Science.gov

Sample records for earlier experimental results

  1. Earlier flowering did not alter pollen limitation in an early flowering shrub under short-term experimental warming.

    PubMed

    Pan, Cheng-Chen; Feng, Qi; Zhao, Ha-Lin; Liu, Lin-De; Li, Yu-Lin; Li, Yu-Qiang; Zhang, Tong-Hui; Yu, Xiao-Ya

    2017-06-05

    In animal pollinated plants, phenological shifts caused by climate change may have important ecological consequences. However, no empirical evidence exists at present on the consequences that flowering phenology shifts have on the strength of pollen limitation under experimental warming. Here, we investigated the effects of experimental warming on flowering phenology, flower density, reproductive success, and pollen limitation intensity in Caragana microphylla and evaluated whether earlier flowering phenology affected plant reproduction and the level of pollen limitation using warmed and unwarmed open top chambers in the Horqin Sandy Land of Inner Mongolia, northern China. The results of this study indicated that artificial warming markedly advanced flower phenology rather than extending the duration of the flowering. Additionally, warming was found to significantly reduce flower density which led to seed production reduction, since there were insignificant effects observed on fruit set and seed number per fruit. Experimental floral manipulations showed that warming did not affect pollen limitation. These results revealed the negative effects of advanced phenology induced by warming on flower density and reproductive output, as well as the neutral effects on reproductive success and pollen limitation intensity of long surviving plants.

  2. Earlier surgical intervention in congenital heart disease results in better outcome and resource utilization.

    PubMed

    Panni, Roheena Z; Ashfaq, Awais; Amanullah, Muhammad M

    2011-12-29

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) accounts for a major proportion of disease in the pediatric age group. The objective of the study was to estimate the cost of illness associated with CHD pre, intra and postoperatively; among patients referred to a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. This is the first study conducted to estimate the cost of managing CHD in Pakistan. A prevalence based cost of illness study design was used to estimate the cost of cardiac surgery (corrective & palliative) for congenital heart defects in children ≤ 5 years of age from June 2006 to June 2009. A total of 120 patients were enrolled after obtaining an informed consent and the data was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. The mean age at the time of surgery in group A (1-12 mo age) was 6.08 ± 2.80 months and in group B (1-5 yrs) was 37.10 ± 19.94 months. The cost of surgical admission was found to be significantly higher in the older group, p = 0.001. The total number and cost of post-operative outpatient visits was also higher in group B, p = 0.003. Pre and post operative hospital admissions were not found to be significantly different among the two groups, p = 0.166 and 0.627, respectively. The number of complications were found to be different between the two groups (p = 0.019). Majority of these were contributed by hemorrhage and post-operative seizures. This study concluded that significant expenditure is incurred by people with CHD; with the implication that resources could be saved by earlier detection and awareness campaigns.

  3. Experimental BCAS Performance Results

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1978-07-01

    The results of the (Litchford) Beacon-based Collision Avoidance System concept feasibility evaluation are reported. Included are a description of the concept, analysis and flight test results. The system concept is based on the range and bearing meas...

  4. Adverse childhood experiences predict earlier age of drinking onset: results from a representative US sample of current or former drinkers.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Emily F; Edwards, Erika M; Heeren, Timothy; Hingson, Ralph W

    2008-08-01

    Our goal was to determine whether adverse childhood experiences predicted the age at which drinking was initiated and drinking motives in a representative sample of current or former drinkers in the United States. In 2006, a probability sample of 3592 US current or former drinkers aged 18 to 39 were surveyed. Multinomial logistic regression examined whether each of 10 adverse childhood experiences was associated with earlier ages of drinking onset, controlling for demographics, parental alcohol use, parental attitudes toward drinking, and peers' drinking in adolescence. We also examined whether there was a graded relationship between the number of adverse childhood experiences and age of drinking onset and whether adverse childhood experiences were related to self-reported motives for drinking during the first year that respondents drank. Sixty-six percent of respondents reported >or=1 adverse childhood experiences, and 19% reported experiencing >or=4. The most commonly reported adverse childhood experiences were parental separation/divorce (41.3%), living with a household member who was a problem drinker (28.7%), mental illness of a household member (24.8%), and sexual abuse (19.1%). Of the 10 specific adverse childhood experiences assessed, 5 were significantly associated with initiating drinking at or=21 years of age) after adjustment for confounders, including physical abuse, sexual abuse, having a mentally ill household member, substance abuse in the home, and parental discord or divorce. Compared with those without adverse childhood experiences, respondents with adverse childhood experiences were substantially more likely to report that they drank to cope during the first year that they used alcohol. Results suggest that children with particular adverse childhood experiences may initiate drinking earlier than their peers and that they may be more likely to drink to cope with problems (rather than for pleasure or to be

  5. The Bigfoot Drive; Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Kevin; Thomas, Cliff; Khan, Shahab; Casey, Daniel; Spears, Brian; Nora, Ryan; Munro, Davis; Eder, David; Milovich, Jose; Berger, Dick; Strozzi, David; Goyon, Clement; Turnbull, David; Ma, Tammy; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Benedetti, Robin; Millot, Marius; Celliers, Peter; Yeamans, Charles; Hatarik, Robert; Landen, Nino; Hurricane, Omar; Callahan, Debbie

    2016-10-01

    The Bigfoot platform was developed on the National Ignition Facility to investigate low convergence, high adiabat, high rhoR hotspot implosions. This platform was designed to be less susceptible to wall motion, LPI and CBET and to be more robust against capsule hydrodynamic instabilities. To date experimental studies have been carried out at two hohlraum scales, a 5.75 and 5.4 mm diameter hohlraum. We will present experimental results from these tuning campaigns including the shape vs. cone fraction, surrogacy comparisons of self-emission from the capsules vs. radiography of the imploding capsule and doped vs. undoped capsules. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Earlier snowmelt and warming lead to earlier but not necessarily more plant growth.

    PubMed

    Livensperger, Carolyn; Steltzer, Heidi; Darrouzet-Nardi, Anthony; Sullivan, Patrick F; Wallenstein, Matthew; Weintraub, Michael N

    2016-01-01

    Climate change over the past ∼50 years has resulted in earlier occurrence of plant life-cycle events for many species. Across temperate, boreal and polar latitudes, earlier seasonal warming is considered the key mechanism leading to earlier leaf expansion and growth. Yet, in seasonally snow-covered ecosystems, the timing of spring plant growth may also be cued by snowmelt, which may occur earlier in a warmer climate. Multiple environmental cues protect plants from growing too early, but to understand how climate change will alter the timing and magnitude of plant growth, experiments need to independently manipulate temperature and snowmelt. Here, we demonstrate that altered seasonality through experimental warming and earlier snowmelt led to earlier plant growth, but the aboveground production response varied among plant functional groups. Earlier snowmelt without warming led to early leaf emergence, but often slowed the rate of leaf expansion and had limited effects on aboveground production. Experimental warming alone had small and inconsistent effects on aboveground phenology, while the effect of the combined treatment resembled that of early snowmelt alone. Experimental warming led to greater aboveground production among the graminoids, limited changes among deciduous shrubs and decreased production in one of the dominant evergreen shrubs. As a result, we predict that early onset of the growing season may favour early growing plant species, even those that do not shift the timing of leaf expansion. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  7. Overview of ECRH experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Brian

    1998-08-01

    A review of the present status of electron cyclotron heating and current drive experiments in toroidal fusion devices is presented. In addition to basic heating and current drive studies the review also addresses advances in wave physics and the application of electron cyclotron waves for instability control, transport studies, pre-ionization/start-up assist, etc. A comprehensive overview is given with particular emphasis on recent advances since the major review of Erckmann and Gasparino (1994) ( 36 1869), including results from the latest generation of high-power, high-frequency experiments.

  8. Endochondral fracture healing with external fixation in the Sost knockout mouse results in earlier fibrocartilage callus removal and increased bone volume fraction and strength.

    PubMed

    Morse, A; Yu, N Y C; Peacock, L; Mikulec, K; Kramer, I; Kneissel, M; McDonald, M M; Little, D G

    2015-02-01

    Sclerostin deficiency, via genetic knockout or anti-Sclerostin antibody treatment, has been shown to cause increased bone volume, density and strength of calluses following endochondral bone healing. However, there is limited data on the effect of Sclerostin deficiency on the formative early stage of fibrocartilage (non-bony tissue) formation and removal. In this study we extensively investigate the early fibrocartilage callus. Closed tibial fractures were performed on Sost(-/-) mice and age-matched wild type (C57Bl/6J) controls and assessed at multiple early time points (7, 10 and 14days), as well as at 28days post-fracture after bony union. External fixation was utilized, avoiding internal pinning and minimizing differences in stability stiffness, a variable that has confounded previous research in this area. Normal endochondral ossification progressed in wild type and Sost(-/-) mice with equivalent volumes of fibrocartilage formed at early day 7 and day 10 time points, and bony union in both genotypes by day 28. There were no significant differences in rate of bony union; however there were significant increases in fibrocartilage removal from the Sost(-/-) fracture calluses at day 14 suggesting earlier progression of endochondral healing. Earlier bone formation was seen in Sost(-/-) calluses over wild type with greater bone volume at day 10 (221%, p<0.01). The resultant Sost(-/-) united bony calluses at day 28 had increased bone volume fraction compared to wild type calluses (24%, p<0.05), and the strength of the fractured Sost(-/-) tibiae was greater than that that of wild type fractured tibiae. In summary, bony union was not altered by Sclerostin deficiency in externally-fixed closed tibial fractures, but fibrocartilage removal was enhanced and the resultant united bony calluses had increased bone fraction and increased strength. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnetic Guarding: Experimental and Numerical Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Jonathon; Font, Gabriel; Garrett, Michael; Rose, D.; Genoni, T.; Welch, D.; McGuire, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    The magnetic field topology of Lockheed Martin's Compact Fusion Reactor (CFR) concept requires internal magnetic field coils. Internal coils for similar devices have leveraged levitating coils or coils with magnetically guarded supports. Magnetic guarding of supports has been investigated for multipole devices (theoretically and experimentally) without conclusive results. One outstanding question regarding magnetic guarding of supports is the magnitude and behavior of secondary plasma drifts resulting from magnetic guard fields (grad-B drifts, etc). We present magnetic-implicit PIC modeling results and preliminary proof of concept experimental results on magnetic guarding of internal-supports and the subsequent reduction in total plasma losses.

  10. Technical note on results of production test IP-628-AI: Crosstie flow test and flushing calibration, and the earlier production tests IP-573-AI and IP-499-AI

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.S.

    1964-06-15

    A series of three experimental tests was conducted on the operation and adequacy of the K-Reactors` third, or last-ditch, cooling system. The first test showed considerable line corrosion the second test was performed directly after line cleaning, and the third test showed a significant amount of additional line corrosion after only nine months of service. The present cooling adequacy of this last-ditch system at the KE and KW reactors is summarized these show the power levels for which we have adequate last-ditch cooling as a function of the crosstie coolant temperature. These figures include the effects of increasing the numbermore » of pumps that remain in operation at the other K-Reactor, and various other operating or emergency conditions. These curves are for diesel pump speeds of 750 rpm which are planned for June of this year. In these figures the crosstie temperature is assumed to be a conservative 5{degrees}C above the process water inlet temperature.« less

  11. Fuel-rich, catalytic reaction experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollbuhler, R. James

    1991-01-01

    Future aeropropulsion gas turbine combustion requirements call for operating at very high inlet temperatures, pressures, and large temperature rises. At the same time, the combustion process is to have minimum pollution effects on the environment. Aircraft gas turbine engines utilize liquid hydrocarbon fuels which are difficult to uniformly atomize and mix with combustion air. An approach for minimizing fuel related problems is to transform the liquid fuel into gaseous form prior to the completion of the combustion process. Experimentally obtained results are presented for vaporizing and partially oxidizing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel into burnable gaseous components. The presented experimental data show that 1200 to 1300 K reaction product gas, rich in hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and light-end hydrocarbons, is formed when flowing 0.3 to 0.6 fuel to air mixes through a catalyst reactor. The reaction temperatures are kept low enough that nitrogen oxides and carbon particles (soot) do not form. Results are reported for tests using different catalyst types and configurations, mass flowrates, input temperatures, and fuel to air ratios.

  12. Results of Experimental Study on Flexitime and Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winett, Richard A.; Neale, Michael S.

    1980-01-01

    According to two small experimental studies of flexible working hours, federal workers with young children choose to arrive at and depart from work earlier, allowing them to increase the time spent with their families and to engage in recreational, educational, and household activities. (Author/SK)

  13. Density- and luminosity-functions for UBV-photometric discand halo-stars in SA 54, compared with earlier RGU-results in this field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenkart, R.; Esin-Yilmaz, F.

    1983-12-01

    Space density- and luminosity-functions for the photometric halo- and disc-populations in the test-field SA 54 of the Basle Halo Program have been derived on the basis of UBV observations of the same 1377 stars used already for the corresponding RGU investigation by Fenkart (1968). The statistical method for separating the photometrically defined populations and for attributing absolute magnitudes to their members developed, described and first applied to SA 51 in RGU by Becker (1965) has been adapted for use in the UBV system. The (U-B, B- V) diagrams for consecutive intervals in apparent V-magnitude of figures 2a to f contain, contrary to what was first expected in this system, substantial numbers of stars in the < blanketing-region above and to the right of the late branch of the two-colour diagram main-sequence. The density-functions for different MVintervals within the overall interval < 3m, 7m> covered by this investigation for halo and disc are given in tables IIa and b, and plotted in figures 3 and 4, respectively. The corresponding luminosity-functions within the partial volume up to 1 kpc from the sun over the same overall MVinterval are given together with Glieses (1969) solar values for population I, in table III, and plotted in figure 5. The overall density-functions (3m ≦ MV ≦ 7m) for both populations can be and are compared with the corresponding ones (3m ≦ MG ≦ 8m) in RGU (last column in table II) in figures 6 and 7, for halo and disc, respectively. The coincidence of the density results between UBV and RGU is much better for both populations than the mean misidentification rate per system derived in section 5 would let us expect, suggesting a statistically fairly repartition of the misidentifications with respect to absolute magnitudes and distances.

  14. Giant-Magnetoresistance(GMR) Siegel KEY FIRST Experimental Discovery Decade-Earlier PRE-``Fert"-``Gruenberg" in Nuc"el"ar ``Super"alloys: Science?;``SEANCE!!!; Ethics?; SHMETHICS!!!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, R.; Siegel, E.

    2010-03-01

    (So MIScalled) ``Fert"-``Grunberg"[PRL(1988;1989)] GMR 2007 physics Nobel/Wolf/Japan-Prizes VS. decade-earlier(1973-1977) KEY FIRST Siegel at:Westin"kl"ouse/PSEG/IAEA/ABB[google:``Martin Ebner"(94-04) in financial media]/Vattenfall/Wallenbergs/nuc"el"ar-DoE Labs[at flickr.com, search on ``Giant- Magnotoresistance''; find: Intl.Conf.Mag.Alloys & Oxides(ICMAO), Haifa(Aug./1977); J.Mag.Mag.Mtls,(JMMM)7,312(1978)``unavailable: not yet scanned''/modified(last R(H) GMR Figs(7;8) deleted!!!) on JMMM/Reed-Elsevier website until 7/29/08 conveniently one- half-year after last (Nobel)award(12/2007); conveniently effectively deleted!!!; google: ``If Leaks Could Kill''; many APS/MRS Mtgs(1970s)<<<1988/1989] decade-earlier GMR: (1978)<<< (1988); 1988-1978 =10 years = one full decadeprecedence!!!] first experimental discovery in (so MIScalled) ``super''alloys [182/82, Hastelloy-X, 600, 690(!!!), Stainless-Steels: ANY/ALL!!!] generic endemic Wigner's[JAP,17,857(1946)]- disease/Ostwald-ripening/spinodal-decomposition/overageing- embrittlement/ thermo-mechanical-INstability!

  15. A critical review of RHIC experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainor, Thomas A.

    2014-07-01

    The relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC) was constructed to achieve an asymptotic state of nuclear matter in heavy-ion collisions, a near-ideal gas of deconfined quarks and gluons denoted quark-gluon plasma or QGP. RHIC collisions are indeed very different from the hadronic processes observed at the Bevalac and AGS, but high-energy elementary-collision mechanisms are also non-hadronic. The two-component model (TCM) combines measured properties of elementary collisions with the Glauber eikonal model to provide an alternative asymptotic limit for A-A collisions. RHIC data have been interpreted to indicate formation of a strongly-coupled QGP (sQGP) or "perfect liquid". In this review, I consider the experimental evidence that seems to support such conclusions and alternative evidence that may conflict with those conclusions and suggest different interpretations.

  16. Experimental rotordynamic coefficient results for honeycomb seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, David A.; Childs, Dara W.

    1988-01-01

    Test results (leakage and rotordynamic coefficients) are presented for seven honeycomb-stator smooth-rotor seals. Tests were carried out with air at rotor speeds up to 16,000 cpm and supply pressures up to 8.2 bars. Test results for the seven seals are compared, and the most stable configuration is identified based on the whirl frequency ratio. Results from tests of a smooth-rotor/smooth-stator seal, a teeth-on-stator labyrinth seal, and the most stable honeycomb seal are compared.

  17. Numerical taxonomy on data: Experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.; Farach, M.

    1997-12-01

    The numerical taxonomy problems associated with most of the optimization criteria described above are NP - hard [3, 5, 1, 4]. In, the first positive result for numerical taxonomy was presented. They showed that if e is the distance to the closest tree metric under the L{sub {infinity}} norm. i.e., e = min{sub T} [L{sub {infinity}} (T-D)], then it is possible to construct a tree T such that L{sub {infinity}} (T-D) {le} 3e, that is, they gave a 3-approximation algorithm for this problem. We will refer to this algorithm as the Single Pivot (SP) heuristic.

  18. Optical properties of tissue, experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beek, Johan F.

    1993-08-01

    The effective attenuation coefficient of piglet lung was measured in vitro at 632.8 nm. Interstial fibres with isotropic tips were used to measure the fluence rate as a function of the distance from an isotropic light source. In vitro measurements at 632.8 nm on a lung that was insufflated with oxygen from 50 to 150 ml showed that the effective attenuation coefficient decreases as a function of the volume of air in the lung (at 50 ml /Jeff = 0.297 + 0.011 mnf1, at 100 ml lice 0.150 ± 0.007 mm-1, and at 150 ml /Jeff= 0.1136 + 0.015 mm-1). A single in vitro measurement at 790 nm at an insufflated lung volume of 100 ml gave a comparable result (ii ie = 0.175 + 0.004 mm-1). A ff decrease in effective attenuation coefficient with an ncrease in lung volume was explained by Mie-theory. The effective attenuation coefficient, calculated with 11, and g from Mie-theory, showed a deviation < 22% from the measured in vitro values.

  19. An earlier de motu cordis.

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Walter J.

    2004-01-01

    Thirteenth century medical science, like medieval scholarship in general, was directed at reconciliation of Greek philosophy/science with prevailing medieval theology and philosophy. Peter of Spain [later Pope John XXI] was the leading medical scholar of his time. Peter wrote a long book on the soul. Imbedded in it was a chapter on the motion of the heart. Peter's De Motu was based on his own medical experience and Galen's De Usu Partium and De Usu Respirationis and De Usu Pulsuum. This earlier De Motu defines a point on the continuum of intellectual development leading to us and into the future. Thirteenth century scholarship relied on past authority to a degree that continues to puzzle and beg explanation. Images Fig. 1 PMID:17060956

  20. Experimental results for a 1.5 MW, 110 GHz gyrotron oscillator with reduced mode competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, E. M.; Marchewka, C. D.; Mastovsky, I.; Sirigiri, J. R.; Shapiro, M. A.; Temkin, R. J.

    2006-02-01

    A new result from a 110GHz gyrotron at MIT is reported with an output power of 1.67MW and an efficiency of 42% when operated at 97kV and 41A for 3μs pulses in the TE22,6 mode. These results are a major improvement over results obtained with an earlier cavity design, which produced 1.43MW of power at 37% efficiency. These new results were obtained using a cavity with a reduced output taper angle and a lower ohmic loss when compared with the earlier cavity. The improved operation is shown experimentally to be the result of reduced mode competition from the nearby TE19,7 mode. The reduced mode competition agrees well with an analysis of the startup scenario based on starting current simulations. The present results should prove useful in planning long pulse and CW versions of the 110GHz gyrotron.

  1. Methods of experimentation with models and utilization of results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robert,

    1924-01-01

    The present report treats the subject of testing small models in a wind tunnel and of the methods employed for rendering the results constant, accurate and comparable with one another. Detailed experimental results are given.

  2. [An earlier diagnosis of depression].

    PubMed

    Campagne, D M

    Data of the last decade indicate that, in the Western world and also in Spain, an important part of general practicioners' consultations are related to mental health, but depression is consistently underdiagnosed. Causes are lack of time and back-up, as well as lack of specific training. In Spain, there is no national health service primary care database with actualized clinical information as to mental health. There is evident clinical interest in a more agile diagnostic, resulting from a recollection of data from voluntary selective screening and continuing evaluation of adult depression along the model used by other National Health Systems. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Early full weight-bearing versus 6-week partial weight-bearing after open wedge high tibial osteotomy leads to earlier improvement of the clinical results: a prospective, randomised evaluation.

    PubMed

    Schröter, S; Ateschrang, A; Löwe, W; Nakayama, H; Stöckle, U; Ihle, C

    2017-01-01

    Open wedge high tibial osteotomy is a widespread treatment option in patients with varus malalignment and medial compartment osteoarthritis. There is no standardised protocol for post-operative rehabilitation available. The purpose of this study was to compare two post-operative rehabilitation protocols and to evaluate the clinical outcome of early full weight-bearing after open wedge HTO. One hundred and twenty consecutive patients with varus malalignment and medial compartment osteoarthritis received an open wedge HTO using an angular locking plate fixation between December 2008 and December 2011. All patients were assigned randomly into one of two groups with different post-operative rehabilitation protocols (11-day vs. 6-week 20-kg partial weight-bearing). Clinical outcome was evaluated using established instruments (Lequesne, Lysholm, HSS and IKDC scores) preoperatively, 6, 12 and 18 months post-operatively. Deformity analysis was performed preoperatively and during follow-up. All clinical scores showed a significant pre- to post-operative improvement. After 6 months, there was a higher improvement in the group of early full weight-bearing. The difference between preoperative and 6-month follow-up for the group with early full weight-bearing and for the group with 20-kg PWB for 6 weeks was 28 ± 26 and 18 ± 22, respectively, for the Lysholm score and -5.0 ± 5.1 and -3.0 ± 3.6, respectively, for the Lequesne score. Early full weight-bearing (11-day 20-kg partial weight-bearing) after open wedge HTO without bone graft leads to earlier improvement of the clinical results and can be recommended for post-operative rehabilitation after open wedge HTO and fixation with an angular locking plate. Therapeutic study, Level I.

  4. Propagation effects for land mobile satellite systems: Overview of experimental and modeling results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Vogel, Wolfhard J.

    1992-01-01

    Models developed and experiments performed to characterize the propagation environment associated with land mobile communication using satellites are discussed. Experiments were carried out with transmitters on stratospheric balloons, remotely piloted aircraft, helicopters, and geostationary satellites. This text is comprised of compiled experimental results for the expressed use of communications engineers, designers of planned Land Mobile Satellite Systems (LMSS), and modelers of propagation effects. The results presented here are mostly derived from systematic studies of propagation effects for LMSS geometries in the United States associated with rural and suburban regions. Where applicable, the authors also draw liberally from the results of other related investigations in Canada, Europe, and Australia. Frequencies near 1500 MHz are emphasized to coincide with frequency bands allocated for LMSS by the International Telecommunication Union, although earlier experimental work at 870 MHz is also included.

  5. New Experimental Results of Simulating Micrometeoroid Ablation in the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternovsky, Zoltan; Thomas, Evan; DeLuca, Michael; Janches, Diego; Munsat, Tobin; Plane, John

    2017-04-01

    A facility is developed to simulate the ablation of micrometeoroids in laboratory conditions, which also allows measuring the ionization probability of the ablated material. An electrostatic dust accelerator is used to generate iron, aluminum and meteoric analog particles with velocities 10-50 km/s. The particles are then introduced into a cell filled with nitrogen, air or carbon dioxide gas with pressures adjustable in the 0.02 - 0.5 Torr range, where the partial or complete ablation of the particle occurs over a short distance. An array of biased electrodes is used to collect the ionized products with spatial resolution along the ablating particles' path, allowing thus the study of the temporal resolution of the process. A new optical observation setup using a 64 channel PMT system was added to the setup to allow the observation of the ablating particle and deceleration of the particle from the neutral drag. A simple ablation model is used to match the observations. For completely ablated particles the total collected charge directly yields the ionization efficiency. The measurements using iron particles in N2 and air are in relatively good agreement with earlier data. The new experimental data using aluminum particles suggest that the neutral drag acting of the particle is smaller than expected.

  6. Clinical and experimental study of TMJ distraction: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Festa, F; Galluccio, G

    1998-01-01

    A physiotherapeutic approach, with manual maneuvers and/or distraction appliances, is indicated in the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs) to prevent the progressive fibrosis of the muscle fibers. In this article, the authors report preliminary results of experimental and clinical studies conducted to assess the real effect of distraction in temporomandibular joint disorders. The experimental invivo studies confirmed the structural alteration due to compression and distraction on the capsular and condylar tissues. Clinical cases are reported to show the increase of the intraarticular vertical dimension, with a forward and downward movement of the condyles in a more physiologic condition.

  7. Experimental results for a hypersonic nozzle/afterbody flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaid, Frank W.; Keener, Earl R.; Hui, Frank C. L.

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to experimentally characterize the flow field created by the interaction of a single-expansion ramp-nozzle (SERN) flow with a hypersonic external stream. Data were obtained from a generic nozzle/afterbody model in the 3.5 Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Ames Research Center, in a cooperative experimental program involving Ames and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace. The model design and test planning were performed in close cooperation with members of the Ames computational fluid dynamics (CFD) team for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) program. This paper presents experimental results consisting of oil-flow and shadow graph flow-visualization photographs, afterbody surface-pressure distributions, rake boundary-layer measurements, Preston-tube skin-friction measurements, and flow field surveys with five-hole and thermocouple probes. The probe data consist of impact pressure, flow direction, and total temperature profiles in the interaction flow field.

  8. Experimental results for correlation-based wavefront sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A; Palmer, D W; LaFortune, K N

    2005-07-01

    Correlation wave-front sensing can improve Adaptive Optics (AO) system performance in two keys areas. For point-source-based AO systems, Correlation is more accurate, more robust to changing conditions and provides lower noise than a centroiding algorithm. Experimental results from the Lick AO system and the SSHCL laser AO system confirm this. For remote imaging, Correlation enables the use of extended objects for wave-front sensing. Results from short horizontal-path experiments will show algorithm properties and requirements.

  9. Experimental results on chiral magnetic and vortical effects

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Gang; Wen, Liwen

    2017-01-12

    Various novel transport phenomena in chiral systems result from the interplay of quantum anomalies with magnetic field and vorticity in high-energy heavy-ion collisions and could survive the expansion of the fireball and be detected in experiments. Among them are the chiral magnetic effect, the chiral vortical effect, and the chiral magnetic wave, the experimental searches for which have aroused extensive interest. As a result, the goal of this review is to describe the current status of experimental studies at Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider at BNL and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN and to outline the future work in experiment neededmore » to eliminate the existing uncertainties in the interpretation of the data.« less

  10. Analytical, Numerical, and Experimental Results on Turbulent Boundary Layers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    a pitot pressure rake where the spacing between probe centers was 0.5 in. near the wall and 1.0 in. away from the wall. Recently, measurements have...Pressure Gradient, Part II. Analysis- of the Experimental Data." BRL R 1543, June 1971. 51. Allen, J. M. " Pitot -Probe Displacement in a Supersonic Turbulent...numbers; (4) a description of the data reduction of pitot pressure measurements utilizing these analytical results in order to obtain velocity

  11. Mechanical properties of triaxially braided composites: Experimental and analytical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, John E.; Foye, Raymond L.; Pastore, Christopher M.; Gowayed, Yasser A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates the unnotched tensile properties of two-dimensional triaxial braid reinforced composites from both an experimental and analytical viewpoint. The materials are graphite fibers in an epoxy matrix. Three different reinforcing fiber architectures were considered. Specimens were cut from resin transfer molded (RTM) composite panels made from each braid. There were considerable differences in the observed elastic constants from different size strain gage and extensometer readings. Larger strain gages gave more consistent results and correlated better with the extensometer readings. Experimental strains correlated reasonably well with analytical predictions in the longitudinal, zero degree, fiber direction but not in the transverse direction. Tensile strength results were not always predictable even in reinforcing directions. Minor changes in braid geometry led to disproportionate strength variations. The unit cell structure of the triaxial braid was discussed with the assistence of computer analysis of the microgeometry. Photomicrographs of the braid geometry were used to improve upon the computer graphics representations of unit cells. These unit cells were used to predict the elastic moduli with various degrees of sophistication. The simple and the complex analyses were generally in agreement but none adequately matched the experimental results for all the braids.

  12. Modeling and experimental result analysis for high-power VECSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharian, Aramais R.; Hader, Joerg; Moloney, Jerome V.; Koch, Stephan W.; Lutgen, Stephan; Brick, Peter; Albrecht, Tony; Grotsch, Stefan; Luft, Johann; Spath, Werner

    2003-06-01

    We present a comparison of experimental and microscopically based model results for optically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting semiconductor lasers. The quantum well gain model is based on a quantitative ab-initio approach that allows calculation of a complex material susceptibility dependence on the wavelength, carrier density and lattice temperature. The gain model is coupled to the macroscopic thermal transport, spatially resolved in both the radial and longitudinal directions, with temperature and carrier density dependent pump absorption. The radial distribution of the refractive index and gain due to temperature variation are computed. Thermal managment issues, highlighted by the experimental data, are discussed. Experimental results indicate a critical dependence of the input power, at which thermal roll-over occurs, on the thermal resistance of the device. This requires minimization of the substrate thickness and optimization of the design and placement of the heatsink. Dependence of the model results on the radiative and non-radiative carrier recombination lifetimes and cavity losses are evaluated.

  13. Mechanical properties of triaxially braided composites: Experimental and analytical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, John E.; Foye, Raymond L.; Pastore, Christopher M.; Gowayed, Yasser A.

    1992-01-01

    The unnotched tensile properties of 2-D triaxial braid reinforced composites from both an experimental and an analytical viewpoint are studied. The materials are graphite fibers in an epoxy matrix. Three different reinforcing fiber architectures were considered. Specimens were cut from resin transfer molded (RTM) composite panels made from each braid. There were considerable differences in the observed elastic constants from different size strain gage and extensometer reading. Larger strain gages gave more consistent results and correlated better with the extensometer reading. Experimental strains correlated reasonably well with analytical predictions in the longitudinal, 0 degrees, fiber direction but not in the transverse direction. Tensile strength results were not always predictable even in reinforcing directions. Minor changes in braid geometry led to disproportionate strength variations. The unit cell structure of the triaxial braid was discussed with the assistance of computer analysis of the microgeometry. Photomicrographs of braid geometry were used to improve upon the computer graphics representations of unit cells. These unit cells were used to predict the elastic moduli with various degrees of sophistication. The simple and the complex analyses were generally in agreement but none adequately matched the experimental results for all the braids.

  14. Experimental results on the enhanced backscatter phenomenon and its dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chensheng; Nelson, William; Ko, Jonathan; Davis, Christopher C.

    2014-10-01

    Enhanced backscatter effects have long been predicted theoretically and experimentally demonstrated. The reciprocity of a turbulent channel generates a group of paired rays with identical trajectory and phase information that leads to a region in phase space with double intensity and scintillation index. Though simulation work based on phase screen models has demonstrated the existence of the phenomenon, few experimental results have been published describing its characteristics, and possible applications of the enhanced backscatter phenomenon are still unclear. With the development of commercially available high powered lasers and advanced cameras with high frame rates, we have successfully captured the enhanced backscatter effects from different reflection surfaces. In addition to static observations, we have also tilted and pre-distorted the transmitted beam at various frequencies to track the dynamic properties of the enhanced backscatter phenomenon to verify its possible application in guidance and beam and image correction through atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, experimental results will be described, and discussions on the principle and applications of the phenomenon will be included. Enhanced backscatter effects are best observed in certain levels of turbulence (Cn 2≍10-13 m-2/3), and show significant potential for providing self-guidance in beam correction that doesn't introduce additional costs (unlike providing a beacon laser). Possible applications of this phenomenon include tracking fast moving object with lasers, long distance (>1km) alignment, and focusing a high-power corrected laser beam over long distances.

  15. Correlation of analytical and experimental hot structure vibration results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kehoe, Michael W.; Deaton, Vivian C.

    1993-01-01

    High surface temperatures and temperature gradients can affect the vibratory characteristics and stability of aircraft structures. Aircraft designers are relying more on finite-element model analysis methods to ensure sufficient vehicle structural dynamic stability throughout the desired flight envelope. Analysis codes that predict these thermal effects must be correlated and verified with experimental data. Experimental modal data for aluminum, titanium, and fiberglass plates heated at uniform, nonuniform, and transient heating conditions are presented. The data show the effect of heat on each plate's modal characteristics, a comparison of predicted and measured plate vibration frequencies, the measured modal damping, and the effect of modeling material property changes and thermal stresses on the accuracy of the analytical results at nonuniform and transient heating conditions.

  16. Experimental Results for Titan Aerobot Thermo-Mechanical Subsystem Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauken, Michael T.; Hall, Jeffery L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results on a set of 4 thermo-mechanical research tasks aimed at Titan and Venus aerobots: 1. A cryogenic balloon materials development program culminating in the fabrication and testing of a 4.6 m long blimp prototype at 93K. 2. A combined computational and experimental thermal analysis of the effect of radioisotope power system (RPS) waste heat on the behavior of a helium filled blimp hull. 3. Aerial deployment and inflation testing using a blimp 4. A proof of concept experiment with an aerobot-mounted steerable high gain antenna These tasks were supported with JPL internal R&D funds and executed by JPL engineers with substantial industry collaboration for Task #1, the cryogenic balloon materials

  17. On collisional disruption - Experimental results and scaling laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R.; Ryan, Eileen V.

    1990-01-01

    Both homogeneous and inhomogeneous targets have been addressed by the present experimental consideration of the impact strengths, fragment sizes, and fragment velocities generated by cement mortar targets whose crushing strengths vary by an order of magnitude, upon impact of projectiles in the velocity range of 50-5700 m/sec. When combined with additional published data, dynamic impact strength is found to correlate with quasi-static material strengths for materials ranging in character from basalt to ice; two materials not following this trend, however, are weak mortar and clay targets. Values consistent with experimental results are obtainable with a simple scaling algorithm based on impact energy, material properties, and collisional strain rate.

  18. Comparison the Results of Numerical Simulation And Experimental Results for Amirkabir Plasma Focus Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudarzi, Shervin; Amrollahi, R.; Niknam Sharak, M.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper the results of the numerical simulation for Amirkabir Mather-type Plasma Focus Facility (16 kV, 36μF and 115 nH) in several experiments with Argon as working gas at different working conditions (different discharge voltages and gas pressures) have been presented and compared with the experimental results. Two different models have been used for simulation: five-phase model of Lee and lumped parameter model of Gonzalez. It is seen that the results (optimum pressures and current signals) of the Lee model at different working conditions show better agreement than lumped parameter model with experimental values.

  19. Experimental investigations of recent anomalous results in superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souw, Victor K.

    2000-12-01

    This thesis examines three recent anomalous results associated with irreversibility in type-II superconductivity: (1) The magnetic properties of the predicted superconductors LiBeH3 and Li2BeH 4, (2) the paramagnetic transition near T = Tc in Nb, and (3) a noise transition in a YBa2Cu3O7-delta thin film near the vortex-solid transition. The investigation of Li 2BeH4 and LiBeH3 was prompted by theoretical predictions of room-temperature superconductivity for Li2BeH4 and LiBeH3 and a recent report that Li2BeH4 showed magnetic irreversibilities similar to those of type-II superconductors. A modified experimental method is introduced in order to avoid artifacts due to background signals. The resulting data is suggestive of a superparamagnetic impurity from one of the reagents used in the synthesis and after subtracting this contribution, the temperature-dependent susceptibilities of Li2 BeH4 and LiBeH3 are estimated. However, no magnetic irreversibility suggestive of superconductivity is observed. The anomalous paramagnetic transition in Nb is intriguing because Nb does not share the d-wave order parameter symmetry often invoked to explain the phenomenon in other superconductors. A modified experimental method was developed in order to avoid instrumental artifacts known to produce a similar apparently paramagnetic response, but the results of this method indicate that the paramagnetic response is a physical property of the sample. Finally, a very sharp noise transition in a YBa2Cu3O7-delta thin film was found to be distinct from previously reported features in the voltage noise commonly associated with vortex fluctuations near the irreversibility line. In each of these three cases the examination of experimental techniques is an integral part of the investigation of novel vortex behavior near the onset of irreversibility.

  20. Electrical and thermal behavior of unsaturated soils: experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouveau, Marie; Grandjean, Gilles; Leroy, Philippe; Philippe, Mickael; Hedri, Estelle; Boukcim, Hassan

    2016-05-01

    When soil is affected by a heat source, some of its properties are modified, and in particular, the electrical resistivity due to changes in water content. As a result, these changes affect the thermal properties of soil, i.e., its thermal conductivity and diffusivity. We experimentally examine the changes in electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity for four soils with different grain size distributions and clay content over a wide range of temperatures, from 20 to 100 °C. This temperature range corresponds to the thermal conditions in the vicinity of a buried high voltage cable or a geothermal system. Experiments were conducted at the field scale, at a geothermal test facility, and in the laboratory using geophysical devices and probing systems. The results show that the electrical resistivity decreases and the thermal conductivity increases with temperature up to a critical temperature depending on soil types. At this critical temperature, the air volume in the pore space increases with temperature, and the resulting electrical resistivity also increases. For higher temperatures , the thermal conductivity increases sharply with temperature up to a second temperature limit. Beyond it, the thermal conductivity drops drastically. This limit corresponds to the temperature at which most of the water evaporates from the soil pore space. Once the evaporation is completed, the thermal conductivity stabilizes. To explain these experimental results, we modeled the electrical resistivity variations with temperature and water content in the temperature range 20 - 100°C, showing that two critical temperatures influence the main processes occurring during heating at temperatures below 100 °C.

  1. An Overview of NSTX Research Facility and Recent Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Masayuki

    2006-10-01

    The 2006 NSTX experimental campaign yielded significant new experimental results in many areas. Improved plasma control achieved the highest elongation of 2.9 and plasma shape factor q95Ip/aBT = 42 MA/m.T. Active feedback correction of error fields sustained the plasma rotation and increased the pulse length of high beta discharges. Active feedback stabilization of the resistive wall mode in high-beta, low-rotation plasmas was demonstrated for ˜100 resistive wall times. Operation at higher toroidal field showed favorable plasma confinement and HHFW heating efficiency trends with the field. A broader current profile, measured by the 12-channel MSE diagnostic in high beta discharges revealed an outward anomalous diffusivity of energetic ions due to the n=1 MHD modes. A tangential microwave scattering diagnostic measured localized electron gyro-scale fluctuations in L-mode, H-mode and reversed-shear plasmas. Evaporation of lithium onto plasma facing surfaces yielded lower density, higher temperature and improved confinement. A strong dependence of the divertor heat load and ELM behavior on the plasma triangularity was observed. Coaxial helicity injection produced a start-up current of 160 kA on closed flux surfaces.

  2. Physical mechanism of comet outbursts - An experimental result

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, William K.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is given to an experimental investigation of the physical mechanism of comet outbursts which is consistent with the general picture of mantle presence on comets and clarifies the relation of mantles to eruptive activity. The experiment and closeup observation of Comet P/Halley suggest a result different from most mathematical models in that the release of gas pressure does not occur only from uniform gas flow out of the entire surface. In some active comets near perihelion within a few AU of the sun, gas production rates and disturbance of the surface may be so high that the outflow is nearly continuous, with the regolith being entirely stripped away, as in many of the models. The present model provides a cyclic eruption and recharge mechanism which is lacking in most other models.

  3. Blanking and piercing theory, applications and recent experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaid, Adnan l. O.

    2014-06-01

    Blanking and piercing are manufacturing processes by which certain geometrical shapes are sheared off a sheet metal. If the sheared off part is the one required, the processes referred to as blanking and if the remaining part in the sheet is the one required, the process is referred to as piercing. In this paper, the theory and practice of these processes are reviewed and discussed The main parameters affecting these processes are presented and discussed. These include: the radial clearance percentage, punch and die geometrical parameters, for example punch and die profile radii. The abovementioned parameters on the force and energy required to effect blanking together with their effect on the quality of the products are also presented and discussed. Recent experimental results together with photomacrographs and photomicrographs are also included and discussed. Finally, the effect of punch and die wear on the quality of the blanks is alsogiven and discussed.

  4. Preliminary experimental results from a MARS Micro-CT system.

    PubMed

    He, Peng; Yu, Hengyong; Thayer, Patrick; Jin, Xin; Xu, Qiong; Bennett, James; Tappenden, Rachael; Wei, Biao; Goldstein, Aaron; Renaud, Peter; Butler, Anthony; Butler, Phillip; Wang, Ge

    2012-01-01

    The Medipix All Resolution System (MARS) system is a commercial spectral/multi-energy micro-CT scanner designed and assembled by the MARS Bioimaging, Ltd. in New Zealand. This system utilizes the state-of-the-art Medipix photon-counting, energy-discriminating detector technology developed by a collaboration at European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). In this paper, we report our preliminary experimental results using this system, including geometrical alignment, photon energy characterization, protocol optimization, and spectral image reconstruction. We produced our scan datasets with a multi-material phantom, and then applied ordered subset-simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (OS-SART) to reconstruct images in different energy ranges and principal component analysis (PCA) to evaluate spectral deviation among the energy ranges.

  5. Object impedance control for cooperative manipulation - Theory and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Stanley A.; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the dynamic control module of the Dynamic and Strategic Control of Cooperating Manipulators (DASCCOM) project at Stanford University's Aerospace Robotics Laboratory. First, the cooperative manipulation problem is analyzed from a systems perspective, and the desirable features of a control system for cooperative manipulation are discussed. Next, a control policy is developed that enforces a controlled impedance not of the individual arm endpoints, but of the manipulated object itself. A parallel implementation for a multiprocessor system is presented. The controller fully compensates for the system dynamics and directly controls the object internal forces. Most importantly, it presents a simple, powerful, intuitive interface to higher level strategic control modules. Experimental results from a dual two-link-arm robotic system are used to compare the object impedance controller with other strategies, both for free-motion slews and environmental contact.

  6. Robotic follower experimentation results: ready for FCS increment I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaczkowski, Jeffrey J.

    2003-09-01

    Robotics is a fundamental enabling technology required to meet the U.S. Army's vision to be a strategically responsive force capable of domination across the entire spectrum of conflict. The U. S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command (RDECOM) Tank Automotive Research, Development & Engineering Center (TARDEC), in partnership with the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, is developing a leader-follower capability for Future Combat Systems. The Robotic Follower Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) utilizes a manned leader to provide a highlevel proofing of the follower's path, which operates with minimal user intervention. This paper will give a programmatic overview and discuss both the technical approach and operational experimentation results obtained during testing conducted at Ft. Bliss, New Mexico in February-March 2003.

  7. Beta decay and the origins of biological chirality - Experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gidley, D. W.; Rich, A.; Van House, J.; Zitzewitz, P. W.

    1982-01-01

    Preliminary experimental results are presented of an investigation of the possible role of preferential radiolysis by electrons emitted in the beta decay of radionuclides, a parity-nonconserving process, in the universal causation of the optical activity of biological compounds. Experiments were designed to measure the asymmetry in the production of triplet positronium upon the bombardment of an amino acid powder target by a collimated beam of positrons as positron helicity or target chirality is reversed. No asymmetry down to a level of 0.0007 is found in experiments on the D and L forms of cystine and tryptophan, indicating an asymmetry in positronium formation cross section of less than 0.01, while an asymmetry of 0.0031 is found for leucine, corresponding to a formation cross section asymmetry of about 0.04

  8. Experimental and simulational result multipactors in 112 MHz QWR injector

    SciTech Connect

    Xin, T.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Belomestnykh, S.

    2015-05-03

    The first RF commissioning of 112 MHz QWR superconducting electron gun was done in late 2014. The coaxial Fundamental Power Coupler (FPC) and Cathode Stalk (stalk) were installed and tested for the first time. During this experiment, we observed several multipacting barriers at different gun voltage levels. The simulation work was done within the same range. The comparison between the experimental observation and the simulation results are presented in this paper. The observations during the test are consisted with the simulation predictions. We were able to overcome most of the multipacting barriers and reach 1.8 MV gun voltage under pulsedmore » mode after several round of conditioning processes.« less

  9. Solving and Learning Soft Temporal Constraints: Experimental Setting and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossi, F.; Sperduti, A.; Venable, K. B.; Khatib, L.; Morris, P.; Morris, R.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Soft temporal constraints problems allow to describe in a natural way scenarios where events happen over time and preferences are associated to event distances and durations. However, sometimes such local preferences are difficult to set, and it may be easier instead to associate preferences to some complete solutions of the problem. Machine learning techniques can be useful in this respect. In this paper we describe two solvers (one more general and the other one more efficient) for tractable subclasses of soft temporal problems, and we show some experimental results. The random generator used to build the problems on which tests are performed is also described. We also compare the two solvers highlighting the tradeoff between performance and representational power. Finally, we present a learning module and we show its behavior on randomly-generated examples.

  10. From Deuterium to Free Neutrons - Recent Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Sebastian

    2009-05-01

    Lepton scattering has long been used to gather data on the internal structure of both protons and neutrons. Assuming isospin symmetry, these data can be used to pin down the contributions of both u and d quarks to the spatial and momentum-spin structure of the nucleon and its excitations. In this context, information on the neutron is crucial and is typically obtained from experiments on few-body nuclear targets (predominantly ^3He and deuterium). However, the need to account for binding effects complicates the interpretation of these experiments. On the other hand, detailed studies of the reaction mechanism can yield important new information on the structure of few-body nuclei and the interplay of nuclear and quark degrees of freedom. Recent theoretical and experimental advances have allowed us to make significant progress on both fronts -- a cleaner extraction of neutron properties from nuclear data and a better understanding of nuclear modifications of the bound neutron structure. I will concentrate on recent results on the deuteron. I will present a new extraction of neutron spin structure functions in the resonance and large-x region (from the EG1 experiment with CLAS at Jefferson Lab). The same data can also be used for a detailed comparison with modern calculations of quasi-elastic spin-dependent scattering on the deuteron. A second experimental program with CLAS uses the technique of ``spectator tagging'' to extract the unpolarized structure functions of the neutron with minimal uncertainties from nuclear effects. By mapping out the dependence of the cross section on the ``spectator'' momentum, we can learn about final state interactions between the struck nucleon and the spectator, as well as modifications of the neutron structure due to nuclear binding. I will present preliminary results from the ``BoNuS'' experiment which pushed the detection limit of the spectator proton down to momenta of 70 MeV/c, where nuclear corrections should become small.

  11. Experimental Results for Titan Aerobot Thermo-Mechanical Subsystem Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Jeffrey L.; Jones, J. A.; Kerzhanovich, V. V.; Lachenmeier, T.; Mahr, P.; Pauken, M.; Plett, G. A.; Smith, L.; VanLuvender, M. L.; Yavrouian, A. H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes experimental results from a development program focused in maturing Titan aerobot technology in the areas of mechanical and thermal subsystems. Results from four key activities are described: first, a cryogenic balloon materials development program involving coupon and cylinder tests and culminating in the fabrication and testing of an inflated 4.6 m long prototype blimp at 93 K; second, a combined lab experiment and numerical simulation effort to assess potential problems resulting from radioisotope thermal generator waste heat generation near an inflated blimp; third, an aerial deployment and inflation development program consisting of laboratory and helicopter drop tests on a near full scale (11 m long) prototype blimp; and fourth, a proof of concept experiment demonstrating the viability of using a mechanically steerable high gain antenna on a floating blimp to perform direct to Earth telecommunications from Titan. The paper provides details on all of these successful activities and discusses their impact on the overall effort to produce mature systems technology for future Titan aerobot missions.

  12. Toward Explaining Earlier Retirement after 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ippolito, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Rule changes in the social security system and pension plans suggest that labor force participation rates for men aged 55 to 64 fell by 20 percent from 1970 through 1986 because of the increase in social security benefits and a change in private pension rules encouraging earlier retirement. (Author/JOW)

  13. An experimental/computational study of sharp fin induced shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions at Mach 5 - Experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodi, Patrick E.; Dolling, David S.

    1992-01-01

    A combined experimental/computational study has been performed of sharp fin induced shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions at Mach 5. The current paper focuses on the experiments and analysis of the results. The experimental data include mean surface heat transfer, mean surface pressure distributions and surface flow visualization for fin angles of attack of 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16-degrees at Mach 5 under a moderately cooled wall condition. Comparisons between the results and correlations developed earlier show that Scuderi's correlation for the upstream influence angle (recast in a conical form) is superior to other such correlations in predicting the current results, that normal Mach number based correlations for peak pressure heat transfer are adequate and that the initial heat transfer peak can be predicted using pressure-interaction theory.

  14. Internal wave emission from baroclinic jets: experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borcia, Ion D.; Rodda, Costanza; Harlander, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale balanced flows can spontaneously radiate meso-scale inertia-gravity waves (IGWs) and are thus in fact unbalanced. While flow-dependent parameterizations for the radiation of IGWs from orographic and convective sources do exist, the situation is less developed for spontaneously emitted IGWs. Observations identify increased IGW activity in the vicinity of jet exit regions. A direct interpretation of those based on geostrophic adjustment might be tempting. However, directly applying this concept to the parameterization of spontaneous imbalance is difficult since the dynamics itself is continuously re-establishing an unbalanced flow which then sheds imbalances by GW radiation. Examining spontaneous IGW emission in the atmosphere and validating parameterization schemes confronts the scientist with particular challenges. Due to its extreme complexity, GW emission will always be embedded in the interaction of a multitude of interdependent processes, many of which are hardly detectable from analysis or campaign data. The benefits of repeated and more detailed measurements, while representing the only source of information about the real atmosphere, are limited by the non-repeatability of an atmospheric situation. The same event never occurs twice. This argues for complementary laboratory experiments, which can provide a more focused dialogue between experiment and theory. Indeed, life cycles are also examined in rotating-annulus laboratory experiments. Thus, these experiments might form a useful empirical benchmark for theoretical and modeling work that is also independent of any sort of subgrid model. In addition, the more direct correspondence between experimental and model data and the data reproducibility makes lab experiments a powerful testbed for parameterizations. Here we show first results from a small rotating annulus experiments and we will further present our new experimental facility to study wave emission from jets and fronts.

  15. [Navigated drilling for femoral head necrosis. Experimental and clinical results].

    PubMed

    Beckmann, J; Tingart, M; Perlick, L; Lüring, C; Grifka, J; Anders, S

    2007-05-01

    In the early stages of osteonecrosis of the femoral head, core decompression by exact drilling into the ischemic areas can reduce pain and achieve reperfusion. Using computer aided surgery, the precision of the drilling can be improved while simultaneously lowering radiation exposure time for both staff and patients. We describe the experimental and clinical results of drilling under the guidance of the fluoroscopically-based VectorVision navigation system (BrainLAB, Munich, Germany). A total of 70 sawbones were prepared mimicking an osteonecrosis of the femoral head. In two experimental models, bone only and obesity, as well as in a clinical setting involving ten patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head, the precision and the duration of radiation exposure were compared between the VectorVision system and conventional drilling. No target was missed. For both models, there was a statistically significant difference in terms of the precision, the number of drilling corrections as well as the radiation exposure time. The average distance to the desired midpoint of the lesion of both models was 0.48 mm for navigated drilling and 1.06 mm for conventional drilling, the average drilling corrections were 0.175 and 2.1, and the radiation exposure time less than 1 s and 3.6 s, respectively. In the clinical setting, the reduction of radiation exposure (below 1 s for navigation compared to 56 s for the conventional technique) as well as of drilling corrections (0.2 compared to 3.4) was also significant. Computer guided drilling using the fluoroscopically based VectorVision navigation system shows a clearly improved precision with a enormous simultaneous reduction in radiation exposure. It is therefore recommended for clinical routine.

  16. Experimental Results from a Resonant Dielectric Laser Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, Rodney; McNeur, Joshua; Sozer, Esin; Travish, Gil; Hazra, Kiran Shankar; Matthews, Brian; England, Joel; Peralta, Edgar; Wu, Ziran

    2015-04-01

    Laser-powered accelerators have the potential to operate with very large accelerating gradients (~ GV/m) and represent a path toward extremely compact colliders and accelerator technology. Optical-scale laser-powered devices based on field-shaping structures (known as dielectric laser accelerators, or DLAs) have been described and demonstrated recently. Here we report on the first experimental results from the Micro-Accelerator Platform (MAP), a DLA based on a slab-symmetric resonant optical-scale structure. As a resonant (rather than near-field) device, the MAP is distinct from other DLAs. Its cavity resonance enhances its accelerating field relative to the incoming laser fields, which are coupled efficiently through a diffractive optic on the upper face of the device. The MAP demonstrated modest accelerating gradients in recent experiments, in which it was powered by a Ti:Sapphire laser well below its breakdown limit. More detailed results and some implications for future developments will be discussed. Supported in part by the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency (UCLA); U.S. Dept of Energy (SLAC); and DARPA (SLAC).

  17. Insulator-based dielectrophoresis of microorganisms: theoretical and experimental results.

    PubMed

    Moncada-Hernandez, Hector; Baylon-Cardiel, Javier L; Pérez-González, Victor H; Lapizco-Encinas, Blanca H

    2011-09-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is the motion of particles due to polarization effects in nonuniform electric fields. DEP has great potential for handling cells and is a non-destructive phenomenon. It has been utilized for different cell analysis, from viability assessments to concentration enrichment and separation. Insulator-based DEP (iDEP) provides an attractive alternative to conventional electrode-based systems; in iDEP, insulating structures are used to generate nonuniform electric fields, resulting in simpler and more robust devices. Despite the rapid development of iDEP microdevices for applications with cells, the fundamentals behind the dielectrophoretic behavior of cells has not been fully elucidated. Understanding the theory behind iDEP is necessary to continue the progress in this field. This work presents the manipulation and separation of bacterial and yeast cells with iDEP. A computational model in COMSOL Multiphysics was employed to predict the effect of direct current-iDEP on cells suspended in a microchannel containing an array of insulating structures. The model allowed predicting particle behavior, pathlines and the regions where dielectrophoretic immobilization should occur. Experimental work was performed at the same operating conditions employed with the model and results were compared, obtaining good agreement. This is the first report on the mathematical modeling of the dielectrophoretic response of yeast and bacterial cells in a DC-iDEP microdevice. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Recent experimental results of KSTAR RF heating and current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S. J., E-mail: sjwang@nfri.re.kr; Kim, J.; Jeong, J. H.

    2015-12-10

    The overview of KSTAR activities on ICRH, LHCD and ECH/CD including the last experimental results and future plan aiming for long-pulse high-beta plasma will be presented. Recently we achieved reasonable coupling of ICRF power to H-mode plasma through several efforts to increase system reliability. Power balance will be discussed on this experiment. LHCD is still struggling in the low power regime. Review of antenna spectrum for the higher coupling in H-mode plasma will be tried. ECH/CD provides 41 sec, 0.8 MW of heating power to support high-performance long-pulse discharge. Also, 170 GHz ECH system is integrated with the Plasma Control Systemmore » (PCS) for the feedback controlling of NTM. Status and plan of ECH/CD will be discussed. Finally, helicon current drive is being prepared for the next stage of KSTAR operation. The hardware preparation and the calculation results of helicon current drive in KSTAR plasma will be discussed.« less

  19. Recent experimental results of KSTAR RF heating and current drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. J.; Kim, J.; Jeong, J. H.; Kim, H. J.; Joung, M.; Bae, Y. S.; Kwak, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    The overview of KSTAR activities on ICRH, LHCD and ECH/CD including the last experimental results and future plan aiming for long-pulse high-beta plasma will be presented. Recently we achieved reasonable coupling of ICRF power to H-mode plasma through several efforts to increase system reliability. Power balance will be discussed on this experiment. LHCD is still struggling in the low power regime. Review of antenna spectrum for the higher coupling in H-mode plasma will be tried. ECH/CD provides 41 sec, 0.8 MW of heating power to support high-performance long-pulse discharge. Also, 170 GHz ECH system is integrated with the Plasma Control System (PCS) for the feedback controlling of NTM. Status and plan of ECH/CD will be discussed. Finally, helicon current drive is being prepared for the next stage of KSTAR operation. The hardware preparation and the calculation results of helicon current drive in KSTAR plasma will be discussed.

  20. Acoustic analysis in Mudejar-Gothic churches: Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of research work in acoustics, conducted in a set of 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. Despite common architectural style, the churches feature individual characteristics and have volumes ranging from 3947 to 10 708 m3. Acoustic parameters were measured in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. An extensive experimental study was carried out using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. It covered aspects such as reverberation (reverberation times, early decay times), distribution of sound levels (sound strength); early to late sound energy parameters derived from the impulse responses (center time, clarity for speech, clarity, definition, lateral energy fraction), and speech intelligibility (rapid speech transmission index), which all take both spectral and spatial distribution into account. Background noise was also measured to obtain the NR indices. The study describes the acoustic field inside each temple and establishes a discussion for each one of the acoustic descriptors mentioned by using the theoretical models available and the principles of architectural acoustics. Analysis of the quality of the spaces for music and speech is carried out according to the most widespread criteria for auditoria. .

  1. Acoustic analysis in Mudejar-Gothic churches: experimental results.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of research work in acoustics, conducted in a set of 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. Despite common architectural style, the churches feature individual characteristics and have volumes ranging from 3947 to 10 708 m3. Acoustic parameters were measured in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. An extensive experimental study was carried out using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. It covered aspects such as reverberation (reverberation times, early decay times), distribution of sound levels (sound strength); early to late sound energy parameters derived from the impulse responses (center time, clarity for speech, clarity, definition, lateral energy fraction), and speech intelligibility (rapid speech transmission index), which all take both spectral and spatial distribution into account. Background noise was also measured to obtain the NR indices. The study describes the acoustic field inside each temple and establishes a discussion for each one of the acoustic descriptors mentioned by using the theoretical models available and the principles of architectural acoustics. Analysis of the quality of the spaces for music and speech is carried out according to the most widespread criteria for auditoria.

  2. Numerical simulation of granular flows : comparison with experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirulli, M.; Mangeney-Castelnau, A.; Lajeunesse, E.; Vilotte, J.-P.; Bouchut, F.; Bristeau, M. O.; Perthame, B.

    2003-04-01

    Granular avalanches such as rock or debris flows regularly cause large amounts of human and material damages. Numerical simulation of granular avalanches should provide a useful tool for investigating, within realistic geological contexts, the dynamics of these flows and of their arrest phase and for improving the risk assessment of such natural hazards. Validation of debris avalanche numerical model on granular experiments over inclined plane is performed here. The comparison is performed by simulating granular flow of glass beads from a reservoir through a gate down an inclined plane. This unsteady situation evolves toward the steady state observed in the laboratory. Furthermore simulation exactly reproduces the arrest phase obtained by suddenly closing the gate of the reservoir once a thick flow has developped. The spreading of a granular mass released from rest at the top of a rough inclined plane is also investigated. The evolution of the avalanche shape, the velocity and the characteristics of the arrest phase are compared with experimental results and analysis of the involved forces are studied for various flow laws.

  3. Experimental results on atomic oxygen corrosion of silver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromhold, Albert T.

    1988-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the reaction kinetics of silver with atomic oxygen in 10 degree increments over the temperature range of 0 to 70 C is reported. The silver specimens, of the order of 10,000 A in thickness, were prepared by thermal evaporation onto 3 inch diameter polished silicon wafers. There were later sliced into pieces having surface areas of the order of 1/4 to 1/2 square inch. Atomic oxygen was generated by a gas discharge in a commercial plasmod asher operating in the megahertz frequency range. The sample temperature within the chamber was controlled by means of a thermoelectric unit. Exposure of the silver specimens to atomic oxygen was incremental, with oxide film thickness measurements being carried out between exposures by means of an automated ellipsometer. For the early growth phase, the data can be described satisfactorily by a logarithmic growth law: the oxide film thickness increases as the logarithm of the exposure time. Furthermore, the oxidation process is thermally activated, the rate increasing with increasing temperature. However, the empirical activation energy parameter deduced from Arrhenius plots is quite low, being of the order of 0.1 eV.

  4. Laser long-range remote-sensing program experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Highland, Ronald G.; Shilko, Michael L.; Fox, Marsha J.; Gonglewski, John D.; Czyzak, Stanley R.; Dowling, James A.; Kelly, Brian; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Ruffatto, Donald; Loando, Sharon; Matsuura, Chris; Senft, Daniel C.; Finkner, Lyle; Rae, Joe; Gallegos, Joe

    1995-12-01

    A laser long range remote sensing (LRS) program is being conducted by the United States Air Force Phillips Laboratory (AF/PL). As part of this program, AF/PL is testing the feasibility of developing a long path CO(subscript 2) laser-based DIAL system for remote sensing. In support of this program, the AF/PL has recently completed an experimental series using a 21 km slant- range path (3.05 km ASL transceiver height to 0.067 km ASL target height) at its Phillips Laboratory Air Force Maui Optical Station (AMOS) facility located on Maui, Hawaii. The dial system uses a 3-joule, (superscript 13)C isotope laser coupled into a 0.6 m diameter telescope. The atmospheric optical characterization incorporates information from an infrared scintillometer co-aligned to the laser path, atmospheric profiles from weather balloons launched from the target site, and meteorological data from ground stations at AMOS and the target site. In this paper, we report a description of the experiment configuration, a summary of the results, a summary of the atmospheric conditions and their implications to the LRS program. The capability of such a system for long-range, low-angle, slant-path remote sensing is discussed. System performance issues relating to both coherent and incoherent detection methods, atmospheric limitations, as well as, the development of advanced models to predict performance of long range scenarios are presented.

  5. Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer Experimental Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.; Nicholson, John Y.

    1994-01-01

    Calibrated pressure measurements for species with mass-to-charge ratios up to 50 amu/e(-) were obtained trom the shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer experiment during re-entry on the STS-35 mission. The principal experimental objective is to obtain measurements of freestream density in the hypersonic rarefied flow flight regime. Data were collected from 180 to about 87 km. However, data above 115 km were contaminated from a source of gas emanating from pressure transdueers connected in parallel to the mass spectrometer. At lower altitudes, the pressure transducer data are compared to the mass spectrometer total pressure with excellent agreement. Near the orifice entrance, a significant amount of CO2 was generated from chemical reactions. The freestream density in the rarefied flow flight regime is calculated using an orifice pressure coefficient model based upon direct simulation Monte Carlo results. This density, when compared with the 1976 U.S. Standard Atmosphere model, exhibits the wavelike nature seen on previous flights using accelerometry. Selected spectra are presented at higher altitudes (320 km) showing the effects of the ingestion of gases from a forward fuselage fuel dump.

  6. Earlier Age at Menopause, Work and Tobacco Smoke Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Lora E; Levis, Silvina; LeBlanc, William G; Dietz, Noella A; Arheart, Kristopher L; Wilkinson, James D; Clark, John; Serdar, Berrin; Davila, Evelyn P; Lee, David J

    2009-01-01

    Objective Earlier age at menopause onset has been associated with increased all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality risks. Risk of earlier age at menopause associated with primary and secondary tobacco smoke exposure was assessed. Design Cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of US women. Methods 7596 women participants (representing an estimated 79 million US women) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III were asked: time since last menstrual period, occupation, and tobacco use (including home and workplace secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure). Blood cotinine and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were assessed. Logistic regressions for the odds of earlier age at menopause, stratified on race/ethnicity in women 25-50 years and adjusted for survey design, were controlled for age, BMI, education, tobacco smoke exposure, and occupation. Results Among 5029 US women ≥ 25 years with complete data, earlier age at menopause was found among all smokers, and among service and manufacturing industry sector workers. Among women age 25-50 years, there was an increased risk of earlier age at menopause with both primary smoking and with SHS exposure, particularly among Black women. Conclusions Primary tobacco use and SHS exposure were associated with an increased odds of earlier age at menopause in a representative sample of US women. Earlier age at menopause was found for some women worker groups with greater potential occupational SHS exposure. Thus, control of SHS exposures in the workplace may decrease the risk of mortality and morbidity associated with earlier age at menopause in US women workers. PMID:18626414

  7. Design and Experimental Results for the S406 Airfoil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Concluded.45 46 (a) R = 0.50 × 106. Figure 14.- Comparison of theoretical and experimental section ch with transition free.aracteristics 47 (b) R...106. Figure 15.- Comparison of theoretical and experimental section ch with transition fixed.aracteristics 51 (b) R = 0.70 × 106. Figure 15...04986 4.088 .7022 .013251 −.04644 5.104 . 7845 .014147 −.04381 6.119 .8571 .015149 −.04019 7.135 .9294 .016691 −.03508 8.149 .9947 .017447 −.03106 9.162

  8. Early Results in Capella's Prior Learning Assessment Experimental Site Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    In July 2014, the U.S. Department of Education announced a new round of experimental sites focusing on competency-based education. Capella University was selected to participate in three of the Department of Education's competency-based education (CBE) experiments and began by implementing the prior learning assessment experiment, which allows…

  9. Alkali Metal Backup Cooling for Stirling Systems - Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwendeman, Carl; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Cornell, Peggy A.

    2013-01-01

    In a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (RPS), heat must be continuously removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an early termination of the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) can be used to passively allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. In a previous NASA SBIR Program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a series of sodium VCHPs as backup cooling systems for Stirling RPS. The operation of these VCHPs was demonstrated using Stirling heater head simulators and GPHS simulators. In the most recent effort, a sodium VCHP with a stainless steel envelope was designed, fabricated and tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with a Stirling convertor for two concepts; one for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) back up cooling system and one for the Long-lived Venus Lander thermal management system. The VCHP is designed to activate and remove heat from the stopped convertor at a 19 C temperature increase from the nominal vapor temperature. The 19 C temperature increase from nominal is low enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation and spoiling of the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI). In addition, the same backup cooling system can be applied to the Stirling convertor used for the refrigeration system of the Long-lived Venus Lander. The VCHP will allow the refrigeration system to: 1) rest during transit at a lower temperature than nominal; 2) pre-cool the modules to an even lower temperature before the entry in Venus atmosphere; 3) work at nominal temperature on Venus surface; 4) briefly stop multiple times on the Venus surface to allow scientific measurements. This paper presents the experimental

  10. Alkali Metal Backup Cooling for Stirling Systems - Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwendeman, Carl; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Cornell, Peggy A.

    2013-01-01

    In a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (RPS), heat must be continuously removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an early termination of the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) can be used to passively allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. In a previous NASA SBIR Program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a series of sodium VCHPs as backup cooling systems for Stirling RPS. The operation of these VCHPs was demonstrated using Stirling heater head simulators and GPHS simulators. In the most recent effort, a sodium VCHP with a stainless steel envelope was designed, fabricated and tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with a Stirling convertor for two concepts; one for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) back up cooling system and one for the Long-lived Venus Lander thermal management system. The VCHP is designed to activate and remove heat from the stopped convertor at a 19 degC temperature increase from the nominal vapor temperature. The 19 degC temperature increase from nominal is low enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation and spoiling of the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI). In addition, the same backup cooling system can be applied to the Stirling convertor used for the refrigeration system of the Long-lived Venus Lander. The VCHP will allow the refrigeration system to: 1) rest during transit at a lower temperature than nominal; 2) pre-cool the modules to an even lower temperature before the entry in Venus atmosphere; 3) work at nominal temperature on Venus surface; 4) briefly stop multiple times on the Venus surface to allow scientific measurements. This paper presents the experimental

  11. Boston Community Information System 1986 Experimental Test Results.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    self -selected participants have a strong technical orientation and high educational achievement. In addition, five visually impaired people use the...group. The experimental test of the system was performed on a self -selected population of computer literate volunteers. In order to simplify the test...for fat respose .’ - 1041 OI haven’t used it yet.’ - 1046 ’No modem yet. New version installed 11/2/86.0 - 1047 ’Not yet tried. Wil do so moon.’ - 1061

  12. RFI in hybrid loops - Simulation and experimental results.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemer, R. E.; Nelson, D. R.; Raghavan, H. R.

    1972-01-01

    A digital simulation of an imperfect second-order hybrid phase-locked loop (HPLL) operating in radio frequency interference (RFI) is described. Its performance is characterized in terms of phase error variance and phase error probability density function (PDF). Monte-Carlo simulation is used to show that the HPLL can be superior to the conventional phase-locked loops in RFI backgrounds when minimum phase error variance is the goodness criterion. Similar experimentally obtained data are given in support of the simulation data.

  13. Experimental Results of the EU ITER Prototype Gyrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantenbein, G.; Albajar, F.; Alberti, S.; Avramidis, K.; Bin, W.; Bonicelli, T.; Bruschi, A.; Chelis, J.; Fanale, F.; Legrand, F.; Hermann, V.; Hogge, J.-P.; Illy, S.; Ioannidis, Z. C.; Jin, J.; Jelonnek, J.; Kasparek, W.; Latsas, G. P.; Lechte, C.; Lontano, M.; Pagonakis, I. G.; Rzesnicki, T.; Schlatter, C.; Schmid, M.; Tigelis, I. G.; Thumm, M.; Tran, M. Q.; Vomvoridis, J. L.; Zein, A.; Zisis, A.

    2017-10-01

    The European 1 MW, 170 GHz CW industrial prototype gyrotron for ECRH&CD on ITER was under test at the KIT test facility during 2016. In order to optimize the gyrotron operation, the tube was thoroughly tested in the short-pulse regime, with pulse lengths below 10 ms, for a wide range of operational parameters. The operation was extended to longer pulses with a duration of up to 180 s. In this work we present in detail the achievements and the challenges that were faced during the long-pulse experimental campaign.

  14. Optimal active vibration absorber: Design and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee-Glauser, Gina; Juang, Jer-Nan; Sulla, Jeffrey L.

    1992-01-01

    An optimal active vibration absorber can provide guaranteed closed-loop stability and control for large flexible space structures with collocated sensors/actuators. The active vibration absorber is a second-order dynamic system which is designed to suppress any unwanted structural vibration. This can be designed with minimum knowledge of the controlled system. Two methods for optimizing the active vibration absorber parameters are illustrated: minimum resonant amplitude and frequency matched active controllers. The Controls-Structures Interaction Phase-1 Evolutionary Model at NASA LaRC is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the active vibration absorber for vibration suppression. Performance is compared numerically and experimentally using acceleration feedback.

  15. Surface electromagnetic waves in Fibonacci superlattices: Theoretical and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hassouani, Y.; Aynaou, H.; El Boudouti, E. H.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Akjouj, A.; Velasco, V. R.

    2006-07-01

    We study theoretically and experimentally the existence and behavior of the localized surface modes in one-dimensional (1D) quasiperiodic photonic band gap structures. These structures are made of segments and loops arranged according to a Fibonacci sequence. The experiments are carried out by using coaxial cables in the frequency region of a few tens of MHz. We consider 1D periodic structures (superlattice) where each cell is a well-defined Fibonacci generation. In these structures, we generalize a theoretical rule on the surface modes, namely when one considers two semi-infinite superlattices obtained by the cleavage of an infinite superlattice, it exists exactly one surface mode in each gap. This mode is localized on the surface either of one or the other semi-infinite superlattice. We discuss the existence of various types of surface modes and their spatial localization. The experimental observation of these modes is carried out by measuring the transmission through a guide along which a finite superlattice (i.e., constituted of a finite number of quasiperiodic cells) is grafted vertically. The surface modes appear as maxima of the transmission spectrum. These experiments are in good agreement with the theoretical model based on the formalism of the Green function.

  16. CSI Flight Computer System and experimental test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Dean W., Jr.; Peri, F., Jr.; Schuler, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the CSI Computer System (CCS) and the experimental tests performed to validate its functionality. This system is comprised of two major components: the space flight qualified Excitation and Damping Subsystem (EDS) which performs controls calculations; and the Remote Interface Unit (RIU) which is used for data acquisition, transmission, and filtering. The flight-like RIU is the interface between the EDS and the sensors and actuators positioned on the particular structure under control. The EDS and RIU communicate over the MIL-STD-1553B, a space flight qualified bus. To test the CCS under realistic conditions, it was connected to the Phase-0 CSI Evolutionary Model (CEM) at NASA Langley Research Center. The following schematic shows how the CCS is connected to the CEM. Various tests were performed which validated the ability of the system to perform control/structures experiments.

  17. Construction of a WMR for trajectory tracking control: experimental results.

    PubMed

    Silva-Ortigoza, R; Márquez-Sánchez, C; Marcelino-Aranda, M; Marciano-Melchor, M; Silva-Ortigoza, G; Bautista-Quintero, R; Ramos-Silvestre, E R; Rivera-Díaz, J C; Muñoz-Carrillo, D

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a solution for trajectory tracking control of a differential drive wheeled mobile robot (WMR) based on a hierarchical approach. The general design and construction of the WMR are described. The hierarchical controller proposed has two components: a high-level control and a low-level control. The high-level control law is based on an input-output linearization scheme for the robot kinematic model, which provides the desired angular velocity profiles that the WMR has to track in order to achieve the desired position (x∗, y∗) and orientation (φ∗). Then, a low-level control law, based on a proportional integral (PI) approach, is designed to control the velocity of the WMR wheels to ensure those tracking features. Regarding the trajectories, this paper provides the solution or the following cases: (1) time-varying parametric trajectories such as straight lines and parabolas and (2) smooth curves fitted by cubic splines which are generated by the desired data points {(x₁∗, y₁∗),..., (x(n)∗, y(n)∗)}. A straightforward algorithm is developed for constructing the cubic splines. Finally, this paper includes an experimental validation of the proposed technique by employing a DS1104 dSPACE electronic board along with MATLAB/Simulink software.

  18. Construction of a WMR for Trajectory Tracking Control: Experimental Results

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Ortigoza, R.; Márquez-Sánchez, C.; Marcelino-Aranda, M.; Marciano-Melchor, M.; Silva-Ortigoza, G.; Bautista-Quintero, R.; Ramos-Silvestre, E. R.; Rivera-Díaz, J. C.; Muñoz-Carrillo, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a solution for trajectory tracking control of a differential drive wheeled mobile robot (WMR) based on a hierarchical approach. The general design and construction of the WMR are described. The hierarchical controller proposed has two components: a high-level control and a low-level control. The high-level control law is based on an input-output linearization scheme for the robot kinematic model, which provides the desired angular velocity profiles that the WMR has to track in order to achieve the desired position (x∗, y∗) and orientation (φ∗). Then, a low-level control law, based on a proportional integral (PI) approach, is designed to control the velocity of the WMR wheels to ensure those tracking features. Regarding the trajectories, this paper provides the solution or the following cases: (1) time-varying parametric trajectories such as straight lines and parabolas and (2) smooth curves fitted by cubic splines which are generated by the desired data points {(x1∗, y1∗),..., (xn∗, yn∗)}. A straightforward algorithm is developed for constructing the cubic splines. Finally, this paper includes an experimental validation of the proposed technique by employing a DS1104 dSPACE electronic board along with MATLAB/Simulink software. PMID:23997679

  19. Vaporization inside a mini microfin tube: experimental results and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diani, A.; Rossetto, L.

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes a comparison among the common R134a and the extremely low GWP refrigerant R1234yf during vaporization inside a mini microfin tube. This microfin tube has an internal diameter of 2.4 mm, it has 40 fins, with a fin height of 0.12 mm. Due to the high heat transfer coefficients shown by this tube, this technology can lead to a refrigerant charge reduction. Tests were run in the Heat Transfer in Micro Geometries Lab of the Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale of the Università di Padova. Mass velocities range between 375 and 940 kg m-2 s-1, heat fluxes from 10 to 50 kW m-2, vapour qualities from 0.10 to 0.99, at a saturation temperature of 30°C. The comparison among the two fluids is proposed at the same operating conditions, in order to highlight the heat transfer and pressure drop differences among the two refrigerants. In addition, two correlations are proposed to estimate the heat transfer coefficient and frictional pressure drop during refrigerant flow boiling inside mini microfin tubes. These correlations well predict the experimental values, and thus they can be used as a useful tool to design evaporators based on these mini microfin tubes.

  20. Effects of Imperfect Dynamic Clamp: Computational and Experimental Results

    PubMed Central

    Bettencourt, Jonathan C.; Lillis, Kyle P.; White, John A.

    2008-01-01

    In the dynamic clamp technique, a typically nonlinear feedback system delivers electrical current to an excitable cell that represents the actions of “virtual” ion channels (e.g., channels that are gated by local membrane potential or by electrical activity in neighboring biological or virtual neurons). Since the conception of this technique, there have been a number of different implementations of dynamic clamp systems, each with differing levels of flexibility and performance. Embedded hardware-based systems typically offer feedback that is very fast and precisely timed, but these systems are often expensive and sometimes inflexible. PC-based systems, on the other hand, allow the user to write software that defines an arbitrarily complex feedback system, but real-time performance in PC-based systems can be deteriorated by imperfect real-time performance. Here we systematically evaluate the performance requirements for artificial dynamic clamp knock-in of transient sodium and delayed rectifier potassium conductances. Specifically we examine the effects of controller time step duration, differential equation integration method, jitter (variability in time step), and latency (the time lag from reading inputs to updating outputs). Each of these control system flaws is artificially introduced in both simulated and real dynamic clamp experiments. We demonstrate that each of these errors affect dynamic clamp accuracy in a way that depends on the time constants and stiffness of the differential equations being solved. In simulations, time steps above 0.2 ms lead to catastrophic alteration of spike shape, but the frequency-vs.-current relationship is much more robust. Latency (the part of the time step that occurs between measuring membrane potential and injecting re-calculated membrane current) is a crucial factor as well. Experimental data are substantially more sensitive to inaccuracies than simulated data. PMID:18076999

  1. Experimental test results of a generalized parameter fuel control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterton, P. G.; Gold, H.

    1973-01-01

    Considerable interest has been generated recently in low cost jet propulsion systems. One of the more complicated components of jet engines is the fuel control. Results of an effort to develop a simpler hydromechanical fuel control are presented. This prototype fuel control was installed on a J85-GE-13 jet engine. Results show that the fuel control provided satisfactory engine performance at sea level static conditions over its normal nonafterburning operating range, including startup. Results of both bench and engine tests are presented; the difficulties encountered are described.

  2. Asynchronous sampling of speech with some vocoder experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babcock, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    The method of asynchronously sampling speech is based upon the derivatives of the acoustical speech signal. The following results are apparent from experiments to date: (1) It is possible to represent speech by a string of pulses of uniform amplitude, where the only information contained in the string is the spacing of the pulses in time; (2) the string of pulses may be produced in a simple analog manner; (3) the first derivative of the original speech waveform is the most important for the encoding process; (4) the resulting pulse train can be utilized to control an acoustical signal production system to regenerate the intelligence of the original speech.

  3. Qualitative versus Quantitative Results: An Experimental Introduction to Data Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eric R.; Alter, Paula

    1989-01-01

    Described is an experiment in which the student can ascertain the meaning of a negative result from a qualitative test by performing a more sensitive quantitative test on the same sample. Methodology for testing urinary glucose with a spectrophotometer at 630 nm and with commercial assaying glucose strips is presented. (MVL)

  4. [Multi-channel motion signal acquisition system and experimental results].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Sheng; Yi, Wanguan; Deng, Ke; Zhan, Kai; Wen, Huiying; Chen, Xin

    2014-09-01

    For the study of muscle function and features during exercise, a multi-channel data acquisition system was developed, the overall design of the system, hardware composition, the function of system and so on have made a detail implements. The synchronous acquisition and storage of the surface EMG signal, joint angle signal, plantar pressure signal, ultrasonic image and initial results have been achieved.

  5. Joint Soviet-American experiment on hypokinesia: Experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burovskiy, N. N.

    1979-01-01

    Comprehensive results are reported from the Soviet portion of a joint Soviet-American experiment involving hypokinesia. The main emphases are on chemical analyses of blood and urine, functional tests, and examination of the cardiovascular system by electrocardiography, echocardiography, and plethysmography.

  6. The behavior of delaminations in composite materials - experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chermoshentseva, A. S.; Pokrovskiy, A. M.; Bokhoeva, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    Delamination is one of the most common failure modes of composite materials. It may occur as a consequence of imperfections in the production process or the effects of external factors during the operational life of the composite laminates, such as the impact by foreign objects. This paper presents the results of mechanical tests and the optimum degrees of filling the composite materials (CM) with hydrophobic powder (Tarkosil T-20) depending on the latter mass concentration. The results present test samples of the CM with the underlying interlayer defects. The samples were fabricated of twenty-ply pre-preg (fiberglass or carbon fiber). The industrial grade glass is T-25 (VM) specification 6-11-380-76. The composite materials have nanosized additives in structure. The volume concentration of nanopowders is varying from 0.1% to 0.5%. This kind of research has been done for the first time.

  7. Delaminations in composite plates under transverse static loads - Experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, Scott R.; He, Yi-Fei; Springer, George S.

    1992-01-01

    Tests were performed measuring the damage initiation loads and the locations, shapes, and sizes of delaminations in Fiberite T300/976 graphite/epoxy, Fiberite IM7/977-2 graphite-toughened epoxy, and ICI APC-2 graphite-PEEK plates subjected to transverse static loads. The data were compared to the results of the Finn-Springer model, and good agreements were found between the measured and calculated delamination lengths and widths.

  8. Experimental Overview of Direct Photon Results in Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novitzky, Norbert

    2016-07-01

    Direct photons are color blind probes and thus they provide unique opportunities to study the colored medium created in heavy ion collisions. There are many different sources of direct photons each probing different physics processes as the system evolves. In basic 2 → 2 processes the prompt photons from primary hard scatterings offer the most precise measurements of the outgoing parton energy in the opposite direction. In heavy ion collisions the created medium emits photons as thermal radiation, whose rate and anisotropies provide a unique prospective on the properties and evolution of the system. Recent results on direct photons from the LHC and RHIC experiments are briefly summarized in this paper.

  9. Settling of Inclusions in Holding Furnaces: Modeling and Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sztur, C.; Balestreri, F.; Meyer, JL.; Hannart, B.

    Description of settling phenomena usually refers to falling particles in a liquid, following Stokes law. But the thermal convection always takes place in holding furnaces due to temperature heterogeneity, and the behaviour of the inclusions can be dramatically influenced by the liquid metal motion. A numerical model based on turbulent fluid flow calculations in an holding furnace and on trajectories calculations of a family of inclusions has been developed. Results are compared with experiments on a lab. scale and on an industrial scale furnace. An analysis of the governing parameters will be presented.

  10. Delaminations in composite plates under transverse impact loads - Experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, Scott R.; He, Ye-Fei; Springer, George S.

    1993-01-01

    Tests were performed measuring the locations and geometries of delaminations in Fiberite T300/976 graphite/epoxy, Fiberite IM7/977-2 graphite-toughened epoxy, and ICI APC-2 graphite/PEEK plates subjected to transverse impact loads. The data provide specific information on the effects of impactor velocity, impactor mass, material, thickness of back ply group, difference in fiber orientation between adjacent ply groups, plate thickness, and impactor nose radius. The data were compared to the results of the Finn-Springer model. The model was found to describe the data with reasonable accuracy.

  11. Impacts of changing hydrology on permanent gully growth: experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Stephanie S.; Gran, Karen B.; Paola, Chris

    2018-06-01

    Permanent gullies grow through head cut propagation in response to overland flow coupled with incision and widening in the channel bottom leading to hillslope failures. Altered hydrology can impact the rate at which permanent gullies grow by changing head cut propagation, channel incision, and channel widening rates. Using a set of small physical experiments, we tested how changing overland flow rates and flow volumes alter the total volume of erosion and resulting gully morphology. Permanent gullies were modeled as both detachment-limited and transport-limited systems, using two different substrates with varying cohesion. In both cases, the erosion rate varied linearly with water discharge, such that the volume of sediment eroded was a function not of flow rate, but of total water volume. This implies that efforts to reduce peak flow rates alone without addressing flow volumes entering gully systems may not reduce erosion. The documented response in these experiments is not typical when compared to larger preexisting channels where higher flow rates result in greater erosion through nonlinear relationships between water discharge and sediment discharge. Permanent gullies do not respond like preexisting channels because channel slope remains a free parameter and can adjust relatively quickly in response to changing flows.

  12. IP voice over ATM satellite: experimental results over satellite channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraf, Koroush A.; Butts, Norman P.

    1999-01-01

    IP telephony, a new technology to provide voice communication over traditional data networks, has the potential to revolutionize telephone communication within the modern enterprise. This innovation uses packetization techniques to carry voice conversations over IP networks. This packet switched technology promises new integrated services, and lower cost long-distance communication compared to traditional circuit switched telephone networks. Future satellites will need to carry IP traffic efficiently in order to stay competitive in servicing the global data- networking and global telephony infrastructure. However, the effects of Voice over IP over switched satellite channels have not been investigated in detail. To fully understand the effects of satellite channels on Voice over IP quality; several experiments were conducted at Lockheed Martin Telecommunications' Satellite Integration Lab. The result of those experiments along with suggested improvements for voice communication over satellite are presented in this document. First, a detailed introduction of IP telephony as a suitable technology for voice communication over future satellites is presented. This is followed by procedures for the experiments, along with results and strategies. In conclusion we hope that these capability demonstrations will alleviate any uncertainty regarding the applicability of this technology to satellite networks.

  13. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Experimental Operations & Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Aaron; Mehta, Manish; MacLean, Matthew; Seaford, Mark; Holden, Michael

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) uses four clustered liquid rocket engines along with two solid rocket boosters. The interaction between all six rocket exhaust plumes will produce a complex and severe thermal environment in the base of the vehicle. This work focuses on a recent 2% scale, hot-fire SLS base heating test. These base heating tests are short-duration tests executed with chamber pressures near the full-scale values with gaseous hydrogen/oxygen engines and RSRMV analogous solid propellant motors. The LENS II shock tunnel/Ludwieg tube tunnel was used at or near flight duplicated conditions up to Mach 5. Model development was based on the Space Shuttle base heating tests with several improvements including doubling of the maximum chamber pressures and duplication of freestream conditions. Test methodology and conditions are presented, and base heating results from 76 runs are reported in non-dimensional form. Regions of high heating are identified and comparisons of various configuration and conditions are highlighted. Base pressure and radiometer results are also reported.

  14. Acceleration and torque feedback for robotic control - Experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclnroy, John E.; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    Gross motion control of robotic manipulators typically requires significant on-line computations to compensate for nonlinear dynamics due to gravity, Coriolis, centripetal, and friction nonlinearities. One controller proposed by Luo and Saridis avoids these computations by feeding back joint acceleration and torque. This study implements the controller on a Puma 600 robotic manipulator. Joint acceleration measurement is obtained by measuring linear accelerations of each joint, and deriving a computationally efficient transformation from the linear measurements to the angular accelerations. Torque feedback is obtained by using the previous torque sent to the joints. The implementation has stability problems on the Puma 600 due to the extremely high gains inherent in the feedback structure. Since these high gains excite frequency modes in the Puma 600, the algorithm is modified to decrease the gain inherent in the feedback structure. The resulting compensator is stable and insensitive to high frequency unmodeled dynamics. Moreover, a second compensator is proposed which uses acceleration and torque feedback, but still allows nonlinear terms to be fed forward. Thus, by feeding the increment in the easily calculated gravity terms forward, improved responses are obtained. Both proposed compensators are implemented, and the real time results are compared to those obtained with the computed torque algorithm.

  15. Microgravity Fluid Separation Physics: Experimental and Analytical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, J. Michael; Schrage, Dean S.

    1997-01-01

    Effective, low power, two-phase separation systems are vital for the cost-effective study and utilization of two-phase flow systems and flow physics of two-phase flows. The study of microgravity flows have the potential to reveal significant insight into the controlling mechanisms for the behavior of flows in both normal and reduced gravity environments. The microgravity environment results in a reduction in gravity induced buoyancy forces acting on the discrete phases. Thus, surface tension, viscous, and inertial forces exert an increased influence on the behavior of the flow as demonstrated by the axisymmetric flow patterns. Several space technology and operations groups have studied the flow behavior in reduced gravity since gas-liquid flows are encountered in several systems such as cabin humidity control, wastewater treatment, thermal management, and Rankine power systems.

  16. M-I-S solar cell - Theory and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, R.; Fortuna, J.; Geneczko, J.; Fonash, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents an operating-mode analysis of an MIS solar cell and discusses the advantages which can arise as a result of the use of transport control, field shaping (increased n factor), and zero bias barrier height modification. It is noted that for an n-type semiconductor, it is relatively easy to obtain an enhanced n factor using acceptor-like states without an increase in diode saturation current, the converse being true for p-type semiconductors. Several MIS configurations are examined: an acceptor-like, localized state configuration producing field shaping and no change in diode saturation current, and acceptor-like localized configurations producing field shaping, with a decrease of diode saturation current, in one case, and an increase in the other.

  17. New experimental results in atlas-based brain morphometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, James C.; Fabella, Brian A.; Fernandes, Siddharth E.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Gur, Ruben C.; Gur, Raquel E.

    1999-05-01

    In a previous meeting, we described a computational approach to MRI morphometry, in which a spatial warp mapping a reference or atlas image into anatomic alignment with the subject is first inferred. Shape differences with respect to the atlas are then studied by calculating the pointwise Jacobian determinant for the warp, which provides a measure of the change in differential volume about a point in the reference as it transforms to its corresponding position in the subject. In this paper, the method is used to analyze sex differences in the shape and size of the corpus callosum in an ongoing study of a large population of normal controls. The preliminary results of the current analysis support findings in the literature that have observed the splenium to be larger in females than in males.

  18. Gaussian broad-beam excimer laser: clinical and experimental results.

    PubMed

    Schraepen, P; Eskina, E; Gobin, L; Trau, R; Timmermans, J; Tassignon, M J

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the mid-term (1-3 years) results of the Gaussian broad-beam excimer laser Delivery System (DS) after single treatment for the correction of myopia. To study the corneal surface with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after excimer laser ablation using a flying spot delivery system (Bausch & Lomb) and a Gaussian Delivery System (GDS) (InPro). The 1035 consecutive eyes studied were split in four groups with respect to the treated myopia, expressed in spherical equivalent: low myopia up to -3.00 D (183 eyes), moderate myopia from -3.25 D to -6.00 D (540 eyes), high myopia from -6.25 D to -10.00 D (210 eyes) and very high myopia from -10.25 D to -20.00 D (102 eyes). Four post-mortem eyes of two donors were treated using the flying spot DS on one eye and the GDS on the other eye. We achieved postoperative spheriqual equivalent within +/- 1 D of emmetropia in respectively 99.1%, 98.9%, 83% and 21% of the eyes of group 1, 2, 3 and 4. UCVA was 10/10 or better in respectively 65%, 51% and 19% of group 1, 2 and 3. UCVA was 5/10 or better in respectively 86% and 75% of group 3 and 4. The defocus equivalent refraction was 1.0 or less in respectively 98%, 93%, 62%, and 7% of the four groups. On SEM, the corneal surface presented a smooth and polished profile for the GDS. The Gaussian Delivery System gives comparable results to the flying spot laser system for surface laser ablation in myopic eyes up to -10 D. Advantages of this system are: smooth ablation surface, short treatment time, low haze rate, high reliability and easy maintenance of the device due to the optical DS. It is an interesting alternative for the more complex mechanical DS.

  19. Longitudinal variation of the equatorial ionosphere: Modeling and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, J. R.; Asevedo, W. D.; dos Santos, P. C. P.; Petry, A.; Bailey, G. J.; Batista, I. S.; Abdu, M. A.

    2013-02-01

    We describe a new version of the Parameterized Regional Ionospheric Model (PARIM) which has been modified to include the longitudinal dependences. This model has been reconstructed using multidimensional Fourier series. To validate PARIM results, the South America maps of critical frequencies for the E (foE) and F (foF2) regions were compared with the values calculated by Sheffield Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model (SUPIM) and IRI representations. PARIM presents very good results, the general characteristics of both regions, mainly the presence of the equatorial ionization anomaly, were well reproduced for equinoctial conditions of solar minimum and maximum. The values of foF2 and hmF2 recorded over Jicamarca (12°S; 77°W; dip lat. 1°N; mag. declination 0.3°) and sites of the conjugate point equatorial experiment (COPEX) campaign Boa Vista (2.8°N; 60.7°W; dip lat. 11.4°; mag. declination -13.1°), Cachimbo (9.5°S; 54.8°W; dip lat. -1.8°; mag. declination -15.5°), and Campo Grande (20.4°S; 54.6°W; dip lat. -11.1°; mag. declination -14.0°) have been used in this work. foF2 calculated by PARIM show good agreement with the observations, except during morning over Boa Vista and midnight-morning over Campo Grande. Some discrepancies were also found for the F-region peak height (hmF2) near the geomagnetic equator during times of F3 layer occurrences. IRI has underestimated both foF2 and hmF2 over equatorial and low latitude sectors during evening-nighttimes, except for Jicamarca where foF2 values were overestimated.

  20. Identifier mapping performance for integrating transcriptomics and proteomics experimental results

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies integrating transcriptomic data with proteomic data can illuminate the proteome more clearly than either separately. Integromic studies can deepen understanding of the dynamic complex regulatory relationship between the transcriptome and the proteome. Integrating these data dictates a reliable mapping between the identifier nomenclature resultant from the two high-throughput platforms. However, this kind of analysis is well known to be hampered by lack of standardization of identifier nomenclature among proteins, genes, and microarray probe sets. Therefore data integration may also play a role in critiquing the fallible gene identifications that both platforms emit. Results We compared three freely available internet-based identifier mapping resources for mapping UniProt accessions (ACCs) to Affymetrix probesets identifications (IDs): DAVID, EnVision, and NetAffx. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses of 91 endometrial cancer and 7 noncancer samples generated 11,879 distinct ACCs. For each ACC, we compared the retrieval sets of probeset IDs from each mapping resource. We confirmed a high level of discrepancy among the mapping resources. On the same samples, mRNA expression was available. Therefore, to evaluate the quality of each ACC-to-probeset match, we calculated proteome-transcriptome correlations, and compared the resources presuming that better mapping of identifiers should generate a higher proportion of mapped pairs with strong inter-platform correlations. A mixture model for the correlations fitted well and supported regression analysis, providing a window into the performance of the mapping resources. The resources have added and dropped matches over two years, but their overall performance has not changed. Conclusions The methods presented here serve to achieve concrete context-specific insight, to support well-informed decisions in choosing an ID mapping strategy for "omic" data merging. PMID:21619611

  1. Wave number selection in the presence of noise: Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilenko, Dmitry; Krivonosova, Olga; Gritsevich, Maria; Read, Peter

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we consider how the wave number selection in spherical Couette flow, in the transition to azimuthal waves after the first instability, occurs in the presence of noise. The outer sphere was held stationary, while the inner sphere rotational speed was increased linearly from a subcritical flow to a supercritical one. In a supercritical flow, one of two possible flow states, each with different azimuthal wave numbers, can appear depending upon the initial and final Reynolds numbers and the acceleration value. Noise perturbations were added by introducing small disturbances into the rotational speed signal. With an increasing noise amplitude, a change in the dominant wave number from m to m ± 1 was found to occur at the same initial and final Reynolds numbers and acceleration values. The flow velocity measurements were conducted by using laser Doppler anemometry. Using these results, the role of noise as well as the behaviour of the amplitudes of the competing modes in their stages of damping and growth were determined.

  2. Analysis and interpretation of Viking labeled release experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, G. V.

    1979-01-01

    The Viking Labeled Release (LR) life detection experiment on the surface of Mars produced data consistent with a biological interpretation. In considering the plausibility of this interpretation, terrestrial life forms were identified which could serve as models for Martian microbial life. Prominent among these models are lichens which are known to survive for years in a state of cryptobiosis, to grow in hostile polar environments, to exist on atmospheric nitrogen as sole nitrogen source, and to survive without liquid water by absorbing water directly from the atmosphere. Another model is derived from the endolithic bacteria found in the dry Antarctic valleys; preliminary experiments conducted with samples of these bacteria indicate that they produce positive LR responses approximating the Mars results. However, because of the hositility of the Martian environment to life, and the failure to find organics on the surface of Mars, a number of nonbiological explanations were advanced to account for the Viking LR data. A reaction of the LR nutrient with putative surface hydrogen peroxide is the leading candidate. Other possibilities raised include reactions caused by or with ultraviolet irradiation, gamma-Fe2O3, metalloperoxides or superoxides.

  3. Experimental Results of Integrated Refrigeration and Storage System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Jumper, K.

    2009-01-01

    Launch operations engineers at the Kennedy Space Center have identified an Integrated Refrigeration and Storage system as a promising technology to reduce launch costs and enable advanced cryogenic operations. This system uses a close cycle Brayton refrigerator to remove energy from the stored cryogenic propellant. This allows for the potential of a zero loss storage and transfer system, as well and control of the state of the propellant through densification or re-liquefaction. However, the behavior of the fluid in this type of system is different than typical cryogenic behavior, and there will be a learning curve associated with its use. A 400 liter research cryostat has been designed, fabricated and delivered to KSC to test the thermo fluid behavior of liquid oxygen as energy is removed from the cryogen by a simulated DC cycle cryocooler. Results of the initial testing phase focusing on heat exchanger characterization and zero loss storage operations using liquid oxygen are presented in this paper. Future plans for testing of oxygen densification tests and oxygen liquefaction tests will also be discussed. KEYWORDS: Liquid Oxygen, Refrigeration, Storage

  4. Some recent experimental results related to nuclear chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timár, J.; Kuti, I.; Sohler, D.; Starosta, K.; Koike, T.; Paul, E. S.

    2014-09-01

    Detailed band structures of three chiral-candidate nuclei, 134Pr, 132La and 103Rh have been studied. The aim of the study was twofold. First, to try to explore the reasons behind the contradiction between the theoretically predicted chirality in these nuclei and the recently observed fingerprints that suggest non-chiral interpretation for the previous chiral candidate band doublets. Second, to search for multiple chiral bands of different types in these nuclei. In 134Pr a new πh11/2vh11/2 band has been observed besides the previously known chiral-candidate πh11/2vh11/2 doublet. This new band and the yrare πh11/2vh11/2 band show the expected features of a chiral doublet structure. This fact combined with the observed similarity between the band structures of 134Pr and 132La suggests that chirality might exist in these nuclei. The detailed study of the 103Rh band structure resulted in the observation of two new chiral-doublet looking structures besides the previously known one. This is indicative of possible existence of multiple chiral doublet structure in this nucleus.

  5. Impact Flash Physics: Modeling and Comparisons With Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainey, E.; Stickle, A. M.; Ernst, C. M.; Schultz, P. H.; Mehta, N. L.; Brown, R. C.; Swaminathan, P. K.; Michaelis, C. H.; Erlandson, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    horizontal. High-speed radiometer measurements were made of the time-dependent impact flash at wavelengths of 350-1100 nm. We will present comparisons between these measurements and the output of APL's model. The results of this validation allow us to determine basic relationships between observed optical signatures and impact conditions.

  6. Composite Failures: A Comparison of Experimental Test Results and Computational Analysis Using XFEM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-30

    NUWC-NPT Technical Report 12,218 30 September 2016 Composite Failures: A Comparison of Experimental Test Results and Computational Analysis...A Comparison of Experimental Test Results and Computational Analysis Using XFEM 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...availability of measurement techniques, experimental testing of composite materials has largely outpaced the computational modeling ability, forcing

  7. Accreting Binary Populations in the Earlier Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornschemeier, Ann

    2010-01-01

    It is now understood that X-ray binaries dominate the hard X-ray emission from normal star-forming galaxies. Thanks to the deepest (2-4 Ms) Chandra surveys, such galaxies are now being studied in X-rays out to z approximates 4. Interesting X-ray stacking results (based on 30+ galaxies per redshift bin) suggest that the mean rest-frame 2-10 keV luminosity from z=3-4 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), is comparable to the most powerful starburst galaxies in the local Universe. This result possibly indicates a similar production mechanism for accreting binaries over large cosmological timescales. To understand and constrain better the production of X-ray binaries in high-redshift LBGs, we have utilized XMM-Newton observations of a small sample of z approximates 0.1 GALEX-selected Ultraviolet-Luminous Galaxies (UVLGs); local analogs to high-redshift LBGs. Our observations enable us to study the X-ray emission from LBG-like galaxies on an individual basis, thus allowing us to constrain object-to-object variances in this population. We supplement these results with X-ray stacking constraints using the new 3.2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (completed spring 2010) and LBG candidates selected from HST, Swift UVOT, and ground-based data. These measurements provide new X-ray constraints that sample well the entire z=0-4 baseline

  8. [Earlier steps of the soil ecosystem evolution].

    PubMed

    Ponomarenko, A G

    2013-01-01

    Fossil soils are known since early Praecambrian, long before the occurrence of higher terrestrial plants on the Earth. Primeval biocoenoses on the land and in continental water bodies were floating and bottom prokaryotic mats and films which produced the majority of biomass and with regard to specific productivity were not inferior to any other photosynthetics. Before the occurrence of higher plants, erosion was very strong, resulting in flat relief, absence of permanent streams, domination of wandering rivers and surface runoff; all water bodies were muddy. When floods occurred, which was quite so often, clay particles of muddy water streams isolated bottom-mats from the light and then their considerable part perished. The result was not soil as a uniform bioinert body but rather a "puff pie" consisted of layers of unoxidized charred organic matter and clay prolayers. The burial of unoxidized organic matter contributed to enrichment of the atmosphere with oxygen. Worms and arthropods, which came out to the land and continental water bodies during Cambrian period, mixed up the organic matter with mineral components strengthening the process of soil forming considerably. Soils of the modern type appeared after higher plants expanded in Devonian and displaced bottom-mats in shallow waters. The soil fauna that existed at this time was not so different from the modern one with regard to its evolutionary level.

  9. Hydrocarbon-Fueled Rocket Engine Plume Diagnostics: Analytical Developments and Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tejwani, Gopal D.; McVay, Gregory P.; Langford, Lester A.; St. Cyr, William W.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing experimental results and analytical developments about plume diagnostics for hydrocarbon-fueled rocket engines is shown. The topics include: 1) SSC Plume Diagnostics Background; 2) Engine Health Monitoring Approach; 3) Rocket Plume Spectroscopy Simulation Code; 4) Spectral Simulation for 10 Atomic Species and for 11 Diatomic Molecular Electronic Bands; 5) "Best" Lines for Plume Diagnostics for Hydrocarbon-Fueled Rocket Engines; 6) Experimental Set Up for the Methane Thruster Test Program and Experimental Results; and 7) Summary and Recommendations.

  10. Discharging patients earlier in the day: a concept worth evaluating.

    PubMed

    Kravet, Steven J; Levine, Rachel B; Rubin, Haya R; Wright, Scott M

    2007-01-01

    Patient discharges from the hospital often occur late in the day and are frequently clustered after 4 PM. When inpatients leave earlier in the day, quality is improved because new admissions awaiting beds are able to leave the emergency department sooner and emergency department waiting room backlog is reduced. Nursing staff, whose work patterns traditionally result in high activity of discharge and admission between 5 PM and 8 PM, benefit by spreading out their work across a longer part of the day. Discharging patients earlier in the day also has the potential to increase patient satisfaction. Despite multiple stakeholders in the discharge planning process, physicians play the most important role. Getting physician buy-in requires an ability to teach physicians about the concept of early-in-the-day discharges and their impact on the process. We defined a new physician-centered discharge planning process and introduced it to an internal medicine team with an identical control team as a comparison. Discharge time of day was analyzed for 1 month. Mean time of day of discharge was 13:39 for the intervention group versus 15:45 for the control group (P<.001). If reproduced successfully, this process could improve quality at an important transition point in patient care.

  11. Changes toward earlier streamflow timing across western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, I.T.; Cayan, D.R.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    The highly variable timing of streamflow in snowmelt-dominated basins across western North America is an important consequence, and indicator, of climate fluctuations. Changes in the timing of snowmelt-derived streamflow from 1948 to 2002 were investigated in a network of 302 western North America gauges by examining the center of mass for flow, spring pulse onset dates, and seasonal fractional flows through trend and principal component analyses. Statistical analysis of the streamflow timing measures with Pacific climate indicators identified local and key large-scale processes that govern the regionally coherent parts of the changes and their relative importance. Widespread and regionally coherent trends toward earlier onsets of springtime snowmelt and streamflow have taken place across most of western North America, affecting an area that is much larger than previously recognized. These timing changes have resulted in increasing fractions of annual flow occurring earlier in the water year by 1-4 weeks. The immediate (or proximal) forcings for the spatially coherent parts of the year-to-year fluctuations and longer-term trends of streamflow timing have been higher winter and spring temperatures. Although these temperature changes are partly controlled by the decadal-scale Pacific climate mode [Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO)], a separate and significant part of the variance is associated with a springtime warming trend that spans the PDO phases. ?? 2005 American Meteorological Society.

  12. Experimental and computational surface and flow-field results for an all-body hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockman, William K.; Lawrence, Scott L.; Cleary, Joseph W.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation is to establish a benchmark experimental data base for a generic hypersonic vehicle shape for validation and/or calibration of advanced computational fluid dynamics computer codes. This paper includes results from the comprehensive test program conducted in the NASA/Ames 3.5-foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel for a generic all-body hypersonic aircraft model. Experimental and computational results on flow visualization, surface pressures, surface convective heat transfer, and pitot-pressure flow-field surveys are presented. Comparisons of the experimental results with computational results from an upwind parabolized Navier-Stokes code developed at Ames demonstrate the capabilities of this code.

  13. Understanding how hydrodynamics affects particle transport in saturated fractures using modelling and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianflone, S.; Lakhian, V.; Dickson, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    poly(methyl methacrylate), thus creating a pseudo-2D fracture. Namely, the 2D fracture (x-y coordinates) is cut into the plastic using a laser printer, thus the z-coordinate is constant to a depth of 2.3 mm. Experiments using Acid Yellow 17, as a tracer, as well as fluorescent microspheres (42.5 nm and 525 nm, non-carboxylated to minimize attachment/detachment) will be performed in order to compare simulations and experimental results. Concentrations of the microspheres and tracer were measured at the effluent end of the fracture where the end cap housed an LED (400-470 nm) and an optical fibre attached to a spectrophotometer. Simulations suggest that in fractures where eddies occur, there is retention of smaller particles only when there is sufficient diffusion and a slow enough fluid velocity to allow them to enter the eddy. Otherwise, the particles exit the fracture earlier than typically expected when considering particle size exclusion and average fluid velocity. Further modelling results suggest that using bulk measurements (eg. mean aperture, mean fluid velocity, and measures of fracture roughness) to predict the resultant particulate outflow in a saturated fracture is difficult. We plan to include visualization experiments in order to draw further comparisons to the modelling results.

  14. Experimental warming delays autumn senescence in a boreal spruce bog: Initial results from the SPRUCE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Andrew; Furze, Morgan; Aubrecht, Donald; Milliman, Thomas; Nettles, Robert; Krassovski, Misha; Hanson, Paul

    2016-04-01

    August through December. These patterns can also be seen in other daily images recorded at the site since January 2012. Air warming treatments at SPRUCE began in August 2015, and had a substantial influence on autumn senescence of the plant community, as a whole, within each chamber. Generally, vegetation in the warmed chambers stayed green longer than that in the unwarmed chambers. We characterized the seasonality by fitting a sigmoid curve to the Gcc time series data, and we used the autumn half-maximum date of the sigmoid as an indicator of the timing of senescence. We found a strong linear relationship between senescence date and temperature treatment (r2 = 0.71,n = 10). Overall, senescence was delayed by 3.5 ± 0.7 days per 1° C of warming. Thus, although photoperiod is widely believed to be the key trigger for autumn senescence, our results do not indicate that the autumn response to warming is in any way constrained by day length. The SPRUCE experiment is planned to running through 2025. Looking forward, we anticipate that different results may be obtained in year 2 of the SPRUCE experiment if warming treatments result in earlier spring onset, and increased evapotranspiration during spring and early summer, leading to drought conditions by late summer.

  15. Trend of earlier spring in central Europe continued

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungersböck, Markus; Jurkovic, Anita; Koch, Elisabeth; Lipa, Wolfgang; Scheifinger, Helfried; Zach-Hermann, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    Modern phenology is the study of the timing of recurring biological events in the animal and plant world, the causes of their timing with regard to biotic and abiotic forces, and the interrelation among phases of the same or different species. The relationship between phenology and climate explains the importance of plant phenology for Climate Change studies. Plants require light, water, oxygen mineral nutrients and suitable temperature to grow. In temperate zones the seasonal life cycle of plants is primarily controlled by temperature and day length. Higher spring air temperatures are resulting in an earlier onset of the phenological spring in temperate and cool climate. On the other hand changes in phenology due to climate change do have impact on the climate system itself. Vegetation is a dynamic factor in the earth - climate system and has positive and negative feedback mechanisms to the biogeochemical and biogeophysical fluxes to the atmosphere Since the mid of the 1980s spring springs earlier in Europe and autumn is shifting back to the end of the year resulting in a longer vegetation period. The advancement of spring can be clearly attributed to temperature increase in the months prior to leaf unfolding and flowering, the timing of autumn is more complex and cannot easily be attributed to one or some few parameters. To demonstrate that the observed advancement of spring since the mid of 1980s is pro-longed in 2001 to 2010 and the delay of fall and the lengthening of the growing season is confirmed in the last decade we picked out several indicator plants from the PEP725 database www.pep725.eu. The PEP725 database collects data from different European network operators and thus offers a unique compilation of phenological observations; the database is regularly updated. The data follow the same classification scheme, the so called BBCH coding system so they can be compared. Lilac Syringa vulgaris, birch Betula pendula, beech Fagus and horse chestnut Aesculus

  16. Experimental results in evolutionary fault-recovery for field programmable analog devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebulum, Ricardo S.; Keymeulen, Didier; Duong, Vu; Guo, Xin; Ferguson, M. I.; Stoica, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results of fast intrinsic evolutionary design and evolutionary fault recovery of a 4-bit Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) using the JPL stand-alone board-level evolvable system (SABLES).

  17. Cyclic Inelastic Deformation and Fatigue Resistance of a Rail Steel : Experimental Results and Mathematical Models

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-10-01

    Experimental results developed from tests of uniaxial, smooth specimens obtained from the head of an unused section of rail have been reported. Testing encompassed a broad range of conditions - monotonic tension, monotonic compression, and fully reve...

  18. Scientific Knowledge Suppresses but Does Not Supplant Earlier Intuitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shtulman, Andrew; Valcarcel, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    When students learn scientific theories that conflict with their earlier, naive theories, what happens to the earlier theories? Are they overwritten or merely suppressed? We investigated this question by devising and implementing a novel speeded-reasoning task. Adults with many years of science education verified two types of statements as quickly…

  19. Reducing Older Driver Motor Vehicle Collisions via Earlier Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mennemeyer, Stephen T.; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Older adults who undergo cataract extraction have roughly half the rate of motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement per mile driven compared to cataract patients who do not elect cataract surgery. Currently in the U.S., most insurers do not allow payment for cataract surgery based upon the findings of a vision exam unless accompanied by an individual’s complaint of visual difficulties that seriously interfere with driving or other daily activities and individuals themselves may be slow or reluctant to complain and seek relief. As a consequence, surgery tends to occur after significant vision problems have emerged. We hypothesize that a proactive policy encouraging cataract surgery earlier for a lesser level of complaint would significantly reduce MVCs among older drivers. We used a Monte Carlo model to simulate the MVC experience of the U.S. population from age 60 to 89 under alternative protocols for the timing of cataract surgery which we call “Current Practice” (CP) and “Earlier Surgery” (ES). Our base model finds, from a societal perspective with undiscounted 2010 dollars, that switching to ES from CP reduces by about 21% the average number of MVCs, fatalities, and MVC cost per person. The net effect on total cost – all MVC costs plus cataract surgery expenditures -- is a reduction of about 16%. Quality Adjusted Life Years would increase by about 5%. From the perspective of payers for healthcare, the switch would increase cataract surgery expenditure for ages 65+ by about 8% and for ages 60 to 64 by about 47% but these expenditures are substantially offset after age 65 by reductions in the medical and emergency services component of MVC cost. Similar results occur with discounting at 3% and with various sensitivity analyses. We conclude that a policy of ES would significantly reduce MVCs and their associated consequences. PMID:23369786

  20. Experimental and computational results from a large low-speed centrifugal impeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, M. D.; Chriss, R. M.; Wood, J. R.; Strazisar, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental and computational investigation of the NASA Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor (LSCC) flow field has been conducted using laser anemometry and Dawes' 3D viscous code. The experimental configuration consists of a backswept impeller followed by a vaneless diffuser. Measurements of the three-dimensional velocity field were acquired at several measurement planes through the compressor. The measurements describe both the throughflow and secondary velocity field along each measurement plane and in several cases provide details of the flow within the blade boundary layers. The experimental and computational results provide a clear understanding of the development of the throughflow momentum wake which is characteristic of centrifugal compressors.

  1. To achieve an earlier IFN-γ response is not sufficient to control Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Vilaplana, Cristina; Prats, Clara; Marzo, Elena; Barril, Carles; Vegué, Marina; Diaz, Jorge; Valls, Joaquim; López, Daniel; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2014-01-01

    The temporo-spatial relationship between the three organs (lung, spleen and lymph node) involved during the initial stages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has been poorly studied. As such, we performed an experimental study to evaluate the bacillary load in each organ after aerosol or intravenous infection and developed a mathematical approach using the data obtained in order to extract conclusions. The results showed that higher bacillary doses result in an earlier IFN-γ response, that a certain bacillary load (BL) needs to be reached to trigger the IFN-γ response, and that control of the BL is not immediate after onset of the IFN-γ response, which might be a consequence of the spatial dimension. This study may have an important impact when it comes to designing new vaccine candidates as it suggests that triggering an earlier IFN-γ response might not guarantee good infection control, and therefore that additional properties should be considered for these candidates.

  2. Results of an Experimental Exploration of Advanced Automated Geospatial Tools: Agility in Complex Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    AUTOMATED GEOSPATIAL TOOLS : AGILITY IN COMPLEX PLANNING Primary Topic: Track 5 – Experimentation and Analysis Walter A. Powell [STUDENT] - GMU...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Results of an Experimental Exploration of Advanced Automated Geospatial Tools : Agility in Complex Planning 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Std Z39-18 Abstract Typically, the development of tools and systems for the military is requirement driven; systems are developed to meet

  3. Cybersickness without the wobble: Experimental results speak against postural instability theory.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Mark Stephen; D'Zmura, Michael

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that postural instability is necessary for cybersickness to occur. Seated and standing subjects used a head-mounted display to view a virtual tunnel that rotated about their line of sight. We found that the offset direction of perceived vertical settings matched the direction of the tunnel's rotation, so replicating earlier findings. Increasing rotation speed caused cybersickness to increase, but had no significant impact on perceived vertical settings. Postural sway during rotation was similar to postural sway during rest. While a minority of subjects exhibited postural sway in response to the onset of tunnel rotation, the majority did not. Furthermore, cybersickness increased with rotation speed similarly for the seated and standing conditions. Finally, subjects with greater levels of cybersickness exhibited less variation in postural sway. These results lead us to conclude that the link between postural instability and cybersickness is a weak one in the present experiment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. DoSSiER: Database of scientific simulation and experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Hans; Yarba, Julia; Genser, Krzystof

    The Geant4, GeantV and GENIE collaborations regularly perform validation and regression tests for simulation results. DoSSiER (Database of Scientific Simulation and Experimental Results) is being developed as a central repository to store the simulation results as well as the experimental data used for validation. DoSSiER can be easily accessed via a web application. In addition, a web service allows for programmatic access to the repository to extract records in json or xml exchange formats. In this paper, we describe the functionality and the current status of various components of DoSSiER as well as the technology choices we made.

  5. DoSSiER: Database of scientific simulation and experimental results

    DOE PAGES

    Wenzel, Hans; Yarba, Julia; Genser, Krzystof; ...

    2016-08-01

    The Geant4, GeantV and GENIE collaborations regularly perform validation and regression tests for simulation results. DoSSiER (Database of Scientific Simulation and Experimental Results) is being developed as a central repository to store the simulation results as well as the experimental data used for validation. DoSSiER can be easily accessed via a web application. In addition, a web service allows for programmatic access to the repository to extract records in json or xml exchange formats. In this paper, we describe the functionality and the current status of various components of DoSSiER as well as the technology choices we made.

  6. Experimental results for characterization of a tapered plastic optical fiber sensor based on SPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cennamo, N.; Galatus, R.; Zeni, L.

    2015-05-01

    The experimental results obtained with two different Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) geometries, tapered and not-tapered, for a sensor based on Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) are presented. SPR is used for determining the refractive index variations at the interface between a gold layer and a dielectric medium (aqueous medium). In this work SPR sensors in POF configurations, useful for bio-sensing applications, have been realized for the optimization of the sensitivity and experimentally tested. The results show as the sensitivity increases with the tapered POF configuration, when the refractive index of aqueous medium increases.

  7. At Odds: Reconciling Experimental and Theoretical Results in High School Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    For this experiment, students are divided into 2 groups and presented with a static equilibrium force-balance problem to solve. One group works entirely experimentally and the other group theoretically, using Newton's laws. The groups present their seemingly dissimilar results and must reconcile them through discussion. (Contains 3 figures.)

  8. Design and Experimental Results for a Natural-Laminar-Flow Airfoil for General Aviation Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    A natural-laminar-flow airfoil for general aviation applications, the NLF(1)-0416, was designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The basic objective of combining the high maximum lift of the NASA low-speed airfoils with the low cruise drag of the NACA 6-series airfoils was achieved. The safety requirement that the maximum lift coefficient not be significantly affected with transition fixed near the leading edge was also met. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show excellent agreement. Comparisons with other airfoils, both laminar flow and turbulent flow, confirm the achievement of the basic objective.

  9. Design and experimental results for a flapped natural-laminar-flow airfoil for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    A flapped natural laminar flow airfoil for general aviation applications, the NLF(1)-0215F, has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the Langley Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The basic objective of combining the high maximum lift of the NASA low speed airfoils with the low cruise drag of the NACA 6 series airfoils has been achieved. The safety requirement that the maximum lift coefficient not be significantly affected with transition fixed near the leading edge has also been met. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show generally good agreement.

  10. Uncertainties and understanding of experimental and theoretical results regarding reactions forming heavy and superheavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardina, G.; Mandaglio, G.; Nasirov, A. K.; Anastasi, A.; Curciarello, F.; Fazio, G.

    2018-02-01

    Experimental and theoretical results of the PCN fusion probability of reactants in the entrance channel and the Wsur survival probability against fission at deexcitation of the compound nucleus formed in heavy-ion collisions are discussed. The theoretical results for a set of nuclear reactions leading to formation of compound nuclei (CNs) with the charge number Z = 102- 122 reveal a strong sensitivity of PCN to the characteristics of colliding nuclei in the entrance channel, dynamics of the reaction mechanism, and excitation energy of the system. We discuss the validity of assumptions and procedures for analysis of experimental data, and also the limits of validity of theoretical results obtained by the use of phenomenological models. The comparison of results obtained in many investigated reactions reveals serious limits of validity of the data analysis and calculation procedures.

  11. Experimental results on current-driven turbulence in plasmas - a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kluiver, H.; Perepelkin, N. F.; Hirose, A.

    1991-01-01

    The experimental consequences of plasma turbulence driven by a current parallel to a magnetic field and concurrent anomalous plasma heating are reviewed, with an attempt to deduce universalities in key parameters such as the anomalous electrical conductivities observed in diverse devices. It has been found that the nature of plasma turbulence and turbulent heating depends on several parameters including the electric field, current and magnetic fields. A classification of turbulence regimes based on these parameters has been made. Experimental observations of the anomalous electrical conductivity, plasma heating, skin effect, runaway electron braking and turbulent fluctuations are surveyed, and current theoretical understanding is briefly reviewed. Experimental results recently obtained in stellarators (SIRIUS, URAGAN at Kharkov), and in tokamaks (TORTUR at Nieuwegein, STOR-1M at Saskatoon) are presented in some detail in the light of investigating the feasibility of using turbulent heating as a means of injecting a large power into toroidal devices.

  12. Application of an Unstructured Grid Navier-Stokes Solver to a Generic Helicopter Boby: Comparison of Unstructured Grid Results with Structured Grid Results and Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, Raymond E.

    1999-01-01

    An unstructured-grid Navier-Stokes solver was used to predict the surface pressure distribution, the off-body flow field, the surface flow pattern, and integrated lift and drag coefficients on the ROBIN configuration (a generic helicopter) without a rotor at four angles of attack. The results are compared to those predicted by two structured- grid Navier-Stokes solvers and to experimental surface pressure distributions. The surface pressure distributions from the unstructured-grid Navier-Stokes solver are in good agreement with the results from the structured-grid Navier-Stokes solvers. Agreement with the experimental pressure coefficients is good over the forward portion of the body. However, agreement is poor on the lower portion of the mid-section of the body. Comparison of the predicted surface flow patterns showed similar regions of separated flow. Predicted lift and drag coefficients were in fair agreement with each other.

  13. Closed Loop Two-Phase Thermosyphon of Small Dimensions: a Review of the Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Alessandro; Filippeschi, Sauro

    2012-06-01

    A bibliographical review on the heat and mass transfer in gravity assisted Closed Loop Two Phase Thermosyphons (CLTPT) with channels having a hydraulic diameter of the order of some millimetres and input power below 1 kW is proposed. The available experimental works in the literature are critically analysed in order to highlight the main results and the correlation between mass flow rate and heat input in natural circulation loops. A comparison of different experimental apparatuses and results is made. It is observed that the results are very different among them and in many cases the experimental data disagree with the conventional theory developed for an imposed flow rate. The paper analyses the main differences among the experimental devices and try to understand these disagreements. From the present analysis it is evident that further systematic studies are required to generate a meaningful body of knowledge of the heat and mass transport mechanism in these devices for practical applications in cooling devices or energy systems.

  14. Experimental light scattering by small particles: first results with a novel Mueller matrix scatterometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttilä, Antti; Maconi, Göran; Kassamakov, Ivan; Gritsevich, Maria; Helander, Petteri; Puranen, Tuomas; Hæggström, Edward; Muinonen, Karri

    2017-06-01

    We describe a setup for measuring the full angular Mueller matrix profile of a single mm- to μm-sized sample, and verify the experimental results against a theoretical model. The scatterometer has a fixed or levitating sample, illuminated with a laser beam whose full polarization state is controlled. The scattered light is detected with a combination of wave retarder, linear polarizer, and photomultiplier tube that is attached to a rotational stage. The first results are reported.

  15. Phase transition kinetics in DIET of vanadium pentoxide. I. Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, R.; Fan, H.-J.; Marks, L. D.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental results of the kinetics of phase transformation in vanadium pentoxide during surface loss of oxygen from electron irradiation are described. Phase transformations under three different regimes were examined: (a) low flux; (b) intermediate flux and (c) high flux. Different phase transformation routes were observed under different fluxes. In a companion paper, numerical calculations are presented demonstrating that these results are due to a mixed interface/diffusion controlled phase transition pumped by surface oxygen loss.

  16. Automated detection of discourse segment and experimental types from the text of cancer pathway results sections.

    PubMed

    Burns, Gully A P C; Dasigi, Pradeep; de Waard, Anita; Hovy, Eduard H

    2016-01-01

    Automated machine-reading biocuration systems typically use sentence-by-sentence information extraction to construct meaning representations for use by curators. This does not directly reflect the typical discourse structure used by scientists to construct an argument from the experimental data available within a article, and is therefore less likely to correspond to representations typically used in biomedical informatics systems (let alone to the mental models that scientists have). In this study, we develop Natural Language Processing methods to locate, extract, and classify the individual passages of text from articles' Results sections that refer to experimental data. In our domain of interest (molecular biology studies of cancer signal transduction pathways), individual articles may contain as many as 30 small-scale individual experiments describing a variety of findings, upon which authors base their overall research conclusions. Our system automatically classifies discourse segments in these texts into seven categories (fact, hypothesis, problem, goal, method, result, implication) with an F-score of 0.68. These segments describe the essential building blocks of scientific discourse to (i) provide context for each experiment, (ii) report experimental details and (iii) explain the data's meaning in context. We evaluate our system on text passages from articles that were curated in molecular biology databases (the Pathway Logic Datum repository, the Molecular Interaction MINT and INTACT databases) linking individual experiments in articles to the type of assay used (coprecipitation, phosphorylation, translocation etc.). We use supervised machine learning techniques on text passages containing unambiguous references to experiments to obtain baseline F1 scores of 0.59 for MINT, 0.71 for INTACT and 0.63 for Pathway Logic. Although preliminary, these results support the notion that targeting information extraction methods to experimental results could provide

  17. Design and experimental results of the 1-T Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus (BETA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, E. M.; Birmingham, W. J.; Romero-Talamás, C. A.

    2018-05-01

    The Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus (BETA) is a 1-Tesla (T) technical prototype of the 10 T Adjustable Long Pulsed High-Field Apparatus. BETA's final design specifications are highlighted in this paper which include electromagnetic, thermal, and stress analyses. We discuss here the design and fabrication of BETA's core, vessel, cooling, and electrical subsystems. The electrical system of BETA is composed of a scalable solid-state DC breaker circuit. Experimental results display the stable operation of BETA at 1 T. These results are compared to both analytical design and finite element calculations. Experimental results validate analytical magnet designing methods developed at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory. The theoretical steady state maxima and the limits of BETA's design are explored in this paper.

  18. Design and experimental results of the 1-T Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus (BETA).

    PubMed

    Bates, E M; Birmingham, W J; Romero-Talamás, C A

    2018-05-01

    The Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus (BETA) is a 1-Tesla (T) technical prototype of the 10 T Adjustable Long Pulsed High-Field Apparatus. BETA's final design specifications are highlighted in this paper which include electromagnetic, thermal, and stress analyses. We discuss here the design and fabrication of BETA's core, vessel, cooling, and electrical subsystems. The electrical system of BETA is composed of a scalable solid-state DC breaker circuit. Experimental results display the stable operation of BETA at 1 T. These results are compared to both analytical design and finite element calculations. Experimental results validate analytical magnet designing methods developed at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory. The theoretical steady state maxima and the limits of BETA's design are explored in this paper.

  19. Hemodynamic parameters change earlier than tissue oxygen tension in hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Pestel, Gunther J; Fukui, Kimiko; Kimberger, Oliver; Hager, Helmut; Kurz, Andrea; Hiltebrand, Luzius B

    2010-05-15

    Untreated hypovolemia results in impaired outcome. This study tests our hypothesis whether general hemodynamic parameters detect acute blood loss earlier than monitoring parameters of regional tissue beds. Eight pigs (23-25 kg) were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. A pulmonary artery catheter and an arterial catheter were inserted. Tissue oxygen tension was measured with Clark-type electrodes in the jejunal and colonic wall, in the liver, and subcutaneously. Jejunal microcirculation was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Intravascular volume was optimized using difference in pulse pressure (dPP) to keep dPP below 13%. Sixty minutes after preparation, baseline measurements were taken. At first, 5% of total blood volume was withdrawn, followed by another 5% increment, and then in 10% increments until death. After withdrawal of 5% of estimated blood volume, dPP increased from 6.1% +/- 3.0% to 20.8% +/- 2.7% (P < 0.01). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP) decreased with a blood loss of 10% (P < 0.01). Cardiac output (CO) changed after a blood loss of 20% (P < 0.05). Tissue oxygen tension in central organs, and blood flow in the jejunal muscularis decreased (P < 0.05) after a blood loss of 20%. Tissue oxygen tension in the skin, and jejunal mucosa blood flow decreased (P < 0.05) after a blood loss of 40% and 50%, respectively. In this hemorrhagic pig model systemic hemodynamic parameters were more sensitive to detect acute hypovolemia than tissue oxygen tension measurements or jejunal LDF measurements. Acute blood loss was detected first by dPP. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Implications of the experimental results on high energy cosmic rays with regard to their origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Linsley, J.

    1985-01-01

    It was shown in an earlier report that current cosmic ray evidence supports a change in the cosmic ray composition in the region between 10 to the 6th power and 10 to the 8th power GeV total energy in the direction of a smaller average value of A. Compared to normal celestial abundances, the heavy nuclei are much less abundant, and, in fact, the composition measurements above 10 to the 8th power GeV are consistent with there being only protons. Here, these results combined with those of the energy spectrum and anisotropy of the comsic rays and other astrophysical information will be examined to try to determine their implications for the origin of the cosmic rays. In this paper, consideration is given to the implications of one or more than one type of source in the galaxy to see which are consistent with the interpretation of current measurements. The nature of the source types that would be required are discussed.

  1. Experimental Results of Performance Tests on a Four-Port Wave Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John; Welch, Gerard E.; Paxson, Daniel E.

    2007-01-01

    A series of tests has been performed on a four-port wave rotor suitable for use as a topping stage on a gas turbine engine, to measure the overall pressure ratio obtainable as a function of temperature ratio, inlet mass flow, loop flow ratio, and rotor speed. The wave rotor employed an open high pressure loop that is the high pressure inlet flow was not the air exhausted from the high pressure outlet, but was obtained from a separate heated source, although the mass flow rates of the two flows were balanced. This permitted the choice of a range of loop-flow ratios (i.e., ratio of high pressure flow to low pressure flow), as well as the possibility of examining the effect of mass flow imbalance. Imbalance could occur as a result of leakage or deliberate bleeding for cooling air. Measurements of the pressure drop in the high pressure loop were also obtained. A pressure ratio of 1.17 was obtained at a temperature ratio of 2.0, with an inlet mass flow of 0.6 lb/s. Earlier tests had given a pressure ratio of less than 1.12. The improvement was due to improved sealing between the high pressure and low pressure loops, and a modification to the movable end-wall which is provided to allow for rotor expansion.

  2. View northeast, wharf A, portion AA, details showing earlier piers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast, wharf A, portion AA, details showing earlier piers and braces sloping toward water, reused charred plates for existing decking - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  3. Prescription stimulant use is associated with earlier onset of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Moran, Lauren V; Masters, Grace A; Pingali, Samira; Cohen, Bruce M; Liebson, Elizabeth; Rajarethinam, R P; Ongur, Dost

    2015-12-01

    A childhood history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in psychotic disorders, yet prescription stimulants may interact adversely with the physiology of these disorders. Specifically, exposure to stimulants leads to long-term increases in dopamine release. We therefore hypothesized that individuals with psychotic disorders previously exposed to prescription stimulants will have an earlier onset of psychosis. Age of onset of psychosis (AOP) was compared in individuals with and without prior exposure to prescription stimulants while controlling for potential confounding factors. In a sample of 205 patients recruited from an inpatient psychiatric unit, 40% (n = 82) reported use of stimulants prior to the onset of psychosis. Most participants were prescribed stimulants during childhood or adolescence for a diagnosis of ADHD. AOP was significantly earlier in those exposed to stimulants (20.5 vs. 24.6 years stimulants vs. no stimulants, p < 0.001). After controlling for gender, IQ, educational attainment, lifetime history of a cannabis use disorder or other drugs of abuse, and family history of a first-degree relative with psychosis, the association between stimulant exposure and earlier AOP remained significant. There was a significant gender × stimulant interaction with a greater reduction in AOP for females, whereas the smaller effect of stimulant use on AOP in males did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, individuals with psychotic disorders exposed to prescription stimulants had an earlier onset of psychosis, and this relationship did not appear to be mediated by IQ or cannabis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Research promises earlier warning for grapevine canker diseases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    When it comes to detecting and treating vineyards for grapevine canker diseases (also called trunk diseases), like Botryosphaeria dieback (Bot canker), Esca, Eutypa dieback and Phomopsis dieback, the earlier the better, says plant pathologist Kendra Baumgartner, with the USDA’s Agricultural Research...

  5. Does Speech Emerge from Earlier Appearing Oral Motor Behaviors?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Christopher A.; Ruark, Jacki L.

    1996-01-01

    This study of the oral motor behaviors of seven toddlers (age 15 months) may be interpreted to indicate that: (1) mandibular coordination follows a developmental continuum from earlier emerging behaviors, such as chewing and sucking, through babbling, to speech, or (2) unique task demands give rise to distinct mandibular coordinative constraints…

  6. Comprehensive methods for earlier detection and monitoring of forest decline

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Pontius; Richard Hallett

    2014-01-01

    Forested ecosystems are threatened by invasive pests, pathogens, and unusual climatic events brought about by climate change. Earlier detection of incipient forest health problems and a quantitatively rigorous assessment method is increasingly important. Here, we describe a method that is adaptable across tree species and stress agents and practical for use in the...

  7. Experimental results on the ω- and η'-nucleus potential - on the way to mesic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanova, Mariana

    2015-06-01

    Different experimental approaches to determine the meson-nucleus optical potential are discussed. The experiments have been performed with the Crystal Barrel/TAPS detector system at the ELSA accelerator in Bonn and the Crystal Ball/TAPS at the MAMI accelerator in Mainz. Experimental results about the real and imaginary part of the η'- and ω-nucleus optical potential are presented. The imaginary part of the meson-nucleus optical potential is determined from the in-medium width of the meson by the measurement of the transparency ratio. Information on the real part of the optical potential is deduced from measurements of the excitation function and momentum distribution which are sensitive to the sign and depth of the potential. The results are discussed and compared to theoretical predictions. The data for both mesons are consistent with a weakly attractive potential. The formation and population of ω-nucleus and η'-nucleus bound states is additionally discussed.

  8. Advanced Supersonic Nozzle Concepts: Experimental Flow Visualization Results Paired With LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Matthew; Magstadt, Andrew; Stack, Cory; Gaitonde, Datta; Glauser, Mark; Syracuse University Team; The Ohio State University Team

    2015-11-01

    Advanced supersonic nozzle concepts are currently under investigation, utilizing multiple bypass streams and airframe integration to bolster performance and efficiency. This work focuses on the parametric study of a supersonic, multi-stream jet with aft deck. The single plane of symmetry, rectangular nozzle, displays very complex and unique flow characteristics. Flow visualization techniques in the form of PIV and schlieren capture flow features at various deck lengths and Mach numbers. LES is compared to the experimental results to both validate the computational model and identify limitations of the simulation. By comparing experimental results to LES, this study will help create a foundation of knowledge for advanced nozzle designs in future aircraft. SBIR Phase II with Spectral Energies, LLC under direction of Barry Kiel.

  9. Controls-structures interaction guest investigator program: Overview and phase 1 experimental results and future plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith-Taylor, Rudeen; Tanner, Sharon E.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI) Guest Investigator program is described in terms of its support of the development of CSI technologies. The program is based on the introduction of CSI researchers from industry and academia to available test facilities for experimental validation of technologies and methods. Phase 1 experimental results are reviewed with attention given to their use of the Mini-MAST test facility and the facility for the Advance Control Evaluation of Structures. Experiments were conducted regarding the following topics: collocated/noncollocated controllers, nonlinear math modeling, controller design, passive/active suspension systems design, and system identification and fault isolation. The results demonstrate that significantly enhanced performance from the control techniques can be achieved by integrating knowledge of the structural dynamics under consideration into the approaches.

  10. Adsorption of methanol molecule on graphene: Experimental results and first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X. W.; Tian, Y. L.; Yue, W. W.; Chen, M. N.; Hu, G. C.; Ren, J. F.; Yuan, X. B.

    2018-04-01

    Adsorption properties of methanol molecule on graphene surface are studied both theoretically and experimentally. The adsorption geometrical structures, adsorption energies, band structures, density of states and the effective masses are obtained by means of first-principles calculations. It is found that the electronic characteristics and conductivity of graphene are sensitive to the methanol molecule adsorption. After adsorption of methanol molecule, bandgap appears. With the increasing of the adsorption distance, the bandgap, adsorption energy and effective mass of the adsorption system decreased, hence the resistivity of the system decreases gradually, these results are consistent with the experimental results. All these calculations and experiments indicate that the graphene-based sensors have a wide range of applications in detecting particular molecules.

  11. Variable Entry Biased Paracentric Hemispherical Deflector: Experimental results on energy resolution for different entry positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Mevlut; Ulu, Melike; Gennerakis, Giannis; Zouros, Theo J. M.

    2014-04-01

    A new hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA) which is designed for electron energy analysis in atomic collisions has been constructed and tested. Using the crossed beam technique at the electron spectrometer, test measurements were performed for electron beam (200 eV) - Helium atoms interactions. These first experimental results show that the paracentric entries give almost twice as good resolution as that for the conventional entry. Supporting simulations of the entire lens+HDA spectrometer are found in relatively good agreement with experiment.

  12. The 2.5 bit/detected photon demonstration program: Phase 2 and 3 experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental program for laboratory demonstration of and energy efficient optical communication channel operating at a rate of 2.5 bits/detected photon is described. Results of the uncoded PPM channel performance are presented. It is indicated that the throughput efficiency can be achieved not only with a Reed-Solomon code as originally predicted, but with a less complex code as well.

  13. Characterisation and optimisation of flexible transfer lines for liquid helium. Part I: Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmar, N.; Haberstroh, Ch.; Hesse, U.; Krzyzowski, M.

    2016-04-01

    The transfer of liquid helium (LHe) into mobile dewars or transport vessels is a common and unavoidable process at LHe decant stations. During this transfer reasonable amounts of LHe evaporate due to heat leak and pressure drop. Thus generated helium gas needs to be collected and reliquefied which requires a huge amount of electrical energy. Therefore, the design of transfer lines used at LHe decant stations has been optimised to establish a LHe transfer with minor evaporation losses which increases the overall efficiency and capacity of LHe decant stations. This paper presents the experimental results achieved during the thermohydraulic optimisation of a flexible LHe transfer line. An extensive measurement campaign with a set of dedicated transfer lines equipped with pressure and temperature sensors led to unique experimental data of this specific transfer process. The experimental results cover the heat leak, the pressure drop, the transfer rate, the outlet quality, and the cool-down and warm-up behaviour of the examined transfer lines. Based on the obtained results the design of the considered flexible transfer line has been optimised, featuring reduced heat leak and pressure drop.

  14. Electromagnetic Vortex-Based Radar Imaging Using a Single Receiving Antenna: Theory and Experimental Results

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Tiezhu; Wang, Hongqiang; Cheng, Yongqiang; Qin, Yuliang

    2017-01-01

    Radar imaging based on electromagnetic vortex can achieve azimuth resolution without relative motion. The present paper investigates this imaging technique with the use of a single receiving antenna through theoretical analysis and experimental results. Compared with the use of multiple receiving antennas, the echoes from a single receiver cannot be used directly for image reconstruction using Fourier method. The reason is revealed by using the point spread function. An additional phase is compensated for each mode before imaging process based on the array parameters and the elevation of the targets. A proof-of-concept imaging system based on a circular phased array is created, and imaging experiments of corner-reflector targets are performed in an anechoic chamber. The azimuthal image is reconstructed by the use of Fourier transform and spectral estimation methods. The azimuth resolution of the two methods is analyzed and compared through experimental data. The experimental results verify the principle of azimuth resolution and the proposed phase compensation method. PMID:28335487

  15. Wind Code Application to External Forebody Flowfields with Comparisons to Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frate, F. C.; Kim, H. D.

    2001-01-01

    The WIND Code, a general purpose Navier-Stokes solver, has been utilized to obtain supersonic external flowfield Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions over an axisymmetric, parabolic forebody with comparisons made to wind tunnel experimental results. Various cases have been investigated at supersonic freestream conditions ranging from Mach 2.0 to 3.5, at 0 deg and 3 deg angles-of-attack, and with either a sharp-nose or blunt-nose forebody configuration. Both a turbulent (Baldwin-Lomax algebraic turbulence model) and a laminar model have been implemented in the CFD. Obtaining the solutions involved utilizing either the parabolized- or full-Navier-Stokes analyses supplied in WIND. Comparisons have been made with static pressure measurements, with boundary-layer rake and flowfield rake pitot pressure measurements, and with temperature sensitive paint experimental results. Using WIND's parabolized Navier-Stokes capability, grid sequencing, and the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic turbulence model allowed for significant reductions in computational time while still providing good agreement with experiment. Given that CFD and experiment compare well, WIND is found to be a good computational platform for solving this type of forebody problem, and the grids developed in conjunction with it will be used in the future to investigate varying freestream conditions not tested experimentally.

  16. Comparison of numerical and experimental results of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, O.; Mulu, B.; Nilsson, H.; Cervantes, M.

    2010-08-01

    The present work compares simulations made using the OpenFOAM CFD code with experimental measurements of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model. Comparisons of the velocity profiles in the spiral casing and in the draft tube are presented. The U9 Kaplan turbine prototype located in Porjus and its model, located in Älvkarleby, Sweden, have curved inlet pipes that lead the flow to the spiral casing. Nowadays, this curved pipe and its effect on the flow in the turbine is not taken into account when numerical simulations are performed at design stage. To study the impact of the inlet pipe curvature on the flow in the turbine, and to get a better overview of the flow of the whole system, measurements were made on the 1:3.1 model of the U9 turbine. Previously published measurements were taken at the inlet of the spiral casing and just before the guide vanes, using the laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) technique. In the draft tube, a number of velocity profiles were measured using the LDA techniques. The present work extends the experimental investigation with a horizontal section at the inlet of the draft tube. The experimental results are used to specify the inlet boundary condition for the numerical simulations in the draft tube, and to validate the computational results in both the spiral casing and the draft tube. The numerical simulations were realized using the standard k-e model and a block-structured hexahedral wall function mesh.

  17. Summary of experimental heat-transfer results from the turbine hot section facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, Herbert J.; Yeh, Fredrick C.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental data from the turbine Hot Section Facility are presented and discussed. These data include full-coverage film-cooled airfoil results as well as special instrumentation results obtained at simulated real engine conditions. Local measurements of airfoil wall temperature, airfoil gas-path static-pressure distribution, and local heat-transfer coefficient distributions are presented and discussed. In addition, measured gas and coolant temperatures and pressures are presented. These data are also compared with analyses from Euler and boundary-layer codes.

  18. Preliminary results of the large experimental wind turbine phase of the national wind energy program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.; Sholes, T.; Sholes, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The preliminary results of two projects in the development phase of reliable wind turbines designed to supply cost-competitive electrical energy were discussed. An experimental 100 kW wind turbine design and its status are first reviewed. The results of two parallel design studies for determining the configurations and power levels for wind turbines with minimum energy costs are also discussed. These studies predict wind energy costs of 1.5 to 7 cents per kW-h for wind turbines produced in quantities of 100 to 1000 per year and located at sites having average winds of 12 to 18 mph.

  19. Shuttle Return To Flight Experimental Results: Protuberance Effects on Boundary Layer Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liechty, Derek S.; Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of isolated roughness elements on the windward boundary layer of the Shuttle Orbiter has been experimentally examined in the Langley Aerothermodynamic Laboratory in support of an agency-wide effort to prepare the Shuttle Orbiter for return to flight. This experimental effort was initiated to provide a roughness effects database for developing transition criteria to support on-orbit decisions to repair damage to the thermal protection system. Boundary layer transition results were obtained using trips of varying heights and locations along the centerline and attachment lines of 0.0075-scale models. Global heat transfer images using phosphor thermography of the Orbiter windward surface and the corresponding heating distributions were used to infer the state of the boundary layer (laminar, transitional, or turbulent). The database contained within this report will be used to formulate protuberance-induced transition correlations using predicted boundary layer edge parameters.

  20. Shuttle Return To Flight Experimental Results: Cavity Effects on Boundary Layer Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liechty, Derek S.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Berry, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of an isolated rectangular cavity on hypersonic boundary layer transition of the windward surface of the Shuttle Orbiter has been experimentally examined in the Langley Aerothermodynamics Laboratory in support of an agency-wide effort to prepare the Shuttle Orbiter for return to flight. This experimental study was initiated to provide a cavity effects database for developing hypersonic transition criteria to support on-orbit decisions to repair a damaged thermal protection system. Boundary layer transition results were obtained using 0.0075-scale Orbiter models with simulated tile damage (rectangular cavities) of varying length, width, and depth. The database contained within this report will be used to formulate cavity-induced transition correlations using predicted boundary layer edge parameters.

  1. Stimulating Contributions to Public Goods through Information Feedback: Some Experimental Results

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Marco A.; Lee, Allen; Sundaram, Hari

    2016-01-01

    In traditional public good experiments participants receive an endowment from the experimenter that can be invested in a public good or kept in a private account. In this paper we present an experimental environment where participants can invest time during five days to contribute to a public good. Participants can make contributions to a linear public good by logging into a web application and performing virtual actions. We compared four treatments, with different group sizes and information of (relative) performance of other groups. We find that information feedback about performance of other groups has a small positive effect if we control for various attributes of the groups. Moreover, we find a significant effect of the contributions of others in the group in the previous day on the number of points earned in the current day. Our results confirm that people participate more when participants in their group participate more, and are influenced by information about the relative performance of other groups. PMID:27459070

  2. Supersonic Retropropulsion Experimental Results from the NASA Ames 9- x 7-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Rhode, Matthew N.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2012-01-01

    Supersonic retropropulsion was experimentally examined in the Ames Research Center 9x7-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel at Mach 1.8 and 2.4. The experimental model, previously designed for and tested in the Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach 2.4, 3.5 and 4.6, was a 5-in diameter 70-deg sphere-cone forebody with a 9.55-in long cylindrical aftbody. The forebody was designed to accommodate up to four 4:1 area ratio nozzles, one on the model centerline and the other three on the half radius spaced 120-deg apart. Surface pressure and flow visualization were the primary measurements, including high-speed data to investigate the dynamics of the interactions between the bow and nozzle shocks. Three blowing configurations were tested with thrust coefficients up to 10 and angles of attack up to 20-deg. Preliminary results and observations from the test are provided

  3. Circular Samples as Objects for Magnetic Resonance Imaging - Mathematical Simulation, Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frollo, Ivan; Krafčík, Andrej; Andris, Peter; Přibil, Jiří; Dermek, Tomáš

    2015-12-01

    Circular samples are the frequent objects of "in-vitro" investigation using imaging method based on magnetic resonance principles. The goal of our investigation is imaging of thin planar layers without using the slide selection procedure, thus only 2D imaging or imaging of selected layers of samples in circular vessels, eppendorf tubes,.. compulsorily using procedure "slide selection". In spite of that the standard imaging methods was used, some specificity arise when mathematical modeling of these procedure is introduced. In the paper several mathematical models were presented that were compared with real experimental results. Circular magnetic samples were placed into the homogenous magnetic field of a low field imager based on nuclear magnetic resonance. For experimental verification an MRI 0.178 Tesla ESAOTE Opera imager was used.

  4. Reflectivity of 1D photonic crystals: A comparison of computational schemes with experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Huerta, J. S.; Ariza-Flores, D.; Castro-García, R.; Mochán, W. L.; Ortiz, G. P.; Agarwal, V.

    2018-04-01

    We report the reflectivity of one-dimensional finite and semi-infinite photonic crystals, computed through the coupling to Bloch modes (BM) and through a transfer matrix method (TMM), and their comparison to the experimental spectral line shapes of porous silicon (PS) multilayer structures. Both methods reproduce a forbidden photonic bandgap (PBG), but slowly-converging oscillations are observed in the TMM as the number of layers increases to infinity, while a smooth converged behavior is presented with BM. The experimental reflectivity spectra is in good agreement with the TMM results for multilayer structures with a small number of periods. However, for structures with large amount of periods, the measured spectral line shapes exhibit better agreement with the smooth behavior predicted by BM.

  5. Rotating Fluidized Bed Reactor for Space Nuclear Propulsion. Annual Report; Design Studies and Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The rotating fluidized bed reactor concept is being investigated for possible application in nuclear propulsion systems. Physics calculations show U-233 to be superior to U-235 as a fuel for a cavity reactor of this type. Preliminary estimates of the effect of hydrogen in the reactor, reflector material, and power peaking are given. A preliminary engineering analysis was made for U-235 and U-233 fueled systems. An evaluation of the parameters affecting the design of the system is given, along with the thrust-to-weight ratios. The experimental equipment is described, as are the special photographic techniques and procedures. Characteristics of the fluidized bed and experimental results are given, including photographic evidence of bed fluidization at high rotational velocities.

  6. LBE water interaction in sub-critical reactors: First experimental and modelling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciampichetti, A.; Agostini, P.; Benamati, G.; Bandini, G.; Pellini, D.; Forgione, N.; Oriolo, F.; Ambrosini, W.

    2008-06-01

    This paper concerns the study of the phenomena involved in the interaction between LBE and pressurised water which could occur in some hypothetical accidents in accelerator driven system type reactors. The LIFUS 5 facility was designed and built at ENEA-Brasimone to reproduce this kind of interaction in a wide range of conditions. The first test of the experimental program was carried out injecting water at 70 bar and 235 °C in a reaction vessel containing LBE at 1 bar and 350 °C. A pressurisation up to 80 bar was observed in the test section during the considered transient. The SIMMER III code was used to simulate the performed test. The calculated data agree in a satisfactory way with the experimental results giving confidence in the possibility to use this code for safety analyses of heavy liquid metal cooled reactors.

  7. Design and Experimental Results for the S825 Airfoil; Period of Performance: 1998-1999

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 17%-thick, natural-laminar-flow airfoil, the S825, for the 75% blade radial station of 20- to 40-meter, variable-speed and variable-pitch (toward feather), horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, relatively insensitive to roughness and low-profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil exhibits a rapid, trailing-edge stall, which does not meet the design goal of a docile stall. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results generally show good agreement.

  8. Artificial cochlea and acoustic black hole travelling waves observation: Model and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foucaud, Simon; Michon, Guilhem; Gourinat, Yves; Pelat, Adrien; Gautier, François

    2014-07-01

    An inhomogeneous fluid structure waveguide reproducing passive behaviour of the inner ear is modelled with the help of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin method. A physical setup is designed and built. Experimental results are compared with a good correlation to theoretical ones. The experimental setup is a varying width plate immersed in fluid and terminated with an acoustic black hole. The varying width plate provides a spatial repartition of the vibration depending on the excitation frequency. The acoustic black hole is made by decreasing the plate's thickness with a quadratic profile and by covering this region with a thin film of viscoelastic material. Such a termination attenuates the flexural wave reflection at the end of the waveguide, turning standing waves into travelling waves.

  9. Comparison between maximum radial expansion of ultrasound contrast agents and experimental postexcitation signal results.

    PubMed

    King, Daniel A; O'Brien, William D

    2011-01-01

    Experimental postexcitation signal data of collapsing Definity microbubbles are compared with the Marmottant theoretical model for large amplitude oscillations of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs). After taking into account the insonifying pulse characteristics and size distribution of the population of UCAs, a good comparison between simulated results and previously measured experimental data is obtained by determining a threshold maximum radial expansion (Rmax) to indicate the onset of postexcitation. This threshold Rmax is found to range from 3.4 to 8.0 times the initial bubble radius, R0, depending on insonification frequency. These values are well above the typical free bubble inertial cavitation threshold commonly chosen at 2R0. The close agreement between the experiment and models suggests that lipid-shelled UCAs behave as unshelled bubbles during most of a large amplitude cavitation cycle, as proposed in the Marmottant equation.

  10. The experimental results of AMTEC and a study of its terrestrial applications in IEE of China

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Q.; Tong, J.; Kan, Y.

    1997-12-31

    The R and D activities in the field of AMTEC research at The Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences are introduced. The outline of experimental facility with a single tube cell is described. The experimental results so far are reported followed by an analysis of electrical characteristic, in particular, an evaluation of characteristic of BASE/porous electrode interface with the effective sheet resistivity and the electrode efficiency. The approaches for improving device performance are discussed. The terrestrial applications of AMTEC in China are considered as an alternative of conventional diesel-generators. The possibility of AMTEC power supply for some separatemore » sites is predicted.« less

  11. Travelling for earlier surgical treatment: the patient's view.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, M; Donaldson, L J

    1991-01-01

    As part of the northern region's programme within the national waiting list initiative, schemes have been funded to test the feasibility and acceptability of offering patients the opportunity to travel further afield in order to receive earlier treatment. A total of 484 patients experiencing a long wait for routine surgical operations in the northern region were offered the opportunity to receive earlier treatment outside their local health district; 74% of the patients accepted the offer. The initiative was well received by the participating patients and the majority stated that if the need arose on a future occasion they would prefer to travel for treatment rather than have to wait for lengthy periods for treatment at their local hospital. These findings, interpreted in the light of the National Health Service reforms introduced in April 1991, suggest that for some types of care, patients would welcome greater flexibility in the placing of contracts, not merely reinforcement of historical patterns of referral. PMID:1823553

  12. Vibration Based Crack Detection in a Rotating Disk. Part 2; Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Martin, Richard E.; Haase, Wayne C.; Baaklini, George

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental results concerning the detection of a crack in a rotating disk. The goal was to utilize blade tip clearance and shaft vibration measurements to monitor changes in the system's center of mass and/or blade deformation behaviors. The concept of the approach is based on the fact that the development of a disk crack results in a distorted strain field within the component. As a result, a minute deformation in the disk's geometry as well as a change in the system's center of mass occurs. Here, a notch was used to simulate an actual crack. The vibration based experimental results failed to identify the existence of a notch when utilizing the approach described above, even with a rather large, circumferential notch (l.2 in.) located approximately mid-span on the disk (disk radius = 4.63 in. with notch at r = 2.12 in.). This was somewhat expected, since the finite element based results in Part 1 of this study predicted changes in blade tip clearance as well as center of mass shifts due to a notch to be less than 0.001 in. Therefore, the small changes incurred by the notch could not be differentiated from the mechanical and electrical noise of the rotor system. Although the crack detection technique of interest failed to identify the existence ofthe notch, the vibration data produced and captured here will be utilized in upcoming studies that will focus on different data mining techniques concerning damage detection in a disk.

  13. Comparison of Experimental Surface and Flow Field Measurements to Computational Results of the Juncture Flow Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roozeboom, Nettie H.; Lee, Henry C.; Simurda, Laura J.; Zilliac, Gregory G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    Wing-body juncture flow fields on commercial aircraft configurations are challenging to compute accurately. The NASA Advanced Air Vehicle Program's juncture flow committee is designing an experiment to provide data to improve Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling in the juncture flow region. Preliminary design of the model was done using CFD, yet CFD tends to over-predict the separation in the juncture flow region. Risk reduction wind tunnel tests were requisitioned by the committee to obtain a better understanding of the flow characteristics of the designed models. NASA Ames Research Center's Fluid Mechanics Lab performed one of the risk reduction tests. The results of one case, accompanied by CFD simulations, are presented in this paper. Experimental results suggest the wall mounted wind tunnel model produces a thicker boundary layer on the fuselage than the CFD predictions, resulting in a larger wing horseshoe vortex suppressing the side of body separation in the juncture flow region. Compared to experimental results, CFD predicts a thinner boundary layer on the fuselage generates a weaker wing horseshoe vortex resulting in a larger side of body separation.

  14. Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Modeling and Characterization Based on Experimental Results.

    PubMed

    Humada, Ali M; Hojabri, Mojgan; Sulaiman, Mohd Herwan Bin; Hamada, Hussein M; Ahmed, Mushtaq N

    2016-01-01

    A grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system operates under fluctuated weather condition has been modeled and characterized based on specific test bed. A mathematical model of a small-scale PV system has been developed mainly for residential usage, and the potential results have been simulated. The proposed PV model based on three PV parameters, which are the photocurrent, IL, the reverse diode saturation current, Io, the ideality factor of diode, n. Accuracy of the proposed model and its parameters evaluated based on different benchmarks. The results showed that the proposed model fitting the experimental results with high accuracy compare to the other models, as well as the I-V characteristic curve. The results of this study can be considered valuable in terms of the installation of a grid-connected PV system in fluctuated climatic conditions.

  15. Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Modeling and Characterization Based on Experimental Results

    PubMed Central

    Humada, Ali M.; Hojabri, Mojgan; Sulaiman, Mohd Herwan Bin; Hamada, Hussein M.; Ahmed, Mushtaq N.

    2016-01-01

    A grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system operates under fluctuated weather condition has been modeled and characterized based on specific test bed. A mathematical model of a small-scale PV system has been developed mainly for residential usage, and the potential results have been simulated. The proposed PV model based on three PV parameters, which are the photocurrent, IL, the reverse diode saturation current, Io, the ideality factor of diode, n. Accuracy of the proposed model and its parameters evaluated based on different benchmarks. The results showed that the proposed model fitting the experimental results with high accuracy compare to the other models, as well as the I-V characteristic curve. The results of this study can be considered valuable in terms of the installation of a grid-connected PV system in fluctuated climatic conditions. PMID:27035575

  16. Supersonic Retropropulsion Experimental Results from the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Rhode, Matthew N.; Edquist, Karl T.; Player, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    A new supersonic retropropulsion experimental effort, intended to provide code validation data, was recently completed in the Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel Test Section 2 over the Mach number range from 2.4 to 4.6. The experimental model was designed using insights gained from pre-test computations, which were instrumental for sizing and refining the model to minimize tunnel wall interference and internal flow separation concerns. A 5-in diameter 70-deg sphere-cone forebody with a roughly 10-in long cylindrical aftbody was the baseline configuration selected for this study. The forebody was designed to accommodate up to four 4:1 area ratio supersonic nozzles. Primary measurements for this model were a large number of surface pressures on the forebody and aftbody. Supplemental data included high-speed Schlieren video and internal pressures and temperatures. The run matrix was developed to allow for the quantification of various sources of experimental uncertainty, such as random errors due to run-to-run variations and bias errors due to flow field or model misalignments. Preliminary results and observations from the test are presented, while detailed data and uncertainty analyses are ongoing.

  17. Comparison of Computational and Experimental Microphone Array Results for an 18%-Scale Aircraft Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockard, David P.; Humphreys, William M.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Fares, Ehab; Casalino, Damiano; Ravetta, Patricio A.

    2015-01-01

    An 18%-scale, semi-span model is used as a platform for examining the efficacy of microphone array processing using synthetic data from numerical simulations. Two hybrid RANS/LES codes coupled with Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings solvers are used to calculate 97 microphone signals at the locations of an array employed in the NASA LaRC 14x22 tunnel. Conventional, DAMAS, and CLEAN-SC array processing is applied in an identical fashion to the experimental and computational results for three different configurations involving deploying and retracting the main landing gear and a part span flap. Despite the short time records of the numerical signals, the beamform maps are able to isolate the noise sources, and the appearance of the DAMAS synthetic array maps is generally better than those from the experimental data. The experimental CLEAN-SC maps are similar in quality to those from the simulations indicating that CLEAN-SC may have less sensitivity to background noise. The spectrum obtained from DAMAS processing of synthetic array data is nearly identical to the spectrum of the center microphone of the array, indicating that for this problem array processing of synthetic data does not improve spectral comparisons with experiment. However, the beamform maps do provide an additional means of comparison that can reveal differences that cannot be ascertained from spectra alone.

  18. Comparison of experimental data with results of some drying models for regularly shaped products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Ahmet; Aydın, Orhan; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of drying of moist slab, cylinder and spherical products to study dimensionless moisture content distributions and their comparisons. Experimental study includes the measurement of the moisture content distributions of slab and cylindrical carrot, slab and cylindrical pumpkin and spherical blueberry during drying at various temperatures (e.g., 30, 40, 50 and 60°C) at specific constant velocity ( U = 1 m/s) and the relative humidity φ = 30%. In theoretical analysis, two moisture transfer models are used to determine drying process parameters (e.g., drying coefficient and lag factor) and moisture transfer parameters (e.g., moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient), and to calculate the dimensionless moisture content distributions. The calculated results are then compared with the experimental moisture data. A considerably high agreement is obtained between the calculations and experimental measurements for the cases considered. The effective diffusivity values were evaluated between 0.741 × 10-5 and 5.981 × 10-5 m2/h for slab products, 0.818 × 10-5 and 6.287 × 10-5 m2/h for cylindrical products and 1.213 × 10-7 and 7.589 × 10-7 m2/h spherical products using the Model-I and 0.316 × 10-5-5.072 × 10-5 m2/h for slab products, 0.580 × 10-5-9.587 × 10-5 m2/h for cylindrical products and 1.408 × 10-7-13.913 × 10-7 m2/h spherical products using the Model-II.

  19. Nucleate pool boiling in subcooled liquid under microgravity: Results of TEXUS experimental investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zell, M.; Straub, J.; Weinzierl, A.

    1984-12-01

    Experiments on subcooled nucleate pool boiling in microgravity were carried out to separate gravity driven effects on heat transfer within the boiling process. A ballistic trajectory by sounding rocket flight (TEXUS 5 and 10) achieved a gravity level of a/g = 0.0001 for 360 sec. For determination of geometrical effects on heat transport two different experimental configurations (platinum wire and flat plate) were employed. Boiling curves and bubble dynamics recorded by cinematography lead to gravity independent modelling of the boiling phenomena. The results ensure the applicability and high efficiency of nucleate pool boiling for heat exchangers in space laboratories.

  20. Comparison of Theoretical Stresses and Deflections of Multicell Wings with Experimental Results Obtained from Plastic Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zender, George W

    1956-01-01

    The experimental deflections and stresses of six plastic multicell-wing models of unswept, delta, and swept plan form are presented and compared with previously published theoretical results obtained by the electrical analog method. The comparisons indicate that the theory is reliable except for the evaluation of stresses in the vicinity of the leading edge of delta wings and the leading and trailing edges of swept wings. The stresses in these regions are questionable, apparently because of simplifications employed in idealizing the actual structure for theoretical purposes and because of local effects of concentrated loads.

  1. Experimental and computational flow-field results for an all-body hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, Joseph W.

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive test program is defined which is being implemented in the NASA/Ames 3.5 foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel for obtaining data on a generic all-body hypersonic vehicle for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code validation. Computational methods (approximate inviscid methods and an upwind parabolized Navier-Stokes code) currently being applied to the all-body model are outlined. Experimental and computational results on surface pressure distributions and Pitot-pressure surveys for the basic sharp-nose model (without control surfaces) at a free-stream Mach number of 7 are presented.

  2. Experimental and Theoretical Results in Output Trajectory Redesign for Flexible Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewey, J. S.; Leang, K.; Devasia, S.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we study the optimal redesign of output trajectories for linear invertible systems. This is particularly important for tracking control of flexible structures because the input-state trajectores, that achieve tracking of the required output may cause excessive vibrations in the structure. We pose and solve this problem, in the context of linear systems, as the minimization of a quadratic cost function. The theory is developed and applied to the output tracking of a flexible structure and experimental results are presented.

  3. Experimental and Theoretical Results in Output-Trajectory Redesign for Flexible Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewey, J. S.; Devasia, Santosh

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we study the optimal redesign of output trajectory for linear invertible systems. This is particularly important for tracking control of flexible structures because the input-state trajectories that achieve the required output may cause excessive vibrations in the structure. A trade-off is then required between tracking and vibrations reduction. We pose and solve this problem as the minimization of a quadratic cost function. The theory is developed and applied to the output tracking of a flexible structure and experimental results are presented.

  4. Transient Lift-Off Test Results for an Experimental Hybrid Bearing in Air

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    High-Speed Hydrostatic Bearings,” ASME Journal of Tribology, Vol. 116, n2, 1994, pp. 337-344. [2] Scharrer, J.K., Tellier , J. and Hibbs, R., “A...J.K., Tellier , J. and Hibbs, R., “A Study of the Transient Performance of Hydrostatic Journal Bearings: Part II-Experimental Results,” STLE Paper 91...TC- 3B-2, 1991. [4] Sharrer, J., Tellier , J. and Hibbs, R., “Start Transient Testing of an Annular Hydrostatic Bearing in Liquid Oxygen,” AIAA

  5. Investigation of sonar transponders for offshore wind farms: modeling approach, experimental setup, and results.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Moritz B; Rolfes, Raimund

    2013-11-01

    The installation of offshore wind farms in the German Exclusive Economic Zone requires the deployment of sonar transponders to prevent collisions with submarines. The general requirements for these systems have been previously worked out by the Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Marine Geophysics of the Bundeswehr. In this article, the major results of the research project "Investigation of Sonar Transponders for Offshore Wind Farms" are presented. For theoretical investigations a hybrid approach was implemented using the boundary element method to calculate the source directivity and a three-dimensional ray-tracing algorithm to estimate the transmission loss. The angle-dependence of the sound field as well as the weather-dependence of the transmission loss are compared to experimental results gathered at the offshore wind farm alpha ventus, located 45 km north of the island Borkum. While theoretical and experimental results are in general agreement, the implemented model slightly underestimates scattering at the rough sea surface. It is found that the source level of 200 dB re 1 μPa at 1 m is adequate to satisfy the detectability of the warning sequence at distances up to 2 NM (≈3.7 km) within a horizontal sector of ±60° if realistic assumptions about signal-processing and noise are made. An arrangement to enlarge the angular coverage is discussed.

  6. Experimental Demonstration of Frequency Regulation by Commercial Buildings – Part II: Results and Performance Evaluation

    DOE PAGES

    Vrettos, Evangelos; Kara, Emre Can; MacDonald, Jason; ...

    2016-11-15

    This paper is the second part of a two-part series presenting the results from an experimental demonstration of frequency regulation in a commercial building test facility. We developed relevant building models and designed a hierarchical controller for reserve scheduling, building climate control and frequency regulation in Part I. In Part II, we introduce the communication architecture and experiment settings, and present extensive experimental results under frequency regulation. More specifically, we compute the day-ahead reserve capacity of the test facility under different assumptions and conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ability of model predictive control to satisfy comfort constraints under frequency regulation,more » and show that fan speed control can track the fast-moving RegD signal of the Pennsylvania, Jersey, and Maryland Power Market (PJM) very accurately. In addition, we discuss potential effects of frequency regulation on building operation (e.g., increase in energy consumption, oscillations in supply air temperature, and effect on chiller cycling), and provide suggestions for real-world implementation projects. Our results show that hierarchical control is appropriate for frequency regulation from commercial buildings.« less

  7. Impulsivity in Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Gamers: Preliminary Results on Experimental and Self-Report Measures

    PubMed Central

    Nuyens, Filip; Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre; Griffiths, Mark D.; Kuss, Daria J.; Billieux, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games and First-Person Shooter games. However, empirical studies focusing on the use and abuse of MOBA games are still very limited, particularly regarding impulsivity, which is an indicator of addictive states but has not yet been explored in MOBA games. In this context, the objective of the present study is to explore the associations between impulsivity and symptoms of addictive use of MOBA games in a sample of highly involved League of Legends (LoL, currently the most popular MOBA game) gamers. Methods Thirty-six LoL gamers were recruited and completed both experimental (Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm) and self-reported impulsivity assessments (s-UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), in addition to an assessment of problematic video game use (Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire). Results Results showed links between impulsivity-related constructs and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Findings indicated that impaired ability to postpone rewards in an experimental laboratory task was strongly related to problematic patterns of MOBA game involvement. Although less consistent, several associations were also found between self-reported impulsivity traits and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Conclusions Despite these results are preliminary and based upon a small (self-selected) sample, the present study highlights potential psychological factors related to the addictive use of MOBA games. PMID:27156376

  8. Impulsivity in Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Gamers: Preliminary Results on Experimental and Self-Report Measures.

    PubMed

    Nuyens, Filip; Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre; Griffiths, Mark D; Kuss, Daria J; Billieux, Joël

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games and First-Person Shooter games. However, empirical studies focusing on the use and abuse of MOBA games are still very limited, particularly regarding impulsivity, which is an indicator of addictive states but has not yet been explored in MOBA games. In this context, the objective of the present study is to explore the associations between impulsivity and symptoms of addictive use of MOBA games in a sample of highly involved League of Legends (LoL, currently the most popular MOBA game) gamers. Methods Thirty-six LoL gamers were recruited and completed both experimental (Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm) and self-reported impulsivity assessments (s-UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), in addition to an assessment of problematic video game use (Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire). Results Results showed links between impulsivity-related constructs and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Findings indicated that impaired ability to postpone rewards in an experimental laboratory task was strongly related to problematic patterns of MOBA game involvement. Although less consistent, several associations were also found between self-reported impulsivity traits and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Conclusions Despite these results are preliminary and based upon a small (self-selected) sample, the present study highlights potential psychological factors related to the addictive use of MOBA games.

  9. Experimental Results From the Thermal Energy Storage-1 (TES-1) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacqmin, David

    1995-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Storage (TES) experiments are designed to provide data to help researchers understand the long-duration microgravity behavior of thermal energy storage fluoride salts that undergo repeated melting and freezing. Such data, which have never been obtained before, have direct application to space-based solar dynamic power systems. These power systems will store solar energy in a thermal energy salt, such as lithium fluoride (LiF) or a eutectic of lithium fluoride/calcium difluoride (LiF-CaF2) (which melts at a lower temperature). The energy will be stored as the latent heat of fusion when the salt is melted by absorbing solar thermal energy. The stored energy will then be extracted during the shade portion of the orbit, enabling the solar dynamic power system to provide constant electrical power over the entire orbit. Analytical computer codes have been developed to predict the performance of a spacebased solar dynamic power system. However, the analytical predictions must be verified experimentally before the analytical results can be used for future space power design applications. Four TES flight experiments will be used to obtain the needed experimental data. This article focuses on the flight results from the first experiment, TES-1, in comparison to the predicted results from the Thermal Energy Storage Simulation (TESSIM) analytical computer code.

  10. Experimental results for a two-dimensional supersonic inlet used as a thrust deflecting nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, Albert L.; Burstadt, Paul L.

    1984-01-01

    Nearly all supersonic V/STOL aircraft concepts are dependent on the thrust deflecting capability of a nozzle. In one unique concept, referred to as the reverse flow dual fan, not only is there a thrust deflecting nozzle for the fan and core engine exit flow, but because of the way the propulsion system operates during vertical takeoff and landing, the supersonic inlet is also used as a thrust deflecting nozzle. This paper presents results of an experimental study to evaluate the performance of a supersonic inlet used as a thrust deflecting nozzle for this reverse flow dual fan concept. Results are presented in terms of nozzle thrust coefficient and thrust vector angle for a number of inlet/nozzle configurations. Flow visualization and nozzle exit flow survey results are also shown.

  11. A Comparison of Experimental and Theoretical Results for Labyrinth Gas Seals. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharrer, Joseph Kirk

    1987-01-01

    The basic equations are derived for a two control volume model for compressible flow in a labyrinth seal. The flow is assumed to be completely turbulent and isoenergetic. The wall friction factors are determined using the Blasius formula. Jet flow theory is used for the calculation of the recirculation velocity in the cavity. Linearized zeroth and first order perturbation equations are developed for small motion about a centered position by an expansion in the eccentricity ratio. The zeroth order pressure distribution is found by satisfying the leakage equation. The circumferential velocity distribution is determined by satisfying the momentum equations. The first order equations are solved by a separation of variable solution. Integration of the resultant pressure distribution along and around the seal defines the reaction force developed by the seal and the corresponding dynamic coefficients. The results of this analysis are compared to experimental test results.

  12. Swinging Atwood Machine: Experimental and numerical results, and a theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, O.; Pérez, J. P.; Ramis, J. P.; Simó, C.; Simon, S.; Weil, J. A.

    2010-06-01

    A Swinging Atwood Machine ( SAM) is built and some experimental results concerning its dynamic behaviour are presented. Experiments clearly show that pulleys play a role in the motion of the pendulum, since they can rotate and have non-negligible radii and masses. Equations of motion must therefore take into account the moment of inertia of the pulleys, as well as the winding of the rope around them. Their influence is compared to previous studies. A preliminary discussion of the role of dissipation is included. The theoretical behaviour of the system with pulleys is illustrated numerically, and the relevance of different parameters is highlighted. Finally, the integrability of the dynamic system is studied, the main result being that the machine with pulleys is non-integrable. The status of the results on integrability of the pulley-less machine is also recalled.

  13. VX hydrolysis by human serum paraoxonase 1: a comparison of experimental and computational results.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Matthew W; Fairchild, Steven Z; Otto, Tamara C; Mohtashemi, Mojdeh; Cerasoli, Douglas M; Chang, Wenling E

    2011-01-01

    Human Serum paraoxonase 1 (HuPON1) is an enzyme that has been shown to hydrolyze a variety of chemicals including the nerve agent VX. While wildtype HuPON1 does not exhibit sufficient activity against VX to be used as an in vivo countermeasure, it has been suggested that increasing HuPON1's organophosphorous hydrolase activity by one or two orders of magnitude would make the enzyme suitable for this purpose. The binding interaction between HuPON1 and VX has recently been modeled, but the mechanism for VX hydrolysis is still unknown. In this study, we created a transition state model for VX hydrolysis (VX(ts)) in water using quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations, and docked the transition state model to 22 experimentally characterized HuPON1 variants using AutoDock Vina. The HuPON1-VX(ts) complexes were grouped by reaction mechanism using a novel clustering procedure. The average Vina interaction energies for different clusters were compared to the experimentally determined activities of HuPON1 variants to determine which computational procedures best predict how well HuPON1 variants will hydrolyze VX. The analysis showed that only conformations which have the attacking hydroxyl group of VX(ts) coordinated by the sidechain oxygen of D269 have a significant correlation with experimental results. The results from this study can be used for further characterization of how HuPON1 hydrolyzes VX and design of HuPON1 variants with increased activity against VX.

  14. VX Hydrolysis by Human Serum Paraoxonase 1: A Comparison of Experimental and Computational Results

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Matthew W.; Fairchild, Steven Z.; Otto, Tamara C.; Mohtashemi, Mojdeh; Cerasoli, Douglas M.; Chang, Wenling E.

    2011-01-01

    Human Serum paraoxonase 1 (HuPON1) is an enzyme that has been shown to hydrolyze a variety of chemicals including the nerve agent VX. While wildtype HuPON1 does not exhibit sufficient activity against VX to be used as an in vivo countermeasure, it has been suggested that increasing HuPON1's organophosphorous hydrolase activity by one or two orders of magnitude would make the enzyme suitable for this purpose. The binding interaction between HuPON1 and VX has recently been modeled, but the mechanism for VX hydrolysis is still unknown. In this study, we created a transition state model for VX hydrolysis (VXts) in water using quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations, and docked the transition state model to 22 experimentally characterized HuPON1 variants using AutoDock Vina. The HuPON1-VXts complexes were grouped by reaction mechanism using a novel clustering procedure. The average Vina interaction energies for different clusters were compared to the experimentally determined activities of HuPON1 variants to determine which computational procedures best predict how well HuPON1 variants will hydrolyze VX. The analysis showed that only conformations which have the attacking hydroxyl group of VXts coordinated by the sidechain oxygen of D269 have a significant correlation with experimental results. The results from this study can be used for further characterization of how HuPON1 hydrolyzes VX and design of HuPON1 variants with increased activity against VX. PMID:21655255

  15. A hierarchy of models for simulating experimental results from a 3D heterogeneous porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogler, Daniel; Ostvar, Sassan; Paustian, Rebecca; Wood, Brian D.

    2018-04-01

    In this work we examine the dispersion of conservative tracers (bromide and fluorescein) in an experimentally-constructed three-dimensional dual-porosity porous medium. The medium is highly heterogeneous (σY2 = 5.7), and consists of spherical, low-hydraulic-conductivity inclusions embedded in a high-hydraulic-conductivity matrix. The bimodal medium was saturated with tracers, and then flushed with tracer-free fluid while the effluent breakthrough curves were measured. The focus for this work is to examine a hierarchy of four models (in the absence of adjustable parameters) with decreasing complexity to assess their ability to accurately represent the measured breakthrough curves. The most information-rich model was (1) a direct numerical simulation of the system in which the geometry, boundary and initial conditions, and medium properties were fully independently characterized experimentally with high fidelity. The reduced-information models included; (2) a simplified numerical model identical to the fully-resolved direct numerical simulation (DNS) model, but using a domain that was one-tenth the size; (3) an upscaled mobile-immobile model that allowed for a time-dependent mass-transfer coefficient; and, (4) an upscaled mobile-immobile model that assumed a space-time constant mass-transfer coefficient. The results illustrated that all four models provided accurate representations of the experimental breakthrough curves as measured by global RMS error. The primary component of error induced in the upscaled models appeared to arise from the neglect of convection within the inclusions. We discuss the necessity to assign value (via a utility function or other similar method) to outcomes if one is to further select from among model options. Interestingly, these results suggested that the conventional convection-dispersion equation, when applied in a way that resolves the heterogeneities, yields models with high fidelity without requiring the imposition of a more

  16. A Review of Out-of-School Time Program Quasi-Experimental and Experimental Evaluation Results. Out-of-School Time Evaluation Snapshot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Priscilla M. D.; Harris, Erin

    As the amount of resources allocated to out-of-school (OST) programming and policymakers' demands for research-based results increase, there is increasing interest in rigorous research designs to examine OST program outcomes. This issue of "Out-of-School Time Evaluation Snapshots" reviews 27 quasi-experimental and experimental OST…

  17. Universe Clinopyroxene barometer -recalibrations on the results of the orthopyroxene thermobarometry and experimental results and applications to the clinopyroxene geotherms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashchepkov, I. V.

    2009-04-01

    The internal exchange of Jd-Di components on clinopyroxene allow to calibrate the universal clinopyroxene thermobarometer (Ashchepkov, 2001; 2002; 2003) based on experimental data for different systems including peridotitic, eclogitic and igneous which are represented by the augite cumulates as well as salites from the basic granulates from low crust. The equation to the peridotitic system was calibrated on the results of the othopyroxene thermobarometry (Brey. Kohler,1990- McGregor,1974). Modifications allow receiving the better agreement with the orthopyroxene estimates and results of polymineral thermobarometry (Brey, Kohler, 1990) as well as the clinopyroxene thermobarometry (Nimis, Taylor, 2000). The following equation allows working with the peridotite of the mantle lithosphere beneath cratons (30-80) kbar. P(Ash2009)=0.32 (1-0.2*Na/Al+0.012*Fe/Na)*Kd^(3/4)*ToK/(1+Fe)-35*ln(1273/ToK)*(Al+Ti+2.5Na+1.5Fe3+)+(0.9-CaO)*10+Na20/Al2O3*ToK /200 with the second iteration P=(0.0000002* P4 +0.000002+P^3-0.0027*P^2+1.2241*P) Checking of the HP experiments (Brey et al 2008, Walter, 1998; Falloon, Green, 1989; Dasgupta et al., 2007 etc.) it show the precision close to those of the best barometers (McGregor, 1974) ~5-7 but much more wider compositional range including metasomatic associations and The equation for the Al - rich assemblages allow to obtain the pressure estimates fro the megacrystalls and Al - rich peridotitic clinopyroxenes from the mantle xenoliths carried by alkaline basalts: P(Ash2009)=0.035*Kd*ToK(1+2.44Fe)-50.2 ln(1273/ToK) (Al+Ti+Na) Together with the clinopyroxene thermometer (Nimis, Taylor, 2000) it produces the TP estimates very close to those obtained with (Brey, Kohler, 1990) and values of experiments for the melting of basalts. The meagacrystalls show the polybaric origin and their range of estimated pressure corresponds well to determined for mantle peridotites and pyroxenites. The clinopyroxene geotherms for S. Africa (Boyd, Nixon, 1974

  18. Earlier Violent Television Exposure and Later Drug Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Brook, David W.; Katten, Naomi S.; Ning, Yuming; Brook, Judith S.

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the longitudinal pathways from earlier violent television exposure to later drug dependence. African American and Puerto Rican adolescents were interviewed during three points in time (N = 463). Violent television exposure in late adolescence predicted violent television exposure in young adulthood, which in turn was related to tobacco/marijuana use, nicotine dependence, and later drug dependence. Some policy and clinical implications suggest: a) regulating the times when violent television is broadcast; b) creating developmentally targeted prevention/treatment programs; and c) recognizing that watching violent television may serve as a cue regarding increased susceptibility to nicotine and drug dependence. PMID:18612881

  19. Epistemology and expectations survey about experimental physics: Development and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwickl, Benjamin M.; Hirokawa, Takako; Finkelstein, Noah; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2014-06-01

    In response to national calls to better align physics laboratory courses with the way physicists engage in research, we have developed an epistemology and expectations survey to assess how students perceive the nature of physics experiments in the contexts of laboratory courses and the professional research laboratory. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS) evaluates students' epistemology at the beginning and end of a semester. Students respond to paired questions about how they personally perceive doing experiments in laboratory courses and how they perceive an experimental physicist might respond regarding their research. Also, at the end of the semester, the E-CLASS assesses a third dimension of laboratory instruction, students' reflections on their course's expectations for earning a good grade. By basing survey statements on widely embraced learning goals and common critiques of teaching labs, the E-CLASS serves as an assessment tool for lab courses across the undergraduate curriculum and as a tool for physics education research. We present the development, evidence of validation, and initial formative assessment results from a sample that includes 45 classes at 20 institutions. We also discuss feedback from instructors and reflect on the challenges of large-scale online administration and distribution of results.

  20. Tilted wheel satellite attitude control with air-bearing table experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inumoh, Lawrence O.; Forshaw, Jason L.; Horri, Nadjim M.

    2015-12-01

    Gyroscopic actuators for satellite control have attracted significant research interest over the years, but their viability for the control of small satellites has only recently started to become clear. Research on variable speed gyroscopic actuators has long been focused on single gimbal actuators; double gimbal actuators typically operate at constant wheel spin rate and allow tilt angle ranges far larger than the ranges needed to operate most satellite missions. This research examines a tilted wheel, a newly proposed type of inertial actuator that can generate torques in all three principal axes of a rigid satellite using a spinning wheel and a double tilt mechanism. The tilt mechanism tilts the angular momentum vector about two axes providing two degree of freedom control, while variation of the wheel speed provides the third. The equations of motion of the system lead to a singularity-free system during nominal operation avoiding the need for complex steering logic. This paper describes the hardware design of the tilted wheel and the experimental setup behind both standalone and spherical air-bearing tables used to test it. Experimental results from the air bearing table are provided with the results depicting the high performance capabilities of the proposed actuator in torque generation.

  1. Transport of fluorobenzoate tracers in a vegetated hydrologic control volume: 1. Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queloz, Pierre; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Carraro, Luca; Botter, Gianluca; Miglietta, Franco; Rao, P. S. C.; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports about the experimental evidence collected on the transport of five fluorobenzoate tracers injected under controlled conditions in a vegetated hydrologic volume, a large lysimeter (fitted with load cells, sampling ports, and an underground chamber) where two willows prompting large evapotranspiration fluxes had been grown. The relevance of the study lies in the direct and indirect measures of the ways in which hydrologic fluxes, in this case, evapotranspiration from the upper surface and discharge from the bottom drainage, sample water and solutes in storage at different times under variable hydrologic forcings. Methods involve the accurate control of hydrologic inputs and outputs and a large number of suitable chemical analyses of water samples in discharge waters. Mass extraction from biomass has also been performed ex post. The results of the 2 year long experiment established that our initial premises on the tracers' behavior, known to be sorption-free under saturated conditions which we verified in column leaching tests, were unsuitable as large differences in mass recovery appeared. Issues on reactivity thus arose and were addressed in the paper, in this case attributed to microbial degradation and solute plant uptake. Our results suggest previously unknown features of fluorobenzoate compounds as hydrologic tracers, potentially interesting for catchment studies owing to their suitability for distinguishable multiple injections, and an outlook on direct experimental closures of mass balance in hydrologic transport volumes involving fluxes that are likely to sample differently stored water and solutes.

  2. Muscular force transmission: a unified, dual or multiple system? A review and some explorative experimental results.

    PubMed

    Huijing, P

    1999-10-01

    Structures contributing to force transmission in muscle are reviewed combining some historical and relatively recently published experimental data. Also, effects of aponeurotomy and tenotomy are reviewed shortly as well as some new experimental results regarding these interventions that reinforce the concept of myofascial force transmission. The review is also illustrated by some new images of single muscle fibres from Xenopus Laevis indicative of such transmission and some data about locations of insertion of human gluteus maximus muscle. From this review and the new material, emerges a line of thought indicating that mechanical connections between muscle fibres and intramuscular connective tissue play an important role in force transmission. New experimental observations are presented for non-spanning muscle (i.c., rat biceps femoris muscle), regarding the great variety of types of intramuscular connections that exist i n addition to myo-tendinous junctions at the perimuscular ends of muscle fibres. Such connections are classified as (1) tapered end connections, (2) Myo-myonal junctions, (3) myo-epimysial junctions and (3) Myo-endomysial junctions. This line of thought is followed up by consideration of a possible role of connections of intra- and extramuscular connective tissue in force transmission out of the muscle. Experimental results of an explorative nature, regarding the interactions of extensor digitorum longus (EDL), tibialis anterior (TA) and hallucis longus (HAL) muscles within a relatively intact dorsal flexor compartment of the rat hind leg, indicate that: (1) length force properties of EDL are influenced by TA activity in a length dependent fashion. Depending on TA length, force exerted by EDL, kept at constant origin insertion distance, is variable and the effect is influenced by EDL length itself as well; (2) Force is transmitted from muscle to extramuscular connective tissue and vice versa. As a consequence force exerted at proximal and distal

  3. Preliminary results of the large experimental wind turbine phase of the national wind energy program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.; Sholes, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    A major phase of the wind energy program is the development of reliable wind turbines for supplying cost-competitive electrical energy. This paper discusses the preliminary results of two projects in this phase of the program. First an experimental 100 kW wind turbine design and its status are reviewed. Also discussed are the results of two parallel design studies for determining the configurations and power levels for wind turbines with minimum energy costs. These studies show wind energy costs of 7 to 1.5 c/kWH for wind turbines produced in quantities of 100 to 1000 a year and located at sites having average winds of 12 to 18 mph.

  4. Experimental Results for a Flapped Natural-laminar-flow Airfoil with High Lift/drag Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Viken, J. K.; Pfenninger, W.; Beasley, W. D.; Harvey, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental results have been obtained for a flapped natural-laminar-flow airfoil, NLF(1)-0414F, in the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.05 to 0.40 and a chord Reynolds number range from about 3.0 x 10(6) to 22.0 x 10(6). The airfoil was designed for 0.70 chord laminar flow on both surfaces at a lift coefficient of 0.40, a Reynolds number of 10.0 x 10(6), and a Mach number of 0.40. A 0.125 chord simple flap was incorporated in the design to increase the low-drag, lift-coefficient range. Results were also obtained for a 0.20 chord split-flap deflected 60 deg.

  5. Survey of Experimental Results in High-Contrast Imaging for Future Exoplanet Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, P. R.; Belikov, R.; Cash, W.; Clampin, M.; Glassman, T.; Guyon, O.; Kasdin, N. J.; Kern, B. D.; Lyon, R.; Mawet, D.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present and compare experimental results in high contrast imaging representing the state of the art in coronagraph and starshade technology. These experiments have been undertaken with the goal of demonstrating the capability of detecting Earth-like planets around nearby Sun-like stars. The contrast of an Earth seen in reflected light around a Sun-like star would be about 1.2 x 10(exp -10). Several of the current candidate technologies now yield raw contrasts of 1.0 x 10(exp -9) or better, and so should enable the detection of Earths, assuming a gain in sensitivity in post-processing of a factor of 10. We present results of coronagraph and starshade experiments conducted at visible and infrared wavelengths. Cross-sections of dark fields are directly compared as a function of field angle and bandwidth. The strength and differences of the techniques are compared.

  6. Interfacial Chemical Interactions in the (Alumina/Graphite/Al Alloys) System: Thermodynamic Modeling and Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelbstein, M.; Edry, I.; Froumin, N.; Frage, N.

    2009-04-01

    The stability of alumina-coated graphite couples in liquid Al is investigated in the 1373 to 1573 K temperature range. A thermodynamic model was carried out to determine the mechanisms controlling the couple stability and the effect of alloying Al with high melting point element for instance U (up to 3 at. pct). It was established that the dissolved uranium dose not play any role in the interfacial interactions and that the couple stability is governed by the interactions with Al resulting in the release of gaseous products. The experiments focused on wetting kinetics under conditions allowing for an in-situ reduction of the alumina coating by the liquid Al. The experimental results confirm the predictions of the thermodynamic analysis.

  7. Comparison of results of experimental research with numerical calculations of a model one-sided seal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joachimiak, Damian; Krzyślak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    Paper presents the results of experimental and numerical research of a model segment of a labyrinth seal for a different wear level. The analysis covers the extent of leakage and distribution of static pressure in the seal chambers and the planes upstream and downstream of the segment. The measurement data have been compared with the results of numerical calculations obtained using commercial software. Based on the flow conditions occurring in the area subjected to calculations, the size of the mesh defined by parameter y+ has been analyzed and the selection of the turbulence model has been described. The numerical calculations were based on the measurable thermodynamic parameters in the seal segments of steam turbines. The work contains a comparison of the mass flow and distribution of static pressure in the seal chambers obtained during the measurement and calculated numerically in a model segment of the seal of different level of wear.

  8. Experimental and raytrace results for throat-to-throat compound parabolic concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, D. B.; Leitch, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    Compound parabolic concentrators are nonimaging cone-shaped optics with useful angular transmission characteristics. Two cones used throat-to-throat accept radiant flux within one well-defined acceptance angle and redistribute it into another. If the entrance cone is fed with Lambertian flux, the exit cone produces a beam whose half-angle is the exit cone's acceptance angle and whose cross section shows uniform irradiance from near the exit mouth to infinity. (The pair is a beam angle transformer). The design of one pair of cones is discussed, also an experiment to map the irradiance of the emergent beam, and a raytracing program which models the cones fed by Lambertian flux. Experimental results compare favorably with raytrace results.

  9. The Langley Research Center CSI phase-0 evolutionary model testbed-design and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, W. K.; Horta, Lucas G.; Elliott, K. B.

    1991-01-01

    A testbed for the development of Controls Structures Interaction (CSI) technology is described. The design philosophy, capabilities, and early experimental results are presented to introduce some of the ongoing CSI research at NASA-Langley. The testbed, referred to as the Phase 0 version of the CSI Evolutionary model (CEM), is the first stage of model complexity designed to show the benefits of CSI technology and to identify weaknesses in current capabilities. Early closed loop test results have shown non-model based controllers can provide an order of magnitude increase in damping in the first few flexible vibration modes. Model based controllers for higher performance will need to be robust to model uncertainty as verified by System ID tests. Data are presented that show finite element model predictions of frequency differ from those obtained from tests. Plans are also presented for evolution of the CEM to study integrated controller and structure design as well as multiple payload dynamics.

  10. Heat Transfer Enhancement for Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers with Vortex Generators: Experimental and Numerical Results

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, James Edward; Sohal, Manohar Singh; Huff, George Albert

    2002-08-01

    A combined experimental and numerical investigation is under way to investigate heat transfer enhancement techniques that may be applicable to large-scale air-cooled condensers such as those used in geothermal power applications. The research is focused on whether air-side heat transfer can be improved through the use of finsurface vortex generators (winglets,) while maintaining low heat exchanger pressure drop. A transient heat transfer visualization and measurement technique has been employed in order to obtain detailed distributions of local heat transfer coefficients on model fin surfaces. Pressure drop measurements have also been acquired in a separate multiple-tube row apparatus. In addition, numericalmore » modeling techniques have been developed to allow prediction of local and average heat transfer for these low-Reynolds-number flows with and without winglets. Representative experimental and numerical results presented in this paper reveal quantitative details of local fin-surface heat transfer in the vicinity of a circular tube with a single delta winglet pair downstream of the cylinder. The winglets were triangular (delta) with a 1:2 height/length aspect ratio and a height equal to 90% of the channel height. Overall mean fin-surface Nusselt-number results indicate a significant level of heat transfer enhancement (average enhancement ratio 35%) associated with the deployment of the winglets with oval tubes. Pressure drop measurements have also been obtained for a variety of tube and winglet configurations using a single-channel flow apparatus that includes four tube rows in a staggered array. Comparisons of heat transfer and pressure drop results for the elliptical tube versus a circular tube with and without winglets are provided. Heat transfer and pressure-drop results have been obtained for flow Reynolds numbers based on channel height and mean flow velocity ranging from 700 to 6500.« less

  11. Recovery of yttrium from cathode ray tubes and lamps’ fluorescent powders: experimental results and economic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Innocenzi, V., E-mail: valentina.innocenzi1@univaq.it; De Michelis, I.; Ferella, F.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Fluorescent powder of lamps. • Fluorescent powder of cathode ray rubes. • Recovery of yttrium from fluorescent powders. • Economic simulation for the processes to recover yttrium from WEEE. - Abstract: In this paper, yttrium recovery from fluorescent powder of lamps and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) is described. The process for treating these materials includes the following: (a) acid leaching, (b) purification of the leach liquors using sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, (c) precipitation of yttrium using oxalic acid, and (d) calcinations of oxalates for production of yttrium oxides. Experimental results have shown that process conditions necessary tomore » purify the solutions and recover yttrium strongly depend on composition of the leach liquor, in other words, whether the powder comes from treatment of CRTs or lamp. In the optimal experimental conditions, the recoveries of yttrium oxide are about 95%, 55%, and 65% for CRT, lamps, and CRT/lamp mixture (called MIX) powders, respectively. The lower yields obtained during treatments of MIX and lamp powders are probably due to the co-precipitation of yttrium together with other metals contained in the lamps powder only. Yttrium loss can be reduced to minimum changing the experimental conditions with respect to the case of the CRT process. In any case, the purity of final products from CRT, lamps, and MIX is greater than 95%. Moreover, the possibility to treat simultaneously both CRT and lamp powders is very important and interesting from an industrial point of view since it could be possible to run a single plant treating fluorescent powder coming from two different electronic wastes.« less

  12. Earlier vegetation green-up has reduced spring dust storms

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Bihang; Guo, Li; Li, Ning; Chen, Jin; Lin, Henry; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Shen, Miaogen; Rao, Yuhan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The observed decline of spring dust storms in Northeast Asia since the 1950s has been attributed to surface wind stilling. However, spring vegetation growth could also restrain dust storms through accumulating aboveground biomass and increasing surface roughness. To investigate the impacts of vegetation spring growth on dust storms, we examine the relationships between recorded spring dust storm outbreaks and satellite-derived vegetation green-up date in Inner Mongolia, Northern China from 1982 to 2008. We find a significant dampening effect of advanced vegetation growth on spring dust storms (r = 0.49, p = 0.01), with a one-day earlier green-up date corresponding to a decrease in annual spring dust storm outbreaks by 3%. Moreover, the higher correlation (r = 0.55, p < 0.01) between green-up date and dust storm outbreak ratio (the ratio of dust storm outbreaks to times of strong wind events) indicates that such effect is independent of changes in surface wind. Spatially, a negative correlation is detected between areas with advanced green-up dates and regional annual spring dust storms (r = −0.49, p = 0.01). This new insight is valuable for understanding dust storms dynamics under the changing climate. Our findings suggest that dust storms in Inner Mongolia will be further mitigated by the projected earlier vegetation green-up in the warming world. PMID:25343265

  13. Earlier vegetation green-up has reduced spring dust storms.

    PubMed

    Fan, Bihang; Guo, Li; Li, Ning; Chen, Jin; Lin, Henry; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Shen, Miaogen; Rao, Yuhan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Lei

    2014-10-24

    The observed decline of spring dust storms in Northeast Asia since the 1950s has been attributed to surface wind stilling. However, spring vegetation growth could also restrain dust storms through accumulating aboveground biomass and increasing surface roughness. To investigate the impacts of vegetation spring growth on dust storms, we examine the relationships between recorded spring dust storm outbreaks and satellite-derived vegetation green-up date in Inner Mongolia, Northern China from 1982 to 2008. We find a significant dampening effect of advanced vegetation growth on spring dust storms (r = 0.49, p = 0.01), with a one-day earlier green-up date corresponding to a decrease in annual spring dust storm outbreaks by 3%. Moreover, the higher correlation (r = 0.55, p < 0.01) between green-up date and dust storm outbreak ratio (the ratio of dust storm outbreaks to times of strong wind events) indicates that such effect is independent of changes in surface wind. Spatially, a negative correlation is detected between areas with advanced green-up dates and regional annual spring dust storms (r = -0.49, p = 0.01). This new insight is valuable for understanding dust storms dynamics under the changing climate. Our findings suggest that dust storms in Inner Mongolia will be further mitigated by the projected earlier vegetation green-up in the warming world.

  14. EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA) overview of selected results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA (EASE) objectives, experimental protocol, neutral buoyancy simulation, task time distribution, assembly task performance, metabolic rate/biomedical readouts are summarized. This presentation is shown in charts, figures, and graphs.

  15. Biological consequences of earlier snowmelt from desert dust deposition in alpine landscapes.

    PubMed

    Steltzer, Heidi; Landry, Chris; Painter, Thomas H; Anderson, Justin; Ayres, Edward

    2009-07-14

    Dust deposition to mountain snow cover, which has increased since the late 19(th) century, accelerates the rate of snowmelt by increasing the solar radiation absorbed by the snowpack. Snowmelt occurs earlier, but is decoupled from seasonal warming. Climate warming advances the timing of snowmelt and early season phenological events (e.g., the onset of greening and flowering); however, earlier snowmelt without warmer temperatures may have a different effect on phenology. Here, we report the results of a set of snowmelt manipulations in which radiation-absorbing fabric and the addition and removal of dust from the surface of the snowpack advanced or delayed snowmelt in the alpine tundra. These changes in the timing of snowmelt were superimposed on a system where the timing of snowmelt varies with topography and has been affected by increased dust loading. At the community level, phenology exhibited a threshold response to the timing of snowmelt. Greening and flowering were delayed before seasonal warming, after which there was a linear relationship between the date of snowmelt and the timing of phenological events. Consequently, the effects of earlier snowmelt on phenology differed in relation to topography, which resulted in increasing synchronicity in phenology across the alpine landscape with increasingly earlier snowmelt. The consequences of earlier snowmelt from increased dust deposition differ from climate warming and include delayed phenology, leading to synchronized growth and flowering across the landscape and the opportunity for altered species interactions, landscape-scale gene flow via pollination, and nutrient cycling.

  16. Comparison between Theoretical Calculation and Experimental Results of Excitation Functions for Production of Relevant Biomedical Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menapace, E.; Birattari, C.; Bonardi, M. L.; Groppi, F.; Morzenti, S.; Zona, C.

    2005-05-01

    The radionuclide production for biomedical applications has been brought up in the years, as a special nuclear application, at INFN LASA Laboratory, particularly in co-operation with the JRC-Ispra of EC. Mainly scientific aspects concerning radiation detection and the relevant instruments, the measurements of excitation functions of the involved nuclear reactions, the requested radiochemistry studies and further applications have been investigated. On the side of the nuclear data evaluations, based on nuclear model calculations and critically selected experimental data, the appropriate competence has been developed at ENEA Division for Advanced Physics Technologies. A series of high specific activity accelerator-produced radionuclides in no-carrier-added (NCA) form, for uses in metabolic radiotherapy and for PET radiodiagnostics, are investigated. In this work, last revised measurements and model calculations are reviewed for excitation functions of natZn(d,X)64Cu, 66Ga reactions, referring to irradiation experiments at K=38 variable energy Cyclotron of JRC-Ispra. Concerning the reaction data for producing 186gRe and 211At/211gPo (including significant emission spectra) and 210At, most recent and critically selected experimental results are considered and discussed in comparison with model calculations paying special care to pre-equilibrium effects estimate and to the appropriate overall parameterization. Model calculations are presented for 226Ra(p,2n)225Ac reaction, according to the working program of the ongoing IAEA CRP on the matter.

  17. Comparison between Theoretical Calculation and Experimental Results of Excitation Functions for Production of Relevant Biomedical Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Menapace, E.; Birattari, C.; Bonardi, M.L.

    The radionuclide production for biomedical applications has been brought up in the years, as a special nuclear application, at INFN LASA Laboratory, particularly in co-operation with the JRC-Ispra of EC. Mainly scientific aspects concerning radiation detection and the relevant instruments, the measurements of excitation functions of the involved nuclear reactions, the requested radiochemistry studies and further applications have been investigated. On the side of the nuclear data evaluations, based on nuclear model calculations and critically selected experimental data, the appropriate competence has been developed at ENEA Division for Advanced Physics Technologies. A series of high specific activity accelerator-produced radionuclides inmore » no-carrier-added (NCA) form, for uses in metabolic radiotherapy and for PET radiodiagnostics, are investigated. In this work, last revised measurements and model calculations are reviewed for excitation functions of natZn(d,X)64Cu, 66Ga reactions, referring to irradiation experiments at K=38 variable energy Cyclotron of JRC-Ispra. Concerning the reaction data for producing 186gRe and 211At/211gPo (including significant emission spectra) and 210At, most recent and critically selected experimental results are considered and discussed in comparison with model calculations paying special care to pre-equilibrium effects estimate and to the appropriate overall parameterization. Model calculations are presented for 226Ra(p,2n)225Ac reaction, according to the working program of the ongoing IAEA CRP on the matter.« less

  18. Experimental Estimation Of Energy Damping During Free Rocking Of Unreinforced Masonry Walls. First Results

    SciTech Connect

    Sorrentino, Luigi; Masiani, Renato; Benedetti, Stefano

    2008-07-08

    This paper presents an ongoing experimental program on unreinforced masonry walls undergoing free rocking. Aim of the laboratory campaign is the estimation of kinetic energy damping exhibited by walls released with non-zero initial conditions of motion. Such energy damping is necessary for dynamic modelling of unreinforced masonry local mechanisms. After a brief review of the literature on this topic, the main features of the laboratory tests are presented. The program involves the experimental investigation of several parameters: 1) unit material (brick or tuff), 2) wall aspect ratio (ranging between 14.5 and 7.1), 3) restraint condition (two-sided or one-sided rocking), andmore » 4) depth of the contact surface between facade and transverse walls (one-sided rocking only). All walls are single wythe and the mortar is pozzuolanic. The campaign is still in progress. However, it is possible to present the results on most of the mechanical properties of mortar and bricks. Moreover, a few time histories are reported, already indicating the need to correct some of the assumptions frequent in the literature.« less

  19. Preliminary experimental investigation of in vivo magnetic manipulation: results and potential application in hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Grady, M S; Howard, M A; Molloy, J A; Ritter, R C; Quate, E G; Gillies, G T

    1989-01-01

    The first in vivo experiments in support of a new technique for delivering stereotaxic hyperthermia have been conducted at the Experimental Surgery Facility of the University of Virginia's Medical Center. We call this technique the "Video Tumor Fighter." In each of twelve trials a single, small permanent magnet or train of small permanent magnets was implanted on the brain surface of adult canine models. In three of the trials, this "seed" (typically 6-mm diameter X 6-mm long) was moved by magnetic manipulation to different locations within the brain. In two other trials, the seed moved along the interface between the brain and the inner vault of the skull. The noncontact magnetic manipulation was accomplished by coupling the permanently magnetized seed to the large dc magnetic field gradient created by a water-cooled coil surrounding the animal's head. The seed's motions were monitored with x-ray fluoroscopy; its rate of movement was found to be approximately 0.8 mm s-1. The forces required to produce these motions were on the order of 0.07 N. We document here the instrumentation used in these trials, describe the experimental procedures employed, and discuss the technical aspects of the results.

  20. Drying in porous media with gravity-stabilized fronts: experimental results.

    PubMed

    Yiotis, A G; Salin, D; Tajer, E S; Yortsos, Y C

    2012-08-01

    In a recent paper [Yiotis et al., Phys. Rev. E 85, 046308 (2012)] we developed a model for the drying of porous media in the presence of gravity. It incorporated effects of corner film flow, internal and external mass transfer, and the effect of gravity. Analytical results were derived when gravity opposes drying and hence leads to a stable percolation drying front. In this paper, we test the theory using laboratory experiments. A series of isothermal drying experiments in glass bead packings saturated with volatile hydrocarbons is conducted. The transparent glass cells containing the packing allow for the visual monitoring of the phase distribution patterns below the surface, including the formation of liquid films, as the gaseous phase invades the pore space, and for the control of the thickness of the diffusive mass boundary layer over the packing. The experimental results agree very well with theory, provided that the latter is generalized to account for the effects of corner roundness in the film region (which was neglected in the theoretical part). We demonstrate the existence of an early constant rate period (CRP), which lasts as long as the films saturate the surface of the packing, and of a subsequent falling rate period (FRP), which begins practically after the detachment of the film tips from the external surface. During the CRP, the process is controlled by diffusion within the stagnant gaseous phase in the upper part of the cells, yielding a Stefan tube problem solution. During the FRP, the process is controlled by diffusion within the packing, with a drying rate inversely proportional to the observed position of the film tips in the cell. Theoretical and experimental results compare favorably for a specific value of the roundness of the films, which is found to be constant and equal to 0.2 for various conditions, and verify the theoretical dependence on the capillary Ca(f), Bond Bo, and Sherwood Sh numbers.

  1. Experimental Results from the Thermal Energy Storage-1 (TES-1) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wald, Lawrence W.; Tolbert, Carol; Jacqmin, David

    1995-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Storage-1 (TES-1) is a flight experiment that flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-62), in March 1994, as part of the OAST-2 mission. TES-1 is the first experiment in a four experiment suite designed to provide data for understanding the long duration microgravity behavior of thermal energy storage fluoride salts that undergo repeated melting and freezing. Such data have never been obtained before and have direct application for the development of space-based solar dynamic (SD) power systems. These power systems will store solar energy in a thermal energy salt such as lithium fluoride or calcium fluoride. The stored energy is extracted during the shade portion of the orbit. This enables the solar dynamic power system to provide constant electrical power over the entire orbit. Analytical computer codes have been developed for predicting performance of a spaced-based solar dynamic power system. Experimental verification of the analytical predictions is needed prior to using the analytical results for future space power design applications. The four TES flight experiments will be used to obtain the needed experimental data. This paper will focus on the flight results from the first experiment, TES-1, in comparison to the predicted results from the Thermal Energy Storage Simulation (TESSIM) analytical computer code. The TES-1 conceptual development, hardware design, final development, and system verification testing were accomplished at the NASA lewis Research Center (LeRC). TES-1 was developed under the In-Space Technology Experiment Program (IN-STEP), which sponsors NASA, industry, and university flight experiments designed to enable and enhance space flight technology. The IN-STEP Program is sponsored by the Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT).

  2. Smectite clays in Mars soil - Evidence for their presence and role in Viking biology experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, A.; Rishpon, J.

    1979-01-01

    Evidence for the presence of smectite clays in Martian soils is reviewed and results of experiments with certain active clays simulating the Viking biology experiments are reported. Analyses of Martian soil composition by means of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and dust storm spectroscopy and Martian geological history strongly suggest the presence of a mixture of weathered ferro-silicate minerals, mainly nontronite and montmorillonite, accompanied by soluble sulphate salts, as major constituents. Samples of montmorillonite and nontronite incubated with (C-14)-formate or the radioactive nutrient medium solution used in the Viking Labeled Release experiment, were found to produce patterns of release of radioactive gas very similar to those observed in the Viking experiments, indicating the iron-catalyzed decomposition of formate as the reaction responsible for the Viking results. The experimental results of Hubbard (1979) simulating the results of the Viking Pyrolytic Release experiment using iron montmorillonites are pointed out, and it is concluded that many of the results of the Viking biology experiments can be explained in terms of the surface activity of smectite clays in catalysis and adsorption.

  3. Theoretical versus experimental results for the rotordynamic coefficients of eccentric, smooth, gas annular seal annular gas seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, Dara W.; Alexander, Chis

    1994-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation presents the following results: (1) The analytical results overpredict the experimental results for the direct stiffness values and incorrectly predict increasing stiffness with decreasing pressure ratios. (2) Theory correctly predicts increasing cross-coupled stiffness, K(sub YX), with increasing eccentricity and inlet preswirl. (3) Direct damping, C(sub XX), underpredicts the experimental results, but the analytical results do correctly show that damping increases with increasing eccentricity. (4) The whirl frequency values predicted by theory are insensitive to changes in the static eccentricity ratio. Although these values match perfectly with the experimental results at 16,000 rpm, the results at the lower speed do not correspond. (5) Theoretical and experimental mass flow rates match at 5000 rpm, but at 16,000 rpm the theoretical results overpredict the experimental mass flow rates. (6) Theory correctly shows the linear pressure profiles and the associated entrance losses with the specified rotor positions.

  4. NACA0012 benchmark model experimental flutter results with unsteady pressure distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Jose A., Jr.; Dansberry, Bryan E.; Bennett, Robert M.; Durham, Michael H.; Silva, Walter A.

    1992-01-01

    The Structural Dynamics Division at NASA Langley Research Center has started a wind tunnel activity referred to as the Benchmark Models Program. The primary objective of this program is to acquire measured dynamic instability and corresponding pressure data that will be useful for developing and evaluating aeroelastic type computational fluid dynamics codes currently in use or under development. The program is a multi-year activity that will involve testing of several different models to investigate various aeroelastic phenomena. This paper describes results obtained from a second wind tunnel test of the first model in the Benchmark Models Program. This first model consisted of a rigid semispan wing having a rectangular planform and a NACA 0012 airfoil shape which was mounted on a flexible two degree of freedom mount system. Experimental flutter boundaries and corresponding unsteady pressure distribution data acquired over two model chords located at the 60 and 95 percent span stations are presented.

  5. Inlet Flow Test Calibration for a Small Axial Compressor Facility. Part 1: Design and Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. P.; Prahst, P. S.

    1994-01-01

    An axial compressor test rig has been designed for the operation of small turbomachines. The inlet region consisted of a long flowpath region with two series of support struts and a flapped inlet guide vane. A flow test was run to calibrate and determine the source and magnitudes of the loss mechanisms in the inlet for a highly loaded two-stage axial compressor test. Several flow conditions and IGV angle settings were established in which detailed surveys were completed. Boundary layer bleed was also provided along the casing of the inlet behind the support struts and ahead of the IGV. A detailed discussion of the flowpath design along with a summary of the experimental results are provided in Part 1.

  6. School Context and Educational Outcomes: Results from a Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Casciano, Rebecca; Massey, Douglas S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we draw on data from a quasi-experimental study to test whether moving into a subsidized housing development in an affluent suburb yields educational benefits to the children of residents, compared to the educations they would have received had they not moved into the development. Results suggest that resident children experienced a significant improvement in school quality compared with a comparison group of students whose parents also had applied for residence. Parents who were residents of the development also displayed higher levels of school involvement compared with the comparison group of non-resident parents, and their children were exposed to significantly lower levels of school disorder and violence within school and spent more time reading outside of school. Living in the development did not influence GPA directly, but did indirectly increase GPA by increasing the time residents spent reading outside of school. PMID:25342878

  7. Rainfall estimation using microwave links. Results from an experimental setup in Luxembourg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenicia, Fabrizio; Matgen, Patrick; Pfister, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    Microwave links represent a valid alternative to traditional rainfall estimation methods. They are commonly used in mobile phone communication, and they constitute built-in widely distributed networks. Due to their ability of providing high temporal and spatial resolution measurements, their use is particularly suitable in urban settings. We here show results from an experimental setup in Luxembourg City, where two dual frequency links have been installed. The links cover a distance of about 4km, and measure power attenuation at 1 min. timestep. The links have been equipped with several recording raingauges, which measure rainfall in real-time communicating through a wireless connection. This set-up has been used to analyze in detail the mapping between attenuation and rainfall intensity, and gain insights into the potential accuracy of these instruments. In addition, we investigated the relation between rainfall and discharge response of the urban area of Luxembourg, which shows the potential utility of high frequency rainfall measurements for urban environments.

  8. Experimental results of active control on a large structure to suppress vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    Three design methods, Linear Quadratic Gaussian with Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG/LTR), H-infinity, and mu-synthesis, are used to obtain compensators for suppressing the vibrations of a 10-bay vertical truss structure, a component typical of what may be used to build a large space structure. For the design process the plant dynamic characteristics of the structure were determined experimentally using an identification method. The resulting compensators were implemented on a digital computer and tested for their ability to suppress the first bending mode response of the 10-bay vertical truss. Time histories of the measured motion are presented, and modal damping obtained during the experiments are compared with analytical predictions. The advantages and disadvantages of using the various design methods are discussed.

  9. Active vibration absorber for CSI evolutionary model: Design and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, Anne M.; Belvin, W. Keith; Horta, Lucas G.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1991-01-01

    The development of control of large flexible structures technology must include practical demonstration to aid in the understanding and characterization of controlled structures in space. To support this effort, a testbed facility was developed to study practical implementation of new control technologies under realistic conditions. The design is discussed of a second order, acceleration feedback controller which acts as an active vibration absorber. This controller provides guaranteed stability margins for collocated sensor/actuator pairs in the absence of sensor/actuator dynamics and computational time delay. The primary performance objective considered is damping augmentation of the first nine structural modes. Comparison of experimental and predicted closed loop damping is presented, including test and simulation time histories for open and closed loop cases. Although the simulation and test results are not in full agreement, robustness of this design under model uncertainty is demonstrated. The basic advantage of this second order controller design is that the stability of the controller is model independent.

  10. An experimental study of stratospheric gravity waves - Design and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talagrand, O.; Ovarlez, H.

    1984-02-01

    The design of balloon-borne experimental apparatus for long-term gravitational-wave measurements in the stratosphere is reported, and preliminary results of a first test flight are presented. Two gondolas (each containing a pressure sensor; a temperature sensor; horizontal and vertical sonic anemometers; a fin equipped with crossed magnetometers; and data-processing, data-transmission, and control electronics) are suspended 100 and 300 m below a solar/terrestrial-IR-absorption-heated hot-air balloon drifting between altitudes 22 km (night) and 28 km (day); power is supplied by NiCd batteries recharged by solar cells. The path of the first flight, a circumnavigation beginning in Pretoria, South Africa and crossing South America and northern Australia, from December 11, 1982, to February 2, 1983 (when transmission ceased over southern Africa) is shown on a map, and sample data for a 36-h period are summarized in a graph.

  11. Noise characteristics of upper surface blown configurations. Experimental program and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. H.; Searle, N.; Blakney, D. F.; Pennock, A. P.; Gibson, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental data base was developed from the model upper surface blowing (USB) propulsive lift system hardware. While the emphasis was on far field noise data, a considerable amount of relevant flow field data were also obtained. The data were derived from experiments in four different facilities resulting in: (1) small scale static flow field data; (2) small scale static noise data; (3) small scale simulated forward speed noise and load data; and (4) limited larger-scale static noise flow field and load data. All of the small scale tests used the same USB flap parts. Operational and geometrical variables covered in the test program included jet velocity, nozzle shape, nozzle area, nozzle impingement angle, nozzle vertical and horizontal location, flap length, flap deflection angle, and flap radius of curvature.

  12. Comparison of simulation and experimental results for a gas puff nozzle on Ambiorix

    SciTech Connect

    Barnier, J-N.; Chevalier, J-M.; Dubroca, B.

    One of source term of Z-Pinch experiments is the gas puff density profile. In order to characterize the gas jet, an experiment based on interferometry has been performed. The first study was a point measurement (a section density profile) which led us to develop a global and instantaneous interferometry imaging method. In order to optimise the nozzle, we simulated the experiment with a flow calculation code (ARES). In this paper, the experimental results are compared with simulations. The different gas properties (He, Ne, Ar) and the flow duration lead us to take care, on the one hand, of the gasmore » viscosity, and on the other, of modifying the code for an instationary flow.« less

  13. Physical model and experimental results of cathode erosion related to power supply ripple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, W. J.; O'Hair, E. A.; Hatfield, L. L.; Kristiansen, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the physical effects of power supply ripple on cathode erosion and cathode arc attachment in a water-cooled, 30 kW nitrogen arcjet. Experimental results are presented for 2 percent thoriated tungsten, which show that the long-term cathode erosion rate is a decreasing function of current ripple over the range 1-13 percent. Above this range, the cathode discharge becomes unstable, and the erosion rate rapidly increases. A qualitative model of this effect is given in terms of a magnetically induced radial motion of the arc column, and an overall increase in the cathode spot radius due to the higher peak current associated with higher ripple. The most important effect of power supply ripple is therefore shown to be its ability to collectively drive the cathode attachment away from the cathode center. This leads to an increase in the cathode attachment area, and a subsequent decrease in the cathode erosion rate.

  14. Study of a vibrating plate: comparison between experimental (ESPI) and analytical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, G.; Alvarez, L.; Alanís, E.; Nallim, L.; Grossi, R.

    2003-07-01

    Real-time electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) was used for tuning and visualization of natural frequencies of a trapezoidal plate. The plate was excited to resonant vibration by a sinusoidal acoustical source, which provided a continuous range of audio frequencies. Fringe patterns produced during the time-average recording of the vibrating plate—corresponding to several resonant frequencies—were registered. From these interferograms, calculations of vibrational amplitudes by means of zero-order Bessel functions were performed in some particular cases. The system was also studied analytically. The analytical approach developed is based on the Rayleigh-Ritz method and on the use of non-orthogonal right triangular co-ordinates. The deflection of the plate is approximated by a set of beam characteristic orthogonal polynomials generated by using the Gram-Schmidt procedure. A high degree of correlation between computational analysis and experimental results was observed.

  15. Beam dynamics studies at DAΦNE: from ideas to experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobov, M.; DAΦNE Team

    2017-12-01

    DAΦNE is the electron-positron collider operating at the energy of Φ-resonance, 1 GeV in the center of mass. The presently achieved luminosity is by about two orders of magnitude higher than that obtained at other colliders ever operated at this energy. Careful beam dynamic studies such as the vacuum chamber design with low beam coupling impedance, suppression of different kinds of beam instabilities, investigation of beam-beam interaction, optimization of the beam nonlinear motion have been the key ingredients that have helped to reach this impressive result. Many novel ideas in accelerator physics have been proposed and/or tested experimentally at DAΦNE for the first time. In this paper we discuss the advanced accelerator physics studies performed at DAΦNE.

  16. An aerodynamic analysis of the autogiro rotor with a comparison between calculated and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheatley, John B

    1935-01-01

    This report presents an extension of the autogiro theory of Glauert and Lock in which the influence of a pitch varying with the blade radius is evaluated and methods of approximating the effect of blade tip losses and the influence of reversed velocities on the retreating blades are developed. A comparison of calculated and experimental results showed that most of the rotor characteristics could be calculated with reasonable accuracy, and that the type of induced flow assumed has a secondary effect upon the net rotor forces, although the flapping motion is influenced appreciably. An approximate evaluation of the effect of parasite drag on the rotor blades established the importance of including this factor in the analysis.

  17. Modelling Viscoelastic Behaviour of Polymer by A Mixed Velocity, Displacement Formulation - Numerical and Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, VT.; Silva, L.; Digonnet, H.

    2011-05-04

    The objective of this work is to model the viscoelastic behaviour of polymer from the solid state to the liquid state. With this objective, we perform experimental tensile tests and compare with simulation results. The chosen polymer is a PMMA whose behaviour depends on its temperature. The computation simulation is based on Navier-Stokes equations where we propose a mixed finite element method with an interpolation P1+/P1 using displacement (or velocity) and pressure as principal variables. The implemented technique uses a mesh composed of triangles (2D) or tetrahedra (3D). The goal of this approach is to model the viscoelastic behaviour ofmore » polymers through a fluid-structure coupling technique with a multiphase approach.« less

  18. MLFMA-accelerated Nyström method for ultrasonic scattering - Numerical results and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurrala, Praveen; Downs, Andrew; Chen, Kun; Song, Jiming; Roberts, Ron

    2018-04-01

    Full wave scattering models for ultrasonic waves are necessary for the accurate prediction of voltage signals received from complex defects/flaws in practical nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurements. We propose the high-order Nyström method accelerated by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) as an improvement to the state-of-the-art full-wave scattering models that are based on boundary integral equations. We present numerical results demonstrating improvements in simulation time and memory requirement. Particularly, we demonstrate the need for higher order geom-etry and field approximation in modeling NDE measurements. Also, we illustrate the importance of full-wave scattering models using experimental pulse-echo data from a spherical inclusion in a solid, which cannot be modeled accurately by approximation-based scattering models such as the Kirchhoff approximation.

  19. Using leg muscles as shock absorbers: theoretical predictions and experimental results of drop landing performance.

    PubMed

    Minetti, A E; Ardigò, L P; Susta, D; Cotelli, F

    1998-12-01

    The use of muscles as power dissipators is investigated in this study, both from the modellistic and the experimental points of view. Theoretical predictions of the drop landing manoeuvre for a range of initial conditions have been obtained by accounting for the mechanical characteristics of knee extensor muscles, the limb geometry and assuming maximum neural activation. Resulting dynamics have been represented in the phase plane (vertical displacement versus speed) to better classify the damping performance. Predictions of safe landing in sedentary subjects were associated to dropping from a maximum (feet) height of 1.6-2.0 m (about 11 m on the moon). Athletes can extend up to 2.6-3.0 m, while for obese males (m = 100 kg, standard stature) the limit should reduce to 0.9-1.3 m. These results have been calculated by including in the model the estimated stiffness of the 'global elastic elements' acting below the squat position. Experimental landings from a height of 0.4, 0.7, 1.1 m (sedentary males (SM) and male (AM) and female (AF) athletes from the alpine ski national team) showed dynamics similar to the model predictions. While the peak power (for a drop height of about 0.7 m) was similar in SM and AF (AM shows a +40% increase, about 33 W/kg), AF stopped the downward movement after a time interval (0.219 +/- 0.030 s) from touch-down 20% significantly shorter than SM. Landing strategy and the effect of anatomical constraints are discussed in the paper.

  20. Shuttle Damage/Repair from the Perspective of Hypersonic Boundary Layer Transition - Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; Berry, Scott A.; Merski, N. Ronald; Berger, Karen T.; Buck, Gregory M.; Liechty, Derek S.; Schneider, Steven P.

    2006-01-01

    An overview is provided of the experimental wind tunnel program conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center Aerothermodynamics Laboratory in support of an agency-wide effort to prepare the Shuttle Orbiter for Return-to-Flight. The effect of an isolated protuberance and an isolated rectangular cavity on hypersonic boundary layer transition onset on the windward surface of the Shuttle Orbiter has been experimentally characterized. These experimental studies were initiated to provide a protuberance and cavity effects database for developing hypersonic transition criteria to support on-orbit disposition of thermal protection system damage or repair. In addition, a synergistic experimental investigation was undertaken to assess the impact of an isolated mass-flow entrainment source (simulating pyrolysis/outgassing from a proposed tile repair material) on boundary layer transition. A brief review of the relevant literature regarding hypersonic boundary layer transition induced from cavities and localized mass addition from ablation is presented. Boundary layer transition results were obtained using 0.0075-scale Orbiter models with simulated tile damage (rectangular cavities) of varying length, width, and depth and simulated tile damage or repair (protuberances) of varying height. Cavity and mass addition effects were assessed at a fixed location (x/L = 0.3) along the model centerline in a region of near zero pressure gradient. Cavity length-to-depth ratio was systematically varied from 2.5 to 17.7 and length-to-width ratio of 1 to 8.5. Cavity depth-to-local boundary layer thickness ranged from 0.5 to 4.8. Protuberances were located at several sites along the centerline and port/starboard attachment lines along the chine and wing leading edge. Protuberance height-to-boundary layer thickness was varied from approximately 0.2 to 1.1. Global heat transfer images and heating distributions of the Orbiter windward surface using phosphor thermography were used to infer the

  1. Initial development of the two-dimensional ejector shear layer - Experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benjamin, M. A.; Dufflocq, M.; Roan, V. P.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental investigation designed to study the development of shear layers in a two-dimensional single-nozzle ejector has been completed. In this study, combinations of air/air, argon/air, helium/air, and air/helium were used as the supersonic primary and subsonic secondary, respectively. Mixing of the gases occurred in a constant-area tube 39.1 mm high by 25.4 mm wide, where the inlet static pressure was maintained at 35 kPa. The cases studied resulted in convective Mach numbers between 0.058 and 1.64, density ratios between 0.102 and 3.49, and velocity ratios between 0.065 and 0.811. The resulting data shows the differences in the shear-layer development for the various combinations of independent variables utilized in the investigation. The normalized growth-rates in the near-field were found to be similar to two-dimensional mixing layers. These results have enhanced the ability to analyze and design ejector systems as well as providing a better understanding of the physics.

  2. High Contrast Imaging in the Visible: First Experimental Results at the Large Binocular Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedichini, F.; Stangalini, M.; Ambrosino, F.; Puglisi, A.; Pinna, E.; Bailey, V.; Carbonaro, L.; Centrone, M.; Christou, J.; Esposito, S.; Farinato, J.; Fiore, F.; Giallongo, E.; Hill, J. M.; Hinz, P. M.; Sabatini, L.

    2017-08-01

    In 2014 February, the System for High contrast And coronography from R to K at VISual bands (SHARK-VIS) Forerunner, a high contrast experimental imager operating at visible wavelengths, was installed at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Here we report on the first results obtained by recent on-sky tests. These results show the extremely good performance of the LBT Extreme Adaptive Optics (ExAO) system at visible wavelengths, both in terms of spatial resolution and contrast achieved. Similarly to what was done by Amara & Quanz (2012), we used the SHARK-VIS Forerunner data to quantitatively assess the contrast enhancement. This is done by injecting several different synthetic faint objects in the acquired data and applying the angular differential imaging (ADI) technique. A contrast of the order of 5 × 10-5 is obtained at 630 nm for angular separations from the star larger than 100 mas. These results are discussed in light of the future development of SHARK-VIS and compared to those obtained by other high contrast imagers operating at similar wavelengths.

  3. An experimental investigation of multi-element airfoil ice accretion and resulting performance degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, Mark G.; Berkowitz, Brian M.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of the ice accretion pattern and performance characteristics of a multi-element airfoil was undertaken in the NASA Lewis 6- by 9-Foot Icing Research Tunnel. Several configurations of main airfoil, slat, and flaps were employed to examine the effects of ice accretion and provide further experimental information for code validation purposes. The text matrix consisted of glaze, rime, and mixed icing conditions. Airflow and icing cloud conditions were set to correspond to those typical of the operating environment anticipated tor a commercial transport vehicle. Results obtained included ice profile tracings, photographs of the ice accretions, and force balance measurements obtained both during the accretion process and in a post-accretion evaluation over a range of angles of attack. The tracings and photographs indicated significant accretions on the slat leading edge, in gaps between slat or flaps and the main wing, on the flap leading-edge surfaces, and on flap lower surfaces. Force measurments indicate the possibility of severe performance degradation, especially near C sub Lmax, for both light and heavy ice accretion and performance analysis codes presently in use. The LEWICE code was used to evaluate the ice accretion shape developed during one of the rime ice tests. The actual ice shape was then evaluated, using a Navier-Strokes code, for changes in performance characteristics. These predicted results were compared to the measured results and indicate very good agreement.

  4. Sample similarity analysis of angles of repose based on experimental results for DEM calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yuan; Günthner, Willibald A.; Kessler, Stephan; Zhang, Lu

    2017-06-01

    As a fundamental material property, particle-particle friction coefficient is usually calculated based on angle of repose which can be obtained experimentally. In the present study, the bottomless cylinder test was carried out to investigate this friction coefficient of a kind of biomass material, i.e. willow chips. Because of its irregular shape and varying particle size distribution, calculation of the angle becomes less applicable and decisive. In the previous studies only one section of those uneven slopes is chosen in most cases, although standard methods in definition of a representable section are barely found. Hence, we presented an efficient and reliable method from the new technology, 3D scan, which was used to digitize the surface of heaps and generate its point cloud. Then, two tangential lines of any selected section were calculated through the linear least-squares regression (LLSR), such that the left and right angle of repose of a pile could be derived. As the next step, a certain sum of sections were stochastic selected, and calculations were repeated correspondingly in order to achieve sample of angles, which was plotted in Cartesian coordinates as spots diagram. Subsequently, different samples were acquired through various selections of sections. By applying similarities and difference analysis of these samples, the reliability of this proposed method was verified. Phased results provides a realistic criterion to reduce the deviation between experiment and simulation as a result of random selection of a single angle, which will be compared with the simulation results in the future.

  5. Smectite clays in Mars soil: evidence for their presence and role in Viking biology experimental results.

    PubMed

    Banin, A; Rishpon, J

    1979-12-01

    Various chemical, physical and geological observations indicate that smectite clays are probably the major components of the Martian soil. Satisfactory ground-based chemical simulation of the Viking biology experimental results was obtained with the smectite clays nontronite and montmorillonite when they contained iron and hydrogen as adsorbed ions. Radioactive gas was released from the medium solution used in the Viking Labeled Release (LR) experiment when interacted with the clays, at rates and quantities similar to those measured by Viking on Mars. Heating of the active clay (mixed with soluble salts) to 160 degrees C in CO2 atmosphere reduced the decomposition activity considerably, again, as was observed on Mars. The decomposition reaction in LR experiment is postulated to be iron-catalyzed formate decomposition on the clay surface. The main features of the Viking Pyrolytic Release (PR) experiment were also simulated recently (Hubbard, 1979) which the iron clays, including a relatively low '1st peak' and significant '2nd peak'. The accumulated observations on various Martian soil properties and the results of simulation experiments, thus indicate that smectite clays are major and active components of the Martian soil. It now appears that many of the results of the Viking biology experiments can be explained on the basis of their surface activity in catalysis and adsorption.

  6. Experimental results on antiproton-nuclei annihilation cross section at very low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghai-Khozani, H.; Barna, D.; Corradini, M.; Hayano, R.; Hori, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Leali, M.; Lodi-Rizzini, E.; Mascagna, V.; Prest, M.; Soter, A.; Todoroki, K.; Vallazza, E.; Venturelli, L.; Zurlo, N.

    2014-03-01

    Investigating the antiproton cross section on nuclei at low energies (1 eV - 1 MeV) is of great interest for fundamental cosmology and nuclear physics as well. The process is of great relevance for the models which try to explain the matter/antimatter asymmetry in the universe assuming the existence of the so-called "island" where antinucleon-nucleon annihilations occur in the border region [1]. For the nuclear physics point of view, the annihilation process is considered a useful tool to evaluate the neutron/proton ratio probing the external region of the nucleus. Moreover, the cross section measured at LEAR in the 80s-90s showed an unexpected behaviour for energies below 1 MeV. The results showed a saturation with the atomic mass number against the A2/3 trend which is known for higher energies. The ASACUSA collaboration at CERN measured 5.3 MeV antiproton annihilation cross section on different nuclei whose results demonstrated to be consistent with the black-disk model with the Coulomb correction [2]. So far, experimental limits prevented the data acquisition for energies below 1 MeV. In 2012 the 100 keV region has been investigated for the first time [3]. We present here the results of the experiment.

  7. Fines migration during CO 2 injection: Experimental results interpreted using surface forces

    DOE PAGES

    Xie, Quan; Saeedi, Ali; Delle Piane, Claudio; ...

    2017-09-04

    The South West Hub project is one of the Australian Flagship Carbon Capture and Storage projects located in the south-west of Western Australia. To evaluate the injectivity potential during the forthcoming full-scale CO 2 injection, we conducted three core-flooding experiments using reservoir core plugs from the well Harvey-1. We aimed to investigate in this paper whether the injection of CO 2 leads to fines migration and permeability reduction due to the relatively high kaolinite content (up to 13%) in the injection interval of the target formation (i.e. the Wonnerup Member of the Lesueur Formation). We imaged the core samples beforemore » flooding to verify the presence of kaolinite at the pore-scale using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also examined the pore network of the core plugs before and after the core-flooding experiments using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Moreover, to gain a better understanding of any kaolinite fines migration, we delineated surface force using two models based on Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (denoted by DLVO) theory coupled hydrodynamic force: (1) sphere/flat model representing interaction between kaolinite/quartz, and (2) flat/flat model representing interaction between kaolinite/kaolinite. Our core-flooding experimental results showed that CO 2/brine injection triggered moderate to significant reduction in the permeability of the core samples with a negligible porosity change. NMR measurements supported the core-flooding results, suggesting that the relatively large pores disappeared in favour of a higher proportion of the medium to small pores after flooding. The DLVO calculations showed that some kaolinite particles probably lifted off and detached from neighbouring kaolinite particles rather than quartz grains. Moreover, the modelling results showed that the kaolinite fines migration would not occur under normal reservoir multiphase flow conditions. This is not because of the low hydrodynamic force. It is

  8. Fines migration during CO 2 injection: Experimental results interpreted using surface forces

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Quan; Saeedi, Ali; Delle Piane, Claudio

    The South West Hub project is one of the Australian Flagship Carbon Capture and Storage projects located in the south-west of Western Australia. To evaluate the injectivity potential during the forthcoming full-scale CO 2 injection, we conducted three core-flooding experiments using reservoir core plugs from the well Harvey-1. We aimed to investigate in this paper whether the injection of CO 2 leads to fines migration and permeability reduction due to the relatively high kaolinite content (up to 13%) in the injection interval of the target formation (i.e. the Wonnerup Member of the Lesueur Formation). We imaged the core samples beforemore » flooding to verify the presence of kaolinite at the pore-scale using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also examined the pore network of the core plugs before and after the core-flooding experiments using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Moreover, to gain a better understanding of any kaolinite fines migration, we delineated surface force using two models based on Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (denoted by DLVO) theory coupled hydrodynamic force: (1) sphere/flat model representing interaction between kaolinite/quartz, and (2) flat/flat model representing interaction between kaolinite/kaolinite. Our core-flooding experimental results showed that CO 2/brine injection triggered moderate to significant reduction in the permeability of the core samples with a negligible porosity change. NMR measurements supported the core-flooding results, suggesting that the relatively large pores disappeared in favour of a higher proportion of the medium to small pores after flooding. The DLVO calculations showed that some kaolinite particles probably lifted off and detached from neighbouring kaolinite particles rather than quartz grains. Moreover, the modelling results showed that the kaolinite fines migration would not occur under normal reservoir multiphase flow conditions. This is not because of the low hydrodynamic force. It is

  9. Low Dimensional Non-Crystallographic Metallic Nanostructures:. HRTEM Simulation, Models and Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-López, J. L.; Montejano-Carrizales, J. M.; José-Yacamán, M.

    Modern nanoparticle research in the field of small metallic systems has confirmed that many nanoparticles take on some Platonic and Archimedean solids related shapes. A Platonic solid looks the same from any vertex, and intuitively they appear as good candidates for atomic equilibrium shapes. A very clear example is the icosahedral (Ih) particle that only shows {111} faces that contribute to produce a more rounded structure. Indeed, many studies report the Ih as the most stable particle at the size range r≤20 Å for noble gases and for some metals. In this review, we report on the structure and shape of mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles in the wide size range from 1-300 nm. First, we present AuPd nanoparticles in the 1-2 nm size range that show dodecahedral atomic growth packing, one of the Platonic solid shapes that have not been identified before in this small size range for metallic particles. Next, with particles in the size range of 2-5 nm, we present an energetic surface reconstruction phenomenon observed also on bimetallic nanoparticle systems of AuPd and AuCu, similar to a re-solidification effect observed during cooling process in lead clusters. These binary alloy nanoparticles show the fivefold edges truncated, resulting in {100} faces on decahedral structures, an effect largely envisioned and reported theoretically, with no experimental evidence in the literature before. Next nanostructure we review is a monometallic system in the size range of ≈5 nm that we termed the decmon. We present here some detailed geometrical analysis and experimental evidence that supports our models. Finally, in the size range of 100-300 nm, we present icosahedrally derived star gold nanocrystals which resembles the great stellated dodechaedron, which is a Kepler-Poisont solid. We conclude then that the shape or morphology of some mono- and bimetallic particles evolves with size following the sequence from atoms to the Platonic solids, and with a slightly greater particle

  10. Beryllium metal I. experimental results on acute oral toxicity, local skin and eye effects, and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Strupp, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of soluble metal compounds is often different from that of the parent metal. Since no reliable data on acute toxicity, local effects, and mutagenicity of beryllium metal have ever been generated, beryllium metal powder was tested according to the respective Organisation for Economical Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Acute oral toxicity of beryllium metal was investigated in rats and local effects on skin and eye in rabbits. Skin-sensitizing properties were investigated in guinea pigs (maximization method). Basic knowledge about systemic bioavailability is important for the design of genotoxicity tests on poorly soluble substances. Therefore, it was necessary to experimentally compare the capacities of beryllium chloride and beryllium metal to form ions under simulated human lung conditions. Solubility of beryllium metal in artificial lung fluid was low, while solubility in artificial lysosomal fluid was moderate. Beryllium chloride dissolution kinetics were largely different, and thus, metal extracts were used in the in vitro genotoxicity tests. Genotoxicity was investigated in vitro in a bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay, a mammalian cell gene mutation assay, a mammalian cell chromosome aberration assay, and an unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay. In addition, cell transformation was tested in a Syrian hamster embryo cell assay, and potential inhibition of DNA repair was tested by modification of the UDS assay. Beryllium metal was found not to be mutagenic or clastogenic based on the experimental in vitro results. Furthermore, treatment with beryllium metal extracts did not induce DNA repair synthesis, indicative of no DNA-damaging potential of beryllium metal. A cell-transforming potential and a tendency to inhibit DNA repair when the cell is severely damaged by an external stimulus were observed. Beryllium metal was also found not to be a skin or eye irritant, not to be a skin sensitizer, and not to have relevant acute oral

  11. Experimental results on mechanisms of action of electrical neuromodulation in chronic urinary retention.

    PubMed

    Schultz-Lampel, D; Jiang, C; Lindström, S; Thüroff, J W

    1998-01-01

    Sacral foramen neuromodulation--initially applied for the treatment of urinary incontinence--has proved to be effective in patients with chronic urinary retention. Thus far, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms have not been elucidated. In an experimental study on the neurophysiological basis of sacral neurostimulation, one objective was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for initiation of micturition in chronic urinary retention. In ten female cats anesthetized with alpha-chloralose the clinical situation of sacral foramen stimulation was experimentally reproduced by isolated S2 nerve stimulation after L6-S3 laminectomy. Stimulation responses were recorded from the bladder, peripheral nerves, and striated muscles of the foot and pelvic floor. The effect of sudden cessation of prolonged S2 stimulation, during which the bladder was completely inhibited, was evaluated in 70 stimulation sequences in 5 cats. Sacral nerve stimulation induced excitatory and inhibitory effects on the bladder, depending on the frequency and intensity of stimulation. With unilateral S2 stimulation, bladder excitation was best at frequencies of 2-5 Hz and at intensities ranging between 0.8 and 1.4 times the threshold for the M-response of the foot muscle. Inhibition was the dominating effect at frequencies of 7-10 Hz and at intensities exceeding 1.4 times the threshold. Prolonged S2 stimulation above the threshold produced complete bladder inhibition during stimulation but induced strong bladder contractions after sudden interruption of stimulation, with amplitudes being significantly higher than that of spontaneous contractions preceding the stimulation. These results confirm the hypothesis of a "rebound" phenomenon as the mechanism of action for induction of spontaneous voiding in patients with chronic urinary retention.

  12. Preliminary Experimental Results on the Technique of Artificial River Replenishment to Mitigate Sediment Loss Downstream Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franca, M. J.; Battisacco, E.; Schleiss, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The transport of sediments by water throughout the river basins, from the steep slopes of the upstream regions to the sea level, is recognizable important to keep the natural conditions of rivers with a role on their ecology processes. Over the last decades, a reduction on the supply of sand and gravel has been observed downstream dams existing in several alpine rivers. Many studies highlight that the presence of a dam strongly modifies the river behavior in the downstream reach, in terms of morphology and hydrodynamics, with consequences on local ecology. Sediment deficit, bed armoring, river incision and bank instability are the main effects which affect negatively the aquatic habitats and the water quality. One of the proposed techniques to solve the problem of sediment deficit downstream dams, already adopted in few Japanese and German rivers although on an unsatisfactory fashion, is the artificial replenishment of these. Generally, it was verified that the erosion of the replenishments was not satisfactory and the transport rate was not enough to move the sediments to sufficient downstream distances. In order to improve and to provide an engineering answer to make this technique more applicable, a series of laboratory tests are ran as preparatory study to understand the hydrodynamics of the river flow when the replenishment technique is applied. Erodible volumes, with different lengths and submergence conditions, reproducing sediment replenishments volumes, are positioned along a channel bank. Different geometrical combinations of erodible sediment volumes are tested as well on the experimental flume. The first results of the experimental research, concerning erosion time evolution, the influence of discharge and the distance travelled by the eroded sediments, will be presented and discussed.

  13. Soft material adhesion characterization for in vivo locomotion of robotic capsule endoscopes: Experimental and modeling results.

    PubMed

    Kern, Madalyn D; Ortega Alcaide, Joan; Rentschler, Mark E

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this work is to validate an experimental method and nondimensional model for characterizing the normal adhesive response between a polyvinyl chloride based synthetic biological tissue substrate and a flat, cylindrical probe with a smooth polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface. The adhesion response is a critical mobility design parameter of a Robotic Capsule Endoscope (RCE) using PDMS treads to provide mobility to travel through the gastrointestinal tract for diagnostic purposes. Three RCE design characteristics were chosen as input parameters for the normal adhesion testing: pre-load, dwell time and separation rate. These parameters relate to the RCE׳s cross sectional dimension, tread length, and tread speed, respectively. An inscribed central composite design (CCD) prescribed 34 different parameter configurations to be tested. The experimental adhesion response curves were nondimensionalized by the maximum stress and total displacement values for each test configuration and a mean nondimensional curve was defined with a maximum relative error of 5.6%. A mathematical model describing the adhesion behavior as a function of the maximum stress and total displacement was developed and verified. A nonlinear regression analysis was done on the maximum stress and total displacement parameters and equations were defined as a function of the RCE design parameters. The nondimensional adhesion model is able to predict the adhesion curve response of any test configuration with a mean R(2) value of 0.995. Eight additional CCD studies were performed to obtain a qualitative understanding of the impact of tread contact area and synthetic material substrate stiffness on the adhesion response. These results suggest that the nondimensionalization technique for analyzing the adhesion data is sufficient for all values of probe radius and substrate stiffness within the bounds tested. This method can now be used for RCE tread design optimization given a set of

  14. Photoionization microscopy: Hydrogenic theory in semiparabolic coordinates and comparison with experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaitzis, P.; Danakas, S.; Lépine, F.; Bordas, C.; Cohen, S.

    2018-05-01

    Photoionization microscopy (PM) is an experimental method allowing for high-resolution measurements of the electron current probability density in the case of photoionization of an atom in an external uniform static electric field. PM is based on high-resolution velocity-map imaging and offers the unique opportunity to observe the quantum oscillatory spatial structure of the outgoing electron flux. We present the basic elements of the quantum-mechanical theoretical framework of PM for hydrogenic systems near threshold. Our development is based on the computationally more convenient semiparabolic coordinate system. Theoretical results are first subjected to a quantitative comparison with hydrogenic images corresponding to quasibound states and a qualitative comparison with nonresonant images of multielectron atoms. Subsequently, particular attention is paid on the structure of the electron's momentum distribution transversely to the static field (i.e., of the angularly integrated differential cross-section as a function of electron energy and radius of impact on the detector). Such 2D maps provide at a glance a complete picture of the peculiarities of the differential cross-section over the entire near-threshold energy range. Hydrogenic transverse momentum distributions are computed for the cases of the ground and excited initial states and single- and two-photon ionization schemes. Their characteristics of general nature are identified by comparing the hydrogenic distributions among themselves, as well as with a presently recorded experimental distribution concerning the magnesium atom. Finally, specificities attributed to different target atoms, initial states, and excitation scenarios are also discussed, along with directions of further work.

  15. Understanding Violence in Contemporary and Earlier Gangs: An Exploratory Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judy P.; Taylor, Jerome

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the theory of reasoned action to demonstrate how it can be applied to understanding gang violence, and illustrates its potential applicability to a pilot sample of 30 contemporary and 18 earlier gangs living in a large metropolitan community. Results indicate this theory has been helpful in explaining higher levels of violence in…

  16. Experimental results on the influence of fluxes on partial discharge onset in PCB solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulletti, Andrea; Capineri, Lorenzo; Materassi, Maurizio

    2003-09-01

    This work concerns the development of an experimental set-up for assessing the influence of fluxes on Partial Discharge (PD) onset in High Voltage (HV) devices soldered on Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs). In particular, the work considered the effects of three types of fluxes chosen in agreement with the directions of the Materials and Processes Division at ESA/ESTEC. Contaminated samples are formed by a standard FR-4 PCB board with a pair of copper electrodes and a protocol of contamination has been applied for all samples. The measuring system is placed inside a shielded chamber and provides measurements of Corona Inception Voltage (CIV), Corona Extinction Voltage (CEV) and PD amplitudes collected in a vacuum chamber with controlled temperature fixture. The results shows that flux Alpha 850-33 has the mean CIV smaller than other types of fluxes and the same result is observed for the mean CEV. Also the PD amplitudes are greater for samples contaminated with flux Alpha 850-33 than the other two types and similar in value for samples without flux.

  17. Experimental Results for Temporally Overlapping Pulses from Quantel EverGreen 200 Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, A. Neal

    2013-01-01

    This report will detail the experimental results and observations obtained while investigating the feasibility of temporally overlapping the two laser pulses from a Quantel EverGreen 200 Laser. This laser was specifically designed for Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) applications and operate by emitting two 532 nm laser pulses that are seperated by an adjustable finite time (typically on the order of ten to hundreds of microseconds). However, the use of this model laser has found recent application for Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) testing, especially for rotorcraft research. For this testing, it is desired to only use one laser pulse. While this is easily done by only firing one of the laser heads, more excitation energy could conceivably be had if both laser heads are fired with zero pulse separation. In addition, recently large field-of-view PIV measurements have become possible and need ever increasing laser power to illuminate the larger areas. For this work, two different methods of timing the laser are investigated using both a traditional power meter to monitor laser power as well as a fast photodiode to determine pulse separation. The results are presented here as well as some simple implications for PIV experiments using these methods.

  18. Using the Viking biology experimental results to obtain chemical information about Martian regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1992-01-01

    Although initially formulated as biology experiments, most of the results produced by the Viking Labeled Release (LR), Gas Exchange (GEX), and Pyrolytic Release (PR) experiments have been reproduced by chemical means. The experiments do not need more study as 'biological' phenomena, but they do deserve much more careful consideration from a chemical viewpoint. They are the only 'wet-chemical' experiments that scientists have performed on another planet, but they have not found very general use as sources of scientific information. There is a large set of potentially useful chemical observations, e.g., the three resolvable and precisely measured kinetic components of the release of C-14-labeled gases, the thermal sensitivity and magnitudes of the oxidation reaction(s) of the LR experiments, the kinetics and magnitude of the O2 and CO2 release of the GEX experiments, the thermal sensitivity of the GEX results, the differences between the thermal sensitivity of the GEX and the thermal sensitivity of the LR responses, and the kinetics and magnitudes of the LR successive injection reabsorption effect. It should be possible to test many chemical aspects of hypothetical martian phenomena in experiments using the biology experimental configurations and derive much valuable information by comparisons with the Viking observations.

  19. Quantitative Assessment of the CCMC's Experimental Real-time SWMF-Geospace Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liemohn, Michael; Ganushkina, Natalia; De Zeeuw, Darren; Welling, Daniel; Toth, Gabor; Ilie, Raluca; Gombosi, Tamas; van der Holst, Bart; Kuznetsova, Maria; Maddox, Marlo; Rastaetter, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Experimental real-time simulations of the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) are conducted at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), with results available there (http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov/realtime.php), through the CCMC Integrated Space Weather Analysis (iSWA) site (http://iswa.ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov/IswaSystemWebApp/), and the Michigan SWMF site (http://csem.engin.umich.edu/realtime). Presently, two configurations of the SWMF are running in real time at CCMC, both focusing on the geospace modules, using the BATS-R-US magnetohydrodynamic model, the Ridley Ionosphere Model, and with and without the Rice Convection Model for inner magnetospheric drift physics. While both have been running for several years, nearly continuous results are available since July 2015. Dst from the model output is compared against the Kyoto real-time Dst, in particular the daily minimum value of Dst to quantify the ability of the model to capture storms. Contingency tables are presented, showing that the run with the inner magnetosphere model is much better at reproducing storm-time values. For disturbances with a minimum Dst lower than -50 nT, this version yields a probability of event detection of 0.86 and a Heidke Skill Score of 0.60. In the other version of the SWMF, without the inner magnetospheric module included, the modeled Dst never dropped below -50 nT during the examined epoch.

  20. Evaluation of in-vehicle HMI using occlusion techniques: experimental results and practical implications.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Martin; Keinath, Andreas; Krems, Josef F; Bengler, Klaus

    2004-05-01

    Despite the usefulness of new on-board information systems one has to be concerned about the potential distraction effects that they impose on the driver. Therefore, methods and procedures are necessary to assess the visual demand that is connected to the usage of an on-board system. The occlusion-method is considered a strong candidate as a procedure for evaluating display designs with regard to their visual demand. This paper reports results from two experimental studies conducted to further evaluate this method. In the first study, performance in using an in-car navigation system was measured under three conditions: static (parking lot), occlusion (shutter glasses), and driving. The results show that the occlusion-procedure can be used to simulate visual requirements of real traffic conditions. In a second study the occlusion method was compared to a global evaluation criterion based on the total task time. It can be demonstrated that the occlusion method can identify tasks which meet this criterion, but are yet irresolvable under driving conditions. It is concluded that the occlusion technique seems to be a reliable and valid method for evaluating visual and dialogue aspects of in-car information systems.

  1. Preliminary experimental results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinches on primary test stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xian-Bin; Zhou, Shao-Tong; Dan, Jia-Kun; Ren, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Kun-Lun; Zhang, Si-Qun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Cai, Hong-Chun; Duan, Shu-Chao; Ouyang, Kai; Chen, Guang-Hua; Ji, Ce; Wei, Bing; Feng, Shu-Ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-Ping; Deng, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Xiu-Wen; Yang, Yi

    2015-07-01

    The Primary Test Stand (PTS) developed at the China Academy of Engineering Physics is a 20 TW pulsed power driver, which can deliver a ˜10 MA, 70 ns rise-time (10%-90%) current to a short-circuit load and has important applications in Z-pinch driven inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics. Preliminary results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinch experiments on PTS are presented. The load geometries investigated include 15-mm-tall cylindrical single and nested arrays with diameter ranging from 13 mm to 30 mm, consisting of 132-300 tungsten wires with 5-10 μm in diameter. Multiple diagnostics were fielded to characterize the x-ray radiation from wire-array Z pinches. The x-ray peak power (˜50 TW) and total radiated energy (˜500 kJ) were obtained from a single 20-mm-diam array with 80-ns stagnation time. The highest x-ray peak power up to 80 TW with 2.4 ns FWHM was achieved by using a nested array with 20-mm outer diameter, and the total x-ray energy from the nested array is comparable to that of single array. Implosion velocity estimated from the time-resolved image measurement exceeds 30 cm/μs. The detailed experimental results and other findings are presented and discussed.

  2. Parameters Affecting the Mechanical Properties of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Binders – Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lăzărescu, A.; Szilagyi, H.; Ioani, A.; Baeră, C.

    2018-06-01

    As the demand for concrete and the needs to satisfy development of infrastructure facilities increase, it is essential to find alternatives to create environment-friendly concrete. The particular procedure of alkaline activation of fly ash - in which ash resulting from a power plant is combined with a specific alkaline activator in order to create a solid material, then dried at a certain temperature - opened new opportunities for this new material to get attention worldwide. In order to obtain a material with similar properties of ordinary Portland cement concrete and to obtain desirable compressive strengths, the parameters that affect this type of binders should be fully understood. The aim of this paper is to study the main parameters affecting the mechanical strength of the fly ash-based geopolymer paste and their interactions. Parameters such as molarity of sodium hydroxide (from 8M to 12M) and alkaline activators ratio (from 0,5 to 2,5) were analysed to observe how they affect the mechanical properties of the geopolymer paste. Experimental results show that the compressive strength of the fly ash-based geopolymer paste produced using Romanian local raw materials increases with the increase of the concentration of sodium hydroxide and higher ratios of Na2SiO3/NaOH solution.

  3. Secondary emission from dust grains: Comparison of experimental and model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richterova, I.; Pavlu, J.; Nemecek, Z.; Safrankova, J.; Zilavy, P.

    The motion, coalescence, and other processes in dust clouds are determined by the dust charge. Since dust grains in the space are bombarded by energetic electrons, the secondary emission is an important process contributing to their charge. It is generally expected that the secondary emission yield is related to surface properties of the bombarded body. However, it is well known that secondary emission from small bodies is determined not only by their composition but an effect of dimension can be very important when the penetration depth of primary electrons is comparable with the grain size. It implies that the secondary emission yield can be influenced by the substrate material if the surface layer is thin enough. We have developed a simple Monte Carlo model of secondary emission that was successfully applied on the dust simulants from glass and melanine formaldehyd (MF) resin and matched very well experimental results. In order to check the influence of surface layers, we have modified the model for spheres covered by a layer with different material properties. The results of model simulations are compared with measurements on MF spheres covered by different metals.

  4. Experimental results on rock resistivity and its applications in monitoring and predicting natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianguo; Zhu, Tao; Tang, Baolin

    2017-04-01

    There have been many earthquakes occurring in Chinese Mainland. These earthquakes, especially large earthquakes, often cause immeasurable loss. For instance, the 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake killed 70, 000 people and caused 17, 000 people missing. It is well known that this earthquake was not predicted. Why? Were there no precursors? After analyzing the geo-electrical resistivity recording at Chengdu station which is only about 36 km to the epicenter, we find that resistivity had changed abnormally very significantly along NE direction but no outstanding abnormal changes had been observed along NW direction before the earthquake. Perhaps this non-consistent changes result in that this earthquake was not predicted. However, in another standpoint, can another observation way be found to supplement the current geo-electrical resistivity observation in Chinese Mainland in order to improve the probability of catching the precursor? This motivates us to conduct experiments in lab and field. Apparent resistivity data are acquired along three common-midpoint measuring lines during the fixed-rate uniaxial compression on two sets of dry man-made samples and a Magnetite sample. We construct the relative resistivity change images (RRCIs). Our results indicate that all RRCIs show a trending change with stress: with the increase of stress, the resistivity-decreased region (RDR) in the RRCIs shrinks/expands, while the resistivity-increased region (RIR) expands/shrinks gradually, which is in agreement with the field experimental results of earthquake monitoring (Feng et al., 2001). Our results encourage us to conclude that the trending changes in RRCI with stress could probably become a useful indicator in monitoring and predicting earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and large-scale geologic movements. This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, Grant 41574083).

  5. Experimental results of a hydrodynamic friction behaviour of a linear contact at low sliding velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzana, A.; Guermat, A.; Belarifi, F.

    2018-01-01

    We propose in this work the experimental results of the lubricated friction behavior of linear contact (finite length) in isoviscous hydrodynamic regime. This study was made on a tribometer Plint - Cameron TE77, using a pure mineral oil lubricant (N175). without additives for three loads 20, 40 and 80 Newton. and a velocity, range varying from 0.05 to 0.4 ms-1, trials are held in pure sliding mode for a total distance of displacement L = 15mm. The studied contact is a cylinder/cylinder. The geometry of test pieces is part of a piston ring and a liner of a real engine. The first cylinder represents the male part with material of MKJet nuance having undergoes a surface coating by thermal projection (HVOF). the second cylinder represents the female part whose material is cast iron of nuance FGL, without surface treatment, and whose dimensions were adapted to minimize the computational error on the speed of sliding and the force of friction which is lower than 5%. Processing the results recorded for ten cycles with four hundred points per cycle to the extraction of average curves, enables us to plot the curves of friction according to velocity and thereafter the curve of Stribeck. The results show that we can get a total isoviscous regime for loads 20 and 40N, however for load 80N, this regime is partial, as it comes off the final curve from a speed value 0.1 m / s. the values of the friction coefficient varies for the three loads used between 0.004 and 0.017. These results show the possibility of obtaining a hydrodynamic regime with high load and low speed, with treatments suitable surfaces and are made to reduce wear and increase the lifetime of the mechanism.

  6. Prophages and Growth Dynamics Confound Experimental Results with Antibiotic-Tolerant Persister Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fino, Cinzia; Sørensen, Michael A.; Semsey, Szabolcs

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial persisters are phenotypic variants that survive antibiotic treatment in a dormant state and can be formed by multiple pathways. We recently proposed that the second messenger (p)ppGpp drives Escherichia coli persister formation through protease Lon and activation of toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules. This model found considerable support among researchers studying persisters but also generated controversy as part of recent debates in the field. In this study, we therefore used our previous work as a model to critically examine common experimental procedures to understand and overcome the inconsistencies often observed between results of different laboratories. Our results show that seemingly simple antibiotic killing assays are very sensitive to variations in culture conditions and bacterial growth phase. Additionally, we found that some assay conditions cause the killing of antibiotic-tolerant persisters via induction of cryptic prophages. Similarly, the inadvertent infection of mutant strains with bacteriophage ϕ80, a notorious laboratory contaminant, apparently caused several of the phenotypes that we reported in our previous studies. We therefore reconstructed all infected mutants and probed the validity of our model of persister formation in a refined assay setup that uses robust culture conditions and unravels the dynamics of persister cells through all bacterial growth stages. Our results confirm the importance of (p)ppGpp and Lon but no longer support a role of TA modules in E. coli persister formation under unstressed conditions. We anticipate that the results and approaches reported in our study will lay the ground for future work in the field. PMID:29233898

  7. To Achieve an Earlier IFN-γ Response Is Not Sufficient to Control Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Marzo, Elena; Barril, Carles; Vegué, Marina; Diaz, Jorge; Valls, Joaquim; López, Daniel; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2014-01-01

    The temporo-spatial relationship between the three organs (lung, spleen and lymph node) involved during the initial stages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has been poorly studied. As such, we performed an experimental study to evaluate the bacillary load in each organ after aerosol or intravenous infection and developed a mathematical approach using the data obtained in order to extract conclusions. The results showed that higher bacillary doses result in an earlier IFN-γ response, that a certain bacillary load (BL) needs to be reached to trigger the IFN-γ response, and that control of the BL is not immediate after onset of the IFN-γ response, which might be a consequence of the spatial dimension. This study may have an important impact when it comes to designing new vaccine candidates as it suggests that triggering an earlier IFN-γ response might not guarantee good infection control, and therefore that additional properties should be considered for these candidates. PMID:24959669

  8. Revisiting the Si Isotope Record of Precambrian Cherts and Banded Iron Formations Using New Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, X. Y.; Satkoski, A.; Beard, B. L.; Reddy, T. R.; Beukes, N. J.; Johnson, C.

    2017-12-01

    Precambrian Banded iron formations (BIFs) and cherts provide a record of Fe and Si biogeochemical cycling in early Earth marine environments. Much of the focus on BIFs has been the origin and pathways for Fe, but Si is intimately tied to BIF genesis through its connection to Fe minerals, either through direct structural bonding or through sorption. In the Precambrian ocean, aqueous Si contents were high, and it is increasingly recognized that Fe(III)-Si gels were the most likely precursor to BIFs [1]. It is known that Fe-Si bonding affects stable Fe isotope fractionations [2], and our recent experimental work shows this to be true for stable Si isotope fractionations [3, 4]. Silicon isotope fractionations in the Fe-Si system vary from 0‰ to nearly 4‰ in 30Si/28Si ratios with the solid phase being isotopically light depending on Fe:Si ratio [3, 4, and this study], a range far larger than that of 56Fe/54Fe ratios, highlighting the fact that Si isotopes are a highly sensitive tracer of the Fe-Si cycle. This range in Si isotope fractionation factors for the Fe-Si system can explain the full range of δ30Si values measured in Precambrian BIFs, providing a new framework to interpret Precambrian δ30Si records. Our results provide strong support for a model where Fe(III)-Si gels are the precursor phase for BIFs, which in turn affects estimates for the aqueous Fe and Si contents of the Precambrian oceans through changes in Fe-Si gel solubility. Our experiments also showed that microbial dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) of Fe(III)-Si gel can easily produce a solid with Fe(II)-Fe(III) stoichiometry equal to magnetite, in marked contrast to abiotic incorporation of Fe(II) into Fe(III)-Si gel that resulted in a solid with Fe(II)-Fe(III) stoichiometry much lower than magnetite. Moreover, this DIR process produces a unique, negative δ30Si signature that should be eventually preserved in quartz closely associated with magnetite upon phase transformation of Fe-Si gel, and

  9. Technical Note: Experimental results from a prototype high-field inline MRI-linac

    SciTech Connect

    Liney, G. P., E-mail: gary.liney@sswahs.nsw.gov.au

    Purpose: The pursuit of real-time image guided radiotherapy using optimal tissue contrast has seen the development of several hybrid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-treatment systems, high field and low field, and inline and perpendicular configurations. As part of a new MRI-linac program, an MRI scanner was integrated with a linear accelerator to enable investigations of a coupled inline MRI-linac system. This work describes results from a prototype experimental system to demonstrate the feasibility of a high field inline MR-linac. Methods: The magnet is a 1.5 T MRI system (Sonata, Siemens Healthcare) was located in a purpose built radiofrequency (RF) cage enablingmore » shielding from and close proximity to a linear accelerator with inline (and future perpendicular) orientation. A portable linear accelerator (Linatron, Varian) was installed together with a multileaf collimator (Millennium, Varian) to provide dynamic field collimation and the whole assembly built onto a stainless-steel rail system. A series of MRI-linac experiments was performed to investigate (1) image quality with beam on measured using a macropodine (kangaroo) ex vivo phantom; (2) the noise as a function of beam state measured using a 6-channel surface coil array; and (3) electron contamination effects measured using Gafchromic film and an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Results: (1) Image quality was unaffected by the radiation beam with the macropodine phantom image with the beam on being almost identical to the image with the beam off. (2) Noise measured with a surface RF coil produced a 25% elevation of background intensity when the radiation beam was on. (3) Film and EPID measurements demonstrated electron focusing occurring along the centerline of the magnet axis. Conclusions: A proof-of-concept high-field MRI-linac has been built and experimentally characterized. This system has allowed us to establish the efficacy of a high field inline MRI-linac and study a number of the

  10. Later endogenous circadian temperature nadir relative to an earlier wake time in older people

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, J. F.; Dijk, D. J.; Klerman, E. B.; Czeisler, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of the circadian timing system to the age-related advance of sleep-wake timing was investigated in two experiments. In a constant routine protocol, we found that the average wake time and endogenous circadian phase of 44 older subjects were earlier than that of 101 young men. However, the earlier circadian phase of the older subjects actually occurred later relative to their habitual wake time than it did in young men. These results indicate that an age-related advance of circadian phase cannot fully account for the high prevalence of early morning awakening in healthy older people. In a second study, 13 older subjects and 10 young men were scheduled to a 28-h day, such that they were scheduled to sleep at many circadian phases. Self-reported awakening from scheduled sleep episodes and cognitive throughput during the second half of the wake episode varied markedly as a function of circadian phase in both groups. The rising phase of both rhythms was advanced in the older subjects, suggesting an age-related change in the circadian regulation of sleep-wake propensity. We hypothesize that under entrained conditions, these age-related changes in the relationship between circadian phase and wake time are likely associated with self-selected light exposure at an earlier circadian phase. This earlier exposure to light could account for the earlier clock hour to which the endogenous circadian pacemaker is entrained in older people and thereby further increase their propensity to awaken at an even earlier time.

  11. Modal characterization of the ASCIE segmented optics testbed: New algorithms and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, Alain C.; Aubrun, Jean-Noel

    1993-01-01

    New frequency response measurement procedures, on-line modal tuning techniques, and off-line modal identification algorithms are developed and applied to the modal identification of the Advanced Structures/Controls Integrated Experiment (ASCIE), a generic segmented optics telescope test-bed representative of future complex space structures. The frequency response measurement procedure uses all the actuators simultaneously to excite the structure and all the sensors to measure the structural response so that all the transfer functions are measured simultaneously. Structural responses to sinusoidal excitations are measured and analyzed to calculate spectral responses. The spectral responses in turn are analyzed as the spectral data become available and, which is new, the results are used to maintain high quality measurements. Data acquisition, processing, and checking procedures are fully automated. As the acquisition of the frequency response progresses, an on-line algorithm keeps track of the actuator force distribution that maximizes the structural response to automatically tune to a structural mode when approaching a resonant frequency. This tuning is insensitive to delays, ill-conditioning, and nonproportional damping. Experimental results show that is useful for modal surveys even in high modal density regions. For thorough modeling, a constructive procedure is proposed to identify the dynamics of a complex system from its frequency response with the minimization of a least-squares cost function as a desirable objective. This procedure relies on off-line modal separation algorithms to extract modal information and on least-squares parameter subset optimization to combine the modal results and globally fit the modal parameters to the measured data. The modal separation algorithms resolved modal density of 5 modes/Hz in the ASCIE experiment. They promise to be useful in many challenging applications.

  12. Experimental light scattering by small particles: first results with a novel Mueller matrix scatterometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttilä, Antti; Maconi, Göran; Kassamakov, Ivan; Gritsevich, Maria; Hæggström, Edward; Muinonen, Karri

    2017-04-01

    We describe a setup for measuring the full angular Mueller matrix profile of a single mm- to µm-size sample, and verify the experimental results against a theoretical model. The scatterometer has a fixed or levitating sample, illuminated with a laser beam whose full polarization state is controlled. The scattered light is detected with a wave retarder-linear polarizer-photomultiplier tube combination that is attached to a rotational stage, to allow measuring the full angular profile, with the exception of the backscattering direction. By controlling the angle of the linear polarizers and the angle of the axis of the wave retarders before and after the scatterer we record such a combination of intensities that reconstructing the full Mueller matrix of the scatterer is possible. We have performed the first measurements of our calibration sample, a 5 mm sphere (N-BK7 glass, Edmund Optics). We verify the first measurement results by comparing the angular scattering profile against the theoretical results computed using Mie theory. The profiles recorded using the linear polarizers only agree with the theoretical predictions in all scattering angles. With the linear polarizers, we are able to construct the upper left 2×2 submatrix of the full Mueller matrix. The constructed (1,1) and (2,2) elements of the matrix are almost identical, as they should for a sphere, as well as the (1,2) and (2,1) elements. There are some discrepancies, as expected since calibration spheres are never perfect spherical shapes with completely homogeneous internal structure. Acknowledgments: The research is funded by the ERC Advanced Grant No. 320773 (SAEMPL).

  13. The case for earlier cochlear implantation in postlingually deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Dowell, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed to estimate the difference in speech perception outcomes that may occur due to timing of cochlear implantation in relation to the progression of hearing loss. Data from a large population-based sample of adults with acquired hearing loss using cochlear implants (CIs) was used to estimate the effects of duration of hearing loss, age, and pre-implant auditory skills on outcomes for a hypothetical standard patient. A total of 310 adults with acquired severe/profound bilateral hearing loss who received a CI in Melbourne, Australia between 1994 and 2006 provided the speech perception data and demographic information to derive regression equations for estimating CI outcomes. For a hypothetical CI candidate with progressive sensorineural hearing loss, the estimates of speech perception scores following cochlear implantation are significantly better if implantation occurs relatively soon after onset of severe hearing loss and before the loss of all functional auditory skills. Improved CI outcomes and quality of life benefit may be achieved for adults with progressive severe hearing loss if they are implanted earlier in the progression of the pathology.

  14. Experimental Results from the Thermal Energy Storage-2 (TES-2) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolbert, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Thermal Energy Storage-2 (TES-2) is a flight experiment that flew on the Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-72), in January 1996. TES-2 originally flew with TES-1 as part of the OAST-2 Hitchhiker payload on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-62) in early 1994. The two experiments, TES-1 and TES-2 were identical except for the fluoride salts to be characterized. TES-1 provided data on lithium fluoride (LiF), TES-2 provided data on a fluoride eutectic (LiF/CaF2). Each experiment was a complex autonomous payload in a Get-Away-Special payload canister. TES-1 operated flawlessly for 22 hr. Results were reported in a paper entitled, Effect of Microgravity on Materials Undergoing Melting and Freezing-The TES Experiment, by David Namkoong et al. A software failure in TES-2 caused its shutdown after 4 sec of operation. TES-1 and 2 were the first experiments in a four experiment suite designed to provide data for understanding the long duration microgravity behavior of thermal energy storage salts that undergo repeated melting and freezing. Such data have never been obtained before and have direct application for the development of space-based solar dynamic (SD) power systems. These power systems will store energy in a thermal energy salt such as lithium fluoride or a eutectic of lithium fluoride/calcium difluoride. The stored energy is extracted during the shade portion of the orbit. This enables the solar dynamic power system to provide constant electrical power over the entire orbit. Analytical computer codes were developed for predicting performance of a space-based solar dynamic power system. Experimental verification of the analytical predictions were needed prior to using the analytical results for future space power design applications. The four TES flight experiments were to be used to obtain the needed experimental data. This paper will address the flight results from the first and second experiments, TES-1 and 2, in comparison to the predicted results from the Thermal

  15. Experimental study of heat pump thermodynamic cycles using CO2 based mixtures - Methodology and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouteiller, Paul; Terrier, Marie-France; Tobaly, Pascal

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work is to study heat pump cycles, using CO2 based mixtures as working fluids. Since adding other chemicals to CO2 moves the critical point and generally equilibrium lines, it is expected that lower operating pressures as well as higher global efficiencies may be reached. A simple stage pure CO2 cycle is used as reference, with fixed external conditions. Two scenarios are considered: water is heated from 10 °C to 65 °C for Domestic Hot Water scenario and from 30 °C to 35 °C for Central Heating scenario. In both cases, water at the evaporator inlet is set at 7 °C to account for such outdoor temperature conditions. In order to understand the dynamic behaviour of thermodynamic cycles with mixtures, it is essential to measure the fluid circulating composition. To this end, we have developed a non intrusive method. Online optical flow cells allow the recording of infrared spectra by means of a Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrometer. A careful calibration is performed by measuring a statistically significant number of spectra for samples of known composition. Then, a statistical model is constructed to relate spectra to compositions. After calibration, compositions are obtained by recording the spectrum in few seconds, thus allowing for a dynamic analysis. This article will describe the experimental setup and the composition measurement techniques. Then a first account of results with pure CO2, and with the addition of propane or R-1234yf will be given.

  16. Behavior of Shape Memory Epoxy Foams in Microgravity: Experimental Results of STS-134 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santo, Loredana; Quadrini, Fabrizio; Squeo, Erica Anna; Dolce, Ferdinando; Mascetti, Gabriele; Bertolotto, Delfina; Villadei, Walter; Ganga, Pier Luigi; Zolesi, Valfredo

    2012-09-01

    Shape memory epoxy foams were used for an experiment on the International Space Station to evaluate the feasibility of their use for building multi-functional composite structures. A small equipment was designed and built to simulate the actuation of simple devices in micro-gravity conditions: three different configurations (compression, bending and torsion) were chosen during the memory step of the foams so as to produce their recovery on ISS. Two systems were used for the experimentation to avoid damages of the flight model during laboratory tests; however a single ground experiment was performed also on the flight model before the mission. Micro-gravity does not affect the ability of the foams to recover their shape but it poses strong limits for the heating system design because of the difference in heat transfer on earth and in orbit. A full recovery of the foam samples was not achieved due to some limitations in the maximum allowable temperature on ISS for safety reasons: anyway a 70% recovery was also measured at a temperature of 110°C. Ground laboratory experiments showed that 100% recovery could be reached by increasing the maximum temperature to 120°C. Experiment results have provided many useful information for the designing of a new structural composite actuator by using shape memory foams.

  17. Experimental Results From a 2kW Brayton Power Conversion Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hervol, David; Mason, Lee; Birchenough, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents experimental test results from operation of a 2 kWe Brayton power conversion unit. The Brayton converter was developed for a solar dynamic power system flight experiment planned for the Mir Space Station in 1997. The flight experiment was cancelled, but the converter was tested at Glenn Research Center as part of the Solar Dynamic Ground Test Demonstration system which included a solar concentrator, heat receiver, and space radiator. In preparation for the current testing, the heat receiver was removed and replaced with an electrical resistance heater, simulating the thermal input of a steady-state nuclear source. The converter was operated over a full range of thermal input power levels and rotor speeds to generate an overall performance map. The converter unit will serve as the centerpiece of a Nuclear Electric Propulsion Testbed at Glenn. Future potential uses for the Testbed include high voltage electrical controller development, integrated electric thruster testing and advanced radiator demonstration testing to help guide high power Brayton technology development for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  18. Tracer Movement in a Single Fissure in Granitic Rock: Some Experimental Results and Their Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neretnieks, Ivars; Eriksen, Tryggve; TäHtinen, PäIvi

    1982-08-01

    Radionuclide migration was studied in a natural fissure in a granite core. The fissure was oriented parallel to the axis in a cylindrical core 30 cm long and 20 cm in diameter. The traced solution was injected at one end of the core and collected at the other. Breakthrough curves were obtained for the nonsorbing tracers, tritiated water, and a large-molecular-weight lignosulphonate molecule and for the sorbing tracers, cesium and strontium. From the breakthrough curves for the nonsorbing tracers it could be concluded that channeling occurs in the single fissure. A `dispersion' model based on channeling is presented. The results from the sorbing tracers indicate that there is substantial diffusion into and sorption in the rock matrix. Sorption on the surface of the fissure also accounts for a part of the retardation effect of the sorbing species. A model which includes the mechanisms of channeling, surface sorption, matrix diffusion, and matrix sorption is presented. The experimental breakthrough curves can be fitted fairly well by this model by use of independently obtained data on diffusivities and matrix sorption.

  19. Experimental Results Obtained with Air Liquide Cold Compression System: CERN LHC and SNS Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcayre, F.; Courty, J.-C.; Hamber, F.; Hilbert, B.; Monneret, E.; Toia, J.-L.

    2006-04-01

    Large scale collider facilities will make intensive use of superconducting magnets, operating below 2.0 K. This dictates high-capacity refrigeration systems operating below 2.0 K. These systems, making use of cryogenic centrifugal compressors in a series arrangement with room temperature screw compressors will be coupled to a refrigerator, providing a certain power at 4.5 K. A first Air Liquide Cold Compression System (CCS) unit was built and delivered to CERN in 2001. Installed at the beginning of 2002, it was commissioned and tested successfully during year 2002. A series of four sets of identical CCS were then tested in 2004. Another set of four cryogenic centrifugal compressors (CCC) has been delivered to Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in 2002. These compressors were tested and commissioned from December 2004 to July 2005. The experimental results obtained with these systems will be presented and discussed: the characteristics of the CCC will be detailed. The principles of control for the CCC in series will be detailed.

  20. Experimental Results of Site Calibration and Sensitivity Measurements in OTR for UWB Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanadham, Chandana; Rao, P. Mallikrajuna

    2017-06-01

    System calibration and parameter accuracy measurement of electronic support measures (ESM) systems is a major activity, carried out by electronic warfare (EW) engineers. These activities are very critical and needs good understanding in the field of microwaves, antennas, wave propagation, digital and communication domains. EW systems are broad band, built with state-of-the art electronic hardware, installed on different varieties of military platforms to guard country's security from time to time. EW systems operate in wide frequency ranges, typically in the order of thousands of MHz, hence these are ultra wide band (UWB) systems. Few calibration activities are carried within the system and in the test sites, to meet the accuracies of final specifications. After calibration, parameters are measured for their accuracies either in feed mode by injecting the RF signals into the front end or in radiation mode by transmitting the RF signals on to system antenna. To carry out these activities in radiation mode, a calibrated open test range (OTR) is necessary in the frequency band of interest. Thus site calibration of OTR is necessary to be carried out before taking up system calibration and parameter measurements. This paper presents the experimental results of OTR site calibration and sensitivity measurements of UWB systems in radiation mode.

  1. Active behavior of abdominal wall muscles: Experimental results and numerical model formulation.

    PubMed

    Grasa, J; Sierra, M; Lauzeral, N; Muñoz, M J; Miana-Mena, F J; Calvo, B

    2016-08-01

    In the present study a computational finite element technique is proposed to simulate the mechanical response of muscles in the abdominal wall. This technique considers the active behavior of the tissue taking into account both collagen and muscle fiber directions. In an attempt to obtain the computational response as close as possible to real muscles, the parameters needed to adjust the mathematical formulation were determined from in vitro experimental tests. Experiments were conducted on male New Zealand White rabbits (2047±34g) and the active properties of three different muscles: Rectus Abdominis, External Oblique and multi-layered samples formed by three muscles (External Oblique, Internal Oblique, and Transversus Abdominis) were characterized. The parameters obtained for each muscle were incorporated into a finite strain formulation to simulate active behavior of muscles incorporating the anisotropy of the tissue. The results show the potential of the model to predict the anisotropic behavior of the tissue associated to fibers and how this influences on the strain, stress and generated force during an isometric contraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The CABRI fast neutron Hodoscope: Renovation, qualification program and first results following the experimental reactor restart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, V.; Mirotta, S.; Guillot, J.; Biard, B.

    2018-01-01

    The CABRI experimental pulse reactor, located at the Cadarache nuclear research center, southern France, is devoted to the study of Reactivity Initiated Accidents (RIA). For the purpose of the CABRI International Program (CIP), managed and funded by IRSN, in the framework of an OECD/NEA agreement, a huge renovation of the facility has been conducted since 2003. The Cabri Water Loop was then installed to ensure prototypical Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) conditions for testing irradiated fuel rods. The hodoscope installed in the CABRI reactor is a unique online fuel motion monitoring system, operated by IRSN and dedicated to the measurement of the fast neutrons emitted by the tested rod during the power pulse. It is one of the distinctive features of the CABRI reactor facility, which is operated by CEA. The system is able to determine the fuel motion, if any, with a time resolution of 1 ms and a spatial resolution of 3 mm. The hodoscope equipment has been upgraded as well during the CABRI facility renovation. This paper presents the main outcomes achieved with the hodoscope since October 2015, date of the first criticality of the CABRI reactor in its new Cabri Water Loop configuration. Results obtained during reactor commissioning phase functioning, either in steady-state mode (at low and high power, up to 23 MW) or in transient mode (start-up, possibly beyond 20 GW), are discussed.

  3. A new mechanical device for circular compression anastomosis. Preliminary results of animal and clinical experimentation.

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, R; Rebuffat, C; Pezzuoli, G

    1988-01-01

    The authors report the preliminary results obtained in animal and clinical experimentation of a new mechanical device for circular anastomosis which they have developed. It is a gun that places an apparatus consisting of three polypropylene rings that, through the compression among them of the severed edges of the bowel, realize a sutureless anastomosis and are spontaneously evacuated. Fifty-eight colonic anastomoses were performed in dogs with this device; 23 stapled colonic anastomoses were also executed concurrently. Forty-four animals underwent a relaparotomy to remove the colonic specimen containing the anastomoses. Bursting pressure and the histologic features of the anastomoses were evaluated at different time intervals after operation. A good healing of all compression anastomoses was observed, thereby allowing them to initiate the experience in humans. Thirteen anastomoses (6 colorectal extraperitoneal, 1 colorectal intraperitoneal, 5 colocolonic, 1 ileorectal) were performed at the 1st Surgical Department, Milan University. One subclinical leakage (7.7%) spontaneously healed in a few days. No stenoses were observed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2., Fig. 4., Fig. 6. Fig. 3., Fig. 5., Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:3345111

  4. Control of Warm Compression Stations Using Model Predictive Control: Simulation and Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonne, F.; Alamir, M.; Bonnay, P.

    2017-02-01

    This paper deals with multivariable constrained model predictive control for Warm Compression Stations (WCS). WCSs are subject to numerous constraints (limits on pressures, actuators) that need to be satisfied using appropriate algorithms. The strategy is to replace all the PID loops controlling the WCS with an optimally designed model-based multivariable loop. This new strategy leads to high stability and fast disturbance rejection such as those induced by a turbine or a compressor stop, a key-aspect in the case of large scale cryogenic refrigeration. The proposed control scheme can be used to achieve precise control of pressures in normal operation or to avoid reaching stopping criteria (such as excessive pressures) under high disturbances (such as a pulsed heat load expected to take place in future fusion reactors, expected in the cryogenic cooling systems of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITER or the Japan Torus-60 Super Advanced fusion experiment JT-60SA). The paper details the simulator used to validate this new control scheme and the associated simulation results on the SBTs WCS. This work is partially supported through the French National Research Agency (ANR), task agreement ANR-13-SEED-0005.

  5. Inhibiting diffusion of complex contagions in social networks: theoretical and experimental results

    PubMed Central

    Anil Kumar, V.S.; Marathe, Madhav V.; Ravi, S.S.; Rosenkrantz, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of inhibiting undesirable contagions (e.g. rumors, spread of mob behavior) in social networks. Much of the work in this context has been carried out under the 1-threshold model, where diffusion occurs when a node has just one neighbor with the contagion. We study the problem of inhibiting more complex contagions in social networks where nodes may have thresholds larger than 1. The goal is to minimize the propagation of the contagion by removing a small number of nodes (called critical nodes) from the network. We study several versions of this problem and prove that, in general, they cannot even be efficiently approximated to within any factor ρ ≥ 1, unless P = NP. We develop efficient and practical heuristics for these problems and carry out an experimental study of their performance on three well known social networks, namely epinions, wikipedia and slashdot. Our results show that these heuristics perform significantly better than five other known methods. We also establish an efficiently computable upper bound on the number of nodes to which a contagion can spread and evaluate this bound on many real and synthetic networks. PMID:25750583

  6. Experimental Results From Stitched Composite Multi-Bay Fuselage Panels Tested Under Uni-Axial Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Donald J.

    2004-01-01

    The experimental results from two stitched VARTM composite panels tested under uni-axial compression loading are presented. The curved panels are divided by frames and stringers into five or six bays with a column of three bays along the compressive loading direction. The frames are supported at the ends to resist out-of-plane translation. Back-to-back strain gages are used to record the strain and displacement transducers were used to record the out-of-plane displacements. In addition a full-field measurement technique that utilizes a camera-based-stero-vision system was used to record displacements. The panels were loaded in increments to determine the first bay to buckle. Loading was discontinued at limit load and the panels were removed from the test machine for impact testing. After impacting at 20 ft-lbs to 25 ft-lbs of energy with a spherical indenter, the panels were loaded in compression until failure. Impact testing reduced the axial stiffness 4 percent and less than 1 percent. Postbuckled axial panel stiffness was 52 percent and 70 percent of the pre-buckled stiffness.

  7. Simulation and experimental results of optical and thermal modeling of gold nanoshells.

    PubMed

    Ghazanfari, Lida; Khosroshahi, Mohammad E

    2014-09-01

    This paper proposes a generalized method for optical and thermal modeling of synthesized magneto-optical nanoshells (MNSs) for biomedical applications. Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles with diameter of 9.5 ± 1.4 nm are fabricated using co-precipitation method and subsequently covered by a thin layer of gold to obtain 15.8 ± 3.5 nm MNSs. In this paper, simulations and detailed analysis are carried out for different nanoshell geometry to achieve a maximum heat power. Structural, magnetic and optical properties of MNSs are assessed using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-VIS spectrophotometer, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Magnetic saturation of synthesized magnetite nanoparticles are reduced from 46.94 to 11.98 emu/g after coating with gold. The performance of the proposed optical-thermal modeling technique is verified by simulation and experimental results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental investigations of the use of an erbium:YAG laser on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) structures: first experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuebler-Moritz, Michael; Niederdellmann, Herbert; Hering, Peter; Deuerling, Christian; Dammer, Ralf; Behr, M.

    1995-04-01

    The following paper introduces the results of an interdisciplinary research project. With the aid of photomacroscopic examination, light and scanning electron microscope investigations, changes to temporomandibular joint structures were detected in vitro after irradiation with an Erbium:YAG laser system. The solid-state Erbium:YAG laser, operating at a wavelength of 2.94 micrometers was used in the normal- spiking mode. The free-running laser beam was focussed onto freshly excised porcine tissue samples using a 108-mm sapphire lens. In this study the output was generally pulsed at a repetition rate of 4 Hz, with a pulse duration varying from 120 microsecond(s) to 500 microsecond(s) . Between 50 mJ and 500 mJ per pulse were applied to create pinpoint lesions. The optimum average energy density and pulse duration of the Erbium:YAG laser radiation for the purpose of TMJ-surgery (as far as it concerns meniscus and articulating facets) - which means efficient etch rate and minimal adjacent injury - seems to be about 24-42 J/cm2 and 120 microsecond(s) -240 microsecond(s) , respectively.

  9. Wageningen Urban Rainfall Experiment 2014 (WURex14): Experimental Setup and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uijlenhoet, R.; Overeem, A.; Leijnse, H.; Hazenberg, P.

    2014-12-01

    the atmosphere. Approximately halfway along the link path a rain gauge from the KNMI operational network is located. Finally, data is available from several commercial microwave links in the vicinity of the experimental setup, as well as from the KNMI weather radars. We report on the first results from this experiment, collected during the Summer and Fall of 2014.

  10. Wageningen Urban Rainfall Experiment 2014 (WURex14): Experimental Setup and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leth, Thomas; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Hazenberg, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    the atmosphere. Approximately halfway along the link path a rain gauge from the KNMI operational network is located. Finally, data is available from several commercial microwave links in the vicinity of the experimental setup, as well as from the KNMI weather radars. We report on the first results from this experiment, collected during the Summer and Fall of 2014.

  11. A comparison of experimental and theoretical results for rotordynamic coefficients of four annular gas seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, D. W.; Nelson, C. C.; Elrod, D.; Nicks, C.

    1985-01-01

    The test facility and initial test program developed to experimentally measure the fluid forces induced by annular gas seals is described. A comparison of theoretically predicted and experimentally obtained data for smooth and honeycomb seals is provided. And a comparison of experimental data from the tests of three smooth-rotor/smooth-stator seals is provided. The leakage of the working fluid through the seal, the pressure gradient along the seal length, entrance pressure-loss data, and rotordynamic coefficients provide a basis for comparison. A short discussion on seal theory is included, and various rotordynamic coefficient identification schemes are described.

  12. Experimental and analytical results of a liquid-gas separator in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Frederick; Ellis, Michael

    1999-01-01

    The microgravity phase separator designed and fabricated at Texas A&M University relies on centripetally driven buoyancy forces to form a gas-liquid vortex within a fixed, right-circular cylinder. Two phase flow is injected tangentially along the inner wall of this cylinder. Centripetal acceleration is produced from the intrinsic momentum of the resulting rotating flow and drives the buoyancy process. Gas travels under density gradients through the rotating liquid, eventually forming a gaseous core along the centerline of the cylinder. Gas core stability, the presence of liquid in the air line, and the presence of air in the liquid line determine whether a successful core results. To predict separation failure, these three factors were examined both analytically and empirically with the goal of determining what operating circumstances would generate them. The centripetal acceleration profile was determined from angular velocity measurements taken using a paddle wheel assembly. To aid in understanding the nature of the rotating flow, these results were compared to analytical results provided by solving simplified Navier-Stokes equations. The theoretical velocity profile indicated a linear dependence on radius, which with the experimental data agreed, although two distinctly different slopes were observed. As injection nozzle width increased, the difference between the slopes lessened. For all three nozzles tested, the discontinuity between the linear sections occurred at a radius of approximately 3.8 cm. The maximum centripetal acceleration generated by the flow was greatest for the 0.0635 cm wide, 0.516 cm tall injection nozzle and least for the 0.102 cm wide, 1.02 cm tall injection nozzle. The circumstances leading to carry-under are dictated by the relationship between axial and radial bubble transit times. To determine the radial and axial transit times, the radial velocity profile was solved analytically by relating the buoyancy and drag forces for a 0.0635 cm

  13. Initial Experimental Results of a Laboratory Mini-Magnetosphere for Astronaut Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamford, R. A.; Bingham, R.; Gibson, K.; Thornton, A.; Bradford, J.; Hapgood, M.; Gargate, L.; Silva, L.; Norberg, C.; Todd, T.; Wilson, H.; Stamper, R.

    2007-12-01

    Radiation is a major scientific and technological challenge for manned missions to Mars. With an interplanetary flight time of months to years there is a high probability of Solar Energetic Particle events during the flight. Radiation damage to human tissue could result in acute sickness or death of the occupants of an unprotected spacecraft. Thus there is much interest in techniques to mitigate the effects of these events and of the exposure to cosmic rays. The experimental and modelling work presented here concerns one of several innovative "Active Shield" solutions being proposed [1]. The idea of generating an artificial magnetosphere to recreate the protective shield of the Earth's magnetic field for space craft travelling to the Moon or Mars was considered seriously in the 1960's during the Apollo era. With most of the space agencies around the world setting their sights returning to the Moon and then on to Mars, the idea of some sort of active field solution is experiencing a resurgence. Results from the laboratory experiment to determine the effectiveness of a mini-magnetosphere barrier to be able to expel a flowing energetic "solar wind" plasma will be presented. This is compared to a 3D hybrid simulation code that has been successfully compared to other astrophysical situations e.g. AMPTE artificial comet releases [2]. The experiment and modelling comparisons will demonstrate the scalability between the laboratory and astrophysical scale. [1] Adams, J.H. et al., "Revolutionary Concepts of Radiation Shielding for Human Exploration of Space", NASA/TM- 2005-213688, March 2005. [2] Gargate, L.; Bingham, R.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O., "dHybrid: A massively parallel code for hybrid simulations of space plasmas", Computer Physics Communications, Volume 176, Issue 6, Pages 419-425, 15 March 2007, doi:10.1016/j.cpc.2006.11.013

  14. [EXPERIMENTAL MODEL AND CURRENCY OF EXPERIMENT OF DISTANT RESULTS OF LEAD EXPOSITION].

    PubMed

    Pataraia, G; Bagashvili, T; Andronikashvili, G; Gurashvili, T; Gogeshvili, K; Avalishvili, M

    2017-02-01

    In order to explore the distant results of exposition of little doses of lead, for the objective of the experiment model we have selected 32 mongral rats, of different age, but aged of both sex. Experimental animals were divided in two groups. During first two month from the beginning of the experiment, together with permissible food, animals were given the water, in which was open Pb(NO3)2 - to first group 1.5 mg on kg/weight and to II group 15 mg on kg/weight during the day and night. Before the beginning of the experiment, in the time of process and after it, observation was conducted, description and collection of photo-video materials about the behavior of animals, physiological parameters, possible change of weight, clear-sighted changes in appearance. During the autopsy of the animal, died during the experiment, it turned out that the reason of the death was acute heart failure caused by septicopyemia, the bilateral abscess pneumonia and right sided purulent pleurisy. The reason of the death of second animal was DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation) Syndrome and the polyorganic pathology caused by it. We made the Nembutal injection to third animal because there was detected the 50×40×20 sized subcutaneous formation on the right surface of the chest, that turned out to be the breast adenoma with cystic fibrosis. After the completion of the experiment of distant results of lead exposition, surviving rats before autopsy will be dropped to sleep with high dose of drugs in compliance with the "Guidelines of animal care and ethical behavior", taken material will be processed for histopathological (in case of necessity histochemical and imunomorphological) and electronic microscopic researches.

  15. Numerical Study on the Sensitivity of Film Cooling CFD Results to Experimental and Numerical Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Gabry, Lamyaa A.; Heidmann, James D.

    2013-06-01

    Film cooling is used in a wide range of industrial and engineering applications; one of the most important is in gas turbine cooling. The intent of film cooling is to provide a layer of cool film between the surface and the hot gas. Predicting film-cooling characteristics, particularly at high blowing ratios where the film is likely to be detached from the surface, is a challenge due to the complex three-dimensional and possibly anisotropic nature of the flow. Despite the growth of more sophisticated techniques for modeling turbulence, such as large eddy simulation (LES), the most commonly used methods in design are Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) methods that employ a two-equation turbulence model for specifying the eddy viscosity. Although these models have deficiencies, they continue to be used throughout industry because they offer reasonable turnaround time as compared to LES or other methods. This paper studies in detail two cases, one of high blowing ratio (off-design condition) of 2.0 and low blowing ratio of 0.5, and compares RANS-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results with experimental data for flow field temperatures and centerline, lateral, and span-averaged film effectiveness for a 35-degree circular jet. The effects of mainstream turbulence conditions, boundary layer thickness, and numerical dissipation are evaluated and found to have minimal impact in the wake region of separated films (i.e., they cannot account for the discrepancy between measured and predicted CFD results in the wake region). Analyses of low blowing ratio cases are in good agreement with data; however, there are some smaller discrepancies, particularly in lateral spreading of the jet.

  16. Comparison of simulation and experimental results for a model aqueous tert-butanol solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overduin, S. D.; Patey, G. N.

    2017-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the behavior of aqueous tert-butanol (TBA) solutions for a range of temperatures, using the CHARMM generalized force field (CGenFF) to model TBA and the TIP4P/2005 or TIP4P-Ew water model. Simulation results for the density, isothermal compressibility, constant pressure heat capacity, and self-diffusion coefficients are in good accord with experimental measurements. Agreement with the experiment is particularly good at low TBA concentration, where experiments have revealed anomalies in a number of thermodynamic properties. Importantly, the CGenFF model does not exhibit liquid-liquid demixing at temperatures between 290 and 320 K (for systems of 32 000 molecules), in contrast with the situation for several other common TBA models [R. Gupta and G. N. Patey, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 034509 (2012)]. However, whereas real water and TBA are miscible at all temperatures where the liquid is stable, we observe some evidence of demixing at 340 K and above. To evaluate the structural properties at low concentrations, we compare with both neutron scattering and recent spectroscopic measurements. This reveals that while the CGenFF model is a definite improvement over other models that have been considered, the TBA molecules still exhibit a tendency to associate at low concentrations that is somewhat stronger than that indicated by experiments. Finally, we discuss the range and decay times of the long-range correlations, providing an indication of the system size and simulation times that are necessary in order to obtain reliable results for certain properties.

  17. Large divalent cations and electrostatic potentials adjacent to membranes. Experimental results with hexamethonium.

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, O; Brodwick, M; Latorre, R; McLaughlin, A; McLaughlin, S; Szabo, G

    1983-01-01

    A simple extension of the Gouy-Chapman theory predicts that the ability of a divalent cation to screen charges at a membrane-solution interface decreases significantly if the distance between the charges on the cation is comparable with the Debye length. We tested this prediction by investigating the effect of hexamethonium on the electrostatic potential adjacent to negatively charged phospholipid bilayer membranes. The distance between the two charges of an extended hexamethonium molecule is approximately 1 nm, which is the Debye length in the 0.1 M monovalent salt solutions used in these experiments. Six different experimental approaches were utilized. We measured the electrophoretic mobility of multilamellar vesicles to determine the zeta potential, the line width of the 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal from sonicated vesicles to calculate the change in potential at the phosphodiester moiety of the lipid, and the conductance of planar bilayer membranes exposed to either carriers (nonactin) or pore formers (gramicidin) to estimate the change in potential within the membrane. We also measured directly the effect of hexamethonium on the potential above a monolayer formed from negative lipids, and attempted to calculate the change in the surface potential of a bilayer membrane from capacitance measurements. With the exception of the capacitance calculations, each of the techniques gave comparable results: hexamethonium exerts a smaller effect on the potential than that predicted by the classic screening theory. The results are consistent with the predictions of the extended Gouy-Chapman theory and are relevant to the interpretation of physiological and pharmacological experiments that utilize hexamethonium and other large divalent cations. PMID:6198001

  18. Multimodal Emotion Recognition Is Resilient to Insufficient Sleep: Results From Cross-Sectional and Experimental Studies.

    PubMed

    Holding, Benjamin C; Laukka, Petri; Fischer, Håkan; Bänziger, Tanja; Axelsson, John; Sundelin, Tina

    2017-11-01

    Insufficient sleep has been associated with impaired recognition of facial emotions. However, previous studies have found inconsistent results, potentially stemming from the type of static picture task used. We therefore examined whether insufficient sleep was associated with decreased emotion recognition ability in two separate studies using a dynamic multimodal task. Study 1 used a cross-sectional design consisting of 291 participants with questionnaire measures assessing sleep duration and self-reported sleep quality for the previous night. Study 2 used an experimental design involving 181 participants where individuals were quasi-randomized into either a sleep-deprivation (N = 90) or a sleep-control (N = 91) condition. All participants from both studies were tested on the same forced-choice multimodal test of emotion recognition to assess the accuracy of emotion categorization. Sleep duration, self-reported sleep quality (study 1), and sleep deprivation (study 2) did not predict overall emotion recognition accuracy or speed. Similarly, the responses to each of the twelve emotions tested showed no evidence of impaired recognition ability, apart from one positive association suggesting that greater self-reported sleep quality could predict more accurate recognition of disgust (study 1). The studies presented here involve considerably larger samples than previous studies and the results support the null hypotheses. Therefore, we suggest that the ability to accurately categorize the emotions of others is not associated with short-term sleep duration or sleep quality and is resilient to acute periods of insufficient sleep. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Prediction of sonic boom from experimental near-field overpressure data. Volume 1: Method and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glatt, C. R.; Hague, D. S.; Reiners, S. J.

    1975-01-01

    A computerized procedure for predicting sonic boom from experimental near-field overpressure data has been developed. The procedure extrapolates near-field pressure signatures for a specified flight condition to the ground by the Thomas method. Near-field pressure signatures are interpolated from a data base of experimental pressure signatures. The program is an independently operated ODIN (Optimal Design Integration) program which obtains flight path information from other ODIN programs or from input.

  20. Field testing of the experimental wood preservative N'N-naphtaloylhydroxylamine : five and eight years results

    Treesearch

    Frederick Green; Rachel A. Arango; Stan T. Lebow

    2010-01-01

    Field trials were designed to evaluate the ability of the experimental wood preservative N’N-naphthaloylhydroxylamine (NHA) to inhibit fungal decay and termite damage at the USDA Harrison Experimental Forest (HEF) in Saucier, MS. Twenty replicate 19 x 19 x 457 mm (0.75 x 0.75 x 18 in.) southern yellow pine stakes and 10 replicate 19 x 19 x 76 mm (0.75 x 0.75 x 3 in.)...

  1. Review on optical constants of Titan aerosols: Experimental results and modeling/observational data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassé, Coralie; Muñoz, Olga; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, François

    2014-05-01

    During the last years many studies have been performed to improve the experimental database of optical constants of Titan aerosols. Indeed, the determination of the optical constants of these particles is essential to quantify their capacity to absorb and to scatter solar radiation, and thus to evaluate their role on Titan's radiative balance and climate. The study of optical properties is also crucial to analyze and to better interpret many of Titan's observational data, in particular those acquired during the Cassini-Huygens mission. One way to determine Titan aerosols optical constant is to measure the optical constants of analogues of Titan complex organic material synthesized in the laboratory, usually named Titan's tholins (Sagan and Khare, 1979). But the optical constants depend on the chemical composition, the size and the shape of particles (Raulin et al., 2012). Those three parameters result from the experimental conditions such as energy source, gas mixing ratio, gas pressure, flow rate and irradiation time (Cable et al., 2012). Besides the determination of the refractive index in the laboratory, there are others methods using theoretical models or observational data. Nevertheless, theoretical models are based on laboratory data or/and observational data. The visible - near infrared spectral region of optical constants has been widely studied with laboratory analogues. Comparison of the obtained results suggest that tholins synthesized by Tran et al. (2003) and Majhoub et al. (2012) are the best representative of Titan aerosols with regards to their refractive indexes in this spectral region. The mid-infrared spectral range has been studied only by Imanaka et al. (2012) and slightly by Tran et al. (2003). In that spectral range, Titan tholins do not exhibit the features displayed by Kim and Courtin (2013) from Titan's observations. For spectral region of wavelengths smaller than 0.20µm or higher than 25µm, only the data from Khare et al. (1984) are

  2. Clean Sampling of an Englacial Conduit at Blood Falls, Antarctica - Some Experimental and Numerical Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Julia; Francke, Gero; Feldmann, Marco; Espe, Clemens; Heinen, Dirk; Digel, Ilya; Clemens, Joachim; Schüller, Kai; Mikucki, Jill; Tulaczyk, Slawek M.; Pettit, Erin; Berry Lyons, W.; Dachwald, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    results of its deployment at Blood Falls. In contrast to conventional melting-probe applications, which can only melt vertically, the IceMole realized an oblique melting path to penetrate the englacial conduit. Experimental and numerical results on melting at oblique angles are rare. Besides reporting on the IceMole technology and the field deployment itself, we will compare and discuss the observed melting behavior with re-analysis results in the context of a recently developed numerical model. Finally, we will present our first steps in utilizing the model to infer on the ambient cryo-environment.

  3. Evaluating Impacts of CO2 Gas Intrusion Into a Confined Sandstone aquifer: Experimental Results

    DOE PAGES

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Lawter, Amanda R.; Shao, Hongbo; ...

    2014-12-31

    Deep subsurface storage and sequestration of CO2 has been identified as a potential mitigation technique for rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sequestered CO2 represents a potential risk to overlying aquifers if the CO2 leaks from the deep storage reservoir. Experimental and modeling work is required to evaluate potential risks to groundwater quality and develop a systematic understanding of how CO2 leakage may cause important changes in aquifer chemistry and mineralogy by promoting dissolution/precipitation, adsorption/desorption, and redox reactions. Sediments from the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, United States, were used in this investigation, which is part of the National Risk Assessment Partnershipmore » Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This aquifer was selected to be representative of consolidated sand and gravel/sandstone aquifers overlying potential CO2 sequestration repositories within the continental US. In this paper, we present results from batch experiments conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure with four High Plains aquifer sediments. Batch experiments simulate sudden, fast, and short-lived releases of the CO2 gas as would occur in the case of well failure during injection. Time-dependent release of major, minor, and trace elements were determined by analyzing the contacting solutions. Characterization studies demonstrated that the High Plains aquifer sediments were abundant in quartz and feldspars, and contained about 15 to 20 wt% montmorillonite and up to 5 wt% micas. Some of the High Plains aquifer sediments contained no calcite, while others had up to about 7 wt% calcite. The strong acid extraction tests confirmed that in addition to the usual elements present in most soils, rocks, and sediments, the High Plains aquifer sediments had appreciable amounts of As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and occasionally Zn, which potentially may be mobilized from the solid to the aqueous phase during or after exposure to CO2. However

  4. Effect of Hydrodynamics on Particle Transport in Saturated Fractures: Experimental and Simulation Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianflone, S.; Lakhian, V.; Dickson, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    experimental results. These results suggest that local hydrodynamics are important in defining the transport of particles through a fracture. We plan to discuss further applications, general statistics, and particle retention in fractures due to hydrodynamics and ultimately the role of fracture geometry in particle transport.

  5. Go!: results from a quasi-experimental obesity prevention trial with hospital employees.

    PubMed

    LaCaille, Lara J; Schultz, Jennifer Feenstra; Goei, Ryan; LaCaille, Rick A; Dauner, Kim Nichols; de Souza, Rebecca; Nowak, Amy Versnik; Regal, Ronald

    2016-02-19

    Worksite obesity prevention interventions using an ecological approach may hold promise for reducing typical weight gain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Go!, an innovative 12-month multi-component worksite obesity prevention intervention. A quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design was utilized; 407 eligible hospital employees (intervention arm) and 93 eligible clinic employees (comparison arm) participated. The intervention involved pedometer distribution, labeling of all foods in the worksite cafeteria and vending machines (with calories, step equivalent, and a traffic light based on energy density signaling recommended portion), persuasive messaging throughout the hospital, and the integration of influential employees to reinforce healthy social norms. Changes in weight, BMI, waist circumference, physical activity, and dietary behavior after 6 months and 1 year were primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes included knowledge, perceptions of employer commitment to employee health, availability of information about diet, exercise, and weight loss, perceptions of coworker support and frequency of health discussions with coworkers. A process evaluation was conducted as part of the study. Repeated measures ANCOVA indicated that neither group showed significant increases in weight, BMI, or waist circumference over 12 months. The intervention group showed a modest increase in physical activity in the form of walking, but decreases in fruit and vegetable servings and fiber intake. They also reported significant increases in knowledge, information, perceptions of employer commitment, and health discussions with peers. Employees expressed positive attitudes towards all components of the Go! This low-intensity intervention was well-received by employees but had little effect on their weight over the course of 12 months. Such results are consistent with other worksite obesity prevention studies using ecological approaches

  6. The Antecedents and Consequences of Health Literacy in an Ecological Perspective: Results from an Experimental Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lorini, Chiara; Ierardi, Francesca; Bachini, Letizia; Donzellini, Martina; Gemmi, Fabrizio; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo

    2018-04-19

    This study analyses the relationship between the antecedents and consequences of health literacy (HL) at the ecological level among the nations involved in the European Health Literacy Survey (HLS-EU). The antecedents and consequences were investigated by means of proxy indicators. The HL was measured using the 47-item HLS-EU questionnaire (HLS-EUQ47) and the Newest Vital Sign (NVS). The two measures stood in significant correlation to the outcomes of the sub-discipline of the Euro Health Consumer Index (r = 0.790 for HLS-EUQ47; r = 0.789 for NVS). The HLS-EUQ47 also stood in correlation to the percentage of population with post-secondary education (r = 0.810), the reading performance for 15-year-old students (r = 0.905), the presence of a national screening program for breast (r = 0.732) or cervical cancer (r = 0.873). The NVS stood in correlation with the unemployment rate (r = −0.778), the Gross Domestic Product (r = 0.719), the Gini coefficient (r = −0.743), the rank of the Euro Patient Empowerment Index (r = −0.826), the expenditure on social protection (r = 0.814), the Consumer Empowerment Index (r = 0.898), the percentage of adults using the internet for seeking health information (r = 0.759), the prevalence of overweight individuals (r = −0.843), the health expenditure (r = 0.766), as well as the percentage of individuals using the internet for interacting with public authorities (r = 0.755). This study provides some preliminary considerations regarding alternative means by which to study HL and proposes new methods for experimentation. The methods and the results could offer a means by which the relationship between society and overall healthcare protection could be strengthened.

  7. Slit-scanning differential phase-contrast mammography: first experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessl, Ewald; Daerr, Heiner; Koehler, Thomas; Martens, Gerhard; van Stevendaal, Udo

    2014-03-01

    The demands for a large field-of-view (FOV) and the stringent requirements for a stable acquisition geometry rank among the major obstacles for the translation of grating-based, differential phase-contrast techniques from the laboratory to clinical applications. While for state-of-the-art Full-Field-Digital Mammography (FFDM) FOVs of 24 cm x 30 cm are common practice, the specifications for mechanical stability are naturally derived from the detector pixel size which ranges between 50 and 100 μm. However, in grating-based, phasecontrast imaging, the relative placement of the gratings in the interferometer must be guaranteed to within micro-meter precision. In this work we report on first experimental results on a phase-contrast x-ray imaging system based on the Philips MicroDose L30 mammography unit. With the proposed approach we achieve a FOV of about 65 mm x 175 mm by the use of the slit-scanning technique. The demand for mechanical stability on a micrometer scale was relaxed by the specific interferometer design, i.e., a rigid, actuator-free mount of the phase-grating G1 with respect to the analyzer-grating G2 onto a common steel frame. The image acquisition and formation processes are described and first phase-contrast images of a test object are presented. A brief discussion of the shortcomings of the current approach is given, including the level of remaining image artifacts and the relatively inefficient usage of the total available x-ray source output.

  8. Experimental critical loadings and control rod worths in LWR-PROTEUS configurations compared with MCNPX results

    SciTech Connect

    Plaschy, M.; Murphy, M.; Jatuff, F.

    2006-07-01

    The PROTEUS research reactor at the Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI) has been operating since the sixties and has already permitted, due to its high flexibility, investigation of a large range of very different nuclear systems. Currently, the ongoing experimental programme is called LWR-PROTEUS. This programme was started in 1997 and concerns large-scale investigations of advanced light water reactors (LWR) fuels. Until now, the different LWR-PROTEUS phases have permitted to study more than fifteen different configurations, each of them having to be demonstrated to be operationally safe, in particular, for the Swiss safety authorities. In this context, recent developments of themore » PSI computer capabilities have made possible the use of full-scale SD-heterogeneous MCNPX models to calculate accurately different safety related parameters (e.g. the critical driver loading and the shutdown rod worth). The current paper presents the MCNPX predictions of these operational characteristics for seven different LWR-PROTEUS configurations using a large number of nuclear data libraries. More specifically, this significant benchmarking exercise is based on the ENDF/B6v2, ENDF/B6v8, JEF2.2, JEFF3.0, JENDL3.2, and JENDL3.3 libraries. The results highlight certain library specific trends in the prediction of the multiplication factor k{sub eff} (e.g. the systematically larger reactivity calculated with JEF2.2 and the smaller reactivity associated with JEFF3.0). They also confirm the satisfactory determination of reactivity variations by all calculational schemes, for instance, due to the introduction of a safety rod pair, these calculations having been compared with experiments. (authors)« less

  9. Earlier warning: a multi-indicator approach to monitoring trends in the illicit use of medicines.

    PubMed

    Mounteney, Jane; Haugland, Siren

    2009-03-01

    The availability of medicines on the illicit drug market is currently high on the international policy agenda, linked to adverse health consequences including addiction, drug related overdoses and injection related problems. Continuous surveillance of illicit use of medicines allows for earlier identification and reporting of emerging trends and increased possibilities for earlier intervention to prevent spread of use and drug related harm. This paper aims to identify data sources capable of monitoring the illicit use of medicines; present trend findings for Rohypnol and Subutex using a multi-indicator monitoring approach; and consider the relevance of such models for policy makers. Data collection and analysis were undertaken in Bergen, Norway, using the Bergen Earlier Warning System (BEWS), a multi-indicator drug monitoring system. Data were gathered at six monthly intervals from April 2002 to September 2006. Drug indicator data from seizures, treatment, pharmacy sales, helplines, key informants and media monitoring were triangulated and an aggregated differential was used to plot trends. Results for the 4-year period showed a decline in the illicit use of Rohypnol and an increase in the illicit use of Subutex. Multi-indicator surveillance models can play a strategic role in the earlier identification and reporting of emerging trends in illicit use of medicines.

  10. Smoking is associated with earlier time to revision of total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chin Tat; Goodman, Stuart B; Huddleston, James I; Harris, Alex H S; Bhowmick, Subhrojyoti; Maloney, William J; Amanatullah, Derek F

    2017-10-01

    Smoking is associated with early postoperative complications, increased length of hospital stay, and an increased risk of revision after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the effect of smoking on time to revision TKA is unknown. A total of 619 primary TKAs referred to an academic tertiary center for revision TKA were retrospectively stratified according to the patient smoking status. Smoking status was then analyzed for associations with time to revision TKA using a Chi square test. The association was also analyzed according to the indication for revision TKA. Smokers (37/41, 90%) have an increased risk of earlier revision for any reason compared to non-smokers (274/357, 77%, p=0.031). Smokers (37/41, 90%) have an increased risk of earlier revision for any reason compared to ex-smokers (168/221, 76%, p=0.028). Subgroup analysis did not reveal a difference in indication for revision TKA (p>0.05). Smokers are at increased risk of earlier revision TKA when compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers. The risk for ex-smokers was similar to that of non-smokers. Smoking appears to have an all-or-none effect on earlier revision TKA as patients who smoked more did not have higher risk of early revision TKA. These results highlight the need for clinicians to urge patients not to begin smoking and encourage smokers to quit smoking prior to primary TKA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Water-waves on linear shear currents. A comparison of experimental and numerical results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Bruno; Seez, William; Touboul, Julien; Rey, Vincent; Abid, Malek; Kharif, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Propagation of water waves can be described for uniformly sheared current conditions. Indeed, some mathematical simplifications remain applicable in the study of waves whether there is no current or a linearly sheared current. However, the widespread use of mathematical wave theories including shear has rarely been backed by experimental studies of such flows. New experimental and numerical methods were both recently developed to study wave current interactions for constant vorticity. On one hand, the numerical code can simulate, in two dimensions, arbitrary non-linear waves. On the other hand, the experimental methods can be used to generate waves with various shear conditions. Taking advantage of the simplicity of the experimental protocol and versatility of the numerical code, comparisons between experimental and numerical data are discussed and compared with linear theory for validation of the methods. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The DGA (Direction Générale de l'Armement, France) is acknowledged for its financial support through the ANR grant N° ANR-13-ASTR-0007.

  12. Electromagnetic (EM) earthquake precursor transmission and detection regarding experimental field and laboratory results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth B., II; Saxton, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Aside from understanding the animal kingdom reacting to a per-earthquake signal, a transmission source is apparent. The focus of this investigation is an electromagnetic emission approach and detection capable of becoming both practical and reliable to other plausible earthquake precursors. To better determine this method, several prototype magnetometers were devised and built with each successive version improving upon the next. Two twin (prototype #2) antennae were deployed to field settings outside the NE Texas town of Timpson, TX back in February, 2013 and very recent laboratory tests using the most refined (prototype #4) experimental antenna for detecting unconfined, granitic block fracturing. Field testing encompassed the small NE Texas town of Timpson, TX, which endured an earthquake phenomenon (May, 2012 - September, 2013). A rare sequence of events was strictly attributed to hydraulic fracturing activity in the immediate area all for hydrocarbon capture; thus, a chance to detect and record man-made earthquake activity. By swiveling two directional antennae at three locations, one mobile, the antennae could 'zero' in on a signal source until its pattern was well established and mapped, accordingly. Three signals were detected, two strong and one moderately strong, each with epicenter implications several kilometers from known seismological sites. Six months later, two M4s and a M2.4 earthquake hit over the 2013 Labor Day weekend. Hydraulic pump pressure increased deep Earth pore pressure, reduced friction, and displaced opposing tectonic stresses causing rock to fracture. This was the last earthquake sequence in the Timpson area, due to personal involvement and area citizens in contact with their state representatives. Well and drilling operations have since moved 40-50 miles SE of Timpson, TX and rare earthquake activity has now occurred there. Laboratory testing was next performed using cored granitic blocks and the latest, improved antenna with an

  13. Chaotic scattering in an open vase-shaped cavity: Topological, numerical, and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novick, Jaison Allen

    point to each "detector point". We then construct the wave function directly from these classical trajectories using the two-dimensional WKB approximation. The wave function is Fourier Transformed using a Fast Fourier Transform algorithm resulting in a spectrum in which each peak corresponds to an interpolated trajectory. Our predictions are based on an imagined experiment that uses microwave propagation within an electromagnetic waveguide. Such an experiment exploits the fact that under suitable conditions both Maxwell's Equations and the Schrodinger Equation can be reduced to the Helmholtz Equation. Therefore, our predictions, while compared to the electromagnetic experiment, contain information about the quantum system. Identifying peaks in the transmission spectrum with chaotic trajectories will allow for an additional experimental verification of the intermediate recursive structure. Finally, we summarize our results and discuss possible extensions of this project.

  14. Femtosecond laser melting of silver nanoparticles: comparison of model simulations and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chung-Wei; Chang, Chin-Lun; Chen, Jinn-Kuen; Wang, Ben

    2018-05-01

    Ultrafast laser-induced melting of silver nanoparticles (NPs) using a femtosecond laser pulse is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The sintered Ag structure fabricated from printed Ag NP ink using femtosecond laser (1064 nm, 300 fs) irradiation is experimentally studied. A two-temperature model with dynamic optical properties and particle size effects on the melting temperature of Ag NPs is considered. The rapid phase change model is incorporated to simulate the Ag NPs' ultrafast laser-induced melting process, and a multi-shot melting threshold fluence predicted from the simulated single-shot melting threshold is developed.

  15. The associations of earlier trauma exposures and history of mental disorders with PTSD after subsequent traumas

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Lee, Sing; Liu, Howard; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Petukhova, Maria V.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Shahly, Victoria L.; Stein, Dan J.; Atwoli, Lukoye; Borges, Guilherme; Bunting, Brendan; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo; Kawakami, Norito; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate M.; Shalev, Arieh Y.; Have, Margreet ten; Torres, Yolanda; Viana, Maria Carmen; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2017-01-01

    Although earlier trauma exposure is known to predict post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after subsequent traumas, it is unclear if this association is limited to cases where the earlier trauma led to PTSD. Resolution of this uncertainty has important implications for research on pre-trauma vulnerability to PTSD. We examined this issue in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys with 34,676 respondents who reported lifetime trauma exposure. One lifetime trauma was selected randomly for each respondent. DSM-IV PTSD due to that trauma was assessed. We reported in a previous paper that four earlier traumas involving interpersonal violence significantly predicted PTSD after subsequent random traumas (OR=1.3–2.5). We also assessed 14 lifetime DSM-IV mood, anxiety, disruptive behavior, and substance disorders prior to random traumas. We show in the current report that only prior anxiety disorders significantly predicted PTSD in a multivariate model (OR=1.5–4.3) and that these disorders interacted significantly with three of the earlier traumas (witnessing atrocities, physical violence victimization, rape). History of witnessing atrocities significantly predicted PTSD after subsequent random traumas only among respondents with prior PTSD (OR=5.6). Histories of physical violence victimization (OR=1.5) and rape after age 17 (OR=17.6) significantly predicted only among respondents with no history of prior anxiety disorders. Although only preliminary due to reliance on retrospective reports, these results suggest that history of anxiety disorders and history of a limited number of earlier traumas might usefully be targeted in future prospective studies as distinct foci of research on individual differences in vulnerability to PTSD after subsequent traumas. PMID:28924183

  16. The associations of earlier trauma exposures and history of mental disorders with PTSD after subsequent traumas.

    PubMed

    Kessler, R C; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Alonso, J; Bromet, E J; Gureje, O; Karam, E G; Koenen, K C; Lee, S; Liu, H; Pennell, B-E; Petukhova, M V; Sampson, N A; Shahly, V; Stein, D J; Atwoli, L; Borges, G; Bunting, B; de Girolamo, G; Gluzman, S F; Haro, J M; Hinkov, H; Kawakami, N; Kovess-Masfety, V; Navarro-Mateu, F; Posada-Villa, J; Scott, K M; Shalev, A Y; Ten Have, M; Torres, Y; Viana, M C; Zaslavsky, A M

    2017-09-19

    Although earlier trauma exposure is known to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after subsequent traumas, it is unclear whether this association is limited to cases where the earlier trauma led to PTSD. Resolution of this uncertainty has important implications for research on pretrauma vulnerability to PTSD. We examined this issue in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys with 34 676 respondents who reported lifetime trauma exposure. One lifetime trauma was selected randomly for each respondent. DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition) PTSD due to that trauma was assessed. We reported in a previous paper that four earlier traumas involving interpersonal violence significantly predicted PTSD after subsequent random traumas (odds ratio (OR)=1.3-2.5). We also assessed 14 lifetime DSM-IV mood, anxiety, disruptive behavior and substance disorders before random traumas. We show in the current report that only prior anxiety disorders significantly predicted PTSD in a multivariate model (OR=1.5-4.3) and that these disorders interacted significantly with three of the earlier traumas (witnessing atrocities, physical violence victimization and rape). History of witnessing atrocities significantly predicted PTSD after subsequent random traumas only among respondents with prior PTSD (OR=5.6). Histories of physical violence victimization (OR=1.5) and rape after age 17 years (OR=17.6) significantly predicted only among respondents with no history of prior anxiety disorders. Although only preliminary due to reliance on retrospective reports, these results suggest that history of anxiety disorders and history of a limited number of earlier traumas might usefully be targeted in future prospective studies as distinct foci of research on individual differences in vulnerability to PTSD after subsequent traumas.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 19 September 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.194.

  17. Comparison of Breast Health Teaching Methods for Adolescent Females: Results of a Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Retta R.; Horton, Jacqueline A.; Ahmad, Wajih A.; Davies, Susan L.; Snyder, Scott W.; Macrina, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A breast health educational program was administered in two public high school settings in north Alabama to subjects enrolled in health related courses. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine if teaching breast health with or without interactive learning would affect the breast health knowledge and beliefs of…

  18. Results of small woodlot cuttings on Penobscot Experimental Forest, 1953 and 1954

    Treesearch

    Arthur C. Hart

    1956-01-01

    In 1951 foresters at the Penobscot Experimental Forest near Bangor, Maine, began a demonstration of the financial returns that can be realized through careful management of small forest properties. Light improvement cuts made in 1951 and 1952 on a moderately stocked 47-acre tract (Compartment 2) yielded gross incomes of $623.74 and $191.81 respectively. Another well-...

  19. Comparisons with results from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in the Northern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    James Hornbeck; Amey S. Bailey; Christopher Eagar; John L. Campbell

    2014-01-01

    The Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) is located in central New Hampshire, in the heart of the White Mountains, toward the northern end of the Appalachian chain. HBEF was established in 1955, two decades after Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory (CHL), but research objectives at both sites have long been similar, that is, to understand hydrologic and nutrient cycling...

  20. Analysis of Experimentation Results on University Graduates' Readiness Formation to Act in Extraordinary Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moloshavenko, Vera L.; Prozorova, Galina V.; Sienkiewicz, Lyudmila B.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the experimentation on graduates' readiness formation to act in extraordinary situations conducted in the Tyumen Industrial University in training bachelors in "Oil and Gas Business". The criteria of graduates' readiness formation to act in extraordinary situations are the following: practicability, validity,…

  1. Multiple Measures of Juvenile Drug Court Effectiveness: Results of a Quasi-Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Nancy; Webb, Vincent J.

    2004-01-01

    Prior studies of juvenile drug courts have been constrained by small samples, inadequate comparison groups, or limited outcome measures. The authors report on a 3-year evaluation that examines the impact of juvenile drug court participation on recidivism and drug use. A quasi-experimental design is used to compare juveniles assigned to drug court…

  2. Promoting walking to school: results of a quasi‐experimental trial

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Rosie; Mutrie, Nanette; Crawford, Fiona; Green, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Study objective To assess the impact of a combined intervention on children's travel behaviour, stage of behavioural change and motivations for and barriers to actively commuting to school. Design A quasi‐experimental trial involving pre‐ and post‐intervention mapping of routes to school by active and inactive mode of travel and surveys of “stage of behaviour change” and motivations for and barriers to actively commuting to school. Intervention The intervention school participated in a school‐based active travel project for one school term. Active travel was integrated into the curriculum and participants used interactive travel‐planning resources at home. The control school participated in before and after measurements but did not receive the intervention. Setting Two primary schools in Scotland with similar socioeconomic and demographic profiles. Participants Two classes of primary 5 children and their families and teachers. Main results Post intervention, the mean distance travelled to school by walking by intervention children increased significantly from baseline, from 198 to 772 m (389% increase). In the control group mean distance walked increased from 242 to 285 m (17% increase). The difference between the schools was significant (t (38)  = −4.679, p<0.001 (95% confidence interval −315 to −795 m)). Post intervention, the mean distance travelled to school by car by intervention children reduced significantly from baseline, from 2018 to 933 m (57.5% reduction). The mean distance travelled to school by car by control children increased from baseline, from 933 to 947 m (1.5% increase). The difference in the change between schools was significant (t (32)  = 4.282, p<0.001 (95% confidence interval 445 to 1255 m)). Conclusions Intervention was effective in achieving an increase in the mean distance travelled by active mode and a reduction in the mean distance travelled by inactive mode on school journey. PMID:17699538

  3. Comparisons of Buckling Capacity Curves of Pressurized Spheres with EDR Provisions and Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błażejewski, Paweł; Marcinowski, Jakub

    2017-06-01

    Existing provisions leading to the assessment of the buckling resistance of pressurised spherical shells were published in the European Design Recommendations (EDR) [1]. This book comprises rules which refer to the stability of steel shells of different shapes. In the first step of the general procedure they require calculation of two reference quantities: the elastic critical buckling reference pRcr and the plastic reference resistance pRpl. These quantities should be determined in the linear buckling analysis (LBA) and in the materially nonlinear analysis (MNA) respectively. Only in the case of spherical shells the existing procedure has exceptional character. It is based on the geometrically nonlinear analysis (GNA) and on the geometrically and materially nonlinear analysis (GMNA), respectively. From this reason, in this particular case there was a need to change the existing approach. The new procedure was presented in the work of Błażejewski & Marcinowski in 2016 (comp. [2]). All steps of the procedure leading to the assessment of buckling resistance of pressurized steel, spherical shells were presented in this work. The elaborated procedure is consistent with provisions of Eurocode EN1993-1-6 (comp. [3]) and with recommendations inserted in Europeans Design Recommendations [1]. The proposed capacity curves were compared with existing proposal published in [1] for three different fabrication quality classes predicted in [3]. In this work also comparisons of author's proposals with experimental results obtained by other authors were presented.

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid pressures resulting from experimental traumatic spinal cord injuries in a pig model.

    PubMed

    Jones, Claire F; Lee, Jae H T; Burstyn, Uri; Okon, Elena B; Kwon, Brian K; Cripton, Peter A

    2013-10-01

    Despite considerable effort over the last four decades, research has failed to translate into consistently effective treatment options for spinal cord injury (SCI). This is partly attributed to differences between the injury response of humans and rodent models. Some of this difference could be because the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer of the human spine is relatively large, while that of the rodents is extremely thin. We sought to characterize the fluid impulse induced in the CSF by experimental SCIs of moderate and high human-like severity, and to compare this with previous studies in which fluid impulse has been associated with neural tissue injury. We used a new in vivo pig model (n = 6 per injury group, mean age 124.5 days, 20.9 kg) incorporating four miniature pressure transducers that were implanted in pairs in the subarachnoid space, cranial, and caudal to the injury at 30 mm and 100 mm. Tissue sparing was assessed with Eriochrome Cyanine and Neutral Red staining. The median peak pressures near the injury were 522.5 and 868.8 mmHg (range 96.7-1430.0) and far from the injury were 7.6 and 36.3 mmHg (range 3.8-83.7), for the moderate and high injury severities, respectively. Pressure impulse (mmHg.ms), apparent wave speed, and apparent attenuation factor were also evaluated. The data indicates that the fluid pressure wave may be sufficient to affect the severity and extent of primary tissue damage close to the injury site. However, the CSF pressure was close to normal physiologic values at 100 mm from the injury. The high injury severity animals had less tissue sparing than the moderate injury severity animals; this difference was statistically significant only within 1.6 mm of the epicenter. These results indicate that future research seeking to elucidate the mechanical origins of primary tissue damage in SCI should consider the effects of CSF. This pig model provides advantages for basic and preclinical SCI research due to its

  5. Cold Climate Foundation Retrofit Experimental Hygrothermal Performance. Cloquet Residential Research Facility Laboratory Results

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Louise F.; Harmon, Anna C.

    2015-04-09

    This project was funded jointly by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL focused on developing a full basement wall system experimental database to enable others to validate hygrothermal simulation codes. NREL focused on testing the moisture durability of practical basement wall interior insulation retrofit solutions for cold climates. The project has produced a physically credible and reliable long-term hygrothermal performance database for retrofit foundation wall insulation systems in zone 6 and 7 climates that are fully compliant with the performance criteria in the 2009 Minnesota Energy Code. These data currently span the periodmore » from November 10, 2012 through May 31, 2014 and are anticipated to be extended through November 2014. The experimental data were configured into a standard format that can be published online and that is compatible with standard commercially available spreadsheet and database software.« less

  6. High fidelity studies of exploding foil initiator bridges, Part 2: Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, William; Bowden, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Simulations of high voltage detonators, such as Exploding Bridgewire (EBW) and Exploding Foil Initiators (EFI), have historically been simple, often empirical, one-dimensional models capable of predicting parameters such as current, voltage, and in the case of EFIs, flyer velocity. Experimental methods have correspondingly generally been limited to the same parameters. With the advent of complex, first principles magnetohydrodynamic codes such as ALEGRA MHD, it is now possible to simulate these components in three dimensions and predict greater range of parameters than before. A significant improvement in experimental capability was therefore required to ensure these simulations could be adequately verified. In this second paper of a three part study, data is presented from a flexible foil EFI header experiment. This study has shown that there is significant bridge expansion before time of peak voltage and that heating within the bridge material is spatially affected by the microstructure of the metal foil.

  7. Recent Experimental Results Related to Ejector Mode Studies of Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, J. M.; Pal, S.; Marshall, W. M.; Santoro, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the folloving: 1. Motivation. Support NASA's 3d generation launch vehicle technology program. RBCC is promising candidate for 3d generation propulsion system. 2. Approach. Focus on ejector mode p3erformance (Mach 0-3). Perform testing on established flowpath geometry. Use conventional propulsion measurement techniques. Use advanced optical diagnostic techniques to measure local combustion gas properties. 3. Objectives. Gain physical understanding of detailing mixing and combustion phenomena. Establish an experimental data set for CFD code development and validation.

  8. Experimental study of /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate abdominal scans in jejunal intussusception: preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    James, A.E. Jr.; Strecker, E.P.; Miller, F.J. Jr.

    1975-07-01

    Recent communications have related the diagnosis of small bowel intussusceptions to abnormal accumulations of the radiopharmaceutical /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate on abdominal scans. Considering the pathophysiological alterations attendant to intussusceptions, we have attempted an experimental model to examine these changes in temporal sequence. This study was initiated to understand the etiology better and to characterize the abnormalities noted on the /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate abdominal scans.

  9. Preliminary experimental results of gas recycling subsystems except carbon dioxide concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuji, K.; Sawada, T.; Satoh, S.; Kanda, S.; Matsumura, H.; Kondo, S.; Otsubo, K.

    Oxygen concentration and separation is an essential factor for air recycling in a CELSS. Furthermore, if the value of the plant assimilatory quotient is not coincident with that of the animal respiratory quotient, the recovery of O2 from the concentrated CO2 through chemical methods will become necessary to balance the gas contents in a CELSS. Therefore, oxygen concentration and separation equipment using Salcomine and O2 recovery equipment, such as Sabatier and Bosch reactors, were experimentally developed and tested.

  10. Static properties of ferromagnetic quantum chains: Numerical results and experimental data on two S=1/2 systems (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopinga, K.; Delica, T.; Leschke, H.

    1990-05-01

    New results of a variant of the numerically exact quantum transfer matrix method have been compared with experimental data on the static properties of [C6H11NH3]CuBr3(CHAB), a ferromagnetic system with about 5% easy-plane anisotropy. Above T=3.5 K, the available data on the zero-field heat capacity, the excess heat capacity ΔC=C(B)-C(B=0), and the magnetization are described with an accuracy comparable to the experimental error. Calculations of the spin-spin correlation functions reveal that the good description of the experimental correlation length in CHAB by a classical spin model is largely accidental. The zero-field susceptibility, which can be deduced from these correlation functions, is in fair agreement with the reported experimental data between 4 and 100 K. The method also seems to yield accurate results for the chlorine isomorph, CHAC, a system with about 2% uniaxial anisotropy.

  11. It's about time: Earlier rewards increase intrinsic motivation.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Kaitlin; Fishbach, Ayelet

    2018-06-01

    Can immediate (vs. delayed) rewards increase intrinsic motivation? Prior research compared the presence versus absence of rewards. By contrast, this research compared immediate versus delayed rewards, predicting that more immediate rewards increase intrinsic motivation by creating a perceptual fusion between the activity and its goal (i.e., the reward). In support of the hypothesis, framing a reward from watching a news program as more immediate (vs. delayed) increased intrinsic motivation to watch the program (Study 1), and receiving more immediate bonus (vs. delayed, Study 2; and vs. delayed and no bonus, Study 3) increased intrinsic motivation in an experimental task. The effect of reward timing was mediated by the strength of the association between an activity and a reward, and was specific to intrinsic (vs. extrinsic) motivation-immediacy influenced the positive experience of an activity, but not perceived outcome importance (Study 4). In addition, the effect of the timing of rewards was independent of the effect of the magnitude of the rewards (Study 5). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. MicroRNAs and complex diseases: from experimental results to computational models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing; Xie, Di; Zhao, Qi; You, Zhu-Hong

    2017-10-17

    Plenty of microRNAs (miRNAs) were discovered at a rapid pace in plants, green algae, viruses and animals. As one of the most important components in the cell, miRNAs play a growing important role in various essential and important biological processes. For the recent few decades, amounts of experimental methods and computational models have been designed and implemented to identify novel miRNA-disease associations. In this review, the functions of miRNAs, miRNA-target interactions, miRNA-disease associations and some important publicly available miRNA-related databases were discussed in detail. Specially, considering the important fact that an increasing number of miRNA-disease associations have been experimentally confirmed, we selected five important miRNA-related human diseases and five crucial disease-related miRNAs and provided corresponding introductions. Identifying disease-related miRNAs has become an important goal of biomedical research, which will accelerate the understanding of disease pathogenesis at the molecular level and molecular tools design for disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Computational models have become an important means for novel miRNA-disease association identification, which could select the most promising miRNA-disease pairs for experimental validation and significantly reduce the time and cost of the biological experiments. Here, we reviewed 20 state-of-the-art computational models of predicting miRNA-disease associations from different perspectives. Finally, we summarized four important factors for the difficulties of predicting potential disease-related miRNAs, the framework of constructing powerful computational models to predict potential miRNA-disease associations including five feasible and important research schemas, and future directions for further development of computational models. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Long non-coding RNAs and complex diseases: from experimental results to computational models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing; Yan, Chenggang Clarence; Zhang, Xu; You, Zhu-Hong

    2017-07-01

    LncRNAs have attracted lots of attentions from researchers worldwide in recent decades. With the rapid advances in both experimental technology and computational prediction algorithm, thousands of lncRNA have been identified in eukaryotic organisms ranging from nematodes to humans in the past few years. More and more research evidences have indicated that lncRNAs are involved in almost the whole life cycle of cells through different mechanisms and play important roles in many critical biological processes. Therefore, it is not surprising that the mutations and dysregulations of lncRNAs would contribute to the development of various human complex diseases. In this review, we first made a brief introduction about the functions of lncRNAs, five important lncRNA-related diseases, five critical disease-related lncRNAs and some important publicly available lncRNA-related databases about sequence, expression, function, etc. Nowadays, only a limited number of lncRNAs have been experimentally reported to be related to human diseases. Therefore, analyzing available lncRNA-disease associations and predicting potential human lncRNA-disease associations have become important tasks of bioinformatics, which would benefit human complex diseases mechanism understanding at lncRNA level, disease biomarker detection and disease diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and prevention. Furthermore, we introduced some state-of-the-art computational models, which could be effectively used to identify disease-related lncRNAs on a large scale and select the most promising disease-related lncRNAs for experimental validation. We also analyzed the limitations of these models and discussed the future directions of developing computational models for lncRNA research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Mixing Silicate Melts with High Viscosity Contrast by Chaotic Dynamics: Results from a New Experimental Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos, Cristina; Perugini, Diego; Ertel-Ingrisch, Werner; Dingwell, Donald B.; Poli, Giampiero

    2010-05-01

    A new experimental device has been developed to perform chaotic mixing between high viscosity melts under controlled fluid-dynamic conditions. The apparatus is based on the Journal Bearing System (JBS). It consists of an outer cylinder hosting the melts of interest and an inner cylinder, which is eccentrically located. Both cylinders can be independently moved to generate chaotic streamlines in the mixing system. Two experiments were performed using as end-members different proportions of a peralkaline haplogranite and a mafic melt, corresponding to the 1 atm eutectic composition in the An-Di binary system. The two melts were stirred together in the JBS for ca. two hours, at 1,400° C and under laminar fluid dynamic condition (Re of the order of 10-7). The viscosity ratio between the two melts, at the beginning of the experiment, was of the order of 103. Optical analyses of experimental samples revealed, at short length scale (of the order of μm), a complex pattern of mixed structures. These consisted of an intimate distribution of filaments; a complex inter-fingering of the two melts. Such features are typically observed in rocks thought to be produced by magma mixing processes. Stretching and folding dynamics between the melts induced chaotic flow fields and generated wide compositional interfaces. In this way, chemical diffusion processes become more efficient, producing melts with highly heterogeneous compositions. A remarkable modulation of compositional fields has been obtained by performing short time-scale experiments and using melts with a high viscosity ratio. This indicates that chaotic mixing of magmas can be a very efficient process in modulating compositional variability in igneous systems, especially under high viscosity ratios and laminar fluid-dynamic regimes. Our experimental device may replicate magma mixing features, observed in natural rocks, and therefore open new frontiers in the study of this important petrologic and volcanological process.

  15. Preliminary experimental results of gas recycling subsystems except carbon dioxide concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otsuji, K.; Sawada, T.; Satoh, S.; Kanda, S.; Matsumura, H.; Kondo, S.; Otsubo, K.

    1987-01-01

    Oxygen concentration and separation is an essential factor for air recycling in a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS). Furthermore, if the value of the plant assimilatory quotient is not coincident with that of the animal respiratory quotient, the recovery of oxygen from the concentrated CO2 through chemical methods will become necessary to balance the gas contents in a CELSS. Therefore, oxygen concentration and separation equipment using Salcomine and O2 recovery equipment, such as Sabatier and Bosch reactors, were experimentally developed and tested.

  16. Literature review and experimental results for a cylinder with perforations and protrusions at high Reynolds numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. S.; Horvath, T. J.; Stainback, P. C.; Beasley, W. D.; Mcghee, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Langley Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel has been used to conduct an experimental study of the flow around a series of circular cylinders; the models used consisted of a baseline, smooth cylinder together with a cylinder that could be reconfigured with six different arrangements of two types of surface irregularity. Mean lift and drag forces were measured on all seven model configurations, and correlations were made between unsteady pressure in the wake region and fluctuating lift forces, in order to identify coherent structures.

  17. A vantage from space can detect earlier drought onset: an approach using relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Farahmand, Alireza; AghaKouchak, Amir; Teixeira, Joao

    2015-02-25

    Each year, droughts cause significant economic and agricultural losses across the world. The early warning and onset detection of drought is of particular importance for effective agriculture and water resource management. Previous studies show that the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI), a measure of precipitation deficit, detects drought onset earlier than other indicators. Here we show that satellite-based near surface air relative humidity data can further improve drought onset detection and early warning. This paper introduces the Standardized Relative Humidity Index (SRHI) based on the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations. The results indicate that the SRHI typically detects the drought onset earlier than the SPI. While the AIRS mission was not originally designed for drought monitoring, we show that its relative humidity data offers a new and unique avenue for drought monitoring and early warning. We conclude that the early warning aspects of SRHI may have merit for integration into current drought monitoring systems.

  18. Compulsive buying: Earlier illicit drug use, impulse buying, depression, and adult ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2015-08-30

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant's earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Compulsive Buying: Earlier Illicit Drug Use, Impulse Buying, Depression, and Adult ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W.; Leukefeld, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant’s earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. PMID:26165963

  20. A Vantage from Space Can Detect Earlier Drought Onset: An Approach Using Relative Humidity

    PubMed Central

    Farahmand, Alireza; AghaKouchak, Amir; Teixeira, Joao

    2015-01-01

    Each year, droughts cause significant economic and agricultural losses across the world. The early warning and onset detection of drought is of particular importance for effective agriculture and water resource management. Previous studies show that the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI), a measure of precipitation deficit, detects drought onset earlier than other indicators. Here we show that satellite-based near surface air relative humidity data can further improve drought onset detection and early warning. This paper introduces the Standardized Relative Humidity Index (SRHI) based on the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations. The results indicate that the SRHI typically detects the drought onset earlier than the SPI. While the AIRS mission was not originally designed for drought monitoring, we show that its relative humidity data offers a new and unique avenue for drought monitoring and early warning. We conclude that the early warning aspects of SRHI may have merit for integration into current drought monitoring systems. PMID:25711500

  1. Direct Numerical Simulation of Liquid Nozzle Spray with Comparison to Shadowgraphy and X-Ray Computed Tomography Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Poppel, Bret; Owkes, Mark; Nelson, Thomas; Lee, Zachary; Sowell, Tyler; Benson, Michael; Vasquez Guzman, Pablo; Fahrig, Rebecca; Eaton, John; Kurman, Matthew; Kweon, Chol-Bum; Bravo, Luis

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we present high-fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results of liquid fuel injection from a pressure-swirl atomizer and compare the simulations to experimental results obtained using both shadowgraphy and phase-averaged X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans. The CFD and experimental results focus on the dense near-nozzle region to identify the dominant mechanisms of breakup during primary atomization. Simulations are performed using the NGA code of Desjardins et al (JCP 227 (2008)) and employ the volume of fluid (VOF) method proposed by Owkes and Desjardins (JCP 270 (2013)), a second order accurate, un-split, conservative, three-dimensional VOF scheme providing second order density fluxes and capable of robust and accurate high density ratio simulations. Qualitative features and quantitative statistics are assessed and compared for the simulation and experimental results, including the onset of atomization, spray cone angle, and drop size and distribution.

  2. Cold Climate Foundation Retrofit Experimental Hygrothermal Performance: Cloquet Residential Research Facility Laboratory Results

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Louise F.; Harmon, Anna C.

    2015-04-01

    Thermal and moisture problems in existing basements create a unique challenge because the exterior face of the wall is not easily or inexpensively accessible. This approach addresses thermal and moisture management from the interior face of the wall without disturbing the exterior soil and landscaping. the interior and exterior environments. This approach has the potential for improving durability, comfort, and indoor air quality. This project was funded jointly by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL focused on developing a full basement wall system experimental database to enable others to validate hygrothermal simulation codes.more » NREL focused on testing the moisture durability of practical basement wall interior insulation retrofit solutions for cold climates. The project has produced a physically credible and reliable long-term hygrothermal performance database for retrofit foundation wall insulation systems in zone 6 and 7 climates that are fully compliant with the performance criteria in the 2009 Minnesota Energy Code. The experimental data were configured into a standard format that can be published online and that is compatible with standard commercially available spreadsheet and database software.« less

  3. Experimental results from a laboratory-scale molten salt thermocline storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seubert, Bernhard; Müller, Ralf; Willert, Daniel; Fluri, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Single-tank storage presents a valid option for cost reduction in thermal energy storage systems. For low-temperature systems with water as storage medium this concept is widely implemented and tested. For high-temperature systems very limited experimental data are publicly available. To improve this situation a molten salt loop for experimental testing of a single-tank storage prototype was designed and built at Fraunhofer ISE. The storage tank has a volume of 0.4 m3 or a maximum capacity of 72 kWhth. The maximum charging and discharging power is 60 kW, however, a bypass flow control system enables to operate the system also at a very low power. The prototype was designed to withstand temperatures up to 550 °C. A cascaded insulation with embedded heating cables can be used to reduce the effect of heat loss on the storage which is susceptible to edge effects due to its small size. During the first tests the operating temperatures were adapted to the conditions in systems with thermal oil as heat transfer fluid and a smaller temperature difference. A good separation between cold and hot fluid was achieved with temperature gradients of 95 K within 16 cm.

  4. Toxicology of chemical mixtures: Experimental approaches, underlying concepts, and some results

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, R.S.; Long, H.L.; Boorman, G.A.

    1990-07-01

    The toxicology of chemical mixtures will be the toxicology of the 1990s and beyond. While this branch of toxicology most closely reflects the actual human exposure situation, as yet there is no standard protocol or consensus methodology for investigating the toxicology of mixtures. Thus, in this emerging science, experimentation is required just to develop a broadly applicable evaluation system. Several examples are discussed to illustrate the different experimental designs and the concepts behind each. These include the health effects studies of Love Canal soil samples, the Lake Ontario Coho salmon, the water samples repurified from secondary sewage in the citymore » of Denver Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Plant, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) effort on a mixture of 25 frequently detected groundwater contaminants derived from hazardous waste disposal sites. In the last instance, an extensive research program has been ongoing for the last two years at the NTP, encompassing general toxicology, immunotoxicology, developmental and reproductive toxicology, biochemical toxicology, myelotoxicology, genetic toxicology, neurobehavioral toxicology, and hepato- and renal toxicology.« less

  5. Traumatic Brain Injury History is Associated with Earlier Age of Onset of Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    LoBue, Christian; Wadsworth, Hannah; Wilmoth, Kristin; Clem, Matthew; Hart, John; Womack, Kyle B.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Lacritz, Laura H.; Rossetti, Heidi C.; Cullum, C. Munro

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined whether a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with earlier onset of Alzheimer disease (AD), independent of apolipoprotein ε4 status (Apoe4) and gender. Method Participants with a clinical diagnosis of AD (n=7625) were obtained from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set, and categorized based on self-reported lifetime TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) (TBI+ vs TBI-) and presence of Apoe4. ANCOVAs, controlling for gender, race, and education were used to examine the association between history of TBI, presence of Apoe4, and an interaction of both risk factors on estimated age of AD onset. Results Estimated AD onset differed by TBI history and Apoe4 independently (p’s <.001). The TBI+ group had a mean age of onset 2.5 years earlier than the TBI- group. Likewise, Apoe4 carriers had a mean age of onset 2.3 years earlier than non-carriers. While the interaction was non-significant (p = .34), participants having both a history of TBI and Apoe4 had the earliest mean age of onset compared to those with a TBI history or Apoe4 alone (MDifference = 2.8 & 2.7 years, respectively). These results remained unchanged when stratified by gender. Conclusions History of self-reported TBI can be associated with an earlier onset of AD-related cognitive decline, regardless of Apoe4 status and gender. TBI may be related to an underlying neurodegenerative process in AD, but the implications of age at time of injury, severity, and repetitive injuries remain unclear. PMID:27855547

  6. Investigation of superelastic electron scattering by laser-excited Ba - Experimental procedures and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.; Fineman, M. A.; Poe, R. T.; Csanak, G.; Jensen, S. W.

    1983-01-01

    Differential (in angle) electron scattering experiments on laser-excited Ba-138 1P were carried out at 30- and 100-eV impact energies. The laser light was linearly polarized and located in the scattering plane. The superelastic scattering signal was measured as a function of polarization direction of the laser light with respect to the scattering plane. It was found at low electron scattering angles that the superelastic scattering signal was asymmetric to reflection of the polarization vector with respect to the scattering plane. This is in contradiction with theoretical predictions. An attempt was made to pinpoint the reason for this observation, and a detailed investigation of the influence of experimental conditions on the superelastic scattering was undertaken. No explanation for the asymmetry has as yet been found.

  7. The experimental results of a self tuning adaptive controller using online frequency identification. [for Galileo spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, W.-W.; Cannon, R. H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A fourth-order laboratory dynamic system featuring very low structural damping and a noncolocated actuator-sensor pair has been used to test a novel real-time adaptive controller, implemented in a minicomputer, which consists of a state estimator, a set of state feedback gains, and a frequency-locked loop for real-time parameter identification. The adaptation algorithm employed can correct controller error and stabilize the system for more than 50 percent variation in the plant's natural frequency, compared with a 10 percent stability margin in frequency variation for a fixed gain controller having the same performance as the nominal plant condition. The very rapid convergence achievable by this adaptive system is demonstrated experimentally, and proven with simple, root-locus methods.

  8. Statistics is not enough: revisiting Ronald A. Fisher's critique (1936) of Mendel's experimental results (1866).

    PubMed

    Pilpel, Avital

    2007-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the role of rational belief change theory in the philosophical understanding of experimental error. Today, philosophers seek insight about error in the investigation of specific experiments, rather than in general theories. Nevertheless, rational belief change theory adds to our understanding of just such cases: R. A. Fisher's criticism of Mendel's experiments being a case in point. After an historical introduction, the main part of this paper investigates Fisher's paper from the point of view of rational belief change theory: what changes of belief about Mendel's experiment does Fisher go through and with what justification. It leads to surprising insights about what Fisher had done right and wrong, and, more generally, about the limits of statistical methods in detecting error.

  9. Importance of dose-rate and cell proliferation in the evaluation of biological experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, S. B.

    1994-01-01

    The nuclei of cells within the bodies of astronauts traveling on extended missions outside the geomagnetosphere will experience single traversals of particles with high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) (e.g., one iron ion per one hundred years, on average) superimposed on a background of tracks with low LET (approximately one proton every two to three days, and one helium ion per month). In addition, some cell populations within the body will be proliferating, thus possibly providing increasing numbers of cells with 'initiated' targets for subsequent radiation hits. These temporal characteristics are not generally reproduced in laboratory experimental protocols. Implications of the differences in the temporal patterns of radiation delivery between conventionally designed radiation biology experiments and the pattern to be experienced in space are examined and the importance of dose-rate and cell proliferation are pointed out in the context of radiation risk assessment on long mission in space.

  10. Beta decay and the origin of biologial chirality - New experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van House, J.; Rich, A.; Zitzewitz, P. W.

    1984-01-01

    The hypothetical connection developed by Vester and Ulbricht (1959), between the handedness of beta particles in radioactive decay and the (L) sign of biologial chirality is investigated in a radiolysis experiment. The experiment measured the predicted asymmetry in the formation triplet or 'ortho-' positronium (oPs) in amino acid enantiomers by low energy positrons under conditions of helicity reversal. The positrons were focused on amino acid powder samples. By measuring the time between positron arrival and emission of gamma rays, long-lived oPs were separated from other species. It is found that the asymmetry in leucine (0.8 x 10 to the -4th) is consistent with the theoretical prediction of 10 to the -6th. Neither the experimental limits nor the theoretical estimates are found to rule out a mechanism like that described by Vester and Ulbricht as the cause of the sign of the observed chiral polarization.

  11. Out-of-plane buckling of pantographic fabrics in displacement-controlled shear tests: experimental results and model validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchiesi, Emilio; Ganzosch, Gregor; Liebold, Christian; Placidi, Luca; Grygoruk, Roman; Müller, Wolfgang H.

    2018-01-01

    Due to the latest advancements in 3D printing technology and rapid prototyping techniques, the production of materials with complex geometries has become more affordable than ever. Pantographic structures, because of their attractive features, both in dynamics and statics and both in elastic and inelastic deformation regimes, deserve to be thoroughly investigated with experimental and theoretical tools. Herein, experimental results relative to displacement-controlled large deformation shear loading tests of pantographic structures are reported. In particular, five differently sized samples are analyzed up to first rupture. Results show that the deformation behavior is strongly nonlinear, and the structures are capable of undergoing large elastic deformations without reaching complete failure. Finally, a cutting edge model is validated by means of these experimental results.

  12. Light pollution is associated with earlier tree budburst across the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Somers-Yeates, Robin; Bennie, Jonathan; Economou, Theodoros; Hodgson, David; Spalding, Adrian; McGregor, Peter K

    2016-06-29

    The ecological impact of night-time lighting is of concern because of its well-demonstrated effects on animal behaviour. However, the potential of light pollution to change plant phenology and its corresponding knock-on effects on associated herbivores are less clear. Here, we test if artificial lighting can advance the timing of budburst in trees. We took a UK-wide 13 year dataset of spatially referenced budburst data from four deciduous tree species and matched it with both satellite imagery of night-time lighting and average spring temperature. We find that budburst occurs up to 7.5 days earlier in brighter areas, with the relationship being more pronounced for later-budding species. Excluding large urban areas from the analysis showed an even more pronounced advance of budburst, confirming that the urban 'heat-island' effect is not the sole cause of earlier urban budburst. Similarly, the advance in budburst across all sites is too large to be explained by increases in temperature alone. This dramatic advance of budburst illustrates the need for further experimental investigation into the impact of artificial night-time lighting on plant phenology and subsequent species interactions. As light pollution is a growing global phenomenon, the findings of this study are likely to be applicable to a wide range of species interactions across the world. © 2016 The Authors.

  13. Perceptual sensitivity to spectral properties of earlier sounds during speech categorization.

    PubMed

    Stilp, Christian E; Assgari, Ashley A

    2018-02-28

    Speech perception is heavily influenced by surrounding sounds. When spectral properties differ between earlier (context) and later (target) sounds, this can produce spectral contrast effects (SCEs) that bias perception of later sounds. For example, when context sounds have more energy in low-F 1 frequency regions, listeners report more high-F 1 responses to a target vowel, and vice versa. SCEs have been reported using various approaches for a wide range of stimuli, but most often, large spectral peaks were added to the context to bias speech categorization. This obscures the lower limit of perceptual sensitivity to spectral properties of earlier sounds, i.e., when SCEs begin to bias speech categorization. Listeners categorized vowels (/ɪ/-/ɛ/, Experiment 1) or consonants (/d/-/g/, Experiment 2) following a context sentence with little spectral amplification (+1 to +4 dB) in frequency regions known to produce SCEs. In both experiments, +3 and +4 dB amplification in key frequency regions of the context produced SCEs, but lesser amplification was insufficient to bias performance. This establishes a lower limit of perceptual sensitivity where spectral differences across sounds can bias subsequent speech categorization. These results are consistent with proposed adaptation-based mechanisms that potentially underlie SCEs in auditory perception. Recent sounds can change what speech sounds we hear later. This can occur when the average frequency composition of earlier sounds differs from that of later sounds, biasing how they are perceived. These "spectral contrast effects" are widely observed when sounds' frequency compositions differ substantially. We reveal the lower limit of these effects, as +3 dB amplification of key frequency regions in earlier sounds was enough to bias categorization of the following vowel or consonant sound. Speech categorization being biased by very small spectral differences across sounds suggests that spectral contrast effects occur

  14. Earlier surgery improves outcomes from painful chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ke, Nengwen; Jia, Dan; Huang, Wei; Nunes, Quentin M; Windsor, John A; Liu, Xubao; Sutton, Robert

    2018-05-01

    The timing of surgery for painful chronic pancreatitis (CP) may affect outcomes.Clinical course, Izbicki pain scores, and pancreatic function were retrospectively compared and analyzed between patients undergoing either early or late surgery (< 3 or ≥ 3 years from diagnosis) for painful CP in a single center from 2007 to 2012.The early surgery group (n = 98) more frequently than the late group (n = 199) had abdominal pain with jaundice (22.4% vs 9.5%, P = .002) and pancreatic mass +/- ductal dilatation (47% vs 27%, P < .001), but less frequently abdominal pain alone (73.5% vs 85.9%, P = .009), ductal dilatation alone (31% vs 71%, P < .001), parenchymal calcification (91.8% vs 100%, P < .001) or exocrine insufficiency (60% vs 72%, P = .034); there were no other significant differences. The early group had longer hospital stay (14.4 vs 12.2 days, P = .009), but no difference in complications. Significantly greater pain relief followed early surgery (complete 69% vs 47%, partial 22% vs 37%, none 8% vs 16%, P = .01) with lower rates of exocrine (60% vs 80%, P = .005) and endocrine insufficiency (36% vs 53%, P = .033).Our data indicate that early surgery results in higher rates of pain relief and pancreatic sufficiency than late surgery for chronic pancreatitis patients. Frey and Berne procedures showed better results than other surgical procedures.

  15. New evidence: data documenting parental support for earlier sexuality education.

    PubMed

    Barr, Elissa M; Moore, Michele J; Johnson, Tammie; Forrest, Jamie; Jordan, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies document support for sexuality education to be taught in high school, and often, in middle school. However, little research has been conducted addressing support for sexuality education in elementary schools. As part of the state Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Survey administration, the Florida Department of Health conducted the Florida Child Health Survey (FCHS) by calling back parents who had children in their home and who agreed to participate (N = 1715). Most parents supported the following sexuality education topics being taught specifically in elementary school: communication skills (89%), human anatomy/reproductive information (65%), abstinence (61%), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (53%), and gender/sexual orientation issues (52%). Support was even greater in middle school (62-91%) and high school (72-91%) for these topics and for birth control and condom education. Most parents supported comprehensive sexuality education (40.4%), followed by abstinence-plus (36.4%) and abstinence-only (23.2%). Chi-square results showed significant differences in the type of sexuality education supported by almost all parent demographic variables analyzed including sex, race, marital status, and education. Results add substantial support for age-appropriate school-based sexuality education starting at the elementary school level, the new National Sexuality Education Standards, and funding to support evidence-based abstinence-plus or comprehensive sexuality education. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  16. Micronozzles: 3D numerical structural and gas dynamics modeling, fabrication, and preliminary experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovkov, Alexei I.; Pyatishev, Evgenij N.; Lurie, Mihail S.; Korshunov, Andrey V.; Akulshin, Y. D.; Dolganov, A. G.; Sabadash, V. O.

    2000-02-01

    The tiny engines, founded on the principle of reactive thrust, are one of most perspective actuators developed by modern micromechanics. These engines can be applied for such apparent problems, as orientation and stabilization of small space objects, but also as local or distributed reactive thrust of new phylum of aerospace objects, for control of boundary layer of flying objects and in series of converting power devices of different purposes. Distinctive features of jet tiny engines are profitability (very large thrust-to-weight ratio) and high (milliseconds) response, which makes them to irreplaceable elements in control systems and, specially, in distributed power generations. These features are provided the minimum sizes, high pressure in working chambers and hypersonic velocity of propulsive jet. Topologically micronozzles are designed as the flat batch devices (3 layers as minimum). The lower and upper layers make flat walls of the nozzle and mainly influence on strength properties of the device. The mean layer reshapes geometry and determines gas dynamic characteristic of the nozzle. A special problem is the opening-up of the combustion-mixture, which is not esteemed in this work. It is necessary to allow for effect of considerable local stresses arising at the expense of static and dynamic loading at design of the jet tiny engines. Thermal gas dynamic processes in the chamber and nozzle determine the values and nature of these stresses, which are hardly studied for the microdevices. The priority is mathematical and experimental simulation of these processes. The most suitable object for initial phase of experimental simulation is the 'cold' engine. The demanded chamber static pressure is formed by external compressed air. In Laboratory of Microtechnology and MicroElectroMechanical Systems a number of such tiny engines with different shapes of the chamber's and the nozzles' surfaces were designed, made and tested. The engines were produced from photosensing

  17. Micronozzles: 3D numerical structural and gas dynamics modeling, fabrication, and preliminary experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovkov, Alexei I.; Pyatishev, Evgenij N.; Lurie, Mihail S.; Korshunov, Andrey V.; Akulshin, Y. D.; Dolganov, A. G.; Sabadash, V. O.

    2001-02-01

    The tiny engines, founded on the principle of reactive thrust, are one of most perspective actuators developed by modern micromechanics. These engines can be applied for such apparent problems, as orientation and stabilization of small space objects, but also as local or distributed reactive thrust of new phylum of aerospace objects, for control of boundary layer of flying objects and in series of converting power devices of different purposes. Distinctive features of jet tiny engines are profitability (very large thrust-to-weight ratio) and high (milliseconds) response, which makes them to irreplaceable elements in control systems and, specially, in distributed power generations. These features are provided the minimum sizes, high pressure in working chambers and hypersonic velocity of propulsive jet. Topologically micronozzles are designed as the flat batch devices (3 layers as minimum). The lower and upper layers make flat walls of the nozzle and mainly influence on strength properties of the device. The mean layer reshapes geometry and determines gas dynamic characteristic of the nozzle. A special problem is the opening-up of the combustion-mixture, which is not esteemed in this work. It is necessary to allow for effect of considerable local stresses arising at the expense of static and dynamic loading at design of the jet tiny engines. Thermal gas dynamic processes in the chamber and nozzle determine the values and nature of these stresses, which are hardly studied for the microdevices. The priority is mathematical and experimental simulation of these processes. The most suitable object for initial phase of experimental simulation is the 'cold' engine. The demanded chamber static pressure is formed by external compressed air. In Laboratory of Microtechnology and MicroElectroMechanical Systems a number of such tiny engines with different shapes of the chamber's and the nozzles' surfaces were designed, made and tested. The engines were produced from photosensing

  18. Aromatase inhibitors decrease radiation-induced lung fibrosis: Results of an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Altinok, A Y; Yildirim, S; Altug, T; Sut, N; Ober, A; Ozsahin, E M; Azria, D; Bese, N S

    2016-08-01

    In experimental and clinical trials, tamoxifen (TAM) has been shown to increase radiation-induced lung fibrosis (RILF). Furthermore, aromatase inhibitors (AI) have been shown to be superior to TAM in the adjuvant setting and preclinical data suggest that letrozole (LET) sensitizes breast cancer cells to ionizing radiation in other studies. In this experimental study, we evaluated whether AI have any impact on the development of RILF in rats. 60 female wistar- albino rats were divided into 6 groups: Control (group A), RT alone (group B), RT + TAM (group C), RT + anastrozole (ANA group D), RT + LET (group E), and RT + exemestane (EXE, group F). RT consisted of 30 Gy in 10 fractions to both lungs with an anterior field at 2 cm depth. Equivalent doses for 60 kg adult dose per day of TAM, ANA, LET, and EXE were calculated according to the mean weight of rats and orally administrated with a feeding tube. Percentage of lung with fibrosis was quantified with image analysis of histological sections of the lung. The mean score values were calculated for each group. the significance of the differences among groups were calculated using one way ANOVA test and Tukey HSD post-hoc test. Mean values of fibrosis were 1.7, 5.9, 6.7, 2.5, 2 and 2.2 for groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively (p = 0.000). TAM increased RT-induced lung fibrosis but without statistical significance. Groups treated with RT + AI showed significantly less lung fibrosis than groups treated with RT alone or RT + TAM (p = 0.000). RT + AI groups showed nearly similar RT-induced lung fibrosis than control group. In this study, we found that AI decreased RT-induced lung fibrosis to the control group level suggesting protective effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Earlier surgery improves outcomes from painful chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Nengwen; Jia, Dan; Huang, Wei; Nunes, Quentin M.; Windsor, John A.; Liu, Xubao; Sutton, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The timing of surgery for painful chronic pancreatitis (CP) may affect outcomes. Clinical course, Izbicki pain scores, and pancreatic function were retrospectively compared and analyzed between patients undergoing either early or late surgery (< 3 or ≥ 3 years from diagnosis) for painful CP in a single center from 2007 to 2012. The early surgery group (n = 98) more frequently than the late group (n = 199) had abdominal pain with jaundice (22.4% vs 9.5%, P = .002) and pancreatic mass +/− ductal dilatation (47% vs 27%, P < .001), but less frequently abdominal pain alone (73.5% vs 85.9%, P = .009), ductal dilatation alone (31% vs 71%, P < .001), parenchymal calcification (91.8% vs 100%, P < .001) or exocrine insufficiency (60% vs 72%, P = .034); there were no other significant differences. The early group had longer hospital stay (14.4 vs 12.2 days, P = .009), but no difference in complications. Significantly greater pain relief followed early surgery (complete 69% vs 47%, partial 22% vs 37%, none 8% vs 16%, P = .01) with lower rates of exocrine (60% vs 80%, P = .005) and endocrine insufficiency (36% vs 53%, P = .033). Our data indicate that early surgery results in higher rates of pain relief and pancreatic sufficiency than late surgery for chronic pancreatitis patients. Frey and Berne procedures showed better results than other surgical procedures. PMID:29742705

  20. Experimental results of a new system using microwaves for vision correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Thomas P.; Pertaub, Radha; Meyers, Steven R.; Dresher, Russell P.; Scharf, Ronald

    2009-02-01

    Technology is in development to correct vision without the use of lasers or cutting of the eye. Many current technologies used to reshape the cornea are invasive, in that either RF needles are placed into the cornea or a flap is cut and then a laser used to ablate the cornea in the optical zone. Keraflex, a therapeutic microwave treatment, is a noninvasive, non-incisional refractive surgery procedure capable of treating myopia (nearsightedness). The goal is to create a predictable refractive change in the optical zone, while preserving the epithelium and deeper structures of the eye. A further goal is to avoid incisions and damage to the epithelium which both require a post-treatment healing period. Experimental work with fresh porcine eyes examined the following variables: duration of the RF pulse, RF power level, coolant amount and timing, electrode spacing, applanation force against the eye, initial eye temperature, and age of eye. We measured curvature changes of the eye with topography, Scheimpflug, Wavefront aberrometry or other means to characterize diopter change as an important endpoint. Other assessment includes evaluation of a fine white ring seen in the cornea following treatment. Dose studies have been done to correlate the treated region with energy delivered. The timing and dosing of energy and cooling were investigated to achieve the target diopter change in vision.

  1. Experimental cavity pressure measurements at subsonic and transonic speeds. Static-pressure results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plentovich, E. B.; Stallings, Robert L., Jr.; Tracy, M. B.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine cavity flow-characteristics at subsonic and transonic speeds. A rectangular box cavity was tested in the Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.20 to 0.95 at a unit Reynolds number of approximately 3 x 10(exp 6) per foot. The boundary layer approaching the cavity was turbulent. Cavities were tested over a range of length-to-depth ratios (l/h) of 1 to 17.5 for cavity width-to-depth ratios of 1, 4, 8, and 16. Fluctuating- and static-pressure data in the cavity were obtained; however, only static-pressure data is analyzed. The boundaries between the flow regimes based on cavity length-to-depth ratio were determined. The change to transitional flow from open flow occurs at l/h at approximately 6-8 however, the change from transitional- to closed-cavity flow occurred over a wide range of l/h and was dependent on Mach number and cavity configuration. The change from closed to open flow as found to occur gradually. The effect of changing cavity dimensions showed that if the vlaue of l/h was kept fixed but the cavity width was decreased or cavity height was increased, the cavity pressure distribution tended more toward a more closed flow distribution.

  2. Experimental Results of Underwater Cooperative Source Localization Using a Single Acoustic Vector Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Felisberto, Paulo; Rodriguez, Orlando; Santos, Paulo; Ey, Emanuel; Jesus, Sérgio M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at estimating the azimuth, range and depth of a cooperative broadband acoustic source with a single vector sensor in a multipath underwater environment, where the received signal is assumed to be a linear combination of echoes of the source emitted waveform. A vector sensor is a device that measures the scalar acoustic pressure field and the vectorial acoustic particle velocity field at a single location in space. The amplitudes of the echoes in the vector sensor components allow one to determine their azimuth and elevation. Assuming that the environmental conditions of the channel are known, source range and depth are obtained from the estimates of elevation and relative time delays of the different echoes using a ray-based backpropagation algorithm. The proposed method is tested using simulated data and is further applied to experimental data from the Makai'05 experiment, where 8–14 kHz chirp signals were acquired by a vector sensor array. It is shown that for short ranges, the position of the source is estimated in agreement with the geometry of the experiment. The method is low computational demanding, thus well-suited to be used in mobile and light platforms, where space and power requirements are limited. PMID:23857257

  3. Preliminary Experimental Results for Charge Drag in a Simulated Low Earth Orbit Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azema-Rovira, Monica

    Interest in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment is growing in the science community as well as in the private sector. The number of spacecraft launched in these altitudes (150 - 700 km) keeps growing, and this region is accumulating space debris. In this scenario, the precise location of all LEO objects is a key factor to avoid catastrophic collisions and to safely perform station-keeping maneuvers. The detailed study of the atmospheric models in LEO can enhance the disturbances forces calculation of an orbiting object. Recent numerical studies indicate that one of the biggest non-conservative forces on a spacecraft is underestimated, the charge drag phenomenon. Validating these numerical models experimentally, will help to improve the numerical models for future spacecraft mission design. For this reason, the motivation of this thesis is to characterize a plasma source to later be used for charged drag measurements. The characterization has been done at the University of Colorado Colorado Springs in the Chamber for Atmospheric and Orbital Space Simulation. In the characterization process, a nano-Newton Thrust Stand has been characterized as a plasma diagnosis tool and compared with Langmuir Probe data.

  4. James Webb Space Telescope optical simulation testbed III: first experimental results with linear-control alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egron, Sylvain; Lajoie, Charles-Philippe; Leboulleux, Lucie; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Pueyo, Laurent; Choquet, Élodie; Perrin, Marshall D.; Ygouf, Marie; Michau, Vincent; Bonnefois, Aurélie; Fusco, Thierry; Escolle, Clément; Ferrari, Marc; Hugot, Emmanuel; Soummer, Rémi

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Simulation Testbed (JOST) is a tabletop experiment designed to study wavefront sensing and control for a segmented space telescope, including both commissioning and maintenance activities. JOST is complementary to existing testbeds for JWST (e.g. the Ball Aerospace Testbed Telescope TBT) given its compact scale and flexibility, ease of use, and colocation at the JWST Science and Operations Center. The design of JOST reproduces the physics of JWST's three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) using three custom aspheric lenses. It provides similar quality image as JWST (80% Strehl ratio) over a field equivalent to a NIRCam module, but at 633 nm. An Iris AO segmented mirror stands for the segmented primary mirror of JWST. Actuators allow us to control (1) the 18 segments of the segmented mirror in piston, tip, tilt and (2) the second lens, which stands for the secondary mirror, in tip, tilt and x, y, z positions. We present the full linear control alignment infrastructure developed for JOST, with an emphasis on multi-field wavefront sensing and control. Our implementation of the Wavefront Sensing (WFS) algorithms using phase diversity is experimentally tested. The wavefront control (WFC) algorithms, which rely on a linear model for optical aberrations induced by small misalignments of the three lenses, are tested and validated on simulations.

  5. Preliminary Test Results of Heshe Hydrogeological Experimental Well Station in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, P.; Liu, C.; Lin, M.; Chan, W.; Lee, T.; Chia, Y.; Teng, M.; Liu, C.

    2013-12-01

    Safe disposal of radioactive waste is a critical issue for the development of nuclear energy. The design of final disposal system is based on the concept of multiple barriers which integrate the natural barriers and engineering barriers for long-term isolation of radioactive wastes. As groundwater is the major medium that can transport radionuclides to our living environment, it is essential to characterize groundwater flow at the disposal site. Taiwan is located at the boundary between the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea plate. Geologic formations are often fractured due to tectonic compression and extension. In this study, a well station for the research and development of hydrogeological techniques was established at the Experimental Forest of the National Taiwan University in central Taiwan. There are 10 testing wells, ranging in depth from 25 m to 100 m, at the station. The bedrock beneath the regolith is highly fractured mudstone. As fracture is the preferential pathway of the groundwater flow, the focus of in-situ tests is to investigate the location of permeable fractures and the connection of permeable fractures. Several field tests have been conducted, including geophysical logging, heat-pulse flowmeter, hydraulic test, tracer test and double packer test, for the development of advanced technologies to detect the preferential groundwater flow in fractured rocks.

  6. Elders recall an earlier tsunami on Indian Ocean shores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kakar, Din Mohammad; Naeem, Ghazala; Usman, Abdullah; Hasan, Haider; Lohdi, Hira; Srinivasalu, Seshachalam; Andrade, Vanessa; Rajendran, C.P.; Naderi Beni, Abdolmajid; Hamzeh, Mohammad Ali; Hoffmann, Goesta; Al Balushi, Noora; Gale, Nora; Kodijat, Ardito; Fritz, Hermann M.; Atwater, Brian F.

    2014-01-01

    Ten years on, the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004 still looms large in efforts to reduce coastal risk. The disaster has spurred worldwide advances in tsunami detection and warning, tsunami-risk assessment, and tsunami awareness [Satake, 2014]. Nearly a lifetime has passed since the northwestern Indian Ocean last produced a devastating tsunami. Documentation of this tsunami, in November 1945, was hindered by international instability in the wake of the Second World War and, in British India, by the approach of independence and partition. The parent earthquake, of magnitude 8.1, was widely recorded, and the tsunami registered on tide gauges, but intelligence reports and newspaper articles say little about inundation limits while permitting a broad range of catalogued death tolls. What has been established about the 1945 tsunami falls short of what's needed today for ground-truthing inundation models, estimating risk to enlarged populations, and anchoring awareness campaigns in local facts. Recent efforts to reduce coastal risk around the Arabian Sea include a project in which eyewitnesses to the 1945 tsunami were found and interviewed (Fig. 1), and related archives were gathered. Results are being made available through UNESCO's Indian Ocean Tsunami Information Center in hopes of increasing scientific understanding and public awareness of the region's tsunami hazards.

  7. Predictability and possible earlier awareness of extreme precipitation across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavers, David; Pappenberger, Florian; Richardson, David; Zsoter, Ervin

    2017-04-01

    Extreme hydrological events can cause large socioeconomic damages in Europe. In winter, a large proportion of these flood episodes are associated with atmospheric rivers, a region of intense water vapour transport within the warm sector of extratropical cyclones. When preparing for such extreme events, forecasts of precipitation from numerical weather prediction models or river discharge forecasts from hydrological models are generally used. Given the strong link between water vapour transport (integrated vapour transport IVT) and heavy precipitation, it is possible that IVT could be used to warn of extreme events. Furthermore, as IVT is located in extratropical cyclones, it is hypothesized to be a more predictable variable due to its link with synoptic-scale atmospheric dynamics. In this research, we firstly provide an overview of the predictability of IVT and precipitation forecasts, and secondly introduce and evaluate the ECMWF Extreme Forecast Index (EFI) for IVT. The EFI is a tool that has been developed to evaluate how ensemble forecasts differ from the model climate, thus revealing the extremeness of the forecast. The ability of the IVT EFI to capture extreme precipitation across Europe during winter 2013/14, 2014/15, and 2015/16 is presented. The results show that the IVT EFI is more capable than the precipitation EFI of identifying extreme precipitation in forecast week 2 during forecasts initialized in a positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phase. However, the precipitation EFI is superior during the negative NAO phase and at shorter lead times. An IVT EFI example is shown for storm Desmond in December 2015 highlighting its potential to identify upcoming hydrometeorological extremes.

  8. Exchange asymmetry in experimental settings

    Treesearch

    Thomas C. Brown; Mark D. Morrison; Jacob A. Benfield; Gretchen Nurse Rainbolt; Paul A. Bell

    2015-01-01

    We review past trading experiments and present 11 new experiments designed to show how the trading rate responds to alterations of the experimental procedure. In agreement with earlier studies, results show that if the trade decision is converted to one resembling a choice between goods the exchange asymmetry disappears, but otherwise the asymmetry is...

  9. Promoting walking to school: results of a quasi-experimental trial.

    PubMed

    McKee, Rosie; Mutrie, Nanette; Crawford, Fiona; Green, Brian

    2007-09-01

    To assess the impact of a combined intervention on children's travel behaviour, stage of behavioural change and motivations for and barriers to actively commuting to school. A quasi-experimental trial involving pre- and post-intervention mapping of routes to school by active and inactive mode of travel and surveys of "stage of behaviour change" and motivations for and barriers to actively commuting to school. The intervention school participated in a school-based active travel project for one school term. Active travel was integrated into the curriculum and participants used interactive travel-planning resources at home. The control school participated in before and after measurements but did not receive the intervention. Two primary schools in Scotland with similar socioeconomic and demographic profiles. Two classes of primary 5 children and their families and teachers. Post intervention, the mean distance travelled to school by walking by intervention children increased significantly from baseline, from 198 to 772 m (389% increase). In the control group mean distance walked increased from 242 to 285 m (17% increase). The difference between the schools was significant (t (38) = -4.679, p<0.001 (95% confidence interval -315 to -795 m)). Post intervention, the mean distance travelled to school by car by intervention children reduced significantly from baseline, from 2018 to 933 m (57.5% reduction). The mean distance travelled to school by car by control children increased from baseline, from 933 to 947 m (1.5% increase). The difference in the change between schools was significant (t (32) = 4.282, p<0.001 (95% confidence interval 445 to 1255 m)). Intervention was effective in achieving an increase in the mean distance travelled by active mode and a reduction in the mean distance travelled by inactive mode on school journey.

  10. Adsorption of normal pentane on the surface of rutile. Experimental results and simulations.

    PubMed

    Rakhmatkariev, G U; Carvalho, A J Palace; Ramalho, J P Prates

    2007-07-03

    Adsorption isotherms and differential heats of normal pentane adsorption on microcrystalline rutile were measured at 303 K. The heat of adsorption of n-pentane on rutile at zero occupancy is 64 kJ/mol. The differential heats have three descending segments, corresponding to the adsorption of n-pentane on three types of surfaces. At low coverage (first segment), the adsorption is restricted to the rows A of the (110) faces along the 5-fold coordinatively unsaturated (cus) Ti(4+) ions with differential heat showing a linear decrease with increasing occupancy. The second segment is attributed to bonding with atoms of the rows along the remaining faces exposed, (101) and (100). The third segment is related to a multilayer adsorption. The mean molar adsorption entropy of n-pentane is ca. -25 J/mol K less than the entropy of the bulk liquid, thus revealing a hindered state of motion of the n-pentane molecules on the surface of rutile. Simulations of the adsorption of n-pentane on the three most abundant crystallographic faces of rutile were also performed. The adsorption isotherm obtained from the combination of each face's isotherm weighted by the respective abundance was found to be in a good agreement with the experimental data. A structural characterization of n-pentane near the surface was also conducted, and it was found that the substrate, especially for the (110) face, strongly perturbs the distribution of n-pentane conformations, compared to those found for the gas phase. Adsorbed molecules are predominantly oriented with their long axes and their backbone zigzag planes parallel to the surface and are also characterized by fewer gauche conformations than observed in the bulk phase.

  11. Scoliosis correction with shape-memory metal: results of an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Wever, D J; Elstrodt, J A; Veldhuizen, A G; v Horn, J R

    2002-04-01

    The biocompatibility and functionality of a new scoliosis correction device, based on the properties of the shape-memory metal nickel-titanium alloy, were studied. With this device, the shape recovery forces of a shape-memory metal rod are used to achieve a gradual three-dimensional scoliosis correction. In the experimental study the action of the new device was inverted: the device was used to induce a scoliotic curve instead of correcting one. Surgical procedures were performed in six pigs. An originally curved squared rod, in the cold condition, was straightened and fixed to the spine with pedicle screws. Peroperatively, the memory effect of the rod was activated by heating the rod to 50 degrees C by a low-voltage, high-frequency current. After 3 and after 6 months the animals were sacrificed. The first radiographs, obtained immediately after surgery, showed in all animals an induced curve of about 40 degrees Cobb angle - the original curve of the rod. This curve remained constant during the follow-up. The postoperative serum nickel measurements were around the detection limit, and were not significantly higher compared to the preoperative nickel concentration. Macroscopic inspection after 3 and 6 months showed that the device was almost overgrown with newly formed bone. Corrosion and fretting processes were not observed. Histologic examination of the sections of the surrounding tissues and sections of the lung, liver, spleen and kidney showed no evidence of a foreign body response. In view of the initiation of the scoliotic deformation, it is expected that the shape-memory metal based scoliosis correction device also has the capacity to correct a scoliotic curve. Moreover, it is expected that the new device will show good biocompatibility in clinical application. Extensive fatigue testing of the whole system should be performed before clinical trials are initiated.

  12. CO 2 utilization and storage in shale gas reservoirs: Experimental results and economic impacts

    DOE PAGES

    Schaef, Herbert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Owen, Antionette Toni; ...

    2014-12-31

    Natural gas is considered a cleaner and lower-emission fuel than coal, and its high abundance from advanced drilling techniques has positioned natural gas as a major alternative energy source for the U.S. However, each ton of CO 2 emitted from any type of fossil fuel combustion will continue to increase global atmospheric concentrations. One unique approach to reducing anthropogenic CO 2 emissions involves coupling CO 2 based enhanced gas recovery (EGR) operations in depleted shale gas reservoirs with long-term CO 2 storage operations. In this paper, we report unique findings about the interactions between important shale minerals and sorbing gasesmore » (CH 4 and CO 2) and associated economic consequences. Where enhanced condensation of CO 2 followed by desorption on clay surface is observed under supercritical conditions, a linear sorption profile emerges for CH 4. Volumetric changes to montmorillonites occur during exposure to CO 2. Theory-based simulations identify interactions with interlayer cations as energetically favorable for CO 2 intercalation. Thus, experimental evidence suggests CH 4 does not occupy the interlayer and has only the propensity for surface adsorption. Mixed CH 4:CO 2 gas systems, where CH 4 concentrations prevail, indicate preferential CO 2 sorption as determined by in situ infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Collectively, these laboratory studies combined with a cost-based economic analysis provide a basis for identifying favorable CO 2-EOR opportunities in previously fractured shale gas reservoirs approaching final stages of primary gas production. Moreover, utilization of site-specific laboratory measurements in reservoir simulators provides insight into optimum injection strategies for maximizing CH 4/CO 2 exchange rates to obtain peak natural gas production.« less

  13. Use of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of osteomalacia: preliminary results on experimental osteomalacia in the rat.

    PubMed

    Luisetto, G; Camozzi, V; De Terlizzi, F; Moschini, G; Ballanti, P

    1999-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the ability of ultrasonographic technique to distinguish osteomalacia from normal bone with the same mineral content. Ten rats with experimentally induced osteomalacia (group A) and 12 control rats having similar body size and weight (group B) were studied. Histomorphometric analysis confirmed the presence of osteomalacia in two rats from group A and showed normally mineralized bone in two rats from group B. Whole body bone mineral density, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, was similar in the two groups (86 +/- 6 mg/cm2 in group A and 89 +/- 4 mg/cm2 in group B). The velocity of the ultrasound beam in bone was measured by densitometer at the first caudal vertebra of each rat. The velocity was measured when the first peak of the waveform reached a predetermined minimum amplitude value (amplitude-dependent speed of sound) as well as at the lowest point of this curve before it reaches the predetermined minimum amplitude (first minimum speed of sound). Although the amplitude-dependent speed of sound was similar in the two groups (1381.9 +/- 11.8 m/s in group A and 1390.9 +/- 17.8 m/s in group B), the first minimum speed of sound was clearly different (1446.1 +/- 8.9 m/s in group A and 1503.3 +/- 10.9 m/s in group B; P < 0.001). This study shows that ultrasonography could be used to identify alterations in bone quality, such as osteomalacia, but further studies need to be carried out before this method can be introduced into clinical practice.

  14. Investigations of a Combustor Using a 9-Point Swirl-Venturi Fuel Injector: Recent Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Heath, Christopher M.; Anderson, Robert C.; Tacina, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores recent results obtained during testing in an optically-accessible, JP8-fueled, flame tube combustor using baseline Lean Direct Injection (LDI) research hardware. The baseline LDI geometry has nine fuel/air mixers arranged in a 3 x 3 array. Results from this nine-element array include images of fuel and OH speciation via Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF), which describe fuel spray pattern and reaction zones. Preliminary combustion temperatures derived from Stokes/Anti-Stokes Spontaneous Raman Spectroscopy are also presented. Other results using chemiluminescence from major combustion radicals such as CH* and C2* serve to identify the primary reaction zone, while OH PLIF shows the extent of reaction further downstream. Air and fuel velocities and fuel drop size results are also reported.

  15. Clinical pathology results from cranes with experimental West Nile Virus infection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    2011-01-01

    Sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) were vaccinated for and then challenged with West Nile virus. Resulting titers demonstrated protection in the vaccinated-challenged cranes as compared to the unvaccinated-challenged cranes. Clinical pathology results showed challenged cranes, whether vaccinated or not, had a decrease in their hematocrits and an elevation of 2.5-fold in their white blood cell counts as compared to unchallenged control sandhill cranes. No differences were apparent in the differential counts of heterophils and lymphocytes.

  16. Microfabricated Air-Microfluidic Sensor for Personal Monitoring of Airborne Particulate Matter: Design, Fabrication, and Experimental Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present the design and fabrication of a micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) air-microfluidic particulate matter (PM) sensor, and show experimental results obtained from exposing the sensor to concentrations of tobacco smoke and diesel exhaust, two commonly occurring P...

  17. Cabauw Experimental Results from the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T. H.; Henderson-Sellers, A.; Milly, P. C. D.; Pitman, A. J.; Beljaars, A. C. M.; Polcher, J.; Abramopoulos, F.; Boone, A.; Chang, S.; Chen, F.; Dai, Y.; Desborough, C. E.; Dickinson, R. E.; Dümenil, L.; Ek, M.; Garratt, J. R.; Gedney, N.; Gusev, Y. M.;  Kim, J.;  Koster, R.;  Kowalczyk, E. A.;  Laval, K.;  Lean, J.;  Lettenmaier, D.;  Liang, X.;  Mahfouf, J.-F.;  Mengelkamp, H.-T.;  Mitchell, K.;  Nasonova, O. N.;  Noilhan, J.;  Robock, A.;  Rosenzweig, C.;  Schaake, J.;  Schlosser, C. A.;  Schulz, J.-P.;  Shao, Y.;  Shmakin, A. B.;  Verseghy, D. L.;  Wetzel, P.;  Wood, E. F.;  Xue, Y.;  Yang, Z.-L.;  Zeng, Q.

    1997-06-01

    runoff at the site is believed to be dominated by vertical drainage to groundwater, but several schemes produced significant amounts of runoff as overland flow or interflow. There is a range across schemes of 184 mm (40% of total pore volume) in the simulated annual mean root-zone soil moisture. Unfortunately, no measurements of soil moisture were available for model evaluation. A theoretical analysis suggested that differences in boundary conditions used in various schemes are not sufficient to explain the large variance in soil moisture. However, many of the extreme values of soil moisture could be explained in terms of the particulars of experimental setup or excessive evapotranspiration.

  18. Association between red meat consumption and colon cancer: A systematic review of experimental results.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nancy D; Lloyd, Shannon K

    2017-04-01

    A role for red and processed meat in the development of colorectal cancer has been proposed based largely on evidence from observational studies in humans, especially in those populations consuming a westernized diet. Determination of causation specifically by red or processed meat is contingent upon identification of plausible mechanisms that lead to colorectal cancer. We conducted a systematic review of the available evidence to determine the availability of plausible mechanistic data linking red and processed meat consumption to colorectal cancer risk. Forty studies using animal models or cell cultures met specified inclusion criteria, most of which were designed to examine the role of heme iron or heterocyclic amines in relation to colon carcinogenesis. Most studies used levels of meat or meat components well in excess of those found in human diets. Although many of the experiments used semi-purified diets designed to mimic the nutrient loads in current westernized diets, most did not include potential biologically active protective compounds present in whole foods. Because of these limitations in the existing literature, there is currently insufficient evidence to confirm a mechanistic link between the intake of red meat as part of a healthy dietary pattern and colorectal cancer risk. Impact statement Current recommendations to reduce colon cancer include the reduction or elimination of red or processed meats. These recommendations are based on data from epidemiological studies conducted among cultures where meat consumption is elevated and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are reduced. This review evaluated experimental data exploring the putative mechanisms whereby red or processed meats may contribute to colon cancer. Most studies used levels of meat or meat-derived compounds that were in excess of those in human diets, even in cultures where meat intake is elevated. Experiments where protective dietary compounds were used to mitigate the

  19. Association between red meat consumption and colon cancer: A systematic review of experimental results

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Shannon K

    2017-01-01

    A role for red and processed meat in the development of colorectal cancer has been proposed based largely on evidence from observational studies in humans, especially in those populations consuming a westernized diet. Determination of causation specifically by red or processed meat is contingent upon identification of plausible mechanisms that lead to colorectal cancer. We conducted a systematic review of the available evidence to determine the availability of plausible mechanistic data linking red and processed meat consumption to colorectal cancer risk. Forty studies using animal models or cell cultures met specified inclusion criteria, most of which were designed to examine the role of heme iron or heterocyclic amines in relation to colon carcinogenesis. Most studies used levels of meat or meat components well in excess of those found in human diets. Although many of the experiments used semi-purified diets designed to mimic the nutrient loads in current westernized diets, most did not include potential biologically active protective compounds present in whole foods. Because of these limitations in the existing literature, there is currently insufficient evidence to confirm a mechanistic link between the intake of red meat as part of a healthy dietary pattern and colorectal cancer risk. Impact statement Current recommendations to reduce colon cancer include the reduction or elimination of red or processed meats. These recommendations are based on data from epidemiological studies conducted among cultures where meat consumption is elevated and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are reduced. This review evaluated experimental data exploring the putative mechanisms whereby red or processed meats may contribute to colon cancer. Most studies used levels of meat or meat-derived compounds that were in excess of those in human diets, even in cultures where meat intake is elevated. Experiments where protective dietary compounds were used to mitigate the

  20. Cabauw experimental results from the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, T.H.; Henderson-Sellers, A.; Milly, P.C.D.; Pitman, A.J.; Beljaars, A.C.M.; Polcher, J.; Abramopoulos, F.; Boone, A.; Chang, S.; Chen, F.; Dai, Y.; Desborough, C.E.; Dickinson, R.E.; Dumenil, L.; Ek, M.; Garratt, J.R.; Gedney, N.; Gusev, Y.M.; Kim, J.; Koster, R.; Kowalczyk, E.A.; Laval, K.; Lean, J.; Lettenmaier, D.; Liang, X.; Mahfouf, Jean-Francois; Mengelkamp, H.-T.; Mitchell, Ken; Nasonova, O.N.; Noilhan, J.; Robock, A.; Rosenzweig, C.; Schaake, J.; Schlosser, C.A.; Schulz, J.-P.; Shao, Y.; Shmakin, A.B.; Verseghy, D.L.; Wetzel, P.; Wood, E.F.; Xue, Y.; Yang, Z.-L.; Zeng, Q.

    1997-01-01

    ). Actual runoff at the site is believed to be dominated by vertical drainage to groundwater, but several schemes produced significant amounts of runoff as overland flow or interflow. There is a range across schemes of 184 mm (40% of total pore volume) in the simulated annual mean root-zone soil moisture. Unfortunately, no measurements of soil moisture were available for model evaluation. A theoretical analysis suggested that differences in boundary conditions used in various schemes are not sufficient to explain the large variance in soil moisture. However, many of the extreme values of soil moisture could be explained in terms of the particulars of experimental setup or excessive evapotranspiration.

  1. An iwatsubo-based solution for labyrinth seals - comparison with experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, D. W.; Scharrer, J. K.

    1984-01-01

    The basic equations are derived for compressible flow in a labyrinth seal. The flow is assumed to be completely turbulent in the circumferential direction where the friction factor is determined by the Blasius relation. Linearized zeroth and first-order perturbation equations are developed for small motion about a centered position by an expansion in the eccentricity ratio. The zeroth-order pressure distribution is found by satisfying the leakage equation while the circumferential velocity distribution is determined by satisfying the momentum equation. The first-order equations are solved by a separation of variables solution. Integration of the resultant pressure distribution along and around the seal defines the reaction force developed by the seal and the corresponding dynamic coefficients. The results of this analysis are compared to published test results.

  2. Experimental results supporting the determination of service quality objectives for DBS systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chouinard, G.; Whyte, W. A., Jr.; Goldberg, A. A.; Jones, B. L.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of the results of a joint United States and Canadian program on subjective measurements of the picture degradation caused by noise and interference on an NTSC encoded color television signal is given in this paper. The effects of system noise, cochannel and adjacent channel interference, and both single entry and aggregate as well as a combination of these types of interference were subjectively evaluated by expert and nonexpert viewers under reference conditions. These results were used to develop the rationale used at RARC '83 to establish the service quality objective for planning the DBS service for the American continents.

  3. Experimental field test of proposed anti-dart-out training programs. Volume 1, Conduct and results

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the conduct and results of an evaluation of a child pedestrian anti-dart-out training program. Two versions were tested: A film program and a film/simulator program. Before/after accident and street crossing behavior data were c...

  4. What Do Proteges Look for in a Mentor? Results of Three Experimental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olian, Judy D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Conducted three experiments (total N=675) to examine determinants of potential protege attraction into relationship with mentor. Results suggest influence of manager interpersonal competence, manager's integration into decision making network of organization, gender, and protege age. Protege work experience and mentor age did not have significant…

  5. Hypersonic research engine/aerothermodynamic integration model, experimental results. Volume 2: Mach 6 performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, E. H., Jr.; Mackley, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    Computer program performance results of a Mach 6 hypersonic research engine during supersonic and subsonic combustion modes were presented. The combustion mode transition was successfully performed, exit surveys made, and effects of altitude, angle of attack, and inlet spike position were determined during these tests.

  6. Parameters of thermochemical plumes responsible for the formation of batholiths: Results of experimental simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirdyashkin, A. A.; Kirdyashkin, A. G.; Gurov, V. V.

    2017-07-01

    Based on laboratory and theoretical modeling results, we present the thermal and hydrodynamical structure of the plume conduit during plume ascent and eruption on the Earth's surface. The modeling results show that a mushroom-shaped plume head forms after melt eruption on the surface for 1.9 < Ka < 10. Such plumes can be responsible for the formation of large intrusive bodies, including batholiths. The results of laboratory modeling of plumes with mushroom-shaped heads are presented for Ka = 8.7 for a constant viscosity and uniform melt composition. Images of flow patterns are obtained, as well as flow velocity profiles in the melt of the conduit and the head of the model plume. Based on the laboratory modeling data, we present a scheme of a thermochemical plume with a mushroom-shaped head responsible for the formation of a large intrusive body (batholith). After plume eruption to the surface, melting occurs along the base of the massif above the plume head, resulting in a mushroom-shaped plume head. A possible mechanism for the formation of localized surface manifestations of batholiths is presented. The parameters of some plumes with mushroom-shaped heads (plumes of the Altay-Sayan and Barguzin-Vitim large-igneous provinces, and Khangai and Khentei plumes) are estimated using geological data, including age intervals and volumes of magma melts.

  7. An experimental search strategy retrieves more precise results than PubMed and Google for questions about medical interventions

    PubMed Central

    Dylla, Daniel P.; Megison, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We compared the precision of a search strategy designed specifically to retrieve randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of RCTs with search strategies designed for broader purposes. Methods. We designed an experimental search strategy that automatically revised searches up to five times by using increasingly restrictive queries as long at least 50 citations were retrieved. We compared the ability of the experimental and alternative strategies to retrieve studies relevant to 312 test questions. The primary outcome, search precision, was defined for each strategy as the proportion of relevant, high quality citations among the first 50 citations retrieved. Results. The experimental strategy had the highest median precision (5.5%; interquartile range [IQR]: 0%–12%) followed by the narrow strategy of the PubMed Clinical Queries (4.0%; IQR: 0%–10%). The experimental strategy found the most high quality citations (median 2; IQR: 0–6) and was the strategy most likely to find at least one high quality citation (73% of searches; 95% confidence interval 68%–78%). All comparisons were statistically significant. Conclusions. The experimental strategy performed the best in all outcomes although all strategies had low precision. PMID:25922798

  8. Experimental results from magnetized-jet experiments executed at the Jupiter Laser Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Kuranz, C. C.; Rasmus, A. M.; Klein, S. R.; MacDonald, M. J.; Trantham, M. R.; Fein, J. R.; Belancourt, P. X.; Young, R. P.; Keiter, P. A.; Drake, R. P.; Pollock, B. B.; Park, J.; Hazi, A. U.; Williams, G. J.; Chen, H.

    2015-12-01

    Recent experiments at the Jupiter Laser Facility investigated magnetization effects on collimated plasma jets. Laser-irradiated plastic-cone-targets produced collimated, millimeter-scale plasma flows as indicated by optical interferometry. Proton radiography of these jets showed no indication of strong, self-generated magnetic fields, suggesting a dominantly hydrodynamic collimating mechanism. Targets were placed in a custom-designed solenoid capable of generating field strengths up to 5 T. Proton radiographs of the well-characterized B-field, without a plasma jet, suggested an external source of trapped electrons that affects proton trajectories. The background magnetic field was aligned with the jet propagation direction, as is the case in many astrophysical systems. Optical interferometry showed that magnetization of the plasma results in disruption of the collimated flow and instead produces a hollow cavity. This result is a topic of ongoing investigation.

  9. Laboratory analyses of micron-sized solid grains: Experimental techniques and recent results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colangeli, L.; Bussoletti, E.; Blanco, A.; Borghesi, A.; Fonti, S.; Orofino, V.; Schwehm, G.

    1989-01-01

    Morphological and spectrophotometric investigations have been extensively applied in the past years to various kinds of micron and/or submicron-sized grains formed by materials which are candidate to be present in space. The samples are produced in the laboratory and then characterized in their physio-chemical properties. Some of the most recent results obtained on various kinds of carbonaceous materials are reported. Main attention is devoted to spectroscopic results in the VUV and IR wavelength ranges, where many of the analyzed samples show typical fingerprints which can be identified also in astrophysical and cometary materials. The laboratory methodologies used so far are also critically discussed in order to point out capabilities and present limitations, in the view of possible application to returned comet samples. Suggestions are given to develop new techniques which should overcome some of the problems faced in the manipulation and analysis of micron solid samples.

  10. Experimental results on multi-nucleonic K- absorptions in light nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez Doce, O.; Cargnelli, M.; Curceanu, C.; Del Grande, R.; Fabbietti, L.; Marton, J.; Piscicchia, K.; Scordo, A.; Sirghi, D.; Tucakovic, I.; Wycech, S.; Zmeskal, J.; Anastasi, A.; Curciarello, F.; Czerwinski, E.; Krzemien, W.; Mandaglio, G.; Martini, M.; Moskal, P.; Patera, V.; Perez del Rio, E.; Silarski, M.

    2017-03-01

    The AMADEUS collaboration studied the K- absorptions at low momentum in light nuclei leading to Σ0p final state. Those events were recorded by the KLOE detector, used as an active target, installed in the the DAΦNE collider. The results show that it is possible to isolate the process where the K- is absorbed by two nucleons and the decay products are emitted without any further final state interactions among other contributions involving more than two nucleons. Further, the possible contribution of a ppK- bound state was investigated. The best fit gives space to a yield of ppK-/Kstop- = (0.044 ± 0.009 stat-0.005+0.004) × 10-2 corresponding to a binding energy and a width of 45 and 30 MeV/c2, respectively. A statistical analysis of this result shows although that its significance is only at the level of 1σ.

  11. Operational results for the experimental DOE/NASA Mod-OA wind turbine project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaltens, R. K.; Birchenough, A. G.

    The Mod-OA wind turbine project which was to gain early experience in the operation of large wind turbines in a utility environment is discussed. The Mod-OA wind turbines were a first generation design, and even though not cost effective, the operating experience and performance characteristics had a significant effect on the design and development of the second and third generation machines. The Mod-OA machines were modified as a result of the operational experience, particularly the blade development and control system strategy. The results of study to investigate the interaction of a Mod-OA wind turbine with an isolated diesel generation system are discussed. The machine configuration, its advantages and disadvantages and the machine performance and availability are discussed.

  12. Experimental results from magnetized-jet experiments executed at the Jupiter Laser Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Manuel, M. J. -E.; Kuranz, C. C.; Rasmus, A. M.; ...

    2014-08-20

    Recent experiments at the Jupiter Laser Facility investigated magnetization effects on collimated plasma jets. Laser-irradiated plastic-cone-targets produced collimated, millimeter-scale plasma flows as indicated by optical interferometry. Proton radiography of these jets showed no indication of strong, self-generated magnetic fields, suggesting a dominantly hydrodynamic collimating mechanism. Targets were placed in a custom-designed solenoid capable of generating field strengths up to 5 T. Proton radiographs of the well-characterized B-field, without a plasma jet, suggested an external source of trapped electrons that affects proton trajectories. The background magnetic field was aligned with the jet propagation direction, as is the case in many astrophysicalmore » systems. Optical interferometry showed that magnetization of the plasma results in disruption of the collimated flow and instead produces a hollow cavity. Furthermore, this result is a topic of ongoing investigation.« less

  13. Experimental results from magnetized-jet experiments executed at the Jupiter Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, M. J. -E.; Kuranz, C. C.; Rasmus, A. M.

    Recent experiments at the Jupiter Laser Facility investigated magnetization effects on collimated plasma jets. Laser-irradiated plastic-cone-targets produced collimated, millimeter-scale plasma flows as indicated by optical interferometry. Proton radiography of these jets showed no indication of strong, self-generated magnetic fields, suggesting a dominantly hydrodynamic collimating mechanism. Targets were placed in a custom-designed solenoid capable of generating field strengths up to 5 T. Proton radiographs of the well-characterized B-field, without a plasma jet, suggested an external source of trapped electrons that affects proton trajectories. The background magnetic field was aligned with the jet propagation direction, as is the case in many astrophysicalmore » systems. Optical interferometry showed that magnetization of the plasma results in disruption of the collimated flow and instead produces a hollow cavity. Furthermore, this result is a topic of ongoing investigation.« less

  14. Operational results for the experimental DOE/NASA Mod-OA wind turbine project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, R. K.; Birchenough, A. G.

    1983-01-01

    The Mod-OA wind turbine project which was to gain early experience in the operation of large wind turbines in a utility environment is discussed. The Mod-OA wind turbines were a first generation design, and even though not cost effective, the operating experience and performance characteristics had a significant effect on the design and development of the second and third generation machines. The Mod-OA machines were modified as a result of the operational experience, particularly the blade development and control system strategy. The results of study to investigate the interaction of a Mod-OA wind turbine with an isolated diesel generation system are discussed. The machine configuration, its advantages and disadvantages and the machine performance and availability are discussed.

  15. Impulse propagation over a complex site: a comparison of experimental results and numerical predictions.

    PubMed

    Dragna, Didier; Blanc-Benon, Philippe; Poisson, Franck

    2014-03-01

    Results from outdoor acoustic measurements performed in a railway site near Reims in France in May 2010 are compared to those obtained from a finite-difference time-domain solver of the linearized Euler equations. During the experiments, the ground profile and the different ground surface impedances were determined. Meteorological measurements were also performed to deduce mean vertical profiles of wind and temperature. An alarm pistol was used as a source of impulse signals and three microphones were located along a propagation path. The various measured parameters are introduced as input data into the numerical solver. In the frequency domain, the numerical results are in good accordance with the measurements up to a frequency of 2 kHz. In the time domain, except a time shift, the predicted waveforms match the measured waveforms with a close agreement.

  16. Plasma discharge in N2 + CH4 at low pressures - Experimental results and applications to Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Henry, Todd J.; Schwartz, Joel M.; Khare, B. N.; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Results are reported from laboratory continuous-flow plasma-discharge experiments designed to simulate the formation of hydrocarbons and nitriles from N2 and CH4 in the atmosphere of Titan. Gas-chromatography and mass-spectrometry data were obtained in experiments lasting up to 100 h at temperature 295 K and pressure 17 or 0.24 mbar, modeling (1) cosmic-ray-induced processes in the Titan troposphere and (2) processes related to stratospheric aurorae excited by energetic electrons and ions from the Saturn magnetosphere, respectively. The results are presented in extensive tables and graphs, and the 0.24-mbar yields are incorporated into an eddy-mixing model to give stratospheric column abundances and mole fractions in good agreement with Voyager IRIS observations.

  17. Comparison of bursting pressure results of LPG tank using experimental and finite element method.

    PubMed

    Aksoley, M Egemen; Ozcelik, Babur; Bican, Ismail

    2008-03-01

    In this study, the resistance of liquefied-petroleum gas (LPG) tanks produced from carbon steel sheet metal of different thicknesses has been investigated by bursting pressure experiments and non-linear Finite Element Method (FEM) method by increasing internal pressure values. The designs of LPG tanks produced from sheet metal to be used at the study have been realized by analytical calculations made taking into consideration of related standards. Bursting pressure tests have been performed that were inclined to decreasing the sheet thickness of LPG tanks used in industry. It has been shown that the LPG tanks can be produced in compliance with the standards when the sheet thickness is lowered from 3 to 2.8mm. The FEM results have displayed close values with the bursting results obtained from the experiments.

  18. Hypersonic research engine/aerothermodynamic integration model, experimental results. Volume 1: Mach 6 component integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, E. H., Jr.; Mackley, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA Hypersonic Research Engine (HRE) Project was initiated for the purpose of advancing the technology of airbreathing propulsion for hypersonic flight. A large component (inlet, combustor, and nozzle) and structures development program was encompassed by the project. The tests of a full-scale (18 in. diameter cowl and 87 in. long) HRE concept, designated the Aerothermodynamic Integration Model (AIM), at Mach numbers of 5, 6, and 7. Computer program results for Mach 6 component integration tests are presented.

  19. Flight Measurements of Helicopter Blade Motion with a Comparison between Theoretical and Experimental Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-04-01

    EXPERS5EHTAL RESULTS By G-arry C. Myers, Jr. STHMÄRY Hi order to provide " basic data on helicopter rotor-"blade motion, photographic .records of...ABOUT 2HE AXIS OF NO FEATHERING Reason for conversion.- At the time that the " basic theoretical treatments, such as that of reference 1, were made...of the machanical means used for achieving it. This fact may be confirmed by inspection but has also been demonstrated mathematically in reference

  20. Airglow during ionospheric modifications by the sura facility radiation. experimental results obtained in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grach, S. M.; Klimenko, V. V.; Shindin, A. V.; Nasyrov, I. A.; Sergeev, E. N.; A. Yashnov, V.; A. Pogorelko, N.

    2012-06-01

    We present the results of studying the structure and dynamics of the HF-heated volume above the Sura facility obtained in 2010 by measurements of ionospheric airglow in the red (λ = 630 nm) and green (λ = 557.7 nm) lines of atomic oxygen. Vertical sounding of the ionosphere (followed by modeling of the pump-wave propagation) and measurements of stimulated electromagnetic emission were used for additional diagnostics of ionospheric parameters and the processes occurring in the heated volume.

  1. Experimental results on plasma interactions with large surfaces at high voltages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grier, N. T.

    1980-01-01

    Multikilowatt power levels for future payloads can be more efficiently generated using solar arrays operating in the kilovolt range. This implies that large areas of the array at high operating voltages will be exposed to the space plasma environment. The resulting interactions of these high voltage surfaces with space plasma environments can seriously impact the performance of the satellite system. The plasma-surface interaction phenomena were studied in tests performed in two separate vacuum chambers, a 4.6 m diameter by 19.2 long chamber and a 20 m diameter by 27.4 m long chamber. The generated plasma density was approximately 1x10 to the 4th power/cu cm. Ten solar array panels, each with areas of 1400 sq cm were used in the tests. Nine of the solar panels were tested as a composite unit in the form of a 3x3 solar panel matrix. The results from all the tests confirmed small sample tests results: insulators were found to enhance the plasma coupling current for high positive bias and arcing was found to occur at high negative bias.

  2. Experimental results for the rapid determination of the freezing point of fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathiprakasam, B.

    1984-01-01

    Two methods for the rapid determination of the freezing point of fuels were investigated: an optical method, which detected the change in light transmission from the disappearance of solid particles in the melted fuel; and a differential thermal analysis (DTA) method, which sensed the latent heat of fusion. A laboratory apparatus was fabricated to test the two methods. Cooling was done by thermoelectric modules using an ice-water bath as a heat sink. The DTA method was later modified to eliminate the reference fuel. The data from the sample were digitized and a point of inflection, which corresponds to the ASTM D-2386 freezing point (final melting point), was identified from the derivative. The apparatus was modifified to cool the fuel to -60 C and controls were added for maintaining constant cooling rate, rewarming rate, and hold time at minimum temperature. A parametric series of tests were run for twelve fuels with freezing points from -10 C to -50 C, varying cooling rate, rewarming rate, and hold time. Based on the results, an optimum test procedure was established. The results showed good agreement with ASTM D-2386 freezing point and differential scanning calorimetry results.

  3. Experimental results of the 140 GHz, 1 MW long-pulse gyrotron for W7-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppenburg, K.; Arnold, A.; Borie, E.; Dammertz, G.; Giguet, E.; Heidinger, R.; Illy, S.; Kuntze, M.; Le Cloarec, G.; Legrand, F.; Leonhardt, W.; Lievin, C.; Neffe, G.; Piosczyk, B.; Schmid, M.; Thumm, M.

    2003-02-01

    depression voltages of 33 kV. The output beam of the gyrotron is injected into an RF-tight microwave chamber which is equipped with two water-cooled mirrors directing the beam towards the 1 MW water load. The second mirror inside the microwave chamber contains a directional output coupler formed by a row of holes in the mirror surface. A diode detector is connected to the directional coupler and the forward power can be determined once the signal has been calibrated. This was performed by calorimetric measurement of the RF wave in short-pulse measurements. The mode purity of the Gaussian beam was measured by an IR camera and a thin dielectric target plate placed at different positions across the RF beam. The measured beam distribution agrees very well with the theoretical predictions. After some problems with the RF load, long-pulse operation was performed: The power measurements were done by the signal of the diode detector placed at the second mirror. The measured output power of the calorimetric RF-load normally shows values reduced by about 20%. Output powers of 1 MW could be achieved for 10 s, and an energy as high as 90 MJ per pulse has been produced with an output power of 0.64 MW. The pulse lengths were mainly determined by the preset values, and due to lack of experimental time no attempt was made to increase the pulse length. Only for a 100 s pulse with 0.74 MW output power, a limitation was found due to a pressure increase beyond about 10-7mbar. The gyrotron was sent back to the manufacturer Thales Electron Devices for a visual inspection, and an improved prototype was built and delivered to Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in the middle of April 2002.

  4. OPERA, MINOS Experimental Result Prove Special and General Relativity Theories; the Principle of Lorentz Invariance Invalid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressler, David E.

    2012-03-01

    A great discrepancy exists - the speed of light and the neutrino speed must be identical; as indicated by supernova1987A; yet, OPERA predicts faster-than-light neutrinos. Einstein's theories are based on the invariance of the speed of light, and no privileged Galilean frame of reference exists. Both of these hypotheses are in error and must be reconciled in order to solve the dilemma. The Michelson-Morley Experiment was misinterpreted - my Neoclassical Theory postulates that BOTH mirrors of the interferometer physically and absolutely move towards its center. The result is a three-directional-Contraction, (x, y, z axis), an actual distortion of space itself; a C-Space condition. ``PRESSLER'S LAW OF C-SPACE: The speed of light, c, will always be measured the same speed in all three directions (˜300,000 km/sec), in ones own inertial reference system, and will always be measured as having a different speed in all other inertial frames which are at a different kinetic energy level or at a location with a different strength gravity field'' Thus, the faster you go, motion, or the stronger the gravity field the smaller you get in all three directions. OPERA results are explained; at the surface of Earth, the strength of gravity field is at maximum -- below the earth's surface, time and space is less distorted; therefore, time is absolutely faster accordingly. Reference OPERA's preprint: Neutrino's faster time-effect due to altitude difference; (10-13ns) x c (299792458m) = 2.9 x 10-5 m/ns x distance (730085m) + 21.8m.) This is consistent with the OPERA result.

  5. Experimental Results and Predictive Calculations for Pinhole Collimators Used in Small Animal Nuclear Imaging*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Luke; Welsh, Robert E.; Bradley, Eric L.; Saha, Margaret S.; Kross, Brian; Majewski, Stan; Popov, Vladimir; Smith, Mark F.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Wojcik, Randolph

    2001-04-01

    Biological ligands tagged with ^125 I have been used in studies including comparisons between normal and diabetic mice in vivo. In order to enhance the image of the mouse pancreas we have tested a number of pinhole collimators coupled to two types of position sensitive photomultiplier tube. Various shapes of pinhole have been tested. Results will be described and discussed. *Supported in part by The Department of Energy, The National Science Foundation, The American Diabetes Association, The Howard Hughes Foundation, The Virginia Commonwealth Health Research Board and the Thomas F. and Kate Miller Jeffress Memorial Trust.

  6. Atmospheric Photochemical Modeling of Turbine Engine Fuels. Phase I. Experimental Studies. Volume 1. Results and Discussion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    ambient air was drawn through Purafil beds (to remove NOx), compressed by a liquid (water) ring compressor to 100 psig, and passed successively...AD-R48 716 ATMOSPHERIC PHOTOCHEMICAL MODELING OF TURBNNE ENGINE 1/2 FUELS PHASE I EXPERI..(U) CALIFORNIA UNIV RIVERSIDE STATEWIDE AIR POLLUTION...of II Results and Disussion : t W.P.L. CARTER, A.M. WINER, R. ATKINSON, M.C. DODD, W.D. LONG, and S.M. ASCHMANN STATEWIDE AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH

  7. Comparison of Analytical Predictions and Experimental Results for a Dual Brayton Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Paul

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) contracted Barber- Nichols, Arvada, CO to construct a dual Brayton power conversion system for use as a hardware proof of concept and to validate results from a computational code known as the Closed Cycle System Simulation (CCSS). Initial checkout tests were performed at Barber- Nichols to ready the system for delivery to GRC. This presentation describes the system hardware components and lists the types of checkout tests performed along with a couple issues encountered while conducting the tests. A description of the CCSS model is also presented. The checkout tests did not focus on generating data, therefore, no test data or model analyses are presented.

  8. A system identification technique based on the random decrement signatures. Part 2: Experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedewi, Nabih E.; Yang, Jackson C. S.

    1987-01-01

    Identification of the system parameters of a randomly excited structure may be treated using a variety of statistical techniques. Of all these techniques, the Random Decrement is unique in that it provides the homogeneous component of the system response. Using this quality, a system identification technique was developed based on a least-squares fit of the signatures to estimate the mass, damping, and stiffness matrices of a linear randomly excited system. The results of an experiment conducted on an offshore platform scale model to verify the validity of the technique and to demonstrate its application in damage detection are presented.

  9. Preliminary Results of an Experimental Investigation of the Qu Superconducting Heat Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackmon, James B.; Entrekin, Sean F.

    2006-01-01

    This note on preliminary results of our evaluation of the so-called Qu Tube is prompted in part by recent concerns expressed to the authors by some researchers regarding the performance characteristics of the superconducting, solid-state heat pipe as described in the patents, or on the company's websites. Briefly, the company's claims include: a new type of heat transfer mechanism that is a form of solid state thermal superconductivity, which results in an effective thermal conductivity of the order of tens of thousands of times that of an equivalent solid silver bar, or, tens to hundreds of times that of liquid - vapor heat pipes. The company's website also refers to tests conducted by Stanford Research Institute that substantiate these claims, but the report is apparently not publicly available. We are conducting an investigation of the Qu Tube under a NASA Grant, and in general find that these claims have merit, but our study is not yet complete. We present some of our preliminary results in part to show that it would not be imprudent to conduct such studies, especially for possible future applications requiring exceptional thermal management performance capabilities. Working with HiTek Services, we originally acquired several Qu Tubes, including 17" long, 5/16" diameter copper tubes, one that is 7 7/8" long, 3/16" diameter, and one that is 4" long, 1" diameter. We subjected the smaller tubes to various exploratory tests, including a transient test with electrical band heaters, boiling water tests, and a series of steady state tests with electrical band heaters heating one end with free convective cooling along the remainder of the length. All results indicate a very high thermal conductivity, but the length of these tubes limited our ability to obtain accurate data on temperature gradients, necessary to determine the effective thermal conductivity. We then acquired nine Qu Tubes that are 10' long, 5/16" diameter, and we have recently conducted initial tests

  10. Childhood hair product use and earlier age at menarche in a racially diverse study population: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    James-Todd, Tamarra; Terry, Mary Beth; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Deierlein, Andrea; Senie, Ruby

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that hair products containing endocrine disrupting chemicals could alter puberty. We evaluated the association between childhood hair product use and age at menarche in a racially diverse study population. We recruited 300 African-American, African-Caribbean, Hispanic, and white women from the New York City metropolitan area who were between 18-77 years of age. Data were collected retrospectively on hair oil, lotion, leave-in conditioner, perm, and other types of hair products used before age 13. Recalled age at menarche ranged from 8 to 19 years. We used multivariable binomial regression to evaluate the association between hair product use and age at menarche (<12 vs. ≥12), adjusting for potential confounders. African-Americans were more likely to use hair products and reached menarche earlier than other racial/ethnic groups. Women reporting childhood hair oil use had a risk ratio of 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.9) for earlier menarche, adjusting for race/ethnicity and year of birth. Hair perm users had an increased risk for earlier menarche (adjusted risk ratio = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8). Other types of hair products assessed in this study were not associated with earlier menarche. Childhood hair oil and perm use were associated with earlier menarche. If replicated, these results suggest that hair product use may be important to measure in evaluating earlier age at menarche. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental Results on the Feasibility of an Aerospike for Hypersonic Missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Mitchell, Anthony M.; Boudreaux, Ellis J.

    1995-01-01

    A series of wind tunnel tests have been performed on an aerospike-protected missile dome at a Mach number of 6 to obtain quantitative surface pressure and temperature-rise data, as well as qualitative flow visualization data. These data were used to determine aerospike concept feasibility and will also provide a database to be used for calibration of computational fluid dynamics codes. Data were obtained on the hemispherical missile dome with and without an aerospike that protrudes ahead of the dome along the axisymmetric center line. Data were obtained on two models (one pressure, one temperature) in the NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel at a freestream Reynolds number of 8.0 x 10(exp 6) per feet and angles of attack from 0 to 40 degrees. Surface pressure and temperature-rise results indicate that the aerospike is effective for very low angles of attack (less than 5 degrees) at Mach 6. Above 5 degrees, impingement of the aerospike bow shock and the flow separation shock from the recirculation region created by the aerospike causes pressure and temperature increases on the windward side of the dome which exceed values observed in the same region with the aerospike removed. Flow characterization obtained via oil-flow and schlieren photographs provides some insight into the quantitative surface data results, including vortical flow and shock-wave impingement.

  12. Survey of Experimental Results From One Year of PASP PLUS Orbital Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guidice, D. A.; Curtis, H. B.; Piszczor, M. F.; Palys, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    With PASP Plus as its primary payload, the APEX satellite was launched by a standard Pegasus rocket released from a NASA B-52 aircraft on 3 August 1994. A 70 deg inclination, 363 km X 2550 km orbit was achieved, allowing both investigation of space plasma effects on high-voltage operation in the perigee region and investigation of space radiation effects on array power output from passage through the inner radiation belt in the apogee region. Data gathering by PASP Plus was begun on 7 Aug 94 and ended on 11 Aug 95. In one year, PASP Plus collected an order of magnitude more data on environmental interactions on solar arrays than all previous space-borne photovoltaic experiments combined. The test arrays flown and the interactions-measuring and space-environment sensors of PASP Plus are described. The results of measurements of leakage current under test-array positive biasing and arc rates under negative biasing as a function of bias voltage, plasma density, array orientation, and other conditions are presented. The results of measurements of test-array power-output degradation caused by space radiation are also examined.

  13. Diagnosing students' misconceptions in algebra: results from an experimental pilot study.

    PubMed

    Russell, Michael; O'Dwyer, Laura M; Miranda, Helena

    2009-05-01

    Computer-based diagnostic assessment systems hold potential to help teachers identify sources of poor performance and to connect teachers and students to learning activities designed to help advance students' conceptual understandings. The present article presents findings from a study that examined how students' performance in algebra and their overcoming of common algebraic misconceptions were affected by the use of a diagnostic assessment system that focused on important algebra concepts. This study used a four-group randomized cluster trial design in which teachers were assigned randomly to one of four groups: a "business as usual" control group, a partial intervention group that was provided with access to diagnostic tests results, a partial intervention group that was provided with access to the learning activities, and a full intervention group that was given access to the test results and learning activities. Data were collected from 905 students (6th-12th grade) nested within 44 teachers. We used hierarchical linear modeling techniques to compare the effects of full, partial, and no (control) intervention on students' algebraic ability and misconceptions. The analyses indicate that full intervention had a net positive effect on ability and misconception measures.

  14. Effect of dactyloscopic powders on DNA profiling from enhanced fingerprints: results from an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Tozzo, Pamela; Giuliodori, Alice; Rodriguez, Daniele; Caenazzo, Luciana

    2014-03-01

    We conducted a study on the effect of fingerprint enhancement methods on subsequent short tandem repeat profiling. First, we performed a study typing blood traces deposited on 5 different surfaces, treated with 8 types of dactyloscopic powders. Three different DNA extraction methods were used. Subsequently, we analyzed latent fingerprints on the same 5 surfaces enhanced with the 8 different powders used in the first part of the study. This study has demonstrated that DNA profiling can be performed on fingerprints left on different substrates, and the substrate will affect the amount of DNA that can be recovered for DNA typing. In the first phase of the study, a profile was obtained in 92% of the 120 samples analyzed; in the second part, in 55% of the 80 samples analyzed, we obtained a profile complete in 32.5% of the cases. From the results obtained, it seems that the powders used in latent fingerprints enhancement, rather than having a direct inhibitory effect on extraction and amplification of DNA, may cause partial degradation of DNA, reducing the efficiency of amplification reaction. It should not be forgotten that these results were obtained under laboratory conditions, and in real caseworks, there may still be different problems involved.

  15. Modeling experimental stable isotope results from CO2 adsorption and diffusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, T. E.

    2012-12-01

    Transport of carbon dioxide through porous media can be affected by diffusion, advection and adsorption processes. Developing new tools to understand which of these processes dominates migration of CO2 or other gases in the subsurface is important to a wide range of applications including CO2 storage. Whereas advection rates are not affected by isotope substitution in CO2, adsorption and diffusion constants are. For example, differences in the binary diffusion constant calculated between C12O2-He and C13O2-He results in a carbon isotope fractionation whereby the front of the chromatographic peak is enriched in carbon-12 and the tail of the peak is enriched in carbon-13. Interestingly, adsorption is shown to have an opposite, apparent inverse affect whereby the lighter isotopologues of CO2 are preferentially retained by the chromatographic column and the heavier isotopologues are eluted first. This apparent inverse chromatographic effect has been ascribed to Van der Waals dispersion forces. Smaller molar volumes of the heavier isotopologues resulting from increased bond strength (shorter bond length) effectively decreases Van der Waals forces in heavier isotopologues compared to lighter isotopologues. Here we discuss the possible application of stable isotope values measured across chromatographic peaks to differentiate diffusion-dominated from adsorption-dominated transport processes for CO2. Separate 1-dimensional flow-through columns were packed with quartz and illite, and one remained empty. Dry helium was used as a carrier gas. Constant flow rate, temperature and column pressure were maintained. After background CO2 concentrations were minimized and constant, a sustained pulse of CO2 was injected at the head of the column and the effluent was sampled at 4 minute intervals for CO2 concentration, and carbon and oxygen isotope ratios. The quartz-sand packed and empty columns resulted in similar trends in concentration and isotope ratios whereby CO2 concentrations

  16. A comparison of experimental and theoretical results for labyrinth gas seals with honeycomb stators. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, Lawrence Allen

    1988-01-01

    Experimental results for the rotordynamic stiffness and damping coefficients of a labyrinth -rotor honeycomb-stator seal are presented. The coefficients are compared to the coefficients of a labyrinth-rotor smooth-stator seal having the same geometry. The coefficients are compared to analytical results from a two-control-volume compressible flow model. The experimental results show that the honeycomb stator configuration is more stable than the smooth stator configuration at low rotor speeds. At high rotor speeds and low clearance, the smooth stator seal is more stable. The theoretical model predicts the cross-coupled stiffness of the honeycomb stator seal correctly within 25 percent of measured values. The model provides accurate predictions of direct damping for large clearance seals. Overall, the model does not perform as well for low clearance seals as for high clearance seals.

  17. Physico-chemical properties of aqueous drug solutions: From the basic thermodynamics to the advanced experimental and simulation results.

    PubMed

    Bellich, Barbara; Gamini, Amelia; Brady, John W; Cesàro, Attilio

    2018-04-05

    The physical chemical properties of aqueous solutions of model compounds are illustrated in relation to hydration and solubility issues by using three perspectives: thermodynamic, spectroscopic and molecular dynamics simulations. The thermodynamic survey of the fundamental backgrounds of concentration dependence and experimental solubility results show some peculiar behavior of aqueous solutions with several types of similar solutes. Secondly, the use of a variety of experimental spectroscopic devices, operating under different experimental conditions of dimension and frequency, has produced a large amount of structural and dynamic data on aqueous solutions showing the richness of the information produced, depending on where and how the experiment is carried out. Finally, the use of molecular dynamics computational work is presented to highlight how the different types of solute functional groups and surface topologies organize adjacent water molecules differently. The highly valuable contribution of computer simulation studies in providing molecular explanations for experimental deductions, either of a thermodynamic or spectroscopic nature, is shown to have changed the current knowledge of many aqueous solution processes. While this paper is intended to provide a collective view on the latest literature results, still the presentation aims at a tutorial explanation of the potentials of the three methodologies in the field of aqueous solutions of pharmaceutical molecules. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Analysis of Dynamic Fracture Compliance Based on Poroelastic Theory - Part II: Results of Numerical and Experimental Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ding; Ding, Pin-bo; Ba, Jing

    2018-03-01

    In Part I, a dynamic fracture compliance model (DFCM) was derived based on the poroelastic theory. The normal compliance of fractures is frequency-dependent and closely associated with the connectivity of porous media. In this paper, we first compare the DFCM with previous fractured media theories in the literature in a full frequency range. Furthermore, experimental tests are performed on synthetic rock specimens, and the DFCM is compared with the experimental data in the ultrasonic frequency band. Synthetic rock specimens saturated with water have more realistic mineral compositions and pore structures relative to previous works in comparison with natural reservoir rocks. The fracture/pore geometrical and physical parameters can be controlled to replicate approximately those of natural rocks. P- and S-wave anisotropy characteristics with different fracture and pore properties are calculated and numerical results are compared with experimental data. Although the measurement frequency is relatively high, the results of DFCM are appropriate for explaining the experimental data. The characteristic frequency of fluid pressure equilibration calculated based on the specimen parameters is not substantially less than the measurement frequency. In the dynamic fracture model, the wave-induced fluid flow behavior is an important factor for the fracture-wave interaction process, which differs from the models at the high-frequency limits, for instance, Hudson's un-relaxed model.

  19. Earlier Parental Set Bedtimes as a Protective Factor Against Depression and Suicidal Ideation

    PubMed Central

    Gangwisch, James E.; Babiss, Lindsay A.; Malaspina, Dolores; Turner, J. Blake; Zammit, Gary K.; Posner, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the relationships between parental set bedtimes, sleep duration, and depression as a quasi-experiment to explore the potentially bidirectional relationship between short sleep duration and depression. Short sleep duration has been shown to precede depression, but this could be explained as a prodromal symptom of depression. Depression in an adolescent can affect his/her chosen bedtime, but it is less likely to affect a parent's chosen set bedtime which can establish a relatively stable upper limit that can directly affect sleep duration. Design: Multivariate cross-sectional analyses of the ADD Health using logistic regression. Setting: United States nationally representative, school-based, probability-based sample in 1994-96. Participants: Adolescents (n = 15,659) in grades 7 to 12. Measurements and Results: Adolescents with parental set bedtimes of midnight or later were 24% more likely to suffer from depression (OR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.49) and 20% more likely to have suicidal ideation (1.20, 1.01-1.41) than adolescents with parental set bedtimes of 10:00 PM or earlier, after controlling for covariates. Consistent with sleep duration and perception of getting enough sleep acting as mediators, the inclusion of these variables in the multivariate models appreciably attenuated the associations for depression (1.07, 0.88-1.30) and suicidal ideation (1.09, 0.92-1.29). Conclusions: The results from this study provide new evidence to strengthen the argument that short sleep duration could play a role in the etiology of depression. Earlier parental set bedtimes could therefore be protective against adolescent depression and suicidal ideation by lengthening sleep duration. Citation: Gangwisch JE; Babiss LA; Malaspina D; Turner JB; Zammit GK; Posner K. Earlier parental set bedtimes as a protective factor against depression and suicidal ideation. SLEEP 2010;33(1):97-106. PMID:20120626

  20. Experimental and simulation study results for video landmark acquisition and tracking technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, R. T.; Tietz, J. C.; Thomas, H. M.; Lowrie, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    A synopsis of related Earth observation technology is provided and includes surface-feature tracking, generic feature classification and landmark identification, and navigation by multicolor correlation. With the advent of the Space Shuttle era, the NASA role takes on new significance in that one can now conceive of dedicated Earth resources missions. Space Shuttle also provides a unique test bed for evaluating advanced sensor technology like that described in this report. As a result of this type of rationale, the FILE OSTA-1 Shuttle experiment, which grew out of the Video Landmark Acquisition and Tracking (VILAT) activity, was developed and is described in this report along with the relevant tradeoffs. In addition, a synopsis of FILE computer simulation activity is included. This synopsis relates to future required capabilities such as landmark registration, reacquisition, and tracking.

  1. Experimental results of 5-Gbps free-space coherent optical communications with adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mo; Liu, Chao; Rui, Daoman; Xian, Hao

    2018-07-01

    In a free-space optical communication system with fiber optical components, the received signal beam must be coupled into a single-mode fiber (SMF) before being amplified and detected. The impacts analysis of tracking errors and wavefront distortion on SMF coupling show that under the condition of relatively strong turbulence, only the tracking errors compensation is not enough, and turbulence wavefront aberration is required to be corrected. Based on our previous study and design of SMF coupling system with a 137-element continuous surface deformable mirror AO unit, we perform an experiment of a 5-Gbps Free-space Coherent Optical Communication (FSCOC) system, in which the eye pattern and Bit-error Rate (BER) are displayed. The comparative results are shown that the influence of the atmospheric is fatal in FSCOC systems. The BER of coherent communication is under 10-6 with AO compensation, which drops significantly compared with the BER without AO correction.

  2. Experimental research results of solid particle erosion resistance of blade steel with protective coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachalin, G. V.; Mednikov, A. F.; Tkhabisimov, A. B.; Seleznev, L. I.

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents the results of metallographic studies and solid particle erosion tests of uncoated blade steel 20kH13 samples and samples with a protective coating based on chromium carbide (Cr-CrC) at a flow (air) velocity CA = 180 m/s, flow temperature tA = 25 °C, attack angle α = 30° and consumption of solid abrasive particles GP = 5·10-4 kg/s. It was found that the coating has a granular structure, a thickness is about 11 μm, the microhardness of the surface is 1520 ± 50 HV0.05. Processing of the obtained data by statistical analysis methods showed that the protective coating based on Cr-CrC increases the solid particle erosion resistance of the blade steel 20kH13 by the incubation-transitional period duration more than 2.5 times.

  3. Pyrolysis process for the treatment of scrap tyres: preliminary experimental results.

    PubMed

    Galvagno, S; Casu, S; Casabianca, T; Calabrese, A; Cornacchia, G

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work is the evaluation, on a pilot scale, of scrap tyre pyrolysis process performance and the characteristics of the products under different process parameters, such as temperature, residence time, pressure, etc. In this frame, a series of tests were carried out at varying process temperatures between 550 and 680 degrees C, other parameters being equal. Pyrolysis plant process data are collected by an acquisition system; scrap tyre samples used for the treatment, solid and liquid by-products and produced syngas were analysed through both on-line monitoring (for gas) and laboratory analyses. Results show that process temperature, in the explored range, does not seem to seriously influence the volatilisation reaction yield, at least from a quantitative point of view, while it observably influences the distribution of the volatile fraction (liquid and gas) and by-products characteristics.

  4. Application of the results of experimental and numerical turbulent flow researches based on pressure pulsations analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalnogov, Vladislav N.; Fedorov, Ruslan V.; Khakhalev, Yuri A.; Khakhaleva, Larisa V.; Chukalin, Andrei V.

    2017-07-01

    The numerical investigation of the turbulent flow with the impacts, based on a modified Prandtl mixing-length model with using of the analysis of pulsations of pressure, calculation of structure and a friction factor of a turbulent flow is made. These results under the study allowed us to propose a new design of a cooled turbine blade and gas turbine mobile. The turbine blade comprises a combined cooling and cylindrical cavity on the blade surface, and on the inner surfaces of the cooling channels too damping cavity located on the guide vanes of the compressor of a gas turbine engine, increase the supply of gas-dynamic stability of the compressor of a gas turbine engine, reduce the resistance of the guide blades, and increase the efficiency of the turbine engine.

  5. Comparison of ISRU Excavation System Model Blade Force Methodology and Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, Christopher A.; Wilkinson, R. Allen; Mueller, Robert P.; Schuler, Jason M.; Nick, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    An Excavation System Model has been written to simulate the collection and transportation of regolith on the Moon. The calculations in this model include an estimation of the forces on the digging tool as a result of excavation into the regolith. Verification testing has been performed and the forces recorded from this testing were compared to the calculated theoretical data. A prototype lunar vehicle built at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) was tested with a bulldozer type blade developed at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) attached to the front. This is the initial correlation of actual field test data to the blade forces calculated by the Excavation System Model and the test data followed similar trends with the predicted values. This testing occurred in soils developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) which are a mixture of different types of sands and whose soil properties have been well characterized. Three separate analytical models are compared to the test data.

  6. Experimental murine cryptococcal infection results in contamination of bedding with Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Mednick, Aron; Shi, Li; Casadevall, Arturo

    2003-07-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal pathogen that survives in diverse environments. To determine whether cages of mice infected with C. neoformans posed an infection risk to animal caregivers, we investigated whether the fungus could be isolated from the bedding or stool of mice infected by intratracheal (i.t.), intravenous (i.v.), or intraperitoneal (i.p.) routes. The bedding of mice infected i.t. was contaminated with C. neoformans. In contrast, no contamination of bedding with C. neoformans was detected in cages of mice infected i.v. or i.p. C. neoformans was not isolated from murine feces. The C. neoformans strain recovered from bedding material was indistinguishable from the infecting strain by biochemical and molecular techniques. This result suggests that precautions may be warranted when disposing bedding from cages that housed mice with pulmonary C. neoformans infection.

  7. Stand-off thermal IR minefield survey: system concept and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Frank; Nguyen, Thanh T.; Yang, Lixin; Sahli, Hichem

    2005-06-01

    A detailed description of the CLEARFAST system for thermal IR stand-off minefield survey is given. The system allows (i) a stand-off diurnal observation of hazardous area, (ii) detecting anomalies, i.e. locating and searching for targets which are thermally and spectrally distinct from their surroundings, (iii) estimating the physical parameters, i.e. depth and thermal diffusivity, of the detected anomalies, and (iv) providing panoramic (mosaic) images indicating the locations of suspect objects and known markers. The CLEARFAST demonstrator has been successfully deployed and operated, in November 2004, in a real minefield within the United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus. The paper describes the main principles of the system and illustrates the processing chain on a set of real minefield images, together with qualitative and quantitative results.

  8. Analysis of spring-in in U-shaped composite laminates: Numerical and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, Costanzo; Sorrentino, Luca; Polini, Wilma; Parodo, Gianluca

    2018-05-01

    The phenomena that happen during the cure process of a composite material laminate are responsible for the rise of residual stresses and, consequently, for the deformation at the end of the manufacturing process. The most analyzed deformation is the spring-in, that represent the flange-to-flange angle deviance from the theoretical value. In this work, the influence of some parameters, such as the laminate thickness, the stacking sequence and the mold radius, on the spring-in angle of a U-shaped laminate was studied exploring a full factorial plan through numerical simulations. First of all, a numerical model proper for cure simulation was introduced and its suitability to simulate the deformation behavior was demonstrated. As a result, only the stacking sequence influenced the spring-in value, while the effect of the tool radius and laminate thickness was minimal.

  9. Participation of Bell Telephone Laboratories in Project Echo and Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakes, William C., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    On August 12, 1960, Echo I, a 100-foot-diameter spherical balloon, was placed in orbit around the earth by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of long-distance communication by microwave reflection from a satellite. A two-way coast-to-coast voice circuit was to be established between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) facility in California and a station provided by Bell Telephone Laboratories (STL) in New Jersey. Similar tests were also planned with the Naval Research Laboratory and other stations. This paper describes the general organization and operation of the Holmdel, New Jersey, station, and discusses the results of the experiments performed between the balloon launching and March 1, 1961. Successful voice communication was achieved through a variety of modulation methods including frequency modulation with feedback, amplitude modulation, single-sideband modulation, and narrow-band phase modulation. Careful measurements were also made of the loss in the transmission path.

  10. Experimental Study of Airfoil Trailing Edge Noise: Instrumentation, Methodology and Initial Results. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manley, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanisms of aerodynamic noise generation at the trailing edge of an airfoil is investigated. Instrumentation was designed, a miniature semiconductor strain-gauge pressure transducer and associated electronic amplifier circuitry were designed and tested and digital signal analysis techniques applied to gain insight into the relationship between the dynamic pressure close to the trailing edge and the sound in the acoustic far-field. Attempts are made to verify some trailing-edge noise generation characteristics as theoretically predicted by several contemporary acousticians. It is found that the noise detected in the far-field is comprised of the sum of many uncorrelated emissions radiating from the vicinity of the trailing edge. These emissions appear to be the result of acoustic energy radiation which has been converted by the trailing-edge noise mechanism from the dynamic fluid energy of independent streamwise 'strips' of the turbulent boundary layer flow.

  11. Local lung deposition of ultrafine particles in healthy adults: experimental results and theoretical predictions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Ultrafine particles (UFP) of biogenic and anthropogenic origin occur in high numbers in the ambient atmosphere. In addition, aerosols containing ultrafine powders are used for the inhalation therapy of various diseases. All these facts make it necessary to obtain comprehensive knowledge regarding the exact behavior of UFP in the respiratory tract. Methods Theoretical simulations of local UFP deposition are based on previously conducted inhalation experiments, where particles with various sizes (0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10 µm) were administered to the respiratory tract by application of the aerosol bolus technique. By the sequential change of the lung penetration depth of the inspired bolus, different volumetric lung regions could be generated and particle deposition in these regions could be evaluated. The model presented in this contribution adopted all parameters used in the experiments. Besides the obligatory comparison between practical and theoretical data, also advanced modeling predictions including the effect of varying functional residual capacity (FRC) and respiratory flow rate were conducted. Results Validation of the UFP deposition model shows that highest deposition fractions occur in those volumetric lung regions corresponding to the small and partly alveolated airways of the tracheobronchial tree. Particle deposition proximal to the trachea is increased in female probands with respect to male subjects. Decrease of both the FRC and the respiratory flow rate results in an enhancement of UFP deposition. Conclusions The study comes to the conclusion that deposition of UFP taken up via bolus inhalation is influenced by a multitude of factors, among which lung morphometry and breathing conditions play a superior role. PMID:27942511

  12. [Personalized cell therapy for early postoperative bullous keratopathy (experimental proof and clinical results)].

    PubMed

    Kasparov, A A; Kasparova, Evg A; Fadeeva, L L; Subbot, A M; Borodina, N V; Kasparova, E A; Kobzova, M V; Musaeva, G M; Pavliuk, A S

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the results of a long-term research on development and clinical application of personalized cell therapy (PCT) for treatment of early postoperative (manifesting within the first 3 months after surgery) bullous keratopathy (BK). The method of intracameral PCT implies in vitro incubation of the patient's blood sample with poly(A:U) stimulator, separation of the serum with activated leukocytes, and injection of the final cell preparation into the anterior chamber. The fundamental part of the research was aimed at a detailed description of the cell preparation and investigation of its possible mechanisms of action. Cytokine and growth factor level in the cell preparation suggested that its high clinical efficacy might be due to its ability to improve regeneration of damaged corneal endothelium. The clinical study was conducted on a group of 52 patients with early BK. A significant effect (smoothing of the Descement's membrane folds, complete resorption of corneal edema, improvement of corneal transparency, reduction of corneal thickness and increase of visual acuity by 0.49 +/- 0.27) was achieved in 44.2% of patients, while partial effect was seen in 21.1% of patients. There was no clinical effect in 34.6% of patients. In those patients who developed significant or partial clinical effect after the PCT, many endotheliocytes appeared to have multiple nuclei (2 and more). In some patients polyploid nuclei persisted for 3-5 years after the treatment. Polyploidy results from incomplete mitosis which might be due to regenerative processes in the endothelium stimulated by the PCT. Obviously, high efficacy and relative simplicity of the method should promote its further clinical introduction.

  13. Numerical and experimental results on the spectral wave transfer in finite depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benassai, Guido

    2016-04-01

    Determination of the form of the one-dimensional surface gravity wave spectrum in water of finite depth is important for many scientific and engineering applications. Spectral parameters of deep water and intermediate depth waves serve as input data for the design of all coastal structures and for the description of many coastal processes. Moreover, the wave spectra are given as an input for the response and seakeeping calculations of high speed vessels in extreme sea conditions and for reliable calculations of the amount of energy to be extracted by wave energy converters (WEC). Available data on finite depth spectral form is generally extrapolated from parametric forms applicable in deep water (e.g., JONSWAP) [Hasselmann et al., 1973; Mitsuyasu et al., 1980; Kahma, 1981; Donelan et al., 1992; Zakharov, 2005). The present paper gives a contribution in this field through the validation of the offshore energy spectra transfer from given spectral forms through the measurement of inshore wave heights and spectra. The wave spectra on deep water were recorded offshore Ponza by the Wave Measurement Network (Piscopia et al.,2002). The field regressions between the spectral parameters, fp and the nondimensional energy with the fetch length were evaluated for fetch-limited sea conditions. These regressions gave the values of the spectral parameters for the site of interest. The offshore wave spectra were transfered from the measurement station offshore Ponza to a site located offshore the Gulf of Salerno. The offshore local wave spectra so obtained were transfered on the coastline with the TMA model (Bouws et al., 1985). Finally the numerical results, in terms of significant wave heights, were compared with the wave data recorded by a meteo-oceanographic station owned by Naples Hydrographic Office on the coastline of Salerno in 9m depth. Some considerations about the wave energy to be potentially extracted by Wave Energy Converters were done and the results were discussed.

  14. Experimental Estimation of CLASP Spatial Resolution: Results of the Instrument's Optical Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giono, Gabrial; Katsukawa, Yukio; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Narukage, Noriyuki; Bando, Takamasa; Kano, Ryohei; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Ken; Winebarger, Amy; Auchere, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP) is a sounding-rocket experiment currently being built at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. This instrument aims to probe for the first time the magnetic field strength and orientation in the solar upper-chromosphere and lower-transition region. CLASP will measure the polarization of the Lyman-Alpha line (121.6nm) with an unprecedented accuracy, and derive the magnetic field information through the Hanle effect. Although polarization accuracy and spectral resolution are crucial for the Hanle effect detection, spatial resolution is also important to get reliable context image via the slit-jaw camera. As spatial resolution is directly related with the alignment of optics, it is also a good way of ensuring the alignment of the instrument to meet the scientific requirement. This poster will detail the experiments carried out to align CLASP's optics (telescope and spectrograph), as both part of the instrument were aligned separately. The telescope was aligned in double-pass mode, and a laser interferometer (He-Ne) was used to measure the telescope's wavefront error (WFE). The secondary mirror tilt and position were adjusted to remove comas and defocus aberrations from the WFE. Effect of gravity on the WFE measurement was estimated and the final WFE derived in zero-g condition for CLASP telescope will be presented. In addition, an estimation of the spot shape and size derived from the final WFE will also be shown. The spectrograph was aligned with a custom procedure: because Ly-??light is absorbed by air, the spectrograph's off-axis parabolic mirrors were aligned in Visible Light (VL) using a custom-made VL grating instead of the flight Ly-? grating. Results of the alignment in Visible Light will be shown and the spot shape recorded with CCDs at various position along the slit will be displayed. Results from both alignment experiment will be compared to the design requirement, and will be combined in

  15. [Tribological properties of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic. Experimental and clinical results].

    PubMed

    Früh, H J; Ascherl, R; Hipp, E

    1997-02-01

    Wear of the articulating components (especially PE-UHMW) of total hip endoprostheses is the most important technical factor limiting the functional lifetime. To minimize wear debris, ceramic heads, according to ISO 6474 (Al2O3), have been used, from 1969 paired with Al2O3 and since 1975 paired with PE-UHMW. Al2O3 balls articulating with cups made from CFRP have been in clinical use since 1988. Laboratory experiments and in-vivo testing showed minimized wear debris and mild biological response to wear products using CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) instead of PE-UHMW as the cup material. The articulating surfaces of retrieved ceramic heads (Al2O3-Biolox) and cementless CFRP cups (carbon fiber reinforced plastic, Caproman) were compared using sphericity measurement techniques, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and roughness measurements (including advanced roughness parameters Rvk or Rpk according to ISO 4287). Altogether, the first results of the clinical study showed that the combination Al2O3-ball/CFRP-cup came up to the expected lower wear rates compared with the conventional combinations. The wear rates are comparable with the combination Al2O3/Al2O3 without the material-related problems of ceramic components in all ceramic combinations.

  16. Experimental Results from a Laser-Triggered, Gas-Insulated, Spark-Gap Switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, J. F.; Ruden, E. L.; Domonkos, M. T.

    2017-10-01

    We are performing experiments on a laser-triggered spark-gap switch with the goal of studying the transition from photoionization to current conduction. The discharge of current through the switch is triggered by a focused 532-nm wavelength beam from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with a pulse duration of about 10 ns. The trigger pulse is delivered along the longitudinal axis of the switch, and the focal spot can be placed anywhere along the axis of the 5-mm, gas-insulated gap between the switch electrodes. The switch test bed is designed to support a variety of working gases (e.g., Ar, N2) over a range of pressures. Electrical and optical diagnostics are used to measure switch performance as a function of parameters such as charge voltage, trigger pulse energy, insulating gas pressure, and gas species. A Mach-Zehnder imaging interferometer system operating at 532 nm is being used to obtain interferograms of the discharge plasma in the switch. We are also developing a 1064-nm interferometry diagnostic in an attempt to measure plasma free electron and neutral gas density profiles simultaneously within the switch gap. Results from our most recent experiments will be presented.

  17. Sex specificity of behavioral dominance and fasting endurance in wintering canvasbacks: Experimental results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Nichols, J.D.; Conroy, M.J.; Obrecht, H.H.; Williams, B.K.; Weller, Milton W.

    1988-01-01

    Hand-reared canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) of varying sex ratios were maintained in pens during winter 1980-81 (3M-3F, 6M-0F, 0M-6F) and winter 1981-82 (4M-2F, 2M-4F) and fed two diets (control and stress). They were observed during feeding trials to determine intrasexual and intersexual aggressive activity. There was little evidence that either diet or sex ratio affected the total number of aggressive encounters. Females fed both control and stress diets were more aggressive and spent more time in the small feeding areas than males in pens with 3M-3F, 4M-2F, and 2M-4F sex ratios. Stressed ducks tended to weigh less than controls throughout the study. Females in the 3M-3F and 4M-2F pens weighed less than those in the 0M-6F and 2M-4F pens, respectively. However, relative weight changes throughout the winter were similar for males and females. Thus, results of these experiments do not lead to conclusive rejection of either the behavioral dominance hypothesis or the fasting endurance hypothesis.

  18. Experimental Results of OH Regime Investigation in Globus-M Spherical Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golant, Victor; Gusev, Vasily; Levin, Roman; Petrov, Yuriy; Sakharov, Nikolay

    2001-10-01

    Plasma parameters were measured in novel spherical torus Globus-M in highly shaped plasmas with aspect ratio, A > 1.5, elongation, k < 1.9, triangularity < 0.5. Plasma column was created by direct induction method with the currents up to Ip 0.3 MA in the magnetic field, Bt - 0.08 - 0.5 T. In Globus-M spherical torus plasma column is closely fitted into the vacuum vessel and wall conditioning technology described in [1] was used to achieve good plasma performance. Plasma experiments were focused around achievement of ultimate OH regimes allowed by power supplies. The operational limits of the device were investigated. In the regime with extreme low q(cy1) < 1 and high normalized current > 4, the plasma current of almost 100kA was sustained transiently in low magnetic field 800 Gs. The first results on stability analysis with numerical code are presented. The runaway electrons behavior was studied in spherical tokamak conditions. Influence of plasma current and density ramp-up speeds, MHD events on plasma performance and stability was demonstrated. Magnetic reconstruction was performed with EFIT version adopted for PC simulations. Plans for auxiliary heating and current drive are discussed. 1. V.K. Gusev, …, V.E. Golant, et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, No 7, (2001), to be published

  19. Homogenizing Advanced Alloys: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Simulations Followed by Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2017-01-01

    Segregation of solute elements occurs in nearly all metal alloys during solidification. The resultant elemental partitioning can severely degrade as-cast material properties and lead to difficulties during post-processing (e.g., hot shorts and incipient melting). Many cast articles are subjected to a homogenization heat treatment in order to minimize segregation and improve their performance. Traditionally, homogenization heat treatments are based upon past practice or time-consuming trial and error experiments. Through the use of thermodynamic and kinetic modeling software, NETL has designed a systematic method to optimize homogenization heat treatments. Use of the method allows engineers and researchers to homogenize casting chemistries to levels appropriate for a given application. The method also allows for the adjustment of heat treatment schedules to fit limitations on in-house equipment (capability, reliability, etc.) while maintaining clear numeric targets for segregation reduction. In this approach, the Scheil module within Thermo-Calc is used to predict the as-cast segregation present within an alloy, and then diffusion controlled transformations is used to model homogenization kinetics as a function of time and temperature. Examples of computationally designed heat treatments and verification of their effects on segregation and properties of real castings are presented.

  20. Carbon sequestration via reaction with basaltic rocks: geochemical modeling and experimental results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Thomas, Burt; Bischoff, James L.; Palandri, James

    2012-01-01

    Basaltic rocks are potential repositories for sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) because of their capacity for trapping CO2 in carbonate minerals. We carried out a series of thermodynamic equilibrium models and high pressure experiments, reacting basalt with CO2-charged fluids over a range of conditions from 50 to 200 °C at 300 bar. Results indicate basalt has a high reactivity to CO2 acidified brine. Carbon dioxide is taken up from solution at all temperatures from 50 to 200 °C, 300 bar, but the maximum extent and rate of reaction occurs at 100 °C, 300 bar. Reaction path simulations utilizing the geochemical modeling program CHILLER predicted an equilibrium carbonate alteration assemblage of calcite, magnesite, and siderite, but the only secondary carbonate identified in the experiments was a ferroan magnesite. The amount of uptake at 100 °C, 300 bar ranged from 8% by weight for a typical tholeite to 26% for a picrite. The actual amount of CO2 uptake and extent of rock alteration coincides directly with the magnesium content of the rock suggesting that overall reaction extent is controlled by bulk basalt Mg content. In terms of sequestering CO2, an average basaltic MgO content of 8% is equivalent to 2.6 × 108 metric ton CO2/km3 basalt.

  1. Primary experimental results of wire-array Z-pinches on PTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X. B.; Zhou, S. T.; Ren, X. D.; Dan, J. K.; Wang, K. L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Li, J.; Xu, Q.; Cai, H. C.; Duan, S. C.; Ouyang, K.; Chen, G. H.; Ji, C.; Wang, M.; Feng, S. P.; Yang, L. B.; Xie, W. P.; Deng, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Primary Test Stand (PTS) developed at the China Academy of Engineering Physics is a multiterawatt pulsed power driver, which can deliver a ˜10 MA, 70 ns rise-time (10%-90%) current to a short circuit load and has important applications in Z-pinch driven inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics. In this paper, primary results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinch experiments on PTS are presented. The load geometries investigated include 15-mm-tall cylindrical single and nested arrays with diameter ranging from 14.4-26.4 mm, and consisting of 132˜276 tungsten wires with 5˜10 μm in diameter. Multiple diagnostics were fielded to determine the characteristics of x-ray radiations and to obtain self-emitting images of imploding plasmas. X-ray power up to 80 TW with ˜3 ns FWMH is achieved by using nested wire arrays. The total x-ray energy exceeds 500 kJ and the peak radiation temperature is about 150 eV. Typical velocity of imploding plasmas goes around 3˜5×107 cm/s and the radial convergence ratio is between 10 and 20.

  2. A Neighborhood-Scale Green Infrastructure Retrofit: Experimental Results, Model Simulations, and Resident Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferson, A.; Avellaneda, P. M.; Jarden, K. M.; Turner, V. K.; Grieser, J.

    2016-12-01

    Distributed green infrastructure approaches to stormwater management that can be retrofit into existing development are of growing interest, but questions remain about their effectiveness at the watershed-scale. In suburban northeastern Ohio, homeowners on a residential street with 55% impervious surface were given the opportunity for free rain barrels, rain gardens, and bioretention cells. Of 163 parcels, only 22 owners (13.5%) chose to participate, despite intense outreach efforts. After pre-treatment monitoring, 37 rain barrels, 7 rain gardens, and 16 street-side bioretention cells were installed in 2013-2014. Using a paired watershed approach, a reduction in up to 33% of peak flow and 40% of total runoff volume per storm was measured in the storm sewer. Using the monitoring data, a calibrated and validated SWMM model was built to explore the long-term effectiveness of the green infrastructure against a wider range of hydrological conditions. Model results confirm the effectiveness of green infrastructure in reducing surface runoff and increasing infiltration and evaporation. Based on 20 years of historical precipitation data, the model shows that the green infrastructure is capable of reducing flows by >40% at the 1, 2, and 5 year return period, suggesting some resilience to projected increases in precipitation intensity in a changing climate. Further, in this project, more benefit is derived from the street-side bioretention cells than from the rain barrels and gardens that treat rooftop runoff. Substantial hydrological gains were achieved despite low homeowner participation. Surveys indicate that many residents viewed stormwater as the city's problem and had negative perceptions of green infrastructure, despite slightly pro-environment values generally. Overall, this study demonstrates green infrastructure's hydrological effectiveness but raises challenging questions about overcoming social barriers retrofits at the neighborhood scale.

  3. Wageningen Urban Rainfall Experiment 2014 (WURex14): Experimental setup and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leth, Thomas C.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Hazenberg, Pieter; Berne, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    the preliminary results.

  4. Local lung deposition of ultrafine particles in healthy adults: experimental results and theoretical predictions.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFP) of biogenic and anthropogenic origin occur in high numbers in the ambient atmosphere. In addition, aerosols containing ultrafine powders are used for the inhalation therapy of various diseases. All these facts make it necessary to obtain comprehensive knowledge regarding the exact behavior of UFP in the respiratory tract. Theoretical simulations of local UFP deposition are based on previously conducted inhalation experiments, where particles with various sizes (0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10 µm) were administered to the respiratory tract by application of the aerosol bolus technique. By the sequential change of the lung penetration depth of the inspired bolus, different volumetric lung regions could be generated and particle deposition in these regions could be evaluated. The model presented in this contribution adopted all parameters used in the experiments. Besides the obligatory comparison between practical and theoretical data, also advanced modeling predictions including the effect of varying functional residual capacity (FRC) and respiratory flow rate were conducted. Validation of the UFP deposition model shows that highest deposition fractions occur in those volumetric lung regions corresponding to the small and partly alveolated airways of the tracheobronchial tree. Particle deposition proximal to the trachea is increased in female probands with respect to male subjects. Decrease of both the FRC and the respiratory flow rate results in an enhancement of UFP deposition. The study comes to the conclusion that deposition of UFP taken up via bolus inhalation is influenced by a multitude of factors, among which lung morphometry and breathing conditions play a superior role.

  5. Impacts of ocean acidification on coral calcification: experimental results from a field study around submarine springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paytan, A.; Martínez Fernández, A.; Varona, N.

    2017-12-01

    Reef building corals are facing the effects of ocean acidification on calcification. Atmospheric carbon dioxide dissolves into the oceans and decreases the pH and the availability of carbonate ions in seawater. Carbonate ions are used by calcifying corals to create their calcium carbonate exoskeletons in the form of aragonite. As carbon dioxide emissions increase, corals may have problems precipitating their aragonite skeleton in low carbonate saturation seawater. Natural submarine groundwater springs discharge low pH seawater into the Caribbean Sea, in the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico). These submarine springs serve as a natural laboratory to study the effects of low aragonite saturation water on coral growth. Here we show the skeletal growth parameters of three coral species under an in situ ocean acidification experiment. Nubbins of Porites porites, Porites astreoides and Siderastrea radians were collected at low pH springs and control sites and reciprocally transplanted into a low pH discharge site and into a control site not impacted by discharge. After two years, the nubbins were collected and linear extension, density and calcification rates were analyzed. Preliminary results show that coral skeleton density is significantly lower in corals transplanted into the low pH than in corals transplanted in control sites. Infaunal bioerosion is present in corals deployed at low pH sites. In contrast, linear extension and hence calcification rates do not seem to show a significant difference among sites. However, the coral species show diverse calcification responses under ocean acidification conditions, suggesting some species may be more vulnerable than others to a change in water chemistry.

  6. Experimentally increasing sedentary behavior results in increased anxiety in an active young adult population.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Meghan K; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-11-01

    Knowledge regarding the effects of sedentary behavior on anxiety has resulted mainly from observational studies. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a free-living, sedentary behavior-inducing randomized controlled intervention on anxiety symptoms. Participants confirmed to be active (i.e., acquiring 150min/week of physical activity) via self-report and accelerometry were randomly assigned into a sedentary behavior intervention group (n=26) or a control group (n=13). For one week, the intervention group eliminated exercise and minimized steps to ≤5000 steps/day whereas the control group continued their normal physical activity levels. Both groups completed the Overall Anxiety Severity Impairment Scale (OASIS) pre- and post-intervention, with higher OASIS scores indicating worse overall anxiety. The intervention group resumed normal physical activity levels for one week post-intervention and then completed the survey once more. A significant group x time interaction effect was observed (F(1,37)=11.13; P=.002), with post-hoc contrast tests indicating increased OASIS scores in the intervention group in Visit 2 compared with Visit 1. That is, we observed an increase in anxiety levels when participants increased their sedentary behavior. OASIS scores significantly decreased from Visit 2 to Visit 3 (P=.001) in the intervention group. A one-week sedentary behavior-inducing intervention has deleterious effects on anxiety in an active, young adult population. To prevent elevated anxiety levels among active individuals, consistent regular physical activity may be necessary. Clinicians treating inactive patients who have anxiety may recommend a physical activity program in addition to any other prescribed treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. U.S. Department of Energy Reference Model Program RM1: Experimental Results.

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Craig; Neary, Vincent Sinclair; Gunawan, Budi

    The Reference Model Project (RMP), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Program within the Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), aims at expediting industry growth and efficiency by providing nonproprietary Reference Models (RM) of MHK technology designs as study objects for opensource research and development (Neary et al. 2014a,b). As part of this program, MHK turbine models were tested in a large open channel facility at the University of Minnesota’s St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (UMN-SAFL). Reference Model 1 (RM1) is a 1:40 geometric scale dual-rotor axial flow horizontal axis device withmore » counter-rotating rotors, each with a rotor diameter dT = 0.5m. Precise blade angular position and torque measurements were synchronized with three acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs) aligned with each rotor and the midpoint for RM1. Flow conditions for each case were controlled such that depth, h = 1m, and volumetric flow rate, Qw = 2.425m3s-1, resulting in a hub height velocity of approximately Uhub = 1.05ms-1 and blade chord length Reynolds numbers of Rec ≈ 3.0x105. Vertical velocity profiles collected in the wake of each device from 1 to 10 rotor diameters are used to estimate the velocity recovery and turbulent characteristics in the wake, as well as the interaction of the counter-rotating rotor wakes. The development of this high resolution laboratory investigation provides a robust dataset that enables assessing turbulence performance models and their ability to accurately predict device performance metrics, including computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models that can be used to predict turbulent inflow environments, reproduce wake velocity deficit, recovery and higher order turbulent statistics, as well as device performance metrics.« less

  8. Channel flow and trichloroethylene treatment in a partly iron-filled fracture: experimental and model results.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zuansi; Merly, Corrine; Thomson, Neil R; Wilson, Ryan D; Lerner, David N

    2007-08-15

    Technical developments have now made it possible to emplace granular zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) in fractured media to create a Fe(0) fracture reactive barrier (Fe(0) FRB) for the treatment of contaminated groundwater. To evaluate this concept, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated water was flushed through a single uniform fracture created between two sandstone blocks. This fracture was partly filled with what was intended to be a uniform thickness of iron. Partial treatment of TCE by iron demonstrated that the concept of a Fe(0) FRB is practical, but was less than anticipated for an iron layer of uniform thickness. When the experiment was disassembled, evidence of discrete channelised flow was noted and attributed to imperfect placement of the iron. To evaluate the effect of the channel flow, an explicit Channel Model was developed that simplifies this complex flow regime into a conceptualised set of uniform and parallel channels. The mathematical representation of this conceptualisation directly accounts for (i) flow channels and immobile fluid arising from the non-uniform iron placement, (ii) mass transfer from the open fracture to iron and immobile fluid regions, and (iii) degradation in the iron regions. A favourable comparison between laboratory data and the results from the developed mathematical model suggests that the model is capable of representing TCE degradation in fractures with non-uniform iron placement. In order to apply this Channel Model concept to a Fe(0) FRB system, a simplified, or implicit, Lumped Channel Model was developed where the physical and chemical processes in the iron layer and immobile fluid regions are captured by a first-order lumped rate parameter. The performance of this Lumped Channel Model was compared to laboratory data, and benchmarked against the Channel Model. The advantages of the Lumped Channel Model are that the degradation of TCE in the system is represented by a first

  9. Channel flow and trichloroethylene treatment in a partly iron-filled fracture: Experimental and model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zuansi; Merly, Corrine; Thomson, Neil R.; Wilson, Ryan D.; Lerner, David N.

    2007-08-01

    Technical developments have now made it possible to emplace granular zero-valent iron (Fe 0) in fractured media to create a Fe 0 fracture reactive barrier (Fe 0 FRB) for the treatment of contaminated groundwater. To evaluate this concept, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated water was flushed through a single uniform fracture created between two sandstone blocks. This fracture was partly filled with what was intended to be a uniform thickness of iron. Partial treatment of TCE by iron demonstrated that the concept of a Fe 0 FRB is practical, but was less than anticipated for an iron layer of uniform thickness. When the experiment was disassembled, evidence of discrete channelised flow was noted and attributed to imperfect placement of the iron. To evaluate the effect of the channel flow, an explicit Channel Model was developed that simplifies this complex flow regime into a conceptualised set of uniform and parallel channels. The mathematical representation of this conceptualisation directly accounts for (i) flow channels and immobile fluid arising from the non-uniform iron placement, (ii) mass transfer from the open fracture to iron and immobile fluid regions, and (iii) degradation in the iron regions. A favourable comparison between laboratory data and the results from the developed mathematical model suggests that the model is capable of representing TCE degradation in fractures with non-uniform iron placement. In order to apply this Channel Model concept to a Fe 0 FRB system, a simplified, or implicit, Lumped Channel Model was developed where the physical and chemical processes in the iron layer and immobile fluid regions are captured by a first-order lumped rate parameter. The performance of this Lumped Channel Model was compared to laboratory data, and benchmarked against the Channel Model. The advantages of the Lumped Channel Model are that the degradation of TCE in the system is represented by a first

  10. Initial experimental results from the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alling, A.; Allen, J.; Dempster, W.; Nelson, M.; Silverstone, S.; van Thillo, M.

    Results from the closure and initial closed ecological system research in the "Laboratory Biosphere" facility in Santa Fe, New Mexico (USA) will be presented. The facility was initially sealed in April 2002; and the first crop experiments with soybeans commenced in May 2002. The Laboratory Biosphere was created by the team which invented, built and operated Biosphere 2 during its years of closed ecological system functioning (1991-94) and is a testbed to build upon the lessons learned. It is an opportunity to continue experiments with a sustainable soil based agriculture system unlike most bioregenerative systems which use hydroponic systems dependent on a supply of nutrient solution. Because of the small volume of the system (34-45 m3), developing mechanisms to keep parameters like carbon dioxide within acceptable limits will be critical. Recycle of nutrients within the system to maintain soil fertility; and the ability of the inherent complex ecology of soils and a soil bed reactor to handle trace gas buildups are primary research goals. Other research goals are determination of short and long-term exchanges between soil, plants and atmosphere, especially for carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, NOX, and methane, impact of cultivation (tillage) on soil/atmospheric exchanges., investigation and development of strategies to return nutrients to the soil to maintain fertility, e.g. shredding biomass vs. composting, impact on soil chemistry of returning leachate water to the soil as irrigation water. The microbiological status of soils prior to experiments and over time will allow measurement of changes in microbial diversity and the determination of the role of soil microbes in biogeochemical cycles. Integration of automated sensor and control in the system with real-time modeling has importance for operation, research and educational outreach programs. The Laboratory Biosphere is intended to test and develop a "cybersphere" (network of shared intelligence) that may be

  11. Convenience experimentation.

    PubMed

    Krohs, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Systems biology aims at explaining life processes by means of detailed models of molecular networks, mainly on the whole-cell scale. The whole cell perspective distinguishes the new field of systems biology from earlier approaches within molecular cell biology. The shift was made possible by the high throughput methods that were developed for gathering 'omic' (genomic, proteomic, etc.) data. These new techniques are made commercially available as semi-automatic analytic equipment, ready-made analytic kits and probe arrays. There is a whole industry of supplies for what may be called convenience experimentation. My paper inquires some epistemic consequences of strong reliance on convenience experimentation in systems biology. In times when experimentation was automated to a lesser degree, modeling and in part even experimentation could be understood fairly well as either being driven by hypotheses, and thus proceed by the testing of hypothesis, or as being performed in an exploratory mode, intended to sharpen concepts or initially vague phenomena. In systems biology, the situation is dramatically different. Data collection became so easy (though not cheap) that experimentation is, to a high degree, driven by convenience equipment, and model building is driven by the vast amount of data that is produced by convenience experimentation. This results in a shift in the mode of science. The paper shows that convenience driven science is not primarily hypothesis-testing, nor is it in an exploratory mode. It rather proceeds in a gathering mode. This shift demands another shift in the mode of evaluation, which now becomes an exploratory endeavor, in response to the superabundance of gathered data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Co-Registration of Terrestrial and Uav-Based Images - Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, M.; Nex, F.; Jende, P.

    2016-03-01

    -filter. Results show that in more challenging situations, in this case for data captured from different platforms at different days most approaches do not perform well. Wallis-filtering emerged to be most helpful especially for the SIFT approach. The commercial software pix4dmapper succeeds in overall bundle adjustment only for some configurations, and especially not for the entire image block provided.

  13. Experimental Results of the Impact of an Ion Thruster Plasma on Microwave Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Afroz J.; Lambert, Kevin M.

    2000-01-01

    Electric thrusters are being considered for a variety of space missions because of the significant propellant savings that result from the use of high performance, electric propulsion technologies. Propellant mass savings reduces spacecraft launch requirements and increases mission lifetime and payload. The impact of electric thruster plasma plumes on microwave signal propagation however is an important spacecraft integration concern. Arcjets were the first electric thrusters to be considered for operational missions. Ling, et al. studied the effect of arcjet plumes on propagation. Arcjets produce a lightly ionized plume and Ling's analysis predicted that the plume would have a negligible effect on communication. Plumes from the higher performance ion thrusters being developed exhibit higher ionization levels, plasma temperatures and particle velocities than arcjets. Therefore, there was a need to assess the impact due to these plumes. To address this need, the authors designed and performed a series of experiments to examine propagation effects of plumes. The challenge with these experiments was that they had to be performed in the operational environment of the thruster. Therefore, the experiments were conducted inside a metal chamber which could be depressurized to simulate a near vacuum condition of space. The metal chamber presents a potential large source of error to the propagation measurements due to the corruption of the desired data by multiple wall reflections within the chamber. This chamber effect was minimized by employing a pulsed-continuous wave transmitter and receiver system. This system based on an HP8510 Network Analyzer, uses external hardware time gating to eliminate the clutter of the spurious reflections. Additionally, high gain antennas were used in the measurements to ensure that minimal amounts of energy were transmitted/received in undesirable directions. The measurements took place in Vacuum Facility 5 of the Electric Propulsion

  14. Experimental Results of the Impact of an Ion Thruster Plasma on Microwave Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Afroz J.; Lambert, Kevin M.

    2000-01-01

    Electric thrusters are being considered for a variety of space missions because of the significant propellant savings that result from the use of high performance, electric propulsion technologies, Propellant mass savings reduces spacecraft launch requirements and increases mission lifetime and payload. The impact of electric thruster plasma plumes on microwave signal propagation however is an important spacecraft integration concern. Arcjets were the first electric thrusters to be considered for operational missions. Ling, et al., studied the effect of arcjet plumes on propagation. Arcjets produce a lightly ionized plume and Ling's analysis predicted that the plume would have a negligible effect on communication. Plumes from the higher performance ion thrusters being developed exhibit higher ionization levels, plasma temperatures and particle velo@ities than arcjets. Therefore, there was a need to assess the impact due to these plumes. To address this need, the authors designed and performed a series of experiments to examine propagation effects of plumes. The challenge with these experiments was that they had to be performed in the operational environment of the thruster. Therefore, the experiments were conducted inside a metal chamber which could be depressurized to simulate a near vacuum condition of space. The metal chamber presents a potential large source of error to the propagation measurements due to the corruption of the desired data by multiple wall reflections within the chamber. This chamber effect was minimized by employing a pulsed-continuous wave transmitter and receiver system. This system, based on an HP8510 Network Analyzer, uses external hardware time gating to eliminate the clutter of the spurious reflections. Additionally, high gain antennas were used in the measurements to ensure that minimal amounts of energy ",ere transmitted/received in undesirable directions. The measurements took place in Vacuum Facility 5 of the Electric Propulsion

  15. New Experimental Results on the Interaction of Molten Corium with Reactor Vessel Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Bechta, S.V.; Khabensky, V.B.; Granovsky, V.S.

    the interface which contains iron, zirconium and uranium. The paper summarizes the results of the experiments and of the performed posttest analysis for tests MC 5 and MC 6. (authors)« less

  16. U.S. Department of Energy Reference Model Program RM2: Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Craig; Neary, Vincent Sinclair; Gunawan, Budi

    2014-08-01

    The Reference Model Project (RMP), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Program within the Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), aims at expediting industry growth and efficiency by providing non-proprietary Reference Models (RM) of MHK technology designs as study objects for open-source research and development (Neary et al. 2014a,b). As part of this program, MHK turbine models were tested in a large open channel facility at the University of Minnesota’s St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (UMN - SAFL) . Reference Model 2 (RM2) is a 1:15 geometric scale dual - rotor crossmore » flow vertical axis device with counter - rotating rotors, each with a rotor diameter d T = 0.43m and rotor height, h T = 0.323 m. RM2 is a river turbine designed for a site modeled after a reach in the lower Mississippi River near Baton Rouge, Louisiana (Barone et al. 2014) . Precise blade angular position and torque measurements were synchronized with three acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADV) aligned with each rotor and the midpoint for RM2 . Flow conditions for each case were controlled such that depth, h = 1m, and volumetric flow rate, Q w = 2. 35m 3s -1 , resulting in a hub height velocity of approximately U hub = 1. 2 ms -1 and blade chord length Reynolds numbers of Re c = 6 .1x10 4. Vertical velocity profiles collected in the wake of each device from 1 to 10 rotor diameters are used to estimate the velocity recovery and turbulent characteristics in the wake, as well as the interaction of the counter-rotating rotor wakes. The development of this high resolution laboratory investigation provides a robust dataset that enables assessing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and their ability to accurately simulate turbulent inflow environments, device performance metrics, and to reproduce wake velocity deficit, recovery and higher order turbulent statistics.« less

  17. Storage-and-release flux rope eruptions in the laboratory: initial results and experimental plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, C. E.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.; Yoo, J.; Jara-Almonte, J.; Lawrence, E. E.

    2012-12-01

    Solar eruptive events such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are thought to be driven by a sudden release of magnetic energy stored in the corona. In many cases, the pre-eruptive configuration is a non-potential magnetic structure that can be modeled as a line-tied magnetic flux rope. In spite of ever-improving observational capabilities, directly studying the evolution of coronal flux ropes remains a significant challenge. Thus, in order to further explore the mechanisms that drive solar eruptions, we must find novel ways to simulate the relevant physical system. To this end, we have constructed a new laboratory experiment to study storage-and-release flux rope eruptions. This experiment contains a carefully designed set of ``sub-photospheric" coils that produces an active-region-like potential field configuration that remains static throughout the discharge. An arched magnetic flux rope plasma is formed within this potential field configuration by driving electric current through two line-tied footpoints (copper electrodes). Over the course of the discharge, the plasma current is quasi-statically increased (to tens of kiloamperes over many Alfvén times) in order to slowly build up magnetic energy in the system. As the flux rope gains energy, it will expand away from the electrodes to a point where it is expected to undergo a dynamic eruption due to the onset of a loss-of-equilibrium [Forbes & Isenberg, Astrophys. J. 373, 294 (1991)] or the torus instability [Kliem & Török, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 255002 (2006)]. In these experiments, the structure of the background potential field configuration (i.e., the field decay index) can be varied to study its effect on the observed flux rope eruptions. Initial results from these experiment are presented, including images from a fast visible light camera and direct measurements from internal magnetic diagnostics. This research is supported by DoE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 and by the Center for Magnetic Self

  18. Recent results from experimental studies on laser-plasma coupling in a shock ignition relevant regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, P.; Antonelli, L.; Atzeni, S.; Badziak, J.; Baffigi, F.; Batani, D.; Cecchetti, C. A.; Chodukowski, T.; Consoli, F.; Cristoforetti, G.; De Angelis, R.; Folpini, G.; Gizzi, L. A.; Kalinowska, Z.; Krousky, E.; Kucharik, M.; Labate, L.; Levato, T.; Liska, R.; Malka, G.; Maheut, Y.; Marocchino, A.; Nicolai, P.; O'Dell, T.; Parys, P.; Pisarczyk, T.; Raczka, P.; Renner, O.; Rhee, Y. J.; Ribeyre, X.; Richetta, M.; Rosinski, M.; Ryc, L.; Skala, J.; Schiavi, A.; Schurtz, G.; Smid, M.; Spindloe, C.; Ullschmied, J.; Wolowski, J.; Zaras, A.

    2013-12-01

    Shock ignition (SI) is an appealing approach in the inertial confinement scenario for the ignition and burn of a pre-compressed fusion pellet. In this scheme, a strong converging shock is launched by laser irradiation at an intensity Iλ2 > 1015 W cm-2 µm2 at the end of the compression phase. In this intensity regime, laser-plasma interactions are characterized by the onset of a variety of instabilities, including stimulated Raman scattering, Brillouin scattering and the two plasmon decay, accompanied by the generation of a population of fast electrons. The effect of the fast electrons on the efficiency of the shock wave production is investigated in a series of dedicated experiments at the Prague Asterix Laser Facility (PALS). We study the laser-plasma coupling in a SI relevant regime in a planar geometry by creating an extended preformed plasma with a laser beam at ˜7 × 1013 W cm-2 (250 ps, 1315 nm). A strong shock is launched by irradiation with a second laser beam at intensities in the range 1015-1016 W cm-2 (250 ps, 438 nm) at various delays with respect to the first beam. The pre-plasma is characterized using x-ray spectroscopy, ion diagnostics and interferometry. Spectroscopy and calorimetry of the backscattered radiation is performed in the spectral range 250-850 nm, including (3/2)ω, ω and ω/2 emission. The fast electron production is characterized through spectroscopy and imaging of the Kα emission. Information on the shock pressure is obtained using shock breakout chronometry and measurements of the craters produced by the shock in a massive target. Preliminary results show that the backscattered energy is in the range 3-15%, mainly due to backscattered light at the laser wavelength (438 nm), which increases with increasing the delay between the two laser beams. The values of the peak shock pressures inferred from the shock breakout times are lower than expected from 2D numerical simulations. The same simulations reveal that the 2D effects play a

  19. Charge transport in liquid crystalline smectic and discotic organic semiconductors: New results and experimental methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Sanjoy

    Organic electronics offer the possibility of producing low cost, flexible, and large area electronics. Organic semiconductors (OSCs) (organic polymers and crystals), used in organic electronics, are promising materials for novel optical and electronic devices such as organic light emitting diodes, organic field effect transistors, organic sensors, and organic photovoltaics (OPVs). OSCs are composed of molecules weakly held together via van der Walls forces rather than covalent bonds as in the case of inorganic semiconductors such as Si. The combined effect of small wave function overlap, spatial and energetic disorder in organic semiconducting materials lead to localization of charge carriers and, in many cases, hopping conduction. OSCs also differ from conventional semiconductors in that charges photogeneration (e.g., in OPVs) proceeds via the production, diffusion, and dissociation of excitons. Liquid crystalline OSCs (LCOSCs) are semiconductors with phases intermediate between the highly ordered crystalline and completely disordered liquid phases. These materials offer many advantages including facile alignment and the opportunity to study the effects of differing intermolecular geometries on transfer integrals, disorder-induced trapping, charge mobilities, and photogeneration efficiency. In this dissertation work, we explored the photogeneration and charge transport mechanisms in a few model smectic and discotic LCs to better understand the governing principles of photogeneration and charge transport using conventional and novel methods based on the pulsed laser time-of-flight charge carrier transport technique. Four major interrelated topics were considered in this research. First, a sample of smectic LC was aligned in order to compare the resulting hole mobility to that of an unaligned sample, with the aim of understanding how the intermolecular alignment over large length scales affects the hopping probability. The role of the polarization of the

  20. Soil Moisture Monitoring Using GNSS-R Signals; First Experimental Results with the SAM Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egido, A.; Martin-Puig, C.; Felip, D.; Garcia, M.; Caparrini, M.; Farres, E.; Ruffini, G.

    2009-04-01

    is the most sensitive band to soil volumetric water content, i.e. soil moisture. Secondly, variations on thermal background do not contaminate GNSS-R signals as they do for other remote sensing techniques, such as radiometry. Finally, GNSS scatterometry from space has a potential higher spatial resolution than microwave radiometry, due to the highly stable carrier and code modulations of the incident signals which enables the use of Delay Doppler Mapping. However, in order to be able to obtain accurate SM estimates there are several effects that need to be taken into consideration. Some of those are mainly due to diffuse scattering effects over the soil surface, for instance effects due to surface roughness, vegetation canopy, and noise. This paper reviews the theoretical approach for SM retrieval using GNSS-R, and focuses on the description of the development of an innovative GNSS-R system for soil moisture retrieval (named SAM). The validation campaigns performed with the SAM sensor, together with the results obtained are presented in the paper, which is finalized with the conclusions achieved and the ideas for future work on GNSS-R based sensors. AKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to thank the European Space Agency for partially funding the SAM system development in the framework of the GSTP program, and Tragsatec for their collaboration in the acquisition of ground truth data and satellite imagery processing used for the SAM instrument validation. REFERENCES [1] A. Kavak, G. Xu, W.J. Vogel, GPS Multipath Fade Meassurements to Determine L-Band Ground Reflectivity Properties, University of Texas, Austin, 1998. [2] D. Masters, V. Zavorotny, S. Katzberg, W. Emery GPS Signal Scattering from Land for Moisture Content Determination IGARSS Proceedings, July 24-28, 2000.

  1. Water balance of rice plots under three different water treatments: monitoring activity and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Romani, Marco; Facchi, Arianna; Gharsallah, Olfa; Cesari de Maria, Sandra; Ferrari, Daniele; Masseroni, Daniele; Rienzner, Michele; Battista Bischetti, Gian; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    input) were calculated for each treatment. The outcomes show that the water application efficiencies of all treatments were higher in 2013 than in 2012 (by 23%, 25% and 4% for FLD, 3L-FLD, and IRR respectively). These results could be ascribed to the higher groundwater level observed in 2013 (about 10-15 cm closer to the soil surface), likely due to the conversion of the field beyond the monitored plots from soybean to flooded rice. Moreover, a small increase of the water application efficiency of 3L-FLD was found if compared to FLD (3% on average), while the water application efficiency of IRR was, on average, higher by 67% compared to FLD. The good performance of IRR is related to lower percolation rates and a relevant contribution of capillary rise due to the shallow groundwater table maintained by the continuous submergence of the surrounding paddy fields. The performed experiment highlighted that significant improvement in the water use efficiency at the field scale can be achieved. However, a widespread adoption of water regimes different from continuous flooding should be carefully evaluated by a larger-scale approach since a consequent drop in the groundwater table depth could have repercussions on the potential gains themselves.

  2. Spatial structure of plasma density perturbations, induced in the ionosphere modified by powerful HF radio waves: Review of experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    In the review, the results of experimental studies of spatial structure of small-, middle-, and large scale plasma density perturbations induced in the ionosphere by its pumping by powerful HF O-mode (ordinary) radio waves, are analyzed. It is shown that the region with induced plasma density perturbations occupied all ionosphere body from its E-region up to the topside ionosphere in the height and it has the horizontal length of about of 300-500 km. Peculiarities of generation of artificial ionosphere irregularities of different scale-lengths in the magnetic zenith region are stated. Experimental results obtained under conditions of ionosphere periodical pumping when the generation of travel ionosphere disturbances is revealed are also discussed.

  3. Baseline Experimental Results on the Effect of Oil Temperature on Shrouded Meshed Spur Gear Windage Power Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Hurrell, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Rotorcraft gearbox efficiencies are reduced at increased surface speeds due to viscous and impingement drag on the gear teeth. This windage power loss can affect overall mission range, payload, and frequency of transmission maintenance. Experimental and analytical studies on shrouding for single gears have shown it to be potentially effective in mitigating windage power loss. Efficiency studies on unshrouded meshed gears have shown the effect of speed, oil viscosity, temperature, load, lubrication scheme, etc. on gear windage power loss. The open literature does not contain experimental test data on shrouded meshed spur gears. Gear windage power loss test results are presented on shrouded meshed spur gears at elevated oil inlet temperatures and constant oil pressure both with and without shrouding. Shroud effectiveness is compared at four oil inlet temperatures. The results are compared to the available literature and follow-up work is outlined.

  4. Comparison of thermal analytic model with experimental test results for 30-sentimeter-diameter engineering model mercury ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglebay, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    A thermal analytic model for a 30-cm engineering model mercury-ion thruster was developed and calibrated using the experimental test results of tests of a pre-engineering model 30-cm thruster. A series of tests, performed later, simulated a wide range of thermal environments on an operating 30-cm engineering model thruster, which was instrumented to measure the temperature distribution within it. The modified analytic model is described and analytic and experimental results compared for various operating conditions. Based on the comparisons, it is concluded that the analytic model can be used as a preliminary design tool to predict thruster steady-state temperature distributions for stage and mission studies and to define the thermal interface bewteen the thruster and other elements of a spacecraft.

  5. Insight Into Illness and Cognition in Schizophrenia in Earlier and Later Life.

    PubMed

    Gerretsen, Philip; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Menon, Mahesh; Pollock, Bruce G; Mamo, David C; Mulsant, Benoit H; Rajji, Tarek K

    2017-04-01

    Impaired insight into illness in schizophrenia is associated with illness severity and deficits in premorbid intellectual function, executive function, and memory. A previous study of patients aged 60 years and older found that illness severity and premorbid intellectual function accounted for variance in insight impairment. As such, we aimed to test whether similar relationships would be observed in earlier life. A retrospective analysis was performed on 1 large sample of participants (n = 171) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia aged 19 to 79 years acquired from 2 studies: (1) a psychosocial intervention trial for older persons with schizophrenia (June 2008 to May 2014) and (2) a diffusion tensor imaging and genetics study of psychosis across the life span (February 2007 to December 2013). We assessed insight into illness using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) item G12 and explored its relationship to illness severity (PANSS total modified), premorbid intellectual function (Wechsler Test of Adult Reading [WTAR]), and cognition. Insight impairment was more severe in later life (≥ 60 years) than in earlier years (t = -3.75, P < .001). Across the whole sample, the variance of impaired insight was explained by PANSS total modified (Exp[B] = 1.070, P < .001) and WTAR scores (Exp[B] = 0.970, P = .028). Although age and cognition were correlated with impaired insight, they did not independently contribute to its variance. However, the relationships between impaired insight and illness severity and between impaired insight and cognition, particularly working memory, were stronger in later life than in earlier life. These results suggest an opportunity for intervention may exist with cognitive-enhancing neurostimulation or medications to improve insight into illness in schizophrenia across the life span. Original study registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT00832845). © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  6. Factors associated with late diagnosis of HIV infection and missed opportunities for earlier testing.

    PubMed

    Gullón, Alejandra; Verdejo, José; de Miguel, Rosa; Gómez, Ana; Sanz, Jesús

    2016-10-01

    Late diagnosis (LD) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to be a significant problem that increases disease burden both for patients and for the public health system. Guidelines have been updated in order to facilitate earlier HIV diagnosis, introducing "indicator condition-guided HIV testing". In this study, we analysed the frequency of LD and associated risk factors. We retrospectively identified those cases that could be considered missed opportunities for an earlier diagnosis. All patients newly diagnosed with HIV infection who attended Hospital La Princesa, Madrid (Spain) between 2007 and 2014 were analysed. We collected epidemiological, clinical and immunological data. We also reviewed electronic medical records from the year before the HIV diagnosis to search for medical consultations due to clinical indicators. HIV infection was diagnosed in 354 patients. The median CD4 count at presentation was 352 cells/mm(3). Overall, 158 patients (50%) met the definition of LD, and 97 (30.7%) the diagnosis of advanced disease. LD was associated with older age and was more frequent amongst immigrants. Heterosexual relations and injection drug use were more likely to be the reasons for LD than relations between men who have sex with men. During the year preceding the diagnosis, 46.6% of the patients had sought medical advice owing to the presence of clinical indicators that should have led to HIV testing. Of those, 24 cases (14.5%) were classified as missed opportunities for earlier HIV diagnosis because testing was not performed. According to these results, all health workers should pursue early HIV diagnosis through the proper implementation of HIV testing guidelines. Such an approach would prove directly beneficial to the patient and indirectly beneficial to the general population through the reduction in the risk of transmission.

  7. Earlier time to aerobic exercise is associated with faster recovery following acute sport concussion

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Doug; Comper, Paul; Hutchison, Michael G.

    2018-01-01

    Objective To determine whether earlier time to initiation of aerobic exercise following acute concussion is associated with time to full return to (1) sport and (2) school or work. Methods A retrospective stratified propensity score survival analysis of acute (≤14 days) concussion was used to determine whether time (days) to initiation of aerobic exercise post-concussion was associated with, both, time (days) to full return to (1) sport and (2) school or work. Results A total of 253 acute concussions [median (IQR) age, 17.0 (15.0–20.0) years; 148 (58.5%) males] were included in this study. Multivariate Cox regression models identified that earlier time to aerobic exercise was associated with faster return to sport and school/work adjusting for other covariates, including quintile propensity strata. For each successive day in delay to initiation of aerobic exercise, individuals had a less favourable recovery trajectory. Initiating aerobic exercise at 3 and 7 days following injury was associated with a respective 36.5% (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.53–0.76) and 73.2% (HR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.16–0.45) reduced probability of faster full return to sport compared to within 1 day; and a respective 45.9% (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.44–0.66) and 83.1% (HR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.10–0.30) reduced probability of faster full return to school/work. Additionally, concussion history, symptom severity, LOC deleteriously influenced concussion recovery. Conclusion Earlier initiation of aerobic exercise was associated with faster full return to sport and school or work. This study provides greater insight into the benefits and safety of aerobic exercise within the first week of the injury. PMID:29668716

  8. Experimental and numerical results for a generic axisymmetric single-engine afterbody with tails at transonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, J. R., II; Carlson, J. R.; Henderson, W. P.

    1986-01-01

    Static pressure measurements were made on the afterbody, nozzle and tails of a generic single-engine axisymmetric fighter configuration. Data were recorded at Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2. NPR was varied from 1.0 to 8.0 and angle of attack was varied from -3 deg. to 9 deg. Experimental data were compared with numerical results from two state-of-the-art computer codes.

  9. Experimental results from an X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer utilizing multi-wire proportional counter for KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. G., E-mail: sglee@nfri.re.kr; Kim, Y. S.; Yoo, J. W.

    2016-11-15

    The inconsistency of the first experimental results from the X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research device utilizing a multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) is clarified after improving the photon-count rate of the data acquisition system for the MWPC and ground loop isolator for the whole spectrometer system. The improved MWPC is successfully applied to pure Ohmic plasmas as well as plasmas with high confinement modes.

  10. Experimental Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Pegasus Air-Launched Booster and Comparisons with Predicted and Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, M. N.; Engelund, Walter C.; Mendenhall, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics were obtained for the Pegasus and Pegasus XL configurations over a Mach number range from 1.6 to 6 and angles of attack from -4 to +24 degrees. Angle of sideslip was varied from -6 to +6 degrees, and control surfaces were deflected to obtain elevon, aileron, and rudder effectiveness. Experimental data for the Pegasus configuration are compared with engineering code predictions performed by Nielsen Engineering & Research, Inc. (NEAR) in the aerodynamic design of the Pegasus vehicle, and with results from the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System (APAS) code. Comparisons of experimental results are also made with longitudinal flight data from Flight #2 of the Pegasus vehicle. Results show that the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the Pegasus and Pegasus XL configurations are similar, having the same lift-curve slope and drag levels across the Mach number range. Both configurations are longitudinally stable, with stability decreasing towards neutral levels as Mach number increases. Directional stability is negative at moderate to high angles of attack due to separated flow over the vertical tail. Dihedral effect is positive for both configurations, but is reduced 30-50 percent for the Pegasus XL configuration because of the horizontal tail anhedral. Predicted longitudinal characteristics and both longitudinal and lateral-directional control effectiveness are generally in good agreement with experiment. Due to the complex leeside flowfield, lateral-directional characteristics are not as well predicted by the engineering codes. Experiment and flight data are in good agreement across the Mach number range.

  11. Experimental results on TMDs

    DOE PAGES

    None, None

    2016-06-13

    QCD factorisation for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering at low transverse momentum in the current-fragmentation region has been established recently, providing a rigorous basis to study the Transverse Momentum Dependent distribution and fragmentation functions (TMDs) of partons from Semi-Inclusive DIS data using different spin-dependent and spin-independent observables. The main focus of the experiments were the measurements of various single- and double-spin asymmetries in hadron electro-production (ep{up-arrow} --> ehX ) with unpolarised, longitudinally and transversely polarised targets. The joint use of a longitudinally polarised beam and longitudinally and transversely polarised targets allowed to measure double-spin asymmetries (DSA) related to leading-twist distribution functionsmore » describing the transverse momentum distribution of longitudinally and transversely polarised quarks in a longitudinally and transversely polarised nucleons (helicity and worm-gear TMDs). Furthermore, the single-spin asymmetries (SSA) measured with transversely polarised targets, provided access to specific leading-twist parton distribution functions: the transversity, the Sivers function and the so-called 'pretzelosity' function. In this review we present the current status and some future measurements of TMDs worldwide.« less

  12. A comparison of experimental and theoretical results for leakage, pressure distribution, and rotordynamic coefficients for annular gas seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicks, C. O.; Childs, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    The importance of seal behavior in rotordynamics is discussed and current annular seal theory is reviewed. A Nelson's analytical-computational method for determining rotordynamic coefficients for this type of compressible-flow seal is outlined. Various means for the experimental identification of the dynamic coefficients are given, and the method employed at the Texas A and M University (TAMU) test facility is explained. The TAMU test apparatus is described, and the test procedures are discussed. Experimental results, including leakage, entrance-loss coefficients, pressure distributions, and rotordynamic coefficients for a smooth and a honeycomb constant-clearance seal are presented and compared to theoretical results from Nelson's analysis. The results for both seals show little sensitivity to the running speed over the test range. Agreement between test results and theory for leakage through the seal is satisfactory. Test results for direct stiffness show a greater sensitivity to fluid pre-rotation than predicted. Results also indicate that the deliberately roughened surface of the honeycomb seal provides improved stability versus the smooth seal.

  13. Favorable results from the use of herbal and plant products in inflammatory bowel disease: evidence from experimental animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Triantafillidis, John K.; Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Vagianos, Constantinos; Papalois, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy for inflammatory bowel disease is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the available literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in experimental colitis. All relevant studies published in Medline and Embase up to June 2015 have been reviewed. The results of bowel histology and serum parameters have been recorded. A satisfactory number of published experimental studies, and a quite large one of both herbal and plant products tested in different studies have been reported. The results showed that in the majority of the studies, herbal therapy reduced the inflammatory activity of experimental colitis and diminished the levels of many inflammatory indices, including serum cytokines and indices of oxidative stress. The most promising plant and herbal products were tormentil extracts, wormwoodherb, Aloe vera, germinated barley foodstuff, curcumin, Boswellia serrata, Panax notoginseng, Ixeris dentata, green tea, Cordia dichotoma, Plantago lanceolata, Iridoidglycosides, and mastic gum. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit via various mechanisms, including immune regulation, anti-oxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-κB, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing these natural substances should be urgently conducted. PMID:27366027

  14. Experimental and Numerical Modeling of Fluid Flow Processes in Continuous Casting: Results from the LIMMCAST-Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmel, K.; Kratzsch, C.; Asad, A.; Schurmann, D.; Schwarze, R.; Eckert, S.

    2017-07-01

    The present paper reports about numerical simulations and model experiments concerned with the fluid flow in the continuous casting process of steel. This work was carried out in the LIMMCAST project in the framework of the Helmholtz alliance LIMTECH. A brief description of the LIMMCAST facilities used for the experimental modeling at HZDR is given here. Ultrasonic and inductive techniques and the X-ray radioscopy were employed for flow measurements or visualizations of two-phase flow regimes occurring in the submerged entry nozzle and the mold. Corresponding numerical simulations were performed at TUBAF taking into account the dimensions and properties of the model experiments. Numerical models were successfully validated using the experimental data base. The reasonable and in many cases excellent agreement of numerical with experimental data allows to extrapolate the models to real casting configurations. Exemplary results will be presented here showing the effect of electromagnetic brakes or electromagnetic stirrers on the flow in the mold or illustrating the properties of two-phase flows resulting from an Ar injection through the stopper rod.

  15. Experimental results for the Eppler 387 airfoil at low Reynolds numbers in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, Robert J.; Walker, Betty S.; Millard, Betty F.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental results were obtained for an Eppler 387 airfoil in the Langley Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.03 to 0.13 and a chord Reynolds number range for 60,000 to 460,000. Lift and pitching moment data were obtained from airfoil surface pressure measurements and drag data for wake surveys. Oil flow visualization was used to determine laminar separation and turbulent reattachment locations. Comparisons of these results with data on the Eppler 387 airfoil from two other facilities as well as the Eppler airfoil code are included.

  16. Analysis of Thermal Energy Storage Tank by ANSYS and Comparison with Experimental Results to Improve its Thermal Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beemkumar, N.; Karthikeyan, A.; Shiva Keshava Reddy, Kota; Rajesh, Kona; Anderson, A.

    2017-05-01

    The discontinuous temperament of the solar power forces to consider about the energy storage. This work is to analyze the tank, amount of energy stored and its storage time. The thermal and flow analysis has been done by ANSYS with different set temperature values. The experimentation is done for various encapsulating materials with different phase change material (PCM). Findings: The results obtained from experimental work are compared with ANSYS output. The competence of the TES is calculated and further improvements are made to enhance its performance. During charging process the temperature distribution from heat transfer fluid (HTF) to PCM is maximum in copper encapsulations followed by aluminium encapsulations and brass encapsulations. The comparison shows only when the electrical power as an input source. The efficient way of captivating solar energy could be a better replacement for electrical input.

  17. Economic Costs Avoided by Diagnosing Melanoma Six Months Earlier Justify >100 Benign Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Aires, Daniel J; Wick, Jo; Shaath, Tarek S; Rajpara, Anand N; Patel, Vikas; Badawi, Ahmed H; Li, Cicy; Fraga, Garth R; Doolittle, Gary; Liu, Deede Y

    2016-05-01

    New melanoma drugs bring enormous benefits but do so at significant costs. Because melanoma grows deeper and deadlier over time, deeper lesions are costlier due to increased sentinel lymph node biopsy, chemotherapy, and disease-associated income loss. Prior studies have justified pigmented lesion biopsies on a "value per life" basis; by contrast we sought to assess how many biopsies are justified per melanoma found on a purely economic basis. We modeled how melanomas in the United States would behave if diagnosis were delayed by 6 months, eg, not biopsied, only observed until the next surveillance visit. Economic loss from delayed biopsy is the obverse of economic benefit of performing biopsy earlier. Growth rates were based on Liu et al. The results of this study can be applied to all patients presenting to dermatologists with pigmented skin lesions suspicious for melanoma. In-situ melanomas were excluded because no studies to date have modeled growth rates analogous to those for invasive melanoma. We assume conservatively that all melanomas not biopsied initially will be biopsied and treated 6 months later. Major modeled costs are (1) increased sentinel lymph node biopsy, (2) increased chemotherapy for metastatic lesions using increased 5-yr death as metastasis marker, and (3) income loss per melanoma death at $413,370 as previously published. Costs avoided by diagnosing melanoma earlier justify 170 biopsies per melanoma found. Efforts to penalize "unnecessary" biopsies may be economically counterproductive.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(5):527-532.

  18. Empirical corroboration of an earlier theoretical resolution to the UV paradox of insect polarized skylight orientation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Gao, Jun; Fan, Zhiguo

    2014-02-01

    It is surprising that many insect species use only the ultraviolet (UV) component of the polarized skylight for orientation and navigation purposes, while both the intensity and the degree of polarization of light from the clear sky are lower in the UV than at longer (blue, green, red) wavelengths. Why have these insects chosen the UV part of the polarized skylight? This strange phenomenon is called the "UV-sky-pol paradox". Although earlier several speculations tried to resolve this paradox, they did this without any quantitative data. A theoretical and computational model has convincingly explained why it is advantageous for certain animals to detect celestial polarization in the UV. We performed a sky-polarimetric approach and built a polarized skylight sensor that models the processing of polarization signals by insect photoreceptors. Using this model sensor, we carried out measurements under clear and cloudy sky conditions. Our results showed that light from the cloudy sky has maximal degree of polarization in the UV. Furthermore, under both clear and cloudy skies the angle of polarization of skylight can be detected with a higher accuracy. By this, we corroborated empirically the soundness of the earlier computational resolution of the UV-sky-pol paradox.

  19. Empirical corroboration of an earlier theoretical resolution to the UV paradox of insect polarized skylight orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Gao, Jun; Fan, Zhiguo

    2014-02-01

    It is surprising that many insect species use only the ultraviolet (UV) component of the polarized skylight for orientation and navigation purposes, while both the intensity and the degree of polarization of light from the clear sky are lower in the UV than at longer (blue, green, red) wavelengths. Why have these insects chosen the UV part of the polarized skylight? This strange phenomenon is called the "UV-sky-pol paradox". Although earlier several speculations tried to resolve this paradox, they did this without any quantitative data. A theoretical and computational model has convincingly explained why it is advantageous for certain animals to detect celestial polarization in the UV. We performed a sky-polarimetric approach and built a polarized skylight sensor that models the processing of polarization signals by insect photoreceptors. Using this model sensor, we carried out measurements under clear and cloudy sky conditions. Our results showed that light from the cloudy sky has maximal degree of polarization in the UV. Furthermore, under both clear and cloudy skies the angle of polarization of skylight can be detected with a higher accuracy. By this, we corroborated empirically the soundness of the earlier computational resolution of the UV-sky-pol paradox.

  20. Increased heat transfer to elliptical leading edges due to spanwise variations in the freestream momentum: Numerical and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, D. L.; Vanfossen, G. J.

    1992-01-01

    A study of the effect of spanwise variation in momentum on leading edge heat transfer is discussed. Numerical and experimental results are presented for both a circular leading edge and a 3:1 elliptical leading edge. Reynolds numbers in the range of 10,000 to 240,000 based on leading edge diameter are investigated. The surface of the body is held at a constant uniform temperature. Numerical and experimental results with and without spanwise variations are presented. Direct comparison of the two-dimensional results, that is, with no spanwise variations, to the analytical results of Frossling is very good. The numerical calculation, which uses the PARC3D code, solves the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, assuming steady laminar flow on the leading edge region. Experimentally, increases in the spanwise-averaged heat transfer coefficient as high as 50 percent above the two-dimensional value were observed. Numerically, the heat transfer coefficient was seen to increase by as much as 25 percent. In general, under the same flow conditions, the circular leading edge produced a higher heat transfer rate than the elliptical leading edge. As a percentage of the respective two-dimensional values, the circular and elliptical leading edges showed similar sensitivity to span wise variations in momentum. By equating the root mean square of the amplitude of the spanwise variation in momentum to the turbulence intensity, a qualitative comparison between the present work and turbulent results was possible. It is shown that increases in leading edge heat transfer due to spanwise variations in freestream momentum are comparable to those due to freestream turbulence.

  1. A comparison of experimental and theoretical results for leakage, pressure gradients, and rotordynamic coefficients for tapered annular gas seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, D. A.; Childs, D. W.

    1986-01-01

    A brief review of current annular seal theory and a discussion of the predicted effect on stiffness of tapering the seal stator are presented. An outline of Nelson's analytical-computational method for determining rotordynamic coefficients for annular compressible-flow seals is included. Modifications to increase the maximum rotor speed of an existing air-seal test apparatus at Texas A&M University are described. Experimental results, including leakage, entrance-loss coefficients, pressure distributions, and normalized rotordynamic coefficients, are presented for four convergent-tapered, smooth-rotor, smooth-stator seals. A comparison of the test results shows that an inlet-to-exit clearance ratio of 1.5 to 2.0 provides the maximum direct stiffness, a clearance ratio of 2.5 provides the greatest stability, and a clearance ratio of 1.0 provides the least stability. The experimental results are compared to theoretical results from Nelson's analysis with good agreement. Test results for cross-coupled stiffness show less sensitivity of fluid prerotation than predicted.

  2. Sensitivity Analysis of Different Shapes of a Plastic Optical Fiber-Based Immunosensor for Escherichia coli: Simulation and Experimental Results.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Domingos M C; Lopes, Rafaela N; Franco, Marcos A R; Werneck, Marcelo M; Allil, Regina C S B

    2017-12-19

    Conventional pathogen detection methods require trained personnel, specialized laboratories and can take days to provide a result. Thus, portable biosensors with rapid detection response are vital for the current needs for in-loco quality assays. In this work the authors analyze the characteristics of an immunosensor based on the evanescent field in plastic optical fibers with macro curvature by comparing experimental with simulated results. The work studies different shapes of evanescent-wave based fiber optic sensors, adopting a computational modeling to evaluate the probes with the best sensitivity. The simulation showed that for a U-Shaped sensor, the best results can be achieved with a sensor of 980 µm diameter by 5.0 mm in curvature for refractive index sensing, whereas the meander-shaped sensor with 250 μm in diameter with radius of curvature of 1.5 mm, showed better sensitivity for either bacteria and refractive index (RI) sensing. Then, an immunosensor was developed, firstly to measure refractive index and after that, functionalized to detect Escherichia coli . Based on the results with the simulation, we conducted studies with a real sensor for RI measurements and for Escherichia coli detection aiming to establish the best diameter and curvature radius in order to obtain an optimized sensor. On comparing the experimental results with predictions made from the modelling, good agreements were obtained. The simulations performed allowed the evaluation of new geometric configurations of biosensors that can be easily constructed and that promise improved sensitivity.

  3. An experimental investigation of gapwise periodicity and unsteady aerodynamic response in an oscillating cascade. 1: Experimental and theoretical results. [turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carta, F. O.

    1982-01-01

    Tests were conducted on a linear cascade of airfoils oscillating in pitch to measure the unsteady pressure response on selected blades along the leading edge plane of the cascade, over the chord of the center blade, and on the sidewall in the plane of the leading edge. The pressure data were reduced to Fourier coefficient form for direct comparison, and were also processed to yield integrated loads and, particularly, the aerodynamic damping coefficient. Results from the unsteady Verdon/Caspar theory for cascaded blades with nonzero thickness and camber were compared with the experimental measurements. The three primary results are: (1) from the leading edge plane blade data, the cascade was judged to be periodic in unsteady flow over the range of parameters tested; (2) the interblade phase angle was found to be the single most important parameter affecting the stability of the oscillating cascade blades; and (3) the real blade theory and the experiment were in excellent agreement for the several cases chosen for comparison.

  4. Computer Class Role Playing Games, an innovative teaching methodology based on STEM and ICT: first experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraffi, S.

    2016-12-01

    Context/PurposeWe experienced a new teaching and learning technology: a Computer Class Role Playing Game (RPG) to perform educational activity in classrooms through an interactive game. This approach is new, there are some experiences on educational games, but mainly individual and not class-based. Gaming all together in a class, with a single scope for the whole class, it enhances peer collaboration, cooperative problem solving and friendship. MethodsTo perform the research we experimented the games in several classes of different degrees, acquiring specific questionnaire by teachers and pupils. Results Experimental results were outstanding: RPG, our interactive activity, exceed by 50% the overall satisfaction compared to traditional lessons or Power Point supported teaching. InterpretationThe appreciation of RPG was in agreement with the class level outcome identified by the teacher after the experimentation. Our work experience get excellent feedbacks by teachers, in terms of efficacy of this new teaching methodology and of achieved results. Using new methodology more close to the student point of view improves the innovation and creative capacities of learners, and it support the new role of teacher as learners' "coach". ConclusionThis paper presents the first experimental results on the application of this new technology based on a Computer game which project on a wall in the class an adventure lived by the students. The plots of the actual adventures are designed for deeper learning of Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM) and Social Sciences & Humanities (SSH). The participation of the pupils it's based on the interaction with the game by the use of their own tablets or smartphones. The game is based on a mixed reality learning environment, giving the students the feel "to be IN the adventure".

  5. Experimental validation of FINDSITEcomb virtual ligand screening results for eight proteins yields novel nanomolar and micromolar binders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Identification of ligand-protein binding interactions is a critical step in drug discovery. Experimental screening of large chemical libraries, in spite of their specific role and importance in drug discovery, suffer from the disadvantages of being random, time-consuming and expensive. To accelerate the process, traditional structure- or ligand-based VLS approaches are combined with experimental high-throughput screening, HTS. Often a single protein or, at most, a protein family is considered. Large scale VLS benchmarking across diverse protein families is rarely done, and the reported success rate is very low. Here, we demonstrate the experimental HTS validation of a novel VLS approach, FINDSITEcomb, across a diverse set of medically-relevant proteins. Results For eight different proteins belonging to different fold-classes and from diverse organisms, the top 1% of FINDSITEcomb’s VLS predictions were tested, and depending on the protein target, 4%-47% of the predicted ligands were shown to bind with μM or better affinities. In total, 47 small molecule binders were identified. Low nanomolar (nM) binders for dihydrofolate reductase and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and micromolar binders for the other proteins were identified. Six novel molecules had cytotoxic activity (<10 μg/ml) against the HCT-116 colon carcinoma cell line and one novel molecule had potent antibacterial activity. Conclusions We show that FINDSITEcomb is a promising new VLS approach that can assist drug discovery. PMID:24936211

  6. Ambient Vibration Tests of an Arch Dam with Different Reservoir Water Levels: Experimental Results and Comparison with Finite Element Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Ranieri, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the ambient vibration tests performed in an arch dam in two different working conditions in order to assess the effect produced by two different reservoir water levels on the structural vibration properties. The study consists of an experimental part and a numerical part. The experimental tests were carried out in two different periods of the year, at the beginning of autumn (October 2012) and at the end of winter (March 2013), respectively. The measurements were performed using a fast technique based on asynchronous records of microtremor time-series. In-contact single-station measurements were done by means of one single high resolution triaxial tromometer and two low-frequency seismometers, placed in different points of the structure. The Standard Spectral Ratio method has been used to evaluate the natural frequencies of vibration of the structure. A 3D finite element model of the arch dam-reservoir-foundation system has been developed to verify analytically determined vibration properties, such as natural frequencies and mode shapes, and their changes linked to water level with the experimental results. PMID:25003146

  7. Heat Transfer and Flow on the First Stage Blade Tip of a Power Generation Gas Turbine. Part 1; Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunker, Ronald S.; Bailey, Jeremy C.; Ameri, Ali A.

    1999-01-01

    A combined computational and experimental study has been performed to investigate the detailed distribution of convective heat transfer coefficients on the first stage blade tip surface for a geometry typical of large power generation turbines(>100MW). This paper is concerned with the design and execution of the experimental portion of the study. A stationary blade cascade experiment has been run consisting of three airfoils, the center airfoil having a variable tip gap clearance. The airfoil models the aerodynamic tip section of a high pressure turbine blade with inlet Mach number of 0.30, exit Mach number of 0.75, pressure ratio of 1.45, exit Reynolds number based on axial chord of 2.57 x 10(exp 6), and total turning of about 110 degrees. A hue detection based liquid crystal method is used to obtain the detailed heat transfer coefficient distribution on the blade tip surface for flat, smooth tip surfaces with both sharp and rounded edges. The cascade inlet turbulence intensity level took on values of either 5% or 9%. The cascade also models the casing recess in the shroud surface ahead of the blade. Experimental results are shown for the pressure distribution measurements on the airfoil near the tip gap, on the blade tip surface, and on the opposite shroud surface. Tip surface heat transfer coefficient distributions are shown for sharp-edge and rounded-edge tip geometries at each of the inlet turbulence intensity levels.

  8. Experimental Design and Data Analysis Issues Contribute to Inconsistent Results of C-Bouton Changes in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dukkipati, S Shekar; Chihi, Aouatef; Wang, Yiwen; Elbasiouny, Sherif M

    2017-01-01

    The possible presence of pathological changes in cholinergic synaptic inputs [cholinergic boutons (C-boutons)] is a contentious topic within the ALS field. Conflicting data reported on this issue makes it difficult to assess the roles of these synaptic inputs in ALS. Our objective was to determine whether the reported changes are truly statistically and biologically significant and why replication is problematic. This is an urgent question, as C-boutons are an important regulator of spinal motoneuron excitability, and pathological changes in motoneuron excitability are present throughout disease progression. Using male mice of the SOD1-G93A high-expresser transgenic ( G93A ) mouse model of ALS, we examined C-boutons on spinal motoneurons. We performed histological analysis at high statistical power, which showed no difference in C-bouton size in G93A versus wild-type motoneurons throughout disease progression. In an attempt to examine the underlying reasons for our failure to replicate reported changes, we performed further histological analyses using several variations on experimental design and data analysis that were reported in the ALS literature. This analysis showed that factors related to experimental design, such as grouping unit, sampling strategy, and blinding status, potentially contribute to the discrepancy in published data on C-bouton size changes. Next, we systematically analyzed the impact of study design variability and potential bias on reported results from experimental and preclinical studies of ALS. Strikingly, we found that practices such as blinding and power analysis are not systematically reported in the ALS field. Protocols to standardize experimental design and minimize bias are thus critical to advancing the ALS field.

  9. Earlier Vegetation Activity Onset Enhances Springtime Water-use Efficiency in Temperate and Boreal Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, J.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Ecosystem-scale water-use efficiency (EWUE), defined as the ratio of gross primary productivity (GPP) to evapotranspiration (ET), is an important indicator for understanding how water couples with the carbon cycle under global change. Relationships between EWUE and abiotic environmental factors (e.g. climatic factors, atmospheric CO2concentration and nitrogen deposition) have been widely investigated, but the variations in EWUE in response to biotic controls remain little understood. Here, we argue that phenology plays an important role in the regulation of EWUE by analyzing springtime EWUE responses to variability of the GPP-based vegetation activity onset (VAO) in temperate and boreal ecosystems using both satellite and flux-tower observations. Based on MODIS productions during 2000-2014, we found that spring EWUE widely significantly increased with the earlier VAO mainly in the mid- and high latitudes (over 50°N), southwestern China and mid-western North America. When AVO advanced a 10-day, the spring EWUE would increase on average by 0.17±0.09 g C kg-1 H2O in temperate and continental climates after removing the effect of environmental factors. The main response patterns of EWUE to phenology suggest that an increase in spring EWUE with an earlier VAO are mainly because the increase in GPP is relatively larger in magnitude compared to that of ET, or due to an increase in GPP accompanied by a decrease in ET, resulting from an advanced VAO. The credibility of the results is also supported by the local-scale observations. By analyzing 66 site-years of flux and meteorological data obtained from 8 temperate deciduous broadleaf forest sites across North America and Europe, spring EWUE increased 0.42±0.08 g C kg-1 H2O with a 10-day advance of VAO across all sites after controlling for environmental factors, mainly because an earlier VAO could lead to a steeper increase in GPP than in ET. Our results and conclusions highlight that phenological factors cannot be

  10. Experimental investigation and modelling of surface roughness and resultant cutting force in hard turning of AISI H13 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boy, M.; Yaşar, N.; Çiftçi, İ.

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, turning of hardened steels has replaced grinding for finishing operations. This process is compared to grinding operations; hard turning has higher material removal rates, the possibility of greater process flexibility, lower equipment costs, and shorter setup time. CBN or ceramic cutting tools are widely used hard part machining. For successful application of hard turning, selection of suitable cutting parameters for a given cutting tool is an important step. For this purpose, an experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effects of cutting tool edge geometry, feed rate and cutting speed on surface roughness and resultant cutting force in hard turning of AISI H13 steel with ceramic cutting tools. Machining experiments were conducted in a CNC lathe based on Taguchi experimental design (L16) in different levels of cutting parameters. In the experiments, a Kistler 9257 B, three cutting force components (Fc, Ff and Fr) piezoelectric dynamometer was used to measure cutting forces. Surface roughness measurements were performed by using a Mahrsurf PS1 device. For statistical analysis, analysis of variance has been performed and mathematical model have been developed for surface roughness and resultant cutting forces. The analysis of variance results showed that the cutting edge geometry, cutting speed and feed rate were the most significant factors on resultant cutting force while the cutting edge geometry and feed rate were the most significant factor for the surface roughness. The regression analysis was applied to predict the outcomes of the experiment. The predicted values and measured values were very close to each other. Afterwards a confirmation tests were performed to make a comparison between the predicted results and the measured results. According to the confirmation test results, measured values are within the 95% confidence interval.

  11. Influence of wetting effect at the outer surface of the pipe on increase in leak rate - experimental results and discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Isozaki, Toshikuni; Shibata, Katsuyuki

    1997-04-01

    Experimental and computed results applicable to Leak Before Break analysis are presented. The specific area of investigation is the effect of the temperature distribution changes due to wetting of the test pipe near the crack on the increase in the crack opening area and leak rate. Two 12-inch straight pipes subjected to both internal pressure and thermal load, but not to bending load, are modelled. The leak rate was found to be very susceptible to the metal temperature of the piping. In leak rate tests, therefore, it is recommended that temperature distribution be measured precisely for a wide area.

  12. Note: Comparison experimental results of the laser heterodyne interferometer for angle measurement based on the Faraday effect.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Enzheng; Chen, Benyong; Zheng, Hao; Teng, Xueying; Yan, Liping

    2018-04-01

    A laser heterodyne interferometer for angle measurement based on the Faraday effect is proposed. A novel optical configuration, designed by using the orthogonal return method for a linearly polarized beam based on the Faraday effect, guarantees that the measurement beam can return effectively even though an angular reflector has a large lateral displacement movement. The optical configuration and measurement principle are presented in detail. Two verification experiments were performed; the experimental results show that the proposed interferometer can achieve a large lateral displacement tolerance of 7.4 mm and also can realize high precision angle measurement with a large measurement range.

  13. Note: Comparison experimental results of the laser heterodyne interferometer for angle measurement based on the Faraday effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Enzheng; Chen, Benyong; Zheng, Hao; Teng, Xueying; Yan, Liping

    2018-04-01

    A laser heterodyne interferometer for angle measurement based on the Faraday effect is proposed. A novel optical configuration, designed by using the orthogonal return method for a linearly polarized beam based on the Faraday effect, guarantees that the measurement beam can return effectively even though an angular reflector has a large lateral displacement movement. The optical configuration and measurement principle are presented in detail. Two verification experiments were performed; the experimental results show that the proposed interferometer can achieve a large lateral displacement tolerance of 7.4 mm and also can realize high precision angle measurement with a large measurement range.

  14. Effect of Silicon on the Desulfurization of Al-Killed Steels: Part II. Experimental Results and Plant Trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Debdutta; Pistorius, Petrus Christiaan; Fruehan, Richard J.

    2013-10-01

    Recent observations suggest that increased silicon levels improve ladle desulfurization of aluminum-killed steel. A kinetic model was developed and presented in part I of this paper, demonstrating that increased silicon levels in steel suppress the consumption of aluminum by parasitic reactions like silica reduction and FeO/MnO reduction, thus making more aluminum available at the interface for desulfurization. The results are increases in the rate and the extent of desulfurization. Predictions were compared with laboratory induction furnace melts using 1 kg of steel and 0.1 kg slag. The experimental results demonstrate the beneficial effect of silicon on the desulfurization reaction and that alumina can be reduced out of the slag and aluminum picked up by the steel, if the silicon content in the steel is high enough. The experimental results are in close agreement with the model predictions. Plant trials also show that with increased silicon content, both the rate and extent of desulfurization increase; incorporating silicon early into the ladle desulfurization process leads to considerable savings in aluminum consumption.

  15. Effect of an estrogen-deficient state and alendronate therapy on bone loss resulting from experimental periapical lesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Haofei; Peng, Bin; Wei, Lili; Zhang, Xiaolei; Wang, Li

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate the impact of an estrogen-deficient state and alendronate (ALD) therapy on bone loss resulting from experimental periapical lesions in rats. Periapical lesions were induced on ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-ovariectomized (Sham) rats. After sample preparation, histologic and radiographic examination for periapical bone loss area and an enzyme histochemical test for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) were performed. The results showed that OVX significantly increased bone loss resulting from periradicular lesions. After daily subcutaneous injection of ALD, the bone loss area and the number of TRAP-positive cells (osteoclasts) were reduced. These findings suggested that alendronate may protect against increased bone loss from experimental periapical lesions in estrogen-deficient rats. Given recent recognition of adverse effects of bisphosphonates, including an increased risk for osteonecrosis, the findings from this study should not be interpreted as a new indication for ALD treatment. However, they may offer insight into understanding and predicting outcomes in female postmenopausal patients already on ALD therapy for medical indications.

  16. Narrow- and wide-band channel characterization for land mobile satellite systems: Experimental results at L-band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, Axel; Buonomo, Sergio; Sforza, Mario; Lutz, Erich

    1995-01-01

    The results of an airborne measurement campaign aimed at the characterization of the mobile satellite link are presented in this paper. The experimental tests were carried out at 1.8 GHz. The objective of the campaign was to obtain results applicable to all proposed satellite constellations: LEO, HEO, and GEO. Therefore, the measurements were performed for elevation angles from 10 deg...80 deg using a light aircraft. A set of different environments and operational scenarios have been investigated, typically for hand-held and car-mounted applications. We present a survey of wide- and narrowband results for a wide range of elevation angles and environments. For the wideband characterization, the power delay profiles of the channel impulse response are presented and discussed. Figures for the delay spread versus elevation and for the carrier-to-multipath ratio versus time are also given. The narrowband behaviour of the channel is described by power series.

  17. Focusing effect of bent GaAs crystals for γ-ray Laue lenses: Monte Carlo and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgilli, E.; Frontera, F.; Rosati, P.; Bonnini, E.; Buffagni, E.; Ferrari, C.; Stephen, J. B.; Caroli, E.; Auricchio, N.; Basili, A.; Silvestri, S.

    2016-02-01

    We report on results of observation of the focusing effect from the planes (220) of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) crystals. We have compared the experimental results with the Monte Carlo simulations of the focusing capability of GaAs tiles performed with a dedicated ray-tracer. The GaAs tiles were bent using a lapping process developed at the cnr/imem - Parma (Italy) in the framework of the laue project, funded by ASI, dedicated to build a broad band Laue lens prototype for astrophysical applications in the hard X-/soft γ-ray energy range (80-600 keV). We present and discuss the results obtained from their characterization, mainly in terms of focusing capability. Bent crystals will significantly increase the signal to noise ratio of a telescope based on a Laue lens, consequently leading to an unprecedented enhancement of sensitivity with respect to the present non focusing instrumentation.

  18. Evolution of the Die-Wall Pressure during the Compression of Biconvex Tablets: Experimental Results and Comparison with FEM Simulation.

    PubMed

    Mazel, Vincent; Diarra, Harona; Busignies, Virginie; Tchoreloff, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Capping is a classical manufacturing problem for tablets, which is known to affect more biconvex tablets than flat-faced ones. One reason could be the development of a higher residual die-wall pressure during unloading. Unfortunately, contradictory results were published on the subject. In this work, the evolution of the die-wall pressure during the compaction of biconvex tablets was studied experimentally and using finite element method (FEM) modeling. It was compared with the case of flat-faced tablets. Experimental and numerical results showed that during the compression of biconvex tablet, a lower maximum die-wall pressure and a higher residual die-wall pressure were obtained compared with the case of flat-faced tablet. Moreover, both approaches showed, for biconvex tablets, a temporary increase of the die-wall pressure at the end of the unloading phase. FEM demonstrated that this phenomenon was due to a gradual loss of contact between the punch and the tablet from the side to the center. This complex unloading behavior causes the temporary increase of the die-wall pressure and the development of a shear stress between the convex part and the land of the tablet. This could explain the capping tendency of biconvex tablets. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  19. Aqueous ionic liquids and their effects on protein structures: an overview on recent theoretical and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiatek, Jens

    2017-06-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are used in a variety of technological and biological applications. Recent experimental and simulation results reveal the influence of aqueous ionic liquids on the stability of protein and enzyme structures. Depending on different parameters like the concentration and the ion composition, one can observe distinct stabilization or denaturation mechanisms for various ILs. In this review, we summarize the main findings and discuss the implications with regard to molecular theories of solutions and specific ion effects. A preferential binding model is introduced in order to discuss protein-IL effects from a statistical mechanics perspective. The value of the preferential binding coefficient determines the strength of the ion influence and indicates a shift of the chemical equilibrium either to the native or the denatured state of the protein. We highlight the role of water in order to explain the self-association behavior of the IL species and discuss recent experimental and simulation results in the light of the observed binding effects.

  20. A comparative study between experimental results and numerical predictions of multi-wall structural response to hypervelocity impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.; Peck, Jeffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last three decades, multiwall structures have been analyzed extensively, primarily through experiment, as a means of increasing the protection afforded to spacecraft structure. However, as structural configurations become more varied, the number of tests required to characterize their response increases dramatically. As an alternative, numerical modeling of high-speed impact phenomena is often being used to predict the response of a variety of structural systems under impact loading conditions. This paper presents the results of a preliminary numerical/experimental investigation of the hypervelocity impact response of multiwall structures. The results of experimental high-speed impact tests are compared against the predictions of the HULL hydrodynamic computer code. It is shown that the hypervelocity impact response characteristics of a specific system cannot be accurately predicted from a limited number of HULL code impact simulations. However, if a wide range of impact loadings conditions are considered, then the ballistic limit curve of the system based on the entire series of numerical simulations can be used as a relatively accurate indication of actual system response.