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Sample records for earlier life stages

  1. Organized screening detects breast cancer at earlier stage regardless of molecular phenotype.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Claire M B; Jiang, Li; Whitehead, Marlo; Racz, Jennifer M; Groome, Patti A

    2018-06-16

    Mortality reduction attributable to organized breast screening is modest. Screening may be less effective at detecting more aggressive cancers at an earlier stage. This study was conducted to determine the relative efficacy of screening mammography to detect cancers at an earlier stage by molecular phenotype. We identified 2882 women with primary invasive breast cancer diagnosed between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 and who had a mammogram through the Ontario Breast Screening Program in the 28 months before diagnosis. Five tumor phenotypes were defined by expression of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors and HER2/neu oncogene. We conducted univariable and multivariable analyses to describe the predictors of detection as an interval cancer. Additional analyses identified predictors of detection at stages II, III, or IV compared with stage I, by phenotype. Analyses were adjusted for the effects of age, grade, and breast density. ER negative and HER2 positive tumors were over-represented among interval cancers, and triple negative cancers were more likely than ER +/HER2 - cancers to be detected as interval cancers OR 2.5 (95% CI 2.0-3.2, p < 0.0001). Method of detection (interval vs. screen) and molecular phenotype were independently associated with stage at diagnosis (p < 0.0001), but there was no interaction between method of detection and phenotype (p = 0.44). In a screened population, triple negative and HER2 + breast cancers are diagnosed at a higher stage but this appears to be due to higher growth rates of these tumors rather than a relative inability of screening to detect them.

  2. Insight Into Illness and Cognition in Schizophrenia in Earlier and Later Life.

    PubMed

    Gerretsen, Philip; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Menon, Mahesh; Pollock, Bruce G; Mamo, David C; Mulsant, Benoit H; Rajji, Tarek K

    2017-04-01

    Impaired insight into illness in schizophrenia is associated with illness severity and deficits in premorbid intellectual function, executive function, and memory. A previous study of patients aged 60 years and older found that illness severity and premorbid intellectual function accounted for variance in insight impairment. As such, we aimed to test whether similar relationships would be observed in earlier life. A retrospective analysis was performed on 1 large sample of participants (n = 171) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia aged 19 to 79 years acquired from 2 studies: (1) a psychosocial intervention trial for older persons with schizophrenia (June 2008 to May 2014) and (2) a diffusion tensor imaging and genetics study of psychosis across the life span (February 2007 to December 2013). We assessed insight into illness using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) item G12 and explored its relationship to illness severity (PANSS total modified), premorbid intellectual function (Wechsler Test of Adult Reading [WTAR]), and cognition. Insight impairment was more severe in later life (≥ 60 years) than in earlier years (t = -3.75, P < .001). Across the whole sample, the variance of impaired insight was explained by PANSS total modified (Exp[B] = 1.070, P < .001) and WTAR scores (Exp[B] = 0.970, P = .028). Although age and cognition were correlated with impaired insight, they did not independently contribute to its variance. However, the relationships between impaired insight and illness severity and between impaired insight and cognition, particularly working memory, were stronger in later life than in earlier life. These results suggest an opportunity for intervention may exist with cognitive-enhancing neurostimulation or medications to improve insight into illness in schizophrenia across the life span. Original study registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT00832845). © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  3. Adolescent internalizing symptoms and negative life events: the sensitizing effects of earlier life stress and cortisol.

    PubMed

    Ruttle, Paula L; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Klein, Marjorie H; Essex, Marilyn J

    2014-11-01

    Although adolescence is marked by increased negative life events and internalizing problems, few studies investigate this association as an ongoing longitudinal process. Moreover, while there are considerable individual differences in the degree to which these phenomena are linked, little is known about the origins of these differences. The present study examines early life stress (ELS) exposure and early-adolescent longitudinal afternoon cortisol level as predictors of the covariation between internalizing symptoms and negative life events across high school. ELS was assessed by maternal report during infancy, and the measure of cortisol was derived from assessments at ages 11, 13, and 15 years. Life events and internalizing symptoms were assessed at ages 15, 17, and 18 years. A two-level hierarchical linear model revealed that ELS and cortisol were independent predictors of the covariation of internalizing symptoms and negative life events. Compared to those with lower levels of ELS, ELS-exposed adolescents displayed tighter covariation between internalizing symptoms and negative life events. Adolescents with lower longitudinal afternoon cortisol displayed tighter covariation between negative life events and internalizing symptoms, while those with higher cortisol demonstrated weaker covariation, partially due to increased levels of internalizing symptoms when faced with fewer negative life events.

  4. A Review of Quality of Life after Predictive Testing for and Earlier Identification of Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Jane S.; Nance, Martha; Kim, Ji-In; Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Panegyres, Peter K.; Erwin, Cheryl; Goh, Anita; McCusker, Elizabeth; Williams, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed an explosion of evidence suggesting that many neurodegenerative diseases can be detected years, if not decades, earlier than previously thought. To date, these scientific advances have not provoked any parallel translational or clinical improvements. There is an urgency to capitalize on this momentum so earlier detection of disease can be more readily translated into improved health-related quality of life for families at risk for, or suffering with, neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measurement in neurodegenerative diseases and the importance of these “patient reported outcomes” for all clinical research. Next, we address HRQOL following early identification or predictive genetic testing in some neurodegenerative diseases: Huntington disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, prion diseases, hereditary ataxias, Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy and Wilson's disease. After a brief report of available direct-to-consumer genetic tests, we address the juxtaposition of earlier disease identification with assumed reluctance towards predictive genetic testing. Forty-one studies examining health related outcomes following predictive genetic testing for neurodegenerative disease suggested that (a) extreme or catastrophic outcomes are rare; (b) consequences commonly include transiently increased anxiety and/or depression; (c) most participants report no regret; (d) many persons report extensive benefits to receiving genetic information; and (e) stigmatization and discrimination for genetic diseases are poorly understood and policy and laws are needed. Caution is appropriate for earlier identification of neurodegenerative diseases but findings suggest further progress is safe, feasible and likely to advance clinical care. PMID:24036231

  5. Early Life Stages

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  6. An inhibitor of polyamine synthesis arrests cells at an earlier stage of G1 than does calcium deprivation.

    PubMed Central

    Cheetham, B F

    1983-01-01

    Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) completely inhibits the induction of thymidine kinase after serum stimulation of quiescent fibroblasts only if added within 3 h after serum, whereas calcium deprivation blocks this induction up to 12 h after serum stimulation. Experiments in which one of these blocks was imposed as the other was released confirmed that cells blocked by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) are arrested at an earlier stage in G1 than cells blocked by calcium deprivation. PMID:6843551

  7. Marijuana and Cannabinoids in ESRD and Earlier Stages of CKD.

    PubMed

    Rein, Joshua L; Wyatt, Christina M

    2018-02-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used recreational drug in the United States, and legal recreational and medicinal use has gained public acceptance during the last decade. Twenty-nine US states have established medical marijuana programs, 8 of which have also legalized recreational marijuana, and Canada is expected to legalize recreational marijuana in 2018. Advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are chronic conditions with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Patients experience substantial symptom burden that is frequently undertreated due to adverse medication side effects. This article reviews the available evidence for the use of medical marijuana to manage chronic pain, nausea/vomiting, anorexia/cachexia, and pruritus, all of which are frequently reported by patients with advanced CKD or ESRD. Potential adverse health effects of medical and recreational marijuana use are also discussed. Regardless of personal, social, and political beliefs, marijuana use is becoming mainstream, and nephrologists should be aware of the potential impact on our patient population. Further research is warranted to investigate the renal endocannabinoid system, the impact of marijuana use on kidney disease outcomes, and the risks and benefits of medical marijuana use on symptoms of advanced CKD and ESRD. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantifying the economic value and quality of life impact of earlier influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bruce Y; Bartsch, Sarah M; Brown, Shawn T; Cooley, Philip; Wheaton, William D; Zimmerman, Richard K

    2015-03-01

    Influenza vaccination is administered throughout the influenza disease season, even as late as March. Given such timing, what is the value of vaccinating the population earlier than currently being practiced? We used real data on when individuals were vaccinated in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, and the following 2 models to determine the value of vaccinating individuals earlier (by the end of September, October, and November): Framework for Reconstructing Epidemiological Dynamics (FRED), an agent-based model (ABM), and FluEcon, our influenza economic model that translates cases from the ABM to outcomes and costs [health care and lost productivity costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)]. We varied the reproductive number (R0) from 1.2 to 1.6. Applying the current timing of vaccinations averted 223,761 influenza cases, $16.3 million in direct health care costs, $50.0 million in productivity losses, and 804 in QALYs, compared with no vaccination (February peak, R0 1.2). When the population does not have preexisting immunity and the influenza season peaks in February (R0 1.2-1.6), moving individuals who currently received the vaccine after September to the end of September could avert an additional 9634-17,794 influenza cases, $0.6-$1.4 million in direct costs, $2.1-$4.0 million in productivity losses, and 35-64 QALYs. Moving the vaccination of just children to September (R0 1.2-1.6) averted 11,366-1660 influenza cases, $0.6-$0.03 million in direct costs, $2.3-$0.2 million in productivity losses, and 42-8 QALYs. Moving the season peak to December increased these benefits, whereas increasing preexisting immunity reduced these benefits. Even though many people are vaccinated well after September/October, they likely are still vaccinated early enough to provide substantial cost-savings.

  9. Filarial parasites develop faster and reproduce earlier in response to host immune effectors that determine filarial life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Babayan, Simon A; Read, Andrew F; Lawrence, Rachel A; Bain, Odile; Allen, Judith E

    2010-10-19

    Humans and other mammals mount vigorous immune assaults against helminth parasites, yet there are intriguing reports that the immune response can enhance rather than impair parasite development. It has been hypothesized that helminths, like many free-living organisms, should optimize their development and reproduction in response to cues predicting future life expectancy. However, immune-dependent development by helminth parasites has so far eluded such evolutionary explanation. By manipulating various arms of the immune response of experimental hosts, we show that filarial nematodes, the parasites responsible for debilitating diseases in humans like river blindness and elephantiasis, accelerate their development in response to the IL-5 driven eosinophilia they encounter when infecting a host. Consequently they produce microfilariae, their transmission stages, earlier and in greater numbers. Eosinophilia is a primary host determinant of filarial life expectancy, operating both at larval and at late adult stages in anatomically and temporally separate locations, and is implicated in vaccine-mediated protection. Filarial nematodes are therefore able to adjust their reproductive schedules in response to an environmental predictor of their probability of survival, as proposed by evolutionary theory, thereby mitigating the effects of the immune attack to which helminths are most susceptible. Enhancing protective immunity against filarial nematodes, for example through vaccination, may be less effective at reducing transmission than would be expected and may, at worst, lead to increased transmission and, hence, pathology.

  10. Quantifying the Economic Value and Quality of Life Impact of Earlier Influenza Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Bartsch, Sarah M.; Brown, Shawn T.; Cooley, Philip; Wheaton, William D.; Zimmerman, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Influenza vaccination is administered throughout the influenza disease season, even as late as March. Given such timing, what is the value of vaccinating the population earlier than currently being practiced? Methods We used real data on when individuals were vaccinated in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, and the following 2 models to determine the value of vaccinating individuals earlier (by the end of September, October, and November): Framework for Reconstructing Epidemiological Dynamics (FRED), an agent-based model (ABM), and FluEcon, our influenza economic model that translates cases from the ABM to outcomes and costs [health care and lost productivity costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)]. We varied the reproductive number (R0) from 1.2 to 1.6. Results Applying the current timing of vaccinations averted 223,761 influenza cases, $16.3 million in direct health care costs, $50.0 million in productivity losses, and 804 in QALYs, compared with no vaccination (February peak, R0 1.2). When the population does not have preexisting immunity and the influenza season peaks in February (R0 1.2–1.6), moving individuals who currently received the vaccine after September to the end of September could avert an additional 9634–17,794 influenza cases, $0.6–$1.4 million in direct costs, $2.1–$4.0 million in productivity losses, and 35–64 QALYs. Moving the vaccination of just children to September (R0 1.2–1.6) averted 11,366–1660 influenza cases, $0.6–$0.03 million in direct costs, $2.3–$0.2 million in productivity losses, and 42–8 QALYs. Moving the season peak to December increased these benefits, whereas increasing preexisting immunity reduced these benefits. Conclusion Even though many people are vaccinated well after September/October, they likely are still vaccinated early enough to provide substantial cost-savings. PMID:25590676

  11. Health Disparities in Mid-to-Late Life: The Role of Earlier Life Family and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Rucker C.; Schoeni, Robert F.; Rogowski, Jeannette A.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between neighborhoods of residence in young adulthood and health in mid to late life in the United States are examined using the 1968-2005 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). The sample consists of persons who were aged 20-30 in 1968 and are followed for a period of 38 years (N=2,730). Four-level hierarchical random effects models of self-assessed general health status as a function of individual, family, and neighborhood factors are estimated. Using the original sampling design of the PSID, we analyze adult health trajectories of married couples and neighbors followed from young adulthood through elderly ages to assess the magnitudes of the possible causal effects of family and neighborhood characteristics in young adulthood on health in mid to late life. Estimates suggest disparities in neighborhood conditions in young adulthood account for one-quarter of the variation in mid-to-late-life health. Living in poor neighborhoods during young adulthood is strongly associated with negative health outcomes in later life. This result is robust even in the presence of a reasonably large amount of potential unobservable individual and family factors that may significantly affect both neighborhood of residence and subsequent health status. Racial differences in health status in mid to late life are also associated with family and neighborhood socioeconomic conditions earlier in life. Three quarters of the black-white gap in health status at ages over 55 can be accounted for by differences in childhood socioeconomic status and neighborhood and family factors in young adulthood. PMID:22212443

  12. Do emotional support and classroom organization earlier in the year set the stage for higher quality instruction?

    PubMed

    Curby, Timothy W; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Abry, Tashia

    2013-10-01

    Many teachers believe that providing greater emotional and organizational supports in the beginning of the year strengthens their ability to teach effectively as the year progresses. Some interventions, such as the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach, explicitly embed this sequence into professional development efforts. We tested the hypothesis that earlier emotional and organizational supports set the stage for improved instruction later in the year in a sample of third- and fourth-grade teachers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the RC approach. Further, we examined the extent to which the model generalized for teachers using varying levels of RC practices as well as whether or not teachers were in the intervention or control groups. Teachers' emotional, organizational, and instructional interactions were observed using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008) on five occasions throughout the year. Results indicated a reciprocal relation between emotional and instructional supports. Specifically, higher levels of emotional support earlier in the year predicted higher instructional support later in the year. Also, higher levels of instructional support earlier in the year predicted higher emotional support later in the year. Classroom organization was not found to have longitudinal associations with the other domains across a year. This pattern was robust when controlling for the use of RC practices as well as across intervention and control groups. Further, teachers' use of RC practices predicted higher emotional support and classroom organization throughout the year, suggesting the malleability of this teacher characteristic. Discussion highlights the connection between teachers' emotional and instructional supports and how the use of RC practices improves teachers' emotionally supportive interactions with students. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. Deformation strain is the main physical driver for skeletal precursors to undergo osteogenesis in earlier stages of osteogenic cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Ramani-Mohan, Ram-Kumar; Schwedhelm, Ivo; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Krug, Melanie; Schwarz, Thomas; Jakob, Franz; Walles, Heike; Hansmann, Jan

    2018-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells play a major role during bone remodelling and are thus of high interest for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Mechanical stimuli, that is, deformation strain and interstitial fluid-flow-induced shear stress, promote osteogenic lineage commitment. However, the predominant physical stimulus that drives early osteogenic cell maturation is not clearly identified. The evaluation of each stimulus is challenging, as deformation and fluid-flow-induced shear stress interdepend. In this study, we developed a bioreactor that was used to culture mesenchymal stem cells harbouring a strain-responsive AP-1 luciferase reporter construct, on porous scaffolds. In addition to the reporter, mineralization and vitality of the cells was investigated by alizarin red staining and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Quantification of the expression of genes associated to bone regeneration and bone remodelling was used to confirm alizarin red measurements. Controlled perfusion and deformation of the 3-dimensional scaffold facilitated the alteration of the expression of osteogenic markers, luciferase activity, and calcification. To isolate the specific impact of scaffold deformation, a computational model was developed to derive a perfusion flow profile that results in dynamic shear stress conditions present in periodically loaded scaffolds. In comparison to actually deformed scaffolds, a lower expression of all measured readout parameters indicated that deformation strain is the predominant stimulus for skeletal precursors to undergo osteogenesis in earlier stages of osteogenic cell maturation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Delusions and underlying needs in older adults with Alzheimer's disease: influence of earlier life experiences and the current environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Jy; Cheng, Wen-Yun; Lai, Pei-Ru; Pai, Ming-Chyi

    2014-12-01

    Delusions are one of the most severe psychiatric symptoms of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), which often increase the stress experienced by caregivers. The purpose of this study was to understand the influences of earlier life experiences and the current environment on delusions, as well as the underlying needs of older adults with AD who experience delusions. Using an exploratory research design with a qualitative approach and purposive sampling, 20 family caregivers were interviewed. Two psychosocial types of attributes of delusion were categorized: Type A, the influence of earlier life experiences; and Type B, current environmental influences. The underlying needs of those with delusions include physical comfort, a desire to be secure, and a sense of belonging. The contents of delusions are easily influenced by patients' earlier negative experiences and responsibilities, whereas the current environment exerts a crucial influence on the occurrence, frequency, and severity of specific delusions. These results can facilitate planning for patient-centered care by enhancing health care providers' understanding of the psychosocial and environmental attributes and needs behind delusions. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Accessing Real-Life Episodic Information from Minutes versus Hours Earlier Modulates Hippocampal and High-Order Cortical Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Honey, C. J.; Simony, E.; Arcaro, M. J.; Norman, K. A.; Hasson, U.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that formation of new episodic memories depends on hippocampus, but in real-life settings (e.g., conversation), hippocampal amnesics can utilize information from several minutes earlier. What neural systems outside hippocampus might support this minutes-long retention? In this study, subjects viewed an audiovisual movie continuously for 25 min; another group viewed the movie in 2 parts separated by a 1-day delay. Understanding Part 2 depended on retrieving information from Part 1, and thus hippocampus was required in the day-delay condition. But is hippocampus equally recruited to access the same information from minutes earlier? We show that accessing memories from a few minutes prior elicited less interaction between hippocampus and default mode network (DMN) cortical regions than accessing day-old memories of identical events, suggesting that recent information was available with less reliance on hippocampal retrieval. Moreover, the 2 groups evinced reliable but distinct DMN activity timecourses, reflecting differences in information carried in these regions when Part 1 was recent versus distant. The timecourses converged after 4 min, suggesting a time frame over which the continuous-viewing group may have relied less on hippocampal retrieval. We propose that cortical default mode regions can intrinsically retain real-life episodic information for several minutes. PMID:26240179

  16. Underlying Motivations of Volunteering Across Life Stages.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Takashi; Keene, Jennifer R; Lu, Chi-Jung; Carr, Dawn C

    2017-03-01

    Volunteering is beneficial not only for individuals' well-being but also for society's well-being; yet only a fraction of U.S. citizens regularly engage in volunteer activities. This study examined how underlying motivations are associated with interest in volunteering for individuals in three major life phases: early, middle, and later adulthood. Data were collected from 1,046 adults who volunteered through nonprofit organizations in Nevada (USA). Exploratory factor analysis revealed that community service, career advancement, and well-being were common underlying motivations for individuals across life stages. However, generativity among the later adulthood group, and social networking among the early and middle adulthood groups were unique motivations for volunteering. Regression analysis showed that the community service motivation was significantly associated with individuals' interest in volunteering among all life stages. Simultaneously, generativity for the later adulthood group, and career advancement for the early adulthood group were unique motivations linked to their actual interest in volunteering.

  17. IGF and myostatin pathways are respectively induced during the earlier and the later stages of skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by clenbuterol, a β₂-adrenergic agonist.

    PubMed

    Abo, Tokuhisa; Iida, Ryo-Hei; Kaneko, Syuhei; Suga, Takeo; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Yamane, Akira

    2012-12-01

    Clenbuterol, a β₂-adrenergic agonist, increases the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) is reported to work as a potent positive regulator in the clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscles. However, the precise regulatory mechanism for the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle induced by clenbuterol is unknown. Myostatin, a member of the TGFβ super family, is a negative regulator of muscle growth. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the function of myostatin and IGF in the hypertrophy of rat masseter muscle induced by clenbuterol. To investigate the function of myostatin and IGF in regulatory mechanism for the clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscles, we analysed the expression of myostatin and phosphorylation levels of myostatin and IGF signaling components in the masseter muscle of rat to which clenbuterol was orally administered for 21 days. Hypertrophy of the rat masseter muscle was induced between 3 and 14 days of oral administration of clenbuterol and was terminated at 21 days. The expression of myostatin and the phosphorylation of smad2/3 were elevated at 21 days. The phosphorylation of IGF receptor 1 (IGFR1) and akt1 was elevated at 3 and 7 days. These results suggest that myostatin functions as a negative regulator in the later stages in the hypertrophy of rat masseter muscle induced by clenbuterol, whereas IGF works as a positive regulator in the earlier stages. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Do women live longer or do men die earlier? Reflections on the causes of sex differences in life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Luy, Marc; Gast, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Although many different factors have been identified to contribute to excess male mortality, it is still unclear which path of the complex cause-effect chain is the decisive driver of the life expectancy gap between women and men. The question behind this study is whether these sex differences are caused primarily by factors leading to low female mortality or rather by factors causing high male mortality. We hypothesise that they are to a large extent caused by specific subpopulations of men with particularly high mortality levels that decrease the average life expectancy of men. To test this hypothesis, we investigate in a meta-analysis the variability in mortality (VM) in women and men - defined as the range of death rates prevailing among subpopulations - in empirical studies analysing specific phenomena of mortality differentials. We used the data of 72 empirical studies, including 146 total effects (TE) and 1,718 single effects (SE) for 21 different risk factors. In 85% of TE and three quarters of SE the VM was higher in men than in women, taking into account men's higher overall mortality. The corresponding figures for the direct differences in the VM between women and men are 92 and 82%, respectively. Cases with higher female VM are rare exceptions and appear in particular in the highest age groups. We find support for our hypothesis that the disproportionate high mortality levels of specific male subpopulations are the central cause of the current extent of sex differences in life expectancy. Thus, public health programmes should be targeted toward these disadvantaged subpopulations among men which seem to be related primarily to socioeconomic characteristics.

  19. Biogeochemical fingerprints of life: earlier analogies with polar ecosystems suggest feasible instrumentation for probing the Galilean moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chela-Flores, J.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Tuniz, C.

    2015-07-01

    We base our search for the right instrumentation for detecting biosignatures on Europa on the analogy suggested by the recent work on polar ecosystems in the Canadian Arctic at Ellesmere Island. In that location sulphur patches (analogous to the Europan patches) are accumulating on glacial ice lying over saline springs rich in sulphate and sulphide. Their work reinforces earlier analogies in Antarctic ecosystems that are appropriate models for possible habitats that will be explored by the European Space Agency JUpiter ICy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission to the Jovian System. Its Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO) will include orbits around Europa and Ganymede. The Galileo orbital mission discovered surficial patches of non-ice elements on Europa that were widespread and, in some cases possibly endogenous. This suggests the possibility that the observed chemical elements in the exoatmosphere may be from the subsurface ocean. Spatial resolution calculations of Cassidy and co-workers are available, suggesting that the atmospheric S content can be mapped by a neutral mass spectrometer, now included among the selected JUICE instruments. In some cases, large S-fractionations are due to microbial reduction and disproportionation (although sometimes providing a test for ecosystem fingerprints, even though with Sim - Bosak - Ono we maintain that microbial sulphate reduction large sulphur isotope fractionation does not require disproportionation. We address the question of the possible role of oxygen in the Europan ocean. Instrument issues are discussed for measuring stable S-isotope fractionations up to the known limits in natural populations of δ34 ~ -70‰. We state the hypothesis of a Europa anaerobic oceanic population of sulphate reducers and disproportionators that would have the effect of fractionating the sulphate that reaches the low-albedo surficial regions. This hypothesis is compatible with the time-honoured expectation of Kaplan and co-workers (going back to the

  20. An Enduring Health Risk of Childhood Adversity: Earlier, More Severe, and Longer Lasting Work Disability in Adult Life.

    PubMed

    Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N

    2018-02-08

    Childhood adversity has been linked with adult health problems. We hypothesized that childhood adversity would also be associated with work limitations due to physical or nervous health problems, known as work disability. With data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) (1968-2013; n=6,045; 82,374 transitions; 129,107 person-years) and the 2014 PSID Childhood Retrospective Circumstances Study, we estimated work disability transition probabilities with multinomial logistic Markov models. Four or more adversities defined a high level. Microsimulations quantified adult work disability patterns for African American and non-Hispanic white women and men, accounting for age, education, race, sex, diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and sedentary behavior. Childhood adversity was significantly associated with work disability. Of African American women with high adversity, 10.2% had moderate work disability at age 30 versus 4.1% with no reported adversities; comparable results for severe work disability were 5.6% versus 1.9% (both p<0.01). Comparable results for whites were 11.3% versus 4.7%, and 3.5% versus 1.1% (p<0.01). The association of childhood adversity with work disability remained significant after adjusting for diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and sedentary behavior (p<0.05). Childhood adversity may increase work disability throughout adult life. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  2. Chemical defense of early life stages of benthic marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Niels

    2002-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of factors affecting the survival of early life stages of marine invertebrates is critically important for understanding their population dynamics and the evolution of their diverse reproductive and life-history characteristics. Chemical defense is an important determinant of survival for adult stages of many sessile benthic invertebrates, yet relatively little consideration has been given to chemical defenses at the early life stages. This review examines the taxonomic breadth of early life-stage chemical defense in relation to various life-history and reproductive characteristics, as well as possible constraints on the expression of chemical defense at certain life stages. Data on the localization of defensive secondary metabolites in larvae and the fitness-related consequences of consuming even a small amount of toxic secondary metabolites underpin proposals regarding the potential for Müllerian and Batesian mimicry to occur among marine larvae. The involvement of microbial symbionts in the chemical defense of early life stages illustrates its complexity for some species. As our knowledge of chemical defenses in early life stages grows, we will be able to more rigorously examine connections among phylogeny, chemical defenses, and the evolution of reproductive and life-history characteristics among marine invertebrates.

  3. Life stage, not climate change, explains observed tree range shifts.

    PubMed

    Máliš, František; Kopecký, Martin; Petřík, Petr; Vladovič, Jozef; Merganič, Ján; Vida, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    Ongoing climate change is expected to shift tree species distribution and therefore affect forest biodiversity and ecosystem services. To assess and project tree distributional shifts, researchers may compare the distribution of juvenile and adult trees under the assumption that differences between tree life stages reflect distributional shifts triggered by climate change. However, the distribution of tree life stages could differ within the lifespan of trees, therefore, we hypothesize that currently observed distributional differences could represent shifts over ontogeny as opposed to climatically driven changes. Here, we test this hypothesis with data from 1435 plots resurveyed after more than three decades across the Western Carpathians. We compared seedling, sapling and adult distribution of 12 tree species along elevation, temperature and precipitation gradients. We analyzed (i) temporal shifts between the surveys and (ii) distributional differences between tree life stages within both surveys. Despite climate warming, tree species distribution of any life stage did not shift directionally upward along elevation between the surveys. Temporal elevational shifts were species specific and an order of magnitude lower than differences among tree life stages within the surveys. Our results show that the observed range shifts among tree life stages are more consistent with ontogenetic differences in the species' environmental requirements than with responses to recent climate change. The distribution of seedlings substantially differed from saplings and adults, while the distribution of saplings did not differ from adults, indicating a critical transition between seedling and sapling tree life stages. Future research has to take ontogenetic differences among life stages into account as we found that distributional differences recently observed worldwide may not reflect climate change but rather the different environmental requirements of tree life stages. © 2016

  4. Bowel cancer screening is safe, detects earlier stage cancer and adenomas in 50% of cases: experience of the prevalent round of screening from two first wave centres in the North East of England.

    PubMed

    Rajasekhar, P T; Clifford, G M; Lee, T J W; Rutter, M D; Waddup, G; Ritchie, M; Nylander, D; Painter, J; Singh, J; Ward, I; Dempsey, N; Bowes, J; Handley, G; Henry, J; Rees, C J

    2012-01-01

    The NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) began roll-out in 2006 aiming to reduce cancer mortality through detection at an earlier stage. We report results from the prevalent round of screening at two first wave centres and compare with the UK pilot study. This is a service evaluation study. Data were collected prospectively for all individuals undergoing faecal occult blood testing (FOBt) and colonoscopy including: uptake and outcomes of FOBt, colonoscopic performance, findings, histological data and complications. Continuous data were compared using a two-tailed test of two proportions. The South of Tyne and Tees Bowel Cancer Screening centres. Participants of the BCSP. 1) Colonoscopy Quality Assurance and 2) Cancer stage shift. 195,772 individuals were invited to participate. Uptake was 54% and FOBt positivity 1.7%. 1524 underwent colonoscopy with caecal intubation in 1485 (97%). 180 (12%) cancers were detected. Dukes stages were: 76 (42%) A; 47 (26%) B; 47 (26%) C; 8 (4%) D and 2 (1%) unknown. This demonstrates a significantly earlier stage at diagnosis compared with data from 2867 non-screening detected cancers (p<0.001). Adenomas were detected in 758 (50%). One perforation occurred (0.07%) and two intermediate bleeds requiring transfusion only (0.12%). Both caecal intubation and adenoma detection were significantly higher than in the UK pilot study (p<0.001). The prevalent round of screening demonstrates a high adenoma and cancer detection rate and significantly earlier stage at diagnosis. Complications were few providing reassurance regarding safety. Efforts are required to improve uptake.

  5. Bowel cancer screening is safe, detects earlier stage cancer and adenomas in 50% of cases: experience of the prevalent round of screening from two first wave centres in the North East of England

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekhar, P T; Clifford, G M; Lee, T J W; Rutter, M D; Waddup, G; Ritchie, M; Nylander, D; Painter, J; Singh, J; Ward, I; Dempsey, N; Bowes, J; Handley, G; Henry, J; Rees, C J

    2012-01-01

    Objective The NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) began roll-out in 2006 aiming to reduce cancer mortality through detection at an earlier stage. We report results from the prevalent round of screening at two first wave centres and compare with the UK pilot study. Design This is a service evaluation study. Data were collected prospectively for all individuals undergoing faecal occult blood testing (FOBt) and colonoscopy including: uptake and outcomes of FOBt, colonoscopic performance, findings, histological data and complications. Continuous data were compared using a two-tailed test of two proportions. Setting The South of Tyne and Tees Bowel Cancer Screening centres. Patients Participants of the BCSP. Main Outcome Measures 1) Colonoscopy Quality Assurance and 2) Cancer stage shift. Results 195,772 individuals were invited to participate. Uptake was 54% and FOBt positivity 1.7%. 1524 underwent colonoscopy with caecal intubation in 1485 (97%). 180 (12%) cancers were detected. Dukes stages were: 76 (42%) A; 47 (26%) B; 47 (26%) C; 8 (4%) D and 2 (1%) unknown. This demonstrates a significantly earlier stage at diagnosis compared with data from 2867 non-screening detected cancers (p<0.001). Adenomas were detected in 758 (50%). One perforation occurred (0.07%) and two intermediate bleeds requiring transfusion only (0.12%). Both caecal intubation and adenoma detection were significantly higher than in the UK pilot study (p<0.001). Conclusions The prevalent round of screening demonstrates a high adenoma and cancer detection rate and significantly earlier stage at diagnosis. Complications were few providing reassurance regarding safety. Efforts are required to improve uptake. PMID:28839624

  6. Extending Vulnerability Assessment to Include Life Stages Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Emma E.; Essington, Timothy E.; Kaplan, Isaac C.

    2016-01-01

    Species are experiencing a suite of novel stressors from anthropogenic activities that have impacts at multiple scales. Vulnerability assessment is one tool to evaluate the likely impacts that these stressors pose to species so that high-vulnerability cases can be identified and prioritized for monitoring, protection, or mitigation. Commonly used semi-quantitative methods lack a framework to explicitly account for differences in exposure to stressors and organism responses across life stages. Here we propose a modification to commonly used spatial vulnerability assessment methods that includes such an approach, using ocean acidification in the California Current as an illustrative case study. Life stage considerations were included by assessing vulnerability of each life stage to ocean acidification and were used to estimate population vulnerability in two ways. We set population vulnerability equal to: (1) the maximum stage vulnerability and (2) a weighted mean across all stages, with weights calculated using Lefkovitch matrix models. Vulnerability was found to vary across life stages for the six species explored in this case study: two krill–Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, pteropod–Limacina helicina, pink shrimp–Pandalus jordani, Dungeness crab–Metacarcinus magister and Pacific hake–Merluccius productus. The maximum vulnerability estimates ranged from larval to subadult and adult stages with no consistent stage having maximum vulnerability across species. Similarly, integrated vulnerability metrics varied greatly across species. A comparison showed that some species had vulnerabilities that were similar between the two metrics, while other species’ vulnerabilities varied substantially between the two metrics. These differences primarily resulted from cases where the most vulnerable stage had a low relative weight. We compare these methods and explore circumstances where each method may be appropriate. PMID:27416031

  7. Extending Vulnerability Assessment to Include Life Stages Considerations.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Emma E; Essington, Timothy E; Kaplan, Isaac C

    2016-01-01

    Species are experiencing a suite of novel stressors from anthropogenic activities that have impacts at multiple scales. Vulnerability assessment is one tool to evaluate the likely impacts that these stressors pose to species so that high-vulnerability cases can be identified and prioritized for monitoring, protection, or mitigation. Commonly used semi-quantitative methods lack a framework to explicitly account for differences in exposure to stressors and organism responses across life stages. Here we propose a modification to commonly used spatial vulnerability assessment methods that includes such an approach, using ocean acidification in the California Current as an illustrative case study. Life stage considerations were included by assessing vulnerability of each life stage to ocean acidification and were used to estimate population vulnerability in two ways. We set population vulnerability equal to: (1) the maximum stage vulnerability and (2) a weighted mean across all stages, with weights calculated using Lefkovitch matrix models. Vulnerability was found to vary across life stages for the six species explored in this case study: two krill-Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, pteropod-Limacina helicina, pink shrimp-Pandalus jordani, Dungeness crab-Metacarcinus magister and Pacific hake-Merluccius productus. The maximum vulnerability estimates ranged from larval to subadult and adult stages with no consistent stage having maximum vulnerability across species. Similarly, integrated vulnerability metrics varied greatly across species. A comparison showed that some species had vulnerabilities that were similar between the two metrics, while other species' vulnerabilities varied substantially between the two metrics. These differences primarily resulted from cases where the most vulnerable stage had a low relative weight. We compare these methods and explore circumstances where each method may be appropriate.

  8. Bioaccumulation of lipophilic substances in fish early life stages

    SciT

    Petersen, G.I.; Kristensen, P.

    1998-07-01

    Accumulation of {sup 14}C-labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners PCB 31 and PCB 105 with a log octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) range from 3.37 to 6.5 was investigated in eggs and larvae of zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio), and in larvae of cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Significant differences in the uptake and elimination rate constants between eggs and larvae of zebra fish were seen. The low rate of uptake and the lower elimination rate of eggs did, however, lead to bioconcentration factors (BCFs) comparable to thosemore » for larvae. As biotransformation of xenobiotics in embryonic and larval stages was indicated to be insignificant compared to juvenile/adult stages, body burdens of readily biotransformed chemicals may be higher in fish early life stages. Because weight and lipid content did not differ much between the investigated species, the main reason for the variability in BCFs between marine species and freshwater species was considered to be caused by differences in exposure temperatures that affect the degree of biotransformation. Due to the smaller size of larvae and thus an increased total surface of the membranes per unit fish weight, steady-state conditions were reached at a faster r/ate in early life stages than in juvenile/adult life stages. The lipid-normalized bioconcentration factors (BCF{sub L}) were linearly related to K{sub ow} but BCF{sub L} was, in general, higher than K{sub ow}, indicating that octanol is not a suitable surrogate for fish lipids. Differences in bioconcentration kinetics between larvae and juvenile/adult life stages are considered to be the main reason for the higher sensitivity, with respect to external effect concentrations, generally obtained for early life stages of fish.« less

  9. Corticotropin-releasing hormone: Mediator of vertebrate life stage transitions?

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yugo; Grommen, Sylvia V H; De Groef, Bert

    2016-03-01

    Hormones, particularly thyroid hormones and corticosteroids, play critical roles in vertebrate life stage transitions such as amphibian metamorphosis, hatching in precocial birds, and smoltification in salmonids. Since they synergistically regulate several metabolic and developmental processes that accompany vertebrate life stage transitions, the existence of extensive cross-communication between the adrenal/interrenal and thyroidal axes is not surprising. Synergies of corticosteroids and thyroid hormones are based on effects at the level of tissue hormone sensitivity and gene regulation. In addition, in representative nonmammalian vertebrates, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulates hypophyseal thyrotropin secretion, and thus functions as a common regulator of both the adrenal/interrenal and thyroidal axes to release corticosteroids and thyroid hormones. The dual function of CRH has been speculated to control or affect the timing of vertebrate life history transitions across taxa. After a brief overview of recent insights in the molecular mechanisms behind the synergic actions of thyroid hormones and corticosteroids during life stage transitions, this review examines the evidence for a possible role of CRH in controlling vertebrate life stage transitions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Good daily habits during the early stages of life determine success throughout life.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses hypothesis that sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during the early stages of life are indispensable to a successful life. Successful life was defined according to the famous cohort studies of Mischel's and Dunedin. To assess the hypothesis, neuronal elements presumably affecting early daily habits and successful life are reviewed. The effect of sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during early stages of life on the development of the prefrontal cortex has been found to be the key issue to verify the hypothesis. Socioeconomic status is found to be another issue to be studied.

  11. The genetic covariance between life cycle stages separated by metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, J. David; Blows, Mark W.; Marshall, Dustin J.

    2014-01-01

    Metamorphosis is common in animals, yet the genetic associations between life cycle stages are poorly understood. Given the radical changes that occur at metamorphosis, selection may differ before and after metamorphosis, and the extent that genetic associations between pre- and post-metamorphic traits constrain evolutionary change is a subject of considerable interest. In some instances, metamorphosis may allow the genetic decoupling of life cycle stages, whereas in others, metamorphosis could allow complementary responses to selection across the life cycle. Using a diallel breeding design, we measured viability at four ontogenetic stages (embryo, larval, juvenile and adult viability), in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis and examined the orientation of additive genetic variation with respect to the metamorphic boundary. We found support for one eigenvector of G (gobsmax), which contrasted larval viability against embryo viability and juvenile viability. Target matrix rotation confirmed that while gobsmax shows genetic associations can extend beyond metamorphosis, there is still considerable scope for decoupled phenotypic evolution. Therefore, although genetic associations across metamorphosis could limit that range of phenotypes that are attainable, traits on either side of the metamorphic boundary are capable of some independent evolutionary change in response to the divergent conditions encountered during each life cycle stage. PMID:24966319

  12. Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  13. Early stages of the evolution of life: a cybernetic approach.

    PubMed

    Melkikh, Alexey V; Seleznev, Vladimir D

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  14. TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

  15. The genetic covariance between life cycle stages separated by metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, J David; Blows, Mark W; Marshall, Dustin J

    2014-08-07

    Metamorphosis is common in animals, yet the genetic associations between life cycle stages are poorly understood. Given the radical changes that occur at metamorphosis, selection may differ before and after metamorphosis, and the extent that genetic associations between pre- and post-metamorphic traits constrain evolutionary change is a subject of considerable interest. In some instances, metamorphosis may allow the genetic decoupling of life cycle stages, whereas in others, metamorphosis could allow complementary responses to selection across the life cycle. Using a diallel breeding design, we measured viability at four ontogenetic stages (embryo, larval, juvenile and adult viability), in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis and examined the orientation of additive genetic variation with respect to the metamorphic boundary. We found support for one eigenvector of G: (gobsmax ), which contrasted larval viability against embryo viability and juvenile viability. Target matrix rotation confirmed that while gobsmax shows genetic associations can extend beyond metamorphosis, there is still considerable scope for decoupled phenotypic evolution. Therefore, although genetic associations across metamorphosis could limit that range of phenotypes that are attainable, traits on either side of the metamorphic boundary are capable of some independent evolutionary change in response to the divergent conditions encountered during each life cycle stage. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Life-Stage Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation discusses methods used to extrapolate from in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) toxicity data for an endocrine pathway to in vivo for early life stages in humans, and the use of a life stage PBPK model to address rapidly changing physiological parameters. Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs), in this case endocrine disruption during development, provide a biologically-based framework for linking molecular initiating events triggered by chemical exposures to key events leading to adverse outcomes. The application of AOPs to human health risk assessment requires extrapolation of in vitro HTS toxicity data to in vivo exposures (IVIVE) in humans, which can be achieved through the use of a PBPK/PD model. Exposure scenarios for chemicals in the PBPK/PD model will consider both placental and lactational transfer of chemicals, with a focus on age dependent dosimetry during fetal development and after birth for a nursing infant. This talk proposes a universal life-stage computational model that incorporates changing physiological parameters to link environmental exposures to in vitro levels of HTS assays related to a developmental toxicological AOP for vascular disruption. In vitro toxicity endpoints discussed are based on two mechanisms: 1) Fetal vascular disruption, and 2) Neurodevelopmental toxicity induced by altering thyroid hormone levels in neonates via inhibition of thyroperoxidase in the thyroid gland. Application of our Life-stage computati

  17. [Theories of stages of life within the anthropology of romanticism].

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Pia-Johanna; Schweizer, Stefan

    2006-12-01

    The essay discusses the importance and prominence of theories about different stages of life in the anthropological and medical discourse of romanticism. This discourse has clearly a stabilising and restaurative function, favouring the age of moderate manhood. The political and social regulative implications of these theories demand a restaurative roll-back. The essay is based on a concept of sociology of knowledge formation.

  18. Geographic divergence in upper thermal limits across insect life stages: does behavior matter?

    PubMed

    MacLean, Heidi J; Higgins, Jessica K; Buckley, Lauren B; Kingsolver, Joel G

    2016-05-01

    Insects with complex life cycles vary in size, mobility, and thermal ecology across life stages. We examine how differences in the capacity for thermoregulatory behavior influence geographic differences in physiological heat tolerance among egg and adult Colias butterflies. Colias adults exhibit differences in morphology (wing melanin and thoracic setal length) along spatial gradients, whereas eggs are morphologically indistinguishable. Here we compare Colias eriphyle eggs and adults from two elevations and Colias meadii from a high elevation. Hatching success and egg development time of C. eriphyle eggs did not differ significantly with the elevation of origin. Egg survival declined in response to heat-shock temperatures above 38-40 °C and egg development time was shortest at intermediate heat-shock temperatures of 33-38 °C. Laboratory experiments with adults showed survival in response to heat shock was significantly greater for Colias from higher than from lower elevation sites. Common-garden experiments at the low-elevation field site showed that C. meadii adults initiated heat-avoidance and over-heating behaviors significantly earlier in the day than C. eriphyle. Our study demonstrates the importance of examining thermal tolerances across life stages. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that thermoregulatory behavior inhibits the geographic divergence of physiological traits in mobile stages, and suggest that sessile stages may evolve similar heat tolerances in different environments due to microclimatic variability or evolutionary constraints.

  19. Fetal Origins of Life Stage Disease: A Zebrafish Model for the ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In the U.S., childhood obesity has more than doubled in children and quadrupled in adolescents in the past 30 years, affects 35% of adults, and costs the U.S. healthcare industry >$200 billion annually. The chemical environment in the womb may cause susceptibility to different life-stage and life-long metabolic diseases including obesity. The challenge is to understand if exposures during developmentally sensitive windows impact life-stage disease, such as obesity, by increasing adipose tissue mass. In vitro models lack the integrated systems approach needed to assess adipose development, while mammalian models are impractical in a screen of thousands of chemicals. Therefore, an obesogen screening method was developed to interrogate bioactivity using a full systems approach, in a vertebrate zebrafish model with complete metabolic activity, at a time when the full signaling repertoire is expressed and active, to optimally examine how chemical dose and duration impact life-stage adipose mass. A time-line for adipose depot formation was mapped in zebrafish 6−14 days post fertilization (dpf) using the lipophilic dye, Nile Red, in combination with fluorescent microscopy. Those time points were then used to investigate the impact of embryonic tributyltin chloride (TBT, a known obesogen) exposure (10nM daily renewal, 0−5dpf) on adipose mass. Fluorescent microscopy revealed adipose depots that were larger and appeared 2 days earlier in TBT treated compared to contro

  20. The effect of cancer stage and treatment modality on quality of life in oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Oates, Justine; Davies, Sarah; Roydhouse, Jessica K; Fethney, Judith; White, Kate

    2014-01-01

    To examine changes in health-related quality of life among oropharyngeal cancer patients by stages and across treatment types among advanced cancer patients. Individual prospective cohort study. All newly diagnosed patients with oropharyngeal cancer treated with curative intent were routinely assessed. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) both the Main Module quality-of-life questionnaire (QLQ-C30) and the Head and Neck Cancer (HNC) Module (QLQ-H&N35) were administered at diagnosis and 3, 6, and 12 months thereafter. Complete case analysis was used following assessment of missing data. The proportion of patients with clinically significant deterioration (changes of ≥ 10 points) from baseline were calculated for each follow-up time point and compared by stage (I/II vs. III/IV) and then treatment type (chemotherapy and radiotherapy [CRT] vs. surgery and postoperative radiotherapy [S&PORT]). Deterioration in most domains was most frequent for stage III/IV patients at 3 months (both modules), whereas stage I/II patients experienced this at 6 months (QLQ-C30) and 12 months (H&N35). Among stage III/IV patients, this happened at all time points for S&PORT patients (QLQ-C30) versus 12 months for CRT patients (H&N35). The number of patients reporting deterioration was lower for most domains at 12 months compared to earlier periods, although dry mouth remained a problem for most patients (60%-85% across treatment/stage groups). Our preliminary findings suggest that general and disease-specific deterioration is of most concern for stage I/II patients at 6 and 12 months and at 3 months for advanced cancer patients. For stage III/IV patients receiving S&PORT, general deterioration remains a problem after diagnosis, whereas for CRT patients, disease-specific deterioration is of most concern at 12 months. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Life Course Stage and Social Support Mobilization for End-of-Life Caregivers.

    PubMed

    LaValley, Susan A; Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A

    2018-04-01

    Caregivers of terminally ill patients are at risk for anxiety, depression, and social isolation. Social support from friends, family members, neighbors, and health care professionals can potentially prevent or mitigate caregiver strain. While previous research documents the importance of social support in helping end-of-life caregivers cope with caregiving demands, little is known about differences in social support experiences among caregivers at different life course stages. Using life course theory, this study analyzes data from in-depth interviews with 50 caregivers of patients enrolled in hospice services to compare barriers to mobilizing social support among caregivers at two life course stages: midlife caregivers caring for parents and older adult caregivers caring for spouses/partners. Older adult caregivers reported different barriers to mobilizing social support compared with midlife caregivers. Findings enhance the understanding of how caregivers' life course stage affects their barriers to mobilization of social support resources.

  2. Roles of Apicomplexan protein kinases at each life cycle stage.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kentaro; Sugi, Tatsuki; Iwanaga, Tatsuya

    2012-06-01

    Inhibitors of cellular protein kinases have been reported to inhibit the development of Apicomplexan parasites, suggesting that the functions of protozoan protein kinases are critical for their life cycle. However, the specific roles of these protein kinases cannot be determined using only these inhibitors without molecular analysis, including gene disruption. In this report, we describe the functions of Apicomplexan protein kinases in each parasite life stage and the potential of pre-existing protein kinase inhibitors as Apicomplexan drugs against, mainly, Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  4. Ion regulation in the different life stages of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Gil, J R; Soler, A; Azzouz, S; Osuna, A

    2003-07-01

    Different ion and pH regulation mechanisms have been detected in the three main life stages of Trypanosoma cruzi: epimastigote, metacyclic trypomastigote and amastigote. Treatment with amiloride showed that the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger participated in all three forms. The Na(+)/K(+) ATPase exchanger appeared to be more active in the epimastigote than in the other forms. V-H(+)-ATPase inhibitors revealed the activity of this regulatory mechanism in the amastigote and epimastigote forms, while treatment with oligomycin only affected the amastigotes. The HCO(-)(3)/Cl(-) exchanger was found in all stages as well as in the intracellular pH-regulatory mechanism after abrupt basification. We deduce that ion regulation in T. cruzi is a complex process and depends upon the precise stage of the cell cycle of the parasite. It would seem to be an important mechanism, allowing the parasite to adapt to the changing environmental conditions within which it develops.

  5. Advancing paternal age at birth is associated with poorer social functioning earlier and later in life of schizophrenia patients in a founder population.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, Rudolf; van Heerden, Brigitte; Ehlers, René; Du Plessis, Anna M E; Roos, J Louw

    2016-09-30

    Consistent associations have been found between advanced paternal age and an increased risk of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, in their offspring. This increase appears to be linear as paternal age increases. The present study investigates the relationship between early deviant behaviour in the first 10 years of life of patients as well as longer term functional outcome and paternal age in sporadic Afrikaner founder population cases of schizophrenia. This might improve our understanding of Paternal Age-Related Schizophrenia (PARS). Follow-up psychiatric diagnoses were confirmed by the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS). An early deviant childhood behaviour semi-structured questionnaire and the Specific Level of Functioning Assessment (SLOF) were completed. From the logistic regression models fitted, a significant negative relationship was found between paternal age at birth and social dysfunction as early deviant behaviour. Additionally, regression analysis revealed a significant negative relationship between paternal age at birth and the SLOF for interpersonal relationships later in life. Early social dysfunction may represent a phenotypic trait for PARS. Further research is required to understand the relationship between early social dysfunction and deficits in interpersonal relationships later in life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Staging Life in an Early Warm ‘Seltzer’ Ocean

    DOE PAGES

    Schoonen, Martin; Smirnov, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    A period as short as 20 million years within the first 100 million years after the formation of the Moon may have set the stage for the origin of life. This atmosphere contained more carbon dioxide than any other period afterwards. The carbon dioxide sustained greenhouse conditions, accelerated the weathering of a primitive crust and may have led to conditions conducive to the formation of the building blocks of life. The conversion of CO 2 as well as N 2 may have been facilitated by clays, zeolites, sulfides and metal alloys formed as the crust reacted with a warm ‘seltzer’more » ocean. We used geochemical modeling to constrain the conditions favorable for the formation of these potential mineral catalysts.« less

  7. Staging Life in an Early Warm ‘Seltzer’ Ocean

    SciT

    Schoonen, Martin; Smirnov, Alexander

    A period as short as 20 million years within the first 100 million years after the formation of the Moon may have set the stage for the origin of life. This atmosphere contained more carbon dioxide than any other period afterwards. The carbon dioxide sustained greenhouse conditions, accelerated the weathering of a primitive crust and may have led to conditions conducive to the formation of the building blocks of life. The conversion of CO 2 as well as N 2 may have been facilitated by clays, zeolites, sulfides and metal alloys formed as the crust reacted with a warm ‘seltzer’more » ocean. We used geochemical modeling to constrain the conditions favorable for the formation of these potential mineral catalysts.« less

  8. Life satisfaction of women in early stages of fertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Ben Shlomo, Shirley; Pascal, Mor; Taubman Ben-Ari, Orit; Azuri, Yoseph; Horowtz, Eran

    2017-01-01

    As many women perceive motherhood to be a central component of identity that enhances life satisfaction, difficulties conceiving may lead to stress. This study examined women in the early stages of fertility treatment to ascertain the relations of perceived stress, cognitive appraisal, and self-mastery to the life satisfaction of women embarking on fertility treatment and whether the associations were the same for women who were already mothers versus those who were not. Women were recruited for the study over a period of 18 months, from January 2013 to June 2014. The final sample was composed of 145 women; of these, 67 had 1 or 2 children and 78 had no children. No significant differences were found in perceived stress and life satisfaction between women with and without children. However, in the sample as a whole, higher levels of self-mastery and lower levels of stress were associated with greater life satisfaction. Moreover, the associations between self-mastery and cognitive appraisals of threat and self-efficacy were mediated by perceived stress. The findings highlight the importance of developing interventions at fertility clinics that begin at the very first point of contact to promote the psychological well-being of women being treated for infertility.

  9. Ammonia and urea handling by early life stages of fishes.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Alex M; Wright, Patricia A; Wood, Chris M

    2017-11-01

    Nitrogen metabolism in fishes has been a focus of comparative physiologists for nearly a century. In this Review, we focus specifically on early life stages of fishes, which have received considerable attention in more recent work. Nitrogen metabolism and excretion in early life differs fundamentally from that of juvenile and adult fishes because of (1) the presence of a chorion capsule in embryos that imposes a limitation on effective ammonia excretion, (2) an amino acid-based metabolism that generates a substantial ammonia load, and (3) the lack of a functional gill, which is the primary site of nitrogen excretion in juvenile and adult fishes. Recent findings have shed considerable light on the mechanisms by which these constraints are overcome in early life. Perhaps most importantly, the discovery of Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins as ammonia transporters and their expression in ion-transporting cells on the skin of larval fishes has transformed our understanding of ammonia excretion by fishes in general. The emergence of larval zebrafish as a model species, together with genetic knockdown techniques, has similarly advanced our understanding of ammonia and urea metabolism and excretion by larval fishes. It has also now been demonstrated that ammonia excretion is one of the primary functions of the developing gill in rainbow trout larvae, leading to new hypotheses regarding the physiological demands driving gill development in larval fishes. Here, we highlight and discuss the dramatic changes in nitrogen handling that occur over early life development in fishes. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-03

    Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  11. Toxicity of naproxen sodium and its mixture with tramadol hydrochloride on fish early life stages.

    PubMed

    Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Blahova, Jana; Doubkova, Veronika; Prokes, Miroslav; Tichy, Frantisek; Fiorino, Emma; Faggio, Caterina; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2017-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals occur in water bodies as a consequence of their incomplete removal during waste water treatment processes. The occurence of pharmaceuticals in surface waters as well as their possible impact on aquatic vertebrates have received considerable attention in recent years. However, there is still a lack of informations on the chronic effects of widely used drugs as well as their possible mixture toxicity on non-target aquatic vertebrates as well as their possible mixture toxicity. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of naproxen sodium on early life stages of fish and evaluate its mixture toxicity with tramadol hydrochloride, which was assessed in our earlier study as a single substance. Two embryo-larval toxicity tests with common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were performed according to the OECD guideline 210 (Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test) in order to assess the subchronic toxicity of naproxen sodium and tramadol hydrochlorid-naproxen sodium mixture at the concentrations of 10; 50; 100 and 200 μg/L. These experiments were conducted for 32 days. The subchronic exposure to naproxen sodium and naproxen sodium and tramadol hydrochloride mixture had a strong effect on the early life stages of common carp. Hatching, developmental rate, morphology, histopathology and, in the case of the naproxen sodium and tramadol hydrochloride mixture, mortality were influenced. The bioindicators of oxidative stress were also influenced. The LOEC was determined at 10 μg/L for both naproxen sodium and naproxen sodium and tramadol hydrochloride mixture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Taste preference changes throughout different life stages in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Ueda, Katsura; Nakatsuka, Michiko; Kumabe, Shunji; Inui, Tadashi; Iwai, Yasutomo

    2017-01-01

    Taste preference, a key component of food choice, changes with aging. However, it remains unclear how this occurs. To determine differences in taste preference between rats in different life stages, we examined the consumption of taste solutions and water using a two-bottle test. Male Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages were used: juvenile (3–6 weeks), young adult (8–11 weeks), adult (17–20 weeks), middle-aged (34–37 weeks), and old-aged (69–72 weeks). The intakes of the high and low concentration solutions presented simultaneously were measured. We observed that the old-aged group had lower preference ratios for 0.3 M sucrose and 0.1 M MSG in comparison with other groups. The preference ratio for 0.03 mM QHCl was higher in the middle-aged group than in the three younger groups and higher in the old-aged group than the juvenile group. The taste preferences for HCl and NaCl did not significantly differ among the age groups. The old-aged group tended to prefer high concentrations of sucrose, QHCl, NaCl, and MSG to low concentrations, indicating age-related decline in taste sensitivity. We also aimed to investigate differences between life stages in the electrophysiological responses of the chorda tympani nerve, one of the peripheral gustatory nerves, to taste stimuli. The electrophysiological recordings showed that aging did not alter the function of the chorda tympani nerve. This study showed that aging induced alterations in taste preference. It is likely that these alterations are a result of functional changes in other peripheral taste nerves, the gastrointestinal system, or the central nervous system. PMID:28742813

  13. Upper thermal tolerances of early life stages of freshwater mussels

    Pandolfo, Tamara J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Arellano, Consuelo; Bringolf, Robert B.; Barnhart, M. Christopher; Hammer, E

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (order Unioniformes) fulfill an essential role in benthic aquatic communities, but also are among the most sensitive and rapidly declining faunal groups in North America. Rising water temperatures, caused by global climate change, industrial discharges, drought, or land development, could further challenge imperiled unionid communities. The aim of our study was to determine the upper thermal tolerances of the larval (glochidia) and juvenile life stages of freshwater mussels. Glochidia of 8 species of mussels were tested: Lampsilis siliquoidea, Potamilus alatus, Ligumia recta, Ellipsaria lineolata,Lasmigona complanata, Megalonaias nervosa, Alasmidonta varicosa, and Villosa delumbis. Seven of these species also were tested as juveniles. Survival trends were monitored while mussels held at 3 acclimation temperatures (17, 22, and 27°C) were exposed to a range of common and extreme water temperatures (20–42°C) in standard acute laboratory tests. The average median lethal temperature (LT50) among species in 24-h tests with glochidia was 31.6°C and ranged from 21.4 to 42.7°C. The mean LT50 in 96-h juvenile tests was 34.7°C and ranged from 32.5 to 38.8°C. Based on comparisons of LT50s, thermal tolerances differed among species for glochidia, but not for juveniles. Acclimation temperature did not affect thermal tolerance for either life stage. Our results indicate that freshwater mussels already might be living close to their upper thermal tolerances in some systems and, thus, might be at risk from rising environmental temperatures.

  14. Quality of life in end stage renal disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Veena D

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To understand factors associated with quality of life (QOL), examine types of QOL instruments, and determine need for further improvements in QOL assessment. METHODS: The method used databases (Pubmed, Google scholar) and a bibliographic search using key words QOL, end stage renal disease, Hemodialysis, Peritoneal dialysis, instruments to measure QOL, patients and qualitative/quantitative analysis published during 1990 to June 2014. Each article was assessed for sample size, demographics of participants, study design and type of QOL instruments used. We used WHO definition of QOL. RESULTS: For this review, 109 articles were screened, out of which 65 articles were selected. Out of 65 articles, there were 19 reports/reviews and 12 questionnaire manuals. Of the 34 studies, 82% were quantitative while only 18% were qualitative. QOL instruments measured several phenomenon such as physical/psychological health, effects and burdens of kidney disease, social support etc. those are associated with QOL. Few studies looked at spiritual beliefs, cultural beliefs, personal concerns, as per the WHO definition. Telemedicine and Palliative care have now been successfully used however QOL instruments seldom addressed those in the articles reviewed. Also noticed was that longitudinal studies were rarely conducted. Existing QOL instruments only partially measure QOL. This may limit validity of predictive power of QOL. CONCLUSION: Culture and disease specific QOL instruments that assess patients’ objective and subjective experiences covering most aspects of QOL are urgently needed. PMID:25374827

  15. Toxicity of TFM lampricide to early life stages of walleye

    Seelye, J.G.; Marking, L.L.; King, E.L.; Hanson, L.H.; Bills, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) on gametes, newly fertilized eggs, eyed eggs, larvae, and swim-up fry of the walleye Stizostedion vitreum . When gametes from sexually mature walleyes were stripped into solutions of TFM, no effects were observed during the fertilization process at concentrations up to 3.0 mg/L - three times the concentration lethal to 99.9% of larval sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus held 12 h (LC99.9) under the same test conditions. Newly fertilized eggs likewise were unaffected during water hardening by concentrations of TFM that were lethal to sea lamprey ammocoetes. Eyed eggs, sac fry, and swim-up fry yielded LC25 values that were 2.5 to 5 times greater than the 12-h LC99.9 for sea lamprey ammocoetes. The data thus indicated that all of the early life stages of walleyes tested were considerably more resistant than sea lamprey ammocoetes to TFM, and that it is unlikely they would be adversely affected by standard stream treatments to kill sea lamprey ammocoetes.

  16. Evaluation of Therapeutics for Advanced-Stage Heart Failure and Other Severely-Debilitating or Life-Threatening Diseases.

    PubMed

    Prescott, J S; Andrews, P A; Baker, R W; Bogdanffy, M S; Fields, F O; Keller, D A; Lapadula, D M; Mahoney, N M; Paul, D E; Platz, S J; Reese, D M; Stoch, S A; DeGeorge, J J

    2017-08-01

    Severely-debilitating or life-threatening (SDLT) diseases include conditions in which life expectancy is short or quality of life is greatly diminished despite available therapies. As such, the medical context for SDLT diseases is comparable to advanced cancer and the benefit vs. risk assessment and development of SDLT disease therapeutics should be similar to that of advanced cancer therapeutics. A streamlined development approach would allow patients with SDLT conditions earlier access to therapeutics and increase the speed of progression through development. In addition, this will likely increase the SDLT disease therapeutic pipeline, directly benefiting patients and reducing the economic and societal burden of SDLT conditions. Using advanced-stage heart failure (HF) as an example that illustrates the concepts applicable to other SDLT indications, this article proposes a streamlined development paradigm for SDLT disease therapeutics and recommends development of aligned global regulatory guidance. © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  17. Susceptibility of early life stages of Xenopus laevis to cadmium

    SciT

    Herkovits, J.; Perez-Coll, C.S.; Cardellini, P.

    1997-02-01

    The susceptibility of Xenopus laevis to cadmium during different stages of development was evaluated by exposing embryos to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L for 24, 48, and 72 h and assessing lethality and malformations. Susceptibility increased from the two blastomeres stage (stage 2) to stage 40, in which the 24-h LC100 was 1.13 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L, and resistance increased from this stage onward. Malformations occurred at all developmental stages evaluated, the most common being reduced size, incurvated axis, underdeveloped or abnormally developed fin, microcephaly, and microphtalmy. Scanning electron microscopy revealed changes in the ectodermal surfacemore » ranging from slightly vaulted cells to a severe reduction in the number of ciliated cells as the concentration of cadmium increased. The intraspecific variation evaluated in embryos (from four sets of parents) at seven developmental stages, expressed as the coefficient of variation of the LC100, ranged from 10 to 112% and reflects the capacity of Xenopus laevis to adapt to changing environmental conditions at different embryonic stages.« less

  18. Estimation of Life-Year Loss and Lifetime Costs for Different Stages of Colon Adenocarcinoma in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Po-Chuan; Lee, Jenq-Chang; Wang, Jung-Der

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims Life-expectancy of colon cancer patients cannot be accurately answered due to the lack of both large datasets and long-term follow-ups, which impedes accurate estimation of lifetime cost to treat colon cancer patients. In this study, we applied a method to estimate life-expectancy of colon cancer patients in Taiwan and calculate the lifetime costs by different stages and age groups. Methods A total of 17,526 cases with pathologically verified colon adenocarcinoma between 2002 and 2009 were extracted from Taiwan Cancer Registry database for analysis. All patients were followed-up until the end of 2011. Life-expectancy, expected-years-of-life-lost and lifetime costs were estimated, using a semi-parametric survival extrapolation method and borrowing information from life tables of vital statistics. Results Patients with more advanced stages of colon cancer were generally younger and less co-morbid with major chronic diseases than those with stages I and II. The LE of stage I was not significantly different from that of the age- and sex-matched general population, whereas those of stages II, III, and IV colon cancer patients after diagnosis were 16.57±0.07, 13.35±0.07, and 4.05±0.05 years, respectively; the corresponding expected-years-of-life-lost were 1.28±0.07, 5.93±0.07 and 16.42±0.06 years, significantly shorter than the general population after accounting for lead time bias. Besides, the lifetime cost of managing stage II colon cancer patients would be US $8,416±1939, 14,334±1,755, and 21,837±1,698, respectively, indicating a big saving for early diagnosis and treatment after stratification for age and sex. Conclusions Treating colon cancer at younger age and earlier stage saves more life-years and healthcare costs. Future studies are indicated to apply these quantitative results into the cost-effectiveness evaluation of screening program for colon cancers. PMID:26207912

  19. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the test solution concentrations. The test terminates following 60 days of post-hatch exposure (for an... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fish early life stage toxicity test... Fish early life stage toxicity test. (a) Purpose. This guideline is intended to be used for assessing...

  20. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the test solution concentrations. The test terminates following 60 days of post-hatch exposure (for an... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fish early life stage toxicity test... Fish early life stage toxicity test. (a) Purpose. This guideline is intended to be used for assessing...

  1. The Stage Life: Promoting the Inclusion of Young People through Participatory Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickley, Theodore; Crosbie, Brian; Hui, Ada

    2012-01-01

    The Stage Life was a participatory arts programme for people attending a day services provision in Nottinghamshire. The uniqueness of this programme was that it was provided in a local disused cinema acquired by the local authority for community-based activities amongst disadvantaged groups. The Stage Life aimed to build the community arts…

  2. The Relationship of Life Stage to Motives for Using Television and the Perceived Reality of TV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostman, Ronald E.; Jeffers, Dennis W.

    A model specifying relationships between life stage, motives for using television and the perceived reality of television was tested with data from 140 telephone interviews of adults living in Southern Illinois. The adults ranged in age from 18 to 87 years. Life stage was related to five of the 11 motives for using television: learning things,…

  3. Life-Stage Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Model Applications to Screen Environmental Hazards.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation discusses methods used to extrapolate from in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) toxicity data for an endocrine pathway to in vivo for early life stages in humans, and the use of a life stage PBPK model to address rapidly changing physiological parameters. A...

  4. Adverse effects of the SSRI antidepressant sertraline on early life stages of marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Estévez-Calvar, Noelia; Canesi, Laura; Montagna, Michele; Faimali, Marco; Piazza, Veronica; Garaventa, Francesca

    2017-07-01

    Widespread contamination of coastal environments by emerging compounds includes low concentrations of pharmaceuticals. These pollutants are not currently incorporated in monitoring programs despite their effects on non-target organisms are very little documented. Among the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants, sertraline (SRT) is one of the most prescribed globally. In this work, earlier life stages of Amphibalanus amphitrite, Brachionus plicatilis and Mytilus galloprovincialis were exposed to environmental concentrations of SRT in order to study both sub-lethal and lethal responses in 24/48 h-tests. Low concentrations of SRT altered significantly swimming behavior in A. amphitrite and B. plicatilis giving 48 h-EC 50 (μg/L) of 113.88 and 282.23, respectively whereas higher values were observed for mortality and immobilization. EC 50 embryotoxicity with M. galloprovincialis was 206.80 μg/L. This work add new data about SRT ecotoxicity on marine invertebrates and confirms the applicability of behavioral endpoints to evaluate the environmental impact of antidepressants in marine organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Earlier snowmelt and warming lead to earlier but not necessarily more plant growth.

    PubMed

    Livensperger, Carolyn; Steltzer, Heidi; Darrouzet-Nardi, Anthony; Sullivan, Patrick F; Wallenstein, Matthew; Weintraub, Michael N

    2016-01-01

    Climate change over the past ∼50 years has resulted in earlier occurrence of plant life-cycle events for many species. Across temperate, boreal and polar latitudes, earlier seasonal warming is considered the key mechanism leading to earlier leaf expansion and growth. Yet, in seasonally snow-covered ecosystems, the timing of spring plant growth may also be cued by snowmelt, which may occur earlier in a warmer climate. Multiple environmental cues protect plants from growing too early, but to understand how climate change will alter the timing and magnitude of plant growth, experiments need to independently manipulate temperature and snowmelt. Here, we demonstrate that altered seasonality through experimental warming and earlier snowmelt led to earlier plant growth, but the aboveground production response varied among plant functional groups. Earlier snowmelt without warming led to early leaf emergence, but often slowed the rate of leaf expansion and had limited effects on aboveground production. Experimental warming alone had small and inconsistent effects on aboveground phenology, while the effect of the combined treatment resembled that of early snowmelt alone. Experimental warming led to greater aboveground production among the graminoids, limited changes among deciduous shrubs and decreased production in one of the dominant evergreen shrubs. As a result, we predict that early onset of the growing season may favour early growing plant species, even those that do not shift the timing of leaf expansion. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  6. Assessment of dual life stage antiplasmodial activity of british seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Spavieri, Jasmine; Allmendinger, Andrea; Kaiser, Marcel; Itoe, Maurice Ayamba; Blunden, Gerald; Mota, Maria M; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2013-10-22

    Terrestrial plants have proven to be a prolific producer of clinically effective antimalarial drugs, but the antimalarial potential of seaweeds has been little explored. The main aim of this study was to assess the in vitro chemotherapeutical and prophylactic potential of the extracts of twenty-three seaweeds collected from the south coast of England against blood stage (BS) and liver stage (LS) Plasmodium parasites. The majority (14) of the extracts were active against BS of P. falciparum, with brown seaweeds Cystoseira tamariscifolia, C. baccata and the green seaweed Ulva lactuca being the most active (IC(50)s around 3 μg/mL). The extracts generally had high selectivity indices (>10). Eight seaweed extracts inhibited the growth of LS parasites of P. berghei without any obvious effect on the viability of the human hepatoma (Huh7) cells, and the highest potential was exerted by U. lactuca and red seaweeds Ceramium virgatum and Halopitys incurvus (IC50 values 14.9 to 28.8 μg/mL). The LS-active extracts inhibited one or more key enzymes of the malarial type-II fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II) pathway, a drug target specific for LS. Except for the red seaweed Halopitys incurvus, all LS-active extracts showed dual activity versus both malarial intracellular stage parasites. This is the first report of LS antiplasmodial activity and dual stage inhibitory potential of seaweeds.

  7. Assessment of Dual Life Stage Antiplasmodial Activity of British Seaweeds

    PubMed Central

    Spavieri, Jasmine; Allmendinger, Andrea; Kaiser, Marcel; Itoe, Maurice Ayamba; Blunden, Gerald; Mota, Maria M.; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial plants have proven to be a prolific producer of clinically effective antimalarial drugs, but the antimalarial potential of seaweeds has been little explored. The main aim of this study was to assess the in vitro chemotherapeutical and prophylactic potential of the extracts of twenty-three seaweeds collected from the south coast of England against blood stage (BS) and liver stage (LS) Plasmodium parasites. The majority (14) of the extracts were active against BS of P. falciparum, with brown seaweeds Cystoseira tamariscifolia, C. baccata and the green seaweed Ulva lactuca being the most active (IC50s around 3 μg/mL). The extracts generally had high selectivity indices (>10). Eight seaweed extracts inhibited the growth of LS parasites of P. berghei without any obvious effect on the viability of the human hepatoma (Huh7) cells, and the highest potential was exerted by U. lactuca and red seaweeds Ceramium virgatum and Halopitys incurvus (IC50 values 14.9 to 28.8 μg/mL). The LS-active extracts inhibited one or more key enzymes of the malarial type-II fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II) pathway, a drug target specific for LS. Except for the red seaweed Halopitys incurvus, all LS-active extracts showed dual activity versus both malarial intracellular stage parasites. This is the first report of LS antiplasmodial activity and dual stage inhibitory potential of seaweeds. PMID:24152562

  8. Classifying stages of cirrus life-cycle evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanek, Benedikt; Groß, Silke; Schäfler, Andreas; Wirth, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Airborne lidar backscatter data is used to determine in- and out-of-cloud regions. Lidar measurements of water vapor together with model temperature fields are used to calculate relative humidity over ice (RHi). Based on temperature and RHi we identify different stages of cirrus evolution: homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing, depositional growth, ice sublimation and sedimentation. We will present our classification scheme and first applications on mid-latitude cirrus clouds.

  9. Life-stage, not climate change, explains observed tree range shifts

    PubMed Central

    Máliš, František; Kopecký, Martin; Petřík, Petr; Vladovič, Jozef; Merganič, Ján; Vida, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is expected to shift tree species distribution and therefore affect forest biodiversity and ecosystem services. To assess and project tree distributional shifts, researchers may compare the distribution of juvenile and adult trees under the assumption that differences between tree life-stages reflect distributional shifts triggered by climate change. However, the distribution of tree life-stages could differ within the lifespan of trees, therefore we hypothesize that currently observed distributional differences could represent shifts over ontogeny as opposed to climatically driven changes. Here we test this hypothesis with data from 1435 plots resurveyed after more than three decades across the Western Carpathians. We compared seedling, sapling and adult distribution of 12 tree species along elevation, temperature and precipitation gradients. We analyzed i) temporal shifts between the surveys and ii) distributional differences between tree life-stages within both surveys. Despite climate warming, tree species distribution of any life-stage did not shift directionally upward along elevation between the surveys. Temporal elevational shifts were species-specific and an order of magnitude lower than differences among tree life-stages within the surveys. Our results show that the observed range shifts among tree life-stages are more consistent with ontogenetic differences in the species’ environmental requirements than with responses to recent climate change. The distribution of seedlings substantially differed from saplings and adults, while the distribution of saplings did not differ from adults, indicating a critical transition between seedling and sapling tree life-stages. Future research has to take ontogenetic differences among life-stages into account as we found that distributional differences recently observed worldwide may not reflect climate change but rather the different environmental requirements of tree life-stages. PMID:26725258

  10. Environmental control on early life stages of flatfishes in the Lima Estuary (NW Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Sandra; Ré, Pedro; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2009-06-01

    Several flatfishes spawn in oceanic waters and pelagic larvae are transported inshore to settle in the nursery areas, usually estuaries, where they remain during their juvenile life. Nursery areas appear as extremely important habitats, not only for juveniles but also for the earlier planktonic larval fish. Yet, the majority of nursery studies tend to focus only on one development stage, missing an integrative approach of the entire early life that fishes spent within a nursery ground. Thus, the present study assessed the influence of environmental parameters on the dynamics of the larval and juvenile flatfishes, throughout their nursery life in the Lima Estuary. Between April 2002 and April 2004, fortnightly subsurface ichthyoplankton samples were collected and juveniles were collected from October 2003 until September 2005. Larval assemblages comprised nine flatfish species, while only six were observed among the juvenile assemblages. Solea senegalensis and Platichthys flesus were the most abundant species of both fractions of the Lima Estuary flatfishes. Larval flatfish assemblages varied seasonally, without relevant differences between lower and middle estuary. Platichthys flesus dominated the spring samples and summer and autumn periods were characterized by an increase of overall abundance and diversity of larval flatfishes, mainly S. senegalensis, associated with temperature increase and reduced river flow. On the contrary, during the winter abundance sharply decreased, as a consequence of higher river run-off that might compromised the immigration of incompetent marine larvae. Juvenile flatfishes were more abundant in the middle and upper areas of the estuary, but the species richness was higher near the river mouth. Sediment type, distance from the river mouth, salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen were identified as the main environmental factors structuring the juvenile flatfish assemblages. Juveniles were spatially discrete, with the most abundant

  11. An earlier de motu cordis.

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Walter J.

    2004-01-01

    Thirteenth century medical science, like medieval scholarship in general, was directed at reconciliation of Greek philosophy/science with prevailing medieval theology and philosophy. Peter of Spain [later Pope John XXI] was the leading medical scholar of his time. Peter wrote a long book on the soul. Imbedded in it was a chapter on the motion of the heart. Peter's De Motu was based on his own medical experience and Galen's De Usu Partium and De Usu Respirationis and De Usu Pulsuum. This earlier De Motu defines a point on the continuum of intellectual development leading to us and into the future. Thirteenth century scholarship relied on past authority to a degree that continues to puzzle and beg explanation. Images Fig. 1 PMID:17060956

  12. ECOTOXICOGENOMICS: EXPOSURE INDICATORS USING ESTS AND SUBTRACTIVE LIBRARIES FOR MULTI-LIFE STAGES OF PIMEPHALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecotoxicogenomics is research that identifies patterns of gene expression in wildlife and predicts effects of environmental stressors. We are developing a multiple stressor, multiple life stage exposure model using the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), initially studying fou...

  13. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

    Duffy, Tara A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (four day) exposures using three doses each of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and one year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embyos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting this is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2 and plasma T3 decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages after hatching are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild.

  14. Hormonal correlates of male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus)

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Katharine M.; Schoof, Valérie A.M.; Sheller, Claire R.; Rich, Catherine I.; Klingelhofer, Peter P.; Ziegler, Toni E.; Fedigan, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to hormonal variation in relation to male dominance status and reproductive seasonality, but we know relatively little about how hormones vary across life history stages. Here we examine fecal testosterone (fT), dihydrotestosterone (fDHT), and glucocorticoid (fGC) profiles across male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Study subjects included 37 males residing in three habituated social groups in the Área de Conservacíon Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Male life history stages included infant (0 to <12 months; N = 3), early juvenile (1 to <3 years; N = 10), late juvenile (3 to <6 years; N = 9), subadult (6 to <10 years; N = 8), subordinate adult (≥10 years; N = 3), and alpha adult (≥ 10 years; N = 4, including one recently deposed alpha). Life history stage was a significant predictor of fT; levels were low throughout the infant and juvenile phases, doubled in subadult and subordinate adults, and were highest for alpha males. Life history stage was not a significant predictor of fDHT, fDHT:fT, or fGC levels. Puberty in white-faced capuchins appears to begin in earnest during the subadult male phase, indicated by the first significant rise in fT. Given their high fT levels and exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics, we argue that alpha adult males represent a distinctive life history stage not experienced by all male capuchins. This study is the first to physiologically validate observable male life history stages using patterns of hormone excretion in wild Neotropical primates, with evidence for a strong association between fT levels and life history stage. PMID:24184868

  15. Predicting responses to climate change requires all life-history stages.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Sara

    2013-01-01

    In Focus: Radchuk, V., Turlure, C. & Schtickzelle, N. (2013) Each life stage matters: the importance of assessing response to climate change over the complete life cycle in butterflies. Journal of Animal Ecology, 82, 275-285. Population-level responses to climate change depend on many factors, including unexpected interactions among life history attributes; however, few studies examine climate change impacts over complete life cycles of focal species. Radchuk, Turlure & Schtickzelle () used experimental and modelling approaches to predict population dynamics for the bog fritillary butterfly under warming scenarios. Although they found that warming improved fertility and survival of all stages with one exception, populations were predicted to decline because overwintering larvae, whose survival declined with warming, were disproportionately important contributors to population growth. This underscores the importance of considering all life history stages in analyses of climate change's effects on population dynamics. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2012 British Ecological Society.

  16. Size-selective mortality of steelhead during freshwater and marine life stages related to freshwater growth in the Skagit River, Washington

    Thompson, Jamie N.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated freshwater growth and survival from juvenile (ages 0–3) to smolt (ages 1–5) and adult stages in wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss sampled in different precipitation zones of the Skagit River basin, Washington. Our objectives were to determine whether significant size-selective mortality (SSM) in steelhead could be detected between early and later freshwater stages and between each of these freshwater stages and returning adults and, if so, how SSM varied between these life stages and mixed and snow precipitation zones. Scale-based size-at-annulus comparisons indicated that steelhead in the snow zone were significantly larger at annulus 1 than those in the mixed rain–snow zone. Size at annuli 2 and 3 did not differ between precipitation zones, and we found no precipitation zone × life stage interaction effect on size at annulus. Significant freshwater and marine SSM was evident between the juvenile and adult samples at annulus 1 and between each life stage at annuli 2 and 3. Rapid growth between the final freshwater annulus and the smolt migration did not improve survival to adulthood; rather, it appears that survival in the marine environment may be driven by an overall higher growth rate set earlier in life, which results in a larger size at smolt migration. Efforts for recovery of threatened Puget Sound steelhead could benefit by considering that SSM between freshwater and marine life stages can be partially attributed to growth attained in freshwater habitats and by identifying those factors that limit growth during early life stages.

  17. Thermal habitat restricts patterns of occurrence in multiple life-stages of a headwater fish

    Mischa P. Turschwell; Stephen R. Balcombe; E. Ashley Steel; Fran Sheldon; Erin E. Peterson

    2017-01-01

    Our lack of knowledge on the spatiotemporal drivers of the distribution of many freshwater fishes, particularly as they differ among life-history stages, is a challenge to conservation of these species. We used 2-stage hurdle models to investigate drivers of occurrence and abundance of locally threatened adult and juvenile Northern River Blackfish in the upper...

  18. Magnetoencephalographic Signals Identify Stages in Real-Life Decision Processes

    PubMed Central

    Braeutigam, Sven; Stins, John F.; Rose, Steven P. R.; Swithenby, Stephen J.; Ambler, Tim

    2001-01-01

    We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to study the dynamics of neural responses in eight subjects engaged in shopping for day-to-day items from supermarket shelves. This behavior not only has personal and economic importance but also provides an example of an experience that is both personal and shared between individuals. The shopping experience enables the exploration of neural mechanisms underlying choice based on complex memories. Choosing among different brands of closely related products activated a robust sequence of signals within the first second after the presentation of the choice images. This sequence engaged first the visual cortex (80-100 ms), then as the images were analyzed, predominantly the left temporal regions (310-340 ms). At longer latency, characteristic neural activetion was found in motor speech areas (500-520 ms) for images requiring low salience choices with respect to previous (brand) memory, and in right parietal cortex for high salience choices (850-920 ms). We argue that the neural processes associated with the particular brand-choice stimulus can be separated into identifiable stages through observation of MEG responses and knowledge of functional anatomy. PMID:12018772

  19. Impact of Life-Cycle Stage and Gender on the Ability to Balance Work and Family Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Christopher; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined impact of gender and life-cycle stage on three components of work-family conflict using sample of 3,616 respondents. For men, levels of work-family conflict were moderately lower in each successive life-cycle stage. For women, levels were similar in two early life-cycle stages but were significantly lower in later life-cycle stage.…

  20. "Life Stage-Specific" Variations in Performance in Response to Age Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hehman, Jessica A.; Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2013-01-01

    In a test of life stage-specific responses to age-based stigma, older (n = 54, ages 62-92) and younger (n = 81, ages 17-22) adults were told that a task (Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-III block design) required either (a) speed/contemporary knowledge (YA; "youth advantage") or (b) life experience/wisdom (OA; "age…

  1. Size Scaling in Western North Atlantic Loggerhead Turtles Permits Extrapolation between Regions, but Not Life Stages.

    PubMed

    Marn, Nina; Klanjscek, Tin; Stokes, Lesley; Jusup, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Sea turtles face threats globally and are protected by national and international laws. Allometry and scaling models greatly aid sea turtle conservation and research, and help to better understand the biology of sea turtles. Scaling, however, may differ between regions and/or life stages. We analyze differences between (i) two different regional subsets and (ii) three different life stage subsets of the western North Atlantic loggerhead turtles by comparing the relative growth of body width and depth in relation to body length, and discuss the implications. Results suggest that the differences between scaling relationships of different regional subsets are negligible, and models fitted on data from one region of the western North Atlantic can safely be used on data for the same life stage from another North Atlantic region. On the other hand, using models fitted on data for one life stage to describe other life stages is not recommended if accuracy is of paramount importance. In particular, young loggerhead turtles that have not recruited to neritic habitats should be studied and modeled separately whenever practical, while neritic juveniles and adults can be modeled together as one group. Even though morphometric scaling varies among life stages, a common model for all life stages can be used as a general description of scaling, and assuming isometric growth as a simplification is justified. In addition to linear models traditionally used for scaling on log-log axes, we test the performance of a saturating (curvilinear) model. The saturating model is statistically preferred in some cases, but the accuracy gained by the saturating model is marginal.

  2. Acute oral toxicity of chemicals in terrestrial life stages of amphibians: Comparisons to birds and mammals.

    PubMed

    Crane, Mark; Finnegan, Meaghean; Weltje, Lennart; Kosmala-Grzechnik, Sylwia; Gross, Melanie; Wheeler, James R

    2016-10-01

    Amphibians are currently the most threatened and rapidly declining group of vertebrates and this has raised concerns about their potential sensitivity and exposure to plant protection products and other chemicals. Current environmental risk assessment procedures rely on surrogate species (e.g. fish and birds) to cover the risk to aquatic and terrestrial life stages of amphibians, respectively. Whilst a recent meta-analysis has shown that in most cases amphibian aquatic life stages are less sensitive to chemicals than fish, little research has been conducted on the comparative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages. Therefore, in this paper we address the questions "What is the relative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages to acute chemical oral exposure when compared with mammals and birds?" and "Are there correlations between oral toxicity data for amphibians and data for mammals or birds?" Identifying a relationship between these data may help to avoid additional vertebrate testing. Acute oral amphibian toxicity data collected from the scientific literature and ecotoxicological databases were compared with toxicity data for mammals and birds. Toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages are generally sparse, as noted in previous reviews. Single-dose oral toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages were available for 26 chemicals and these were positively correlated with LD50 values for mammals, while no correlation was found for birds. Further, the data suggest that oral toxicity to terrestrial amphibian life stages is similar to or lower than that for mammals and birds, with a few exceptions. Thus, mammals or birds are considered adequate toxicity surrogates for use in the assessment of the oral exposure route in amphibians. However, there is a need for further data on a wider range of chemicals to explore the wider applicability of the current analyses and recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Each life stage matters: the importance of assessing the response to climate change over the complete life cycle in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Radchuk, Viktoriia; Turlure, Camille; Schtickzelle, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    As ectothermic organisms, butterflies have widely been used as models to explore the predicted impacts of climate change. However, most studies explore only one life stage; to our best knowledge, none have integrated the impact of temperature on the vital rates of all life stages for a species of conservation concern. Besides, most population viability analysis models for butterflies are based on yearly population growth rate, precluding the implementation and assessment of important climate change scenarios, where climate change occurs mainly, or differently, during some seasons. Here, we used a combination of laboratory and field experiments to quantify the impact of temperature on all life stages of a vulnerable glacial relict butterfly. Next, we integrated these impacts into an overall population response using a deterministic periodic matrix model and explored the impact of several climate change scenarios. Temperature positively affected egg, pre-diapause larva and pupal survival, and the number of eggs laid by a female; only the survival of overwintering larva was negatively affected by an increase in temperature. Despite the positive impact of warming on many life stages, population viability was reduced under all scenarios, with predictions of much shorter times to extinction than under the baseline (current temperature situation) scenario. Indeed, model predictions were the most sensitive to changes in survival of overwintering larva, the only stage negatively affected by warming. A proper consideration of every stage of the life cycle is important when designing conservation guidelines in the light of climate change. This is in line with the resource-based habitat view, which explicitly refers to the habitat as a collection of resources needed for all life stages of the species. We, therefore, encourage adopting a resource-based habitat view for population viability analysis and development of conservation guidelines for butterflies, and more generally

  4. The enactment stage of end-of-life decision-making for children.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Jane Elizabeth; Gillam, Lynn Heather; Monagle, Paul Terence

    2018-01-11

    Typically pediatric end-of-life decision-making studies have examined the decision-making process, factors, and doctors' and parents' roles. Less attention has focussed on what happens after an end-of-life decision is made; that is, decision enactment and its outcome. This study explored the views and experiences of bereaved parents in end-of-life decision-making for their child. Findings reported relate to parents' experiences of acting on their decision. It is argued that this is one significant stage of the decision-making process. A qualitative methodology was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with bereaved parents, who had discussed end-of-life decisions for their child who had a life-limiting condition and who had died. Data were thematically analysed. Twenty-five bereaved parents participated. Findings indicate that, despite differences in context, including the child's condition and age, end-of-life decision-making did not end when an end-of-life decision was made. Enacting the decision was the next stage in a process. Time intervals between stages and enactment pathways varied, but the enactment was always distinguishable as a separate stage. Decision enactment involved making further decisions - parents needed to discern the appropriate time to implement their decision to withdraw or withhold life-sustaining medical treatment. Unexpected events, including other people's actions, impacted on parents enacting their decision in the way they had planned. Several parents had to re-implement decisions when their child recovered from serious health issues without medical intervention. Significance of results A novel, critical finding was that parents experienced end-of-life decision-making as a sequence of interconnected stages, the final stage being enactment. The enactment stage involved further decision-making. End-of-life decision-making is better understood as a process rather than a discrete once-off event. The enactment stage has particular

  5. Monoclonal Antibodies to Intracellular Stages of Cryptosporidium parvum Define Life Cycle Progression In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Georgia; Ravindran, Soumya; Funkhouser-Jones, Lisa; Barks, Jennifer; Wang, Qiuling; VanDussen, Kelli L; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S; Sibley, L David

    2018-06-27

    Among the obstacles hindering Cryptosporidium research is the lack of an in vitro culture system that supports complete life development and propagation. This major barrier has led to a shortage of widely available anti- Cryptosporidium antibodies and a lack of markers for staging developmental progression. Previously developed antibodies against Cryptosporidium were raised against extracellular stages or recombinant proteins, leading to antibodies with limited reactivity across the parasite life cycle. Here we sought to create antibodies that recognize novel epitopes that could be used to define intracellular development. We identified a mouse epithelial cell line that supported C. parvum growth, enabling immunization of mice with infected cells to create a bank of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against intracellular parasite stages while avoiding the development of host-specific antibodies. From this bank, we identified 12 antibodies with a range of reactivities across the parasite life cycle. Importantly, we identified specific MAbs that can distinguish different life cycle stages, such as trophozoites, merozoites, type I versus II meronts, and macrogamonts. These MAbs provide valuable tools for the Cryptosporidium research community and will facilitate future investigation into parasite biology. IMPORTANCE Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that causes gastrointestinal disease in humans and animals. Currently, there is a limited array of antibodies available against the parasite, which hinders imaging studies and makes it difficult to visualize the parasite life cycle in different culture systems. In order to alleviate this reagent gap, we created a library of novel antibodies against the intracellular life cycle stages of Cryptosporidium We identified antibodies that recognize specific life cycle stages in distinctive ways, enabling unambiguous description of the parasite life cycle. These MAbs will aid future investigation into Cryptosporidium biology and

  6. Ocean acidification effects in the early life-stages of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, R. C.; Candelmo, A. C.; Habeck, E. A.; Poach, M. E.; Wieczorek, D.; Cooper, K. R.; Greenfield, C. E.; Phelan, B. A.

    2013-08-01

    The limited available evidence about effects of high CO2 and acidification of our oceans on fish suggests that effects will differ across fish species, be subtle, and interact with other stressors. An experimental framework was implemented that includes the use of (1) multiple marine fish species of relevance to the northeastern USA that differ in their ecologies including spawning season and habitat; (2) a wide yet realistic range of environmental conditions (i.e., concurrent manipulation of CO2 levels and water temperatures), and (3) a diverse set of response variables related to fish sensitivity to elevated CO2 levels, water temperatures, and their interactions. This report is on an array of early life-history responses of summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus), an ecologically and economically important flatfish of this region, to a wide range of pH and CO2 levels. Survival of summer flounder embryos was reduced by 50% below local ambient conditions (7.8 pH, 775 ppm pCO2) when maintained at the intermediate conditions (7.4 pH, 1860 ppm pCO2), and by 75% below local ambient when maintained at the most acidic conditions tested (7.1 pH, 4715 ppm pCO2). This pattern of reduced survival of embryos at higher CO2 levels was consistent among three females used as sources of embryos. Sizes and shapes of larvae were altered by elevated CO2 levels with longer larvae in more acidic waters. This pattern of longer larvae was evident at hatching (although longer hatchlings had less energy reserves) to midway through the larval period. Larvae from the most acidic conditions initiated metamorphosis at earlier ages and smaller sizes than those from more moderate and ambient conditions. Tissue damage was evident in older larvae (age 14 to 28 d post-hatching) from both elevated CO2 levels. Damage included liver sinusoid dilation, focal hyperplasia on the epithelium, separation of the trunk muscle bundles, and dilation of the liver sinusoids and central veins. Cranial

  7. Acute toxicity of firefighting chemical formulations to four life stages of fathead minnow

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Hamilton, Steve J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; McDonald, Susan F.; Summers, Cliff H.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted with four early life stages of fathead minnow,Pimephales promelas,to determine the acute toxicity of five firefighting chemical formulations in standardized soft and hard water. Egg, fry, 30-day posthatch, and 60-day posthatch life stages were tested with three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Ansul Silv-Ex). Fry were generally the most sensitive life stage tested, whereas the eggs were the least sensitive life stage. Formulation toxicity was greater in hard water than in soft water for all life stages tested. Fire-suppressant foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. The 96-hr LC50s derived for fathead minnows were rank ordered from the most toxic to the least toxic formulation as follows: Phos-Chek WD-881 (13a??32 mg/liter) > Silv-Ex (19a??32 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol GTS-R (135a??787 mg/liter) > Phos-Chek D75-F (168a??2250 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol LCG-R (519a??6705 mg/liter) (ranges are the lowest and highest 96-hr LC50for each formulation). (C) 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

  8. Life histories of microalgal species causing harmful blooms: Haploids, diploids and the relevance of benthic stages.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Rosa Isabel; Estrada, Marta; Garcés, Esther

    2018-03-01

    In coastal and offshore waters, Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) currently threaten the well-being of coastal countries. These events, which can be localized or involve wide-ranging areas, pose risks to human health, marine ecosystems, and economic resources, such as tourism, fisheries, and aquaculture. Dynamics of HABs vary from one site to another, depending on the hydrographic and ecological conditions. The challenge in investigating HABs is that they are caused by organisms from multiple algal classes, each with its own unique features, including different life histories. The complete algal life cycle has been determined in <1% of the described species, although elucidation of the life cycles of bloom-forming species is essential in developing preventative measures. The knowledge obtained thus far has confirmed the complexity of the algal life cycle, which is composed of discrete life stages whose morphology, ecological niche (plankton/benthos), function, and lifespan vary. The factors that trigger transitions between the different stages in nature are mostly unknown, but it is clear that an understanding of this process provides the key to effectively forecasting bloom recurrence, maintenance, and decline. Planktonic stages constitute an ephemeral phase of the life cycle of most species whereas resistant, benthic stages enable a species to withstand adverse conditions for prolonged periods, thus providing dormant reservoirs for eventual blooms and facilitating organismal dispersal. Here we review current knowledge of the life cycle strategies of major groups of HAB producers in marine and brackish waters. Rather than providing a comprehensive discussion, the objective was to highlight several of the research milestones that have changed our understanding of the plasticity and frequency of the different life cycle stages as well as the transitions between them. We also discuss the relevance of benthic and planktonic forms and their implications for HAB dynamics

  9. High-Resolution Lipidomics of the Early Life Stages of the Red Seaweed Porphyra dioica.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Elisabete; Azevedo, Vitor; Melo, Tânia; Rego, Andreia M; V Evtuguin, Dmitry; Domingues, Pedro; Calado, Ricardo; Pereira, Rui; Abreu, Maria H; Domingues, Maria R

    2018-01-17

    Porphyra dioica is a commercial seaweed consumed all over the world, mostly in the shape of nori sheets used for "sushi" preparation. It is a well-known part of the Asian diet with health benefits, which have been associated, among others, to the high levels of n -3 and n- 6 fatty acids in this red alga. However, other highly valued lipids of Porphyra are polar lipids that remain largely undescribed and can have both nutritional value and bioactivity, thus could contribute to the valorization of this seaweed. In this context, the present work aims to identify the lipidome of two life cycle stages of the Atlantic species Porphyra dioica : the early life stage conchocelis produced in an indoor-nursery, and young blades produced outdoors using an integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) framework. Both the blades (gametophyte) and conchocelis (sporophyte) are commercialized in the food and cosmetics sectors. Liquid chromatography coupled to Q-Exactive high resolution-mass spectrometry (MS) platform was used to gain insight into the lipidome of these species. Our results allowed the identification of 110 and 100 lipid molecular species in the lipidome of the blade and conchocelis, respectively. These lipid molecular species were distributed as follows (blade/conchocelis): 14/15 glycolipids (GLs), 93/79 phospholipids (PLs), and 3/6 betaine lipids. Both life stages displayed a similar profile of GLs and comprised 20:4( n -6) and 20:5( n -3) fatty acids that contribute to n -3 and n -6 fatty acid pool recorded and rank among the molecular species with higher potential bioactivity. PLs' profile was different between the two life stages surveyed, mainly due to the number and relative abundance of molecular species. This finding suggests that differences between both life stages were more likely related with shifts in the lipids of extraplastidial membranes rather than in plastidial membranes. PLs contained n -6 and n -3 precursors and in both life stages of Porphyra

  10. Adaptor protein complexes-1 and 3 are involved at distinct stages of flavivirus life-cycle

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Tanvi; Schu, Peter; Medigeshi, Guruprasad R.

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular protein trafficking pathways are hijacked by viruses at various stages of viral life-cycle. Heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes (APs) mediate vesicular trafficking at distinct intracellular sites and are essential for maintaining the organellar homeostasis. In the present study, we studied the effect of AP-1 and AP-3 deficiency on flavivirus infection in cells functionally lacking these proteins. We show that AP-1 and AP-3 participate in flavivirus life-cycle at distinct stages. AP-3-deficient cells showed delay in initiation of Japanese encephalitis virus and dengue virus RNA replication, which resulted in reduction of infectious virus production. AP-3 was found to colocalize with RNA replication compartments in infected wild-type cells. AP-1 deficiency affected later stages of dengue virus infection where increased intracellular accumulation of infectious virus was observed. Therefore, our results propose a novel role for AP-1 and AP-3 at distinct stages of infection of some of the RNA viruses. PMID:23657274

  11. Adaptor protein complexes-1 and 3 are involved at distinct stages of flavivirus life-cycle.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Tanvi; Schu, Peter; Medigeshi, Guruprasad R

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular protein trafficking pathways are hijacked by viruses at various stages of viral life-cycle. Heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes (APs) mediate vesicular trafficking at distinct intracellular sites and are essential for maintaining the organellar homeostasis. In the present study, we studied the effect of AP-1 and AP-3 deficiency on flavivirus infection in cells functionally lacking these proteins. We show that AP-1 and AP-3 participate in flavivirus life-cycle at distinct stages. AP-3-deficient cells showed delay in initiation of Japanese encephalitis virus and dengue virus RNA replication, which resulted in reduction of infectious virus production. AP-3 was found to colocalize with RNA replication compartments in infected wild-type cells. AP-1 deficiency affected later stages of dengue virus infection where increased intracellular accumulation of infectious virus was observed. Therefore, our results propose a novel role for AP-1 and AP-3 at distinct stages of infection of some of the RNA viruses.

  12. Differential exposure, duration, and sensitivity of unionoidean bivalve life stages to environmental contaminants

    Cope, W.G.; Bringolf, R.B.; Buchwalter, D.B.; Newton, T.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Wang, N.; Augspurger, T.; Dwyer, F.J.; Barnhart, M.C.; Neves, R.J.; Hammer, E.

    2008-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (superfamily Unionoidea) are in serious global decline and in urgent need of protection and conservation. The declines have been attributed to a wide array of human activities resulting in pollution and water-quality degradation, and habitat destruction and alteration. Linkages among poor water quality, pollutant sources, and mussel decline in rivers and streams have been associated with results of laboratory-based tests of specific pollutants. However, uncertainties remain about the relationship of laboratory data to actual contaminant exposure routes for various mussel species, life stages, and in the habitats occupied during these exposures. We evaluated the pathways of exposure to environmental pollutants for all 4 life stages (free glochidia, encysted glochidia, juveniles, adults) of unionoidean mussels and found that each life stage has both common and unique characteristics that contribute to observed differences in exposure and sensitivity. Free glochidia typically are exposed only briefly (e.g., seconds to days) through surface water, whereas adults sustain exposure over years to decades through surface water, pore water, sediment, and diet. Juveniles live largely burrowed in the sediment for the first 0 to 4 y of life. Thus, sediment, pore water, and diet are the predominant exposure routes for this life stage, but surface water also might contribute to exposure during certain periods and environmental conditions. The obligate parasitic stage (encysted glochidia stage) on a host fish might be exposed from surface water while partially encysted or from toxicants in host-fish tissue while fully encysted. Laboratory methods for testing for acute and chronic exposures in water have advanced, and toxicant-specific information has increased in recent years. However, additional research is needed to understand interactions of life history, habitat, and long-term exposure to contaminants through water, pore water, sediment, and diet so that the

  13. Maternal, social and abiotic environmental effects on growth vary across life stages in a cooperative mammal.

    PubMed

    English, Sinead; Bateman, Andrew W; Mares, Rafael; Ozgul, Arpat; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2014-03-01

    Resource availability plays a key role in driving variation in somatic growth and body condition, and the factors determining access to resources vary considerably across life stages. Parents and carers may exert important influences in early life, when individuals are nutritionally dependent, with abiotic environmental effects having stronger influences later in development as individuals forage independently. Most studies have measured specific factors influencing growth across development or have compared relative influences of different factors within specific life stages. Such studies may not capture whether early-life factors continue to have delayed effects at later stages, or whether social factors change when individuals become nutritionally independent and adults become competitors for, rather than providers of, food. Here, we examined variation in the influence of the abiotic, social and maternal environment on growth across life stages in a wild population of cooperatively breeding meerkats. Cooperatively breeding vertebrates are ideal for investigating environmental influences on growth. In addition to experiencing highly variable abiotic conditions, cooperative breeders are typified by heterogeneity both among breeders, with mothers varying in age and social status, and in the number of carers present. Recent rainfall had a consistently marked effect on growth across life stages, yet other seasonal terms only influenced growth during stages when individuals were growing fastest. Group size and maternal dominance status had positive effects on growth during the period of nutritional dependence on carers, but did not influence mass at emergence (at 1 month) or growth at independent stages (>4 months). Pups born to older mothers were lighter at 1 month of age and subsequently grew faster as subadults. Males grew faster than females during the juvenile and subadult stage only. Our findings demonstrate the complex ways in which the external environment

  14. Maternal, social and abiotic environmental effects on growth vary across life stages in a cooperative mammal

    PubMed Central

    English, Sinead; Bateman, Andrew W; Mares, Rafael; Ozgul, Arpat; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2014-01-01

    Resource availability plays a key role in driving variation in somatic growth and body condition, and the factors determining access to resources vary considerably across life stages. Parents and carers may exert important influences in early life, when individuals are nutritionally dependent, with abiotic environmental effects having stronger influences later in development as individuals forage independently. Most studies have measured specific factors influencing growth across development or have compared relative influences of different factors within specific life stages. Such studies may not capture whether early-life factors continue to have delayed effects at later stages, or whether social factors change when individuals become nutritionally independent and adults become competitors for, rather than providers of, food. Here, we examined variation in the influence of the abiotic, social and maternal environment on growth across life stages in a wild population of cooperatively breeding meerkats. Cooperatively breeding vertebrates are ideal for investigating environmental influences on growth. In addition to experiencing highly variable abiotic conditions, cooperative breeders are typified by heterogeneity both among breeders, with mothers varying in age and social status, and in the number of carers present. Recent rainfall had a consistently marked effect on growth across life stages, yet other seasonal terms only influenced growth during stages when individuals were growing fastest. Group size and maternal dominance status had positive effects on growth during the period of nutritional dependence on carers, but did not influence mass at emergence (at 1 month) or growth at independent stages (>4 months). Pups born to older mothers were lighter at 1 month of age and subsequently grew faster as subadults. Males grew faster than females during the juvenile and subadult stage only. Our findings demonstrate the complex ways in which the external environment

  15. Signatures of natural selection between life cycle stages separated by metamorphosis in European eel.

    PubMed

    Pujolar, J M; Jacobsen, M W; Bekkevold, D; Lobón-Cervià, J; Jónsson, B; Bernatchez, L; Hansen, M M

    2015-08-13

    Species showing complex life cycles provide excellent opportunities to study the genetic associations between life cycle stages, as selective pressures may differ before and after metamorphosis. The European eel presents a complex life cycle with two metamorphoses, a first metamorphosis from larvae into glass eels (juvenile stage) and a second metamorphosis into silver eels (adult stage). We tested the hypothesis that different genes and gene pathways will be under selection at different life stages when comparing the genetic associations between glass eels and silver eels. We used two sets of markers to test for selection: first, we genotyped individuals using a panel of 80 coding-gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed in American eel; second, we investigated selection at the genome level using a total of 153,423 RAD-sequencing generated SNPs widely distributed across the genome. Using the RAD approach, outlier tests identified a total of 2413 (1.57%) potentially selected SNPs. Functional annotation analysis identified signal transduction pathways as the most over-represented group of genes, including MAPK/Erk signalling, calcium signalling and GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) signalling. Many of the over-represented pathways were related to growth, while others could result from the different conditions that eels inhabit during their life cycle. The observation of different genes and gene pathways under selection when comparing glass eels vs. silver eels supports the adaptive decoupling hypothesis for the benefits of metamorphosis. Partitioning the life cycle into discrete morphological phases may be overall beneficial since it allows the different life stages to respond independently to their unique selection pressures. This might translate into a more effective use of food and niche resources and/or performance of phase-specific tasks (e.g. feeding in the case of glass eels, migrating and reproducing in the case of silver eels).

  16. Sensitivity of UK butterflies to local climatic extremes: which life stages are most at risk?

    PubMed

    McDermott Long, Osgur; Warren, Rachel; Price, Jeff; Brereton, Tom M; Botham, Marc S; Franco, Aldina M A

    2017-01-01

    There is growing recognition as to the importance of extreme climatic events (ECEs) in determining changes in species populations. In fact, it is often the extent of climate variability that determines a population's ability to persist at a given site. This study examined the impact of ECEs on the resident UK butterfly species (n = 41) over a 37-year period. The study investigated the sensitivity of butterflies to four extremes (drought, extreme precipitation, extreme heat and extreme cold), identified at the site level, across each species' life stages. Variations in the vulnerability of butterflies at the site level were also compared based on three life-history traits (voltinism, habitat requirement and range). This is the first study to examine the effects of ECEs at the site level across all life stages of a butterfly, identifying sensitive life stages and unravelling the role life-history traits play in species sensitivity to ECEs. Butterfly population changes were found to be primarily driven by temperature extremes. Extreme heat was detrimental during overwintering periods and beneficial during adult periods and extreme cold had opposite impacts on both of these life stages. Previously undocumented detrimental effects were identified for extreme precipitation during the pupal life stage for univoltine species. Generalists were found to have significantly more negative associations with ECEs than specialists. With future projections of warmer, wetter winters and more severe weather events, UK butterflies could come under severe pressure given the findings of this study. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.

  17. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Duffy, T A; Iwanowicz, L R; McCormick, S D

    2014-07-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (4 day) exposures using three doses each of 17 α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17 β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and 1 year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embryos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting plasma Vtg is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2, and plasma T3 was decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  18. Life history traits influence the strength of distance- and density-dependence at different life stages of two Amazonian palms.

    PubMed

    Choo, Juanita; Carasco, Cecilia; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Simpson, Beryl B; Economo, Evan P

    2017-07-01

    Natural enemies are known to be important in regulating plant populations and contributing to species coexistence (Janzen-Connell effects). The strength of Janzen-Connell effects (both distance- and density-effects) varies across species, but the life history traits that may mediate such a variation are not well understood. This study examined Janzen-Connell effects across the life stages (seed through adult stages) of two sympatric palm species with distinct phenologies and shade tolerances, two traits that may mediate the strength and timing of Janzen-Connell effects. Populations of two common palm species, Attalea phalerata and Astrocaryum murumuru , were studied in Manu National Park, Peru. Seed predation experiments were conducted to assess Janzen-Connell effects at the seed stage. In the post-seed stages, spatial point pattern analyses of the distributions of individuals and biomass were used to infer the strength of distance- and density-effects. Seed predation was both negative distance- and density-dependent consistent with the Janzen-Connell effects. However, only seedling recruitment for asynchronously fruiting Attalea phalerata was depressed near adults while recruitment remained high for synchronously fruiting Astrocaryum murumuru , consistent with weak distance-effects. Negative density-effects were strong in the early stages for shade-intolerant Attalea phalerata but weak or absent in shade-tolerant Astrocaryum murumuru. Distance- and density-effects varied among the life stages of the two palm species in a manner that corresponded to their contrasting phenology and shade tolerance. Generalizing such connections across many species would provide a route to understanding how trait-mediated Janzen-Connell effects scale up to whole communities of species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Life-crossroads on stage: integrating life review and drama therapy for older adults.

    PubMed

    Keisari, Shoshi; Palgi, Yuval

    2017-10-01

    This paper examines the contribution of a new group of therapeutic interventions for older adults, based on a rudimentary life-review intervention. The intervention includes narrative elements together with drama therapy. The current study examines the influence of this therapeutic intervention on key indicators of mental health and psychological well-being among older adults. Fifty-five people (n = 55), ranging in age from 62 to 93, participated in a before-after study design. The following indices - meaning in life, self-acceptance, relationships with others, depressive symptoms, and experience of successful aging - were compared between an intervention group (n = 27) and a care-as-usual control group (n = 28). Repeated measures analyses of variance showed a significant improvement over time in the experimental group. In addition, results also showed time-group interaction regarding the treatment's effectiveness for self-acceptance, relationships with others, sense of meaning in life, sense of successful aging, and depressive symptoms. Our findings confirm that the new therapeutic intervention, which integrates life-review with drama therapy, increases self-acceptance, relationships with others, sense of meaning in life, and sense of successful aging; in turn, it also decreases depressive symptoms among older adults. The contribution of this research is based on the development of a therapeutic intervention that combines narrative together with drama therapy tools, which can be used in focused and short-term group treatments with the elderly.

  20. Differential Editosome Protein Function between Life Cycle Stages of Trypanosoma brucei *

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Suzanne M.; Guo, Xuemin; Carnes, Jason; Stuart, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Uridine insertion and deletion RNA editing generates functional mitochondrial mRNAs in Trypanosoma brucei. The mRNAs are differentially edited in bloodstream form (BF) and procyclic form (PF) life cycle stages, and this correlates with the differential utilization of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation between the stages. The mechanism that controls this differential editing is unknown. Editing is catalyzed by multiprotein ∼20S editosomes that contain endonuclease, 3′-terminal uridylyltransferase, exonuclease, and ligase activities. These editosomes also contain KREPB5 and KREPA3 proteins, which have no functional catalytic motifs, but they are essential for parasite viability, editing, and editosome integrity in BF cells. We show here that repression of KREPB5 or KREPA3 is also lethal in PF, but the effects on editosome structure differ from those in BF. In addition, we found that point mutations in KREPB5 or KREPA3 differentially affect cell growth, editosome integrity, and RNA editing between BF and PF stages. These results indicate that the functions of KREPB5 and KREPA3 editosome proteins are adjusted between the life cycle stages. This implies that these proteins are involved in the processes that control differential editing and that the 20S editosomes differ between the life cycle stages. PMID:26304125

  1. Determining sex and life stage of Del Norte salamanders from external cues

    Lisa Ollivier; Hartwell H. Welsh Jr

    2003-01-01

    Life stage determination for many western plethodontids often requires dissection of the specimen. Availability of reliable external measures that could be applied under field conditions would enhance future studies of the genus Plethodon. We examined preserved specimens of the Del Norte Salamander, Plethodon elongatus, taken from...

  2. Evaluating Managerial Styles for System Development Life Cycle Stages to Ensure Software Project Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocherla, Showry

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) projects are considered successful if they are completed on time, within budget, and within scope. Even though, the required tools and methodologies are in place, IT projects continue to fail at a higher rate. Current literature lacks explanation for success within the stages of system development life-cycle (SDLC) such…

  3. Technical Committee on Aricultural Chemical Safety (ACSA) Life Stages Task Force

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document takes a life stages approach to the assessment of risk attributable to crop protection products, and well-known experts in the field are contributing authors. The paper presents an in-depth justification for proposed changes in current protocols for toxicity testing...

  4. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  5. Phototoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to zebrafish (Danio rerio) is dependent on life stage

    EPA Science Inventory

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo has been increasingly used as a model to evaluate toxicity of manufactured nanomaterials. Many studies indicate that the embryo chorion may protect animals from toxic effects of nanomaterials, suggesting that post-hatch life stages may be more s...

  6. Susceptibility of different life stage of Tribolium confusum and Oryzaephilus surinamensis to cold treatment

    Laboratory tests were carried out to examine the efficacy of different exposure intervals (2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d and 7 d) on different life stages (adults, pupae, larvae, eggs) of Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), the confused flour beetle, and O. surinamensis (...

  7. Fish early life stage: Developing AOPs to support targeted reduction and replacement

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...

  8. Hepatic Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Gene Expression Through the Life Stages of the Mouse

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs). No comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs has been ca...

  9. Amphibians at risk? Susceptibility of terrestrial amphibian life stages to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Brühl, Carsten A; Pieper, Silvia; Weber, Brigitte

    2011-11-01

    Current pesticide risk assessment does not specifically consider amphibians. Amphibians in the aquatic environment (aquatic life stages or postmetamorphic aquatic amphibians) and terrestrial living juvenile or adult amphibians are assumed to be covered by the risk assessment for aquatic invertebrates and fish, or mammals and birds, respectively. This procedure has been evaluated as being sufficiently protective regarding the acute risk posed by a number of pesticides to aquatic amphibian life stages (eggs, larvae). However, it is unknown whether the exposure and sensitivity of terrestrial living amphibians are comparable to mammalian and avian exposure and sensitivity. We reviewed the literature on dermal pesticide absorption and toxicity studies for terrestrial life stages of amphibians, focusing on the dermal exposure pathway, that is, through treated soil or direct overspray. In vitro studies demonstrated that cutaneous absorption of chemicals is significant and that chemical percutaneous passage, P (cm/h), is higher in amphibians than in mammals. In vivo, the rapid and substantial uptake of the herbicide atrazine from treated soil by toads (Bufo americanus) has been described. Severe toxic effects on various amphibian species have been reported for field-relevant application rates of different pesticides. In general, exposure and toxicity studies for terrestrial amphibian life stages are scarce, and the reported data indicate the need for further research, especially in light of the global amphibian decline. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  10. Sexual Maturity and Life Stage Influences Toxic Metal Accumulation in Croatian Brown Bears.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Maja; Sekovanić, Ankica; Orct, Tatjana; Reljić, Slaven; Jurasović, Jasna; Huber, Đuro

    2018-02-01

    The influence of reproductive and (early) life stages on toxic metal levels was investigated in the brown bear (Ursus arctos), the largest mammalian predator species in Croatia. The purpose was to examine critical clusters in a population that might be at a higher risk of adverse health effects caused by metals as environmental contaminants. Levels of cadmium, mercury and lead in muscle, liver and kidney cortex of 325 male and 139 female bears, quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, were analysed according to distinct bear life stages (young: cub, yearling, subadult; mature: adult). Metal levels did not differ among sexes in young animals (< 4 years), except for mercury in muscles (higher in females), and adult females had higher cadmium and mercury. A trend of renal cadmium accumulation with age in immature male animals disappeared once they reached maturity, whereas for females this trend has only slowly declined in mature compared to immature bears. In early life stage (< 1 year), bear cubs had lower cadmium, comparable mercury, and higher lead in the kidneys than the bears of the following age category (yearlings). Due to a higher proportion of renal lead transfer from the mother to the cub compared with cadmium, it may be that the high burden of cadmium found in kidneys of older females has lower toxicological concern for their cubs than the lead content. Sex, reproductive, and life stages of bears were confirmed as important in assessing toxic metal burden.

  11. Carryover effects of predation risk on postembryonic life-history stages in a freshwater shrimp.

    PubMed

    Ituarte, Romina Belén; Vázquez, María Guadalupe; González-Sagrario, María de los Ángeles; Spivak, Eduardo Daniel

    2014-04-01

    For organisms with complex life histories it is well known that risk experienced early in life, as embryos or larvae, may have effects throughout the life cycle. Although carryover effects have been well documented in invertebrates with different levels of parental care, there are few examples of predator-induced responses in externally brooded embryos. Here, we studied the effects of nonlethal predation risk throughout the embryonic development of newly spawned eggs carried by female shrimp on the timing of egg hatching, hatchling morphology, larval development and juvenile morphology. We also determined maternal body mass at the end of the embryonic period. Exposure to predation risk cues during embryonic development led to larger larvae which also had longer rostra but reached the juvenile stage sooner, at a smaller size and with shorter rostra. There was no difference in hatching timing, but changes in larval morphology and developmental timing showed that the embryos had perceived waterborne substances indicative of predation risk. In addition to carryover effects on larval and juvenile stages, predation threat provoked a decrease of body mass in mothers exposed to predator cues while brooding. Our results suggest that risk-exposed embryos were able to recognize the same infochemicals as their mothers, manifesting a response in the free-living larval stage. Thus, future studies assessing anti-predator phenotypes should include embryonic development, which seems to determine the morphology and developmental time of subsequent life-history stages according to perceived environmental conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Identifying critical life stage transitions for biological control of long-lived perennial Vincetoxicum species

    Demographic matrix modeling of invasive plant populations can be a powerful tool to identify key life stage transitions for targeted disruption in order to cause population decline. This approach can provide quantitative estimates of reductions in select vital rates needed to reduce population growt...

  13. Characterization of the impact of life stage on gene -chemical interactions in the liver

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs). We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs thro...

  14. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dilution water or the test solution. (4) “Control” an exposure of test organisms to dilution water only or... (treatment) concentrations of a test substance and one control are required to conduct an early life stage... trays or cups for each test concentration and control (i.e., 30 per embryo cup with 2 replicates); (C...

  15. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dilution water or the test solution. (4) “Control” an exposure of test organisms to dilution water only or... (treatment) concentrations of a test substance and one control are required to conduct an early life stage... trays or cups for each test concentration and control (i.e., 30 per embryo cup with 2 replicates); (C...

  16. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dilution water or the test solution. (4) “Control” an exposure of test organisms to dilution water only or... (treatment) concentrations of a test substance and one control are required to conduct an early life stage... trays or cups for each test concentration and control (i.e., 30 per embryo cup with 2 replicates); (C...

  17. Life Course Stage in Young Adulthood and Intergenerational Congruence in Family Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucx, Freek; Raaijmakers, Quinten; van Wel, Frits

    2010-01-01

    We investigated how intergenerational congruence in family-related attitudes depends on life course stage in young adulthood. Recent data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study were used; the present sample included 2,041 dyads of young adults and their parents. Findings are discussed in terms of the elasticity in intergenerational attitude…

  18. Influence of Life Cycle Stage on Family Social Climate and Attitudes Toward the Residential Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Marjorie

    The existing physical forms of housing are not always compatible with prevalent social patterns. To investigate the relationship between family system characteristics and attitudes about residential space, 64 Indiana families in 4 stages of the family life cycle (early years with no children, crowded years with at least one preschool child, peak…

  19. Using Five Stage Model to Design of Collaborative Learning Environments in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orhan, Sevil; Karaman, M. Kemal

    2014-01-01

    Specifically Second Life (SL) among virtual worlds draws attention of researchers to form collaborative learning environments (Sutcliffe & Alrayes, 2012) since it could be used as a rich platform to simulate a real environment containing many collaborative learning characteristics and interaction tools within itself. Five Stage Model (FSM)…

  20. Seed and seedling traits affecting critical life stage transitions and recruitment outcomes in dryland grasses

    1. Seeding native plants is a key management practice to counter land degradation across the globe, yet the majority of seeding efforts fail, limiting the ability of this tool to accelerate ecosystem recovery. 2. Seedling recruitment requires transitions through several life stages, some of which ma...

  1. The effects of parasites on the early life stages of a damselfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D.; Blomberg, S. P.; Cribb, T. H.; McCormick, M. I.; Grutter, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Early life history traits, such as larval growth, influence the success of coral reef fish in the transition from the larval to the juvenile life phase. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between parasites and growth in the early life history stages of such fishes. This study examined how parasite prevalence (% infected) and load, and the relationship between parasite presence and fish growth, differed among life stages of the damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis. Parasite prevalence decreased significantly between the larval stage, which was sampled immediately before settlement on the reef (97 %) and recently settled juveniles (60 %); prevalence was also high for 4-month-old juveniles (90 %), 7-month-old juveniles (100 %) and adult fish (100 %). Total numbers of parasites per fish decreased dramatically (fourfold) between larval and recently settled fish, and then increased in the older stages to levels similar to those observed in larvae, but they did so more gradually than did prevalence. One explanation for these patterns is that heavily infected larvae were preferentially removed from the population during or soon after settlement. Daily fish growth, determined from otolith increments, revealed that growth did not differ between parasitised and non-parasitised larval fish, whereas recently settled fish that were parasitised had faster growth; these parasitised recently settled fish also displayed faster growth prior to settlement. These data provide evidence that parasites may explain some of the variation in growth and survival observed among coral reef fishes after settlement and thereby have a greater impact on population dynamics than previously understood.

  2. Constructing stage-structured matrix population models from life tables: comparison of methods

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Lopez, Jasmin

    2017-01-01

    A matrix population model is a convenient tool for summarizing per capita survival and reproduction rates (collectively vital rates) of a population and can be used for calculating an asymptotic finite population growth rate (λ) and generation time. These two pieces of information can be used for determining the status of a threatened species. The use of stage-structured population models has increased in recent years, and the vital rates in such models are often estimated using a life table analysis. However, potential bias introduced when converting age-structured vital rates estimated from a life table into parameters for a stage-structured population model has not been assessed comprehensively. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of methods for such conversions using simulated life histories of organisms. The underlying models incorporate various types of life history and true population growth rates of varying levels. The performance was measured by comparing differences in λ and the generation time calculated using the Euler-Lotka equation, age-structured population matrices, and several stage-structured population matrices that were obtained by applying different conversion methods. The results show that the discretization of age introduces only small bias in λ or generation time. Similarly, assuming a fixed age of maturation at the mean age of maturation does not introduce much bias. However, aggregating age-specific survival rates into a stage-specific survival rate and estimating a stage-transition rate can introduce substantial bias depending on the organism’s life history type and the true values of λ. In order to aggregate survival rates, the use of the weighted arithmetic mean was the most robust method for estimating λ. Here, the weights are given by survivorship curve after discounting with λ. To estimate a stage-transition rate, matching the proportion of individuals transitioning, with λ used for discounting the

  3. Constructing stage-structured matrix population models from life tables: comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Masami; Diaz-Lopez, Jasmin

    2017-01-01

    A matrix population model is a convenient tool for summarizing per capita survival and reproduction rates (collectively vital rates) of a population and can be used for calculating an asymptotic finite population growth rate ( λ ) and generation time. These two pieces of information can be used for determining the status of a threatened species. The use of stage-structured population models has increased in recent years, and the vital rates in such models are often estimated using a life table analysis. However, potential bias introduced when converting age-structured vital rates estimated from a life table into parameters for a stage-structured population model has not been assessed comprehensively. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of methods for such conversions using simulated life histories of organisms. The underlying models incorporate various types of life history and true population growth rates of varying levels. The performance was measured by comparing differences in λ and the generation time calculated using the Euler-Lotka equation, age-structured population matrices, and several stage-structured population matrices that were obtained by applying different conversion methods. The results show that the discretization of age introduces only small bias in λ or generation time. Similarly, assuming a fixed age of maturation at the mean age of maturation does not introduce much bias. However, aggregating age-specific survival rates into a stage-specific survival rate and estimating a stage-transition rate can introduce substantial bias depending on the organism's life history type and the true values of λ . In order to aggregate survival rates, the use of the weighted arithmetic mean was the most robust method for estimating λ . Here, the weights are given by survivorship curve after discounting with λ . To estimate a stage-transition rate, matching the proportion of individuals transitioning, with λ used for discounting

  4. From stage to age in variable environments: life expectancy and survivorship.

    PubMed

    Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Horvitz, Carol C

    2006-06-01

    Stage-based demographic data are now available on many species of plants and some animals, and they often display temporal and spatial variability. We provide exact formulas to compute age-specific life expectancy and survivorship from stage-based data for three models of temporal variability: cycles, serially independent random variation, and a Markov chain. These models provide a comprehensive description of patterns of temporal variation. Our formulas describe the effects of cohort (birth) environmental condition on mortality at all ages, and of the effects on survivorship of environmental variability experienced over the course of life. This paper complements existing methods for time-invariant stage-based data, and adds to the information on population growth and dynamics available from stochastic demography.

  5. Progressing the global antimalarial portfolio: finding drugs which target multiple Plasmodium life stages.

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul W; Diagana, Thierry T; Yeung, Bryan K S

    2014-01-01

    The number of novel antimalarial candidates entering preclinical development has seen an increase over the last several years. Most of these drug candidates were originally identified as hits coming from screening large chemical libraries specifically targeting the asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum. Indeed, a large proportion of the current antimalarial arsenal has mainly targeted the asexual blood stage which is responsible for clinical symptoms of the disease. However, as part of the eradication agenda and to address resistance, any next-generation antimalarial should have additional activity on at least one other parasite life stage, i.e. gametocytocidal and/or tissue schizonticidal activity. We have applied this approach by screening compounds with intrinsic activity on asexual blood stages in assays against sexual and liver stages and identified two new antimalarial chemotypes with activity on multiple parasite life stages. This strategy can be expanded to identify other chemical classes of molecules with similar activity profiles for the next generation antimalarials. The following review summarizes the discovery of the spiroindolones and imidazolopiperazine classes of antimalarials developed by the NGBS consortium (Novartis Institute for Tropical Diseases, Genomic Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, Biomedical Primate Research Center, and the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute) currently in clinical trials.

  6. Toxicity of formalin, malachite green, and the mixture to four life stages of rainbow trout

    Bills, Terry D.; Advised by: Hosler, Charles F.; Cumming, Kenneth B.; Nord, Richard P.; Senff, Robert E.

    1974-01-01

    Formalin, malachite green, or a mixture of them are utilized in fish culture for control of external parasites of fish and control of fungus on fish and fish eggs. Very little information is available concerning the toxicity of these compounds to fish under laboratory test conditions or the differences in sensitivity to these chemicals at various life stages. This study was designed to 1) determine the toxicity of formalin, malachite green and the mixture to four life stages of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) under various laboratory test conditions, 2) determine the degradation of formalin and malachite green in water, 3) determine the effect of additive toxicity, and 4) determine the differences in sensitivity of two different lots of eggs to the chemicals. The 96-hour LC50 (lethal concentration required to produce 50% mortality) for formalin against rainbow trout in soft water ranged from 580 micrograms/liter for the eyed egg stage to 134 micrograms/liter for the fingerling stage. The 96-hour LC50 for malachite green against rainbow trout in soft water ranged from 2.00 mg/L for the eyed egg stage to 0.0224 mg/L for the fingerling stage. The additive indices for formalin and malachite green when applied in combination show strictly additive toxicity as the ranges overlap zero in all tests. Deactivation indices for formalin and malachite green show essentially no change in toxicity of the solutions to rainbow trout when aged for periods of 1, 2, and 3 weeks.

  7. The effect of visible light stress on chemical signaling in two life stages of Emiliania huxleyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentin-Alvarado, L.; Cooney, E.; Bright, K.; Strom, S.

    2016-02-01

    The cosmopolitan marine phytoplankton species Emiliania huxleyi presents a digenetic heteromorphic life cycle, with the non-motile diploid phase bearing coccoliths and the flagellated haploid phase being non-calcified. E. huxleyi contains high concentrations of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), the precursor of dimethylsulphide (DMS). DMSP is a multifactorial compound; it acts as a compatible solute in cell metabolism and as a chemical signal influencing bacterial and protist behavior. In the atmosphere DMS enhances cloud formation influencing climate. However, little has been documented on E. huxleyi chemical signal responses to high light stress, and how this relates to the heteromorphic life cycle. To this end, low light acclimated cultures of both haploid and diploid E. huxleyi were exposed to high light for 2 hr and allowed to recover in low light for 2 hr. During and after these treatments, growth, photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm), DMSP (intracellular and released) and cell chlorophyll content were measured. Our preliminary results suggest that presence of high light decreased Fv/Fm to a greater extent in haploid than in diploid (calcified) cells, while recovery of Fv/Fm was rapid in both life stages. The chlorophyll content and intracellular DMSP was not different in both life stages. However, the dissolved DMSP increased after light stress in diploid cells suggesting a possible advantage as antioxidant protection or another cellular function, such as grazing protection in this life stage.

  8. The association between social network factors and mental health at different life stages.

    PubMed

    Levula, Andrew; Wilson, Andrew; Harré, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Psychosocial factors are important determinants of an individual's health. This study examines the association between health scores and social network factors on mental health across different life stages. Data were drawn from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey for adolescents (n = 1739), adults (n = 10,309) and seniors (n = 2287). Hierarchical regression modelling was applied to examine effects within and across age groups. All the variables were derived from the self-completion questionnaire. The social network factors were statistically significant predictors of mental health outcomes for all three life stages. For adolescents, the three social network factors were statistically significant with social isolation having the largest impact (β = -.284, p < .001), followed by social connection (β = .084, p < .001) and social trust having a similar effect (β = .073, p < .001). For adults social isolation had the highest impact (β = -.203, p < .001), followed by social connection (β = .110, p < .001) and social trust (β = .087, p < .001).The results for seniors were social isolation (β = -.188, p < .001), social connection (β = .147, p < .001) and social trust (β = .032, p < .05). After adding the social network factors, the models improved significantly with social isolation playing the most significant role across all life stages, whereas the other social network factors played a differentiated role depending upon the life stage. These findings have practical implications in the design of mental health interventions across different life stages.

  9. Lifespan extension by cranberry supplementation partially requires SOD2 and is life stage independent.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yaning; Yolitz, Jason; Alberico, Thomas; Sun, Xiaoping; Zou, Sige

    2014-02-01

    Many nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals have been shown to promote healthspan and lifespan. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of prolongevity interventions and the time points at which interventions should be implemented to achieve beneficial effects are not well characterized. We have previously shown that a cranberry-containing nutraceutical can promote lifespan in worms and flies and delay age-related functional decline of pancreatic cells in rats. Here we investigated the mechanism underlying lifespan extension induced by cranberry and the effects of short-term or life stage-specific interventions with cranberry on lifespan in Drosophila. We found that lifespan extension induced by cranberry was associated with reduced phosphorylation of ERK, a component of oxidative stress response MAPK signaling, and slightly increased phosphorylation of AKT, a component of insulin-like signaling. Lifespan extension was also associated with a reduced level of 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts, a biomarker of lipid oxidation. Moreover, lifespan extension induced by cranberry was partially suppressed by knockdown of SOD2, a major mitochondrial superoxide scavenger. Furthermore, cranberry supplementation was administered in three life stages of adult flies, health span (3-30 days), transition span (31-60 days) and senescence span (61 days to the end when all flies died). Cranberry supplementation during any of these life stages extended the remaining lifespan relative to the non-supplemented and life stage-matched controls. These findings suggest that cranberry supplementation is sufficient to promote longevity when implemented during any life stage, likely through reducing oxidative damage. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Life stage influences the resistance and resilience of black mangrove forests to winter climate extremes

    Osland, Michael J.; Day, Richard H.; From, Andrew S.; McCoy, Megan L.; McLeod, Jennie L.; Kelleway, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    In subtropical coastal wetlands on multiple continents, climate change-induced reductions in the frequency and intensity of freezing temperatures are expected to lead to the expansion of woody plants (i.e., mangrove forests) at the expense of tidal grasslands (i.e., salt marshes). Since some ecosystem goods and services would be affected by mangrove range expansion, there is a need to better understand mangrove sensitivity to freezing temperatures as well as the implications of changing winter climate extremes for mangrove-salt marsh interactions. In this study, we investigated the following questions: (1) how does plant life stage (i.e., ontogeny) influence the resistance and resilience of black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) forests to freezing temperatures; and (2) how might differential life stage responses to freeze events affect the rate of mangrove expansion and salt marsh displacement due to climate change? To address these questions, we quantified freeze damage and recovery for different life stages (seedling, short tree, and tall tree) following extreme winter air temperature events that occurred near the northern range limit of A. germinans in North America. We found that life stage affects black mangrove forest resistance and resilience to winter climate extremes in a nonlinear fashion. Resistance to winter climate extremes was high for tall A. germinans trees and seedlings, but lowest for short trees. Resilience was highest for tall A. germinans trees. These results suggest the presence of positive feedbacks and indicate that climate-change induced decreases in the frequency and intensity of extreme minimum air temperatures could lead to a nonlinear increase in mangrove forest resistance and resilience. This feedback could accelerate future mangrove expansion and salt marsh loss at rates beyond what would be predicted from climate change alone. In general terms, our study highlights the importance of accounting for differential life stage responses and

  11. Detection of Apoptosis in Early Life Stages as a Tool to Evaluate Chemical Control of Invasive Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    ERDC/TN ANSRP-07-2 August 2007 Detection of Apoptosis in Early Life Stages as a Tool to Evaluate Chemical Control of Invasive Species by J...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Detection of Apoptosis in Early Life Stages as a Tool to Evaluate Chemical Control of Invasive Species 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...heralding apoptosis . Data analysis. An apoptotic index (API) was established by calculating the percentage of embryos in each life stage with

  12. Effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effects of temperature (10, 14, 18, and 22??C) on survival and development of Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata and western brook lampreys L. richardsoni during embryological and early larval stages. The temperature for zero development was estimated for each species, and the response to temperature was measured as the proportion of individuals surviving to hatch, surviving to the larval stage, and exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage (i.e., malformations of the body). The estimated temperature for zero development was 4.850C for Pacific lampreys and 4.97??C for western brook lampreys. Survival was greatest at 18??C, followed by 14, 10, and 22??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. Overall survival was significantly greater for western brook lampreys than for Pacific lampreys; however, the overall difference in proportion of individuals surviving was only 0.02. Overall survival significantly decreased from the time of hatch (proportion surviving = 0.85) to the larval stage (0.82; i.e., during the free-embryo stage). The proportion of individuals exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage was greatest at 22??C, followed by 18, 10, and 14??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. These data provide baseline information on the thermal requirements of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys and will aid in assessment and prediction of suitable spawning and rearing habitats for these species.

  13. The role of cold cues at different life stages on germination and flowering phenology.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Matthew J; Friedman, Jannice

    2018-04-23

    The timing of major phenological transitions is critical to lifetime fitness, and life history theory predicts differences for annual and perennial plants. To correctly time these transitions, many plants rely on environmental cues such as exposure to extended periods of cold, which may occur at different stages throughout their lifetime. We studied the role of cold at different life stages, by jointly exposing seed (stratification) and rosettes (vernalization) to cold. We used 23 populations of Mimulus guttatus, which vary from annuals to perennials, and investigated how cold at one or both stages affected germination, flowering, growth, and biomass. We found that stratification and vernalization interact to affect life cycle transitions, and that cold at either stage could synchronize flowering phenology. For perennials, either stratification or vernalization is necessary for maximum flowering. We also found that germination timing covaried with later traits. Moreover, plants from environments with dissimilar climates displayed different phenological responses to stratification or vernalization. In general, cold is more important for seed germination in annuals and plants from environments with warm temperatures and variable precipitation. In contrast, cold is more important for flowering in perennials: it accelerates flowering in plants from lower precipitation environments, and it increases flowering proportion in plants from cooler, more stable precipitation environments. We discuss our findings in the context of the variable environments plants experience within a population and the variation encountered across the biogeographic native range of the species. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  14. Early life stages contribute strongly to local adaptation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Postma, Froukje M; Ågren, Jon

    2016-07-05

    The magnitude and genetic basis of local adaptation is of fundamental interest in evolutionary biology. However, field experiments usually do not consider early life stages, and therefore may underestimate local adaptation and miss genetically based tradeoffs. We examined the contribution of differences in seedling establishment to adaptive differentiation and the genetic architecture of local adaptation using recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from a cross between two locally adapted populations (Italy and Sweden) of the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana We planted freshly matured, dormant seeds (>180 000) representing >200 RILs at the native field sites of the parental genotypes, estimated the strength of selection during different life stages, mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fitness and its components, and quantified selection on seed dormancy. We found that selection during the seedling establishment phase contributed strongly to the fitness advantage of the local genotype at both sites. With one exception, local alleles of the eight distinct establishment QTL were favored. The major QTL for establishment and total fitness showed evidence of a fitness tradeoff and was located in the same region as the major seed dormancy QTL and the dormancy gene DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (DOG1). RIL seed dormancy could explain variation in seedling establishment and fitness across the life cycle. Our results demonstrate that genetically based differences in traits affecting performance during early life stages can contribute strongly to adaptive differentiation and genetic tradeoffs, and should be considered for a full understanding of the ecology and genetics of local adaptation.

  15. Life stages of wall-bounded decay of Taylor-Couette turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostilla-Mónico, Rodolfo; Zhu, Xiaojue; Spandan, Vamsi; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef

    2017-11-01

    The decay of Taylor-Couette turbulence, i.e., the flow between two coaxial and independently rotating cylinders, is numerically studied by instantaneously stopping the forcing from an initially statistically stationary flow field at a Reynolds number of Re=3.5 ×104 . The effect of wall friction is analyzed by comparing three separate cases, in which the cylinders are either suddenly made no-slip or stress-free. Different life stages are observed during the decay. In the first stage, the decay is dominated by large-scale rolls. Counterintuitively, when these rolls fade away, if the flow inertia is small a redistribution of energy occurs and the energy of the azimuthal velocity behaves nonmonotonically, first decreasing by almost two orders of magnitude and then increasing during the redistribution. The second stage is dominated by non-normal transient growth of perturbations in the axial (spanwise) direction. Once this mechanism is exhausted, the flow enters the final life stage, viscous decay, which is dominated by wall friction. We show that this stage can be modeled by a one-dimensional heat equation, and that self-similar velocity profiles collapse onto the theoretical solution.

  16. Species-environment relationships and vegetation patterns: Effects of spatial scale and tree life-stage

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Bachand, R.R.; Onami, Y.; Binkley, Dan

    1998-01-01

    Do relationships between species and environmental gradients strengthen or weaken with tree life-stage (i.e., small seedlings, large seedlings, saplings, and mature trees)? Strengthened relationships may lead to distinct forest type boundaries, or weakening connections could lead to gradual ecotones and heterogeneous forest landscapes. We quantified the changes in forest dominance (basal area of tree species by life-stage) and environmental factors (elevation, slope, aspect, intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), summer soil moisture, and soil depth and texture) across 14 forest ecotones (n = 584, 10 m x 10 m plots) in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, U.S.A. Local, ecotone-specific species-environment relationships, based on multiple regression techniques, generally strengthened from the small seedling stage (multiple R2 ranged from 0.00 to 0.26) to the tree stage (multiple R2 ranged from 0.20 to 0.61). At the landscape scale, combined canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) among species and for all tree life-stages suggested that the seedlings of most species became established in lower-elevation, drier sites than where mature trees of the same species dominated. However, conflicting evidence showed that species-environment relationships may weaken with tree life-stage. Seedlings were only found in a subset of plots (habitats) occupied by mature trees of the same species. At the landscape scale, CCA results showed that species-environment relationships weakened somewhat from the small seedling stage (86.4% of the variance explained by the first two axes) to the tree stage (76.6% of variance explained). The basal area of tree species co-occurring with Pinus contorta Doug. ex. Loud declined more gradually than P. contorta basal area declined across ecotones, resulting in less-distinct forest type boundaries. We conclude that broad, gradual ecotones and heterogeneous forest landscapes are created and maintained by: (1) sporadic establishment

  17. Effects of copper oxide nanomaterials (CuONMs) are life stage dependent - full life cycle in Enchytraeus crypticus.

    PubMed

    Bicho, Rita C; Santos, Fátima C F; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J; Amorim, Mónica J B

    2017-05-01

    Copper oxide nanomaterials (CuONMs) have various applications in industry and enter the terrestrial environment, e.g. via sewage sludge. The effects of CuONMs and copper chloride (CuCl 2 ) were studied comparing the standard enchytraeid reproduction test (ERT) and the full life cycle test (FLCt) with Enchytraeus crypticus. CuONMs mainly affected growth or juveniles' development, whereas CuCl 2 mainly affected embryo development and/or hatching success and adults survival. Compared to the ERT, the FLCt allowed discrimination of effects between life stages and provided indication of the underlying mechanisms; further, the FLCt showed increased sensitivity, e.g. reproductive effects for CuONMs: EC 10  = 8 mg Cu/kg and EC 10  = 421 mg Cu/kg for the FLCt and the ERT respectively. The performance of the FLCt is preferred to the ERT and we recommend it as a good alternative to assess hazard of NMs. Effects of CuONMs and CuCl 2 are life stage dependent and are different between Cu forms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. One- and two-stage Arrhenius models for pharmaceutical shelf life prediction.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhewen; Zhang, Lanju

    2015-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of the pharmaceutical development is the demonstration and estimation of chemical stability. It is imperative that pharmaceutical products be stable for two or more years. Long-term stability studies are required to support such shelf life claim at registration. However, during drug development to facilitate formulation and dosage form selection, an accelerated stability study with stressed storage condition is preferred to quickly obtain a good prediction of shelf life under ambient storage conditions. Such a prediction typically uses Arrhenius equation that describes relationship between degradation rate and temperature (and humidity). Existing methods usually rely on the assumption of normality of the errors. In addition, shelf life projection is usually based on confidence band of a regression line. However, the coverage probability of a method is often overlooked or under-reported. In this paper, we introduce two nonparametric bootstrap procedures for shelf life estimation based on accelerated stability testing, and compare them with a one-stage nonlinear Arrhenius prediction model. Our simulation results demonstrate that one-stage nonlinear Arrhenius method has significant lower coverage than nominal levels. Our bootstrap method gave better coverage and led to a shelf life prediction closer to that based on long-term stability data.

  19. Life stage dependent responses to desiccation risk in the annual killifish Nothobranchius wattersi.

    PubMed

    Grégoir, A F; Philippe, C; Pinceel, T; Reniers, J; Thoré, E S J; Vanschoenwinkel, B; Brendonck, L

    2017-09-01

    To assess whether the annual killifish Nothobranchius wattersi responds plastically to a desiccation risk and whether this response is life stage dependent, life-history traits such as maturation time, fecundity and life span were experimentally measured in N. wattersi that were subjected to a drop in water level either as juveniles, as adults or both as juveniles and adults. Fish that were exposed to simulated pool drying as juveniles did not show changes in reproductive output or life span. Adults reacted by doubling short term egg deposition at the cost of a shorter lifespan. Overall, these results suggest that annual fish species can use phenotypic plasticity to maximize their reproductive output when faced with early pond drying, but this response appears to be life-stage specific. In addition to frogs and aquatic insects, phenotypic plasticity induced by forthcoming drought is now also confirmed in annual fishes and could well be a common feature of the limited number of fish taxa that manage to survive in this extreme environment. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Review: Dairy foods, red meat and processed meat in the diet: implications for health at key life stages.

    PubMed

    Givens, D I

    2018-04-02

    Social and health care provision have led to substantial increases in life expectancy. In the UK this has become higher than 80 years with an even greater proportional increase in those aged 85 years and over. The different life stages give rise to important nutritional challenges and recent reductions in milk consumption have led to sub-optimal intakes of calcium by teenage females in particular when bone growth is at its maximum and of iodine during pregnancy needed to ensure that supply/production of thyroid hormones to the foetus is adequate. Many young and pre-menopausal women have considerably sub-optimal intakes of iron which are likely to be associated with reduced consumption of red meat. A clear concern is the low intakes of calcium especially as a high proportion of the population is of sub-optimal vitamin D status. This may already have had serious consequences in terms of bone development which may not be apparent until later life, particularly in post-menopausal women. This review aims to examine the role of dairy foods and red meat at key life stages in terms of their ability to reduce or increase chronic disease risk. It is clear that milk and dairy foods are key sources of important nutrients such as calcium and iodine and the concentration of some key nutrients, notably iodine can be influenced by the method of primary milk production, in particular, the iodine intake of the dairy cow. Recent meta-analyses show no evidence of increased risk of cardiovascular diseases from high consumption of milk and dairy foods but increasing evidence of a reduction in the risk of type 2 diabetes associated with fermented dairy foods, yoghurt in particular. The recently updated reports from the World Cancer Research Fund International/American Institute for Cancer Research on the associations between dairy foods, red meat and processed meat and various cancers provide further confidence that total dairy products and milk, are associated with a reduced risk of

  1. Immigration and early life stages recruitment of the European flounder (Platichthys flesus) to an estuarine nursery: The influence of environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorim, Eva; Ramos, Sandra; Elliott, Michael; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2016-01-01

    Connectivity between coastal spawning grounds and estuarine nurseries is a critical step in the life cycle of many fish species. Larval immigration and transport-associated physical-biological processes are determinants of recruitment success to nursery areas. The recruitment of the European flounder, Platichthys flesus, to estuarine nurseries located at the southern edge of the species distribution range, has been usually investigated during its juvenile stages, while estuarine recruitment during the earlier planktonic life stage remains largely unstudied. The present study investigated the patterns of flounder larval recruitment and the influence of environmental factors on the immigration of the early life stages to the Lima estuary (NW Portugal), integrating data on fish larvae and post-settlement individuals (< 50 mm length), collected over 7 years. Late-stage larvae arrived at the estuary between February and July and peak abundances were observed in April. Post-settlement individuals (< 50 mm) occurred later between April and October, whereas newly-settled ones (< 20 mm) were found only in May and June. Variables associated with the spawning, survival and growth of larvae in the ocean (sea surface temperature, chlorophyll a and inland hydrological variables) were the major drivers of flounder occurrence in the estuarine nursery. Although the adjacent coastal area is characterized by a current system with strong seasonality and mesoscale variability, we did not identify any influence of variables related with physical processes (currents and upwelling) on the occurrence of early life stages in the estuary. A wider knowledge on the influence of the coastal circulation variability and its associated effects upon ocean-estuarine connectivity is required to improve our understanding of the population dynamics of marine spawning fish that use estuarine nurseries.

  2. Brominated flame retardants and Dechloranes in European and American eels from glass to silver life stages.

    PubMed

    Sühring, Roxana; Byer, Jonathan; Freese, Marko; Pohlmann, Jan-Dag; Wolschke, Hendrik; Möller, Axel; Hodson, Peter V; Alaee, Mehran; Hanel, Reinhold; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    The populations of American (Anguilla rostrata) and European eels (Anguilla anguilla) have been declining rapidly in the last decades. Organic contaminants are suspected to be one of the possible causes for the decline; however, so far there have been few investigations of the uptake of specific compounds by different life cycle stages (e.g. freshwater or marine stage) and how the contamination patterns develop throughout the eel's life cycle. In the present study we measured concentrations of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), alternate brominated flame retardants (alternate BFRs) and Dechloranes (Decs) in different life stages of European and American eels to compare the contamination patterns and their development throughout the eel's life cycle. In general, concentrations of flame retardants (FRs) were similar to or higher in American than in European eels, and a greater number of FRs were detected. PBDE congeners that are characteristic of the Penta-PBDE formulation were the most abundant FRs in all adult eels as well as American glass eels. In European glass eels the alternate BFR 2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenylether (DPTE) and Dechlorane Plus were the dominating FRs, with average concentrations of 1.1±0.31 ng g(-1) ww and up to 0.32 ng g(-1) ww respectively. Of the PBDEs BDE-183 was the most abundant congener in European glass eels. Low concentrations (less than 10% of the total contamination) of Tetra and Penta-PBDEs in juvenile European eels indicated that bans of technical Penta-PBDE in the European Union are effective. Enrichment of PBDEs was observed over the life stages of both European and American eels. However, a greater relative contribution of PBDEs to the sum FR contamination in American eels indicated an on-going exposure to these substances. High contributions of alternate BFRs in juvenile eels indicated an increased use of these substances in recent years. Concentrations seemed to be driven primarily by location, rather than life

  3. Effect of species, life stage, and water temperature on the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide to fish

    Rach, J.J.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Howe, G.E.; Redman, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is a drug of low regulatory priority status that is effective in treating fish and fish eggs infected by fungi. However, only limited information is available to guide fish culturists in administering hydrogen peroxide to diseased fish. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine (1) the sensitivity of brown trout Salmo trutta, lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, fathead minnow Pimephales promelas, walleye Stizostedion vitreum, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and bluegill Lepomis, machrochirus to hydrogen peroxide treatments; (2) the sensitivity of various life stages of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to hydrogen peroxide treatments; and (3) the effect of water temperature on the acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide to three fish species. Fish were exposed to hydrogen peroxide concentrations ranging from 100 to 5,000 mu L/L (ppm) for 15-min or 45-min treatments every other day for four consecutive treatments to determine the sensitivity of various species and life stages of fish. Except for walleye, most species of fish tested (less than or equal to 2 g) tolerated hydrogen peroxide of 1,000 mu L/L or greater. Walleyes were sensitive to hydrogen peroxide concentrations as low as 100 mu L/L. A correlation was found between the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide and the life stages of rainbow trout; larger fish were more sensitive. Generally, the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide increased for all species as water temperature increased. The results of these experiments demonstrate that it is important to consider the effects of species, life stage, and water temperature when conducting hydrogen peroxide treatments.

  4. Composition of Bacterial Communities Associated with Aurelia aurita Changes with Compartment, Life Stage, and Population

    PubMed Central

    Weiland-Bräuer, Nancy; Neulinger, Sven C.; Pinnow, Nicole; Künzel, Sven; Baines, John F.

    2015-01-01

    The scyphozoan Aurelia aurita is recognized as a key player in marine ecosystems and a driver of ecosystem change. It is thus intensely studied to address ecological questions, although its associations with microorganisms remain so far undescribed. In the present study, the microbiota associated with A. aurita was visualized with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, and community structure was analyzed with respect to different life stages, compartments, and populations of A. aurita by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We demonstrate that the composition of the A. aurita microbiota is generally highly distinct from the composition of communities present in ambient water. Comparison of microbial communities from different developmental stages reveals evidence for life stage-specific community patterns. Significant restructuring of the microbiota during strobilation from benthic polyp to planktonic life stages is present, arguing for a restructuring during the course of metamorphosis. Furthermore, the microbiota present in different compartments of the adult medusa (exumbrella mucus and gastric cavity) display significant differences, indicating body part-specific colonization. A novel Mycoplasma strain was identified in both compartment-specific microbiota and is most likely present inside the epithelium as indicated by FISH analysis of polyps, indicating potential endosymbiosis. Finally, comparison of polyps of different populations kept under the same controlled laboratory conditions in the same ambient water showed population-specific community patterns, most likely due the genetic background of the host. In conclusion, the presented data indicate that the associated microbiota of A. aurita may play important functional roles, e.g., during the life cycle. PMID:26116680

  5. Hunting billbug (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) life cycle and damaging life stage in North Carolina, with notes on other billbug species abundance.

    PubMed

    Doskocil, J P; Brandenburg, R L

    2012-12-01

    In the southeastern United States, hunting billbug, Sphenophorus venatus vestitus Chittenden, adults are often observed in turfgrass, but our knowledge of their biology and ecology is limited. Field surveys and experiments were conducted to determine the species composition, life cycle, damaging life stage, and distribution of billbugs within the soil profile in turfgrass in North Carolina. Linear pitfall trapping revealed six species of billbug, with the hunting billbug making up 99.7% of all beetles collected. Data collected from turf plus soil sampling suggest that hunting billbugs have two overlapping generations per year in North Carolina and that they overwinter as both adults and larvae. Field experiments provided evidence that adult hunting billbugs are capable of damaging warm season turfgrasses.

  6. Small-molecule xenomycins inhibit all stages of the Plasmodium life cycle.

    PubMed

    Erath, Jessey; Gallego-Delgado, Julio; Xu, Wenyue; Andriani, Grasiella; Tanghe, Scott; Gurova, Katerina V; Gudkov, Andrei; Purmal, Andrei; Rydkina, Elena; Rodriguez, Ana

    2015-03-01

    Widespread resistance to most antimalaria drugs in use has prompted the search for novel candidate compounds with activity against Plasmodium asexual blood stages to be developed for treatment. In addition, the current malaria eradication programs require the development of drugs that are effective against all stages of the parasite life cycle. We have analyzed the antimalarial properties of xenomycins, a novel subclass of small molecule compounds initially isolated for anticancer activity and similarity to quinacrine in biological effects on mammalian cells. In vitro studies show potent activity of Xenomycins against Plasmodium falciparum. Oral administration of xenomycins in mouse models result in effective clearance of liver and blood asexual and sexual stages, as well as effective inhibition of transmission to mosquitoes. These characteristics position xenomycins as antimalarial candidates with potential activity in prevention, treatment and elimination of this disease. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. A human life-stage physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic model for chlorpyrifos: development and validation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jordan Ned; Hinderliter, Paul M; Timchalk, Charles; Bartels, Michael J; Poet, Torka S

    2014-08-01

    Sensitivity to some chemicals in animals and humans are known to vary with age. Age-related changes in sensitivity to chlorpyrifos have been reported in animal models. A life-stage physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model was developed to predict disposition of chlorpyrifos and its metabolites, chlorpyrifos-oxon (the ultimate toxicant) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), as well as B-esterase inhibition by chlorpyrifos-oxon in humans. In this model, previously measured age-dependent metabolism of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon were integrated into age-related descriptions of human anatomy and physiology. The life-stage PBPK/PD model was calibrated and tested against controlled adult human exposure studies. Simulations suggest age-dependent pharmacokinetics and response may exist. At oral doses ⩾0.6mg/kg of chlorpyrifos (100- to 1000-fold higher than environmental exposure levels), 6months old children are predicted to have higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and higher levels of red blood cell cholinesterase inhibition compared to adults from equivalent doses. At lower doses more relevant to environmental exposures, simulations predict that adults will have slightly higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and greater cholinesterase inhibition. This model provides a computational framework for age-comparative simulations that can be utilized to predict chlorpyrifos disposition and biological response over various postnatal life stages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Negative Density Dependence Regulates Two Tree Species at Later Life Stage in a Temperate Forest

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Tiefeng; Chun, Jung Hwa; Yang, Hee Moon; Cheon, Kwangil

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that tree survival is influenced by negative density dependence (NDD) and differences among species in shade tolerance could enhance coexistence via resource partitioning, but it is still unclear how NDD affects tree species with different shade-tolerance guilds at later life stages. In this study, we analyzed the spatial patterns for trees with dbh (diameter at breast height) ≥2 cm using the pair-correlation g(r) function to test for NDD in a temperate forest in South Korea after removing the effects of habitat heterogeneity. The analyses were implemented for the most abundant shade-tolerant (Chamaecyparis obtusa) and shade-intolerant (Quercus serrata) species. We found NDD existed for both species at later life stages. We also found Quercus serrata experienced greater NDD compared with Chamaecyparis obtusa. This study indicates that NDD regulates the two abundant tree species at later life stages and it is important to consider variation in species' shade tolerance in NDD study. PMID:25058660

  9. Sanitation, Stress, and Life Stage: A Systematic Data Collection Study among Women in Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Hulland, Kristyna R S; Chase, Rachel P; Caruso, Bethany A; Swain, Rojalin; Biswal, Bismita; Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dreibelbis, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates how inadequate access to water and sanitation is linked to psychosocial stress, especially among women, forcing them to navigate social and physical barriers during their daily sanitation routines. We examine sanitation-related psychosocial stress (SRPS) across women's reproductive lives in three distinct geographic sites (urban slums, rural villages, and rural tribal villages) in Odisha, India. We explored daily sanitation practices of adolescent, newly married, pregnant, and established adult women (n = 60) and identified stressors encountered during sanitation. Responding to structured data collection methods, women ranked seven sanitation activities (defecation, urination, menstruation, bathing, post-defecation cleaning, carrying water, and changing clothes) based on stress (high to low) and level of freedom (associated with greatest freedom to having the most restrictions). Women then identified common stressors they encountered when practicing sanitation and sorted stressors in constrained piles based on frequency and severity of each issue. The constellation of factors influencing SRPS varies by life stage and location. Overall, sanitation behaviors that were most restricted (i.e., menstruation) were the most stressful. Women in different sites encountered different stressors, and the level of perceived severity varied based on site and life stage. Understanding the influence of place and life stage on SRPS provides a nuanced understanding of sanitation, and may help identify areas for intervention.

  10. Sanitation, Stress, and Life Stage: A Systematic Data Collection Study among Women in Odisha, India

    PubMed Central

    Hulland, Kristyna R. S.; Chase, Rachel P.; Caruso, Bethany A.; Swain, Rojalin; Biswal, Bismita; Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dreibelbis, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates how inadequate access to water and sanitation is linked to psychosocial stress, especially among women, forcing them to navigate social and physical barriers during their daily sanitation routines. We examine sanitation-related psychosocial stress (SRPS) across women’s reproductive lives in three distinct geographic sites (urban slums, rural villages, and rural tribal villages) in Odisha, India. We explored daily sanitation practices of adolescent, newly married, pregnant, and established adult women (n = 60) and identified stressors encountered during sanitation. Responding to structured data collection methods, women ranked seven sanitation activities (defecation, urination, menstruation, bathing, post-defecation cleaning, carrying water, and changing clothes) based on stress (high to low) and level of freedom (associated with greatest freedom to having the most restrictions). Women then identified common stressors they encountered when practicing sanitation and sorted stressors in constrained piles based on frequency and severity of each issue. The constellation of factors influencing SRPS varies by life stage and location. Overall, sanitation behaviors that were most restricted (i.e., menstruation) were the most stressful. Women in different sites encountered different stressors, and the level of perceived severity varied based on site and life stage. Understanding the influence of place and life stage on SRPS provides a nuanced understanding of sanitation, and may help identify areas for intervention. PMID:26551866

  11. Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the upper Mississippi River

    Holland, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in the adult ichthyofauna, only a few are represented proportionally in the available data on early life stages because study designs have not included consideration of the early stages, collection gears have not adequately sampled the young, and eggs and larvae of some species are difficult to sample by conventional approaches. For the species collected, information is available on seasonal variations in total densities, composition, and catch among different habitat types. However, the data are most accurate for species with buoyant early life stages, such as freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Eggs and larvae of freshwater drum dominate collections made in the main channel, whereas other larval fishes are usually most abundant in backwater habitats. The species found there usually deposit eggs on the substrate or on vegetation. Habitat preferences (as indicated by relative abundance) often shift as development proceeds and physical and behavioral changes occur in the larvae. Only limited information is available on the distribution of larvae within habitats, but it is clear that variations within habitats are significant.

  12. The Salmon Louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) Life Cycle Has Only Two Chalimus Stages

    PubMed Central

    Dalvin, Sussie T.; Bron, James E.; Nilsen, Frank; Boxshall, Geoff; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    Each year the salmon louse ( Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer, 1838) causes multi-million dollar commercial losses to the salmon farming industry world-wide, and strict lice control regimes have been put in place to reduce the release of salmon louse larvae from aquaculture facilities into the environment. For half a century, the Lepeophtheirus life cycle has been regarded as the only copepod life cycle including 8 post-nauplius instars as confirmed in four different species, including L . salmonis . Here we prove that the accepted life cycle of the salmon louse is wrong. By observations of chalimus larvae molting in incubators and by morphometric cluster analysis, we show that there are only two chalimus instars: chalimus 1 (comprising the former chalimus I and II stages which are not separated by a molt) and chalimus 2 (the former chalimus III and IV stages which are not separated by a molt). Consequently the salmon louse life cycle has only six post-nauplius instars, as in other genera of caligid sea lice and copepods in general. These findings are of fundamental importance in experimental studies as well as for interpretation of salmon louse biology and for control and management of this economically important parasite. PMID:24069203

  13. Quality of life in pancreatic cancer: analysis by stage and treatment.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Stefano; Domínguez, Ismael; Rodríguez, J Ruben; Razo, Oswaldo; Thayer, Sarah P; Ryan, David P; Warshaw, Andrew L; Fernández-del Castillo, Carlos

    2008-05-01

    In pancreatic cancer patients, survival and palliation of symptoms should be balanced with social and functional impairment, and for this reason, health-related quality of life measurements could play an important role in the decision-making process. The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of life and survival in 92 patients with different stages of pancreatic adenocarcinoma who underwent surgical and/or medical interventions. Patients were evaluated with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy questionnaires at diagnosis and follow-up (3 and 6 months). At diagnosis, 28 patients (30.5%) had localized disease (group 1) and underwent surgical resection, 34 (37%) had locally advanced (group 2), and 30 (32.5%) metastatic disease (Group 3). Improvement in quality of life was found in group 1, while in group 3, it decreased at follow-up (p=0.03). No changes in quality of life in group 2 were found. Chemotherapy/chemoradiation seems not to significantly modify quality of life in groups 2 and 3. Median survival time for the entire cohort was 9.8 months (range, 1-24). One-year survival was 74%, 30%, and 16% for groups 1, 2, and 3 respectively (p=0.001). Pancreatic cancer prognosis is still dismal. In addition to long-term survival benefits, surgery impacts favorably quality of life.

  14. The experience of work-life balance across family-life stages in Switzerland: a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study.

    PubMed

    Wepfer, Ariane G; Brauchli, Rebecca; Jenny, Gregor J; Hämmig, Oliver; Bauer, Georg F

    2015-12-24

    The division of paid and unpaid labor in families continues to be highly gendered with men doing more paid work and women doing more unpaid care work. This is especially true for life stages with young children. Our study investigates the subjective experience of demands in the work and the private domain and the experience of work-life balance across family-life stages as a consequence of this gendered division of labor. We used data from a survey study on work-life issues and health in four large companies in Switzerland (N = 3664). In line with our hypotheses, subjective work and private demands were predicted by an interaction of family-life stages and gender. Specifically, during the primary child-rearing family-life stages, women experience more private demands than men while men experience more work demands, regardless of level of employment. Furthermore, women who work part time experience more work-life balance than women who work full time and more than men who work part or full time during the primary child-rearing family-life stages. Results are discussed in terms of a gendered work-life experience across the life course and the need for part-time work for both genders. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning our results' implications for public health considerations.

  15. Tracking through Life Stages: Adult, Immature and Juvenile Autumn Migration in a Long-Lived Seabird

    PubMed Central

    Péron, Clara; Grémillet, David

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal long-distance migration is likely to be experienced in a contrasted manner by juvenile, immature and adult birds, leading to variations in migratory routes, timing and behaviour. We provide the first analysis of late summer movements and autumn migration in these three life stages, which were tracked concurrently using satellite tags, geolocators or GPS recorders in a long-ranging migratory seabird, the Scopoli’s shearwater (formerly named Cory’s shearwater, Calonectris diomedea ) breeding on two French Mediterranean islands. During the late breeding season, immatures foraged around their colony like breeding adults, but they were the only group showing potential prospecting movements around non-natal colonies. Global migration routes were broadly comparable between the two populations and the three life stages, with all individuals heading towards the Atlantic Ocean through the strait of Gibraltar and travelling along the West African coast, up to 8000 km from their colony. However, detailed comparison of timing, trajectory and oceanographic conditions experienced by the birds revealed remarkable age-related differences. Compared to adults and immatures, juveniles made a longer stop-over in the Balearic Sea (10 days vs 4 days in average), showed lower synchrony in crossing the Gibraltar strait, had more sinuous pathways and covered longer daily distances (240 km.d-1 vs 170 km.d-1). Analysis of oceanographic habitats along migratory routes revealed funnelling selection of habitat towards coastal and more productive waters with increasing age. Younger birds may have reduced navigational ability and learn progressively fine-scale migration routes towards the more profitable travelling and wintering areas. Our study demonstrates the importance of tracking long-lived species through the stages, to better understand migratory behavior and assess differential exposure to at-sea threats. Shared distribution between life stages and populations make Scopoli

  16. Corticosterone profiles in northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis): Do levels vary through life history stages?

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Benjamin M; Jawor, Jodie M

    2018-07-01

    As animals move through life history stages, energy requirements for each stage will vary. Both daily and annual variation in the glucocoriticoid hormones (specifically corticosterone, or CORT, in birds) helps provide the variable energy needed through life history stages. In many bird species, CORT is higher in the breeding season when energy demands can be quite high and is often lower in the non-breeding season. Additionally, CORT has a role to play in the response to stressful stimuli and the level to which CORT is elevated following stressful events can vary through the annual cycle as well. Here we report on baseline and stress-induced CORT levels in both sexes of northern cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis, a non-migrating, year-round territorial species across life history stages. Corticosterone is overall higher in the non-breeding season than the breeding season in both sexes. Males tend to have higher levels of stress-induced CORT than females, although the observed patterns are complex. Our findings differ from one of the more common profile reported in songbirds where breeding season CORT tends to be higher than non-breeding levels. A strong influence may be the prolonged breeding season seen in cardinals; lower levels of CORT during breeding may guard against adverse maternal effects, interruptions in breeding behaviors, or egg production. Additional investigation of species with similar ecologies to northern cardinals, and more populations of cardinals, may show that annual glucocorticoid profiles are more labile than previously appreciated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Spatial variations in mortality in pelagic early life stages of a marine fish (Gadus morhua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langangen, Øystein; Stige, Leif C.; Yaragina, Natalia A.; Ottersen, Geir; Vikebø, Frode B.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2014-09-01

    Mortality of pelagic eggs and larvae of marine fish is often assumed to be constant both in space and time due to lacking information. This may, however, be a gross oversimplification, as early life stages are likely to experience large variations in mortality both in time and space. In this paper we develop a method for estimating the spatial variability in mortality of eggs and larvae. The method relies on survey data and physical-biological particle-drift models to predict the drift of ichthyoplankton. Furthermore, the method was used to estimate the spatially resolved mortality field in the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua). We analyzed data from the Barents Sea for the period between 1959 and 1993 when there are two surveys available: a spring and a summer survey. An individual-based physical-biological particle-drift model, tailored to the egg and larval stages of Barents Sea cod, was used to predict the drift trajectories from the observed stage-specific distributions in spring to the time of observation in the summer, a drift time of approximately 45 days. We interpreted the spatial patterns in the differences between the predicted and observed abundance distributions in summer as reflecting the spatial patterns in mortality over the drift period. Using the estimated mortality fields, we show that the spatial variations in mortality might have a significant impact on survival to later life stages and we suggest that there may be trade-offs between increased early survival in off shore regions and reduced probability of ending up in the favorable nursing grounds in the Barents Sea. In addition, we show that accounting for the estimated mortality field, improves the correlation between a simulated recruitment index and observation-based indices of juvenile abundance.

  18. The Impact of Life Stages on Parent-Child Relationships: A Comparative Look at Japanese & American University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takei, Yoshimitsu; Honda, Tokio; Shieh, Sheau-Hue

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence is often considered a period in a person's life when important physiological and emotional changes occur. When discussing adolescence, however, it should not be forgotten that it is just another stage in one's life span between birth and death. By adopting a life-span perspective, researchers are more likely to consider contextual…

  19. Standard metabolic rate of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius: effects of temperature, mass, and life stage.

    PubMed

    Devries, Zachary C; Kells, Stephen A; Appel, Arthur G

    2013-11-01

    Metabolic rates provide important information about the biology of organisms. For ectothermic species such as insects, factors such as temperature and mass heavily influence metabolism, but these effects differ considerably between species. In this study we examined the standard metabolic rate of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. We used closed system respirometry and measured both O2 consumption and CO2 production across a range of temperatures (10, 20, 25, 30, 35°C) and life stages, while also accounting for activity. Temperature had a stronger effect on the mass specific .VO2 (mlg(-1)h(-1)) of mated males (Q10=3.29), mated females (Q10=3.19), unmated males (Q10=3.09), and nymphs that hatched (first instars, Q10=3.05) than on unmated females (Q10=2.77) and nymphs that molted (second through fifth instars, Q10=2.78). First instars had significantly lower respiratory quotients (RQ) than all other life stages. RQ of all stages was not affected by temperature. .VO2 (mlh(-1)) scaled more with mass than values previously reported for other arthropods or that would be predicted by the 3/4-power law. The results are used to understand the biology and ecology of the bed bug. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Microbial ecology and host-microbiota interactions during early life stages

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Cernada, Maria; Baüerl, Christine; Vento, Máximo; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    The role of human microbiota has been redefined during recent years and its physiological role is now much more important than earlier understood. Intestinal microbial colonization is essential for the maturation of immune system and for the developmental regulation of the intestinal physiology. Alterations in this process of colonization have been shown to predispose and increase the risk to disease later in life. The first contact of neonates with microbes is provided by the maternal microbiota. Moreover, mode of delivery, type of infant feeding and other perinatal factors can influence the establishment of the infant microbiota. Taken into consideration all the available information it could be concluded that the exposure to the adequate microbes early in gestation and neonatal period seems to have a relevant role in health. Maternal microbial environment affects maternal and fetal immune physiology and, of relevance, this interaction with microbes at the fetal-maternal interface could be modulated by specific microbes administered to the pregnant mother. Indeed, probiotic interventions aiming to reduce the risk of immune-mediated diseases may appear effective during early life. PMID:22743759

  1. Concerted evolution of life stage performances signals recent selection on yeast nitrogen use.

    PubMed

    Ibstedt, Sebastian; Stenberg, Simon; Bagés, Sara; Gjuvsland, Arne B; Salinas, Francisco; Kourtchenko, Olga; Samy, Jeevan K A; Blomberg, Anders; Omholt, Stig W; Liti, Gianni; Beltran, Gemma; Warringer, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Exposing natural selection driving phenotypic and genotypic adaptive differentiation is an extraordinary challenge. Given that an organism's life stages are exposed to the same environmental variations, we reasoned that fitness components, such as the lag, rate, and efficiency of growth, directly reflecting performance in these life stages, should often be selected in concert. We therefore conjectured that correlations between fitness components over natural isolates, in a particular environmental context, would constitute a robust signal of recent selection. Critically, this test for selection requires fitness components to be determined by different genetic loci. To explore our conjecture, we exhaustively evaluated the lag, rate, and efficiency of asexual population growth of natural isolates of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a large variety of nitrogen-limited environments. Overall, fitness components were well correlated under nitrogen restriction. Yeast isolates were further crossed in all pairwise combinations and coinheritance of each fitness component and genetic markers were traced. Trait variations tended to map to quantitative trait loci (QTL) that were private to a single fitness component. We further traced QTLs down to single-nucleotide resolution and uncovered loss-of-function mutations in RIM15, PUT4, DAL1, and DAL4 as the genetic basis for nitrogen source use variations. Effects of SNPs were unique for a single fitness component, strongly arguing against pleiotropy between lag, rate, and efficiency of reproduction under nitrogen restriction. The strong correlations between life stage performances that cannot be explained by pleiotropy compellingly support adaptive differentiation of yeast nitrogen source use and suggest a generic approach for detecting selection. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  2. Life stage influences on U.S. South Asian women's physical activity.

    PubMed

    Dave, Swapna S; Craft, Lynette L; Mehta, Promila; Naval, Shilpa; Kumar, Santosh; Kandula, Namratha R

    2015-01-01

    South Asian (SA) women in the United States report extremely low rates of leisure time physical activity (PA) compared with women in other ethnic minority groups. This study explored SA women's perspectives on PA during different life stages. This is a community-based participatory research study that used focus groups. The study setting was a community-based organization that provides social services to SA immigrants in Chicago, Illinois. The study team conducted six focus groups (in English and Hindi) with 42 SA women, ages 18 to 71 years. A semistructured interview guide was used to foster discussion about perceptions of, barriers to/facilitators of, and suggestions for PA programs. Discussions were transcribed and independently coded by two reviewers using thematic content analysis and guided by a coding scheme that was developed a priori. Participants said that different life stages strongly influenced their PA. PA decreased after marriage and having children. Chronic diseases constrained older women from more vigorous PA. Barriers to PA among younger women were family disapproval and perceptions that PA is unnecessary if you are "skinny." Women agreed that PA is not a priority within the culture, and that interventions must take into account cultural, religious, and family context. Sociocultural norms, family constraints, and lack of awareness about the benefits of PA strongly influenced PA among SA women. Culturally salient intervention strategies might include programs in trusted community settings where women can exercise in women-only classes with their children, and targeted education campaigns to increase awareness about the benefits of PA across life stages.

  3. Sodium uptake in different life stages of crustaceans: the water flea Daphnia magna Strauss.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Adalto; Wood, Chris M

    2008-02-01

    The concentration-dependent kinetics and main mechanisms of whole-body Na+ uptake were assessed in neonate and adult water flea Daphnia magna Strauss acclimated to moderately hard water (0.6 mmol l(-1) NaCl, 1.0 mmol l(-1) CaCO3 and 0.15 mmol l(-1) MgSO4.7H2O; pH 8.2). Whole-body Na+ uptake is independent of the presence of Cl(-) in the external medium and kinetic parameters are dependent on the life stage. Adults have a lower maximum capacity of Na+ transport on a mass-specific basis but a higher affinity for Na+ when compared to neonates. Based on pharmacological analyses, mechanisms involved in whole-body Na+ uptake differ according to the life stage considered. In neonates, a proton pump-coupled Na+ channel appears to play an important role in the whole-body Na+ uptake at the apical membrane. However, they do not appear to contribute to whole-body Na+ uptake in adults, where only the Na+ channel seems to be present, associated with the Na+/H+ exchanger. In both cases, carbonic anhydrase contributes by providing H+ for the transporters. At the basolateral membrane of the salt-transporting epithelia of neonates, Na+ is pumped from the cells to the extracellular fluid by a Na+, K+-ATPase and a Na+/Cl(-) exchanger whereas K+ and Cl(-) move through specific channels. In adults, a Na+/K+/2Cl(-) cotransporter replaces the Na+/Cl(-) exchanger. Differential sensitivity of neonates and adults to iono- and osmoregulatory toxicants, such as metals, are discussed with respect to differences in whole-body Na+ uptake kinetics, as well as in the mechanisms of Na+ transport involved in the whole-body Na+ uptake in the two life stages.

  4. Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on the Early Life Stages of Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Debusschere, Elisabeth; De Coensel, Bert; Vandendriessche, Sofie; Botteldooren, Dick; Hostens, Kris; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenically generated underwater noise in the marine environment is ubiquitous, comprising both intense impulse and continuous noise. The installation of offshore wind farms across the North Sea has triggered a range of ecological questions regarding the impact of anthropogenically produced underwater noise on marine wildlife. Our interest is on the impact on the "passive drifters," i.e., the early life stages of fish that form the basis of fish populations and are an important prey for pelagic predators. This study deals with the impact of pile driving and operational noise generated at offshore wind farms on Dicentrarchus labrax (sea bass) larvae.

  5. Age-related inequalities in health and healthcare: the life stages approach.

    PubMed

    Jecker, Nancy S

    2018-06-01

    How should healthcare systems prepare to care for growing numbers and proportions of older people? Older people generally suffer worse health than younger people do. Should societies take steps to reduce age-related health inequalities? Some express concern that doing so would increase age-related inequalities in healthcare. This paper addresses this debate by (1) presenting an argument in support of three principles for distributing scarce resources between age groups; (2) framing these principles of age group justice in terms of life stages; and (3) indicating policy implications that merit further attention in light of rapidly aging societies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Phototoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to zebrafish (Danio rerio) is dependent on life stage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongbo; Diamond, Stephen A

    2013-09-01

    Zebrafish embryos have been used increasingly to evaluate nanomaterial toxicity. The present study compared phototoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles with zebrafish at 4 life stages (embryos, yolk-sac larvae, free-swimming larvae, and juvenile) under simulated sunlight using the 96-h standard toxicity assay. Yolk-sac larvae were found to be the most sensitive to TiO2 phototoxicity, suggesting that the widely used zebrafish embryo test may not fully or accurately predict hazard and risk of these nanoparticles to small fish. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  7. Complex life cycles in a pond food web: effects of life stage structure and parasites on network properties, trophic positions and the fit of a probabilistic niche model.

    PubMed

    Preston, Daniel L; Jacobs, Abigail Z; Orlofske, Sarah A; Johnson, Pieter T J

    2014-03-01

    Most food webs use taxonomic or trophic species as building blocks, thereby collapsing variability in feeding linkages that occurs during the growth and development of individuals. This issue is particularly relevant to integrating parasites into food webs because parasites often undergo extreme ontogenetic niche shifts. Here, we used three versions of a freshwater pond food web with varying levels of node resolution (from taxonomic species to life stages) to examine how complex life cycles and parasites alter web properties, the perceived trophic position of organisms, and the fit of a probabilistic niche model. Consistent with prior studies, parasites increased most measures of web complexity in the taxonomic species web; however, when nodes were disaggregated into life stages, the effects of parasites on several network properties (e.g., connectance and nestedness) were reversed, due in part to the lower trophic generality of parasite life stages relative to free-living life stages. Disaggregation also reduced the trophic level of organisms with either complex or direct life cycles and was particularly useful when including predation on parasites, which can inflate trophic positions when life stages are collapsed. Contrary to predictions, disaggregation decreased network intervality and did not enhance the fit of a probabilistic niche model to the food webs with parasites. Although the most useful level of biological organization in food webs will vary with the questions of interest, our results suggest that disaggregating species-level nodes may refine our perception of how parasites and other complex life cycle organisms influence ecological networks.

  8. Egg Cannibalism and its Life History Consequences Vary with Life Stage, Sex, and Reproductive Status in Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Bayoumy, Mohamed H; Michaud, J P

    2015-08-01

    Egg cannibalism is common in Coccinellidae, but its biological consequences have not been fully explored. We examined egg cannibalism by neonates, fourth instars, and adults of Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville for effects on development, reproduction, and progeny fitness. We also tested female adults for ability to avoid cannibalizing their own eggs and first-instar larvae, and both sexes for changes in cannibalism propensity following mating, all in the presence of ad libitum food [larvae: eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), adults: Schizaphis graminum (Rondani)]. Cannibalism by neonates reduced developmental time and increased male body size. Cannibalism in the fourth instar accelerated pupation and led to the production of eggs that hatched faster, regardless of which parent cannibalized. However, egg fertility was improved only by maternal cannibalism in the fourth instar. Females recognized their own egg clusters, sometimes added eggs to them, and preferentially cannibalized nonfilial clusters. Most gravid females cannibalized a first-instar larva within 30 min, whether filial or not. Adult egg cannibalism was similar for virgin males and females, but declined after mating in males, and increased in females, although it had no effect on fecundity or fertility. Daughters of cannibal pairs were heavier than those of other mating combinations, but offspring of noncannibal parents had the fastest development. Reproductive females appeared to use egg cannibalism to reduce risk for their own eggs, increasing the number cannibalized with the number laid. Thus, egg cannibalism in coccinellids varies with life stage, sex, and reproductive condition, independent of food availability, and benefits are life stage specific. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Consistency in boldness, activity and exploration at different stages of life.

    PubMed

    Herde, Antje; Eccard, Jana A

    2013-12-07

    Animals show consistent individual behavioural patterns over time and over situations. This phenomenon has been referred to as animal personality or behavioural syndromes. Little is known about consistency of animal personalities over entire life times. We investigated the repeatability of behaviour in common voles (Microtus arvalis) at different life stages, with different time intervals, and in different situations. Animals were tested using four behavioural tests in three experimental groups: 1. before and after maturation over three months, 2. twice as adults during one week, and 3. twice as adult animals over three months, which resembles a substantial part of their entire adult life span of several months. Different behaviours were correlated within and between tests and a cluster analysis showed three possible behavioural syndrome-axes, which we name boldness, exploration and activity. Activity and exploration behaviour in all tests was highly repeatable in adult animals tested over one week. In animals tested over maturation, exploration behaviour was consistent whereas activity was not. Voles that were tested as adults with a three-month interval showed the opposite pattern with stable activity but unstable exploration behaviour. The consistency in behaviour over time suggests that common voles do express stable personality over short time. Over longer periods however, behaviour is more flexible and depending on life stage (i.e. tested before/after maturation or as adults) of the tested individual. Level of boldness or activity does not differ between tested groups and maintenance of variation in behavioural traits can therefore not be explained by expected future assets as reported in other studies.

  10. Consistency in boldness, activity and exploration at different stages of life

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Animals show consistent individual behavioural patterns over time and over situations. This phenomenon has been referred to as animal personality or behavioural syndromes. Little is known about consistency of animal personalities over entire life times. We investigated the repeatability of behaviour in common voles (Microtus arvalis) at different life stages, with different time intervals, and in different situations. Animals were tested using four behavioural tests in three experimental groups: 1. before and after maturation over three months, 2. twice as adults during one week, and 3. twice as adult animals over three months, which resembles a substantial part of their entire adult life span of several months. Results Different behaviours were correlated within and between tests and a cluster analysis showed three possible behavioural syndrome-axes, which we name boldness, exploration and activity. Activity and exploration behaviour in all tests was highly repeatable in adult animals tested over one week. In animals tested over maturation, exploration behaviour was consistent whereas activity was not. Voles that were tested as adults with a three-month interval showed the opposite pattern with stable activity but unstable exploration behaviour. Conclusions The consistency in behaviour over time suggests that common voles do express stable personality over short time. Over longer periods however, behaviour is more flexible and depending on life stage (i.e. tested before/after maturation or as adults) of the tested individual. Level of boldness or activity does not differ between tested groups and maintenance of variation in behavioural traits can therefore not be explained by expected future assets as reported in other studies. PMID:24314274

  11. Gamma radiation tolerance in different life stages of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Paithankar, Jagdish Gopal; Deeksha, K; Patil, Rajashekhar K

    2017-04-01

    Insects are known to have higher levels of radiation tolerance than mammals. The fruit fly Drosophila provides opportunities for genetic analysis of radiation tolerance in insects. A knowledge of stage-specific sensitivity is required to understand the mechanisms and test the existing hypothesis of insect radiation tolerance. Drosophila melanogaster were irradiated using gamma rays at different life stages. Irradiation doses were chosen to start from 100-2200 Gy with increments of 100 Gy, with a dose rate of 12.5 and 25 Gy/min. The threshold of mortality, LD 50 and LD 100 1 h post-irradiation was recorded for larvae and adults and 24 h post-irradiation for eggs and after 2-3 days for early and late pupae. Total antioxidant capacity for all the life stages was measured using the phosphomolybdenum method. Twenty-four hours post-irradiation, 100% mortality was recorded for eggs at 1000 Gy. One hour post irradiation 100% mortality was recorded at 1300 Gy for first instar larvae, 1700 Gy for second instar larvae, 1900 Gy for feeding third instar larvae and 2200 Gy for non-feeding third instar larvae. Post-irradiation complete failure of emergence (100% mortality) was observed at 130 Gy for early pupae and 1500 Gy for late pupae; 100% mortality was observed at 1500 Gy for adults. The values of LD 50 were recorded as 452 Gy for eggs, 1049 Gy for first instar larvae, 1350 Gy for second instar larvae, 1265 Gy for feeding third instar larvae, 1590 Gy for non-feeding third instar larvae, 50 Gy for early pupae, 969 Gy for late pupae, 1228 Gy for adult males and 1250 Gy for adult females. Early pupae were found to be prone to radiation, whereas the non-feeding third instar larvae were most resistant among all stages. The chromosome number being constant and total antioxidant capacity being nearly constant in all stages, we suggest that high rate of cell division during early pupae makes this stage sensitive to radiation.

  12. Development of the Japanese version of the Quality of Life in Late-stage Dementia Scale.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Yuma; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Ishimaru, Daiki; Uematsu, Masayasu; Naito, Yasuo; Nishikawa, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    Until now, there has been no instrument to measure the quality of life (QoL) of patients with severe dementia in Japan. The purpose of this study was to translate the Quality of Life in Late-stage Dementia Scale and to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Japanese version (QUALID-J). We translated the Quality of Life in Late-stage Dementia into Japanese with permission from the original authors. We assessed a total of 70 dementia patients (14 men, 56 women; mean age: 87.4 ± 7.9 years) with the QUALID-J. The test-retest and inter-rater reliability of the QUALID-J was significant. With regard to the criterion-related validity, the correlation coefficient for the total score between the QUALID-J and Quality of Life for Alzheimer's Disease was -0.287 (P < 0.05). With regard to the construct validity, the QUALID-J total score was significantly correlated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (ρ = -0.346, P < 0.01), the Cognitive Test for Severe Dementia (ρ = -0.323, P < 0.01), the Neuropsychiatry Inventory-Nursing Home version (ρ = 0.386, P < 0.01), the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (ρ = 0.262, P < 0.05), the Physical Self-Maintenance Scale (ρ = -0.283, P < 0.05), and the Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia (ρ = 0.530, P < 0.01). The results of this study showed that the QUALID-J is a reliable and valid quality of life scale for severe dementia. This scale finally enables an adequate assessment of the quality of life of patients with severe dementia in Japan, which has not been possible until now. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  13. Description of the immature stages and life history of Euselasia (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) on Miconia (Melastomataceae) in Costa Rica

    K. Nishida

    2010-01-01

    The immature stages and life histories of Euselasia chrysippe (Bates, 1866) and E. bettina (Hewitson, 1869) are described, providing the first detailed morphological characters for the subfamily Euselasiinae. The larvae of Euselasia chrysippe and E. bettina ...

  14. Physiological-based modelling of marine fish early life stages provides process knowledge on climate impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    Gaining a cause-and-effect understanding of climate-driven changes in marine fish populations at appropriate spatial scales is important for providing robust advice for ecosystem-based fisheries management. Coupling long-term, retrospective analyses and 3-d biophysical, individual-based models (IBMs) shows great potential to reveal mechanism underlying historical changes and to project future changes in marine fishes. IBMs created for marine fish early life stages integrate organismal-level physiological responses and climate-driven changes in marine habitats (from ocean physics to lower trophic level productivity) to test and reveal processes affecting marine fish recruitment. Case studies are provided for hindcasts and future (A1 and B2 projection) simulations performed on some of the most ecologically- and commercially-important pelagic and demersal fishes in the North Sea including European anchovy, Atlantic herring, European sprat and Atlantic cod. We discuss the utility of coupling biophysical IBMs to size-spectrum models to better project indirect (trophodynamic) pathways of climate influence on the early life stages of these and other fishes. Opportunities and challenges are discussed regarding the ability of these physiological-based tools to capture climate-driven changes in living marine resources and food web dynamics of shelf seas.

  15. The presence of MWCNTs reduces developmental toxicity of PFOS in early life stage of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shutao; Zhuang, Changlu; Du, Jia; Wu, Chuan; You, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Both carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are used widely. There is considerable concern regarding their ecotoxicity. CNTs might interact with PFOS in water and result in different impacts compared with those after single exposures. To our knowledge, the developmental toxicity of PFOS in the presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in the early life stage of zebrafish (from 3 h post fertilization (hpf) to 96 hpf) was investigated for the first time in this study. The embryos and larvae were exposed to PFOS (0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 mg/L), MWCNTs (50 mg/L), and a mixture of both. Compared with PFOS exposure, the adverse effects induced by PFOS on the hatching rate of zebrafish embryos and the heart rate and body length of zebrafish larvae were reduced in the presence of MWCNTs, and mortality and malformation were also alleviated. In addition, zebrafish larvae exposed to PFOS showed decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, as well as decreased levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, in the presence of MWCNTs, indicating that oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation was relieved. Thus, the presence of MWCNTs reduces the developmental toxicity of PFOS in the early life stage of zebrafish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Life Cycle and Immature Stages of the Arctiid Moth, Phoenicoprocta capistrata

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Loeches, Laura; Barro, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Phoenicoprocta capistrata (Fabricius 1775) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) is an arctiid moth reported for the Caribbean and Brazil, whose immature stages and life cycle are unknown. In this study, and for the first time, a host plant is registered and the immature stages and the captivity life cycle are described using a Cuban population. Larvae feed on fowlsfoot, Serjania diversifolia (Jacq.) Radlk (Sapindales: Sapindaceae). One complete cohort was obtained from December of 2004 to February of 2005 and about 57 days lapsed from oviposition to adult emergence. The egg is light green-yellowish and semi-spherical. Most larvae developed through 6 or 7 instars, although there were individuals with 8 instars. The last instar has a cephalic capsule width of 2.04 ± 0.06 mm (n = 29) irrespective of the number of instars. The cephalic capsule growth curves of the larvae with 6 and 7 instars have different slopes, but both follow a geometric pattern consistent with the Dyar's rule. In each larval molt the setae types and the larvae coloration change. Adult females have two color morphs, one orange-reddish and the other blue. Female descendants of blue and red females differ in the proportion of color morphs, which could indicate the existence of a female-limited polymorphism phenomenon in this species. PMID:20345309

  17. Acute toxic effects of endosulfan sulfate on three life stages of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

    PubMed

    Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Venturella, John J; Shaddrick, Brian; Fulton, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, the primary degradation product of the insecticide endosulfan, was determined in three life stages of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). After 96 h exposure to endosulfan sulfate, the grass shrimp adult LC50 was 0.86 microg/L (95% CI 0.56-1.31), the grass shrimp larvae LC50 was 1.64 microg/L (95% CI 1.09-2.47) and the grass shrimp embryo LC50 was 45.85 microg/L (95% CI 23.72-88.61 microg/L). This was compared to the previously published grass shrimp 96-h LC50s for endosulfan. The toxicity of the two compounds was similar for the grass shrimp life stages with adults more sensitive than larvae and embryos. The presence of sediment in 24h endosulfan sulfate-exposures raised LC50s for both adult and larval grass shrimp but not significantly. The USEPA expected environmental concentrations (EEC) for total endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate and the calculations of risk quotients (RQ) based on the more sensitive adult grass shrimp 96-h LC50 clearly show that environmental concentrations equal to acute EECs would prove detrimental to grass shrimp or other similarly sensitive aquatic organisms. These results indicate that given the persistence and toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, future risk assessments should consider the toxicity potential of the parent compound as well as this degradation product.

  18. Effects of the insecticide permethrin on three life stages of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

    PubMed

    DeLorenzo, M E; Serrano, L; Chung, K W; Hoguet, J; Key, P B

    2006-06-01

    Toxicity of the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin was assessed using three life stages of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. Adult and larval shrimp were tested with and without sediment. An aqueous embryo test was also conducted. Cellular stress biomarkers, glutathione, and lipid peroxidation, were assessed. Larval shrimp were the most sensitive life stage with a 96-h lethal concentration (LC(50)) value of 0.05 microg/L, compared to 0.25 microg/L for adults, and 6.4 microg/L for embryos. The presence of sediment significantly decreased toxicity of permethrin to both adult and larval shrimp. Permethrin exposure increased time to hatch in embryos and decreased swimming behavior of larvae. Lipid peroxidation levels were significantly decreased in the adult shrimp, but increased in larval shrimp exposed to permethrin. Low levels of permethrin may negatively affect grass shrimp health and survival. Permethrin use in the coastal zone should be carefully managed to avoid adverse impacts on nontarget estuarine organisms.

  19. Lethal toxicity of industrial chemicals to early life stages of Tilapia guineensis.

    PubMed

    Ezemonye, L I N; Ogeleka, D F; Okieimen, F E

    2008-08-30

    The toxic effects of industrial chemicals on three early life stages of an economically important fish, Tilapia guineensis were investigated using the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) # 203 recommended semi-static renewal bioassay. The assessment was necessary for the uncontrollable disposal of Neatex (liquid detergent) and Norust CR 486 (corrosion inhibitor) into the Niger Delta environment of Nigeria. The estimated 96-h LC(50) for 7-, 14- and 28-day-old fish in Norust CR 486 exposure was considered "more toxic" than Neatex in all life stages and was dependent on species age, exposure duration and environment. In the fresh water test, for Neatex and Norust CR 486 exposures for day 7, 14 and 28, the 96-h LC50 were 8.79, 17.10 and 82.42 mg/l and 5.55, 13.58 and 20.21 mg/l, respectively. In the brackish test, 15.42 and 46.52 mg/l, not determined (ND) and 7.35, 13.95 and 24.50mg/l were obtained. Differential toxicity was observed in the fresh and brackish water fish for the two chemicals and controls at p<0.05. The high sensitivity of the 7-day-old test organisms to both chemicals provides a rationale for regulatory surveillance and monitoring of both chemicals in the fragile Niger Delta environment.

  20. Density-dependent coral recruitment displays divergent responses during distinct early life-history stages

    PubMed Central

    Evensen, Nicolas R.; Gómez-Lemos, Luis A.; Babcock, Russell C.

    2017-01-01

    Population growth involves demographic bottlenecks that regulate recruitment success during various early life-history stages. The success of each early life-history stage can vary in response to population density, interacting with intrinsic (e.g. behavioural) and environmental (e.g. competition, predation) factors. Here, we used the common reef-building coral Acropora millepora to investigate how density-dependence influences larval survival and settlement in laboratory experiments that isolated intrinsic effects, and post-settlement survival in a field experiment that examined interactions with environmental factors. Larval survival was exceptionally high (greater than 80%) and density-independent from 2.5 to 12 days following spawning. By contrast, there was a weak positive effect of larval density on settlement, driven by gregarious behaviour at the highest density. When larval supply was saturated, settlement was three times higher in crevices compared with exposed microhabitats, but a negative relationship between settler density and post-settlement survival in crevices and density-independent survival on exposed surfaces resulted in similar recruit densities just one month following settlement. Moreover, a negative relationship was found between turf algae and settler survival in crevices, whereas gregarious settlement improved settler survival on exposed surfaces. Overall, our findings reveal divergent responses by coral larvae and newly settled recruits to density-dependent regulation, mediated by intrinsic and environmental interactions. PMID:28573015

  1. Glutathione S-Transferase Protein Expression in Different Life Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Tierbach, Alena; Groh, Ksenia J; Schönenberger, René; Schirmer, Kristin

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Zebrafish is a widely used animal model in biomedical sciences and toxicology. Although evidence for the presence of phases I and II xenobiotic defense mechanisms in zebrafish exists on the transcriptional and enzyme activity level, little is known about the protein expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. Given the important role of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in phase II biotransformation, we analyzed cytosolic GST proteins in zebrafish early life stages and different organs of adult male and female fish, using a targeted proteomics approach. The established multiple reaction monitoring-based assays enable the measurement of the relative abundance of specific GST isoenzymes and GST classes in zebrafish through a combination of proteotypic peptides and peptides shared within the same class. GSTs of the classes alpha, mu, pi and rho are expressed in zebrafish embryo as early as 4 h postfertilization (hpf). The majority of GST enzymes are present at 72 hpf followed by a continuous increase in expression thereafter. In adult zebrafish, GST expression is organ dependent, with most of the GST classes showing the highest expression in the liver. The expression of a wide range of cytosolic GST isoenzymes and classes in zebrafish early life stages and adulthood supports the use of zebrafish as a model organism in chemical-related investigations. PMID:29361160

  2. Embryotoxicity of nitrophenols to the early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Zeynep; Şişman, Turgay; Yazıcı, Zehra; Altıkat, Aysun Özen

    2016-08-01

    The nitrophenols (NPs) are water-soluble compounds. These compounds pose a significant health threat since they are priority environmental pollutants. In this study, 2-Nitrophenol (2NP) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) were examined for embryo and early life stage toxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Acute toxicity and teratogenicity of 2NP and DNP were tested for 4 days using zebrafish embryos. The typical lesions observed were no somite formation, incomplete eye and head development, tail curvature, weak pigmentation (≤48 hours postfertilization (hpf)), kyphosis, scoliosis, yolk sac deformity, and nonpigmentation (72 hpf). Also, embryo and larval mortality increased and hatching success decreased. The severity of abnormalities and mortalities were concentration- and compound-dependent. Of the compounds tested, 2,4-DNP was found to be highly toxic to the fish embryos following exposure. The median lethal concentrations and median effective concentrations for 2NP are 18.7 mg/L and 7.9 mg/L, respectively; the corresponding values for DNP are 9.65 mg/L and 3.05 mg/L for 48 h. The chorda deformity was the most sensitive endpoint measured. It is suggested that the embryotoxicity may be mediated by an oxidative phosphorylation uncoupling mechanism. This article is the first to describe the teratogenicity and embryotoxicity of two NPs to the early life stages of zebrafish. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Differences in critical thermal maxima and mortality across life stages of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, Ashley S; Bradley, Timothy J

    2012-07-01

    Thermal limits to activity profoundly affect the abundance and distribution of ectothermic animals. Upper thermal limits to activity are typically reported as the critical thermal maximum (CT(max)), the temperature at which activity becomes uncontrolled. Thermolimit respirometry is a new technique that allows CT(max) to be quantified in small animals, such as insects, as the point of spiracular failure by measuring CO(2) release from the animal as temperature increases. Although prior studies have reported a characteristic pattern of CO(2) release for insects during thermolimit respirometry trials, no studies have been carried out to determine the universality of this pattern across development, or at what point death occurs along this pattern. Here, we compared the CT(max) and patterns of CO(2) release among three life stages of a beetle species, Tenebrio molitor, and mapped heat death onto these patterns. Our study is the first to report distinct patterns of CO(2) release in different life stages of an insect species during thermolimit respirometry. Our results show that CT(max) was significantly higher in adult beetles than in either larvae or pupae (P<0.001) and, similarly, death occurred at higher temperatures in adults than in larvae and pupae. We also found that death during heating closely follows CT(max) in these animals, which confirms that measuring the loss of spiracular control with thermolimit respirometry successfully identifies the point of physiological limitation during heat stress.

  4. A comparison of Frost expression among species and life stages of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Bing, X; Zhang, J; Sinclair, Brent J

    2012-02-01

    Frost (Fst) is a gene associated with cold exposure in Drosophila melanogaster. We used real-time PCR to assess whether cold exposure induces expression of Fst in 10 different life stages of D. melanogaster, and adults of seven other Drosophila species. We exposed groups of individuals to 0 °C (2 h), followed by 1 h recovery (22 °C). Frost was significantly upregulated in response to cold in eggs, third instar larvae, and 2- and 5-day-old male and female adults in D. melanogaster. Life stages in which cold did not upregulate Fst had high constitutive expression. Frost is located on the opposite strand of an intron of Diuretic hormone (DH), but cold exposure did not upregulate DH. Frost orthologues were identified in six other species within the Melanogaster group (Drosophila sechellia, Drosophila simulans, Drosophila yakuba, Drosophila erecta, Drosophila ananassae and Drosophila mauritiana). Frost orthologues were upregulated in response to cold exposure in both sexes in adults of all of these species. The predicted structure of a putative Frost consensus protein shows highly conserved tandem repeats of motifs involved in cell signalling (PEST and TRAF2), suggesting that Fst might encode an adaptor protein involved in acute stress or apoptosis signalling in vivo. © 2011 The Authors. Insect Molecular Biology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. Effect of chronic copper and pentachlorophenol exposure to early life stages of Xenopus laevis

    SciT

    Fort, D.J.; Stover, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    An evaluation of the effects of low-level copper and pentachlorophenol exposure on various early life stages of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis was performed using stage-specific and long-term continuous exposures. Stage-specific exposure experiments were conducted such that separate subsets of embryos and larvae from the same clutch were exposed to two toxicants, copper and pentachlorophenol, from 0 d to 4 d (standard Frog Embryo Teratagenesis Assay Xenopus [FETAX]), 4 d to 8 d, 8 d to 12 d, and 12 d to 16 d. Results from two separate concentration-response experiments indicated that sensitivity to either toxicant increased inmore » each successive time period. Continuous exposure studies conducted for 60 to 75 days indicated that copper, but not pentachlorophenol induced reduction deficiency malformations of the hind limb at concentrations as low as 0.05 mg/L. Pentachlorophenol concentrations as low as 0.5/{micro}g/L inhibited tail resorption. However, copper did not adversely affect the process of tail resorption. These results indicated that studies evaluating longer-term developmental processes are important in ecological hazard evaluation.« less

  6. Toward Explaining Earlier Retirement after 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ippolito, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Rule changes in the social security system and pension plans suggest that labor force participation rates for men aged 55 to 64 fell by 20 percent from 1970 through 1986 because of the increase in social security benefits and a change in private pension rules encouraging earlier retirement. (Author/JOW)

  7. COMPARATIVE SENSITIVITY OF DIFFERENT LIFE-STAGES OF MEDAKA AND SALMONID FISHES TO 2,3,7,8-TCDD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The early life stages of fish are known to be more sensitive than the adults to the toxicological effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo(p)dioxin (TCDD). Embryo larval stages of medake, for example, experience 50% lethality when TCDD residues in the eggs are 1396 pg/g. By contrast...

  8. The Life Cycle Completed. Extended Version with New Chapters on the Ninth Stage of Development by Joan M. Erikson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erikson, Erik H.

    This expanded edition of a 1982 book by Erik Erikson summarizes his work on the stages of the human life cycle, including chapters on psychosexuality and the cycle of generations, major stages in psychosocial development, and ego and ethos. An additional chapter on the ninth stage sets forth his philosophy on old age--i.e. the 80s and 90s--and how…

  9. The evaluation life cycle: a retrospective assessment of stages and phases of the circles of care initiative.

    PubMed

    Bess, Gary; Allen, James; Deters, Pamela B

    2004-08-12

    A life cycle metaphor characterizes the evolving relationship between the evaluator and program staff. This framework suggests that common developmental dynamics occur in roughly the same order across groups and settings. There are stage-specific dynamics that begin with Pre-History, which characterize the relationship between the grantees and evaluator. The stages are: (a) Pre-History, (b) Process, (c) Development, (d) Action, (e) Findings-Compilation, and (f) Transition. The common dynamics, expectations, and activities for each stage are discussed.

  10. Evaluating Indicators and Life Cycle Inventories for Processes in Early Stages of Technical Readiness

    SciT

    Tan, Eric C; Smith, Raymond; Ruiz-Mercado, Gerardo

    This presentation examines different methods for analyzing manufacturing processes in the early stages of technical readiness. Before developers know much detail about their processes, it is valuable to apply various assessments to evaluate their performance. One type of assessment evaluates performance indicators to describe how closely processes approach desirable objectives. Another type of assessment determines the life cycle inventories (LCI) of inputs and outputs for processes, where for a functional unit of product, the user evaluates the resources used and the releases to the environment. These results can be compared to similar processes or combined with the LCI of othermore » processes to examine up-and down-stream chemicals. The inventory also provides a listing of the up-stream chemicals, which permits study of the whole life cycle. Performance indicators are evaluated in this presentation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's GREENSCOPE (Gauging Reaction Effectiveness for ENvironmental Sustainability with a multi-Objective Process Evaluator) methodology, which evaluates processes in four areas: Environment, Energy, Economics, and Efficiency. The method develops relative scores for indicators that allow comparisons across various technologies. In this contribution, two conversion pathways for producing cellulosic ethanol from biomass, via thermochemical and biochemical routes, are studied. The information developed from the indicators and LCI can be used to inform the process design and the potential life cycle effects of up- and down-stream chemicals.« less

  11. Quality of life of Greek patients with end stage renal disease undergoing haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kastrouni, Maria; Sarantopoulou, Eleni; Aperis, Georgios; Alivanis, Polichronis

    2010-09-01

    An evaluation of the quality of life of patients with end stage kidney disease undergoing haemodialysis in the Greek population was conducted to understand whether this quality could be improved. Comparisons were made with a similar study conducted in United States in regards to the effects of kidney disease in daily life, burden of kidney disease, work status, cognitive function, quality of social interaction, sexual function, social support, physical functioning, role physical on daily routine, pain, general health perceptions, role emotional, emotional well being, social function and energy/fatigue. Any differences are discussed and analysed. Sexual problems were found to be more prominent in this study, but the emotional status has greater influence in quality of life in the US study. The results were more positive in Greece with respect to dialysis staff encouragement, patient satisfaction, as well as acceptance and the understanding of illness. The results from our study reflect the differences of the health care systems in various countries as well as population-related beliefs and values.

  12. Teaching basic life support with an automated external defibrillator using the two-stage or the four-stage teaching technique.

    PubMed

    Bjørnshave, Katrine; Krogh, Lise Q; Hansen, Svend B; Nebsbjerg, Mette A; Thim, Troels; Løfgren, Bo

    2018-02-01

    Laypersons often hesitate to perform basic life support (BLS) and use an automated external defibrillator (AED) because of self-perceived lack of knowledge and skills. Training may reduce the barrier to intervene. Reduced training time and costs may allow training of more laypersons. The aim of this study was to compare BLS/AED skills' acquisition and self-evaluated BLS/AED skills after instructor-led training with a two-stage versus a four-stage teaching technique. Laypersons were randomized to either two-stage or four-stage teaching technique courses. Immediately after training, the participants were tested in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario to assess their BLS/AED skills. Skills were assessed using the European Resuscitation Council BLS/AED assessment form. The primary endpoint was passing the test (17 of 17 skills adequately performed). A prespecified noninferiority margin of 20% was used. The two-stage teaching technique (n=72, pass rate 57%) was noninferior to the four-stage technique (n=70, pass rate 59%), with a difference in pass rates of -2%; 95% confidence interval: -18 to 15%. Neither were there significant differences between the two-stage and four-stage groups in the chest compression rate (114±12 vs. 115±14/min), chest compression depth (47±9 vs. 48±9 mm) and number of sufficient rescue breaths between compression cycles (1.7±0.5 vs. 1.6±0.7). In both groups, all participants believed that their training had improved their skills. Teaching laypersons BLS/AED using the two-stage teaching technique was noninferior to the four-stage teaching technique, although the pass rate was -2% (95% confidence interval: -18 to 15%) lower with the two-stage teaching technique.

  13. Emergence, development, and maturity of the gonad of two species of chitons "sea cockroach" (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) through the early life stages.

    PubMed

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Abadia-Chanona, Quetzalli Yasú

    2013-01-01

    This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or "early life stages" were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y = aX(b) . A total of 125 chitons (4≤TL≤40 mm, in total length "TL") were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r), close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods ("Pw" without gonad, "Pe" gonad emergence, and "Pf" gonadal sac formed) and four stages ("S0" gametocytogenesis, "S1" gametogenesis, "S2" mature, and "S3" spawning), respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13-14.32 mm, Pe 10.32-16.93 mm, Pf 12.99-25.01 mm, S0 16.08-24.34 mm (females) and 19.51-26.60 mm (males), S1 27.15-35.63 mm (females) and 23.45-32.27 mm (males), S2 24.48-40.24 mm (females) and 25.45-32.87 mm (males). Sexual differentiation (in S0) of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult) are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management.

  14. Evaluation of Endocrine Effects in Birds: A Case for a Targeted, Life-stage and Endpoint Specific Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EFSA "Scientific Opinion on the Science Behind the Guidance" document on risk assessment for birds and mammals has a chapter on risk assessment of substances with endocrine-disrupting properties in birds. It discusses that targeted partial life-cycle or critical life-stage te...

  15. Life-stage-specific physiology defines invasion extent of a riverine fish

    Lawrence, David J.; Beauchamp, David A.; Olden, Julian D.

    2015-01-01

    -history stage that likely sets the distributional limits of all other life-history stages. We anticipate the framework developed here could be employed to identify how similar stage-specific environmental sensitivity determines distribution in many other ectothermic species.

  16. Fitness Outcomes Related to Glyphosate Resistance in Kochia (Kochia scoparia): What Life History Stage to Examine?

    PubMed Central

    Osipitan, Omobolanle Adewale; Dille, Johanna Anita

    2017-01-01

    A fast-spreading weed, kochia (Kochia scoparia), has developed resistance to the widely-used herbicide, glyphosate. Understanding the relationship between the occurrence of glyphosate resistance caused by multiple EPSPS gene copies and kochia fitness may suggest a more effective way of controlling kochia. A study was conducted to assess fitness cost of glyphosate resistance compared to susceptibility in kochia populations at different life history stages, that is rate of seed germination, increase in plant height, days to flowering, biomass accumulation at maturity, and fecundity. Six kochia populations from Scott, Finney, Thomas, Phillips, Wallace, and Wichita counties in western Kansas were characterized for resistance to field-use rate of glyphosate and with an in vivo shikimate accumulation assay. Seed germination was determined in growth chambers at three constant temperatures (5, 10, and 15 C) while vegetative growth and fecundity responses were evaluated in a field study using a target-neighborhood competition design in 2014 and 2015. One target plant from each of the six kochia populations was surrounded by neighboring kochia densities equivalent to 10 (low), 35 (moderate), or 70 (high) kochia plants m−2. In 2015, neighboring corn densities equivalent to 10 and 35 plants m−2 were also evaluated. Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with at least 7 replications. Three kochia populations were classified as glyphosate-resistant (GR) [Scott (SC-R), Finney (FN-R), and Thomas (TH-R)] and three populations were classified as glyphosate-susceptible (GS) [Phillips (PH-S), Wallace (WA-S) and Wichita (WI-S)]. Of the life history stages measured, fitness differences between the GR and GS kochia populations were consistently found in their germination characteristics. The GR kochia showed reduced seed longevity, slower germination rate, and less total germination than the GS kochia. In the field, increases in plant height, biomass

  17. Quality of life of early stage colorectal cancer patients in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Mrabti, Hind; Amziren, Mounia; ElGhissassi, Ibrahim; Bensouda, Youssef; Berrada, Narjiss; Abahssain, Halima; Boutayeb, Saber; El Fakir, Samira; Nejjari, Chakib; Benider, Abdellatif; Mellas, Nawfel; El Mesbahi, Omar; Bennani, Maria; Bekkali, Rachid; Zidouh, Ahmed; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-10-12

    A multicentre cohort study was held in Morocco, designed to evaluate the quality of life of cancer patients. The aim of this paper is to report the assessment of the quality of life of early colorectal cancer patients, before and after cancer treatment, to identify other factors which are related to this quality of life. We used the third version of the QLQ-C30 questionnaire of the European organization for Research and treatment of Cancer (EORTC) after a transcultural validation. The Data collection was done at inclusion and then every twelve weeks to achieve one year of follow up. Overall 294 patients presented with early colorectal cancer, the median age was 56 years (range: 21-88). The male-female sex ratio was 1.17. At inclusion, the global health status was the most affected functional dimension. For symptoms: financial difficulties and fatigue scores were the highest ones. Emotional and social functions were significantly worse in rectal cancer. Most symptoms were more present in rectal cancer. At inclusion, global health status score was significantly worse in stage III. Anorexia was significantly more important among colorectal female patients. For Patients over 70 years-old, the difference was statistically significant for the physical function item which was lower. Overall, Functional dimensions scores were improved after chemotherapy. The symptoms scores did not differ significantly for patients treated by radiotherapy, between inclusion and at one year. Our EORTC QLQ C30 scores are overall comparable to the reference values. Neither chemotherapy, nor radiotherapy worsened the quality of life at one year.

  18. Expression of olfactory receptors in different life stages and life histories of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Johnstone, K A; Lubieniecki, K P; Koop, B F; Davidson, W S

    2011-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that salmonids use olfactory cues to return to their natal rivers and streams. However, the key components of the molecular pathway involved in imprinting and homing are still unknown. If odorants are involved in salmon homing migration, then olfactory receptors should play a critical role in the dissipation of information from the environment to the fish. Therefore, we examined the expression profiles of a suite of genes encoding olfactory receptors and other olfactory-related genes in the olfactory rosettes of different life stages in two anadromous and one non-anadromous wild Atlantic salmon populations from Newfoundland, Canada. We identified seven differentially expressed OlfC genes in juvenile anadromous salmon compared to returning adults in both populations of anadromous Atlantic salmon. The salmon from the Campbellton River had an additional 10 genes that were differentially expressed in juveniles compared to returning adults. There was no statistically significant difference in gene expression of any of the genes in the non-anadromous population (P < 0.01). The function of the OlfC gene products is not clear, but they are predicted to be amino acid receptors. Other studies have suggested that salmon use amino acids for imprinting and homing. This study, the first to examine the expression of olfactory-related genes in wild North American Atlantic salmon, has identified seven OlfC genes that may be involved in the imprinting and homeward migration of anadromous Atlantic salmon. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Feeling connected to younger versus older selves: the asymmetric impact of life stage orientation.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Ed

    2015-01-01

    The concept of life-stage orientation is proposed. Youth is a period of time characterised by strong feelings and emotions, but weak reasoning and cognitive skill. Conversely, adulthood is characterised by strong rationality, but weak emotionality. Two studies revealed that merely bringing these concepts to mind changes real-time feelings and behaviour. Participants who were instructed to act like their "adult" selves exhibited greater self-control in a cold pressor test than control participants and those who acted like their "youth" selves (Experiment 1). However, being induced to feel connected to youth enhanced enjoyment for fun videos (Experiment 2). Hence, the extent to which people are oriented towards youth versus adulthood has asymmetric costs and benefits for the present. Connecting to youth boosts experiential capacities (in this case, enjoying oneself) at the cost of agency, whereas connecting to adulthood boosts agentic capacities (in this case, exerting will-power) at the cost of experience.

  20. Early life stage (ELS) toxicity of sucralose to fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, K I; Huggett, D B

    2014-10-01

    Sucralose, an intense artificial sweetener, has been detected in wastewater and surface waters at concentrations ranging from ng/L to low µg/L. Although over a hundred studies have been conducted to evaluate the safety of sucralose for human consumption, few studies have focused on the chronic ecotoxicological effects of this compound in fish. As a remedy to this data gap, an early-life stage toxicity test was conducted to assess the effects of sucralose on hatching, survival, and growth of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Hatching, survival, and growth were unaffected by 98 mg/L of sucralose. The Lowest-Observed-Effect Concentration (LOEC) and the No-Observed-Effect Concentration (NOEC) for fathead minnows determined by this study are >98 and 98 mg/L, respectively. The results from this study suggest that the concentrations of sucralose detected in the environment are well below those required to cause adverse effects to developing aquatic organisms.

  1. Age and performance at fledging are a cause and consequence of juvenile mortality between life stages

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Should they stay or should they leave? The age at which young transition between life stages, such as living in a nest versus leaving it, differs among species and the reasons why are unclear. We show that offspring of songbird species that leave the nest at a younger age have less developed wings that cause poorer flight performance and greater mortality after fledging. Experimentally delayed fledging verified that older age and better developed wings provide benefits of reduced juvenile mortality. Young are differentially constrained in the age that they can stay in the nest and enjoy these fitness benefits because of differences among species in opposing predation costs while in the nest. This tension between mortality in versus outside of the nest influences offspring traits and performance and creates an unrecognized conflict between parents and offspring that determines the optimal age to fledge.

  2. 4-Nitro styrylquinoline is an antimalarial inhibiting multiple stages of Plasmodium falciparum asexual life cycle.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Bracken F; Zheng, Yongsheng; Cleaveleand, Jacob; Lee, Sukjun; Lee, Eunyoung; Ayong, Lawrence; Yuan, Yu; Chakrabarti, Debopam

    2017-04-01

    Drugs against malaria are losing their effectiveness because of emerging drug resistance. This underscores the need for novel therapeutic options for malaria with mechanism of actions distinct from current antimalarials. To identify novel pharmacophores against malaria we have screened compounds containing structural features of natural products that are pharmacologically relevant. This screening has identified a 4-nitro styrylquinoline (SQ) compound with submicromolar antiplasmodial activity and excellent selectivity. SQ exhibits a cellular action distinct from current antimalarials, acting early on malaria parasite's intraerythrocytic life cycle including merozoite invasion. The compound is a fast-acting parasitocidal agent and also exhibits curative property in the rodent malaria model when administered orally. In this report, we describe the synthesis, preliminary structure-function analysis, and the parasite developmental stage specific action of the SQ scaffold. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Donor life stage influences juvenile American eel Anguilla rostrata attraction to conspecific chemical cues

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Schmucker, Andrew K.; Johnson, Nicholas; Hansen, Michael J.; Li, Weiming

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the potential role of conspecific chemical cues in inland juvenile American eel Anguilla rostrata migrations by assessing glass eel and 1 year old elver affinities to elver washings, and elver affinity to adult yellow eel washings. In two-choice maze assays, glass eels were attracted to elver washings, but elvers were neither attracted to nor repulsed by multiple concentrations of elver washings or to yellow eel washings. These results suggest that A. rostrata responses to chemical cues may be life-stage dependent and that glass eels moving inland may use the odour of the previous year class as information to guide migration. The role of chemical cues and olfaction in eel migrations warrants further investigation as a potential restoration tool.

  4. Interactions of sex and early life social experiences at two developmental stages shape nonapeptide receptor profiles.

    PubMed

    Hiura, Lisa C; Ophir, Alexander G

    2018-05-31

    Early life social experiences are critical to behavioral and cognitive development, and can have a tremendous influence on developing social phenotypes. Most work has focused on outcomes of experiences at a single stage of development (e.g., perinatal, or post-weaning). Few studies have assessed the impact of social experience at multiple developmental stages and across sex. Oxytocin and vasopressin are profoundly important for modulating social behavior and these nonapeptide systems are highly sensitive to developmental social experience, particularly in brain areas important for social behavior. We investigated whether oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin receptor (V1aR) distributions of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) change as a function of parental composition within the natal nest or social composition after weaning. We raised pups either in the presence or absence of their fathers. At weaning, offspring were housed either individually or with a same-sex sibling. We also examined whether changes in receptor distributions are sexually dimorphic because the impact of the developmental environment on the nonapeptide system could be sex-dependent. We found that differences in nonapeptide receptor expression were region-, sex-, and rearing condition-specific, indicating a high level of complexity in the ways that early life experiences shape the social brain. We found many more differences in V1aR density compared to OTR density, indicating that nonapeptide receptors demonstrate differential levels of neural plasticity and sensitivity to environmental and biological variables. Our data highlight that critical factors including biological sex and multiple experiences across the developmental continuum interact in complex ways to shape the social brain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Life-stage-associated remodelling of lipid metabolism regulation in Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Gillard, Gareth; Harvey, Thomas N; Gjuvsland, Arne; Jin, Yang; Thomassen, Magny; Lien, Sigbjørn; Leaver, Michael; Torgersen, Jacob S; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Vik, Jon Olav; Sandve, Simen R

    2018-03-01

    Atlantic salmon migrates from rivers to sea to feed, grow and develop gonads before returning to spawn in freshwater. The transition to marine habitats is associated with dramatic changes in the environment, including water salinity, exposure to pathogens and shift in dietary lipid availability. Many changes in physiology and metabolism occur across this life-stage transition, but little is known about the molecular nature of these changes. Here, we use a long-term feeding experiment to study transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism in Atlantic salmon gut and liver in both fresh- and saltwater. We find that lipid metabolism becomes significantly less plastic to differences in dietary lipid composition when salmon transitions to saltwater and experiences increased dietary lipid availability. Expression of genes in liver relating to lipogenesis and lipid transport decreases overall and becomes less responsive to diet, while genes for lipid uptake in gut become more highly expressed. Finally, analyses of evolutionary consequences of the salmonid-specific whole-genome duplication on lipid metabolism reveal several pathways with significantly different (p < .05) duplicate retention or duplicate regulatory conservation. We also find a limited number of cases where the whole-genome duplication has resulted in an increased gene dosage. In conclusion, we find variable and pathway-specific effects of the salmonid genome duplication on lipid metabolism genes. A clear life-stage-associated shift in lipid metabolism regulation is evident, and we hypothesize this to be, at least partly, driven by nondietary factors such as the preparatory remodelling of gene regulation and physiology prior to sea migration. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Comparative toxicity of inorganic contaminants released by placer mining to early life stages of salmonids

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Hamilton, Steven J.

    1990-01-01

    The acute toxicities of four trace inorganics associated with placer mining were determined, individually and in environmentally relevant mixtures, to early life stages of Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from Alaska and Montana, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kitsutch) from Alaska and Washington, and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from Montana. The descending rank order of toxicity to all species and life stages was copper > zinc > lead > arsenic. For each of the three species, sensitivity to the inorganics was greater in juveniles than in alvenins or in swim-up fry. Arctic grayling from Alaska were more sensitive than the other species tested, including Arctic grayling from Montana. For Arctic grayling, sensitivity to all four inorganics was significantly greater in swim-up fry from Alaska than in alevins from Montana, and sensitivity to arsenic and copper was significantly greater in juveniles from Alaska than in juveniles from Montana. In tests with environmentally relevant mixtures (based on ratios of concentrations measured in streams with placer mining) of these four inorganics, copper was identified as the major toxic component because it accounted for ⩾97% of the summed toxic units of the mixture, and an equitoxic mixture of these inorganics showed less-than-additive toxicity. Total and total recoverable copper concentrations reported in five Alaskan streams with active placer mines were higher than the acutely toxic concentrations, either individually or in mixtures, that the authors found to be acutely toxic to Arctic grayling and coho salmon from Alaska. However, caution should be used when comparing our results obtained in “clear” water to field situations, because speciation and toxicity of these inorganics may be altered in the presence of sediments suspended by placer mining activities.

  7. Health-related quality of life in end-stage COPD and lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Habraken, Jolanda M; ter Riet, Gerben; Gore, Justin M; Greenstone, Michael A; Weersink, Els J M; Bindels, Patrick J E; Willems, Dick L

    2009-06-01

    Historically, palliative care has been developed for cancer patients and is not yet generally available for patients suffering from chronic life-limiting illnesses, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To examine whether COPD patients experience similar or worse disease burden in comparison with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, we compared the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores of severe COPD patients with those of advanced NSCLC patients. We also formally updated previous evidence in this area provided by a landmark study published by Gore et al. in 2000. In updating this previous evidence, we addressed the methodological limitations of this study and a number of confounding variables. Eighty-two GOLD IV COPD patients and 19 Stage IIIb or IV NSCLC patients completed generic and disease-specific HRQOL questionnaires. We used an individual patient data meta-analysis to integrate the new and existing evidence (total n=201). Finally, to enhance between-group comparability, we performed a sensitivity analysis using a subgroup of patients with a similar degree of "terminality," namely those who had died within one year after study entry. Considerable differences in HRQOL were found for physical functioning, social functioning, mental health, general health perceptions, dyspnea, activities of daily living, and depression. All differences favored the NSCLC patients. The sensitivity analysis, using only terminal NSCLC and COPD patients, confirmed these findings. In conclusion, end-stage COPD patients experience poor HRQOL comparable to or worse than that of advanced NSCLC patients. We discuss these findings in the light of the notion that these COPD patients may have a similar need for palliative care.

  8. Psychosocial stressors in inter-human relationships and health at each life stage: A review.

    PubMed

    Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Nasermoaddeli, Ali; Wang, Hongbing

    2004-05-01

    Currently, psychosocial stressors' impacts on health are increasing. Among these stressors, this review focused on inter-human relationships. Since social supports could be protective against ill health, consequences contributing to psychosocial stressors are discussed here in relation to social supports for each stage of childhood, adulthood and elderly status.For childhood, parental divorce/isolation, and child abuse/neglect appeared to be determinants of healthy development at either the initial or later stages. According to prospective studies, such stressors, especially those occurring until around 3 years of age, were associated with later adverse life quality in adulthood. Therefore, nationwide preventive strategies were developed in each country to monitor protective social programs.For adulthood, job strain was focused on Karasek's job strain model, effort-reward imbalance, employment grade and working hours. These psychosocial stressors were shown to affect not only the physical health but also the mental health of working people. These days, since Karoshi and even suicide related to excessive workloads are taking a toll on workplace organization, stress-coping abilities such as a sense of coherence were introduced from the individual-social interaction aspect.For elderly status, retirement, caring for the elderly, and spouse bereavement were discussed as psychosocial stressors. Some evidence indicates that these stressors could be determiants of health. Finally, social supports have been demonstrated to promote health and protect the elderly against diseases and death.

  9. Age-stage, two-sex life table of Parapoynx crisonalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi; Li, Ni; Wang, Xing; Ma, Li; Huang, Jian-Bin; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Parapoynx crisonalis is an important pest of many aquatic vegetables including water chestnuts. Understanding the relationship between temperature variations and the population growth rates of P. crisonalis is essential to predicting its population dynamics in water chestnuts ponds. These relationships were examined in this study based on the age-stage, two-sex life table of P. crisonalis developed in the laboratory at 21, 24, 27, 30, 33 and 36°C. The results showed that the values of Sxj (age-stage–specific survival rate), fxj (age-stage-specific fecundity), lx (age specific survival rate) and mx (age-specific fecundity) increased as the temperature rose from 21 to 27°C, then decreased from 30 to 36°C. Temperature also had a significant effect on the net reproductive rate (R0), gross reproductive rate (GRR), intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ). The value of these parameters were at low levels at 21, 33, and 36°C. Further, the r value decreased as the temperature rose from 24 to 30°C, while the GRR reached its highest level at 27°C. The results indicated that optimal growth and development of P. crisonalis occurred at temperatures between 24°C to 30°C when compared to the lowest temperature (21°C) and higher temperatures of 33°C and 36°C. PMID:28264022

  10. Cognition Predicts Quality of Life Among Patients With End-Stage Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Daniel; Shah, Mona; Miller-Matero, Lisa Renee; Eshelman, Anne; Abouljoud, Marwan

    2016-01-01

    Impaired cognitive functioning and poor quality of life (QoL) are both common among patients with end-stage liver disease; however, it is unclear how these are related. This study examines how specific cognitive domains predict QoL among liver transplant candidates by replicating Stewart and colleagues' (2010) 3-factor model of cognitive functioning, and determining how variability in these cognitive domains predicts mental health and physical QoL. The sample included 246 patients with end-stage liver disease who were candidates for liver transplant at a large, Midwestern health care center. Measures, including the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, Trail Making Test, Shipley Institute of Living Scale, Short-Form Health Survey-36 Version 2, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, comprised latent variables representing global intellectual functioning, psychomotor speed, and learning and memory functioning. Confirmatory factor analysis results indicate that the 3-factor solution model comprised of global intellectual functioning, psychomotor speed, and learning and memory functioning fit the data well. Addition of physical and mental health QoL latent factors resulted in a structural model also with good fit. Results related physical QoL to global intellectual functioning, and mental health QoL to global intellectual functioning and psychomotor functioning. Findings elucidate a relationship between cognition and QoL and support the use of routine neuropsychological screening with end-stage liver disease patients, specifically examining the cognitive domains of global intellectual, psychomotor, and learning and memory functioning. Subsequently, screening results may inform implementation of targeted interventions to improve QoL. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Developmental and physiological challenges of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean warming.

    PubMed

    Repolho, Tiago; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Dionísio, Gisela; Trübenbach, Katja; Lopes, Vanessa M; Lopes, Ana Rita; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The ability to understand and predict the effects of ocean warming (under realistic scenarios) on marine biota is of paramount importance, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Here we investigated the impact of predicted environmental warming (+3 °C) on the development, metabolism, heat shock response and antioxidant defense mechanisms of the early stages of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris. As expected, warming shortened embryonic developmental time by 13 days, from 38 days at 18 °C to 25 days at 21 °C. Concomitantly, survival decreased significantly (~29.9 %). Size at hatching varied inversely with temperature, and the percentage of smaller premature paralarvae increased drastically, from 0 % at 18 °C to 17.8 % at 21 °C. The metabolic costs of the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a free planktonic form increased significantly with warming, and HSP70 concentrations and glutathione S-transferase activity levels were significantly magnified from late embryonic to paralarval stages. Yet, despite the presence of effective antioxidant defense mechanisms, ocean warming led to an augmentation of malondialdehyde levels (an indicative of enhanced ROS action), a process considered to be one of the most frequent cellular injury mechanisms. Thus, the present study provides clues about how the magnitude and rate of ocean warming will challenge the buffering capacities of octopus embryos and hatchlings' physiology. The prediction and understanding of the biochemical and physiological responses to warmer temperatures (under realistic scenarios) is crucial for the management of highly commercial and ecologically important species, such as O. vulgaris.

  12. Emergence, Development, and Maturity of the Gonad of Two Species of Chitons “Sea Cockroach” (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) through the Early Life Stages

    PubMed Central

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Abadia-Chanona, Quetzalli Yasú

    2013-01-01

    This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or “early life stages” were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y = aXb. A total of 125 chitons (4≤TL≤40 mm, in total length “TL”) were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r), close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods (“Pw” without gonad, “Pe” gonad emergence, and “Pf” gonadal sac formed) and four stages (“S0” gametocytogenesis, “S1” gametogenesis, “S2” mature, and “S3” spawning), respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13–14.32 mm, Pe 10.32–16.93 mm, Pf 12.99–25.01 mm, S0 16.08–24.34 mm (females) and 19.51–26.60 mm (males), S1 27.15–35.63 mm (females) and 23.45–32.27 mm (males), S2 24.48–40.24 mm (females) and 25.45–32.87 mm (males). Sexual differentiation (in S0) of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult) are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management. PMID:23936353

  13. Amino and fatty acid dynamics of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean warming.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Vanessa M; Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Paula, José R; Couto, Ana; Bandarra, Narcisa; Anacleto, Patrícia; Marques, António; Rosa, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The oceans are becoming warmer, and the higher temperatures are expected to have a major impact on marine life at different levels of biological organization, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Thus, we hypothesize that the future warmer scenarios (here +3 °C) will affect the biochemical composition (amino acid - AA, and fatty acid-FA) of octopod (Octopus vulgaris) embryos and recently-hatched pelagic paralarvae. The main essential amino acids found in octopus embryos were arginine, leucine and lysine; while aspartic and glutamic acids, and taurine were the main non-essential amino acids. Palmitic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were the main FAs found in octopus tissues. Relevant ontogenetic changes were observed, namely a steep decrease in the content of many AAs, and a selective retention of FAs, thus evidencing the protein-based metabolism of these cephalopods. Temperature per si did not elicit significant changes in the overall FA composition, but was responsible for a significant decrease in the content of several AAs, indicating increased embryonic consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Life-Stage and Mobility: An Exploratory GPS Study of Mobility in Multigenerational Families, Ahmedabad, India.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Michal; D'Ambrosio, Lisa; Samanta, Tannistha; Coughlin, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    As the population of older adults in India grows, research is needed to plan a sustainable future for India's older adults. This article reports results from a Global Positioning System (GPS)-based pilot study that examined the mobility of middle-class, older adults living in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Using mobility as a lens through which to examine the lives of older adults, we map potential research and identify policy areas of interest considering older adults in urban India. The study explores the role of life stage in mobility as well as the effects of gender and urban environment on mobility. Using this distinctive perspective on day-to-day life, we propose themes through which, using policy and planning tools, the living environments of older adults in Indian cities can be improved. These policy measures include focusing on walkability and pedestrian safety in residential areas and building on existing mixed land use to create high accessibility to goods and services in urban environments.

  15. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages

    PubMed Central

    Lauterstein, Dana E.; Tijerina, Pamella B.; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S.; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B.; Zelikoff, Judith T.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13–16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4–6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology. PMID:27077873

  16. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages.

    PubMed

    Lauterstein, Dana E; Tijerina, Pamella B; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B; Zelikoff, Judith T

    2016-04-12

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13-16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4-6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology.

  17. Testosterone related to age and life-history stages in male baboons and geladas

    PubMed Central

    Beehner, Jacinta C.; Gesquiere, Laurence; Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant advances in our knowledge of how testosterone mediates life-history trade-offs, this research has primarily focused on seasonal species. We know comparatively little about the relationship between testosterone and life-history stages for non-seasonally breeding species. Here we examine testosterone profiles across the lifespan of males from three non-seasonally breeding primates: yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus or P. hamadryas cynocephalus), chacma baboons (Papio ursinus or P. h. ursinus), and geladas (Theropithecus gelada). First, we predict that testosterone profiles will track the reproductive profiles of each taxon across their respective breeding years. Second, we evaluate age-related changes in testosterone to determine whether several life-history transitions are associated with these changes. Subjects include males (>2.5 years) from wild populations of each taxon from whom we had fecal samples for hormone determination. Although testosterone profiles across species were broadly similar, considerable variability was found in the timing of two major changes: (1) the attainment of adult levels of testosterone, and (2) the decline in testosterone after the period of maximum production. Attainment of adult testosterone levels was delayed by one year in chacmas compared with yellows and geladas. With respect to the decline in testosterone, geladas and chacmas exhibited a significant drop after three years of maximum production, while yellows declined so gradually that no significant annual drop was ever detected. For both yellows and chacmas, increases in testosterone production preceded elevations in social dominance rank. We discuss these differences in the context of ecological and behavioral differences exhibited by these taxa. PMID:19712676

  18. Entanglement is a costly life-history stage in large whales.

    PubMed

    van der Hoop, Julie; Corkeron, Peter; Moore, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Individuals store energy to balance deficits in natural cycles; however, unnatural events can also lead to unbalanced energy budgets. Entanglement in fishing gear is one example of an unnatural but relatively common circumstance that imposes energetic demands of a similar order of magnitude and duration of life-history events such as migration and pregnancy in large whales. We present two complementary bioenergetic approaches to estimate the energy associated with entanglement in North Atlantic right whales, and compare these estimates to the natural energetic life history of individual whales. Differences in measured blubber thicknesses and estimated blubber volumes between normal and entangled, emaciated whales indicate between 7.4 × 10 10  J and 1.2 × 10 11  J of energy are consumed during the course to death of a lethal entanglement. Increased thrust power requirements to overcome drag forces suggest that when entangled, whales require 3.95 × 10 9 to 4.08 × 10 10  J more energy to swim. Individuals who died from their entanglements performed significantly more work (energy expenditure × time) than those that survived; entanglement duration is therefore critical in determining whales' survival. Significant sublethal energetic impacts also occur, especially in reproductive females. Drag from fishing gear contributes up to 8% of the 4-year female reproductive energy budget, delaying time of energetic equilibrium (to restore energy lost by a particular entanglement) for reproduction by months to years. In certain populations, chronic entanglement in fishing gear can be viewed as a costly unnatural life-history stage, rather than a rare or short-term incident.

  19. Acute toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) for turbot (Psetta maxima) early life stages (ELS).

    PubMed

    Mhadhbi, Lazhar; Fumega, José; Boumaiza, Moncef; Beiras, Ricardo

    2012-03-01

    The environmental presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), among which BDE-47 and BDE-99 are particularly abundant, makes toxicity data necessary to assess the hazard risk posed by PBDE to aquatic organisms. This study examines the effects of BDE-47 and BDE-99 on embryo-larval stages of the marine flatfish turbot. The turbot embryos were exposed at nominal concentrations of BDE-47 and BDE-99 for 6 days. Selected dose levels were relevant for investigating sublethal and lethal effects. Both tested compounds caused lethal toxicity as well as non-lethal malformations during embryo development. We found a high toxic potency of BDE-47 compared to BDE-99 (LC₅₀ values for embryos and larvae, respectively, BDE-47: 27.35 and 14.13 μg L⁻¹; BDE-99: 38.28 and 29.64 μg L⁻¹). The present study shows high sensitivity of fish early life stages (ELS) to PBDE compounds. Based on environmental concentrations of dissolved PBDEs from various aquatic ecosystems, waterborne BDE-47 and BDE-99 pose little risk of acute toxicity to marine fish at relevant environmental concentrations. Turbot fish ELS proved to be an excellent model for the study of ecotoxicity of contaminants in seawater. The results demonstrate harmful effects of PBDE on turbot ELS at concentrations in the range of parts per billion units. In the perspective of risk assessment, ELS endpoints provide rapid, cost-effective and ecologically relevant information, and links should be sought between these short-term tests and effects of long-term exposures in more realistic scenarios.

  20. Mortality sensitivity in life-stage simulation analysis: A case study of southern sea otters

    Gerber, L.R.; Tinker, M.T.; Doak, D.F.; Estes, J.A.; Jessup, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Currently, there are no generally recognized approaches for linking detailed mortality and pathology data to population-level analyses of extinction risk. We used a combination of analytical and simulation-based analyses to examine 20 years of age- and sex-specific mortality data for southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris), and we applied results to project the efficacy of alternative conservation strategies. Population recovery of the southern sea otter has been slow (rate of population increase ?? = 1.05) compared to other recovering populations (?? = 1.17-1.20), and the population declined (?? = 0.975) between 1995 and 1999. Age-based Leslie matrices were developed to explore explanations for the slow recovery and recent decline in the southern sea other population. An elasticity analysis was performed to predict effects of proportional changes in stage-specific reproductive or survival rates on the rate of population increase. A life-stage simulation analysis (LSA) was developed to evaluate the impact of changing age- and cause-specific mortality rates on ??. The information used to develop these models was derived from death assemblage, pathology, and live population census data to examine the sensitivity of sea otter population growth to different sources of mortality (e.g., disease and starvation, direct human take [fisheries, gun shot, boat strike, oil pollution], mating trauma and intraspecific aggression, shark bites, and unknown). We used resampling simulations to generate random combinations of vital rates for a large number of matrix replicates and drew on these to estimate potential effects of mortality sources on population growth (??). Our analyses suggest management actions that are likely and unlikely to promote recovery of the southern sea otter and more broadly indicate a methodology to better utilize cause-of-death data in conservation decision-making.

  1. Cumulative Effects of Nutrient Enrichment and Elevated Temperature Compromise the Early Life History Stages of the Coral Acropora tenuis

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Sam H. C.; Willis, Bette L.; Fabricius, Katharina E.; Negri, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Inshore coral reefs are experiencing the combined pressures of excess nutrient availability associated with coastal activities and warming seawater temperatures. Both pressures are known to have detrimental effects on the early life history stages of hard corals, but studies of their combined effects on early demographic stages are lacking. We conducted a series of experiments to test the combined effects of nutrient enrichment (three levels) and elevated seawater temperature (up to five levels) on early life history stages of the inshore coral Acropora tenuis, a common species in the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea. Gamete fertilization, larval survivorship and larval settlement were all significantly reduced as temperature increased, but only fertilization was further affected by simultaneous nutrient enrichment. Combined high temperatures and nutrient enrichment affected fertilization in an additive manner, whereas embryo abnormalities increased synergistically. Higher than normal temperatures (32°C) increased coral juvenile growth rates 1.6-fold, but mortality also increased by 50%. The co-occurrence of nutrient enrichment with high temperatures reduced juvenile mortality to 36%, ameliorating temperature stress (antagonistic interaction). Overall, the types of effect (additive vs synergistic or antagonistic) and their magnitude varied among life stages. Gamete and embryo stages were more affected by temperature stress and, in some cases, also by nutrient enrichment than juveniles. The data suggest that coastal runoff events might exacerbate the impacts of warming temperatures on fertilization if these events co-occur during corals spawning. The cumulative impacts of simultaneous exposure to nutrient enrichment and elevated temperatures over all early life history stages increases the likelihood for failure of larval supply and recruitment for this coral species. Our results suggest that improving the water quality of river discharges into coastal areas might help to

  2. Impacts of triclosan exposure on zebrafish early-life stage: Toxicity and acclimation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Falisse, Elodie; Voisin, Anne-Sophie; Silvestre, Frédéric

    2017-08-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad spectrum antibacterial agent widely used in personal care products and present in most aquatic ecosystems. This study investigated the occurrence of triclosan acclimation and the biological mechanisms underlying the stress response triggered in early-life stage of zebrafish. Zebrafish eggs were first exposed to four different sublethal concentrations of TCS (2, 20, 50 and 100μg/L) for 7days following fertilization and subsequently exposed to a lethal concentration of TCS (1000μg/L). During the time-to-death exposure (TTD), mortality was continuously recorded to evaluate if increased resistance occurred. Overall, larvae exposed to 50μg/L of TCS demonstrated higher sensitivity, with delayed hatching and increased mortality during the sub-lethal exposure and significant lower mean time-to-death (TTD) value compared to the other groups. Interestingly, fish exposed to the highest concentration of TCS (100μg/L) presented a similar mean TTD value as controls and a significantly better survival in comparison with embryos exposed to 50μg/L, suggesting that acclimation process has been triggered at this concentration. Proteomic and enzymatic analyses were conducted on 7days post fertilization (dpf) larvae exposed to 50μg/L and 100μg/L of TCS giving insights into the functional changes triggered at those specific concentrations. TCS seemed to affect proteins involved in cytoskeleton, stress response, eyes and neuronal development. This was endorsed by the enzymatic results, which suggest impairment in glutathione metabolism and acute neurotoxicity. A significant 2.5-fold and 3-fold increase of AChE activity was observed following TCS exposure. Moreover, GPx activity was significantly increased whereas a significant inhibition of GR activity was observed, suggesting that de novo synthesis of reduced GSH might occur in order to maintain the ratio between reduced and oxidized GSH. Proteomic results revealed possible candidate protein involved in

  3. Pathogen and host genotype differently affect pathogen fitness through their effects on different life-history stages.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Emily; Carson, Martin; May, Georgiana

    2012-08-02

    Adaptation of pathogens to their hosts depends critically on factors affecting pathogen reproductive rate. While pathogen reproduction is the end result of an intricate interaction between host and pathogen, the relative contributions of host and pathogen genotype to variation in pathogen life history within the host are not well understood. Untangling these contributions allows us to identify traits with sufficient genetic variation for selection to act and to identify mechanisms of coevolution between pathogens and their hosts. We investigated the effects of pathogen and host genotype on three life-history components of pathogen fitness; infection efficiency, latent period, and sporulation capacity, in the oat crown rust fungus, Puccinia coronata f.sp. avenae, as it infects oats (Avena sativa). We show that both pathogen and host genotype significantly affect total spore production but do so through their effects on different life-history stages. Pathogen genotype has the strongest effect on the early stage of infection efficiency, while host genotype most strongly affects the later life-history stages of latent period and sporulation capacity. In addition, host genotype affected the relationship between pathogen density and the later life-history traits of latent period and sporulation capacity. We did not find evidence of pathogen-by-host genotypic (GxG) interactions. Our results illustrate mechanisms by which variation in host populations will affect the evolution of pathogen life history. Results show that different pathogen life-history stages have the potential to respond differently to selection by host or pathogen genotype and suggest mechanisms of antagonistic coevolution. Pathogen populations may adapt to host genotypes through increased infection efficiency while their plant hosts may adapt by limiting the later stages of pathogen growth and spore production within the host.

  4. Chromium Toxicity Test for Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Using Hanford Site Groundwater: Onsite Early Life-Stage Toxicity Evaluation

    SciT

    Patton, Gregory W; Dauble, Dennis D; Chamness, Mickie A

    The objective of this study was to evaluate site-specific effects for early life-stage (eyed eggs to free swimming juveniles) fall chinook salmon that might be exposed to hexavalent chromium from Hanford groundwater sources. Our exposure conditions included hexavalent chromium obtained from Hanford groundwater wells near the Columbia River, Columbia River water as the diluent, and locally adapted populations of fall chinook salmon. This report describes both a 96-hr pretest using rainbow trout eggs and an early life-stage test beginning with chinook salmon eggs.

  5. Innovative curriculum: Integrating the bio-behavioral and social science principles across the LifeStages in basic science years.

    PubMed

    Lele Mookerjee, Anuradha; Fischer, Bradford D; Cavanaugh, Susan; Rajput, Vijay

    2018-05-20

    Behavioral and social science integration in clinical practice improves health outcomes across the life stages. The medical school curriculum requires an integration of the behavioral and social science principles in early medical education. We developed and delivered a four-week course entitled "LifeStages" to the first year medical students. The learning objectives of the bio-behavioral and social science principles along with the cultural, economic, political, and ethical parameters were integrated across the lifespan in the curriculum matrix. We focused on the following major domains: Growth and Brain Development; Sexuality, Hormones and Gender; Sleep; Cognitive and Emotional Development; Mobility, Exercise, Injury and Safety; Nutrition, Diet and Lifestyle; Stress and coping skills, Domestic Violence; Substance Use Disorders; Pain, Illness and Suffering; End of Life, Ethics and Death along with Intergenerational issues and Family Dynamics. Collaboration from the clinical and biomedical science departments led to the dynamic delivery of the course learning objectives and content. The faculty developed and led a scholarly discussion, using the case of a multi-racial, multi-generational family during Active Learning Group (ALG) sessions. The assessment in the LifeStages course involved multiple assessment tools: including the holistic assessment by the faculty facilitator inside ALGs, a Team-Based Learning (TBL) exercise, multiple choice questions and Team Work Assessment during which the students had to create a clinical case on a LifeStages domain along with the facilitators guide and learning objectives.

  6. Tough Adults, Frail Babies: An Analysis of Stress Sensitivity across Early Life-History Stages of Widely Introduced Marine Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, M. Carmen; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Turon, Xavier; López-Legentil, Susanna; Ordóñez, Víctor; Rius, Marc

    2012-01-01

    All ontogenetic stages of a life cycle are exposed to environmental conditions so that population persistence depends on the performance of both adults and offspring. Most studies analysing the influence of abiotic conditions on species performance have focussed on adults, while studies covering early life-history stages remain rare. We investigated the responses of early stages of two widely introduced ascidians, Styela plicata and Microcosmus squamiger, to different abiotic conditions. Stressors mimicked conditions in the habitats where both species can be found in their distributional ranges and responses were related to the selection potential of their populations by analysing their genetic diversity. Four developmental stages (egg fertilisation, larval development, settlement, metamorphosis) were studied after exposure to high temperature (30°C), low salinities (26 and 22‰) and high copper concentrations (25, 50 and 100 µg/L). Although most stressors effectively led to failure of complete development (fertilisation through metamorphosis), fertilisation and larval development were the most sensitive stages. All the studied stressors affected the development of both species, though responses differed with stage and stressor. S. plicata was overall more resistant to copper, and some stages of M. squamiger to low salinities. No relationship was found between parental genetic composition and responses to stressors. We conclude that successful development can be prevented at several life-history stages, and therefore, it is essential to consider multiple stages when assessing species' abilities to tolerate stress. Moreover, we found that early development of these species cannot be completed under conditions prevailing where adults live. These populations must therefore recruit from elsewhere or reproduce during temporal windows of more benign conditions. Alternatively, novel strategies or behaviours that increase overall reproductive success might be

  7. The effect of tramadol hydrochloride on early life stages of fish.

    PubMed

    Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Blahova, Jana; Berankova, Petra; Doubkova, Veronika; Prokes, Miroslav; Tichy, Frantisek; Vecerek, Vladimir; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to perform the fish embryo acute toxicity test (FET) on zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the early-life stage toxicity test on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with tramadol hydrochloride. The FET was performed using the method inspired by the OECD guideline 236. Newly fertilized zebrafish eggs were exposed to tramadol hydrochloride at concentrations of 10; 50; 100 and 200μg/l for a period of 144h. An embryo-larval toxicity test on C. carpio was performed according to OECD guideline 210 also with tramadol hydrochloride at concentrations 10; 50; 100 and 200μg/l for a period of 32 days. Hatching was significantly influenced in both acute and subchronic toxicity assays. Subchronic exposure also influenced early ontogeny, both morphometric and condition characteristics and caused changes in antioxidant enzyme activity. The LOEC value was found to be 10μg/l tramadol hydrochloride. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification on early life stages of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, J.; Jin, F.; Wang, J.; Zheng, N.; Cong, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The potential effects of elevated CO2 level and reduced carbonate saturation state in marine environment on fishes and other non-calcified organisms are still poorly known. In present study, we investigated the effects of ocean acidification on embryogenesis and organogenesis of newly hatched larvae of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) after 21 d exposure of eggs to different artificially acidified seawater (pH 7.6 and 7.2, respectively), and compared with those in control group (pH 8.2). Results showed that CO2-driven seawater acidification (pH 7.6 and 7.2) had no detectable effect on hatching time, hatching rate, and heart rate of embryos. However, the deformity rate of larvae in pH 7.2 treatment was significantly higher than that in control treatment. The left and right sagitta areas did not differ significantly from each other in each treatment. However, the mean sagitta area of larvae in pH 7.6 treatment was significantly smaller than that in the control (p = 0.024). These results suggest that although marine medaka might be more tolerant of elevated CO2 than some other fishes, the effect of elevated CO2 level on the calcification of otolith is likely to be the most susceptibly physiological process of pH regulation in early life stage of marine medaka.

  9. Sensitivity of early-life stage golden trout to low pH and elevated aluminum

    Delonay, Aaron J.; Little, Edward E.; Woodward, Daniel F.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Farag, Aïda M.; Rabeni, Charles F.

    1993-01-01

    Early-life-stage golden trout (Oncorhynchus aguabonita aguabonita) were exposed to acid and Al to examine the response and determine the sensitivity of a western, alpine salmonid to conditions simulating an episodic pH depression. Freshly fertilized eggs, alevins, and swim-up larvae were exposed for 7 d to one of 12 combinations of pH and Al, and surviving fish were held to 40 d post-hatch to determine the effect of exposure on subsequent survival and recovery. Golden trout are sensitive to conditions simulating episodic acidification events typically observed in the field. Significant mortality occurred when the pH of test waters was below 5.0 in the absence of Al or when pH was 5.5 in the presence of 100 μg/L total Al. Behavioral impairments were sensitive indicators of low pH and Al stress. Impaired locomotory and feeding behavior occurred at pH 5.5 without Al and at Al concentrations > 50 μg/L. In contrast, growth, RNA-to-DNA ratio, and whole-body ion concentration were relatively less sensitive indicators of sublethal acid and Al stress.

  10. Evidence of Olfactory Imprinting at an Early Life Stage in Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha)

    PubMed Central

    Bett, Nolan N.; Hinch, Scott G.; Dittman, Andrew H.; Yun, Sang-Seon

    2016-01-01

    Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) navigate towards spawning grounds using olfactory cues they imprinted on as juveniles. The timing at which imprinting occurs has been studied extensively, and there is strong evidence that salmon imprint on their natal water during the parr-smolt transformation (PST). Researchers have noted, however, that the life histories of some species of Pacific salmon could necessitate imprinting prior to the PST. Juvenile pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) spend less time in fresh water than any other species of Pacific salmon, and presumably must imprint on their natal water at a very young age. The time at which imprinting occurs in this species, however, has not been experimentally tested. We exposed juvenile pink salmon as alevins to phenethyl alcohol (PEA) or control water, reared these fish to adulthood, and then tested their behavioural responses to PEA to determine whether the fish successfully imprinted. We found that pink salmon exposed to PEA as alevins were attracted to the chemical as adults, suggesting that imprinting can occur during this stage. Our finding provides some of the first evidence to support the long-standing belief that imprinting can occur in pink salmon prior to the PST. PMID:27827382

  11. Evidence of Olfactory Imprinting at an Early Life Stage in Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).

    PubMed

    Bett, Nolan N; Hinch, Scott G; Dittman, Andrew H; Yun, Sang-Seon

    2016-11-09

    Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) navigate towards spawning grounds using olfactory cues they imprinted on as juveniles. The timing at which imprinting occurs has been studied extensively, and there is strong evidence that salmon imprint on their natal water during the parr-smolt transformation (PST). Researchers have noted, however, that the life histories of some species of Pacific salmon could necessitate imprinting prior to the PST. Juvenile pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) spend less time in fresh water than any other species of Pacific salmon, and presumably must imprint on their natal water at a very young age. The time at which imprinting occurs in this species, however, has not been experimentally tested. We exposed juvenile pink salmon as alevins to phenethyl alcohol (PEA) or control water, reared these fish to adulthood, and then tested their behavioural responses to PEA to determine whether the fish successfully imprinted. We found that pink salmon exposed to PEA as alevins were attracted to the chemical as adults, suggesting that imprinting can occur during this stage. Our finding provides some of the first evidence to support the long-standing belief that imprinting can occur in pink salmon prior to the PST.

  12. Toxicity of synthetic musks to early life stages of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis cardium

    Gooding, M.P.; Newton, T.J.; Bartsch, M.R.; Hornbuckle, K.C.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic musk fragrances are common additives to many consumer products. As a result of their widespread use and slow degradation rates, they are widely found in aquatic environments. This study reports on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of the polycyclic musks AHTN (Tonalide??) and HHCB (Galaxolide??) to glochidial (larval) and juvenile life stages of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis cardium (Rafinesque, 1820). In glochidia, 24-h median lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranged from 454 to 850 ??g AHTN/L and from 1000 to >1750 ??g HHCB/L (water solubility). Results for 48-h tests were similar to the 24-h tests. In 96-h tests with juveniles, we did not observe a dose-response relation between mortality and either musk. However, the growth rate was reduced by musk exposure. The median effective concentrations (EC50s, based on growth) were highly variable and ranged from 108 to 1034 ??g AHTN/L and 153 to 831 ??g HHCB/L. While all adverse effects occurred at concentrations that are much greater than those reported in natural waters (low ??g/L to ng/L), these results indicate the potential for adverse effects on these long-lived organisms from exposure to synthetic musk fragrances. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  13. Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Richterová, Zuzana; Máchová, Jana; Stará, Alžběta; Tumová, Jitka; Velíšek, Josef; Ševčíková, Marie; Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60 g L−1) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250 μg L−1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15 μg L−1 gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50 μg L−1 died soon after hatching; at 25 μg L−1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5 μg L−1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

  14. Heavy Rare Earth Elements Affect Sphaerechinus granularis Sea Urchin Early Life Stages by Multiple Toxicity Endpoints.

    PubMed

    Gravina, Maria; Pagano, Giovanni; Oral, Rahime; Guida, Marco; Toscanesi, Maria; Siciliano, Antonietta; Di Nunzio, Aldo; Burić, Petra; Lyons, Daniel M; Thomas, Philippe J; Trifuoggi, Marco

    2018-05-01

    Heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) were tested for adverse effects to early life stages of the sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis. Embryos were exposed to analytically measured HREE concentrations ranging from 10 -7 to 10 -5  M. No significant developmental defect (DD) increases were observed in embryos exposed to 10 -7  M HREEs, whereas 10 -5  M HREEs resulted in significant DD increase up to 96% for HoCl 3 versus 14% in controls. Embryos exposed to 10 -6  M HREEs showed the highest DD frequency in embryos exposed to 10 -6  M DyCl 3 and HoCl 3 . Cytogenetic analysis of HREE-exposed embryos revealed a significant decrease in mitotic activity, with increased mitotic aberrations. When S. granularis sperm were exposed to HREEs, the offspring of sperm exposed to 10 -5  M GdCl 3 and LuCl 3 showed significant DD increases. The results warrant investigations on HREEs in other test systems, and on REE-containing complex mixtures.

  15. Comparative toxicity of two oil dispersants to the early life stages of two marine species

    SciT

    Singer, M.M.; George, S.; Benner, D.

    1993-10-01

    Acute, flow-through, spiked-exposure toxicity tests were performed on the early life stages of two marine species using two oil dispersants. The species represent two common near-shore marine taxa: molluscs (red abalone, Haliotis rufescens) and crustaceans (kelp forest mysid, Holmesimysis costata). The dispersants were composed of complex mixtures of anionic and nonionic surfactants and solvents. The toxicity data showed that one dispersant, Slik-A-Way, was more toxic than the other, Nokomis[reg sign] 3, to both species. Median-effect concentration estimates for the two dispersants were significantly different between species. Slik-A-Way median-effect concentrations ranged from 16.8 to 23.9 initial ppm for Haliotis and 25.9more » to 34.6 initial ppm for Holmesimysis, whereas Nokomis[reg sign] 3 median-effect concentrations ranged from 21.0 to 24.0 initial ppm for Haliotis and from 118.0 to 123.2 initial ppm for Holmesimysis. Differences in toxicity seen in the two dispersants may be due to differences in surfactant formulations.« less

  16. Photoenhanced toxicity of a carbamate insecticide to early life stage anuran amphibians

    Zaga, A.; Little, E.E.; Rabeni, C.F.; Ellersieck, Mark R.

    1998-01-01

    Aican clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) and gray tree frog (Hyla versicolor) embryos and tadpoles were exposed to sublethal levels of carbaryl, a broad-spectrum insecticide, and ultraviolet radiation to determine interactive and sublethal effects. Ultraviolet intensity (UV-B [285–320 nm] plus UV-A [321–400 nm]) was controlled with various types of plastic filters and quantified with a scanning spectroradiometer. Significant differences in swimming activity and mortality of both species were evident during the 96-h experiments. Ultraviolet-B radiation alone and carbaryl in the presence of UV-B significantly decreased swimming activity of both species. As little as 1.5% intensity of ambient solar UV-B radiation photoactivated carbaryl. Toxicity of 7.5 mg/L carbaryl increased by 10-fold in the presence of UV-B in all species and life stages tested. Our results indicate that photoenhancement by solar UV-B radiation should be considered when evaluating the toxicity of contaminants to amphibians and other organisms.

  17. End-stage dementia spark of life: reliability and validity of the "GATOS" questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Bourelia, Stamati; Kalogirou, Vaso; Giatsiou, Styliani; Mavrogiannaki, Eirini; Gatos, Georgios; Galanos, Antonis; Repana, Olga; Iliadou, Eleni; Antoniou, Antonis; Sgantzos, Markos; Gatos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Fl oor effects are present in most dementia assessment tools as dementia progresses and the in-depth assessment of patients considered more or less on vegetative state is questionable. To develop a questionnaire (the "Gatos Clinical Test-GCT") for the assessment of end-stage demented patients. Five hundred patients with dementia of various causes and an MMSE score between 0 and 2 were enrolled in the study. The GCT consists of 14 closed type questions rated on a Likert scale. The total score is used to evaluate patient's dementia. Various aspects of validity and reliability (including face, content and structural validity as well as test-retest reliability) were examined. Three subscales "Autonomy/Alertness", "Gnosias" and "Somatokinetic function" were defined, with a Cronbach equal to 0.851, 0.756 and 0.598 respectively. The GCT subscales and total score were statistically significant higher in patients with MMSE score 1 or 2 compared with those with MMSE score 0 (p<0.0005). Patients with GCT total score less than 12.5 had 75% probability to have zero MMSE score. The "GATOS" questionnaire is a valid and reliable test for patients with severe dementia, aiming at identification of those patients who could sustain some quality of life. It is a relatively short and easy to administer tool. As dementia prevalence is expected to rise further worldwide we believe that GCT could offer valuable services to health professionals, caregivers and patients.

  18. Acute toxicity and histopathological effects of naproxen in zebrafish (Danio rerio) early life stages.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Wang, Peipei; Chen, Ling; Gao, Hongwen; Wu, Lingling

    2016-09-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and larvae were selected to investigate the potential risk and aquatic toxicity of a widely used pharmaceutical, naproxen. The acute toxicity of naproxen to embryos and larvae was measured, respectively. The histopathology was investigated in the liver of zebrafish larvae after 8-day embryo-larvae exposure to naproxen. The values of 96-h LC50 were 115.2 mg/L for embryos and 147.6 mg/L for larvae, indicating that zebrafish embryos were more sensitive than larvae to naproxen exposure. Large suites of symptoms were induced in zebrafish (D. rerio) early life stages by different dosages of naproxen, including hatching inhibition, lower heart rate, and morphological abnormalities. The most sensitive sub-lethal effect caused by naproxen was pericardial edema, the 72-h EC50 values of which for embryos and larvae were 98.3 and 149.0 mg/L, respectively. In addition, naproxen-treated zebrafish larvae exhibited histopathological liver damage, including swollen hepatocytes, vacuolar degeneration, and nuclei pycnosis. The results indicated that naproxen is a potential threat to aquatic organisms.

  19. Toxicity of Synthetic Musks to Early Life Stages of the Freshwater Mussel Lampsilis cardium

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, M.P.; Newton, T.J.; Bartsch, M.R.; Hornbuckle, K.C.

    2009-01-01

    Polycyclic musk fragrances are common additives to many consumer products. As a result of their widespread use and slow degradation rates, they are widely found in aquatic environments. This study reports on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of the polycyclic musks AHTN (Tonalide®) and HHCB (Galaxolide®) to glochidial (larval) and juvenile life stages of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis cardium (Rafinesque, 1820). In glochidia, 24-h median lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranged from 454 to 850 μg AHTN/L and from 1000 to >1750 μg HHCB/L (water solubility). Results for 48-h tests were similar to the 24-h tests. In 96-h tests with juveniles, we did not observe a dose-response relation between mortality and either musk. However, growth rate was reduced by musk exposure. The median effective concentrations (EC50s, based on growth) were highly variable and ranged from 108 to 1034 μg AHTN/L and 153 to 831 μg HHCB/L. While all adverse effects occurred at concentrations that are much greater than those reported in natural waters (low μg/L to ng/L), these results indicate the potential for adverse effects on these long-lived organisms from exposure to synthetic musk fragrances. PMID:16944041

  20. A real-time PCR approach to detect predation on anchovy and sardine early life stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuende, Elsa; Mendibil, Iñaki; Bachiller, Eneko; Álvarez, Paula; Cotano, Unai; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara

    2017-12-01

    Recruitment of sardine (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum, 1792) and anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus Linnaeus, 1758) is thought to be regulated by predation of their eggs and larvae. Predators of sardine and anchovy can be identified by visual taxonomic identification of stomach contents, but this method is time consuming, tedious and may underestimate predation, especially in small predators such as fish larvae. Alternatively, genetic tools may offer a more cost-effective and accurate alternative. Here, we have developed a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay based on TaqMan probes to simultaneously detect sardine and anchovy remains in gut contents of potential predators. The assay combines previously described and newly generated species-specific primers and probes for anchovy and sardine detection respectively, and allows the detection of 0,001 ng of target DNA (which corresponds to about one hundredth of the total DNA present in a single egg). We applied the method to candidate anchovy and sardine egg predators in the Bay of Biscay, Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) larvae. Egg predation observed was limited primarily to those stations where sardine and/or anchovy eggs were present. Our developed assay offers a suitable tool to understand the effects of predation on the survival of anchovy and sardine early life stages.

  1. Effect of thiacloprid on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Velisek, Josef; Stara, Alzbeta

    2018-03-01

    Toxicity of the neonicotinoid pesticide thiacloprid to embryos and larvae of common carp Cyprinus carpio was assessed under laboratory conditions. Carp embryos and larvae were exposed to thiacloprid at four concentrations: 4.5 (environmental concentration), 45, 225, and 450 μg/L for 35 days and compared to a non-treated control group. The effects on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme levels (superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and reduced glutathione), mortality, growth, development, and histopathogenesis were assessed. Thiacloprid at tested concentrations were not associated with negative effects on hatching, behaviour, embryo viability, or Fulton's condition factor. Carp exposed to 45 μg/L thiacloprid showed lower weight and length compared to controls. Thiacloprid at 225 and 450 μg/L delayed development and led to lower weight and length of carp. Significantly lower superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase activity was observed at all tested concentrations of thiacloprid compared with the control group. Chronic thiacloprid exposure of early-life stages of carp affected ontogeny and growth rate, and inhibited antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Work-family interface from a life and career stage perspective: the role of demands and resources.

    PubMed

    Demerouti, Evangelia; Peeters, Maria C W; van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M

    2012-01-01

    Work-family conflict and enrichment are experiences that occur daily and have substantial consequences for employees, their families, and the organizations that employ them. The aim of the current review is to make a link between life and career stage, work and family conditions, and the work-family interface. The basic proposition is that life stages partly determine career development, and consequently the specific working conditions (job demands and job resources) and family conditions (family demands and family resources) that individuals are exposed to. As a result, the specific demands and resources in the work and family domains determine to what extent individuals experience that work and family are conflicting or enriching life domains. In this review we suggest that individuals in early adulthood will experience high inter-role conflict and low facilitation due to high demands and low resources in both life domains, while individuals in late adulthood will experience the opposite pattern; that is, low conflict and high facilitation due to low demands and high resources in both domains. Individuals in middle adulthood will experience high work-family conflict but also high family-work facilitation due to the presence of high job demands and resources in both life domains. Integrating life and career stage perspectives and the experience of work-family interface is of notable practical utility because it provides a mechanism to make more informed decisions about the relative need for and corresponding benefits of work-family programs.

  3. Developmental toxicity of PAH mixtures in fish early life stages. Part II: adverse effects in Japanese medaka.

    PubMed

    Le Bihanic, Florane; Clérandeau, Christelle; Le Menach, Karyn; Morin, Bénédicte; Budzinski, Hélène; Cousin, Xavier; Cachot, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    In aquatic environments, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mostly occur as complex mixtures, for which risk assessment remains problematic. To better understand the effects of PAH mixture toxicity on fish early life stages, this study compared the developmental toxicity of three PAH complex mixtures. These mixtures were extracted from a PAH-contaminated sediment (Seine estuary, France) and two oils (Arabian Light and Erika). For each fraction, artificial sediment was spiked at three different environmental concentrations roughly equivalent to 0.5, 4, and 10 μg total PAH g(-1) dw. Japanese medaka embryos were incubated on these PAH-spiked sediments throughout their development, right up until hatching. Several endpoints were recorded at different developmental stages, including acute endpoints, morphological abnormalities, larvae locomotion, and genotoxicity (comet and micronucleus assays). The three PAH fractions delayed hatching, induced developmental abnormalities, disrupted larvae swimming activity, and damaged DNA at environmental concentrations. Differences in toxicity levels, likely related to differences in PAH proportions, were highlighted between fractions. The Arabian Light and Erika petrogenic fractions, containing a high proportion of alkylated PAHs and low molecular weight PAHs, were more toxic to Japanese medaka early life stages than the pyrolytic fraction. This was not supported by the toxic equivalency approach, which appeared unsuitable for assessing the toxicity of the three PAH fractions to fish early life stages. This study highlights the potential risks posed by environmental mixtures of alkylated and low molecular weight PAHs to early stages of fish development.

  4. Initial investigation of a hypothesized link between thyroid peroxidase inhibition and fish early-life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  5. Patterns of Social Interaction and Concepts of Interpersonal-Relating at Different Life-Stages in the Marquesas Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martini, Mary

    This research report describes a study of Marquesas Islanders and how they interact with each other at different life stages from childhood, through youth and adulthood. Fieldwork for this study was conducted for a 10-month period on the island of 'Ua Pou, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia. A small community of about 200 people in a valley on…

  6. Discovering and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways: Putting the research strategy into practice

    EPA Science Inventory

    In May 2012, a HESI-sponsored expert workshop yielded a proposed research strategy for systematically discovering, characterizing, and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as well as prioritizing AOP development in light of current restrictions ...

  7. Growth parameters of rainbow trout at differenct life stages reared on either a fish meal or plant protein based diet.

    Analysis of growth parameters have been researched in a number of aquaculture species with rainbow trout having received a significant amount of attention. Typically most growth studies have evaluated changes in plasma hormone levels or expression in growth genes in fish at a certain life stage. It ...

  8. USE OF MULTIPHOTON LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY TO IMAGE BENZO[A]PYRENE AND METABOLITES IN FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiphoton laser scanning micrsocopy holds promise as a tool to study the tissue distribution of environmental chemical contaminants during fish early life stage development. One such chemical for which this is possible is benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a polyaromatic hydrocarbon that a...

  9. Characterization of the Impact of Life Stage on Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Expression and Gene -Chemical Interactions in the Liver

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs). We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs thro...

  10. The Evaluation Life Cycle: A Retrospective Assessment of Stages and Phases of the Circles of Care Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, Gary; Allen, James; Deters, Pamela B.

    2004-01-01

    A life cycle metaphor characterizes the evolving relationship between the evaluator and program staff. This framework suggests that common developmental dynamics occur in roughly the same order across groups and settings. There are stage-specific dynamics that begin with Pre-History, which characterize the relationship between the grantees and…

  11. EVALUATION OF BIOACCUMULATION AND PHOTOINDUCED TOXICITY OF FLUORANTHENE IN LARVAL AND ADULT LIFE-STAGES OF CHIRONOMUS TENTANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory sediment tests were conducted to evaluate the bioaccumulation and photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene in larval and adult life-stages of Chironomus tentans. In the first of two experiments, fourth-instar and adult C. tentans exposed to spiked sediments were collected...

  12. Alternatives to the fish early life-stage test: Developing a conceptual model for early fish development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic fish toxicity is a key parameter for hazard classification and environmental risk assessment of chemicals, and the OECD 210 fish early life-stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used for various international regulatory programs. There exists a need to develop ...

  13. Haematobia irritans dataset of raw sequence reads from Illumina-based transcriptome sequencing of specific tissues and life stages

    Illumina HiSeq technology was used to sequence the transcriptome from various dissected tissues and life stages from the horn fly, Haematobia irritans. These samples include eggs (0, 2, 4, and 9 hours post-oviposition), adult fly gut, adult fly legs, adult fly malpighian tubule, adult fly ovary, adu...

  14. The life history and immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus monostigma Champion (Coleoptera: Curculiondidae) on Miconia calvescens DC (Melastomataceae)

    Eduardo Chacón-Madrigal; M.Tracy Johnson; Paul Hanson

    2012-01-01

    We describe and illustrate the life history and immature stages of Anthonomus monostigma Champion (Curculionidae: Curculioninae: Anthonomini). This weevil is a fruit borer in Miconia calvescens DC (Melastomataceae), a Neotropical tree that is invasive in Pacific islands. The larva has three instars, and development from egg to...

  15. Development of an alternative testing strategy for the fish early life-stage (FELS) test using the AOP framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, the fish early life-stage (FELS) test (OECD 210) is the primary guideline used to estimate chronic toxicity of regulated chemicals. Although already more cost-efficient than adult fish tests, the FELS test has some important drawbacks. Both industry and regulatory inst...

  16. Parent-Teacher Association, Soup Kitchen, Church, or the Local Civic Club? Life Stage Indicators of Volunteer Domain.

    PubMed

    Carr, Dawn C; King, Katherine; Matz-Costa, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Gaps in existing literature hinder our knowledge of how life stage-related identities (e.g., worker, parent, student, etc.) influence individuals' decisions about whether and how to get involved in community service. Interventions to increase volunteerism throughout the life course require a more nuanced understanding of this relationship. We use multinomial logistic models to analyze how life phase factors relate to involvement in different types of voluntary organizations across the adult life course in the Chicago Community Adult Health Study. Half of the adults did not volunteer. Those who did volunteer were categorized as charitable, youth-oriented, religious, civic, or multidomain volunteers. Age, employment, family structure, demographics, and self-rated health differentially predicted volunteering in specific domains. Findings from this study suggest that recruitment and retention efforts employed by different nonprofit organizations may be more effective if they take into consideration the life phase factors that enhance or detract from likelihood of engagement. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Spatial variation in density and size structure indicate habitat selection throughout life stages of two Southwestern Atlantic snappers.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Alexandre; Hackradt, Carlos Werner; Ferreira, Beatrice Padovani

    2016-02-01

    The early life history of Lutjanus alexandrei and Lutjanus jocu in Southwestern Atlantic is still largely unknown. Habitat use of different life stages (i.e. size categories and densities) of the Brazilian snapper (L. alexandrei) and dog snapper (L. jocu) was examined in a tropical portion of NE coast of Brazil. Visual surveys were conducted in different shallow habitats (mangroves and reefs). Both snapper species showed higher densities in early life stages in mangrove habitat, with a clear increase in fish size from mangrove to adjacent reefs. Post-settler individuals were exclusively found in mangroves for both species. Juveniles of L. alexandrei were also registered only in mangroves, while sub-adult individuals were associated with both mangrove and reef habitats. Mature individuals of L. alexandrei were only observed in reef habitats. Juvenile and sub-adult individuals of the dog snapper were both associated with mangrove and reef habitats, with high densities registered in mangroves. Mature individuals of L. jocu were not registered in the study area. This pattern suggests preference for mangrove habitat in early life stages for both species. Ontogenetic movement between habitats was also recorded. This pattern denotes habitat selection across different life cycle of both species. Such information highlights the importance of directing management and conservation efforts to these habitats to secure the continuity of contribution to adult populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Life-space mobility of middle-aged and older adults at various stages of usage of power mobility devices.

    PubMed

    Auger, Claudine; Demers, Louise; Gélinas, Isabelle; Miller, William C; Jutai, Jeffrey W; Noreau, Luc

    2010-05-01

    To examine whether the impact of power mobility devices (PMDs) varies as a function of stage of usage and to explore key factors associated with greater life-space mobility for middle-aged and older adults. Multicohort study with respondents grouped as a function of stage of PMD usage (reference group with mobility impairments, n=42; initial users, 1-6mo, n=35; long-term users, 12-18mo, n=39). Cohorts were compared with respect to life-space mobility in a continuum of environments ranging from home to outside town, using analysis of variance and chi-square tests. Baseline personal, assistive device, intervention, and environmental factors associated with life-space mobility were explored with age-adjusted linear regression models. Four Canadian rehabilitation centers. Random sample of middle-aged and older adults (N=116; 50-89y) living in the community or residential care. Procurement of a powered wheelchair or scooter. Life-Space Assessment composite score. Cohort comparisons showed higher frequency of outings for PMD users in the neighborhood (P<.001) and around home (P<.05) and significantly greater Life-Space Assessment composite scores for initial and long-term users than for the reference group (P<.05). Factors such as sex, the nature of activities, and device type explained variances in Life-Space Assessment composite score ranging from 15.9% to 18.0% (P<.006). Life-space mobility increases after PMD use and remains stable across the stages of initial and long-term use. To appreciate the impact of PMDs, clinicians should consider the environment and a combination of personal and device factors that are associated with the range of life-space mobility in the first 18 months after procurement.

  19. Hydrological and thermal effects of hydropeaking on early life stages of salmonids: A modelling approach for implementing mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Casas-Mulet, Roser; Saltveit, Svein Jakob; Alfredsen, Knut Tore

    2016-12-15

    Alterations in hydrological and thermal regimes can potentially affect salmonid early life stages development and survival. The dewatering of salmon spawning redds due to hydropeaking can lead to mortality in early life stages, with higher impact on the alevins as they have lower tolerance to dewatering than the eggs. Flow-related mitigation measures can reduce early life stage mortality. We present a set of modelling tools to assess impacts and mitigation options to minimise the risk of mortality in early life stages in hydropeaking rivers. We successfully modelled long-term hydrological and thermal alterations and consequences for development rates. We estimated the risk of early life stages mortality and assessed the cost-effectiveness of implementing three release-related mitigation options (A,B,C). The economic cost of mitigation was low and ranged between 0.7% and 2.6% of the annual hydropower production. Options reducing the flow during spawning (B and C) in addition to only release minimum flows during development (A) were considered more effective for egg and alevin survival. Options B and C were however constraint by water availability in the system for certain years, and therefore only option A was always feasible. The set of modelling tools used in this study were satisfactory and their applications can be useful especially in systems where little field data is available. Targeted measures built on well-informed modelling tools can be tested on their effectiveness to mitigate dewatering effects vs. the hydropower system capacity to release or conserve water for power production. Environmental flow releases targeting specific ecological objectives can provide better cost-effective options than conventional operational rules complying with general legislation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of aquatic insect life stage and emergence strategy on sensitivity to esfenvalerate exposure.

    PubMed

    Palmquist, Katherine R; Jepson, Paul C; Jenkins, Jeffrey J

    2008-08-01

    We investigated the impact of aquatic insect life stage and emergence strategy on sensitivity to esfenvalerate, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, using field-collected Brachycentrus americanus Banks (Trichoptera: Brachycentridae) and Cinygmula reticulata McDunnough (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae) insects. Final-instar C. reticulata emergence was observed for one week following three environmentally relevant, 48-h esfenvalerate exposures (0.005, 0.01, and 0.015 microg/L). Emergence was significantly depressed following exposure to esfenvalerate and resulted from an increase in nymph mortality during the emergence process. This experiment was duplicated for late-instar C. reticulata nymphs, which were similar in size to the final-instar nymphs but were not near emergence. Late-instar C. reticulata mayflies were approximately fivefold less sensitive to esfenvalerate exposures as gauged by one-week mortality rates. Brachycentrus americanus pupal mortality was significantly increased over that in controls following 48-h esfenvalerate exposures of 0.1 and 0.2 microg/L. These response concentrations correlated closely with those for case-abandonment rates of fourth-instar B. americanus larvae (a sublethal effect of esfenvalerate exposure). Pupal mortality rates were approximately 16-fold higher than those observed in larvae. Adult female egg weight as a percentage of total body weight was significantly decreased following pupal esfenvalerate exposures of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 microg/L. These findings suggest that exposure to esfenvalerate may impair hemimetabolous insect emergence behaviors and may decrease fecundity in holometabolous aquatic insects.

  1. [The university stage does not favor the healthy life style in women students from Granada].

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Escudero, Alba; Muñoz Alférez, María José; Planells del Pozo, Elena María; López Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2014-11-15

    The university stage involves a series of emotional, physiological and environmental changes that will determine consumer patterns that, in many cases, will be maintained and will affect their health. The aim of this study is to analyze the lifestyle (alcohol and tobacco consumption, and levels of physical activity) of female students at the University of Granada. Several authors have noted that the student population is particularly vulnerable to develop risk customs and habits, since the period of university studies is often the time when students take first responsibility for determining their own styles and customs, which in many cases will be maintained throughout its entire life. This is a cross / descriptive and analytical study in which 55 students participated in two age groups (18-24 and 25-31 years). A lifestyle-questionnaire was applied to evaluate the type and frequency of alcohol consumption, number of cigarettes smoked daily and physical activity levels (sedentary, light, moderate and severe). Alcohol consumption is higher in the older group, and preferably drinks beer and wine; however the younger group shows a pattern of consumption centered on the weekends being preferably consumed distilled beverages. A third of the population smokes with an increase in the number of cigarettes as age increases. There is a positive correlation between snuff and alcohol. A direct positive correlation between tobacco and alcohol was observed. The 88.9% of lesser age group and 52.7% of higher age group show a sedentary-low physical activity. The need to sensitize the college female population on the benefits of no-consumption of alcohol and snuff, and regular physical exercise is suggested. It would also be advisable to develop protocols of educational intervention in universities promoting healthy living habits. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro lectin binding to the outer surface of Spirocerca lupi at different life-stages.

    PubMed

    Aroch, I; Arogeti, I; Marcovics, A; Spiegel, Y; Lavy, E

    2017-02-15

    Spirocerca lupi is the esophageal nematode of dogs. Early, transient eosinophilia occurs in experimentally infected dogs, but is absent in advanced cases, suggesting that the nematode evades the dog's immune system. Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins of plant or animal origin, binding different saccharides, with varying specificities and avidities, used to characterize surface haptens in plant and animal parasitic helminths. This study investigated the in vitro binding of six lectins (Concanavalin A [ConA], wheat germ agglutinin [WGA], peanut agglutinin [PNA], soybean agglutinin [SBA], Dolichus biflorus agglutinin [DBA] and Ulex earopaeus agglutinin I [UEA]) to the surface of S. lupi nematodes at different life stages, the L2 and L3 larvae (dead and alive) and to dead adult worms, with negative controls, with and without addition of the six respective inhibitory sugar haptens. Con A moderately bound to surfaces of both live and frozen L3, to the stoma and excretory pores of adult worms, and to the outer surface nematode's eggs, within a female worm, but not to L2. PNA bound only to stoma and excretory pores surfaces in both frozen and live L3. WGA bound strongly to the outer surfaces of live and dead L2 and L3, which resulted in molting of live larvae. These results suggest that the nematode's surface content change during its development. Such changes may play roles in the nematode's interactions with the intermediate and definitive hosts' tissues, and in its ability to evade the immune response, its long survival within the host, and even induce neoplastic transformation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of a homologous series of linear alcohol ethoxylate surfactants on fathead minnow early life stages.

    PubMed

    Lizotte, R E; Wong, D C; Dorn, P B; Rodgers, J H

    1999-11-01

    Effects of a homologous series of three primarily linear alcohol ethoxylate surfactants were studied in laboratory flow-through 28-day early-life-stage tests with fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas Rafinesque). Surfactants were a C(9-11), C(12-13), and C(14-15) with an average of 6, 6.5, and 7 ethylene oxide units per mole of alcohol, respectively. Average measured surfactant recoveries were 103%, 81%, and 79% of nominal concentrations for the C(9-11) EO 6, C(12-13) EO 6.5, and C(14-15) EO 7 studies, respectively. Embryo survival at 48 h was not adversely affected at any of the concentrations tested. Impaired hatching and deformed fry were observed only in the C(12-13) EO 6.5 study. The 28-day LC50 values were 4.87, 2.39, and 1.02 mg/L for the C(9-11) EO 6, C(12-13) EO 6.5, and C(14-15) EO 7 surfactants, respectively. The corresponding NOECs for survival were 1.01, 1.76, and 0.74 mg/L. Posthatch fry growth was more sensitive than survival for the C(12-13) EO 6.5 and C(14-15) EO 7 surfactants. Survival of posthatch fry decreased with increasing surfactant alkyl chain length. Twenty-eight-day laboratory data were compared to 96-h laboratory, 10-day laboratory and 30-day stream mesocosm data for fathead minnow previously determined for these surfactants. Survival endpoints from the different exposures were comparable and only varied within a factor of two. Similarity of results suggests that it is possible to effectively use 96-h, 10-day, or 28-day laboratory data to predict environmental effects concentrations of these surfactants for fish. http://link.springer-ny. com/link/service/journals/00244/bibs/37n4p536.html

  4. Acute toxicity of polyacrylamide flocculants to early life stages of freshwater mussels

    Buczek, Sean B.; Cope, W. Gregory; McLaughlin, Richard A.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Polyacrylamide has become an effective tool for reducing construction-related suspended sediment and turbidity, which are considered to have significant adverse impacts on aquatic ecosystems and are a leading cause of the degradation of North American streams and rivers. However, little is known about the effects of polyacrylamide on many freshwater organisms, and prior to the present study, no information existed on the toxicity of polyacrylamide compounds to native freshwater mussels (family Unionidae), one of the most imperiled faunal groups globally. Following standard test guidelines, we exposed juvenile mussels (test duration 96 h) and glochidia larvae (test duration 24 h) to 5 different anionic polyacrylamide compounds and 1 non-ionic compound. Species tested included the yellow lampmussel (Lampsilis cariosa), an Atlantic Slope species that is listed as endangered in North Carolina; the Appalachian elktoe (Alasmidonta raveneliana), a federally endangered Interior Basin species; and the washboard (Megalonaias nervosa), a common Interior Basin species. We found that median lethal concentrations (LC50s) of polyacrylamide ranged from 411.7 to >1000 mg/L for glochidia and from 126.8 to >1000 mg/L for juveniles. All LC50s were orders of magnitude greater (2–3) than concentrations typically recommended for turbidity control (1–5 mg/L), regardless of their molecular weight or charge density. The results demonstrate that the polyacrylamide compounds tested were not acutely toxic to the mussel species and life stages tested, indicating minimal risk of short-term exposure from polyacrylamide applications in the environment. However, other potential uses of polyacrylamide in the environment (e.g., wastewater treatment, paper processing, mining, algae removal) and their chronic or sublethal effects remain uncertain and warrant additional investigation.

  5. Life cycle stage and water depth affect flooding-induced adventitious root formation in the terrestrial species Solanum dulcamara

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Visser, Eric J. W.; de Kroon, Hans; Huber, Heidrun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Flooding can occur at any stage of the life cycle of a plant, but often adaptive responses of plants are only studied at a single developmental stage. It may be anticipated that juvenile plants may respond differently from mature plants, as the amount of stored resources may differ and morphological changes can be constrained. Moreover, different water depths may require different strategies to cope with the flooding stress, the expression of which may also depend on developmental stage. This study investigated whether flooding-induced adventitious root formation and plant growth were affected by flooding depth in Solanum dulcamara plants at different developmental stages. Methods Juvenile plants without pre-formed adventitious root primordia and mature plants with primordia were subjected to shallow flooding or deep flooding for 5 weeks. Plant growth and the timing of adventitious root formation were monitored during the flooding treatments. Key Results Adventitious root formation in response to shallow flooding was significantly constrained in juvenile S. dulcamara plants compared with mature plants, and was delayed by deep flooding compared with shallow flooding. Complete submergence suppressed adventitious root formation until up to 2 weeks after shoots restored contact with the atmosphere. Independent of developmental stage, a strong positive correlation was found between adventitious root formation and total biomass accumulation during shallow flooding. Conclusions The potential to deploy an escape strategy (i.e. adventitious root formation) may change throughout a plant’s life cycle, and is largely dependent on flooding depth. Adaptive responses at a given stage of the life cycle thus do not necessarily predict how the plant responds to flooding in another growth stage. As variation in adventitious root formation also correlates with finally attained biomass, this variation may form the basis for variation in resistance to shallow

  6. Life cycle stage and water depth affect flooding-induced adventitious root formation in the terrestrial species Solanum dulcamara.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Visser, Eric J W; de Kroon, Hans; Huber, Heidrun

    2015-08-01

    Flooding can occur at any stage of the life cycle of a plant, but often adaptive responses of plants are only studied at a single developmental stage. It may be anticipated that juvenile plants may respond differently from mature plants, as the amount of stored resources may differ and morphological changes can be constrained. Moreover, different water depths may require different strategies to cope with the flooding stress, the expression of which may also depend on developmental stage. This study investigated whether flooding-induced adventitious root formation and plant growth were affected by flooding depth in Solanum dulcamara plants at different developmental stages. Juvenile plants without pre-formed adventitious root primordia and mature plants with primordia were subjected to shallow flooding or deep flooding for 5 weeks. Plant growth and the timing of adventitious root formation were monitored during the flooding treatments. Adventitious root formation in response to shallow flooding was significantly constrained in juvenile S. dulcamara plants compared with mature plants, and was delayed by deep flooding compared with shallow flooding. Complete submergence suppressed adventitious root formation until up to 2 weeks after shoots restored contact with the atmosphere. Independent of developmental stage, a strong positive correlation was found between adventitious root formation and total biomass accumulation during shallow flooding. The potential to deploy an escape strategy (i.e. adventitious root formation) may change throughout a plant's life cycle, and is largely dependent on flooding depth. Adaptive responses at a given stage of the life cycle thus do not necessarily predict how the plant responds to flooding in another growth stage. As variation in adventitious root formation also correlates with finally attained biomass, this variation may form the basis for variation in resistance to shallow flooding among plants. © The Author 2015. Published by

  7. Effects of increased temperature on metabolic activity and oxidative stress in the first life stages of marble trout (Salmo marmoratus).

    PubMed

    Simčič, Tatjana; Jesenšek, Dušan; Brancelj, Anton

    2015-08-01

    Climate change may result in future alterations in thermal regime which could markedly affect the early developmental stages of cold water fish due to their expected high sensitivity to increasing temperature. In the present study, the effect of temperature increase of 2, 4 and 6°C on the oxygen consumption rate (R), the activity of respiratory electron transport system (ETS) and oxidative stress have been studied in four developmental stages of the marble trout (Salmo marmoratus)-eyed eggs, yolk-sac larvae and juveniles of 1 and 3 months. Oxygen consumption rate and ETS activity increased with level of development and with temperature in all four stages. ETS/R ratios decreased during development and correlated with temperature in eyed eggs, larvae and juveniles of 1 month, but not in juveniles of 3 months. Low ETS/R ratios at higher temperatures indicate stress response in eyed eggs, the most temperature sensitive developmental stage. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities increased during development, but responded differently to elevated temperature in the different developmental stages. Stress in eyed eggs, caused by higher temperatures, resulted in increased oxygen consumption rate and increased activities of CAT and GR. Larvae were sensitive to increased temperature only at the highest experimental temperature of 16°C. Increased temperature did not stress the metabolism of the juveniles, since they were able to compensate their metabolic activity. The earlier developmental stages of marble trout are thus more sensitive to temperature increase than juveniles and therefore more endangered by higher water temperatures. This is the first report connecting oxygen consumption, ETS activity and ETS/R ratio with the activities of antioxidant enzymes in relation to increased temperature in salmonids.

  8. Comparative anatomy and histology of developmental and parasitic stages in the life cycle of the lined sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata.

    PubMed

    Reitzel, Adam M; Daly, Marymegan; Sullivan, James C; Finnerty, John R

    2009-02-01

    The evolution of parasitism is often accompanied by profound changes to the developmental program. However, relatively few studies have directly examined the developmental evolution of parasitic species from free-living ancestors. The lined sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata is a relatively recently evolved parasite for which closely related free-living outgroups are known, including the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. The larva of E. lineata parasitizes the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, and, once embedded in its host, the anemone assumes a novel vermiform body plan. That we might begin to understand how the developmental program of this species has been transformed during the evolution of parasitism, we characterized the gross anatomy, histology, and cnidom of the parasitic stage, post-parasitic larval stage, and adult stage of the E. lineata life cycle. The distinct parasitic stage of the life cycle differs from the post-parasitic larva with respect to overall shape, external ciliation, cnida frequency, and tissue architecture. The parasitic stage and planula both contain holotrichs, a type of cnida not previously reported in Edwardsiidae. The internal morphology of the post-parasitic planula is extremely similar to the adult morphology, with a complete set of mesenterial tissue and musculature despite this stage having little external differentiation. Finally, we observed 2 previously undocumented aspects of asexual reproduction in E. lineata: (1) the parasitic stage undergoes transverse fission via physal pinching, the first report of asexual reproduction in a pre-adult stage in the Edwardsiidae; and (2) the juvenile polyp undergoes transverse fission via polarity reversal, the first time this form of fission has been reported in E. lineata.

  9. Age-Stage, Two-Sex Life Table Characteristics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes Aegypti in Penang Island, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Maimusa, Hamisu A; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Kassim, Nur Faeza A; Rahim, Junaid

    2016-03-01

    The life table developmental attributes of laboratory colonies of wild strains of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti were analyzed and compared based on the age-stage, two-sex life table. Findings inclusive in this study are: adult preoviposition periods, total preoviposition period, mean intrinsic rate of increase (r), mean finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rates (R0), and mean generation time (T). The total preadult development time was 9.47 days for Ae. albopictus and 8.76 days for Ae. aegypti. The life expectancy was 19.01 days for Ae. albopictus and 19.94 days for Ae. aegypti. Mortality occurred mostly during the adult stage. The mean development time for each stage insignificantly correlated with temperature for Ae. albopictus (r  =  -0.208, P > 0.05) and (r  =  -0.312, P > 0.05) for Ae. aegypti. The population parameters suggest that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti populations are r-strategists characterized by a high r, a large R0, and short T. This present study provides the first report to compare the life parameters of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti strains from Penang island, Malaysia.

  10. Long-term effects of pesticide exposure at various life stages of the southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala)

    Bridges, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    Amphibian larvae are commonly exposed to low levels of pesticides during their development. Chronic studies generally examine the effects of long-term exposure, but they often disregard the importance of the individual life stage at which tadpoles are exposed. I determined the point during development at which carbaryl effects are manifested by exposing southern leopard frog tadpoles (Rana sphenocephala) to the pesticide carbaryl at five different times during development. Metamorphs exposed throughout the tadpole stage and throughout development (egg, embryo, tadpole) experienced significant mortality at all chemical levels. Although the length of the larval period was the same for all experimental groups, metamorphs exposed during the egg stage were smaller than their corresponding controls, independent of whether they were exposed at any other stage. Nearly 18% of individuals exposed to carbaryl during development exhibited some type of developmental deformity (including both visceral and limb malformities), compared to a single deformed (< 1%) control tadpole, demonstrating that a chemical hypothesis for amphibian deformities remains viable. Because exposure to nonpersistent chemicals may last for only a short period of time, it is important to examine the long-term effects that short-term exposure has on larval amphibians and the existence of any sensitive life stage. Any delay in metamorphosis or decrease in size at metamorphosis can impact demographic processes of the population, potentially leading to declines or local extinction.

  11. Microgravity effects on different stages of higher plant life cycle and completion of the seed-to-seed cycle.

    PubMed

    De Micco, V; De Pascale, S; Paradiso, R; Aronne, G

    2014-01-01

    Human inhabitation of Space requires the efficient realisation of crop cultivation in bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS). It is well known that plants can grow under Space conditions; however, perturbations of many biological phenomena have been highlighted due to the effect of altered gravity and its possible interactions with other factors. The mechanisms priming plant responses to Space factors, as well as the consequences of such alterations on crop productivity, have not been completely elucidated. These perturbations can occur at different stages of plant life and are potentially responsible for failure of the completion of the seed-to-seed cycle. After brief consideration of the main constraints found in the most recent experiments aiming to produce seeds in Space, we focus on two developmental phases in which the plant life cycle can be interrupted more easily than in others also on Earth. The first regards seedling development and establishment; we discuss reasons for slow development at the seedling stage that often occurs under microgravity conditions and can reduce successful establishment. The second stage comprises gametogenesis and pollination; we focus on male gamete formation, also identifying potential constraints to subsequent fertilisation. We finally highlight how similar alterations at cytological level can not only be common to different processes occurring at different life stages, but can be primed by different stress factors; such alterations can be interpreted within the model of 'stress-induced morphogenic response' (SIMR). We conclude by suggesting that a systematic analysis of all growth and reproductive phases during the plant life cycle is needed to optimise resource use in plant-based BLSS. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Cholinesterase inhibition and behavioral toxicity of carbofuran on Oreochromis niloticus early life stages.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, P C; Luchmann, K H; Ribeiro, A B; Veras, M M; Correa, J R M B; Nogueira, A J; Bainy, A C D; Carvalho, P S M

    2011-10-01

    Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at 9 days post-hatch were exposed in semi-static experiments to the carbamate insecticide carbofuran, which is applied in agricultural systems in Brazil. Although the molecular mechanism of carbofuran toxicity is well known, a detailed understanding of the ecological mechanisms through which carbofuran effects can propagate towards higher levels of biological organization in fish is incomplete. Mortality rates were quantified for larvae exposed for 96 h to 8.3, 40.6, 69.9, 140, 297 and 397 μg/L carbofuran, and the LC(50) 96 h was 214.7 μg/L. In addition, the biochemical biomarker cholinesterase inhibition and behavioral biomarkers related to vision, swimming, prey capture and predator avoidance were quantified in individual larvae, as well as their growth in weight. The behavioral parameters were quantified by analysis of digitally recorded videos of individual larvae within appropriate experimental setups. The activity of the enzyme cholinesterase decreased after exposure to carbofuran with a lowest observed effects concentration (LOEC) of 69.9 μg/L. Visual acuity deficits were detected after carbofuran exposure with a LOEC of 40.6 μg/L. Swimming speed decreased with carbofuran exposure, with a LOEC of 397.6 μg/L. The number of attacks to prey (Daphnia magna nauplii) decreased in larvae exposed to carbofuran, with a LOEC of 397.6 μg/L. Growth in weight was significantly reduced in a dose dependent manner, and all carbofuran groups exhibited a statistically significant decrease in growth when compared to controls (p<0.05). The number of predator attacks necessary to capture larvae decreased after exposure to carbofuran, and the LOEC was 69.9 μg/L. These results show that exposure of sensitive early life stages of tilapia O. niloticus to sublethal concentrations of carbofuran can affect fundamental aspects of fish larval ecology that are relevant to recruitment of fish populations, and that can be better understood by the

  13. Heavy rare earth elements affect early life stages in Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula sea urchins

    SciT

    Oral, Rahime

    Background: Heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) have been scarcely studied for their toxicity, in spite of their applications in several technologies. Thus HREEs require timely investigations for their adverse health effects. Methods: Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula embryos and sperm were exposed to trichloride salts of five HREEs (Dy, Ho, Er, Yb and Lu) and to Ce(III) as a light REE (LREE) reference to evaluate: 1) developmental defects (% DD) in HREE-exposed larvae or in the offspring of HREE-exposed sperm; 2) mitotic anomalies; 3) fertilization success; and 4) reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA)more » levels. Nominal HREE concentrations were confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: HREEs induced concentration-related DD increases in P. lividus and A. lixula larvae, ranging from no significant DD increase at 10{sup −7} M HREEs up to ≅100% DD at 10{sup −5} M HREE. Larvae exposed to 10{sup −5} M Ce(III) resulted in less severe DD rates compared to HREEs. Decreased mitotic activity and increased aberration rates were found in HREE-exposed P. lividus embryos. Significant increases in ROS formation and NO levels were found both in HREE-exposed and in Ce(III) embryos, whereas only Ce(III), but not HREEs resulted in significant increase in MDA levels. Sperm exposure to HREEs (10{sup −5}–10{sup −4} M) resulted in a concentration-related decrease in fertilization success along with increase in offspring damage. These effects were significantly enhanced for Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III) and Yb(III), compared to Lu(III) and to Ce(III). Conclusion: HREE-associated toxicity affected embryogenesis, fertilization, cytogenetic and redox endpoints showing different toxicities of tested HREEs. - Highlights: • Different toxicities were exerted by five tested HREEs on sea urchin early life stages. • Sea urchin embryos and sperm were sensitive to HREE levels ranging from 1

  14. Life stage sensitivity of the marine mussel Mytilus edulis to ammonia.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Alan J; Lindsay, James H; Biedenbach, James M; Harmon, Ashley R

    2017-01-01

    Ammonia is an important contaminant to consider in all toxicity tests. It is especially important to consider the impacts of ammonia in test methods that use sensitive water column organisms exposed to sediments or sediment extracts, such as porewater and elutriate toxicity tests. Embryo-larval development toxicity tests, such as the 48-h method using Mytilus mussel species, are particularly sensitive to ammonia. To better understand the effect thresholds across different life stages of these mussels, 6 short-term (48-h) development toxicity tests and 3 21-d toxicity tests with different-sized juvenile mussels were conducted. Two of the juvenile mussel tests involved 21-d continuous chronic exposure to ammonia, whereas the third involved an acute 2-d ammonia exposure, followed by a 19-d recovery period. The embryo-larval development test method (50% effect concentration [EC50] = 0.14-0.18 mg/L un-ionized ammonia) was 2.5 times more sensitive than the juvenile mussel 21-d survival endpoint (50% lethal concentration = 0.39 mg/L un-ionized ammonia) and 2 times more sensitive than the most sensitive sublethal juvenile mussel endpoint (EC50 = 0.26 mg/L un-ionized ammonia). Further, it was found that the juveniles recovered from a 48-h exposure to un-ionized ammonia of up to 1.1 mg/L. The data generated suggest that the embryo development endpoint was sufficiently sensitive to un-ionized ammonia to protect the chronically exposed (21 d) juvenile mussels. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:89-95. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  15. The speech of reality and the speech of the stage: life, science and art.

    PubMed

    Elezović, Slobodan

    2005-06-01

    the expression of the speaker's ideas, attitudes and points of view in the communication process, which reveals the characteristics and the speaker's level in all the named aspects of the word value assessment. In the case of evaluation., of the word through the experience of the on-stage speech, that is, the words in the experience of the theatre art, the approach to the value assessment is contrary to the assessment carried out in an everyday, real experience. In the artistic language the words are already given, the sentences are formulated and all this is determined by the author's will and the act of creation. The actor is the interpreter of the author, his ideas along with the characters of the protagonists and the spirit of the action and, therefore, he must gradually master the word to the extent where it seems spontaneous from the point of view of the impressive and expressive categories. It also has to sound similar to the natural speech and its suggestive influence. With this counter-natural direction of the treatment of the given word it is important to reach the level of spontaneity of the expression to an almost documentary form in the overall verbal-scenic-mimic articulation. In this process the life and the art mesh and the art illustrates and defends the life.

  16. A Treatment Stage Specific Approach to Improving Quality of Life for Women with Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    This study focuses on quality of life among women with ovarian cancer. The primary objective of the study is to identify the issues that are of...repeated measures design will be used to assess changes in problem areas and quality of life from diagnosis to recurrence among women newly diagnosed with...objectives are of the study are as follows: (1) to assess changes in quality of life (as quantified by the FACT-O questionnaire) across the different

  17. Females are the brighter sex: Differences in external fluorescence across sexes and life stages of a crab spider

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Erin E.

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence is increasingly recognized to be widespread in nature. In particular, some arachnids fluoresce externally, and in spiders the hemolymph fluoresces. In this study, we examined the external fluorescence and the fluorophores of different sexes and life stages of the crab spider Misumena vatia (Clerk 1757), a sit-and-wait predator that feeds on insects as they visit flowers. We designed novel instrumentation to measure external fluorescence in whole specimens. We found that although males and females possess internal fluorophores with similar properties, the external expression of fluorescence varies across sexes and life stages. Spiders fluoresce brightly as immatures. Females maintain their brightness to adulthood, whereas males become increasingly dim as they mature. We suggest that external fluorescence likely contributes to visual signaling in these animals, and that it differs between the sexes as a result of differences in foraging ecology and behavior. PMID:28467416

  18. The impact of neighborhood walkability on walking: does it differ across adult life stage and does neighborhood buffer size matter?

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Karen; Knuiman, Matthew; Nathan, Andrea; Giles-Corti, Billie; Christian, Hayley; Foster, Sarah; Bull, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    We explored the impact of neighborhood walkability on young adults, early-middle adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults' walking across different neighborhood buffers. Participants completed the Western Australian Health and Wellbeing Surveillance System Survey (2003-2009) and were allocated a neighborhood walkability score at 200m, 400m, 800m, and 1600m around their home. We found little difference in strength of associations across neighborhood size buffers for all life stages. We conclude that neighborhood walkability supports more walking regardless of adult life stage and is relevant for small (e.g., 200m) and larger (e.g., 1600m) neighborhood buffers. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  19. Females are the brighter sex: Differences in external fluorescence across sexes and life stages of a crab spider.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Erin E; Masta, Susan E

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence is increasingly recognized to be widespread in nature. In particular, some arachnids fluoresce externally, and in spiders the hemolymph fluoresces. In this study, we examined the external fluorescence and the fluorophores of different sexes and life stages of the crab spider Misumena vatia (Clerk 1757), a sit-and-wait predator that feeds on insects as they visit flowers. We designed novel instrumentation to measure external fluorescence in whole specimens. We found that although males and females possess internal fluorophores with similar properties, the external expression of fluorescence varies across sexes and life stages. Spiders fluoresce brightly as immatures. Females maintain their brightness to adulthood, whereas males become increasingly dim as they mature. We suggest that external fluorescence likely contributes to visual signaling in these animals, and that it differs between the sexes as a result of differences in foraging ecology and behavior.

  20. Relevance of philosophy of life and optimism for psychological distress among individuals in a stage where death is approaching.

    PubMed

    Winterling, Jeanette; Wasteson, Elisabet; Sidenvall, Birgitta; Sidenvall, Erik; Glimelius, Bengt; Sjödén, Per-Olow; Nordin, Karin

    2006-04-01

    The purpose was to investigate the relevance of philosophy of life as well as optimism for the psychological distress among Swedish individuals in a stage where death is approaching. Sixty-nine persons were included; of these were 42 patients newly diagnosed with advanced gastrointestinal cancer and 26 were partners to these patients. The participants' philosophy of life was studied through a semi-structured interview. The interview statements were subjected to content analysis. Optimism was measured by the Life Orientation Test and psychological distress by the Hospitality and Depression Scale. The results showed that optimistic respondents had less psychological distress. Two aspects of philosophy of life had relevance for such distress. These were wondering about why the cancer had occurred and having a feeling of being able to live a good life having or living near a person with advanced cancer. In conclusion, the above-mentioned aspects of philosophy of life as well as optimism have relevance for psychological distress among these individuals, which stress the importance that health-care staff address both patients' and their partners' concerns about their philosophy of life.

  1. The contribution of cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis and survival to racial differences in years of life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Mitchell D; Ettner, Susan L; Boscardin, W John; Shapiro, Martin F

    2009-04-01

    African Americans have higher cancer mortality rates than whites. Understanding the relative contribution of cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis and survival after diagnosis to the racial gap in life expectancy has important implications for directing future health disparity interventions toward cancer prevention, screening and treatment. We estimated the degree to which higher cancer mortality among African Americans is due to higher incidence rates, later stage at diagnosis or worse survival after diagnosis. Stochastic model of cancer incidence and survival after diagnosis. Surveillance and Epidemiology End Result cancer registry and National Health Interview Survey data. Life expectancy if African Americans had the same cancer incidence, stage and survival after diagnosis as white adults. African-American men and women live 1.47 and 0.91 fewer years, respectively, than whites as the result of all cancers combined. Among men, racial differences in cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis and survival after diagnosis account for 1.12 (95% CI: 0.52 to 1.36), 0.17 (95% CI: -0.03 to 0.33) and 0.21 (95% CI: 0.05 to 0.34) years of the racial gap in life expectancy, respectively. Among women, incidence, stage and survival after diagnosis account for 0.41 (95% CI: -0.29 to 0.60), 0.26 (95% CI: -0.06 to 0.40) and 0.31 (95% CI: 0.05 to 0.40) years, respectively. Differences in stage had a smaller impact on the life expectancy gap compared with the impact of incidence. Differences in cancer survival after diagnosis had a significant impact for only two cancers-breast (0.14 years; 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.16) and prostate (0.05 years; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.09). In addition to breast and colorectal cancer screening, national efforts to reduce disparities in life expectancy should also target cancer prevention, perhaps through smoking cessation, and differences in survival after diagnosis among persons with breast and prostate cancer.

  2. Plant-soil feedbacks from 30-year family-specific soil cultures: phylogeny, soil chemistry and plant life stage.

    PubMed

    Mehrabi, Zia; Bell, Thomas; Lewis, Owen T

    2015-06-01

    Intraspecific negative feedback effects, where performance is reduced on soils conditioned by conspecifics, are widely documented in plant communities. However, interspecific feedbacks are less well studied, and their direction, strength, causes, and consequences are poorly understood. If more closely related species share pathogens, or have similar soil resource requirements, plants may perform better on soils conditioned by more distant phylogenetic relatives. There have been few empirical tests of this prediction across plant life stages, and none of which attempt to account for soil chemistry. Here, we test the utility of phylogeny for predicting soil feedback effects on plant survival and performance (germination, seedling survival, growth rate, biomass). We implement a full factorial experiment growing species representing five families on five plant family-specific soil sources. Our experiments exploit soils that have been cultured for over 30 years in plant family-specific beds at Oxford University Botanic Gardens. Plant responses to soil source were idiosyncratic, and species did not perform better on soils cultured by phylogenetically more distant relatives. The magnitude and sign of feedback effects could, however, be explained by differences in the chemical properties of "home" and "away" soils. Furthermore, the direction of soil chemistry-related plant-soil feedbacks was dependent on plant life stage, with the effects of soil chemistry on germination success and accumulation of biomass inversely related. Our results (1) suggest that the phylogenetic distance between plant families cannot predict plant-soil feedbacks across multiple life stages, and (2) highlight the need to consider changes in soil chemistry as an important driver of population responses. The contrasting responses at plant life stages suggest that studies focusing on brief phases in plant demography (e.g., germination success) may not give a full picture of plant-soil feedback effects.

  3. Toxicity of copper to early-life stage Kootenai River white sturgeon, Columbia River white sturgeon, and rainbow trout

    Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Linder, G.

    2012-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) populations throughout western North America are in decline, likely as a result of overharvest, operation of dams, and agricultural and mineral extraction activities in their watersheds. Recruitment failure may reflect the loss of early-life stage fish in spawning areas of the upper Columbia River, which are contaminated with metals from effluents associated with mineral-extraction activities. Early-life stage white sturgeon (A. transmontanus) from the Columbia River and Kootenai River populations were exposed to copper during 96-h flow-through toxicity tests to determine their sensitivity to the metal. Similar tests were conducted with rainbow trout (RBT [Oncorhynchus mykiss]) to assess the comparative sensitivity of this species as a surrogate for white sturgeon. Exposures were conducted with a water quality pH 8.1-8.3, hardness 81-119 mg/L as CaCO2, and dissolved organic carbon 0.2-0.4 mg/L. At approximately 30 days posthatch (dph), sturgeon were highly sensitive to copper with median lethal concentration (LC50) values ranging from 4.1 to 6.8 μg/L compared with 36.5 μg/L for 30 dph RBT. White sturgeon at 123-167 dph were less sensitive to copper with LC50 values ranging from 103.7 to 268.9 μg/L. RBT trout, however, remained more sensitive to copper at 160 dph with an LC50 value of 30.9 μg/L. The results indicate that high sensitivity to copper in early-life stage white sturgeon may be a factor in recruitment failure occurring in the upper Columbia and Kootenai rivers. When site-specific water-quality criteria were estimated using the biotic ligand model (BLM), derived values were not protective of early-life stage fish, nor were estimates derived by water-hardness adjustment.

  4. Improving the ecological relevance of toxicity tests on scleractinian corals: Influence of season, life stage, and seawater temperature

    Hedouin, Laetitia; Wolf, Ruth E.; Phillips, Jeff; Gates, Ruth D.

    2016-01-01

    Our data support the paradigm that upward excursions in temperature influence physiological processes in corals that play key roles in regulating metal toxicity. These influences are more pronounced in larva versus adult corals. These findings are important when contextualized climate change-driven warming in the oceans and highlight that predictions of ecological outcomes to metal pollutants will be improved by considering environmental context and the life stages of organism under study.

  5. Ocean Acidification Effects on the Early Life-Stages of Commercially Important Flatfish of the Northeast USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, R. C.; Habeck, E. A.; Candelmo, A. C.; Poach, M.; Wieczorek, D.; Phelan, B.; Caldarone, E.; Cooper, K. R.

    2012-12-01

    The limited available evidence about effects on finfish of high CO2 levels and acidification of our oceans suggests that effects will differ across fish species, be subtle, and interact with other stressors. A carefully planned, experimental framework was developed to cast an extensive yet strategic inferential net. Three key elements of our approach are the use of 1) multiple marine finfish species of relevance to the northeastern USA that differ in their ecologies including spawning season and habitat of early life-stages; 2) a wide yet realistic range of environmental conditions (i.e., concurrent manipulation of CO2 levels and water temperatures), and 3) a diverse set of response variables related to fish sensitivity to elevated CO2 levels, water temperatures, and their interactions. The response variable set reflects fish condition, fitness, and likelihood of recruitment, and includes measures of viability, physiology, histopathology, growth, development, and behavior expressed during fish early life-stages (i.e., gametes, embryos, and larvae). Early life-stages were chosen due to the anticipation of their vulnerability to acid-base challenges in their environment. To date, factorial experiments have been implemented on summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Initial results reveal survival of summer flounder embryos is compromised by pH < 7.7 (CO2 > 790 ppm). These results were similar across offspring groups (i.e., embryos from different parents). Winter flounder are larger at hatching when exposed to high CO2 levels in the coolest environment implemented in our experiments (range 4 to 10 ○C). Further responses of advanced larvae of both flounder species are currently being assessed for evidence of other whole body, component organ, and biochemical impairment. This study will aid researchers and resource managers in identifying species types, life-stages, and biotic responses that are most sensitive to

  6. Evaluation of whole mount in situ hybridization as a tool for pathway-based toxicological research in early-life stage fathead minnows

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early-life stage fish can be more sensitive to chemical exposure than mature, adult fish. Therefore, defining adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) relevant to early-life stages is critical for linking perturbations of key events during fish development to potential adverse outcomes of...

  7. Integration of Life-Stage Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models with Adverse Outcome Pathways and Environmental Exposure Models to Screen for Environmental Hazards

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Life-stage Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to include descriptions of several life-stage events such as pregnancy, fetal development, the neonate and child growth. The overall modeling strategy was used for in vitro to in vivo (IVIVE) extrapolat...

  8. Evaluation of whole mount in situ hybridization as a tool for pathway-based toxicological research in early-life stage fathead minnows (poster)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early-life stage fish can be more sensitive to chemical exposure than mature, adult fish. Therefore, defining adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) relevant to early-life stages is critical for linking perturbations of key events during fish development to potential adverse outcomes of...

  9. Evaluation of whole-mount in situ hybridization as a tool for pathway-based toxicological research with early-life stage fathead minnows

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early-life stage fish can be more sensitive to chemical exposure than adult fish. Therefore, determining possible adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for early-life stages is crucial. To determine chemical effects and/or mechanisms of action in exposed fish embryos and larvae, whole-...

  10. Apoptosis-related genes induced in response to ketamine during early life stages of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Félix, Luís M; Serafim, Cindy; Valentim, Ana M; Antunes, Luís M; Matos, Manuela; Coimbra, Ana M

    2017-09-05

    Increasing evidence supports that ketamine, a widely used anaesthetic, potentiates apoptosis during development through the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Defects in the apoptotic machinery can cause or contribute to the developmental abnormalities previously described in ketamine-exposed zebrafish. The involvement of the apoptotic machinery in ketamine-induced teratogenicity was addressed by assessing the apoptotic signals at 8 and 24 hpf following 20min exposure to ketamine at three stages of early zebrafish embryo development (256 cell, 50% epiboly and 1-4 somites stages). Exposure at the 256-cell stage to ketamine induced an up-regulation of casp8 and pcna at 8 hpf while changes in pcna at the mRNA level were observed at 24 hpf. After the 50% epiboly stage exposure, the mRNA levels of casp9 were increased at 8 and 24 hpf while aifm1 was affected at 24 hpf. Both tp53 and pcna expressions were increased at 8 hpf. After exposure during the 1-4 somites stage, no meaningful changes on transcript levels were observed. The distribution of apoptotic cells and the caspase-like enzymatic activities of caspase-3 and -9 were not affected by ketamine exposure. It is proposed that ketamine exposure at the 256-cell stage induced a cooperative mechanism between proliferation and cellular death while following exposure at the 50% epiboly, a p53-dependent and -independent caspase activation may occur. Finally, at the 1-4 somites stage, the defence mechanisms are already fully in place to protect against ketamine-insult. Thus, ketamine teratogenicity seems to be dependent on the functional mechanisms present in each developmental stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Small larvae in large rivers: observations on downstream movement of European grayling Thymallus thymallus during early life stages.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, C H A; Dokk, T; Haugen, T O; Kiffney, P M; Museth, J

    2017-06-01

    Behaviour of early life stages of the salmonid European grayling Thymallus thymallus was investigated by assessing the timing of larval downstream movement from spawning areas, the depth at which larvae moved and the distribution of juvenile fish during summer in two large connected river systems in Norway. Trapping of larvae moving downstream and electrofishing surveys revealed that T. thymallus larvae emerging from the spawning gravel moved downstream predominantly during the night, despite light levels sufficient for orientation in the high-latitude study area. Larvae moved in the water mostly at the bottom layer close to the substratum, while drifting debris was caught in all layers of the water column. Few young-of-the-year still resided close to the spawning areas in autumn, suggesting large-scale movement (several km). Together, these observations show that there may be a deliberate, active component to downstream movement of T. thymallus during early life stages. This research signifies the importance of longitudinal connectivity for T. thymallus in Nordic large river systems. Human alterations of flow regimes and the construction of reservoirs for hydropower may not only affect the movement of adult fish, but may already interfere with active movement behaviour of fish during early life stages. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Correlation between 96-h mortality and 24-h acetylcholinesterase inhibition in three grass shrimp larval life stages.

    PubMed

    Key, Peter B; Fulton, Michael H

    2006-03-01

    Three life stages of larval grass shrimp were tested to determine whether acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity expressed as 24-h sublethal effect endpoints (EC20 and EC50) could be used to predict 96-h mortality (lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) and LC50) for shrimp exposed to three organophosphate insecticides. With regard to mortality, newly hatched larvae and 18-day-old larvae were the most sensitive in the malathion and azinphosmethyl exposures. In the chlorpyrifos exposures, newly hatched larvae and postlarvae were the most sensitive life stages. Results of the 24-h AChE inhibition tests showed that newly hatched larvae were generally more sensitive in the three organophosphate exposures. A regression analysis of the EC50's and LC50's yielded the strongest correlation with R2=0.987 (correlation coefficient=0.994 and 95% confidence intervals 0.969-0.999). The LOEC/EC20 relationship yielded R2=0.962. For these grass shrimp life stages and pesticides, sublethal effect endpoints could be used as a predictor of 96-h mortality.

  13. Acute toxicity of fire-retardant and foam-suppressant chemicals to early life stages of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Hamilton, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratorys studies were conducted to determine the acute toxicity of three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F), and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Ansul Silv-Ex) to early life stages of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in hard and soft water. Regardless of water type, swim-up fry and juveniles (60 and 90 d posthatch) exhibited similar sensitivities to each chemical and these life stages were more sensitive than eyed eggs. Foam suppressants were more toxic to each life stage than the fire retardants in both water types. The descending rank order of toxicity for these chemicals tested with swim-up fry and juveniles (range of 96-h median lethal concentrations [LC50s]) was Phos-Chek WD-881 (7–13 mg/L) > Ansul Silv-Ex (11–22 mg/L) > Phos-Chek D75-F (218–305 mg/L) > Fire-Trol GTS-R (218–412 mg/L) > Fire-Trol LCG-R (685–1,195 mg/L). Water type had a minor effect on the toxicity of these chemicals. Comparison of acute toxicity values with recommended application concentrations indicates that accidental inputs of these chemicals into stream environments would require substantial dilution (237- to 1,429-fold) to reach concentrations equivalent to their 96-h LC50s.

  14. The Hsp90-Sti1 interaction is critical for Leishmania donovani proliferation in both life cycle stages.

    PubMed

    Hombach, Antje; Ommen, Gabi; Chrobak, Mareike; Clos, Joachim

    2013-04-01

    The heat shock protein 90 plays a pivotal role in the life cycle control of Leishmania donovani promoting the fast-growing insect stage of this parasite. Equally important for insect stage growth is the co-chaperone Sti1. We show that replacement of Sti1 is only feasible in the presence of additional Sti1 transgenes indicating an essential role. To better understand the impact of Sti1 and its interaction with Hsp90, we performed a mutational analysis of Hsp90. We established that a single amino acid exchange in the Leishmania Hsp90 renders that protein resistant to the inhibitor radicicol (RAD), yet does not interfere with its functionality. Based on this RAD-resistant Hsp90, we established a combined chemical knockout/gene complementation (CKC) approach. We can show that Hsp90 function is required in both insect and mammalian life stages and that the Sti1-binding motif of Hsp90 is crucial for proliferation of insect and mammalian stages of the parasite. The Sti1-binding motif in Leishmania Hsp90 is suboptimal - optimizing the motif increased initial intracellular proliferation underscoring the importance of the Hsp90-Sti1 interaction for this important parasitic protozoan. The CKC strategy we developed will allow the future analysis of more Hsp90 domains and motifs in parasite viability and infectivity. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Life-history stages of natural bloom populations and the bloom dynamics of a tropical Asian ribotype of Alexandrium minutum.

    PubMed

    Lau, Winnie Lik Sing; Law, Ing Kuo; Liow, Guat Ru; Hii, Kieng Soon; Usup, Gires; Lim, Po Teen; Leaw, Chui Pin

    2017-12-01

    In 2015, a remarkably high density bloom of Alexandrium minutum occurred in Sungai Geting, a semi-enclosed lagoon situated in the northeast of Peninsular Malaysia, causing severe discoloration and contaminated the benthic clams (Polymesoda). Plankton and water samples were collected to investigate the mechanisms of bloom development of this toxic species. Analysis of bloom samples using flow cytometry indicated that the bloom was initiated by the process of active excystment, as planomycetes (>4C cells) were observed in the early stage of the bloom. Increase in planozygotes (2C cells) was evident during the middle stage of the bloom, coinciding with an abrupt decrease in salinity and increase of temperature. The bloom was sustained through the combination of binary division of vegetative cells, division of planozygotes, and cyst germination through continuous excystment. Nutrient depletion followed by precipitation subsequently caused the bloom to terminate. This study provides the first continuous record of in situ life-cycle stages of a natural bloom population of A. minutum through a complete bloom cycle. The event has provided a fundamental understanding of the pelagic life-cycle stages of this tropical dinoflagellate, and demonstrated a unique bloom development characteristic shared among toxic Alexandrium species in coastal embayments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affect both penetration and further life stage development of root-knot nematodes in tomato.

    PubMed

    Vos, Christine; Geerinckx, Katleen; Mkandawire, Rachel; Panis, Bart; De Waele, Dirk; Elsen, Annemie

    2012-02-01

    The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita poses a worldwide threat to agriculture, with an increasing demand for alternative control options since most common nematicides are being withdrawn due to environmental concerns. The biocontrol potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) against plant-parasitic nematodes has been demonstrated, but the modes of action remain to be unraveled. In this study, M. incognita penetration of second-stage juveniles at 4, 8 and 12 days after inoculation was compared in tomato roots (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Marmande) pre-colonized or not by the AMF Glomus mosseae. Further life stage development of the juveniles was also observed in both control and mycorrhizal roots at 12 days, 3 weeks and 4 weeks after inoculation by means of acid fuchsin staining. Penetration was significantly lower in mycorrhizal roots, with a reduction up to 32%. Significantly lower numbers of third- and fourth-stage juveniles and females accumulated in mycorrhizal roots, at a slower rate than in control roots. The results show for the first time that G. mosseae continuously suppresses root-knot nematodes throughout their entire early infection phase of root penetration and subsequent life stage development.

  17. Condition-specific Quality of Life Assessment at Each Stage of Class III Surgical Orthodontic Treatment -A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Tachiki, Chie; Nishii, Yasushi; Takaki, Takashi; Sueishi, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    Surgical orthodontic treatment has been reported to improve oral health-related quality of life (OHRQL). Such treatment comprises three stages: pre-surgical orthodontic treatment; orthognathic surgery; and post-surgical orthodontic treatment. Most studies have focused on change in OHRQL between before and after surgery. However, it is also necessary to evaluate OHRQL at the pre-surgical orthodontic treatment stage, as it may be negatively affected by dental decompensation compared with at pre-treatment. The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the influence of surgical orthodontic treatment on QOL by assessing change in condition-specific QOL at each stage of treatment in skeletal class III cases. Twenty skeletal class III patients requiring surgical orthodontic treatment were enrolled in the study. Each patient completed the Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ), which was developed for patients with dentofacial deformity. Its items are grouped into 4 domains: "social aspects of dentofacial deformity"; "facial esthetics"; "oral function"; and "awareness of dentofacial esthetics". The questionnaire was completed at the pre-treatment, pre-surgical orthodontic treatment, and post-surgical orthodontic treatment stages. The results revealed a significant worsening in scores between at pre-treatment and pre-surgical orthodontic treatment in the domains of facial esthetics and oral function (p<0.01), and between at pre-surgical orthodontic and post-surgical orthodontic treatment in all domains except awareness of dentofacial esthetics (p<0.05, p<0.01). A significant correlation was observed between a negative change in overjet and worsening OQLQ scores at the pre-surgical orthodontic treatment stage. Significant correlations were also observed between improvement in upper and lower lip difference, soft tissue pogonion protrusion, and ANB angle and improvement in OQLQ scores at the post-surgical orthodontic treatment stage. These results

  18. The ideas about advanced life support and affecting factors at the end-stage of life in a hospital in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Turgay; Şencan, İrfan; Akça, Ömer; Aksoy, Hilal; Ünsal, Selim; Bülbül, İskender; Bahadır, Adem; Kasım, İsmail; Kahveci, Rabia; Özkara, Adem

    2017-01-01

    Background The participation of the people in health decisions may be structured in various levels. One of these is participation in decisions for the treatment. “Advanced directives” is one of the examples for the participation in decisions for the treatment. Aim We wanted to determine the decisions on advanced life support at the end-stage of life in case of a life-threatening illness for the people themselves and their first degree relatives and the factors effecting these decisions. Design and setting The cross-sectional study was conducted with volunteers among patients and patient relatives who applied to all polyclinics of the Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital except the emergency, oncology and psychiatry polyclinics between 15.12.2012 and 15.03.2013. Method A questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD) scale, and Templer’s Death Anxiety Scale (TDA) were applied to all individuals. SPSS for Win. Ver. 17.0 and MS-Excel 2010 Starter software bundles were used for all statistical analysis and calculations. Results The participants want both themselves and their first degree relatives included in end-stage decision-making process. Therefore, the patients and their families should be informed adequately during decision making process and quality communication must be provided. Conclusion Participants who have given their end-stage decisions previously want to be treated according to these decisions. This desire can just be possible by advanced directives.When moral and material loads of end-stage process are taken into consideration, countries, in which advanced directives are practiced, should be examined well and participants’ desire should be evaluated in terms of practicability. PMID:28732071

  19. The ideas about advanced life support and affecting factors at the end-stage of life in a hospital in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Turgay; Şencan, İrfan; Akça, Ömer; Koç, Esra Meltem; Aksoy, Hilal; Ünsal, Selim; Bülbül, İskender; Bahadır, Adem; Kasım, İsmail; Kahveci, Rabia; Özkara, Adem

    2017-01-01

    The participation of the people in health decisions may be structured in various levels. One of these is participation in decisions for the treatment. "Advanced directives" is one of the examples for the participation in decisions for the treatment. We wanted to determine the decisions on advanced life support at the end-stage of life in case of a life-threatening illness for the people themselves and their first degree relatives and the factors effecting these decisions. The cross-sectional study was conducted with volunteers among patients and patient relatives who applied to all polyclinics of the Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital except the emergency, oncology and psychiatry polyclinics between 15.12.2012 and 15.03.2013. A questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD) scale, and Templer's Death Anxiety Scale (TDA) were applied to all individuals. SPSS for Win. Ver. 17.0 and MS-Excel 2010 Starter software bundles were used for all statistical analysis and calculations. The participants want both themselves and their first degree relatives included in end-stage decision-making process. Therefore, the patients and their families should be informed adequately during decision making process and quality communication must be provided. Participants who have given their end-stage decisions previously want to be treated according to these decisions. This desire can just be possible by advanced directives.When moral and material loads of end-stage process are taken into consideration, countries, in which advanced directives are practiced, should be examined well and participants' desire should be evaluated in terms of practicability.

  20. Palliative Care in Improving Quality of Life and Symptoms in Patients With Stage III-IV Pancreatic or Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-18

    Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

  1. Health-related quality of life in end-stage renal disease patients: the effects of renal rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kouidi, E

    2004-05-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) consists of a number of components like functional status, psychological and social functioning, cognition and disease and treatment-related symptoms. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients display emotional disturbances, as well as non-adherence to treatment and fluid and food intake, depression, anxiety, social withdrawal and cardiovascular and other co-existing disease morbidity. They have very low functional capacity and physical limitations in their daily activities that affect their mortality and morbidity. Exercise training in ESRD patients is effective in increasing work related activities and important components of their daily life and improving physical functioning. A physical rehabilitation program also leads to a reduction in depression and improvement in family and social interactions. Therefore, renal rehabilitation should be considered as an important therapeutic method for improving physical fitness, social function, well-being and thus health-adjusted quality of life in ESRD patients.

  2. Comparison of Texture Features Used for Classification of Life Stages of Malaria Parasite.

    PubMed

    Bairagi, Vinayak K; Charpe, Kshipra C

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a vector borne disease widely occurring at equatorial region. Even after decades of campaigning of malaria control, still today it is high mortality causing disease due to improper and late diagnosis. To prevent number of people getting affected by malaria, the diagnosis should be in early stage and accurate. This paper presents an automatic method for diagnosis of malaria parasite in the blood images. Image processing techniques are used for diagnosis of malaria parasite and to detect their stages. The diagnosis of parasite stages is done using features like statistical features and textural features of malaria parasite in blood images. This paper gives a comparison of the textural based features individually used and used in group together. The comparison is made by considering the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the features for the same images in database.

  3. Responsiveness of the quality of life in late-stage dementia scale to psychotropic drug treatment in late-stage dementia.

    PubMed

    Martin-Cook, Kristin; Hynan, Linda S; Rice-Koch, Kathleen; Svetlik, Doris A; Weiner, Myron F

    2005-01-01

    We report on the responsiveness of a previously validated quality-of-life scale, the Quality of Life in Late-Stage Dementia scale (QUALID), as an outcome measure in a clinical trial of two psychotropic medications. Secondary analyses were conducted comparing outcome measures used in a randomized double-blind trial of two antipsychotics (olanzapine and risperidone) for the treatment of dementia-related behavioral symptoms. The QUALID was completed for 31 of the patients in addition to several measures of behavior-related dementia symptoms including the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, the Withdrawn Behavior subscale of the Multidimensional Observation Scale for Elderly Subjects, the Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Clinical Global Impression. Measures of safety and adverse effects included the Simpson-Angus Scale and records of specific adverse events. A significant positive relationship was found between QUALID score and improvement in behavioral symptoms, and a negative association was found with adverse medication effects. The QUALID was sensitive to both the treatment effects and the adverse effects of medication in this sample of patients.

  4. Health-related quality of life and stages of behavioural change for exercise in overweight/obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Romain, A J; Bernard, P; Attalin, V; Gernigon, C; Ninot, G; Avignon, A

    2012-10-01

    Stages of change in exercise behaviour have been shown to be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in overweight/obese adults. However, studies examining this relationship have not used questionnaires specifically designed for such a population. The present study assessed the impact of stages of change (SOC) for exercise, using the transtheoretical model, on the HRQoL, using the quality of life, obesity and dietetics (QOLOD) scale, an obesity-specific QoL questionnaire. Our hypothesis was that the more people are in the advanced stages of behavioural change, the better their HRQoL. A total of 214 consecutive obese individuals (148 women/66 men, mean age 47.4 ± 14.0 years, BMI 37.2 ± 8.4 kg/m2) were included in the cross-sectional study, and all completed SOC and QOLOD questionnaires. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) established significant effects on the overall composite of the five dimensions of the QOLOD (P < 0.001). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) further determined the significant effect of SOC in terms of physical impact (P < 0.001) and psychosocial impact (P < 0.01), with marginally significant effects on sex life (P = 0.07), but no impact on comfort with food (P = 0.13) or on the dieting experience (P = 0.13), two dimensions evaluating attitudes toward food. In obese/overweight individuals, the HRQoL varies with the SOC, with those in the more advanced behavioural stages reporting better HRQoL. However, dimensions related to food showed no differences according to SOC, confirming the complexity of the relationship between exercise and nutrition, and the need for further studies to acquire a more complete understanding of their underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Hypoxia and Acidification Have Additive and Synergistic Negative Effects on the Growth, Survival, and Metamorphosis of Early Life Stage Bivalves

    PubMed Central

    Gobler, Christopher J.; DePasquale, Elizabeth L.; Griffith, Andrew W.; Baumann, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Low oxygen zones in coastal and open ocean ecosystems have expanded in recent decades, a trend that will accelerate with climatic warming. There is growing recognition that low oxygen regions of the ocean are also acidified, a condition that will intensify with rising levels of atmospheric CO2. Presently, however, the concurrent effects of low oxygen and acidification on marine organisms are largely unknown, as most prior studies of marine hypoxia have not considered pH levels. We experimentally assessed the consequences of hypoxic and acidified water for early life stage bivalves (bay scallops, Argopecten irradians, and hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria), marine organisms of significant economic and ecological value and sensitive to climate change. In larval scallops, experimental and naturally-occurring acidification (pH, total scale  = 7.4–7.6) reduced survivorship (by >50%), low oxygen (30–50 µM) inhibited growth and metamorphosis (by >50%), and the two stressors combined produced additively negative outcomes. In early life stage clams, however, hypoxic waters led to 30% higher mortality, while acidified waters significantly reduced growth (by 60%). Later stage clams were resistant to hypoxia or acidification separately but experienced significantly (40%) reduced growth rates when exposed to both conditions simultaneously. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the consequences of low oxygen and acidification for early life stage bivalves, and likely other marine organisms, are more severe than would be predicted by either individual stressor and thus must be considered together when assessing how ocean animals respond to these conditions both today and under future climate change scenarios. PMID:24416169

  6. Hypoxia and acidification have additive and synergistic negative effects on the growth, survival, and metamorphosis of early life stage bivalves.

    PubMed

    Gobler, Christopher J; DePasquale, Elizabeth L; Griffith, Andrew W; Baumann, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Low oxygen zones in coastal and open ocean ecosystems have expanded in recent decades, a trend that will accelerate with climatic warming. There is growing recognition that low oxygen regions of the ocean are also acidified, a condition that will intensify with rising levels of atmospheric CO2. Presently, however, the concurrent effects of low oxygen and acidification on marine organisms are largely unknown, as most prior studies of marine hypoxia have not considered pH levels. We experimentally assessed the consequences of hypoxic and acidified water for early life stage bivalves (bay scallops, Argopecten irradians, and hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria), marine organisms of significant economic and ecological value and sensitive to climate change. In larval scallops, experimental and naturally-occurring acidification (pH, total scale  = 7.4-7.6) reduced survivorship (by >50%), low oxygen (30-50 µM) inhibited growth and metamorphosis (by >50%), and the two stressors combined produced additively negative outcomes. In early life stage clams, however, hypoxic waters led to 30% higher mortality, while acidified waters significantly reduced growth (by 60%). Later stage clams were resistant to hypoxia or acidification separately but experienced significantly (40%) reduced growth rates when exposed to both conditions simultaneously. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the consequences of low oxygen and acidification for early life stage bivalves, and likely other marine organisms, are more severe than would be predicted by either individual stressor and thus must be considered together when assessing how ocean animals respond to these conditions both today and under future climate change scenarios.

  7. Interactive Gentle Yoga in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-07-28

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Fatigue; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  8. Onset and establishment of diazotrophs and other bacterial associates in the early life history stages of the coral Acropora millepora.

    PubMed

    Lema, Kimberley A; Bourne, David G; Willis, Bette L

    2014-10-01

    Early establishment of coral-microbial symbioses is fundamental to the fitness of corals, but comparatively little is known about the onset and succession of bacterial communities in their early life history stages. In this study, bacterial associates of the coral Acropora millepora were characterized throughout the first year of life, from larvae and 1-week-old juveniles reared in laboratory conditions in the absence of the dinoflagellate endosymbiont Symbiodinium to field-outplanted juveniles with established Symbiodinium symbioses, and sampled at 2 weeks and at 3, 6 and 12 months. Using an amplicon pyrosequencing approach, the diversity of both nitrogen-fixing bacteria and of bacterial communities overall was assessed through analysis of nifH and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. The consistent presence of sequences affiliated with diazotrophs of the order Rhizobiales (23-58% of retrieved nifH sequences; 2-12% of 16S rRNA sequences), across all samples from larvae to 12-month-old coral juveniles, highlights the likely functional importance of this nitrogen-fixing order to the coral holobiont. Dominance of Roseobacter-affiliated sequences (>55% of retrieved 16S rRNA sequences) in larvae and 1-week-old juveniles, and the consistent presence of sequences related to Oceanospirillales and Altermonadales throughout all early life history stages, signifies their potential importance as coral associates. Increased diversity of bacterial communities once juveniles were transferred to the field, particularly of Cyanobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria, demonstrates horizontal (environmental) uptake of coral-associated bacterial communities. Although overall bacterial communities were dynamic, bacteria with likely important functional roles remain stable throughout early life stages of Acropora millepora. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Non-lethal effects of an invasive species in the marine environment: the importance of early life-history stages.

    PubMed

    Rius, Marc; Turon, Xavier; Marshall, Dustin J

    2009-04-01

    Studies examining the effects of invasive species have focussed traditionally on the direct/lethal effects of the invasive on the native community but there is a growing recognition that invasive species may also have non-lethal effects. In terrestrial systems, non-lethal effects of invasive species can disrupt early life-history phases (such as fertilisation, dispersal and subsequent establishment) of native species, but in the marine environment most studies focus on adult rather than early life-history stages. Here, we examine the potential for an introduced sessile marine invertebrate (Styela plicata) to exert both lethal and non-lethal effects on a native species (Microcosmus squamiger) across multiple early life-history stages. We determined whether sperm from the invasive species interfered with the fertilisation of eggs from the native species and found no effect. However, we did find strong effects of the invasive species on the post-fertilisation performance of the native species. The invasive species inhibited the settlement of native larvae and, in the field, the presence of the invasive species was associated with a ten-fold increase in the post-settlement mortality of the native species, as well as an initial reduction of growth in the native. Our results suggest that larvae of the native species avoid settling near the invasive species due to reduced post-settlement survival in its presence. Overall, we found that invasive species can have complex and pervasive effects (both lethal and non-lethal) across the early life-history stages of the native species, which are likely to result in its displacement and to facilitate further invasion.

  10. Physical body parameters of red-crowned cranes Grus japonensis by sex and life stage in eastern Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Masako; Shimura, Ryoji; Uebayashi, Akiko; Ikoma, Shinobu; Iima, Hiroko; Sumiyoshi, Takashi; Teraoka, Hiroki; Makita, Kohei; Hiraga, Takeo; Momose, Kunikazu; Masatomi, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Red-crowned (or Japanese) cranes Grus japonensis are native to eastern Hokkaido, Japan--the island population, and mainland Asia--the continental population that migrates from breeding grounds along the Amur River Basin to winter in east China and the Korean Peninsula. The island population was reduced to about 50-60 birds in early part of the 20th century. Since 1950s, the population has increased to more than 1,300 as a consequence of human-provided food in winter, resulted in change of their habitats and food resource. From the carcasses of 284 wild cranes from the island population, collected in Hokkaido since 1976 until 2010, we measured six physical parameters (body weight and lengths of body, wing, tarsus, tail and exposed culmen) and divided into groups by sex and three developmental stages (juvenile, yearling and adult). All parameters of males were larger than those of females at the same stage. Total body length of females tends to grow up earlier than males, in contrast to body weight. Obvious time trends were not observed in these all parameters during 34 years for these six categories measured, except total length of male juveniles, which showed a significant increasing trend. These results provide the first extensive data on body size and mass in the wild red-crowned cranes.

  11. Diapause in the Boll Weevil (Coleopetra: Curculionidae) : Life-Stage Sensitivity to Enviromental Cues

    Terence L. Wagner; Eric J. Villavaso; Jefferey L. Willers

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the diapause response in naturally occurring boll weevils under field and simulated field environments of north Mississippi. Squares containing early-stage weevils were collected in July, August, and September and subsamples from each group were installed into similar dynamic environments in the laboratory. In this manner, some weevils experienced...

  12. Developing a Five-Stage Model of Learning in "Second Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Gilly; Nie, Ming; Edirisingha, Palitha

    2010-01-01

    Background: In the 1990s, Salmon developed a five-stage model for enabling and scaffolding remote groups to work and learn together using asynchronous bulletin boards. The model has informed online learning and development practice across different levels and education for online and blended learning. Purpose: This paper reports our testing of the…

  13. Transcriptome changes associated with Tomato spotted wilt virus infection in various life stages of its thrips vector, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds).

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Anita; Champagne, Donald E; Culbreath, Albert K; Rotenberg, Dorith; Whitfield, Anna E; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu

    2017-08-01

    Persistent propagative viruses maintain intricate interactions with their arthropod vectors. In this study, we investigated the transcriptome-level responses associated with a persistent propagative phytovirus infection in various life stages of its vector using an Illumina HiSeq sequencing platform. The pathosystem components included a Tospovirus, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), its insect vector, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), and a plant host, Arachis hypogaea (L.). We assembled (de novo) reads from three developmental stage groups of virus-exposed and non-virus-exposed F. fusca into one transcriptome consisting of 72 366 contigs and identified 1161 differentially expressed (DE) contigs. The number of DE contigs was greatest in adults (female) (562) when compared with larvae (first and second instars) (395) and pupae (pre- and pupae) (204). Upregulated contigs in virus-exposed thrips had blastx annotations associated with intracellular transport and virus replication. Upregulated contigs were also assigned blastx annotations associated with immune responses, including apoptosis and phagocytosis. In virus-exposed larvae, Blast2GO analysis identified functional groups, such as multicellular development with downregulated contigs, while reproduction, embryo development and growth were identified with upregulated contigs in virus-exposed adults. This study provides insights into differences in transcriptome-level responses modulated by TSWV in various life stages of an important vector, F. fusca.

  14. Metabolic rate and life stage of the mites Tetranychus cinnabarinus boisd. (Prostigmata) and Phytoseiulus persimilis A-H. (Mesostigmata).

    PubMed

    Thurling, D J

    1980-09-01

    Respiration rates (oxygen uptake per individual) of the herbivorous mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisd. and of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis A-H. were measured at 25°C for all life stages, including eggs, using a Cartesian Diver micro-respirometer.Metabolic rates (oxygen uptake per unit weight) ranged between 0.27 and 2.32 nl O 2 μg -1 live weight h -1 in T. cinnabarinus, and between 0.99 and 3.69 nl O 2 μg -1 live weight h -1 in P. persimilis. The difference in metabolic rate ranges is attributed to different modes of life. The metabolic rates of both species are higher than those of comparable mite species, which is attributed to their small size, rapid development and limited sclerotization.Respiration-body weight regression gave the single equation log 10 R=-0.091+1.213 log 10 W for all post-embryonic stages of T. cinnabarinus but two equations for P. persimilis of log 10 R=0.394+1.116 log 10 W for gravid females and log 10 R=0.880+0.348 log 10 W for all non-reproducing post-embryonic stages. The single respiration-body weight relationship for T. cinnabarinus reflects the continuous growth pattern of this species, and the two relationships for P. persimilis reflect the accelerated growth following fertilization. The significance of these results for invertebrate population metabolism studies is discussed.

  15. Sensory shelf life estimation of minimally processed lettuce considering two stages of consumers' decision-making process.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Giménez, Ana; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the influence of context, particularly the stage of the decision-making process (purchase vs consumption stage), on sensory shelf life of minimally processed lettuce. Leaves of butterhead lettuce were placed in common polypropylene bags and stored at 5, 10 and 15 degrees C. Periodically, a panel of six assessors evaluated the appearance of the samples, and a panel of 40 consumers evaluated their appearance and answered "yes" or "no" to the questions: "Imagine you are in a supermarket, you want to buy a minimally processed lettuce, and you find a package of lettuce with leaves like this, would you normally buy it?" and "Imagine you have this leaf of lettuce stored in your refrigerator, would you normally consume it?". Survival analysis was used to calculate the shelf lives of minimally processed lettuce, considering both decision-making stages. Shelf lives estimated considering rejection to purchase were significantly lower than those estimated considering rejection to consume. Therefore, in order to be conservative and assure the products' quality, shelf life should be estimated considering consumers' rejection to purchase instead of rejection to consume, as traditionally has been done. On the other hand, results from logistic regressions of consumers' rejection percentage as a function of the evaluated appearance attributes suggested that consumers considered them differently while deciding whether to purchase or to consume minimally processed lettuce.

  16. Midlife Eriksonian Psychosocial Development: Setting the Stage for Cognitive and Emotional Health in Late Life

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Johanna C.; Liu, Sabrina R.; Vaillant, George E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Waldinger, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Erikson’s (1950) model of adult psychosocial development outlines the significance of successful involvement within one’s relationships, work, and community for healthy aging. He theorized that the consequences of not meeting developmental challenges included stagnation and emotional despair. Drawing on this model, the present study uses prospective longitudinal data to examine how the quality of assessed Eriksonian psychosocial development in midlife relates to late-life cognitive and emotional functioning. In particular we were interested to see whether late-life depression mediated the relationship between Eriksonian development and specific domains of cognitive functioning (i.e., executive functioning and memory). Participants were 159 men from the over 75 year longitudinal Study of Adult Development. The sample was comprised of men from both higher and lower socio-economic strata. Eriksonian psychosocial development was coded from men’s narrative responses to interviews between the ages of 30–47 (Vaillant and Milofsky, 1980). In late life (ages 75–85) men completed a performance - based neuropsychological assessment measuring global cognitive status, executive functioning, and memory. In addition depressive symptomatology was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale. Our results indicated that higher midlife Eriksonian psychosocial development was associated with stronger global cognitive functioning and executive functioning, and lower levels of depression three to four decades later. There was no significant association between Eriksonian development and late-life memory. Late-life depression mediated the relationship between Eriksonian development and both global cognition and executive functioning. All of these results controlled for highest level of education and adolescent intelligence. Findings have important implications for understanding the lasting benefits of psychosocial engagement in mid-adulthood for late-life cognitive and

  17. A Two-Stage Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) Design Optimization Study and Life Cycle Cost Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    discussed in more depth in Chapter 4 and Appendix B. Advanced liners with an estimated service life of up to 35 years (94) are being investigated now for the...Minuteman life - extension program. In fact, independent research is already underway for a replacement system, the Advanced Inertial Measurement System... Al = - T and n(n + 1) 7-2 Solving for n and r gives *= All, (D. ) 01(2 - Al2) and MI’= W2 (D.2) For the Weibull pdf . P () );-) .exp[-(t/O)•] the first

  18. Quality of Life in Women with Stage 1 Stress Urinary Incontinence after Application of Conservative Treatment-A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Ptak, Magdalena; Brodowska, Agnieszka; Ciećwież, Sylwester; Rotter, Iwona

    2017-05-30

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) influences quality of life in female patients. In this study, we used ICIQ LUTS QoL (The International Consultation Incontinence Questionnaire Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms quality of life) to determine the quality of life (QoL) in various domains in patients with stage 1 SUI. The study included 140 perimenopausal women subjected to urodynamic tests at the Department of Gynaecology, Endocrinology and Gynaecologic Oncology, Pomeranian Medical University, Police (Poland) in 2013-2015. The study subjects were divided into two groups, A and B. Each patient completed two questionnaires, an original survey developed by the authors and the validated ICIQ LUTS QoL. Two exercise programs, each lasting for 3 months and consisting of 4 weekly sessions, were recommended to the study subjects. The program for Group A included exercises for pelvic floor muscles (PFM) with simultaneous tension of the transverse abdominal muscle (TrA), and the program for Group B, PFM exercises without TrA tension. After completing the exercise programs, patients with stage 1 SUI, both from Group A and from Group B, showed a significant improvement in most QoL domains measured with ICIQ LUTS QoL. However, more beneficial effects of the training were observed in the group subjected to PFM exercises with TrA tension.

  19. Quality of Life in Women with Stage 1 Stress Urinary Incontinence after Application of Conservative Treatment—A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ptak, Magdalena; Brodowska, Agnieszka; Ciećwież, Sylwester; Rotter, Iwona

    2017-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) influences quality of life in female patients. In this study, we used ICIQ LUTS QoL (The International Consultation Incontinence Questionnaire Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms quality of life) to determine the quality of life (QoL) in various domains in patients with stage 1 SUI. The study included 140 perimenopausal women subjected to urodynamic tests at the Department of Gynaecology, Endocrinology and Gynaecologic Oncology, Pomeranian Medical University, Police (Poland) in 2013–2015. The study subjects were divided into two groups, A and B. Each patient completed two questionnaires, an original survey developed by the authors and the validated ICIQ LUTS QoL. Two exercise programs, each lasting for 3 months and consisting of 4 weekly sessions, were recommended to the study subjects. The program for Group A included exercises for pelvic floor muscles (PFM) with simultaneous tension of the transverse abdominal muscle (TrA), and the program for Group B, PFM exercises without TrA tension. After completing the exercise programs, patients with stage 1 SUI, both from Group A and from Group B, showed a significant improvement in most QoL domains measured with ICIQ LUTS QoL. However, more beneficial effects of the training were observed in the group subjected to PFM exercises with TrA tension. PMID:28556806

  20. Somatic Maintenance Resources in the Honeybee Worker Fat Body Are Distributed to Withstand the Most Life-Threatening Challenges at Each Life Stage

    PubMed Central

    Seehuus, Siri-Christine; Taylor, Simon; Petersen, Kjell; Aamodt, Randi M.

    2013-01-01

    In a global transcriptome analysis of three natural and three manipulated honeybee worker phenotypes at different ages, we have investigated the distribution of investment in somatic maintenance of the fat body. Gene expression is modulated so that the bees are able to resist the most life-threatening challenges at the actual life stage. Different modes of maintenance and repair are regulated, apparently to meet the environmental challenges most detrimental to survival and reproductive potential for the hive. We observed a broad down-regulation of genomic and cellular maintenance in the short-lived foragers and nurse bees compared to the long-lived winter bees. Our results show that survival and reproduction of the entire hive is given priority over the individual bees, hence supporting the idea of the honeybee society as a superorganism. Our results also fit the disposable soma theory of aging. PMID:23940531

  1. Plasmodium falciparum full life cycle and Plasmodium ovale liver stages in humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Soulard, Valérie; Bosson-Vanga, Henriette; Lorthiois, Audrey; Roucher, Clémentine; Franetich, Jean-François; Zanghi, Gigliola; Bordessoulles, Mallaury; Tefit, Maurel; Thellier, Marc; Morosan, Serban; Le Naour, Gilles; Capron, Frédérique; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Snounou, Georges; Moreno-Sabater, Alicia; Mazier, Dominique

    2015-07-24

    Experimental studies of Plasmodium parasites that infect humans are restricted by their host specificity. Humanized mice offer a means to overcome this and further provide the opportunity to observe the parasites in vivo. Here we improve on previous protocols to achieve efficient double engraftment of TK-NOG mice by human primary hepatocytes and red blood cells. Thus, we obtain the complete hepatic development of P. falciparum, the transition to the erythrocytic stages, their subsequent multiplication, and the appearance of mature gametocytes over an extended period of observation. Furthermore, using sporozoites derived from two P. ovale-infected patients, we show that human hepatocytes engrafted in TK-NOG mice sustain maturation of the liver stages, and the presence of late-developing schizonts indicate the eventual activation of quiescent parasites. Thus, TK-NOG mice are highly suited for in vivo observations on the Plasmodium species of humans.

  2. EARLY LIFE STAGE TOXICITY OF COPPER TO ENDANGERED AND SURROGATE FISH SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality criteria (WQC) for the protection of aquatic life have not explicitly considered the degree of protection afforded to aquatic species listed as endangered or threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (listed species) . Most WQCs are based primarily on respon...

  3. Ontogenetic development in the morphology and behavior of loach ( Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) during early life stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lei; Duan, Ming; Cheng, Fei; Xie, Songguang

    2014-09-01

    Loach ( Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) are a commercially important fish in China and an ideal aquaculture species. However, culturists experience high larval and juvenile mortality during mass production. To provide insight into ways to improve larviculture techniques, we describe the morphological characteristics and behavior of loach during the larval and early juvenile stages. Yolksac larvae ranged from 2.8 to 4.0 mm body length (BL) between days 0 to 4; preflexion larvae ranged from 3.6 to 5.5 mm BL between days 4 to 6; flexion larvae ranged from 4.8 to 8.1 mm BL between days 5 and 14; and postflexion larvae ranged from 7.1 to 15.7 mm BL between days 11 to 27; the minimum length and age of juveniles was 14.1 mm BL and 23 d, respectively. Loach are demersal from hatch through to the early juvenile stages. A suite of morphological characteristics (e.g., external gill filament and ventral mouth opening) and behavioral traits have developed to adapt to demersal living. We observed positive allometric growth in eye diameter, head length, head height, and pectoral fin length during the early larval stages, reflecting the priorities in the development of the organs essential for survival. Our results provide a basis for developing techniques to improve the survival of larval and juvenile loach during mass production.

  4. Performance Evaluation of Staged Bosch Process for CO2 Reduction to Produce Life Support Consumables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilekar, Saurabh A.; Hawley, Kyle; Junaedi, Christian; Walsh, Dennis; Roychoudhury, Subir; Abney. Morgan B.; Mansell, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing carbon dioxide to produce water and hence oxygen is critical for sustained manned missions in space, and to support both NASA's cabin Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS) and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) concepts. For long term missions beyond low Earth orbit, where resupply is significantly more difficult and costly, open loop ARS, like Sabatier, consume inputs such as hydrogen. The Bosch process, on the other hand, has the potential to achieve complete loop closure and is hence a preferred choice. However, current single stage Bosch reactor designs suffer from a large recycle penalty due to slow reaction rates and the inherent limitation in approaching thermodynamic equilibrium. Developmental efforts are seeking to improve upon the efficiency (hence reducing the recycle penalty) of current single stage Bosch reactors which employ traditional steel wool catalysts. Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI), with support from NASA, has investigated the potential for utilizing catalysts supported over short-contact time Microlith substrates for the Bosch reaction to achieve faster reaction rates, higher conversions, and a reduced recycle flows. Proof-of-concept testing was accomplished for a staged Bosch process by splitting the chemistry in two separate reactors, first being the reverse water-gas-shift (RWGS) and the second being the carbon formation reactor (CFR) via hydrogenation and/or Boudouard. This paper presents the results from this feasibility study at various operating conditions. Additionally, results from two 70 hour durability tests for the RWGS reactor are discussed.

  5. Reducing Older Driver Motor Vehicle Collisions via Earlier Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mennemeyer, Stephen T.; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Older adults who undergo cataract extraction have roughly half the rate of motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement per mile driven compared to cataract patients who do not elect cataract surgery. Currently in the U.S., most insurers do not allow payment for cataract surgery based upon the findings of a vision exam unless accompanied by an individual’s complaint of visual difficulties that seriously interfere with driving or other daily activities and individuals themselves may be slow or reluctant to complain and seek relief. As a consequence, surgery tends to occur after significant vision problems have emerged. We hypothesize that a proactive policy encouraging cataract surgery earlier for a lesser level of complaint would significantly reduce MVCs among older drivers. We used a Monte Carlo model to simulate the MVC experience of the U.S. population from age 60 to 89 under alternative protocols for the timing of cataract surgery which we call “Current Practice” (CP) and “Earlier Surgery” (ES). Our base model finds, from a societal perspective with undiscounted 2010 dollars, that switching to ES from CP reduces by about 21% the average number of MVCs, fatalities, and MVC cost per person. The net effect on total cost – all MVC costs plus cataract surgery expenditures -- is a reduction of about 16%. Quality Adjusted Life Years would increase by about 5%. From the perspective of payers for healthcare, the switch would increase cataract surgery expenditure for ages 65+ by about 8% and for ages 60 to 64 by about 47% but these expenditures are substantially offset after age 65 by reductions in the medical and emergency services component of MVC cost. Similar results occur with discounting at 3% and with various sensitivity analyses. We conclude that a policy of ES would significantly reduce MVCs and their associated consequences. PMID:23369786

  6. Trend of earlier spring in central Europe continued

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungersböck, Markus; Jurkovic, Anita; Koch, Elisabeth; Lipa, Wolfgang; Scheifinger, Helfried; Zach-Hermann, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    Modern phenology is the study of the timing of recurring biological events in the animal and plant world, the causes of their timing with regard to biotic and abiotic forces, and the interrelation among phases of the same or different species. The relationship between phenology and climate explains the importance of plant phenology for Climate Change studies. Plants require light, water, oxygen mineral nutrients and suitable temperature to grow. In temperate zones the seasonal life cycle of plants is primarily controlled by temperature and day length. Higher spring air temperatures are resulting in an earlier onset of the phenological spring in temperate and cool climate. On the other hand changes in phenology due to climate change do have impact on the climate system itself. Vegetation is a dynamic factor in the earth - climate system and has positive and negative feedback mechanisms to the biogeochemical and biogeophysical fluxes to the atmosphere Since the mid of the 1980s spring springs earlier in Europe and autumn is shifting back to the end of the year resulting in a longer vegetation period. The advancement of spring can be clearly attributed to temperature increase in the months prior to leaf unfolding and flowering, the timing of autumn is more complex and cannot easily be attributed to one or some few parameters. To demonstrate that the observed advancement of spring since the mid of 1980s is pro-longed in 2001 to 2010 and the delay of fall and the lengthening of the growing season is confirmed in the last decade we picked out several indicator plants from the PEP725 database www.pep725.eu. The PEP725 database collects data from different European network operators and thus offers a unique compilation of phenological observations; the database is regularly updated. The data follow the same classification scheme, the so called BBCH coding system so they can be compared. Lilac Syringa vulgaris, birch Betula pendula, beech Fagus and horse chestnut Aesculus

  7. The decline of venture capital investment in early-stage life sciences poses a challenge to continued innovation.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Jonathan J

    2015-02-01

    A key element required for translating new knowledge into effective therapies is early-stage venture capital that finances the work needed to identify a lead molecule or medical device prototype and to develop it to the proof-of-concept stage. This early investment is distinguished by great uncertainty over whether the molecule or prototype is safe and effective, the stability of the regulatory standards to which clinical trials are designed, and the likelihood that large follow-on investments for commercial development can be secured. Regulatory and reimbursement policies have a profound impact on the amount of capital and the types of life science projects that investors pursue. In this article I analyze several recent trends in early-stage venture capital funding, describe how these trends are influenced by regulatory and reimbursement policies, and discuss the role of policy makers in bringing new treatments to market. Policy makers can foster renewed private investment into critically needed early-stage products by increasing Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding and public support for clinical trials in targeted areas of interest; creating regulatory pathways to enable early testing of experimental compounds in limited populations; and offering economic incentives for investors and developers in designated therapeutic areas. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  8. Impact of complications and bladder cancer stage on quality of life in patients with different types of urinary diversions.

    PubMed

    Prcic, Alden; Aganovic, Damir; Hadziosmanovic, Osman

    2013-12-01

    Determine correlation between complications and stage of the disease and their impact on quality of life in patients with different types of ileal urinary derivation after radical cystectomy, and upon estimation of acquired results, to suggest the most acceptable type of urinary diversion. In five year period a prospective clinical study was performed on 106 patients, to whom a radical cystectomy was performed due to bladder cancer. Patients were divided into two groups, 66 patients with ileal conduit derivation and 40 patients with orthotopic derivation, whereby in each group a comparison between reflux and anti-reflux technique of orthotopic bladder was made. All patients from both groups filled the Sickness Impact Profile score six months after the operation. All patients had CT urography or Intravenous urography performed, as well as standard laboratory, vitamin B12 blood values, in order to evaluate early (ileus or subileus, wound dehiscence, bladder fistula, rupture of orthotopic bladder, urine extravazation) and late complications (VUR, urethral stricture, ureter stenosis, metabolic acidosis, mineral dis-balance, hypovitaminosis of vitamin B12, increased resorption of bone calcium, urinary infection, kidney damage, relapse of primary disease), so as disease stage and it's impact on quality of life. From gained results we observe that each category of SIP score correlates with different rate of correlation with the type of operation, group, T, N, and R grade, except work category. Average value of SIP score rises depending on the type of operation and T stage. It is notable that there is no difference in T1 stage, no matter the type of operation. So the average value of SIP score in T1 stage for conduit was 20.3, for Abol-Enein and Ghoneim 17.25 and Hautmann 18.75 respectively. Average value of SIP score in T2 stage for conduit was 31, for Abol-Enein and Ghoneim 19.1 and Hautmann 17.8. Average value of SIP score in T3 stage for conduit was 38.03, for Abol

  9. Stereotypes of women in different stages of their reproductive life: data from Mexico and the United States.

    PubMed

    Marván, Ma Luisa; Islas, Martha; Vela, Laura; Chrisler, Joan C; Warren, Elyse A

    2008-08-01

    College students from Mexico and the United States (n = 349) were surveyed to explore stereotypes regarding women in different menstrual cycle phases and other stages of reproductive life. Participants from both countries defined a premenstrual or menstrual woman as irritable and moody and a menopausal woman as old and irritable. A woman with a hysterectomy was defined as sad, and only Americans used other words that did not have any negative connotation. Participants used some positive adjectives to describe other stages. For example, a pregnant woman was defined as happy, but only by Mexicans. Finally, a woman with a young baby was defined in both countries as happy; however, Americans implied that having a baby is complicated. The findings are discussed in light of sociocultural differences and similarities.

  10. High-Throughput Chemical Screening Identifies Compounds that Inhibit Different Stages of the Phytophthora agathidicida and Phytophthora cinnamomi Life Cycles.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Scott A; Armstrong, Charlotte B; Patrick, Wayne M; Gerth, Monica L

    2017-01-01

    Oomycetes in the genus Phytophthora are among the most damaging plant pathogens worldwide. Two important species are Phytophthora cinnamomi , which causes root rot in thousands of native and agricultural plants, and Phytophthora agathidicida , which causes kauri dieback disease in New Zealand. As is the case for other Phytophthora species, management options for these two pathogens are limited. Here, we have screened over 100 compounds for their anti-oomycete activity, as a potential first step toward identifying new control strategies. Our screening identified eight compounds that showed activity against both Phytophthora species. These included five antibiotics, two copper compounds and a quaternary ammonium cation. These compounds were tested for their inhibitory action against three stages of the Phytophthora life cycle: mycelial growth, zoospore germination, and zoospore motility. The inhibitory effects of the compounds were broadly similar between the two Phytophthora species, but their effectiveness varied widely among life cycle stages. Mycelial growth was most successfully inhibited by the antibiotics chlortetracycline and paromomycin, and the quaternary ammonium salt benzethonium chloride. Copper chloride and copper sulfate were most effective at inhibiting zoospore germination and motility, whereas the five antibiotics showed relatively poor zoospore inhibition. Benzethonium chloride was identified as a promising antimicrobial, as it is effective across all three life cycle stages. While further testing is required to determine their efficacy and potential phytotoxicity in planta , we have provided new data on those agents that are, and those that are not, effective against P. agathidicida and P. cinnamomi . Additionally, we present here the first published protocol for producing zoospores from P. agathidicida , which will aid in the further study of this emerging pathogen.

  11. Acute toxicity of Roundup® herbicide to three life stages of the freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica (Decapoda: Atyidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensah, P. K.; Muller, W. J.; Palmer, C. G.

    Glyphosate based herbicides, including Roundup®, are frequently used in the chemical control of weeds and invading alien plant species in South Africa. These herbicides ultimately get into water courses directly or indirectly through processes such as drifting, leaching, surface runoff and foliar spray of aquatic nuisance plants. Despite their widespread use, no water quality guideline exists to protect indigenous South African freshwater organisms from the toxic effects of these herbicides. The toxicity of the herbicide Roundup® was assessed using three different life stages of the freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica, a prevalent species in South African freshwater ecosystems. Neonate (<7 days post hatching (dph)), juvenile (>7 dph and <20 dph) and adult (>40 dph) shrimps were exposed to varying concentrations (1.5-50 mg/L acid equivalence (a.e.)) of the herbicide in 48 and 96 h acute toxicity tests in order to determine the most sensitive life-stage. The results showed neonates to be more sensitive to Roundup® than both juveniles and adults with mean 96 h LC 50 values of 2.5, 7.0 and 25.3 mg/L a.e. respectively. The estimated 96 h LC 50 of neonates is much lower than the application rate (20-30 mg/L a.e.), although the application’s impact will depend on the dilution rate of the applied concentration in the environment. All three life-stages of unexposed animals exhibited active and coordinated movement but exposed shrimps were erratic and slow in their movements, with neonates showing most of these behavioral irregularities. This study shows that low levels of the herbicide Roundup® may adversely affect C. nilotica health and survival. Thus, the herbicide should be carefully managed to minimize any negative impact on non-target freshwater organisms.

  12. Ocean Warming Enhances Malformations, Premature Hatching, Metabolic Suppression and Oxidative Stress in the Early Life Stages of a Keystone Squid

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rui; Pimentel, Marta S.; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Teixeira, Tatiana; Trübenbach, Katja; Diniz, Mário

    2012-01-01

    Background The knowledge about the capacity of organisms’ early life stages to adapt to elevated temperatures is very limited but crucial to understand how marine biota will respond to global warming. Here we provide a comprehensive and integrated view of biological responses to future warming during the early ontogeny of a keystone invertebrate, the squid Loligo vulgaris. Methodology/Principal Findings Recently-spawned egg masses were collected and reared until hatching at present day and projected near future (+2°C) temperatures, to investigate the ability of early stages to undergo thermal acclimation, namely phenotypic altering of morphological, behavioural, biochemical and physiological features. Our findings showed that under the projected near-future warming, the abiotic conditions inside the eggs promoted metabolic suppression, which was followed by premature hatching. Concomitantly, the less developed newborns showed greater incidence of malformations. After hatching, the metabolic burst associated with the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a planktonic stage increased linearly with temperature. However, the greater exposure to environmental stress by the hatchlings seemed to be compensated by physiological mechanisms that reduce the negative effects on fitness. Heat shock proteins (HSP70/HSC70) and antioxidant enzymes activities constituted an integrated stress response to ocean warming in hatchlings (but not in embryos). Conclusions/Significance The stressful abiotic conditions inside eggs are expected to be aggravated under the projected near-future ocean warming, with deleterious effects on embryo survival and growth. Greater feeding challenges and the lower thermal tolerance limits of the hatchlings are strictly connected to high metabolic demands associated with the planktonic life strategy. Yet, we found some evidence that, in the future, the early stages might support higher energy demands by adjusting some cellular functional properties

  13. Single and joint toxic effects of five selected pesticides on the early life stages of zebrafish (Denio rerio).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Lv, Lu; Yu, Yijun; Yang, Guiling; Xu, Zhenlan; Wang, Qiang; Cai, Leiming

    2017-03-01

    Instead of individual ones, pesticides are usually detected in water environment as mixtures of contaminants. Laboratory tests were conducted in order to investigate the effects of individual and joint pesticides (phoxim, atrazine, chlorpyrifos, butachlor and λ-cyhalothrin) on zebrafish (Denio rerio). Results from 96-h semi-static toxicity test indicated that λ-cyhalothrin had the greatest toxicity to the three life stages (embryonic, larval and juvenile stages) of D. rerio with LC 50 values ranging from 0.0031 (0.0017-0.0042) to 0.38 (0.21-0.53) mg a.i. L -1 , followed by butachlor and chlorpyrifos with LC 50 values ranging from 0.45 (0.31-0.59) to 1.93 (1.37-3.55) and from 0.28 (0.13-0.38) to 13.03 (7.54-19.71) mg a.i. L -1 , respectively. In contrast, atrazine showed the least toxicity with LC 50 values ranging from 6.09 (3.34-8.35) to 34.19 (24.42-51.9) mg a.i. L -1 . The larval stage of D. rerio was a vulnerable period to most of the selected pesticides in the multiple life stages tested. Pesticide mixtures containing phoxim and λ-cyhalothrin exerted synergistic effects on the larvae of D. rerio. Moreover, the binary mixture of phoxim-atrazine also displayed synergistic response to zebrafish. It has been assumed that most chemicals are additive in toxicity. Therefore, it is crucial to clarify the synergistic interaction for pesticide regulators and environment managers. In the present study, our data provided a clear picture on ecological risk of these pesticide mixtures to aquatic organisms. Moreover, joint effects play a more important role than individual ones, which require more attention when defining standard for water environment quality and risk assessment protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Linking egg thiamine and fatty acid concentrations of Lake Michigan lake trout with early life stage mortality.

    PubMed

    Czesny, Sergiusz; Dettmers, John M; Rinchard, Jacques; Dabrowski, Konrad

    2009-12-01

    The natural reproduction of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Michigan is thought to be compromised by nutritional deficiency associated with inadequate levels of thiamine (vitamin B1) in their eggs. However, mortality driven by thiamine deficiency (commonly referred to as early mortality syndrome [EMS]) is not the only significant cause of low lake trout survival at early life stages. In this study, we sought to better understand the combined effects of variable levels of thiamine and fatty acids in lake trout eggs on prehatch, posthatch, and swim-up-stage mortality. We sampled the eggs of 29 lake trout females from southwestern Lake Michigan. The concentrations of free thiamine and its vitamers (e.g., thiamine monophosphate [TMP] and thiamine pyrophosphate [TPP]) as well as fatty acid profiles were determined in sampled eggs. Fertilized eggs and embryos were monitored through the advanced swim-up stage (1,000 degree-days). Three distinct periods of mortality were identified: prehatch (0-400 degree-days), immediately posthatch (401-600 degree-days), and swim-up (601-1,000 degree-days). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed (1) that cis-7-hexadecenoic acid in both neutral lipids (NL) and phospholipids (PL) correlated with prehatch mortality, (2) that docosapentaenoic acid in PL and docosahexaenoic acid in NL correlated with posthatch mortality, and (3) that total lipids, TPP, and palmitoleic acid in NL, linoleic acid, and palmitic acid in PL correlated with the frequency of EMS. These results indicate the complexity of early life stage mortality in lake trout and suggest that inadequate levels of key fatty acids in eggs, along with variable thiamine content, contribute to the low survival of lake trout progeny in Lake Michigan.

  15. Quality of life and voice assessment in patients with early-stage glottic cancer.

    PubMed

    Arias, Fernando; Arraras, Juan Ignacio; Asin, Gemma; Uzcanga, María Itziar; Maraví, Enrique; Chicata, Volker; Eito, Clara; Zarandona, Uxue; Mora, Itxaso; Vila, Meritxell; Domínguez, Miguel Angel

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of life (QOL) and voice handicap in a sample of disease-free patients who had been treated at our center with radiotherapy (RT) or surgery for early glottic cancer. QOL and voice handicap were assessed using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) questionnaires Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30-questions (QLQ-C30) and Quality of Life Questionnaire-Head and Neck 35-questions (QLQ-H&N35) and the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). Ninety-one patients completed the questionnaires. Fifty-nine patients (65%) were treated with RT and 32 (35%) with surgery. QOL scores for the sample recorded, moderate limitations in 6 areas, and more than moderate limitations (>30 of 100) in 2 areas. Significant differences were found in emotional functioning (88.5 vs 76.6) and social contact (4.6 vs 12.1) on the EORTC questionnaires and on the VHI (6.1 vs 12.8), which favored the RT group. In this cross-sectional study, voice quality, emotional functioning, and social contact were better in the RT group. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. In vitro activity of wALADin benzimidazoles against different life cycle stages of Plasmodium parasites.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Christian S; Sattler, Julia M; Fendler, Martina; Gottwalt, Simon; Halls, Victoria S; Strassel, Silke; Arriens, Sandra; Hannam, Jeffrey S; Specht, Sabine; Famulok, Michael; Mueller, Ann-Kristin; Hoerauf, Achim; Pfarr, Kenneth M

    2015-01-01

    wALADin1 benzimidazoles are specific inhibitors of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase from Wolbachia endobacteria of filarial nematodes. We report that wALADin1 and two derivatives killed blood stage Plasmodium falciparum in vitro (50% inhibitory concentrations, 39, 7.7, and 12.8 μM, respectively). One of these derivatives inhibited gliding motility of Plasmodium berghei ANKA infectious sporozoites with nanomolar affinity and blocked invasion into hepatocytes but did not affect intrahepatocytic replication. Hence, wALADin1 benzimidazoles are tools to study gliding motility and potential antiplasmodial drug candidates. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. In Vitro Activity of wALADin Benzimidazoles against Different Life Cycle Stages of Plasmodium Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, Christian S.; Sattler, Julia M.; Fendler, Martina; Gottwalt, Simon; Halls, Victoria S.; Strassel, Silke; Arriens, Sandra; Hannam, Jeffrey S.; Specht, Sabine; Famulok, Michael; Mueller, Ann-Kristin; Hoerauf, Achim

    2014-01-01

    wALADin1 benzimidazoles are specific inhibitors of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase from Wolbachia endobacteria of filarial nematodes. We report that wALADin1 and two derivatives killed blood stage Plasmodium falciparum in vitro (50% inhibitory concentrations, 39, 7.7, and 12.8 μM, respectively). One of these derivatives inhibited gliding motility of Plasmodium berghei ANKA infectious sporozoites with nanomolar affinity and blocked invasion into hepatocytes but did not affect intrahepatocytic replication. Hence, wALADin1 benzimidazoles are tools to study gliding motility and potential antiplasmodial drug candidates. PMID:25313210

  18. Structure and dynamics of the gut bacterial microbiota of the bark beetle, Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) across their life stages

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Bark beetles play an important role as agents of natural renovation and regeneration in coniferous forests. Several studies have documented the metabolic capacity of bacteria associated with the gut, body surface, and oral secretions of these insects; however, little is known about how the bacterial community structure changes during the life cycle of the beetles. This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of the bacterial community of the gut of the bark beetle D. rhizophagus during the insect’s life cycle using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 4 bacterial phyla, 7 classes, 15 families and 23 genera were identified. The α-diversity was low, as demonstrated in previous studies. The dominant bacterial taxa belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae families. This low α-diversity can be attributed to the presence of defensive chemical compounds in conifers or due to different morpho-physiological factors in the gut of these insects acting as strong selective factors. Members of the genera Rahnella, Serratia, Pseudomonas and Propionibacterium were found at all life stages, and the first three genera, particularly Rahnella, were predominant suggesting the presence of a core microbiome in the gut. Significant differences in β-diversity were observed, mainly due to bacterial taxa present at low frequencies and only in certain life stages. The predictive functional profiling indicated metabolic pathways related to metabolism of amino acids and carbohydrates, and membrane transport as the most significant in the community. These differences in the community structure might be due to several selective factors, such as gut compartmentalization, physicochemical conditions, and microbial interactions. PMID:28406998

  19. Consequences of Hatch Phenology on Stages of Fish Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Bogner, David M; Kaemingk, Mark A; Wuellner, Melissa R

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how hatch phenology (e.g., the start, peak, and duration of hatching) could influence subsequent recruitment of freshwater fishes into a population. We used two commonly sympatric fish species that exhibit different hatching phenologies to examine recruitment across multiple life stages. Nine yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) annual cohorts were sampled from 2004 through 2013 across larval, age-0, age-1, and age-2 life stages in a Nebraska (U.S.A.) Sandhill lake. Yellow perch hatched earlier in the season and displayed a more truncated hatch duration compared to bluegill. The timing of hatch influenced recruitment dynamics for both species but important hatching metrics were not similar between species across life stages. A longer hatch duration resulted in greater larval yellow perch abundance but greater age-1 bluegill abundance. In contrast, bluegill larval and age-0 abundances were greater during years when hatching duration was shorter and commenced earlier, whereas age-0 yellow perch abundance was greater when hatching occurred earlier. As a result of hatch phenology, yellow perch recruitment variability was minimized sooner (age-0 life stage) than bluegill (age-1 life stage). Collectively, hatch phenology influenced recruitment dynamics across multiple life stages but was unique for each species. Understanding the complexities of when progeny enter an environment and how this influences eventual recruitment into a population will be critical in the face of ongoing climate change.

  20. Development of a Two-Stage Microalgae Dewatering Process – A Life Cycle Assessment Approach

    PubMed Central

    Soomro, Rizwan R.; Zeng, Xianhai; Lu, Yinghua; Lin, Lu; Danquah, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Even though microalgal biomass is leading the third generation biofuel research, significant effort is required to establish an economically viable commercial-scale microalgal biofuel production system. Whilst a significant amount of work has been reported on large-scale cultivation of microalgae using photo-bioreactors and pond systems, research focus on establishing high performance downstream dewatering operations for large-scale processing under optimal economy is limited. The enormous amount of energy and associated cost required for dewatering large-volume microalgal cultures has been the primary hindrance to the development of the needed biomass quantity for industrial-scale microalgal biofuels production. The extremely dilute nature of large-volume microalgal suspension and the small size of microalgae cells in suspension create a significant processing cost during dewatering and this has raised major concerns towards the economic success of commercial-scale microalgal biofuel production as an alternative to conventional petroleum fuels. This article reports an effective framework to assess the performance of different dewatering technologies as the basis to establish an effective two-stage dewatering system. Bioflocculation coupled with tangential flow filtration (TFF) emerged a promising technique with total energy input of 0.041 kWh, 0.05 kg CO2 emissions and a cost of $ 0.0043 for producing 1 kg of microalgae biomass. A streamlined process for operational analysis of two-stage microalgae dewatering technique, encompassing energy input, carbon dioxide emission, and process cost, is presented. PMID:26904075

  1. USE OF MULTI-PHOTON LASER-SCANNING MICROSCOPY TO DESCRIBE THE DISTRIBUTION OF XENOBIOTIC CHEMICALS IN FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the mechanisms by which persistent bioaccumulative toxicants (PBTs) produce toxicity during fish early life stages (ELS), dose response relationships need to be determined in relation to the dynamic distribution of chemicals in sensitive tissues. In this stud...

  2. Sex-specific gene expression in early life stage fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) throughout development and after exposure to synthetic hormones

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is evidence that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during early life stages can alter sex differentiation in fishes. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) are commonly used as a model fish species in endocrine disruption studies. However, limited knowledge...

  3. Description of immature stages and life cycle of the treehopper, Guayaquila projecta.

    PubMed

    Linares, Mario Alfredo; Neder, Lilia Estela; Dietrich, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Immature stages of the membracid Guayaquila projecta (Funkhouser) (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Membracidae), collected in San Salvador de Jujuy, Argentina on Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (Caryophyllales: Nyctaginaceae), are described in detail based on specimens reared in the laboratory. Like other membracids, this species has five nymphal instars, not seven as previously reported. Morphological characters for identifying the different instars of G. projecta, determining the sex of later instars and distinguishing this species from other members of the Guayaquila pugnax group, are discussed. At 19 ± 4°C, RH 59 ± 9%, and a 12:12 L:D photoperiod, the time required for development from egg to adult emergence was 73 ± 5 days.

  4. Description of Immature Stages and Life Cycle of the Treehopper, Guayaquila projecta

    PubMed Central

    Linares, Mario Alfredo; Neder, Lilia Estela; Dietrich, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Immature stages of the membracid Guayaquila projecta (Funkhouser) (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Membracidae), collected in San Salvador de Jujuy, Argentina on Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (Caryophyllales: Nyctaginaceae), are described in detail based on specimens reared in the laboratory. Like other membracids, this species has five nymphal instars, not seven as previously reported. Morphological characters for identifying the different instars of G. projecta, determining the sex of later instars and distinguishing this species from other members of the Guayaquila pugnax group, are discussed. At 19 ±± 4°°C, RH 59 ±± 9%, and a 12:12 L:D photoperiod, the time required for development from egg to adult emergence was 73 ±± 5 days. PMID:21268700

  5. Sometimes two arms are enough--an unusual life-stage in brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea).

    PubMed

    Stöhr, Sabine; Alme, Øydis

    2015-08-03

    Off West Africa (Angola-Morocco), benthos samples were collected in the years 2005-2012. These contained 124 specimens of brittle stars with two long arms and three extremely short or absent arms and an elongated, narrow disc. These unusual brittle stars, as well as 33 specimens with five fully developed arms, were identified as Amphiura ungulata. The specimens with unequal arms were juvenile stages, whereas adults had five equal arms. The large number of specimens with unequal arms suggests that this condition is not the result of damage and regeneration, but a normal growth pattern in this species. This study documents the morphology by SEM, amends the species description, and discusses possible explanations for the evolution of this condition. Although brittle star species with unequal arm growth have been reported, this is an extreme case that was unknown before this study.

  6. Biomarkers as a tool to assess effects of chromium (VI): comparison of responses in zebrafish early life stages and adults.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Inês; Oliveira, Rhaul; Lourenço, Joana; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe; Mendo, Sónia; Soares, A M V M

    2010-09-01

    The present work aims to compare the sensitivity of embryos and adult zebrafish to chromium (VI) (as potassium dichromate) focusing on biomarkers (cholinesterase, glutathione S-transferase and lactate dehydrogenase) as endpoints. Zebrafish eggs showed less sensitivity to Cr (VI) (96 h-LC50=145.7 mg/L) than adults (96 h-LC50=39.4 mg/L) probably due to the protective action of the chorion. However, biomarkers were much more responsive in larvae than in adults and gave clear indications about Cr (VI) mode of action: it seems to be neurotoxic (inhibited cholinesterase), to inhibit glutathione S-transferase activity and to interfere with cellular metabolic activity (changes in lactate dehydrogenase activity) in larvae. In adults, only glutathione S-transferase was responsive, showing a clear inhibition. The responsiveness of the analyzed biomarkers in larvae reinforces the idea of the usefulness of early life stage assays in the assessment of chemicals effects. Moreover, early life stage assays also contributed with relevant information regarding anomalies in larvae development and behavior. Further research should focus on the use of biomarkers to assess long term effects which are ecologically more relevant. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemically mediated interactions between macroalgae Dictyota spp. and multiple life-history stages of the coral Porites astreoides

    Paul, V.J.; Kuffner, I.B.; Walters, L.J.; Ritson-Williams, R.; Beach, K.S.; Becerro, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Competition between corals and macroalgae is often assumed to occur on reefs, especially those that have undergone shifts from coral to algal dominance; however, data examining these competitive interactions, especially during the early life-history stages of corals, are scarce. We conducted a series of field and outdoor seawater-table experiments to test the hypothesis that allelopathy (chemical inhibition) mediates interactions between 2 common brown macroalgae, Dictyota pulchella and D. pinnatifida, and the coral Porites astreoides at different life-history stages of the coral. D. pinnatifida significantly reduced larval survival and larval recruitment. The extracts of both D. pinnatifida and D. pulchella significantly reduced larval survival, and the extract of D. pulchella also negatively influenced larval recruitment. There was no measurable effect of the crude extracts from Dictyota spp. on the photophysiology of adult corals. Our results provide evidence that these Dictyota species chemically compete with P. astreoides by negatively affecting larval settlement and recruitment as well as the survival of larvae and new recruits. Macroalgae may perpetuate their dominance on degraded reefs by chemically inhibiting the process of coral recruitment. ?? 2011 Inter-Research.

  8. Chemically-mediated interactions between macroalgae Dictyota spp. and multiple life-history stages of the coral Porites astreoides

    Paul, Valerie J.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Walters, Linda J.; Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Beach, Kevin S.; Becerro, Mikel A.

    2011-01-01

    Competition between corals and macroalgae is often assumed to occur on reefs, especially those that have undergone shifts from coral to algal dominance; however, data examining these competitive interactions, especially during the early life-history stages of corals, are scarce. We conducted a series of field and outdoor seawater-table experiments to test the hypothesis that allelopathy (chemical inhibition) mediates interactions between 2 common brown macroalgae, Dictyota pulchella and D. pinnatifida, and the coral Porites astreoides at different life-history stages of the coral. D. pinnatifida significantly reduced larval survival and larval recruitment. The extracts of both D. pinnatifida and D. pulchella significantly reduced larval survival, and the extract of D. pulchella also negatively influenced larval recruitment. There was no measurable effect of the crude extracts from Dictyota spp. on the photophysiology of adult corals. Our results provide evidence that these Dictyota species chemically compete with P. astreoides by negatively affecting larval settlement and recruitment as well as the survival of larvae and new recruits. Macroalgae may perpetuate their dominance on degraded reefs by chemically inhibiting the process of coral recruitment.

  9. Occurrence of the off-host life stages of Tunga penetrans (Siphonaptera) in various environments in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Linardi, P M; Calheiros, C M L; Campelo-Junior, E B; Duarte, E M; Heukelbach, J; Feldmeier, H

    2010-06-01

    To explore the local transmission dynamics of Tunga penetrans in brazil, 134 soil samples from various environments were collected in three different endemic regions of the country and checked for the presence of the flea's larvae, pupae and adults. the samples, which came from an urban slum in the north-east, a village of xavante indians in the central-west and a community of yanomami indians living in traditional longhouses (malocas) in the north, were categorized as indoor, outdoor or indoor-outdoor (the latter representing samples collected in the malocas). The proportion of samples found positive for T. penetrans was lowest in the slum (9.3%) and highest in the Yanomami village (32.0%; P=0.01). Soil samples collected below bedsteads or hammocks or from the indoor resting places of dogs were significantly more likely to be positive than the indoor samples collected at other sites (65.0% v. 35.0%; P=0.02). There was no evidence indicating that the presence of T. penetrans in a soil sample was markedly affected by soil temperature, air temperature or air humidity. As no life stages of T. penetrans were found in any outdoor sample, it seems likely that, in resource-poor settings in Brazil, most transmission of T. penetrans occurs indoors. Control measures against the off-host life stages of T. penetrans should therefore be targeted at particular indoor micro-environments.

  10. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy degrades the quality of life of patients with stage II nasopharyngeal carcinoma as compared to radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xin-Bin; Huang, Shi-Ting; Chen, Kai-Hua; Jiang, Yan-Ming; Ma, Jia-Lin; Qu, Song; Li, Ling; Chen, Long; Zhu, Xiao-Dong

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the quality of life (QoL) of stage II nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) versus concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). In a cross-sectional study, these patients were treated with RT (n = 55) or CCRT (n = 51) between June 2008 and June 2013. For all subjects, disease-free survival was more than 3 years. QoL was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) questions and the Head and Neck 35 (EORTC QLQ-H&N35) questions. RT had better outcomes than CCRT for global QoL, functional scales, symptom scales of fatigue and insomnia, financial problems, and weight gain. Survivors receiving 1 cycle of concurrent chemotherapy had worse QoL outcomes than survivors receiving 2 cycles of concurrent chemotherapy. Patients receiving 3 cycles of concurrent chemotherapy had the best QoL outcomes. Thus, CCRT adversely affects the QoL of patients with stage II NPC as compared to radiotherapy. PMID:28152511

  11. Natural variability of biochemical biomarkers in the macro-zoobenthos: Dependence on life stage and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Scarduelli, Lucia; Giacchini, Roberto; Parenti, Paolo; Migliorati, Sonia; Di Brisco, Agnese Maria; Vighi, Marco

    2017-11-01

    Biomarkers are widely used in ecotoxicology as indicators of exposure to toxicants. However, their ability to provide ecologically relevant information remains controversial. One of the major problems is understanding whether the measured responses are determined by stress factors or lie within the natural variability range. In a previous work, the natural variability of enzymatic levels in invertebrates sampled in pristine rivers was proven to be relevant across both space and time. In the present study, the experimental design was improved by considering different life stages of the selected taxa and by measuring more environmental parameters. The experimental design considered sampling sites in 2 different rivers, 8 sampling dates covering the whole seasonal cycle, 4 species from 3 different taxonomic groups (Plecoptera, Perla grandis; Ephemeroptera, Baetis alpinus and Epeorus alpicula; Tricoptera, Hydropsyche pellucidula), different life stages for each species, and 4 enzymes (acetylcholinesterase, glutathione S-transferase, alkaline phosphatase, and catalase). Biomarker levels were related to environmental (physicochemical) parameters to verify any kind of dependence. Data were statistically elaborated using hierarchical multilevel Bayesian models. Natural variability was found to be relevant across both space and time. The results of the present study proved that care should be paid when interpreting biomarker results. Further research is needed to better understand the dependence of the natural variability on environmental parameters. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3158-3167. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  12. Effects of tributyltin on early life-stage, reproduction, and gonadal sex differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Horie, Yoshifumi; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Shintaku, Yoko; Iguchi, Taisen; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2018-07-01

    Tributyltin, an organotin compound, was used worldwide as an antifouling agent in aquatic environments and there has been much concern about the toxicological and ecotoxicological properties of organotin compounds. Even though it has been prohibited worldwide, tributyltin is still detected at low concentrations in aquatic environments. Here we investigated the effects of tributyltin on the early life-stage, reproduction, and gonadal sex differentiation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). In adults, exposure to tributyltin at 3.82 μg/L suppressed fecundity and fertility and increased mortality. At 10.48 μg/L all medaka died by the sixth day of exposure. Exposure to tributyltin during early life-stages induced no significant differences in mortality or embryonic development, but growth was suppressed in groups exposed to 0.13 and 0.68 μg/L. Furthermore, there was no abnormal gonadal development in Japanese medaka exposed to tributyltin. These results provide evidence of the negative effects of tributyltin on reproduction in a teleost fish. Tributyltin did not affect gonadal sex differentiation in Japanese medaka, but fecundity and fertility were suppressed, although it is not clear whether this suppression resulted from the endocrine-disrupting action of tributyltin or its toxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Climate-induced trends in predator–prey synchrony differ across life-history stages of an anadromous salmonid

    Bell, Donovan A.; Kovach, Ryan; Vulstek, Scott C.; Joyce, John E.; Tallmon, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Differential climate-induced shifts in phenology can create mismatches between predators and prey, but few studies have examined predator–prey mismatch across multiple life-history stages. We used long-term data from a warming stream with shifting salmonid migration timings to quantify intra-annual migration synchrony between predatory Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) and Pacific salmon prey and examined how predator–prey synchrony has been influenced by climate change. We demonstrate that Dolly Varden have become increasingly mismatched with spring downstream migrations of abundant pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) juveniles. However, Dolly Varden have remained matched with fall upstream migrations of spawning Pacific salmon, including coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch), sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), and pink salmon. Downstream predator–prey migration synchrony decreased over time and with higher temperatures, particularly with pink salmon. In contrast, upstream migration synchrony was temporally stable and increased with rising temperatures. Differing trends in Dolly Varden predator–prey synchrony may be explained by the direct use of salmon to cue upstream migration, but not downstream migration. Overall, we show that climate change can have differing impacts on predator–prey synchrony across life-history stages.

  14. Acute and early life stage toxicity of industrial effluent on Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Zha, Jinmiao; Wang, Zijian

    2006-03-15

    To develop the whole effluent toxicity testing methods (WET), embryo larval stage toxicity test using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) was conducted to evaluate an effluent from a banknote printing plant (BPP). The method is based on acute toxicity using endpoint of 96-h larval morality and on chronic toxicity using endpoints such as the time to hatch, hatching success, deformity, growth rate, swim-up failure, accumulative mortality and sexual ratio. In test for 96-h larval mortality, LC50 (the concentration was lethal to 50% of newly hatching medaka larvae) was 72.9%. In chronic toxicity test, newly fertilized embryos (<5-h old) were exposed to 1%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, 50% effluent concentrations and to 200 mug/l BPA in a 24-h static renewal system at 25+/-1 degrees C until 15 day post-hatch. The results showed that all chronic endpoints were significantly different from the control at 50% dilution (p < 0.01). Embryos began to show lesions on 4th day at higher concentrations (12.5%, 25%, 50% BPP effluent concentrations). Treatment group of 25% dilution showed delayed time to hatch. A reduction in body weight was observed at 25% dilutions for males and females, respectively. Deformities were observed in newly hatched larvae at 25% and 50% BPP effluent concentrations. At 25% dilution, sex ratio of larvae was alternated and there was feminization phenomenon. We conclude that embryo larval stage test using medaka is feasible to evaluate both acute and chronic toxicities and potential endocrine disrupting activity of industrial effluents.

  15. Impact of Prior Traumatic Life Events on Parental Early Stage Reactions following a Child's Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boman, Krister K.; Kjällander, Ylva; Eksborg, Staffan; Becker, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Background In pediatric oncology, effective clinic–based management of acute and long–term distress in families calls for investigation of determinants of parents' psychological response to the child's cancer. We examined the relationship between parents' prior exposure to traumatic life events (TLE) and the occurrence of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) following their child's cancer diagnosis. Factors mediating the TLE–PTSS relationship were analyzed. Methodology The study comprised 169 parents (97 mothers, 72 fathers) of 103 cancer diagnosed children (median age: 5,9 years; range 0.1–19.7 years). Thirty five parents were of immigrant origin (20.7%). Prior TLE were collated using a standardized questionnaire, PTSS was assessed using the Impact of Events–Revised (IES–R) questionnaire covering intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms. The predictive significance of prior TLE on PTSS was tested in adjusted regression models. Results Mothers demonstrated more severe PTSS across all symptom dimensions. TLE were associated with significantly increased hyperarousal symptoms. Parents' gender, age and immigrant status did not significantly influence the TLE–PTSS relationship. Conclusions Prior traumatic life–events aggravate posttraumatic hyperarousal symptoms. In clinic–based psychological care of parents of high–risk pediatric patients, attention needs to be paid to life history, and to heightened vulnerability to PTSS associated with female gender. PMID:23516408

  16. Food webs including parasites, biomass, body sizes, and life stages for three California/Baja California estuaries

    Hechinger, Ryan F.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; McLaughlin, John P.; Fredensborg, Brian L.; Huspeni, Todd C.; Lorda, Julio; Sandhu, Parwant K.; Shaw, Jenny C.; Torchin, Mark E.; Whitney, Kathleen L.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2001-01-01

    This data set presents food webs for three North American Pacific coast estuaries and a “Metaweb” composed of the species/stages compiled from all three estuaries. The webs have four noteworthy attributes: (1) parasites (infectious agents), (2) body-size information, (3) biomass information, and (4) ontogenetic stages of many animals with complex life cycles. The estuaries are Carpinteria Salt Marsh, California (CSM); Estero de Punta Banda, Baja California (EPB); and Bahía Falsa in Bahía San Quintín, Baja California (BSQ). Most data on species assemblages and parasitism were gathered via consistent sampling that acquired body size and biomass information for plants and animals larger than ∼1 mm, and for many infectious agents (mostly metazoan parasites, but also some microbes). We augmented this with information from additional published sources and by sampling unrepresented groups (e.g., plankton). We estimated free-living consumer–resource links primarily by extending a previously published version of the CSM web (which the current CSM web supplants) and determined most parasite consumer–resource links from direct observation. We recognize 21 possible link types including four general interactions: predators consuming prey, parasites consuming hosts, predators consuming parasites, and parasites consuming parasites. While generally resolved to the species level, we report stage-specific nodes for many animals with complex life cycles. We include additional biological information for each node, such as taxonomy, lifestyle (free-living, infectious, commensal, mutualist), mobility, and residency. The Metaweb includes 500 nodes, 314 species, and 11 270 links projected to be present given appropriate species' co-occurrences. Of these, 9247 links were present in one or more of the estuarine webs. The remaining 2023 links were not present in the estuaries but are included here because they may occur in other places or times. Initial analyses have examined

  17. The case for earlier cochlear implantation in postlingually deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Dowell, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed to estimate the difference in speech perception outcomes that may occur due to timing of cochlear implantation in relation to the progression of hearing loss. Data from a large population-based sample of adults with acquired hearing loss using cochlear implants (CIs) was used to estimate the effects of duration of hearing loss, age, and pre-implant auditory skills on outcomes for a hypothetical standard patient. A total of 310 adults with acquired severe/profound bilateral hearing loss who received a CI in Melbourne, Australia between 1994 and 2006 provided the speech perception data and demographic information to derive regression equations for estimating CI outcomes. For a hypothetical CI candidate with progressive sensorineural hearing loss, the estimates of speech perception scores following cochlear implantation are significantly better if implantation occurs relatively soon after onset of severe hearing loss and before the loss of all functional auditory skills. Improved CI outcomes and quality of life benefit may be achieved for adults with progressive severe hearing loss if they are implanted earlier in the progression of the pathology.

  18. Health-related quality-of-life outcomes: a reflexology trial with patients with advanced-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Gwen; Sikorskii, Alla; Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; Victorson, David; You, Mei

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of reflexology, a complementary therapy that applies pressure to specific areas of the feet. Longitudinal, randomized clinical trial. Thirteen community-based medical oncology clinics across the midwestern United States. A convenience sample of 385 predominantly Caucasian women with advanced-stage breast cancer receiving chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy. Following the baseline interview, women were randomized into three primary groups: reflexology (n = 95), lay foot manipulation (LFM) (n = 95), or conventional care (n = 96). Two preliminary reflexology (n = 51) and LFM (n = 48) test groups were used to establish the protocols. Participants were interviewed again postintervention at study weeks 5 and 11. Breast cancer-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL), physical functioning, and symptoms. No adverse events were reported. A longitudinal comparison revealed significant improvements in physical functioning for the reflexology group compared to the control group (p = 0.04). Severity of dyspnea was reduced in the reflexology group compared to the control group (p < 0.01) and the LFM group (p = 0.02). No differences were found on breast cancer-specific HRQOL, depressive symptomatology, state anxiety, pain, and nausea. Reflexology may be added to existing evidence-based supportive care to improve HRQOL for patients with advanced-stage breast cancer during chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy. Reflexology can be recommended for safety and usefulness in relieving dyspnea and enhancing functional status among women with advanced-stage breast cancer.

  19. Effect of low-level copper and pentachlorophenol exposure on various early life stages of Xenopus laevis

    SciT

    Fort, D.J.; Stover, E.L.

    1996-12-31

    An evaluation of the effects of low-level copper and pentachlorophenol exposure on various early life stages of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, was performed using stage-specific and long-term continuous exposures. Stage-specific exposure experiments were conducted such that separate subsets of embryos and larvae from the same clutch were exposed to two toxicants, copper and pentachlorphenol, from 0 d to 4 d (standard Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay--Xenopus [FETAX]), 4 d to 8 d, 8 d to 12 d, and 12 d to 16 d. Results from two separate concentration-response experiments indicated that sensitivity to either toxicant increased in eachmore » successive time period. Longer-term exposure studies conducted for 60 to 75 days indicated that copper, but not pentachlorophenol induced reduction deficiency malformations of the hind limb at concentrations as low as 0.05 mg/L. Pentachlorophenol concentrations as low as 0.5 {micro}g/L inhibited tail resorption. However, copper did not adversely affect the process of tail resorption. These results indicated that studies evaluating longer-term developmental processes are important in ecological hazard evaluation.« less

  20. Toxicity assessment of silver nanoparticles in Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) and starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) during early life stages.

    PubMed

    Banan, Ashkan; Kalbassi Masjed Shahi, Mohammad Reza; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Yazdani Sadati, Mohammad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in consumer products mainly due to their antimicrobial action. The rapidly increasing use of nanoparticles (NPs) has driven more attention to their possible ecotoxicological effects. In this study, the acute toxicity of colloidal AgNPs was evaluated during the embryonic stage of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) and starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) at concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/L. Fertilized eggs (75 eggs per replicate) were exposed to aforementioned concentrations for 96 h in triplicate. 96-h LC50 values in Persian sturgeon and starry sturgeon were calculated as 0.163 and 0.158 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, in starry sturgeon, the short-term effects of AgNPs on the hatching rate, survival rate, and Ag accumulation during early life stages (before active feeding commences) were also analyzed at concentrations of 0, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/L of colloidal AgNPs. The highest silver accumulation occurred in larvae exposed to 0.1 mg/L AgNPs; however, the body burden of silver did not alter survival rate, and there were no significant differences among treatments. Based on the obtained results from the acute toxicity exposures, AgNPs induced a concentration-dependent toxicity in both species during early life stages, while complementary studies are suggested for investigating their short-term effects in detail.

  1. Ethics of palliative care in late-stage cancer management and end-of-life issues in a depressed economy.

    PubMed

    Chukwuneke, F N

    2015-12-01

    The Hippocratic Oath has often been referred to as the ethical foundation of medical practice with the key restriction "cause no harm" which is also the principle of benevolence in bioethics. In medical profession, the Oath still exemplifies the key virtues of a doctor in its emphasis on the obligations toward the well-being of the individual patient. In management of end-stage cancer in a depressed economy such as Nigeria, we frequently encounter a wide range of ethical issues that arise in the provision of palliative care mostly due to the prevailing economic situation and cultural setting. Since most of these patients came from a lower economic class of the society, with little or no formal education and lived at a subsistence level, they often find it difficult to provide the medications needed. In a poor setting where health inequity is rife, and ignorance and poverty are commonplace, a good understanding of medical ethics with a good model of health care system will contribute to the health professional's decision-making that will be in the best interest of the patients. Physicians must protect the lives of their patients and should never hasten their death. In end-stage cancer management, we have to relieve suffering and pains, promote palliative care, and give psychological support but never abandoning the patient or initiate terminating their life. This presentation is a clinical analysis of the ethical issues regarding the management of end-stage cancer patients in a poor economy with a critical overview of end-of-life issues in African perspective.

  2. Palliative Care and Health Care Utilization for Patients With End-Stage Liver Disease at the End of Life.

    PubMed

    Patel, Arpan A; Walling, Anne M; Ricks-Oddie, Joni; May, Folasade P; Saab, Sammy; Wenger, Neil

    2017-10-01

    There has been increased attention on ways to improve the quality of end-of-life care for patients with end-stage liver disease; however, there have been few reports of care experiences for patients during terminal hospitalizations. We analyzed data from a large national database to increase our understanding of palliative care for and health care utilization by patients with end-stage liver disease. We performed a cross-sectional, observational study to examine terminal hospitalizations of adults with decompensated cirrhosis using data from the National Inpatient Sample from 2009 through 2013. We collected data on palliative care consultation and total hospital costs, and performed multivariate regression analyses to identify factors associated with palliative care consultation. We also investigated whether consultation was associated with lower costs. Among hospitalized adults with terminal decompensated cirrhosis, 30.3% received palliative care; the mean cost per hospitalization was $48,551 ± $1142. Palliative care consultation increased annually, and was provided to 18.0% of patients in 2009 and to 36.6% of patients in 2013 (P < .05). The mean cost for the terminal hospitalization did not increase significantly ($47,969 in 2009 to $48,956 in 2013, P = .77). African Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and liver transplant candidates were less likely to receive palliative care, whereas care in large urban teaching hospitals was associated with a higher odds of receiving consultation. Palliative care was associated with lower procedure burden-after adjusting for other factors, palliative care was associated with a cost reduction of $10,062. Palliative care consultation for patients with end-stage liver disease increased from 2009 through 2013. Palliative care consultation during terminal hospitalizations is associated with lower costs and procedure burden. Future research should evaluate timing and effects of palliative care on quality of end-of-life care in this

  3. Determinants of Quality of Life in the Acute Stage Following Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Bo-Ok; Kang, Hee-Ju; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Kim, Joon-Tae; Park, Man-Seok; Cho, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the factors influence the quality of life (QOL) of survivors of an acute stroke. Methods For 422 stroke patients, assessments were made within two weeks of the index event. QOL was measured using the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Abbreviated form (WHOQOL-BREF), which has four domains related to physical factors, psychological factors, social relationships, and environmental context. Associations of each four WHOQOL-BREF domain score with socio-demographic characteristics (age, sex, education, marital status, religion, and occupation), stroke severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale), physical disability (Barthel Index), cognitive function (Mini-Mental Status Examination: MMSE), grip strength, and psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression and anxiety subscale: HADS-D and HADS-A) were investigated using the linear regression models. Results Higher physical domain scores were independently associated with higher MMSE scores, stronger hand-grip strength, and lower HADS-D and HADS-A scores; higher psychological domain scores were independently associated with higher educational level, higher MMSE scores, and lower HADS-D and HADS-A scores; higher social relationships domain scores were independently associated with lower HADS-D and HADS-A scores; and higher environmental domain scores were independently associated with higher educational level, higher MMSE scores, and lower HADS-D scores. Conclusion Psychological distress and impaired cognitive function were independently associated with lower QOL in patients with acute stroke. However, stroke severity, physical disability and other socio-demographic factors were less significantly associated with QOL. These findings underscore the importance of psychological interventions for improving QOL during the acute phase following stroke. PMID:22707962

  4. Habitat and distribution of post-recruit life stages of the squid Loligo forbesii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jennifer M.; Macleod, Colin D.; Valavanis, Vasilis; Hastie, Lee; Valinassab, Tooraj; Bailey, Nick; Santos, M. Begoña; Pierce, Graham J.

    2013-10-01

    This study models habitat preferences of the squid Loligo forbesii through its post-recruitment life cycle in waters around Scotland (UK). Trawl survey and market sample data from 1985 to 2004 are used to model seasonal habitats of immature, maturing and mature squid (maturity being inferred from size and season). Squid presence-absence and catch rate in areas of presence were analysed using generalised additive models, relating spatiotemporal patterns of distribution and abundance to ecogeographic variables. For all maturity classes, higher abundance in winter and spring (i.e., quarters 1 and 2) was associated with deeper water while higher abundance in summer and autumn (quarters 3 and 4) was associated with shallower water, consistent with seasonal onshore-offshore migrations but suggesting that most spawning may take place in deeper waters. The preferred SST range was generally 8-8.75 °C while preferred salinity values were below 35‰ in winter and summer and above 35‰ in spring and autumn. Squid were positively associated with gravel substrate and negatively associated with mud. Seasonal changes in habitat use were more clearly evident than changes related to inferred maturity, although the two effects cannot be fully separated due to the annual life cycle. Habitat selection for this species can be satisfactorily modelled on a seasonal basis; predictions based on such models could be useful for fishers to target the species more effectively, and could assist managers wishing to protect spawning grounds. The extent to which this approach may be useful for other cephalopods is discussed.

  5. The Life Cycle Stages of Pneumocystis murina Have Opposing Effects on the Immune Response to This Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Heather M.; Bryant, Grady L.

    2016-01-01

    The cell wall β-glucans of Pneumocystis cysts have been shown to stimulate immune responses in lung epithelial cells, dendritic cells, and alveolar macrophages. Little is known about how the trophic life forms, which do not have a fungal cell wall, interact with these innate immune cells. Here we report differences in the responses of both neonatal and adult mice to the trophic and cystic life cycle stages of Pneumocystis murina. The adult and neonatal immune responses to infection with Pneumocystis murina trophic forms were less robust than the responses to infection with a physiologically normal mixture of cysts and trophic forms. Cysts promoted the recruitment of nonresident innate immune cells and T and B cells into the lungs. Cysts, but not trophic forms, stimulated increased concentrations of the cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in the alveolar spaces and an increase in the percentage of CD4+ T cells that produce IFN-γ. In vitro, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) stimulated with cysts produced the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-6. In contrast, trophic forms suppressed antigen presentation to CD4+ T cells, as well as the β-glucan-, lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) by BMDCs. The negative effects of trophic forms were not due to ligation of mannose receptor. Our results indicate that optimal innate and adaptive immune responses to Pneumocystis species are dependent on stimulation with the cyst life cycle stage. Conversely, trophic forms suppress β-glucan-induced proinflammatory responses in vitro, suggesting that the trophic forms dampen cyst-induced inflammation in vivo. PMID:27572330

  6. Identification of the meiotic life cycle stage of Trypanosoma brucei in the tsetse fly

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Lori; Ferris, Vanessa; Sharma, Reuben; Sunter, Jack; Bailey, Mick; Carrington, Mark; Gibson, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Elucidating the mechanism of genetic exchange is fundamental for understanding how genes for such traits as virulence, disease phenotype, and drug resistance are transferred between pathogen strains. Genetic exchange occurs in the parasitic protists Trypanosoma brucei, T. cruzi, and Leishmania major, but the precise cellular mechanisms are unknown, because the process has not been observed directly. Here we exploit the identification of homologs of meiotic genes in the T. brucei genome and demonstrate that three functionally distinct, meiosis-specific proteins are expressed in the nucleus of a single specific cell type, defining a previously undescribed developmental stage occurring within the tsetse fly salivary gland. Expression occurs in clonal and mixed infections, indicating that the meiotic program is an intrinsic but hitherto cryptic part of the developmental cycle of trypanosomes. In experimental crosses, expression of meiosis-specific proteins usually occurred before cell fusion. This is evidence of conventional meiotic division in an excavate protist, and the functional conservation of the meiotic machinery in these divergent organisms underlines the ubiquity and basal evolution of meiosis in eukaryotes. PMID:21321215

  7. N-Desmethylclozapine, Fluoxetine, and Salmeterol Inhibit Postentry Stages of the Dengue Virus Life Cycle.

    PubMed

    Medigeshi, Guruprasad R; Kumar, Rinki; Dhamija, Ekta; Agrawal, Tanvi; Kar, Meenakshi

    2016-11-01

    Around 10,000 people die each year due to severe dengue disease, and two-thirds of the world population lives in a region where dengue disease is endemic. There has been remarkable progress in dengue virus vaccine development; however, there are no licensed antivirals for dengue disease, and none appear to be in clinical trials. We took the approach of repositioning approved drugs for anti-dengue virus activity by screening a library of pharmacologically active compounds. We identified N-desmethylclozapine, fluoxetine hydrochloride, and salmeterol xinafoate as dengue virus inhibitors based on reductions in the numbers of infected cells and viral titers. Dengue virus RNA levels were diminished in inhibitor-treated cells, and this effect was specific to dengue virus, as other flaviviruses, such as Japanese encephalitis virus and West Nile virus, or other RNA viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus and rotavirus, were not affected by these inhibitors. All three inhibitors specifically inhibited dengue virus replication with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 s) in the high-nanomolar range. Estimation of negative-strand RNA intermediates and time-of-addition experiments indicated that inhibition was occurring at a postentry stage, most probably at the initiation of viral RNA replication. Finally, we show that inhibition is most likely due to the modulation of the endolysosomal pathway and induction of autophagy. Copyright © 2016 Medigeshi et al.

  8. Pre-biotic stage of life origin under non-photosynthetic conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartsev, S. I.; Mezhevikin, V. V.

    2005-01-01

    Spontaneous assembling of a simplest bacterial cell even if all necessary molecules are present in a solution seems to be extremely rare event and from the scientific standpoint has to be considered as impossible. Therefore, a predecessor of a living cell has to be very simple for providing its self-assembling and at the same time it should be able of progressive increase in complexity. Now phase-separated particles, first of all micelles, are put forward as possible predecessors of living cell. According to the offered working concept only phase-separated particles possessing autocatalytic properties can be considered as predecessors of living cells. The first stage of evolution of these phase-separated autocatalytic systems is the appearance of pre-biotic metabolism providing synthesis of amphiphiles for formation of capsules of these systems. This synthesis is maintained by the energy of a base reaction being a component of a planet-chemical cycle. Catalytic system providing functioning of pre-biotic metabolism is based on multivariate oligomeric autocatalyst, which reproduces itself from monomers, penetrating the particles from the outside. Since the autocatalyst realizes random polymerization then a collection of other oligomers possessing different catalytic functions is produced. In the paper the functioning of multivariate oligomeric autocatalyst in flow reactor is analyzed. c2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  9. Isobavachalcone inhibits post-entry stages of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus life cycle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Ming; Liu, Tian-Xin; Wang, Tong-Yun; Wang, Gang; Liu, Yong-Gang; Liu, Si-Guo; Tang, Yan-Dong; Cai, Xue-Hui

    2018-05-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a pathogen of great economic significance that impacts the swine industry globally. Since the first report of a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) outbreak, tremendous efforts to control this disease, including various national policies and plans incorporating the use of multiple modified live-virus vaccines, have been made. However, PRRSV is still a significant threat to the swine industry, and new variants continually emerge as a result of PRRSV evolution. Several studies have shown that pandemic PRRSV strains have enormous genetic diversity and that commercial vaccines can only provide partial protection against these strains. Therefore, effective anti-PRRSV drugs may be more suitable and reliable for PRRSV control. In this study, we observed that isobavachalcone (IBC), which was first isolated from Psoralea corylifolia, had potent anti-PRRSV activity in vitro. Although many biological activities of IBC have been reported, this is the first report describing the antiviral activity of IBC. Furthermore, after a systematic investigation, we demonstrated that IBC inhibits PRRSV replication at the post-entry stage of PRRSV infection. Thus, IBC may be a candidate for further evaluation as a therapeutic agent against PRRSV infection of swine in vivo.

  10. Comparison of transcript profiles in different life stages of the nematode Globodera pallida under different host potato genotypes.

    PubMed

    Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Hedley, Pete E; Cock, Peter J A; Morris, Jenny A; Jones, John T; Vovlas, Nikos; Blok, Vivian

    2012-12-01

    The potato cyst nematodes (PCNs) Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis are important parasites of potato. PCNs undergo complex biotrophic interactions with their hosts that involve gene expression changes in both the nematode and the host plant. The aim of this study was to determine key genes that are differentially expressed in Globodera pallida life cycle stages and during the initiation of the feeding site in susceptible and partially resistant potato genotypes. For this purpose, two microarray experiments were designed: (i) a comparison of eggs, infective second-stage juveniles (J2s) and sedentary parasitic-stage J2s (SJ2); (ii) a comparison of SJ2s at 8 days after inoculation (DAI) in the susceptible cultivar (Desirée) and two partially resistant lines. The results showed differential expression of G. pallida genes during the stages studied, including previously characterized effectors. In addition, a large number of genes changed their expression between SJ2s in the susceptible cultivar and those infecting partially resistant lines; the number of genes with modified expression was lower when the two partially resistant lines were compared. Moreover, a histopathological study was performed at several time points (7, 14 and 30 DAI) and showed the similarities between both partially resistant lines with a delay and degeneration in the formation of the syncytia in comparison with the susceptible cultivar. Females at 30 DAI in partially resistant lines showed a delay in their development in comparison with those in the susceptible cultivar. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  11. Biotic mortality factors affecting emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are highly dependent on life stage and host tree crown condition.

    PubMed

    Jennings, D E; Duan, J J; Shrewsbury, P M

    2015-10-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a serious invasive forest pest in North America responsible for killing tens to hundreds of millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced in the 1990 s. Although host-plant resistance and natural enemies are known to be important sources of mortality for EAB in Asia, less is known about the importance of different sources of mortality at recently colonized sites in the invaded range of EAB, and how these relate to host tree crown condition. To further our understanding of EAB population dynamics, we used a large-scale field experiment and life-table analyses to quantify the fates of EAB larvae and the relative importance of different biotic mortality factors at 12 recently colonized sites in Maryland. We found that the fates of larvae were highly dependent on EAB life stage and host tree crown condition. In relatively healthy trees (i.e., with a low EAB infestation) and for early instars, host tree resistance was the most important mortality factor. Conversely, in more unhealthy trees (i.e., with a moderate to high EAB infestation) and for later instars, parasitism and predation were the major sources of mortality. Life-table analyses also indicated how the lack of sufficient levels of host tree resistance and natural enemies contribute to rapid population growth of EAB at recently colonized sites. Our findings provide further evidence of the mechanisms by which EAB has been able to successfully establish and spread in North America.

  12. Anorectal Function and Quality of Life in Patients With Early Stage Rectal Cancer Treated With Chemoradiation and Local Excision.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Patricio B; Renfro, Lindsay A; Carrero, Xiomara W; Shi, Qian; Strombom, Paul L; Chow, Oliver; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about anorectal function and quality of life after chemoradiation followed by local excision, which is an alternative to total mesorectal excision for selected patients with early rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess anorectal function and health-related quality of life of patients with T2N0 rectal cancer who were treated with an alternative approach. This was a prospective, phase II trial. The study was multicentric (American College of Surgeons Oncology Group trial Z6041). Patients with stage cT2N0 rectal adenocarcinomas were treated with an oxaliplatin/capecitabine-based chemoradiation regimen followed by local excision. Anorectal function and quality of life were assessed at enrollment and 1 year postoperatively with the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index, Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life scale, and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal Questionnaire. Results were compared, and multivariable analysis was performed to identify predictors of outcome. Seventy-one patients (98%) were evaluated at enrollment and 66 (92%) at 1 year. Compared with baseline, no significant differences were found on Fecal Incontinence Severity Index scores at 1 year. Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life results were significantly worse in the lifestyle (p < 0.001), coping/behavior (p < 0.001), and embarrassment (p = 0.002) domains. There were no differences in the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy overall score, but the physical well-being subscale was significantly worse and emotional well-being was improved after surgery. Treatment with the original chemoradiation regimen predicted worse depression/self-perception and embarrassment scores in the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life, and male sex was predictive of worse scores in the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy overall score and trial outcome index. Small sample size, relatively short follow-up, and absence of information before cancer diagnosis were study

  13. Spatial pattern of Baccharis platypoda shrub as determined by sex and life stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Darliana da Costa; de Oliveira, Marcio Leles Romarco; Pereira, Israel Marinho; Gonzaga, Anne Priscila Dias; de Moura, Cristiane Coelho; Machado, Evandro Luiz Mendonça

    2017-11-01

    Spatial patterns of dioecious species can be determined by their nutritional requirements and intraspecific competition, apart from being a response to environmental heterogeneity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the spatial pattern of populations of a dioecious shrub reporting to sex and reproductive stage patterns of individuals. Sampling was carried out in three areas located in the meridional portion of Serra do Espinhaço, where in individuals of the studied species were mapped. The spatial pattern was determined through O-ring analysis and Ripley's K-function and the distribution of individuals' frequencies was verified through x2 test. Populations in two areas showed an aggregate spatial pattern tending towards random or uniform according to the observed scale. Male and female adults presented an aggregate pattern at smaller scales, while random and uniform patterns were verified above 20 m for individuals of both sexes of the areas A2 and A3. Young individuals presented an aggregate pattern in all areas and spatial independence in relation to adult individuals, especially female plants. The interactions between individuals of both genders presented spatial independence with respect to spatial distribution. Baccharis platypoda showed characteristics in accordance with the spatial distribution of savannic and dioecious species, whereas the population was aggregated tending towards random at greater spatial scales. Young individuals showed an aggregated pattern at different scales compared to adults, without positive association between them. Female and male adult individuals presented similar characteristics, confirming that adult individuals at greater scales are randomly distributed despite their distinct preferences for environments with moisture variation.

  14. An amphibian chemical defense phenotype is inducible across life history stages.

    PubMed

    Bucciarelli, Gary M; Shaffer, H Bradley; Green, David B; Kats, Lee B

    2017-08-15

    Inducible phenotypic responses to environmental variation are ubiquitous across the tree of life, but it remains an open question whether amphibian chemical defense phenotypes are inducible. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a key chemical defense trait in North American and Eurasian newts (Salamandridae). We tested if TTX can be induced by exposing populations of adult and larval California newts (Taricha torosa) to sustained stressful conditions while longitudinally quantifying TTX concentrations. Adult newts rapidly increased chemical defenses in response to simulated predator attacks and consistently maintained elevated TTX concentrations relative to wild, non-captive individuals. We also found that laboratory-reared larvae maintained chemical defenses nearly three-fold greater than those of siblings reared in streams. Collectively, our results indicate that amphibian chemical defenses are not fixed. Instead, toxins are maintained at a baseline concentration that can quickly be increased in response to perceived risk with substantial increases to toxicity. Therefore, it is crucial that inducible variation be accounted for when considering ecological dynamics of chemically defended animals and coevolutionary predator-prey and mimic-model relationships.

  15. Novelties of the flowering plant pollen tube underlie diversification of a key life history stage.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joseph H

    2008-08-12

    The origin and rapid diversification of flowering plants has puzzled evolutionary biologists, dating back to Charles Darwin. Since that time a number of key life history and morphological traits have been proposed as developmental correlates of the extraordinary diversity and ecological success of angiosperms. Here, I identify several innovations that were fundamental to the evolutionary lability of angiosperm reproduction, and hence to their diversification. In gymnosperms pollen reception must be near the egg largely because sperm swim or are transported by pollen tubes that grow at very slow rates (< approximately 20 microm/h). In contrast, pollen tube growth rates of taxa in ancient angiosperm lineages (Amborella, Nuphar, and Austrobaileya) range from approximately 80 to 600 microm/h. Comparative analyses point to accelerated pollen tube growth rate as a critical innovation that preceded the origin of the true closed carpel, long styles, multiseeded ovaries, and, in monocots and eudicots, much faster pollen tube growth rates. Ancient angiosperm pollen tubes all have callosic walls and callose plugs (in contrast, no gymnosperms have these features). The early association of the callose-walled growth pattern with accelerated pollen tube growth rate underlies a striking repeated pattern of faster and longer-distance pollen tube growth often within solid pathways in phylogenetically derived angiosperms. Pollen tube innovations are a key component of the spectacular diversification of carpel (flower and fruit) form and reproductive cycles in flowering plants.

  16. Novelties of the flowering plant pollen tube underlie diversification of a key life history stage

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Joseph H.

    2008-01-01

    The origin and rapid diversification of flowering plants has puzzled evolutionary biologists, dating back to Charles Darwin. Since that time a number of key life history and morphological traits have been proposed as developmental correlates of the extraordinary diversity and ecological success of angiosperms. Here, I identify several innovations that were fundamental to the evolutionary lability of angiosperm reproduction, and hence to their diversification. In gymnosperms pollen reception must be near the egg largely because sperm swim or are transported by pollen tubes that grow at very slow rates (< ≈20 μm/h). In contrast, pollen tube growth rates of taxa in ancient angiosperm lineages (Amborella, Nuphar, and Austrobaileya) range from ≈80 to 600 μm/h. Comparative analyses point to accelerated pollen tube growth rate as a critical innovation that preceded the origin of the true closed carpel, long styles, multiseeded ovaries, and, in monocots and eudicots, much faster pollen tube growth rates. Ancient angiosperm pollen tubes all have callosic walls and callose plugs (in contrast, no gymnosperms have these features). The early association of the callose-walled growth pattern with accelerated pollen tube growth rate underlies a striking repeated pattern of faster and longer-distance pollen tube growth often within solid pathways in phylogenetically derived angiosperms. Pollen tube innovations are a key component of the spectacular diversification of carpel (flower and fruit) form and reproductive cycles in flowering plants. PMID:18678915

  17. Chlorine toxicity to early life stages of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    Valenti, T.W.; Cherry, D.S.; Currie, R.J.; Neves, R.J.; Jones, J.W.; Mair, R.; Kane, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Chlorine (Cl) is a highly toxic, widely used halogen disinfectant that is present in point-source pollution discharges from wastewater treatment plants and industrial facilities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency freshwater criteria for Cl are 19 ??g total residual Cl (TRC)/L as a maximum 1-h average concentration and 11 ??g TRC/L as a maximum 4-d average; however, toxicological data for unionids were not used in these calculations. To address this void in the data, we conducted acute tests with glochidia from several species and 21-d bioassays with three-month-old Epioblasma capsaeformis and three-, six-, and 12-month-old Villosa iris juveniles. The 24-h lethal concentration 50 values for glochidia were between 70 and 220 ??g TRC/L, which are 2.5 to 37 times higher than those reported in other studies for cladocerans. Significant declines in growth and survivorship were observed in the 21-d test with E. capsaeformis at 20 ??g TRC/L. Lowest-observed-adverse- effects concentrations in bioassays with juvenile V. iris were higher (30-60 ??g TRC/L) but showed a significant trend of declining toxicity with increased age. Although endpoints were above water quality criteria, the long life spans of unionids and potential implications of chronic exposure to endangered juvenile mussels still warrant concern. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  18. Field station as stage: Re-enacting scientific work and life in Amani, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Geissler, P Wenzel; Kelly, Ann H

    2016-12-01

    Located high in Tanzania's Usambara Mountains, Amani Hill Station has been a site of progressive scientific endeavours for over a century, pushing the boundaries of botanical, zoological and medical knowledge, and providing expertise for imperial expansion, colonial welfare, national progress and international development efforts. The station's heyday was from the 1950s to the 1970s, a period of global disease eradication campaigns and the 'Africanization' of science. Today, Amani lies in a state of suspended motion. Officially part of a national network of medical research stations, its buildings and vegetation are only minimally maintained, and although some staff report for duty, scientific work has ceased. Neither ruin nor time capsule, Amani has become a quiet site of remains and material traces. This article examines the methodological potentials of re-enactment - on-site performances of past research practices - to engage ethnographically with the distinct temporalities and affective registers of life at the station. The heuristic power of re-enactment resides in its anachronicity, the tensions it introduces between immediacy and theatricality, authenticity and artifice, fidelity and futility. We suggest that re-enacting early post-colonial science as events unfolding in the present disrupts straightforward narratives about the promises and shortfalls of scientific progress, raising provocative questions about the sentiments and stakes of research in 'the tropics'.

  19. TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSES REVEAL DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS BETWEEN THE LIFE-CYCLE STAGES OF EMILIANIA HUXLEYI (HAPTOPHYTA) AND REFLECT SPECIALIZATION TO DIFFERENT ECOLOGICAL NICHES(1).

    PubMed

    Rokitta, Sebastian D; de Nooijer, Lennart J; Trimborn, Scarlett; de Vargas, Colomban; Rost, Björn; John, Uwe

    2011-08-01

    Coccolithophores, especially the abundant, cosmopolitan species Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann) W. W. Hay et H. P. Mohler, are one of the main driving forces of the oceanic carbonate pump and contribute significantly to global carbon cycling, due to their ability to calcify. A recent study indicates that termination of diploid blooms by viral infection induces life-cycle transition, and speculation has arisen about the role of the haploid, noncalcifying stage in coccolithophore ecology. To explore gene expression patterns in both life-cycle stages, haploid and diploid cells of E. huxleyi (RCC 1217 and RCC 1216) were acclimated to limiting and saturating photon flux densities. Transcriptome analyses were performed to assess differential genomic expression related to different ploidy levels and acclimation light intensities. Analyses indicated that life-cycle stages exhibit different properties of regulating genome expression (e.g., pronounced gene activation and gene silencing in the diploid stage), proteome maintenance (e.g., increased turnover of proteins in the haploid stage), as well as metabolic processing (e.g., pronounced primary metabolism and motility in the haploid stage and calcification in the diploid stage). Furthermore, higher abundances of transcripts related to endocytotic and digestive machinery were observed in the diploid stage. A qualitative feeding experiment indicated that both life-cycle stages are capable of particle uptake (0.5 μm diameter) in late-stationary growth phase. Results showed that the two life-cycle stages represent functionally distinct entities that are evolutionarily shaped to thrive in the environment they typically inhabit. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  20. Gender, negative life events and coping on different stages of depression severity: A cross-sectional study among Chinese university students.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Jun; Niu, Geng-Feng; You, Zhi-Qi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Tang, Yun

    2017-02-01

    The effects of gender, negative life events, and coping on depression have been well-documented. But depression is a heterogeneous syndrome of which the severity ranged from mild depression to major depression. This study aimed to investigate the specific effects of gender, negative life events, and coping on different stages of depression severity. A total of 5989 students (aged 16-25 years, M=20.85, SD=0.58), recruited from six universities in the central region of China using the stratified cluster sampling method, completed Life Events Questionnaire, Coping Response Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-Ⅱ. Among the participants, 708 (11.8%) students presented different severity levels of depression. Gender, negative life events, positive coping, and negative coping all had significant effects on depression. That is, the possibility of being depressed was significantly higher in female university students, or students who had more negative life events, more negative coping, or positive coping. In terms of the different stages of depression severity, all these factors had significant effects on the stage from non- depression to mild depression; only gender, negative life events and positive coping had significant effects on the stage from mild depression to moderate depression; only gender had a significant effect on the stage from moderate depression to major depression. The causal role of these factors on different stages of depression severity could not be inferred. Moreover, the participants were from a non-clinical population. The effects of gender, negative life events and coping varied in different stages of depression severity. The effects of life events and coping styles became insignificant with the increasing severity of depression, whereas the effect of gender remained significant. The results could provide guidance for the prevention, intervention, and treatment of depression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Comparative effects of pH and Vision herbicide on two life stages of four anuran amphibian species.

    PubMed

    Edginton, Andrea N; Sheridan, Patrick M; Stephenson, Gerald R; Thompson, Dean G; Boermans, Herman J

    2004-04-01

    Vision, a glyphosate-based herbicide containing a 15% (weight:weight) polyethoxylated tallow amine surfactant blend, and the concurrent factor of pH were tested to determine their interactive effects on early life-stage anurans. Ninety-six-hour laboratory static renewal studies, using the embryonic and larval life stages (Gosner 25) of Rana clamitans, R. pipiens, Bufo americanus, and Xenopus laevis, were performed under a central composite rotatable design. Mortality and the prevalence of malformations were modeled using generalized linear models with a profile deviance approach for obtaining confidence intervals. There was a significant (p < 0.05) interaction of pH with Vision concentration in all eight models, such that the toxicity of Vision was amplified by elevated pH. The surfactant is the major toxic component of Vision and is hypothesized, in this study, to be the source of the pH interaction. Larvae of B. americanus and R. clamitans were 1.5 to 3.8 times more sensitive than their corresponding embryos, whereas X. laevis and R. pipiens larvae were 6.8 to 8.9 times more sensitive. At pH values above 7.5, the Vision concentrations expected to kill 50% of the test larvae in 96-h (96-h lethal concentration [LC50]) were predicted to be below the expected environmental concentration (EEC) as calculated by Canadian regulatory authorities. The EEC value represents a worst-case scenario for aerial Vision application and is calculated assuming an application of the maximum label rate (2.1 kg acid equivalents [a.e.]/ha) into a pond 15 cm in depth. The EEC of 1.4 mg a.e./L (4.5 mg/L Vision) was not exceeded by 96-h LC50 values for the embryo test. The larvae of the four species were comparable in sensitivity. Field studies should be completed using the more sensitive larval life stage to test for Vision toxicity at actual environmental concentrations.

  2. Science advancements key to increasing management value of life stage monitoring networks for endangered Sacramento River winter-run Chinook salmon in California

    Johnson, Rachel C.; Windell, Sean; Brandes, Patricia L.; Conrad, J. Louise; Ferguson, John; Goertler, Pascale A. L.; Harvey, Brett N.; Heublein, Joseph; Isreal, Joshua A.; Kratville, Daniel W.; Kirsch, Joseph E.; Perry, Russell W.; Pisciotto, Joseph; Poytress, William R.; Reece, Kevin; Swart, Brycen G.

    2017-01-01

    A robust monitoring network that provides quantitative information about the status of imperiled species at key life stages and geographic locations over time is fundamental for sustainable management of fisheries resources. For anadromous species, management actions in one geographic domain can substantially affect abundance of subsequent life stages that span broad geographic regions. Quantitative metrics (e.g., abundance, movement, survival, life history diversity, and condition) at multiple life stages are needed to inform how management actions (e.g., hatcheries, harvest, hydrology, and habitat restoration) influence salmon population dynamics. The existing monitoring network for endangered Sacramento River winterrun Chinook Salmon (SRWRC, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in California’s Central Valley was compared to conceptual models developed for each life stage and geographic region of the life cycle to identify relevant SRWRC metrics. We concluded that the current monitoring network was insufficient to diagnose when (life stage) and where (geographic domain) chronic or episodic reductions in SRWRC cohorts occur, precluding within- and among-year comparisons. The strongest quantitative data exist in the Upper Sacramento River, where abundance estimates are generated for adult spawners and emigrating juveniles. However, once SRWRC leave the upper river, our knowledge of their identity, abundance, and condition diminishes, despite the juvenile monitoring enterprise. We identified six system-wide recommended actions to strengthen the value of data generated from the existing monitoring network to assess resource management actions: (1) incorporate genetic run identification; (2) develop juvenile abundance estimates; (3) collect data for life history diversity metrics at multiple life stages; (4) expand and enhance real-time fish survival and movement monitoring; (5) collect fish condition data; and (6) provide timely public access to monitoring data in open data

  3. Scientific Knowledge Suppresses but Does Not Supplant Earlier Intuitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shtulman, Andrew; Valcarcel, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    When students learn scientific theories that conflict with their earlier, naive theories, what happens to the earlier theories? Are they overwritten or merely suppressed? We investigated this question by devising and implementing a novel speeded-reasoning task. Adults with many years of science education verified two types of statements as quickly…

  4. Life stage and species identity affect whether habitat subsidies enhance or simply redistribute consumer biomass.

    PubMed

    Keller, Danielle A; Gittman, Rachel K; Bouchillon, Rachel K; Fodrie, F Joel

    2017-10-01

    Quantifying the response of mobile consumers to changes in habitat availability is essential for determining the degree to which population-level productivity is habitat limited rather than regulated by other, potentially density-independent factors. Over landscape scales, this can be explored by monitoring changes in density and foraging as habitat availability varies. As habitat availability increases, densities may: (1) decrease (unit-area production decreases; weak habitat limitation); (2) remain stable (unit-area production remains stable; habitat limitation) or (3) increase (unit-area production increases; strong habitat limitation). We tested the response of mobile estuarine consumers over 5 months to changes in habitat availability in situ by comparing densities and feeding rates on artificial reefs that were or were not adjacent to neighbouring artificial reefs or nearby natural reefs. Using either constructed or natural reefs to manipulate habitat availability, we documented threefold density decreases among juvenile stone crabs as habitat increased (i.e. weak habitat imitation). However, for adult stone crabs, density remained stable across treatments, demonstrating that habitat limitation presents a bottleneck in this species' later life history. Oyster toadfish densities also did not change with increasing habitat availability (i.e. habitat limitation), but densities of other cryptic fishes decreased as habitat availability increased (i.e. weak limitation). Feeding and abundance data suggested that some mobile fishes experience habitat limitation, or, potentially in one case, strong limitation across our habitat manipulations. These findings of significant, community-level habitat limitation provide insight into how global declines in structurally complex estuarine habitats may have reduced the fishery production of coastal ecosystems. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  5. Saltatory ontogeny of fishes and sensitive early life stages for ecotoxicology tests.

    PubMed

    Belanger, Scott E; Balon, Eugene K; Rawlings, Jane M

    2010-04-15

    Fish display a wide range of developmental ontogenies. These distinctions have taxonomic, evolutionary, and ecological importance in addition to practical implications on the use of fish in aquatic toxicity tests. With respect to animal welfare, vertebrates are afforded protected or non-protected status in the European Union based upon whether they feed endogenously off the yolk or exogenously by procurement and ingestion of food. The concept of saltatory ontogeny suggests development is not gradual but proceeds in leaps separated by a series of stable developmental states. In this context, endogenous/exogenous feeding also distinguishes the developmental phases of embryo (egg), eleutheroembryo (feeding off the yolk sac) and larvae (exogenous feeding) in fish. The recent proposal for the Fish Embryo Test (FET) as an animal alternative to the standard fish acute toxicity test (OECD 203 and equivalent tests) puts a clear focus on the need to identify the non-protected and protected life intervals in test species as well as their sensitivities which coincides with the developmental phases identified in saltatory ontogeny. In this paper we described a method to quantify embryo, eleutheroembryo, and larva phases in Danio rerio, the zebrafish. Danio eleutheroembryos preyed upon 5 different protozoan species (Euglena, Euplotes, Paramecium aurelia, Paramecium bursaria and Paramecium multimicronucleatum) between 24 and 48hr following hatching (85-95% of fish, n=20 per species, 25 degrees C). Based upon these data it is recommended that testing of developing zebrafish embryos should be terminated between 24 and 48hr after hatching in order to be compliant with existing animal welfare legislation within Europe.

  6. Characterization of the bacterial communities of life stages of free living lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum).

    PubMed

    Williams-Newkirk, Amanda Jo; Rowe, Lori A; Mixson-Hayden, Tonya R; Dasch, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    bacterial community change during the tick life cycle and that some sex-specific attributes may be detectable in nymphs.

  7. Thermal criteria for early life stage development of the winged mapleleaf mussel (Quadrilla fragosa)

    Steingraeber, M.T.; Bartsch, M.R.; Kalas, J.E.; Newton, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    The winged mapleleaf mussel [Quadrula fragosa (Conrad)] is a Federal endangered species. Controlled propagation to aid in recovering this species has been delayed because host fishes for its parasitic glochidia (larvae) are unknown. This study identified blue catfish [Ictaluris furcatus (Lesueur)] and confirmed channel catfish [Ictaluris punctatus (Rafinesque)] as suitable hosts. The time required for glochidia to metamorphose and for peak juvenile excystment to begin was water temperature dependent and ranged from 28 to 37 d in a constant thermal regime (19 C); totaled 70 d in a varied thermal regime (12-19 C); and ranged 260 to 262 d in simulated natural thermal regimes (0-21 C). We developed a quantitative model that describes the thermal-temporal relation and used it to empirically estimate the species-specific low-temperature threshold for development of glochidia into juveniles on channel catfish (9.26 C) and the cumulative temperature units of development required to achieve peak excystment of juveniles from blue catfish (383 C???d) and channel catfish (395 C???d). Long-term tests simulated the development of glochidia into juveniles in natural thermal regimes and consistently affirmed the validity of these estimates, as well as provided evidence for a thermal cue (17-20 C) that presumably is needed to trigger peak juvenile excystment. These findings substantiate our model and provide an approach that could be used to determine corresponding thermal criteria for early life development of other mussel species. These data can be used to improve juvenile mussel production in propagation programs designed to help recover imperiled species and may also be useful in detecting temporal climatic changes within a watershed.

  8. A cross-sectional study regarding the impact of end-stage renal disease on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Donciu, Mihaela-Dora; Tasmoc, Alexandra; Dumea, Raluca; Hogas, Simona; Voroneanu, Luminita; Siriopol, Mihaela Daniela; Covic, A

    2013-01-01

    The number and severity of physical and psychological symptoms reported by chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients are significant and increasing; with a clear need to clarify which symptom intervention is the most needed. Measurements of quality of life (QoL) have shown, for many decades, an impairment of both physical and psychological aspects in both chronic kidney disease (CKD) pre-dialysis and in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted assess the quality of life of a Romanian hemodialysis population and the impact of several clinical and biochemical factors. A total of 102 patients (41 males, 61 females) with a mean age of 52.5 +/- 12.0 years, who were treated with HD three times per week in our dialysis center were included in the study. All subjects completed the Short Form Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36). Clinical and biochemical parameters were extracted from the EUCLID electronic database. Our measurement showed a deteriorated QoL in our population, all of the included subjects presenting with much lower scores in both physical and mental components than the reference values of SF-36. We did not found any statistic significant correlation between hemoglobin (Hgb) levels or dialysis adequacy and different domains of the SF-36. The only significant association was found between age and the physical component of the SF-36, implying that older patients perceive a more degraded quality of life. HD patients experience a great burden from physical and psychological symptoms of the disease, perceiving an important impairment in their quality of life, especially regarding the physical component.

  9. Quality of life, lifestyle behavior and employment experience: a comparison between young and midlife survivors of gynecology early stage cancers.

    PubMed

    Bifulco, G; De Rosa, N; Tornesello, M L; Piccoli, R; Bertrando, A; Lavitola, G; Morra, I; Di Spiezio Sardo, A; Buonaguro, F M; Nappi, C

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate differences and changes in quality of life (QoL), lifestyle behavior and employment experience of young in comparison to midlife adults in response to early stage gynecologic cancer diagnoses. 263 patients, divided into two age groups (Group A: ≤ 45 and Group B: >45 years), were interviewed on their QoL, lifestyle behavior (dietary habits, tobacco and alcohol use, physical activity) and employment experience (employment status and working time) at diagnosis and within 4 years from the treatment. The QoL was evaluated by European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 (QLQ-C30) and its specific modules for each cancer type (in particular endometrium, cervix, ovarian and breast). Global health status was significantly different between the two groups. In the younger age group a more relevant cancer interference on family life and social activities and a greater impact on perception of health status have been observed. Young women were more affected by fatigue, constipation, gastrointestinal symptoms, lymphedema, poor body image and impaired sexuality. Cancer diagnosis had a major negative impact on employment of younger patients. Conversely, younger patients had overall better health behavior. They reported a higher daily intake of fruits and vegetables, along with lower alcohol consumption, furthermore they were a little more physically active than midlife adults. To enhance quality of life and to promote healthy lifestyle behavior of female cancer patients, particularly in younger age, it is essential to assure multidisciplinary approaches with specific medical intervention and psychosocial supports. Indeed, midlife adults seem to have a more rapid adaptive tendency to return towards levels of well-being, following cancer diagnosis and treatment, than younger patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Early life history stages of Gulf sturgeon in the Suwannee River, Florida

    Sulak, K.J.; Clugston, James P.

    1998-01-01

    Egg sampling confirmed that Suwannee River Gulf sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi, a subspecies of Atlantic sturgeon A. o. oxyrinchus use the same spawning site at river kilometer (rkm) 215 from the month of the river each year. Forty-nine eggs were recorded in 1995, and 368 were recorded in 1996. Spawning began 4-7 d after the March new moon in both years and lasted 10-11 d; in 1996, a second 10-d spawning round began on the April new moon. Developmental synchrony among eggs recovered suggested several discrete spawning events in both years. Total eggs deposited for three 1996 sampling days was estimated as 405,600-711,000/d, approximating the fecundity range of a large female Gulf sturgeon. Eggs were found only in the southern half of the river, an area with surface currents of 0.5-1.5 m/s and numerous eddies producing reverse bottom currents of 0.1-0.5 m/s. Egg substrate consisted of bedrock limestone thinly overlain by fine sand and densely distributed elliptical gravel 2-10 cm in diameter. Eggs were found predominantly in depths of 2-4 m at water temperatures of 17-21??C, conductivities of 50-100 ??S, and dissolved oxygen levels exceeding 5.0 mg/L. The Cody Scarp, 15 rkm above the spawning ground, may mark the upstream limit of spawning areas in the river. Three 2-4-month-old riverine juveniles (82-115 mm total length, TL) collected are the smallest yet captured from any river. Data for 18 riverine age-0 juveniles (to 350 mm TL) suggest that this stage lasts 6-10 months, terminating with migration of fish to the river mouth in January-February. Less than 2% of 461 juveniles captured at the estuarine river mouth (1990-1993) were under 350 mm TL. Riverine age-0 fish were collected over long shallow stretches (typically <4 m deep) of relatively barren sand (rkm 12-238).

  11. [The sanitary and hygienic state of solid garbage burial grounds in the stages of a life cycle].

    PubMed

    Zomarev, A M; Vaĭsman, Ia I; Zaĭtseva, T A; Glushankova, I S

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the sanitary-and-hygienic state of solid garbage (SG) burial grounds in the Perm Territory in different stage of a life cycle. This paper presents the results of the study of deposited waste, forming dump soil, and SG ground emissions by general sanitary and sanitary-microbiological parameters and their effect on environmental objects. The performed studies of the sanitary-and-hygienic situation on some grounds of the Perm Territory suggest that there is a need for setting up a system for sanitary-and-monitoring of SG ground and for elaborating engineering, organizational, and prophylactic measures to assure the sanitary-and-hygienic safety of objects and to control the quality and quantity of waste to be buried and the currents of emissions (ground body degassing, filtrating sewage drainage and purification).

  12. Using drift nets to capture early life stages and monitor spawning of the yangtze river chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis)

    Wei, Q.W.; Kynard, B.; Yang, D.G.; Chen, X.H.; Du, H.; Shen, L.; Zhang, H.

    2009-01-01

    A sampling system for capturing sturgeon eggs using a D-shaped bottom anchored drift net was used to capture early life stages (ELS) of Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis, and monitor annual spawning success at Yichang on the Yangtze River, 1996-2004, before and just after the Three Gorges Dam began operation. Captured were 96 875 ELS (early life stages: eggs, yolk-sac larvae = eleuthero embryos, and larvae); most were eggs and only 2477 were yolk-sac larvae. Most ELS were captured in the main river channel and inside the bend at the Yichang spawning reach. Yolk-sac larvae were captured for a maximum of 3 days after hatching began, indicating quick dispersal downstream. The back-calculated day of egg fertilization over the eight years indicated a maximum spawning window of 23 days (20 October-10 November). Spawning in all years was restricted temporally, occurred mostly at night and during one or two spawning periods, each lasting several days. The brief temporal spawning window may reduce egg predation by opportunistic predators by flooding the river bottom with millions of eggs. During 1996-2002, the percentage of fertilized eggs in an annual 20-egg sample was between 63.5 to 94.1%; however, in 2003 the percentage fertilized was only 23.8%. This sudden decline may be related to the altered environmental conditions at Yichang caused by operation of the Three Gorges Dam. Further studies are needed to monitor spawning and changes in egg fertilization in this threatened population. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Effects of acidifying ocean conditions on growth and survival of two life stages of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giltz, S.; Taylor, C.

    2016-02-01

    Blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, begin their larval phase offshore and circulate for approximately 30 days before settling near shore. As crabs transition to the juvenile stage, they move into coastal or estuarine environments characterized by lower salinity. Presently the average pH of the ocean is 8.1, 30% down from the beginning of the industrial revolution and is forecasted to drop to 7.8 by 2100. Decreasing pH causes dissolution of calcium carbonate shells, but the overall effects on crustaceans, such as blue crabs, are unknown. This study investigated the effect of a lower pH environment on the growth, survival, carapace hardness and molt frequency of larval and juvenile blue crabs in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Larval crabs showed delayed growth under low pH (7.8) conditions compared to crabs in a control (present day) pH (8.1) environment. Population crashes (complete mortality) were experienced in 55% of the low pH aquaria but not in any of the control aquaria, suggesting that acidification poses a mortality risk. Under low pH conditions the intermolt duration decreased in juveniles, but the body length and weight did not differ from crabs raised in the control pH. Larvae (in tanks that did not crash) and juveniles did not experience increased mortality from a lower pH, but there do appear to be sublethal effects on growth and molting that differ between life history stages.

  14. Mobile-Based Analysis of Malaria-Infected Thin Blood Smears: Automated Species and Life Cycle Stage Determination

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, José M. Correia; Elias, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Microscopy examination has been the pillar of malaria diagnosis, being the recommended procedure when its quality can be maintained. However, the need for trained personnel and adequate equipment limits its availability and accessibility in malaria-endemic areas. Rapid, accurate, accessible diagnostic tools are increasingly required, as malaria control programs extend parasite-based diagnosis and the prevalence decreases. This paper presents an image processing and analysis methodology using supervised classification to assess the presence of malaria parasites and determine the species and life cycle stage in Giemsa-stained thin blood smears. The main differentiation factor is the usage of microscopic images exclusively acquired with low cost and accessible tools such as smartphones, a dataset of 566 images manually annotated by an experienced parasilogist being used. Eight different species-stage combinations were considered in this work, with an automatic detection performance ranging from 73.9% to 96.2% in terms of sensitivity and from 92.6% to 99.3% in terms of specificity. These promising results attest to the potential of using this approach as a valid alternative to conventional microscopy examination, with comparable detection performances and acceptable computational times. PMID:28934170

  15. Mobile-Based Analysis of Malaria-Infected Thin Blood Smears: Automated Species and Life Cycle Stage Determination.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Luís; da Costa, José M Correia; Elias, Dirk; Cardoso, Jaime S

    2017-09-21

    Microscopy examination has been the pillar of malaria diagnosis, being the recommended procedure when its quality can be maintained. However, the need for trained personnel and adequate equipment limits its availability and accessibility in malaria-endemic areas. Rapid, accurate, accessible diagnostic tools are increasingly required, as malaria control programs extend parasite-based diagnosis and the prevalence decreases. This paper presents an image processing and analysis methodology using supervised classification to assess the presence of malaria parasites and determine the species and life cycle stage in Giemsa-stained thin blood smears. The main differentiation factor is the usage of microscopic images exclusively acquired with low cost and accessible tools such as smartphones, a dataset of 566 images manually annotated by an experienced parasilogist being used. Eight different species-stage combinations were considered in this work, with an automatic detection performance ranging from 73.9% to 96.2% in terms of sensitivity and from 92.6% to 99.3% in terms of specificity. These promising results attest to the potential of using this approach as a valid alternative to conventional microscopy examination, with comparable detection performances and acceptable computational times.

  16. Subtle effects of environmental stress observed in the early life stages of the Common frog, Rana temporaria

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Rebecca; Martin, Francis L.; Jones, Kevin C.; Shore, Richard F.; Halsall, Crispin J.

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide amphibian populations are declining due to habitat loss, disease and pollution. Vulnerability to environmental contaminants such as pesticides will be dependent on the species, the sensitivity of the ontogenic life stage and hence the timing of exposure and the exposure pathway. Herein we investigated the biochemical tissue ‘fingerprint’ in spawn and early-stage tadpoles of the Common frog, Rana temporaria, using attenuated total reflection-Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy with the objective of observing differences in the biochemical constituents of the respective amphibian tissues due to varying water quality in urban and agricultural ponds. Our results demonstrate that levels of stress (marked by biochemical constituents such as glycogen that are involved in compensatory metabolic mechanisms) can be observed in tadpoles present in the pond most impacted by pollution (nutrients and pesticides), but large annual variability masked any inter-site differences in the frog spawn. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy is capable of detecting differences in tadpoles that are present in selected ponds with different levels of environmental perturbation and thus serves as a rapid and cost effective tool in assessing stress-related effects of pollution in a vulnerable class of organism. PMID:28317844

  17. Theory of Mind and Its Neuropsychological and Quality of Life Correlates in the Early Stages of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Trojsi, Francesca; Siciliano, Mattia; Russo, Antonio; Passaniti, Carla; Femiano, Cinzia; Ferrantino, Teresa; De Liguoro, Stefania; Lavorgna, Luigi; Monsurrò, Maria R; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Santangelo, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the potential impairment of Theory of Mind (ToM; i.e., the ability to represent cognitive and affective mental states to both self and others) and the clinical, neuropsychological and Quality of Life (QoL) correlates of these cognitive abnormalities in the early stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a multisystem neurodegenerative disease recently recognized as a part of the same clinical and pathological spectrum of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Twenty-two consecutive, cognitively intact ALS patients, and 15 healthy controls, underwent assessment of executive, verbal comprehension, visuospatial, behavioral, and QoL measures, as well as of the ToM abilities by Emotion Attribution Task (EAT), Advanced Test of ToM (ATT), and Eyes Task (ET). ALS patients obtained significantly lower scores than controls on EAT and ET. No significant difference was found between the two groups on ATT. As regard to type of ALS onset, patients with bulbar onset performed worse than those with spinal onset on ET. Correlation analysis revealed that EAT and ET were positively correlated with education, memory prose, visuo-spatial performances, and "Mental Health" scores among QoL items. Our results suggest that not only "cognitive" but also "affective" subcomponents of ToM may be impaired in the early stages of ALS, with significant linkage to disease onset and dysfunctions of less executively demanding conditions, causing potential impact on patients' "Mental Health."

  18. Health-Related Quality-of-Life Outcomes: A Reflexology Trial With Patients With Advanced-Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Gwen; Sikorskii, Alla; Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; Victorson, David; You, Mei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To evaluate the safety and efficacy of reflexology, a complementary therapy that applies pressure to specific areas of the feet. Design Longitudinal, randomized clinical trial. Setting Thirteen community-based medical oncology clinics across the midwestern United States. Sample A convenience sample of 385 predominantly Caucasian women with advanced-stage breast cancer receiving chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy. Methods Following the baseline interview, women were randomized into three primary groups: reflexology (n = 95), lay foot manipulation (LFM) (n = 95), or conventional care (n = 96). Two preliminary reflexology (n = 51) and LFM (n = 48) test groups were used to establish the protocols. Participants were interviewed again postintervention at study weeks 5 and 11. Main Research Variables Breast cancer–specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL), physical functioning, and symptoms. Findings No adverse events were reported. A longitudinal comparison revealed significant improvements in physical functioning for the reflexology group compared to the control group (p = 0.04). Severity of dyspnea was reduced in the reflexology group compared to the control group (p < 0.01) and the LFM group (p = 0.02). No differences were found on breast cancer–specific HRQOL, depressive symptomatology, state anxiety, pain, and nausea. Conclusions Reflexology may be added to existing evidence-based supportive care to improve HRQOL for patients with advanced-stage breast cancer during chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy. Implications for Nursing Reflexology can be recommended for safety and usefulness in relieving dyspnea and enhancing functional status among women with advanced-stage breast cancer. PMID:23107851

  19. Variation in the Presence of Anti-Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Bacteria of Amphibians Across Life Stages and Elevations in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Bresciano, J C; Salvador, C A; Paz-Y-Miño, C; Parody-Merino, A M; Bosch, J; Woodhams, D C

    2015-06-01

    Amphibian populations are decreasing worldwide due to a variety of factors. In South America, the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is linked to many population declines. The pathogenic effect of Bd on amphibians can be inhibited by specific bacteria present on host skin. This symbiotic association allows some amphibians to resist the development of the disease chytridiomycosis. Here, we aimed (1) to determine for the first time if specific anti-Bd bacteria are present on amphibians in the Andes of Ecuador, (2) to monitor anti-Bd bacteria across developmental stages in a focal amphibian, the Andean marsupial tree frog, Gastrotheca riobambae, that deposits larvae in aquatic habitats, and (3) to compare the Bd presence associated with host assemblages including 10 species at sites ranging in biogeography from Amazonian rainforest (450 masl) to Andes montane rainforest (3200 masl). We sampled and identified skin-associated bacteria of frogs in the field using swabs and a novel methodology of aerobic counting plates, and a combination of morphological, biochemical, and molecular identification techniques. The following anti-Bd bacteria were identified and found to be shared among several hosts at high-elevation sites where Bd was present at a prevalence of 32.5%: Janthinobacterium lividum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Serratia sp. Bd were detected in Gastrotheca spp. and not detected in the lowlands (sites below 1000 masl). In G. riobambae, recognized Bd-resistant bacteria start to be present at the metamorphic stage. Overall bacterial abundance was significantly higher post-metamorphosis and on species sampled at lower elevations. Further metagenomic studies are needed to evaluate the roles of host identity, life-history stage, and biogeography of the microbiota and their function in disease resistance.

  20. Later Life Changes in Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Behavioral Functions After Low-Dose Prenatal Irradiation at Early Organogenesis Stage

    SciT

    Ganapathi, Ramya; Manda, Kailash, E-mail: kailashmanda@gmail.com

    Purpose: To investigate long-term changes in behavioral functions of mice after exposure to low-dose prenatal radiation at an early organogenesis stage. Methods and Materials: Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were irradiated (20 cGy) at postcoitus day 5.5. The male and female offspring were subjected to different behavioral assays for affective, motor, and cognitive functions at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Behavioral functions were further correlated with the population of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons and immature neurons in hippocampal dentate gyrus. Results: Prenatally exposed mice of different age groups showed a sex-specific pattern of sustained changes in behavioral functions. Male mice showed significantmore » changes in anxiety-like phenotypes, learning, and long-term memory at age 3 months. At 6 months of age such behavioral functions were recovered to a normal level but could not be sustained at age 12 months. Female mice showed an appreciable recovery in almost all behavioral functions at 12 months. Patterns of change in learning and long-term memory were comparable to the population of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons and doublecortin-positive neurons in hippocampus. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that prenatal (early organogenesis stage) irradiation even at a lower dose level (20 cGy) is sufficient to cause potential changes in neurobehavioral function at later stages of life. Male mice showed relatively higher vulnerability to radiation-induced neurobehavioral changes as compared with female.« less

  1. A Multi-Stage Longitudinal Comparative Design Stage II Evaluation of the Changing Lives Program: The Life Course Interview (RDA-LCI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arango, Lisa Lewis; Kurtines, William M.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.; Ritchie, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The study reported in this article, a Multi-Stage Longitudinal Comparative Design Stage II evaluation conducted as a planned preliminary efficacy evaluation (psychometric evaluation of measures, short-term controlled outcome studies, etc.) of the Changing Lives Program (CLP), provided evidence for the reliability and validity of the qualitative…

  2. Ocean acidification affects redox-balance and ion-homeostasis in the life-cycle stages of Emiliania huxleyi.

    PubMed

    Rokitta, Sebastian D; John, Uwe; Rost, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Ocean Acidification (OA) has been shown to affect photosynthesis and calcification in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, a cosmopolitan calcifier that significantly contributes to the regulation of the biological carbon pumps. Its non-calcifying, haploid life-cycle stage was found to be relatively unaffected by OA with respect to biomass production. Deeper insights into physiological key processes and their dependence on environmental factors are lacking, but are required to understand and possibly estimate the dynamics of carbon cycling in present and future oceans. Therefore, calcifying diploid and non-calcifying haploid cells were acclimated to present and future CO(2) partial pressures (pCO(2); 38.5 Pa vs. 101.3 Pa CO(2)) under low and high light (50 vs. 300 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)). Comparative microarray-based transcriptome profiling was used to screen for the underlying cellular processes and allowed to follow up interpretations derived from physiological data. In the diplont, the observed increases in biomass production under OA are likely caused by stimulated production of glycoconjugates and lipids. The observed lowered calcification under OA can be attributed to impaired signal-transduction and ion-transport. The haplont utilizes distinct genes and metabolic pathways, reflecting the stage-specific usage of certain portions of the genome. With respect to functionality and energy-dependence, however, the transcriptomic OA-responses resemble those of the diplont. In both life-cycle stages, OA affects the cellular redox-state as a master regulator and thereby causes a metabolic shift from oxidative towards reductive pathways, which involves a reconstellation of carbon flux networks within and across compartments. Whereas signal transduction and ion-homeostasis appear equally OA-sensitive under both light intensities, the effects on carbon metabolism and light physiology are clearly modulated by light availability. These interactive effects can be

  3. NMR-based fecal metabolomics fingerprinting as predictors of earlier diagnosis in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Ma, Changchun; Liu, Chengkang; Wang, Zhening; Yang, Jurong; Liu, Xinmu; Shen, Zhiwei; Wu, Renhua

    2016-05-17

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a growing cause of mortality in developing countries, warranting investigation into its earlier detection for optimal disease management. A metabolomics based approach provides potential for noninvasive identification of biomarkers of colorectal carcinogenesis, as well as dissection of molecular pathways of pathophysiological conditions. Here, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HNMR) -based metabolomic approach was used to profile fecal metabolites of 68 CRC patients (stage I/II=20; stage III=25 and stage IV=23) and 32 healthy controls (HC). Pattern recognition through principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied on 1H-NMR processed data for dimension reduction. OPLS-DA revealed that each stage of CRC could be clearly distinguished from HC based on their metabolomic profiles. Successive analyses identified distinct disturbances to fecal metabolites of CRC patients at various stages, compared with those in cancer free controls, including reduced levels of acetate, butyrate, propionate, glucose, glutamine, and elevated quantities of succinate, proline, alanine, dimethylglycine, valine, glutamate, leucine, isoleucine and lactate. These altered fecal metabolites potentially involved in the disruption of normal bacterial ecology, malabsorption of nutrients, increased glycolysis and glutaminolysis. Our findings revealed that the fecal metabolic profiles of healthy controls can be distinguished from CRC patients, even in the early stage (stage I/II), highlighting the potential utility of NMR-based fecal metabolomics fingerprinting as predictors of earlier diagnosis in CRC patients.

  4. NMR-based fecal metabolomics fingerprinting as predictors of earlier diagnosis in patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yan; Ma, Changchun; Liu, Chengkang; Wang, Zhening; Yang, Jurong; Liu, Xinmu; Shen, Zhiwei; Wu, Renhua

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a growing cause of mortality in developing countries, warranting investigation into its earlier detection for optimal disease management. A metabolomics based approach provides potential for noninvasive identification of biomarkers of colorectal carcinogenesis, as well as dissection of molecular pathways of pathophysiological conditions. Here, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HNMR) -based metabolomic approach was used to profile fecal metabolites of 68 CRC patients (stage I/II=20; stage III=25 and stage IV=23) and 32 healthy controls (HC). Pattern recognition through principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied on 1H-NMR processed data for dimension reduction. OPLS-DA revealed that each stage of CRC could be clearly distinguished from HC based on their metabolomic profiles. Successive analyses identified distinct disturbances to fecal metabolites of CRC patients at various stages, compared with those in cancer free controls, including reduced levels of acetate, butyrate, propionate, glucose, glutamine, and elevated quantities of succinate, proline, alanine, dimethylglycine, valine, glutamate, leucine, isoleucine and lactate. These altered fecal metabolites potentially involved in the disruption of normal bacterial ecology, malabsorption of nutrients, increased glycolysis and glutaminolysis. Our findings revealed that the fecal metabolic profiles of healthy controls can be distinguished from CRC patients, even in the early stage (stage I/II), highlighting the potential utility of NMR-based fecal metabolomics fingerprinting as predictors of earlier diagnosis in CRC patients. PMID:27107423

  5. Health-related Quality of Life and Existential Concerns Among Patients with End-stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Bele, Samir; Bodhare, Trupti N; Mudgalkar, Nikhil; Saraf, Abhay; Valsangkar, Sameer

    2012-05-01

    Health-Related Quality Of Life (HRQOL) among patients with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is significantly impacted by virtue of varied disease or treatment-related factors, and its evaluation along with existential concerns is required for providing comprehensive care to the patient. The aim of this study was to describe the various dimensions of HRQOL and existential concerns and to examine the relationship between the two among patients with ESRD. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 54 patients with ESRD undergoing maintenance hemodialysis in a teaching hospital. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to assess socio-demographic characteristics and existential concerns of the respondents. The HRQOL was evaluated using a standardized scale of Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF™) questionnaire. Data were presented as frequencies, mean ± Standard Deviation (SD) for baseline characteristics and scores. Pearson correlation was used to study the association between various domains of quality of life and existential concerns. Among HRQOL, the worst results obtained were in the domain of burden of kidney disease (33.45 ± 13.53), work status (49.07 ± 24.75), quality of social interaction (62.22 ±11.80), general health (43.06 ± 13.01), and physical functioning (47.50 ± 18.88). Disrupted personal integrity (12.80 ± 2.81) and loss of continuity (5.37 ± 1.17) were most bothersome existential concerns. A co-relational model behaves distinctly eliciting weak to strong association among various domains of HRQOL and existential concerns. Patients with ESRD reported impaired HRQOL in most of the domains. Existential concerns are distinguished as important dimensions of HRQOL. Association between HRQOL and existential concerns showed that these dimensions are distinct, and there is a need for assessing and attending these entities through a multidisciplinary approach to alleviate the suffering and achieving a sense of overall

  6. Psychological impact of working with patients with cystic fibrosis at end-of-life, pre-transplant stage.

    PubMed

    Clisby, Nicola; Shaw, Samantha; Cormack, Maggie

    2013-04-01

    Multidisciplinary staff who work with end-of-life, pre-transplant patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have to juggle two seemingly opposing care approaches; active care to maintain their patients' health and condition in anticipation of a transplant, and sensitive palliative care that takes their end-of-life wishes into consideration should they not receive a transplant. Little is known about the psychological impact on staff working within this care dichotomy. The aim of this study is to explore staff's experiences and understand more about the psychological impact of this work on them professionally and personally, and how this affects their ability to provide appropriate care for their patients. A qualitative explorative research design was used. Ten semistructured interviews with multidisciplinary staff working in cystic fibrosis centers and units across the United Kingdom were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Two superordinate themes emerged from the analysis: factors contributing to the "juggle" of active and palliative care, and extent of emotional impact on staff. The study indicates that there is an emotional impact on staff working with patients with CF at end-of-life, pre-transplant stages. Specifically, it reveals the extent of the unpredictability that staff work with, and the range of emotions that staff experience, including uncertainty about professional identity and anxiety about working practices. The depth and intimacy of professional-patient relationships is highlighted, particularly for staff in close contact with and similar in age to their patients. Additionally, the strength of staff's commitment and desire to care for patients within broader humanistic terms that mesh with their own personal values is brought to light. Despite the difficulties with their work, the majority of staff adopted numerous coping strategies to manage their emotions, many of which emphasized the link between their professional and

  7. Whole body-element composition of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar influenced by migration direction and life stage in three distinct populations.

    PubMed

    Ebel, J D; Leroux, S J; Robertson, M J; Dempson, J B

    2016-11-01

    Body-element content was measured for three life stages of wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from three distinct Newfoundland populations as individuals crossed between freshwater and marine ecosystems. Life stage explained most of the variation in observed body-element concentration whereas river of capture explained very little variation. Element composition of downstream migrating post-spawn adults (i.e. kelts) and juvenile smolts were similar and the composition of these two life stages strongly differed from adults migrating upstream to spawn. Low variation within life stages and across populations suggests that S. salar may exert rheostatic control of their body-element composition. Additionally, observed differences in trace element concentration between adults and other life stages were probably driven by the high carbon concentration in adults because abundant elements, such as carbon, can strongly influence the observed concentrations of less abundant elements. Thus, understanding variation among individuals in trace elements composition requires the measurement of more abundant elements. Changes in element concentration with ontogeny have important consequences the role of fishes in ecosystem nutrient cycling and should receive further attention. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. A NGS approach to the encrusting Mediterranean sponge Crella elegans (Porifera, Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida): transcriptome sequencing, characterization and overview of the gene expression along three life cycle stages.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Porro, A R; Navarro-Gómez, D; Uriz, M J; Giribet, G

    2013-05-01

    Sponges can be dominant organisms in many marine and freshwater habitats where they play essential ecological roles. They also represent a key group to address important questions in early metazoan evolution. Recent approaches for improving knowledge on sponge biological and ecological functions as well as on animal evolution have focused on the genetic toolkits involved in ecological responses to environmental changes (biotic and abiotic), development and reproduction. These approaches are possible thanks to newly available, massive sequencing technologies-such as the Illumina platform, which facilitate genome and transcriptome sequencing in a cost-effective manner. Here we present the first NGS (next-generation sequencing) approach to understanding the life cycle of an encrusting marine sponge. For this we sequenced libraries of three different life cycle stages of the Mediterranean sponge Crella elegans and generated de novo transcriptome assemblies. Three assemblies were based on sponge tissue of a particular life cycle stage, including non-reproductive tissue, tissue with sperm cysts and tissue with larvae. The fourth assembly pooled the data from all three stages. By aggregating data from all the different life cycle stages we obtained a higher total number of contigs, contigs with blast hit and annotated contigs than from one stage-based assemblies. In that multi-stage assembly we obtained a larger number of the developmental regulatory genes known for metazoans than in any other assembly. We also advance the differential expression of selected genes in the three life cycle stages to explore the potential of RNA-seq for improving knowledge on functional processes along the sponge life cycle. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Stage-Specific Changes in Physiological and Life-History Responses to Elevated Temperature and Pco2 during the Larval Development of the European Lobster Homarus gammarus (L.).

    PubMed

    Small, Daniel P; Calosi, Piero; Boothroyd, Dominic; Widdicombe, Steve; Spicer, John I

    2015-01-01

    An organism's physiological processes form the link between its life-history traits and the prevailing environmental conditions, especially in species with complex life cycles. Understanding how these processes respond to changing environmental conditions, thereby affecting organismal development, is critical if we are to predict the biological implications of current and future global climate change. However, much of our knowledge is derived from adults or single developmental stages. Consequently, we investigated the metabolic rate, organic content, carapace mineralization, growth, and survival across each larval stage of the European lobster Homarus gammarus, reared under current and predicted future ocean warming and acidification scenarios. Larvae exhibited stage-specific changes in the temperature sensitivity of their metabolic rate. Elevated Pco2 increased C∶N ratios and interacted with elevated temperature to affect carapace mineralization. These changes were linked to concomitant changes in survivorship and growth, from which it was concluded that bottlenecks were evident during H. gammarus larval development in stages I and IV, the transition phases between the embryonic and pelagic larval stages and between the larval and megalopa stages, respectively. We therefore suggest that natural changes in optimum temperature during ontogeny will be key to larvae survival in a future warmer ocean. The interactions of these natural changes with elevated temperature and Pco2 significantly alter physiological condition and body size of the last larval stage before the transition from a planktonic to a benthic life style. Thus, living and growing in warm, hypercapnic waters could compromise larval lobster growth, development, and recruitment.

  10. Earlier Age at Menopause, Work and Tobacco Smoke Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Lora E; Levis, Silvina; LeBlanc, William G; Dietz, Noella A; Arheart, Kristopher L; Wilkinson, James D; Clark, John; Serdar, Berrin; Davila, Evelyn P; Lee, David J

    2009-01-01

    Objective Earlier age at menopause onset has been associated with increased all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality risks. Risk of earlier age at menopause associated with primary and secondary tobacco smoke exposure was assessed. Design Cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of US women. Methods 7596 women participants (representing an estimated 79 million US women) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III were asked: time since last menstrual period, occupation, and tobacco use (including home and workplace secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure). Blood cotinine and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were assessed. Logistic regressions for the odds of earlier age at menopause, stratified on race/ethnicity in women 25-50 years and adjusted for survey design, were controlled for age, BMI, education, tobacco smoke exposure, and occupation. Results Among 5029 US women ≥ 25 years with complete data, earlier age at menopause was found among all smokers, and among service and manufacturing industry sector workers. Among women age 25-50 years, there was an increased risk of earlier age at menopause with both primary smoking and with SHS exposure, particularly among Black women. Conclusions Primary tobacco use and SHS exposure were associated with an increased odds of earlier age at menopause in a representative sample of US women. Earlier age at menopause was found for some women worker groups with greater potential occupational SHS exposure. Thus, control of SHS exposures in the workplace may decrease the risk of mortality and morbidity associated with earlier age at menopause in US women workers. PMID:18626414

  11. Comparative proteomics of two life cycle stages of stable isotope-labeled Trypanosoma brucei reveals novel components of the parasite's host adaptation machinery.

    PubMed

    Butter, Falk; Bucerius, Ferdinand; Michel, Margaux; Cicova, Zdenka; Mann, Matthias; Janzen, Christian J

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei developed a sophisticated life cycle to adapt to different host environments. Although developmental differentiation of T. brucei has been the topic of intensive research for decades, the mechanisms responsible for adaptation to different host environments are not well understood. We developed stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture in trypanosomes to compare the proteomes of two different life cycle stages. Quantitative comparison of 4364 protein groups identified many proteins previously not known to be stage-specifically expressed. The identification of stage-specific proteins helps to understand how parasites adapt to different hosts and provides new insights into differences in metabolism, gene regulation, and cell architecture. A DEAD-box RNA helicase, which is highly up-regulated in the bloodstream form of this parasite and which is essential for viability and proper cell cycle progression in this stage is described as an example.

  12. Regional Emphysema Score Predicting Overall Survival, Quality of Life and Pulmonary Function Recovery in Early-stage Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jie; Liu, Ming; Swensen, Stephen J.; Stoddard, Shawn M.; Wampfler, Jason A.; Limper, Andrew H.; Jiang, Gening; Yang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary emphysema is a common comorbidity in lung cancer, but its role in tumor prognosis remains obscure. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of the regional emphysema score (RES) on patient’s overall survival, quality of life (QOL), and pulmonary function recovery in stage I–II lung cancer. Methods Between 1997 and 2009, 1,073 patients were identified and divided into two surgical groups (cancer in emphysematous [group 1, n=565] and non-emphysematous [group 2, n=435] region) and one non-surgical group (group 3, n=73). RES was derived from the emphysematous region and categorized into mild (≤5%), moderate (6–24%) and severe (25–60%). Results In group 1, patients with moderate and severe RES experienced slight decreases in postoperative FEV1, but increases in FEV1/FVC, compared to those with mild RES (p<0.01); however, this correlation was not observed in group 2. Post-treatment QOL was lower in patients with greater RES in all groups mainly due to dyspnea (p<0.05). Cox-regression analysis revealed that patients with higher RES had a significantly poorer survival in both surgical groups, with adjusted HRs of 1.41 and 1.43 for moderate RES and 1.63 and 2.04 for severe RES, respectively; however, this association was insignificant in the non-surgical group (adjusted HR of 0.99 for moderate/severe RES). Conclusions In surgically-treated patients with cancer in emphysematous region, RES is associated with postoperative changes in lung function. RES is also predictive of post-treatment QOL related to dyspnea in early-stage lung cancer. In both surgical groups, RES is an independent predictor of survival. PMID:28126539

  13. Antibacterial Immune Competence of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) Is Adapted to Different Life Stages and Environmental Risks

    PubMed Central

    Gätschenberger, Heike; Azzami, Klara; Tautz, Jürgen; Beier, Hildburg

    2013-01-01

    The development of all honey bee castes proceeds through three different life stages all of which encounter microbial infections to a various extent. We have examined the immune strength of honey bees across all developmental stages with emphasis on the temporal expression of cellular and humoral immune responses upon artificial challenge with viable Escherichia coli bacteria. We employed a broad array of methods to investigate defence strategies of infected individuals: (a) fate of bacteria in the haemocoel; (b) nodule formation and (c) induction of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Newly emerged adult worker bees and drones were able to activate efficiently all examined immune reactions. The number of viable bacteria circulating in the haemocoel of infected bees declined rapidly by more than two orders of magnitude within the first 4–6 h post-injection (p.i.), coinciding with the occurrence of melanised nodules. Antimicrobial activity, on the other hand, became detectable only after the initial bacterial clearance. These two temporal patterns of defence reactions very likely represent the constitutive cellular and the induced humoral immune response. A unique feature of honey bees is that a fraction of worker bees survives the winter season in a cluster mostly engaged in thermoregulation. We show here that the overall immune strength of winter bees matches that of young summer bees although nodulation reactions are not initiated at all. As expected, high doses of injected viable E.coli bacteria caused no mortality in larvae or adults of each age. However, drone and worker pupae succumbed to challenge with E.coli even at low doses, accompanied by a premature darkening of the pupal body. In contrast to larvae and adults, we observed no fast clearance of viable bacteria and no induction of AMPs but a rapid proliferation of E.coli bacteria in the haemocoel of bee pupae ultimately leading to their death. PMID:23799099

  14. The SnSAG merozoite surface antigens of Sarcocystis neurona are expressed differentially during the bradyzoite and sporozoite life cycle stages.

    PubMed

    Gautam, A; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J; Howe, D K

    2011-12-29

    Sarcocystis neurona is a two-host coccidian parasite whose complex life cycle progresses through multiple developmental stages differing at morphological and molecular levels. The S. neurona merozoite surface is covered by multiple, related glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked proteins, which are orthologous to the surface antigen (SAG)/SAG1-related sequence (SRS) gene family of Toxoplasma gondii. Expression of the SAG/SRS proteins in T. gondii and another related parasite Neospora caninum is life-cycle stage specific and seems necessary for parasite transmission and persistence of infection. In the present study, the expression of S. neurona merozoite surface antigens (SnSAGs) was evaluated in the sporozoite and bradyzoite stages. Western blot analysis was used to compare SnSAG expression in merozoites versus sporozoites, while immunocytochemistry was performed to examine expression of the SnSAGs in merozoites versus bradyzoites. These analyses revealed that SnSAG2, SnSAG3 and SnSAG4 are expressed in sporozoites, while SnSAG5 was appeared to be downregulated in this life cycle stage. In S. neurona bradyzoites, it was found that SnSAG2, SnSAG3, SnSAG4 and SnSAG5 were either absent or expression was greatly reduced. As shown for T. gondii, stage-specific expression of the SnSAGs may be important for the parasite to progress through its developmental stages and complete its life cycle successfully. Thus, it is possible that the SAG switching mechanism by these parasites could be exploited as a point of intervention. As well, the alterations in surface antigen expression during different life cycle stages may need to be considered when designing prospective approaches for protective vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Direct Analysis in Real Time-Mass Spectrometry & Kohonen Artificial Neural Networks for the Rapid Species Identification of Larvae, Pupae and Adult Life Stages of Carrion Insects.

    PubMed

    Beyramysoltan, Samira; Giffen, Justine E; Rosati, Jennifer Y; Musah, Rabi Ann

    2018-06-20

    Species determination of the various life stages of flies (order: Diptera) is challenging, particularly for the immature forms, because analogous life stages of different species are difficult to differentiate morphologically. It is demonstrated here that DART high-resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS) combined with supervised Kohonen Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) enables accomplishment of species-level identification of larvae, pupae and adult life stages of carrion flies. DART-HRMS data for each life stage were acquired from analysis of ethanol suspensions representing Calliphoridae, Phoridae and Sarcophagidae families, without additional sample preparation. After preprocessing, the data were subjected to a combination of minimum Redundancy Maximal Relevance (mRMR) and Sparse Discriminant Analysis (SDA) methods to select the most significant variables for creating accurate SOM models. The resulting data were divided into training and validation sets, and then analyzed by the SOM method to define the proper discrimination models. The 5-fold venetian blind cross-validation misclassification error was below 7% for all life stages, and the validation samples were correctly identified in all cases. The multiclass SOM model also revealed which chemical components were the most significant markers for each species, with several of these being amino acids. The results show that processing of DART-HRMS data using artificial neural networks (ANNs) based on the Kohonen SOM approach enables rapid discrimination and identification of fly species even for the immature life stages. The ANNs can be continuously expanded to include a larger number of species, and can be used to screen DART-HRMS data from unknowns to rapidly determine species identity.

  16. Gene expression analysis in zebrafish embryos: a potential approach to predict effect concentrations in the fish early life stage test.

    PubMed

    Weil, Mirco; Scholz, Stefan; Zimmer, Michaela; Sacher, Frank; Duis, Karen

    2009-09-01

    Based on the hypothesis that analysis of gene expression could be used to predict chronic fish toxicity, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo test (DarT), developed as a replacement method for the acute fish test, was expanded to a gene expression D. rerio embryo test (Gene-DarT). The effects of 14 substances on lethal and sublethal endpoints of the DarT and on expression of potential marker genes were investigated: the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2, cytochrome P450 1A (cypla), heat shock protein 70, fizzy-related protein 1, the transcription factors v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family protein g (avian) 1 and NF-E2-p45-related factor, and heme oxygenase 1 (hmox1). After exposure of zebrafish embryos for 48 h, differential gene expression was evaluated using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, gel electrophoresis, and densitometric analysis of the gels. All tested compounds significantly affected the expression of at least one potential marker gene, with cyp1a and hmox1 being most sensitive. Lowest-observed-effect concentrations (LOECs) for gene expression were below concentrations resulting in 10% lethal effects in the DarT. For 10 (3,4- and 3,5-dichloroaniline, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 2,4-dinitrophenol, atrazine, parathion-ethyl, chlorotoluron, genistein, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, and cadmium) out of the 14 tested substances, LOEC values derived with the Gene-DarT differ by a factor of less than 10 from LOEC values of fish early life stage tests with zebrafish. For pentachloroaniline and pentachlorobenzene, the Gene-DarT showed a 23- and 153-fold higher sensitivity, respectively, while for lindane, it showed a 13-fold lower sensitivity. For ivermectin, the Gene-DarT was by a factor of more than 1,000 less sensitive than the acute fish test. The results of the present study indicate that gene expression analysis in zebrafish embryos could principally be used to predict effect concentrations in the fish early life stage test.

  17. Principal component analysis of the Norwegian version of the quality of life in late-stage dementia scale.

    PubMed

    Mjørud, Marit; Kirkevold, Marit; Røsvik, Janne; Engedal, Knut

    2014-01-01

    To investigate which factors the Quality of Life in Late-Stage Dementia (QUALID) scale holds when used among people with dementia (pwd) in nursing homes and to find out how the symptom load varies across the different severity levels of dementia. We included 661 pwd [mean age ± SD, 85.3 ± 8.6 years; 71.4% women]. The QUALID and the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale were applied. A principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation and Kaiser normalization was applied to test the factor structure. Nonparametric analyses were applied to examine differences of symptom load across the three CDR groups. The mean QUALID score was 21.5 (±7.1), and the CDR scores of the three groups were 1 in 22.5%, 2 in 33.6% and 3 in 43.9%. The results of the statistical measures employed were the following: Crohnbach's α of QUALID, 0.74; Bartlett's test of sphericity, p <0.001; the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure, 0.77. The PCA analysis resulted in three components accounting for 53% of the variance. The first component was 'tension' ('facial expression of discomfort', 'appears physically uncomfortable', 'verbalization suggests discomfort', 'being irritable and aggressive', 'appears calm', Crohnbach's α = 0.69), the second was 'well-being' ('smiles', 'enjoys eating', 'enjoys touching/being touched', 'enjoys social interaction', Crohnbach's α = 0.62) and the third was 'sadness' ('appears sad', 'cries', 'facial expression of discomfort', Crohnbach's α 0.65). The mean score on the components 'tension' and 'well-being' increased significantly with increasing severity levels of dementia. Three components of quality of life (qol) were identified. Qol decreased with increasing severity of dementia. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. A review of the factors influencing spawning, early life stage survival and recruitment variability in the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    PubMed

    Bloor, Isobel S M; Attrill, Martin J; Jackson, Emma L

    2013-01-01

    Global landings of cephalopods (cuttlefish, squid and octopus) have increased dramatically over the past 50 years and now constitute almost 5% of the total world's fisheries production. At a time when landings of many traditional fin-fish stocks are continuing to experience a global decline as a result of over-exploitation, it is expected that fishing pressure on cephalopod stocks will continue to rise as the fishing industry switch their focus onto these non-quota species. However, long-term trends indicate that landings may have begun to plateau or even decrease. In European waters, cuttlefish are among the most important commercial cephalopod resource and are currently the highest yielding cephalopod group harvested in the north-east Atlantic, with the English Channel supporting the main fishery for this species. Recruitment variability in this short-lived species drives large fluctuations in landings. In order to provide sustainable management for Sepia officinalis populations, it is essential that we first have a thorough understanding of the ecology and life history of this species, in particular, the factors affecting spawning, early life stage (ELS) survival and recruitment variability. This review explores how and why such variability exists, starting with the impact of maternal effects (e.g. navigation, migration and egg laying), moving onto the direct impact of environmental variation on embryonic and ELSs and culminating on the impacts that these variations (maternal and environmental) have at a population level on annual recruitment success. Understanding these factors is critical to the effective management of expanding fisheries for this species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The zerovalent iron nanoparticle causes higher developmental toxicity than its oxidation products in early life stages of medaka fish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Jen; Wu, Wan-Lin; Wu, Kevin Chia-Wen

    2013-08-01

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI)-mediated oxidation reaction is increasingly being used for enhanced treatment of water or wastewater processes; however, the fate and eco-toxicological effects of nZVI in the surface aquifer remain unclear. We investigated bioaccumulation and lethal-to-sublethal toxic effects on early life development of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) with 7-day exposure to 25-200 mg/L of well-characterized solutions containing carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-stabilized nZVI (CMC-nZVI), nanoscale iron oxide (nFe3O4) or ferrous ion [Fe(II)aq]. The CMC-nZVI solution had the greatest acute mortality and developmental toxic effects in embryos, with lesser and the least effects with Fe(II)aq and nFe3O4. The toxicity of CMC-nZVI was ascribed to its high reactivity in the oxygenic solution, which led to a combination of hypoxia and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Fe(II)aq. nFe3O4 (50-100 mg/L) was more bioavailable to embryos and bioaccmulative in hatchlings than suspended CMC-nZVI. The antioxidant balance was differentially altered by induced intracellular ROS in hatchlings with all 3 iron species. We revealed causal toxic effects of nZVI and its oxidized products in early life stages of medaka fish using different organizational levels of biomarker assays. The toxicity results implicate a potential eco-toxicological impact of nZVI on the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatial requirements of different life-stages of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) from a distinct population segment in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Lamont, Margaret M.; Putman, Nathan F.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Hart, Kristen M.

    2015-01-01

    Many marine species have complex life histories that involve disparate developmental, foraging and reproductive habitats and a holistic assessment of the spatial requirements for different life stages is a challenge that greatly complicates their management. Here, we combined data from oceanographic modeling, nesting surveys, and satellite tracking to examine the spatial requirements of different life stages of Loggerhead Turtles (Caretta caretta) from a distinct population segment in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Our findings indicate that after emerging from nesting beaches in Alabama and Northwest Florida, hatchlings disperse widely and the proportion of turtles following a given route varies substantially through time, with the majority (mean of 74.4%) projected to leave the Gulf of Mexico. Adult females use neritic habitat throughout the northern and eastern Gulf of Mexico both during the inter-nesting phase and as post-nesting foraging areas. Movements and habitat use of juveniles and adult males represent a large gap in our knowledge, but given the hatchling dispersal predictions and tracks of post-nesting females it is likely that some Loggerhead Turtles remain in the Gulf of Mexico throughout their life. More than two-thirds of the Gulf provides potential habitat for at least one life-stage of Loggerhead Turtles. These results demonstrate the importance of the Gulf of Mexico to this Distinct Population Segment of Loggerhead Turtles. It also highlights the benefits of undertaking comprehensive studies of multiple life stages simultaneously: loss of individual habitats have the potential to affect several life stages thereby having long-term consequences to population recovery.

  1. Health-related Quality of Life and Existential Concerns Among Patients with End-stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bele, Samir; Bodhare, Trupti N; Mudgalkar, Nikhil; Saraf, Abhay; Valsangkar, Sameer

    2012-01-01

    Background: Health-Related Quality Of Life (HRQOL) among patients with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is significantly impacted by virtue of varied disease or treatment-related factors, and its evaluation along with existential concerns is required for providing comprehensive care to the patient. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the various dimensions of HRQOL and existential concerns and to examine the relationship between the two among patients with ESRD. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 54 patients with ESRD undergoing maintenance hemodialysis in a teaching hospital. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to assess socio-demographic characteristics and existential concerns of the respondents. The HRQOL was evaluated using a standardized scale of Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF™) questionnaire. Data were presented as frequencies, mean ± Standard Deviation (SD) for baseline characteristics and scores. Pearson correlation was used to study the association between various domains of quality of life and existential concerns. Results: Among HRQOL, the worst results obtained were in the domain of burden of kidney disease (33.45 ± 13.53), work status (49.07 ± 24.75), quality of social interaction (62.22 ±11.80), general health (43.06 ± 13.01), and physical functioning (47.50 ± 18.88). Disrupted personal integrity (12.80 ± 2.81) and loss of continuity (5.37 ± 1.17) were most bothersome existential concerns. A co-relational model behaves distinctly eliciting weak to strong association among various domains of HRQOL and existential concerns. Conclusion: Patients with ESRD reported impaired HRQOL in most of the domains. Existential concerns are distinguished as important dimensions of HRQOL. Association between HRQOL and existential concerns showed that these dimensions are distinct, and there is a need for assessing and attending these entities through a multidisciplinary approach to

  2. Inadequate Iodine Intake in Population Groups Defined by Age, Life Stage and Vegetarian Dietary Practice in a Norwegian Convenience Sample.

    PubMed

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Johansen, Nina Cathrine; Nyheim, Kristine Aastad; Erlund, Iris; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Henjum, Sigrun

    2018-02-17

    Inadequate iodine intake has been identified in populations considered iodine replete for decades. The objective of the current study is to evaluate urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and the probability of adequate iodine intake in subgroups of the Norwegian population defined by age, life stage and vegetarian dietary practice. In a cross-sectional survey, we assessed the probability of adequate iodine intake by two 24-h food diaries and UIC from two fasting morning spot urine samples in 276 participants. The participants included children ( n = 47), adolescents ( n = 46), adults ( n = 71), the elderly ( n = 23), pregnant women ( n = 45), ovo-lacto vegetarians ( n = 25), and vegans ( n = 19). In all participants combined, the median (95% CI) UIC was 101 (90, 110) µg/L, median (25th, 75th percentile) calculated iodine intake was 112 (77, 175) µg/day and median (25th, 75th percentile) estimated usual iodine intake was 101 (75, 150) µg/day. According to WHOs criteria for evaluation of median UIC, iodine intake was inadequate in the elderly, pregnant women, vegans and non-pregnant women of childbearing age. Children had the highest (82%) and vegans the lowest (14%) probability of adequate iodine intake according to reported food and supplement intakes. This study confirms the need for monitoring iodine intake and status in nationally representative study samples in Norway.

  3. In Silico Repositioning-Chemogenomics Strategy Identifies New Drugs with Potential Activity against Multiple Life Stages of Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Bruno J.; Braga, Rodolpho C.; Bezerra, José C. B.; Cravo, Pedro V. L.; Andrade, Carolina H.

    2015-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality caused by schistosomiasis are serious public health problems in developing countries. Because praziquantel is the only drug in therapeutic use, the risk of drug resistance is a concern. In the search for new schistosomicidal drugs, we performed a target-based chemogenomics screen of a dataset of 2,114 proteins to identify drugs that are approved for clinical use in humans that may be active against multiple life stages of Schistosoma mansoni. Each of these proteins was treated as a potential drug target, and its amino acid sequence was used to interrogate three databases: Therapeutic Target Database (TTD), DrugBank and STITCH. Predicted drug-target interactions were refined using a combination of approaches, including pairwise alignment, conservation state of functional regions and chemical space analysis. To validate our strategy, several drugs previously shown to be active against Schistosoma species were correctly predicted, such as clonazepam, auranofin, nifedipine, and artesunate. We were also able to identify 115 drugs that have not yet been experimentally tested against schistosomes and that require further assessment. Some examples are aprindine, gentamicin, clotrimazole, tetrabenazine, griseofulvin, and cinnarizine. In conclusion, we have developed a systematic and focused computer-aided approach to propose approved drugs that may warrant testing and/or serve as lead compounds for the design of new drugs against schistosomes. PMID:25569258

  4. Inbreeding depression in an insect with maternal care: influences of family interactions, life stage and offspring sex.

    PubMed

    Meunier, J; Kölliker, M

    2013-10-01

    Although inbreeding is commonly known to depress individual fitness, the severity of inbreeding depression varies considerably across species. Among the factors contributing to this variation, family interactions, life stage and sex of offspring have been proposed, but their joint influence on inbreeding depression remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that these three factors jointly shape inbreeding depression in the European earwig, Forficula auricularia. Using a series of cross-breeding, split-clutch and brood size manipulation experiments conducted over two generations, we first showed that sib mating (leading to inbred offspring) did not influence the reproductive success of earwig parents. Second, the presence of tending mothers and the strength of sibling competition (i.e. brood size) did not influence the expression of inbreeding depression in the inbred offspring. By contrast, our results revealed that inbreeding dramatically depressed the reproductive success of inbred adult male offspring, but only had little effect on the reproductive success of inbred adult female offspring. Overall, this study demonstrates limited effects of family interactions on inbreeding depression in this species and emphasizes the importance of disentangling effects of sib mating early and late during development to better understand the evolution of mating systems and population dynamics. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. Cumulative effects of suspended sediments, organic nutrients and temperature stress on early life history stages of the coral Acropora tenuis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humanes, Adriana; Ricardo, Gerard F.; Willis, Bette L.; Fabricius, Katharina E.; Negri, Andrew P.

    2017-03-01

    Coral reproduction is vulnerable to both declining water quality and warming temperatures, with simultaneous exposures likely compounding the negative impact of each stressor. We investigated how early life processes of the coral Acropora tenuis respond to increasing levels of suspended sediments in combination with temperature or organic nutrients. Fertilization success and embryo development were more sensitive to suspended sediments than to high temperatures or nutrient enrichment, while larval development (after acquisition of cilia) and settlement success were predominantly affected by thermal stress. Fertilization success was reduced 80% by suspended sediments, and up to 24% by temperature, while the addition of nutrients to suspended sediments had no further impact. Larval survivorship was unaffected by any of these treatments. However, settlement success of larvae developing from treatment-exposed embryos was negatively affected by all three stressors (e.g. up to 55% by suspended sediments), while exposure only during later larval stages predominantly responded to temperature stress. Environmentally relevant levels of suspended sediments and temperature had the greatest impacts, affecting more processes than the combined impacts of sediments and nutrients. These results suggest that management strategies to maintain suspended sediments at low concentrations during coral spawning events will benefit coral recruitment, especially with warming climate.

  6. The influence of environmental conditions on early life stages of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the central Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustups, Didzis; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Bergstrom, Ulf; Makarchouk, Andrej; Sics, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Flounder (Platichthys flesus) is a temperate marine fish that is well adapted to the brackish waters of the Baltic Sea. There are two sympatric flounder populations in the Baltic Sea, pelagic and demersal spawners, which differ in their spawning habitat and egg characteristics. In the present study, pelagic spawning flounder of the central Baltic Sea was studied. We examined whether variations in hydrological regime can explain fluctuations in flounder early life stages that have occurred over the past 30 years (1970-2005). Using generalized additive modeling to explain the abundance of flounder eggs and larvae in a Latvian ichthyoplankton dataset, we evaluate the hypothesis that the available reproductive volume, defined as the water column with dissolved oxygen larger than 1 ml/l and salinity between 10.6 and 12 PSU, affects the survival of flounder ichthyoplankton and determines recruitment success. Both reproductive volume and spawning stock biomass were significant factors determining flounder ichthyoplankton abundance. Different measures of water temperature did not contribute significantly to the variability of eggs or larvae. However, recruitment did not correlate to the supply of larvae. The findings presented in this study on the relationship between flounder reproduction, spawning stock biomass and reproductive volume, as well as the lack of correlation to recruitment, are valuable for the understanding of flounder ecology in the Baltic Sea, and for developing the management of the species.

  7. The BonaRes data infrastructure: Recommendations of standards for the different life stages of soil and agricultural research data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Carsten; Schulz, Sina; Svoboda, Nikolai; Zoarder, Muqit; Eberhardt, Einar; Russell, David; Heinrich, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    Within the research project BonaRes ("Soil as a sustainable resource for the bioeconomy") an infrastructure is being developed to upload, manage, store, and provide the increasing amount of soil and agricultural research data, raw data, and metadata in Germany. Large joint research projects such as BonaRes require rules for data handling. The application and designation of standards, standard methods and widely disseminated and accepted data formats for all stages of data life (from acquisition to provision) is accompanied by a number of advantages for data providers, -managers and -users. Standards enable e.g. an easy data exchange and provision for data re-use, communication with other disciplines, and improve the visibility and accessibility of research activities and results. To harmonize national with international data infrastructures, standards used in the scope of BonaRes should either meet international requirements or be transformable by derivation tools. In the first project phase an overview of standards was compiled including more than 600 relevant norms, directives, exchange formats and code lists. With the collaboration of an international expert consortium we then developed a "Recommendation list Standards" for all project partners and other soil/agricultural data providers. We present and discuss selected recommendations and possible implementations of standards to be used in the BonaRes data infrastructure for data acquisition (e.g. soil description, agronomy), data management (e.g. exchange languages, derivation tools), and data provision (e.g. licenses, geo-data services).

  8. Comorbidity between personality disorders and depressive symptomatology in women: A cross-sectional study of three different transitional life stages.

    PubMed

    Enfoux, Aurore; Courtois, Robert; Duijsens, Inge; Reveillere, Christian; Senon, Jean Louis; Magnin, Guillaume; Voyer, Melanie; Montmasson, Helene; Camus, Vincent; El-Hage, Wissam

    2013-08-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of personality disorders (PDs), according to DSM-IV criteria, in relation to depressive symptomatology at three different periods of life in female subjects. Depressive symptoms and personality disorders were assessed in a sample of 568 women from three different transitional stages: 134 students, 314 primiparous women after childbirth and 120 women diagnosed with breast cancer. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale in the first and third groups and by the Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale in the second group, whereas PDs were assessed by the French version of the Vragenlijst voor Kenmerken van de Persoonlijkheid. Depressive symptomatology and rates of PD (20.4% and 6.3%) were equivalent in the three groups. The prevalence of PD was higher in the depressed group compared with the non-depressed group, with more paranoid, borderline, avoidant, obsessive-compulsive, schizotypal, antisocial, dependent and histrionic PD. Our findings support the hypothesis that PDs are more frequently associated with depressive symptoms. Borderline and avoidant PDs were more prevalent among young women. All cluster C PD (dependent, avoidant and obsessive-compulsive) co-occurred significantly with depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Heritability and social brood effects on personality in juvenile and adult life-history stages in a wild passerine.

    PubMed

    Winney, I S; Schroeder, J; Nakagawa, S; Hsu, Y-H; Simons, M J P; Sánchez-Tójar, A; Mannarelli, M-E; Burke, T

    2018-01-01

    How has evolution led to the variation in behavioural phenotypes (personalities) in a population? Knowledge of whether personality is heritable, and to what degree it is influenced by the social environment, is crucial to understanding its evolutionary significance, yet few estimates are available from natural populations. We tracked three behavioural traits during different life-history stages in a pedigreed population of wild house sparrows. Using a quantitative genetic approach, we demonstrated heritability in adult exploration, and in nestling activity after accounting for fixed effects, but not in adult boldness. We did not detect maternal effects on any traits, but we did detect a social brood effect on nestling activity. Boldness, exploration and nestling activity in this population did not form a behavioural syndrome, suggesting that selection could act independently on these behavioural traits in this species, although we found no consistent support for phenotypic selection on these traits. Our work shows that repeatable behaviours can vary in their heritability and that social context influences personality traits. Future efforts could separate whether personality traits differ in heritability because they have served specific functional roles in the evolution of the phenotype or because our concept of personality and the stability of behaviour needs to be revised. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. Toxicity testing of crude oil and related compounds using early life stages of the crimson-spotted rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Pollino, Carmel A; Holdway, Douglas A

    2002-07-01

    The toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons to marine aquatic organisms has been widely investigated; however, the effects on freshwater environments have largely been ignored. In the Australian freshwater environment, the potential impacts of petroleum hydrocarbons are virtually unknown. The toxicity of crude oil and related compounds were measured in the sensitive early life stages of the crimson-spotted rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis). Waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons crossed the chorion of embryonic rainbowfish, reducing survival and hatchability. Acute exposures resulted in developmental abnormalities at and above 0.5 mg/L total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Deformities included pericardial edema, disturbed axis formation, and abnormal jaw development. When assessing the acute toxicities of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil, dispersants, dispersant-oil mixtures, and naphthalene to larval rainbowfish, the lowest to highest 96-h median lethal concentrations for day of hatch larvae were naphthalene (0.51 mg/L), dispersed crude oil WAF (DCWAF)-9527 (0.74 mg/L TPH), WAF (1.28 mg/L TPH), DCWAF-9500 (1.37 mg/L TPH), Corexit 9500 (14.5 mg/L TPH), and Corexit 9527 (20.1 mg/L). Using naphthalene as a reference toxicant, no differences were found between the sensitivities of larval rainbowfish collected from adults exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons during embryonic development and those collected from unexposed adults.

  11. Nature and Age of Neighbours Matter: Interspecific Associations among Tree Species Exist and Vary across Life Stages in Tropical Forests

    PubMed Central

    Ledo, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Detailed information about interspecific spatial associations among tropical tree species is scarce, and hence the ecological importance of those associations may have been underestimated. However, they can play a role in community assembly and species diversity maintenance. This study investigated the spatial dependence between pairs of species. First, the spatial associations (spatial attraction and spatial repulsion) that arose between species were examined. Second, different sizes of trees were considered in order to evaluate whether the spatial relationships between species are constant or vary during the lifetime of individuals. Third, the consistency of those spatial associations with the species-habitat associations found in previous studies was assessed. Two different tropical ecosystems were investigated: a montane cloud forest and a lowland moist forest. The results showed that spatial associations among species exist, and these vary among life stages and species. The rarity of negative spatial interactions suggested that exclusive competition was not common in the studied forests. On the other hand, positive interactions were common, and the results of this study strongly suggested that habitat associations were not the only cause of spatial attraction among species. If this is true, habitat associations and density dependence are not the only mechanisms that explain species distribution and diversity; other ecological interactions, such as facilitation among species, may also play a role. These spatial associations could be important in the assembly of tropical tree communities and forest succession, and should be taken into account in future studies. PMID:26581110

  12. Inadequate Iodine Intake in Population Groups Defined by Age, Life Stage and Vegetarian Dietary Practice in a Norwegian Convenience Sample

    PubMed Central

    Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Johansen, Nina Cathrine; Nyheim, Kristine Aastad; Erlund, Iris; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2018-01-01

    Inadequate iodine intake has been identified in populations considered iodine replete for decades. The objective of the current study is to evaluate urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and the probability of adequate iodine intake in subgroups of the Norwegian population defined by age, life stage and vegetarian dietary practice. In a cross-sectional survey, we assessed the probability of adequate iodine intake by two 24-h food diaries and UIC from two fasting morning spot urine samples in 276 participants. The participants included children (n = 47), adolescents (n = 46), adults (n = 71), the elderly (n = 23), pregnant women (n = 45), ovo-lacto vegetarians (n = 25), and vegans (n = 19). In all participants combined, the median (95% CI) UIC was 101 (90, 110) µg/L, median (25th, 75th percentile) calculated iodine intake was 112 (77, 175) µg/day and median (25th, 75th percentile) estimated usual iodine intake was 101 (75, 150) µg/day. According to WHOs criteria for evaluation of median UIC, iodine intake was inadequate in the elderly, pregnant women, vegans and non-pregnant women of childbearing age. Children had the highest (82%) and vegans the lowest (14%) probability of adequate iodine intake according to reported food and supplement intakes. This study confirms the need for monitoring iodine intake and status in nationally representative study samples in Norway. PMID:29462974

  13. Mutations in Nonconserved Domains of Ty3 Integrase Affect Multiple Stages of the Ty3 Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Nymark-McMahon, M. Henrietta; Sandmeyer, Suzanne B.

    1999-01-01

    Ty3, a retroviruslike element of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transposes into positions immediately upstream of RNA polymerase III-transcribed genes. The Ty3 integrase (IN) protein is required for integration of the replicated, extrachromosomal Ty3 DNA. In retroviral IN, a conserved core region is sufficient for strand transfer activity. In this study, charged-to-alanine scanning mutagenesis was used to investigate the roles of the nonconserved amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions of Ty3 IN. Each of the 20 IN mutants was defective for transposition, but no mutant was grossly defective for capsid maturation. All mutations affecting steady-state levels of mature IN protein resulted in reduced levels of replicated DNA, even when polymerase activity was not grossly defective as measured by exogenous reverse transcriptase activity assay. Thus, IN could contribute to nonpolymerase functions required for DNA production in vivo or to the stability of the DNA product. Several mutations in the carboxyl-terminal domain resulted in relatively low levels of processed 3′ ends of the replicated DNA, suggesting that this domain may be important for binding of IN to the long terminal repeat. Another class of mutants produced wild-type amounts of DNA with correctly processed 3′ ends. This class could include mutants affected in nuclear entry and target association. Collectively, these mutations demonstrate that in vivo, within the preintegration complex, IN performs a central role in coordinating multiple late stages of the retrotransposition life cycle. PMID:9847351

  14. Cumulative effects of suspended sediments, organic nutrients and temperature stress on early life history stages of the coral Acropora tenuis.

    PubMed

    Humanes, Adriana; Ricardo, Gerard F; Willis, Bette L; Fabricius, Katharina E; Negri, Andrew P

    2017-03-10

    Coral reproduction is vulnerable to both declining water quality and warming temperatures, with simultaneous exposures likely compounding the negative impact of each stressor. We investigated how early life processes of the coral Acropora tenuis respond to increasing levels of suspended sediments in combination with temperature or organic nutrients. Fertilization success and embryo development were more sensitive to suspended sediments than to high temperatures or nutrient enrichment, while larval development (after acquisition of cilia) and settlement success were predominantly affected by thermal stress. Fertilization success was reduced 80% by suspended sediments, and up to 24% by temperature, while the addition of nutrients to suspended sediments had no further impact. Larval survivorship was unaffected by any of these treatments. However, settlement success of larvae developing from treatment-exposed embryos was negatively affected by all three stressors (e.g. up to 55% by suspended sediments), while exposure only during later larval stages predominantly responded to temperature stress. Environmentally relevant levels of suspended sediments and temperature had the greatest impacts, affecting more processes than the combined impacts of sediments and nutrients. These results suggest that management strategies to maintain suspended sediments at low concentrations during coral spawning events will benefit coral recruitment, especially with warming climate.

  15. The effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Colorado River

    Korman, Josh; Melis, Theodore S.

    2011-01-01

    The Lees Ferry reach of the Colorado River-a 16-mile segment from Glen Canyon Dam to the confluence with the Paria River-supports an important recreational rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fishery. In Grand Canyon, nonnative rainbow trout prey on and compete for habitat and food with native fish, such as the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha). Experimental flow fluctuations from the dam during winter and spring 2003-5 dewatered and killed a high proportion of rainbow trout eggs in gravel spawning bars, but this mortality had no measurable effect on the abundance of juvenile fish. Flow fluctuations during summer months reduced growth of juvenile trout relative to steadier flows. A high-flow experiment in March 2008 increased both trout survival rates for early life stages and fish abundance. These findings demonstrate that Glen Canyon Dam operations directly affect the trout population in the Lees Ferry reach and could be used to regulate nonnative fish abundance to limit potential negative effects of trout on native fish in Grand Canyon.

  16. Toxicity of the mosquito control insecticide phenothrin to three life stages of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio).

    PubMed

    Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Hoguet, Jennifer; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Delorenzo, Marie E

    2011-01-01

    Phenothrin is a synthetic pyrethroid used as a contact insecticide in mosquito control programs. This study compared the toxicity of phenothrin to adult, larval and embryonic grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and examined oxidative stress responses in adult and larval grass shrimp. The adult 24-h LC50 was 0.341 μg/L (95 % confidence intervals 0.282-0.412) and the 96-h LC50 was 0.161 μg/L (95 % CI 0.128-0.203 μg/L). The larval 24-h LC50 was 0.50 μg/L (95 % CI 0.441-0.568) and the 96-h LC50 was 0.154 μg/L (95 % CI 0.139-0.170 μg/L). In the presence of sediment, the 24-h LC50 was 6.30 μg/L (95 % CI 5.00-7.44 μg/L) for adults and 0.771 μg/L (95 % CI 0.630-0.944) for larvae. The sublethal biomarkers glutathione and lipid peroxidase (LPx) were examined after 96-h phenothrin exposure at five concentrations, and there were no statistically significant differences in these levels in adults or larvae compared to controls. There was a significant downward trend in larval LPx levels. This research confirms that phenothrin is highly toxic to grass shrimp and suggests that both adult and larval grass shrimp are appropriate life stages for risk assessments.

  17. Examination of oxygen release from plants in constructed wetlands in different stages of wetland plant life cycle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Wu, Haiming; Hu, Zhen; Liang, Shuang; Fan, Jinlin

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of oxygen release by plants in different stages of wetland plant life cycle was made in this study. Results obtained from 1 year measurement in subsurface wetland microcosms demonstrated that oxygen release from Phragmites australis varied from 108.89 to 404.44 mg O₂/m(2)/d during the different periods from budding to dormancy. Plant species, substrate types, and culture solutions had a significant effect on the capacity of oxygen release of wetland plants. Oxygen supply by wetland plants was estimated to potentially support a removal of 300.37 mg COD/m(2)/d or 55.87 mg NH₄-N/m(2)/d. According to oxygen balance analysis, oxygen release by plants could provide 0.43-1.12% of biochemical oxygen demand in typical subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (CWs). This demonstrates that oxygen release of plants may be a potential source for pollutants removal especially in low-loaded CWs. The results make it possible to quantify the role of plants in wastewater purification.

  18. Photo-induced toxicity in early life stage fiddler crab (Uca longisignalis) following exposure to Deepwater Horizon oil.

    PubMed

    Damare, Leigh M; Bridges, Kristin N; Alloy, Matthew M; Curran, Thomas E; Soulen, Brianne K; Forth, Heather P; Lay, Claire R; Morris, Jeffrey M; Stoeckel, James A; Roberts, Aaron P

    2018-05-01

    The 2010 explosion of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil rig led to the release of millions of barrels of oil in the Gulf of Mexico. Oil in aquatic ecosystems exerts toxicity through multiple mechanisms, including photo-induced toxicity following co-exposure with UV radiation. The timing and location of the spill coincided with both fiddler crab reproduction and peak yearly UV intensities, putting early life stage fiddler crabs at risk of injury due to photo-induced toxicity. The present study assessed sensitivity of fiddler crab larvae to photo-induced toxicity during co-exposure to a range of environmentally relevant dilutions of high-energy water accommodated fractions of DWH oil, and either <10, 50, or 100% ambient sunlight, achieved with filters that allowed for variable UV penetration. Solar exposures (duration: 7-h per day) were conducted for two consecutive days, with a dark recovery period (duration: 17-h) in between. Survival was significantly decreased in treatments the presence of >10% UV and relatively low concentrations of oil. Results of the present study indicate fiddler crab larvae are sensitive to photo-induced toxicity in the presence of DWH oil. These results are of concern, as fiddler crabs play an important role as ecosystem engineers, modulating sediment biogeochemical processes via burrowing action. Furthermore, they occupy an important place in the food web in the Gulf of Mexico.

  19. Effects of Environmental Contamination and Acute Toxicity of N-Nitrate on Early Life Stages of Endemic Arboreal Frog, Polypedates cruciger (Blyth, 1852).

    PubMed

    Balangoda, Anusha; Deepananda, K H M Ashoka; Wegiriya, H C E

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the potential toxic effects of environmentally relevant nitrate concentrations on development, growth, and mortality of early life stages of common hour-glass tree frog, Polypedates cruciger. Tadpoles from hatchlings through pre-adult were exposed to environmentally relevant nitrate concentrations detected in Mirissa, Sri Lanka. Newly hatched, external gill stage, and internal gill stage tadpoles were exposed to potassium nitrate for bioassay tests. No behavioral changes or abnormalities were observed in control and nitrate-induced group. However, detected environmental nitrate concentration significantly increased (p < 0.05) the growth of the tadpoles up to 25 days old. Results revealed that newly hatched and external gill stage was more susceptible to the nitrate pollution than internal gill stage. The results suggest that environmentally relevant nitrate can cause mortality on the amphibian population in ecosystems associated with agro-pastoral activities through altering the growth and direct toxicological effects on the survivorship.

  20. RELATIONSHIP OF ASSESS SELF-ESTEEM AND LOCUS OF CONTROL WITH QUALITY OF LIFE DURING TREATMENT STAGES IN PATIENTS REFERRING TO DRUG ADDICTION REHABILITATION CENTERS

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Mohammad; Ghodusi, Mansureh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Thus, the present research was carried out aimed at determining the relationship between self-esteem and locus of control and quality of life during treatment stages in the patients referring to drug addiction rehabilitation centers of Borujen city, Iran. Methods: The current study was a sectional research of descriptive correlation type. The research sample was 150 individuals of patients referring to addiction rehabilitation centers of Borujen city. For data gathering, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, Rotter’s Locus of Control Scale, and SF36 Quality of Life Questionnaire were used. Following collection of questionnaires, the data were analyzed using SPSS/16 software. Results: According to the results, in the 12th day of treatment, 96 patients exhibited moderate self-esteem, 102 patients had internal locus of control, and the score of their overall quality of life was 40.43±12.71. Furthermore, Pearson’s correlation coefficient indicated that a significant and positive relationship was observed between locus of control and quality of life during different treatment stages. Conclusion: It seems that quality of life improves during addiction treatment stages due to improvement of personality traits including locus of control and self-esteem. Therefore, consultation methods as a very crucial priority in addiction rehabilitation centers shall be taken into account by the health sector authorities and managers and can play an essential role in enhancing quality of life. PMID:27698598

  1. Metamorphosis Is Ancestral for Crown Euarthropods, and Evolved in the Cambrian or Earlier.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Joanna M

    2017-09-01

    Macroevolutionary developmental biology employs fossilized ontogenetic data and phylogenetic comparative methods to probe the evolution of development at ancient nodes. Despite the prevalence of ecologically differentiated larval forms in marine invertebrates, it has been frequently presumed that the ancestors of arthropods were direct developers, and that metamorphosis may not have evolved until the Ordovician or later. Using fossils and new dated phylogenies, I infer that metamorphosis was likely ancestral for crown arthropods, contradicting this assumption. Based on a published morphological dataset encompassing 217 exceptionally preserved fossil and 96 extant taxa, fossils were directly incorporated into both the topology and age estimates, as in "tip dating" analyses. Using data from post-embryonic fossils representing 25 species throughout stem and crown arthropod lineages (as well as most of the 96 extant taxa), characters for metamorphosis were assigned based on inferred ecological changes in development (e.g., changes in habitat and adaptive landscape). Under all phylogenetic hypotheses, metamorphosis was supported as most likely ancestral to both ecdysozoans and euarthropods. Care must be taken to account for potential drastic post-embryonic morphological changes in evolutionary analyses. Many stem group euarthrpods may have had ecologically differentiated larval stages that did not preserve in the fossil record. Moreover, a complex life cycle and planktonic ecology may have evolved in the Ediacaran or earlier, and may have typified the pre-Cambrian explosion "wormworld" prior to the origin of crown group euarthropods. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. View northeast, wharf A, portion AA, details showing earlier piers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast, wharf A, portion AA, details showing earlier piers and braces sloping toward water, reused charred plates for existing decking - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  3. Prescription stimulant use is associated with earlier onset of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Moran, Lauren V; Masters, Grace A; Pingali, Samira; Cohen, Bruce M; Liebson, Elizabeth; Rajarethinam, R P; Ongur, Dost

    2015-12-01

    A childhood history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in psychotic disorders, yet prescription stimulants may interact adversely with the physiology of these disorders. Specifically, exposure to stimulants leads to long-term increases in dopamine release. We therefore hypothesized that individuals with psychotic disorders previously exposed to prescription stimulants will have an earlier onset of psychosis. Age of onset of psychosis (AOP) was compared in individuals with and without prior exposure to prescription stimulants while controlling for potential confounding factors. In a sample of 205 patients recruited from an inpatient psychiatric unit, 40% (n = 82) reported use of stimulants prior to the onset of psychosis. Most participants were prescribed stimulants during childhood or adolescence for a diagnosis of ADHD. AOP was significantly earlier in those exposed to stimulants (20.5 vs. 24.6 years stimulants vs. no stimulants, p < 0.001). After controlling for gender, IQ, educational attainment, lifetime history of a cannabis use disorder or other drugs of abuse, and family history of a first-degree relative with psychosis, the association between stimulant exposure and earlier AOP remained significant. There was a significant gender × stimulant interaction with a greater reduction in AOP for females, whereas the smaller effect of stimulant use on AOP in males did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, individuals with psychotic disorders exposed to prescription stimulants had an earlier onset of psychosis, and this relationship did not appear to be mediated by IQ or cannabis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Research promises earlier warning for grapevine canker diseases

    When it comes to detecting and treating vineyards for grapevine canker diseases (also called trunk diseases), like Botryosphaeria dieback (Bot canker), Esca, Eutypa dieback and Phomopsis dieback, the earlier the better, says plant pathologist Kendra Baumgartner, with the USDA’s Agricultural Research...

  5. Does Speech Emerge from Earlier Appearing Oral Motor Behaviors?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Christopher A.; Ruark, Jacki L.

    1996-01-01

    This study of the oral motor behaviors of seven toddlers (age 15 months) may be interpreted to indicate that: (1) mandibular coordination follows a developmental continuum from earlier emerging behaviors, such as chewing and sucking, through babbling, to speech, or (2) unique task demands give rise to distinct mandibular coordinative constraints…

  6. Comprehensive methods for earlier detection and monitoring of forest decline

    Jennifer Pontius; Richard Hallett

    2014-01-01

    Forested ecosystems are threatened by invasive pests, pathogens, and unusual climatic events brought about by climate change. Earlier detection of incipient forest health problems and a quantitatively rigorous assessment method is increasingly important. Here, we describe a method that is adaptable across tree species and stress agents and practical for use in the...

  7. Studying the Physical Function and Quality of Life Before and After Surgery in Patients With Stage I Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-04

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lymphedema; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Stage IA1 Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IA2 Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IB1 Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7

  8. Use of a custom RT-PCR array to analyze toxicity pathways at different life stages in Brown Norway Rat Brain following acute Toluene exposure.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To investigate the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we utilized a custom designed RT-PCR array to examine the effects of acute exposure by oral gavage of the volatile organic solvent toluene (0.00, 0.65 or 1.0 glkg) in the brains of ma1e Brown Norwa...

  9. USE OF WHOLE BODY CHEMICAL RESIDUE ANALYSIS AND LASER SCREENING CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY TO DESCRIBE DISTRIBUTION OF PBTS IN FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages (ELS) are more sensitive than juveniles or adults to many persistent bioaccumulative toxicants (PBTs). To better understand the mechanisms by which these chemicals produce toxicity during fish ELS, dose-response relationships need to be determined in relat...

  10. Efficacy of low temperatures for the control of all life stages of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae)

    The insecticidal effect of low temperatures for the control of all life stages of two stored product insects, Plodia interpunctella and Liposcelis bostrychophila, was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The temperatures tested were 0, -5, -10 and -15 °C, and, at these temperatures, the insects we...

  11. Leap frog in slow motion: Divergent responses of tree species and life stages to climatic warming in Great Basin subalpine forests

    Brian V. Smithers; Malcolm P. North; Constance I. Millar; Andrew M. Latimer

    2017-01-01

    In response to climate warming, subalpine treelines are expected to move up in elevation since treelines are generally controlled by growing season temperature. Where treeline is advancing, dispersal differences and early life stage environmental tolerances are likely to affect how species expand their ranges. Species with an establishment advantage will...

  12. Development of life stages of Leptotrombidium imphalum and Leptotrombidium chiangraiensis (Acari: Trombiculidae) uninfected and infected with the scrub typhus rickettsia, Orientia tsustugamushi

    Leptotrombidium chiangraiensis Tanskul and Linthicum and Leptotrombidium imphalum Vercammen-Grandjean are important vectors of scrub typhus in ricefield habitats in northern Thailand. The developmental biology of all stages of the life cycle of two generations of mites infected with Orientia tsutsug...

  13. TOXICITY OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN TO EARLY LIFE STAGE BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) FOLLOWING PARENTAL DIETARY EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of TCDD to early life stages of F1 generation brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) was determined when dosed by maternal transfer. Effects were compared across six treatments including a control. The experimental groups based on TCDD concentrations in freshly spawned ...

  14. TOXICITY OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN TO EARLY LIFE STAGE BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) FOLLOWING PARTENTAL DIETARY EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to the early life stages of F1 generation brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) was determined, when dosed by maternal transfer.Effects were compared across six treatments, including a control.The experimental groups, based...

  15. COMPARATIVE SENSITIVITY OF DIFFERENT LIFE-STAGES OF MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES) AND BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) TO 2,3,7,8-TCDD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The early life stages of fish are known to be more sensitive than the adults to the toxicological effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo(p)dioxide (TCDD). TCDD concentrations in surface waters are sufficiently low that direct exposure of the developing embryo is unlikely to be o...

  16. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and interlaboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the 2 life stages; and the variation in se...

  17. USE OF MULTI-PHOTON LASER SCANNING CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY TO DESCRIBE THE TISSUE DISTRIBUTION OF PBTS IN FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages (ELS) are more sensitive than juveniles or adults to many persistent bioaccumulative toxicants (PBTs). To better understand the mechanisms by which these chemicals produce toxicity during ELS, dose-response relationships need to be determined in relation t...

  18. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species - SETAC Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and inter-laboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the two life stages; and the variation in sensitiv...

  19. Population projection and development of the loreyi leafworm, Mythimna loreyi, as affected by temperature: application of an age-stage, two-sex life table

    The loreyi leafworm, Mythimna (=Leucania) loreyi (Duponchel), has recently emerged as a major pest of grain crops in China. Little is known about its basic biology and ecology, making it difficult to predict its population dynamics. An age-stage, two-sex life table was constructed for this insect wh...

  20. Light-Dependent Transcriptional Regulation of Genes of Biogeochemical Interest in the Diploid and Haploid Life Cycle Stages of Emiliania huxleyi▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Richier, Sophie; Kerros, Marie-Emmanuelle; de Vargas, Colomban; Haramaty, Liti; Falkowski, Paul G.; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The expression of genes of biogeochemical interest in calcifying and noncalcifying life stages of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi was investigated. Transcripts potentially involved in calcification were tested through a light-dark cycle. These transcripts were more abundant in calcifying cells and were upregulated in the light. Their application as potential candidates for in situ biogeochemical proxies is also suggested. PMID:19304825