation as measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken at defined time points. There were significant increases in peripheral circulating leukocytes, the number of activated circulating leukocytes, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) in response to the stressor. These were accompanied by significant increases in heart rate, systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.05 from baseline). This is the first reported study on the effects of observing a psychologically stressful, albeit fictitious event on circulating leukocyte numbers and the state of leukocyte activation as determined by the nitrotetrazolium test.

  4. Physical Activity Programs in Higher Education: Modifying Net/Wall Games to Include Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braga, Luciana; Tracy, Julia F.; Taliaferro, Andrea R.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of students with disabilities in higher education settings has presented challenges for instructors with regards to appropriate inclusion. Concerning physical activity courses in higher education, instructors may not have the knowledge or resources to make modifications and accommodations that will ultimately result in…

  5. Using assistive technology adaptations to include students with learning disabilities in cooperative learning activities.

    PubMed

    Bryant, D P; Bryant, B R

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative learning (CL) is a common instructional arrangement that is used by classroom teachers to foster academic achievement and social acceptance of students with and without learning disabilities. Cooperative learning is appealing to classroom teachers because it can provide an opportunity for more instruction and feedback by peers than can be provided by teachers to individual students who require extra assistance. Recent studies suggest that students with LD may need adaptations during cooperative learning activities. The use of assistive technology adaptations may be necessary to help some students with LD compensate for their specific learning difficulties so that they can engage more readily in cooperative learning activities. A process for integrating technology adaptations into cooperative learning activities is discussed in terms of three components: selecting adaptations, monitoring the use of the adaptations during cooperative learning activities, and evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. The article concludes with comments regarding barriers to and support systems for technology integration, technology and effective instructional practices, and the need to consider technology adaptations for students who have learning disabilities.

  6. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance agreement...

  7. 76 FR 10385 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Various Contract Related Forms That Will be Included in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... Forms That Will be Included in the Homeland Security Acquisition Regulation, DHS FORM 0700-01, DHS FORM 0700-02, DHS FORM 0700-03, DHS FORM 0700-04 AGENCY: Office of Chief Procurement Officer, Acquisition..., Acquisition Policy and Legislation Office, DHS will submit the following information collection request (ICR...

  8. 75 FR 69688 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Various Contract Related Forms That Will Be Included in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Forms That Will Be Included in the Homeland Security Acquisition Regulation, DHS Form 0700-01, DHS Form 0700-02, DHS Form 0700-03, DHS FORM 0700-04 AGENCY: Office of Chief Procurement Officer, Acquisition..., Acquisition Policy and Legislation Office, will submit the following Information Collection Request (ICR) to...

  9. Space Resources for Teachers: Biology, Including Suggestions for Classroom Activities and Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tom E.; And Others

    This compilation of resource units concerns the latest developments in space biology. Some of the topics included are oxygen consumption, temperature, radiation, rhythms, weightlessness, acceleration and vibration stress, toxicity, and sensory and perceptual problems. Many of the topics are interdisciplinary and relate biology, physiology,…

  10. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... relations purposes, including E-commerce (mail ordering through the Internet): Provided, That Credit-Back...-Back is requested. (e) The following requirements shall apply to Credit-Back for all promotional... and Canada, paragraph (e)(5) of this section shall also apply. (2) The clear and evident purpose of...

  11. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... relations purposes, including E-commerce (mail ordering through the Internet): Provided, That Credit-Back...-Back is requested. (e) The following requirements shall apply to Credit-Back for all promotional... and Canada, paragraph (e)(5) of this section shall also apply. (2) The clear and evident purpose of...

  12. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... relations purposes, including E-commerce (mail ordering through the Internet): Provided, That Credit-Back...-Back is requested. (e) The following requirements shall apply to Credit-Back for all promotional... and Canada, paragraph (e)(5) of this section shall also apply. (2) The clear and evident purpose of...

  13. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... relations purposes, including E-commerce (mail ordering through the Internet): Provided, That Credit-Back...-Back is requested. (e) The following requirements shall apply to Credit-Back for all promotional... and Canada, paragraph (e)(5) of this section shall also apply. (2) The clear and evident purpose of...

  14. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... relations purposes, including E-commerce (mail ordering through the Internet): Provided, That Credit-Back...-Back is requested. (e) The following requirements shall apply to Credit-Back for all promotional... and Canada, paragraph (e)(5) of this section shall also apply. (2) The clear and evident purpose of...

  15. Ex Vivo Activity of Endoperoxide Antimalarials, Including Artemisone and Arterolane, against Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    OCT 2014 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ex Vivo Activity of Endoperoxide Antimalarials , Including Artemisone...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Ex Vivo Activity of Endoperoxide Antimalarials , Including Artemisone and Arterolane, against Multidrug-Resistant...potent antimalarial activity (2, 3). Despite having a rapid mecha- nism of action, artemisinin resistance eventually emerged and was first detected

  16. Evidence to support including lifestyle light-intensity recommendations in physical activity guidelines for older adults.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Lee, Hyo; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of objectively measured lifestyle light-intensity physical activity (LLPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with various biological markers and chronic diseases among a nationally representative sample of U.S. older adults (65+ years). A cross-sectional design was used for this study. Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006. Subjects were 1,496 older U.S. adults. Participants wore an accelerometer for at least 4 days and completed questionnaires to assess sociodemographics and chronic disease information. Blood samples were taken to assess biological markers. Adjusted Wald tests and Poisson regression were used to examine the association of LLPA and MVPA with biological markers and chronic disease. Older adults engaging in ≥300 min/wk of LLPA had lower observed values for body mass index, waist circumference, C-reactive protein, and insulin resistance compared to those engaging in <300 min/wk of LLPA. Additionally, those engaging in <300 min/wk of LLPA had a rate 1.18 times greater for having chronic disease compared to those engaging in ≥300 min/wk of LLPA. In this national sample of older U.S. adults, participation in at least 300 min/wk of LLPA was associated with more favorable health outcomes. Future experimental studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  17. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-09-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolitionmore » (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.« less

  18. Assessment of hydration biomarkers including salivary osmolality during passive and active dehydration.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, C X; Johnson, E C; Demartini, J K; Huggins, R A; McKenzie, A L; Casa, D J; Maresh, C M; Armstrong, L E

    2013-12-01

    Hydration state can be assessed via body mass change (BMΔ), serum and urine osmolality (Sosm, Uosm), urine-specific gravity (Usg) and urine volume (Uvol). As no hydration index has been shown to be valid in all circumstances, value exists in exploring novel biomarkers such as salivary osmolality (Vosm). Utilizing acute BMΔ as the reference standard, this research examined the efficacy of Sosm, Vosm, Uosm, Uvol and Usg, during passive (PAS) and active (ACT) heat exposure. Twenty-three healthy men (age, 22±3 years; mass, 77.3±12.8 kg; height, 179.9±8.8cm; body fat, 10.6±4.5%) completed two randomized 5-h dehydration trials (36±1 °C). During PAS, subjects sat quietly, and during ACT, participants cycled at 68±6% maximal heart rate. Investigators measured all biomarkers at each 1% BMΔ. Average mass loss during PAS was 1.4±0.3%, and 4.1±0.7% during ACT. Significant between-treatment differences at -1% BMΔ were observed for Sosm (PAS, 296±4; ACT, 301±4 mOsm/kg) and Uosm (PAS, 895±207; ACT, 661±192 mOsm/kg). During PAS, only Uosm, Uvol and Usg increased significantly (-1 and -2% BMΔ versus baseline). During ACT, Vosm most effectively diagnosed dehydration 2% (sensitivity=86%; specificity=91%), followed by Sosm (sensitivity=83%; specificity=83%). Reference change values were validated for Sosm, Usg and BMΔ. The efficacy of indices to detect dehydration 2% differed across treatments. At rest (PAS), only urinary indices increased in concert with body water loss. During exercise (ACT), Sosm and Vosm exhibited the highest sensitivity and specificity. Sosm, Usg and BMΔ exhibited validity in serial measurements. These findings indicate hydration biomarkers should be selected by considering daily activities.

  19. Association between severe dorsolateral prefrontal dysfunction during random number generation and earlier onset in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Koike, Shinsuke; Takizawa, Ryu; Nishimura, Yukika; Marumo, Kohei; Kinou, Masaru; Kawakubo, Yuki; Rogers, Mark A; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2011-08-01

    Schizophrenia involves impairment in attention, working memory and executive processes associated with prefrontal cortical function, an essential contributor of social functioning. Age at onset is a major factor for predicting social outcome in schizophrenia. In clinical settings, we need an objective assessment tool for evaluating prefrontal function and social outcome. Participants included 22 right-handed patients with schizophrenia and 40 gender- and age-matched healthy controls. We used a 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) instrument to measure oxygenated haemoglobin ([oxy-Hb]) changes over the prefrontal cortex during a random number generation (RNG) task. In healthy controls, we found significant [oxy-Hb] increase in the bilateral dorsolateral (DLPFC; BA9 and BA46) and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC; BA44, 45 and 47). The patients with schizophrenia showed significantly smaller activation than the healthy controls in the same approximate regions. In the patient group, a smaller [oxy-Hb] increase in the right DLPFC region (BA9) was significantly correlated with earlier age at onset. NIRS can detect prefrontal cortical dysfunction associated with an executive task, which was coupled with earlier age at onset in schizophrenia. Multichannel NIRS, a non-invasive and user-friendly instrument, may be useful in evaluating cognitive function and social outcome in clinical settings in psychiatry. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included Within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Stacie M; Kirk, Erik P

    2016-03-01

    The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA intervention and a second site participating as the control site. The PA program was designed to promote 300 minutes/week of moderate to vigorous PA academic lessons. Academic achievement related to early literacy and phonological awareness in the areas of rhyming and alliteration were assessed at baseline, 4 and 8 months. Over 8 months, rhyming significantly (p < .01) improved in the PA group (173 ± 12%) compared with the controls (28 ± 8%) resulting in between group differences at 8 months (p < .01). Alliteration significantly (p < .01) improved in the PA group (52 ± 16%) compared with controls (13 ± 5%), resulting in between group differences at 8 months (p < .01). As minutes of exposure to moderate to vigorous PA increased, the change in picture naming (R(2) = .35, p < .05), alliteration (R(2) = .38, p < .05), and rhyming (R(2) = .42, p < .05), increased. A teacher-directed PA program is effective at increasing PA and improving early literacy. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  1. Ozone control of biological activity during Earth's history, including the KT catastrophe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    There have been brief periods since the beginning of the Cambrian some 600 m.y. ago when mass extinctions destroyed a significant fraction of living species. The most widely studied of these events is the catastrophe at the KT boundary that ended the long dominance of the dinosaurs. In addition to mass extinctions, there is another profound discontinuity in the history of Earth's biota, the explosion of life at the end of the Precambrian era which is an episode that is not explained well at all. For some 3 b.y. before the Cambrian, life had been present on Earth, but maintained a low level of activity which is an aspect of the biota that is puzzling, especially during the last two-thirds of that period. During the last 2 b.y. before the Cambrian, conditions at the Earth's surface were suitable for a burgeoning of the biota, according to most criteria: the oceans neither boiled nor were fozen solid during this time, and the atmosphere contained sufficient O for the development of animals. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that mass extinctions and the lackluster behavior of the Precambrian biota share a common cause: an inadequate amount of ozone in the atmosphere.

  2. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job...-sufficiency of program participants; (6) Surveys to collect information regarding client characteristics; and...

  3. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job...-sufficiency of program participants; (6) Surveys to collect information regarding client characteristics; and...

  4. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending time…

  5. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance agreement... detail to describe the work as included in the FHWA-approved IRRTIP and Control Schedule; and (c) All...

  6. View northeast, wharf A, portion AA, details showing earlier piers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast, wharf A, portion AA, details showing earlier piers and braces sloping toward water, reused charred plates for existing decking - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  7. Prescription stimulant use is associated with earlier onset of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Moran, Lauren V; Masters, Grace A; Pingali, Samira; Cohen, Bruce M; Liebson, Elizabeth; Rajarethinam, R P; Ongur, Dost

    2015-12-01

    A childhood history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in psychotic disorders, yet prescription stimulants may interact adversely with the physiology of these disorders. Specifically, exposure to stimulants leads to long-term increases in dopamine release. We therefore hypothesized that individuals with psychotic disorders previously exposed to prescription stimulants will have an earlier onset of psychosis. Age of onset of psychosis (AOP) was compared in individuals with and without prior exposure to prescription stimulants while controlling for potential confounding factors. In a sample of 205 patients recruited from an inpatient psychiatric unit, 40% (n = 82) reported use of stimulants prior to the onset of psychosis. Most participants were prescribed stimulants during childhood or adolescence for a diagnosis of ADHD. AOP was significantly earlier in those exposed to stimulants (20.5 vs. 24.6 years stimulants vs. no stimulants, p < 0.001). After controlling for gender, IQ, educational attainment, lifetime history of a cannabis use disorder or other drugs of abuse, and family history of a first-degree relative with psychosis, the association between stimulant exposure and earlier AOP remained significant. There was a significant gender × stimulant interaction with a greater reduction in AOP for females, whereas the smaller effect of stimulant use on AOP in males did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, individuals with psychotic disorders exposed to prescription stimulants had an earlier onset of psychosis, and this relationship did not appear to be mediated by IQ or cannabis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Research promises earlier warning for grapevine canker diseases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    When it comes to detecting and treating vineyards for grapevine canker diseases (also called trunk diseases), like Botryosphaeria dieback (Bot canker), Esca, Eutypa dieback and Phomopsis dieback, the earlier the better, says plant pathologist Kendra Baumgartner, with the USDA’s Agricultural Research...

  9. Does Speech Emerge from Earlier Appearing Oral Motor Behaviors?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Christopher A.; Ruark, Jacki L.

    1996-01-01

    This study of the oral motor behaviors of seven toddlers (age 15 months) may be interpreted to indicate that: (1) mandibular coordination follows a developmental continuum from earlier emerging behaviors, such as chewing and sucking, through babbling, to speech, or (2) unique task demands give rise to distinct mandibular coordinative constraints…

  10. Comprehensive methods for earlier detection and monitoring of forest decline

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Pontius; Richard Hallett

    2014-01-01

    Forested ecosystems are threatened by invasive pests, pathogens, and unusual climatic events brought about by climate change. Earlier detection of incipient forest health problems and a quantitatively rigorous assessment method is increasingly important. Here, we describe a method that is adaptable across tree species and stress agents and practical for use in the...

  11. Travelling for earlier surgical treatment: the patient's view.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, M; Donaldson, L J

    1991-01-01

    As part of the northern region's programme within the national waiting list initiative, schemes have been funded to test the feasibility and acceptability of offering patients the opportunity to travel further afield in order to receive earlier treatment. A total of 484 patients experiencing a long wait for routine surgical operations in the northern region were offered the opportunity to receive earlier treatment outside their local health district; 74% of the patients accepted the offer. The initiative was well received by the participating patients and the majority stated that if the need arose on a future occasion they would prefer to travel for treatment rather than have to wait for lengthy periods for treatment at their local hospital. These findings, interpreted in the light of the National Health Service reforms introduced in April 1991, suggest that for some types of care, patients would welcome greater flexibility in the placing of contracts, not merely reinforcement of historical patterns of referral. PMID:1823553

  12. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5... pedestrian walkways (see 23 U.S.C. 217); and (14) Trail access roads. (b) The items listed in paragraph (a...

  13. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5... pedestrian walkways (see 23 U.S.C. 217); and (14) Trail access roads. (b) The items listed in paragraph (a...

  14. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5... pedestrian walkways (see 23 U.S.C. 217); and (14) Trail access roads. (b) The items listed in paragraph (a...

  15. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5... pedestrian walkways (see 23 U.S.C. 217); and (14) Trail access roads. (b) The items listed in paragraph (a...

  16. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertuzun, Ezgi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  17. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job...) Communication with any training, research, or educational agencies that have produced economic development plans...-sufficiency of program participants; (6) Surveys to collect information regarding client characteristics; and...

  18. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job...) Communication with any training, research, or educational agencies that have produced economic development plans...-sufficiency of program participants; (6) Surveys to collect information regarding client characteristics; and...

  19. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job...) Communication with any training, research, or educational agencies that have produced economic development plans...-sufficiency of program participants; (6) Surveys to collect information regarding client characteristics; and...

  20. The association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rasberry, Catherine N; Lee, Sarah M; Robin, Leah; Laris, B A; Russell, Lisa A; Coyle, Karin K; Nihiser, Allison J

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the scientific literature that has examined the association between school-based physical activity (including physical education) and academic performance (including indicators of cognitive skills and attitudes, academic behaviors, and academic achievement). Relevant research was identified through a search of nine electronic databases using both physical activity and academic-related search terms. Forty-three articles (reporting a total of 50 unique studies) met the inclusion criteria and were read, abstracted, and coded for this synthesis. Findings of the 50 studies were then summarized. Across all the studies, there were a total of 251 associations between physical activity and academic performance, representing measures of academic achievement, academic behavior, and cognitive skills and attitudes. Slightly more than half (50.5%) of all associations examined were positive, 48% were not significant, and 1.5% were negative. Examination of the findings by each physical activity context provides insights regarding specific relationships. Results suggest physical activity is either positively related to academic performance or that there is not a demonstrated relationship between physical activity and academic performance. Results have important implications for both policy and schools. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibitory effect of soy saponins on the activity of β-lactamases, including New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1.

    PubMed

    Horie, Hitoshi; Chiba, Asuka; Wada, Shigeo

    2018-05-01

    β-Lactamase-producing bacteria encode enzymes that inactivate β-lactam antibiotics by catalyzing the hydrolysis of the β-lactam ring. Crude soy saponins were observed to have synergistic effects on the antimicrobial activity of β-lactam antibiotics against β-lactamase-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains. Furthermore, the activities of β-lactamases derived from Enterobacter cloacae , Escherichia coli , and S. aureus were decreased significantly in the presence of crude soy saponins. This inhibitory effect was also observed against the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1), an enzyme whose activity is not inhibited by the current β-lactamase inhibitors. The synergistic effect on the antimicrobial activity of β-lactam antibiotics by crude soy saponins was thought to result from the inhibition the β-lactamase activity. The components of crude soy saponins include several kinds of soyasaponins and soyasapogenols. It was revealed that soyasaponin V has the highest inhibitory activity against NDM-1. The combined use of soy saponins with β-lactam antibiotics is expected to serve as a new therapeutic modality, potentially enhancing the effectiveness of β-lactam antibiotics against infectious diseases caused by β-lactamase-producing bacteria, including those encoding NDM-1.

  2. Earlier Violent Television Exposure and Later Drug Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Brook, David W.; Katten, Naomi S.; Ning, Yuming; Brook, Judith S.

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the longitudinal pathways from earlier violent television exposure to later drug dependence. African American and Puerto Rican adolescents were interviewed during three points in time (N = 463). Violent television exposure in late adolescence predicted violent television exposure in young adulthood, which in turn was related to tobacco/marijuana use, nicotine dependence, and later drug dependence. Some policy and clinical implications suggest: a) regulating the times when violent television is broadcast; b) creating developmentally targeted prevention/treatment programs; and c) recognizing that watching violent television may serve as a cue regarding increased susceptibility to nicotine and drug dependence. PMID:18612881

  3. Biological consequences of earlier snowmelt from desert dust deposition in alpine landscapes.

    PubMed

    Steltzer, Heidi; Landry, Chris; Painter, Thomas H; Anderson, Justin; Ayres, Edward

    2009-07-14

    Dust deposition to mountain snow cover, which has increased since the late 19(th) century, accelerates the rate of snowmelt by increasing the solar radiation absorbed by the snowpack. Snowmelt occurs earlier, but is decoupled from seasonal warming. Climate warming advances the timing of snowmelt and early season phenological events (e.g., the onset of greening and flowering); however, earlier snowmelt without warmer temperatures may have a different effect on phenology. Here, we report the results of a set of snowmelt manipulations in which radiation-absorbing fabric and the addition and removal of dust from the surface of the snowpack advanced or delayed snowmelt in the alpine tundra. These changes in the timing of snowmelt were superimposed on a system where the timing of snowmelt varies with topography and has been affected by increased dust loading. At the community level, phenology exhibited a threshold response to the timing of snowmelt. Greening and flowering were delayed before seasonal warming, after which there was a linear relationship between the date of snowmelt and the timing of phenological events. Consequently, the effects of earlier snowmelt on phenology differed in relation to topography, which resulted in increasing synchronicity in phenology across the alpine landscape with increasingly earlier snowmelt. The consequences of earlier snowmelt from increased dust deposition differ from climate warming and include delayed phenology, leading to synchronized growth and flowering across the landscape and the opportunity for altered species interactions, landscape-scale gene flow via pollination, and nutrient cycling.

  4. Changes toward earlier streamflow timing across western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, I.T.; Cayan, D.R.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    The highly variable timing of streamflow in snowmelt-dominated basins across western North America is an important consequence, and indicator, of climate fluctuations. Changes in the timing of snowmelt-derived streamflow from 1948 to 2002 were investigated in a network of 302 western North America gauges by examining the center of mass for flow, spring pulse onset dates, and seasonal fractional flows through trend and principal component analyses. Statistical analysis of the streamflow timing measures with Pacific climate indicators identified local and key large-scale processes that govern the regionally coherent parts of the changes and their relative importance. Widespread and regionally coherent trends toward earlier onsets of springtime snowmelt and streamflow have taken place across most of western North America, affecting an area that is much larger than previously recognized. These timing changes have resulted in increasing fractions of annual flow occurring earlier in the water year by 1-4 weeks. The immediate (or proximal) forcings for the spatially coherent parts of the year-to-year fluctuations and longer-term trends of streamflow timing have been higher winter and spring temperatures. Although these temperature changes are partly controlled by the decadal-scale Pacific climate mode [Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO)], a separate and significant part of the variance is associated with a springtime warming trend that spans the PDO phases. ?? 2005 American Meteorological Society.

  5. Earlier vegetation green-up has reduced spring dust storms

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Bihang; Guo, Li; Li, Ning; Chen, Jin; Lin, Henry; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Shen, Miaogen; Rao, Yuhan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The observed decline of spring dust storms in Northeast Asia since the 1950s has been attributed to surface wind stilling. However, spring vegetation growth could also restrain dust storms through accumulating aboveground biomass and increasing surface roughness. To investigate the impacts of vegetation spring growth on dust storms, we examine the relationships between recorded spring dust storm outbreaks and satellite-derived vegetation green-up date in Inner Mongolia, Northern China from 1982 to 2008. We find a significant dampening effect of advanced vegetation growth on spring dust storms (r = 0.49, p = 0.01), with a one-day earlier green-up date corresponding to a decrease in annual spring dust storm outbreaks by 3%. Moreover, the higher correlation (r = 0.55, p < 0.01) between green-up date and dust storm outbreak ratio (the ratio of dust storm outbreaks to times of strong wind events) indicates that such effect is independent of changes in surface wind. Spatially, a negative correlation is detected between areas with advanced green-up dates and regional annual spring dust storms (r = −0.49, p = 0.01). This new insight is valuable for understanding dust storms dynamics under the changing climate. Our findings suggest that dust storms in Inner Mongolia will be further mitigated by the projected earlier vegetation green-up in the warming world. PMID:25343265

  6. Earlier vegetation green-up has reduced spring dust storms.

    PubMed

    Fan, Bihang; Guo, Li; Li, Ning; Chen, Jin; Lin, Henry; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Shen, Miaogen; Rao, Yuhan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Lei

    2014-10-24

    The observed decline of spring dust storms in Northeast Asia since the 1950s has been attributed to surface wind stilling. However, spring vegetation growth could also restrain dust storms through accumulating aboveground biomass and increasing surface roughness. To investigate the impacts of vegetation spring growth on dust storms, we examine the relationships between recorded spring dust storm outbreaks and satellite-derived vegetation green-up date in Inner Mongolia, Northern China from 1982 to 2008. We find a significant dampening effect of advanced vegetation growth on spring dust storms (r = 0.49, p = 0.01), with a one-day earlier green-up date corresponding to a decrease in annual spring dust storm outbreaks by 3%. Moreover, the higher correlation (r = 0.55, p < 0.01) between green-up date and dust storm outbreak ratio (the ratio of dust storm outbreaks to times of strong wind events) indicates that such effect is independent of changes in surface wind. Spatially, a negative correlation is detected between areas with advanced green-up dates and regional annual spring dust storms (r = -0.49, p = 0.01). This new insight is valuable for understanding dust storms dynamics under the changing climate. Our findings suggest that dust storms in Inner Mongolia will be further mitigated by the projected earlier vegetation green-up in the warming world.

  7. Trend of earlier spring in central Europe continued

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungersböck, Markus; Jurkovic, Anita; Koch, Elisabeth; Lipa, Wolfgang; Scheifinger, Helfried; Zach-Hermann, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    Modern phenology is the study of the timing of recurring biological events in the animal and plant world, the causes of their timing with regard to biotic and abiotic forces, and the interrelation among phases of the same or different species. The relationship between phenology and climate explains the importance of plant phenology for Climate Change studies. Plants require light, water, oxygen mineral nutrients and suitable temperature to grow. In temperate zones the seasonal life cycle of plants is primarily controlled by temperature and day length. Higher spring air temperatures are resulting in an earlier onset of the phenological spring in temperate and cool climate. On the other hand changes in phenology due to climate change do have impact on the climate system itself. Vegetation is a dynamic factor in the earth - climate system and has positive and negative feedback mechanisms to the biogeochemical and biogeophysical fluxes to the atmosphere Since the mid of the 1980s spring springs earlier in Europe and autumn is shifting back to the end of the year resulting in a longer vegetation period. The advancement of spring can be clearly attributed to temperature increase in the months prior to leaf unfolding and flowering, the timing of autumn is more complex and cannot easily be attributed to one or some few parameters. To demonstrate that the observed advancement of spring since the mid of 1980s is pro-longed in 2001 to 2010 and the delay of fall and the lengthening of the growing season is confirmed in the last decade we picked out several indicator plants from the PEP725 database www.pep725.eu. The PEP725 database collects data from different European network operators and thus offers a unique compilation of phenological observations; the database is regularly updated. The data follow the same classification scheme, the so called BBCH coding system so they can be compared. Lilac Syringa vulgaris, birch Betula pendula, beech Fagus and horse chestnut Aesculus

  8. Major features of immunesenescence, including reduced thymic output, are ameliorated by high levels of physical activity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Duggal, Niharika Arora; Pollock, Ross D; Lazarus, Norman R; Harridge, Stephen; Lord, Janet M

    2018-04-01

    It is widely accepted that aging is accompanied by remodelling of the immune system including thymic atrophy and increased frequency of senescent T cells, leading to immune compromise. However, physical activity, which influences immunity but declines dramatically with age, is not considered in this literature. We assessed immune profiles in 125 adults (55-79 years) who had maintained a high level of physical activity (cycling) for much of their adult lives, 75 age-matched older adults and 55 young adults not involved in regular exercise. The frequency of naïve T cells and recent thymic emigrants (RTE) were both higher in cyclists compared with inactive elders, and RTE frequency in cyclists was no different to young adults. Compared with their less active counterparts, the cyclists had significantly higher serum levels of the thymoprotective cytokine IL-7 and lower IL-6, which promotes thymic atrophy. Cyclists also showed additional evidence of reduced immunesenescence, namely lower Th17 polarization and higher B regulatory cell frequency than inactive elders. Physical activity did not protect against all aspects of immunesenescence: CD28 -ve CD57 +ve senescent CD8 T-cell frequency did not differ between cyclists and inactive elders. We conclude that many features of immunesenescence may be driven by reduced physical activity with age. © 2018 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Chromospheric activity of periodic variable stars (including eclipsing binaries) observed in DR2 LAMOST stellar spectral survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liyun; Lu, Hongpeng; Han, Xianming L.; Jiang, Linyan; Li, Zhongmu; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Cao, Zihuang

    2018-05-01

    The LAMOST spectral survey provides a rich databases for studying stellar spectroscopic properties and chromospheric activity. We cross-matched a total of 105,287 periodic variable stars from several photometric surveys and databases (CSS, LINEAR, Kepler, a recently updated eclipsing star catalogue, ASAS, NSVS, some part of SuperWASP survey, variable stars from the Tsinghua University-NAOC Transient Survey, and other objects from some new references) with four million stellar spectra published in the LAMOST data release 2 (DR2). We found 15,955 spectra for 11,469 stars (including 5398 eclipsing binaries). We calculated their equivalent widths (EWs) of their Hα, Hβ, Hγ, Hδ and Caii H lines. Using the Hα line EW, we found 447 spectra with emission above continuum for a total of 316 stars (178 eclipsing binaries). We identified 86 active stars (including 44 eclipsing binaries) with repeated LAMOST spectra. A total of 68 stars (including 34 eclipsing binaries) show chromospheric activity variability. We also found LAMOST spectra of 12 cataclysmic variables, five of which show chromospheric activity variability. We also made photometric follow-up studies of three short period targets (DY CVn, HAT-192-0001481, and LAMOST J164933.24+141255.0) using the Xinglong 60-cm telescope and the SARA 90-cm and 1-m telescopes, and obtained new BVRI CCD light curves. We analyzed these light curves and obtained orbital and starspot parameters. We detected the first flare event with a huge brightness increase of more than about 1.5 magnitudes in R filter in LAMOST J164933.24+141255.0.

  10. The case for earlier cochlear implantation in postlingually deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Dowell, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed to estimate the difference in speech perception outcomes that may occur due to timing of cochlear implantation in relation to the progression of hearing loss. Data from a large population-based sample of adults with acquired hearing loss using cochlear implants (CIs) was used to estimate the effects of duration of hearing loss, age, and pre-implant auditory skills on outcomes for a hypothetical standard patient. A total of 310 adults with acquired severe/profound bilateral hearing loss who received a CI in Melbourne, Australia between 1994 and 2006 provided the speech perception data and demographic information to derive regression equations for estimating CI outcomes. For a hypothetical CI candidate with progressive sensorineural hearing loss, the estimates of speech perception scores following cochlear implantation are significantly better if implantation occurs relatively soon after onset of severe hearing loss and before the loss of all functional auditory skills. Improved CI outcomes and quality of life benefit may be achieved for adults with progressive severe hearing loss if they are implanted earlier in the progression of the pathology.

  11. The NLP toxin family in Phytophthora sojae includes rapidly evolving groups that lack necrosis-inducing activity.

    PubMed

    Dong, Suomeng; Kong, Guanghui; Qutob, Dinah; Yu, Xiaoli; Tang, Junli; Kang, Jixiong; Dai, Tingting; Wang, Hai; Gijzen, Mark; Wang, Yuanchao

    2012-07-01

    Necrosis- and ethylene-inducing-like proteins (NLP) are widely distributed in eukaryotic and prokaryotic plant pathogens and are considered to be important virulence factors. We identified, in total, 70 potential Phytophthora sojae NLP genes but 37 were designated as pseudogenes. Sequence alignment of the remaining 33 NLP delineated six groups. Three of these groups include proteins with an intact heptapeptide (Gly-His-Arg-His-Asp-Trp-Glu) motif, which is important for necrosis-inducing activity, whereas the motif is not conserved in the other groups. In total, 19 representative NLP genes were assessed for necrosis-inducing activity by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Surprisingly, only eight genes triggered cell death. The expression of the NLP genes in P. sojae was examined, distinguishing 20 expressed and 13 nonexpressed NLP genes. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicate that most NLP are highly expressed during cyst germination and infection stages. Amino acid substitution ratios (Ka/Ks) of 33 NLP sequences from four different P. sojae strains resulted in identification of positive selection sites in a distinct NLP group. Overall, our study indicates that expansion and pseudogenization of the P. sojae NLP family results from an ongoing birth-and-death process, and that varying patterns of expression, necrosis-inducing activity, and positive selection suggest that NLP have diversified in function.

  12. Cardiac Complications, Earlier Treatment, and Initial Disease Severity in Kawasaki Disease.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Joseph Y; Belay, Ermias D; Uehara, Ritei; Maddox, Ryan A; Schonberger, Lawrence B; Nakamura, Yosikazu

    2017-09-01

    To assess if observed higher observed risks of cardiac complications for patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) treated earlier may reflect bias due to confounding from initial disease severity, as opposed to any negative effect of earlier treatment. We used data from Japanese nationwide KD surveys from 1997 to 2004. Receipt of additional intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (data available all years) or any additional treatment (available for 2003-2004) were assessed as proxies for initial disease severity. We determined associations between earlier or later IVIG treatment (defined as receipt of IVIG on days 1-4 vs days 5-10 of illness) and cardiac complications by stratifying by receipt of additional treatment or by using logistic modeling to control for the effect of receiving additional treatment. A total of 48 310 patients with KD were included in the analysis. In unadjusted analysis, earlier IVIG treatment was associated with a higher risk for 4 categories of cardiac complications, including all major cardiac complications (risk ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.15). Stratifying by receipt of additional treatment removed this association, and earlier IVIG treatment became protective against all major cardiac complications when controlling for any additional treatment in logistic regressions (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.80-1.00). Observed higher risks of cardiac complications among patients with KD receiving IVIG treatment on days 1-4 of the illness are most likely due to underlying higher initial disease severity, and patients with KD should continue to be treated with IVIG as early as possible. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Earlier warning: a multi-indicator approach to monitoring trends in the illicit use of medicines.

    PubMed

    Mounteney, Jane; Haugland, Siren

    2009-03-01

    The availability of medicines on the illicit drug market is currently high on the international policy agenda, linked to adverse health consequences including addiction, drug related overdoses and injection related problems. Continuous surveillance of illicit use of medicines allows for earlier identification and reporting of emerging trends and increased possibilities for earlier intervention to prevent spread of use and drug related harm. This paper aims to identify data sources capable of monitoring the illicit use of medicines; present trend findings for Rohypnol and Subutex using a multi-indicator monitoring approach; and consider the relevance of such models for policy makers. Data collection and analysis were undertaken in Bergen, Norway, using the Bergen Earlier Warning System (BEWS), a multi-indicator drug monitoring system. Data were gathered at six monthly intervals from April 2002 to September 2006. Drug indicator data from seizures, treatment, pharmacy sales, helplines, key informants and media monitoring were triangulated and an aggregated differential was used to plot trends. Results for the 4-year period showed a decline in the illicit use of Rohypnol and an increase in the illicit use of Subutex. Multi-indicator surveillance models can play a strategic role in the earlier identification and reporting of emerging trends in illicit use of medicines.

  14. Identifying pneumonia outbreaks of public health importance: can emergency department data assist in earlier identification?

    PubMed

    Hope, Kirsty; Durrheim, David N; Muscatello, David; Merritt, Tony; Zheng, Wei; Massey, Peter; Cashman, Patrick; Eastwood, Keith

    2008-08-01

    To retrospectively review the performance of a near real-time Emergency Department (ED) Syndromic Surveillance System operating in New South Wales for identifying pneumonia outbreaks of public health importance. Retrospective data was obtained from the NSW Emergency Department data collection for a rural hospital that has experienced a cluster of pneumonia diagnoses among teenage males in August 2006. ED standard reports were examined for signals in the overall count for each respiratory syndrome, and for elevated counts in individual subgroups including; age, sex and admission to hospital status. Using the current thresholds, the ED syndromic surveillance system would have trigged a signal for pneumonia syndrome in children aged 5-16 years four days earlier than the notification by a paediatrician and this signal was maintained for 14 days. If the ED syndromic surveillance system had been operating it could have identified the outbreak earlier than the paediatrician's notification. This may have permitted an earlier public health response. By understanding the behaviour of syndromes during outbreaks of public health importance, response protocols could be developed to facilitate earlier implementation of control measures.

  15. Hemodynamic parameters change earlier than tissue oxygen tension in hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Pestel, Gunther J; Fukui, Kimiko; Kimberger, Oliver; Hager, Helmut; Kurz, Andrea; Hiltebrand, Luzius B

    2010-05-15

    Untreated hypovolemia results in impaired outcome. This study tests our hypothesis whether general hemodynamic parameters detect acute blood loss earlier than monitoring parameters of regional tissue beds. Eight pigs (23-25 kg) were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. A pulmonary artery catheter and an arterial catheter were inserted. Tissue oxygen tension was measured with Clark-type electrodes in the jejunal and colonic wall, in the liver, and subcutaneously. Jejunal microcirculation was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Intravascular volume was optimized using difference in pulse pressure (dPP) to keep dPP below 13%. Sixty minutes after preparation, baseline measurements were taken. At first, 5% of total blood volume was withdrawn, followed by another 5% increment, and then in 10% increments until death. After withdrawal of 5% of estimated blood volume, dPP increased from 6.1% +/- 3.0% to 20.8% +/- 2.7% (P < 0.01). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP) decreased with a blood loss of 10% (P < 0.01). Cardiac output (CO) changed after a blood loss of 20% (P < 0.05). Tissue oxygen tension in central organs, and blood flow in the jejunal muscularis decreased (P < 0.05) after a blood loss of 20%. Tissue oxygen tension in the skin, and jejunal mucosa blood flow decreased (P < 0.05) after a blood loss of 40% and 50%, respectively. In this hemorrhagic pig model systemic hemodynamic parameters were more sensitive to detect acute hypovolemia than tissue oxygen tension measurements or jejunal LDF measurements. Acute blood loss was detected first by dPP. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Study protocol: Rehabilitation including Social and Physical activity and Education in Children and Teenagers with Cancer (RESPECT).

    PubMed

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Karen Vitting; Christensen, Karl Bang; Hasle, Henrik; Heilmann, Carsten; Hejgaard, Nete; Johansen, Christoffer; Madsen, Marianne; Madsen, Svend Aage; Simovska, Venka; Strange, Birgit; Thing, Lone Friis; Wehner, Peder Skov; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Larsen, Hanne Baekgaard

    2013-11-14

    During cancer treatment children have reduced contact with their social network of friends, and have limited participation in education, sports, and leisure activities. During and following cancer treatment, children describe school related problems, reduced physical fitness, and problems related to interaction with peers. The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years newly diagnosed with cancer in eastern Denmark (n=120) and a matched control group in western Denmark (n=120). RESPECT includes Danish-speaking children diagnosed with cancer and treated at pediatric oncology units in Denmark. Primary endpoints are the level of educational achievement one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy, and the value of VO2max one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy. Secondary endpoints are quality of life measured by validated questionnaires and interviews, and physical performance. RESPECT includes a multimodal intervention program, including ambassador-facilitated educational, physical, and social interventions. The educational intervention includes an educational program aimed at the child with cancer, the child's schoolteachers and classmates, and the child's parents. Children with cancer will each have two ambassadors assigned from their class. The ambassadors visit the child with cancer at the hospital at alternating 2-week intervals and participate in the intervention program. The physical and social intervention examines the effect of early, structured, individualized, and continuous physical activity from diagnosis throughout the treatment period. The patients are tested at diagnosis, at 3 and 6 months after diagnosis, and one year after the cessation of treatment. The study is powered to quantify the impact of the combined educational, physical, and social intervention programs. RESPECT is the first population-based study to examine the

  17. A prospective study of endothelial activation biomarkers, including plasma angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2, in Kenyan women initiating antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Graham, Susan M; Rajwans, Nimerta; Tapia, Kenneth A; Jaoko, Walter; Estambale, Benson B A; McClelland, R Scott; Overbaugh, Julie; Liles, W Conrad

    2013-06-04

    HIV-1-related inflammation is associated with increased levels of biomarkers of vascular adhesion and endothelial activation, and may increase production of the inflammatory protein angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2), an adverse prognostic biomarker in severe systemic infection. We hypothesized that antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation would decrease endothelial activation, reducing plasma levels of ANG-2. Antiretroviral-naïve Kenyan women with advanced HIV infection were followed prospectively. Endothelial activation biomarkers including soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin, and plasma ANG-2 and angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1) were tested in stored plasma samples from 0, 6, and 12 months after ART initiation. We used Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests to compare endothelial activation biomarkers across time-points, generalized estimating equations to analyze associations with change in log10-transformed biomarkers after ART initiation, and Cox proportional-hazards regression to analyze associations with mortality. The 102 HIV-1-seropositive women studied had advanced infection (median CD4 count, 124 cells/μL). Soluble ICAM-1 and plasma ANG-2 levels decreased at both time-points after ART initiation, with concomitant increases in the beneficial protein ANG-1. Higher ANG-2 levels after ART initiation were associated with higher plasma HIV-1 RNA, oral contraceptive pill use, pregnancy, severe malnutrition, and tuberculosis. Baseline ANG-2 levels were higher among five women who died after ART initiation than among women who did not (median 2.85 ng/mL [inter-quartile range (IQR) 2.47-5.74 ng/mL] versus median 1.32 ng/mL [IQR 0.35-2.18 ng/mL], p = 0.01). Both soluble ICAM-1 and plasma ANG-2 levels predicted mortality after ART initiation. Biomarkers of endothelial activation decreased after ART initiation in women with advanced HIV-1 infection. Changes in plasma ANG-2 were associated with HIV-1 RNA

  18. Applications of neutron activation analysis in determination of natural and man-made radionuclides, including PA-231

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, A. R.; Benedik, L.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA), being essentially an isotopic and not an elemental method of analysis, is capable of determining a number of important radionuclides of radioecological interest by transformation into another, more easily quantifiable radionuclide. The nuclear characteristics which favour this technique may be summarized in an advantage factor relative to radiometric analysis of the original radioanalyte. Well known or hardly known examples include235U,238U,232Th,230Th,129I,99Tc,237Np and231Pa; a number of these are discussed and illustrated in analysis of real samples of environmental and biological origin. In particular, determination of231Pa by RNAA was performed using both postirradiation and preseparation methods. Application of INAA to enable the use of238U and232Th as endogenous (internal) radiotracers in alpha spectrometric analyses of uranium and thorium radioisotopes in radioecological studies is described, also allowing independent data sets to be obtained for quality control.

  19. Effects of a 1-week inpatient course including information, physical activity, and group sessions for prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gjerset, Gunhild Maria; Fosså, Sophie Dorothea; Dahl, Alv A; Loge, Jon Håvard; Ensby, Torill; Thorsen, Lene

    2011-12-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of a 1-week inpatient course including information, physical activity (PA), and group sessions on physical and mental health-related outcomes for prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Further to assess the patients' satisfaction with the course. PCa patients completed a questionnaire assessing PA, fatigue, mental distress, and quality of life 1 month before (T0) and 3 months after (T1) the course. Total fatigue, physical fatigue, and PSA anxiety decreased significantly from T0 to T1. No significant changes were observed in the other measures. The majority of the participants were satisfied with the course. In spite of minor reductions in fatigue and PSA anxiety and satisfied patients, the findings indicate that a 1-week inpatient course does not influence substantially on most of the health-related outcomes in PCa patients 3 months after the course.

  20. Compulsive buying: Earlier illicit drug use, impulse buying, depression, and adult ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2015-08-30

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant's earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Compulsive Buying: Earlier Illicit Drug Use, Impulse Buying, Depression, and Adult ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W.; Leukefeld, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant’s earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. PMID:26165963

  2. How is Version 6 different than earlier versions?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-28

    ... integrated a priori CO profile. Second, the diagnostic 'Water Vapor Climatology Content' has been deleted. This diagnostic was included in previous products because of a data quality issue with the NCEP water vapor profiles. MERRA-based water vapor ...

  3. It's about time: Earlier rewards increase intrinsic motivation.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Kaitlin; Fishbach, Ayelet

    2018-06-01

    Can immediate (vs. delayed) rewards increase intrinsic motivation? Prior research compared the presence versus absence of rewards. By contrast, this research compared immediate versus delayed rewards, predicting that more immediate rewards increase intrinsic motivation by creating a perceptual fusion between the activity and its goal (i.e., the reward). In support of the hypothesis, framing a reward from watching a news program as more immediate (vs. delayed) increased intrinsic motivation to watch the program (Study 1), and receiving more immediate bonus (vs. delayed, Study 2; and vs. delayed and no bonus, Study 3) increased intrinsic motivation in an experimental task. The effect of reward timing was mediated by the strength of the association between an activity and a reward, and was specific to intrinsic (vs. extrinsic) motivation-immediacy influenced the positive experience of an activity, but not perceived outcome importance (Study 4). In addition, the effect of the timing of rewards was independent of the effect of the magnitude of the rewards (Study 5). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Poor oral health including active caries in 187 UK professional male football players: clinical dental examination performed by dentists.

    PubMed

    Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Meehan, Lyndon; Petrie, Aviva; Weiler, Richard; McNally, Steve; Ayer, Chris; Hanna, Rob; Hunt, Ian; Kell, Steven; Ridgewell, Paul; Taylor, Russell

    2016-01-01

    The few studies that have assessed oral health in professional/elite football suggest poor oral health with minimal data on impact on performance. The aim of this research was to determine oral health in a representative sample of professional footballers in the UK and investigate possible determinants of oral health and self-reported impact on well-being, training and performance. Clinical oral health examination of senior squad players using standard methods and outcomes carried out at club training facilities. Questionnaire data were also collected. 8 teams were included, 5 Premier League, 2 Championship and 1 League One. 6 dentists examined 187 players who represented >90% of each senior squad. Oral health was poor: 37% players had active dental caries, 53% dental erosion and 5% moderate-severe irreversible periodontal disease. 45% were bothered by their oral health, 20% reported an impact on their quality of life and 7% on training or performance. Despite attendance for dental check-ups, oral health deteriorated with age. This is the first large, representative sample study in professional football. Oral health of professional footballers is poor, and this impacts on well-being and performance. Successful strategies to promote oral health within professional football are urgently needed, and research should investigate models based on best evidence for behaviour change and implementation science. Furthermore, this study provides strong evidence to support oral health screening within professional football. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Floodplains within reservoirs promote earlier spawning of white crappies Pomoxis annularis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Dagel, Jonah D.; Kaczka, Levi J.; Mower, Ethan; Wigen, S. L.

    2015-01-01

    Reservoirs impounded over floodplain rivers are unique because they may include within their upper reaches extensive shallow water stored over preexistent floodplains. Because of their relatively flat topography and riverine origin, floodplains in the upper reaches of reservoirs provide broad expanses of vegetation within a narrow range of reservoir water levels. Elsewhere in the reservoir, topography creates a band of shallow water along the contour of the reservoir where vegetation often does not grow. Thus, as water levels rise, floodplains may be the first vegetated habitats inundated within the reservoir. We hypothesized that shallow water in reservoir floodplains would attract spawning white crappies Pomoxis annularis earlier than reservoir embayments. Crappie relative abundance over five years in floodplains and embayments of four reservoirs increased as spawning season approached, peaked, and decreased as fish exited shallow water. Relative abundance peaked earlier in floodplains than embayments, and the difference was magnified with higher water levels. Early access to suitable spawning habitat promotes earlier spawning and may increase population fitness. Recognition of the importance of reservoir floodplains, an understanding of how reservoir water levels can be managed to provide timely connectivity to floodplains, and conservation of reservoir floodplains may be focal points of environmental management in reservoirs.

  6. A Review of Quality of Life after Predictive Testing for and Earlier Identification of Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Jane S.; Nance, Martha; Kim, Ji-In; Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Panegyres, Peter K.; Erwin, Cheryl; Goh, Anita; McCusker, Elizabeth; Williams, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed an explosion of evidence suggesting that many neurodegenerative diseases can be detected years, if not decades, earlier than previously thought. To date, these scientific advances have not provoked any parallel translational or clinical improvements. There is an urgency to capitalize on this momentum so earlier detection of disease can be more readily translated into improved health-related quality of life for families at risk for, or suffering with, neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measurement in neurodegenerative diseases and the importance of these “patient reported outcomes” for all clinical research. Next, we address HRQOL following early identification or predictive genetic testing in some neurodegenerative diseases: Huntington disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, prion diseases, hereditary ataxias, Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy and Wilson's disease. After a brief report of available direct-to-consumer genetic tests, we address the juxtaposition of earlier disease identification with assumed reluctance towards predictive genetic testing. Forty-one studies examining health related outcomes following predictive genetic testing for neurodegenerative disease suggested that (a) extreme or catastrophic outcomes are rare; (b) consequences commonly include transiently increased anxiety and/or depression; (c) most participants report no regret; (d) many persons report extensive benefits to receiving genetic information; and (e) stigmatization and discrimination for genetic diseases are poorly understood and policy and laws are needed. Caution is appropriate for earlier identification of neurodegenerative diseases but findings suggest further progress is safe, feasible and likely to advance clinical care. PMID:24036231

  7. Diagnosis of varicoceles in men undergoing vasectomy may lead to earlier detection of hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Joceline S; Jones, Madeline; Casey, Jessica T; Fuchs, Amanda B; Cashy, John; Lin, William W

    2014-06-01

    To determine the temporal relationship between vasectomy, varicocele, and hypogonadism diagnosis. Many young men undergo their first thorough genitourinary examination in their adult lives at the time of vasectomy consultation, providing a unique opportunity for diagnosis of asymptomatic varicoceles. Varicoceles have recently been implicated as a possible reversible contributor to hypogonadism. Hypogonadism may be associated with significant adverse effect, including decreased libido, impaired cognitive function, and increased cardiovascular events. Early diagnosis and treatment of hypogonadism may prevent these adverse sequelae. Data were collected from the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan database, a large outpatient claims database. We reviewed records between 2003 and 2010 for male patients between the ages of 25 and 50 years with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for hypogonadism, vasectomy, and varicocele, and queried dates of first claim. A total of 15,679 men undergoing vasectomies were matched with 156,790 men with nonvasectomy claims in the same year. Vasectomy patients were diagnosed with varicocele at an earlier age (40.9 vs 42.5 years; P=.009). We identified 224,817 men between the ages of 25 and 50 years with a claim of hypogonadism, of which 5883 (2.6%) also had a claim of varicocele. Men with hypogonadism alone were older at presentation compared with men with an accompanying varicocele (41.3 [standard deviation±6.5] vs 34.9 [standard deviation±6.1]; P<.001). Men undergoing vasectomies are diagnosed with varicoceles at a younger age than age-matched controls. Men with varicoceles present with hypogonadism earlier than men without varicoceles. Earlier diagnosis of varicocele at the time of vasectomy allows for earlier detection of hypogonadism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment of phosphate retention: The earlier the better?

    PubMed Central

    Biggar, Patrick; Fung, Samuel K.S.; Ketteler, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, our knowledge and understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphate homeostasis in chronic kidney disease have advanced dramatically. Contrary to general opinion in the 20th century that moderate hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia were acceptable in treating secondary hyperparathyroidism, the calcium and phosphate load is increasingly perceived to be a major trigger of vascular and soft tissue calcification. The current treatment options are discussed in view of historical developments and the expectations of the foreseeable future, focusing on the early treatment of hyperphosphatemia. At present, we lack indisputable evidence that active intervention using currently available drugs is of benefit to patients in chronic kidney disease stages 3 and 4. PMID:26877944

  9. 14 CFR 440.11 - Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... LICENSING FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Financial Responsibility for Licensed and Permitted Activities § 440.11...; modifications. (a) Insurance coverage required under § 440.9, or other form of financial responsibility, shall... licensed launch or permitted activities is sufficiently small that financial responsibility is no longer...

  10. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for tourism...

  11. HEPS Inventory Tool: An Inventory Tool Including Quality Assessment of School Interventions on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadaczynski, Kevin; Paulus, Peter; de Vries, Nanne; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof

    2010-01-01

    The HEPS Inventory Tool aims to support stakeholders working in school health promotion to promote high quality interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. As a tool it provides a step-by-step approach on how to develop a national or regional inventory of existing school based interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. It…

  12. Elders recall an earlier tsunami on Indian Ocean shores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kakar, Din Mohammad; Naeem, Ghazala; Usman, Abdullah; Hasan, Haider; Lohdi, Hira; Srinivasalu, Seshachalam; Andrade, Vanessa; Rajendran, C.P.; Naderi Beni, Abdolmajid; Hamzeh, Mohammad Ali; Hoffmann, Goesta; Al Balushi, Noora; Gale, Nora; Kodijat, Ardito; Fritz, Hermann M.; Atwater, Brian F.

    2014-01-01

    Ten years on, the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004 still looms large in efforts to reduce coastal risk. The disaster has spurred worldwide advances in tsunami detection and warning, tsunami-risk assessment, and tsunami awareness [Satake, 2014]. Nearly a lifetime has passed since the northwestern Indian Ocean last produced a devastating tsunami. Documentation of this tsunami, in November 1945, was hindered by international instability in the wake of the Second World War and, in British India, by the approach of independence and partition. The parent earthquake, of magnitude 8.1, was widely recorded, and the tsunami registered on tide gauges, but intelligence reports and newspaper articles say little about inundation limits while permitting a broad range of catalogued death tolls. What has been established about the 1945 tsunami falls short of what's needed today for ground-truthing inundation models, estimating risk to enlarged populations, and anchoring awareness campaigns in local facts. Recent efforts to reduce coastal risk around the Arabian Sea include a project in which eyewitnesses to the 1945 tsunami were found and interviewed (Fig. 1), and related archives were gathered. Results are being made available through UNESCO's Indian Ocean Tsunami Information Center in hopes of increasing scientific understanding and public awareness of the region's tsunami hazards.

  13. New evidence: data documenting parental support for earlier sexuality education.

    PubMed

    Barr, Elissa M; Moore, Michele J; Johnson, Tammie; Forrest, Jamie; Jordan, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies document support for sexuality education to be taught in high school, and often, in middle school. However, little research has been conducted addressing support for sexuality education in elementary schools. As part of the state Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Survey administration, the Florida Department of Health conducted the Florida Child Health Survey (FCHS) by calling back parents who had children in their home and who agreed to participate (N = 1715). Most parents supported the following sexuality education topics being taught specifically in elementary school: communication skills (89%), human anatomy/reproductive information (65%), abstinence (61%), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (53%), and gender/sexual orientation issues (52%). Support was even greater in middle school (62-91%) and high school (72-91%) for these topics and for birth control and condom education. Most parents supported comprehensive sexuality education (40.4%), followed by abstinence-plus (36.4%) and abstinence-only (23.2%). Chi-square results showed significant differences in the type of sexuality education supported by almost all parent demographic variables analyzed including sex, race, marital status, and education. Results add substantial support for age-appropriate school-based sexuality education starting at the elementary school level, the new National Sexuality Education Standards, and funding to support evidence-based abstinence-plus or comprehensive sexuality education. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  14. Etiology and Progression of Acute Muscle Tension Related Low Back Pain Occurring During Sustained Activity Including Combat Training Exercises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-31

    pattern of paraspinal muscle contraction , and (3) onset of low back pain. (b) That patterns of muscle tension recorded throughout the normal day in the...intensity and duration of activity being performed, (b) the pattern of paraspinal muscle contraction , and (c) onset of low back pain. (2) To determine whether... muscle contraction , and activity by performing continuous recordings of these factors among groups of low back pain subjects in their normal

  15. Earlier Pulmonary Valve Replacement in Down Syndrome Patients Following Tetralogy of Fallot Repair.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Rachel T; Frommelt, Peter C; Hill, Garick D

    2017-08-01

    The association between Down syndrome and pulmonary hypertension could contribute to more severe pulmonary regurgitation after tetralogy of Fallot repair and possibly earlier pulmonary valve replacement. We compared cardiac magnetic resonance measures of pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular dilation as well as timing of pulmonary valve replacement between those with and without Down syndrome after tetralogy of Fallot repair. Review of our surgical database from 2000 to 2015 identified patients with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis. Those with Down syndrome were compared to those without. The primary outcome of interest was time from repair to pulmonary valve replacement. Secondary outcomes included pulmonary regurgitation and indexed right ventricular volume on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The cohort of 284 patients included 35 (12%) with Down syndrome. Transannular patch repair was performed in 210 (74%). Down syndrome showed greater degree of pulmonary regurgitation (55 ± 14 vs. 37 ± 16%, p = 0.01) without a significantly greater rate of right ventricular dilation (p = 0.09). In multivariable analysis, Down syndrome (HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.5, p = 0.02) and transannular patch repair (HR 5.5, 95% CI 1.7-17.6, p = 0.004) were significant risk factors for valve replacement. Those with Down syndrome had significantly lower freedom from valve replacement (p = 0.03). Down syndrome is associated with an increased degree of pulmonary regurgitation and earlier pulmonary valve replacement after tetralogy of Fallot repair. These patients require earlier assessment by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to determine timing of pulmonary valve replacement and evaluation for and treatment of preventable causes of pulmonary hypertension.

  16. Earlier time to aerobic exercise is associated with faster recovery following acute sport concussion

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Doug; Comper, Paul; Hutchison, Michael G.

    2018-01-01

    Objective To determine whether earlier time to initiation of aerobic exercise following acute concussion is associated with time to full return to (1) sport and (2) school or work. Methods A retrospective stratified propensity score survival analysis of acute (≤14 days) concussion was used to determine whether time (days) to initiation of aerobic exercise post-concussion was associated with, both, time (days) to full return to (1) sport and (2) school or work. Results A total of 253 acute concussions [median (IQR) age, 17.0 (15.0–20.0) years; 148 (58.5%) males] were included in this study. Multivariate Cox regression models identified that earlier time to aerobic exercise was associated with faster return to sport and school/work adjusting for other covariates, including quintile propensity strata. For each successive day in delay to initiation of aerobic exercise, individuals had a less favourable recovery trajectory. Initiating aerobic exercise at 3 and 7 days following injury was associated with a respective 36.5% (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.53–0.76) and 73.2% (HR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.16–0.45) reduced probability of faster full return to sport compared to within 1 day; and a respective 45.9% (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.44–0.66) and 83.1% (HR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.10–0.30) reduced probability of faster full return to school/work. Additionally, concussion history, symptom severity, LOC deleteriously influenced concussion recovery. Conclusion Earlier initiation of aerobic exercise was associated with faster full return to sport and school or work. This study provides greater insight into the benefits and safety of aerobic exercise within the first week of the injury. PMID:29668716

  17. Earlier time to aerobic exercise is associated with faster recovery following acute sport concussion.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, David Wyndham; Richards, Doug; Comper, Paul; Hutchison, Michael G

    2018-01-01

    To determine whether earlier time to initiation of aerobic exercise following acute concussion is associated with time to full return to (1) sport and (2) school or work. A retrospective stratified propensity score survival analysis of acute (≤14 days) concussion was used to determine whether time (days) to initiation of aerobic exercise post-concussion was associated with, both, time (days) to full return to (1) sport and (2) school or work. A total of 253 acute concussions [median (IQR) age, 17.0 (15.0-20.0) years; 148 (58.5%) males] were included in this study. Multivariate Cox regression models identified that earlier time to aerobic exercise was associated with faster return to sport and school/work adjusting for other covariates, including quintile propensity strata. For each successive day in delay to initiation of aerobic exercise, individuals had a less favourable recovery trajectory. Initiating aerobic exercise at 3 and 7 days following injury was associated with a respective 36.5% (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.53-0.76) and 73.2% (HR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.16-0.45) reduced probability of faster full return to sport compared to within 1 day; and a respective 45.9% (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.44-0.66) and 83.1% (HR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.10-0.30) reduced probability of faster full return to school/work. Additionally, concussion history, symptom severity, LOC deleteriously influenced concussion recovery. Earlier initiation of aerobic exercise was associated with faster full return to sport and school or work. This study provides greater insight into the benefits and safety of aerobic exercise within the first week of the injury.

  18. An earlier age of breast cancer diagnosis related to more frequent use of antiperspirants/deodorants and underarm shaving.

    PubMed

    McGrath, K G

    2003-12-01

    Breast cancer incidence suggests a lifestyle cause. A lifestyle factor used near the breast is the application of antiperspirants/deodorants accompanied by axillary shaving. A previous study did not support a link with breast cancer. If these habits have a role in breast cancer development, women using antiperspirants/deodorants and shaving their underarms frequently would be expected to have an earlier age of diagnosis than those doing so less often. An earlier age of diagnosis would also be expected in those starting to use deodorants and shaving at an earlier age. This is the first study to investigate the intensity of underarm exposure in a cohort of breast cancer survivors. Four hundred and thirty-seven females diagnosed with breast cancer were surveyed. Once grouped by their frequency of underarm hygiene habits, the mean age of diagnosis was the primary end point. Secondary end points included the overall frequency of these habits, and potential usage group confounding variables were evaluated. All statistical tests were two-sided. Frequency and earlier onset of antiperspirant/deodorant usage with underarm shaving were associated with an earlier age of breast cancer diagnosis. Combined habits are likely for this earlier age of diagnosis. In conclusion, underarm shaving with antiperspirant/deodorant use may play a role in breast cancer. It is not clear which of these components are involved. Reviewed literature insinuates absorption of aluminium salts facilitated by dermal barrier disruption. Case-controlled investigations are needed before alternative underarm hygiene habits are suggested.

  19. A Time-Sensitive Framework for Including Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Professional Development Activities for Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millsaps, Lisa Tabor; Harrington, John A., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    This work shares a time-sensitive framework for teaching GIS to educators of all levels and disciplines. Existing relationships with teachers enabled the addition of GIS content in professional development activities. The amount of time devoted to GIS-related content varied depending on time made available for interaction with the audience.…

  20. 14 CFR 440.11 - Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of coverage for licensed launch... Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... attach when a licensed launch or permitted activity starts, and remain in full force and effect as...

  1. 14 CFR 440.11 - Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of coverage for licensed launch... Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... attach when a licensed launch or permitted activity starts, and remain in full force and effect as...

  2. 14 CFR 440.11 - Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of coverage for licensed launch... Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... attach when a licensed launch or permitted activity starts, and remain in full force and effect as...

  3. Autonomic control network active in Aplysia during locomotion includes neurons that express splice variants of R15-neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Romanova, Elena V; McKay, Natasha; Weiss, Klaudiusz R; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Koester, John

    2007-01-01

    Splice-variant products of the R15 neuropeptide gene are differentially expressed within the CNS of Aplysia. The goal of this study was to test whether the neurons in the abdominal ganglion that express the peptides encoded by this gene are part of a common circuit. Expression of R15 peptides had been demonstrated previously in neuron R15. Using a combination of immunocytochemical and analytical methods, this study demonstrated that R15 peptides are also expressed in heart exciter neuron RB(HE), the two L9(G) gill motoneurons, and L40--a newly identified interneuron. Mass spectrometric profiling of individual neurons that exhibit R15 peptide-like immunoreactivity confirmed the mutually exclusive expression of two splice-variant forms of R15 peptides in different neurons. The L9(G) cells were found to co-express pedal peptide in addition to the R15 peptides. The R15 peptide-expressing neurons examined here were shown to be part of an autonomic control circuit that is active during fictive locomotion. Activity in this circuit contributes to implementing a central command that may help to coordinate autonomic activity with escape locomotion. Chronic extracellular nerve recording was used to determine the activity patterns of a subset of neurons of this circuit in vivo. These results demonstrate the potential utility of using shared patterns of neuropeptide expression as a guide for neural circuit identification.

  4. Structural characteristics for superoxide anion radical scavenging and productive activities of green tea polyphenols including proanthocyanidin dimers.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masashi; Toyazaki, Hajime; Yoshioka, Yu; Yokoi, Nobutoshi; Yamasaki, Toru

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report structural characteristics for superoxide anion radical (O(2(-))) scavenging and productive activities of green tea polyphenols. (-)-Epicatechin 3-O-gallate (5), (-)-epigallocatechin (6), (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (7), (+)-gallocatechin-(4alpha-->8')-epigallocatechin (8), and (-)-epigallocatechin-(2beta-->O-->7', 4beta-->8')-epicatechin 3'-O-gallate (9) were isolated from the tea plant Camellia sinensis L. (+)-Epigallocatechin-(2beta-->O-->7, 4beta-->8')-epicatechin (10) was prepared by hydrolyzing 9. The polyphenols, as well as commercially available pyrogallol (1), methyl gallate (2), (+)-catechin (3), (-)-epicatechin (4), and the flavonol myricetin (11), produced O(2(-)) in descending order 1, 6 asymptotically equal to11 asymptotically equal to8, 7, 10, 2 asymptotically equal to9, 5 asymptotically equal to4. In the polyphenols with the pyrogallol-type B-ring and/or galloyl group, electron-withdrawing substituents (carbonyl and ketal carbons) and/or intramolecular hydrogen bonding constituted structural characteristics against the autoxidation reaction. The O(2(-))-productive activity partially counteracted O(2(-))-scavenging activity. However, such structural characteristics appeared to enhance the scavenging activity, accordingly the polyphenols in effect served as O(2(-))-scavengers in descending order 9 asymptotically equal to7, 2, 11, 8, 10, 3 asymptotically equal to4. On the other hand, 6, having no such structural characteristic, acted as a O(2(-))-generator, as well as 1. Further assessments covering tannins (e.g., A-type proanthocyanidin dimer 9) are needed to identify which green tea polyphenols are the most desirable chemopreventive agents.

  5. Age-related changes in trunk neuromuscular activation patterns during a controlled functional transfer task include amplitude and temporal synergies.

    PubMed

    Quirk, D Adam; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L

    2014-12-01

    While healthy aging is associated with physiological changes that can impair control of trunk motion, few studies examine how spinal muscle responses change with increasing age. This study examined whether older (over 65 years) compared to younger (20-45 years) adults had higher overall amplitude and altered temporal recruitment patterns of trunk musculature when performing a functional transfer task. Surface electromyograms from twelve bilateral trunk muscle (24) sites were analyzed using principal component analysis, extracting amplitude and temporal features (PCs) from electromyographic waveforms. Two PCs explained 96% of the waveform variance. Three factor ANOVA models tested main effects (group, muscle and reach) and interactions for PC scores. Significant (p<.0125) group interactions were found for all PC scores. Post hoc analysis revealed that relative to younger adults, older adults recruited higher agonist and antagonistic activity, demonstrated continuous activation levels in specific muscle sites despite changing external moments, and had altered temporal synergies within abdominal and back musculature. In summary both older and younger adults recruit highly organized activation patterns in response to changing external moments. Differences in temporal trunk musculature recruitment patterns suggest that older adults experience different dynamic spinal stiffness and loading compared to younger adults during a functional lifting task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The IKAROS interaction with a complex including chromatin remodeling and transcription elongation activities is required for hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Bottardi, Stefania; Mavoungou, Lionel; Pak, Helen; Daou, Salima; Bourgoin, Vincent; Lakehal, Yahia A; Affar, El Bachir; Milot, Eric

    2014-12-01

    IKAROS is a critical regulator of hematopoietic cell fate and its dynamic expression pattern is required for proper hematopoiesis. In collaboration with the Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase (NuRD) complex, it promotes gene repression and activation. It remains to be clarified how IKAROS can support transcription activation while being associated with the HDAC-containing complex NuRD. IKAROS also binds to the Positive-Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) at gene promoters. Here, we demonstrate that NuRD and P-TEFb are assembled in a complex that can be recruited to specific genes by IKAROS. The expression level of IKAROS influences the recruitment of the NuRD-P-TEFb complex to gene regulatory regions and facilitates transcription elongation by transferring the Protein Phosphatase 1α (PP1α), an IKAROS-binding protein and P-TEFb activator, to CDK9. We show that an IKAROS mutant that is unable to bind PP1α cannot sustain gene expression and impedes normal differentiation of Ik(NULL) hematopoietic progenitors. Finally, the knock-down of the NuRD subunit Mi2 reveals that the occupancy of the NuRD complex at transcribed regions of genes favors the relief of POL II promoter-proximal pausing and thereby, promotes transcription elongation.

  7. The IKAROS Interaction with a Complex Including Chromatin Remodeling and Transcription Elongation Activities Is Required for Hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Bottardi, Stefania; Mavoungou, Lionel; Pak, Helen; Daou, Salima; Bourgoin, Vincent; Lakehal, Yahia A.; Affar, El Bachir; Milot, Eric

    2014-01-01

    IKAROS is a critical regulator of hematopoietic cell fate and its dynamic expression pattern is required for proper hematopoiesis. In collaboration with the Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase (NuRD) complex, it promotes gene repression and activation. It remains to be clarified how IKAROS can support transcription activation while being associated with the HDAC-containing complex NuRD. IKAROS also binds to the Positive-Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) at gene promoters. Here, we demonstrate that NuRD and P-TEFb are assembled in a complex that can be recruited to specific genes by IKAROS. The expression level of IKAROS influences the recruitment of the NuRD-P-TEFb complex to gene regulatory regions and facilitates transcription elongation by transferring the Protein Phosphatase 1α (PP1α), an IKAROS-binding protein and P-TEFb activator, to CDK9. We show that an IKAROS mutant that is unable to bind PP1α cannot sustain gene expression and impedes normal differentiation of IkNULL hematopoietic progenitors. Finally, the knock-down of the NuRD subunit Mi2 reveals that the occupancy of the NuRD complex at transcribed regions of genes favors the relief of POL II promoter-proximal pausing and thereby, promotes transcription elongation. PMID:25474253

  8. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of non-living, heat-killed form of lactobacilli including Lactobacillus johnsonii No.1088.

    PubMed

    Aiba, Yuji; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Komatsu, Yasuhiko

    2017-06-15

    Some strains of lactic acid bacteria are reported to inhibit the growth of Helicobacter pylori and proposed to be useful to support so-called triple therapy for H. pylori. Although most strains must be alive to exert their anti-H. pylori activity, some lactobacilli strains are effective even when dead. One possible underlying mechanism of such an activity of non-living lactobacilli is reportedly co-aggregation with H. pylori. In this study, we found that a non-living heat-killed form of Lactobacillus johnsonii No.1088 (HK-LJ88) and also that of some other lactobacilli inhibited the growth of H. pylori in vitro. Furthermore, the number of H. pylori in the infected stomach of germ-free mice was significantly decreased by the repeated oral administration of HK-LJ88. Observation by scanning electron microscopy revealed that no co-aggregation had occurred between H. pylori and HK-LJ88; instead, deformations of H. pylori (e.g. disappearance of spiral, bending of cell body, coccoid formation, degradations, etc.) appeared after incubation for 24 h with HK-LJ88. These results suggest that HK-LJ88 inhibited H. pylori activity probably not by co-aggregation but by some unknown mechanism involving HK-LJ88's cell surface molecules and that even non-living lactobacilli are possibly useful to support H. pylori eradication therapy. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Trends of earlier palliative care consultation in advanced cancer patients receiving palliative radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sanders; Sigel, Keith; Goldstein, Nathan E; Wisnivesky, Juan; Dharmarajan, Kavita V

    2018-06-06

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology recommends that all patients with metastatic disease receive dedicated palliative care (PC) services early in their illness, ideally via interdisciplinary care teams. We investigated the time trends of specialty palliative care consultations from the date of metastatic cancer diagnosis among patients receiving palliative radiation therapy (PRT). A shorter time interval between metastatic diagnosis and first PC consultation suggests earlier involvement of palliative care in a patient's life with metastatic cancer. In this IRB-approved retrospective analysis, patients treated with PRT for solid tumors (bone and brain) at a single tertiary care hospital between 2010 and 2016 were included. Cohorts were arbitrarily established by metastatic diagnosis within approximately two-year intervals: (1) 1/1/2010-3/27/2012; (2) 3/28/2012-5/21/2014; and (3) 5/22/2014-12/31/2016. Cox-proportional hazards regression modelling was used to compare trends of PC consultation among cohorts. Of 284 patients identified, 184 patients received PC consultation, whereas 15 patients died before receiving a PC consult. Median follow-up time until an event or censor was 257 days (range: 1,900). Patients in the most recent cohort had a shorter median time to first PC consult (57 days) compared to those in the first (374 days) and second (186 days) cohorts. On multivariable analysis, patients in the third cohort were more likely to undergo a PC consultation earlier in their metastatic illness (HR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2,2.8). Over a six-year period, palliative care consultation occurred earlier for metastatic patients treated with PRT at our institution. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed Central

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A.; Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Raab, Lindsay N.; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N.

    2015-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semi-annual records of anthropometry, maturity and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year pre-menarche [predictor] and ~5 years post-menarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent inter-scan PA and PA over 3 maturity sub-phases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry and strength indices at non-dominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) sub-head BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or post-menarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and inter-scan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p<0.07). Pre-menarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semi-partial r2 = 0.21-0.59, p≤0.001). Adult 1/3 radius and sub-head BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years post-menarche (p<0.03). PA 3-5 years post-menarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter and buckling ratio (p<0.05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  11. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (Including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Kanaley, Jill A; Raab, Lindsay N; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

    2015-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semiannual records of anthropometry, maturity, and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year premenarche [predictor] and ~5 years postmenarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent interscan PA and PA over 3 maturity subphases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry, and strength indices at nondominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) subhead BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or postmenarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and interscan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p > .07). Premenarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semipartial r2 = .21-0.59, p ≤ .001). Adult 1/3 radius and subhead BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years postmenarche (p < .03). PA 3-5 years postmenarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter, and buckling ratio (p < .05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females.

  12. New Pyrrole Derivatives with Potent Tubulin Polymerization Inhibiting Activity As Anticancer Agents Including Hedgehog-Dependent Cancer

    PubMed Central

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:25025991

  13. Earlier versus later continuous Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) for stable low-birth-weight infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nagai, S; Andrianarimanana, D; Rabesandratana, N; Yonemoto, N; Nakayama, T; Mori, R

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of earlier continuous Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) for relatively stable low-birth-weight (LBW) infants in a resource-limited country. A randomized controlled trial was performed in LBW infants at a referral hospital in Madagascar. Earlier continuous KMC (intervention) was begun as soon as possible, within 24 h postbirth, and later continuous KMC (control: conventional care) was begun after complete stabilization (generally after 24 h postbirth). Main outcome measure was mortality during the first 28 days postbirth. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00531492. A total of 73 infants (intervention 37, control 36) were included. Earlier continuous KMC had higher but no statistically different mortality in the first 28 days postbirth (1 vs. 2; risk ratio, 1.95; 95% CIs, 0.18-20.53; p = 1.00). There were no differences in incidence of morbidities. Body weight loss from birth to 24 h postbirth was significantly less in earlier KMC infants compared with later KMC infants. (-34.81 g vs. -73.97 g; mean difference, 39.16 g; 95% CIs, 10.30-68.03; p = 0.01; adjusted p = 0.02). Adverse events and duration of hospitalization were not different between the two groups. Further evaluations of earlier continuous KMC including measurement of KMC dose, are needed in resource-limited countries.

  14. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, J. Matthew; Titiz, Ali S.; Hernan, Amanda E.; Scott, Rod C.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation. PMID:26866597

  15. High prevalence and advanced silicosis in active granite workers: a dose-response analysis including FEV1.

    PubMed

    Rego, Gumersindo; Pichel, Arturo; Quero, Aida; Dubois, Alejandro; Martínez, Cristina; Isidro, Isabel; Gil, Manuel; Cuervo, Víctor; González, Artemio

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate silica exposure and respiratory disease in granite workers. A cross-sectional study of 440 active granite workers. Seventy-seven (17.5%) have silicosis, complicated in 15 of them; 18 have an obstructive ventilatory defect and 73 had exceeded 3.5 mg/m-year of cumulative silica exposure. Percent predicted FEV1 have a significant negative relation with mg/m(3)-year (P < 0.001) with a trend toward dose-response excluding silicotics and controlling for tobacco. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of having a percent predicted FEV1 below 50th percentile is 1.18 (0.66 to 2.11) for nonexposed smokers, 1.47 (0.76 to 2.84) for exposed nonsmokers, and 2.07 (1.12 to 3.85) for exposed smokers, in comparison with the control group. This study suggests that silica induces functional alteration regardless of silicosis and, in all likelihood, synergistically with tobacco. Exposure levels must be controlled better in these workers and those with silicosis must be relocated to risk-free jobs or retired.

  16. Changing facial phenotype in Cohen syndrome: towards clues for an earlier diagnosis.

    PubMed

    El Chehadeh-Djebbar, Salima; Blair, Edward; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel; Moncla, Anne; Frances, Anne-Marie; Rio, Marlène; Debray, François-Guillaume; Rump, Patrick; Masurel-Paulet, Alice; Gigot, Nadège; Callier, Patrick; Duplomb, Laurence; Aral, Bernard; Huet, Frédéric; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Faivre, Laurence

    2013-07-01

    Cohen syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive condition caused by mutations and/or large rearrangements in the VPS13B gene. CS clinical features, including developmental delay, the typical facial gestalt, chorioretinal dystrophy (CRD) and neutropenia, are well described. CS diagnosis is generally raised after school age, when visual disturbances lead to CRD diagnosis and to VPS13B gene testing. This relatively late diagnosis precludes accurate genetic counselling. The aim of this study was to analyse the evolution of CS facial features in the early period of life, particularly before school age (6 years), to find clues for an earlier diagnosis. Photographs of 17 patients with molecularly confirmed CS were analysed, from birth to preschool age. By comparing their facial phenotype when growing, we show that there are no special facial characteristics before 1 year. However, between 2 and 6 years, CS children already share common facial features such as a short neck, a square face with micrognathia and full cheeks, a hypotonic facial appearance, epicanthic folds, long ears with an everted upper part of the auricle and/or a prominent lobe, a relatively short philtrum, a small and open mouth with downturned corners, a thick lower lip and abnormal eye shapes. These early transient facial features evolve to typical CS facial features with aging. These observations emphasize the importance of ophthalmological tests and neutrophil count in children in preschool age presenting with developmental delay, hypotonia and the facial features we described here, for an earlier CS diagnosis.

  17. NMR-based fecal metabolomics fingerprinting as predictors of earlier diagnosis in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Ma, Changchun; Liu, Chengkang; Wang, Zhening; Yang, Jurong; Liu, Xinmu; Shen, Zhiwei; Wu, Renhua

    2016-05-17

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a growing cause of mortality in developing countries, warranting investigation into its earlier detection for optimal disease management. A metabolomics based approach provides potential for noninvasive identification of biomarkers of colorectal carcinogenesis, as well as dissection of molecular pathways of pathophysiological conditions. Here, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HNMR) -based metabolomic approach was used to profile fecal metabolites of 68 CRC patients (stage I/II=20; stage III=25 and stage IV=23) and 32 healthy controls (HC). Pattern recognition through principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied on 1H-NMR processed data for dimension reduction. OPLS-DA revealed that each stage of CRC could be clearly distinguished from HC based on their metabolomic profiles. Successive analyses identified distinct disturbances to fecal metabolites of CRC patients at various stages, compared with those in cancer free controls, including reduced levels of acetate, butyrate, propionate, glucose, glutamine, and elevated quantities of succinate, proline, alanine, dimethylglycine, valine, glutamate, leucine, isoleucine and lactate. These altered fecal metabolites potentially involved in the disruption of normal bacterial ecology, malabsorption of nutrients, increased glycolysis and glutaminolysis. Our findings revealed that the fecal metabolic profiles of healthy controls can be distinguished from CRC patients, even in the early stage (stage I/II), highlighting the potential utility of NMR-based fecal metabolomics fingerprinting as predictors of earlier diagnosis in CRC patients.

  18. NMR-based fecal metabolomics fingerprinting as predictors of earlier diagnosis in patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yan; Ma, Changchun; Liu, Chengkang; Wang, Zhening; Yang, Jurong; Liu, Xinmu; Shen, Zhiwei; Wu, Renhua

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a growing cause of mortality in developing countries, warranting investigation into its earlier detection for optimal disease management. A metabolomics based approach provides potential for noninvasive identification of biomarkers of colorectal carcinogenesis, as well as dissection of molecular pathways of pathophysiological conditions. Here, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HNMR) -based metabolomic approach was used to profile fecal metabolites of 68 CRC patients (stage I/II=20; stage III=25 and stage IV=23) and 32 healthy controls (HC). Pattern recognition through principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied on 1H-NMR processed data for dimension reduction. OPLS-DA revealed that each stage of CRC could be clearly distinguished from HC based on their metabolomic profiles. Successive analyses identified distinct disturbances to fecal metabolites of CRC patients at various stages, compared with those in cancer free controls, including reduced levels of acetate, butyrate, propionate, glucose, glutamine, and elevated quantities of succinate, proline, alanine, dimethylglycine, valine, glutamate, leucine, isoleucine and lactate. These altered fecal metabolites potentially involved in the disruption of normal bacterial ecology, malabsorption of nutrients, increased glycolysis and glutaminolysis. Our findings revealed that the fecal metabolic profiles of healthy controls can be distinguished from CRC patients, even in the early stage (stage I/II), highlighting the potential utility of NMR-based fecal metabolomics fingerprinting as predictors of earlier diagnosis in CRC patients. PMID:27107423

  19. Novel stilbenoids, including cannabispiradienone glycosides, from Tragopogon tommasinii (Asteraceae, Cichorieae) and their potential anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Granica, Sebastian; Piwowarski, Jakub P; Randazzo, Antonio; Schneider, Peter; Żyżyńska-Granica, Barbara; Zidorn, Christian

    2015-09-01

    A phytochemical investigation of Tragopogon tommasinii Sch.Bip. (Asteraceae, Cichorieae) yielded a total of 21 natural products, two simple phenolic acids (4-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid), four caffeic acid derivatives (chlorogenic acid, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid), six flavonoids (luteolin, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, vitexin, orientin, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, and isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside), three simple bibenzyls [2-carboxyl-5-hydroxy-3-methoxy-4'-β-glucopyranosyl-oxybibenzyl, 3-caffeoyl-(9→5)-β-apiosyl-(1→6)-β-glucopyranosyloxy-5,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxybibenzyl, 3-caffeoyl-(9→5)-β-apiosyl-(1→6)-β-glucopyranosyloxy-4'-dihydroxy-5,3'-dimethoxybibenzyl], three phtalides [3-(4-β-glucopyranosyloxybenzyl)-7-hydroxy-5-methoxyphtalide, 7-β-glucopyranosyloxy-(S)-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-5-methoxyphtalide, and 7-(1→6)-α-rhamnosyl-β-glucopyranosyloxy-(S)-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-5-methoxyphtalide], two cannabispiradienone derivatives [3-O-β-glucopyranosyldemethoxycannabispiradienone and 3-caffeoyl-(9→5)-β-apiosyl-(1→6)-β-glucopyranosyloxydemethoxycannabispiradienone], and tetra-N-coumaroyl spermine. The three bibenzyls, the latter two benzylphthalides, and both cannabispiradienone derivatives represent new natural compounds and all compounds, except the caffeic acid derivatives and the flavonoids were new for T. tommasinii. The structures were established by HR mass spectrometry, extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and CD spectroscopy. Moreover, the potential anti-inflammatory activities of the new compounds were assayed using human neutrophils and their production of IL-1b, IL-8, TNF-α and MMP-9 as well as the expression of TLR-4, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A luciferase-based assay for rapid assessment of drug activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis including monitoring of macrophage viability.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Marie C; Lerm, Maria; Ängeby, Kristian; Nordvall, Michaela; Juréen, Pontus; Schön, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The intracellular (IC) effect of drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is not well established but increasingly important to consider when combining current and future multidrug regimens into the best possible treatment strategies. For this purpose, we developed an IC model based on a genetically modified Mtb H37Rv strain, expressing the Vibrio harvei luciferase (H37Rv-lux) infecting the human macrophage like cell line THP-1. Cells were infected at a low multiplicity of infection (1:1) and subsequently exposed to isoniazid (INH), ethambutol (EMB), amikacin (AMI) or levofloxacin (LEV) for 5days in a 96-well format. Cell viability was evaluated by Calcein AM and was maintained throughout the experiment. The number of viable H37Rv-lux was determined by luminescence and verified by a colony forming unit analysis. The results were compared to the effects of the same drugs in broth cultures. AMI, EMB and LEV were significantly less effective intracellularly (MIC90: >4mg/L, 8mg/L and 2mg/L, respectively) compared to extracellularly (MIC90: 0.5mg/L for AMI and EMB; 0.25mg/L for LEV). The reverse was the case for INH (IC: 0.064mg/L vs EC: 0.25mg/L). In conclusion, this luciferase based method, in which monitoring of cell viability is included, has the potential to become a useful tool while evaluating the intracellular effects of anti-mycobacterial drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. High water-stressed population estimated by world water resources assessment including human activities under SRES scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, M.; Shen, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2009-04-01

    In an argument of the reduction and the adaptation for the climate change, the evaluation of the influence by the climate change is important. When we argue in adaptation plan from a damage scale and balance with the cost, it is particularly important. Parry et al (2001) evaluated the risks in shortage of water, malaria, food, the risk of the coast flood by temperature function and clarified the level of critical climate change. According to their evaluation, the population to be affected by the shortage of water suddenly increases in the range where temperature increases from 1.5 to 2.0 degree in 2080s. They showed how much we need to reduce emissions in order to draw-down significantly the number at risk. This evaluation of critical climate change threats and targets of water shortage did not include the water withdrawal divided by water availability. Shen et al (2008a) estimated the water withdrawal of projection of future world water resources according to socio-economic driving factors predicted for scenarios A1b, A2, B1, and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). However, these results were in function of not temperature but time. The assessment of the highly water-stressed population considered the socioeconomic development is necessary for a function of the temperature. Because of it is easy to understand to need to reduce emission. We present a multi-GCM analysis of the global and regional populations lived in highly water-stressed basin for a function of the temperature using the socioeconomic data and the outputs of GCMs. In scenario A2, the population increases gradually with warming. On the other hand, the future projection population in scenario A1b and B1 increase gradually until the temperature anomaly exceeds around from +1 to +1.5 degree. After that the population is almost constant. From Shen et al (2008b), we evaluated the HWSP and its ratio in the world with temperature function for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 by the index of W

  2. Identified research directions for using manufacturing knowledge earlier in the product lifecycle

    PubMed Central

    Hedberg, Thomas D.; Hartman, Nathan W.; Rosche, Phil; Fischer, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Design for Manufacturing (DFM), especially the use of manufacturing knowledge to support design decisions, has received attention in the academic domain. However, industry practice has not been studied enough to provide solutions that are mature for industry. The current state of the art for DFM is often rule-based functionality within Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems that enforce specific design requirements. That rule-based functionality may or may not dynamically affect geometry definition. And, if rule-based functionality exists in the CAD system, it is typically a customization on a case-by-case basis. Manufacturing knowledge is a phrase with vast meanings, which may include knowledge on the effects of material properties decisions, machine and process capabilities, or understanding the unintended consequences of design decisions on manufacturing. One of the DFM questions to answer is how can manufacturing knowledge, depending on its definition, be used earlier in the product lifecycle to enable a more collaborative development environment? This paper will discuss the results of a workshop on manufacturing knowledge that highlights several research questions needing more study. This paper proposes recommendations for investigating the relationship of manufacturing knowledge with shape, behavior, and context characteristics of product to produce a better understanding of what knowledge is most important. In addition, the proposal includes recommendations for investigating the system-level barriers to reusing manufacturing knowledge and how model-based manufacturing may ease the burden of knowledge sharing. Lastly, the proposal addresses the direction of future research for holistic solutions of using manufacturing knowledge earlier in the product lifecycle. PMID:27990027

  3. Identified research directions for using manufacturing knowledge earlier in the product lifecycle.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, Thomas D; Hartman, Nathan W; Rosche, Phil; Fischer, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Design for Manufacturing (DFM), especially the use of manufacturing knowledge to support design decisions, has received attention in the academic domain. However, industry practice has not been studied enough to provide solutions that are mature for industry. The current state of the art for DFM is often rule-based functionality within Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems that enforce specific design requirements. That rule-based functionality may or may not dynamically affect geometry definition. And, if rule-based functionality exists in the CAD system, it is typically a customization on a case-by-case basis. Manufacturing knowledge is a phrase with vast meanings, which may include knowledge on the effects of material properties decisions, machine and process capabilities, or understanding the unintended consequences of design decisions on manufacturing. One of the DFM questions to answer is how can manufacturing knowledge, depending on its definition, be used earlier in the product lifecycle to enable a more collaborative development environment? This paper will discuss the results of a workshop on manufacturing knowledge that highlights several research questions needing more study. This paper proposes recommendations for investigating the relationship of manufacturing knowledge with shape, behavior, and context characteristics of product to produce a better understanding of what knowledge is most important. In addition, the proposal includes recommendations for investigating the system-level barriers to reusing manufacturing knowledge and how model-based manufacturing may ease the burden of knowledge sharing. Lastly, the proposal addresses the direction of future research for holistic solutions of using manufacturing knowledge earlier in the product lifecycle.

  4. Higher Childhood Red Meat Intake Frequency Is Associated with Earlier Age at Menarche.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Erica C; Marín, Constanza; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Villamor, Eduardo

    2016-03-09

    Early age at menarche is associated with increased breast cancer risk. Red meat consumption in adolescence predicts breast cancer risk, but it is unknown whether it is also related to earlier menarche. We studied the association between intake of red meat at ages 5-12 y and age at menarche in a prospective study. We assessed usual diets with a food-frequency questionnaire in a group of 456 girls aged 8.4 ± 1.7 y and followed them for a median 5.6 y in Bogotá, Colombia. Girls were asked periodically about the occurrence and date of menarche. Median age at menarche was estimated with use of Kaplan-Meier survival probabilities by categories of red meat intake frequency. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare the incidence of menarche by red meat intake frequency, adjusting for potential sociodemographic and dietary confounders including total energy intake and intake frequency of other animal food groups (dairy, poultry, freshwater fish, tuna/sardines, eggs, and innards). Median age at menarche was 12.4 y. After adjustment for total energy intake, maternal parity, and socioeconomic status, red meat intake frequency was inversely associated with age at menarche. When compared with girls with red meat intake <4 times/wk, those consuming it ≥2 times/d had a significantly earlier age at menarche (HR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.41; P-trend = 0.0009). Incidentally, we found that girls with tuna/sardine intake >1 time/wk had a significantly later age at menarche (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.90; P = 0.01) than those with intake <1 time/mo. Intake frequency of other animal food groups was not significantly associated with age at menarche. Higher red meat intake frequency during childhood is associated with an earlier age at menarche, whereas greater fatty fish intake frequency is associated with a later menarcheal age. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Do BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier onset of natural menopause?

    PubMed

    van Tilborg, Theodora C; Broekmans, Frank J; Pijpe, Anouk; Schrijver, Lieske H; Mooij, Thea M; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Verhoef, Senno; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A; Adank, Muriel A; van Asperen, Christi J; van Doorn, Helena C; van Os, Theo A; Bos, Anna M; Rookus, Matti A; Ausems, Margreet G

    2016-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier age at natural menopause (ANM), although to date findings are inconclusive. This study assessed the influence of BRCA mutation status on ANM, and aimed to explore the reasons of inconsistency in the literature. Cross-sectional assessment from an ongoing nationwide cohort study among members of BRCA1/2 mutated families. Information was obtained by a standardized questionnaire. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed, and Cox regression was used to assess the association between BRCA1/2 mutation status and ANM. Adjustments were made for birth cohort, family, smoking, use of hormonal contraceptives, and parity. A total of 1,208 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and 2,211 proven noncarriers were included. Overall, no association was found between BRCA1/2 mutation status and ANM (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.06 [95% CI, 0.87-1.30]). We examined if the null finding was due to informative censoring by uptake of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. Indeed, within the oldest birth cohort, in which the percentage of surgical menopause events was lowest and comparable between carriers and noncarriers, the HR for earlier natural menopause in carriers was 1.45 (95% CI, 1.09-1.94). The second oldest birth cohort, however, demonstrated a decreased HR (0.67 [95% CI, 0.46-0.98]), and thus no trend over birth cohorts was found. Various types of selection bias hamper the comparison of ANM between BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and noncarriers, genetically tested in the clinic.

  6. Mining emotional profiles using e-mail messages for earlier warnings of potential terrorist activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galitsky, Boris; Kovalerchuk, Boris

    2006-04-01

    We develop a software system Text Scanner for Emotional Distress (TSED) for helping to detect email messages which are suspicious of coming from people under strong emotional distress. It has been confirmed by multiple studies that terrorist attackers have experienced a substantial emotional distress at some points before committing a terrorist attack. Therefore, if an individual in emotional distress can be detected on the basis of email texts, some preventive measures can be taken. The proposed detection machinery is based on extraction and classification of emotional profiles from emails. An emotional profile is a formal representation of a sequence of emotional states through a textual discourse where communicative actions are attached to these emotional states. The issues of extraction of emotional profiles from text and reasoning about it are discussed and illustrated. We then develop an inductive machine learning and reasoning framework to relate an emotional profile to the class "Emotional distress" or "No emotional distress", given a training dataset where the class is assigned by an expert. TSED's machine learning is evaluated using the database of structured customer complaints.

  7. Can Earlier Literacy Skills Have a Negative Impact on Future Home Literacy Activities? Evidence from Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Tomohiro; Georgiou, George K.; Muroya, Naoko; Maekawa, Hisao; Parrila, Rauno

    2018-01-01

    We examined the cross-lagged relations between the home literacy environment and literacy skills in Japanese, and whether child's gender, parents' education and child's level of literacy performance moderate the relations. One hundred forty-two Japanese children were followed from Grades 1 to 2 and assessed on character knowledge, reading fluency…

  8. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  9. Towards earlier inclusion of Children in Tuberculosis (TB) drugs trials: Consensus statements from an Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Nachman, Sharon; Ahmed, Amina; Amanullah, Farhana; Becerra, Mercedes C; Botgros, Radu; Brigden, Grania; Browning, Renee; Gardiner, Elizabeth; Hafner, Richard; Hesseling, Anneke; How, Cleotilde; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Lessem, Erica; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Mbelle, Nontombi; Marais, Ben; McIlleron, Helen; Mc Neeley, David F; Mendel, Carl; Murray, Stephen; Navarro, Eileen; Oramasionwu, Gloria E; Porcalla, Ariel R; Powell, Clydette; Powell, Mair; Rigaud, Mona; Rouzier, Vanessa; Samson, Pearl; Schaaf, H. Simon; Shah, Seema; Starke, Jeff; Swaminathan, Soumya; Wobudeya, Eric; Worrell, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Children represent a significant proportion of the global tuberculosis (TB) burden, and may be disproportionately more affected by its most severe clinical manifestations. Currently available treatments for pediatric drug-susceptible (DS) and drug-resistant (DR) TB, albeit generally effective, are hampered by high pill burden, long duration of treatment, coexistent toxicities, and an overall lack of suitable, child-friendly formulations. The complex and burdensome nature of administering the existing regimens to treat DS TB also contributes to the rise of DR TB strains. Despite the availability and use of these therapies for decades, a dearth of dosing evidence in children underscores the importance of sustained efforts for TB drug development to better meet the treatment needs of children with TB. Several new TB drugs and regimens with promising activity against both DS and DR TB strains have recently entered clinical development and are in various phases of clinical evaluation in adults or have received marketing authorization for adults. However, initiation of clinical trials to evaluate these drugs in children is often deferred, pending the availability of complete safety and efficacy data in adults or after drug approval. This document summarizes consensus statements from an international panel of childhood TB opinion leaders which support the initiation of evaluation of new TB drugs and regimens in children at earlier phases of the TB Drug development cycle. PMID:25957923

  10. The cortical representation of the speech envelope is earlier for audiovisual speech than audio speech.

    PubMed

    Crosse, Michael J; Lalor, Edmund C

    2014-04-01

    Visual speech can greatly enhance a listener's comprehension of auditory speech when they are presented simultaneously. Efforts to determine the neural underpinnings of this phenomenon have been hampered by the limited temporal resolution of hemodynamic imaging and the fact that EEG and magnetoencephalographic data are usually analyzed in response to simple, discrete stimuli. Recent research has shown that neuronal activity in human auditory cortex tracks the envelope of natural speech. Here, we exploit this finding by estimating a linear forward-mapping between the speech envelope and EEG data and show that the latency at which the envelope of natural speech is represented in cortex is shortened by >10 ms when continuous audiovisual speech is presented compared with audio-only speech. In addition, we use a reverse-mapping approach to reconstruct an estimate of the speech stimulus from the EEG data and, by comparing the bimodal estimate with the sum of the unimodal estimates, find no evidence of any nonlinear additive effects in the audiovisual speech condition. These findings point to an underlying mechanism that could account for enhanced comprehension during audiovisual speech. Specifically, we hypothesize that low-level acoustic features that are temporally coherent with the preceding visual stream may be synthesized into a speech object at an earlier latency, which may provide an extended period of low-level processing before extraction of semantic information.

  11. Colorectal cancer occurs earlier in those exposed to tobacco smoke: implications for screening

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Martin C.; Cummings, K. Michael; Michalek, Arthur M.; Reid, Mary E.; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Hyland, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the USA. While various lifestyle factors have been shown to alter the risk for colorectal cancer, recommendations for the early detection of CRC are based only on age and family history. Methods This case-only study examined the age at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in subjects exposed to tobacco smoke. Subjects included all patients who attended RPCI between 1957 and 1997, diagnosed with colorectal cancer, and completed an epidemiologic questionnaire. Adjusted linear regression models were calculated for the various smoking exposures. Results Of the 3,540 cases of colorectal cancer, current smokers demonstrated the youngest age of CRC onset (never: 64.2 vs. current: 57.4, P < 0.001) compared to never smokers, followed by recent former smokers. Among never smokers, individuals with past second-hand smoke exposure were diagnosed at a significantly younger age compared to the unexposed. Conclusion This study found that individuals with heavy, long-term tobacco smoke exposure were significantly younger at the time of CRC diagnosis compared to lifelong never smokers. The implication of this finding is that screening for colorectal cancer, which is recommended to begin at age 50 years for persons at average risk should be initiated 5–10 years earlier for persons with a significant lifetime history of exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:18264728

  12. The response of aboveground plant productivity to earlier snowmelt and summer warming in an Arctic ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livensperger, C.; Steltzer, H.; Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Sullivan, P.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Weintraub, M. N.

    2012-12-01

    Plant communities in the Arctic are undergoing changes in structure and function due to shifts in seasonality from changing winters and summer warming. These changes will impact biogeochemical cycling, surface energy balance, and functioning of vertebrate and invertebrate communities. To examine seasonal controls on aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in a moist acidic tundra ecosystem in northern Alaska, we shifted the growing season by accelerating snowmelt (using radiation absorbing shadecloth) and warming air and soil temperature (using 1 m2 open-top chambers), individually and in combination. After three years, we measured ANPP by harvesting up to 16 individual ramets, tillers and rhizomes for each of 7 plant species, including two deciduous shrubs, two graminoids, two evergreen shrubs and one forb during peak season. Our results show that ANPP per stem summed across the 7 species increased when snow melt occurred earlier. However, standing biomass, excluding current year growth, was also greater. The ratio of ANPP/standing biomass decreased in all treatments compared to the control. ANPP per unit standing biomass summed for the four shrub species decreases due to summer warming alone or in combination with early snowmelt; however early snowmelt alone did not lead to lower ANPP for the shrubs. ANPP per tiller or rhizome summed for the three herbaceous species increased in response to summer warming. Understanding the differential response of plants to changing seasonality will inform predictions of future Arctic plant community structure and function.

  13. Number of Diverticulitis Episodes Before Resection and Factors Associated With Earlier Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Simianu, Vlad V.; Fichera, Alessandro; Bastawrous, Amir L.; Davidson, Giana H.; Florence, Michael G.; Thirlby, Richard C.; Flum, David R.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Despite professional recommendations to delay elective colon resection for patients with uncomplicated diverticulitis, early surgery (after <3 preceding episodes) appears to be common. Several factors have been suggested to contribute to early surgery, including increasing numbers of younger patients, a lower threshold to operate laparoscopically, and growing recognition of “smoldering” (or nonrecovering) diverticulitis episodes. However, the relevance of these factors in early surgery has not been well tested, and most prior studies have focused on hospitalizations, missing outpatient events and making it difficult to assess guideline adherence in earlier interventions. OBJECTIVE To describe patterns of episodes of diverticulitis before surgery and factors associated with earlier interventions using inpatient, outpatient, and antibiotic prescription claims. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This investigation was a nationwide retrospective cohort study from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2012. The dates of the analysis were July 2014 to May 2015. Participants were immunocompetent adult patients (age range, 18-64 years) with incident, uncomplicated diverticulitis. EXPOSURE Elective colectomy for diverticulitis. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Inpatient, outpatient, and antibiotic prescription claims for diverticulitis captured in the MarketScan (Truven Health Analytics) databases. RESULTS Of 87 461 immunocompetent patients having at least 1 claim for diverticulitis, 6.4% (n = 5604) underwent a resection. The final study cohort comprised 3054 nonimmunocompromised patients who underwent elective resection for uncomplicated diverticulitis, of whom 55.6% (n = 1699) were male. Before elective surgery, they had a mean (SD) of 1.0 (0.9) inpatient claims, 1.5 (1.5) outpatient claims, and 0.5 (1.2) antibiotic prescription claims related to diverticulitis. Resection occurred after fewer than 3 episodes in 94.9% (2897 of 3054) of patients if counting inpatient

  14. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Vehicle Assembly Building, after being removed from the solid rocket booster (SRB), the forward assembly is lowered toward a transporter below in the transfer aisle. The destacking is part of time and cycle activities. The SRB was part of the stack on Atlantis originally scheduled for a March 1, 2003, launch on mission STS-114. The SRBs and external tank were demated in February 2003. The mission is now scheduled to occur no earlier than Sept. 12, 2004, on Atlantis.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Vehicle Assembly Building, after being removed from the solid rocket booster (SRB), the forward assembly is lowered toward a transporter below in the transfer aisle. The destacking is part of time and cycle activities. The SRB was part of the stack on Atlantis originally scheduled for a March 1, 2003, launch on mission STS-114. The SRBs and external tank were demated in February 2003. The mission is now scheduled to occur no earlier than Sept. 12, 2004, on Atlantis.

  15. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Vehicle Assembly Building, after being removed from the solid rocket booster (SRB), the forward assembly is lowered from high above the transfer aisle. The destacking is part of time and cycle activities. The SRB was part of the stack on Atlantis originally scheduled for a March 1, 2003, launch on mission STS-114. The SRBs and external tank were demated in February 2003. The mission is now scheduled to occur no earlier than Sept. 12, 2004, on Atlantis.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-09

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Vehicle Assembly Building, after being removed from the solid rocket booster (SRB), the forward assembly is lowered from high above the transfer aisle. The destacking is part of time and cycle activities. The SRB was part of the stack on Atlantis originally scheduled for a March 1, 2003, launch on mission STS-114. The SRBs and external tank were demated in February 2003. The mission is now scheduled to occur no earlier than Sept. 12, 2004, on Atlantis.

  16. [Antibacterial actin of vinegar against food-borne pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Part 2). Effect of sodium chloride and temperature on bactericidal activity].

    PubMed

    Entani, E; Asai, M; Tsujihata, S; Tsukamoto, Y; Ohta, M

    1997-05-01

    Bactericidal effects of various kinds of AWASEZU (processed vinegar, 2.5% acidity) on food-borne pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other bacteria were examined. the order of bactericidal activities was NIHAIZU (3.5% NaCl was added) > SANBA-IZU (3.5% NaCl and 10% sucrose were added) > plain vinegar (spirit vinegar) > AMAZU (10% sucrose was added). This indicates that their activities were enhanced by the addition of sodium chloride and suppressed by the addition of sugar. On the other hand, when soy sauce was used instead of sodium chloride, the order of bactericidal activities was plain vinegar > AMAZU > NIHAIZU > SANBAIZU. This is mainly because their activities were suppressed by the increase in the pH value. The effect of sodium chloride (0.01-15%) and temperature (10-50 degrees C) on bactericidal activities against E. coli O157:H7 in spirit vinegar (0.5-2.5% acidity) was further examined. When vinegar was used in combination with sodium chloride, predominant synergism on the bactericidal activity was observed. Their activities were markedly enhanced by the addition of sodium chloride in proportion to the concentration. In addition to this, at higher temperatures spirit vinegar killed bacteria much more rapidly. It should be noted that the bactericidal activity of spirit vinegar was extremely enhanced by the combined use of the addition of sodium chloride and the rise of temperature. For example, in 2.5% acidity vinegar, the time required for 3 log decrease in viable cell numbers at 20 degrees C was shortened to 1/140-fold by the addition of 5% sodium chloride, shortened to 1/51-fold by the rise of the reaction temperature at 40 degrees C, and shortened to 1/830-fold; 0.89 minutes by both the addition of 5% sodium chloride and the rise of temperature at 40 degrees C. In order to propose the methods to prevent food poisoning by bacterial infection, bactericidal activities of vinegar solution containing sodium chloride on cooking tools and

  17. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH.

    PubMed

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into 'pre-action' and 'action'. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1-12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. NCT01315756.

  18. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, Center Director Roy Bridges (left), Program Manager of the International Space Station (ISS) Randy Brinkley (second from left) and STS-98 Commander Ken Cockrell (right) applaud the unveiling of the name "Destiny" for the U.S. Laboratory module. The lab, which is behnd them on a workstand, is scheduled to be launched on STS-98 on Space Shuttle Endeavour in early 2000. It will become the centerpiece of scientific research on the ISS. The Shuttle will spend six days docked to the Station while the laboratory is attached and three spacewalks are conducted to compete its assembly. The laboratory will be launched with five equipment racks aboard, which will provide essential functions for Station systems, including high data-rate communications, and maintain the Station's orientation using control gyroscopes launched earlier. Additional equipment and research racks will be installed in the laboratory on subsequent Shuttle flights.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-12-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, Center Director Roy Bridges (left), Program Manager of the International Space Station (ISS) Randy Brinkley (second from left) and STS-98 Commander Ken Cockrell (right) applaud the unveiling of the name "Destiny" for the U.S. Laboratory module. The lab, which is behnd them on a workstand, is scheduled to be launched on STS-98 on Space Shuttle Endeavour in early 2000. It will become the centerpiece of scientific research on the ISS. The Shuttle will spend six days docked to the Station while the laboratory is attached and three spacewalks are conducted to compete its assembly. The laboratory will be launched with five equipment racks aboard, which will provide essential functions for Station systems, including high data-rate communications, and maintain the Station's orientation using control gyroscopes launched earlier. Additional equipment and research racks will be installed in the laboratory on subsequent Shuttle flights.

  19. Sensory, physical and chemical characteristics of cooked ham manufactured from rapidly chilled and earlier deboned M. semimembranosus.

    PubMed

    Tomović, Vladimir M; Jokanović, Marija R; Petrović, Ljiljana S; Tomović, Mila S; Tasić, Tatjana A; Ikonić, Predrag M; Sumić, Zdravko M; Sojić, Branislav V; Skaljac, Snežana B; Sošo, Milena M

    2013-01-01

    Effects of rapid chilling of carcasses (at -31°C in the first 3h of chilling, and then at 2-4°C) and earlier deboning (8h post-mortem), compared to rapid (till 24h post-mortem) and conventional chilling (at 2-4°C, till 24h post-mortem), on quality characteristics of pork M. semimebranosus and cooked ham were investigated. Quality measurements included pH value, colour (CIEL a b values) and total aerobic count of M. semimebranosus, as well as sensory (colour, juiciness, texture, and flavour), physical (pH value, colour - CIEL a b values and texture - Warner-Bratzler shear and penetration forces) and chemical (protein, total fat, and moisture content) characteristics of cooked ham. The cooked ham was manufactured from pieces of M. semimebranosus with ultimate lightness (CIEL value) lower than 50. Rapid chilling and earlier deboning significantly increased quantity of M. semimebranosus desirable for cooked ham manufacturing. Earlier start of pork fabrication did not affect important quality characteristics of cooked ham. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Delusions and underlying needs in older adults with Alzheimer's disease: influence of earlier life experiences and the current environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Jy; Cheng, Wen-Yun; Lai, Pei-Ru; Pai, Ming-Chyi

    2014-12-01

    Delusions are one of the most severe psychiatric symptoms of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), which often increase the stress experienced by caregivers. The purpose of this study was to understand the influences of earlier life experiences and the current environment on delusions, as well as the underlying needs of older adults with AD who experience delusions. Using an exploratory research design with a qualitative approach and purposive sampling, 20 family caregivers were interviewed. Two psychosocial types of attributes of delusion were categorized: Type A, the influence of earlier life experiences; and Type B, current environmental influences. The underlying needs of those with delusions include physical comfort, a desire to be secure, and a sense of belonging. The contents of delusions are easily influenced by patients' earlier negative experiences and responsibilities, whereas the current environment exerts a crucial influence on the occurrence, frequency, and severity of specific delusions. These results can facilitate planning for patient-centered care by enhancing health care providers' understanding of the psychosocial and environmental attributes and needs behind delusions. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Inevitable end-of-21st-century trends toward earlier surface runoff timing in California's Sierra Nevada Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M. A.; Hall, A. D.; Sun, F.; Walton, D.; Berg, N.

    2015-12-01

    Hybrid dynamical-statistical downscaling is used to produce surface runoff timing projections for California's Sierra Nevada, a high-elevation mountain range with significant seasonal snow cover. First, future climate change projections (RCP8.5 forcing scenario, 2081-2100 period) from five CMIP5 global climate models (GCMs) are dynamically downscaled. These projections reveal that future warming leads to a shift toward earlier snowmelt and surface runoff timing throughout the Sierra Nevada region. Relationships between warming and surface runoff timing from the dynamical simulations are used to build a simple statistical model that mimics the dynamical model's projected surface runoff timing changes given GCM input or other statistically-downscaled input. This statistical model can be used to produce surface runoff timing projections for other GCMs, periods, and forcing scenarios to quantify ensemble-mean changes, uncertainty due to intermodel variability and consequences stemming from choice of forcing scenario. For all CMIP5 GCMs and forcing scenarios, significant trends toward earlier surface runoff timing occur at elevations below 2500m. Thus, we conclude that trends toward earlier surface runoff timing by the end-of-the-21st century are inevitable. The changes to surface runoff timing diagnosed in this study have implications for many dimensions of climate change, including impacts on surface hydrology, water resources, and ecosystems.

  2. Recent gestational diabetes was associated with mothers stopping predominant breastfeeding earlier in a multi-ethnic population.

    PubMed

    Baerug, Anne; Sletner, Line; Laake, Petter; Fretheim, Atle; Løland, Beate Fossum; Waage, Christin W; Birkeland, Kåre I; Jenum, Anne Karen

    2018-06-01

    It has previously been shown that breastfeeding may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in mothers with recent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study compared the cessation of predominant breastfeeding in mothers with and without recent GDM in a multi-ethnic population. From May 2008 to May 2010, healthy pregnant women attending antenatal care provided by community health services in Eastern Oslo, Norway were recruited. We included 616 women-58% non-Western-and interviewed and examined them at a mean of 15 and 28 weeks of gestation and 14 weeks' postpartum. Cox regression models examined the association between GDM, as assessed by the 2013 World Health Organization criteria, and breastfeeding cessation. Overall, 190 of the 616 (31%) mothers had GDM and they ended predominant breastfeeding earlier than mothers without GDM, with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.33 and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 1.01-1.77. Mothers of South Asian origin ended predominant breastfeeding earlier than Western European mothers in the adjusted analysis (aHR 1.53, 95% CI: 1.04-2.25), but Middle Eastern mothers did not. Recent gestational diabetes was associated with earlier cessation of predominant breastfeeding in Western European and non-Western women. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Use of an activated beta-catenin to identify Wnt pathway target genes in caenorhabditis elegans, including a subset of collagen genes expressed in late larval development.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Belinda M; Abete-Luzi, Patricia; Krause, Michael W; Eisenmann, David M

    2014-04-16

    The Wnt signaling pathway plays a fundamental role during metazoan development, where it regulates diverse processes, including cell fate specification, cell migration, and stem cell renewal. Activation of the beta-catenin-dependent/canonical Wnt pathway up-regulates expression of Wnt target genes to mediate a cellular response. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a canonical Wnt signaling pathway regulates several processes during larval development; however, few target genes of this pathway have been identified. To address this deficit, we used a novel approach of conditionally activated Wnt signaling during a defined stage of larval life by overexpressing an activated beta-catenin protein, then used microarray analysis to identify genes showing altered expression compared with control animals. We identified 166 differentially expressed genes, of which 104 were up-regulated. A subset of the up-regulated genes was shown to have altered expression in mutants with decreased or increased Wnt signaling; we consider these genes to be bona fide C. elegans Wnt pathway targets. Among these was a group of six genes, including the cuticular collagen genes, bli-1 col-38, col-49, and col-71. These genes show a peak of expression in the mid L4 stage during normal development, suggesting a role in adult cuticle formation. Consistent with this finding, reduction of function for several of the genes causes phenotypes suggestive of defects in cuticle function or integrity. Therefore, this work has identified a large number of putative Wnt pathway target genes during larval life, including a small subset of Wnt-regulated collagen genes that may function in synthesis of the adult cuticle.

  4. Assessment of risk factors for earlier onset of sporadic Alzheimer's disease dementia.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fabricio Ferreira; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Smith, Marilia Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacological treatment has mild effects for patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD); therefore, the search for modifiable risk factors is an important challenge. Though risk factors for AD are widely recognized, elements that influence the time of dementia onset have not been comprehensively reported. We aimed to investigate which risk factors might be related to the age of onset of AD in a sample of patients with highly variable educational levels, taking into account the Framingham risk scoring as the sole measure of vascular risk. We included 209 consecutive late-onset AD patients to find out which factors among educational levels, coronary heart disease risk estimated by way of Framingham risk scores, history of head trauma or depression, surgical procedures under general anesthesia, family history of neurodegenerative diseases, gender, marital status and APOE haplotypes might be related to the age of dementia onset in this sample of patients with low mean schooling. Mean age of AD onset was 73.38±6.5 years old, unaffected by schooling or family history of neurodegenerative diseases. Patients who were APOE-ε4 carriers, married, or with history of depression, had earlier onset of AD, particularly when they were women. Coronary heart disease risk was marginally significant for later onset of AD. APOE haplotypes, marital status and history of depression were the most important factors to influence the age of AD onset in this sample. While midlife cerebrovascular risk factors may increase incidence of AD, they may lead to later dementia onset when present in late life.

  5. Clinical Evidence for the Earlier Initiation of Insulin Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The natural history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a relentless progression of β-cell failure and dysregulation of β-cell function with increasing metabolic derangement. Insulin remains the only glucose-lowering therapy that is efficacious throughout this continuum. However, the timing of introduction and the choice of insulin therapy remain contentious because of the heterogeneity of T2DM and the well-recognized behavioral and therapeutic challenges associated with this mode of therapy. Nevertheless, the early initiation of basal insulin has been shown to improve glycemic control and affect long-term outcomes in people with T2DM and is a treatment strategy supported by international guidelines as part of an individualized approach to chronic disease management. The rationale for early initiation of insulin is based on evidence demonstrating multifaceted benefits, including overcoming the glucotoxic effects of hyperglycemia, thereby facilitating “β-cell rest,” and preserving β-cell mass and function, while also improving insulin sensitivity. Independent of its effects on glycemic control, insulin possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that may help protect against endothelial dysfunction and damage resulting in vascular disease. Insulin therapy and the achievement of good glycemic control earlier in T2DM provide long-term protection to end organs via “metabolic memory” regardless of subsequent treatments and degree of glycemic control. This is evidenced from long-term observations continuing from trials such as the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study. As such, early initiation of insulin therapy may not only help to avoid the effects of prolonged glycemic burden, but may also positively alter the course of disease progression. PMID:23786228

  6. Phylogenomic analysis of Copepoda (Arthropoda, Crustacea) reveals unexpected similarities with earlier proposed morphological phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Eyun, Seong-Il

    2017-01-19

    Copepods play a critical role in marine ecosystems but have been poorly investigated in phylogenetic studies. Morphological evidence supports the monophyly of copepods, whereas interordinal relationships continue to be debated. In particular, the phylogenetic position of the order Harpacticoida is still ambiguous and inconsistent among studies. Until now, a small number of molecular studies have been done using only a limited number or even partial genes and thus there is so far no consensus at the order-level. This study attempted to resolve phylogenetic relationships among and within four major copepod orders including Harpacticoida and the phylogenetic position of Copepoda among five other crustacean groups (Anostraca, Cladocera, Sessilia, Amphipoda, and Decapoda) using 24 nuclear protein-coding genes. Phylogenomics has confirmed the monophyly of Copepoda and Podoplea. However, this study reveals surprising differences with the majority of the copepod phylogenies and unexpected similarities with postembryonic characters and earlier proposed morphological phylogenies; More precisely, Cyclopoida is more closely related to Siphonostomatoida than to Harpacticoida which is likely the most basally-branching group of Podoplea. Divergence time estimation suggests that the origin of Harpacticoida can be traced back to the Devonian, corresponding well with recently discovered fossil evidence. Copepoda has a close affinity to the clade of Malacostraca and Thecostraca but not to Branchiopoda. This result supports the hypothesis of the newly proposed clades, Communostraca, Multicrustacea, and Allotriocarida but further challenges the validity of Hexanauplia and Vericrustacea. The first phylogenomic study of Copepoda provides new insights into taxonomic relationships and represents a valuable resource that improves our understanding of copepod evolution and their wide range of ecological adaptations.

  7. Later endogenous circadian temperature nadir relative to an earlier wake time in older people

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, J. F.; Dijk, D. J.; Klerman, E. B.; Czeisler, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of the circadian timing system to the age-related advance of sleep-wake timing was investigated in two experiments. In a constant routine protocol, we found that the average wake time and endogenous circadian phase of 44 older subjects were earlier than that of 101 young men. However, the earlier circadian phase of the older subjects actually occurred later relative to their habitual wake time than it did in young men. These results indicate that an age-related advance of circadian phase cannot fully account for the high prevalence of early morning awakening in healthy older people. In a second study, 13 older subjects and 10 young men were scheduled to a 28-h day, such that they were scheduled to sleep at many circadian phases. Self-reported awakening from scheduled sleep episodes and cognitive throughput during the second half of the wake episode varied markedly as a function of circadian phase in both groups. The rising phase of both rhythms was advanced in the older subjects, suggesting an age-related change in the circadian regulation of sleep-wake propensity. We hypothesize that under entrained conditions, these age-related changes in the relationship between circadian phase and wake time are likely associated with self-selected light exposure at an earlier circadian phase. This earlier exposure to light could account for the earlier clock hour to which the endogenous circadian pacemaker is entrained in older people and thereby further increase their propensity to awaken at an even earlier time.

  8. Earlier Right Ventricular Pacing in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy for a Patient with Right Axis Deviation.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yusuke; Ishibashi, Kohei; Noda, Takashi; Okamura, Hideo; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Anzai, Toshihisa; Yasuda, Satoshi; Kusano, Kengo

    2017-09-01

    We describe the case of a 37-year-old woman who presented with complete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation. She was admitted to our hospital due to severe heart failure and was dependent on inotropic agents. Cardiac resynchronization therapy was initiated but did not improve her condition. After the optimization of the pacing timing, we performed earlier right ventricular pacing, which led to an improvement of her heart failure. Earlier right ventricular pacing should be considered in patients with complete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation when cardiac resynchronization therapy is not effective.

  9. Activity of a long-acting echinocandin, CD101, determined using CLSI and EUCAST reference methods, against Candida and Aspergillus spp., including echinocandin- and azole-resistant isolates.

    PubMed

    Pfaller, Michael A; Messer, Shawn A; Rhomberg, Paul R; Jones, Ronald N; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of CD101, a novel echinocandin with a long serum elimination half-life, and comparator (anidulafungin and caspofungin) antifungal agents against a collection of Candida and Aspergillus spp. isolates. CD101 and comparator agents were tested against 106 Candida spp. and 67 Aspergillus spp. isolates, including 27 isolates of Candida harbouring fks hotspot mutations and 12 itraconazole non-WT Aspergillus, using CLSI and EUCAST reference susceptibility broth microdilution (BMD) methods. Against WT and fks mutant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis, the activity of CD101 [MIC90 = 0.06, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively (CLSI method values)] was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC90 = 0.03, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively) and caspofungin (MIC90 = 0.12, 0.25 and 0.12 mg/L, respectively). WT Candida krusei isolates were very susceptible to CD101 (MIC = 0.06 mg/L). CD101 activity (MIC50/90 = 1/2 mg/L) was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC50/90 = 2/2 mg/L) against Candida parapsilosis. CD101 (MIC mode = 0.06 mg/L for C. glabrata) was 2- to 4-fold more active against fks hotspot mutants than caspofungin (MIC mode = 0.5 mg/L). CD101 was active against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus (MEC90 range = ≤0.008-0.03 mg/L). The essential agreement between CLSI and EUCAST methods for CD101 was 92.0%-100.0% among Candida spp. and 95.0%-100.0% among Aspergillus spp. The activity of CD101 is comparable to that of other members of the echinocandin class for the prevention and treatment of serious fungal infections. Similar results for CD101 activity versus Candida and Aspergillus spp. may be obtained with either CLSI or EUCAST BMD methods. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  10. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  11. Kinetic and Mechanistic Study of the pH-Dependent Activation (Epoxidation) of Prodrug Treosulfan Including the Reaction Inhibition in a Borate Buffer.

    PubMed

    Romański, Michał; Ratajczak, Whitney; Główka, Franciszek

    2017-07-01

    A prodrug treosulfan (T) undergoes a pH-dependent activation to epoxide derivatives. The process seems to involve an intramolecular Williamson reaction (IWR) but clear kinetic evidence is lacking. Moreover, a cis-diol system present in the T structure is expected to promote complexation with boric acid. As a result, the prodrug epoxidation would be inhibited; however, this phenomenon has not been investigated. In this article, the effect of pH on the kinetics of T conversion to its monoepoxide was studied from a mechanistic point of view. Also, the influence of boric acid on the reaction kinetics was examined. The rate constants observed for the activation of T (k obs ) in acetate, phosphate, and carbonate buffers satisfied the equation logk obs  = -7.48 + 0.96 pH. The reaction was inhibited in the excess of boric acid over T, and the k obs decreased with increasing borate buffer concentration. The experimental results were consistent with the inhibition model that included the formation of a tetrahedral, anionic T-boric acid monoester. To conclude, in nonborate buffers, the T activation to (2S,3S)-1,2-epoxybutane-3,4-diol 4-methanesulfonate follows IWR mechanism. A borate buffer changes the reaction kinetics and complicates kinetic analysis. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Life stories of people with rheumatoid arthritis who retired early: how gender and other contextual factors shaped their everyday activities, including paid work.

    PubMed

    Stamm, T A; Machold, K P; Smolen, J; Prodinger, B

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore how contextual factors affect the everyday activities of women and men with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as evident in their life stories. Fifteen people with RA, who had retired early due to the disease, were interviewed up to three times, according to a narrative biographic interview style. The life stories of the participants, which were reconstructed from the biographical data and from the transcribed 'told story' were analysed from the perspective of contextual factors, including personal and environmental factors. The rigour and accuracy of the analysis were enhanced by reflexivity and peer-review of the results. The life stories of the participants in this study reflected how contextual factors (such as gender, the healthcare system, the support of families and social and cultural values) shaped their everyday activities. In a society such as in Austria, which is based on traditional patriarchal values, men were presented with difficulties in developing a non-paid-work-related role. For women, if paid work had to be given up, they were more likely to engage in alternative challenging activities which enabled them to develop reflective skills, which in turn contributed to a positive and enriching perspective on their life stories. Health professionals may thus use some of the women's strategies to help men. Interventions by health professionals in people with RA may benefit from an approach sensitive to personal and environmental factors.

  13. Activator Gcn4 employs multiple segments of Med15/Gal11, including the KIX domain, to recruit mediator to target genes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jedidi, Iness; Zhang, Fan; Qiu, Hongfang; Stahl, Stephen J; Palmer, Ira; Kaufman, Joshua D; Nadaud, Philippe S; Mukherjee, Sujoy; Wingfield, Paul T; Jaroniec, Christopher P; Hinnebusch, Alan G

    2010-01-22

    Mediator is a multisubunit coactivator required for initiation by RNA polymerase II. The Mediator tail subdomain, containing Med15/Gal11, is a target of the activator Gcn4 in vivo, critical for recruitment of native Mediator or the Mediator tail subdomain present in sin4Delta cells. Although several Gal11 segments were previously shown to bind Gcn4 in vitro, the importance of these interactions for recruitment of Mediator and transcriptional activation by Gcn4 in cells was unknown. We show that interaction of Gcn4 with the Mediator tail in vitro and recruitment of this subcomplex and intact Mediator to the ARG1 promoter in vivo involve additive contributions from three different segments in the N terminus of Gal11. These include the KIX domain, which is a critical target of other activators, and a region that shares a conserved motif (B-box) with mammalian coactivator SRC-1, and we establish that B-box is a critical determinant of Mediator recruitment by Gcn4. We further demonstrate that Gcn4 binds to the Gal11 KIX domain directly and, by NMR chemical shift analysis combined with mutational studies, we identify the likely binding site for Gcn4 on the KIX surface. Gcn4 is distinctive in relying on comparable contributions from multiple segments of Gal11 for efficient recruitment of Mediator in vivo.

  14. 1-(2-aminophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylic acid: activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens including Vibrio cholerae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, Krishnendu; Haldar, Debasish

    2017-10-01

    We report a new synthetic aromatic ε-amino acid containing a triazole moiety with antimicrobial potential against Gram-positive, Gram-negative and pathogenic bacteria including Vibrio cholerae. Structure-property relationship studies revealed that all the functional groups are essential to enhance the antimicrobial activity. The 1-(2-aminophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylic acid was synthesized by click chemistry. From X-ray crystallography, the amino acid adopts a kink-like structure where the phenyl and triazole rings are perpendicular to each other and the amine and acid groups maintain an angle of 60°. The agar diffusion test shows that the amino acid has significant antibacterial activity. The liquid culture test exhibits that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value for Bacillus subtilis and Vibrio cholerae is 59.5 µg ml-1. FE-SEM experiments were performed to study the morphological changes of bacterial shape after treatment with compound 1. The antimicrobial activity of the amino acid was further studied by DNA binding and degradation study, protein binding, dye-binding assay and morphological analysis. Moreover, the amino acid does not have any harmful effect on eukaryotes.

  15. Calorie restriction in overweight males ameliorates obesity-related metabolic alterations and cellular adaptations through anti-aging effects, possibly including AMPK and SIRT1 activation.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Munehiro; Kume, Shinji; Takeda-Watanabe, Ai; Tsuda, Shin-ichi; Kanasaki, Keizo; Koya, Daisuke

    2013-10-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is accepted as an experimental anti-aging paradigm. Several important signal transduction pathways including AMPK and SIRT1 are implicated in the regulation of physiological processes of CR. However, the mechanisms responsible for adaptations remain unclear in humans. Four overweight male participants were enrolled and treated with 25% CR of their baseline energy requirements for 7weeks. Characteristics, including body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), %fat, visceral fat area (VFA), mean blood pressure (MBP) and VO2 max, as well as metabolic parameters, such as insulin, lipid profiles and inflammatory makers and the expression of phosphorylated AMPK and SIRT1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs), were determined at baseline and then after 7weeks. In addition, we assessed the effects of the serum collected from the participants on AMPK and SIRT1 activation and mitochondrial biogenesis in cultured human skeletal muscle cells. After CR, BW, BMI, %fat, VFA and MBP all significantly decreased, while VO2 max increased, compared to those at baseline. The levels of fasting insulin, free fatty acid, and inflammatory makers, such as interleukin-6 and visfatin, were significantly reduced, whereas the expression of phosphorylated AMPK and SIRT1 was significantly increased in PBMNCs collected after CR, compared to those at baseline. The skeletal muscle cells that were cultured in serum collected after CR showed an increase in AMPK and SIRT1 activity as well as mitochondrial biogenesis. CR is beneficial for obesity-related metabolic alterations and induces cellular adaptations against aging, possibly through AMPK and SIRT1 activation via circulating factors. © 2013.

  16. Antibacterial and antibiotic resistance modifying activity of the extracts from Allanblackia gabonensis, Combretum molle and Gladiolus quartinianus against Gram-negative bacteria including multi-drug resistant phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Fankam, Aimé G; Kuiate, Jules R; Kuete, Victor

    2015-06-30

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is becoming a serious problem worldwide. The discovery of new and effective antimicrobials and/or resistance modulators is necessary to tackle the spread of resistance or to reverse the multi-drug resistance. We investigated the antibacterial and antibiotic-resistance modifying activities of the methanol extracts from Allanblackia gabonensis, Gladiolus quartinianus and Combretum molle against 29 Gram-negative bacteria including multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotypes. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the samples meanwhile the standard phytochemical methods were used for the preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant extracts. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols and tannins in all studied extracts. Other chemical classes of secondary metabolites were selectively presents. Extracts from A. gabonensis and C. molle displayed a broad spectrum of activity with MICs varying from 16 to 1024 μg/mL against about 72.41% of the tested bacteria. The extract from the fruits of A. gabonensis had the best activity, with MIC values below 100 μg/mL on 37.9% of tested bacteria. Percentages of antibiotic-modulating effects ranging from 67 to 100% were observed against tested MDR bacteria when combining the leaves extract from C. molle (at MIC/2 and MIC/4) with chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin and tetracycline. The overall results of the present study provide information for the possible use of the studied plant, especially Allanblackia gabonensis and Combretum molle in the control of Gram-negative bacterial infections including MDR species as antibacterials as well as resistance modulators.

  17. A phase 1/2 dose-finding, safety, and activity study of cabazitaxel in pediatric patients with refractory solid tumors including tumors of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Manley, Peter E; Trippett, Tanya; Smith, Amy A; Macy, Margaret E; Leary, Sarah E S; Boklan, Jessica; Cohen, Kenneth J; Goldman, Stewart; Kilburn, Lindsay B; Dhall, Girish; Devin, Jeanne; Herzog, Cynthia E; Partap, Sonia; Fauchet, Floris; Badreddine, Emmy; Bernard, John P; Chi, Susan N

    2018-05-11

    This phase 1/2 study (NCT01751308) evaluated cabazitaxel in pediatric patients. Phase 1 determined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in patients with recurrent/refractory solid tumors, including central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Phase 2 evaluated activity in pediatric recurrent high-grade glioma (HGG) or diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). In phase 1, a 3 + 3 dose-escalation study design was followed. Cabazitaxel was administered at a starting dose of 20 mg/m 2 . Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) during cycle 1 were assessed to determine the MTD. Tumor response and cabazitaxel pharmacokinetics were also assessed. In phase 2, patients received cabazitaxel at the MTD determined in phase 1. Tumor responses were assessed every 9 weeks (modified Response Assessment in Neuro-oncology criteria). Progression-free survival and cabazitaxel pharmacokinetics were evaluated, and overall survival was estimated. In phase 1, 23 patients were treated, including 19 with CNS tumors. One patient had a partial response; five had stable disease for >3 cycles. Common adverse events included fatigue, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, febrile neutropenia, and hypersensitivity reactions. Two of three DLTs (febrile neutropenia) occurred with a dose of 35 mg/m 2 ; the MTD was 30 mg/m 2 . Slightly higher cabazitaxel clearance was observed compared with adult trials. In phase 2, 16 patients (eight HGG and eight DIPG) were enrolled; 11 were evaluable for response and five withdrew (three due to anaphylaxis). All 11 patients progressed within four cycles. No responses were observed; the study was stopped due to futility. The safety profile of cabazitaxel was consistent with previous studies. The MTD (30 mg/m 2 ) was higher than the adult MTD. Cabazitaxel did not demonstrate activity in recurrent/refractory HGG or DIPG. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. PXR (NR1I2): splice variants in human tissues, including brain, and identification of neurosteroids and nicotine as PXR activators.

    PubMed

    Lamba, Vishal; Yasuda, Kazuto; Lamba, Jatinder K; Assem, Mahfoud; Davila, Julio; Strom, Stephen; Schuetz, Erin G

    2004-09-15

    To gain insight on the expression of pregnane X receptor (PXR), we analyzed PXR.1 and PXR alternatively spliced transcripts in a panel of 36 human tissues. PXR.1 was expressed in many more tissues than previously determined, including human bone marrow and select regions of the human brain. In each of these tissues, we observed alternative splicing of various exons of PXR that generated multiple distinct PXR isoforms. The most abundant PXR alternative mRNA transcripts lacked 111 nucleotides, deleting 37 amino acids from the PXR LBD (PXR.2), or lacked 123 nt, deleting 41 amino acids from the PXR LBD (PXR.3). CYP3A4, a gene transcriptionally regulated by PXR, showed incomplete overlap with PXR in its tissue distribution. Quantitation of PXR mRNAs in human liver demonstrated that PXR.2 and PXR.3 represented 6.7% and 0.32% of total PXR mRNA transcripts. Brain expression of PXR prompted analysis of whether some brain acting chemicals were PXR ligands. The neurosteroids allopregnanolone and pregnanolone activated PXR and induced transcription of a CYP3A4-luciferase reporter. Nicotine, the psychoactive and addictive chemical in cigarettes, and a known inducer of brain CYP2B6, was an efficacious activator of PXR and inducer of CYP3A4 transcription. Because nicotine activation of PXR will enhance metabolism of nicotine to the non-psychoactive cotinine, these results provide one molecular mechanism for the development of tolerance to nicotine. Moreover, the identification of PXR in many human tissues, such as brain, and activation by tissue specific ligands (such as neurosteroids) suggests additional biological roles for this receptor in these tissues.

  19. Earlier Endpoints Are Required for Hemorrhagic Shock Trials among Severely Injured Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Erin E.; Holcomb, John B.; Wade, Charles E.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Tilley, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Choosing the appropriate endpoint for a trauma hemorrhage control trial can determine the likelihood of its success. Recent Phase 3 trials and observational studies have used 24-hour and/or 30-day all-cause mortality as the primary endpoint and some have not used exception from informed consent (EFIC), resulting in multiple failed trials. Five recent high-quality prospective studies among 4,064 hemorrhaging trauma patients provide new evidence to support earlier primary endpoints. Methods The goal of this project was to determine the optimal endpoint for hemorrhage control trials using existing literature and new analyses of previously published data. Results Recent studies among bleeding trauma patients show that hemorrhagic deaths occur rapidly, at a high rate, and in a consistent pattern. Early preventable deaths among trauma patients are largely due to hemorrhage and the median time to hemorrhagic death from admission is 2.0-2.6 hours. Approximately 85% of hemorrhagic deaths occur within 6 hours. The hourly mortality rate due to traumatic injury decreases rapidly after enrollment from 4.6% per hour at 1 hour post-enrollment to 1% per hour at 6 hours to <0.1% per hour by 9 hours and thereafter. Early primary endpoints (within 6 hours) have critically important benefits for hemorrhage control trials, including being congruent with the median time to hemorrhagic death, biologic plausibility, and enabling the use of all-cause mortality, which is definitive and objective. Conclusions Primary endpoints should be congruent with the timing of the disease process. Therefore, if a resuscitation/hemorrhage control intervention is under study, a primary endpoint of all-cause mortality evaluated within the first 6 hours is appropriate. Before choosing the timing of the primary endpoint for a large multicenter trial, we recommend performing a Phase 2 trial under EFIC to better understand the effects of the hemorrhage control intervention and distribution of time

  20. Earlier reperfusion in patients with ST-elevation Myocardial infarction by use of helicopter

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) reperfusion therapy should be initiated as soon as possible. This study evaluated whether use of a helicopter for transportation of patients is associated with earlier initiation of reperfusion therapy. Material and methods A prospective study was conducted, including patients with STEMI and symptom duration less than 12 hours, who had primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) performed at Aarhus University Hospital in Skejby. Patients with a health care system delay (time from emergency call to first coronary intervention) of more than 360 minutes were excluded. The study period ran from 1.1.2011 until 31.12.2011. A Western Denmark Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) project was initiated 1.6.2011 for transportation of patients with time-critical illnesses, including STEMI. Results The study population comprised 398 patients, of whom 376 were transported by ambulance Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and 22 by HEMS. Field-triage directly to the PCI-center was used in 338 of patients. The median system delay was 94 minutes among those field-triaged, and 168 minutes among those initially admitted to a local hospital. Patients transported by EMS and field-triaged were stratified into four groups according to transport distance from the scene of event to the PCI-center: ≤25 km., 26–50 km., 51–75 km. and > 75 km. For these groups, the median system delay was 78, 89, 99, and 141 minutes. Among patients transported by HEMS and field-triaged the estimated median transport distance by ground transportation was 115 km, and the observed system delay was 107 minutes. Based on second order polynomial regression, it was estimated that patients with a transport distance of >60 km to the PCI-center may benefit from helicopter transportation, and that transportation by helicopter is associated with a system delay of less than 120 minutes even at a transport distance up to 150 km

  1. Earlier reperfusion in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction by use of helicopter.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Lars; Stengaard, Carsten; Hansen, Troels Martin; Lassen, Jens Flensted; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl

    2012-10-04

    In patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) reperfusion therapy should be initiated as soon as possible. This study evaluated whether use of a helicopter for transportation of patients is associated with earlier initiation of reperfusion therapy. A prospective study was conducted, including patients with STEMI and symptom duration less than 12 hours, who had primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) performed at Aarhus University Hospital in Skejby. Patients with a health care system delay (time from emergency call to first coronary intervention) of more than 360 minutes were excluded. The study period ran from 1.1.2011 until 31.12.2011. A Western Denmark Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) project was initiated 1.6.2011 for transportation of patients with time-critical illnesses, including STEMI. The study population comprised 398 patients, of whom 376 were transported by ambulance Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and 22 by HEMS. Field-triage directly to the PCI-center was used in 338 of patients. The median system delay was 94 minutes among those field-triaged, and 168 minutes among those initially admitted to a local hospital. Patients transported by EMS and field-triaged were stratified into four groups according to transport distance from the scene of event to the PCI-center: ≤25 km., 26-50 km., 51-75 km. and > 75 km. For these groups, the median system delay was 78, 89, 99, and 141 minutes. Among patients transported by HEMS and field-triaged the estimated median transport distance by ground transportation was 115 km, and the observed system delay was 107 minutes. Based on second order polynomial regression, it was estimated that patients with a transport distance of >60 km to the PCI-center may benefit from helicopter transportation, and that transportation by helicopter is associated with a system delay of less than 120 minutes even at a transport distance up to 150 km. The present study indicates that use of a

  2. 40 CFR 87.21 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier... standards. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured... from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated output of 129 kilonewtons thrust or...

  3. 40 CFR 87.21 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier... standards. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured... from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated output of 129 kilonewtons thrust or...

  4. Reading-Related Skills in Earlier- and Later-Schooled Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Anna J.; Carroll, Julia M.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effects of age-related factors and formal instruction on the development of reading-related skills in children aged 4 and 7 years. Age effects were determined by comparing two groups of children at the onset of formal schooling; one aged 7 (later-schooled) and one aged 4 (earlier-schooled). Schooling effects were measured by…

  5. Understanding Violence in Contemporary and Earlier Gangs: An Exploratory Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judy P.; Taylor, Jerome

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the theory of reasoned action to demonstrate how it can be applied to understanding gang violence, and illustrates its potential applicability to a pilot sample of 30 contemporary and 18 earlier gangs living in a large metropolitan community. Results indicate this theory has been helpful in explaining higher levels of violence in…

  6. Tidal Wave II Revisited: A Review of Earlier Enrollment Projections for California Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Gerald C.; Breneman, David W.; Estrada, Leobardo F.

    This report examined enrollment projections for higher education institutions in California in relation to earlier projections conducted in the mid-1990s that forecasted steep declines in enrollment. It notes that California's remarkable economic recovery over the last several years has allowed it to fund higher education enrollment growth at a…

  7. Smoking is associated with earlier time to revision of total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chin Tat; Goodman, Stuart B; Huddleston, James I; Harris, Alex H S; Bhowmick, Subhrojyoti; Maloney, William J; Amanatullah, Derek F

    2017-10-01

    Smoking is associated with early postoperative complications, increased length of hospital stay, and an increased risk of revision after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the effect of smoking on time to revision TKA is unknown. A total of 619 primary TKAs referred to an academic tertiary center for revision TKA were retrospectively stratified according to the patient smoking status. Smoking status was then analyzed for associations with time to revision TKA using a Chi square test. The association was also analyzed according to the indication for revision TKA. Smokers (37/41, 90%) have an increased risk of earlier revision for any reason compared to non-smokers (274/357, 77%, p=0.031). Smokers (37/41, 90%) have an increased risk of earlier revision for any reason compared to ex-smokers (168/221, 76%, p=0.028). Subgroup analysis did not reveal a difference in indication for revision TKA (p>0.05). Smokers are at increased risk of earlier revision TKA when compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers. The risk for ex-smokers was similar to that of non-smokers. Smoking appears to have an all-or-none effect on earlier revision TKA as patients who smoked more did not have higher risk of early revision TKA. These results highlight the need for clinicians to urge patients not to begin smoking and encourage smokers to quit smoking prior to primary TKA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The associations of earlier trauma exposures and history of mental disorders with PTSD after subsequent traumas

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Lee, Sing; Liu, Howard; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Petukhova, Maria V.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Shahly, Victoria L.; Stein, Dan J.; Atwoli, Lukoye; Borges, Guilherme; Bunting, Brendan; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo; Kawakami, Norito; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate M.; Shalev, Arieh Y.; Have, Margreet ten; Torres, Yolanda; Viana, Maria Carmen; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2017-01-01

    Although earlier trauma exposure is known to predict post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after subsequent traumas, it is unclear if this association is limited to cases where the earlier trauma led to PTSD. Resolution of this uncertainty has important implications for research on pre-trauma vulnerability to PTSD. We examined this issue in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys with 34,676 respondents who reported lifetime trauma exposure. One lifetime trauma was selected randomly for each respondent. DSM-IV PTSD due to that trauma was assessed. We reported in a previous paper that four earlier traumas involving interpersonal violence significantly predicted PTSD after subsequent random traumas (OR=1.3–2.5). We also assessed 14 lifetime DSM-IV mood, anxiety, disruptive behavior, and substance disorders prior to random traumas. We show in the current report that only prior anxiety disorders significantly predicted PTSD in a multivariate model (OR=1.5–4.3) and that these disorders interacted significantly with three of the earlier traumas (witnessing atrocities, physical violence victimization, rape). History of witnessing atrocities significantly predicted PTSD after subsequent random traumas only among respondents with prior PTSD (OR=5.6). Histories of physical violence victimization (OR=1.5) and rape after age 17 (OR=17.6) significantly predicted only among respondents with no history of prior anxiety disorders. Although only preliminary due to reliance on retrospective reports, these results suggest that history of anxiety disorders and history of a limited number of earlier traumas might usefully be targeted in future prospective studies as distinct foci of research on individual differences in vulnerability to PTSD after subsequent traumas. PMID:28924183

  9. The associations of earlier trauma exposures and history of mental disorders with PTSD after subsequent traumas.

    PubMed

    Kessler, R C; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Alonso, J; Bromet, E J; Gureje, O; Karam, E G; Koenen, K C; Lee, S; Liu, H; Pennell, B-E; Petukhova, M V; Sampson, N A; Shahly, V; Stein, D J; Atwoli, L; Borges, G; Bunting, B; de Girolamo, G; Gluzman, S F; Haro, J M; Hinkov, H; Kawakami, N; Kovess-Masfety, V; Navarro-Mateu, F; Posada-Villa, J; Scott, K M; Shalev, A Y; Ten Have, M; Torres, Y; Viana, M C; Zaslavsky, A M

    2017-09-19

    Although earlier trauma exposure is known to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after subsequent traumas, it is unclear whether this association is limited to cases where the earlier trauma led to PTSD. Resolution of this uncertainty has important implications for research on pretrauma vulnerability to PTSD. We examined this issue in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys with 34 676 respondents who reported lifetime trauma exposure. One lifetime trauma was selected randomly for each respondent. DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition) PTSD due to that trauma was assessed. We reported in a previous paper that four earlier traumas involving interpersonal violence significantly predicted PTSD after subsequent random traumas (odds ratio (OR)=1.3-2.5). We also assessed 14 lifetime DSM-IV mood, anxiety, disruptive behavior and substance disorders before random traumas. We show in the current report that only prior anxiety disorders significantly predicted PTSD in a multivariate model (OR=1.5-4.3) and that these disorders interacted significantly with three of the earlier traumas (witnessing atrocities, physical violence victimization and rape). History of witnessing atrocities significantly predicted PTSD after subsequent random traumas only among respondents with prior PTSD (OR=5.6). Histories of physical violence victimization (OR=1.5) and rape after age 17 years (OR=17.6) significantly predicted only among respondents with no history of prior anxiety disorders. Although only preliminary due to reliance on retrospective reports, these results suggest that history of anxiety disorders and history of a limited number of earlier traumas might usefully be targeted in future prospective studies as distinct foci of research on individual differences in vulnerability to PTSD after subsequent traumas.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 19 September 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.194.

  10. In vitro activity of the siderophore monosulfactam BAL30072 against contemporary Gram-negative pathogens from New York City, including multidrug-resistant isolates.

    PubMed

    Landman, David; Singh, Manisha; El-Imad, Badiaa; Miller, Ezra; Win, Thida; Quale, John

    2014-06-01

    The in vitro activity of BAL30072 was assessed against clinical isolates from NYC hospitals, including isolates from a citywide surveillance study and a collection of isolates with well-characterised resistance mechanisms. BAL30072 was the most active β-lactam against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC50/90, 0.25/1 μg/mL), Acinetobacter baumannii (MIC50/90, 4/>64 μg/mL) and KPC-possessing Klebsiella pneumoniae (MIC50/90, 4/>64 μg/mL). Combining BAL30072 with meropenem resulted in a ≥ 4-fold decrease in the BAL30072 MIC90 both for A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae. For isolates with a BAL30072 MIC>4 μg/mL, addition of a sub-MIC concentration of colistin resulted in a four-fold decrease in the BAL30072 MIC in 44% of P. aeruginosa, 82% of A. baumannii and 23% of K. pneumoniae. Using sub-MIC concentrations, BAL30072 plus colistin was bactericidal against 4 of 11 isolates in time-kill studies. BAL30072 MICs were frequently lower for P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae when tested using Mueller-Hinton agar versus Iso-Sensitest agar or Mueller-Hinton broth. Against the well-characterised isolates, reduced susceptibility to BAL30072 correlated with mexA and mexX expression (P. aeruginosa), adeB expression (A. baumannii) and presence of SHV-type ESBLs (A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae). BAL30072 shows promising activity against contemporary Gram-negatives, including MDR P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae. Enhanced activity was often present when BAL30072 was combined with meropenem or colistin. BAL30072 MICs were influenced by the testing method, particularly for P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae. Further in vivo studies are warranted to determine the potential clinical utility of BAL30072 alone and combined with other agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  11. Highly active antiretroviral therapy including protease inhibitors does not confer a unique CD4 cell benefit. The AVANTI and INCAS Study Groups.

    PubMed

    2000-07-07

    To determine if triple combination therapy, particularly including HIV protease inhibitors (PI), confers an unique immunological benefit that is independent of reductions of plasma viral load (pVL). The correlation between changes from baseline in CD4 cell count and pVL was examined at all time points up to 52 weeks in three randomized clinical trials (AVANTI-2, AVANTI-3 and INCAS) that compared dual nucleoside therapy with triple combination therapy. Individual pVL and CD4 cell counts changes from baseline were entered into multivariate linear regression models for patients receiving double therapy and for those receiving triple therapy including a PI and/or a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), and the null hypothesis was tested. After 52 weeks of therapy, the relationship between changes from baseline CD4 cell count and pVL was independent of whether patients were assigned double or triple therapy (P = 0.23 and 0.69 for intercept and slope, respectively), or whether patients were assigned triple therapy including a PI or triple therapy including an NNRTI (P = 0.92 and 0.95, respectively). Less than 5% of patients ever had 'discordant' increases in both CD4 cell count and pVL compared with baseline, and this proportion was unrelated to the class of therapy used. 'Discordant' decreases from baseline in both parameters were observed in up to 35% of individuals. The correlation between pVL and CD4 cell count changes from baseline improved over time on therapy, regardless of the therapeutic regimen involved. The data provide no evidence for a CD4 cell count benefit of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) unique to triple therapy or PI-containing regimens.

  12. In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Chlorogenic Acid against Clinical Isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia including the Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Resistant Strain

    PubMed Central

    Karunanidhi, Arunkumar; Thomas, Renjan; van Belkum, Alex; Neela, Vasanthakumari

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of chlorogenic acid against clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was investigated through disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), time-kill and biofilm assays. A total of 9 clinical S. maltophilia isolates including one isolate resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) were tested. The inhibition zone sizes for the isolates ranged from 17 to 29 mm, while the MIC and MBC values ranged from 8 to 16 μg mL−1 and 16 to 32 μg mL−1. Chlorogenic acid appeared to be strongly bactericidal at 4x MIC, with a 2-log reduction in viable bacteria at 10 h. In vitro antibiofilm testing showed a 4-fold reduction in biofilm viability at 4x MIC compared to 1x MIC values (0.085 < 0.397 A 490 nm) of chlorogenic acid. The data from this study support the notion that the chlorogenic acid has promising in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against S. maltophilia. PMID:23509719

  13. The convergence of complete active space self-consistent-field configuration interaction including all single and double excitation energies to the complete basis set limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersson, George A.; Malick, David K.; Frisch, Michael J.; Braunstein, Matthew

    2006-07-01

    Examination of the convergence of full valence complete active space self-consistent-field configuration interaction including all single and double excitation (CASSCF-CISD) energies with expansion of the one-electron basis set reveals a pattern very similar to the convergence of single determinant energies. Calculations on the lowest four singlet states and the lowest four triplet states of N2 with the sequence of n-tuple-ζ augmented polarized (nZaP) basis sets (n =2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) are used to establish the complete basis set limits. Full configuration-interaction (CI) and core electron contributions must be included for very accurate potential energy surfaces. However, a simple extrapolation scheme that has no adjustable parameters and requires nothing more demanding than CAS(10e -,8orb)-CISD/3ZaP calculations gives the Re, ωe, ωeXe, Te, and De for these eight states with rms errors of 0.0006Å, 4.43cm-1, 0.35cm-1, 0.063eV, and 0.018eV, respectively.

  14. PREFACE: 9th International Fröhlich's Symposium: Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells (Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifra, Michal; Pokorný, Jirí; Kucera, Ondrej

    2011-12-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International Fröhlich's Symposium entitled 'Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells' (1-3 July 2011, Prague, Czech Republic). The Symposium was the 9th meeting devoted to physical processes in living matter organized in Prague since 1987. The hypothesis of oscillation systems in living cells featured by non-linear interaction between elastic and electrical polarization fields, non-linear interactions between the system and the heat bath leading to energy downconversion along the frequency scale, energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode and creation of a coherent state was formulated by H Fröhlich, founder of the theory of dielectric materials. He assumed that biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms and that their disturbances form basic links along the cancer transformation pathway. Fröhlich outlined general ideas of non-linear physical processes in biological systems. The downconversion and the elastic-polarization interactions should be connected in a unified theory and the solution based on comprehensive non-linear characteristics. Biochemical and genetic research of biological systems are highly developed and have disclosed a variety of cellular and subcellular structures, chemical reactions, molecular information transfer, and genetic code sequences - including their pathological development. Nevertheless, the cancer problem is still a big challenge. Warburg's discovery of suppressed oxidative metabolism in mitochondria in cancer cells suggested the essential role of physical mechanisms (but his discovery has remained without impact on cancer research and on the study of physical properties of biological systems for a long time). Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, have several areas of activity-oxidative energy production is connected with the formation of a strong static electric field around them, water ordering, and liberation of non

  15. A vantage from space can detect earlier drought onset: an approach using relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Farahmand, Alireza; AghaKouchak, Amir; Teixeira, Joao

    2015-02-25

    Each year, droughts cause significant economic and agricultural losses across the world. The early warning and onset detection of drought is of particular importance for effective agriculture and water resource management. Previous studies show that the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI), a measure of precipitation deficit, detects drought onset earlier than other indicators. Here we show that satellite-based near surface air relative humidity data can further improve drought onset detection and early warning. This paper introduces the Standardized Relative Humidity Index (SRHI) based on the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations. The results indicate that the SRHI typically detects the drought onset earlier than the SPI. While the AIRS mission was not originally designed for drought monitoring, we show that its relative humidity data offers a new and unique avenue for drought monitoring and early warning. We conclude that the early warning aspects of SRHI may have merit for integration into current drought monitoring systems.

  16. A Vantage from Space Can Detect Earlier Drought Onset: An Approach Using Relative Humidity

    PubMed Central

    Farahmand, Alireza; AghaKouchak, Amir; Teixeira, Joao

    2015-01-01

    Each year, droughts cause significant economic and agricultural losses across the world. The early warning and onset detection of drought is of particular importance for effective agriculture and water resource management. Previous studies show that the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI), a measure of precipitation deficit, detects drought onset earlier than other indicators. Here we show that satellite-based near surface air relative humidity data can further improve drought onset detection and early warning. This paper introduces the Standardized Relative Humidity Index (SRHI) based on the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations. The results indicate that the SRHI typically detects the drought onset earlier than the SPI. While the AIRS mission was not originally designed for drought monitoring, we show that its relative humidity data offers a new and unique avenue for drought monitoring and early warning. We conclude that the early warning aspects of SRHI may have merit for integration into current drought monitoring systems. PMID:25711500

  17. A Hepatocellular Carcinoma Case in a Patient Who had Immunity to Hepatitis B Virus Earlier.

    PubMed

    Ates, Ihsan; Kaplan, Mustafa; Demirci, Selim; Altiparmak, Emin

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the liver. Hepatitis B virus infection is one of the most important etilogical factors of HCC. In this case report, a patient with HCC previously infected and having ongoing immunity against hepatitis B virus will be discussed. Ates I, Kaplan M, Demirci S, Altiparmak E. A Hepatocellular Carcinoma Case in a Patient Who had Immunity to Hepatitis B Virus Earlier. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):82-83.

  18. Facilitating earlier transfer of care from acute stroke services into the community.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer

    This article outlines an initiative to reduce length of stay for stroke patients within an acute hospital and to facilitate earlier transfer of care. Existing care provision was remodelled and expanded to deliver stroke care to patients within a community bed-based intermediate care facility or intermediate care at home. This new model of care has improved the delivery of rehabilitation through alternative and innovative ways of addressing service delivery that meet the needs of the patients.

  19. Traumatic Brain Injury History is Associated with Earlier Age of Onset of Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    LoBue, Christian; Wadsworth, Hannah; Wilmoth, Kristin; Clem, Matthew; Hart, John; Womack, Kyle B.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Lacritz, Laura H.; Rossetti, Heidi C.; Cullum, C. Munro

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined whether a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with earlier onset of Alzheimer disease (AD), independent of apolipoprotein ε4 status (Apoe4) and gender. Method Participants with a clinical diagnosis of AD (n=7625) were obtained from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set, and categorized based on self-reported lifetime TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) (TBI+ vs TBI-) and presence of Apoe4. ANCOVAs, controlling for gender, race, and education were used to examine the association between history of TBI, presence of Apoe4, and an interaction of both risk factors on estimated age of AD onset. Results Estimated AD onset differed by TBI history and Apoe4 independently (p’s <.001). The TBI+ group had a mean age of onset 2.5 years earlier than the TBI- group. Likewise, Apoe4 carriers had a mean age of onset 2.3 years earlier than non-carriers. While the interaction was non-significant (p = .34), participants having both a history of TBI and Apoe4 had the earliest mean age of onset compared to those with a TBI history or Apoe4 alone (MDifference = 2.8 & 2.7 years, respectively). These results remained unchanged when stratified by gender. Conclusions History of self-reported TBI can be associated with an earlier onset of AD-related cognitive decline, regardless of Apoe4 status and gender. TBI may be related to an underlying neurodegenerative process in AD, but the implications of age at time of injury, severity, and repetitive injuries remain unclear. PMID:27855547

  20. Perceptual sensitivity to spectral properties of earlier sounds during speech categorization.

    PubMed

    Stilp, Christian E; Assgari, Ashley A

    2018-02-28

    Speech perception is heavily influenced by surrounding sounds. When spectral properties differ between earlier (context) and later (target) sounds, this can produce spectral contrast effects (SCEs) that bias perception of later sounds. For example, when context sounds have more energy in low-F 1 frequency regions, listeners report more high-F 1 responses to a target vowel, and vice versa. SCEs have been reported using various approaches for a wide range of stimuli, but most often, large spectral peaks were added to the context to bias speech categorization. This obscures the lower limit of perceptual sensitivity to spectral properties of earlier sounds, i.e., when SCEs begin to bias speech categorization. Listeners categorized vowels (/ɪ/-/ɛ/, Experiment 1) or consonants (/d/-/g/, Experiment 2) following a context sentence with little spectral amplification (+1 to +4 dB) in frequency regions known to produce SCEs. In both experiments, +3 and +4 dB amplification in key frequency regions of the context produced SCEs, but lesser amplification was insufficient to bias performance. This establishes a lower limit of perceptual sensitivity where spectral differences across sounds can bias subsequent speech categorization. These results are consistent with proposed adaptation-based mechanisms that potentially underlie SCEs in auditory perception. Recent sounds can change what speech sounds we hear later. This can occur when the average frequency composition of earlier sounds differs from that of later sounds, biasing how they are perceived. These "spectral contrast effects" are widely observed when sounds' frequency compositions differ substantially. We reveal the lower limit of these effects, as +3 dB amplification of key frequency regions in earlier sounds was enough to bias categorization of the following vowel or consonant sound. Speech categorization being biased by very small spectral differences across sounds suggests that spectral contrast effects occur

  1. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946-59)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tony K. Meunier Edited by Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    international) programs in biology, geology, geophysics, hydrology, and mapping. Therefore, the USGS was the obvious choice for these tasks, because it already had a professional staff of experienced mapmakers, scientists, and program managers with the foresight, dedication, and understanding of the need for accurate maps to support the science programs in Antarctica when asked to do so by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Public Laws 85-743 and 87-626, signed in August 1958, and in September 1962, respectively, authorized the Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior, through the USGS, to support mapping and scientific work in Antarctica (Meunier, 1979 [2007], appendix A). Open-File Report 2006-1116 includes scanned facsimiles of postal cachets. It has become an international practice to create postal cachets to commemorate special events and projects in Antarctica. A cachet is defined as a seal or commemorative design printed or stamped on an envelope to mark a philatelic or special event. The inked impression illustrates to the scientist, historian, stamp collector, and general public the multidisciplinary science projects staffed by USGS and collaborating scientists during the field season. Since 1960, philatelic cachets have been created by team members for each USGS field season and, in most cases, these cachets depict the specific geographic areas and field season program objectives. The cachets become a convenient documentation of the people, projects, and geographic places of interest for that year. Because the cachets are representative of USGS activities, each year's cachet is included as a digital facsimile in that year's Open-File Report. In the 1980s, multiple USGS cachets were prepared each year, one for use by the winter team at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station and the other for the project work areas of the austral summer field season programs.

  2. In vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam against Gram-negative pathogens isolated from pneumonia in hospitalised patients, including ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Nichols, Wright W; Sader, Helio S; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-03-01

    The activities of the novel β-lactam/non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor combination ceftazidime/avibactam and comparators were evaluated against isolates from pneumonia in hospitalised patients including ventilated patients (PHP, pneumonia not designated as VABP; VABP, pneumonia in ventilated patients). Isolates were from the European-Mediterranean region (EuM), China and the USA collected in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program between 2009 and 2011 inclusive. A total of 2393 organisms from PHP were from the EuM, 888 from China and 3213 from the USA; from VABP patients there were 918, 97 and 692 organisms collected, respectively. Among Enterobacteriaceae from PHP, ceftazidime/avibactam MIC90 values against Escherichia coli ranged from 0.25-0.5mg/L and Klebsiella spp. MIC90 values were 0.5mg/L in each region. Among VABP isolates, MIC90 values for ceftazidime/avibactam against E. coli were 0.25mg/L; for Klebsiella spp. from VABP patients, MIC90 values were similar to those obtained against PHP isolates. The MIC of ceftazidime/avibactam was ≤8mg/L against 92-96% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from PHP patients. Isolates of P. aeruginosa from VABP patients were of lower susceptibility to all antibacterial agents (e.g. depending on region, meropenem susceptibilities were 51.2-69.4% in contrast to 68.3-76.7% among PHP patients). However, ceftazidime/avibactam inhibited 79.2-95.4% of VABP isolates at an MIC of ≤8mg/L. Acinetobacter spp. were resistant to many agents and only rates of susceptibility to colistin were >90% across all regions both for PHP and VABP isolates. Ceftazidime/avibactam was generally active against a high proportion of isolates resistant to ceftazidime from PHP and VAPB patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  3. Accessing Real-Life Episodic Information from Minutes versus Hours Earlier Modulates Hippocampal and High-Order Cortical Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Honey, C. J.; Simony, E.; Arcaro, M. J.; Norman, K. A.; Hasson, U.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that formation of new episodic memories depends on hippocampus, but in real-life settings (e.g., conversation), hippocampal amnesics can utilize information from several minutes earlier. What neural systems outside hippocampus might support this minutes-long retention? In this study, subjects viewed an audiovisual movie continuously for 25 min; another group viewed the movie in 2 parts separated by a 1-day delay. Understanding Part 2 depended on retrieving information from Part 1, and thus hippocampus was required in the day-delay condition. But is hippocampus equally recruited to access the same information from minutes earlier? We show that accessing memories from a few minutes prior elicited less interaction between hippocampus and default mode network (DMN) cortical regions than accessing day-old memories of identical events, suggesting that recent information was available with less reliance on hippocampal retrieval. Moreover, the 2 groups evinced reliable but distinct DMN activity timecourses, reflecting differences in information carried in these regions when Part 1 was recent versus distant. The timecourses converged after 4 min, suggesting a time frame over which the continuous-viewing group may have relied less on hippocampal retrieval. We propose that cortical default mode regions can intrinsically retain real-life episodic information for several minutes. PMID:26240179

  4. Isolation and identification of lutein esters, including their regioisomers, in tritordeum (×Tritordeum Ascherson et Graebner) grains: Evidence for a preferential xanthophyll acyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Mellado-Ortega, Elena; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso

    2012-12-01

    Liquid chromatography in conjunction with UV-visible spectroscopy and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) mass spectrometry has been used for the structural assignment of the lutein esters, including the regioisomeric forms, naturally occurring in the endosperm of tritordeum (×Tritordeum Ascherson et Graebner), a novel cereal. The distinctive mass spectrometry fragmentation pattern of lutein, characterized by a favored loss of the moieties at the position 3' of the ε-end ring, allowed an unambiguous structural identification of four monoesters (lutein 3'-O-linoleate, lutein 3-O-linoleate, lutein 3'-O-palmitate, lutein 3-O-palmitate) and four diesters (lutein dilinoleate, lutein 3'-O-linoleate-3-O-palmitate, lutein 3'-O-palmitate-3-O-linoleate, lutein dipalmitate). This is the first time that the regioisomers of carotenoid esters have been identified in a cereal. Evidences for a preferential xanthophyll acyltransferase activity regarding the position (3 or 3') and the acyl moiety are discussed. Further studies should be carried out in order to identify the acyltransferase enzymes and the acyl donor molecules involved in the xanthophyll esterification process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Insulin Activates Vagal Afferent Neurons Including those Innervating Pancreas via Insulin Cascade and Ca(2+) Influx: Its Dysfunction in IRS2-KO Mice with Hyperphagic Obesity.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yusaku; Shimomura, Kenju; Kohno, Daisuke; Dezaki, Katsuya; Ayush, Enkh-Amar; Nakabayashi, Hajime; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Kakei, Masafumi; Nakata, Masanori; Yada, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Some of insulin's functions, including glucose/lipid metabolism, satiety and neuroprotection, involve the alteration of brain activities. Insulin could signal to the brain via penetrating through the blood-brain barrier and acting on the vagal afferents, while the latter remains unproved. This study aimed to clarify whether insulin directly regulates the nodose ganglion neurons (NGNs) of vagal afferents in mice. NGs expressed insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS2) mRNA, and some of NGNs were immunoreactive to IR. In patch-clamp and fura-2 microfluorometric studies, insulin (10(-12)∼10(-6) M) depolarized and increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in single NGNs. The insulin-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases were attenuated by L- and N-type Ca(2+) channel blockers, by phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, and in NGNs from IRS2 knockout mice. Half of the insulin-responsive NGNs contained cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript. Neuronal fibers expressing IRs were distributed in/around pancreatic islets. The NGNs innervating the pancreas, identified by injecting retrograde tracer into the pancreas, responded to insulin with much greater incidence than unlabeled NGNs. Insulin concentrations measured in pancreatic vein was 64-fold higher than that in circulation. Elevation of insulin to 10(-7) M recruited a remarkably greater population of NGNs to [Ca(2+)]i increases. Systemic injection of glibenclamide rapidly released insulin and phosphorylated AKT in NGs. Furthermore, in IRS2 knockout mice, insulin action to suppress [Ca(2+)]i in orexigenic ghrelin-responsive neurons in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus was intact while insulin action on NGN was markedly attenuated, suggesting a possible link between impaired insulin sensing by NGNs and hyperphagic obese phenotype in IRS2 knockout mice These data demonstrate that insulin directly activates NGNs via IR-IRS2-PI3K-AKT-cascade and depolarization-gated Ca(2+) influx. Pancreas

  6. Combined circulating tumor DNA and protein biomarker-based liquid biopsy for the earlier detection of pancreatic cancers

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Joshua D.; Javed, Ammar A.; Thoburn, Christopher; Wong, Fay; Tie, Jeanne; Gibbs, Peter; Schmidt, C. Max; Yip-Schneider, Michele T.; Allen, Peter J.; Schattner, Mark; Brand, Randall E.; Singhi, Aatur D.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Hong, Seung-Mo; Kim, Song Cheol; Falconi, Massimo; Doglioni, Claudio; Weiss, Matthew J.; Ahuja, Nita; He, Jin; Makary, Martin A.; Maitra, Anirban; Hanash, Samir M.; Dal Molin, Marco; Wang, Yuxuan; Li, Lu; Ptak, Janine; Dobbyn, Lisa; Schaefer, Joy; Silliman, Natalie; Popoli, Maria; Goggins, Michael G.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Klein, Alison P.; Tomasetti, Cristian; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert; Lennon, Anne Marie

    2017-01-01

    The earlier diagnosis of cancer is one of the keys to reducing cancer deaths in the future. Here we describe our efforts to develop a noninvasive blood test for the detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. We combined blood tests for KRAS gene mutations with carefully thresholded protein biomarkers to determine whether the combination of these markers was superior to any single marker. The cohort tested included 221 patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and 182 control patients without known cancer. KRAS mutations were detected in the plasma of 66 patients (30%), and every mutation found in the plasma was identical to that subsequently found in the patient’s primary tumor (100% concordance). The use of KRAS in conjunction with four thresholded protein biomarkers increased the sensitivity to 64%. Only one of the 182 plasma samples from the control cohort was positive for any of the DNA or protein biomarkers (99.5% specificity). This combinatorial approach may prove useful for the earlier detection of many cancer types. PMID:28874546

  7. Combined circulating tumor DNA and protein biomarker-based liquid biopsy for the earlier detection of pancreatic cancers.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joshua D; Javed, Ammar A; Thoburn, Christopher; Wong, Fay; Tie, Jeanne; Gibbs, Peter; Schmidt, C Max; Yip-Schneider, Michele T; Allen, Peter J; Schattner, Mark; Brand, Randall E; Singhi, Aatur D; Petersen, Gloria M; Hong, Seung-Mo; Kim, Song Cheol; Falconi, Massimo; Doglioni, Claudio; Weiss, Matthew J; Ahuja, Nita; He, Jin; Makary, Martin A; Maitra, Anirban; Hanash, Samir M; Dal Molin, Marco; Wang, Yuxuan; Li, Lu; Ptak, Janine; Dobbyn, Lisa; Schaefer, Joy; Silliman, Natalie; Popoli, Maria; Goggins, Michael G; Hruban, Ralph H; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Klein, Alison P; Tomasetti, Cristian; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Vogelstein, Bert; Lennon, Anne Marie

    2017-09-19

    The earlier diagnosis of cancer is one of the keys to reducing cancer deaths in the future. Here we describe our efforts to develop a noninvasive blood test for the detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. We combined blood tests for KRAS gene mutations with carefully thresholded protein biomarkers to determine whether the combination of these markers was superior to any single marker. The cohort tested included 221 patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and 182 control patients without known cancer. KRAS mutations were detected in the plasma of 66 patients (30%), and every mutation found in the plasma was identical to that subsequently found in the patient's primary tumor (100% concordance). The use of KRAS in conjunction with four thresholded protein biomarkers increased the sensitivity to 64%. Only one of the 182 plasma samples from the control cohort was positive for any of the DNA or protein biomarkers (99.5% specificity). This combinatorial approach may prove useful for the earlier detection of many cancer types.

  8. Insight Into Illness and Cognition in Schizophrenia in Earlier and Later Life.

    PubMed

    Gerretsen, Philip; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Menon, Mahesh; Pollock, Bruce G; Mamo, David C; Mulsant, Benoit H; Rajji, Tarek K

    2017-04-01

    Impaired insight into illness in schizophrenia is associated with illness severity and deficits in premorbid intellectual function, executive function, and memory. A previous study of patients aged 60 years and older found that illness severity and premorbid intellectual function accounted for variance in insight impairment. As such, we aimed to test whether similar relationships would be observed in earlier life. A retrospective analysis was performed on 1 large sample of participants (n = 171) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia aged 19 to 79 years acquired from 2 studies: (1) a psychosocial intervention trial for older persons with schizophrenia (June 2008 to May 2014) and (2) a diffusion tensor imaging and genetics study of psychosis across the life span (February 2007 to December 2013). We assessed insight into illness using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) item G12 and explored its relationship to illness severity (PANSS total modified), premorbid intellectual function (Wechsler Test of Adult Reading [WTAR]), and cognition. Insight impairment was more severe in later life (≥ 60 years) than in earlier years (t = -3.75, P < .001). Across the whole sample, the variance of impaired insight was explained by PANSS total modified (Exp[B] = 1.070, P < .001) and WTAR scores (Exp[B] = 0.970, P = .028). Although age and cognition were correlated with impaired insight, they did not independently contribute to its variance. However, the relationships between impaired insight and illness severity and between impaired insight and cognition, particularly working memory, were stronger in later life than in earlier life. These results suggest an opportunity for intervention may exist with cognitive-enhancing neurostimulation or medications to improve insight into illness in schizophrenia across the life span. Original study registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT00832845). © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  9. Earlier Parental Set Bedtimes as a Protective Factor Against Depression and Suicidal Ideation

    PubMed Central

    Gangwisch, James E.; Babiss, Lindsay A.; Malaspina, Dolores; Turner, J. Blake; Zammit, Gary K.; Posner, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the relationships between parental set bedtimes, sleep duration, and depression as a quasi-experiment to explore the potentially bidirectional relationship between short sleep duration and depression. Short sleep duration has been shown to precede depression, but this could be explained as a prodromal symptom of depression. Depression in an adolescent can affect his/her chosen bedtime, but it is less likely to affect a parent's chosen set bedtime which can establish a relatively stable upper limit that can directly affect sleep duration. Design: Multivariate cross-sectional analyses of the ADD Health using logistic regression. Setting: United States nationally representative, school-based, probability-based sample in 1994-96. Participants: Adolescents (n = 15,659) in grades 7 to 12. Measurements and Results: Adolescents with parental set bedtimes of midnight or later were 24% more likely to suffer from depression (OR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.49) and 20% more likely to have suicidal ideation (1.20, 1.01-1.41) than adolescents with parental set bedtimes of 10:00 PM or earlier, after controlling for covariates. Consistent with sleep duration and perception of getting enough sleep acting as mediators, the inclusion of these variables in the multivariate models appreciably attenuated the associations for depression (1.07, 0.88-1.30) and suicidal ideation (1.09, 0.92-1.29). Conclusions: The results from this study provide new evidence to strengthen the argument that short sleep duration could play a role in the etiology of depression. Earlier parental set bedtimes could therefore be protective against adolescent depression and suicidal ideation by lengthening sleep duration. Citation: Gangwisch JE; Babiss LA; Malaspina D; Turner JB; Zammit GK; Posner K. Earlier parental set bedtimes as a protective factor against depression and suicidal ideation. SLEEP 2010;33(1):97-106. PMID:20120626

  10. Factors associated with late diagnosis of HIV infection and missed opportunities for earlier testing.

    PubMed

    Gullón, Alejandra; Verdejo, José; de Miguel, Rosa; Gómez, Ana; Sanz, Jesús

    2016-10-01

    Late diagnosis (LD) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to be a significant problem that increases disease burden both for patients and for the public health system. Guidelines have been updated in order to facilitate earlier HIV diagnosis, introducing "indicator condition-guided HIV testing". In this study, we analysed the frequency of LD and associated risk factors. We retrospectively identified those cases that could be considered missed opportunities for an earlier diagnosis. All patients newly diagnosed with HIV infection who attended Hospital La Princesa, Madrid (Spain) between 2007 and 2014 were analysed. We collected epidemiological, clinical and immunological data. We also reviewed electronic medical records from the year before the HIV diagnosis to search for medical consultations due to clinical indicators. HIV infection was diagnosed in 354 patients. The median CD4 count at presentation was 352 cells/mm(3). Overall, 158 patients (50%) met the definition of LD, and 97 (30.7%) the diagnosis of advanced disease. LD was associated with older age and was more frequent amongst immigrants. Heterosexual relations and injection drug use were more likely to be the reasons for LD than relations between men who have sex with men. During the year preceding the diagnosis, 46.6% of the patients had sought medical advice owing to the presence of clinical indicators that should have led to HIV testing. Of those, 24 cases (14.5%) were classified as missed opportunities for earlier HIV diagnosis because testing was not performed. According to these results, all health workers should pursue early HIV diagnosis through the proper implementation of HIV testing guidelines. Such an approach would prove directly beneficial to the patient and indirectly beneficial to the general population through the reduction in the risk of transmission.

  11. Earlier tachycardia onset in right than left mesial temporal lobe seizures.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kazuhiro; Jin, Kazutaka; Itabashi, Hisashi; Iwasaki, Masaki; Kakisaka, Yosuke; Aoki, Masashi; Nakasato, Nobukazu

    2014-10-07

    To clarify whether the presence and timing of peri-ictal heart rate (HR) change is a seizure lateralizing sign in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). Long-term video EEGs were retrospectively reviewed in 21 patients, 7 men and 14 women aged 13 to 67 years, diagnosed as mTLE with MRI lesions in the mesial temporal structures (hippocampal sclerosis in 20 cases, amygdala hypertrophy in 1 case). Seventy-seven partial seizures without secondary generalization were extracted. Peri-ictal HR change was compared between 29 right seizures (9 patients) and 48 left seizures (12 patients). HR abruptly increased in all 29 right seizures and 42 of 48 left seizures. Onset time of HR increase in relation to ictal EEG onset was significantly earlier in right seizures than in left seizures (mean ± SD, -11.5 ± 14.8 vs 9.2 ± 21.7 seconds; p < 0.0001). Time of maximum HR was also significantly earlier in right seizures than in left seizures (36.0 ± 18.1 vs 58.0 ± 28.7 seconds; p < 0.0001). Maximum HR changes from baseline showed no significant difference between right and left seizures (47.5 ± 19.1 vs 40.8 ± 20.0/min). Significantly earlier tachycardia in right than left mTLE seizures supports previous hypotheses that the right cerebral hemisphere is dominant in the sympathetic network. No HR change, or delayed tachycardia possibly due to seizure propagation to the right hemisphere, may be a useful lateralizing sign of left mTLE seizures. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G.

    Here, pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition statemore » theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional–potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure.« less

  13. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory

    DOE PAGES

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2016-02-03

    Here, pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition statemore » theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional–potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure.« less

  14. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-02

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure.

  15. A Hepatocellular Carcinoma Case in a Patient Who had Immunity to Hepatitis B Virus Earlier

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Mustafa; Demirci, Selim; Altiparmak, Emin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the liver. Hepatitis B virus infection is one of the most important etilogical factors of HCC. In this case report, a patient with HCC previously infected and having ongoing immunity against hepatitis B virus will be discussed. How to cite this article Ates I, Kaplan M, Demirci S, Altiparmak E. A Hepatocellular Carcinoma Case in a Patient Who had Immunity to Hepatitis B Virus Earlier. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):82-83. PMID:29201732

  16. Earlier nesting by generalist predatory bird is associated with human responses to climate change.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shawn H; Steenhof, Karen; McClure, Christopher J W; Heath, Julie A

    2017-01-01

    Warming temperatures cause temporal changes in growing seasons and prey abundance that drive earlier breeding by birds, especially dietary specialists within homogeneous habitat. Less is known about how generalists respond to climate-associated shifts in growing seasons or prey phenology, which may occur at different rates across land cover types. We studied whether breeding phenology of a generalist predator, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius), was associated with shifts in growing seasons and, presumably, prey abundance, in a mosaic of non-irrigated shrub/grasslands and irrigated crops/pastures. We examined the relationship between remotely-sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and abundance of small mammals that, with insects, constitute approximately 93% of kestrel diet biomass. We used NDVI to estimate the start of the growing season (SoGS) in irrigated and non-irrigated lands from 1992 to 2015 and tested whether either estimate of annual SoGS predicted the timing of kestrel nesting. Finally, we examined relationships among irrigated SoGS, weather and crop planting. NDVI was a useful proxy for kestrel prey because it predicted small mammal abundance and past studies showed that NDVI predicts insect abundance. NDVI-estimated SoGS advanced significantly in irrigated lands (β = -1·09 ± 0·30 SE) but not in non-irrigated lands (β = -0·57 ± 0·53). Average date of kestrel nesting advanced 15 days in the past 24 years and was positively associated with the SoGS in irrigated lands, but not the SoGS in non-irrigated lands. Advanced SoGS in irrigated lands was related to earlier planting of crops after relatively warm winters, which were more common in recent years. Despite different patterns of SoGS change between land cover types, kestrel nesting phenology shifted with earlier prey availability in irrigated lands. Kestrels may preferentially track prey in irrigated lands over non-irrigated lands because of higher quality prey on

  17. Earlier Mother's Age at Menarche Predicts Rapid Infancy Growth and Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Ken K; Northstone, Kate; Wells, Jonathan CK; Rubin, Carol; Ness, Andy R; Golding, Jean; Dunger, David B

    2007-01-01

    Background Early menarche tends to be preceded by rapid infancy weight gain and is associated with increased childhood and adult obesity risk. As age at menarche is a heritable trait, we hypothesised that age at menarche in the mother may in turn predict her children's early growth and obesity risk. Methods and Findings We tested associations between mother's age at menarche, mother's adult body size and obesity risk, and her children's growth and obesity risk in 6,009 children from the UK population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort who had growth and fat mass at age 9 y measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A subgroup of 914 children also had detailed infancy and childhood growth data. In the mothers, earlier menarche was associated with shorter adult height (by 0.64 cm/y), increased weight (0.92 kg/y), and body mass index (BMI, 0.51 kg/m2/y; all p < 0.001). In contrast, in her children, earlier mother's menarche predicted taller height at 9 y (by 0.41 cm/y) and greater weight (0.80 kg/y), BMI (0.29 kg/m2/y), and fat mass index (0.22 kg/m2/year; all p < 0.001). Children in the earliest mother's menarche quintile (≤11 y) were more obese than the oldest quintile (≥15 y) (OR, 2.15, 95% CI 1.46 to 3.17; p < 0.001, adjusted for mother's education and BMI). In the subgroup, children in the earliest quintile showed faster gains in weight (p < 0.001) and height (p < 0.001) only from birth to 2 y, but not from 2 to 9 y (p = 0.3–0.8). Conclusions Earlier age at menarche may be a transgenerational marker of a faster growth tempo, characterised by rapid weight gain and growth, particularly during infancy, and leading to taller childhood stature, but likely earlier maturation and therefore shorter adult stature. This growth pattern confers increased childhood and adult obesity risks. PMID:17455989

  18. Higher dose rate Gamma Knife radiosurgery may provide earlier and longer-lasting pain relief for patients with trigeminal neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Lee, John Y K; Sandhu, Sukhmeet; Miller, Denise; Solberg, Timothy; Dorsey, Jay F; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) utilizes cobalt-60 as its radiation source, and thus dose rate varies as the fixed source decays over its half-life of approximately 5.26 years. This natural decay results in increasing treatment times when delivering the same cumulative dose. It is also possible, however, that the biological effective dose may change based on this dose rate even if the total dose is kept constant. Because patients are generally treated in a uniform manner, radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) represents a clinical model whereby biological efficacy can be tested. The authors hypothesized that higher dose rates would result in earlier and more complete pain relief but only if measured with a sensitive pain assessment tool. One hundred thirty-three patients were treated with the Gamma Knife Model 4C unit at a single center by a single neurosurgeon during a single cobalt life cycle from January 2006 to May 2012. All patients were treated with 80 Gy with a single 4-mm isocenter without blocking. Using an output factor of 0.87, dose rates ranged from 1.28 to 2.95 Gy/min. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)-Facial was administered before the procedure and at the first follow-up office visit 1 month from the procedure (mean 1.3 months). Phone calls were made to evaluate patients after their procedures as part of a retrospective study. Univariate and multivariate linear regression was performed on several independent variables, including sex, age in deciles, diagnosis, follow-up duration, prior surgery, and dose rate. In the short-term analysis (mean 1.3 months), patients' self-reported pain intensity at its worst was significantly correlated with dose rate on multivariate analysis (p = 0.028). Similarly, patients' self-reported interference with activities of daily living was closely correlated with dose rate on multivariate analysis (p = 0.067). A 1 Gy/min decrease in dose rate resulted in a 17% decrease in pain intensity at its worst and a 22% decrease

  19. Earlier adolescent substance use onset predicts stronger connectivity between reward and cognitive control brain networks.

    PubMed

    Weissman, David G; Schriber, Roberta A; Fassbender, Catherine; Atherton, Olivia; Krafft, Cynthia; Robins, Richard W; Hastings, Paul D; Guyer, Amanda E

    2015-12-01

    Early adolescent onset of substance use is a robust predictor of future substance use disorders. We examined the relation between age of substance use initiation and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the core reward processing (nucleus accumbens; NAcc) to cognitive control (prefrontal cortex; PFC) brain networks. Adolescents in a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin youth reported their substance use annually from ages 10 to 16 years. At age 16, 69 adolescents participated in a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Seed-based correlational analyses were conducted using regions of interest in bilateral NAcc. The earlier that adolescents initiated substance use, the stronger the connectivity between bilateral NAcc and right dorsolateral PFC, right dorsomedial PFC, right pre-supplementary motor area, right inferior parietal lobule, and left medial temporal gyrus. The regions that demonstrated significant positive linear relationships between the number of adolescent years using substances and connectivity with NAcc are nodes in the right frontoparietal network, which is central to cognitive control. The coupling of reward and cognitive control networks may be a mechanism through which earlier onset of substance use is related to brain function over time, a trajectory that may be implicated in subsequent substance use disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Light pollution is associated with earlier tree budburst across the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Somers-Yeates, Robin; Bennie, Jonathan; Economou, Theodoros; Hodgson, David; Spalding, Adrian; McGregor, Peter K

    2016-06-29

    The ecological impact of night-time lighting is of concern because of its well-demonstrated effects on animal behaviour. However, the potential of light pollution to change plant phenology and its corresponding knock-on effects on associated herbivores are less clear. Here, we test if artificial lighting can advance the timing of budburst in trees. We took a UK-wide 13 year dataset of spatially referenced budburst data from four deciduous tree species and matched it with both satellite imagery of night-time lighting and average spring temperature. We find that budburst occurs up to 7.5 days earlier in brighter areas, with the relationship being more pronounced for later-budding species. Excluding large urban areas from the analysis showed an even more pronounced advance of budburst, confirming that the urban 'heat-island' effect is not the sole cause of earlier urban budburst. Similarly, the advance in budburst across all sites is too large to be explained by increases in temperature alone. This dramatic advance of budburst illustrates the need for further experimental investigation into the impact of artificial night-time lighting on plant phenology and subsequent species interactions. As light pollution is a growing global phenomenon, the findings of this study are likely to be applicable to a wide range of species interactions across the world. © 2016 The Authors.

  1. Economic Costs Avoided by Diagnosing Melanoma Six Months Earlier Justify >100 Benign Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Aires, Daniel J; Wick, Jo; Shaath, Tarek S; Rajpara, Anand N; Patel, Vikas; Badawi, Ahmed H; Li, Cicy; Fraga, Garth R; Doolittle, Gary; Liu, Deede Y

    2016-05-01

    New melanoma drugs bring enormous benefits but do so at significant costs. Because melanoma grows deeper and deadlier over time, deeper lesions are costlier due to increased sentinel lymph node biopsy, chemotherapy, and disease-associated income loss. Prior studies have justified pigmented lesion biopsies on a "value per life" basis; by contrast we sought to assess how many biopsies are justified per melanoma found on a purely economic basis. We modeled how melanomas in the United States would behave if diagnosis were delayed by 6 months, eg, not biopsied, only observed until the next surveillance visit. Economic loss from delayed biopsy is the obverse of economic benefit of performing biopsy earlier. Growth rates were based on Liu et al. The results of this study can be applied to all patients presenting to dermatologists with pigmented skin lesions suspicious for melanoma. In-situ melanomas were excluded because no studies to date have modeled growth rates analogous to those for invasive melanoma. We assume conservatively that all melanomas not biopsied initially will be biopsied and treated 6 months later. Major modeled costs are (1) increased sentinel lymph node biopsy, (2) increased chemotherapy for metastatic lesions using increased 5-yr death as metastasis marker, and (3) income loss per melanoma death at $413,370 as previously published. Costs avoided by diagnosing melanoma earlier justify 170 biopsies per melanoma found. Efforts to penalize "unnecessary" biopsies may be economically counterproductive.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(5):527-532.

  2. Empirical corroboration of an earlier theoretical resolution to the UV paradox of insect polarized skylight orientation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Gao, Jun; Fan, Zhiguo

    2014-02-01

    It is surprising that many insect species use only the ultraviolet (UV) component of the polarized skylight for orientation and navigation purposes, while both the intensity and the degree of polarization of light from the clear sky are lower in the UV than at longer (blue, green, red) wavelengths. Why have these insects chosen the UV part of the polarized skylight? This strange phenomenon is called the "UV-sky-pol paradox". Although earlier several speculations tried to resolve this paradox, they did this without any quantitative data. A theoretical and computational model has convincingly explained why it is advantageous for certain animals to detect celestial polarization in the UV. We performed a sky-polarimetric approach and built a polarized skylight sensor that models the processing of polarization signals by insect photoreceptors. Using this model sensor, we carried out measurements under clear and cloudy sky conditions. Our results showed that light from the cloudy sky has maximal degree of polarization in the UV. Furthermore, under both clear and cloudy skies the angle of polarization of skylight can be detected with a higher accuracy. By this, we corroborated empirically the soundness of the earlier computational resolution of the UV-sky-pol paradox.

  3. Empirical corroboration of an earlier theoretical resolution to the UV paradox of insect polarized skylight orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Gao, Jun; Fan, Zhiguo

    2014-02-01

    It is surprising that many insect species use only the ultraviolet (UV) component of the polarized skylight for orientation and navigation purposes, while both the intensity and the degree of polarization of light from the clear sky are lower in the UV than at longer (blue, green, red) wavelengths. Why have these insects chosen the UV part of the polarized skylight? This strange phenomenon is called the "UV-sky-pol paradox". Although earlier several speculations tried to resolve this paradox, they did this without any quantitative data. A theoretical and computational model has convincingly explained why it is advantageous for certain animals to detect celestial polarization in the UV. We performed a sky-polarimetric approach and built a polarized skylight sensor that models the processing of polarization signals by insect photoreceptors. Using this model sensor, we carried out measurements under clear and cloudy sky conditions. Our results showed that light from the cloudy sky has maximal degree of polarization in the UV. Furthermore, under both clear and cloudy skies the angle of polarization of skylight can be detected with a higher accuracy. By this, we corroborated empirically the soundness of the earlier computational resolution of the UV-sky-pol paradox.

  4. Long-Term Post-Stroke Changes Include Myelin Loss, Specific Deficits in Sensory and Motor Behaviors and Complex Cognitive Impairment Detected Using Active Place Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Barone, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be

  5. A non-radioactive method for measuring Rubisco activase activity in the presence of variable ATP: ADP ratios, including modifications for measuring the activity and activation state of Rubisco.

    PubMed

    Scales, Joanna C; Parry, Martin A J; Salvucci, Michael E

    2014-03-01

    Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) catalyzes carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, the first in a series of reactions leading to the incorporation of atmospheric CO₂ into biomass. Rubisco requires Rubisco activase (RCA), an AAA+ ATPase that reactivates Rubisco by remodelling the conformation of inhibitor-bound sites. RCA is regulated by the ratio of ADP:ATP, with the precise response potentiated by redox regulation of the alpha-isoform. Measuring the effects of ADP on the activation of Rubisco by RCA using the well-established photometric assay is problematic because of the adenine nucleotide requirement of 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PGA) kinase. Described here is a novel assay for measuring RCA activity in the presence of variable ratios of ADP:ATP. The assay couples the formation of 3-PGA from ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate and CO₂ to NADH oxidation through cofactor-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase, enolase, PEP carboxylase and malate dehydrogenase. The assay was used to determine the effects of Rubisco and RCA concentration and ADP:ATP ratio on RCA activity, and to measure the activation of a modified Rubisco by RCA. Variations of the basic assay were used to measure the activation state of Rubisco in leaf extracts and the activity of purified Rubisco. The assay can be automated for high-throughput processing by conducting the reactions in two stages.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of digoxin cross-reacting substances in patients with acute yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning, including the effect of activated charcoal.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Darren M; Southcott, Emma; Potter, Julia M; Roberts, Michael S; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A

    2008-01-01

    Intentional self-poisonings with seeds from the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) are widely reported. Activated charcoal has been suggested to benefit patients with yellow oleander poisoning by reducing absorption and/or facilitating elimination. Two recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of activated charcoal reported conflicting outcomes in terms of mortality. The effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of Thevetia cardenolides has not been assessed. This information may be useful for determining whether further studies are necessary. Serial blood samples were obtained from patients enrolled in a RCT assessing the relative efficacy of single dose (SDAC) and multiple doses (MDAC) of activated charcoal compared to no activated charcoal (NoAC). The concentration of Thevetia cardenolides was estimated using a digoxin immunoassay. The effect of activated charcoal on cardenolide pharmacokinetics was compared between treatment groups using the AUC24, the 24h Mean Residence Time (MRT24), and regression lines obtained from serial concentration points adjusted for exposure. Erratic and prolonged absorption patterns were noted in each patient group. The apparent terminal half-life was highly variable, with a median time of 42.9h. There was a reduction in MRT24 and the apparent terminal half-life estimated from linear regression in patients administered activated charcoal compared to the control group (NoAC). This effect was approximately equal in patients administered MDAC or SDAC. Activated charcoal appears to favourably influence the pharmacokinetic profile of Thevetia cardenolides in patients with acute self-poisoning, which may have clinical benefits. Given the conflicting clinical outcomes noted in previous RCTs, this mechanistic data supports the need for further studies to determine whether a subgroup of patients (eg. those presenting soon after poisoning) will benefit from activated charcoal. PMID:17164695

  7. Integrated Tree-Ring-Radiocarbon High-Resolution Timeframe to Resolve Earlier Second Millennium BCE Mesopotamian Chronology.

    PubMed

    Manning, Sturt W; Griggs, Carol B; Lorentzen, Brita; Barjamovic, Gojko; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Kromer, Bernd; Wild, Eva Maria

    2016-01-01

    500 years of ancient Near Eastern history from the earlier second millennium BCE, including such pivotal figures as Hammurabi of Babylon, Šamši-Adad I (who conquered Aššur) and Zimrilim of Mari, has long floated in calendar time subject to rival chronological schemes up to 150+ years apart. Texts preserved on clay tablets provide much information, including some astronomical references, but despite 100+ years of scholarly effort, chronological resolution has proved impossible. Documents linked with specific Assyrian officials and rulers have been found and associated with archaeological wood samples at Kültepe and Acemhöyük in Turkey, and offer the potential to resolve this long-running problem. Here we show that previous work using tree-ring dating to place these timbers in absolute time has fundamental problems with key dendrochronological crossdates due to small sample numbers in overlapping years and insufficient critical assessment. To address, we have integrated secure dendrochronological sequences directly with radiocarbon (14C) measurements to achieve tightly resolved absolute (calendar) chronological associations and identify the secure links of this tree-ring chronology with the archaeological-historical evidence. The revised tree-ring-sequenced 14C time-series for Kültepe and Acemhöyük is compatible only with the so-called Middle Chronology and not with the rival High, Low or New Chronologies. This finding provides a robust resolution to a century of uncertainty in Mesopotamian chronology and scholarship, and a secure basis for construction of a coherent timeframe and history across the Near East and East Mediterranean in the earlier second millennium BCE. Our re-dating also affects an unusual tree-ring growth anomaly in wood from Porsuk, Turkey, previously tentatively associated with the Minoan eruption of the Santorini volcano. This tree-ring growth anomaly is now directly dated ~1681-1673 BCE (68.2% highest posterior density range), ~20

  8. Screening for Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: Determinants and Rationale for an Earlier Age to Commence Screening

    PubMed Central

    Carethers, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is a highly cost-effective approach to reduce morbidity and mortality of patients, as well as reduce the prevalence of CRC in populations. Current recommendations for CRC screening for the asymptomatic general population begin at age 50 years, an age after which ~95% of cancers occur. Determinants that modify the timing and frequency for screening include a personal or family history of adenomatous polyps or CRC, the age of onset of these colonic lesions, and the presence or potential for a patient to harbor a higher-risk syndrome such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), or Lynch syndrome.. Although race, like family history, is a heritable factor, it has not engendered inclusion in the same broad systematic screening recommendations despite multiple studies demonstrating a disparity in the incidence and mortality from CRC, and the potential for targeted screening to reduce the disparity. In particular, African Americans, when compared to Caucasians, (a) have lower CRC screening utilization rates, (b) have an earlier presentation of CRC (0-8 years younger than Caucasians) and, more often have aggressive biological features more prone to metastasis, (c) have a higher CRC prevalence at all ages and a higher proportion of CRCs before 50 years of age (~11% vs 5% in Caucasians), (d) are less likely to know or transmit personal or family history of adenomas or CRC that might change their screening to an earlier age, (e) present with 7-15% excess right-sided CRCs that are not microsatellite unstable, (f) show higher frequencies of high-risk adenomas at every decile of age, and an excess of high-risk proximal adenomas that mirror the excess of proximal CRCs, (g) have cancers that demonstrate lower proportions of good prognostic biomarkers such as MSI and higher proportions of bad prognosticators such as EMAST, (h) may possess gut microbiota more conducive to initiating and/or propagating colonic

  9. Integrated Tree-Ring-Radiocarbon High-Resolution Timeframe to Resolve Earlier Second Millennium BCE Mesopotamian Chronology

    PubMed Central

    Griggs, Carol B.; Lorentzen, Brita; Barjamovic, Gojko; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Kromer, Bernd; Wild, Eva Maria

    2016-01-01

    500 years of ancient Near Eastern history from the earlier second millennium BCE, including such pivotal figures as Hammurabi of Babylon, Šamši-Adad I (who conquered Aššur) and Zimrilim of Mari, has long floated in calendar time subject to rival chronological schemes up to 150+ years apart. Texts preserved on clay tablets provide much information, including some astronomical references, but despite 100+ years of scholarly effort, chronological resolution has proved impossible. Documents linked with specific Assyrian officials and rulers have been found and associated with archaeological wood samples at Kültepe and Acemhöyük in Turkey, and offer the potential to resolve this long-running problem. Here we show that previous work using tree-ring dating to place these timbers in absolute time has fundamental problems with key dendrochronological crossdates due to small sample numbers in overlapping years and insufficient critical assessment. To address, we have integrated secure dendrochronological sequences directly with radiocarbon (14C) measurements to achieve tightly resolved absolute (calendar) chronological associations and identify the secure links of this tree-ring chronology with the archaeological-historical evidence. The revised tree-ring-sequenced 14C time-series for Kültepe and Acemhöyük is compatible only with the so-called Middle Chronology and not with the rival High, Low or New Chronologies. This finding provides a robust resolution to a century of uncertainty in Mesopotamian chronology and scholarship, and a secure basis for construction of a coherent timeframe and history across the Near East and East Mediterranean in the earlier second millennium BCE. Our re-dating also affects an unusual tree-ring growth anomaly in wood from Porsuk, Turkey, previously tentatively associated with the Minoan eruption of the Santorini volcano. This tree-ring growth anomaly is now directly dated ~1681–1673 BCE (68.2% highest posterior density range), ~20

  10. The HepHIV 2017 Conference in Malta: joining forces for the earlier diagnosis of HIV and viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Raben, D; Hoekstra, M; Sperle, I; Amato Gauci, A J; Gauci, C; West, B; Sullivan, A; Lazarus, J V; Platteau, T; Rockstroh, J K

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the article is to provide an overview of the results of the HepHIV 2017 Conference organized by the HIV in Europe initiative under the Maltese EU Presidency in January 2017. A thourough review of all conference presentations (oral and poster presentations) was performed to retrieve the key outcomes of the conference. The key result from the conference was a call to action summarising key priorities in HIV and viral hepatitis testing and linkage to care. This included improving monitoring of viral hepatitis and HIV, mixing testing strategies and ensuring policy support. The important contribution and outcomes of EU funded projects OptTEST and EuroHIVEdat was highlighted. An integrated approach to earlier testing and linkage to care across diseases is needed in Europe and the HepHIV conferences create an important forum to reach this aim. © 2018 British HIV Association.

  11. Complementary functions of the two brain hemispheres: comparisons with earlier conceptions and implications for individual and society.

    PubMed

    Zeier, H

    1989-07-01

    The concept of different functions for the left and right cerebral hemispheres coincides in an astonishing way with earlier philosophical and psychological work which divided the human mind into two complementary functions without having a neurophysiological explanation. Representative are the ideas of Fichte, Hegel and Jung. The latter postulated the two subsystems Ego and Self and associated the conscious functions of the Ego with the intellect, the capacity for rational thought, and the Self with the mind, which also includes the emotional feelings. For the harmonic development and self-realization of man the functions of both systems in complementary interaction are required. Therefore, the current overaccentuation of the intellect and of progress directed technical-scientific thinking should be corrected by making better use of the much neglected functions of the right hemisphere.

  12. Phosphoproteome and transcription factor activity profiling identify actions of the anti-inflammatory agent UTL-5g in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells including disrupting actin remodeling and STAT-3 activation.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Nicholas J; Stemmer, Paul M; Chen, Ben; Valeriote, Frederick; Gao, Xiaohua; Guatam, Subhash C; Shaw, Jiajiu

    2017-09-15

    UTL-5g is a novel small-molecule TNF-alpha modulator. It reduces cisplatin-induced side effects by protecting kidney, liver, and platelets, thereby increasing tolerance for cisplatin. UTL-5g also reduces radiation-induced acute liver toxicity. The mechanism of action for UTL-5g is not clear at the present time. A phosphoproteomic analysis to a depth of 4943 phosphopeptides and a luminescence-based transcription factor activity assay were used to provide complementary analyses of signaling events that were disrupted by UTL-5g in RAW 264.7 cells. Transcriptional activity downstream of the interferon gamma, IL-6, type 1 Interferon, TGF-β, PKC/Ca 2+ and the glucocorticoid receptor pathways were disrupted by UTL-5g. Phosphoproteomic analysis indicated that hyperphosphorylation of proteins involved in actin remodeling was suppressed by UTL-5g (gene set analysis, FDR < 1%) as was phosphorylation of Stat3, consistent with the IL-6 results in the transcription factor assay. Neither analysis indicated that LPS-induced activation of the NF-kB, cAMP/PKA and JNK signaling pathways were affected by UTL-5g. This global characterization of UTL-5g activity in a macrophage cell line discovered that it disrupts selected aspects of LPS signaling including Stat3 activation and actin remodeling providing new insight on how UTL-5g acts to reduce cisplatin-induced side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of a Self-Administered Intravaginal Swab for PCR Detection of Genitourinary Tract Infections Including Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Trichomonas and Human Papillomavirus in Active Duty Military Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    EIA for C. trachomatis, and wet prep for T. vaginalis), 20% of these active duty females are confirmed to be infected with one or more of these STDs...trachomatis infection in female military recruits. The New England Journal of Medicine 1998;339:739-744 4. Malone JD, Hyams KC, Hawkins RE, Sharp TW, and...Prevalence of asymptomatic chlamydial cervical infection in active duty army females . Milied 1993;158-618-619. 6. OrndorffGR. Screening for Chlamydia

  14. Onset of rigor mortis is earlier in red muscle than in white muscle.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M; Takatori, T; Nakajima, M; Sakurada, K; Hatanaka, K; Ikegaya, H; Matsuda, Y; Iwase, H

    2000-01-01

    Rigor mortis is thought to be related to falling ATP levels in muscles postmortem. We measured rigor mortis as tension determined isometrically in three rat leg muscles in liquid paraffin kept at 37 degrees C or 25 degrees C--two red muscles, red gastrocnemius (RG) and soleus (SO) and one white muscle, white gastrocnemius (WG). Onset, half and full rigor mortis occurred earlier in RG and SO than in WG both at 37 degrees C and at 25 degrees C even though RG and WG were portions of the same muscle. This suggests that rigor mortis directly reflects the postmortem intramuscular ATP level, which decreases more rapidly in red muscle than in white muscle after death. Rigor mortis was more retarded at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C in each type of muscle.

  15. Selection of children to provide care: the effect of earlier parental transfers.

    PubMed

    Henretta, J C; Hill, M S; Li, W; Soldo, B J; Wolf, D A

    1997-05-01

    We use the first wave of data from the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) study to examine the effects of past parent-to-child financial transfers on selection of a child to provide assistance with basic personal care for unmarried parents. We estimate a fixed-effects conditional logit model and find a positive and significant association between past financial transfers and a child's current helping behavior. The coefficient of past financial transfers is in the direction hypothesized, and its magnitude is 80% as large as that of gender, a well-documented powerful predictor of parental caregiving. There appears to be substantial evidence that earlier parent-to-child financial gifts play a role in determining which child in the family will provide assistance.

  16. Earlier predictors of eating disorder symptoms in 9-year-old children. A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Kathryn N; Drewett, Robert F; Le Couteur, Ann S; Adamson, Ashley J

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine predictors of eating disorder symptoms in a population based sample at the earliest age at which they can be measured using the Children's Eating Attitudes Test. Data were collected from the longitudinal Gateshead Millennium Study cohort; 609 children participated in the 7 year data sweep (and their mothers and teachers), and 589 children participated in the 9 year data sweep. Eating disorder symptoms at 9 years were higher in boys, and in children from more deprived families. Higher eating disorder symptoms were associated with more body dissatisfaction at 9 years. Higher symptoms were predicted by higher levels of dietary restraint and of emotional symptoms, but not greater body dissatisfaction, 2 years earlier. The study showed that some correlates of high eating disorder symptoms found in adolescents and adults are also found in children, before the rise in diagnosable eating disorders over the pubertal period. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical presentation of retinoblastoma in Alexandria: A step toward earlier diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Sameh E; Eldomiaty, Wesam; Goweida, Mohamed B; Dowidar, Amgad

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical presentation of retinoblastoma in Alexandria, Egypt, correlate the timing of accurate diagnosis with the presence of advanced disease and identify causes of delayed presentation. Retrospective noncomparative single institution study reviews demographic and clinical data of all new children with retinoblastoma presenting to Alexandria Main University ocular oncology clinic (OOC) from January 2012 to June 2014. Diagnosis time was from initial parental complaint to retinoblastoma diagnosis and referral time was from retinoblastoma diagnosis to presentation to the Alexandria OCC. Delayed Diagnosis and referral were counted if >2 weeks. Advanced presentation is defined as clinical TNMH (8th edition) staging of cT2 or cT3 (international intraocular retinoblastoma classification group D or E) in at least one eye or the presence of extra-ocular disease (cT4). Seventy eyes of 47 children were eligible: 52% unilateral, 7% with family history and 96% presented with leukocorea. Sixty-four percent of children had advanced intraocular disease and none had extra-ocular disease. Delayed presentation occurred in 58% of children and was significantly associated with advanced disease in both unilaterally and bilaterally affected children (p = 0.003, 0.002 respectively). The delay in diagnosis was more in unilateral cases while the delay in referral was more in bilateral cases. The main cause of delayed presentation in unilateral retinoblastoma was misdiagnosis (30%) while parental shopping for second medical opinion (30%) was the main cause in bilateral children. Delayed diagnosis is a problem affecting retinoblastoma management. Better medical education and training, health education and earlier screening are recommended to achieve earlier diagnosis.

  18. Quantifying the economic value and quality of life impact of earlier influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bruce Y; Bartsch, Sarah M; Brown, Shawn T; Cooley, Philip; Wheaton, William D; Zimmerman, Richard K

    2015-03-01

    Influenza vaccination is administered throughout the influenza disease season, even as late as March. Given such timing, what is the value of vaccinating the population earlier than currently being practiced? We used real data on when individuals were vaccinated in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, and the following 2 models to determine the value of vaccinating individuals earlier (by the end of September, October, and November): Framework for Reconstructing Epidemiological Dynamics (FRED), an agent-based model (ABM), and FluEcon, our influenza economic model that translates cases from the ABM to outcomes and costs [health care and lost productivity costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)]. We varied the reproductive number (R0) from 1.2 to 1.6. Applying the current timing of vaccinations averted 223,761 influenza cases, $16.3 million in direct health care costs, $50.0 million in productivity losses, and 804 in QALYs, compared with no vaccination (February peak, R0 1.2). When the population does not have preexisting immunity and the influenza season peaks in February (R0 1.2-1.6), moving individuals who currently received the vaccine after September to the end of September could avert an additional 9634-17,794 influenza cases, $0.6-$1.4 million in direct costs, $2.1-$4.0 million in productivity losses, and 35-64 QALYs. Moving the vaccination of just children to September (R0 1.2-1.6) averted 11,366-1660 influenza cases, $0.6-$0.03 million in direct costs, $2.3-$0.2 million in productivity losses, and 42-8 QALYs. Moving the season peak to December increased these benefits, whereas increasing preexisting immunity reduced these benefits. Even though many people are vaccinated well after September/October, they likely are still vaccinated early enough to provide substantial cost-savings.

  19. Earlier parental set bedtimes as a protective factor against depression and suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Gangwisch, James E; Babiss, Lindsay A; Malaspina, Dolores; Turner, J Blake; Zammit, Gary K; Posner, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    To examine the relationships between parental set bedtimes, sleep duration, and depression as a quasi-experiment to explore the potentially bidirectional relationship between short sleep duration and depression. Short sleep duration has been shown to precede depression, but this could be explained as a prodromal symptom of depression. Depression in an adolescent can affect his/her chosen bedtime, but it is less likely to affect a parent's chosen set bedtime which can establish a relatively stable upper limit that can directly affect sleep duration. Multivariate cross-sectional analyses of the ADD Health using logistic regression. United States nationally representative, school-based, probability-based sample in 1994-96. Adolescents (n = 15,659) in grades 7 to 12. Adolescents with parental set bedtimes of midnight or later were 24% more likely to suffer from depression (OR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.49) and 20% more likely to have suicidal ideation (1.20, 1.01-1.41) than adolescents with parental set bedtimes of 10:00 PM or earlier, after controlling for covariates. Consistent with sleep duration and perception of getting enough sleep acting as mediators, the inclusion of these variables in the multivariate models appreciably attenuated the associations for depression (1.07, 0.88-1.30) and suicidal ideation (1.09, 0.92-1.29). The results from this study provide new evidence to strengthen the argument that short sleep duration could play a role in the etiology of depression. Earlier parental set bedtimes could therefore be protective against adolescent depression and suicidal ideation by lengthening sleep duration.

  20. Organized screening detects breast cancer at earlier stage regardless of molecular phenotype.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Claire M B; Jiang, Li; Whitehead, Marlo; Racz, Jennifer M; Groome, Patti A

    2018-06-16

    Mortality reduction attributable to organized breast screening is modest. Screening may be less effective at detecting more aggressive cancers at an earlier stage. This study was conducted to determine the relative efficacy of screening mammography to detect cancers at an earlier stage by molecular phenotype. We identified 2882 women with primary invasive breast cancer diagnosed between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 and who had a mammogram through the Ontario Breast Screening Program in the 28 months before diagnosis. Five tumor phenotypes were defined by expression of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors and HER2/neu oncogene. We conducted univariable and multivariable analyses to describe the predictors of detection as an interval cancer. Additional analyses identified predictors of detection at stages II, III, or IV compared with stage I, by phenotype. Analyses were adjusted for the effects of age, grade, and breast density. ER negative and HER2 positive tumors were over-represented among interval cancers, and triple negative cancers were more likely than ER +/HER2 - cancers to be detected as interval cancers OR 2.5 (95% CI 2.0-3.2, p < 0.0001). Method of detection (interval vs. screen) and molecular phenotype were independently associated with stage at diagnosis (p < 0.0001), but there was no interaction between method of detection and phenotype (p = 0.44). In a screened population, triple negative and HER2 + breast cancers are diagnosed at a higher stage but this appears to be due to higher growth rates of these tumors rather than a relative inability of screening to detect them.

  1. The Recombinant Bacteriophage Endolysin HY-133 Exhibits In Vitro Activity against Different African Clonal Lineages of the Staphylococcus aureus Complex, Including Staphylococcus schweitzeri.

    PubMed

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Schaumburg, Frieder; Knaack, Dennis; Scherzinger, Anna S; Mutter, Wolfgang; Peters, Georg; Peschel, Andreas; Becker, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    HY-133 is a recombinant bacteriophage endolysin with bactericidal activity againstStaphylococcus aureus Here, HY-133 showedin vitroactivity against major African methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistantS. aureuslineages and ceftaroline/ceftobiprole- and borderline oxacillin-resistant isolates. HY-133 was also active againstStaphylococcus schweitzeri, a recently described species of theS. aureuscomplex. The activity of HY-133 on the tested isolates (MIC50, 0.25 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml; range, 0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml) was independent of the species and strain background or antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. FBI-1 can stimulate HIV-1 Tat activity and is targeted to a novel subnuclear domain that includes the Tat-P-TEFb-containing nuclear speckles.

    PubMed

    Pendergrast, P Shannon; Wang, Chen; Hernandez, Nouria; Huang, Sui

    2002-03-01

    FBI-1 is a cellular POZ-domain-containing protein that binds to the HIV-1 LTR and associates with the HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat. Here we show that elevated levels of FBI-1 specifically stimulate Tat activity and that this effect is dependent on the same domain of FBI-1 that mediates Tat-FBI-1 association in vivo. FBI-1 also partially colocalizes with Tat and Tat's cellular cofactor, P-TEFb (Cdk9 and cyclin T1), at the splicing-factor-rich nuclear speckle domain. Further, a less-soluble population of FBI-1 distributes in a novel peripheral-speckle pattern of localization as well as in other nuclear regions. This distribution pattern is dependent on the FBI-1 DNA binding domain, on the presence of cellular DNA, and on active transcription. Taken together, these results suggest that FBI-1 is a cellular factor that preferentially associates with active chromatin and that can specifically stimulate Tat-activated HIV-1 transcription.

  3. FBI-1 Can Stimulate HIV-1 Tat Activity and Is Targeted to a Novel Subnuclear Domain that Includes the Tat-P-TEFb—containing Nuclear Speckles

    PubMed Central

    Pendergrast, P. Shannon; Wang, Chen; Hernandez, Nouria; Huang, Sui

    2002-01-01

    FBI-1 is a cellular POZ-domain–containing protein that binds to the HIV-1 LTR and associates with the HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat. Here we show that elevated levels of FBI-1 specifically stimulate Tat activity and that this effect is dependent on the same domain of FBI-1 that mediates Tat-FBI-1 association in vivo. FBI-1 also partially colocalizes with Tat and Tat's cellular cofactor, P-TEFb (Cdk9 and cyclin T1), at the splicing-factor–rich nuclear speckle domain. Further, a less-soluble population of FBI-1 distributes in a novel peripheral-speckle pattern of localization as well as in other nuclear regions. This distribution pattern is dependent on the FBI-1 DNA binding domain, on the presence of cellular DNA, and on active transcription. Taken together, these results suggest that FBI-1 is a cellular factor that preferentially associates with active chromatin and that can specifically stimulate Tat-activated HIV-1 transcription. PMID:11907272

  4. Development of operational models of receptor activation including constitutive receptor activity and their use to determine the efficacy of the chemokine CCL17 at the CC chemokine receptor CCR4

    PubMed Central

    Slack, RJ; Hall, DA

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The operational model provides a key conceptual framework for the analysis of pharmacological data. However, this model does not include constitutive receptor activity, a frequent phenomenon in modern pharmacology, particularly in recombinant systems. Here, we developed extensions of the operational model which include constitutive activity and applied them to effects of agonists at the chemokine receptor CCR4. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of agonists of CCR4 on [35S]GTPγS binding to recombinant cell membranes and on the filamentous (F-) actin content of human CD4+ CCR4+ T cells were determined. The basal [35S]GTPγS binding was changed by varying the GDP concentration whilst the basal F-actin contents of the higher expressing T cell populations were elevated, suggesting constitutive activity of CCR4. Both sets of data were analysed using the mathematical models. RESULTS The affinity of CCL17 (also known as TARC) derived from analysis of the T cell data (pKa= 9.61 ± 0.17) was consistent with radioligand binding experiments (9.50 ± 0.11) while that from the [35S]GTPγS binding experiments was lower (8.27 ± 0.09). Its intrinsic efficacy differed between the two systems (110 in T cells vs. 11). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The presence of constitutive receptor activity allows the absolute intrinsic efficacy of agonists to be determined without a contribution from the signal transduction system. Intrinsic efficacy estimated in this way is consistent with Furchgott's definition of this property. CCL17 may have a higher intrinsic efficacy at CCR4 in human T cells than that expressed recombinantly in CHO cells. PMID:22335621

  5. Development of operational models of receptor activation including constitutive receptor activity and their use to determine the efficacy of the chemokine CCL17 at the CC chemokine receptor CCR4.

    PubMed

    Slack, R J; Hall, D A

    2012-07-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The operational model provides a key conceptual framework for the analysis of pharmacological data. However, this model does not include constitutive receptor activity, a frequent phenomenon in modern pharmacology, particularly in recombinant systems. Here, we developed extensions of the operational model which include constitutive activity and applied them to effects of agonists at the chemokine receptor CCR4. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of agonists of CCR4 on [(35) S]GTPγS binding to recombinant cell membranes and on the filamentous (F-) actin content of human CD4(+) CCR4(+) T cells were determined. The basal [(35) S]GTPγS binding was changed by varying the GDP concentration whilst the basal F-actin contents of the higher expressing T cell populations were elevated, suggesting constitutive activity of CCR4. Both sets of data were analysed using the mathematical models. RESULTS The affinity of CCL17 (also known as TARC) derived from analysis of the T cell data (pK(a) = 9.61 ± 0.17) was consistent with radioligand binding experiments (9.50 ± 0.11) while that from the [(35) S]GTPγS binding experiments was lower (8.27 ± 0.09). Its intrinsic efficacy differed between the two systems (110 in T cells vs. 11). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The presence of constitutive receptor activity allows the absolute intrinsic efficacy of agonists to be determined without a contribution from the signal transduction system. Intrinsic efficacy estimated in this way is consistent with Furchgott's definition of this property. CCL17 may have a higher intrinsic efficacy at CCR4 in human T cells than that expressed recombinantly in CHO cells. © 2012 GSK Services Unlimited. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Health care strategies to promote earlier presentation of symptomatic breast cancer: perspectives of women and family physicians

    PubMed Central

    Heisey, R.; Clemons, M.; Granek, L.; Fergus, K.; Hum, S.; Lord, B.; McCready, D.R.; Fitzgerald, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Many women with symptoms suggestive of a breast cancer diagnosis delay presentation to their family physician. Although factors associated with delay have been well described, there is a paucity of data on strategies to mitigate delay. Objectives We conducted a qualitative research project to examine factors related to delay and to identify health care system changes that might encourage earlier presentation. Methods Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with women who sought care 12 weeks or more after self-detection of breast cancer symptoms and with family physicians whose practices included patients meeting that criterion. Results The women and physicians both suggested a need for clearer screening mammography guidelines for women 40–49 years of age and for better messaging concerning breast awareness. The use of additional hopeful testimonials from breast cancer survivors were suggested to help dispel the notion of cancer as a “death sentence.” Educational initiatives were proposed, aimed at both increasing awareness of “non-lump” breast cancer symptoms and advising women that a previous benign diagnosis does not ensure that future symptoms are not cancer. Women wanted empathic nonjudgmental access to care. Improved methods to track compliance with screening mammography and with periodic health exams and access to a rapid diagnostic process were suggested. Conclusions A list of “at-risk situations for delay” in diagnosis of breast cancer was developed for physicians to assist in identifying women who might delay. Health care system changes actionable both at the health policy level and in the family physician’s office were identified to encourage earlier presentation of women with symptomatic breast cancer. PMID:21980254

  7. Adverse childhood experiences predict earlier age of drinking onset: results from a representative US sample of current or former drinkers.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Emily F; Edwards, Erika M; Heeren, Timothy; Hingson, Ralph W

    2008-08-01

    Our goal was to determine whether adverse childhood experiences predicted the age at which drinking was initiated and drinking motives in a representative sample of current or former drinkers in the United States. In 2006, a probability sample of 3592 US current or former drinkers aged 18 to 39 were surveyed. Multinomial logistic regression examined whether each of 10 adverse childhood experiences was associated with earlier ages of drinking onset, controlling for demographics, parental alcohol use, parental attitudes toward drinking, and peers' drinking in adolescence. We also examined whether there was a graded relationship between the number of adverse childhood experiences and age of drinking onset and whether adverse childhood experiences were related to self-reported motives for drinking during the first year that respondents drank. Sixty-six percent of respondents reported >or=1 adverse childhood experiences, and 19% reported experiencing >or=4. The most commonly reported adverse childhood experiences were parental separation/divorce (41.3%), living with a household member who was a problem drinker (28.7%), mental illness of a household member (24.8%), and sexual abuse (19.1%). Of the 10 specific adverse childhood experiences assessed, 5 were significantly associated with initiating drinking at or=21 years of age) after adjustment for confounders, including physical abuse, sexual abuse, having a mentally ill household member, substance abuse in the home, and parental discord or divorce. Compared with those without adverse childhood experiences, respondents with adverse childhood experiences were substantially more likely to report that they drank to cope during the first year that they used alcohol. Results suggest that children with particular adverse childhood experiences may initiate drinking earlier than their peers and that they may be more likely to drink to cope with problems (rather than for pleasure or to be

  8. Advanced seasonal reproductive development in a male urban bird is reflected in earlier plasma luteinizing hormone rise but not energetic status.

    PubMed

    Davies, Scott; Behbahaninia, Hirbod; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Meddle, Simone L; Waites, Kyle; Deviche, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Urban animals inhabit an environment considerably different than do their non-urban conspecifics, and to persist urban animals must adjust to these novel environments. The timing of seasonal reproductive development (i.e., growth of gonads and secondary sex organs) is a fundamental determinant of the breeding period and is frequently advanced in urban bird populations. However, the underlying mechanism(s) by which birds adjust the timing of reproductive development to urban areas remain(s) largely unknown. Here, we compared the timing of vernal reproductive development in free-ranging urban and non-urban male Abert's Towhees, Melozone aberti, in Phoenix, Arizona, USA, and tested the non-mutually exclusive hypotheses that earlier reproductive development is due to improved energetic status and/or earlier increase in endocrine activity of the reproductive system. We found that urban birds initiated testicular development earlier than non-urban birds, but this disparity was not associated with differences in body condition, fat stores, or innate immune performance. These results provide no support for the hypothesis that energetic constraints are responsible for delayed reproductive development of non-urban relative to urban male Abert's Towhees. Urban birds did, however, increase their plasma luteinizing hormone, but not plasma testosterone, earlier than non-urban birds. These findings suggest that adjustment to urban areas by Abert's Towhees involves increases in the endocrine activity of the anterior pituitary gland and/or hypothalamus earlier than non-urban towhees. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  10. Bilateral breast calciphylaxis in a patient who survived earlier extensive tissue necrosis 5 years previously: A case report.

    PubMed

    Verstappen, E M J; Maaskant-Braat, A J G; Scheltinga, M R

    2018-05-07

    Calciphylaxis is a rare condition including patchy dermal necrosis that mostly affects chronic hemodialysis patients. The syndrome usually heralds impending death although patients may survive following a set of measures including an adapted dialysis regimen. The present case is a unique patient who recovered from an earlier episode of upper leg calciphylaxis 5 years previously but developed fatal bilateral breast necrosis. A 69 year old Caucasian woman with a history of atrial fibrillation, hypertension, CVA, hyperparathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism and end stage renal disease with hemodialysis recovered in 2012 from extensive symptomatic left upper leg necrosis due to calciphylaxis. In 2017, she developed painful, necrotic ulcers on both breasts, again due to calciphylaxis. She had no history of anticoagulants use but she did use prednisolone 5mg/day. She received adequate wound care, pain medication, antibiotics and dialysis frequency was increased with an addition of sodium thiosulfate. A bilateral ablation was discussed but she decided to stop all treatment following pulmonary aspiration and passed away one week later. Calciphylaxis is a rare diagnosis that should be considered in patients with renal insufficiency developing painful patches of skin necrosis. A multidisciplinary treatment approach including hyperparathyroidectomy, modified hemodialysis and wound treatment is recommended. There is limited evidence for surgical intervention. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantifying the Economic Value and Quality of Life Impact of Earlier Influenza Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Bartsch, Sarah M.; Brown, Shawn T.; Cooley, Philip; Wheaton, William D.; Zimmerman, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Influenza vaccination is administered throughout the influenza disease season, even as late as March. Given such timing, what is the value of vaccinating the population earlier than currently being practiced? Methods We used real data on when individuals were vaccinated in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, and the following 2 models to determine the value of vaccinating individuals earlier (by the end of September, October, and November): Framework for Reconstructing Epidemiological Dynamics (FRED), an agent-based model (ABM), and FluEcon, our influenza economic model that translates cases from the ABM to outcomes and costs [health care and lost productivity costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)]. We varied the reproductive number (R0) from 1.2 to 1.6. Results Applying the current timing of vaccinations averted 223,761 influenza cases, $16.3 million in direct health care costs, $50.0 million in productivity losses, and 804 in QALYs, compared with no vaccination (February peak, R0 1.2). When the population does not have preexisting immunity and the influenza season peaks in February (R0 1.2–1.6), moving individuals who currently received the vaccine after September to the end of September could avert an additional 9634–17,794 influenza cases, $0.6–$1.4 million in direct costs, $2.1–$4.0 million in productivity losses, and 35–64 QALYs. Moving the vaccination of just children to September (R0 1.2–1.6) averted 11,366–1660 influenza cases, $0.6–$0.03 million in direct costs, $2.3–$0.2 million in productivity losses, and 42–8 QALYs. Moving the season peak to December increased these benefits, whereas increasing preexisting immunity reduced these benefits. Conclusion Even though many people are vaccinated well after September/October, they likely are still vaccinated early enough to provide substantial cost-savings. PMID:25590676

  12. Synthesis of Artemisinin-Derived Dimers, Trimers and Dendrimers: Investigation of Their Antimalarial and Antiviral Activities Including Putative Mechanisms of Action.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Tony; Hahn, Friedrich; Belmudes, Lucid; Leidenberger, Maria; Friedrich, Oliver; Kappes, Barbara; Couté, Yohann; Marschall, Manfred; Tsogoeva, Svetlana B

    2018-06-07

    Generation of dimers, trimers and dendrimers of bioactive compounds is an approach that has recently been developed for the discovery of new potent drug candidates. Herein, we present the synthesis of new artemisinin-derived dimers and dendrimers and investigate their action against malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Dimer 7 was the most active compound (EC 50 1.4 nm) in terms of antimalarial efficacy and was even more effective than the standard drugs dihydroartemisinin (EC 50 2.4 nm), artesunic acid (EC 50 8.9 nm) and chloroquine (EC 50 9.8 nm). Trimer 4 stood out as the most active agent against HCMV in vitro replication and exerted an EC 50 value of 0.026 μm, representing an even higher activity than the two reference drugs ganciclovir (EC 50 2.60 μm) and artesunic acid (EC 50 5.41 μm). In addition, artemisinin-derived dimer 13 and trimer 15 were for the first time both immobilized on TOYOPEARL AF-Amino-650M beads and used for mass spectrometry-based target identification experiments using total lysates of HCMV-infected primary human fibroblasts. Two major groups of novel target candidates, namely cytoskeletal and mitochondrial proteins were obtained. Two putatively compound-binding viral proteins, namely major capsid protein (MCP) and envelope glycoprotein pUL132, which are both essential for HCMV replication, were identified. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Earlier Snowmelt Changes the Ratio Between Early and Late Season Forest Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, J. F.; Molotch, N. P.; Trujillo, E.; Litvak, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Future projections of declining snowpack and increasing potential evaporation associated with climate warming are predicted to advance the timing of snowmelt in mountain ecosystems globally. This scenario has direct implications for snowmelt-driven forest productivity, but the net effect of temporally shifting moisture dynamics is unknown with respect to the annual carbon balance. Accordingly, this study uses both satellite- and tower-based observations to document the forest productivity response to snowpack and potential evaporation variability between 1989 and 2012 throughout the southern Rocky Mountain ecoregion, USA. These results show that a combination of low snow accumulation and record high potential evaporation in 2012 resulted in the 34-year minimum ecosystem productivity that could be indicative of future conditions. Moreover, early and late season productivity were significantly and inversely related, suggesting that future shifts toward earlier or reduced snowmelt could increase late-season moisture stress to vegetation and thus restrict productivity despite a longer growing season. This relationship was further subject to modification by summer precipitation, and the controls on the early/late season productivity ratio are explored within the context of ecosystem carbon storage in the future. Any perturbation to the carbon cycle at this scale represents a potential feedback to climate change since snow-covered forests represent an important global carbon sink.

  14. Presetting ECG electrodes for earlier heart rate detection in the delivery room.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Rashmi; Zayek, Michael; Eyal, Fabien

    2018-07-01

    To determine whether heart rate (HR) could be detected earlier than by pulse oximeter (POX), using a novel method of application of electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes during neonatal resuscitation in the delivery room. ECG electrodes were set before delivery to be applied to the back of infants' thorax. Time to detect HR was recorded as soon as a numerical HR along with a recognizable and persistent QRS complex was observed on ECG monitor (HRECG) and a plethysmographic waveform was seen on POX monitor (HRPOX). Out of 334 infants, 49 were <31 weeks of gestational age. Overall, the median (interquartile range, IQR) time to detect HRECG was significantly shorter [29 (5, 60) seconds] than time by POX [60 (45,120) seconds], (p < 0.001). Similarly, in <31-week infants, the median (IQR) time to detect HRECG was 10 (2, 40) seconds compared to 60 (30,120) seconds by POX, (p < 0.001). Failure to have HR detected by 1 minute occurred in 30%, 54% and 20% of infants by ECG, POX and either of the devices, respectively. In the delivery room, electrodes applied by the study method are more effective than pulse oximetry in providing the neonatal team with timely HR information that is necessary for proper resuscitative actions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Earlier Detection of Tumor Treatment Response Using Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Imaging with Oscillating Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Daniel C.; Loveless, Mary E.; Does, Mark D.; Yue, Zou; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Gore, John C.

    2011-01-01

    An improved method for detecting early changes in tumors in response to treatment, based on a modification of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, has been demonstrated in an animal model. Early detection of therapeutic response in tumors is important both clinically and in pre-clinical assessments of novel treatments. Non-invasive imaging methods that can detect and assess tumor response early in the course of treatment, and before frank changes in tumor morphology are evident, are of considerable interest as potential biomarkers of treatment efficacy. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is sensitive to changes in water diffusion rates in tissues that result from structural variations in the local cellular environment, but conventional methods mainly reflect changes in tissue cellularity and do not convey information specific to micro-structural variations at sub-cellular scales. We implemented a modified imaging technique using oscillating gradients of the magnetic field for evaluating water diffusion rates over very short spatial scales that are more specific for detecting changes in intracellular structure that may precede changes in cellularity. Results from a study of orthotopic 9L gliomas in rat brains indicate that this method can detect changes as early as 24 hours following treatment with 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU), when conventional approaches do not find significant effects. These studies suggest that diffusion imaging using oscillating gradients may be used to obtain an earlier indication of treatment efficacy than previous magnetic resonance imaging methods. PMID:21190804

  16. The Chinese Visible Human (CVH) datasets incorporate technical and imaging advances on earlier digital humans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shao-Xiang; Heng, Pheng-Ann; Liu, Zheng-Jin; Tan, Li-Wen; Qiu, Ming-Guo; Li, Qi-Yu; Liao, Rong-Xia; Li, Kai; Cui, Gao-Yu; Guo, Yan-Li; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Guang-Jiu; Shan, Jing-Lu; Liu, Ji-Jun; Zhang, Wei-Guo; Chen, Xian-Hong; Chen, Jin-Hua; Wang, Jian; Chen, Wei; Lu, Ming; You, Jian; Pang, Xue-Li; Xiao, Hong; Xie, Yong-Ming; Cheng, Jack Chun-Yiu

    2004-01-01

    We report the availability of a digitized Chinese male and a digitzed Chinese female typical of the population and with no obvious abnormalities. The embalming and milling procedures incorporate three technical improvements over earlier digitized cadavers. Vascular perfusion with coloured gelatin was performed to facilitate blood vessel identification. Embalmed cadavers were embedded in gelatin and cryosectioned whole so as to avoid section loss resulting from cutting the body into smaller pieces. Milling performed at −25 °C prevented small structures (e.g. teeth, concha nasalis and articular cartilage) from falling off from the milling surface. The male image set (.tiff images each of 36 Mb) has a section resolution of 3072 × 2048 pixels (∼170 μm, the accompanying magnetic resonance imaging and computer tomography data have a resolution of 512 × 512, i.e. ∼440 μm). The Chinese Visible Human male and female datasets are available at http://www.chinesevisiblehuman.com. (The male is 90.65 Gb and female 131.04 Gb). MPEG videos of direct records of real-time volume rendering are at: http://www.cse.cuhk.edu.hk/~crc PMID:15032906

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of Earlier Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy for Uninsured HIV-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schackman, Bruce R.; Goldie, Sue J.; Weinstein, Milton C.; Losina, Elena; Zhang, Hong; Freedberg, Kenneth A.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. This study was designed to examine the societal cost-effectiveness and the impact on government payers of earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy for uninsured HIV-infected adults. Methods. A state-transition simulation model of HIV disease was used. Data were derived from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, published randomized trials, and medical care cost estimates for all government payers and for Massachusetts, New York, and Florida. Results. Quality-adjusted life expectancy increased from 7.64 years with therapy initiated at 200 CD4 cells/μL to 8.21 years with therapy initiated at 500 CD4 cells/μL. Initiating therapy at 500 CD4/μL was a more efficient use of resources than initiating therapy at 200 CD4/μL and had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $17 300 per quality-adjusted life-year gained, compared with no therapy. Costs to state payers in the first 5 years ranged from $5500 to $24 900 because of differences among the states in the availability of federal funds for AIDS drug assistance programs. Conclusions. Antiretroviral therapy initiated at 500 CD4 cells/μL is cost-effective from a societal perspective compared with therapy initiated later. States should consider Medicaid waivers to expand access to early therapy. PMID:11527782

  18. Earlier onset of motor deficits in mice with double mutations in Dyt1 and Sgce.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Yang, Guang; Li, Jindong; DeAndrade, Mark P; Zhou, Tong; Li, Yuqing

    2010-10-01

    DYT1 early-onset generalized torsion dystonia is an inherited movement disorder caused by mutations in DYT1 coding for torsinA with ∼30% penetrance. Most of the DYT1 dystonia patients exhibit symptoms during childhood and adolescence. On the other hand, DYT1 mutation carriers without symptoms during these periods mostly do not exhibit symptoms later in their life. Little is known about what controls the timing of the onset, a critical issue for DYT1 mutation carriers. DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia is caused by mutations in SGCE coding for ε-sarcoglycan. Two dystonia patients from a single family with double mutations in DYT1 and SGCE exhibited more severe symptoms. A recent study suggested that torsinA contributes to the quality control of ε-sarcoglycan. Here, we derived mice carrying mutations in both Dyt1 and Sgce and found that these double mutant mice showed earlier onset of motor deficits in beam-walking test. A novel monoclonal antibody against mouse ε-sarcoglycan was developed by using Sgce knock-out mice to avoid the immune tolerance. Western blot analysis suggested that functional deficits of torsinA and ε-sarcoglycan may independently cause motor deficits. Examining additional mutations in other dystonia genes may be beneficial to predict the onset in DYT1 mutation carriers.

  19. Design a Fuzzy Rule-based Expert System to Aid Earlier Diagnosis of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Safdari, Reza; Arpanahi, Hadi Kazemi; Langarizadeh, Mostafa; Ghazisaiedi, Marjan; Dargahi, Hossein; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2018-01-01

    Screening and health check-up programs are most important sanitary priorities, that should be undertaken to control dangerous diseases such as gastric cancer that affected by different factors. More than 50% of gastric cancer diagnoses are made during the advanced stage. Currently, there is no systematic approach for early diagnosis of gastric cancer. to develop a fuzzy expert system that can identify gastric cancer risk levels in individuals. This system was implemented in MATLAB software, Mamdani inference technique applied to simulate reasoning of experts in the field, a total of 67 fuzzy rules extracted as a rule-base based on medical expert's opinion. 50 case scenarios were used to evaluate the system, the information of case reports is given to the system to find risk level of each case report then obtained results were compared with expert's diagnosis. Results revealed that sensitivity was 92.1% and the specificity was 83.1%. The results show that is possible to develop a system that can identify High risk individuals for gastric cancer. The system can lead to earlier diagnosis, this may facilitate early treatment and reduce gastric cancer mortality rate.

  20. Attachment styles, earlier interpersonal relationships and schizotypy in a non-clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Berry, Katherine; Band, Rebecca; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Barrowclough, Christine; Wearden, Alison

    2007-12-01

    This paper investigates associations between adult attachment style, relationships with significant others during childhood, traumatic life-events and schizotypy. Relationships between attachment and hypothesized correlates were investigated in a cross-sectional design using an analogue sample. The reliability of the attachment and trauma measures was investigated using a test-retest design. Three hundred and four students completed the self-report version of the Psychosis Attachment Measure (PAM), maternal and paternal versions of the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Attachment History Questionnaire, a measure of trauma and the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences scale through an internet website. As predicted, there were statistically significant associations between insecure attachment in adult relationships and experiences of negative interpersonal events. Both earlier interpersonal experiences and adult attachment style predicted schizotypy, and adult attachment style emerged as an independent predictor of positive schizotypal characteristics. The findings support associations between adult attachment style and previous interpersonal experiences and between adult attachment and schizotypy. The PAM is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used to explore attachment styles in analogue samples and associations between attachment styles and psychotic symptoms in clinical samples.

  1. Infliximab for uveitis of Behçet's syndrome: a trend for earlier initiation.

    PubMed

    Guzelant, Gul; Ucar, Didar; Esatoglu, Sinem Nihal; Hatemi, Gulen; Ozyazgan, Yilmaz; Yurdakul, Sebahattin; Seyahi, Emire; Yazici, Hasan; Hamuryudan, Vedat

    2017-01-01

    The prognosis of uveitis in Behçet's syndrome (BS) has improved over decades. Whether this is related to the use of more aggressive management strategies is not known. This is a retrospective study of BS patients who received infliximab (IFX) for refractory eye disease between 2003-2015. The patients were divided into two groups according to the date of onset of in IFX treatment as before and after 2013. We compared the two groups in terms of disease characteristics at the onset of IFX treatment and response to treatment. There were 43 patients in the old and 14 patients in the new group. The duration of uveitis and previous immunosuppressive treatment before the initiation of IFX were significantly shorter in the new group compared to the old group (p=0.043 and p=0.028, respectively). The baseline visual acuity (VA) at the initiation of IFX was better in the new group, but this was only significant for the left eye. Treatment with IFX was effective in both groups in preserving VA and this was more pronounced in the new group. Attack frequency under IFX was significantly lower in the new group (p<0.001). IFX seems to be initiated earlier and also in less severe cases during the course of BS uveitis than before. Despite the few numbers of patients and relatively short duration of follow-up, our results give a hint that this change has improved the outcome.

  2. Estrogenic Activity Including Bone Enhancement and Effect on Lipid Profile of Luteolin-7-O-glucoside Isolated from Trifolium alexandrinum L. in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Ammar, N M; El-Hawary, S S; Mohamed, D A; El-Halawany, A M; El-Anssary, A A; El-Kassem, L T Abou; Hussein, R A; Jaleel, G A Abdel; El-Dosoky, A H

    2016-05-01

    Luteolin-7-O-glycoside (LG), an abundant component in many edible plants, was found to be one of the major constituents of the aqueous methanol extract of Trifolium alexandrinum L. family Fabaceae, a fodder plant widely cultivated in Egypt. The estrogenic activity of LG concerning the effect on uterotrophy, lipid profile, weight gain and bone enhancement activity was determined in ovariectomized rat model at a dose of 5 mg/kg. Luteolin-7-O-glycoside showed significant estrogenic effect through the preservation of normal uterine weight and plasma estradiol level. It also significantly inhibited the bone turnover markers plasma bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, plasma osteocalsin, type I procollagen N-terminal, and C-telopeptide of type II collagen levels. It induced a significant improvement in plasma lipid profile. The effect of LG was comparable with estradiol with lower effect on uterine weight. Liver and kidney functions revealed a wide safety of LG at this dose level. The present study revealed that LG may be a promising hormone replacement therapy after being examined thoroughly on human. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ayoung; Lee, Young Ju; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Minkyung; Chang, Yeeun; Lee, Dong Seog; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. paracasei), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (B. lactis) and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin (IL)-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN)-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei, B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425). PMID:28561762

  4. Trimethyl chitosan-capped silver nanoparticles with positive surface charge: Their catalytic activity and antibacterial spectrum including multidrug-resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Chang, T Y; Chen, C C; Cheng, K M; Chin, C Y; Chen, Y H; Chen, X A; Sun, J R; Young, J J; Chiueh, T S

    2017-07-01

    We report a facile route for the green synthesis of trimethyl chitosan nitrate-capped silver nanoparticles (TMCN-AgNPs) with positive surface charge. In this synthesis, silver nitrate, glucose, and trimethyl chitosan nitrate (TMCN) were used as silver precursor, reducing agent, and stabilizer, respectively. The reaction was carried out in a stirred basic aqueous medium at room temperature without the use of energy-consuming or expensive equipment. We investigated the effects of the concentrations of NaOH, glucose, and TMCN on the particle size, zeta potential, and formation yield. The AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy, laser Doppler anemometry, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The catalytic activity of the TMCN-AgNPs was studied by the reduction of 4-nitrophenol using NaBH 4 as a reducing agent. We evaluated the antibacterial effects of the TMCN-AgNPs on Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus using the broth microdilution method. The results showed that both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were killed by the TMCN-AgNPs at very low concentration (<6.13μg/mL). Moreover, the TMCN-AgNPs also showed high antibacterial activity against clinically isolated multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was ≤12.25μg/mL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro activity of ceftiofur tested against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae including extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing strains.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, L; Pfaller, M A; Jones, R N

    2000-08-01

    In vitro activity of ceftiofur, a cephalosporin used in veterinary practice was compared using ceftriaxone-resistant (producing extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)) and -susceptible clinical isolates of Esherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The ceftriaxone-susceptible isolates exhibited a lower range of ceftiofur MICs (MIC50, 0.5 mg/l, MIC90 1.0 mg/l). Those isolates known to produce an ESBL were also resistant to ceftiofur (MIC50, > or = 32 mg/l). The latter isolates were also less susceptible to other comparator drugs (cefquinome, gentamicin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole) in contrast to the ceftriaxone-susceptible strains. The clinical isolates showed high correlation between ceftriaxone and ceftiofur MICs (y = 2.6 + 0.89x, r = 0.95). Using the current ceftiofur susceptible breakpoint (< or = 2 mg/l) used for veterinary practice (respiratory tract pathogens), the ESBL-producing strains of E. coli and K. pneumoniae could be accurately separated from susceptible strains. This ceftiofur breakpoint MIC corresponds to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards ESBL screening concentration for ceftriaxone set at < or = 1 mg/l = negative for ESBL production. Ceftiofur was also observed to be very active in vitro against ampicillin-resistant, non-ESBL producing enteric isolates. This new cephem appears to be very potent against the tested Enterobacteriaceae and of potential wide clinical veterinary utility.

  6. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ayoung; Lee, Young Ju; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Minkyung; Chang, Yeeun; Lee, Dong Seog; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-05-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei ( L. paracasei ), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis ( B. lactis ) and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum ( L. plantarum ) on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin (IL)-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN)-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei , B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425).

  7. Effect of pH, water activity and gel micro-structure, including oxygen profiles and rheological characterization, on the growth kinetics of Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Theys, T E; Geeraerd, A H; Verhulst, A; Poot, K; Van Bree, I; Devlieghere, F; Moldenaers, P; Wilson, D; Brocklehurst, T; Van Impe, J F

    2008-11-30

    In this study, the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium in Tryptic Soy Broth was examined at different pH (4.50-5.50), water activity a(w) (0.970-0.992) and gelatin concentration (0%, 1% and 5% ) at 20 degrees C. Experiments in TSB with 0% gelatin were carried out in shaken erlenmeyers, in the weak 1% gelatin media in petri plates and in the firm 5% gelatin media in gel cassettes. A quantification of gel strength was performed by rheological measurements and the influence of oxygen supply on the growth of S. Typhimurium was investigated. pH, as well as a(w) as well as gelatin concentration had an influence on the growth rate. Both in broth and in gelatinized media, lowering pH or water activity caused a decrease of growth rate. In media with 1% gelatin a reduction of growth rate and maximal cell density was observed compared to broth at all conditions. However, the effects of decreasing pH and a(w) were less pronounced. A further increase in gelatin concentration to 5% gelatin caused a small or no additional drop of growth rate. The final oxygen concentration dropped from 5.5 ppm in stirred broth to anoxic values in petri plates, also when 0% and 5% gelatin media were tested in this recipient. Probably, not stirring the medium, which leads to anoxic conditions, has a more pronounced effect on the growth rate of S. Typhimurium then medium solidness. Finally, growth data were fitted with the primary model of Baranyi and Roberts [Baranyi, J. and Roberts, T. A., 1994. A dynamic approach to predicting bacterial growth in food. International Journal of Food Microbiology 23, 277-294]. An additional factor was introduced into the secondary model of Ross et al. [Ross, T. and Ratkowsky, D. A. and Mellefont, L. A. and McMeekin, T. A., 2003. Modelling the effects of temperature, water activity, pH and lactic acid concentration on the growth rate of Escherichia coli. International Journal of Food Microbiology 82, 33-43.] to incorporate the effect of gelatin concentration, next to

  8. Deep Brain Stimulation Targeting the Fornix for Mild Alzheimer Dementia (the ADvance Trial): A Two Year Follow-up Including Results of Delayed Activation.

    PubMed

    Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Yan, Haijuan; Anderson, William S; Asaad, Wael F; Baltuch, Gordon; Burke, Anna; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Drake, Kristen E; Foote, Kelly D; Fosdick, Lisa; Giacobbe, Peter; Mari, Zoltan; McAndrews, Mary Pat; Munro, Cynthia A; Oh, Esther S; Okun, Michael S; Pendergrass, Jo Cara; Ponce, Francisco A; Rosenberg, Paul B; Sabbagh, Marwan N; Salloway, Stephen; Tang-Wai, David F; Targum, Steven D; Wolk, David; Lozano, Andres M; Smith, Gwenn S; Lyketsos, Constantine G

    2018-06-09

    Given recent challenges in developing new treatments for Alzheimer dementia (AD), it is vital to explore alternate treatment targets, such as neuromodulation for circuit dysfunction. We previously reported an exploratory Phase IIb double-blind trial of deep brain stimulation targeting the fornix (DBS-f) in mild AD (the ADvance trial). We reported safety but no clinical benefits of DBS-f versus the delayed-on (sham) treatment in 42 participants after one year. However, secondary post hoc analyses of the one-year data suggested a possible DBS-f benefit for participants≥65 years. To examine the long-term safety and clinical effects of sustained and delayed-on DBS-f treatment of mild AD after two years. 42 participants underwent implantation of DBS-f electrodes, with half randomized to active DBS-f stimulation (early on) for two years and half to delayed-on (sham) stimulation after 1 year to provide 1 year of active DBS-f stimulation (delayed on). We evaluated safety and clinical outcomes over the two years of the trial. DBS-f had a favorable safety profile with similar rates of adverse events across both trial phases (years 1 and 2) and between treatment arms. There were no differences between treatment arms on any primary clinical outcomes. However, post-hoc age group analyses suggested a possible benefit among older (>65) participants. DBS-f was safe. Additional study of mechanisms of action and methods for titrating stimulation parameters will be needed to determine if DBS has potential as an AD treatment. Future efficacy studies should focus on patients over age 65.

  9. The ethanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis and the active compounds induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis including upregulation of p53 and Bax in human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Jiayu; Morgan, Winston A.; Sanchez-Medina, Alberto

    2011-08-01

    Despite a lack of scientific authentication, Scutellaria baicalensis is clinically used in Chinese medicine as a traditional adjuvant to chemotherapy of lung cancer. In this study, cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that crude ethanolic extracts of S. baicalensis were selectively toxic to human lung cancer cell lines A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1 compared with normal human lung fibroblasts. The active compounds baicalin, baicalein and wogonin did not exhibit such selectivity. Following exposure to the crude extracts, cellular protein expression in the cancer cell lines was assessed using 2D gel electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS/Protein Fingerprinting. The altered protein expression indicated that cell growth arrestmore » and apoptosis were potential mechanisms of cytotoxicity. These observations were supported by PI staining cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry and Annexin-V apoptotic analysis by fluorescence microscopy of cancer cells treated with the crude extract and pure active compounds. Moreover, specific immunoblotting identification showed the decreased expression of cyclin A results in the S phase arrest of A549 whereas the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase arrest in SK-MES-1 cells results from the decreased expression of cyclin D1. Following treatment, increased expression in the cancer cells of key proteins related to the enhancement of apoptosis was observed for p53 and Bax. These results provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical use of this herb as an adjuvant to lung cancer therapy. - Research Highlights: > Scutellaria baicalensis is a clinical adjuvant to lung cancer chemotherapy in China. > Scutellaria ethanol extracts selectively toxic to A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1. > Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin were toxic to all lung cancer cell lines. > Proteomics identified increased p53 and BAX in response to Scutellaria extracts.« less

  10. Heterogeneity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Includes Expression of Ribosome Hibernation Factors in the Antibiotic-Tolerant Subpopulation and Hypoxia-Induced Stress Response in the Metabolically Active Population

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Kerry S.; Richards, Lee A.; Perez-Osorio, Ailyn C.; Pitts, Betsey; McInnerney, Kathleen; Stewart, Philip S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria growing in biofilms are physiologically heterogeneous, due in part to their adaptation to local environmental conditions. Here, we characterized the local transcriptome responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa growing in biofilms by using a microarray analysis of isolated biofilm subpopulations. The results demonstrated that cells at the top of the biofilms had high mRNA abundances for genes involved in general metabolic functions, while mRNA levels for these housekeeping genes were low in cells at the bottom of the biofilms. Selective green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeling showed that cells at the top of the biofilm were actively dividing. However, the dividing cells had high mRNA levels for genes regulated by the hypoxia-induced regulator Anr. Slow-growing cells deep in the biofilms had little expression of Anr-regulated genes and may have experienced long-term anoxia. Transcripts for ribosomal proteins were associated primarily with the metabolically active cell fraction, while ribosomal RNAs were abundant throughout the biofilms, indicating that ribosomes are stably maintained even in slowly growing cells. Consistent with these results was the identification of mRNAs for ribosome hibernation factors (the rmf and PA4463 genes) at the bottom of the biofilms. The dormant biofilm cells of a P. aeruginosa Δrmf strain had decreased membrane integrity, as shown by propidium iodide staining. Using selective GFP labeling and cell sorting, we show that the dividing cells are more susceptible to killing by tobramycin and ciprofloxacin. The results demonstrate that in thick P. aeruginosa biofilms, cells are physiologically distinct spatially, with cells deep in the biofilm in a viable but antibiotic-tolerant slow-growth state. PMID:22343293

  11. Sequence-specific 1H-NMR assignments for the aromatic region of several biologically active, monomeric insulins including native human insulin.

    PubMed

    Roy, M; Lee, R W; Kaarsholm, N C; Thøgersen, H; Brange, J; Dunn, M F

    1990-06-12

    The aromatic region of the 1H-FT-NMR spectrum of the biologically fully-potent, monomeric human insulin mutant, B9 Ser----Asp, B27 Thr----Glu has been investigated in D2O. At 1 to 5 mM concentrations, this mutant insulin is monomeric above pH 7.5. Coupling and amino acid classification of all aromatic signals is established via a combination of homonuclear one- and two-dimensional methods, including COSY, multiple quantum filters, selective spin decoupling and pH titrations. By comparisons with other insulin mutants and with chemically modified native insulins, all resonances in the aromatic region are given sequence-specific assignments without any reliance on the various crystal structures reported for insulin. These comparisons also give the sequence-specific assignments of most of the aromatic resonances of the mutant insulins B16 Tyr----Glu, B27 Thr----Glu and B25 Phe----Asp and the chemically modified species des-(B23-B30) insulin and monoiodo-Tyr A14 insulin. Chemical dispersion of the assigned resonances, ring current perturbations and comparisons at high pH have made possible the assignment of the aromatic resonances of human insulin, and these studies indicate that the major structural features of the human insulin monomer (including those critical to biological function) are also present in the monomeric mutant.

  12. Elevated nuclear expression of the SMRT corepressor in breast cancer is associated with earlier tumor recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, Ilenia; Chaubal, Vaishali; Wu, Meng-Fen; Pace, Margaret C.; Hartmaier, Ryan; Jiang, Shiming; Edwards, Dean P.; Gutiérrez, M. Carolina; Hilsenbeck, Susan G.; Oesterreich, Steffi

    2012-01-01

    Silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT), also known as nuclear corepressor 2 (NCOR2) is a transcriptional corepressor for multiple members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors, including estrogen receptor-α (ERα). In the classical model of corepressor action, SMRT binds to antiestrogen-bound ERα at target promoters and represses ERα transcriptional activity and gene expression. Herein SMRT mRNA and protein expression was examined in a panel of 30 breast cancer cell lines. Expression of both parameters was found to vary considerably amongst lines and the correlation between protein and mRNA expression was very poor (R2 = 0.0775). Therefore, SMRT protein levels were examined by immunohistochemical staining of a tissue microarray of 866 patients with stage I–II breast cancer. Nuclear and cytoplasmic SMRT were scored separately according to the Allred score. The majority of tumors (67 %) were negative for cytoplasmic SMRT, which when detected was found at very low levels. In contrast, nuclear SMRT was broadly detected. There was no significant difference in time to recurrence (TTR) according to SMRT expression levels in the ERα-positive tamoxifen-treated patients (P = 0.297) but the difference was significant in the untreated patients (P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis, ERα-positive tamoxifen-untreated patients with high nuclear SMRT expression (SMRT 5-8, i.e., 2nd to 4th quartile) had a shorter TTR (HR = 1.94, 95 % CI, 1.24–3.04; P = 0.004) while there was no association with SMRT expression for ERα-positive tamoxifen-treated patients. There was no association between SMRT expression and overall survival for patients, regardless of whether they received tamoxifen. Thus while SMRT protein expression was not predictive of outcome after antiestrogen therapy, it may have value in predicting tumor recurrence in patients not receiving adjuvant tamoxifen therapy. PMID:23015261

  13. MifM monitors total YidC activities of Bacillus subtilis, including that of YidC2, the target of regulation.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Shinobu; Ito, Koreaki

    2015-01-01

    The YidC/Oxa1/Alb3 family proteins are involved in membrane protein biogenesis in bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. Recent studies show that YidC uses a channel-independent mechanism to insert a class of membrane proteins into the membrane. Bacillus subtilis has two YidC homologs, SpoIIIJ (YidC1) and YidC2 (YqjG); the former is expressed constitutively, while the latter is induced when the SpoIIIJ activity is compromised. MifM is a substrate of SpoIIIJ, and its failure in membrane insertion is accompanied by stable ribosome stalling on the mifM-yidC2 mRNA, which ultimately facilitates yidC2 translation. While mutational inactivation of SpoIIIJ has been known to induce yidC2 expression, here, we show that the level of this induction is lower than that observed when the membrane insertion signal of MifM is defective. Moreover, this partial induction of YidC2 translation is lowered further when YidC2 is overexpressed in trans. These results suggest that YidC2 is able to insert MifM into the membrane and to release its translation arrest. Thus, under SpoIIIJ-deficient conditions, YidC2 expression is subject to MifM-mediated autogenous feedback repression. Our results show that YidC2 uses a mechanism that is virtually identical to that used by SpoIIIJ; Arg75 of YidC2 in its intramembrane yet hydrophilic cavity is functionally indispensable and requires negatively charged residues of MifM as an insertion substrate. From these results, we conclude that MifM monitors the total activities of the SpoIIIJ and the YidC2 pathways to control the synthesis of YidC2 and to maintain the cellular capability of the YidC mode of membrane protein biogenesis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Building Astronomy Curriculum to Include the Sight Impaired: Week long summer camp activities for Middle School Students adherent to Washington State Curriculum Standards (EALR's)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramien, Natalie; Loebman, S. R.; Player, V.; Larson, A.; Torcolini, N. B.; Traverse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Currently astronomy learning is heavily geared towards visual aids; however, roughly 10 million people in North America are sight impaired. Every student should have access to meaningful astronomy curriculum; an understanding of astronomy is an expectation of national and state science learning requirements. Over the last ten years, Noreen Grice has developed Braille and large print astronomy text books aimed at sight impaired learners. We build upon Grice's written work and present here a five day lesson plan that integrates 2D reading with 3D activities. Through this curriculum, students develop an intuitive understanding of astronomical distance, size, composition and lifetimes. We present five distinct lesson modules that can be taught individually or in a sequential form: the planets, our sun, stars, stellar evolution and galaxies. We have tested these modules on sight impaired students and report the results here. Overall, we find the work presented here lends itself equally well to a week long science camp geared toward middle school sight impaired taught by astronomers or as supplemental material integrated into a regular classroom science curriculum. This work was made possible by a 2007 Simple Effective Education and Dissemination (SEED) Grant For Astronomy Researchers, Astronomical Society of the Pacific through funds provided by the Planck Mission, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  15. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation activity worldwide in 2012 and a SWOT analysis of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group including the global survey.

    PubMed

    Niederwieser, D; Baldomero, H; Szer, J; Gratwohl, M; Aljurf, M; Atsuta, Y; Bouzas, L F; Confer, D; Greinix, H; Horowitz, M; Iida, M; Lipton, J; Mohty, M; Novitzky, N; Nunez, J; Passweg, J; Pasquini, M C; Kodera, Y; Apperley, J; Seber, A; Gratwohl, A

    2016-06-01

    Data on 68 146 hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTs) (53% autologous and 47% allogeneic) gathered by 1566 teams from 77 countries and reported through their regional transplant organizations were analyzed by main indication, donor type and stem cell source for the year 2012. With transplant rates ranging from 0.1 to 1001 per 10 million inhabitants, more HSCTs were registered from unrelated 16 433 donors than related 15 493 donors. Grafts were collected from peripheral blood (66%), bone marrow (24%; mainly non-malignant disorders) and cord blood (10%). Compared with 2006, an increase of 46% total (57% allogeneic and 38% autologous) was observed. Growth was due to an increase in reporting teams (18%) and median transplant activity/team (from 38 to 48 HSCTs/team). An increase of 167% was noted in mismatched/haploidentical family HSCT. A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT) analysis revealed the global perspective of WBMT to be its major strength and identified potential to be the key professional body for patients and authorities. The limited data collection remains its major weakness and threat. In conclusion, global HSCT grows over the years without plateauing (allogeneic>autologous) and at different rates in the four World Health Organization regions. Major increases were observed in allogeneic, haploidentical HSCT and, to a lesser extent, in cord blood transplantation.

  16. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Activity Worldwide in 2012 and a SWOT Analysis of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group (WBMT) including the global survey

    PubMed Central

    Niederwieser, Dietger; Baldomero, Helen; Szer, Jeff; Gratwohl, Michael; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Bouzas, Luis Fernando; Confer, Dennis; Greinix, Hildegard; Horowitz, Mary; Iida, Minako; Lipton, Jeff; Mohty, Mohamad; Novitzky, Nicolas; Nunez, José; Passweg, Jakob; Pasquini, Marcelo C.; Kodera, Yoshihisa; Apperley, Jane; Seber, Adriana; Gratwohl, Alois

    2016-01-01

    Data on 68,146 hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) (53% autologous and 47% allogeneic) gathered by 1566 teams from 77 countries and reported through their regional transplant organizations were analyzed by main indication, donor type and stem cell source for the year 2012. With transplant rates ranging from 0.1 to 1001 per 10 million inhabitants, more HSCT were registered from unrelated 16,433 than related 15,493 donors. Grafts were collected from peripheral blood (66%), bone marrow (24%; mainly non-malignant disorders) and cord blood (10%). Compared to 2006, an increase of 46% total (57% allogeneic and 38% autologous) was observed. Growth was due to an increase in reporting teams (18%) and median transplant activity/team (from 38 to 48 HSCT/team). An increase of 67% was noted in mismatched/haploidentical family HSCT. A SWOT analysis revealed the global perspective of WBMT to be its major strength and identified potential to be the key professional body for patients and authorities. The limited data collection remains its major weakness and threat. In conclusion, global HSCT grows over the years without plateauing (allogeneic>autologous) and at different rates in the four WHO regions. Major increases were observed in allogeneic, haploidentical HSCT and, to a lesser extent, in cord blood. PMID:26901703

  17. Detection, attribution, and sensitivity of trends toward earlier streamflow in the Sierra Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maurer, E.P.; Stewart, I.T.; Bonfils, Celine; Duffy, P.B.; Cayan, D.

    2007-01-01

    Observed changes in the timing of snowmelt dominated streamflow in the western United States are often linked to anthropogenic or other external causes. We assess whether observed streamflow timing changes can be statistically attributed to external forcing, or whether they still lie within the bounds of natural (internal) variability for four large Sierra Nevada (CA) basins, at inflow points to major reservoirs. Streamflow timing is measured by "center timing" (CT), the day when half the annual flow has passed a given point. We use a physically based hydrology model driven by meteorological input from a global climate model to quantify the natural variability in CT trends. Estimated 50-year trends in CT due to natural climate variability often exceed estimated actual CT trends from 1950 to 1999. Thus, although observed trends in CT to date may be statistically significant, they cannot yet be statistically attributed to external influences on climate. We estimate that projected CT changes at the four major reservoir inflows will, with 90% confidence, exceed those from natural variability within 1-4 decades or 4-8 decades, depending on rates of future greenhouse gas emissions. To identify areas most likely to exhibit CT changes in response to rising temperatures, we calculate changes in CT under temperature increases from 1 to 5??. We find that areas with average winter temperatures between -2??C and -4??C are most likely to respond with significant CT shifts. Correspondingly, elevations from 2000 to 2800 in are most sensitive to temperature increases, with CT changes exceeding 45 days (earlier) relative to 1961-1990. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Earlier surgical intervention in congenital heart disease results in better outcome and resource utilization.

    PubMed

    Panni, Roheena Z; Ashfaq, Awais; Amanullah, Muhammad M

    2011-12-29

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) accounts for a major proportion of disease in the pediatric age group. The objective of the study was to estimate the cost of illness associated with CHD pre, intra and postoperatively; among patients referred to a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. This is the first study conducted to estimate the cost of managing CHD in Pakistan. A prevalence based cost of illness study design was used to estimate the cost of cardiac surgery (corrective & palliative) for congenital heart defects in children ≤ 5 years of age from June 2006 to June 2009. A total of 120 patients were enrolled after obtaining an informed consent and the data was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. The mean age at the time of surgery in group A (1-12 mo age) was 6.08 ± 2.80 months and in group B (1-5 yrs) was 37.10 ± 19.94 months. The cost of surgical admission was found to be significantly higher in the older group, p = 0.001. The total number and cost of post-operative outpatient visits was also higher in group B, p = 0.003. Pre and post operative hospital admissions were not found to be significantly different among the two groups, p = 0.166 and 0.627, respectively. The number of complications were found to be different between the two groups (p = 0.019). Majority of these were contributed by hemorrhage and post-operative seizures. This study concluded that significant expenditure is incurred by people with CHD; with the implication that resources could be saved by earlier detection and awareness campaigns.

  19. Can social media data lead to earlier detection of drug‐related adverse events?

    PubMed Central

    Cremieux, Pierre; Audenrode, Marc Van; Vekeman, Francis; Karner, Paul; Zhang, Haimin; Greenberg, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To compare the patient characteristics and the inter‐temporal reporting patterns of adverse events (AEs) for atorvastatin (Lipitor®) and sibutramine (Meridia®) in social media (AskaPatient.com) versus the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). Methods We identified clinically important AEs associated with atorvastatin (muscle pain) and sibutramine (cardiovascular AEs), compared their patterns in social media postings versus FAERS and used Granger causality tests to assess whether social media postings were useful in forecasting FAERS reports. Results We analyzed 998 and 270 social media postings between 2001 and 2014, 69 003 and 7383 FAERS reports between 1997 and 2014 for atorvastatin and sibutramine, respectively. Social media reporters were younger (atorvastatin: 53.9 vs. 64.0 years, p < 0.001; sibutramine: 36.8 vs. 43.8 years, p < 0.001). Social media reviews contained fewer serious AEs (atorvastatin, pain: 2.5% vs. 38.2%; sibutramine, cardiovascular issues: 7.9% vs. 63.0%; p < 0.001 for both) and concentrated on fewer types of AEs (proportion comprising the top 20 AEs: atorvastatin, 88.7% vs. 55.4%; sibutramine, 86.3% vs. 65.4%) compared with FAERS. While social media sibutramine reviews mentioning cardiac issues helped predict those in FAERS 11 months later (p < 0.001), social media atorvastatin reviews did not help predict FAERS reports. Conclusions Social media AE reporters were younger and focused on less‐serious and fewer types of AEs than FAERS reporters. The potential for social media to provide earlier indications of AEs compared with FAERS is uncertain. Our findings highlight some of the promises and limitations of online social media versus conventional pharmacovigilance sources and the need for careful interpretation of the results. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27601271

  20. Metamorphosis Is Ancestral for Crown Euarthropods, and Evolved in the Cambrian or Earlier.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Joanna M

    2017-09-01

    Macroevolutionary developmental biology employs fossilized ontogenetic data and phylogenetic comparative methods to probe the evolution of development at ancient nodes. Despite the prevalence of ecologically differentiated larval forms in marine invertebrates, it has been frequently presumed that the ancestors of arthropods were direct developers, and that metamorphosis may not have evolved until the Ordovician or later. Using fossils and new dated phylogenies, I infer that metamorphosis was likely ancestral for crown arthropods, contradicting this assumption. Based on a published morphological dataset encompassing 217 exceptionally preserved fossil and 96 extant taxa, fossils were directly incorporated into both the topology and age estimates, as in "tip dating" analyses. Using data from post-embryonic fossils representing 25 species throughout stem and crown arthropod lineages (as well as most of the 96 extant taxa), characters for metamorphosis were assigned based on inferred ecological changes in development (e.g., changes in habitat and adaptive landscape). Under all phylogenetic hypotheses, metamorphosis was supported as most likely ancestral to both ecdysozoans and euarthropods. Care must be taken to account for potential drastic post-embryonic morphological changes in evolutionary analyses. Many stem group euarthrpods may have had ecologically differentiated larval stages that did not preserve in the fossil record. Moreover, a complex life cycle and planktonic ecology may have evolved in the Ediacaran or earlier, and may have typified the pre-Cambrian explosion "wormworld" prior to the origin of crown group euarthropods. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Selection for Earlier Flowering Crop Associated with Climatic Variations in the Sahel

    PubMed Central

    Vigouroux, Yves; Mariac, Cédric; De Mita, Stéphane; Pham, Jean-Louis; Gérard, Bruno; Kapran, Issoufou; Sagnard, Fabrice; Deu, Monique; Chantereau, Jacques; Ali, Abdou; Ndjeunga, Jupiter; Luong, Viviane; Thuillet, Anne-Céline; Saïdou, Abdoul-Aziz; Bezançon, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Climate changes will have an impact on food production and will require costly adaptive responses. Adapting to a changing environment will be particularly challenging in sub-Saharan Africa where climate change is expected to have a major impact. However, one important phenomenon that is often overlooked and is poorly documented is the ability of agro-systems to rapidly adapt to environmental variations. Such an adaptation could proceed by the adoption of new varieties or by the adaptation of varieties to a changing environment. In this study, we analyzed these two processes in one of the driest agro-ecosystems in Africa, the Sahel. We performed a detailed study in Niger where pearl millet is the main crop and covers 65% of the cultivated area. To assess how the agro-system is responding to recent recurrent drought, we analyzed samples of pearl millet landraces collected in the same villages in 1976 and 2003 throughout the entire cultivated area of Niger. We studied phenological and morphological differences in the 1976 and 2003 collections by comparing them over three cropping seasons in a common garden experiment. We found no major changes in the main cultivated varieties or in their genetic diversity. However, we observed a significant shift in adaptive traits. Compared to the 1976 samples, samples collected in 2003 displayed a shorter lifecycle, and a reduction in plant and spike size. We also found that an early flowering allele at the PHYC locus increased in frequency between 1976 and 2003. The increase exceeded the effect of drift and sampling, suggesting a direct effect of selection for earliness on this gene. We conclude that recurrent drought can lead to selection for earlier flowering in a major Sahelian crop. Surprisingly, these results suggest that diffusion of crop varieties is not the main driver of short term adaptation to climatic variation. PMID:21573243

  2. Earlier disability of the patients followed in Multiple Sclerosis centers compared to outpatients.

    PubMed

    Debouverie, M; Laforest, L; Van Ganse, E; Guillemin, F

    2009-02-01

    The currently published works regarding the multiple sclerosis (MS) natural history report data were collected most often on population of patients recruited in MS centers. The aim was to compare the natural history of a population of patients followed in a MS centre (MSC) with patients followed outside a MS centre (NMSC). Cases were identified through the LORSEP cohort, a network of neurologists (private ambulatory practice, hospitals, and MS centers) in France. A total of 3602 patients had been analyzed: 1036 MSC patients and 2566 NMSC patients. No difference was observed regarding gender and initial symptoms. Conversely, MSC patients were younger at MS onset and were more likely to have a primary progressive initial form. Median times (years) to the EDSS scores of 3, 4, and 6 were 5.8 (5.0-6.8), 8.4 (7.9-9.0), 16.0 (14.8-18.1) in the MSC group, respectively, whereas corresponding times were 8.4 (7.9-9.0), 12.3 (11.4-13.4), 19.1 (18.0-20.2) in the NMSC group. These differences according to the type of MS supervision were statistically significant for EDSS3 (P < 0.0001), EDSS4 (P < 0.0001), and EDSS6 (P = 0.01), respectively. These findings were confirmed in Cox multivariate models. The patients followed in a MS centre had earlier disability than patients managed otherwise. Analyses exclusively conducted in patients with MS supervised in specialized centers may falsely misestimate the times needed to reach major disability landmarks. Before using registries to study the natural history of MS, efforts should be performed to verify in how far data are exhaustive and to understand the local health care system.

  3. Chemistry, physiology and neuropsychology of schizophrenia: towards an earlier diagnosis of schizophrenia I.

    PubMed

    Kornhuber, H H

    1983-01-01

    Data supporting the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia are presented. The glutamate hypothesis is linked to the dopamine hypothesis by the fact that dopamine synapses inhibit the release of glutamate in the striate and mesolimbic system. The glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia may open a way to find better drugs for treatment. The concept of schizophrenia I is described. It consists of "negative symptoms" such as disconcentration or reduction of energy. Schizophrenia I precedes and follows schizophrenia II with "positive symptoms," e.g. hallucinations and delusions. Schizophrenia I so far cannot be diagnosed as schizophrenia unless schizophrenia II appears. Chemical, physiological or neuropsychological methods for the diagnosis of schizophrenia I would render an earlier treatment of schizophrenia possible and thus make social and occupational rehabilitation more efficient. An objective diagnosis of schizophrenia I may also elucidate the mode of genetic transmission of schizophrenia. Several neuropsychological methods distinguish schizophrenic patients as a group from normals. Some of them are based on a specific disturbance of long term concentration. The EEG also distinguishes schizophrenics from normals when analyzed during voluntary movement. For schizophrenics it takes more effort to initiate a voluntary movement, and there are several features of the EEG correlated to this. Moreover, the longer motor reaction time of schizophrenics is paralleled by a longer duration of the Bereitschaftspotential in schizophrenia. Furthermore, there is a difference in the theta rhythm between schizophrenic patients and normals in a task which requires concentration. Some of the children of schizophrenic parents show a disturbance of concentration in both reaction time tasks and the d 2 test.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Progressively implementation of the new degrees at E.T.S. of Agriculture Engineering and extinction of the earlier degrees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arce, A.; Caniego, J.; Vazquez, J.; Serrano, A.; Tarquis, A. M.; Cartagena, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    The Bologna process is to improve the quality of education, mobility, diversity and the competitiveness and involves three fundamental changes: transform of the structure of titles, changing in methods of teaching and implementation of the systems of quality assurance. Once that the new degrees have been implemented with this structure, and began at E.T.S. of Agriculture Engineering (ETSIA) at Madrid from 2010-2011 course, the main aim of this work is to deeply study the changes in teaching methodology as well as progressively implementation of the educational planning of the three new degrees: Engineering and Agronomic Graduate, Food Industry Engineering Graduate and Agro-environmental Graduate. Each one of them presents 240 ECTS with a common first course and will have access to an official Master in Agronomic Engineering. As part as an educational innovation project awarded by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) to improve educational quality, the second course has been designed with the main objective to continue the educative model implemented last course. This model identifies several teaching activities and represents a proper teaching style at ETSIA-UPM. At the same time, a monitoring and development coordination plans have been established. On the other hand, a procedure to extinguish the earlier plans of Agriculture Engineering was also defined. Other activities related to this Project were the information improvement of the grades, in particular at High Schools centers, improving the processes of reception, counseling and tutoring and mentoring. Likewise, cooperative working workshops and programs to support the teaching of English language were implemented. Satisfaction surveys and opinion polls were done to professors and students involved in first course in order to test several aspects of this project. The students surveys were analyzed taking in account the academic results and their participation in mentoring activities giving a highly

  5. Prolonged biologically active colonic tissue levels of curcumin achieved after oral administration--a clinical pilot study including assessment of patient acceptability.

    PubMed

    Irving, Glen R B; Howells, Lynne M; Sale, Stewart; Kralj-Hans, Ines; Atkin, Wendy S; Clark, Susan K; Britton, Robert G; Jones, Donald J L; Scott, Edwina N; Berry, David P; Hemingway, David; Miller, Andrew S; Brown, Karen; Gescher, Andreas J; Steward, William P

    2013-02-01

    Curcumin, the main constituent of turmeric, is suspected to possess cancer chemopreventive properties. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters have been reported, but few data exist describing whether methodologies are suitably robust for curcuminoid detection in colonic biopsy specimens. Information on the acceptability of prolonged administration of daily curcumin is not available. This is of vital importance to implement chemoprevention strategies. This study aimed to quantify levels of curcuminoids in colorectal mucosa of patients undergoing colorectal endoscopy or surgical resection and to obtain information on the acceptability and compliance with daily curcumin. Curcumin C3 complex (2.35 g) was administered to patients once daily for 14 days before endoscopic biopsy or colonic resection. Safety and tolerance were monitored. Analysis of curcuminoids in plasma, urine, and colonic mucosa was conducted by ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-UV with characterization by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). Twenty-four of 26 patients commencing curcumin completed the course. Six patients reported mild gastrointestinal adverse events. Curcuminoids were detectable in nine of 24 plasma samples, 24 of 24 urine samples, and in the colonic mucosa of all 23 biopsied participants. Mean tissue levels were 48.4 μg/g (127.8 nmol/g) of parent curcuminoids. The major conjugate, curcumin glucuronide, was detectable in 29 of 35 biopsies. High levels of topical curcumin persisted in the mucosa for up to 40 hours postadministration. Sixteen participants (67%) stated that they would take curcumin long-term should it be of proven benefit. In summary, pharmacologically active levels of curcumin were recovered from colonic mucosa. The regimen used here seems safe, and patients support its use in long-term trials.

  6. In Vitro Activity of Pexiganan and 10 Comparator Antimicrobials against 234 Isolates, Including 93 Pasteurella Species and 50 Anaerobic Bacterial Isolates Recovered from Animal Bite Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Citron, Diane M.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Leoncio, Eliza S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Animal bite wounds affect more than 5 million Americans annually, resulting in 300,000 emergency department visits, 10,000 hospitalizations, and an untold number of physician office visits. Various forms of topical therapy are empirically self-employed by many patients prior to seeking medical attention. Pexiganan, a 22-amino-acid synthetic cationic analogue of the peptide magainin II, acts by selectively damaging bacterial cell membranes. We determined the MICs for pexiganan and other antimicrobial agents often used for treatment of bite wounds. Most isolates were from U.S. patients, and ∼10% were from European and Canadian patients. The comparator antimicrobials studied were penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, piperacillin-tazobactam, meropenem, clindamycin, doxycycline, moxifloxacin, ceftriaxone, linezolid, and metronidazole. The MIC90s of pexiganan were 32 μg/ml (against Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida), 16 μg/ml (P. multocida subsp. septica, Pasteurella canis, and Pasteurella dagmatis), 8 μg/ml (Pasteurella stomatis), 8 μg/ml (Eikenella corrodens), 2 μg/ml (Neisseria weaveri, Neisseria zoodegmatis, and Moraxella canis-Moraxella lacunata group), 16 μg/ml (Bergeyella zoohelcum), 64 μg/ml (Bacteroides pyogenes), 4 μg/ml (Fusobacterium russii), 32 μg/ml (Fusobacterium canifelinum), and 64 μg/ml (Prevotella heparinolytica). The concentration of pexiganan in the cream used was 8,000 μg/ml, more than 60 to 100 times the highest MIC obtained. Pexiganan exhibited a broad range of antimicrobial activity, showing potential for treating animal bite infections. A clinical trial seems warranted. PMID:28373186

  7. Deformation strain is the main physical driver for skeletal precursors to undergo osteogenesis in earlier stages of osteogenic cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Ramani-Mohan, Ram-Kumar; Schwedhelm, Ivo; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Krug, Melanie; Schwarz, Thomas; Jakob, Franz; Walles, Heike; Hansmann, Jan

    2018-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells play a major role during bone remodelling and are thus of high interest for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Mechanical stimuli, that is, deformation strain and interstitial fluid-flow-induced shear stress, promote osteogenic lineage commitment. However, the predominant physical stimulus that drives early osteogenic cell maturation is not clearly identified. The evaluation of each stimulus is challenging, as deformation and fluid-flow-induced shear stress interdepend. In this study, we developed a bioreactor that was used to culture mesenchymal stem cells harbouring a strain-responsive AP-1 luciferase reporter construct, on porous scaffolds. In addition to the reporter, mineralization and vitality of the cells was investigated by alizarin red staining and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Quantification of the expression of genes associated to bone regeneration and bone remodelling was used to confirm alizarin red measurements. Controlled perfusion and deformation of the 3-dimensional scaffold facilitated the alteration of the expression of osteogenic markers, luciferase activity, and calcification. To isolate the specific impact of scaffold deformation, a computational model was developed to derive a perfusion flow profile that results in dynamic shear stress conditions present in periodically loaded scaffolds. In comparison to actually deformed scaffolds, a lower expression of all measured readout parameters indicated that deformation strain is the predominant stimulus for skeletal precursors to undergo osteogenesis in earlier stages of osteogenic cell maturation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Effects of lifestyle changes including specific dietary intervention and physical activity in the management of patients with chronic hepatitis C – a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    < 0.001). At 12 months, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides improved in both groups (all p < 0.05). Conclusions The present study establishes the benefits of low-calorie diet and low-fat diet in management of patients with hepatitis C regarding improvement of insulin resistance, steatosis and also fibrosis. Overweight or obese patients with CHC undergoing a lifestyle intervention (specific dietary intervention and physical activity) for 1-year had significant improvements in body weight, lipid and hepatic profile. Trial registration PNCI2-3343/41008/2007 PMID:23941362

  9. Response of the Martian ionosphere to solar activity including SEPs and ICMEs in a two-week period starting on 25 February 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duru, F.; Gurnett, D. A.; Morgan, D. D.; Halekas, J.; Frahm, R. A.; Lundin, R.; Dejong, W.; Ertl, C.; Venable, A.; Wilkinson, C.; Fraenz, M.; Nemec, F.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J. R.; Larson, D.; Winningham, J. D.; Plaut, J.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2017-10-01

    In a two-week period between February and March of 2015, a series of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and solar energetic particle (SEP) events encountered Mars. The interactions were observed by several spacecraft, including Mars Express (MEX), Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN), and Mars Odyssey (MO). The ICME disturbances were characterized by an increase in ion speed, plasma temperature, magnetic field magnitude, and energetic electron flux. Furthermore, increased solar wind density and speeds, as well as unusually high local electron densities and high flow velocities were detected on the nightside at high altitudes during the March 8 event. These effects are thought to be due to the transport of ionospheric plasma away from Mars. In the deep nightside, the peak ionospheric electron density at the periapsis of MEX shows a substantial increase, reaching number densities about 2.7 × 104 cm-3 during the second ICME in the deep nightside. This corresponds to an increase in the MO High-Energy Neutron Detector flux suggesting an increase in the ionization of the neutral atmosphere due to the high intensity of charged particles. Measurements of the SEP fluxs show a substantial enhancement before the shock of a fourth ICME causing impact ionization and absorption of the surface echo intensity which drops to the noise levels, below 10-15 V2m-2 Hz-1 from values of about 2 × 10-14 V2m-2 Hz-1. Moreover, the peak ionospheric density exhibits a discrete enhancement over a period of about 30 h around the same location, which may be due to impact ionization. Ion escape rates at this time are estimated to be in the order of 1025 to 1026 s-1.

  10. Reconstructing the role of South China in Pangea and earlier supercontinents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cawood, Peter; Zhao, Guochun; Yao, Jinlong; Wang, Wei; Xu, Yajun; Wang, Yuejun

    2017-04-01

    The history of the South China Craton and the constituent Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks is directly linked to Earth's Phanerozoic and Precambrian record of supercontinent assembly and dispersal. Exposed Archean rocks are limited to isolated fragments in the Yangtze Block and preserve a record of Meso- to Neo-Archean igneous activity, sedimentation and metamorphism associated with a period of global craton formation and stabilization that corresponds with assembly of the Kenor supercontinent/supercraton. However, there is insufficient data to link its history with other similar aged cratons. The tectonostratigraphic record in South China in the Paleoproterozoic, corresponding with assembly of Nuna, suggests that rock units in the Yangtze Block were spatially linked with northwestern Laurentia and possibly Siberia, whereas Cathaysia was joined to northern India. From the formation of Rodinia at the end of the Mesoproterozoic through to that of Pangea in the mid-Paleozoic, Cathaysia remained joined to northern India. Early Neoproterozoic supra-subduction zone magmatic arc-back arc assemblages ranging in age from 1000 Ma to 810 Ma occur within Cathaysia, along its northwestern margin, and along the southeastern margin of the Yangtze Block. These rocks provide a record of convergent plate interaction along the periphery of Rodinia, which continued along the western margin of the Yangtze Block until around 700 Ma and correlates with similar along strike subduction zone magmatism in northwest India, Seychelles and Madagascar. During final assembly of Gondwana in the early Paleozoic suturing of India-South China with the Western Australia-Mawson blocks along the Kuunga Orogen resulted in the accretion of the Sanya Block of Hainan Island with the rest of Cathaysia. The accretion of Laurussia to Gondwana in the mid-Paleozoic to form Pangea corresponds with the initiation of lithospheric extension along the northern margin of Gondwana and the separation of a number of

  11. Benthic food web structure in the Comau fjord, Chile (∼42°S): Preliminary assessment including a site with chemosynthetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata-Hernández, Germán; Sellanes, Javier; Mayr, Christoph; Muñoz, Práxedes

    2014-12-01

    Using C and N stable isotopes we analyzed different trophic aspects of the benthic fauna at two sites in the Comau fjord: one with presence of venting of chemically reducing fluids and extensive patches of bacterial mats (XH: X-Huinay), and one control site (PG: Punta Gruesa) with a typical fjord benthic habitat. Due to the widespread presence of such microbial patches in the fjord and their recognized trophic role in reducing environments, we hypothesize that these microbial communities could be contributing to the assimilated food of consumers and transferring carbon into high trophic levels in the food web. Food sources in the area included macroalgae with a wide range of δ13C values (-34.7 to -11.9‰), particulate organic matter (POM, δ13C = -20.1‰), terrestrial organic matter (TOM, δ13C = -32.3‰ to -27.9‰) and chemosynthetic filamentous bacteria (δ13C = ∼-33‰). At both sites, fauna depicted typical values indicating photosynthetic production as a main food source (>-20‰). However, at XH selected taxa reported lower δ13C values (e.g. -26.5‰ in Nacella deaurata), suggesting a partial use of chemosynthetic production. Furthermore, enhanced variability at this site in δ13C values of the polyplacophoran Chiton magnificus, the limpet Fissurella picta and the tanaid Zeuxoides sp. may also be responding to the use of a wider scope of primary food sources. Trophic position estimates suggest three trophic levels of consumers at both sites. However, low δ15N values in some grazer and suspension-feeder species suggest that these taxa could be using other sources still to be identified (e.g. bacterial films, microalgae and organic particles of small size-fractions). Furthermore, between-site comparisons of isotopic niche width measurements in some trophic guilds indicate that grazers from XH have more heterogenic trophic niches than at PG (measured as mean distance to centroid and standard deviation of nearest neighbor distance). This last could be

  12. Can social media data lead to earlier detection of drug-related adverse events?

    PubMed

    Duh, Mei Sheng; Cremieux, Pierre; Audenrode, Marc Van; Vekeman, Francis; Karner, Paul; Zhang, Haimin; Greenberg, Paul

    2016-12-01

    To compare the patient characteristics and the inter-temporal reporting patterns of adverse events (AEs) for atorvastatin (Lipitor ® ) and sibutramine (Meridia ® ) in social media (AskaPatient.com) versus the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). We identified clinically important AEs associated with atorvastatin (muscle pain) and sibutramine (cardiovascular AEs), compared their patterns in social media postings versus FAERS and used Granger causality tests to assess whether social media postings were useful in forecasting FAERS reports. We analyzed 998 and 270 social media postings between 2001 and 2014, 69 003 and 7383 FAERS reports between 1997 and 2014 for atorvastatin and sibutramine, respectively. Social media reporters were younger (atorvastatin: 53.9 vs. 64.0 years, p < 0.001; sibutramine: 36.8 vs. 43.8 years, p < 0.001). Social media reviews contained fewer serious AEs (atorvastatin, pain: 2.5% vs. 38.2%; sibutramine, cardiovascular issues: 7.9% vs. 63.0%; p < 0.001 for both) and concentrated on fewer types of AEs (proportion comprising the top 20 AEs: atorvastatin, 88.7% vs. 55.4%; sibutramine, 86.3% vs. 65.4%) compared with FAERS. While social media sibutramine reviews mentioning cardiac issues helped predict those in FAERS 11 months later (p < 0.001), social media atorvastatin reviews did not help predict FAERS reports. Social media AE reporters were younger and focused on less-serious and fewer types of AEs than FAERS reporters. The potential for social media to provide earlier indications of AEs compared with FAERS is uncertain. Our findings highlight some of the promises and limitations of online social media versus conventional pharmacovigilance sources and the need for careful interpretation of the results. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Comparing bottom-up and top-down approaches at the landscape scale, including agricultural activities and water systems, at the Roskilde Fjord, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequy, Emeline; Ibrom, Andreas; Ambus, Per; Massad, Raia-Silvia; Markager, Stiig; Asmala, Eero; Garnier, Josette; Gabrielle, Benoit; Loubet, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) mainly originates in direct emissions from agricultural soils due to microbial reactions stimulated by the use of nitrogen fertilisers. Indirect N2O emissions from water systems due to nitrogen leaching and deposition from crop fields range between 26 and 37% of direct agricultural emissions, indicating their potential importance and uncertainty (Reay et al. 2012). The study presented here couples a top-down approach with eddy covariance (EC) and a bottom-up approach using different models and measurements. A QCL sensor at 96-m height on a tall tower measures the emissions of N2O from 1100 ha of crop fields and from the south part of the Roskilde fjord, in a 5-km radius area around the tall tower at Roskilde, Denmark. The bottom-up approach includes ecosystem modelling with CERES-EGC for the crops and PaSIM for the grasslands, and the N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord are derived from N2O sea water concentration measurements. EC measurements are now available from July to December 2014, and indicate a magnitude of the emissions from the crop fields around 0.2 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1 (range -9 to 5) which is consistent with the CERES-EGC simulations and calculations using IPCC emission factors. N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord in May and July indicated quite constant N2O concentrations around 0.1 µg N L-1 despite variations of nitrate and ammonium in the fjord. The calculated fluxes from these concentrations and the tall tower measurements consistently ranged between -7 and 6 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1. The study site also contains a waste water treatment plant, whose direct emissions will be measured in early 2015 using a dynamic plume tracer dispersion method (Mønster et al. 2014). A refined source attribution methodology together with more measurements and simulations of the N2O fluxes from the different land uses in this study site will provide a clearer view of the dynamics and budgets of N2O at the regional scale. The

  14. The characteristics of national health initiatives promoting earlier cancer diagnosis among adult populations: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Calanzani, Natalia; Weller, David; Campbell, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The increasing burden of cancer morbidity and mortality has led to the development of national health initiatives to promote earlier cancer diagnosis and improve cancer survival. This protocol describes a systematic review aiming to identify the evidence about such initiatives among the adult population. We will describe their components, stakeholders and target populations, and summarise their outcomes. Methods and analysis We will search databases and websites for peer-reviewed publications and grey literature on national health initiatives in high-income countries as defined by the World Bank. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed-methods studies will be included and assessed for their methodological quality. Study selection, quality assessment and data extraction will be carried out independently by two reviewers. Narrative synthesis will be used to analyse the findings. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review analyses secondary data and ethical approval is not required. Review findings will be helpful to researchers, policy makers, governments and other key stakeholders developing similar initiatives and assessing cancer outcomes. The results will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal in order to reach a diverse group of healthcare professionals, researchers and policy makers. This systematic review protocol is registered at PROSPERO (CRD42016047233). PMID:28698336

  15. Childhood hair product use and earlier age at menarche in a racially diverse study population: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    James-Todd, Tamarra; Terry, Mary Beth; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Deierlein, Andrea; Senie, Ruby

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that hair products containing endocrine disrupting chemicals could alter puberty. We evaluated the association between childhood hair product use and age at menarche in a racially diverse study population. We recruited 300 African-American, African-Caribbean, Hispanic, and white women from the New York City metropolitan area who were between 18-77 years of age. Data were collected retrospectively on hair oil, lotion, leave-in conditioner, perm, and other types of hair products used before age 13. Recalled age at menarche ranged from 8 to 19 years. We used multivariable binomial regression to evaluate the association between hair product use and age at menarche (<12 vs. ≥12), adjusting for potential confounders. African-Americans were more likely to use hair products and reached menarche earlier than other racial/ethnic groups. Women reporting childhood hair oil use had a risk ratio of 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.9) for earlier menarche, adjusting for race/ethnicity and year of birth. Hair perm users had an increased risk for earlier menarche (adjusted risk ratio = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8). Other types of hair products assessed in this study were not associated with earlier menarche. Childhood hair oil and perm use were associated with earlier menarche. If replicated, these results suggest that hair product use may be important to measure in evaluating earlier age at menarche. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Earlier anal sexarche and co-occurring sexual risk are associated with current HIV-related risk behaviors among an online sample of men who have sex with men in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Doug H.; Suharlim, Christian; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Lim, Sin How; Koe, Stuart; Wei, Chongyi

    2014-01-01

    Studies of heterosexual populations across the globe and men who have sex with men (MSM) in a few developed countries showed that earlier sexual debut (sexarche) was associated with higher levels of co-occurring and subsequent HIV risk behaviors. We examined the relationships between earlier anal sexarche, unprotected earlier anal sexarche and current HIV risks among MSM from Asia. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among MSM (N = 10,826) in Asia in 2010. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to identify co-occurring (i.e., sexual experiences during sexarche) and current HIV-related risk factors (i.e., past six months) associated with earlier anal sexarche (before the age of 18) and unprotected earlier anal sexarche, respectively. Earlier anal sexarche was significantly associated with lack of condom use, being anal receptive or both receptive and insertive, and having a partner who were older during sexarche. It was also associated with current HIV-related risk behaviors including having multiple male sexual partners, having been paid for sex, and increased frequencies of recreational drug use. Unprotected earlier anal sexarche was significantly associated with inconsistent condom use in the past the six months. Improved and culturally sensitive sex education at schools should be included in national and regional HIV/AIDS prevention programming and policies in Asia. Such sex education programs should incorporate curriculum that address sexuality, sexual orientation, and sexual behaviors beyond those related to reproductive health. PMID:24920344

  17. Earlier anal sexarche and co-occurring sexual risk are associated with current HIV-related risk behaviors among an online sample of men who have sex with men in Asia.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Doug H; Suharlim, Christian; Guadamuz, Thomas E; Lim, Sin How; Koe, Stuart; Wei, Chongyi

    2014-12-01

    Studies of heterosexual populations across the globe and men who have sex with men (MSM) in a few developed countries showed that earlier sexual debut (sexarche) was associated with higher levels of co-occurring and subsequent HIV risk behaviors. We examined the relationships between earlier anal sexarche, unprotected earlier anal sexarche and current HIV risks among MSM from Asia. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among MSM (N = 10,826) in Asia in 2010. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to identify co-occurring (i.e., sexual experiences during sexarche) and current HIV-related risk factors (i.e., past 6 months) associated with earlier anal sexarche (before the age of 18) and unprotected earlier anal sexarche, respectively. Earlier anal sexarche was significantly associated with lack of condom use, being anal receptive or both receptive and insertive, and having a partner who were older during sexarche. It was also associated with current HIV-related risk behaviors including having multiple male sexual partners, having been paid for sex, and increased frequencies of recreational drug use. Unprotected earlier anal sexarche was significantly associated with inconsistent condom use in the past the 6 months. Improved and culturally sensitive sex education at schools should be included in national and regional HIV/AIDS prevention programming and policies in Asia. Such sex education programs should incorporate curriculum that address sexuality, sexual orientation, and sexual behaviors beyond those related to reproductive health.

  18. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  19. Earlier detection of breast cancer by surveillance of women at familial risk.

    PubMed

    Tilanus-Linthorst, M M; Bartels, C C; Obdeijn, A I; Oudkerk, M

    2000-03-01

    A positive family history increases the risk for breast cancer which oft en occurs at a much younger age than in the general population. We stud ied whether surveillance of these women resulted in the detection of bre ast cancer in an earlier stage than in symptomatic patients with a famil y history. Between January 1994 and April 1998, 294 women with 15-25% r isk (moderate), mean age:43.3 (22-75) years, were screened with a yearly physical examination and mammography from 5 years before the youngest ag e of onset in the family and 384 women with >25% risk (high) for breast cancer, mean age: 42.9 (20-74) years were screened with a physical examination every 6 months and yearly mammography. From September 1995 breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was also carried out for 109 high risk women where mammography showed over 50% density. 26 breast cancers detected under surveillance were significantly more often found in an early T1N0 stage than the 24 breast cancers in patients with a family history referred in that period because of symptoms: 81 versus 46% (P=0.018). Patients under surveillance were also less frequently node-positive than the symptomatic group: 19 versus 42% (P=0.12). 20 patients with a family history referred by our national screening programme in that period had 21 breast cancers detected, 81% in stage T1N0 and 5% node-positive, which was comparable to the results in our national screening programme T1N0 66%, N+ 24% resulting in a 30% reduction in mortality. The incidence in women under surveillance was 10.1 per 1000 in the 'high' risk group and 13.3 per 1000 in the 'moderate' risk group. Expected incidence in an average risk population aged 40-50 years is 1.5, expected if the group consisted of only gene carriers 15 per 1000. 23% of the breast cancers in the surveillance group were detected at physical examination, but occult at mammography. 38% were detected at mammography and clinically occult. Breast MRI (in the subgroup) detected 3 occult

  20. The association between cannabis use and earlier age at onset of schizophrenia and other psychoses: meta-analysis of possible confounding factors.

    PubMed

    Myles, Nicholas; Newall, Hannah; Nielssen, Olav; Large, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis showed that the mean age of onset of psychosis among cannabis users was almost three years earlier than that of non-cannabis users. However, because cannabis users usually smoke tobacco, the use of tobacco might independently contribute to the earlier onset of psychosis. We aimed to use meta-analysis to compare the extent to which cannabis and tobacco use are each associated with an earlier age at onset of schizophrenia and other psychoses. We also examined other factors that might have contributed to the finding of an earlier age of onset among cannabis users, including the proportion of males in the samples, the diagnostic inclusion criteria and aspects of study quality. The electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and ISI Web of Science, were searched for English-language peer-reviewed publications that reported age at onset of schizophrenia and other psychoses separately for cannabis users and non-users, or for tobaccosmokers and non-smokers. Meta-analysis showed that the age at onset of psychosis for cannabis users was 32 months earlier than for cannabis non-users (SMD=- 0.399, 95%CI -0.493 - -0.306, z=-8.34, p < 0.001), and was two weeks later in tobacco smokers compared with non-smokers (SMD=0.002, 95%CI -0.094 - 0.097, z=0.03, p=0.974). The main results were not affected by subgroup analyses examining studies of a single sex, the methods for making psychiatric diagnoses and measures of study quality. The results suggest that the association between cannabis use and earlier onset of psychosis is robust and is not the result either of tobacco smoking by cannabis using patients or the other potentially confounding factors we examined. This supports the hypothesis that, in some patients, cannabis use plays a causal role in the development of schizophrenia and raises the possibility of treating schizophrenia with new pharmacological treatments that have an affinity for endo-cannabinoid receptors.

  1. Dendrophenology: Inferring the response of North American eastern deciduous forests to an earlier spring from tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmore, A. J.; Nelson, D. M.; Craine, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    There is wide agreement that anthropogenic climate warming has influenced the phenology of forests during the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. A critical question for predicting the magnitude of future warming under different emissions scenarios is the degree to which forest productivity responds to longer growing seasons in the face of concurrent changes in other drivers of productivity. Longer growing seasons can lead to increased photosynthesis and productivity, which would represent a negative feedback to rising CO2 and consequently warming. Alternatively, increased demand for soil resources due to a longer photosynthetically active period in conjunction with other global change factors might exacerbate resource limitation, restricting forest productivity response to a longer growing season. In this case, increased spring-time productivity has the potential to increase plant N limitation by increasing plant demand for N more than N supplies, or increasing early-season ecosystem N losses. Long-term direct measurements are not yet available to specifically address this question, but advances in remote sensing and dendroecological methods present opportunities to acquire information retrospectively to advance understanding of how phenological changes and resource availability to trees have been affecting forest productivity. Here we show that for 222 trees representing three species in eastern North America over the past 30 years earlier spring phenology has caused declines in N availability to trees by increasing demand for N relative to supply. The observed decline in N availability is not associated with reduced wood production, suggesting that other environmental changes such as increased atmospheric CO2 and water availability have likely overwhelmed reduced N availability. Given current trajectories of environmental changes, N limitation will likely continue to increase for these forests, possibly further limiting C sequestration potential.

  2. A reversal of the shift towards earlier spring phenology in several Mediterranean reptiles and amphibians during the 1998-2013 warming slowdown.

    PubMed

    Prodon, Roger; Geniez, Philippe; Cheylan, Marc; Devers, Florence; Chuine, Isabelle; Besnard, Aurelien

    2017-12-01

    Herps, especially amphibians, are particularly susceptible to climate change, as temperature tightly controls many parameters of their biological cycle-above all, their phenology. The timing of herps' activity or migration period-in particular the dates of their first appearance in spring and first breeding-and the shift to earlier dates in response to warming since the last quarter of the 20 th century has often been described up to now as a nearly monotonic trend towards earlier phenological events. In this study, we used citizen science data opportunistically collected on reptiles and amphibians in the northern Mediterranean basin over a period of 32 years to explore temporal variations in herp phenology. For 17 common species, we measured shifts in the date of the species' first spring appearance-which may be the result of current changes in climate-and regressed the first appearance date against temperatures and precipitations. Our results confirmed the expected overall trend towards earlier first spring appearances from 1983 to 1997, and show that the first appearance date of both reptiles and amphibians fits well with the temperature in late winter. However, the trend towards earlier dates was stopped or even reversed in most species between 1998 and 2013. We interpret this reversal as a response to cooling related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in the late winter and early spring. During the positive NAO episodes, for certain species only (mainly amphibians), the effect of a warm weather, which tends to advance the phenology, seems to be counterbalanced by the adverse effects of the relative dryness. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. The evaluation of clinical and cost outcomes associated with earlier initiation of insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Smolen, Harry J; Murphy, Daniel R; Gahn, James C; Yu, Xueting; Curtis, Bradley H

    2014-09-01

    The treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) follows a stepwise progression. As a treatment loses its effectiveness, it is typically replaced with a more complex and frequently more costly treatment. Eventually this progression leads to the use of basal insulin typically with concomitant treatments (e.g., metformin, a GLP-1 RA [glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist], a TZD [thiazolidinedione] or a DPP-4i [dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor]) and, ultimately, to basal-bolus insulin in some forms. As the cost of oral antidiabetics (OADs) and noninsulin injectables have approached, and in some cases exceeded, the cost of insulin, we reexamined the placement of insulin in T2DM treatment progression. Our hypothesis was that earlier use of insulin produces clinical and cost benefits due to its superior efficacy and treatment scalability at an acceptable cost when considered over a 5-year period. To (a) estimate clinical and payer cost outcomes of initiating insulin treatment for patients with T2DM earlier in their treatment progression and (b) estimate clinical and payer cost outcomes resulting from delays in escalating treatment for T2DM when indicated by patient hemoglobin A1c levels. We developed a Monte Carlo microsimulation model to estimate patients reaching target A1c, diabetes-related complications, mortality, and associated costs under various treatment strategies for newly diagnosed patients with T2DM. Treatment efficacies were modeled from results of randomized clinical trials, including the time and rate of A1c drift. A typical treatment progression was selected based on the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes guidelines as the standard of care (SOC). Two treatment approaches were evaluated: two-stage insulin (basal plus antidiabetics followed by biphasic plus metformin) and single-stage insulin (biphasic plus metformin). For each approach, we analyzed multiple strategies. For each analysis

  4. Money earlier or later? Simple heuristics explain intertemporal choices better than delay discounting does.

    PubMed

    Ericson, Keith M Marzilli; White, John Myles; Laibson, David; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2015-06-01

    Heuristic models have been proposed for many domains involving choice. We conducted an out-of-sample, cross-validated comparison of heuristic models of intertemporal choice (which can account for many of the known intertemporal choice anomalies) and discounting models. Heuristic models outperformed traditional utility-discounting models, including models of exponential and hyperbolic discounting. The best-performing models predicted choices by using a weighted average of absolute differences and relative percentage differences of the attributes of the goods in a choice set. We concluded that heuristic models explain time-money trade-off choices in experiments better than do utility-discounting models. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Money Earlier or Later? Simple Heuristics Explain Intertemporal Choices Better than Delay Discounting1

    PubMed Central

    Marzilli Ericson, Keith M.; White, John Myles; Laibson, David; Cohen, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Heuristic models have been proposed for many domains of choice. We compare heuristic models of intertemporal choice, which can account for many of the known intertemporal choice anomalies, to discounting models. We conduct an out-of-sample, cross-validated comparison of intertemporal choice models. Heuristic models outperform traditional utility discounting models, including models of exponential and hyperbolic discounting. The best performing models predict choices by using a weighted average of absolute differences and relative (percentage) differences of the attributes of the goods in a choice set. We conclude that heuristic models explain time-money tradeoff choices in experiments better than utility discounting models. PMID:25911124

  6. Reducing the Clinical and Socioeconomic Burden of Narcolepsy by Earlier Diagnosis and Effective Treatment.

    PubMed

    Thorpy, Michael; Morse, Anne Marie

    2017-03-01

    The burden of narcolepsy is likely the result of 2 main aspects: the clinical difficulties and disability incurred as a direct effect of the disorder and the socioeconomic burden. The clinical burden includes the symptoms, diagnosis, comorbidities, treatment, and even mortality that can be associated with narcolepsy. Lifelong therapy is necessary for these patients. Effective treatment results in long-term benefits from both patient and societal perspectives by improving clinical outcomes, potentially enabling improved education and increased employment and work productivity, and quality of life. Thus, reducing the time to appropriate management results in improved outcomes in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Fischa-Dagnitz spring, Southern Vienna Basin: a multi tracer time series study re-assessing earlier conceptual assumptions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suckow, Axel; Gerber, Christoph; Kralik, Martin; Sültenfuss, Jürgen; Purtschert, Roland

    2013-04-01

    The gravel aquifer of the Southern Vienna Basin is a very important backup drinking water resource for the city of Vienna. A discharge location, the Fischa-Dagnitz spring in the Southern Vienna Basin, Austria, was re-investigated in 2011, five years after the gas exchange tracer test published in (Stolp et al., 2010), and sampled for stable isotopes 18O/2H, tritium, 3He, SF6 and 85Kr (Gerber et al., 2012). Additionally, new tritium time series data (Davis et al., 1967), previously not considered in Stolp et al. (2010), were included. These show a higher and earlier tritium peak of >300 TU in 1965 in the discharge of the Fischa-Dagnitz spring as compared to 221 TU in 1972 considered in Stolp et al. (2010). The new 3He, SF6 and 85Kr gas tracer data from 2011 confirm the earlier finding for 3He of Stolp et al. (2010) and indicate a more recent equilibration with the atmosphere than the water bound tracers 18O, 2H and tritium. A new modelling attempt using the Lumpy code (Suckow, 2012) confirmed the discrepancy between the tritium data and the gaseous tracers 3He, SF6 and 85Kr. No steady-state combination of local recharge (represented by an exponential model) and Schwarza river infiltration flowing through the gravel aquifer (represented by a parallel dispersion model) can equally well explain both the tritium time series and the gas tracer results. A revised conceptual model proposes that a pinching of the aquifer at unconformities in the gravel body or a fault zone known in the gravel body forces groundwater along the flow path closer to the surface and exposes it to the atmosphere. This would tend to reset the "dating" clock for the gaseous tracers 3He, SF6 and 85Kr, which can equilibrate quickly with the atmosphere, but not for tritium, which marks the transport behaviour of the water itself. These findings are of importance also for other multi-tracer assessments of groundwater movement in phreatic aquifer systems. References: Davis, G.H., Payne, B.R., Dincer, T

  8. Thermal Control Materials on MISSE-5 with Comparison to Earlier Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria; Zwiener, James M.; Pippin, Gary

    2007-01-01

    A variety of thermal control materials were flown on the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE)-5. Several types of beta cloth, as used in multi-layer insulation blankets, were flown, including samples from the same batch as used on the International Space Station. Two candidate sunshade materials for the James Webb Space Telescope were also exposed on MISSE-5. The white thermal control coating AZ93 was applied to Kapton instead of aluminum; this sample maintained good solar absorptance and did not indicate any significant level of contamination to the MISSE-5 experiment. Marker coatings maintained their color. Thermo-optical properties are discussed, along with comparable data from MISSE-2 and the Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA) - I experiments.

  9. Do We Need To Give Measles Vaccine To Children Earlier Than The Currently Recommended Age?

    PubMed

    Jamal, Ammarah; SYahya, Yousuf; Karim, Muhammad Tariq

    2018-01-01

    Measles is a leading cause of death among children. No specific drug has yet been discovered to treat measles but an available vaccine can effectively prevent the infection. In Pakistan children are vaccinated against measles by two doses given at age of nine months onward. The last few years have witnessed an increasing number of measles cases at age lower than nine months. Secondary data analysis of the records of Expanded Program on Immunization from all districts of Sindh was performed from January-April 2016. Data included all patients of any age or gender, fulfilling the World Health Organization case definition of measles, along with positive IgM antibodies for measles in their blood. Data was analysed using windows SPSS version 21.0. Analysis of 658 confirmed measles cases showed an age range of 3 months to 336 months with a mean of 32.82. Most patients (41.4%) belonged to age group 10-24months. Some noteworthy18% of cases were ≤9 months old including 1.8% patients who were ≤6 months age. An unexpected 76 (11.6%) were >60 months of age. 50.6% of the cases were male while 49.4% were female. Most of the patients (73.9%) belonged to urban areas. We conclude that a sizeable number of children are infected by measles before reaching the age of first recommended inoculation against measles. It is affecting people at both extremes of life ranging from as young as three months up to 28 years of age.

  10. An earlier time of scan is associated with greater threat-related amygdala reactivity.

    PubMed

    Baranger, David A A; Margolis, Seth; Hariri, Ahmad R; Bogdan, Ryan

    2017-08-01

    Time-dependent variability in mood and anxiety suggest that related neural phenotypes, such as threat-related amygdala reactivity, may also follow a diurnal pattern. Here, using data from 1,043 young adult volunteers, we found that threat-related amygdala reactivity was negatively coupled with time of day, an effect which was stronger in the left hemisphere (β = -0.1083, p-fdr = 0.0012). This effect was moderated by subjective sleep quality (β = -0.0715, p-fdr = 0.0387); participants who reported average and poor sleep quality had relatively increased left amygdala reactivity in the morning. Bootstrapped simulations suggest that similar cross-sectional samples with at least 300 participants would be able to detect associations between amygdala reactivity and time of scan. In control analyses, we found no associations between time and V1 activation. Our results provide initial evidence that threat-related amygdala reactivity may vary diurnally, and that this effect is potentiated among individuals with average to low sleep quality. More broadly, our results suggest that considering time of scan in study design or modeling time of scan in analyses, as well as collecting additional measures of circadian variation, may be useful for understanding threat-related neural phenotypes and their associations with behavior, such as fear conditioning, mood and anxiety symptoms, and related phenotypes. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. An earlier time of scan is associated with greater threat-related amygdala reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Baranger, David A. A.; Margolis, Seth; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Time-dependent variability in mood and anxiety suggest that related neural phenotypes, such as threat-related amygdala reactivity, may also follow a diurnal pattern. Here, using data from 1,043 young adult volunteers, we found that threat-related amygdala reactivity was negatively coupled with time of day, an effect which was stronger in the left hemisphere (β = −0.1083, p-fdr = 0.0012). This effect was moderated by subjective sleep quality (β = −0.0715, p-fdr = 0.0387); participants who reported average and poor sleep quality had relatively increased left amygdala reactivity in the morning. Bootstrapped simulations suggest that similar cross-sectional samples with at least 300 participants would be able to detect associations between amygdala reactivity and time of scan. In control analyses, we found no associations between time and V1 activation. Our results provide initial evidence that threat-related amygdala reactivity may vary diurnally, and that this effect is potentiated among individuals with average to low sleep quality. More broadly, our results suggest that considering time of scan in study design or modeling time of scan in analyses, as well as collecting additional measures of circadian variation, may be useful for understanding threat-related neural phenotypes and their associations with behavior, such as fear conditioning, mood and anxiety symptoms, and related phenotypes. PMID:28379578

  12. Return of hunger following a relatively high carbohydrate breakfast is associated with earlier recorded glucose peak and nadir

    PubMed Central

    Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Morrison, Shannon A.; Goree, Laura Lee T.; Ellis, Amy C.; Casazza, Krista; Desmond, Renee; Gower, Barbara A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that a breakfast meal with high carbohydrate/ low fat results in an earlier increase in postprandial glucose and insulin, a greater decrease below baseline in postprandial glucose, and an earlier return of appetite, compared to a low carbohydrate/high fat meal. Design Overweight but otherwise healthy adults (n=64) were maintained on one of two eucaloric diets: high carbohydrate/low fat (HC/LF; 55:27:18% kcals from carbohydrate: fat: protein) versus low carbohydrate/high fat (LC/HF; 43:39:18% kcals from carbohydrate: fat: protein). After 4 weeks of acclimation to the diets, participants underwent a meal test during which circulating glucose and insulin and self-reported hunger and fullness, were measured before and after consumption of breakfast from their assigned diets. Results The LC/HF meal resulted in a later time at the highest and lowest recorded glucose, higher glucose concentrations at 3 and 4 hours post-meal, and lower insulin incremental area under the curve. Participants consuming the LC/HF meal reported lower appetite 3 and 4 hours following the meal, a response that was associated with the timing of the highest and lowest recorded glucose. Conclusions Modest increases in meal carbohydrate content at the expense of fat content may facilitate weight gain over the long-term by contributing to an earlier rise and fall of postprandial glucose concentrations and an earlier return of appetite. PMID:24819342

  13. 37 CFR 1.78 - Claiming benefit of earlier filing date and cross-references to other applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claiming benefit of earlier filing date and cross-references to other applications. 1.78 Section 1.78 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN...

  14. 37 CFR 1.78 - Claiming benefit of earlier filing date and cross-references to other applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claiming benefit of earlier filing date and cross-references to other applications. 1.78 Section 1.78 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN...

  15. Traumatic brain injury history is associated with an earlier age of dementia onset in autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Schaffert, Jeff; LoBue, Christian; White, Charles L; Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Didehbani, Nyaz; Lacritz, Laura; Rossetti, Heidi; Dieppa, Marisara; Hart, John; Cullum, C Munro

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate whether a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) with reported loss of consciousness (LOC) is a risk factor for earlier onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in an autopsy-confirmed sample. Data from 2,133 participants with autopsy-confirmed AD (i.e., at least Braak neurofibrillary tangle stages III to VI and CERAD neuritic plaque score moderate to frequent) were obtained from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC). Participants were categorized by presence/absence of self-reported remote (i.e., >1 year prior to their first Alzheimer's Disease Center visit) history of TBI with LOC (TBI+ vs. TBI-). Analyses of Covariance (ANCOVA) controlling for sex, education, and race compared groups on clinician-estimated age of symptom onset and age of diagnosis. Average age of onset was 2.34 years earlier (p = .01) for the TBI+ group (n = 194) versus the TBI- group (n = 1900). Dementia was diagnosed on average 2.83 years earlier (p = .002) in the TBI+ group (n = 197) versus the TBI- group (n = 1936). Using more stringent neuropathological criteria (i.e., Braak stages V-VI and CERAD frequent), both age of AD onset and diagnosis were 3.6 years earlier in the TBI+ group (both p's < .001). History of TBI with reported LOC appears to be a risk factor for earlier AD onset. This is the first study to use autopsy-confirmed cases, supporting previous investigations that used clinical criteria for the diagnosis of AD. Further investigation as to possible underlying mechanisms of association is needed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Primary Productivity (NDVI) of Coastal Alaskan Tundra: Decreased Vegetation Growth Following Earlier Snowmelt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamon, John A.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Stone, Robert S.; Tweedie, Craig E.

    2015-01-01

    In the Arctic, earlier snowmelt and longer growing seasons due to warming have been hypothesized to increase vegetation productivity. Using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from both field and satellite measurements as an indicator of vegetation phenology and productivity, we monitored spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation growth for a coastal wet sedge tundra site near Barrow, Alaska over three growing seasons (2000-2002). Contrary to expectation, earlier snowmelt did not lead to increased productivity. Instead, productivity was associated primarily with precipitation and soil moisture, and secondarily with growing degree days, which, during this period, led to reduced growth in years with earlier snowmelt. Additional moisture effects on productivity and species distribution, operating over a longer time scale, were evident in spatial NDVI patterns associated with microtopography. Lower, wetter regions dominated by graminoids were more productive than higher, drier locations having a higher percentage of lichens and mosses, despite the earlier snowmelt at the more elevated sites. These results call into question the oft-stated hypothesis that earlier arctic growing seasons will lead to greater vegetation productivity. Rather, they agree with an emerging body of evidence from recent field studies indicating that early-season, local environmental conditions, notably moisture and temperature, are primary factors determining arctic vegetation productivity. For this coastal arctic site, early growing season conditions are strongly influenced by microtopography, hydrology, and regional sea ice dynamics, and may not be easily predicted from snowmelt date or seasonal average air temperatures alone. Our comparison of field to satellite NDVI also highlights the value of in-situ monitoring of actual vegetation responses using field optical sampling to obtain detailed information on surface conditions not possible from satellite observations alone.

  17. Documentation for the machine-readable version of A Finding List of Stars of Spectral Type F2 and Earlier in a North Galactic Pole Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The machine-readable data set is the result of an objective-prism survey made with an 80 cm/120 cm Schmidt telescope. The F2 and earlier stars were isolated from later type objects by using the MK classification criteria. The catalog contains 601 stars and includes cross identifications to the BD and HD catalogs, coordinates, photographic magnitudes and spectral types. A separate file contains the remarks from the original data tables merged with those following the data. The machine-readable files are described.

  18. Earlier triple therapy with pioglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Charpentier, G; Halimi, S

    2009-09-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of add-on pioglitazone vs. placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled by metformin and a sulphonylurea or a glinide. This multicentre, double-blind, parallel-group study randomized 299 patients with type 2 diabetes to receive 30 mg/day pioglitazone or placebo for 3 months. After this time, patients continued with pioglitazone, either 30 mg [if glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA(1c)) 6.5%), or placebo for a further 4 months. The primary efficacy end-point was improvement in HbA(1c) (per cent change). Secondary end-points included changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, C-peptide, proinsulin and lipids. The proinsulin/insulin ratio and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and homeostasis model assessment of beta-cell function (HOMA-B) were calculated. Pioglitazone add-on therapy to failing metformin and sulphonylurea or glinide combination therapy showed statistically more significant glycaemic control than placebo addition. The between-group difference after 7 months of triple therapy was 1.18% in HbA(1c) and -2.56 mmol/l for FPG (p < 0.001). Almost half (44.4%) of the patients in the pioglitazone group who had a baseline HbA(1c) level of <8.5% achieved the HbA(1c) target of < 7.0% by final visit compared with 4.9% in the placebo group. When the baseline HbA(1c) level was >or= 8.5%, 13% achieved the HbA(1c) target of < 7.0% in the pioglitazone group and none in the placebo group. HOMA-IR, insulin, proinsulin and C-peptide decreased and HOMA-B increased in the pioglitazone group relative to the placebo group. In patients who were not well controlled with dual combination therapy, the early addition of pioglitazone improved HbA(1c), FPG and surrogate measures of beta-cell function. Patients were more likely to reach target HbA(1c) levels (< 7.0%) with pioglitazone treatment if their baseline HbA(1c) levels were < 8.5%, highlighting the importance of

  19. Overweight or obese BMI is associated with earlier, but not later survival after common acute illnesses.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Hallie C; Chang, Virginia W

    2018-02-06

    Obesity has been associated with improved short-term mortality following common acute illness, but its relationship with longer-term mortality is unknown. Observational study of U.S. Health and Retirement Study (HRS) participants with federal health insurance (fee-for-service Medicare) coverage, hospitalized with congestive heart failure (N = 4287), pneumonia (N = 4182), or acute myocardial infarction (N = 2001), 1996-2012. Using cox proportional hazards models, we examined the association between overweight or obese BMI (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m 2 ) and mortality to 5 years after hospital admission, adjusted for potential confounders measured at the same time as BMI, including age, race, sex, education, partnership status, income, wealth, and smoking status. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and weight collected at the HRS survey prior to hospitalization (a median 1.1 year prior to hospitalization). The referent group was patients with a normal BMI (18.5 to < 25.0 kg/m 2 ). Patients were a median of 79 years old (IQR 71-85 years). The majority of patients were overweight or obese: 60.3% hospitalized for heart failure, 51.5% for pneumonia, and 61.6% for acute myocardial infarction. Overweight or obese BMI was associated with lower mortality at 1 year after hospitalization for congestive heart failure, pneumonia, and acute myocardial infarction-with adjusted hazard ratios of 0.68 (95% CI 0.59-0.79), 0.74 (95% CI: 0.64-0.84), and 0.65 (95%CI: 0.53-0.80), respectively. Among participants who lived to one year, however, subsequent survival was similar between patients with normal versus overweight/obese BMI. In older Americans, overweight or obese BMI was associated with improved survival following hospitalization for congestive heart failure, pneumonia, and acute myocardial infarction. This association, however, is limited to the shorter-term. Conditional on surviving to one year, we did not observe a survival advantage

  20. White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei that had received the hot-water extract of Spirulina platensis showed earlier recovery in immunity and up-regulation of gene expressions after pH stress.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Tayag, Carina Miranda; Huang, Chien-Lun; Tsui, Wen-Ching; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2010-12-01

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which had been immersed in seawater (35‰, pH 8.2) containing the hot-water extract of Spirulina platensis at 0 (control), 200, 400, and 600 mg L(-1) for 3 h, were transferred to seawater at pH 6.8, and the immune parameters and transcripts of the lipopolysaccharide- and β-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), and integrin β (IB) were examined 6-96 h post-transfer. Shrimp with no exposure to the hot-water extract and no pH change served as the background control. Results indicated that the hyaline cells, granular cells (including semi-granular cells), total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, and lysozyme activity of shrimp transferred to seawater at pH 6.8 significantly decreased to the lowest at 6 h post-transfer. These immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg L(-1) of the extract were significantly higher than those of control shrimp at 24-96 h post-transfer, and had returned to the background values earlier at 48-72 h post-transfer with significant transcripts of LGBP, PX, and IB at 24, 6, and 24 h, respectively, whereas these parameters of control shrimp returned to the original values at ≥96 h post-transfer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Motion of Caribbean Plate during last 7 million years and implications for earlier Cenozoic movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, Lynn R.; McCann, William R.; Kafka, Alan L.

    1982-12-01

    trough. Seismic activity between the spreading center and eastern Hispaniola, however, occurs over a zone about 250 km wide that extends from Cuba to Jamaica and across the entire width of Hispaniola. Individual faults within this broad plate boundary appear to have accommodated differing amounts of motion as a function of geological time while the cumulative plate motion across the zone remained nearly constant. The percentage of total plate motion accommodated near southern Hispaniola and Jamaica is inferred to have increased about 2.4 Ma ago. That change may have been caused by the collision of parts of the Bahama bank and northern Hispaniola. This explanation for the sudden decrease in seafloor creation along the mid-Cayman spreading center is less catastrophist than the hypothesis that the entire Caribbean plate suddenly changed its velocity with respect to surrounding plates. The Caribbean plate may be regarded as a small buffer plate whose motion is now governed by the movement of the larger North and South American plates which bound it on three sides. The Caribbean plate is either at rest or moving eastward at a rate of no more than 1 cm/yr in the hot spot reference frame. Since the relative motion of the larger plates surrounding the Caribbean has been nearly constant for the last 38 Ma (anomaly 13 time) and since the forces on the Caribbean plate do not appear to have changed greatly during that interval, we extrapolate the motion of the last 7 Ma back to 38 Ma. A reconstruction for the late Eocene places the Caribbean plate about 1400 km west of its present position. The faster rate of plate motion we calculate makes it more likely that the lithosphere beneath the basins of the Caribbean originated in the Pacific. It also has implications for the seismic potential of the region, paleocirculation in the Atlantic Ocean and origin of sediments in the area. Our late Eocene reconstruction aligns the eastern continental margin of Yucatan with that along the

  2. Does patient reporting lead to earlier detection of drug safety signals? A retrospective comparison of time to reporting between patients and healthcare professionals in a global database.

    PubMed

    Rolfes, Leàn; van Hunsel, Florence; Caster, Ola; Taavola, Henric; Taxis, Katja; van Puijenbroek, Eugène

    2018-03-09

    To explore if there is a difference between patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs) in time to reporting drug-adverse drug reaction (ADR) associations that led to drug safety signals. This was a retrospective comparison of time to reporting selected drug-ADR associations which led to drug safety signals between patients and HCPs. ADR reports were selected from the World Health Organization Global database of individual case safety reports, VigiBase. Reports were selected based on drug-ADR associations of actual drug safety signals. Primary outcome was the difference in time to reporting between patients and HCPs. The date of the first report for each individual signal was used as time zero. The difference in time between the date of the reports and time zero was calculated. Statistical differences in timing were analysed on the corresponding survival curves using a Mann-Whitney U test. In total, 2822 reports were included, of which 52.7% were patient reports, with a median of 25% for all included signals. For all signals, median time to signal detection was 10.4 years. Overall, HCPs reported earlier than patients: median 7.0 vs. 8.3 years (P < 0.001). Patients contributed a large proportion of reports on drug-ADR pairs that eventually became signals. HCPs reported 1.3 year earlier than patients. These findings strengthen the evidence on the value of patient reporting in signal detection and highlight an opportunity to encourage patients to report suspected ADRs even earlier in the future. © 2018 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  3. In Vitro Activity of the New Fluoroketolide Solithromycin (CEM-101) against a Large Collection of Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates and International Reference Strains, Including Those with High-Level Antimicrobial Resistance: Potential Treatment Option for Gonorrhea?

    PubMed Central

    Golparian, Daniel; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Jensen, Jörgen S.

    2012-01-01

    Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are essential. We investigated the in vitro activity of the first fluoroketolide, solithromycin. Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and reference strains (n = 246), including the two extensively drug-resistant strains H041 and F89 and additional isolates with clinical cephalosporin resistance and multidrug resistance, were examined. The activity of solithromycin was mainly superior to that of other antimicrobials (n = 10) currently or previously recommended for gonorrhea treatment. Solithromycin might be an effective treatment option for gonorrhea. PMID:22354296

  4. To achieve an earlier IFN-γ response is not sufficient to control Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Vilaplana, Cristina; Prats, Clara; Marzo, Elena; Barril, Carles; Vegué, Marina; Diaz, Jorge; Valls, Joaquim; López, Daniel; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2014-01-01

    The temporo-spatial relationship between the three organs (lung, spleen and lymph node) involved during the initial stages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has been poorly studied. As such, we performed an experimental study to evaluate the bacillary load in each organ after aerosol or intravenous infection and developed a mathematical approach using the data obtained in order to extract conclusions. The results showed that higher bacillary doses result in an earlier IFN-γ response, that a certain bacillary load (BL) needs to be reached to trigger the IFN-γ response, and that control of the BL is not immediate after onset of the IFN-γ response, which might be a consequence of the spatial dimension. This study may have an important impact when it comes to designing new vaccine candidates as it suggests that triggering an earlier IFN-γ response might not guarantee good infection control, and therefore that additional properties should be considered for these candidates.

  5. Daily Use, Especially of High-Potency Cannabis, Drives the Earlier Onset of Psychosis in Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Di Forti, Marta; Sallis, Hannah; Allegri, Fabio; Trotta, Antonella; Ferraro, Laura; Stilo, Simona A.; Marconi, Arianna; La Cascia, Caterina; Reis Marques, Tiago; Pariante, Carmine; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Paparelli, Alessandra; Kolliakou, Anna; Prata, Diana; Gaughran, Fiona; David, Anthony S.; Morgan, Craig; Stahl, Daniel; Khondoker, Mizanur; MacCabe, James H.; Murray, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis use is associated with an earlier age of onset of psychosis (AOP). However, the reasons for this remain debated. Methods: We applied a Cox proportional hazards model to 410 first-episode psychosis patients to investigate the association between gender, patterns of cannabis use, and AOP. Results: Patients with a history of cannabis use presented with their first episode of psychosis at a younger age (mean years = 28.2, SD = 8.0; median years = 27.1) than those who never used cannabis (mean years = 31.4, SD = 9.9; median years = 30.0; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.16–1.74; P < .001). This association remained significant after controlling for gender (HR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.11–1.68; P < .001). Those who had started cannabis at age 15 or younger had an earlier onset of psychosis (mean years = 27.0, SD = 6.2; median years = 26.9) than those who had started after 15 years (mean years = 29.1, SD = 8.5; median years = 27.8; HR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.06–1.84; P = .050). Importantly, subjects who had been using high-potency cannabis (skunk-type) every day had the earliest onset (mean years = 25.2, SD = 6.3; median years = 24.6) compared to never users among all the groups tested (HR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.50- 2.65; P < .0001); these daily users of high-potency cannabis had an onset an average of 6 years earlier than that of non-cannabis users. Conclusions: Daily use, especially of high-potency cannabis, drives the earlier onset of psychosis in cannabis users. PMID:24345517

  6. Daily use, especially of high-potency cannabis, drives the earlier onset of psychosis in cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Di Forti, Marta; Sallis, Hannah; Allegri, Fabio; Trotta, Antonella; Ferraro, Laura; Stilo, Simona A; Marconi, Arianna; La Cascia, Caterina; Reis Marques, Tiago; Pariante, Carmine; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Paparelli, Alessandra; Kolliakou, Anna; Prata, Diana; Gaughran, Fiona; David, Anthony S; Morgan, Craig; Stahl, Daniel; Khondoker, Mizanur; MacCabe, James H; Murray, Robin M

    2014-11-01

    Cannabis use is associated with an earlier age of onset of psychosis (AOP). However, the reasons for this remain debated. We applied a Cox proportional hazards model to 410 first-episode psychosis patients to investigate the association between gender, patterns of cannabis use, and AOP. Patients with a history of cannabis use presented with their first episode of psychosis at a younger age (mean years = 28.2, SD = 8.0; median years = 27.1) than those who never used cannabis (mean years = 31.4, SD = 9.9; median years = 30.0; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.16-1.74; P < .001). This association remained significant after controlling for gender (HR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.11-1.68; P < .001). Those who had started cannabis at age 15 or younger had an earlier onset of psychosis (mean years = 27.0, SD = 6.2; median years = 26.9) than those who had started after 15 years (mean years = 29.1, SD = 8.5; median years = 27.8; HR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.06-1.84; P = .050). Importantly, subjects who had been using high-potency cannabis (skunk-type) every day had the earliest onset (mean years = 25.2, SD = 6.3; median years = 24.6) compared to never users among all the groups tested (HR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.50- 2.65; P < .0001); these daily users of high-potency cannabis had an onset an average of 6 years earlier than that of non-cannabis users. Daily use, especially of high-potency cannabis, drives the earlier onset of psychosis in cannabis users. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The Earlier the Better? Taking the AP® in 10th Grade. Research Report No. 2012-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Awilda; McKillip, Mary E. M.; Niu, Sunny X.

    2013-01-01

    In this report, the authors examine the impact of scoring a 1 or 2 on an AP® Exam in 10th grade on later AP Exam participation and performance. As access to AP courses increases within and across schools, a growing number of students are taking AP courses and exams in the earlier grades of high school. Using a matched sample of AP and no-AP…

  8. How to Develop Critical Thinking Skills Within the Armys Officer Education System (OES) Earlier in an Officer’s Career

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-13

    thinking emerges.”31 Military leaders should minimize bureaucracy when possible in an attempt to facilitate creative thinking . Consequently, a...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY HOW TO DEVELOP CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS WITHIN THE ARMY’S OFFICER EDUCTION SYSTEM (OES) EARLIER IN AN...Force Dragon’s Heart.” iv Abstract Critical thinking skills are required by strategic leaders to solve complex problems in an environment

  9. An inhibitor of polyamine synthesis arrests cells at an earlier stage of G1 than does calcium deprivation.

    PubMed Central

    Cheetham, B F

    1983-01-01

    Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) completely inhibits the induction of thymidine kinase after serum stimulation of quiescent fibroblasts only if added within 3 h after serum, whereas calcium deprivation blocks this induction up to 12 h after serum stimulation. Experiments in which one of these blocks was imposed as the other was released confirmed that cells blocked by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) are arrested at an earlier stage in G1 than cells blocked by calcium deprivation. PMID:6843551

  10. A primary care Web-based Intervention Modeling Experiment replicated behavior changes seen in earlier paper-based experiment.

    PubMed

    Treweek, Shaun; Francis, Jill J; Bonetti, Debbie; Barnett, Karen; Eccles, Martin P; Hudson, Jemma; Jones, Claire; Pitts, Nigel B; Ricketts, Ian W; Sullivan, Frank; Weal, Mark; MacLennan, Graeme

    2016-12-01

    Intervention Modeling Experiments (IMEs) are a way of developing and testing behavior change interventions before a trial. We aimed to test this methodology in a Web-based IME that replicated the trial component of an earlier, paper-based IME. Three-arm, Web-based randomized evaluation of two interventions (persuasive communication and action plan) and a "no intervention" comparator. The interventions were designed to reduce the number of antibiotic prescriptions in the management of uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection. General practitioners (GPs) were invited to complete an online questionnaire and eight clinical scenarios where an antibiotic might be considered. One hundred twenty-nine GPs completed the questionnaire. GPs receiving the persuasive communication did not prescribe an antibiotic in 0.70 more scenarios (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.17-1.24) than those in the control arm. For the action plan, GPs did not prescribe an antibiotic in 0.63 (95% CI = 0.11-1.15) more scenarios than those in the control arm. Unlike the earlier IME, behavioral intention was unaffected by the interventions; this may be due to a smaller sample size than intended. A Web-based IME largely replicated the findings of an earlier paper-based study, providing some grounds for confidence in the IME methodology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Biogeochemical fingerprints of life: earlier analogies with polar ecosystems suggest feasible instrumentation for probing the Galilean moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chela-Flores, J.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Tuniz, C.

    2015-07-01

    We base our search for the right instrumentation for detecting biosignatures on Europa on the analogy suggested by the recent work on polar ecosystems in the Canadian Arctic at Ellesmere Island. In that location sulphur patches (analogous to the Europan patches) are accumulating on glacial ice lying over saline springs rich in sulphate and sulphide. Their work reinforces earlier analogies in Antarctic ecosystems that are appropriate models for possible habitats that will be explored by the European Space Agency JUpiter ICy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission to the Jovian System. Its Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO) will include orbits around Europa and Ganymede. The Galileo orbital mission discovered surficial patches of non-ice elements on Europa that were widespread and, in some cases possibly endogenous. This suggests the possibility that the observed chemical elements in the exoatmosphere may be from the subsurface ocean. Spatial resolution calculations of Cassidy and co-workers are available, suggesting that the atmospheric S content can be mapped by a neutral mass spectrometer, now included among the selected JUICE instruments. In some cases, large S-fractionations are due to microbial reduction and disproportionation (although sometimes providing a test for ecosystem fingerprints, even though with Sim - Bosak - Ono we maintain that microbial sulphate reduction large sulphur isotope fractionation does not require disproportionation. We address the question of the possible role of oxygen in the Europan ocean. Instrument issues are discussed for measuring stable S-isotope fractionations up to the known limits in natural populations of δ34 ~ -70‰. We state the hypothesis of a Europa anaerobic oceanic population of sulphate reducers and disproportionators that would have the effect of fractionating the sulphate that reaches the low-albedo surficial regions. This hypothesis is compatible with the time-honoured expectation of Kaplan and co-workers (going back to the

  12. Cholesteatoma has a high prevalence in Turner syndrome, highlighting the need for earlier diagnosis and the potential benefits of otoscopy training for paediatricians.

    PubMed

    Lim, D B N; Gault, E J; Kubba, H; Morrissey, M S C; Wynne, D M; Donaldson, M D C

    2014-07-01

    Girls with Turner syndrome are prone to cholesteatoma, a serious suppurative middle ear disease. We aimed to confirm its high prevalence in Turner syndrome, identify risk factors and suggest possible strategies for earlier detection. We reviewed 179 girls with Turner syndrome between 1989 and 2012 to identify cases of cholesteatoma. Seven girls (3.9%) had cholesteatoma (index girls) and each was compared with three age-matched girls without cholesteatoma (comparison girls). All the index girls had either the 45,X or 45,X/46X,i(Xq) karyotypes. Nine ears were initially affected, with three recurrences in two girls. Median age at first cholesteatoma presentation was 11.9 years (range: 7.5-15.2), with otorrhoea for three (range: one to seven) months in all 12 affected ears. Index girls had a significantly higher proportion of previous recurrent acute (p = 0.007) and chronic otitis media (p = 0.008), chronic perforation (p = 0.038) aural polyps (p < 0.0001) and tympanic membrane retraction (p = 0.0001) than comparison girls. Cholesteatoma has a high prevalence in Turner syndrome. Risk factors include 45,X and 46,XiXq karyotypes; a history of chronic otitis media, tympanic membrane retraction and persistent otorrhoea; and older age. Earlier recognition of ear disease is needed and otoscopy training for paediatricians caring for Turner syndrome patients may be beneficial. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Do emotional support and classroom organization earlier in the year set the stage for higher quality instruction?

    PubMed

    Curby, Timothy W; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Abry, Tashia

    2013-10-01

    Many teachers believe that providing greater emotional and organizational supports in the beginning of the year strengthens their ability to teach effectively as the year progresses. Some interventions, such as the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach, explicitly embed this sequence into professional development efforts. We tested the hypothesis that earlier emotional and organizational supports set the stage for improved instruction later in the year in a sample of third- and fourth-grade teachers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the RC approach. Further, we examined the extent to which the model generalized for teachers using varying levels of RC practices as well as whether or not teachers were in the intervention or control groups. Teachers' emotional, organizational, and instructional interactions were observed using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008) on five occasions throughout the year. Results indicated a reciprocal relation between emotional and instructional supports. Specifically, higher levels of emotional support earlier in the year predicted higher instructional support later in the year. Also, higher levels of instructional support earlier in the year predicted higher emotional support later in the year. Classroom organization was not found to have longitudinal associations with the other domains across a year. This pattern was robust when controlling for the use of RC practices as well as across intervention and control groups. Further, teachers' use of RC practices predicted higher emotional support and classroom organization throughout the year, suggesting the malleability of this teacher characteristic. Discussion highlights the connection between teachers' emotional and instructional supports and how the use of RC practices improves teachers' emotionally supportive interactions with students. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. Evaluation of ceftobiprole activity against a variety of gram-negative pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae (β-lactamase positive and β-lactamase negative), and Klebsiella pneumoniae, in a rabbit meningitis model.

    PubMed

    Stucki, A; Cottagnoud, M; Acosta, F; Egerman, U; Läuffer, J; Cottagnoud, P

    2012-02-01

    Ceftobiprole medocaril, a new cephalosporin, is highly active against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and penicillin-resistant pneumococci. In this study, we tested ceftobiprole against various Gram-negative pathogens in a rabbit meningitis model and determined its penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In this animal model, ceftobiprole produced an antibacterial activity similar to that of cefepime against an Escherichia coli strain, a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain, and a β-lactamase-negative Haemophilus influenzae strain. Against a β-lactamase-positive H. influenzae strain, ceftobiprole was significantly superior. The penetration of ceftobiprole through inflamed meninges reached about 16% of serum levels compared to about 2% of serum levels through uninflamed meninges.

  15. Evaluation of Ceftobiprole Activity against a Variety of Gram-Negative Pathogens, Including Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae (β-Lactamase Positive and β-Lactamase Negative), and Klebsiella pneumoniae, in a Rabbit Meningitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Stucki, A.; Cottagnoud, M.; Acosta, F.; Egerman, U.; Läuffer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Ceftobiprole medocaril, a new cephalosporin, is highly active against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and penicillin-resistant pneumococci. In this study, we tested ceftobiprole against various Gram-negative pathogens in a rabbit meningitis model and determined its penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In this animal model, ceftobiprole produced an antibacterial activity similar to that of cefepime against an Escherichia coli strain, a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain, and a β-lactamase-negative Haemophilus influenzae strain. Against a β-lactamase-positive H. influenzae strain, ceftobiprole was significantly superior. The penetration of ceftobiprole through inflamed meninges reached about 16% of serum levels compared to about 2% of serum levels through uninflamed meninges. PMID:22064544

  16. Retrospective study of reasons for improved survival in patients with breast cancer in east Anglia: earlier diagnosis or better treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Stockton, D.; Davies, T.; Day, N.; McCann, J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the recent fall in mortality from breast cancer in England and Wales, and to determine the relative contributions of improvements in treatment and earlier detection of tumours. DESIGN: Retrospective study of all women with breast cancer registered by the East Anglian cancer registry and diagnosed between 1982 and 1989. SUBJECTS: 3965 patients diagnosed 1982-5 compared with 4665 patients diagnosed 1986-9, in three age groups 0-49, 50-64, > or = 65 years, with information on stage at diagnosis and survival. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Three year relative survival rates by time period, age group, and stage; relative hazard ratios for each time period and age group derived from Cox's proportional hazards model, adjusted for single year of age and stage. RESULTS: Survival improved in the later time period, although there was little stage specific improvement. The proportion of early stage tumours increased especially in the 50-64 year age group, and adjustment for stage accounted for over half of the improvement in survival in women aged under 65 years. CONCLUSION: Over half of the drop in mortality in women aged under 65 years seems to be attributable to earlier detection of tumours, which has been observed since the mid-1980s. This could have resulted from an increase in breast awareness predating the start of the breast screening programme. PMID:9056796

  17. Missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis of HIV in patients who presented with advanced HIV disease: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Itzchak; Maor, Yasmin; Mahroum, Naim; Olmer, Liraz; Wieder, Anat; Litchevski, Vladislav; Mor, Orna; Rahav, Galia

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify and characterise missed opportunities for earlier HIV diagnosis in patients diagnosed with advanced HIV. Design A retrospective observational cohort study. Setting A central tertiary medical centre in Israel. Measures The proportion of patients with advanced HIV, the proportion of missed opportunities to diagnose them earlier, and the rate of clinical indicator diseases (CIDs) in those patients. Results Between 2010 and 2015, 356 patients were diagnosed with HIV, 118 (33.4%) were diagnosed late, 57 (16%) with advanced HIV disease. Old age (OR=1.45 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.74)) and being heterosexual (OR=2.65 (95% CI 1.21 to 5.78)) were significant risk factors for being diagnosed late. All patients with advanced disease had at least one CID that did not lead to an HIV test in the 5 years prior to AIDS diagnosis. The median time between CID and AIDS diagnosis was 24 months (IQR 10–30). 60% of CIDs were missed by a general practitioner and 40% by a specialist. Conclusions Missed opportunities to early diagnosis of HIV occur in primary and secondary care. Lack of national guidelines, lack of knowledge regarding CIDs and communication barriers with patients may contribute to a late diagnosis of HIV. PMID:28186940

  18. Field evidence for earlier leaf-out dates in alpine grassland on the eastern Tibetan Plateau from 1990 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Zhou, H K; Yao, B Q; Xu, W X; Ye, X; Fu, J J; Jin, Y X; Zhao, X Q

    2014-08-01

    Worldwide, many plant species are experiencing an earlier onset of spring phenophases due to climate warming. Rapid recent temperature increases on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) have triggered changes in the spring phenology of the local vegetation. However, remote sensing studies of the land surface phenology have reached conflicting interpretations about green-up patterns observed on the TP since the mid-1990s. We investigated this issue using field phenological observations from 1990 to 2006, for 11 dominant plants on the TP at the levels of species, families (Gramineae-grasses and Cyperaceae-sedges) and vegetation communities (alpine meadow and alpine steppe). We found a significant trend of earlier leaf-out dates for one species (Koeleria cristata). The leaf-out dates of both Gramineae and Cyperaceae had advanced (the latter significantly, starting an average of 9 days later per year than the former), but the correlation between them was significant. The leaf-out dates of both vegetation communities also advanced, but the pattern was only significant in the alpine meadow. This study provides the first field evidence of advancement in spring leaf phenology on the TP and suggests that the phenology of the alpine steppe can differ from that of the alpine meadow. These findings will be useful for understanding ecosystem responses to climate change and for grassland management on the TP. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. To Achieve an Earlier IFN-γ Response Is Not Sufficient to Control Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Marzo, Elena; Barril, Carles; Vegué, Marina; Diaz, Jorge; Valls, Joaquim; López, Daniel; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2014-01-01

    The temporo-spatial relationship between the three organs (lung, spleen and lymph node) involved during the initial stages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has been poorly studied. As such, we performed an experimental study to evaluate the bacillary load in each organ after aerosol or intravenous infection and developed a mathematical approach using the data obtained in order to extract conclusions. The results showed that higher bacillary doses result in an earlier IFN-γ response, that a certain bacillary load (BL) needs to be reached to trigger the IFN-γ response, and that control of the BL is not immediate after onset of the IFN-γ response, which might be a consequence of the spatial dimension. This study may have an important impact when it comes to designing new vaccine candidates as it suggests that triggering an earlier IFN-γ response might not guarantee good infection control, and therefore that additional properties should be considered for these candidates. PMID:24959669

  20. Transcriptional analysis of micronutrient zinc-associated response for enhanced carbohydrate utilization and earlier solventogenesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Wu, You-Duo; Xue, Chuang; Chen, Li-Jie; Wan, Hui-Hui; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2015-11-20

    The micronutrient zinc plays vital roles in ABE fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. In order to elucidate the zinc-associated response for enhanced glucose utilization and earlier solventogenesis, transcriptional analysis was performed on cells grown in glucose medium at the exponential growth phase of 16 h without/with supplementary zinc. Correspondingly, the gene glcG (CAC0570) encoding a glucose-specific PTS was significantly upregulated accompanied with the other two genes CAC1353 and CAC1354 for glucose transport in the presence of zinc. Additionally, genes involved in the metabolisms of six other carbohydrates (maltose, cellobiose, fructose, mannose, xylose and arabinose) were differentially expressed, indicating that the regulatory effect of micronutrient zinc is carbohydrate-specific with respects to the improved/inhibited carbohydrate utilization. More importantly, multiple genes responsible for glycolysis (glcK and pykA), acidogenesis (thlA, crt, etfA, etfB and bcd) and solventogenesis (ctfB and bdhA) of C. acetobutylicum prominently responded to the supplementary zinc at differential expression levels. Comparative analysis of intracellular metabolites revealed that the branch node intermediates such as acetyl-CoA, acetoacetyl-CoA, butyl-CoA, and reducing power NADH remained relatively lower whereas more ATP was generated due to enhanced glycolysis pathway and earlier initiation of solventogenesis, suggesting that the micronutrient zinc-associated response for the selected intracellular metabolisms is significantly pleiotropic.

  1. A qualitative description of falls in a neuro-rehabilitation unit: the use of a standardised fall report including the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) to describe activities and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Saverino, Alessia; Moriarty, Amy; Rantell, Khadija; Waller, Denise; Ayres, Rachael; Playford, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Falls are a recognised problem for people with long-term neurological conditions but less is known about fall risk in young adults. This study describes fallers' and falls' characteristics in adults less than 60 years old, in a neuro-rehabilitation unit. This single-centre, longitudinal, observational study included 114 consecutive admissions to a UK neuro-rehabilitation unit over 20 months. The demographic and clinical characteristics of eligible patients included age, sex, diagnosis, hospital length of stay and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). Falls were recorded prospectively in a fall report, using the activities and environmental domains of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). A total of 34 (30%) patients reported a fall, with 50% experiencing more than one fall. The majority of falls (60%) occurred during the first 2 weeks, during day-time (90%) and during mobile activities (70%). Overall, falls rate (95% confidence interval) was 1.33 (1.04 to 1.67) per 100 d of patient hospital stay. Factors associated with increased falls included becoming a walker during admission or being cognitively impaired. There were no serious fall-related injuries. The first 2 weeks of admission is a high risk time for fallers, in particular those who become walkers or are cognitively impaired. Prevention policies should be put in place based on fall characteristics. Implications for Rehabilitation The ICF is a valuable instrument for describing subject and environmental factors during a fall-event. Falls are frequent events but do not usually cause serious injuries during inpatient rehabilitation. There is an increased fall risk for subjects with cognitive impairments or those relearning how to walk.

  2. Earlier Age of Onset of Chronic Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus After a Hypertensive Disorder of Pregnancy or Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Heida, Karst Y; Franx, Arie; van Rijn, Bas B; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Boer, Jolanda M A; Verschuren, Monique W M; Oudijk, Martijn A; Bots, Michiel L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T

    2015-12-01

    A prospective cohort study was conducted to assess the impact of a history of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on the risk and age of onset of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life, independent of hypertension and T2D. Between 1993 and 1997, 22 265 ever-pregnant women were included from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-NL study, aged 20 to 70 years at baseline. Details on complications of pregnancy and known hypertension were obtained by questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured at enrollment. Participants were followed for the occurrence of CVD events. Data were analyzed using ANCOVA, multivariable logistic regression, and Cox proportional hazard (with HDP and GDM as time-dependent variables for T2D and CVD) models. At enrollment, women with a HDP reported diagnosis of hypertension 7.7 years earlier (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.9-8.5) and women with GDM reported diagnosis of T2D 7.7 years earlier (95% CI 5.8-9.6) than women without pregnancy complications. After adjustment for potential confounders, HDP was associated with presence of hypertension at enrollment (odds ratio 2.12, 95% CI 1.98-2.28) and onset of CVD later in life (hazard ratio 1.21, 95% CI 1.10-1.32). After including the intermediates hypertension and T2D in the model, the risk of CVD later in life decreased (hazard ratio 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.20). GDM was associated with an increased risk of developing T2D later in life (hazard ratio 3.68, 95% CI 2.77-4.90), but not with risk of CVD. HDP and GDM have a substantial impact on the risk of CVD and are potentially important indicators for preventive cardiovascular risk management. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Effects of earlier sea ice breakup on survival and population size of polar bears in western Hudson Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Regehr, E.V.; Lunn, N.J.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, I.

    2007-01-01

    Some of the most pronounced ecological responses to climatic warming are expected to occur in polar marine regions, where temperature increases have been the greatest and sea ice provides a sensitive mechanism by which climatic conditions affect sympagic (i.e., with ice) species. Population-level effects of climatic change, however, remain difficult to quantify. We used a flexible extension of Cormack-Jolly-Seber capture-recapture models to estimate population size and survival for polar bears (Ursus maritimus), one of the most ice-dependent of Arctic marine mammals. We analyzed data for polar bears captured from 1984 to 2004 along the western coast of Hudson Bay and in the community of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. The Western Hudson Bay polar bear population declined from 1,194 (95% CI = 1,020-1,368) in 1987 to 935 (95% CI = 794-1,076) in 2004. Total apparent survival of prime-adult polar bears (5-19 yr) was stable for females (0.93; 95% CI = 0.91-0.94) and males (0.90; 95% CI = 0.88-0.91). Survival of juvenile, subadult, and senescent-adult polar bears was correlated with spring sea ice breakup date, which was variable among years and occurred approximately 3 weeks earlier in 2004 than in 1984. We propose that this correlation provides evidence for a causal association between earlier sea ice breakup (due to climatic warming) and decreased polar bear survival. It may also explain why Churchill, like other communities along the western coast of Hudson Bay, has experienced an increase in human-polar bear interactions in recent years. Earlier sea ice breakup may have resulted in a larger number of nutritionally stressed polar bears, which are encroaching on human habitations in search of supplemental food. Because western Hudson Bay is near the southern limit of the species' range, our findings may foreshadow the demographic responses and management challenges that more northerly polar bear populations will experience if climatic warming in the Arctic continues as

  4. Low protein content of drainage fluid is a good predictor for earlier chest tube removal after lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Olgac, Guven; Cosgun, Tugba; Vayvada, Mustafa; Ozdemir, Atilla; Kutlu, Cemal Asim

    2014-10-01

    Owing to the great absorption capability of the pleura for transudates, the protein content of draining pleural fluid may be considered as a more adequate determinant than its daily draining amount in the decision-making for earlier chest tube removal. In an a priori pilot study, we observed that the initially draining protein-rich exudate converts to a transudate quickly in most patients after lobectomies. Thus, chest tubes draining high-volume but low-protein fluids can safely be removed earlier in the absence of an air leak. This randomized study aims to investigate the validity and clinical applicability of this hypothesis as well as its influence on the timing for chest tube removal and earlier discharge after lobectomy. Seventy-two consecutive patients undergoing straightforward lobectomy were randomized into two groups. Patients with conditions affecting postoperative drainage and with persisting air leaks beyond the third postoperative day were excluded. Drains were removed if the pleural fluid to blood protein ratio (PrRPl/B) was ≤0.5, regardless of its daily draining amount in the study arm (Group S; n = 38), and patients in the control arm (Group C; n = 34) had their tubes removed if daily drainage was ≤250 ml regardless of its protein content. Patients were discharged home immediately or the following morning after removal of the last drain. All cases were followed up regarding the development of symptomatic pleural effusions and hospital readmissions for a redrainage procedure. Demographic and clinical characteristics as well as the pattern of decrease in PrRPl/B were the same between groups. The mean PrRPl/B was 0.65 and 0.67 (95% CI = 0.60-0.69 and 0.62-0.72) on the first postoperative day, and it remarkably dropped down to 0.39 and 0.33 (95% CI = 0.33-0.45 and 0.27-0.39) on the second day in Groups S and C, respectively, and remained below 0.5 on the third day (repeated-measures of ANOVA design, post hoc 'within-group' comparison of the first

  5. Combining in Vitro Diagnostics with in Vivo Imaging for Earlier Detection of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Challenges and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Laeseke, Paul F.; Chen, Ru; Jeffrey, R. Brooke; Brentnall, Teresa A.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth-leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States and is associated with a dismal prognosis, particularly when diagnosed at an advanced stage. Overall survival is significantly improved if PDAC is detected at an early stage prior to the onset of symptoms. At present, there is no suitable screening strategy for the general population. Available diagnostic serum markers are not sensitive or specific enough, and clinically available imaging modalities are inadequate for visualizing early-stage lesions. In this article, the role of currently available blood biomarkers and imaging tests for the early detection of PDAC will be reviewed. Also, the emerging biomarkers and molecularly targeted imaging agents being developed to improve the specificity of current imaging modalities for PDAC will be discussed. A strategy incorporating blood biomarkers and molecularly targeted imaging agents could lead to improved screening and earlier detection of PDAC in the future. © RSNA, 2015 PMID:26599925

  6. The Sooner, the Worse? Association between Earlier Age of Sexual Initiation and Worse Adolescent Health and Well-being Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Alfonso; Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Carlos, Silvia; de Irala, Jokin

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assesses the association between age of sexual initiation during adolescence and a selection of well-being outcomes regarding that first relationship. High-school adolescents from El Salvador (2,686) and from Peru (3,399) replied to a paper-pencil questionnaire. Those who were sexually initiated replied to several questions regarding their age at sexual initiation, condom use, satisfaction and reasons/circumstances for that sexual relationship. Approximately 19% of participants were sexually initiated (n = 1,179). After retaining participants with valid responses and with sexual initiation ages between 13 and 17, the final sample for this paper consisted of 996 sexually initiated participants (526 Salvadorians and 470 Peruvians). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that those who initiated sex at earlier ages had worse outcomes compared to those who initiated at older ages. Specifically, they had lower odds of having used a condom, of having good memories of that experience and of having had that first relationship because they were in love. Conversely, they had higher odds of having had that first sexual relationship as a result of peer pressure (“Most of my friends already had sex”), because of partner pressure (“I was afraid to lose him/her,” “My partner told me he/she would leave me” or “I did not know how to say no to a person who insisted”), or as a consequence of different forms of impaired autonomy (“I was under the influence of alcohol or drugs” or “As a consequence of seeing sexual images”). Results show that sex at earlier ages is associated with worse adolescent health and well-being outcomes. PMID:28798715

  7. Antiretroviral treatment-based cost saving interventions may offset expenses for new patients and earlier treatment start.

    PubMed

    Angeletti, C; Pezzotti, P; Antinori, A; Mammone, A; Navarra, A; Orchi, N; Lorenzini, P; Mecozzi, A; Ammassari, A; Murachelli, S; Ippolito, G; Girardi, E

    2014-03-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has become the main driver of total costs of caring for persons living with HIV (PLHIV). The present study estimated the short/medium-term cost trends in response to the recent evolution of national guidelines and regional therapeutic protocols for cART in Italy. We developed a deterministic mathematical model that was calibrated using epidemic data for Lazio, a region located in central Italy with about six million inhabitants. In the Base Case Scenario, the estimated number of PLHIV in the Lazio region increased over the period 2012-2016 from 14 414 to 17 179. Over the same period, the average projected annual cost for treating the HIV-infected population was €147.0 million. An earlier cART initiation resulted in a rise of 2.3% in the average estimated annual cost, whereas an increase from 27% to 50% in the proportion of naïve subjects starting cART with a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimen resulted in a reduction of 0.3%. Simplification strategies based on NNRTIs co-formulated in a single tablet regimen and protease inhibitor/ritonavir-boosted monotherapy produced an overall reduction in average annual costs of 1.5%. A further average saving of 3.3% resulted from the introduction of generic antiretroviral drugs. In the medium term, cost saving interventions could finance the increase in costs resulting from the inertial growth in the number of patients requiring treatment and from the earlier treatment initiation recommended in recent guidelines. © 2013 British HIV Association.

  8. Analysis of arrhythmic events is useful to detect lead failure earlier in patients followed by remote monitoring.

    PubMed

    Nishii, Nobuhiro; Miyoshi, Akihito; Kubo, Motoki; Miyamoto, Masakazu; Morimoto, Yoshimasa; Kawada, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Koji; Watanabe, Atsuyuki; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Morita, Hiroshi; Ito, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    Remote monitoring (RM) has been advocated as the new standard of care for patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). RM has allowed the early detection of adverse clinical events, such as arrhythmia, lead failure, and battery depletion. However, lead failure was often identified only by arrhythmic events, but not impedance abnormalities. To compare the usefulness of arrhythmic events with conventional impedance abnormalities for identifying lead failure in CIED patients followed by RM. CIED patients in 12 hospitals have been followed by the RM center in Okayama University Hospital. All transmitted data have been analyzed and summarized. From April 2009 to March 2016, 1,873 patients have been followed by the RM center. During the mean follow-up period of 775 days, 42 lead failure events (atrial lead 22, right ventricular pacemaker lead 5, implantable cardioverter defibrillator [ICD] lead 15) were detected. The proportion of lead failures detected only by arrhythmic events, which were not detected by conventional impedance abnormalities, was significantly higher than that detected by impedance abnormalities (arrhythmic event 76.2%, 95% CI: 60.5-87.9%; impedance abnormalities 23.8%, 95% CI: 12.1-39.5%). Twenty-seven events (64.7%) were detected without any alert. Of 15 patients with ICD lead failure, none has experienced inappropriate therapy. RM can detect lead failure earlier, before clinical adverse events. However, CIEDs often diagnose lead failure as just arrhythmic events without any warning. Thus, to detect lead failure earlier, careful human analysis of arrhythmic events is useful. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Does earlier arrival of the retrieval team improve short-term outcomes in outborn extremely premature infants?

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Janet B; Davies, Mark W

    2018-05-31

    The risk of mortality and morbidity is increased in outborn, extremely premature infants. We aim to determine whether earlier arrival of the retrieval team after the birth of infants less than 29 weeks gestation improves short-term mortality and morbidity. This is a retrospective analysis of a cohort of infants less than 29 weeks gestation who were retrieved to the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital (RBWH) over a 5-year period. Demographic information regarding the infant and mother, retrieval team arrival time and outcome data was collected. Primary outcomes investigated were mortality prior to discharge from hospital or a composite of mortality or severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH). Data on 105 infants were analysed; 88 infants (83.8%) survived to discharge home, and 79 (75.2%) survived to discharge without severe IVH. On univariate analysis, there was no significant association between age at arrival of the retrieval team and death prior to discharge (P = 0.94) or death prior to discharge or severe IVH (P = 0.83). On logistic regression analysis, age at arrival of retrieval team remained non-significant for a reduction in death prior to discharge and composite of death or severe IVH (P = 0.70 and P = 0.99, respectively). The earlier arrival of the retrieval team is not associated with improved short-term outcomes in outborn, extremely preterm infants who are retrieved and admitted to a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit - for infants where the retrieval team arrived within about 8 h of birth. © 2018 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Earlier Visual N1 Latencies in Expert Video-Game Players: A Temporal Basis of Enhanced Visuospatial Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Andrew J.; Patston, Lucy L. M.; Westermann, Christine; Kirk, Ian J.; Tippett, Lynette J.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing behavioural evidence suggests that expert video game players (VGPs) show enhanced visual attention and visuospatial abilities, but what underlies these enhancements remains unclear. We administered the Poffenberger paradigm with concurrent electroencephalogram (EEG) recording to assess occipital N1 latencies and interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT) in expert VGPs. Participants comprised 15 right-handed male expert VGPs and 16 non-VGP controls matched for age, handedness, IQ and years of education. Expert VGPs began playing before age 10, had a minimum 8 years experience, and maintained playtime of at least 20 hours per week over the last 6 months. Non-VGPs had little-to-no game play experience (maximum 1.5 years). Participants responded to checkerboard stimuli presented to the left and right visual fields while 128-channel EEG was recorded. Expert VGPs responded significantly more quickly than non-VGPs. Expert VGPs also had significantly earlier occipital N1s in direct visual pathways (the hemisphere contralateral to the visual field in which the stimulus was presented). IHTT was calculated by comparing the latencies of occipital N1 components between hemispheres. No significant between-group differences in electrophysiological estimates of IHTT were found. Shorter N1 latencies may enable expert VGPs to discriminate attended visual stimuli significantly earlier than non-VGPs and contribute to faster responding in visual tasks. As successful video-game play requires precise, time pressured, bimanual motor movements in response to complex visual stimuli, which in this sample began during early childhood, these differences may reflect the experience and training involved during the development of video-game expertise, but training studies are needed to test this prediction. PMID:24058667

  11. Earlier visual N1 latencies in expert video-game players: a temporal basis of enhanced visuospatial performance?

    PubMed

    Latham, Andrew J; Patston, Lucy L M; Westermann, Christine; Kirk, Ian J; Tippett, Lynette J

    2013-01-01

    Increasing behavioural evidence suggests that expert video game players (VGPs) show enhanced visual attention and visuospatial abilities, but what underlies these enhancements remains unclear. We administered the Poffenberger paradigm with concurrent electroencephalogram (EEG) recording to assess occipital N1 latencies and interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT) in expert VGPs. Participants comprised 15 right-handed male expert VGPs and 16 non-VGP controls matched for age, handedness, IQ and years of education. Expert VGPs began playing before age 10, had a minimum 8 years experience, and maintained playtime of at least 20 hours per week over the last 6 months. Non-VGPs had little-to-no game play experience (maximum 1.5 years). Participants responded to checkerboard stimuli presented to the left and right visual fields while 128-channel EEG was recorded. Expert VGPs responded significantly more quickly than non-VGPs. Expert VGPs also had significantly earlier occipital N1s in direct visual pathways (the hemisphere contralateral to the visual field in which the stimulus was presented). IHTT was calculated by comparing the latencies of occipital N1 components between hemispheres. No significant between-group differences in electrophysiological estimates of IHTT were found. Shorter N1 latencies may enable expert VGPs to discriminate attended visual stimuli significantly earlier than non-VGPs and contribute to faster responding in visual tasks. As successful video-game play requires precise, time pressured, bimanual motor movements in response to complex visual stimuli, which in this sample began during early childhood, these differences may reflect the experience and training involved during the development of video-game expertise, but training studies are needed to test this prediction.

  12. KEY COMPARISON Update of the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison of activity measurements for the radionuclide 99mTc to include new results for the LNE-LNHB and the NPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Courte, S.; Ratel, G.; Moune, M.; Johansson, L.; Keightley, J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 and 2008 respectively, the Laboratoire national de métrologie et d'essais-Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), France and the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), UK, submitted ampoules with between 10 MBq and 130 MBq activity of 99mTc to the International Reference System (SIR), to update their results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison. Together with the four other national metrology institutes (NMI) that are participants, thirteen samples have been submitted since 1983. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest primary results of the PTB and the LNE-LNHB as this makes the evaluation more robust. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR are given in the form of a matrix for all six NMIs. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section II, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  13. Clinically relevant HIF-1α-dependent metabolic reprogramming in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas includes coordinated activation of CAIX and the miR-210/ISCU signaling axis, but not MCT1 and MCT4 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Sáenz-de-Santa-María, Inés; Bernardo-Castiñeira, Cristóbal; Secades, Pablo; Bernaldo-de-Quirós, Sandra; Rodrigo, Juan Pablo; Astudillo, Aurora; Chiara, María-Dolores

    2017-02-21

    Metabolic reprogramming is a very heterogeneous phenomenon in cancer. It mostly consists on increased glycolysis, lactic acid formation and extracellular acidification. These events have been associated to increased activity of the hypoxia inducible factor, HIF-1α. This study aimed at defining the metabolic program activated by HIF-1α in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and assessing its clinical impact. Global gene/miRNA expression was analyzed in SCC-derived cells exposed to hypoxia. Expression of HIF-1α, the carbonic anhydrase CAIX, and the lactate/H+ transporters MCT1 and MCT4 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 246 SCCs. Cell-based analysis revealed that HIF-1α-driven metabolic program includes over-expression of glycolytic enzymes and the microRNA miR-210 coupled to down-regulation of its target, the iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein, ISCU. pH-regulator program entailed over-expression of CAIX, but not MCT1 or MCT4. Accordingly, significant overlapping exists between over-expression of HIF-1α and CAIX, but not HIF-1α and MCT1 or MCT4, in tumor cells. Increased miR-210 and concomitant decreased ISCU RNA levels were found in ~40% of tumors and this was significantly associated with HIF-1α and CAIX, but not MCT1 or MCT4, over-expression. HIF-1α and/or CAIX over-expression was associated with high recurrence rate and low overall survival of surgically treated patients. By contrast, clinically significant correlations were not found in tumors with MCT1 or MCT4 over-expression. This is the first study that provides in vivo evidences of coordinated activation of HIF-1α, CAIX, miR-210 and ISCU in carcinoma and association with poor prognosis, a finding with important implications for the development of metabolic-targeting therapies against hypoxia.

  14. Clinically relevant HIF-1α-dependent metabolic reprogramming in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas includes coordinated activation of CAIX and the miR-210/ISCU signaling axis, but not MCT1 and MCT4 upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Sáenz-de-Santa-María, Inés; Bernardo-Castiñeira, Cristóbal; Secades, Pablo; Bernaldo-de-Quirós, Sandra; Rodrigo, Juan Pablo; Astudillo, Aurora; Chiara, María-Dolores

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming is a very heterogeneous phenomenon in cancer. It mostly consists on increased glycolysis, lactic acid formation and extracellular acidification. These events have been associated to increased activity of the hypoxia inducible factor, HIF-1α. This study aimed at defining the metabolic program activated by HIF-1α in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and assessing its clinical impact. Global gene/miRNA expression was analyzed in SCC-derived cells exposed to hypoxia. Expression of HIF-1α, the carbonic anhydrase CAIX, and the lactate/H+ transporters MCT1 and MCT4 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 246 SCCs. Cell-based analysis revealed that HIF-1α-driven metabolic program includes over-expression of glycolytic enzymes and the microRNA miR-210 coupled to down-regulation of its target, the iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein, ISCU. pH-regulator program entailed over-expression of CAIX, but not MCT1 or MCT4. Accordingly, significant overlapping exists between over-expression of HIF-1α and CAIX, but not HIF-1α and MCT1 or MCT4, in tumor cells. Increased miR-210 and concomitant decreased ISCU RNA levels were found in ~40% of tumors and this was significantly associated with HIF-1α and CAIX, but not MCT1 or MCT4, over-expression. HIF-1α and/or CAIX over-expression was associated with high recurrence rate and low overall survival of surgically treated patients. By contrast, clinically significant correlations were not found in tumors with MCT1 or MCT4 over-expression. This is the first study that provides in vivo evidences of coordinated activation of HIF-1α, CAIX, miR-210 and ISCU in carcinoma and association with poor prognosis, a finding with important implications for the development of metabolic-targeting therapies against hypoxia. PMID:28099149

  15. Verbal abuse, like physical and sexual abuse, in childhood is associated with an earlier onset and more difficult course of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Post, Robert M; Altshuler, Lori L; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L; Frye, Mark A; Rowe, Michael; Leverich, Gabriele S; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E; Nolen, Willem A

    2015-05-01

    Physical or sexual abuse in childhood is known to have an adverse effect on the course of bipolar disorder, but the impact of verbal abuse has not been well elucidated. We examined the occurrence and frequency (never to frequently) of each type of abuse in childhood in 634 US adult outpatients (average age 40 years). Patients gave informed consent and provided information about their age of onset and course of illness prior to study entry. Verbal abuse alone occurred in 24% of the patients. Similar to a history of physical or sexual abuse, a history of verbal abuse was related to an earlier age of onset of bipolar disorder and other poor prognosis characteristics, including anxiety and substance abuse comorbidity, rapid cycling, and a deteriorating illness course as reflected in ratings of increasing frequency or severity of mania and depression. A lasting adverse impact of the experience of verbal abuse in childhood is suggested by its relationship to an earlier age of onset of bipolar disorder, other poor prognosis factors, and a deteriorating course of illness. Verbal abuse is a common confound in comparison groups defined by a lack of physical or sexual abuse. Ameliorating the impact of verbal abuse on the unfolding course of bipolar disorder appears to be an important target of therapeutics and worthy of attempts at primary and secondary prophylaxis. Family-based treatments that focus on psychoeducation, enhancing intra-family communication, and coping skills may be particularly helpful. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. 5 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Present Value Conversion Factors for Earlier Commencing Date of Annuities of Current and Former...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Present Value Conversion Factors for Earlier Commencing Date of Annuities of Current and Former Spouses of Deceased Separated Employees A...—Present Value Conversion Factors for Earlier Commencing Date of Annuities of Current and Former Spouses of...

  17. Can Biannual Ultrasound Surveillance Detect Smaller Second Cancers or Detect Cancers Earlier in Patients with Breast Cancer History?

    PubMed

    You, Jai Kyung; Song, Mi Kyung; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Youk, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Park, Vivian Youngjean; Park, Seho; Kim, Seung Il; Park, Byeong-Woo

    2018-07-01

    The aim of the work described here was to evaluate whether surveillance with biannual ultrasound (US) plus annual mammography (biannual group) for women with a history of breast cancer surgery results in earlier detection or in the detection of smaller second cancers than annual US plus mammography (annual group). Additionally, we compared the prevalence of distant metastases or palpable second cancers between the biannual and annual groups. The institutional review board of our institution approved this retrospective study, and patient consent was waived. Between January 2011 and December 2012, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical and imaging follow-up of 3023 patients with mammographic and US surveillance after breast cancer surgery to assess second cancers detected by local surveillance (locoregional recurrence, contralateral breast cancer or distant metastasis). The biannual and annual groups were divided with respect to the mean surveillance interval and compared with respect to clinicopathologic findings. Multivariable logistic regression with propensity score methods was used to examine the effect of the type of surveillance on outcomes. As for the size of the second cancer, no difference was seen between the biannual and annual groups (12.8 ± 6.6 mm vs. 14.1 ± 7.1 mm, p = 0.461); neither was there a significant difference between the groups in the presence of symptoms at the time of diagnosis of the second cancer (17.0% [8/47] vs. 10% [2/20], p = 0.711). Regardless of detection by local surveillance, the prevalence of distant metastases did not differ between the two groups (1.1% [27/2370] vs. 1.0% [7/653], p = 0.88) on univariate or multivariate analysis. The results of our retrospective study indicate that second cancers detected by biannual US surveillance in patients with a history of breast cancer surgery are not smaller and do not occur earlier than those detected by annual US surveillance. However, a randomized

  18. Executive Control Over Cognition: Stronger and Earlier Rule-Based Modulation of Spatial Category Signals in Prefrontal Cortex Relative to Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Shikha J.; Blackman, Rachael K.; Sakellaridi, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Human cognition is characterized by flexibility, the ability to select not only which action but which cognitive process to engage to best achieve the current behavioral objective. The ability to tailor information processing in the brain to rules, goals, or context is typically referred to as executive control, and although there is consensus that prefrontal cortex is importantly involved, at present we have an incomplete understanding of how computational flexibility is implemented at the level of prefrontal neurons and networks. To better understand the neural mechanisms of computational flexibility, we simultaneously recorded the electrical activity of groups of single neurons within prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex of monkeys performing a task that required executive control of spatial cognitive processing. In this task, monkeys applied different spatial categorization rules to reassign the same set of visual stimuli to alternative categories on a trial-by-trial basis. We found that single neurons were activated to represent spatially defined categories in a manner that was rule dependent, providing a physiological signature of a cognitive process that was implemented under executive control. We found also that neural signals coding rule-dependent categories were distributed between the parietal and prefrontal cortex—however, not equally. Rule-dependent category signals were stronger, more powerfully modulated by the rule, and earlier to emerge in prefrontal cortex relative to parietal cortex. This suggests that prefrontal cortex may initiate the switch in neural representation at a network level that is important for computational flexibility. PMID:22399773

  19. WCK 5107 (Zidebactam) and WCK 5153 Are Novel Inhibitors of PBP2 Showing Potent “β-Lactam Enhancer” Activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Including Multidrug-Resistant Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing High-Risk Clones

    PubMed Central

    Barcelo, Isabel M.; Bhagwat, Sachin; Patel, Mahesh; Bou, German; Papp-Wallace, Krisztina M.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Oliver, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zidebactam and WCK 5153 are novel β-lactam enhancers that are bicyclo-acyl hydrazides (BCH), derivatives of the diazabicyclooctane (DBO) scaffold, targeted for the treatment of serious infections caused by highly drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. In this study, we determined the penicillin-binding protein (PBP) inhibition profiles and the antimicrobial activities of zidebactam and WCK 5153 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including multidrug-resistant (MDR) metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing high-risk clones. MIC determinations and time-kill assays were conducted for zidebactam, WCK 5153, and antipseudomonal β-lactams using wild-type PAO1, MexAB-OprM-hyperproducing (mexR), porin-deficient (oprD), and AmpC-hyperproducing (dacB) derivatives of PAO1, and MBL-expressing clinical strains ST175 (blaVIM-2) and ST111 (blaVIM-1). Furthermore, steady-state kinetics was used to assess the inhibitory potential of these compounds against the purified VIM-2 MBL. Zidebactam and WCK 5153 showed specific PBP2 inhibition and did not inhibit VIM-2 (apparent Ki [Ki app] > 100 μM). MICs for zidebactam and WCK 5153 ranged from 2 to 32 μg/ml (amdinocillin MICs > 32 μg/ml). Time-kill assays revealed bactericidal activity of zidebactam and WCK 5153. LIVE-DEAD staining further supported the bactericidal activity of both compounds, showing spheroplast formation. Fixed concentrations (4 or 8 μg/ml) of zidebactam and WCK 5153 restored susceptibility to all of the tested β-lactams for each of the P. aeruginosa mutant strains. Likewise, antipseudomonal β-lactams (CLSI breakpoints), in combination with 4 or 8 μg/ml of zidebactam or WCK 5153, resulted in enhanced killing. Certain combinations determined full bacterial eradication, even with MDR MBL-producing high-risk clones. β-Lactam–WCK enhancer combinations represent a promising β-lactam “enhancer-based” approach to treat MDR P. aeruginosa infections, bypassing the need for MBL inhibition. PMID:28289035

  20. WCK 5107 (Zidebactam) and WCK 5153 Are Novel Inhibitors of PBP2 Showing Potent "β-Lactam Enhancer" Activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Including Multidrug-Resistant Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing High-Risk Clones.

    PubMed

    Moya, Bartolome; Barcelo, Isabel M; Bhagwat, Sachin; Patel, Mahesh; Bou, German; Papp-Wallace, Krisztina M; Bonomo, Robert A; Oliver, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Zidebactam and WCK 5153 are novel β-lactam enhancers that are bicyclo-acyl hydrazides (BCH), derivatives of the diazabicyclooctane (DBO) scaffold, targeted for the treatment of serious infections caused by highly drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. In this study, we determined the penicillin-binding protein (PBP) inhibition profiles and the antimicrobial activities of zidebactam and WCK 5153 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa , including multidrug-resistant (MDR) metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing high-risk clones. MIC determinations and time-kill assays were conducted for zidebactam, WCK 5153, and antipseudomonal β-lactams using wild-type PAO1, MexAB-OprM-hyperproducing ( mexR ), porin-deficient ( oprD ), and AmpC-hyperproducing ( dacB ) derivatives of PAO1, and MBL-expressing clinical strains ST175 ( bla VIM-2 ) and ST111 ( bla VIM-1 ). Furthermore, steady-state kinetics was used to assess the inhibitory potential of these compounds against the purified VIM-2 MBL. Zidebactam and WCK 5153 showed specific PBP2 inhibition and did not inhibit VIM-2 (apparent K i [ K i app ] > 100 μM). MICs for zidebactam and WCK 5153 ranged from 2 to 32 μg/ml (amdinocillin MICs > 32 μg/ml). Time-kill assays revealed bactericidal activity of zidebactam and WCK 5153. LIVE-DEAD staining further supported the bactericidal activity of both compounds, showing spheroplast formation. Fixed concentrations (4 or 8 μg/ml) of zidebactam and WCK 5153 restored susceptibility to all of the tested β-lactams for each of the P. aeruginosa mutant strains. Likewise, antipseudomonal β-lactams (CLSI breakpoints), in combination with 4 or 8 μg/ml of zidebactam or WCK 5153, resulted in enhanced killing. Certain combinations determined full bacterial eradication, even with MDR MBL-producing high-risk clones. β-Lactam-WCK enhancer combinations represent a promising β-lactam "enhancer-based" approach to treat MDR P. aeruginosa infections, bypassing the need for MBL inhibition. Copyright © 2017

  1. Reduced abundance and earlier collection of bumble bee workers under intensive cultivation of a mass-flowering prairie crop.

    PubMed

    Galpern, Paul; Johnson, Sarah A; Retzlaff, Jennifer L; Chang, Danielle; Swann, John

    2017-04-01

    One of the most commonly seeded crops in Canada is canola, a cultivar of oilseed rape ( Brassica napus ). As a mass-flowering crop grown intensively throughout the Canadian Prairies, canola has the potential to influence pollinator success across tens of thousands of square kilometers of cropland. Bumble bees ( Bombus sp.) are efficient pollinators of many types of native and crop plants. We measured the influence of this mass-flowering crop on the abundance and phenology of bumble bees, and on another species of social bee (a sweat bee; Halictus rubicundus ), by continuously deploying traps at different levels of canola cultivation intensity, spanning the start and end of canola bloom. Queen bumble bees were more abundant in areas with more canola cover, indicating that this crop is attractive to queens. However, bumble bee workers were significantly fewer in these locations later in the season, suggesting reduced colony success. The median collection dates of workers of three bumble bee species were earlier near canola fields, suggesting a dynamic response of colonies to the increased floral resources. Different species experienced this shift to different extents. The sweat bee was not affected by canola cultivation intensity. Our findings suggest that mass-flowering crops such as canola are attractive to bumble bee queens and therefore may lead to higher rates of colony establishment, but also that colonies established near this crop may be less successful. We propose that the effect on bumble bees can be mitigated by spacing the crop more evenly with respect to alternate floral resources.

  2. Psychological health in siblings who lost a brother or sister to cancer 2 to 9 years earlier.

    PubMed

    Eilegård, Alexandra; Steineck, Gunnar; Nyberg, Tommy; Kreicbergs, Ulrika

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess long-term psychological distress in siblings who lost a brother or sister to cancer 2 to 9 years earlier, as compared with a control group of non-bereaved siblings from the general population. During 2009, we conducted a nationwide follow-up study in Sweden by using an anonymous study-specific questionnaire. Siblings who had lost a brother or sister to cancer between the years 2000 and 2007 and also a control group of non-bereaved siblings from the general population were invited to participate. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure psychological distress, and to test for differences in the ordinal outcome responses between the groups, we used Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank-sum test. Among the bereaved siblings, 174/240 (73%) participated and 219/293 (75%) among the non-bereaved. Self-assessed low self-esteem (p = 0.002), difficulties falling asleep (p = 0.005), and low level of personal maturity (p = 0.007) at follow-up were more prevalent among bereaved siblings. However, anxiety (p = 0.298) and depression (p = 0.946), according to HADS, were similar. Bereaved siblings are at increased risk of low self-esteem, low level of personal maturity and difficulties falling asleep as compared with non-bereaved peers. Yet, the bereaved were not more likely to report anxiety or depression. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Coping and emotional distress during acute hospitalization in older persons with earlier trauma: the case of Holocaust survivors.

    PubMed

    Kimron, Lee; Cohen, Miri

    2012-06-01

    Older persons with earlier trauma are often more vulnerable to stresses of old age. To examine the levels of emotional distress in relation to cognitive appraisal of acute hospitalization and coping strategies in Holocaust survivors compared with an age- and education-matched group of elderly persons without Holocaust experience. This is a cross-sectional study of 63 Holocaust survivors, 65 years and older, hospitalized for an acute illness, and 57 age-, education- and hospital unit-matched people without Holocaust experience. Participants completed appraisal and coping strategies (COPE) questionnaires, and the brief symptoms inventory (BSI-18). Holocaust survivors reported higher levels of emotional distress, appraised the hospitalization higher as a threat and lower as a challenge, and used more emotion-focused and less problem-focused or support-seeking coping strategies than the comparison group. Study variables explained 65% of the variance of emotional distress; significant predictors of emotional distress in the final regression model were not having a partner and more use of emotion-focused coping. The latter mediated the relation of group variable and challenge appraisal to emotional distress. Health professionals must be aware of the potential impact of the hospital environment on the survivors of Holocaust as well as survivors of other trauma. Being sensitive to their specific needs may reduce the negative impact of hospitalization.

  4. Earlier flowering did not alter pollen limitation in an early flowering shrub under short-term experimental warming.

    PubMed

    Pan, Cheng-Chen; Feng, Qi; Zhao, Ha-Lin; Liu, Lin-De; Li, Yu-Lin; Li, Yu-Qiang; Zhang, Tong-Hui; Yu, Xiao-Ya

    2017-06-05

    In animal pollinated plants, phenological shifts caused by climate change may have important ecological consequences. However, no empirical evidence exists at present on the consequences that flowering phenology shifts have on the strength of pollen limitation under experimental warming. Here, we investigated the effects of experimental warming on flowering phenology, flower density, reproductive success, and pollen limitation intensity in Caragana microphylla and evaluated whether earlier flowering phenology affected plant reproduction and the level of pollen limitation using warmed and unwarmed open top chambers in the Horqin Sandy Land of Inner Mongolia, northern China. The results of this study indicated that artificial warming markedly advanced flower phenology rather than extending the duration of the flowering. Additionally, warming was found to significantly reduce flower density which led to seed production reduction, since there were insignificant effects observed on fruit set and seed number per fruit. Experimental floral manipulations showed that warming did not affect pollen limitation. These results revealed the negative effects of advanced phenology induced by warming on flower density and reproductive output, as well as the neutral effects on reproductive success and pollen limitation intensity of long surviving plants.

  5. Filarial parasites develop faster and reproduce earlier in response to host immune effectors that determine filarial life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Babayan, Simon A; Read, Andrew F; Lawrence, Rachel A; Bain, Odile; Allen, Judith E

    2010-10-19

    Humans and other mammals mount vigorous immune assaults against helminth parasites, yet there are intriguing reports that the immune response can enhance rather than impair parasite development. It has been hypothesized that helminths, like many free-living organisms, should optimize their development and reproduction in response to cues predicting future life expectancy. However, immune-dependent development by helminth parasites has so far eluded such evolutionary explanation. By manipulating various arms of the immune response of experimental hosts, we show that filarial nematodes, the parasites responsible for debilitating diseases in humans like river blindness and elephantiasis, accelerate their development in response to the IL-5 driven eosinophilia they encounter when infecting a host. Consequently they produce microfilariae, their transmission stages, earlier and in greater numbers. Eosinophilia is a primary host determinant of filarial life expectancy, operating both at larval and at late adult stages in anatomically and temporally separate locations, and is implicated in vaccine-mediated protection. Filarial nematodes are therefore able to adjust their reproductive schedules in response to an environmental predictor of their probability of survival, as proposed by evolutionary theory, thereby mitigating the effects of the immune attack to which helminths are most susceptible. Enhancing protective immunity against filarial nematodes, for example through vaccination, may be less effective at reducing transmission than would be expected and may, at worst, lead to increased transmission and, hence, pathology.

  6. The two faces of selective memory retrieval: Earlier decline of the beneficial than the detrimental effect with older age.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Alp; Schlichting, Andreas; John, Thomas; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2015-12-01

    Recent work with young adults has shown that, depending on study context access, selective memory retrieval can both impair and improve recall of other memories (Bäuml & Samenieh, 2010). Here, we investigated the 2 opposing effects of selective retrieval in older age. In Experiment 1, we examined 64 younger (20-35 years) and 64 older participants (above 60 years), and manipulated study context access using list-method directed forgetting. Whereas both age groups showed a detrimental effect of selective retrieval on to-be-remembered items, only younger but not older adults showed a beneficial effect on to-be-forgotten items. In Experiment 2, we examined 112 participants from a relatively wide age range (40-85 years), and manipulated study context access by varying the retention interval between study and test. Overall, a detrimental effect of selective retrieval arose when the retention interval was relatively short, but a beneficial effect when the retention interval was prolonged. Critically, the size of the beneficial but not the detrimental effect of retrieval decreased with age and this age-related decline was mediated by individuals' working memory capacity, as measured by the complex operation span task. Together, the results suggest an age-related dissociation in retrieval dynamics, indicating an earlier decline of the beneficial than the detrimental effect of selective retrieval with older age. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Earlier response assessment in invasive aspergillosis based on the kinetics of serum Aspergillus galactomannan: proposal for a new definition.

    PubMed

    Nouér, Simone A; Nucci, Marcio; Kumar, Naveen Sanath; Grazziutti, Monica; Barlogie, Bart; Anaissie, Elias

    2011-10-01

    Current criteria for assessing treatment response of invasive aspergillosis (IA) rely on nonspecific subjective parameters. We hypothesized that an Aspergillus-specific response definition based on the kinetics of serum Aspergillus galactomannan index (GMI) would provide earlier and more objective response assessment. We compared the 6-week European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) response criteria with GMI-based response among 115 cancer patients with IA. Success according to GMI required survival with repeatedly negative GMI for ≥2 weeks. Time to response and agreement between the 2 definitions were the study endpoints. Success according to EORTC/MSG and GMI criteria was observed in 73 patients (63%) and 83 patients (72%), respectively. The GMI-based response was determined at a median of 21 days after treatment initiation (range, 15-41 days), 3 weeks before the EORTC/MSG time point, in 72 (87%) of 83 responders. Agreement between definitions was shown in all 32 nonresponders and in 73 of the 83 responders (91% overall), with an excellent κ correlation coefficient of 0.819. Among 10 patients with discordant response (EORTC/MSG failure, GMI success), 1 is alive without IA 3 years after diagnosis; for the other, aspergillosis could not be detected at autopsy. The presence of other life-threatening complications in the remaining 8 patients indicates that IA had resolved. The Aspergillus-specific GMI-based criteria compare favorably to current response definitions for IA and significantly shorten time to response assessment. These criteria rely on a simple, reproducible, objective, and Aspergillus-specific test and should serve as the primary endpoint in trials of IA.

  8. Health Disparities in Mid-to-Late Life: The Role of Earlier Life Family and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Rucker C.; Schoeni, Robert F.; Rogowski, Jeannette A.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between neighborhoods of residence in young adulthood and health in mid to late life in the United States are examined using the 1968-2005 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). The sample consists of persons who were aged 20-30 in 1968 and are followed for a period of 38 years (N=2,730). Four-level hierarchical random effects models of self-assessed general health status as a function of individual, family, and neighborhood factors are estimated. Using the original sampling design of the PSID, we analyze adult health trajectories of married couples and neighbors followed from young adulthood through elderly ages to assess the magnitudes of the possible causal effects of family and neighborhood characteristics in young adulthood on health in mid to late life. Estimates suggest disparities in neighborhood conditions in young adulthood account for one-quarter of the variation in mid-to-late-life health. Living in poor neighborhoods during young adulthood is strongly associated with negative health outcomes in later life. This result is robust even in the presence of a reasonably large amount of potential unobservable individual and family factors that may significantly affect both neighborhood of residence and subsequent health status. Racial differences in health status in mid to late life are also associated with family and neighborhood socioeconomic conditions earlier in life. Three quarters of the black-white gap in health status at ages over 55 can be accounted for by differences in childhood socioeconomic status and neighborhood and family factors in young adulthood. PMID:22212443

  9. Adult bacterial meningitis-a quality registry study: earlier treatment and favourable outcome if initial management by infectious diseases physicians.

    PubMed

    Grindborg, Ö; Naucler, P; Sjölin, J; Glimåker, M

    2015-06-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is challenging for the admitting physician because it is a rare but fulminant disease, usually presenting without typical symptoms, and rapid treatment is pivotal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of initial management by infectious diseases (ID) physicians vs. non-ID physicians. A total of 520 consecutive adults (>17 years old), 110 with initial ID management and 410 with non-ID management, registered in the Swedish quality registry for community-acquired ABM January 2008 to December 2013, were analysed retrospectively. Primary outcome was appropriate treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids <1 hour from admission. Secondary analyses were mortality during hospital stay and persisting neurological and hearing deficits at follow-up after 2 to 6 months. Differences in diagnostic treatment sequences also were analysed. Appropriate treatment <1 hour from admission was achieved significantly more often (41%) by ID physicians vs. non-ID physicians (24%) with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.40 to 4.14; p < 0.01) adjusted for confounders. The door-to-antibiotic time was significantly shorter, and significantly more patients were administered corticosteroids together with the first doses of antibiotics in the ID group. A trend of decreased mortality (4.5% vs. 8.0%) and sequelae at follow-up (24% vs. 44%; adjusted OR 0.55: 95% CI 0.31 to 1.00; p 0.05) were observed in the ID group vs. the non-ID group. Antibiotics were started without prior neuroimaging more often in the ID group (86% vs. 57%; p < 0.001). Initial management at the emergency department by ID physicians is associated with earlier appropriate treatment, more appropriate diagnostic treatment sequences and favourable outcome. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that regulates a suite of heat stress protection genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) including previously unknown Hsf targets

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Gang-Ping; Drenth, Janneke; McIntyre, C. Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress is a significant environmental factor adversely affecting crop yield. Crop adaptation to high-temperature environments requires transcriptional reprogramming of a suite of genes involved in heat stress protection. This study investigated the role of TaHsfA6f, a member of the A6 subclass of heat shock transcription factors, in the regulation of heat stress protection genes in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), a poorly understood phenomenon in this crop species. Expression analysis showed that TaHsfA6f was expressed constitutively in green organs but was markedly up-regulated during heat stress. Overexpression of TaHsfA6f in transgenic wheat using a drought-inducible promoter resulted in up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and a number of other heat stress protection genes that included some previously unknown Hsf target genes such as Golgi anti-apoptotic protein (GAAP) and the large isoform of Rubisco activase. Transgenic wheat plants overexpressing TaHsfA6f showed improved thermotolerance. Transactivation assays showed that TaHsfA6f activated the expression of reporter genes driven by the promoters of several HSP genes (TaHSP16.8, TaHSP17, TaHSP17.3, and TaHSP90.1-A1) as well as TaGAAP and TaRof1 (a co-chaperone) under non-stress conditions. DNA binding analysis revealed the presence of high-affinity TaHsfA6f-binding heat shock element-like motifs in the promoters of these six genes. Promoter truncation and mutagenesis analyses identified TaHsfA6f-binding elements that were responsible for transactivation of TaHSP90.1-A1 and TaGAAP by TaHsfA6f. These data suggest that TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that directly regulates TaHSP, TaGAAP, and TaRof1 genes in wheat and its gene regulatory network has a positive impact on thermotolerance. PMID:25428996

  11. TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that regulates a suite of heat stress protection genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) including previously unknown Hsf targets.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gang-Ping; Drenth, Janneke; McIntyre, C Lynne

    2015-02-01

    Heat stress is a significant environmental factor adversely affecting crop yield. Crop adaptation to high-temperature environments requires transcriptional reprogramming of a suite of genes involved in heat stress protection. This study investigated the role of TaHsfA6f, a member of the A6 subclass of heat shock transcription factors, in the regulation of heat stress protection genes in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), a poorly understood phenomenon in this crop species. Expression analysis showed that TaHsfA6f was expressed constitutively in green organs but was markedly up-regulated during heat stress. Overexpression of TaHsfA6f in transgenic wheat using a drought-inducible promoter resulted in up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and a number of other heat stress protection genes that included some previously unknown Hsf target genes such as Golgi anti-apoptotic protein (GAAP) and the large isoform of Rubisco activase. Transgenic wheat plants overexpressing TaHsfA6f showed improved thermotolerance. Transactivation assays showed that TaHsfA6f activated the expression of reporter genes driven by the promoters of several HSP genes (TaHSP16.8, TaHSP17, TaHSP17.3, and TaHSP90.1-A1) as well as TaGAAP and TaRof1 (a co-chaperone) under non-stress conditions. DNA binding analysis revealed the presence of high-affinity TaHsfA6f-binding heat shock element-like motifs in the promoters of these six genes. Promoter truncation and mutagenesis analyses identified TaHsfA6f-binding elements that were responsible for transactivation of TaHSP90.1-A1 and TaGAAP by TaHsfA6f. These data suggest that TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that directly regulates TaHSP, TaGAAP, and TaRof1 genes in wheat and its gene regulatory network has a positive impact on thermotolerance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Resistance to Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin accumulation in maize inbred lines involves an earlier and enhanced expression of lipoxygenase (LOX) genes.

    PubMed

    Maschietto, Valentina; Marocco, Adriano; Malachova, Alexandra; Lanubile, Alessandra

    2015-09-01

    Fusarium verticillioides causes ear rot in maize and contaminates the kernels with the fumonisin mycotoxins. It is known that plant lipoxygenase (LOX)-derived oxylipins regulate defence against pathogens and that the host-pathogen lipid cross-talk influences the pathogenesis. The expression profiles of fifteen genes of the LOX pathway were studied in kernels of resistant and susceptible maize lines, grown in field condition, at 3, 7 and 14 days post inoculation (dpi) with F. verticillioides. Plant defence responses were correlated with the pathogen growth, the expression profiles of fungal FUM genes for fumonisin biosynthesis and fumonisin content in the kernels. The resistant genotype limited fungal growth and fumonisin accumulation between 7 and 14 dpi. Pathogen growth became exponential in the susceptible line after 7 dpi, in correspondence with massive transcription of FUM genes and fumonisins augmented exponentially at 14 dpi. LOX pathway genes resulted strongly induced after pathogen inoculation in the resistant line at 3 and 7 dpi, whilst in the susceptible line the induction was reduced or delayed at 14 dpi. In addition, all genes resulted overexpressed before infection in kernels of the resistant genotype already at 3 dpi. The results suggest that resistance in maize may depend on an earlier activation of LOX genes and genes for jasmonic acid biosynthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Earlier growing seasons and changes in migration timing influence carbon uptake and plant production in Arctic coastal wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leffler, A. J.; Beard, K. H.; Kelsey, K.; Choi, R. T.; Welker, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The wetlands of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska are important breeding areas for geese and are experiencing rapid climate change, specifically earlier onset of the growing season. Consequently, geese arrive 'later' in the growing season than in the past, potentially setting up a phenological mismatch with consequences for their nutrition, plant growth, and C and N processes in the ecosystem. We examined the interactive effects between the start of the growing season and Black Brant arrival time on these processes in a manipulative experiment. Advancing the growing season had a modest influence on CO2 exchange and plant growth. An early growing season shifted the rate of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) by 1-1.5 µmol m-2 s-1 toward a carbon (C) source. This change was driven by an increase in the rate of ecosystem respiration (ER). The advanced growing season nearly doubled the rate of leaf elongation in the early summer and this difference persisted as taller vegetation later in the year; belowground biomass was not affected. Timing of grazing had greater influence on CO2 exchange and plant growth. Grazing early in the season shifted the system to a carbon source by ca. 2 μmol m-2 s-1 while delaying grazing enhanced the carbon sink by 1 μmol m-2 s-1. Here, the influence was not through ER, but through reducing and enhancing standing leaf area, respectively. Early grazing also reduced season-long root production by over 50% while delayed grazing enhanced root production by 30%. Although delaying grazing enhanced C uptake and promoted plant growth in this ecosystem, leaf tissue in delayed-grazing plots had C:N of 16.7 compared to 14.2 in the typical-grazing plots, potentially reducing the digestibility of goose forage and slowing rates of decomposition. Biotic forcing in arctic tundra can thus be major drivers of ecosystem function and need to be considered as tundra system respond to changing conditions.

  14. Preoperative left ventricular internal dimension in end-diastole as earlier identification of early patent ductus arteriosus operation and postoperative intensive care in very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Saida, Ken; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Hiroma, Takehiko; Takigiku, Kiyohiro; Yasukochi, Satoshi

    2013-10-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is common in premature infants. In very low birth weight infants (VLBWI), PDA requires surgical therapy in many cases. It is unclear to know at-risk infants showing cardio-dysfunction after PDA surgery. The purpose of this study was to identify at-risk infants showing cardio-dysfunction after surgery for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). We examined the relationship between left ventricular (LV) performance before and after PDA ligation in a retrospective observational cohort study. We studied 64 preterm neonates with symptomatic PDA before and after surgical ligation. Echocardiographic examinations were performed pre- and postoperatively. M-mode measurements included left ventricular internal dimension in end-diastole (LVIDd) and LV fractional shortening (FS). All cases showed decreased LVFS after PDA closure. Most cases (49/64, 77%) showed postoperative FS decreased to below normal (<28%). Preoperative relative LVIDd was significantly larger in abnormal FS infants (137 ± 18%) than in normal FS infants (118 ± 11%; p<0.01). A cut-off value of preoperative relative LVIDd (absolute LVIDd/normal value) for predicting postoperative cardio-dysfunction was 127.4% (sensitivity, 0.735; specificity, 0.933; area under curve, 0.817). Determination of preoperative LVIDd might facilitate earlier identification of infants needing early PDA surgery and postoperative intensive care. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. In Vitro Activity of the Siderophore Cephalosporin, Cefiderocol, against a Recent Collection of Clinically Relevant Gram-Negative Bacilli from North America and Europe, Including Carbapenem-Nonsusceptible Isolates (SIDERO-WT-2014 Study).

    PubMed

    Hackel, Meredith A; Tsuji, Masakatsu; Yamano, Yoshinori; Echols, Roger; Karlowsky, James A; Sahm, Daniel F

    2017-09-01

    Cefiderocol (formerly S-649266) is an investigational siderophore cephalosporin. Iron-depleted cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth (ID-CAMHB) was prepared according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) protocol and used to perform broth microdilution testing of cefiderocol against a 2014-2015 collection of clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacilli from North America ( n = 4,239) and Europe ( n = 4,966). The concentrations of cefiderocol inhibiting 90% of isolates tested (MIC 90 s) were 0.5 μg/ml (North America; n = 3,007) and 1 μg/ml (Europe; n = 3,080) for all isolates of Enterobacteriaceae ; 1 μg/ml (North America; n = 30) and 4 μg/ml (Europe; n = 139) for meropenem-nonsusceptible (MIC ≥ 2 μg/ml) isolates of Enterobacteriaceae ; 0.5 μg/ml for both North American ( n = 765) and European ( n = 765) isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ; 0.5 μg/ml (North America; n = 151) and 1 μg/ml (Europe; n = 202) for meropenem-nonsusceptible (MIC ≥ 4 μg/ml) isolates of P. aeruginosa ; 1 μg/ml for both North American ( n = 309) and European ( n = 839) isolates of all Acinetobacter baumannii strains as well as for both North American ( n = 173) and European ( n = 595) isolates of meropenem-nonsusceptible A. baumannii ; and 0.5μg/ml (North America; n = 152) and 0.25 μg/ml (Europe; n = 276) for isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia MICs of cefiderocol were ≤4 μg/ml for 99.9% (6,078/6,087) of all Enterobacteriaceae , 97.0% (164/169) of meropenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae , 99.9% (1,529/1,530) of all P. aeruginosa isolates, 100% (353/353) of meropenem-nonsusceptible P. aeruginosa isolates, 97.6% (1,120/1,148) of all A. baumannii isolates, 96.9% (744/768) of meropenem-nonsusceptible A. baumannii isolates, 100% of isolates of S. maltophilia (428/428) and 93.8% of isolates of Burkholderia cepecia (11/12). We conclude that cefiderocol demonstrated potent in vitro activity against a recent collection of clinical isolates of commonly

  16. A Kinome-Wide Small Interfering RNA Screen Identifies Proviral and Antiviral Host Factors in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Replication, Including Double-Stranded RNA-Activated Protein Kinase and Early Secretory Pathway Proteins

    PubMed Central

    de Wilde, Adriaan H.; Wannee, Kazimier F.; Scholte, Florine E. M.; Goeman, Jelle J.; ten Dijke, Peter; Snijder, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To identify host factors relevant for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) replication, we performed a small interfering RNA (siRNA) library screen targeting the human kinome. Protein kinases are key regulators of many cellular functions, and the systematic knockdown of their expression should provide a broad perspective on factors and pathways promoting or antagonizing coronavirus replication. In addition to 40 proteins that promote SARS-CoV replication, our study identified 90 factors exhibiting an antiviral effect. Pathway analysis grouped subsets of these factors in specific cellular processes, including the innate immune response and the metabolism of complex lipids, which appear to play a role in SARS-CoV infection. Several factors were selected for in-depth validation in follow-up experiments. In cells depleted for the β2 subunit of the coatomer protein complex (COPB2), the strongest proviral hit, we observed reduced SARS-CoV protein expression and a >2-log reduction in virus yield. Knockdown of the COPB2-related proteins COPB1 and Golgi-specific brefeldin A-resistant guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (GBF1) also suggested that COPI-coated vesicles and/or the early secretory pathway are important for SARS-CoV replication. Depletion of the antiviral double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) enhanced virus replication in the primary screen, and validation experiments confirmed increased SARS-CoV protein expression and virus production upon PKR depletion. In addition, cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) was identified as a novel antiviral host factor in SARS-CoV replication. The inventory of pro- and antiviral host factors and pathways described here substantiates and expands our understanding of SARS-CoV replication and may contribute to the identification of novel targets for antiviral therapy. IMPORTANCE Replication of all viruses, including SARS-CoV, depends on and is influenced by cellular pathways. Although

  17. Comparative reactivity of TpRu(L)(NCMe)Ph (L = CO or PMe3): impact of ancillary ligand l on activation of carbon-hydrogen bonds including catalytic hydroarylation and hydrovinylation/oligomerization of ethylene.

    PubMed

    Foley, Nicholas A; Lail, Marty; Lee, John P; Gunnoe, T Brent; Cundari, Thomas R; Petersen, Jeffrey L

    2007-05-30

    Complexes of the type TpRu(L)(NCMe)R [L = CO or PMe3; R = Ph or Me; Tp = hydridotris(pyrazolyl)borate] initiate C-H activation of benzene. Kinetic studies, isotopic labeling, and other experimental evidence suggest that the mechanism of benzene C-H activation involves reversible dissociation of acetonitrile, reversible benzene coordination, and rate-determining C-H activation of coordinated benzene. TpRu(PMe3)(NCMe)Ph initiates C-D activation of C6D6 at rates that are approximately 2-3 times more rapid than that for TpRu(CO)(NCMe)Ph (depending on substrate concentration); however, the catalytic hydrophenylation of ethylene using TpRu(PMe3)(NCMe)Ph is substantially less efficient than catalysis with TpRu(CO)(NCMe)Ph. For TpRu(PMe3)(NCMe)Ph, C-H activation of ethylene, to ultimately produce TpRu(PMe3)(eta3-C4H7), is found to kinetically compete with catalytic ethylene hydrophenylation. In THF solutions containing ethylene, TpRu(PMe3)(NCMe)Ph and TpRu(CO)(NCMe)Ph separately convert to TpRu(L)(eta3-C4H7) (L = PMe3 or CO, respectively) via initial Ru-mediated ethylene C-H activation. Heating mesitylene solutions of TpRu(L)(eta3-C4H7) under ethylene pressure results in the catalytic production of butenes (i.e., ethylene hydrovinylation) and hexenes.

  18. Unresolved grief and its consequences. A nationwide follow-up of teenage loss of a parent to cancer 6-9 years earlier.

    PubMed

    Bylund-Grenklo, T; Fürst, C J; Nyberg, T; Steineck, G; Kreicbergs, U

    2016-07-01

    The early loss of a parent is a tragedy and a serious life event. This study investigated grief resolution and morbidity in cancer-bereaved teenagers 6 to 9 years after the loss of a parent to cancer. In a nationwide population-based study of 622 of 851 (73 %) youths who as teenagers 6 to 9 years earlier had lost a parent to cancer, we explored the magnitude of unresolved grief and its association with psychological and physiological morbidity. Participants answered a study-specific anonymous questionnaire including questions about if they had worked through their grief and about their current health. Six to nine years post-loss 49 % reported unresolved grief (8 % no and 41 % a little grief resolution). They had, in comparison with youths reporting resolved grief, statistically significantly elevated risks, e.g. for insomnia (sons' relative risk (RR) 2.3, 95 % CI 1.3-4.0; daughters' RR 1.7, 95 % CI 1.1-2.7), fatigue (sons' RR 1.8, 95 % CI 1.3-2.5; daughters' RR 1.4, 95 % CI 1.1-1.7) and moderate to severe depression, i.e. score >9, PHQ-9 (sons' RR 3.6, 95 % CI 1.4-8.8; daughters' RR 1.8, 95 % CI 1.1-3.1). Associations remained for insomnia in sons, exhaustion in daughters and fatigue in both sons and daughters when depression, negative intrusive thoughts and avoiding reminders of the parents' disease or death were included in a model. Approximately half of cancer-bereaved youth report no or little grief resolution 6 to 9 years post-loss, which is associated with fatigue, sleeping problems and depressive symptoms.

  19. Variations in a university subject pool as a function of earlier or later participation and self-report: a replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Larry C; Walsh, R Patricia

    2002-10-01

    The present study replicated and extended earlier research on temporal sampling effects in university subject pools. Data were obtained from 236 participants, 79 men and 157 women, in a university subject pool during a 15-wk. semester. Without knowing the purpose of the study, participants self-selected to participate earlier (Weeks 4 and 5; n = 105) or later (Weeks 14 and 15; n = 131). Three hypotheses were investigated: (1) that the personality patterns of earlier and later participants on the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and the Personality Research Form differ significantly, with earlier participants scoring higher on the latter scales reflecting social responsibility and higher on former Conscientiousness and Neuroticism scales; (2) that there are similar significant differences between participants in the earlier and later groups compared to the male and female college normative samples for the two tests: and (3) that earlier participants will have higher actual Scholastic Assessment Test scores and Grade Point Averages. Also investigated was whether participants' foreknowledge that their actual Scholastic Assessment Test scores and Grade Point Averages would be obtained would affect their accuracy of self-report. In contrast to prior research, neither the first nor second hypothesis was supported by the current study; there do not appear to be consistent differences on personality variables. However, the third hypothesis was supported. Earlier participants had higher actual high school Grade Point Average, college Grade Point Average, and Scholastic Assessment Test Verbal scores. Foreknowledge that actual Scholastic Assessment Test scores and Grade Point Averages would be obtained did not affect the accuracy of self-report. In addition, later participants significantly over-reported their scores, and significantly more women than men and more first-year than senior-year subjects participated in the early group.

  20. Specific anti-EL4-lymphoma immunity in mice cured 2 years earlier with doxorubicin and interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Ehrke, M J; Verstovsek, S; Zaleskis, G; Ho, R L; Ujházy, P; Maccubbin, D L; Mihich, E

    1996-05-01

    This laboratory has reported the conditions for an effective, non-toxic, chemoimmunotherapy utilizing doxorubicin in combination with prolonged administration of interleukin-2 and the identification of the critical role of activated CD8+ T cells in the therapeutic effect. Mice (C57BL/6) cured in those studies have been followed for the remainder of their life spans. These mice, approximately 2 months of age when initially inoculated with syngeneic EL4 lymphoma, survived for more than 2 years, the normal life span of C57BL/6 mice. Mice 4 months old reinoculated with the EL4 cells all survived. At about 1 year of age mice were sacrificed and the ability of their thymocytes and splenocytes to develop specific CD8+ anti-EL4 activity was as high as it had been at the time of tumor rejection. At about 2 years of age EL4 was reimplanted into mice; all of them survived. These surviving mice, at 2 years 2 months of age, as well as a group of 2-year-old mice not rechallenged, were killed and functional antitumor activity and phenotype characteristics of various lymphocyte populations were determined in comparison to those of young and age-matched control mice. The phenotyping of the lymphocytes from the cured mice indicated very notable differences in subset distribution and increased CD44 expression. Functionally they developed high levels of anti-EL4 activity, which was ablated by combined treatment with monoclonal antibodies against CD8 and CD44, indicating the role of memory cells. Consistent with cells from aged mice, these same cell populations had a very reduced allogeneic responsiveness. It appears that cured mice have developed an immune memory specific for EL4.

  1. Earlier defibrotide initiation post-diagnosis of veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome improves Day +100 survival following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Paul G; Smith, Angela R; Triplett, Brandon M; Kernan, Nancy A; Grupp, Stephan A; Antin, Joseph H; Lehmann, Leslie; Miloslavsky, Maja; Hume, Robin; Hannah, Alison L; Nejadnik, Bijan; Soiffer, Robert J

    2017-07-01

    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) is a progressive, potentially fatal complication of conditioning for haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). The VOD/SOS pathophysiological cascade involves endothelial-cell activation and damage, and a prothrombotic-hypofibrinolytic state. Severe VOD/SOS (typically characterized by multi-organ dysfunction) may be associated with >80% mortality. Defibrotide is approved for treating severe hepatic VOD/SOS post-HSCT in the European Union, and for hepatic VOD/SOS with renal or pulmonary dysfunction post-HSCT in the United States. Previously, defibrotide (25 mg/kg/day in 4 divided doses for a recommended ≥21 days) was available through an expanded-access treatment protocol for patients with VOD/SOS. Data from this study were examined post-hoc to determine if the timing of defibrotide initiation post-VOD/SOS diagnosis affected Day +100 survival post-HSCT. Among 573 patients, defibrotide was started on the day of VOD/SOS diagnosis in approximately 30%, and within 7 days in >90%. The relationship between Day +100 survival and treatment initiation before/after specific days post-diagnosis showed superior survival when treatment was initiated closer to VOD/SOS diagnosis with a statistically significant trend over time for better outcomes with earlier treatment initiation (P < 0·001). These results suggest that initiation of defibrotide should not be delayed after diagnosis of VOD/SOS. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Haematology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Ensemble Response in Mushroom Body Output Neurons of the Honey Bee Outpaces Spatiotemporal Odor Processing Two Synapses Earlier in the Antennal Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Strube-Bloss, Martin F.; Herrera-Valdez, Marco A.; Smith, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Neural representations of odors are subject to computations that involve sequentially convergent and divergent anatomical connections across different areas of the brains in both mammals and insects. Furthermore, in both mammals and insects higher order brain areas are connected via feedback connections. In order to understand the transformations and interactions that this connectivity make possible, an ideal experiment would compare neural responses across different, sequential processing levels. Here we present results of recordings from a first order olfactory neuropile – the antennal lobe (AL) – and a higher order multimodal integration and learning center – the mushroom body (MB) – in the honey bee brain. We recorded projection neurons (PN) of the AL and extrinsic neurons (EN) of the MB, which provide the outputs from the two neuropils. Recordings at each level were made in different animals in some experiments and simultaneously in the same animal in others. We presented two odors and their mixture to compare odor response dynamics as well as classification speed and accuracy at each neural processing level. Surprisingly, the EN ensemble significantly starts separating odor stimuli rapidly and before the PN ensemble has reached significant separation. Furthermore the EN ensemble at the MB output reaches a maximum separation of odors between 84–120 ms after odor onset, which is 26 to 133 ms faster than the maximum separation at the AL output ensemble two synapses earlier in processing. It is likely that a subset of very fast PNs, which respond before the ENs, may initiate the rapid EN ensemble response. We suggest therefore that the timing of the EN ensemble activity would allow retroactive integration of its signal into the ongoing computation of the AL via centrifugal feedback. PMID:23209711

  3. From the lab - CancerSEEK: Blood Test Could Detect Cancer Earlier | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... is supported by NIH, in a recent blog post. “CancerSEEK was able to detect most cases of eight different kinds of cancer, including some highly lethal forms that currently lack screening tests,” Dr. Collins said. The CancerSEEK trial tested breast, ...

  4. Further investigation of the spontaneous and evoked activity of the primary neurons of statoreceptors (and other receptors) of the labyrinth of the bullfrog before, during and after an extended period of weightlessness, including alternative intervals of artificial gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Vestibular neuron activity was examined by studying nerve stimulation and evoked response. A cooling element, applied to the nerve consisted of a silver hook through which a coolant fluid flowed. Temperature changes were recorded via microtermistors on an eight channel brush recorder, together with response. Diffusion of the cooling effect was measured, recovery time was assessed, and the nerve was then studied hystologically and ultrastructurally. Problems in frog preparation were discussed along with problems in maintaining healthy specimens and bacteria controlled aquaria.

  5. The association between peer, parental influence and tobacco product features and earlier age of onset of regular smoking among adults in 27 European countries.

    PubMed

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Agaku, Israel T; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2015-10-01

    Factors that influence smoking initiation and age of smoking onset are important considerations in tobacco control. We evaluated European Union (EU)-wide differences in the age of onset of regular smoking, and the potential role of peer, parental and tobacco product design features on the earlier onset of regular smoking among adults <40 years old in 27 EU countries. We analysed data from 4442 current and former smokers aged 15-39 years, collected for the Eurobarometer 77.1 survey (2012). Respondents reported their age at regular smoking onset and factors that influenced their decision to start smoking, including peer influence, parental influence and features of tobacco products. Multi-variable logistic regression, adjusted for age; geographic region; education; difficulty to pay bills; and gender, was used to assess the role of the various pro-tobacco influences on early onset of regular smoking (i.e. <18 years). Among ever smokers, the mean age of onset of regular smoking was 16.6 years, ranging from 15.8 to 18.8 years in member countries. 68.1% responded that they started smoking regularly when they were <18 years old. Ever smokers who reported they were influenced by peers (OR = 1.70; 95%CI 1.30-2.20) or parents (OR = 1.60; 95%CI 1.21-2.12) were more likely to have started smoking regularly <18 years old. No significant association between design and marketing features of tobacco products and an early initiation of regular smoking was observed (OR = 1.04; 95%CI 0.83-1.31). We identified major differences in smoking initiation patterns among EU countries, which may warrant different approaches in the prevention of tobacco use. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  6. The diagnostic value of earlier and later components of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMP) in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriadou, A; Deftereos, S N; Zarikas, V; Panagopoulos, G; Sfetsos, S; Karageorgiou, C L; Ferekidou, E; Kandiloros, D; Korres, S

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of VEMP to disclose spatial dissemination of Multiple Sclerosis. Forty-six MS patients with auditory and/or vestibular symptoms were studied. Patients were divided in two groups. Group 1 included 24 patients with brainstem MRI findings, and Group 2 included 22 patients without MRI findings. VEMP and BAEP have been recorded and assessed. Abnormal p13n23 wave was observed in 50%, while unilateral absence or bilateral delay of the n34p44 in 43% of the patients. The overall diagnostic value considering abnormal cases suggested by both first and second VEMP waves was increased to 71%. Statistically significant differences revealed between patients and controls for p13 latency (p=0.018). The p13n23 was abnormal in 7 patients, although MRI scanning did not reveal brainstem lesions. In 9 out of 18 MS patients suffering from unilateral hearing loss, n34p44 was present in the unaffected ears and absent in the affected side, although p13n23 was normal. Abnormal VEMP imply the presence of lesions undetected by MRI neuroimaging, which verifies the diagnostic value of the method. Unilateral absence of n34p44 complex was related with sensorineural hearing loss, supporting the hypothesis that n34p44 is of cochlear origin.

  7. Molecular genetic responses to lysergic acid diethylamide include transcriptional activation of MAP kinase phosphatase-1, C/EBP-beta and ILAD-1, a novel gene with homology to arrestins.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Charles D; Sanders-Bush, Elaine

    2004-08-01

    We recently demonstrated that the potent hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) dynamically influences the expression of a small collection of genes within the mammalian prefrontal cortex. Towards generating a greater understanding of the molecular genetic effects of hallucinogens and how they may relate to alterations in behavior, we have identified and characterized expression patterns of a new collection of three genes increased in expression by acute LSD administration. These genes were identified through additional screens of Affymetrix DNA microarrays and examined in experiments to assess dose-response, time course and the receptor mediating the expression changes. The first induced gene, C/EBP-beta, is a transcription factor. The second gene, MKP-1, suggests that LSD activates the MAP (mitogen activated protein) kinase pathway. The third gene, ILAD-1, demonstrates sequence similarity to the arrestins. The increase in expression of each gene was partially mediated through LSD interactions at 5-HT2A (serotonin) receptors. There is evidence of alternative splicing at the ILAD-1 locus. Furthermore, data suggests that various splice isoforms of ILAD-1 respond differently at the transcriptional level to LSD. The genes thus far found to be responsive to LSD are beginning to give a more complete picture of the complex intracellular events initiated by hallucinogens.

  8. Colonization by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus versiforme induces a defense response against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in the grapevine (Vitis amurensis Rupr.), which includes transcriptional activation of the class III chitinase gene VCH3.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Yan; Yang, Guo-Dong; Shu, Huai-Rui; Yang, Yu-Tao; Ye, Bao-Xing; Nishida, Ikuo; Zheng, Cheng-Chao

    2006-01-01

    Inoculation of the grapevine (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus versiforme significantly increased resistance against the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita. Studies using relative quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RQRT-PCR) analysis of grapevine root inoculation with the AM fungus revealed an up-regulation of VCH3 transcripts. This increase was greater than that observed following infection with RKN. However, inoculation of the mycorrhizal grapevine roots with RKN was able to enhance VCH3 transcript expression further. Moreover, the increase in VCH3 transcripts appeared to result in a higher level of resistance against subsequent RKN infection. Constitutive expression of VCH3 cDNA in transgenic tobacco under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter also conferred resistance against RKN, but had no significant effect on the growth of the AM fungus. We analyzed beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity directed by a 1,216 bp VCH3 promoter in transgenic tobacco following inoculation with both the AM fungus and RKN. GUS activity was negligible in the root tissues before inoculation, and was more effectively induced after inoculation with the AM fungus than with RKN. Moreover, GUS staining in the mycorrhizal transgenic tobacco roots was enhanced by subsequent RKN infection, and was found ubiquitously throughout the whole root tissue. Together, these results suggest that AM fungus induced a defense response against RKN in the mycorrhizal grapevine roots, which appeared to involve transcriptional control of VCH3 expression throughout the whole root tissue.

  9. Including Students with Visual Impairments: Softball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brian, Ali; Haegele, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that while students with visual impairments are likely to be included in general physical education programs, they may not be as active as their typically developing peers. This article provides ideas for equipment modifications and game-like progressions for one popular physical education unit, softball. The purpose of these…

  10. FLUXNET2015 Dataset: Batteries included

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastorello, G.; Papale, D.; Agarwal, D.; Trotta, C.; Chu, H.; Canfora, E.; Torn, M. S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis datasets have become one of the signature products of the FLUXNET global network. They are composed from contributions of individual site teams to regional networks, being then compiled into uniform data products - now used in a wide variety of research efforts: from plant-scale microbiology to global-scale climate change. The FLUXNET Marconi Dataset in 2000 was the first in the series, followed by the FLUXNET LaThuile Dataset in 2007, with significant additions of data products and coverage, solidifying the adoption of the datasets as a research tool. The FLUXNET2015 Dataset counts with another round of substantial improvements, including extended quality control processes and checks, use of downscaled reanalysis data for filling long gaps in micrometeorological variables, multiple methods for USTAR threshold estimation and flux partitioning, and uncertainty estimates - all of which accompanied by auxiliary flags. This "batteries included" approach provides a lot of information for someone who wants to explore the data (and the processing methods) in detail. This inevitably leads to a large number of data variables. Although dealing with all these variables might seem overwhelming at first, especially to someone looking at eddy covariance data for the first time, there is method to our madness. In this work we describe the data products and variables that are part of the FLUXNET2015 Dataset, and the rationale behind the organization of the dataset, covering the simplified version (labeled SUBSET), the complete version (labeled FULLSET), and the auxiliary products in the dataset.

  11. Health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of earlier eligibility for adult antiretroviral therapy and expanded treatment coverage: a combined analysis of 12 mathematical models.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Jeffrey W; Menzies, Nicolas A; Stover, John; Cambiano, Valentina; Chindelevitch, Leonid; Cori, Anne; Hontelez, Jan A C; Humair, Salal; Kerr, Cliff C; Klein, Daniel J; Mishra, Sharmistha; Mitchell, Kate M; Nichols, Brooke E; Vickerman, Peter; Bakker, Roel; Bärnighausen, Till; Bershteyn, Anna; Bloom, David E; Boily, Marie-Claude; Chang, Stewart T; Cohen, Ted; Dodd, Peter J; Fraser, Christophe; Gopalappa, Chaitra; Lundgren, Jens; Martin, Natasha K; Mikkelsen, Evelinn; Mountain, Elisa; Pham, Quang D; Pickles, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Platt, Lucy; Pretorius, Carel; Prudden, Holly J; Salomon, Joshua A; van de Vijver, David A M C; de Vlas, Sake J; Wagner, Bradley G; White, Richard G; Wilson, David P; Zhang, Lei; Blandford, John; Meyer-Rath, Gesine; Remme, Michelle; Revill, Paul; Sangrujee, Nalinee; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Doherty, Meg; Shaffer, Nathan; Easterbrook, Philippa J; Hirnschall, Gottfried; Hallett, Timothy B

    2014-01-01

    New WHO guidelines recommend initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-positive adults with CD4 counts of 500 cells per μL or less, a higher threshold than was previously recommended. Country decision makers have to decide whether to further expand eligibility for antiretroviral therapy accordingly. We aimed to assess the potential health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of various eligibility criteria for adult antiretroviral therapy and expanded treatment coverage. We used several independent mathematical models in four settings-South Africa (generalised epidemic, moderate antiretroviral therapy coverage), Zambia (generalised epidemic, high antiretroviral therapy coverage), India (concentrated epidemic, moderate antiretroviral therapy coverage), and Vietnam (concentrated epidemic, low antiretroviral therapy coverage)-to assess the potential health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of various eligibility criteria for adult antiretroviral therapy under scenarios of existing and expanded treatment coverage, with results projected over 20 years. Analyses assessed the extension of eligibility to include individuals with CD4 counts of 500 cells per μL or less, or all HIV-positive adults, compared with the previous (2010) recommendation of initiation with CD4 counts of 350 cells per μL or less. We assessed costs from a health-system perspective, and calculated the incremental cost (in US$) per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted to compare competing strategies. Strategies were regarded very cost effective if the cost per DALY averted was less than the country's 2012 per-head gross domestic product (GDP; South Africa: $8040; Zambia: $1425; India: $1489; Vietnam: $1407) and cost effective if the cost per DALY averted was less than three times the per-head GDP. In South Africa, the cost per DALY averted of extending eligibility for antiretroviral therapy to adult patients with CD4 counts of 500 cells per μL or less ranged from $237 to $1691 per

  12. Toward Earlier Inclusion of Pregnant and Postpartum Women in Tuberculosis Drug Trials: Consensus Statements From an International Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Amita; Mathad, Jyoti S.; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M.; Albano, Jessica D.; Botgros, Radu; Brown, Vikki; Browning, Renee S.; Dawson, Liza; Dooley, Kelly E.; Gnanashanmugam, Devasena; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Kim, Peter; Lyerly, Anne D.; Mirochnick, Mark; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Montepiedra, Grace; Piper, Jeanna; Sahin, Leyla; Savic, Radojka; Smith, Betsy; Spiegel, Hans; Swaminathan, Soumya; Watts, D. Heather; White, Amina

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women of childbearing age (15–44 years). Despite increased tuberculosis risk during pregnancy, optimal clinical treatment remains unclear: safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic data for many tuberculosis drugs are lacking, and trials of promising new tuberculosis drugs exclude pregnant women. To advance inclusion of pregnant and postpartum women in tuberculosis drug trials, the US National Institutes of Health convened an international expert panel. Discussions generated consensus statements (>75% agreement among panelists) identifying high-priority research areas during pregnancy, including: (1) preventing progression of latent tuberculosis infection, especially in women coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus; (2) evaluating new agents/regimens for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; and (3) evaluating safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of tuberculosis drugs already in use during pregnancy and postpartum. Incorporating pregnant women into clinical trials would extend evidence-based tuberculosis prevention and treatment standards to this special population. PMID:26658057

  13. Treatment Effect in Earlier Trials of Patients With Chronic Medical Conditions: A Meta-Epidemiologic Study.

    PubMed

    Alahdab, Fares; Farah, Wigdan; Almasri, Jehad; Barrionuevo, Patricia; Zaiem, Feras; Benkhadra, Raed; Asi, Noor; Alsawas, Mouaz; Pang, Yifan; Ahmed, Ahmed T; Rajjo, Tamim; Kanwar, Amrit; Benkhadra, Khalid; Razouki, Zayd; Murad, M Hassan; Wang, Zhen

    2018-03-01

    To determine whether the early trials in chronic medical conditions demonstrate an effect size that is larger than that in subsequent trials. We identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating a drug or device in patients with chronic medical conditions through meta-analyses (MAs) published between January 1, 2007, and June 23, 2015, in the 10 general medical journals with highest impact factor. We estimated the prevalence of having the largest effect size or heterogeneity in the first 2 published trials. We evaluated the association of the exaggerated early effect with several a priori hypothesized explanatory variables. We included 70 MAs that had included a total of 930 trials (average of 13 [range, 5-48] RCTs per MA) with average follow-up of 24 (range, 1-168) months. The prevalence of the exaggerated early effect (ie, proportion of MAs with largest effect or heterogeneity in the first 2 trials) was 37%. These early trials had an effect size that was on average 2.67 times larger than the overall pooled effect size (ratio of relative effects, 2.67; 95% CI, 2.12-3.37). The presence of exaggerated effect was not significantly associated with trial size; number of events; length of follow-up; intervention duration; number of study sites; inpatient versus outpatient setting; funding source; stopping a trial early; adequacy of random sequence generation, allocation concealment, or blinding; loss to follow-up or the test for publication bias. Trials evaluating treatments of chronic medical conditions published early in the chain of evidence commonly demonstrate an exaggerated treatment effect compared with subsequent trials. At the present time, this phenomenon remains unpredictable. Considering the increasing morbidity and mortality of chronic medical conditions, decision makers should act on early evidence with caution. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Foreign Language Textbook Activities: Keeping Pace with Second Language Acquisition Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aski, Janice M.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research in second language acquisition found that learners reached higher levels of achievement when grammar practice included the processing and negotiation of meaning. Explored the degree to which certain textbook activities reflected earlier findings. Activities for two grammar points from Italian texts still rely heavily on…

  15. Families classification including multiopposition asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Andrea; Spoto, Federica; Knežević, Zoran; Novaković, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of our new classification of asteroid families, upgraded by using catalog with > 500,000 asteroids. We discuss the outcome of the most recent update of the family list and of their membership. We found enough evidence to perform 9 mergers of the previously independent families. By introducing an improved method of estimation of the expected family growth in the less populous regions (e.g. at high inclination) we were able to reliably decide on rejection of one tiny group as a probable statistical fluke. Thus we reduced our current list to 115 families. We also present newly determined ages for 6 families, including complex 135 and 221, improving also our understanding of the dynamical vs. collisional families relationship. We conclude with some recommendations for the future work and for the family name problem.

  16. Neoclassical transport including collisional nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Candy, J; Belli, E A

    2011-06-10

    In the standard δf theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction δf is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlüter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  17. A mammary cell-specific enhancer in mouse mammary tumor virus DNA is composed of multiple regulatory elements including binding sites for CTF/NFI and a novel transcription factor, mammary cell-activating factor.

    PubMed Central

    Mink, S; Härtig, E; Jennewein, P; Doppler, W; Cato, A C

    1992-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a milk-transmitted retrovirus involved in the neoplastic transformation of mouse mammary gland cells. The expression of this virus is regulated by mammary cell type-specific factors, steroid hormones, and polypeptide growth factors. Sequences for mammary cell-specific expression are located in an enhancer element in the extreme 5' end of the long terminal repeat region of this virus. This enhancer, when cloned in front of the herpes simplex thymidine kinase promoter, endows the promoter with mammary cell-specific response. Using functional and DNA-protein-binding studies with constructs mutated in the MMTV long terminal repeat enhancer, we have identified two main regulatory elements necessary for the mammary cell-specific response. These elements consist of binding sites for a transcription factor in the family of CTF/NFI proteins and the transcription factor mammary cell-activating factor (MAF) that recognizes the sequence G Pu Pu G C/G A A G G/T. Combinations of CTF/NFI- and MAF-binding sites or multiple copies of either one of these binding sites but not solitary binding sites mediate mammary cell-specific expression. The functional activities of these two regulatory elements are enhanced by another factor that binds to the core sequence ACAAAG. Interdigitated binding sites for CTF/NFI, MAF, and/or the ACAAAG factor are also found in the 5' upstream regions of genes encoding whey milk proteins from different species. These findings suggest that mammary cell-specific regulation is achieved by a concerted action of factors binding to multiple regulatory sites. Images PMID:1328867

  18. 2011 Annual Survey of Journalism and Mass Communication Enrollments: Enrollments Decline, Reversing the Increase of a Year Earlier, and Suggesting Slow Growth for Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Kalpen, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    Enrollments in journalism and mass communication programs declined in the autumn of 2011, compared to a year earlier. Enrollments were down slightly at the senior and junior levels and substantially at the freshman level. Enrollment increased at the sophomore level. The majority of administrators say they have made curricular changes in the past…

  19. The use of biomarkers and molecular methods for the earlier diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Ambasta, Anshula; Carson, Julie; Church, Deirdre L

    2015-08-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is an opportunistic infection that is often life threatening in the immunocompromised host. Early diagnosis is critical, especially given the efficacy and availability of several new anti-fungal therapies. Current (2008) diagnostic criteria have limited ability to detect early infection and are aimed at establishing disease. Although histopathology and culture techniques have traditionally been used to make a proven diagnosis of IA, their dependence on tissue samples and slow turnaround times hamper early confirmation of IA. Serologic detection of circulating galactomannan and 1,3-β-D-glucan fungal biomarkers show promise for improving the diagnosis of IA, and their use is included in the EORTC/MSG diagnostic criteria for IA. Numerous studies have evaluated the diagnostic performance of these two biomarkers and shown that they have suboptimal sensitivity when used alone for early diagnosis of proven IA. Currently available molecular assays also suffer from a lack of standardization. Evaluation of the use of different combinations of test methods to enhance diagnostic accuracy is also being done but prompt, accurate diagnosis of IA remains a clinical and diagnostic challenge. The clinical validity and limitations of biomarkers and current molecular methods for the early diagnosis of IA are summarized in this review with respect to the different patient populations at risk for this serious infection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Infliximab, adalimumab and golimumab for treating moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis after the failure of conventional therapy (including a review of TA140 and TA262): clinical effectiveness systematic review and economic model.

    PubMed

    Archer, Rachel; Tappenden, Paul; Ren, Shijie; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Harvey, Rebecca; Basarir, Hasan; Stevens, John; Carroll, Christopher; Cantrell, Anna; Lobo, Alan; Hoque, Sami

    2016-05-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is the most common form of inflammatory bowel disease in the UK. UC can have a considerable impact on patients' quality of life. The burden for the NHS is substantial. To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of interventions, to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness of all interventions and comparators (including medical and surgical options), to estimate the expected net budget impact of each intervention, and to identify key research priorities. Peer-reviewed publications, European Public Assessment Reports and manufacturers' submissions. The following databases were searched from inception to December 2013 for clinical effectiveness searches and from inception to January 2014 for cost-effectiveness searches for published and unpublished research evidence: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library including the Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, the Health Technology Assessment database and NHS Economic Evaluation Database; ISI Web of Science, including Science Citation Index, and the Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science and Bioscience Information Service Previews. The US Food and Drug Administration website and the European Medicines Agency website were also searched, as were research registers, conference proceedings and key journals. A systematic review [including network meta-analysis (NMA)] was conducted to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of named interventions. The health economic analysis included a review of published economic evaluations and the development of a de novo model. Ten randomised controlled trials were included in the systematic review. The trials suggest that adult patients receiving infliximab (IFX) [Remicade(®), Merck Sharp & Dohme Ltd (MSD)], adalimumab (ADA) (Humira(®), AbbVie) or golimumab (GOL) (Simponi(®), MSD) were more likely to

  1. Including Magnetostriction in Micromagnetic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó.; Williams, Wyn; Fabian, Karl; Nagy, Lesleis

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic anomalies that identify crustal spreading are predominantly recorded by basalts formed at the mid-ocean ridges, whose magnetic signals are dominated by iron-titanium-oxides (Fe3-xTixO4), so called "titanomagnetites", of which the Fe2.4Ti0.6O4 (TM60) phase is the most common. With sufficient quantities of titanium present, these minerals exhibit strong magnetostriction. To date, models of these grains in the pseudo-single domain (PSD) range have failed to accurately account for this effect. In particular, a popular analytic treatment provided by Kittel (1949) for describing the magnetostrictive energy as an effective increase of the anisotropy constant can produce unphysical strains for non-uniform magnetizations. I will present a rigorous approach based on work by Brown (1966) and by Kroner (1958) for including magnetostriction in micromagnetic codes which is suitable for modelling hysteresis loops and finding remanent states in the PSD regime. Preliminary results suggest the more rigorously defined micromagnetic models exhibit higher coercivities and extended single domain ranges when compared to more simplistic approaches.

  2. Better evidence for earlier assessment and surgical intervention for refractory epilepsy (The BEST study): a mixed methods study protocol.

    PubMed

    Rapport, Frances; Shih, Patti; Mitchell, Rebecca; Nikpour, Armin; Bleasel, Andrew; Herkes, Geoffrey; Vagholkar, Sanjyot; Mumford, Virginia

    2017-08-21

    One-third of patients with refractory epilepsy may be candidates for resective surgery, which can lead to positive clinical outcomes if efficiently managed. In Australia, there is currently between a 6-month and 2-year delay for patients who are candidates for respective epilepsy surgery from the point of referral for surgical assessment to the eventual surgical intervention. This is a major challenge for implementation of effective treatment for individuals who could potentially benefit from surgery. This study examines implications of delays following the point of eligibility for surgery, in the assessment and treatment of patients, and the factors causing treatment delays. Mixed methods design: Observations of qualitative consultations, patient and healthcare professional interviews, and health-related quality of life assessments for a group of 10 patients and six healthcare professionals (group 1); quantitative retrospective medical records' reviews examining longitudinal outcomes for 50 patients assessed for, or undergoing, resective surgery between 2014 and 2016 (group 2); retrospective epidemiological study of all individuals hospitalised with a diagnosis of epilepsy in New South Wales (NSW) in the last 5 years (2012-2016; approximately 11 000 hospitalisations per year, total 55 000), examining health services' use and treatment for individuals with epilepsy, including refractory surgery outcomes (group 3). Ethical approval has been granted by the North Sydney Local Health District Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC/17/HAWKE/22) and the NSW Population & Health Services Research Ethics Committee (HREC/16/CIPHS/1). Results will be disseminated through publications, reports and conference presentations to patients and families, health professionals and researchers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Do women live longer or do men die earlier? Reflections on the causes of sex differences in life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Luy, Marc; Gast, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Although many different factors have been identified to contribute to excess male mortality, it is still unclear which path of the complex cause-effect chain is the decisive driver of the life expectancy gap between women and men. The question behind this study is whether these sex differences are caused primarily by factors leading to low female mortality or rather by factors causing high male mortality. We hypothesise that they are to a large extent caused by specific subpopulations of men with particularly high mortality levels that decrease the average life expectancy of men. To test this hypothesis, we investigate in a meta-analysis the variability in mortality (VM) in women and men - defined as the range of death rates prevailing among subpopulations - in empirical studies analysing specific phenomena of mortality differentials. We used the data of 72 empirical studies, including 146 total effects (TE) and 1,718 single effects (SE) for 21 different risk factors. In 85% of TE and three quarters of SE the VM was higher in men than in women, taking into account men's higher overall mortality. The corresponding figures for the direct differences in the VM between women and men are 92 and 82%, respectively. Cases with higher female VM are rare exceptions and appear in particular in the highest age groups. We find support for our hypothesis that the disproportionate high mortality levels of specific male subpopulations are the central cause of the current extent of sex differences in life expectancy. Thus, public health programmes should be targeted toward these disadvantaged subpopulations among men which seem to be related primarily to socioeconomic characteristics.

  4. Long-term effects of earlier initiated continuous Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) for low-birth-weight (LBW) infants in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Shuko; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Rabesandratana, Norotiana; Andrianarimanana, Diavolana; Nakayama, Takeo; Mori, Rintaro

    2011-12-01

    To examine the long-term effects of earlier initiated continuous Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) for relatively stable low-birth-weight (LBW) infants in a resource-limited country. A randomized controlled trial with long-term follow-up was performed in LBW infants in Madagascar. Earlier continuous KMC (intervention group) was initiated as soon as possible within 24 h postbirth, and later continuous KMC (control group: conventional care) was initiated after complete stabilization. Outcome measures were mortality or readmission, nutritional indicators at 6-12 months postbirth and feeding condition at 6 months postbirth (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00531492). A total of 72 infants were followed for mortality or readmission at 6-12 months postbirth. There was no difference between the two groups (7/36 vs. 7/36, Risk ratio (RR), 1.00; 95% CIs, 0.39-2.56; p = 1.00). The proportion of exclusive breast feeding (EBF) at 6 months postbirth was significantly higher with earlier KMC than later KMC (12/29 vs. 4/26; RR 2.69; 95% CIs, 1.00-7.31; p = 0.04). There were no differences in nutritional indicators between the two groups at 6-12 months postbirth. Earlier initiated continuous KMC results in a significantly higher proportion of EBF at 6 months postbirth. Further larger-scale long-term evaluations of earlier initiated continuous KMC for LBW infants are needed. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  5. An Assessment of Hazards Caused by Electromagnetic Interaction on Humans Present near Short-Wave Physiotherapeutic Devices of Various Types Including Hazards for Users of Electronic Active Implantable Medical Devices (AIMD)

    PubMed Central

    Gryz, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Leakage of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from short-wave radiofrequency physiotherapeutic diathermies (SWDs) may cause health and safety hazards affecting unintentionally exposed workers (W) or general public (GP) members (assisting patient exposed during treatment or presenting there for other reasons). Increasing use of electronic active implantable medical devices (AIMDs), by patients, attendants, and workers, needs attention because dysfunctions of these devices may be caused by electromagnetic interactions. EMF emitted by 12 SWDs (with capacitive or inductive applicators) were assessed following international guidelines on protection against EMF exposure (International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection for GP and W, new European directive 2013/35/EU for W, European Recommendation for GP, and European Standard EN 50527-1 for AIMD users). Direct EMF hazards for humans near inductive applicators were identified at a distance not exceeding 45 cm for W or 62 cm for GP, but for AIMD users up to 90 cm (twice longer than that for W and 50% longer than that for GP because EMF is pulsed modulated). Near capacitive applicators emitting continuous wave, the corresponding distances were: 120 cm for W or 150 cm for both—GP or AIMD users. This assessment does not cover patients who undergo SWD treatment (but it is usually recommended for AIMD users to be careful with EMF treatment). PMID:24089662

  6. Febrile events including convulsions following the administration of four brands of 2010 and 2011 inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine in NZ infants and children: the importance of routine active safety surveillance.

    PubMed

    Petousis-Harris, Helen; Poole, Tracey; Turner, Nikki; Reynolds, Gary

    2012-07-13

    To evaluate and compare rates of febrile events, including febrile convulsion, following immunisation with four brands of inactivated 2010 and 2011 influenza vaccine in NZ infants and children. Retrospective telephone surveys of parents of infants and children who received at least one dose of the vaccines of interest. 184 NZ General Practices who received the vaccines of interest. Recipients of 4088 doses of trivalent inactivated vaccines Fluvax(®), Vaxigrip(®), Influvac(®) and Fluarix(®) and/or monovalent Celvapan. Vaccinees were identified via the electronic Practice Management System and contacted consecutively. Primary outcome was febrile convulsive seizure. Secondary outcomes were presence of fever plus other organ system specific symptoms. The parental response rate was 99%. Of 4088 doses given, 865 were Fluvax(®), 2571 Vaxigrip(®), 204 Influvac(®), 438 Fluarix(®) and 10 Celvapan. Three febrile convulsions followed Fluvax(®), a rate of 35 per 10,000 doses. No convulsions occurred following any dose of the other vaccines. There were nine febrile events that included rigors, all following Fluvax(®). Fever occurred significantly more frequently following administration of Fluvax(®) compared with the other brands of vaccines (p<0.0001) and Fluvax recipients were more likely to seek medical attention. Influvac(®) also had higher rates of febrile reactions (OR 0.54, 0.36-0.81) than the other two brands Vaxigrip(®) (OR 0.21, 0.16-0.27) and Fluarix(®) (OR 0.10, 0.05-0.20). After multivariable analysis vaccine, European ethnicity and second dose of vaccine were significantly associated with reporting of fever within 24h of vaccination. Influenza vaccines have different rates of reactogenicity in children which varies between ethnic groups. High rates of febrile convulsions and reactions in children receiving Fluvax(®) and to a lesser extent the higher fever rates in those receiving Influvac(®) compared with the other two brands of influenza vaccines

  7. Triton-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and leucine aminopeptidase activity staining detect Triton-slowed bands including high-molecular-mass aminopeptidase N (CD13) isoform in cholestatic patient sera.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Makoto; Hara, Yukichi

    2006-02-01

    Western blotting of aminopeptidase N (APN) detects a high-molecular-mass isoform (260 kDa) [M. Kawai, Y. Otake, Y. Hara High-molecular-mass isoform of aminopeptidase N/CD13 in serum from cholestatic patients. Clin Chim Acta 330 (2003) 141-149] in cholestatic patient serum but is time-consuming. Human sera were electrophoresed on polyacrylamide gel containing Triton-X100 (Triton-PAGE) and stained with leucine-B-naphthylamide (LAP-staining). The stained bands were eluted from the gel, treated with N- and O-glycosidase if necessary, and analyzed by Western blotting [M. Kawai, Y. Otake, Y. Hara High-molecular-mass isoform of aminopeptidase N/CD13 in serum from cholestatic patients. Clin Chim Acta 330 (2003) 141-149]. Triton-PAGE and LAP-staining clearly detected fast bands in all the sera examined. Almost parallel with leucine aminopeptidase activity, slow bands were strongly stained in all 11 cholestatic patients but clearly stained in 3 out of 14 patients with hepatobiliary diseases other than cholestasis. PAGE with various concentrations of Triton showed that Triton slows down slow bands but not fast bands. Western blotting showed that Triton-PAGE-slow bands of cholestasis contained 140 and 260-kDa APN and that fast bands were slightly smaller than monomer-size slow bands after glycosidase treatment. Less time-consuming than Western blotting, Triton-PAGE and LAP-staining detect novel APN bands slowed by Triton and partly composed of the high-molecular-mass isoform in cholestasis. The slow bands seem to be homodimers of APN with transmembrane anchors. The polypeptide of the fast band seems to be processed differently from that of the slow band.

  8. Evidence for an earlier greenhouse cooling effect in the stratosphere before the 1980s over the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerefos, C. S.; Tourpali, K.; Zanis, P.; Eleftheratos, K.; Repapis, C.; Goodman, A.; Wuebbles, D.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Luterbacher, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study provides a new look at the observed and calculated long-term temperature changes since 1958 for the region extending from the lower troposphere up to the lower stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere. The analysis is mainly based on monthly layer mean temperatures derived from geopotential height thicknesses between specific pressure levels. Layer mean temperatures from thickness improve homogeneity in both space and time and reduce uncertainties in the trend analysis. Datasets used include the NCEP/NCAR I reanalysis, the Free University of Berlin (FU-Berlin) and the RICH radiosonde datasets as well as historical simulations with the CESM1-WACCM global model participating in CMIP5. After removing the natural variability with an autoregressive multiple regression model our analysis shows that the time interval of our study 1958-2011 can be divided in two distinct sub-periods of long term temperature variability and trends; before and after 1980s. By calculating trends for the summer time to reduce interannual variability, the two periods are as follows. From 1958 until 1979, non-significant trends or slight cooling trends prevail in the lower troposphere (0.06 ± 0.06 °C decade-1 for NCEP and -0.12 ± 0.06 °C decade-1 for RICH). The second period from 1980 to the end of the records shows significant warming trends (0.25 ± 0.05 °C decade-1 for both NCEP and RICH). Above the tropopause a persistent cooling trend is clearly seen in the lower stratosphere both in the pre-1980s period (-0.58 ± 0.17 °C decade-1 for NCEP, -0.30 ± 0.16 °C decade-1 for RICH and -0.48 ± 0.20 °C decade-1 for FU-Berlin) and the post-1980s period (-0.79 ± 0.18 °C decade-1 for NCEP, -0.66 ± 0.16 °C decade-1 for RICH and -0.82 ± 0.19 °C decade-1 for FU-Berlin). The cooling in the lower stratosphere is a persistent feature from the tropics up to 60 north for all months. At polar latitudes competing dynamical and radiative processes are reducing the statistical

  9. A highly acid-resistant novel strain of Lactobacillus johnsonii No. 1088 has antibacterial activity, including that against Helicobacter pylori, and inhibits gastrin-mediated acid production in mice

    PubMed Central

    Aiba, Yuji; Nakano, Yasuhiro; Koga, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Kenji; Komatsu, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    A novel strain of Lactobacillus johnsonii No. 1088 was isolated from the gastric juice of a healthy Japanese male volunteer, and characterized for its effectiveness in the stomach environment. Lactobacillus johnsonii No. 1088 was found to have the strongest acid resistance among several lactobacilli examined (>10% of cells survived at pH 1.0 after 2 h), and such a high acid resistance property was a specific characteristic of this strain of L. johnsonii. When cultured with various virulent bacteria, L. johnsonii No. 1088 inhibited the growth of Helicobacter pylori,Escherichia coli O-157, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Clostridium difficile, in which case its effectiveness was more potent than that of a type strain of L. johnsonii,JCM2012. In addition to its effect in vitro, L. johnsonii No. 1088 inhibited the growth of H. pylori in human intestinal microbiota-associated mice in both its live and lyophilized forms. Moreover, L. johnsonii No. 1088 suppressed gastric acid secretion in mice via decreasing the number of gastrin-positive cells in the stomach. These results taken together suggest that L. johnsonii No. 1088 is a unique lactobacillus having properties beneficial for supporting H. pylori eradication by triple therapy including the use of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and also for prophylaxis of gastroesophageal reflux disease possibly caused after H. pylori eradication as a side effect of PPI. PMID:25771812

  10. A highly acid-resistant novel strain of Lactobacillus johnsonii No. 1088 has antibacterial activity, including that against Helicobacter pylori, and inhibits gastrin-mediated acid production in mice.

    PubMed

    Aiba, Yuji; Nakano, Yasuhiro; Koga, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Kenji; Komatsu, Yasuhiko

    2015-06-01

    A novel strain of Lactobacillus johnsonii No. 1088 was isolated from the gastric juice of a healthy Japanese male volunteer, and characterized for its effectiveness in the stomach environment. Lactobacillus johnsonii No. 1088 was found to have the strongest acid resistance among several lactobacilli examined (>10% of cells survived at pH 1.0 after 2 h), and such a high acid resistance property was a specific characteristic of this strain of L. johnsonii. When cultured with various virulent bacteria, L. johnsonii No. 1088 inhibited the growth of Helicobacter pylori, Escherichia coli O-157, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Clostridium difficile, in which case its effectiveness was more potent than that of a type strain of L. johnsonii, JCM2012. In addition to its effect in vitro, L. johnsonii No. 1088 inhibited the growth of H. pylori in human intestinal microbiota-associated mice in both its live and lyophilized forms. Moreover, L. johnsonii No. 1088 suppressed gastric acid secretion in mice via decreasing the number of gastrin-positive cells in the stomach. These results taken together suggest that L. johnsonii No. 1088 is a unique lactobacillus having properties beneficial for supporting H. pylori eradication by triple therapy including the use of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and also for prophylaxis of gastroesophageal reflux disease possibly caused after H. pylori eradication as a side effect of PPI. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. In Vivo Activities of Ceftolozane, a New Cephalosporin, with and without Tazobactam against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae, Including Strains with Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases, in the Thighs of Neutropenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Andes, D. R.

    2013-01-01

    Ceftolozane is a new cephalosporin with potent activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. A neutropenic murine thigh infection model was used to determine which pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic index and magnitude drives the efficacy of ceftolozane with Gram-negative bacilli, to compare the rates of in vivo killing of P. aeruginosa by ceftolozane and ceftazidime, and to determine the impact of different ratios of ceftolozane plus tazobactam on Enterobacteriaceae containing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). Neutropenic mice had 106.2-7.1 CFU/thigh when treated with ceftolozane for 24 h with (i) various doses (3.12 to 1,600 mg/kg) and dosage intervals (3, 6, 12, and 24 h) against two Enterobacteriaceae strains, (ii) 0.39 to 800 mg/kg every 6 h for four Enterobacteriaceae and four P. aeruginosa strains, and (iii) 400 or 800 mg/kg with 2:1. 4:1, and 8:1 ratios of tazobactam against five Enterobacteriaceae strains with ESBLs. The pharmacokinetics of ceftolozane at 25, 100, and 400 mg/kg were linear with peak/dose values of 1.0 to 1.4 and half-lives of 12 to 14 min. T>MIC was the primary index driving efficacy. For stasis (1 log kill), T>MIC was 26.3% ± 2.1% (31.6% ± 1.6%) for wild-type Enterobacteriaceae, 31.1% ± 4.9% (34.8% ± 4.4%) for Enterobacteriaceae with ESBLs, and 24.0% ± 3.3% (31.5% ± 3.9%) for P. aeruginosa. At 200 mg/kg every 3 h, the rate of in vivo killing of P. aeruginosa was faster with ceftolozane than with ceftazidime (−0.34 to −0.41 log10 CFU/thigh/h versus −0.21 to −0.24 log10 CFU/thigh/h). The 2:1 ratio of ceftolozane with tazobactam was the most potent combination studied. The T>MIC required for ceftolozane is less than with other cephalosporins and may be due to more rapid killing. PMID:23274659

  12. Health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of earlier eligibility for adult antiretroviral therapy and expanded treatment coverage: a combined analysis of 12 mathematical models.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Jeffrey W; Menzies, Nicolas A; Stover, John; Cambiano, Valentina; Chindelevitch, Leonid; Cori, Anne; Hontelez, Jan A C; Humair, Salal; Kerr, Cliff C; Klein, Daniel J; Mishra, Sharmistha; Mitchell, Kate M; Nichols, Brooke E; Vickerman, Peter; Bakker, Roel; Bärnighausen, Till; Bershteyn, Anna; Bloom, David E; Boily, Marie-Claude; Chang, Stewart T; Cohen, Ted; Dodd, Peter J; Fraser, Christophe; Gopalappa, Chaitra; Lundgren, Jens; Martin, Natasha K; Mikkelsen, Evelinn; Mountain, Elisa; Pham, Quang D; Pickles, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Platt, Lucy; Pretorius, Carel; Prudden, Holly J; Salomon, Joshua A; van de Vijver, David A M C; de Vlas, Sake J; Wagner, Bradley G; White, Richard G; Wilson, David P; Zhang, Lei; Blandford, John; Meyer-Rath, Gesine; Remme, Michelle; Revill, Paul; Sangrujee, Nalinee; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Doherty, Meg; Shaffer, Nathan; Easterbrook, Philippa J; Hirnschall, Gottfried; Hallett, Timothy B

    2013-12-10

    New WHO guidelines recommend ART initiation for HIV-positive persons with CD4 cell counts ≤500 cells/µL, a higher threshold than was previously recommended. Country decision makers must consider whether to further expand ART eligibility accordingly. We used multiple independent mathematical models in four settings-South Africa, Zambia, India, and Vietnam-to evaluate the potential health impact, costs, and cost-effectiveness of different adult ART eligibility criteria under scenarios of current and expanded treatment coverage, with results projected over 20 years. Analyses considered extending eligibility to include individuals with CD4 ≤500 cells/µL or all HIV-positive adults, compared to the previous recommendation of initiation with CD4 ≤350 cells/µL. We assessed costs from a health system perspective, and calculated the incremental cost per DALY averted ($/DALY) to compare competing strategies. Strategies were considered 'very cost-effective' if the $/DALY was less than the country's per capita gross domestic product (GDP; South Africa: $8040, Zambia: $1425, India: $1489, Vietnam: $1407) and 'cost-effective' if $/DALY was less than three times per capita GDP. In South Africa, the cost per DALY averted of extending ART eligibility to CD4 ≤500 cells/µL ranged from $237 to $1691/DALY compared to 2010 guidelines; in Zambia, expanded eligibility ranged from improving health outcomes while reducing costs (i.e. dominating current guidelines) to $749/DALY. Results were similar in scenarios with substantially expanded treatment access and for expanding eligibility to all HIV-positive adults. Expanding treatment coverage in the general population was therefore found to be cost-effective. In India, eligibility for all HIV-positive persons ranged from $131 to $241/DALY and in Vietnam eligibility for CD4 ≤500 cells/µL cost $290/DALY. In concentrated epidemics, expanded access among key populations was also cost-effective. Earlier ART eligibility is estimated

  13. [An earlier diagnosis of depression].

    PubMed

    Campagne, D M

    Data of the last decade indicate that, in the Western world and also in Spain, an important part of general practicioners' consultations are related to mental health, but depression is consistently underdiagnosed. Causes are lack of time and back-up, as well as lack of specific training. In Spain, there is no national health service primary care database with actualized clinical information as to mental health. There is evident clinical interest in a more agile diagnostic, resulting from a recollection of data from voluntary selective screening and continuing evaluation of adult depression along the model used by other National Health Systems. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Developing Scoring Algorithms (Earlier Methods)

    Cancer.gov

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  15. Age of diagnosis of breast cancer in china: almost 10 years earlier than in the United States and the European union.

    PubMed

    Song, Qing-Kun; Li, Jing; Huang, Rong; Fan, Jin-Hu; Zheng, Rong-Shou; Zhang, Bao-Ning; Zhang, Bin; Tang, Zhong-Hua; Xie, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Hong-Jian; He, Jian-Jun; Li, Hui; Li, Jia-Yuan; Qiao, You-Lin; Chen, Wan-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to describe the age distribution of breast cancer diagnosis among Chinese females for comparison with the United States and the European Union, and provide evidence for the screening target population in China. Median age was estimated from hospital databases from 7 tertiary hospitals in China. Population-based data in China, United States and European Union was extracted from the National Central Cancer Registry, SEER program and GLOBOCAN 2008, respectively. Age-standardized distribution of breast cancer at diagnosis in the 3 areas was estimated based on the World Standard Population 2000. The median age of breast cancer at diagnosis was around 50 in China, nearly 10 years earlier than United States and European Union. The diagnosis age in China did not vary between subgroups of calendar year, region and pathological characteristics. With adjustment for population structure, median age of breast cancer at diagnosis was 50~54 in China, but 55~59 in United States and European Union. The median diagnosis age of female breast cancer is much earlier in China than in the United States and the European Union pointing to racial differences in genetics and lifestyle. Screening programs should start at an earlier age for Chinese women and age disparities between Chinese and Western women warrant further studies.

  16. Moderately premature infants at Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program in California are discharged home earlier than their peers in Massachusetts and the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Profit, J; Zupancic, J A F; McCormick, M C; Richardson, D K; Escobar, G J; Tucker, J; Tarnow‐Mordi, W; Parry, G

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare gestational age at discharge between infants born at 30–34+6 weeks gestational age who were admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in California, Massachusetts, and the United Kingdom. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting Fifty four United Kingdom, five California, and five Massachusetts NICUs. Subjects A total of 4359 infants who survived to discharge home after admission to an NICU. Main outcome measures Gestational age at discharge home. Results The mean (SD) postmenstrual age at discharge of the infants in California, Massachusetts, and the United Kingdom were 35.9 (1.3), 36.3 (1.3), and 36.3 (1.9) weeks respectively (p  =  0.001). Compared with the United Kingdom, adjusted discharge of infants occurred 3.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4 to 6.5) days earlier in California, and 0.9 (95% CI −1.2 to 3.0) days earlier in Massachusetts. Conclusions Infants of 30–34+6 weeks gestation at birth admitted and cared for in hospitals in California have a shorter length of stay than those in the United Kingdom. Certain characteristics of the integrated healthcare approach pursued by the health maintenance organisation of the NICUs in California may foster earlier discharge. The California system may provide opportunities for identifying practices for reducing the length of stay of moderately premature infants. PMID:16449257

  17. Decreased length of stay and earlier oral feeding associated with standardized postoperative clinical care for total gastrectomies at a cancer center.

    PubMed

    Selby, Luke V; Rifkin, Marissa B; Yoon, Sam S; Ariyan, Charlotte E; Strong, Vivian E

    2016-09-01

    Standardization of postoperative care has been shown to decrease postoperative length of stay. In June 2009, we standardized postoperative care for all gastrectomies at our institution. Four years' worth of total gastrectomies (2 years prior to standardization and 2 years after standardization) were reviewed to determine the effect of standardization on postoperative care, length of stay, complications, and readmissions. Between June 2007 and July 2011, 99 patients underwent curative intent open total gastrectomy: 51 patients prior to standardization, and 48 patients poststandardization. Patients were predominantly male (70%); median age was 63; and median body mass index was 26. Standardization of postoperative care was associated with a decrease in median time to beginning both clear liquids and a postgastrectomy diet, earlier removal of epidural catheters, earlier use of oral pain medication, less time receiving intravenous fluids, and decreased length of stay (all P < .01). Groups showed no differences in complication rates, complication severity, diet intolerance, return to our Urgent Care Center, or readmission. Institution of standardized postoperative orders for total gastrectomy was associated with a significantly decreased length of stay and earlier oral feeding without increasing postoperative complications, early postoperative outpatient visits, or readmissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bowel cancer screening is safe, detects earlier stage cancer and adenomas in 50% of cases: experience of the prevalent round of screening from two first wave centres in the North East of England.

    PubMed

    Rajasekhar, P T; Clifford, G M; Lee, T J W; Rutter, M D; Waddup, G; Ritchie, M; Nylander, D; Painter, J; Singh, J; Ward, I; Dempsey, N; Bowes, J; Handley, G; Henry, J; Rees, C J

    2012-01-01

    The NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) began roll-out in 2006 aiming to reduce cancer mortality through detection at an earlier stage. We report results from the prevalent round of screening at two first wave centres and compare with the UK pilot study. This is a service evaluation study. Data were collected prospectively for all individuals undergoing faecal occult blood testing (FOBt) and colonoscopy including: uptake and outcomes of FOBt, colonoscopic performance, findings, histological data and complications. Continuous data were compared using a two-tailed test of two proportions. The South of Tyne and Tees Bowel Cancer Screening centres. Participants of the BCSP. 1) Colonoscopy Quality Assurance and 2) Cancer stage shift. 195,772 individuals were invited to participate. Uptake was 54% and FOBt positivity 1.7%. 1524 underwent colonoscopy with caecal intubation in 1485 (97%). 180 (12%) cancers were detected. Dukes stages were: 76 (42%) A; 47 (26%) B; 47 (26%) C; 8 (4%) D and 2 (1%) unknown. This demonstrates a significantly earlier stage at diagnosis compared with data from 2867 non-screening detected cancers (p<0.001). Adenomas were detected in 758 (50%). One perforation occurred (0.07%) and two intermediate bleeds requiring transfusion only (0.12%). Both caecal intubation and adenoma detection were significantly higher than in the UK pilot study (p<0.001). The prevalent round of screening demonstrates a high adenoma and cancer detection rate and significantly earlier stage at diagnosis. Complications were few providing reassurance regarding safety. Efforts are required to improve uptake.

  19. Bowel cancer screening is safe, detects earlier stage cancer and adenomas in 50% of cases: experience of the prevalent round of screening from two first wave centres in the North East of England

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekhar, P T; Clifford, G M; Lee, T J W; Rutter, M D; Waddup, G; Ritchie, M; Nylander, D; Painter, J; Singh, J; Ward, I; Dempsey, N; Bowes, J; Handley, G; Henry, J; Rees, C J

    2012-01-01

    Objective The NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) began roll-out in 2006 aiming to reduce cancer mortality through detection at an earlier stage. We report results from the prevalent round of screening at two first wave centres and compare with the UK pilot study. Design This is a service evaluation study. Data were collected prospectively for all individuals undergoing faecal occult blood testing (FOBt) and colonoscopy including: uptake and outcomes of FOBt, colonoscopic performance, findings, histological data and complications. Continuous data were compared using a two-tailed test of two proportions. Setting The South of Tyne and Tees Bowel Cancer Screening centres. Patients Participants of the BCSP. Main Outcome Measures 1) Colonoscopy Quality Assurance and 2) Cancer stage shift. Results 195,772 individuals were invited to participate. Uptake was 54% and FOBt positivity 1.7%. 1524 underwent colonoscopy with caecal intubation in 1485 (97%). 180 (12%) cancers were detected. Dukes stages were: 76 (42%) A; 47 (26%) B; 47 (26%) C; 8 (4%) D and 2 (1%) unknown. This demonstrates a significantly earlier stage at diagnosis compared with data from 2867 non-screening detected cancers (p<0.001). Adenomas were detected in 758 (50%). One perforation occurred (0.07%) and two intermediate bleeds requiring transfusion only (0.12%). Both caecal intubation and adenoma detection were significantly higher than in the UK pilot study (p<0.001). Conclusions The prevalent round of screening demonstrates a high adenoma and cancer detection rate and significantly earlier stage at diagnosis. Complications were few providing reassurance regarding safety. Efforts are required to improve uptake. PMID:28839624

  20. Practical uses for ecdysteroids in mammals including humans: an update

    PubMed Central

    Lafont, R.; Dinan, L.

    2003-01-01

    Ecdysteroids are widely used as inducers for gene-switch systems based on insect ecdysteroid receptors and genes of interest placed under the control of ecdysteroid-response elements. We review here these systems, which are currently mainly used in vitro with cultured cells in order to analyse the role of a wide array of genes, but which are expected to represent the basis for future gene therapy strategies. Such developments raise several questions, which are addressed in detail. First, the metabolic fate of ecdysteroids in mammals, including humans, is only poorly known, and the rapid catabolism of ecdysteroids may impede their use as in vivo inducers. A second set of questions arose in fact much earlier with the pioneering “heterophylic” studies of Burdette in the early sixties on the pharmacological effects of ecdysteroids on mammals. These and subsequent studies showed a wide range of effects, most of them being beneficial for the organism (e.g. hypoglycaemic, hypocholesterolaemic, anabolic). These effects are reviewed and critically analysed, and some hypotheses are proposed to explain the putative mechanisms involved. All of these pharmacological effects have led to the development of a wide array of ecdysteroid-containing preparations, which are primarily used for their anabolic and/or “adaptogenic” properties on humans (or horses or dogs). In the same way, increasing numbers of patents have been deposited concerning various beneficial effects of ecdysteroids in many medical or cosmetic domains, which make ecdysteroids very attractive candidates for several practical uses. It may be questioned whether all these pharmacological actions are compatible with the development of ecdysteroid-inducible gene switches for gene therapy, and also if ecdysteroids should be classified among doping substances. Abbreviation: 20E 20-hydroxyecdysone 2d20E 2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone 2dE 2-deoxyecdysone BAH bisacylhydrazine BmEcR Bombyx mori EcR CfEcR Choristoneura

  1. Zoonotic infections in Alaska: disease prevalence, potential impact of climate change and recommended actions for earlier disease detection, research, prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Hueffer, Karsten; Parkinson, Alan J; Gerlach, Robert; Berner, James

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 60 years, Alaska's mean annual temperature has increased by 1.6°C, more than twice the rate of the rest of the United States. As a result, climate change impacts are more pronounced here than in other regions of the United States. Warmer temperatures may allow some infected host animals to survive winters in larger numbers, increase their population and expand their range of habitation thus increasing the opportunity for transmission of infection to humans. Subsistence hunting and gathering activities may place rural residents of Alaska at a greater risk of acquiring zoonotic infections than urban residents. Known zoonotic diseases that occur in Alaska include brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis, giardiasis/cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, rabies and tularemia. Actions for early disease detection, research and prevention and control include: (1) determining baseline levels of infection and disease in both humans and host animals; (2) conducting more research to understand the ecology of infection in the Arctic environment; (3) improving active and passive surveillance systems for infection and disease in humans and animals; (4) improving outreach, education and communication on climate-sensitive infectious diseases at the community, health and animal care provider levels; and (5) improving coordination between public health and animal health agencies, universities and tribal health organisations.

  2. Zoonotic infections in Alaska: disease prevalence, potential impact of climate change and recommended actions for earlier disease detection, research, prevention and control

    PubMed Central

    Hueffer, Karsten; Parkinson, Alan J.; Gerlach, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 60 years, Alaska's mean annual temperature has increased by 1.6°C, more than twice the rate of the rest of the United States. As a result, climate change impacts are more pronounced here than in other regions of the United States. Warmer temperatures may allow some infected host animals to survive winters in larger numbers, increase their population and expand their range of habitation thus increasing the opportunity for transmission of infection to humans. Subsistence hunting and gathering activities may place rural residents of Alaska at a greater risk of acquiring zoonotic infections than urban residents. Known zoonotic diseases that occur in Alaska include brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis, giardiasis/cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, rabies and tularemia. Actions for early disease detection, research and prevention and control include: (1) determining baseline levels of infection and disease in both humans and host animals; (2) conducting more research to understand the ecology of infection in the Arctic environment; (3) improving active and passive surveillance systems for infection and disease in humans and animals; (4) improving outreach, education and communication on climate-sensitive infectious diseases at the community, health and animal care provider levels; and (5) improving coordination between public health and animal health agencies, universities and tribal health organisations. PMID:23399790

  3. Should family planning include STD services?

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1994-05-01

    Recent reviews suggest that the addition of programs aimed at preventing and controlling sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), specifically human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), to existing family planning programs does not necessarily dilute overall program effectiveness. In Colombia, Mexico, and Jamaica, where condom distribution and/or information to prevent HIV transmission was integrated into the activities of family planning field workers, no negative effect on the image of condoms as a pregnancy prevention method was observed and there was a great demand on the part of family planning clients for information about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In Brazil, family planning staff are receiving training in HIV risk assessment and the counseling of women in partner negotiation skills. However, steps must be taken to reach men since it is their high-risk behavior that puts most women at risk of HIV. Both separate STD clinics for men and condom social marketing projects have yielded promising results. Obstacles to the addition of STD services to family planning programs include the need to treat male partners as well as female clients, a shortage of diagnostic tools and antibiotics for treatment, and the fact that the majority of women with STDs are asymptomatic. Indicative of the increased attention being given this approach, however, is the recent release of guidelines by the US Agency for International Development Office of Population on how family planning programs should approach integration. Suggested activities include condom promotion, behavior change, counseling, information, contraceptive development, and selected efforts at STD treatment.

  4. Reanalysis of the occurrence of back pain among construction workers: modelling for the interdependent effects of heavy physical work, earlier back accidents, and aging.

    PubMed

    Nurminen, M

    1997-11-01

    To re-examine the relation between heavy physical work and the occurrence of sciatic pain among construction workers reported previously to be absent in an epidemiological study. METHODS-Poisson log linear regression was used to model for the frequency of sciatic pain among concrete reinforcement workers and maintenance house painters with adjustment for the interactive effects of earlier back accidents and aging that modified the relation. Concrete reinforcement work not only had a direct effect on the frequency of sciatic pain, but it also contributed significantly to the risk indirectly through earlier back accidents. The risk of sciatic pain increased from age 25 to 54 in a different manner for a worker depending on his occupational group and record of back accidents. Epidemiological studies on low back pain need to be analysed with sound methodology. This is important in view of future meta-analyses that will be performed for the purpose of providing guidelines on the prevention of back disorders in heavy physical work.

  5. Oral Exposure to Paraquat Triggers Earlier Expression of Phosphorylated α-Synuclein in the Enteric Nervous System of A53T Mutant Human α-Synuclein Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Naudet, Nicolas; Antier, Emilie; Gaillard, Damien; Morignat, Eric; Lakhdar, Latifa; Baron, Thierry; Bencsik, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The misfolded α-synuclein protein, phosphorylated at serine 129 (pSer129 α-syn), is the hallmark of Parkinson disease (PD). Detected also in the enteric nervous system (ENS), it supports the recent theory that PD could start in the gut, rather than the brain. In a previous study, using a transgenic mouse model of human synucleinopathies expressing the A53T mutant α-synuclein (TgM83), in which a neurodegenerative process associated with α-synuclein occurs spontaneously in the brain, we have shown earlier onset of pSer129 α-syn in the ENS. Here, we used this model to study the impact of paraquat (PQ) a neurotoxic herbicide incriminated in PD in agricultural workers) on the enteric pSer129 α-syn expression in young mice. Orally delivered in the drinking water at 10 mg/kg/day for 6–8 weeks, the impact of PQ was measured in a time-dependent manner on weight, locomotor abilities, pSer129 α-syn, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression levels in the ENS. Remarkably, pSer129 α-syn was detected in ENS earlier under PQ oral exposure and enteric GFAP expression was also increased. These findings bring additional support to the theory that neurotoxic agents such as PQ initiate idiopathic PD after oral delivery. PMID:29040593

  6. Oral Exposure to Paraquat Triggers Earlier Expression of Phosphorylated α-Synuclein in the Enteric Nervous System of A53T Mutant Human α-Synuclein Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Naudet, Nicolas; Antier, Emilie; Gaillard, Damien; Morignat, Eric; Lakhdar, Latifa; Baron, Thierry; Bencsik, Anna

    2017-12-01

    The misfolded α-synuclein protein, phosphorylated at serine 129 (pSer129 α-syn), is the hallmark of Parkinson disease (PD). Detected also in the enteric nervous system (ENS), it supports the recent theory that PD could start in the gut, rather than the brain. In a previous study, using a transgenic mouse model of human synucleinopathies expressing the A53T mutant α-synuclein (TgM83), in which a neurodegenerative process associated with α-synuclein occurs spontaneously in the brain, we have shown earlier onset of pSer129 α-syn in the ENS. Here, we used this model to study the impact of paraquat (PQ) a neurotoxic herbicide incriminated in PD in agricultural workers) on the enteric pSer129 α-syn expression in young mice. Orally delivered in the drinking water at 10 mg/kg/day for 6-8 weeks, the impact of PQ was measured in a time-dependent manner on weight, locomotor abilities, pSer129 α-syn, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression levels in the ENS. Remarkably, pSer129 α-syn was detected in ENS earlier under PQ oral exposure and enteric GFAP expression was also increased. These findings bring additional support to the theory that neurotoxic agents such as PQ initiate idiopathic PD after oral delivery. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc.

  7. The Relationship of the Jenkins Activity Survey to Type A Behavior among Business Executives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begley, Thomas M.; Boyd, David P.

    1985-01-01

    Examined the internal structure of the Jenkins Activity Survey. Results include identification of five factors, three of which are similar to factors identified in earlier studies, identification of a subset of items that show consistency across studies, and discovery that two scales are essentially the same in their defining items. (Author/BL)

  8. Posaconazole (Noxafil, SCH 56592), a new azole antifungal drug, was a discovery based on the isolation and mass spectral characterization of a circulating metabolite of an earlier lead (SCH 51048).

    PubMed

    Nomeir, Amin A; Pramanik, Birendra N; Heimark, Larry; Bennett, Frank; Veals, John; Bartner, Peter; Hilbert, Maryjane; Saksena, Anil; McNamara, Paul; Girijavallabhan, Viyyoor; Ganguly, Ashit K; Lovey, Raymond; Pike, Russell; Wang, Haiyan; Liu, Yi-Tsung; Kumari, Pramila; Korfmacher, Walter; Lin, Chin-Chung; Cacciapuoti, Anthony; Loebenberg, David; Hare, Roberta; Miller, George; Pickett, Cecil

    2008-04-01

    Posaconazole (SCH 56592) is a novel triazole antifungal drug that is marketed in Europe and the United States under the trade name 'Noxafil' for prophylaxis against invasive fungal infections. SCH 56592 was discovered as a possible active metabolite of SCH 51048, an earlier lead. Initial studies have shown that serum concentrations determined by a microbiological assay were higher than those determined by HPLC from animals dosed with SCH 51048. Subsequently, several animals species were dosed with (3)H-SCH 51048 and the serum was analyzed for total radioactivity, SCH 51048 concentration and antifungal activity. The antifungal activity was higher than that expected based on SCH 51048 serum concentrations, confirming the presence of active metabolite(s). Metabolite profiling of serum samples at selected time intervals pinpointed the peak that was suspected to be the active metabolite. Consequently, (3)H-SCH 51048 was administered to a large group of mice, the serum was harvested and the metabolite was isolated by extraction and semipreparative HPLC. LC-MS/MS analysis suggested that the active metabolite is a secondary alcohol with the hydroxyl group in the aliphatic side chain of SCH 51048. All corresponding monohydroxylated diastereomeric mixtures were synthesized and characterized. The HPLC retention time and LC-MS/MS spectra of the diastereomeric secondary alcohols of SCH 51048 were similar to those of the isolated active metabolite. Finally, all corresponding individual monohydroxylated diasteriomers were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro and in vivo antifungal potencies, as well as pharmacokinetics. SCH 56592 emerged as the candidate with the best overall profile.

  9. Endochondral fracture healing with external fixation in the Sost knockout mouse results in earlier fibrocartilage callus removal and increased bone volume fraction and strength.

    PubMed

    Morse, A; Yu, N Y C; Peacock, L; Mikulec, K; Kramer, I; Kneissel, M; McDonald, M M; Little, D G

    2015-02-01

    Sclerostin deficiency, via genetic knockout or anti-Sclerostin antibody treatment, has been shown to cause increased bone volume, density and strength of calluses following endochondral bone healing. However, there is limited data on the effect of Sclerostin deficiency on the formative early stage of fibrocartilage (non-bony tissue) formation and removal. In this study we extensively investigate the early fibrocartilage callus. Closed tibial fractures were performed on Sost(-/-) mice and age-matched wild type (C57Bl/6J) controls and assessed at multiple early time points (7, 10 and 14days), as well as at 28days post-fracture after bony union. External fixation was utilized, avoiding internal pinning and minimizing differences in stability stiffness, a variable that has confounded previous research in this area. Normal endochondral ossification progressed in wild type and Sost(-/-) mice with equivalent volumes of fibrocartilage formed at early day 7 and day 10 time points, and bony union in both genotypes by day 28. There were no significant differences in rate of bony union; however there were significant increases in fibrocartilage removal from the Sost(-/-) fracture calluses at day 14 suggesting earlier progression of endochondral healing. Earlier bone formation was seen in Sost(-/-) calluses over wild type with greater bone volume at day 10 (221%, p<0.01). The resultant Sost(-/-) united bony calluses at day 28 had increased bone volume fraction compared to wild type calluses (24%, p<0.05), and the strength of the fractured Sost(-/-) tibiae was greater than that that of wild type fractured tibiae. In summary, bony union was not altered by Sclerostin deficiency in externally-fixed closed tibial fractures, but fibrocartilage removal was enhanced and the resultant united bony calluses had increased bone fraction and increased strength. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased body mass index is associated with earlier time to loss of response to infliximab in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Harper, Jason W; Sinanan, Mika N; Zisman, Timothy L

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is an emerging problem in the care of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and has been associated with a diminished response to adalimumab. Whether obesity influences the response to infliximab (IFX) is not known. A retrospective cohort of 124 subjects with IBD initiating IFX, naive to biologic therapy, was identified. Subjects were stratified according to their weight and body mass index (BMI). The primary outcome was the first occurrence of an IBD flare defined as dose escalation of IFX, corticosteroid use, discontinuation of IFX, hospitalization, or surgery. Multivariable logistic regression was performed considering body mass and BMI as categorical and continuous variables. Obese (BMI > 30 kg/m) patients with Crohn's disease were more likely to have an IBD flare than nonobese patients (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 3.03, P < 0.001); overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m) patients with ulcerative colitis trended toward a similar observation (HR: 9.68, P = 0.06). When considered as continuous variables, increasing mass and BMI were associated with earlier IBD flare in both Crohn's disease (adjusted HR: 1.06 per unit increase in BMI [P = 0.02] and 1.02 per kg increase in body mass [P = 0.02]) and ulcerative colitis (adjusted HR: 1.3 per unit increase in BMI [P = 0.01] and 1.11 per kg increase in body mass [P = 0.004]). Increased body weight is associated with an earlier time to loss of response to IFX in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, a novel finding given that IFX is the only antitumor necrosis factor agent whose dosing reflects increased body weight.

  11. Earlier and greater hand pre-shaping in the elderly: a study based on kinematic analysis of reaching movements to grasp objects.

    PubMed

    Tamaru, Yoshiki; Naito, Yasuo; Nishikawa, Takashi

    2017-11-01

    Elderly people are less able to manipulate objects skilfully than young adults. Although previous studies have examined age-related deterioration of hand movements with a focus on the phase after grasping objects, the changes in the reaching phase have not been studied thus far. We aimed to examine whether changes in hand shape patterns during the reaching phase of grasping movements differ between young adults and the elderly. Ten healthy elderly adults and 10 healthy young adults were examined using the Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Functions and kinetic analysis of hand pre-shaping reach-to-grasp tasks. The results were then compared between the two groups. For kinetic analysis, we measured the time of peak tangential velocity of the wrist and the inter-fingertip distance (the distance between the tips of the thumb and index finger) at different time points. The results showed that the elderly group's performance on the Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Functions was significantly lower than that of the young adult group, irrespective of whether the dominant or non-dominant hand was used, indicating deterioration of hand movement in the elderly. The peak tangential velocity of the wrist in either hand appeared significantly earlier in the elderly group than in the young adult group. The elderly group also showed larger inter-fingertip distances with arch-like fingertip trajectories compared to the young adult group for all object sizes. To perform accurate prehension, elderly people have an earlier peak tangential velocity point than young adults. This allows for a longer adjustment time for reaching and grasping movements and for reducing errors in object prehension by opening the hand and fingers wider. Elderly individuals gradually modify their strategy based on previous successes and failures during daily living to compensate for their decline in dexterity and operational capabilities. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  12. Impact of 6-month earlier versus postponed initiation of rotigotine on long-term outcome: post hoc analysis of patients with early Parkinson's disease with mild symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Timmermann, Lars; Asgharnejad, Mahnaz; Boroojerdi, Babak; Dohin, Elisabeth; Woltering, Franz; Elmer, Lawrence W

    2015-01-01

    Investigate impact of 6-month earlier versus postponed initiation of rotigotine in patients with early Parkinson's disease (PD) with mild symptom severity. Long-term benefit of rotigotine in early-PD has been demonstrated: SP702 (NCT00594165) and SP716 (NCT00599196) were long-term, open-label extensions of double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of 6-month maintenance; rotigotine was well tolerated for up to 6 years, and demonstrated efficacy (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS] II + III below baseline) for ∼ 2 years (SP702) and ∼ 4 years (SP716). Post hoc analysis of patients at Hoehn and Yahr 1-2; groups defined by treatment received in 6-month double-blind studies: 'Rotigotine-Rotigotine' received rotigotine (n = 221), 'Placebo-Rotigotine' received placebo (n = 125). At the start of open-label rotigotine maintenance, UPDRS II + III mean ± SD change from double-blind baseline was: -8.5 ± 10.6 'Rotigotine-Rotigotine', -7.7 ± 9.0 'Placebo-Rotigotine.' After this initial improvement scores gradually increased: It took ∼ 45 months for mean scores to cross baseline in 'Rotigotine-Rotigotine', and ∼ 21 months in 'Placebo-Rotigotine.' At the time mean UPDRS II + III had crossed baseline in 'Placebo-Rotigotine' (open-label week 84; ∼ 21 months), treatment difference (LS-mean) to 'Rotigotine-Rotigotine' change from baseline was -3.89 (95% CI -6.94, -0.84); p = 0.013. In this post hoc analysis, 6-month earlier initiation of rotigotine resulted in slower return to baseline mean UPDRS II + III; initiation of rotigotine in patients with minimal/no functional disability or impairment may lead to an extended benefit.

  13. Adiposity, Dysmetabolic Traits, and Earlier Onset of Female Puberty in Adolescent Offspring of Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Clinical Study Within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Grunnet, Louise G; Hansen, Susanne; Hjort, Line; Madsen, Camilla M; Kampmann, Freja B; Thuesen, Anne Cathrine B; Granstrømi, Charlotta; Strøm, Marin; Maslova, Ekaterina; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Damm, Peter; Chavarro, Jorge E; Hu, Frank B; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Vaag, Allan

    2017-12-01

    Offspring of pregnancies affected by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk of the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the extent to which these dysmetabolic traits may be due to offspring and/or maternal adiposity is unknown. We examined body composition and associated cardiometabolic traits in 561 9- to 16-year-old offspring of mothers with GDM and 597 control offspring. We measured anthropometric characteristics; puberty status; blood pressure; and fasting glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and lipid levels; and conducted a DEXA scan in a subset of the cohort. Differences in the outcomes between offspring of mothers with GDM and control subjects were examined using linear and logistic regression models. After adjustment for age and sex, offspring of mothers with GDM displayed higher weight, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), systolic blood pressure, and resting heart rate and lower height. Offspring of mothers with GDM had higher total and abdominal fat percentages and lower muscle mass percentages, but these differences disappeared after correction for offspring BMI. The offspring of mothers with GDM displayed higher fasting plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, HOMA-insulin resistance (IR), and plasma triglyceride levels, whereas fasting plasma HDL cholesterol levels were decreased. Female offspring of mothers with GDM had an earlier onset of puberty than control offspring. Offspring of mothers with GDM had significantly higher BMI, WHR, fasting glucose, and HOMA-IR levels after adjustment for maternal prepregnancy BMI, and glucose and HOMA-IR remained elevated in the offspring of mothers with GDM after correction for both maternal and offspring BMIs. In summary, adolescent offspring of women with GDM show increased adiposity, an adverse cardiometabolic profile, and earlier onset of puberty among girls. Increased fasting glucose and HOMA-IR levels among the offspring of mothers with GDM may be explained by the programming effects of hyperglycemia

  14. Dedicated heterogeneous node scheduling including backfill scheduling

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Robert R [Livermore, CA; Eckert, Philip D [Livermore, CA; Hommes, Gregg [Pleasanton, CA

    2006-07-25

    A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.

  15. Neurotrophin-4 regulates the survival of gustatory neurons earlier in development using a different mechanism than brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ami V; Krimm, Robin F

    2012-05-01

    The number of neurons in the geniculate ganglion that are available to innervate taste buds is regulated by neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Our goal for the current study was to examine the timing and mechanism of NT-4-mediated regulation of geniculate neuron number during development. We discovered that NT-4 mutant mice lose 33% of their geniculate neuronal cells between E10.5 and E11.5. By E11.5, geniculate axons have just reached the tongue and do not yet innervate their gustatory targets; thus, NT-4 does not function as a target-derived growth factor. At E11.5, no difference was observed in proliferating cells or the rate at which cells exit the cell cycle between NT-4 mutant and wild type ganglia. Instead, there was an increase in TUNEL-labeling, indicating an increase in cell death in Ntf4(-/-) mice compared with wild types. However, activated caspase-3, which is up-regulated in the absence of BDNF, was not increased. This finding indicates that cell death initiated by NT-4-removal occurs through a different cell death pathway than BDNF-removal. We observed no additional postnatal loss of taste buds or neurons in Ntf4(-/-) mice. Thus, during early embryonic development, NT-4 produced in the ganglion and along the projection pathway inhibits cell death through an activated caspase-3 independent mechanism. Therefore, compared to BDNF, NT-4 plays distinct roles in gustatory development; differences include timing, source of neurotrophin, and mechanism of action. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Go! Including Movement during Routines and Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlowski, Marietta A.; Hart, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Good schools for children ages 5 to 8 provide multiple opportunities for physical activity throughout the school day. Ideally, physical education, recess, extracurricular activities, and classroom activities together help ensure that children meet the recommended 60 minutes a day of structured activity and 60 of unstructured. Additionally, brief…

  17. Comprehensive model for the nucleus of Periodic Comet Tempel 2 and its activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive synergistic physical model for the nucleus of Periodic Comet Tempel 2 was developed on the basis of observations carried out in 1988. The model includes the best possible estimates of the comet's bulk properties (including the dimensions and the approximate shape), information on its state of rotation, and the characterization of its activity. The model is shown to be consistent with all lines of evidence that are currently available, including relevant information from earlier apparitions.

  18. Investigation of activation cross-sections of deuteron induced reactions on vanadium up to 40 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tárkányi, F.; Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Hermanne, A.; Baba, M.; Ignatyuk, A. V.

    2011-08-01

    Experimental excitation functions for deuteron induced reactions up to 40 MeV on natural vanadium were measured with the activation method using a stacked foil irradiation technique. From high resolution gamma spectrometry cross-section data for the production of 51Cr, 48V, 48,47,46Sc and 47Ca were determined. Comparisons with the earlier published data are presented and results for values predicted by different theoretical codes are included. Thick target yields were calculated from a fit to our experimental excitation curves and compared with the earlier experimental data. Depth distribution curves used for thin layer activation (TLA) are also presented.

  19. Earlier occurrence and increased explanatory power of climate for the first incidence of potato late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans in Fennoscandia

    PubMed Central

    Wiik, Lars; Hannukkala, Asko; Andreasson, Erik; Chen, Deliang; Ou, Tinghai; Liljeroth, Erland; Lankinen, Åsa

    2017-01-01

    Background Late blight (caused by Phytophthora infestans) is a devastating potato disease that has been found to occur earlier in the season over the last decades in Fennoscandia. Up until now the reasons for this change have not been investigated. Possible explanations for this change are climate alterations, changes in potato production or changes in pathogen biology, such as increased fitness or changes in gene flow within P. infestans populations. The first incidence of late blight is of high economic importance since fungicidal applications should be typically applied two weeks before the first signs of late blight and are repeated on average once a week. Methods We use field observations of first incidence of late blight in experimental potato fields from five sites in Sweden and Finland covering a total of 30 years and investigate whether the earlier incidence of late blight can be related to the climate. Results We linked the field data to meteorological data and found that the previous assumption, used in common late blight models, that the disease only develops at relative humidity levels above 90% had to be rejected. Rather than the typically assumed threshold relationship between late blight disease development and relative humidity we found a linear relationship. Our model furthermore showed two distinct responses of late blight to climate. At the beginning of the observation time (in Sweden until the early 90s and in Finland until the 2000s) the link between climate and first incidence was very weak. However, for the remainder of the time period the link was highly significant, indicating a change in the biological properties of the pathogen which could for example be a change in the dominating reproduction mode or a physiological change in the response of the pathogen to climate. Conclusions The study shows that models used in decision support systems need to be checked and re-parametrized regularly to be able to capture changes in pathogen biology

  20. Earlier occurrence and increased explanatory power of climate for the first incidence of potato late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans in Fennoscandia.

    PubMed

    Lehsten, Veiko; Wiik, Lars; Hannukkala, Asko; Andreasson, Erik; Chen, Deliang; Ou, Tinghai; Liljeroth, Erland; Lankinen, Åsa; Grenville-Briggs, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Late blight (caused by Phytophthora infestans) is a devastating potato disease that has been found to occur earlier in the season over the last decades in Fennoscandia. Up until now the reasons for this change have not been investigated. Possible explanations for this change are climate alterations, changes in potato production or changes in pathogen biology, such as increased fitness or changes in gene flow within P. infestans populations. The first incidence of late blight is of high economic importance since fungicidal applications should be typically applied two weeks before the first signs of late blight and are repeated on average once a week. We use field observations of first incidence of late blight in experimental potato fields from five sites in Sweden and Finland covering a total of 30 years and investigate whether the earlier incidence of late blight can be related to the climate. We linked the field data to meteorological data and found that the previous assumption, used in common late blight models, that the disease only develops at relative humidity levels above 90% had to be rejected. Rather than the typically assumed threshold relationship between late blight disease development and relative humidity we found a linear relationship. Our model furthermore showed two distinct responses of late blight to climate. At the beginning of the observation time (in Sweden until the early 90s and in Finland until the 2000s) the link between climate and first incidence was very weak. However, for the remainder of the time period the link was highly significant, indicating a change in the biological properties of the pathogen which could for example be a change in the dominating reproduction mode or a physiological change in the response of the pathogen to climate. The study shows that models used in decision support systems need to be checked and re-parametrized regularly to be able to capture changes in pathogen biology. While this study was performed with

  1. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teacher, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The material presented is designed to help students explore geometric patterns involving Fibonnaci numbers and the golden ratio, and to aid in review of basic geometry skills. Worksheet masters intended for duplication are provided. Suggestions are made of possible classroom extensions to the initial activities. (MP)

  2. Environmental Sustainability - Including Land and Water Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessments of environmental sustainability can be conducted in many ways with one of the most quantitative methods including Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). While historically LCIA has included a comprehensive list of impact categories including: ozone depletion, global c...

  3. Molecular screening of the ghrelin gene in Italian obese children: the Leu72Met variant is associated with an earlier onset of obesity.

    PubMed

    Miraglia del Giudice, E; Santoro, N; Cirillo, G; Raimondo, P; Grandone, A; D'Aniello, A; Di Nardo, M; Perrone, L

    2004-03-01

    To test whether ghrelin variants could play a role in modulating some aspects of the obese phenotype during childhood. We screened the ghrelin gene in 300 Italian obese children and adolescents (mean age 10.5+/-3.2 y; range 4-19 y) and 200 controls by using the single-strand conformation polymorphism and the restriction fragment length polymoprhism analysis. No mutations were detected with the exception of two previously described polymorphisms, Arg51Gln and Leu72Met. For both variations, allelic frequencies were similar between patients and controls. Interestingly, we showed that the Leu72Met polymorphism was associated with differences in the age at obesity onset. Patients with the Met72 allele became obese earlier than homozygous patients for the wild Leu72 allele. The logrank test comparing the plots of the complement of Kaplan-Meier estimates between the two groups of patients was statistically significant (P<0.0001). It is unlikely that ghrelin variations cause the obesity due to single-gene mutations. The Leu72Met polymorphism of the ghrelin gene seems to play a role in anticipating the onset of obesity among children suggesting, therefore, that ghrelin may be involved in the pathophysiology of human adiposity.

  4. Hepatitis B and C virus prevalence in couples attending an in vitro fertilization clinic in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia: comparison with ten years earlier.

    PubMed

    Albadran, Asma; Hibshi, Ali; Saeed, Bahjat; Coskun, Serdar; Awartani, Khalid Arab

    2017-01-01

    Viral hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) are a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia. Recent data has indicated a major reduction in viral hepatitis prevalence in Saudi population. However, there is limited data for infertile Saudi couples. To determine the prevalence of HCV and HBV attending an in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinic in Saudi Arabia between 2012 and 2015 to compare with the prevalence 10 years earlier in the same center. Retrospective prevalence study. Tertiary care center in Riyadh. Data on the prevalence of HBV and HCV was collected on all couples seen at the IVF unit between 2002-2005 and 2012-2015. Prevalence of HBV and HCV. In 4442 patients during 2002-2005 and 5747 patients during 2012-2015, the prevalence of HBV was significantly less in 2012-2015 compared with 2002-2005 (1.67% [97 patients] vs 4.7% [210 patients], P < .0001), respectively, but HCV prevalence was similar for the two periods (0.7% for both periods) (P=.887). The hepatitis B seroprevalence rate was higher in males compared to females during 2002-2005 (6.3% vs 3.1%) (P < .0001) and 2012-2015 (2.4% vs 1.1% ) (P < .0001), respectively. The significant drop in HBV prevalence was most likely due to the introduction of the vaccination program in 1989, while reasons for HCV prevalence remaining unchanged are unclear. No data on confounding factors that may have affected the prevalence.

  5. IGF and myostatin pathways are respectively induced during the earlier and the later stages of skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by clenbuterol, a β₂-adrenergic agonist.

    PubMed

    Abo, Tokuhisa; Iida, Ryo-Hei; Kaneko, Syuhei; Suga, Takeo; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Yamane, Akira

    2012-12-01

    Clenbuterol, a β₂-adrenergic agonist, increases the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) is reported to work as a potent positive regulator in the clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscles. However, the precise regulatory mechanism for the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle induced by clenbuterol is unknown. Myostatin, a member of the TGFβ super family, is a negative regulator of muscle growth. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the function of myostatin and IGF in the hypertrophy of rat masseter muscle induced by clenbuterol. To investigate the function of myostatin and IGF in regulatory mechanism for the clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscles, we analysed the expression of myostatin and phosphorylation levels of myostatin and IGF signaling components in the masseter muscle of rat to which clenbuterol was orally administered for 21 days. Hypertrophy of the rat masseter muscle was induced between 3 and 14 days of oral administration of clenbuterol and was terminated at 21 days. The expression of myostatin and the phosphorylation of smad2/3 were elevated at 21 days. The phosphorylation of IGF receptor 1 (IGFR1) and akt1 was elevated at 3 and 7 days. These results suggest that myostatin functions as a negative regulator in the later stages in the hypertrophy of rat masseter muscle induced by clenbuterol, whereas IGF works as a positive regulator in the earlier stages. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN A MIDDLE AGED COHORT IS RELATED TO HIGHER QUALITY DIETARY PATTERN 5 AND 25 YEARS EARLIER: THE CARDIA STUDY

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, N.; JACOBS, D.R.; MEYER, K.A.; HE, K.; LAUNER, L.; REIS, J.P.; YAFFE, K.; SIDNEY, S.; WHITMER, R.A.; STEFFEN, L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Preserving cognitive function is an important public health issue. We investigated whether dietary pattern associates with cognitive function in middle-age. Methods We studied 2435 participants in the community-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study of black and white men and women aged 18–30 in 1985–86 (year 0, Y0). We hypothesized that a higher A Priori Diet Quality Score, measured at Y0 and Y20, is associated with better cognitive function measured at Y25. The diet score incorporated 46 food groups (each in servings/day) as the sum of quintile ranks of food groups rated beneficial, 0 for food groups rated neutral, and reversed quintile ranks for food groups rated adverse; higher score indicated better diet quality. Y25 cognitive testing included verbal memory (Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT)), psychomotor speed (Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST)) and executive function (Stroop). Results Per 10-unit higher diet score at Y20, the RAVLT was 0.32 words recalled higher, the DSST was 1.76 digits higher, and the Stroop was 1.00 seconds+errors lower (better performance) after adjusting for race, sex, age, clinic, and energy intake. Further adjustment for physical activity, smoking, education, and body mass index attenuated the association slightly. Diet score at Y0 and increase in diet score over 20 years were also positively associated with each cognitive test. Conclusions A higher quality dietary pattern was associated with better cognitive function 5 years and even 25 years later in apparently healthy middle-aged adults. PMID:25560814

  7. Analysis of Smart Composite Structures Including Debonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Seeley, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    Smart composite structures with distributed sensors and actuators have the capability to actively respond to a changing environment while offering significant weight savings and additional passive controllability through ply tailoring. Piezoelectric sensing and actuation of composite laminates is the most promising concept due to the static and dynamic control capabilities. Essential to the implementation of these smart composites are the development of accurate and efficient modeling techniques and experimental validation. This research addresses each of these important topics. A refined higher order theory is developed to model composite structures with surface bonded or embedded piezoelectric transducers. These transducers are used as both sensors and actuators for closed loop control. The theory accurately captures the transverse shear deformation through the thickness of the smart composite laminate while satisfying stress free boundary conditions on the free surfaces. The theory is extended to include the effect of debonding at the actuator-laminate interface. The developed analytical model is implemented using the finite element method utilizing an induced strain approach for computational efficiency. This allows general laminate geometries and boundary conditions to be analyzed. The state space control equations are developed to allow flexibility in the design of the control system. Circuit concepts are also discussed. Static and dynamic results of smart composite structures, obtained using the higher order theory, are correlated with available analytical data. Comparisons, including debonded laminates, are also made with a general purpose finite element code and available experimental data. Overall, very good agreement is observed. Convergence of the finite element implementation of the higher order theory is shown with exact solutions. Additional results demonstrate the utility of the developed theory to study piezoelectric actuation of composite

  8. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  9. Earlier therapeutic effects associated with high dose (2.0 mg) Ranibizumab for treatment of vascularized pigment epithelial detachments in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chan, C K; Abraham, P; Sarraf, D; Nuthi, A S D; Lin, S G; McCannel, C A

    2015-01-01

    Summary statement Intravitreal high dose (2 mg) ranibizumab may lead to quicker resolution of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and associated retinal pigment epithelial detachment in eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration, although it may possibly correlate with RPE tears in certain cases. Purpose This prospective study compared the outcomes of 0.5 vs 2.0 mg intravitreal ranibizumab injections (RI) for treating vascularized pigment epithelial detachment (vPED) due to age-related macular degeneration. Methods Patients with vPED were randomized to receive 2.0 vs 0.5 mg RI monthly for 12 months or for 4 months and then repeated on a pro-re nata basis. Optical coherence tomography, fundus photography, and fluorescein and indocyanine-green angiography were obtained at baseline and subsequent specific intervals. Outcome measures were best-corrected standardized visual acuities, central 1-mm thickness, surface area (SA), greatest linear diameter (GLD), heights (PED and CNV), and amount of subretinal fluid (SRF) and cystoid macular edema (CME). Results Both groups yielded reductions of the central 1-mm thickness, PED and CNV SA and PED height and GLD, SRF, and CME. Vision improvement and reduction in SRF and PED height occurred earlier for eyes receiving the 2.0 mg dose. Cataract progression was similar but RPE tears developed more often with the 2.0 mg dose. Conclusions There were similar visual and anatomical outcomes at the end of the study; however, the higher dose yielded more rapid reductions and more complete resolution of the PED, although there was possible increased tendency for an RPE tear with the higher dose. PMID:25277305

  10. History of the recommended atomic-weight values from 1882 to 1997: A comparision of differences from current values to the estimated uncertainties of earlier values.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, T.B.; Peiser, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    International commissions and national committees for atomic weights (mean relative atomic masses) have recommended regularly updated, best values for these atomic weights as applicable to terrestrial sources of the chemical elements. Presented here is a historically complete listing starting with the values in F. W. Clarke's 1882 recalculation, followed by the recommended values in the annual reports of the American Chemical Society's Atomic Weights Commission. From 1903, an International Commission published such reports and its values (scaled to an atomic weight of 16 for oxygen) are here used in preference to those of national committees of Britain, Germany, Spain, Switzerland, and the U.S.A. We have, however, made scaling adjustments from Ar(16O) to Ar(12C) where not negligible. From 1920, this International Commission constituted itself under the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Since then, IUPAC has published reports (mostly biennially) listing the recommended atomic weights, which are reproduced here. Since 1979, these values have been called the "standard atomic weights" and, since 1969, all values have been published, with their estimated uncertainties. Few of the earlier values were published with uncertainties. Nevertheless, we assessed such uncertainties on the basis of our understanding of the likely contemporary judgement of the values' reliability. While neglecting remaining uncertainties of 1997 values, we derive "differences" and a retrospective index of reliability of atomic-weight values in relation to assessments of uncertainties at the time of their publication. A striking improvement in reliability appears to have been achieved since the commissions have imposed upon themselves the rule of recording estimated uncertainties from all recognized sources of error.

  11. Lay persons alerted by mobile application system initiate earlier cardio-pulmonary resuscitation: A comparison with SMS-based system notification.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Maria Luce; Muschietti, Sandro; Burkart, Roman; Benvenuti, Claudio; Conte, Giulio; Regoli, François; Mauri, Romano; Klersy, Catherine; Moccetti, Tiziano; Auricchio, Angelo

    2017-05-01

    We compared the time to initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by lay responders and/or first responders alerted either via Short Message Service (SMS) or by using a mobile application-based alert system (APP). The Ticino Registry of Cardiac Arrest collects all data about out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) occurring in the Canton of Ticino. At the time of a bystander's call, the EMS dispatcher sends one ambulance and alerts the first-responders network made up of police officers or fire brigade equipped with an automatic external defibrillator, the so called "traditional" first responders, and - if the scene was considered safe - lay responders as well. We evaluated the time from call to arrival of traditional first responders and/or lay responders when alerted either via SMS or the new developed mobile APP. Over the study period 593 OHCAs have occurred. Notification to the first responders network was sent via SMS in 198 cases and via mobile APP in 134 cases. Median time to first responder/lay responder arrival on scene was significantly reduced by the APP-based system (3.5 [2.8-5.2]) compared to the SMS-based system (5.6 [4.2-8.5] min, p 0.0001). The proportion of lay responders arriving first on the scene significantly increased (70% vs. 15%, p<0.01) with the APP. Earlier arrival of a first responder or of a lay responder determined a higher survival rate. The mobile APP system is highly efficient in the recruitment of first responders, significantly reducing the time to the initiation of CPR thus increasing survival rates. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Researchers conduct underwater acoustic research in the Launch Complex 39 turn basin. Several government agencies, including NASA, NOAA, the Navy, the Coast Guard, and the Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission are involved in the testing. The research involves demonstrations of passive and active sensor technologies, with applications in fields ranging from marine biological research to homeland security. The work is also serving as a pilot project to assess the cooperation between the agencies involved. Equipment under development includes a passive acoustic monitor developed by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and mobile robotic sensors from the Navy’s Mobile Diving and Salvage Unit.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Researchers conduct underwater acoustic research in the Launch Complex 39 turn basin. Several government agencies, including NASA, NOAA, the Navy, the Coast Guard, and the Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission are involved in the testing. The research involves demonstrations of passive and active sensor technologies, with applications in fields ranging from marine biological research to homeland security. The work is also serving as a pilot project to assess the cooperation between the agencies involved. Equipment under development includes a passive acoustic monitor developed by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and mobile robotic sensors from the Navy’s Mobile Diving and Salvage Unit.

  13. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  14. Patients present earlier and survival has improved, but pre-ART attrition is high in a six-year HIV cohort data from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mulissa, Zewdie; Jerene, Degu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2010-10-11

    Previous studies showed higher early mortality rates among patients treated with antiretroviral drugs in settings with limited resources. One of the reasons was late presentation of patients to care. With improved access to HIV services, we expect improvements in disease stage at presentation. Our objective was to assess the effect of improved availability of HIV services on patient presentation to care and subsequent pre-ART and on-ART outcomes. At Arba Minch Hospital in Ethiopia, we reviewed baseline characteristics and outcomes of 2191 adult HIV patients. Nearly a half were in WHO stage III at presentation. About two-thirds of the patients (1428) started ART. Patients enrolled in the early phase (OR = 4.03, 95% CI 3.07-5.27), men (OR = 1.78, 95%CI 1.47-2.16), and those aged 45 years and above (OR = 2.04, 95%CI 1.48-2.82) were at higher risk of being in advanced clinical stage at presentation. The pre-treatment mortality rate was 13.1 per 100 PYO, ranging from 1.4 in the rapid scale-up phase to 25.9 per 100 PYO in the early phase. A quarter of the patients were lost to follow-up before starting treatment. Being in less advanced stage (HR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.6, 2.2), being in the recent cohort (HR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.6, 2.6), and rural residence (HR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.5, 2.2) were independent predictors of pre-ART loss to follow-up. Of those who started ART, 13.4% were lost to follow-up and 15.4% died. The survival improved during the study. Patients with advanced disease, men and older people had higher death rates. Patients started to present at earlier stages of their illness and death has decreased among adult HIV patients visiting Arba Minch Hospital. However, many patients were lost from pre-treatment follow-up. Early treatment start contributed to improved survival. Both pre-ART and on-ART patient retention mechanisms should be strengthened.

  15. One-year follow-up of myocardial perfusion and function evaluated by gated SPECT MIBI in patients with earlier myocardial infarction and chronic total occlusion.

    PubMed

    Pavlovic, Smiljana V; Sobic-Saranovic, Dragana P; Beleslin, Branko D; Ostojic, Miodrag C; Nedeljkovic, Milan A; Giga, Vojislav L; Petrasinovic, Zorica R; Artiko, Vera M; Todorovic-Tirnanic, Mila V; Obradovic, Vladimir B

    2009-01-01

    Optimal treatment for chronic total occlusion (CTO) in the infarct-related coronary artery is not clear. Our aim was to assess myocardial perfusion, left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), and left ventricular size using gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging with 99mTc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile in patients with CTO before and 1 year after recanalization. Thirty patients with earlier myocardial infarction and at least one CTO underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as well as nitrate-enhanced gated SPECT myocardial perfusion and dobutamine stress echocardiography before and 11 +/- 1 months after recanalization. They were divided into three groups based on the outcome of the follow-up angiography: (i) successful recanalization with no evidence of in-stent restenosis (n=13); (ii) successful recanalization with in-stent restenosis (n=7) and (iii) unsuccessful recanalization (n=10). Overall success of recanalization for CTO was 74%. In group 1, myocardial viability was preserved in 11 of 13 (85%) patients at baseline. Gated SPECT at 1 year showed a significant decrease in perfusion abnormalities (29 +/- 12 to 23 +/- 14%, P < 0.05) and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) (168 +/- 47 to 151 +/- 47 ml, P < 0.05). Improvement in EF (51 +/- 11 to 54 +/- 13%, P > 0.05) and reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume (ESV) (84 +/- 37 to 77 +/- 40 ml, P > 0.05) did not reach the level of significance. Myocardial viability was preserved in only two of seven patients (28%) in group 2. Neither mean perfusion abnormalities (37 +/- 24 to 35 +/- 22%, P > 0.05) nor global left ventricular parameters (EF 41 +/- 15 vs. 42 +/- 19%, EDV 298 +/- 33 vs. 299 +/- 57 mL, ESV 197 +/- 12 vs. 195 +/- 32 ml; P > 0.05) changed at the follow-up. In group 3, myocardial viability was preserved in seven of 10 patients (70%) at baseline, but no significant changes in perfusion (40 +/- 18 vs. 41 +/- 19%, P > 0.05) and left

  16. Meta-structure and tunable optical device including the same

    DOEpatents

    Han, Seunghoon; Papadakis, Georgia Theano; Atwater, Harry

    2017-12-26

    A meta-structure and a tunable optical device including the same are provided. The meta-structure includes a plurality of metal layers spaced apart from one another, an active layer spaced apart from the plurality of metal layers and having a carrier concentration that is tuned according to an electric signal applied to the active layer and the plurality of metal layers, and a plurality of dielectric layers spaced apart from one another and each having one surface contacting a metal layer among the plurality of metal layers and another surface contacting the active layer.

  17. Lower likelihood of falling at age 90+ is associated with daily exercise a quarter of a century earlier: The 90+ Study.

    PubMed

    Paganini-Hill, Annlia; Greenia, Dana E; Perry, Shawna; Sajjadi, Seyed Ahmad; Kawas, Claudia H; Corrada, Maria M

    2017-11-01

    to explore the relationship between risk of falling at age 90+ and prior physical activity at age 60-70s. population-based cohort study (The 90+ Study). California retirement community. of 1596 cohort members, 1536 had both falls and prior activity data. Mean age = 94 years; 78% female; 99% Caucasian. time spent in active physical activity was self-reported in 1980s; medical history, medication, assistive devices, residence type, and falls (outcome) was collected in 2000s. Activity/fall relationships were assessed using logistic regression. falls were reported by 52% of participants, recurrent falls by 32%, and severe injury by 21% of fallers. In univariate analyses risk of falling at age 90+ was significantly related to medical history (heart disease, TIA/stroke, arthritis, vision disease, depression, dementia), medication use (hypnotics, anti-psychotics, anti-depressants), use of assistive devices (cane, walker, wheelchair), residence type (living with relatives, sheltered living), and source of information (self-report vs informant). Risks of falling and recurrent falls at age 90+ were 35-45% lower in those reporting 30+ minutes/day of active physical activity at age 60-70s compared with no activity. The odds ratio of falling was 0.65 (95% CI = 0.44-0.97) for 30-45 minutes/day and 0.64 (0.44-0.94) for 1+ hour/day adjusting for age, sex, medical history (stroke/TIA, vision disease, depression), use of assistive devices, and source of information. falls are extremely common among the oldest-old and a significant proportion lead to severe injury. This work is the first to show an association between exercise at age 60-70s and lower risk of falling at age 90+. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the United...

  19. Composite Pressure Vessel Including Crack Arresting Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.

  20. A new solar cycle model including meridional circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y.-M.; Sheeley, N. R., Jr.; Nash, A. G.

    1991-01-01

    A kinematic model is presented for the solar cycle which includes not only the transport of magnetic flux by supergranular diffusion and a poleward bulk flow at the sun's surface, but also the effects of turbulent diffusion and an equatorward 'return flow' beneath the surface. As in the earlier models of Babcock and Leighton, the rotational shearing of a subsurface poloidal field generates toroidal flux that erupts at the surface in the form of bipolar magnetic regions. However, such eruptions do not result in any net loss of toroidal flux from the sun (as assumed by Babcock and Leighton); instead, the large-scale toroidal field is destroyed both by 'unwinding' as the local poloidal field reverses its polarity, and by diffusion as the toroidal flux is transported equatorward by the subsurface flow and merged with its opposite hemisphere counterpart. The inclusion of meridional circulation allows stable oscillations of the magnetic field, accompanied by the equatorward progression of flux eruptions, to be achieved even in the absence of a radial gradient in the angular velocity. An illustrative case in which a subsurface flow speed of order 1 m/s and subsurface diffusion rate of order 10 sq km/s yield 22-yr oscillations in qualitative agreement with observations.

  1. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record... by a § 20.32(a) offense. These exclusions may not be applicable to criminal history records maintained in state criminal history record repositories, including those states participating in the NFF. (c...

  2. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record... by a § 20.32(a) offense. These exclusions may not be applicable to criminal history records maintained in state criminal history record repositories, including those states participating in the NFF. (c...

  3. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record... by a § 20.32(a) offense. These exclusions may not be applicable to criminal history records maintained in state criminal history record repositories, including those states participating in the NFF. (c...

  4. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record... by a § 20.32(a) offense. These exclusions may not be applicable to criminal history records maintained in state criminal history record repositories, including those states participating in the NFF. (c...

  5. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record... by a § 20.32(a) offense. These exclusions may not be applicable to criminal history records maintained in state criminal history record repositories, including those states participating in the NFF. (c...

  6. 47 CFR 1.9005 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... exclusivity and those channels below 470 MHz, including those licensed pursuant to 47 CFR 90.187(b)(2)(v)); (z... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Included services. 1.9005 Section 1.9005... Radiotelephone Service (part 22 of this chapter); (b) The Rural Radiotelephone Service (part 22 of this chapter...

  7. Server-Side Includes Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2002-01-01

    Describes server-side include (SSI) codes which allow Webmasters to insert content into Web pages without programming knowledge. Explains how to enable the codes on a Web server, provides a step-by-step process for implementing them, discusses tags and syntax errors, and includes examples of their use on the Web site for Southern Illinois…

  8. Evidence for stabilization of the ice-cemented cryosphere in earlier martian history: Implications for the current abundance of groundwater at depth on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, David K.; Head, James W.

    2017-05-01

    , atmospheric pressure, obliquity, and surface heat flux conditions under which the downward-propagating cryosphere freezing front matches the inferred ice-cemented cryosphere. The thermal models which can best reproduce the inferred ice-cemented cryosphere occur for obliquities between 25° and 45° and CO2 atmospheric pressures ≤600 mbar, but require increased heat fluxes and surface temperatures/pressures relative to the Amazonian period. Because the inferred ice-cemented cryosphere is much thinner compared with Amazonian-aged cryosphere thermal models, we suggest that the ice-cemented cryosphere ceased growing when it exhausted the underlying groundwater supply (i.e., ICC stabilization) in a more ancient period in Mars geologic history. Our thermal analysis suggests that this ICC stabilization likely occurred sometime before or at ∼3.0-3.3 Ga (during or before the Late Hesperian or Early Amazonian period). If groundwater remained below the ICC during the earlier Late Noachian period, our models predict that mean annual surface temperatures during this time were ≥212-227 K. If the Late Noachian had a pure CO2 atmosphere, this places a minimum bound on the Late Noachian atmospheric pressure of ≥390-850 mbar. These models suggest that deep groundwater is not abundant or does not persist in the subsurface of Mars today, and that diffusive loss of ice from the subsurface has been minimal.

  9. 42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... function or dysfunction of the neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems; and... create difficulties in communication. (e) Respiratory therapy services. (1) Respiratory therapy services... cardiopulmonary function. (2) Respiratory therapy services include the following: (i) Application of techniques...

  10. 42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... function or dysfunction of the neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems; and... create difficulties in communication. (e) Respiratory therapy services. (1) Respiratory therapy services... cardiopulmonary function. (2) Respiratory therapy services include the following: (i) Application of techniques...

  11. 42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... function or dysfunction of the neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems; and... create difficulties in communication. (e) Respiratory therapy services. (1) Respiratory therapy services... cardiopulmonary function. (2) Respiratory therapy services include the following: (i) Application of techniques...

  12. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccine-Preventable Adult Diseases Resources Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... are hospitalized, and some even die. People with asthma or COPD are at higher risk for serious ...

  13. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  14. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  15. Communications circuit including a linear quadratic estimator

    DOEpatents

    Ferguson, Dennis D.

    2015-07-07

    A circuit includes a linear quadratic estimator (LQE) configured to receive a plurality of measurements a signal. The LQE is configured to weight the measurements based on their respective uncertainties to produce weighted averages. The circuit further includes a controller coupled to the LQE and configured to selectively adjust at least one data link parameter associated with a communication channel in response to receiving the weighted averages.

  16. Including Delbrück scattering in GEANT4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omer, Mohamed; Hajima, Ryoichi

    2017-08-01

    Elastic scattering of γ-rays is a significant interaction among γ-ray interactions with matter. Therefore, the planning of experiments involving measurements of γ-rays using Monte Carlo simulations usually includes elastic scattering. However, current simulation tools do not provide a complete picture of elastic scattering. The majority of these tools assume Rayleigh scattering is the primary contributor to elastic scattering and neglect other elastic scattering processes, such as nuclear Thomson and Delbrück scattering. Here, we develop a tabulation-based method to simulate elastic scattering in one of the most common open-source Monte Carlo simulation toolkits, GEANT4. We collectively include three processes, Rayleigh scattering, nuclear Thomson scattering, and Delbrück scattering. Our simulation more appropriately uses differential cross sections based on the second-order scattering matrix instead of current data, which are based on the form factor approximation. Moreover, the superposition of these processes is carefully taken into account emphasizing the complex nature of the scattering amplitudes. The simulation covers an energy range of 0.01 MeV ≤ E ≤ 3 MeV and all elements with atomic numbers of 1 ≤ Z ≤ 99. In addition, we valida