Caputo, Maria Luce; Muschietti, Sandro; Burkart, Roman; Benvenuti, Claudio; Conte, Giulio; Regoli, François; Mauri, Romano; Klersy, Catherine; Moccetti, Tiziano; Auricchio, Angelo
We compared the time to initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by lay responders and/or first responders alerted either via Short Message Service (SMS) or by using a mobile application-based alert system (APP). The Ticino Registry of Cardiac Arrest collects all data about out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) occurring in the Canton of Ticino. At the time of a bystander's call, the EMS dispatcher sends one ambulance and alerts the first-responders network made up of police officers or fire brigade equipped with an automatic external defibrillator, the so called "traditional" first responders, and - if the scene was considered safe - lay responders as well. We evaluated the time from call to arrival of traditional first responders and/or lay responders when alerted either via SMS or the new developed mobile APP. Over the study period 593 OHCAs have occurred. Notification to the first responders network was sent via SMS in 198 cases and via mobile APP in 134 cases. Median time to first responder/lay responder arrival on scene was significantly reduced by the APP-based system (3.5 [2.8-5.2]) compared to the SMS-based system (5.6 [4.2-8.5] min, p 0.0001). The proportion of lay responders arriving first on the scene significantly increased (70% vs. 15%, p<0.01) with the APP. Earlier arrival of a first responder or of a lay responder determined a higher survival rate. The mobile APP system is highly efficient in the recruitment of first responders, significantly reducing the time to the initiation of CPR thus increasing survival rates. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Touati, Gilles D; Marticho, Paul; Farag, Moataz; Carmi, Doron; Szymanski, Catherine; Barry, Misbaou; Trojette, Faouzi; Caus, Thierry
Various techniques have been proposed for cerebral protection during the surgical treatment of complex aortic disease. The authors propose a revisited strategy of normothermic replacement of the aortic arch to avoid limitations and complications of profound hypothermic circulatory arrest. From April 2000 to May 2006, 19 patients with an aneurysm of the aortic arch and 10 patients with an acute (7) or a chronic (3) aortic dissection underwent a totally normothermic, complete replacement of the aortic arch using three pumps: One pump ensured antegrade cerebral perfusion, at a flow rate adapted to obtain a pressure of 70 mmHg in the right radial artery, and required a selective cannulation of the supra-aortic vessels. A second pump ensured body perfusion at a flow rate adapted to obtain a pressure of 55 mmHg in the left femoral artery and was situated between the right femoral artery and the right atrium. A special balloon aortic occlusion catheter was placed in the descending thoracic aorta. A third pump ensured intermittent normothermic myocardial perfusion via the coronary venous sinus. The arch reconstruction was performed with no time limit. There were two operative, in-hospital (6.8%) mortalities. All others patients were rapidly extubated, except one, with no neurological sequelae, and postoperative course was uneventful, without coagulopathy or hepato-renal impairment. In the light of these results, a normothermic procedure is possible for arch surgery and may ensure a more physiological autoregulation of cerebral blood flow while maintaining body perfusion without high vascular resistances.
Nolan, Jerry P
In this review, the author summarizes the incidence, causes, and survival associated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA). The resuscitation guideline process is outlined, and the impact of resuscitation interventions is discussed. The incidence of OHCA treated by emergency medical services varies throughout the world, but is in the range of 30 to 50 per 100,000 of the population. Survival-to-hospital-discharge rates also vary, but are in the range of 8 to 10% for many countries. Cardiac disease accounts for the vast majority of OHCAs; however, although it is a common cause of IHCAs, many other diseases are also common causes of IHCA. Five yearly reviews of resuscitation science have been facilitated in recent years by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation; these have been followed by the publication of regional resuscitation guidelines. There is good evidence that increasing rates of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and earlier defibrillation are both contributing to improving the survival rate after an OHCA. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Laing, Richard W; Mergental, Hynek; Mirza, Darius F
Normothermic machine perfusion of the liver (NMP-L) is a novel technology recently introduced into the practice of liver transplantation. This review recapitulates benefits of normothermic perfusion over conventional static cold storage and summarizes recent publications in this area. The first clinical trials have demonstrated both safety and feasibility of NMP-L. They have shown that machine perfusion can entirely replace cold storage or be commenced following a period of cold ischaemia. The technology currently allows transplant teams to extend the period of organ preservation for up to 24 h. Results from the first randomized control trial comparing NMP-L with static cold storage will be available soon. One major advantage of NMP-L technology over other parallel technologies is the potential to assess liver function during NMP-L. Several case series have suggested parameters usable for liver viability testing during NMP-L including bile production and clearance of lactic acidosis. NMP-L allows viability testing of high-risk livers. It has shown the potential to increase utilization of donor organs and improve transplant procedure logistics. NMP-L is likely to become an important technology that will improve organ preservation as well as have the potential to improve utilization of extended criteria donor livers.
The modified Brooke formula may not be effective in preventing all complications of fluid loading in all patients. The important concept is that if...addition to complicated mathematical computations . They used their knowledge of expected fluid loss rates to devise a formula, based on trials of...burn resuscitations in order to prevent such a complication . This has proven to be a difficult task. The use of colloid has been examined in
Burón Martínez, E; Aguayo Maldonado, J
At birth approximately 10 % of term or near-term neonates require initial stabilization maneuvers to establish a cry or regular breathing, maintain a heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute (bpm), and good color and muscular tone. About 1 % requires ventilation and very few infants receive chest compressions or medication. However, birth asphyxia is a worldwide problem and can lead to death or serious sequelae. Recently, the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) and the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) published new guidelines on resuscitation at birth. These guidelines review specific questions such as the use of air or 100 % oxygen in the delivery room, dose and routes of adrenaline delivery, the peripartum management of meconium-stained amniotic fluid, and temperature control. Assisted ventilation in preterm infants is briefly described. New devices to improve the care of newborn infants, such as the laryngeal mask airway or CO2 detectors to confirm tracheal tube placement, are also discussed. Significant changes have occurred in some practices and are included in this document.
ODA, TEIJI; YAMAGUCHI, AKANE; YOKOYAMA, MASAO; SHIMIZU, KOJI; TOYOTA, KOSAKU; NIKAI, TETSURO; MATSUMOTO, KEN-ICHI
Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) is a protective method against brain ischemia in aortic surgery. However, the possible effects of DHCA on the plasma proteins remain to be determined. In the present study, we used novel high-throughput technology to compare the plasma proteomes during DHCA (22°C) with selective cerebral perfusion (SCP, n=7) to those during normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, n=7). Three plasma samples per patient were obtained during CPB: T1, prior to cooling; T2, during hypothermia; T3, after rewarming for the DHCA group and three corresponding points for the normothermic group. A proteomic analysis was performed using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling tandem mass spectrometry to assess quantitative protein changes. In total, the analysis identified 262 proteins. The bioinformatics analysis revealed a significant upregulation of complement activation at T2 in normothermic CPB, which was suppressed in DHCA. These findings were confirmed by the changes of the terminal complement complex (SC5b-9) levels. At T3, however, the level of SC5b-9 showed a greater increase in DHCA compared to normothermic CPB, while 48 proteins were significantly downregulated in DHCA. The results demonstrated that DHCA and rewarming potentially exert a significant effect on the plasma proteome in patients undergoing aortic surgery. PMID:25050567
Nowack, Julia; Geiser, Fritz
Huddling and torpor are widely used for minimizing heat loss by mammals. Despite the questionable energetic benefits from social heterothermy of mixed groups of warm normothermic and cold torpid individuals, the heterothermic Australian sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) rests in such groups during the cold season. To unravel why they might do so, we examined torpor expression of two sugar glider groups of four individuals each in outside enclosures during winter. We observed 79 torpor bouts during 50 days of observation and found that torpor bouts were longer and deeper when all individuals of a group entered torpor together, and therefore infer that they would have saved more energy in comparison to short and shallow solitary torpor bouts. However, all gliders of either group only expressed torpor uniformly in response to food restriction, whereas on most occasions at least one individual per group remained normothermic. Nevertheless, the presence of warm gliders in mixed groups also appears to be of energetic advantage for torpid individuals, because nest box temperature was negatively correlated with the number of torpid gliders, and normothermic individuals kept the nest temperature at a value closer to the threshold for thermoregulatory heat production during torpor. Our study suggests that mixed groups of torpid and normothermic individuals are observed when environmental conditions are adverse but food is available, leading to intermediate energy savings from torpor. However, under especially challenging conditions and when animals are starving, energy savings are maximized by uniform and pronounced expression of torpor. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Guyette, Francis X; Reynolds, Joshua C; Frisch, Adam
Cardiac arrest is a dynamic disease that tests the multitasking and leadership abilities of emergency physicians. Providers must simultaneously manage the logistics of resuscitation while searching for the cause of cardiac arrest. The astute clinician will also realize that he or she is orchestrating only one portion of a larger series of events, each of which directly affects patient outcomes. Resuscitation science is rapidly evolving, and emergency providers must be familiar with the latest evidence and controversies surrounding resuscitative techniques. This article reviews evidence, discusses controversies, and offers strategies to provide quality cardiac arrest resuscitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rodriguez, Juan G.; Xiao, Feng; Ferrara, Davon; Ewing, Jennifer; Zhang, Shu; Alexander, Steven; Battarbee, Harold
Transient global cerebral ischemia accompanying cardiac arrest (CA) often leads to permanent brain damage with poor neurological outcome. The precise chain of events underlying the cerebral damage after CA is still not fully understood. Progress in this area may profit from the development of new non-invasive tools that provide real-time information on the vascular and cellular processes preceding the damage. One way to assess these processes is through near-IR spectroscopy, which has demonstrated the ability to quantify changes in blood volume, hemoglobin oxygenation, cytochrome oxidase redox state, and tissue water content. Here we report on the successful implementation of this form of spectroscopy in a rat model of asphyxial CA and resuscitation, under hypothermic and normothermic conditions. Preliminary results are shown that provide a new temporal insight into the cerebral circulation during CA and post-resuscitation.
Katz, Laurence M; Frank, Jonathan E; Glickman, Lawrence T; McGwin, Gerald; Lambert, Brice H; Gordon, Christopher J
Hypothermia is recommended by international guidelines for treatment of unconscious survivors of cardiac arrest to improve neurologic outcomes. However, temperature management is often underutilized because it may be difficult to implement. The present study evaluated the efficacy of pharmacologically induced hypothermia on survival and neurological outcome in rats resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest was induced for 10 min in 120 rats. Sixty-one rats were resuscitated and randomized to normothermia, physical cooling or pharmacological hypothermia 5 min after resuscitation. Pharmacological hypothermia rats received a combination of ethanol, vasopressin and lidocaine (HBN-1). Physical hypothermia rats were cooled with intravenous iced saline and cooling pads. Rats in the pharmacological hypothermia group received HBN-1 at ambient temperature (20 °C). Normothermic rats were maintained at 37.3 ± 0.2 °C. HBN-1 (p < 0.0001) shortened the time (85 ± 71 min) to target temperature (33.5 °C) versus physical hypothermia (247 ± 142 min). The duration of hypothermia was 17.0 ± 6.8h in the HBN-1 group and 17.3 ± 7.5h in the physical hypothermia group (p = 0.918). Survival (p = 0.034), neurological deficit scores (p < 0.0001) and Morris Water Maze performance after resuscitation (p = 0.041) was improved in the HBN-1 versus the normothermic group. HBN-1 improved survival and early neurological outcome compared to the physical hypothermia group while there was no significant difference in performance in the Morris water maze. HBN-1 induced rapid and prolonged hypothermia improved survival with good neurological outcomes after cardiac arrest suggesting that pharmacologically induced regulated hypothermia may provide a practical alternative to physical cooling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fjølner, J; Greisen, J; Jørgensen, M R S; Terkelsen, C J; Ilkjaer, L B; Hansen, T M; Eiskjaer, H; Christensen, S; Gjedsted, J
Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (ECPR) has emerged as a feasible rescue therapy for refractory, normothermic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Reported survival rates vary and comparison between studies is hampered by heterogeneous study populations, differences in bystander intervention and in pre-hospital emergency service organisation. We aimed to describe the first experiences, treatment details, complications and outcome with ECPR for OHCA in a Danish health region. Retrospective study of adult patients admitted at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark between 1 January 2011 and 1 July 2015 with witnessed, refractory, normothermic OHCA treated with ECPR. OHCA was managed with pre-hospital advanced airway management and mechanical chest compression during transport. Relevant pre-hospital and in-hospital data were collected with special focus on low-flow time and ECPR duration. Survival to hospital discharge with Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) of 1 and 2 at hospital discharge was the primary endpoint. Twenty-one patients were included. Median pre-hospital low-flow time was 54 min [range 5-100] and median total low-flow time was 121 min [range 55-192]. Seven patients survived (33%). Survivors had a CPC score of 1 or 2 at hospital discharge. Five survivors had a shockable initial rhythm. In all survivors coronary occlusion was the presumed cause of cardiac arrest. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation is feasible as a rescue therapy in normothermic refractory OHCA in highly selected patients. Low-flow time was longer than previously reported. Survival with favourable neurological outcome is possible despite prolonged low-flow duration. © 2016 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chalkias, Athanasios; Xanthos, Theodoros; Syggelou, Angeliki; Bassareo, Pier Paolo; Iacovidou, Nicoletta
Despite recent advances in perinatal medicine and in the art of neonatal resuscitation, resuscitation strategy and treatment methods in the delivery room should be individualized depending on the unique characteristics of the neonate. The constantly increasing evidence has resulted in significant treatment controversies, which need to be resolved with further clinical and experimental research.
Dangarembizi, Rachael; Erlwanger, Kennedy H; Mitchell, Duncan; Hetem, Robyn S; Madziva, Michael T; Harden, Lois M
Stress-induced hyperthermia following rectal thermometry is reported in normothermic rats, but appears to be muted or even absent in febrile rats. We therefore investigated whether the use of rectal thermometry affects the accuracy of temperature responses recorded in normothermic and febrile rats. Using intra-abdominally implanted temperature-sensitive radiotelemeters we measured the temperature response to rectal temperature measurement in male Sprague Dawley rats (~200g) injected subcutaneously with Brewer's yeast (20ml/kg of a 20% Brewer's yeast solution=4000mg/kg) or saline (20ml/kg of 0.9% saline). Rats had been pre-exposed to, or were naive to rectal temperature measurement before the injection. The first rectal temperature measurement was taken in the plateau phase of the fever (18h after injection) and at hourly intervals thereafter. In normothermic rats, rectal temperature measurement was associated with an increase in abdominal temperature (0.66±0.27°C) that had a rapid onset (5-10min), peaked at 15-20min and lasted for 35-50min. The hyperthermic response to rectal temperature measurement was absent in febrile rats. Exposure to rectal temperature measurement on two previous occasions did not reduce the hyperthermia. There was a significant positive linear association between temperatures recorded using the two methods, but the agreement interval identified that rectal temperature measured with a thermocouple probe could either be 0.7°C greater or 0.5°C lower than abdominal temperature measured with radiotelemeter. Thus, due to stress-induced hyperthermia, rectal thermometry does not ensure accurate recording of body temperature in short-spaced, intermittent intervals in normothermic and febrile rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kuan, Kean Guan; Wee, Mau Nam; Chung, Wen Yuan; Kumar, Rohan; Mees, Soeren Torge; Dennison, Ashley; Maddern, Guy; Trochsler, Markus
Normothermic machine perfusion has enormous potential to improve organ preservation and expand the organ donor pool. It is well established in other organs but not the pancreas, which has especially strict organ acceptance criteria. We established a model of normothermic hemoperfusion of the porcine pancreas with and without addition of the kidney as a dialysis organ. Four pancreases were harvested and perfused for 120 min with autologous whole blood at body temperature, two with parallel perfusion of the kidney and two without. The organs and perfusion circuit were evaluated for gross appearance, pH, histology and perfusion parameters. The organs maintained steadily increasing flow rate and perfusion pressure. Gross appearance of the organs was stable but appeared grossly ischemic toward the end of the perfusion period. Histology demonstrated necrosis centered in acinar tissue but islet cells were preserved. pH was significantly alkalotic toward the end of the perfusion, likely due to pancreatic tissue damage. Addition of the kidney did not result in significant improvement of the acid-base environment in this small series. In conclusion, normothermic perfusion of the pancreas is still in the experimental stages but holds great potential. Further studies to optimize perfusion parameters will significantly improve results. Parallel perfusion of the kidney may facilitate improvement in the acid-base environment. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Daly, Walter J.
Thirteenth century medical science, like medieval scholarship in general, was directed at reconciliation of Greek philosophy/science with prevailing medieval theology and philosophy. Peter of Spain [later Pope John XXI] was the leading medical scholar of his time. Peter wrote a long book on the soul. Imbedded in it was a chapter on the motion of the heart. Peter's De Motu was based on his own medical experience and Galen's De Usu Partium and De Usu Respirationis and De Usu Pulsuum. This earlier De Motu defines a point on the continuum of intellectual development leading to us and into the future. Thirteenth century scholarship relied on past authority to a degree that continues to puzzle and beg explanation. Images Fig. 1 PMID:17060956
Mentzelopoulos, Spyros D; Slowther, Anne-Marie; Fritz, Zoe; Sandroni, Claudio; Xanthos, Theodoros; Callaway, Clifton; Perkins, Gavin D; Newgard, Craig; Ischaki, Eleni; Greif, Robert; Kompanje, Erwin; Bossaert, Leo
A rapidly evolving resuscitation science provides more effective treatments to an aging population with multiple comorbidites. Concurrently, emergency care has become patient-centered. This review aims to describe challenges associated with the application of key principles of bioethics in resuscitation and post-resuscitation care; propose actions to address these challenges; and highlight the need for evidence-based ethics and consensus on ethical principles interpretation. Following agreement on the article's outline, subgroups of 2-3 authors provided narrative reviews of ethical issues concerning autonomy and honesty, beneficence/nonmaleficence and dignity, justice, specific practices/circumstances such as family presence during resuscitation, and emergency research. Proposals for addressing ethical challenges were also offered. Respect for patient autonomy can be realized through honest provision of information, shared decision-making, and advance directives/care planning. Essential prerequisites comprise public and specific healthcare professionals' education, appropriate regulatory provisions, and allocation of adequate resources. Regarding beneficence/nonmaleficence, resuscitation should benefit patients, while avoiding harm from futile interventions; pertinent practice should be based on neurological prognostication and patient/family-reported outcomes. Regarding dignity, aggressive life-sustaining treatments against patients preferences should be avoided. Contrary to the principle of justice, resuscitation quality may be affected by race/income status, age, ethnicity, comorbidity, and location (urban versus rural or country-specific/region-specific). Current evidence supports family presence during resuscitation. Regarding emergency research, autonomy should be respected without hindering scientific progress; furthermore, transparency of research conduct should be promoted and funding increased. Major ethical challenges in resuscitation science need to be
Elo, Gábor; Dobos, Márta; Zubek, László
The former typically paternalistic physician-patient relationship has changed gradually toward an autonomy based one in the second half of the 20th century. Patient's autonomy includes the right to refuse life-saving therapy in modern constitutional states. Hungarian law assures the right to refuse life-saving treatment as well. However to our knowledge no such therapy refusal has occurred since the law coming into force likely because of the rather strict regulations. Forgoing resuscitation is basically determined by two factors: autonomy of the patient, and medical futility. The alteration of the law's form can facilitate the lawful Do Not Resuscitate (DNR)orders for the sake of patient's autonomy. Qualitative futility is characterized by quality of life, which only the patient has the right to judge. Resuscitation protocols based on results of controlled studies can significantly improve both the success rate of resuscitations and the quality of life. Education plays a prominent role in this process as it was demonstrated in our prospective comparative study. According to author's study Hungarian DNR orders are paternalistic and patient autonomy plays a secondary role. It was also established that patient's autonomy significantly improved in the subgroup trained according to international standards. Hungarian results were compared to the results of a highly educated group in the second study. The results confirmed the presumption: the education of resuscitation according to international standards improves both the representation of patient's autonomy in DNR decisions, survival rate and quality of life.
Yeo, Cheo Lian; Biswas, Agnihotri; Ee, Teong Tai Kenny; Chinnadurai, Amutha; Baral, Vijayendra Ranjan; Chang, Alvin Shang Ming; Ereno, Imelda Lustestica; Ho, Kah Ying Selina; Poon, Woei Bing; Shah, Varsha Atul; Quek, Bin Huey
We present the revised Neonatal Resuscitation Guidelines for Singapore. The 2015 International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Neonatal Task Force’s consensus on science and treatment recommendations (2015), and guidelines from the American Heart Association and European Resuscitation Council were debated and discussed. The final recommendations of the National Resuscitation Council, Singapore, were derived after the task force had carefully reviewed the current available evidence in the literature and addressed their relevance to local clinical practice. PMID:28741001
Dunne, Alan; Crampton, David; Egaña, Mikel
Despite the widespread use of cold water immersion (CWI) in normothermic conditions, little data is available on its effect on subsequent endurance performance. This study examined the effect of CWI as a recovery strategy on subsequent running performance in normothermic ambient conditions (∼22°C). Nine endurance-trained men completed two submaximal exhaustive running bouts on three separate occasions. The running bouts (Ex1 and Ex2) were separated by 15min of un-immersed seated rest (CON), hip-level CWI at 8°C (CWI-8) or hip-level CWI at 15°C (CWI-15). Intestinal temperature, blood lactate and heart rate were recorded throughout and V˙O2, running economy and exercise times were recorded during the running sessions. Running time to failure (min) during Ex2 was significantly (p<0.05, ES=0.7) longer following CWI-8 (27.7±6.3) than CON (23.3±5) but not different between CWI-15 (26.3±3.4) and CON (p=0.06, ES=0.7) or CWI-8 and CWI-15 (p=0.4, ES=0.2). Qualitative analyses showed a 95% and 89% likely beneficial effect of CWI-8 and CWI-15 during Ex2 compared with CON, respectively. Time to failure during Ex2 was significantly shorter than Ex1 only during the CON condition. Intestinal temperature and HR were significantly lower for most of Ex2 during CWI-8 and CWI-15 compared with CON but they were similar at failure for the three conditions. Blood lactate, running economy and V˙O2 were not altered by CWI. These data indicate that a 15min period of cold water immersion applied between repeated exhaustive exercise bouts significantly reduces intestinal temperature and enhances post-immersion running performance in normothermic conditions. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gharekhani, Afshin; Najafi, Moslem; Ghavimi, Hamed
This study intended to assess the efficacy of acute administration of natural honey on cardiac arrhythmias and infarct size when it is used during the normothermic ischemia in isolated rat heart. During 30 min of regional normothermic ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion, the isolated hearts were perfused by a modified drug free Krebs-Henseleit solution (control) or the solution containing 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1% of freshly prepared natural honey (test groups), respectively. Cardiac arrhythmias were analyzed and determined through the recorded ECGs. The infarct size was measured using computerized planimetry package. At the ischemic phase, honey (0.25 and 0.5%) decreased the number and duration of ventricular tachycardia (VT), total number of ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs), duration and incidence of reversible ventricular fibrillation (VF) and total VF (p < 0.05 for all). During the reperfusion, concentrations of 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5% lowered the number of VT (p < 0.05), duration of reversible VF (p < 0.01) and total number of VEBs (p < 0.05). In addition, VT duration was reduced significantly with honey 0.125 and 0.25%. Moreover, the infarct size was 45.6 ± 3.4% in the control group, while the perfusion of honey (0.125, 0.25 and 0.5%) reduced it to 14.8 ± 5.1 (p < 0.001), 24.6 ± 7.3 (p < 0.01) and 31.4 ± 7.3% (p < 0.05), respectively. Regarding the results, it is concluded that the acute administration of natural honey in normothermic ischemia conditions can protect the rat heart as the reduction of infarct size and arrhythmias. Conceivably, the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity, the reduction of necrotized tissue and the providence of rich energy source are more important mechanisms in cardioprotective effects of natural honey. PMID:24250562
Ong, Gene Yong Kwang; Chan, Irene Lai Yeen; Ng, Agnes Suah Bwee; Chew, Su Yah; Mok, Yee Hui; Chan, Yoke Hwee; Ong, Jacqueline Soo May; Ganapathy, Sashikumar; Ng, Kee Chong
We present the revised 2016 Singapore paediatric resuscitation guidelines. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation's Pediatric Taskforce Consensus Statements on Science and Treatment Recommendations, as well as the updated resuscitation guidelines from the American Heart Association and European Resuscitation Council released in October 2015, were debated and discussed by the workgroup. The final recommendations for the Singapore Paediatric Resuscitation Guidelines 2016 were derived after carefully reviewing the current available evidence in the literature and balancing it with local clinical practice. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.
Hunyadi-Anticević, Silvija; Colak, Zeljko; Funtak, Ines Lojna; Lukić, Anita; Filipović-Grcić, Boris; Tomljanović, Branka; Kniewald, Hrvoje; Protić, Alen; Pandak, Tatjana; Poljaković, Zdravka; Canadija, Marino
All rescuers trained or not, should provide chest compressions to victims of cardiac arrest. The aim should be to push to a depth of at least 5 cm at a rate of at least 100 compressions per minute, to allow full chest recoil, and to minimise interruptions in chest compressions. Trained rescuers should also provide ventilations with a compression-ventilation ratio of 30:2. ELECTRICAL THERAPIES: Much greater emphasis on minimising the duration of the pre-shock and post-shock pauses; the continuation of compressions during charging of the defibrillator is recommended. Further development of AED programmes is encouraged. ADULT ADVANCED LIFE SUPPORT: Increased emphasis on high-quality chest compressions throughout any ALS intervention paused briefly only to enable specific interventions. Removal of the recommendation for a pre-specified period of cardiopulmonary resuscitation before out-of-hospital defibrillation following cardiac arrest unwitnessed by the EMS. The role of precordial thump is de-emphasized. Delivery of drugs via a tracheal tube is no longer recommended, drugs should be given by the intraosseous (IO) route. Atropine is no longer recommended for routine use in asystole or pulseless electrical activity. Reduced emphasis on early tracheal intubation unless achieved by highly skilled individuals with minimal interruptions in chest compressions. Increased emphasis on the use of capnography. Recognition of potential harm caused by hyperoxaemia. Revision of the recommendation of glucose control. Use of therapeutic hypothermia to include comatose survivors of cardiac arrest associated initially with shockable rhythms, as well as non-shockable rhythms, with a lower level of evidence acknowledged for the latter. INITIAL MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROMES: The term non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction-acute coronary syndrome (non-STEMI-ACS) has been introduced for both NSTEMI and unstable angina pectoris. Primary PCI (PPCI) is the preferred reperfusion
Romano, Renan A.; Vollet-Filho, Jose D.; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Fernandez, Jorge L.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Castro-e-Silva, Orlando; Sankarankutty, Ajith K.
Liver transplantation is a well-established treatment for liver failure. However, the success of the transplantation procedure depends on liver graft conditions. The tissue function evaluation during the several transplantation stages is relevant, in particular during the organ harvesting, when a decision is made concerning the viability of the graft. Optical fluorescence spectroscopy is a good option because it is a noninvasive and fast technique. A partial normothermic hepatic ischemia was performed in rat livers, with a vascular occlusion of both median and left lateral lobes, allowing circulation only for the right lateral lobe and the caudate lobe. Fluorescence spectra under excitation at 532 nm (doubled frequency Nd:YAG laser) were collected using a portable spectrometer (USB2000, Ocean Optics, USA). The fluorescence emission was collected before vascular occlusion, after ischemia, and 24 hours after reperfusion. A morphometric histology analysis was performed as the gold standard evaluation - liver samples were analyzed, and the percentage of necrotic tissue was obtained. The results showed that changes in the fluorescence emission after ischemia can be correlated with the amount of necrosis evaluated by a morphometric analysis, the Pearson correlation coefficient of the generated model was 0.90 and the root mean square error was around 20%. In this context, the laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique after normothermic ischemia showed to be a fast and efficient method to differentiate ischemic injury from viable tissues.
The recommendations for neonatal resuscitation are not always based on sufficient scientific evidence and thus expert consensus based on current research, knowledge, and experience are useful for formulating practical protocols that are easy to follow. The latest recommendations, in 2000, modified previously published recommendations and are included in the present text.
Mulder, M; Geocadin, R G
This chapter aims to provide an up-to-date review of the science and clinical practice pertaining to neurologic injury after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The past two decades have seen a major shift in the science and practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, with a major emphasis on postresuscitation neurologic care. This chapter provides a nuanced and thoughtful historic and bench-to-bedside overview of the neurologic aspects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A particular emphasis is made on the anatomy and pathophysiology of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, up-to-date management of survivors of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and a careful discussion on neurologic outcome prediction. Guidance to practice evidence-based clinical care when able and thoughtful, pragmatic suggestions for care where evidence is lacking are also provided. This chapter serves as both a useful clinical guide and an updated, thorough, and state-of-the-art reference on the topic for advanced students and experienced practitioners in the field. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
UK resuscitation guidelines suggest that parents and carers should be allowed to be present during a resuscitation attempt in hospital but no guidance is available regarding family presence when resuscitation takes place out of hospital. A new research study has suggested that relatives who were offered the opportunity to witness resuscitation were less likely to develop symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder than those who were not given the chance. This article summarises the results of this study and provides an expert commentary on its conclusions.
Bellomo, Rinaldo; Suzuki, Satoshi; Marino, Bruno; Starkey, Graeme K; Chambers, Brenton; Fink, Michael A; Wang, Bao Zhong; Houston, Shane; Eastwood, Glenn; Calzavacca, Paolo; Glassford, Neil; Skene, Alison; Jones, Daryl A; Jones, Robert
Liver transplantation is a major life-saving procedure, and donation after cardiac death (DCD) has increased the pool of potential liver donors. However, DCD livers are at increased risk of primary graft dysfunction and biliary tract ischaemia. Normothermic extracorporeal liver perfusion (NELP) may increase the ability to protect, evaluate and, in future, transplant DCD livers. We conducted proof-of-concept experiments using a DCD model in the pig to assess the short-term (4 hours) feasibility and functional efficacy of NELP. Using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, parenteral nutrition, separate hepatic artery and portal vein perfusion, and physiological perfusion pressures, we achieved NELP and evidence of function (bile production, paracetamol removal, maintenance of normal ammonia and lactate levels) for 4 hours in pig livers subjected to 15 and 30 minutes of cardiac arrest before explantation. Our experiments justify further investigations of the feasibility and efficacy of human DCD liver preservation by ex-vivo perfusion.
Bellomo, Rinaldo; Marino, Bruno; Starkey, Graeme; Fink, Michael; Wang, Bao Zhong; Eastwood, Glenn M; Peck, Leah; Young, Helen; Houston, Shane; Skene, Alison; Opdam, Helen; Jones, Robert
Donation after circulatory death (DCD) livers are at markedly increased risk of primary graft dysfunction and biliary tract ischaemia. Normothermic extracorporeal liver perfusion (NELP) may increase the ability to transplant DCD livers and may allow their use for artificial extracorporeal liver support of patients with fulminant liver failure. We conducted two proof-of-concept experiments using human livers after DCD to assess the feasibility and functional efficacy of NELP over an extended period. We applied extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, parenteral nutrition, separate hepatic artery and portal vein perfusion and physiological perfusion pressures to two livers obtained after DCD. We achieved NELP and evidence of liver function (bile production, paracetamol removal and maintenance of normal lactate levels) in both livers; one for 24 hours and the other for 43 hours. Histological examination showed areas of patchy ischaemia but preserved biliary ducts and canaliculi. Our experiments justify further investigations of the feasibility and efficacy of extended DCD liver preservation by ex-vivo perfusion.
Vogel, Thomas; Brockmann, Jens G; Quaglia, Alberto; Morovat, Alireza; Jassem, Wayel; Heaton, Nigel D; Coussios, Constantin C; Friend, Peter J
Donor organ shortage necessitates use of less than optimal donor allografts for transplantation. The current cold storage preservation technique fails to preserve marginal donor grafts sufficiently. Evidence from large animal experiments suggests superiority of normothermic machine preservation (NMP) of liver allografts. In this study, we analyze discarded human liver grafts that underwent NMP for the extended period of 24 hours. Thirteen human liver grafts which had been discarded for transplantation were entered into this study. Perfusion was performed with an automated device using an oxygenated, sanguineous perfusion solution at normothermia. Automated control was incorporated for temperature-, flow-, and pressure-regulation as well as oxygenation. All livers were perfused for 24 hours; parameters of biochemical and synthetic liver function as well as histological parameters of liver damage were analyzed. Livers were stratified for expected viability according to the donor's medical history, procurement data, and their macroscopic appearance. Normothermic perfusion preservation of human livers for 24 hours was shown to be technically feasible. Human liver grafts, all of which had been discarded for transplantation, showed levels suggesting organ viability with respect to metabolic and synthetic liver function (to varying degrees). There was positive correlation between instantly available perfusion parameters and generally accepted predictors of posttransplant graft survival. In conclusion, NMP is feasible reliably for periods of at least 24 hours, even in highly suboptimal donor organs. Potential benefits include not only viability testing (as suggested in recent clinical implementations), but also removal of the time constraints associated with the utilization of high-risk livers, and recovery of ischemic and other preretrieval injuries (possibly by enabling therapeutic strategies during NMP). Liver Transplantation 23 207-220 2017 AASLD. © 2016 by the
Aboelnazar, Nader S; Himmat, Sayed; Hatami, Sanaz; White, Christopher W; Burhani, Mohamad S; Dromparis, Peter; Matsumura, Nobutoshi; Tian, Ganghong; Dyck, Jason R B; Mengel, Michael; Freed, Darren H; Nagendran, Jayan
Normothermic ex-vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) using positive pressure ventilation (PPV) and both acellular and red blood cell (RBC)-based perfusate solutions have increased the rate of donor organ utilization. We sought to determine whether a negative pressure ventilation (NPV) strategy would improve donor lung assessment during EVLP. Thirty-two pig lungs were perfused ex vivo for 12 hours in a normothermic state, and were allocated equally to 4 groups according to the mode of ventilation (positive pressure ventilation [PPV] vs NPV) and perfusate composition (acellular vs RBC). The impact of ventilation strategy on the preservation of 6 unutilized human donor lungs was also evaluated. Physiologic parameters, cytokine profiles, lung injury, bullae and edema formation were compared between treatment groups. Perfused lungs demonstrated acceptable oxygenation (partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio >350 mm Hg) and physiologic parameters. However, there was less generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8) in human and pig lungs perfused, irrespective of perfusate solution used, when comparing NPV with PPV (p < 0.05), and a reduction in bullae formation with an NPV modality (p = 0.02). Pig lungs developed less edema with NPV (p < 0.01), and EVLP using an acellular perfusate solution had greater edema formation, irrespective of ventilation strategy (p = 0.01). Interestingly, human lungs perfused with NPV developed negative edema, or "drying" (p < 0.01), and lower composite acute lung injury (p < 0.01). Utilization of an NPV strategy during extended EVLP is associated with significantly less inflammation, and lung injury, irrespective of perfusate solution composition. Copyright © 2018 International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Konietschke, U; Kruse, B D; Müller, R; Stockhaus, C; Hartmann, K; Wehner, A
Measurement of rectal temperature is the most common method and considered gold standard for obtaining body temperature in dogs. So far, no study has been performed comparing agreement between rectal and auricular measurements in a large case series. The purpose of the study was to assess agreement between rectal and auricular temperature measurement in normothermic, hypothermic, and hyperthermic dogs with consideration of different environmental conditions and ear conformations. Reference values for both methods were established using 62 healthy dogs. Three hundred dogs with various diseases (220 normothermic, 32 hypothermic, 48 hyperthermic) were enrolled in this prospective study. Rectal temperature was compared to auricular temperature and differences in agreement with regard to environmental temperature, relative humidity, and different ear conformations (pendulous versus prick ears) were evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. Correlation between rec- tal and auricular temperature was significant (r: 0.892; p < 0.01). However, Bland-Altman plots showed an inacceptable variation of values (bias: 0.300 °C; limits of agreement: -0.606 to 1.206 °C). This variation was above a maximal clinical tolerance of 0.3 °C, which was established by experts' opinion (n = 16). Relative humidity had a significant influence (p = 0.001), whereas environmental temperature did not. Variation between the two methods of measuring body temperature was clinically unacceptable. Although measurement of auricular temperature is fast, simple, and well tolerated, this method provides a clinically unacceptable difference to the rectal measurement.
Reynolds, Joshua C; Bond, Michael C; Shaikh, Sanober
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is vital therapy in cardiac arrest care by lay and trained rescuers. Chest compressions are the key component of CPR. Ventilation and airway management should be secondary to high-quality and continuous chest compressions in patients receiving CPR. Only after the patient has had return of spontaneous circulation or completed a cycle of CPR with defibrillation (if appropriate) should attempts at securing an advanced airway be made. Even then, interruptions of chest compressions should be minimized to maintain cardiocerebral perfusion and increase survival. Finally, the ventilation rate should be no more than 8 to 10 breaths per minute. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aggarwal, Asha R; Khan, Iqbal
In the UK, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) should be undertaken in the event of cardiac arrest unless a patient has a "Do Not Attempt CPR" document. Doctors have a legal duty to discuss CPR with patients or inform them that CPR would be futile. In this study, final-year medical students were interviewed about their experiences of resuscitation on the wards and of observing conversations about resuscitation status to explore whether they would be equipped to have an informed discussion about resuscitation in the future. Twenty final-year medical students from two medical schools were interviewed about their experiences on the wards. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was undertaken. Students who had witnessed CPR on the wards found that aspects of it were distressing. A significant minority had never seen resuscitation status being discussed with a patient. No students reported seeing a difficult conversation. Half of the students interviewed reported being turned away from difficult conversations by clinicians. Only two of the twenty students would feel comfortable raising the issue of resuscitation with a patient. It is vital that doctors are comfortable talking to patients about resuscitation. Given the increasing importance of this aspect of communication, it should be considered for inclusion in the formal communication skills teaching during medical school.
Ushay, H M; Notterman, D A
The resuscitation of children from cardiac arrest and shock remains a challenging goal. The pharmacologic principles underlying current recommendations for intervention in pediatric cardiac arrest have been reviewed. Current research efforts, points of controversy, and accepted practices that may not be most efficacious have been described. Epinephrine remains the most effective resuscitation adjunct. High-dose epinephrine is tolerated better in children than in adults, but its efficacy has not received full analysis. The preponderance of data continues to point toward the ineffectiveness and possible deleterious effects of overzealous sodium bicarbonate use. Calcium chloride is useful in the treatment of ionized hypocalcemia but may harm cells that have experienced asphyxial damage. Atropine is an effective agent for alleviating bradycardia induced by increased vagal tone, but because most bradycardia in children is caused by hypoxia, improved oxygenation is the intervention of choice. Adenosine is an effective and generally well-tolerated agent for the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia. Lidocaine is the drug of choice for ventricular dysrhythmias, and bretylium, still relatively unexplored, is in reserve. Many pediatricians use dopamine for shock in the postresuscitative period, but epinephrine is superior. Most animal research on cardiac arrest is based on models with ventricular fibrillation that probably are not reflective of cardiac arrest situations most often seen in pediatrics.
Fisher, Andrew D; Miles, Ethan A; Cap, Andrew P; Strandenes, Geir; Kane, Shawn F
Recently the Committee on Tactical Combat Casualty Care changed the guidelines on fluid use in hemorrhagic shock. The current strategy for treating hemorrhagic shock is based on early use of components: Packed Red Blood Cells (PRBCs), Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) and platelets in a 1:1:1 ratio. We suggest that lack of components to mimic whole blood functionality favors the use of Fresh Whole Blood in managing hemorrhagic shock on the battlefield. We present a safe and practical approach for its use at the point of injury in the combat environment called Tactical Damage Control Resuscitation. We describe pre-deployment preparation, assessment of hemorrhagic shock, and collection and transfusion of fresh whole blood at the point of injury. By approaching shock with goal-directed therapy, it is possible to extend the period of survivability in combat casualties. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Agishi, T; Funakoshi, Y; Honda, H; Yamagata, K; Kobayashi, M; Takahashi, M
In order to investigate a new possibility for artificial blood with oxygen-carrying capability to be applied to other than mere supplementation, normothermic whole body rinse-out in which artificial blood deriving from perfluorochemical emulsion, Fluosol-DA 20% (Green Cross Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan) or stabilized hemoglobin solution, (pyridoxylated hemoglobin)-(polyoxyethylene) conjugate solution (Ajinomoto Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) were used as rinsing fluid for a blood purification experiment. Replacement either with approximately 150 ml/kg of Fluosol-DA or stabilized hemoglobin solution showed effective removal of digoxin at a reduction rate of 96.3% or 92.2%, respectively. However, when Fluosol-DA was used, a certain amount of perfluorochemical should be retrieved by centrifugation to avoid a possible toxic effect on the reticulo-endothelial system. Even though 3 out of 6, and 3 out of 8 dogs, respectively, survived for a long period after the procedure, the experimental dogs were very susceptible to infection.
Laing, Richard W; Bhogal, Ricky H; Wallace, Lorraine; Boteon, Yuri; Neil, Desley A H; Smith, Amanda; Stephenson, Barney T F; Schlegel, Andrea; Hübscher, Stefan G; Mirza, Darius F; Afford, Simon C; Mergental, Hynek
Normothermic machine perfusion of the liver (NMP-L) is a novel technique that preserves liver grafts under near-physiological conditions while maintaining their normal metabolic activity. This process requires an adequate oxygen supply, typically delivered by packed red blood cells (RBC). We present the first experience using an acellular hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC) Hemopure in a human model of NMP-L. Five discarded high-risk human livers were perfused with HBOC-based perfusion fluid and matched to 5 RBC-perfused livers. Perfusion parameters, oxygen extraction, metabolic activity, and histological features were compared during 6 hours of NMP-L. The cytotoxicity of Hemopure was also tested on human hepatic primary cell line cultures using an in vitro model of ischemia reperfusion injury. The vascular flow parameters and the perfusate lactate clearance were similar in both groups. The HBOC-perfused livers extracted more oxygen than those perfused with RBCs (O2 extraction ratio 13.75 vs 9.43 % ×10 per gram of tissue, P = 0.001). In vitro exposure to Hemopure did not alter intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species, and there was no increase in apoptosis or necrosis observed in any of the tested cell lines. Histological findings were comparable between groups. There was no evidence of histological damage caused by Hemopure. Hemopure can be used as an alternative oxygen carrier to packed red cells in NMP-L perfusion fluid.
Mergental, H; Perera, M T P R; Laing, R W; Muiesan, P; Isaac, J R; Smith, A; Stephenson, B T F; Cilliers, H; Neil, D A H; Hübscher, S G; Afford, S C; Mirza, D F
The demand for liver transplantation (LT) exceeds supply, with rising waiting list mortality. Utilization of high-risk organs is low and a substantial number of procured livers are discarded. We report the first series of five transplants with rejected livers following viability assessment by normothermic machine perfusion of the liver (NMP-L). The evaluation protocol consisted of perfusate lactate, bile production, vascular flows, and liver appearance. All livers were exposed to a variable period of static cold storage prior to commencing NMP-L. Four organs were recovered from donors after circulatory death and rejected due to prolonged donor warm ischemic times; one liver from a brain-death donor was declined for high liver function tests (LFTs). The median (range) total graft preservation time was 798 (range 724-951) min. The transplant procedure was uneventful in every recipient, with immediate function in all grafts. The median in-hospital stay was 10 (range 6-14) days. At present, all recipients are well, with normalized LFTs at median follow-up of 7 (range 6-19) months. Viability assessment of high-risk grafts using NMP-L provides specific information on liver function and can permit their transplantation while minimizing the recipient risk of primary graft nonfunction. This novel approach may increase organ availability for LT. © Copyright 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Transplantation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
De Carlis, Riccardo; Di Sandro, Stefano; Lauterio, Andrea; Ferla, Fabio; Dell'Acqua, Antonio; Zanierato, Marinella; De Carlis, Luciano
The role of donation after cardiac death (DCD) in expanding the donor pool is mainly limited by the incidence of primary nonfunction (PNF) and ischemia-related complications. Even greater concern exists toward uncontrolled DCD, which represents the largest potential pool of DCD donors. We recently started the first Italian series of DCD liver transplantation, using normothermic regional perfusion (NRP) in 6 uncontrolled donors and in 1 controlled case to deal with the legally required no-touch period of 20 minutes. We examined our first 7 cases for the incidence of PNF, early graft dysfunction, and biliary complications. Acceptance of the graft was based on the trend of serum transaminase and lactate during NRP, the macroscopic appearance, and the liver biopsy. Hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) was associated in selected cases to improve cold storage. Most notably, no cases of PNF were observed. Median posttransplant transaminase peak was 1014 IU/L (range, 393-3268 IU/L). Patient and graft survival were both 100% after a mean follow-up of 6.1 months (range, 3-9 months). No cases of ischemic cholangiopathy occurred during the follow-up. Only 1 anastomotic stricture completely resolved with endoscopic stenting. In conclusion, DCD liver transplantation is feasible in Italy despite the protracted no-touch period. The use of NRP and HMP seems to earn good graft function and proves safe in these organs. Liver Transplantation 23 166-173 2017 AASLD. © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Wallace, Lorraine; Boteon, Yuri; Neil, Desley AH; Smith, Amanda; Stephenson, Barney TF; Schlegel, Andrea; Hübscher, Stefan G; Mirza, Darius F
Background Normothermic machine perfusion of the liver (NMP-L) is a novel technique that preserves liver grafts under near-physiological conditions whilst maintaining their normal metabolic activity. This process requires an adequate oxygen supply, typically delivered by packed red blood cells (RBC). We present the first experience using an acellular hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC) Hemopure in a human model of NMP-L. Methods Five discarded high-risk human livers were perfused with HBOC-based perfusion fluid and matched to 5 RBC-perfused livers. Perfusion parameters, oxygen extraction, metabolic activity and histological features were compared during 6 hours of NMP-L. The cytotoxicity of Hemopure was also tested on human hepatic primary cell line cultures using an in vitro model of ischemia reperfusion injury. Results The vascular flow parameters and the perfusate lactate clearance were similar in both groups. The HBOC-perfused livers extracted more oxygen than those perfused with RBCs (O2ER 13.75 vs 9.43 % x105 per gram of tissue, p=0.001). In vitro exposure to Hemopure did not alter intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and there was no increase in apoptosis or necrosis observed in any of the tested cell lines. Histological findings were comparable between groups. There was no evidence of histological damage caused by Hemopure. Conclusion Hemopure can be used as an alternative oxygen carrier to packed red cells in NMP-L perfusion fluid. PMID:28520579
Whittington, Robert A; Virág, László; Gratuze, Maud; Petry, Franck R; Noël, Anastasia; Poitras, Isabelle; Truchetti, Geoffrey; Marcouiller, François; Papon, Marie-Amélie; El Khoury, Noura; Wong, Kevin; Bretteville, Alexis; Morin, Françoise; Planel, Emmanuel
There is developing interest in the potential association between anesthesia and the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Several anesthetics have, thus, been demonstrated to induce tau hyperphosphorylation, an effect mostly mediated by anesthesia-induced hypothermia. Here, we tested the hypothesis that acute normothermic administration of dexmedetomidine (Dex), an intravenous sedative used in intensive care units, would result in tau hyperphosphorylation in vivo and in vitro. When administered to nontransgenic mice, Dex-induced tau hyperphosphorylation persisting up to 6 hours in the hippocampus for the AT8 epitope. Pretreatment with atipamezole, a highly specific α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, blocked Dex-induced tau hyperphosphorylation. Furthermore, Dex dose-dependently increased tau phosphorylation at AT8 in SH-SY5Y cells, impaired mice spatial memory in the Barnes maze and promoted tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation in transgenic hTau mice. These findings suggest that Dex: (1) increases tau phosphorylation, in vivo and in vitro, in the absence of anesthetic-induced hypothermia and through α2-adrenergic receptor activation, (2) promotes tau aggregation in a mouse model of tauopathy, and (3) impacts spatial reference memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Whittington, Robert A.; Virág, László; Gratuze, Maud; Petry, Franck R.; Noël, Anastasia; Poitras, Isabelle; Truchetti, Geoffrey; Marcouiller, François; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Khoury, Noura El; Wong, Kevin; Bretteville, Alexis; Morin, Françoise; Planel, Emmanuel
There is developing interest in the potential association between anesthesia and the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Several anesthetics have thus been demonstrated to induce tau hyperphosphorylation, an effect mostly mediated by anesthesia-induced hypothermia. Here, we tested the hypothesis that acute normothermic administration of dexmedetomidine, an intravenous sedative used in intensive care units, would result in tau hyperphosphorylation in vivo and in vitro. When administered to non-transgenic mice, dexmedetomidine induced tau hyperphosphorylation persisting up to 6h in the hippocampus for the AT8 epitope. Pretreatment with atipamezole, a highly specific α2-adrenergic receptor (α2-AR) antagonist, blocked dexmedetomidine-induced tau hyperphosphorylation. Furthermore, dexmedetomidine dose-dependently increased tau phosphorylation at AT8 in SH-SY5Y cells, impaired mice spatial memory in the Barnes maze, and promoted tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation in transgenic hTau mice. These findings suggest that dexmedetomidine: i) increases tau phosphorylation, in vivo and in vitro, in the absence of anesthetic-induced hypothermia and through α2-AR activation, ii) promotes tau aggregation in a mouse model of tauopathy, and iii) impacts spatial reference memory. PMID:26058840
An update of the national recommendations on neonatal resuscitation elaborated by the Neonatal Resuscitation Work Area of the Fetal-Neonatal Studies Committee (CEFEN) of the Argentine Society of Pediatrics (SAP) is presented. These recommendations are original and in their elaboration, we have taken into account the best available evidence gathered by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) as well as an exhaustive review of publications and discussions in the area to define controversial issues. Relevant concepts and major changes are described and analyzed. These recommendations refer to support for the transition at birth and to resuscitation of newborns, focusing on safety and effectiveness. We include a section on the importance of teamwork and its impact on results when we proceed with an adequate organization.
Ippolito, Richard A.
Rule changes in the social security system and pension plans suggest that labor force participation rates for men aged 55 to 64 fell by 20 percent from 1970 through 1986 because of the increase in social security benefits and a change in private pension rules encouraging earlier retirement. (Author/JOW)
Koike, Terumoto; Yeung, Jonathan C; Cypel, Marcelo; Rubacha, Matthew; Matsuda, Yasushi; Sato, Masaaki; Waddell, Thomas K; Liu, Mingyao; Keshavjee, Shaf
Plasma lactate has been used as a marker of poor prognosis in clinical conditions. However, the relationship between lactate production and lung function during acellular normothermic ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is unclear. We investigated the kinetics of lactate metabolism during EVLP and the correlation of this marker with outcomes after transplant. Human donor lungs in our clinical EVLP trial (CLs; n = 28) and rejected donor lungs for experimental use (Els; n = 8) were perfused ex vivo using the Toronto technique. Lactate level, lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio, and glucose level in the perfusate were measured. In CLs, we examined the relationship between lactate metabolism during EVLP and early post-transplant outcomes. The hypoxia-inducible factor 1 sub-unit 1α (HIF-1α) level in lung tissue was examined in ELs. We performed double-lung EVLP in CLs and single-lung EVLP in ELs. In CLs, the lactate and L/P ratios at the end of EVLP had no correlation with early post-transplant outcomes despite lactate elevation during EVLP. Although lactate elevation was also present in all ELs, we were able to identify 2 groups based on L/P ratio at the end of EVLP. The group with the high L/P ratio had higher airway pressure during EVLP and higher HIF-1α in lung tissue at the end of EVLP. Lactate increases seen in the EVLP perfusate most often represent physiologic lactate production by the lung in a setting with reduced lactate clearance. Thus, patients who underwent transplantation after EVLP had good outcomes despite lactate elevation during EVLP. Copyright Â© 2011 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Matton, Alix P. M.; Burlage, Laura C.; van Rijn, Rianne; de Vries, Yvonne; Karangwa, Shanice A.; Nijsten, Maarten W.; Gouw, Annette S. H.; Wiersema‐Buist, Janneke; Adelmeijer, Jelle; Westerkamp, Andrie C.; Lisman, Ton
Normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) enables viability assessment of donor livers prior to transplantation. NMP is frequently performed by using human blood products including red blood cells (RBCs) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP). Our aim was to examine the efficacy of a novel machine perfusion solution based on polymerized bovine hemoglobin‐based oxygen carrier (HBOC)‐201. Twenty‐four livers declined for transplantation were transported by using static cold storage. Upon arrival, livers underwent NMP for 6 hours using pressure‐controlled portal and arterial perfusion. A total of 12 livers were perfused using a solution based on RBCs and FFPs (historical cohort), 6 livers with HBOC‐201 and FFPs, and another 6 livers with HBOC‐201 and gelofusine, a gelatin‐based colloid solution. Compared with RBC + FFP perfused livers, livers perfused with HBOC‐201 had significantly higher hepatic adenosine triphosphate content, cumulative bile production, and portal and arterial flows. Biliary secretion of bicarbonate, bilirubin, bile salts, and phospholipids was similar in all 3 groups. The alanine aminotransferase concentration in perfusate was lower in the HBOC‐201–perfused groups. In conclusion, NMP of human donor livers can be performed effectively using HBOC‐201 and gelofusine, eliminating the need for human blood products. Perfusing livers with HBOC‐201 is at least similar to perfusion with RBCs and FFP. Some of the biomarkers of liver function and injury even suggest a possible superiority of an HBOC‐201–based perfusion solution and opens a perspective for further optimization of machine perfusion techniques. Liver Transplantation 24 528–538 2018 AASLD. PMID:29281862
Op den Dries, Sanna; Karimian, Negin; Westerkamp, Andrie C; Sutton, Michael E; Kuipers, Michiel; Wiersema-Buist, Janneke; Ottens, Petra J; Kuipers, Jeroen; Giepmans, Ben N; Leuvenink, Henri G D; Lisman, Ton; Porte, Robert J
Bile duct injury may occur during liver procurement and transplantation, especially in livers from donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors. Normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) has been shown to reduce hepatic injury compared to static cold storage (SCS). However, it is unknown whether NMP provides better preservation of bile ducts. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of NMP on bile duct preservation in both DCD and non-DCD livers. DCD and non-DCD livers obtained from Lewis rats were preserved for 3 hours using either SCS or NMP, followed by 2 hours ex vivo reperfusion. Biomarkers of bile duct injury (gamma-glutamyltransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in bile) were lower in NMP-preserved livers compared to SCS-preserved livers. Biliary bicarbonate concentration, reflecting biliary epithelial function, was 2-fold higher in NMP-preserved livers (P < 0.01). In parallel with this, the pH of the bile was significantly higher in NMP-preserved livers (7.63 ± 0.02 and 7.74 ± 0.05 for non-DCD and DCD livers, respectively) compared with SCS-preserved livers (7.46 ± 0.02 and 7.49 ± 0.04 for non-DCD and DCD livers, respectively). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of donor extrahepatic bile ducts demonstrated significantly decreased injury of the biliary epithelium of NMP-preserved donor livers (including the loss of lateral interdigitations and mitochondrial injury). Differences between NMP and SCS were most prominent in DCD livers. Compared to conventional SCS, NMP provides superior preservation of bile duct epithelial cell function and morphology, especially in DCD donor livers. By reducing biliary injury, NMP could have an important impact on the utilization of DCD livers and outcome after transplantation. Liver Transplantation 22 994-1005 2016 AASLD. © 2016 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Chu, Michael JJ; Premkumar, Rakesh; Hickey, Anthony JR; Jiang, Yannan; Delahunt, Brett; Phillips, Anthony RJ; Bartlett, Adam SJR
AIM: To assess the effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC, 10-min ischemia/10-min reperfusion) on steatotic liver mitochondrial function after normothermic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). METHODS: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 8-wk with either control chow or high-fat/high-sucrose diet inducing > 60% mixed steatosis. Three groups (n = 10/group) for each dietary state were tested: (1) the IRI group underwent 60 min partial hepatic ischemia and 4 h reperfusion; (2) the IPC group underwent IPC prior to same standard IRI; and (3) sham underwent the same surgery without IRI or IPC. Hepatic mitochondrial function was analyzed by oxygraphs. Mitochondrial Complex-I, Complex-II enzyme activity, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and histological injury were measured. RESULTS: Steatotic-IRI livers had a greater increase in ALT (2476 ± 166 vs 1457 ± 103 IU/L, P < 0.01) and histological injury following IRI compared to the lean liver group. Steatotic-IRI demonstrated lower Complex-I activity at baseline [78.4 ± 2.5 vs 116.4 ± 6.0 nmol/(min.mg protein), P < 0.001] and following IRI [28.0 ± 6.2 vs 104.3 ± 12.6 nmol/(min.mg protein), P < 0.001]. Steatotic-IRI also demonstrated impaired Complex-I function post-IRI compared to the lean liver IRI group. Complex-II activity was unaffected by hepatic steatosis or IRI. Lean liver mitochondrial function was unchanged following IRI. IPC normalized ALT and histological injury in steatotic livers but had no effect on overall steatotic liver mitochondrial function or individual mitochondrial complex enzyme activities. CONCLUSION: Warm IRI impairs steatotic liver Complex-I activity and function. The protective effects of IPC in steatotic livers may not be mediated through mitochondria. PMID:27217699
Livensperger, Carolyn; Steltzer, Heidi; Darrouzet-Nardi, Anthony; Sullivan, Patrick F; Wallenstein, Matthew; Weintraub, Michael N
Climate change over the past ∼50 years has resulted in earlier occurrence of plant life-cycle events for many species. Across temperate, boreal and polar latitudes, earlier seasonal warming is considered the key mechanism leading to earlier leaf expansion and growth. Yet, in seasonally snow-covered ecosystems, the timing of spring plant growth may also be cued by snowmelt, which may occur earlier in a warmer climate. Multiple environmental cues protect plants from growing too early, but to understand how climate change will alter the timing and magnitude of plant growth, experiments need to independently manipulate temperature and snowmelt. Here, we demonstrate that altered seasonality through experimental warming and earlier snowmelt led to earlier plant growth, but the aboveground production response varied among plant functional groups. Earlier snowmelt without warming led to early leaf emergence, but often slowed the rate of leaf expansion and had limited effects on aboveground production. Experimental warming alone had small and inconsistent effects on aboveground phenology, while the effect of the combined treatment resembled that of early snowmelt alone. Experimental warming led to greater aboveground production among the graminoids, limited changes among deciduous shrubs and decreased production in one of the dominant evergreen shrubs. As a result, we predict that early onset of the growing season may favour early growing plant species, even those that do not shift the timing of leaf expansion. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.
Hosgood, Sarah A; Shah, K; Patel, M; Nicholson, M L
Donation after circulatory death (DCD) kidney transplants inevitably sustain a degree of warm ischaemic injury, which is manifested clinically as delayed graft function. The aim of this study was to define the effects of prolonged periods of warm ischaemic injury on renal function in a normothermic haemoperfused kidney model. Porcine kidneys were subjected to 15, 60, 90 (n = 6 per group) and 120 min (n = 4) of in situ warm ischaemia (WI) and then retrieved, flushed with cold preservation fluid and stored in ice for 2 h. Kidneys then underwent 3 h of normothermic reperfusion with a whole blood-based perfusate using an ex vivo circuit developed from clinical grade cardiopulmonary bypass technology. Creatinine clearance, urine output and fractional excretion of sodium deteriorated sequentially with increasing warm time. Renal function was severely compromised after 90 or 120 min of WI but haemodynamic, metabolic and histological parameters demonstrated the viability of kidneys subjected to prolonged warm ischaemia. Isolated kidney perfusion using a warm, oxygenated, red cell-based perfusate allows an accurate ex vivo assessment of the potential for recovery from warm ischaemic injury. Prolonged renal warm ischaemic injury caused a severe decrement in renal function but was not associated with tissue necrosis.
Cursio, R; Filippa, N; Miele, C; Van Obberghen, E; Gugenheim, J
This study evaluated the role of protein kinase B (PKB), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), Bcl-2-associated death protein (BAD) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in normothermic ischaemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced apoptosis in rat liver. Rats were divided into two groups that received either phosphate-buffered saline (control) or the caspase inhibitor Z-Asp-2,6-dichorobenzoyloxymethylketone (Z-Asp-cmk), injected intravenously 2 min before the induction of 120 min of normothermic liver ischaemia. Liver apoptosis was assessed by the terminal deoxyribonucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) method. PI3-K, PKB, BAD and MAPK activities were measured in ischaemic and non-ischaemic lobes at various times after reperfusion. The number of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly decreased after pretreatment with Z-Asp-cmk. In controls, PI3-K and PKB activities and BAD phosphorylation were inhibited in ischaemic liver lobes. The MAPKs (extracellular signal-regulated kinases, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38) showed different patterns of activation during IR. PKB activity was not modified by pretreatment with Z-Asp-cmk. Induction of apoptosis during IR liver injury might be triggered by inactivation of the antiapoptotic PI3-K-PKB pathway and activation of the proapoptotic MAPKs. Copyright (c) 2006 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
López-Messa, J B; Martín-Hernández, H; Pérez-Vela, J L; Molina-Latorre, R; Herrero-Ansola, P
The importance of cardiac arrest as a health problem makes training in resuscitation a topic of great interest. It is necessary to enhance resuscitation training for all citizens, starting in schools and institutes, targeting teachers and nurses for training, to in turn become future trainers. The model of short courses with video-instruction and the use of mannequins is useful for the dissemination of resuscitation techniques. Liberalization of the use of automated external defibrillators (AED) and reduction of the training requirements in basic life support and AED for those non-health professionals who can use them, seems appropriate. Training must be improved in schools of medicine and nursing schools at undergraduate level. Health professionals should be trained according to their needs, with emphasis on non-technical skills such as leadership and teamwork. The model based on the use of trainers and low-fidelity mannequins remains a basic and fundamental element in training. Training through performance evaluation is a technique that should be implemented in all areas where cases of cardiac arrest are seen and the healthcare team has intervened. Simulation appears to be defined as the current and future modality for training in various medical areas, including of course the important field of resuscitation. Lastly, research in resuscitation training should be considered an example of translational science, where rigorous studies of skill acquisition with outcome measures serve to transfer the results to the clinical environment for analysis of their impact upon patient care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Moon, Seong Ho; Kim, Jong Woo; Byun, Joung Hun; Kim, Sung Hwan; Kim, Ki Nyun; Choi, Jun Young; Jang, In Seok; Lee, Chung Eun; Yang, Jun Ho; Kang, Dong Hun; Park, Hyun Oh
Per the American Heart Association guidelines, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be considered for in-hospital patients with easily reversible cardiac arrest. However, there are currently no consensus recommendations regarding resuscitation for prolonged cardiac arrest cases. We encountered a 48-year-old man who survived a cardiac arrest that lasted approximately 1.5 hours. He visited a local hospital's emergency department complaining of chest pain and dyspnea that had started 3 days earlier. Immediately after arriving in the emergency department, a cardiac arrest occurred; he was transferred to our hospital for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Resuscitation was performed with strict adherence to the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology advanced cardiac life support guidelines until ECMO could be placed. On hospital day 7, he had a full neurologic recovery. On hospital day 58, additional treatments, including orthotopic heart transplantation, were considered necessary; he was transferred to another hospital. To our knowledge, this is the first case in South Korea of patient survival with good neurologic outcomes after resuscitation that lasted as long as 1.5 hours. Documenting cases of prolonged resuscitation may lead to updated guidelines and improvement of outcomes of similar cases in future. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Puopolo, A L; Kennard, M J; Mallatratt, L; Follen, M A; Desbiens, N A; Conners, A F; Califf, R; Walzer, J; Soukup, J; Davis, R B; Phillips, R S
To examine nurse-patient communication about preferences for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Prospective cohort. Sampled were patients and nurses caring for patients enrolled in SUPPORT (1989-91), a multicenter study of seriously-ill hospitalized adults at four U.S. hospitals. Information about patient preferences was obtained by interviews with patients and their designated surrogates. For selected patients, nurses were interviewed prospectively about their understanding of patients' preferences and whether they discussed these preferences with their patients. Nurse demographic information was obtained by questionnaire. Additional patient data were obtained by interview and chart review. Logistic regression was used to identify independent correlates of nurse-patient communication and nurses' understanding of patients' preferences. For 1,763 study patients, 1,427 nurse interviews (response rate 81%) were obtained. The median age of interviewed nurses was 29 years; 96% were women, 68% had a bachelor's or master's degree, and 62% had worked for 5 years or more as a nurse. Nurses reported discussions about CPR with 13% of their patients, and these discussions were more likely if the nurse thought the patient did not want CPR (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.68; 95% CI 1.84 to 3.90), if the nurse had spent more time with the patient (AOR 1.05; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.08) per 5 additional days, if the patient had metastatic cancer (AOR 3.56; 95% CI 1.86 to 6.78), or if the patient was in an intensive care unit at the time of study entry (AOR 2.08; 95% CI 1.26 to 3.42). Diagnosis and study site were also associated with nurses' reports of discussions with patients. Of 551 patients with available data, 58% (n = 317) wanted CPR and 30% (n = 164) did not. Nurses understood patients' CPR preferences correctly for 74% of the patients. Nurses were more likely to understand patients' preferences to forego CPR if the patient was 75 years of age or older (AOR 6.6; 95% CI 2.0 to 22
Sawyer, Taylor; Umoren, Rachel A; Gray, Megan M
Each year in the US, some four hundred thousand newborns need help breathing when they are born. Due to the frequent need for resuscitation at birth, it is vital to have evidence-based care guidelines and to provide effective neonatal resuscitation training. Every five years, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) reviews the science of neonatal resuscitation. In the US, the American Heart Association (AHA) develops treatment guidelines based on the ILCOR science review, and the Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) translates the AHA guidelines into an educational curriculum. In this report, we review recent advances in neonatal resuscitation training and practice. We begin with a review of the new 7th edition NRP training curriculum. Then, we examine key changes to the 2015 AHA neonatal resuscitation guidelines. The four components of the NRP curriculum reviewed here include eSim®, Performance Skills Stations, Integrated Skills Station, and Simulation and Debriefing. The key changes to the AHA neonatal resuscitation guidelines reviewed include initial steps of newborn care, positive-pressure ventilation, endotracheal intubation and use of laryngeal mask, chest compressions, medications, resuscitation of preterm newborns, and ethics and end-of-life care. We hope this report provides a succinct review of recent advances in neonatal resuscitation. PMID:28096704
Baos, Sarah; Sheehan, Karen; Culliford, Lucy; Pike, Katie; Ellis, Lucy; Parry, Andrew J; Stoica, Serban; Ghorbel, Mohamed T; Caputo, Massimo; Rogers, Chris A
During open heart surgery, patients are connected to a heart-lung bypass machine that pumps blood around the body ("perfusion") while the heart is stopped. Typically the blood is cooled during this procedure ("hypothermia") and warmed to normal body temperature once the operation has been completed. The main rationale for "whole body cooling" is to protect organs such as the brain, kidneys, lungs, and heart from injury during bypass by reducing the body's metabolic rate and decreasing oxygen consumption. However, hypothermic perfusion also has disadvantages that can contribute toward an extended postoperative hospital stay. Research in adults and small randomized controlled trials in children suggest some benefits to keeping the blood at normal body temperature throughout surgery ("normothermia"). However, the two techniques have not been extensively compared in children. The Thermic-2 study will test the hypothesis that the whole body inflammatory response to the nonphysiological bypass and its detrimental effects on different organ functions may be attenuated by maintaining the body at 35°C-37°C (normothermic) rather than 28°C (hypothermic) during pediatric complex open heart surgery. This is a single-center, randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness and acceptability of normothermic versus hypothermic bypass in 141 children with congenital heart disease undergoing open heart surgery. Children having scheduled surgery to repair a heart defect not requiring deep hypothermic circulatory arrest represent the target study population. The co-primary clinical outcomes are duration of inotropic support, intubation time, and postoperative hospital stay. Secondary outcomes are in-hospital mortality and morbidity, blood loss and transfusion requirements, pre- and post-operative echocardiographic findings, routine blood gas and blood test results, renal function, cerebral function, regional oxygen saturation of blood in the cerebral cortex, assessment of
Baos, Sarah; Sheehan, Karen; Culliford, Lucy; Pike, Katie; Ellis, Lucy; Parry, Andrew J; Stoica, Serban; Ghorbel, Mohamed T; Caputo, Massimo
Background During open heart surgery, patients are connected to a heart-lung bypass machine that pumps blood around the body (“perfusion”) while the heart is stopped. Typically the blood is cooled during this procedure (“hypothermia”) and warmed to normal body temperature once the operation has been completed. The main rationale for “whole body cooling” is to protect organs such as the brain, kidneys, lungs, and heart from injury during bypass by reducing the body’s metabolic rate and decreasing oxygen consumption. However, hypothermic perfusion also has disadvantages that can contribute toward an extended postoperative hospital stay. Research in adults and small randomized controlled trials in children suggest some benefits to keeping the blood at normal body temperature throughout surgery (“normothermia”). However, the two techniques have not been extensively compared in children. Objective The Thermic-2 study will test the hypothesis that the whole body inflammatory response to the nonphysiological bypass and its detrimental effects on different organ functions may be attenuated by maintaining the body at 35°C-37°C (normothermic) rather than 28°C (hypothermic) during pediatric complex open heart surgery. Methods This is a single-center, randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness and acceptability of normothermic versus hypothermic bypass in 141 children with congenital heart disease undergoing open heart surgery. Children having scheduled surgery to repair a heart defect not requiring deep hypothermic circulatory arrest represent the target study population. The co-primary clinical outcomes are duration of inotropic support, intubation time, and postoperative hospital stay. Secondary outcomes are in-hospital mortality and morbidity, blood loss and transfusion requirements, pre- and post-operative echocardiographic findings, routine blood gas and blood test results, renal function, cerebral function, regional oxygen saturation of
Graham, Jay A; Guarrera, James V
As the rate of medically suitable donors remains relatively static worldwide, clinicians have looked to novel methods to meet the ever-growing demand of the liver transplant waiting lists worldwide. Accordingly, the transplant community has explored many strategies to offset this deficit. Advances in technology that target the ex vivo "preservation" period may help increase the donor pool by augmenting the utilization and improving the outcomes of marginal livers. Novel ex vivo techniques such as hypothermic, normothermic, and subnormothermic machine perfusion may be useful to "resuscitate" marginal organs by reducing ischemia/reperfusion injury. Moreover, other preservation techniques such as oxygen persufflation are explored as they may also have a role in improving function of "marginal" liver allografts. Currently, marginal livers are frequently discarded or can relegate the patient to early allograft dysfunction and primary non-function. Bench to bedside advances are rapidly emerging and hold promise for expanding liver transplantation access and improving outcomes. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sheng, Chew Keng; Zakaria, Mohd Idzwan; Rahman, Nik Hisamuddin Nik Abdul; Jaalam, Kamaruddin; Adnan, Wan Aasim Wan
This short review explores the current status of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Malaysia and highlights some of the factors that have a negative impact on its rate of success. Absence of a unifying body such as a national resuscitation council results in non-uniformity in the practice and teaching of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In the out-of-hospital setting, there is the lack of basic skills and knowledge in performing bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation as well as using an automated external defibrillator among the Malaysian public. The ambulance response time is also a significant negative factor. In the in-hospital setting, often times, resuscitation is first attended by junior doctors or nurses lacking in the skill and experience needed. Resuscitation trolleys were often inadequately equipped. PMID:22589616
Gulati, Rashmi; Zayek, Michael; Eyal, Fabien
To determine whether heart rate (HR) could be detected earlier than by pulse oximeter (POX), using a novel method of application of electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes during neonatal resuscitation in the delivery room. ECG electrodes were set before delivery to be applied to the back of infants' thorax. Time to detect HR was recorded as soon as a numerical HR along with a recognizable and persistent QRS complex was observed on ECG monitor (HRECG) and a plethysmographic waveform was seen on POX monitor (HRPOX). Out of 334 infants, 49 were <31 weeks of gestational age. Overall, the median (interquartile range, IQR) time to detect HRECG was significantly shorter [29 (5, 60) seconds] than time by POX [60 (45,120) seconds], (p < 0.001). Similarly, in <31-week infants, the median (IQR) time to detect HRECG was 10 (2, 40) seconds compared to 60 (30,120) seconds by POX, (p < 0.001). Failure to have HR detected by 1 minute occurred in 30%, 54% and 20% of infants by ECG, POX and either of the devices, respectively. In the delivery room, electrodes applied by the study method are more effective than pulse oximetry in providing the neonatal team with timely HR information that is necessary for proper resuscitative actions. Published by Elsevier B.V.
How nurses care for patients who have a cardiac arrest and for their family members who witness it has been identified as being paramount in determining relatives' acceptance of death and their ability to cope thereafter. In this article the author analyses the available literature, focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of families being present during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in hospital and questions what effect this has on the grieving process (Kübler-Ross 1970). Nurses should take into account the views of relatives, although attempted resuscitation should never be compromised by family members being present. Evidence suggests that it can improve the grieving process for families and be helpful to patients who survive.
Lenkin, Andrey I; Zaharov, Viktor I; Lenkin, Pavel I; Smetkin, Alexey A; Bjertnaes, Lars J; Kirov, Mikhail Y
In cardiac surgery, the choice of temperature regimen during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) remains a subject of debate. Hypothermia reduces tissue metabolic demands, but may impair the autoregulation of cerebral blood flow and contribute to neurological morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different temperature regimens during CPB on the systemic oxygen transport and the cerebral oxygenation during surgical correction of acquired heart diseases. In a prospective study, we randomized 40 adult patients with combined valvular disorders requiring surgical correction of two or more valves into two groups: (i) a normothermic (NMTH) group (n = 20), in which the body core temperature was maintained at 36.6°C during CPB and (ii) a hypothermic (HPTH) group (n = 20), in which the body was cooled to a core temperature of 32°C maintained throughout the period of CPB. The systemic oxygen transport and the cerebral oxygen saturation (SctO2) were assessed by means of a PiCCO2 haemodynamic monitor and a cerebral oximeter, respectively. All the patients received standard perioperative monitoring. We assessed haemodynamic and oxygen transport parameters, the duration of mechanical ventilation and the length of the ICU and the hospital stays. During CPB, central venous oxygen saturation was significantly higher in the HPTH group but SctO2 was increased in the NMTH group (P < 0.05). Cardiac index, systemic oxygen delivery and consumption increased postoperatively in both groups. However, oxygen delivery and consumption were significantly higher in the NMTH group (P < 0.05). The duration of respiratory support and the length of ICU and hospital stays did not differ between the groups. During combined valve surgery, normothermic CPB provides lower central venous oxygen saturation, but increases cerebral tissue oxygenation when compared with the hypothermic regimen.
Enriquez, Diego; Mastandueno, Ricardo; Flichtentrei, Daniel; Szyld, Edgardo
The question of whether or not to allow family to be present during resuscitation is relevant to everyday professional health care assistance, but it remains largely unexplored in the medical literature. We conducted an online survey with the aim of increasing our knowledge and understanding of this issue. This is a cross-sectional, multicenter, descriptive, national, and international study using a web-based, voluntary survey. The survey was designed and distributed through a medical website in Spanish, targeting physicians who frequently deal with critical patients. A total of 1,286 Argentine physicians and 1,848 physicians from other countries responded to this voluntary survey. Of Argentine respondents, 15.8% (203) treat only children, 68.2% (877) treat adults, and 16% (206) treat patients of any age. The survey found that 23% (296) of Argentine and 20% of other respondents favor the presence of family members during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (p = 0.03). This practice was more common among physicians treating pediatric and neonatal patients than among those who treat adults. The most commonly reported reason (21.8%) for avoiding the presence of relatives was concerns that physicians, communications, and medical practices might be misunderstood or misinterpreted. Avoiding relatives' presence while performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation is the most frequent choice made by the surveyed physicians who treat critical Argentine patients. The main causes for discouraging family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation or other critical procedures include the following: risk of misinterpretation of the physician's actions and/or words; risk of a relative's decompensation; uncertainty about possible reactions; and interpretation of the relative's presence as negative. Copyright © 2016 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
López-Herce, Jesús; Rodríguez, Antonio; Carrillo, Angel; de Lucas, Nieves; Calvo, Custodio; Civantos, Eva; Suárez, Eva; Pons, Sara; Manrique, Ignacio
Cardiac arrest has a high mortality in children. To improve the performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, it is essential to disseminate the international recommendations and the training of health professionals and the general population in resuscitation. This article summarises the 2015 European Paediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation recommendations, which are based on a review of the advances in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and consensus in the science and treatment by the International Council on Resuscitation. The Spanish Paediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation recommendations, developed by the Spanish Group of Paediatric and Neonatal Resuscitation, are an adaptation of the European recommendations, and will be used for training health professionals and the general population in resuscitation. This article highlights the main changes from the previous 2010 recommendations on prevention of cardiac arrest, the diagnosis of cardiac arrest, basic life support, advanced life support and post-resuscitation care, as well as reviewing the algorithms of treatment of basic life support, obstruction of the airway and advanced life support. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Marsch, Stephan; Tschan, Franziska; Semmer, Norbert K; Zobrist, Roger; Hunziker, Patrick R; Hunziker, Sabina
After years of advocating ABC (Airway-Breathing-Circulation), current guidelines of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) recommend CAB (Circulation-Airway-Breathing). This trial compared ABC with CAB as initial approach to CPR from the arrival of rescuers until the completion of the first resuscitation cycle. 108 teams, consisting of two physicians each, were randomized to receive a graphical display of either the ABC algorithm or the CAB algorithm. Subsequently teams had to treat a simulated cardiac arrest. Data analysis was performed using video recordings obtained during simulations. The primary endpoint was the time to completion of the first resuscitation cycle of 30 compressions and two ventilations. The time to execution of the first resuscitation measure was 32 ± 12 seconds in ABC teams and 25 ± 10 seconds in CAB teams (P = 0.002). 18/53 ABC teams (34%) and none of the 55 CAB teams (P = 0.006) applied more than the recommended two initial rescue breaths which caused a longer duration of the first cycle of 30 compressions and two ventilations in ABC teams (31 ± 13 vs.23 ± 6 sec; P = 0.001). Overall, the time to completion of the first resuscitation cycle was longer in ABC teams (63 ± 17 vs. 48 ± 10 sec; P <0.0001). This randomized controlled trial found CAB superior to ABC with an earlier start of CPR and a shorter time to completion of the first 30:2 resuscitation cycle. These findings endorse the change from ABC to CAB in international resuscitation guidelines.
Santry, Heena P; Alam, Hasan B
Hemorrhage remains a major cause of preventable death following both civilian and military trauma. The goals of resuscitation in the face of hemorrhagic shock are restoring end-organ perfusion and maintaining tissue oxygenation while attempting definitive control of bleeding. However, if not performed properly, resuscitation can actually exacerbate cellular injury caused by hemorrhagic shock, and the type of fluid used for resuscitation plays an important role in this injury pattern. This article reviews the historical development and scientific underpinnings of modern resuscitation techniques. We summarized data from a number of studies to illustrate the differential effects of commonly used resuscitation fluids, including isotonic crystalloids, natural and artificial colloids, hypertonic and hyperoncotic solutions, and artificial oxygen carriers, on cellular injury and how these relate to clinical practice. The data reveal that a uniformly safe, effective, and practical resuscitation fluid when blood products are unavailable and direct hemorrhage control is delayed has been elusive. Yet, it is logical to prevent this cellular injury through wiser resuscitation strategies than attempting immunomodulation after the damage has already occurred. Thus, we describe how some novel resuscitation strategies aimed at preventing or ameliorating cellular injury may become clinically available in the future.
Jukkala, Angela; Henly, Susan J.; Lindeke, Linda
Context: Neonatal resuscitation is a critical component of perinatal services in all settings. Purpose: To systematically describe preparedness of rural hospitals for neonatal resuscitation, and to determine whether delivery volume and level of perinatal care were associated with overall preparedness or its indicators. Methods: We developed the…
Maudet, Ludovic; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas; Trueb, Lionel
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines have been updated in October 2015. The 2010 guidelines are reaffirmed: immediate call for help via the local dispatch center, high quality CPR (frequency between 100 and 120/min, compression depth between 5 and 6 cm) and early defibrillation improve patient's survival chances. This article reviews the essential elements of resuscitation and recommended advanced measures.
Base Deficit and Alveolar–Arterial Gradient During Resuscitation Contribute Independently But Modestly to the Prediction of Mortality After Burn...alveolar-arterial gradient (AaDO2), AGE, % burn, full-thickness burn size, INHAL, and with decreased pH and base excess. LRA of % burn, AGE, INHAL, and...not BE predicted earlier death in those who died. Measured during resuscitation, metabolic acidosis (ie, a base deficit) and oxygenation failure (ie
Patil, Kaustubha D; Halperin, Henry R; Becker, Lance B
The modern treatment of cardiac arrest is an increasingly complex medical procedure with a rapidly changing array of therapeutic approaches designed to restore life to victims of sudden death. The 2 primary goals of providing artificial circulation and defibrillation to halt ventricular fibrillation remain of paramount importance for saving lives. They have undergone significant improvements in technology and dissemination into the community subsequent to their establishment 60 years ago. The evolution of artificial circulation includes efforts to optimize manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation, external mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation devices designed to augment circulation, and may soon advance further into the rapid deployment of specially designed internal emergency cardiopulmonary bypass devices. The development of defibrillation technologies has progressed from bulky internal defibrillators paddles applied directly to the heart, to manually controlled external defibrillators, to automatic external defibrillators that can now be obtained over-the-counter for widespread use in the community or home. But the modern treatment of cardiac arrest now involves more than merely providing circulation and defibrillation. As suggested by a 3-phase model of treatment, newer approaches targeting patients who have had a more prolonged cardiac arrest include treatment of the metabolic phase of cardiac arrest with therapeutic hypothermia, agents to treat or prevent reperfusion injury, new strategies specifically focused on pulseless electric activity, which is the presenting rhythm in at least one third of cardiac arrests, and aggressive post resuscitation care. There are discoveries at the cellular and molecular level about ischemia and reperfusion pathobiology that may be translated into future new therapies. On the near horizon is the combination of advanced cardiopulmonary bypass plus a cocktail of multiple agents targeted at restoration of normal metabolism and
Jabre, Patricia; Belpomme, Vanessa; Azoulay, Elie; Jacob, Line; Bertrand, Lionel; Lapostolle, Frederic; Tazarourte, Karim; Bouilleau, Guillem; Pinaud, Virginie; Broche, Claire; Normand, Domitille; Baubet, Thierry; Ricard-Hibon, Agnes; Istria, Jacques; Beltramini, Alexandra; Alheritiere, Armelle; Assez, Nathalie; Nace, Lionel; Vivien, Benoit; Turi, Laurent; Launay, Stephane; Desmaizieres, Michel; Borron, Stephen W; Vicaut, Eric; Adnet, Frederic
The effect of family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on the family members themselves and the medical team remains controversial. We enrolled 570 relatives of patients who were in cardiac arrest and were given CPR by 15 prehospital emergency medical service units. The units were randomly assigned either to systematically offer the family member the opportunity to observe CPR (intervention group) or to follow standard practice regarding family presence (control group). The primary end point was the proportion of relatives with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related symptoms on day 90. Secondary end points included the presence of anxiety and depression symptoms and the effect of family presence on medical efforts at resuscitation, the well-being of the health care team, and the occurrence of medicolegal claims. In the intervention group, 211 of 266 relatives (79%) witnessed CPR, as compared with 131 of 304 relatives (43%) in the control group. In the intention-to-treat analysis, the frequency of PTSD-related symptoms was significantly higher in the control group than in the intervention group (adjusted odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 2.5; P=0.004) and among family members who did not witness CPR than among those who did (adjusted odds ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.5; P=0.02). Relatives who did not witness CPR had symptoms of anxiety and depression more frequently than those who did witness CPR. Family-witnessed CPR did not affect resuscitation characteristics, patient survival, or the level of emotional stress in the medical team and did not result in medicolegal claims. Family presence during CPR was associated with positive results on psychological variables and did not interfere with medical efforts, increase stress in the health care team, or result in medicolegal conflicts. (Funded by Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique 2008 of the French Ministry of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01009606.).
Stefaniotou, Antonia; Varvarousi, Giolanda; Varvarousis, Dimitrios P; Xanthos, Theodoros
The outcome for both in-hospital and out-of hospital cardiac arrest remains dismal. Vasopressors are used to increase coronary perfusion pressure and thus facilitate return of spontaneous circulation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. However, they are associated with a number of potential adverse effects and may decrease endocardial and cerebral organ blood flow. Nitroglycerin has a favourable haemodynamic profile which promotes forward blood flow. Several studies suggest that combined use of nitroglycerin with vasopressors during resuscitation, is associated with increased rates of resuscitation and improved post-resuscitation outcome. This article reviews the effects of nitroglycerin during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and postresuscitation period, as well as the beneficial outcomes of a combination regimen consisting of a vasopressor and a vasodilator, such as nitroglycerin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Watson, Christopher J.E.; Kosmoliaptsis, Vasilis; Randle, Lucy V.; Gimson, Alexander E.; Brais, Rebecca; Klinck, John R.; Hamed, Mazin; Tsyben, Anastasia; Butler, Andrew J.
Background A program of normothermic ex situ liver perfusion (NESLiP) was developed to facilitate better assessment and use of marginal livers, while minimizing cold ischemia. Methods Declined marginal livers and those offered for research were evaluated. Normothermic ex situ liver perfusion was performed using an erythrocyte-based perfusate. Viability was assessed with reference to biochemical changes in the perfusate. Results Twelve livers (9 donation after circulatory death [DCD] and 3 from brain-dead donors), median Donor Risk Index 2.15, were subjected to NESLiP for a median 284 minutes (range, 122-530 minutes) after an initial cold storage period of 427 minutes (range, 222-877 minutes). The first 6 livers were perfused at high perfusate oxygen tensions, and the subsequent 6 at near-physiologic oxygen tensions. After transplantation, 5 of the first 6 recipients developed postreperfusion syndrome and 4 had sustained vasoplegia; 1 recipient experienced primary nonfunction in conjunction with a difficult explant. The subsequent 6 liver transplants, with livers perfused at lower oxygen tensions, reperfused uneventfully. Three DCD liver recipients developed cholangiopathy, and this was associated with an inability to produce an alkali bile during NESLiP. Conclusions Normothermic ex situ liver perfusion enabled assessment and transplantation of 12 livers that may otherwise not have been used. Avoidance of hyperoxia during perfusion may prevent postreperfusion syndrome and vasoplegia, and monitoring biliary pH, rather than absolute bile production, may be important in determining the likelihood of posttransplant cholangiopathy. Normothermic ex situ liver perfusion has the potential to increase liver utilization, but more work is required to define factors predicting good outcomes. PMID:28437389
Greiner, Jesse G; Clegg, Miriam E; Walsh, Michael L; White, Matthew D
Hyperthermia potentiates the influence of CO(2) on pulmonary ventilation (.V(E)). It remains to be resolved how skin and core temperatures contribute to the elevated exercise ventilation response to CO(2). This study was conducted to assess the influences of mean skin temperature (_T(SK)) and end-tidal PCO(2) (P(ET)CO(2)) on .V(E) during submaximal exercise with a normothermic esophageal temperature (T(ES)). Five males and three females who were 1.76 +/- 0.11 m tall (mean +/- SD), 75.8 +/- 15.6 kg in weight and 22.0 +/- 2.2 years of age performed three 1 h exercise trials in a climatic chamber with the relative humidity (RH) held at 31.5 +/- 9.5% and the ambient temperature (T (AMB)) maintained at one of 25, 30, or 35 degrees C. In each trial, the volunteer breathed eucapnic air for 5 min during a rest period and subsequently cycle ergometer exercised at 50 W until T (ES) stabilized at approximately 37.1 +/- 0.4 degrees C. Once T (ES) stabilized in each trial, the volunteer breathed hypercapnic air twice for approximately 5 min with P(ET)CO(2) elevated by approximately +4 or +7.5 mmHg. The significantly (P < 0.05) different increases of P(ET)CO(2) of +4.20 +/- 0.49 and +7.40 +/- 0.51 mmHg gave proportionately larger increases in .V(E) of 10.9 +/- 3.6 and 15.2 +/- 3.6 L min(-1) (P = 0.001). This hypercapnia-induced hyperventilation was uninfluenced by varying the _T(SK) to three significantly different levels (P < 0.001) of 33.2 +/- 1.2 degrees C, to 34.5 +/- 0.8 degrees C to 36.4 +/- 0.5 degrees C. In conclusion, the results support that skin temperature between approximately 33 and approximately 36 degrees C has neither effect on pulmonary ventilation nor on hypercapnia-induced hyperventilation during a light exercise with a normothermic core temperature.
The National Committee for the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths (NCCEMD) of South Africa has recommended in the Sixth Saving Mothers Report that health-care professionals (HCPs) training in managing obstetric emergencies be improved. One such measure is to ensure that the Essential Steps in Managing Obstetric Emergencies (ESMOE) with its Emergency Obstetric Simulation Training (EOST) be rolled out to every HCP working in the obstetric environment. The programme has been strengthened and rolled out in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. This review focuses on the various teaching methods used to improve maternal resuscitation training in a South African context. Evidence-based interventions in maternal resuscitation will be highlighted, and recommendations for clinical practice will be suggested. Common causes of maternal collapse will be explored, and measures to improve training in these areas will be outlined. In order to ensure sustainability, quality improvement measures need to be introduced and evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Spöhr, F; Böttiger, B W
Although prehospital cardiac arrest has an incidence of 40-90/100,000 inhabitants per year, there has been a lack of therapeutic options to improve the outcome of these patients. Of all cardiac arrests, 50-70% are caused by acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or massive pulmonary embolism (PE). Thrombolysis has been shown to be a causal and effective therapy in patients with AMI or PE who do not suffer cardiac arrest. In contrast, experience with the use of thrombolysis during cardiac arrest has been limited. Thrombolysis during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) acts directly on thrombi or emboli causing AMI or PE. In addition, experimental studies suggest that thrombolysis causes an improvement in microcirculatory reperfusion after cardiac arrest. In-hospital and prehospital case series and clinical studies suggest that thrombolysis during CPR may cause a restoration of spontaneous circulation and survival even in patients that have been resuscitated conventionally without success. In addition, there is evidence for an improved neurological outcome in patients receiving a thrombolytic therapy during during CPR. A large randomized, double-blind multicenter trial that has started recently is expected to show if this new therapeutic option can generally improve the prognosis of patients with cardiac arrest.
Ziberna, Lovro; Lunder, Mojca; Kuzner, Jernej; Drevensek, Gorazd
The vasomotor response of the coronary artery is altered by hypoxia-reoxygenation (H-R) induced damage. The aim of our study was to compare and evaluate normothermic and hypothermic models which are suitable for future drug studies of vasoprotective action against H-R injury. Porcine coronary arterial rings were isolated and placed in Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) solution. Rings were exposed to normoxic conditions (control group) and two different H-R conditions: the first induced by a 95% N(2)-5% CO(2) gas mixture (40- and 60-min hypoxia) in a normothermic protocol, and the second induced by hypothermic (4 degrees C) hypoxia-reoxygenation in an air-tight beaker filled with K-H solution (24- and 48-hours hypoxia). Reoxygenation was applied by introducing K-H solution aerated with a 95% O(2)-5% CO(2) mixture under normothermic (37 degrees C) conditions. To test the EDHF-mediated relaxation by substance P, rings were first incubated in L-NNA, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, and indomethacin, cyclooxygenase inhibitor, and then pre-contracted with thromboxane analogue U-46619. Analysis of the maximum relaxation of the arterial rings was performed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Bonferroni's post-test. Distal segments of the coronary artery responded faster to contraction induced by U-46619 and were relaxed by substance P to a greater extent than proximal segments. Maximal relaxations of arterial rings induced by a 10 nM solution of substance P were significantly reduced (p<0.001) from the values for normoxic rings (81.0+/-1.0%, n=30) after 40-min H-R (50.5+/-5.3%, n=30), 60-min H-R (32.1+/-3.5%, n=30), 24-hours hypothermic H-R (56.0+/-2.3%, n=30) and after 48-hours hypothermic H-R (38.5+/-5.1%, n=30). The model employing 40-min normothermic H-R is as effective as 24-hours hypothermic H-R, and 60-min normothermic H-R as 48-hours hypothermic H-R for studying the deleterious effects of H-R on EDHF-mediated relaxation.
Egea-Guerrero, J J; Freire-Aragón, M D; Serrano-Lázaro, A; Quintana-Díaz, M
Traumatic injuries represent a major health problem all over the world. In recent years we have witnessed profound changes in the paradigm of severe trauma patient resuscitation, new concepts regarding acute coagulopathy in trauma have been proposed, and there has been an expansion of specific commercial products related to hemostasis, among other aspects. New strategies in severe trauma management include the early identification of those injuries that are life threatening and require surgical hemostasis, tolerance of moderate hypotension, rational intravascular volume replacement, prevention of hypothermia, correction of acidosis, optimization of oxygen carriers, and identification of those factors required by the patient (fresh frozen plasma, platelets, tranexamic acid, fibrinogen, cryoprecipitates and prothrombin complex). However, despite such advances, further evidence is required to improve survival rates in severe trauma patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Sierra-Parraga, Jesus Maria; Eijken, Marco; Hunter, James; Moers, Cyril; Leuvenink, Henri; Møller, Bjarne; Ploeg, Rutger J; Baan, Carla C; Jespersen, Bente; Hoogduijn, Martin J
There is great demand for transplant kidneys for the treatment of end-stage kidney disease patients. To expand the donor pool, organs from older and comorbid brain death donors, so-called expanded criteria donors (ECD), as well as donation after circulatory death donors, are considered for transplantation. However, the quality of these organs may be inferior to standard donor organs. A major issue affecting graft function and survival is ischemia/reperfusion injury, which particularly affects kidneys from deceased donors. The development of hypothermic machine perfusion has been introduced in kidney transplantation as a preservation technique and has improved outcomes in ECD and marginal organs compared to static cold storage. Normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) is the most recent evolution of perfusion technology and allows assessment of the donor organ before transplantation. The possibility to control the content of the perfusion fluid offers opportunities for damage control and reparative therapies during machine perfusion. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been demonstrated to possess potent regenerative properties via the release of paracrine effectors. The combination of NMP and MSC administration at the same time is a promising procedure in the field of transplantation. Therefore, the MePEP consortium has been created to study this novel modality of treatment in preparation for human trials. MePEP aims to assess the therapeutic effects of MSC administered ex vivo by NMP in the mechanisms of injury and repair in a porcine kidney autotransplantation model.
Miñambres, E; Suberviola, B; Dominguez-Gil, B; Rodrigo, E; Ruiz-San Millan, J C; Rodríguez-San Juan, J C; Ballesteros, M A
The use of donation after circulatory death (DCD) has increased significantly during the past decade. However, warm ischemia results in a greater risk for transplantation. Indeed, controlled DCD (cDCD) was associated with inferior outcomes compared with donation after brain death. The use of abdominal normothermic regional perfusion (nRP) to restore blood flow before organ recovery in cDCD has been proposed as better than rapid recovery to reverse the effect of ischemia and improve recipients' outcome. Here, the first Spanish series using abdominal nRP as an in situ conditioning method is reported. A specific methodology to avoid restoring circulation to the brain after death determination is described. Twenty-seven cDCD donors underwent abdominal nRP during at least 60 min. Thirty-seven kidneys, 11 livers, six bilateral lungs, and one pancreas were transplanted. The 1-year death-censored kidney survival was 91%, and delayed graft function rate was 27%. The 1-year liver survival rate was 90.1% with no cases of ischemic cholangiopathy. Transplanted lungs and pancreas exhibited primary function. The use of nRP may represent an advance to increase the number and quality of grafts in cDCD. Poor results in cDCD livers could be reversed with nRP. Concerns about restoring brain circulation after death are easily solved. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Fletcher, Daniel J; Boller, Manuel
For dogs and cats that experience cardiopulmonary arrest, rates of survival to discharge are 6% to 7%, as compared with survival rates of 20% for people. The introduction of standardized cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines and training in human medicine has led to substantial improvements in outcome. The Reassessment Campaign on Veterinary Resuscitation initiative recently completed an exhaustive literature review and generated a set of evidence-based, consensus cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines in 5 domains: preparedness and prevention, basic life support, advanced life support, monitoring, and postcardiac arrest care. This article reviews some of the most important of these new guidelines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Blackwood, Jaime; Duff, Jonathan P; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Djogovic, Dennis; Joynt, Chloe
The effect of teaching crisis resource management skills on the resuscitation performance of pediatric residents is unknown. The primary objective of this pilot study was to determine if teaching crisis resource management to residents leads to improved clinical and crisis resource management performance in simulated pediatric resuscitation scenarios. A prospective, randomized control pilot study. Simulation facility at tertiary pediatric hospital. Junior pediatric residents. Junior pediatric residents were randomized to 1 hour of crisis resource management instruction or no additional training. Time to predetermined resuscitation tasks was noted in simulated resuscitation scenarios immediately after intervention and again 3 months post intervention. Crisis resource management skills were evaluated using the Ottawa Global Rating Scale. Fifteen junior residents participated in the study, of which seven in the intervention group. The intervention crisis resource management group placed monitor leads 24.6 seconds earlier (p = 0.02), placed an IV 47.1 seconds sooner (p = 0.04), called for help 50.4 seconds faster (p = 0.03), and checked for a pulse after noticing a rhythm change 84.9 seconds quicker (p = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in time to initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (p = 0.264). The intervention group had overall crisis resource management performance scores 1.15 points higher (Ottawa Global Rating Scale [out of 7]) (p = 0.02). Three months later, these differences between the groups persisted. A 1-hour crisis resource management teaching session improved time to critical initial steps of pediatric resuscitation and crisis resource management performance as measured by the Ottawa Global Rating Scale. The control group did not develop these crisis resource management skills over 3 months of standard training indicating that obtaining these skills requires specific education. Larger studies of crisis resource education are
Pike, F. H.; Guthrie, C. C.; Stewart, G. N.
Our results may be briefly summarized: 1. Blood, when defibrinated, soon loses its power to maintain the activity of the higher nervous centers, and its nutritive properties for all tissues quickly diminish. 2. Artificial fluids, as a substitute for blood, are not satisfactory. 3. The proper oxygenation of the blood is an indispensable adjunct in the resuscitation of an animal. 4. The heart usually continues to beat for some minutes after it ceases to affect a mercury manometer, and resuscitation of it within this period by extra-thoracic massage and artificial respiration is sometimes successful. 5. Resuscitation of the heart by direct massage is the most certain method at our command. 6. A proper blood-pressure is an indispensable condition for the continued normal activity of the heart. 7. Anæsthetics, hemorrhage and induced currents applied to the heart render resuscitation more difficult than asphyxia alone. PMID:19867138
Carveth, Stephen W.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a key part of emergency cardiac care. It is a basic life support procedure that can be taught in the schools with the assistance of the American Heart Association. (JMF)
Wood, J; Wainwright, P
This article updates nurses on the laws governing cardiopulmonary resuscitation in relation to patients who have capacity at the time of admission to hospital, and promotes thoughtful ethical practice.
: In 2015, the Surviving Sepsis Campaign six-hour bundle was updated. The revised version now recommends documenting the reassessment of volume status and tissue perfusion after initial fluid resuscitation through a repeated focused examination. This article addresses the practice and interpretation of two components of this examination in adults: capillary refill time and skin mottling score. It further discusses how to best integrate these noninvasive parameters into the care of patients undergoing resuscitation for septic shock.
Krogh, Kristian B; Høyer, Christian B; Ostergaard, Doris; Eika, Berit
The advanced life support guidelines recommend 2min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and minimal hands-off time to ensure sufficient cardiac and cerebral perfusion. We have observed doctors who shorten the CPR intervals during resuscitation attempts. During simulation-based resuscitation training, the recommended 2-min CPR cycles are often deliberately decreased in order to increase the number of scenarios. The aim of this study was to test if keeping 2-min CPR cycles during resuscitation training ensures better adherence to time during resuscitation in a simulated setting. This study was designed as a randomised control trial. Fifty-four 4th-year medical students with no prior advanced resuscitation training participated in an extra-curricular one-day advanced life support course. Participants were either randomised to simulation-based training using real-time (120s) or shortened CPR cycles (30-45s instead of 120s) in the scenarios. Adherence to time was measured using the European Resuscitation Council's Cardiac Arrest Simulation Test (CASTest) in retention tests conducted one and 12 weeks after the course. The real-time group adhered significantly better to the recommended 2-min CPR cycles (time-120s) (mean 13; standard derivation (SD) 8) than the shortened CPR cycle group (mean 45; SD 19) when tested (p<0.001.) This study indicates that time is an important part of fidelity. Variables critical for performance, like adherence to time in resuscitation, should therefore be kept realistic during training to optimise outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bae, Hyuna; Lee, Sangjin; Jang, Hye Young
This study was conducted to assess the various ethical attitudes of emergency specialists in Korea toward resuscitation. A questionnaire investigating the following key topics concerning the ethics of resuscitation was sent to emergency specialists in Korea: when not to attempt resuscitation, when to stop resuscitation, withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment, diagnosis of death by non-physicians, permission for family members to stay with the patient during resuscitation, and teaching with the body of the recently deceased patient. We found broad variation in medical practice at patient death and in the ethical considerations held and followed by emergency physicians (EPs) during resuscitation in Korea. Initiating and concluding resuscitation attempts were practiced according to ethical and cultural norms, as well as medical conditions. Guidelines for resuscitation ethics that are based on the Korean medico-legal background need to be developed. Education of EPs to solve the ethical dilemma in resuscitation is needed.
Role of permissive hypotension, hypertonic resuscitation and the global increased permeability syndrome in patients with severe hemorrhage: adjuncts to damage control resuscitation to prevent intra-abdominal hypertension.
Duchesne, Juan C; Kaplan, Lewis J; Balogh, Zsolt J; Malbrain, Manu L N G
Secondary intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are closely related to fluid resuscitation. IAH causes major deterioration of the cardiac function by affecting preload, contractility and afterload. The aim of this review is to discuss the different interactions between IAH, ACS and resuscitation, and to explore a new hypothesis with regard to damage control resuscitation, permissive hypotension and global increased permeability syndrome. Review of the relevant literature via PubMed search. The recognition of the association between the development of ACS and resuscitation urged the need for new approach in traumatic shock management. Over a decade after wide spread application of damage control surgery damage control resuscitation was developed. DCR differs from previous resuscitation approaches by attempting an earlier and more aggressive correction of coagulopathy, as well as metabolic derangements like acidosis and hypothermia, often referred to as the 'deadly triad' or the 'bloody vicious cycle'. Permissive hypotension involves keeping the blood pressure low enough to avoid exacerbating uncontrolled haemorrhage while maintaining perfusion to vital end organs. The potential detrimental mechanisms of early, aggressive crystalloid resuscitation have been described. Limitation of fluid intake by using colloids, hypertonic saline (HTS) or hyperoncotic albumin solutions have been associated with favourable effects. HTS allows not only for rapid restoration of circulating intravascular volume with less administered fluid, but also attenuates post-injury oedema at the microcirculatory level and may improve microvascular perfusion. Capillary leak represents the maladaptive, often excessive, and undesirable loss of fluid and electrolytes with or without protein into the interstitium that generates oedema. The global increased permeability syndrome (GIPS) has been articulated in patients with persistent systemic inflammation failing
Haward, Marlyse Frieda; Murphy, Ryan O; Lorenz, John M
To determine whether presenting delivery room management options as defaults influences decisions to resuscitate extremely premature infants. Adult volunteers recruited from the world wide web were randomised to receive either resuscitation or comfort care as the delivery room management default option for a hypothetical delivery of a 23-week gestation infant. Participants were required to check a box to opt out of the default. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of respondents electing resuscitation. Data were analysed using χ(2) tests and multivariate logistic regression. Participants who were told the delivery room management default option was resuscitation were more likely to opt for resuscitation (OR 6.54 95% CI 3.85 to 11.11, p<0.001). This effect persisted on multivariate regression analysis (OR 7.00, 95% CI 3.97 to 12.36, p<0.001). Female gender, being married or in a committed relationship, being highly religious, experiences with prematurity, and favouring sanctity of life were significantly associated with decisions to resuscitate. Presenting delivery room options for extremely premature infants as defaults exert a significant effect on decision makers. The information structure of the choice task may act as a subtle form of manipulation. Further, this effect may operate in ways that a decision maker is not aware of and this raises questions of patient autonomy. Presenting delivery room options for extremely premature infants as defaults may compromise autonomous decision-making.
Rose, Carl H; Faksh, Arij; Traynor, Kyle D; Cabrera, Daniel; Arendt, Katherine W; Brost, Brian C
Although perimortem delivery has been recorded in the medical literature for millennia, the procedural intent has evolved to the current fetocentric approach, predicating timing of delivery following maternal cardiopulmonary arrest to optimize neonatal outcome. We suggest a call to action to reinforce the concept that if the uterus is palpable at or above the umbilicus, preparations for delivery should be made simultaneous with initiation of maternal resuscitative efforts; if maternal condition is not rapidly reversible, hysterotomy with delivery should be performed regardless of fetal viability or elapsed time since arrest. Cognizant of the difficulty in determining precise timing of arrest in clinical practice, if fetal status is already compromised further delay while attempting to assess fetal heart rate, locating optimal surgical equipment, or transporting to an operating room will result in unnecessary worsening of both maternal and fetal condition. Even if intrauterine demise has already occurred, maternal resuscitative efforts will typically be markedly improved following delivery with uterine decompression. Consequently we suggest that perimortem cesarean delivery be renamed "resuscitative hysterotomy" to reflect the mutual optimization of resuscitation efforts that would potentially provide earlier and more substantial benefit to both mother and baby. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rigo, Federica; De Stefano, Nicola; Navarro-Tableros, Victor; David, Ezio; Rizza, Giorgia; Catalano, Giorgia; Gilbo, Nicholas; Maione, Francesca; Gonella, Federica; Roggio, Dorotea; Martini, Silvia; Patrono, Damiano; Salizzoni, Mauro; Camussi, Giovanni; Romagnoli, Renato
The gold standard for organ preservation before transplantation is static cold storage, which is unable to fully protect suboptimal livers from ischemia/reperfusion injury. An emerging alternative is normothermic machine perfusion (NMP), which permits organ reconditioning. Here, we aimed to explore the feasibility of a pharmacological intervention on isolated rat livers by using a combination of NMP and human liver stem cells-derived extracellular vesicles (HLSC-EV). We established an ex vivo murine model of NMP capable to maintain liver function despite an ongoing hypoxic injury induced by hemodilution. Livers were perfused for 4 hours without (control group, n = 10) or with HLSC-EV (treated group, n = 9). Bile production was quantified; perfusate samples were collected hourly to measure metabolic (pH, pO2, pCO2) and cytolysis parameters (AST, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase). At the end of perfusion, we assessed HLSC-EV engraftment by immunofluorescence, tissue injury by histology, apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay, tissue hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 RNA expression by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. During hypoxic NMP, livers were able to maintain homeostasis and produce bile. In the treated group, AST (P = 0.018) and lactate dehydrogenase (P = 0.032) levels were significantly lower than those of the control group at 3 hours of perfusion, and AST levels persisted lower at 4 hours (P = 0.003). By the end of NMP, HLSC-EV had been uptaken by hepatocytes, and EV treatment significantly reduced histological damage (P = 0.030), apoptosis (P = 0.049), and RNA overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (P < 0.0001) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (P = 0.014). HLSC-EV treatment, even in a short-duration model, was feasible and effectively reduced liver injury during hypoxic NMP.
Shtulman, Andrew; Valcarcel, Joshua
When students learn scientific theories that conflict with their earlier, naive theories, what happens to the earlier theories? Are they overwritten or merely suppressed? We investigated this question by devising and implementing a novel speeded-reasoning task. Adults with many years of science education verified two types of statements as quickly…
Katheria, Anup; Arnell, Kathy; Brown, Melissa; Hassen, Kasim; Maldonado, Mauricio; Finer, Neil
Background The seventh edition of the American Academy of Pediatrics Neonatal Resuscitation Program recommends the use of a cardiac monitor in infants that need resuscitation. Previous trials have shown that EKG heart rate is available before pulse rate from a pulse oximeter. To date no trial has looked at how the availability of electrocardiogram (EKG) affects clinical interventions in the delivery room. Objective To determine whether the availability of an EKG heart rate value and tracing to the clinical team has an effect on physiologic measures and related interventions during the stabilization of preterm infants. Design/Methods Forty (40) premature infants enrolled in a neuro-monitoring study (The Neu-Prem Trial: NCT02605733) who had an EKG monitor available were randomized to have the heart rate information from the bedside EKG monitor either displayed or not displayed to the clinical team. Heart rate, oxygen saturation, FiO2 and mean airway pressure from a data acquisition system were recorded every 2 seconds. Results were averaged over 30 seconds and the differences analyzed using two-tailed t-test. Interventions analyzed included time to first change in FiO2, first positive pressure ventilation, first increase in airway pressure, and first intubation. Results There were no significant differences in time to clinical interventions between the blinded and unblinded group, despite the unblinded group having access to a visible heart rate at 66 +/- 20 compared to 114 +/- 39 seconds for the blinded group (p < .0001). Pulse rate from oximeter was lower than EKG heart rate during the first 2 minutes of life, but this was not significant. Conclusion(s) EKG provides an earlier, and more accurate heart rate than pulse rate from an oximeter during stabilization of preterm infants, allowing earlier intervention. All interventions were started earlier in the unblinded EKG group but these numbers were not significant in this small trial. Earlier EKG placement before
Faraklas, Iris; Lam, Uyen; Cochran, Amalia; Stoddard, Gregory; Saffle, Jeffrey
Fluid resuscitation of burned children is challenging because of their small size and intolerance to over- or underresuscitation. Our American Burn Association-verified regional burn center has used colloid "rescue" as part of our pediatric resuscitation protocol. With Institutional Review Board approval, the authors reviewed children with ≥15% TBSA burns admitted from January 1, 2004, to May 1, 2009. Resuscitation was based on the Parkland formula, which was adjusted to maintain urine output. Patients requiring progressive increases in crystalloid were placed on a colloid protocol. Results were expressed as an hourly resuscitation ratio (I/O ratio) of fluid infusion (ml/kg/%TBSA/hr) to urine output (ml/kg/hr). We reviewed 53 patients; 29 completed resuscitation using crystalloid alone (lactated Ringer's solution [LR]), and 24 received colloid supplementation albumin (ALB). Groups were comparable in age, gender, weight, and time from injury to admission. ALB patients had more inhalation injuries and larger total and full-thickness burns. LR patients maintained a median I/O of 0.17 (range, 0.08-0.31), whereas ALB patients demonstrated escalating ratios until the institution of albumin produced a precipitous return of I/O comparable with that of the LR group. Hospital stay was lower for LR patients than ALB patients (0.59 vs 1.06 days/%TBSA, P = .033). Twelve patients required extremity or torso escharotomy, but this did not differ between groups. There were no decompressive laparotomies. The median resuscitation volume for ALB group was greater than LR group (9.7 vs 6.2 ml/kg/%TBSA, P = .004). Measuring hourly I/O is a helpful means of evaluating fluid demands during burn shock resuscitation. The addition of colloid restores normal I/O in pediatric patients.
Nolan, Jerry P
The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) impacts on outcome after cardiac arrest. This review will explore the factors that contribute to high-quality CPR and the metrics that can be used to monitor performance. A recent consensus statement from North America defined five key components of high-quality CPR: minimizing interruptions in chest compressions, providing compressions of adequate rate and depth, avoiding leaning on the chest between compressions, and avoiding excessive ventilation. Studies have shown that real-time feedback devices improve the quality of CPR and, in one before-and-after study, outcome from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. There is evidence for increasing survival rates following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and this is associated with increasing rates of bystander CPR. The quality of CPR provided by healthcare professionals can be improved with real-time feedback devices. The components of high-quality CPR and the metrics that can be measured and fed back to healthcare professionals have been defined by expert consensus. In the future, real-time feedback based on the physiological responses to CPR may prove more effective.
Skinner, Jonathan R
Roughly two thirds of resuscitated cardiac arrests in children and youth are due to inherited heart diseases. The most commonly implicated are the cardiac ion channelopathies long QT syndrome, CPVT (catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia) and Brugada syndrome. Diagnosis is pivotal to further management of the child if he/she survives, and also to other family members who may be at risk. Thorough investigation of the cardiac arrest survivor is essential to either identify or exclude inherited heart disease. If standard cardiac investigation does not reveal a diagnosis, pharmacological provocation tests are needed to unmask electrocardiographic signs of disease, even if, due to severe brain injury, it is planned ultimately to allow a natural death. Examples are the ajmaline/flecainide challenge for Brugada syndrome and epinephrine for CPVT. A supportive, informative and sympathetic approach to the family is essential. An arrhythmia specialist and a cardiac genetic service should be involved early, with storage of DNA and cardiac/genetic investigation of the family. This review proposes a diagnostic algorithm-based approach to the investigation of this increasingly common clinical scenario.
Holcomb, John B; Swartz, Michael D; DeSantis, Stacia M; Greene, Thomas J; Fox, Erin E; Stein, Deborah M; Bulger, Eileen M; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Goodman, Michael; Schreiber, Martin A; Zielinski, Martin D; O'Keeffe, Terence; Inaba, Kenji; Tomasek, Jeffrey S; Podbielski, Jeanette M; Appana, Savitri N; Yi, Misung; Wade, Charles E
Earlier use of in-hospital plasma, platelets, and red blood cells (RBCs) has improved survival in trauma patients with severe hemorrhage. Retrospective studies have associated improved early survival with prehospital blood product transfusion (PHT). We hypothesized that PHT of plasma and/or RBCs would result in improved survival after injury in patients transported by helicopter. Adult trauma patients transported by helicopter from the scene to nine Level 1 trauma centers were prospectively observed from January to November 2015. Five helicopter systems had plasma and/or RBCs, whereas the other four helicopter systems used only crystalloid resuscitation. All patients meeting predetermined high-risk criteria were analyzed. Patients receiving PHT were compared with patients not receiving PHT. Our primary analysis compared mortality at 3 hours, 24 hours, and 30 days, using logistic regression to adjust for confounders and site heterogeneity to model patients who were matched on propensity scores. Twenty-five thousand one hundred eighteen trauma patients were admitted, 2,341 (9%) were transported by helicopter, of which 1,058 (45%) met the highest-risk criteria. Five hundred eighty-five of 1,058 patients were flown on helicopters carrying blood products. In the systems with blood available, prehospital median systolic blood pressure (125 vs 128) and Glasgow Coma Scale (7 vs 14) was significantly lower, whereas median Injury Severity Score was significantly higher (21 vs 14). Unadjusted mortality was significantly higher in the systems with blood products available, at 3 hours (8.4% vs 3.6%), 24 hours (12.6% vs 8.9%), and 30 days (19.3% vs 13.3%). Twenty-four percent of eligible patients received a PHT. A median of 1 unit of RBCs and plasma were transfused prehospital. Of patients receiving PHT, 24% received only plasma, 7% received only RBCs, and 69% received both. In the propensity score matching analysis (n = 109), PHT was not significantly associated with mortality
Søreide, Eldar; Morrison, Laurie; Hillman, Ken; Monsieurs, Koen; Sunde, Kjetil; Zideman, David; Eisenberg, Mickey; Sterz, Fritz; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Soar, Jasmeet; Nolan, Jerry P
The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) Advisory Statement on Education and Resuscitation in 2003 included a hypothetical formula--'the formula for survival' (FfS)--whereby three interactive factors, guideline quality (science), efficient education of patient caregivers (education) and a well-functioning chain of survival at a local level (local implementation), form multiplicands in determining survival from resuscitation. In May 2006, a symposium was held to discuss the validity of the formula for survival hypothesis and to investigate the influence of each of the multiplicands on survival. This commentary combines the output from this symposium with an updated illustration of the three multiplicands in the FfS using rapid response systems (RRS) for medical science, therapeutic hypothermia (TH) for local implementation, and bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for educational efficiency. International differences between hospital systems made it difficult to assign a precise value for the multiplicand medical science using RRS as an example. Using bystander CPR as an example for the multiplicand educational efficiency, it was also difficult to provide a precise value, mainly because of differences between compression-only and standard CPR. The local implementation multiplicand (exemplified by therapeutic hypothermia) is probably the easiest to improve, and is likely to have the most immediate improvement in observed survival outcome in most systems of care. Despite the noted weaknesses, we believe that the FfS will be useful as a mental framework when trying to improve resuscitation outcome in communities worldwide. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kjørstad, Odd Jarle; Haugen, Dagny Faksvåg
The criteria for refraining from cardiopulmonary resuscitation in palliative care cancer patients are based on patients' right to refuse treatment and the duty of the treating personnel not to exacerbate their suffering and not to administer futile treatment. When is cardiopulmonary resuscitation futile in these patients? Systematic literature searches were conducted in PubMed for the period 1989-2010 on the results of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation in advanced cancer patients and on factors that affected the results of CPR when special mention was made of cancer. The searches yielded 333 hits and 18 included articles: four meta-analyses, eight retrospective clinical studies, and six review articles. Cancer patients had a poorer post-CPR survival than non-cancer patients. Survival declined with increasing extent of the cancer disease. Widespread and therapy-resistant cancer disease coupled with a performance status lower than WHO 2 or a PAM score (Pre-Arrest Morbidity Index) of above 8 was regarded as inconsistent with survival after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is futile for in-hospital cancer patients with widespread incurable disease and poor performance status.
Fleming, Lora E; Levis, Silvina; LeBlanc, William G; Dietz, Noella A; Arheart, Kristopher L; Wilkinson, James D; Clark, John; Serdar, Berrin; Davila, Evelyn P; Lee, David J
Objective Earlier age at menopause onset has been associated with increased all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality risks. Risk of earlier age at menopause associated with primary and secondary tobacco smoke exposure was assessed. Design Cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of US women. Methods 7596 women participants (representing an estimated 79 million US women) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III were asked: time since last menstrual period, occupation, and tobacco use (including home and workplace secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure). Blood cotinine and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were assessed. Logistic regressions for the odds of earlier age at menopause, stratified on race/ethnicity in women 25-50 years and adjusted for survey design, were controlled for age, BMI, education, tobacco smoke exposure, and occupation. Results Among 5029 US women ≥ 25 years with complete data, earlier age at menopause was found among all smokers, and among service and manufacturing industry sector workers. Among women age 25-50 years, there was an increased risk of earlier age at menopause with both primary smoking and with SHS exposure, particularly among Black women. Conclusions Primary tobacco use and SHS exposure were associated with an increased odds of earlier age at menopause in a representative sample of US women. Earlier age at menopause was found for some women worker groups with greater potential occupational SHS exposure. Thus, control of SHS exposures in the workplace may decrease the risk of mortality and morbidity associated with earlier age at menopause in US women workers. PMID:18626414
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary resuscitation board. 880.6080... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6080 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation board. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary... during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary resuscitation board. 880.6080... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6080 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation board. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary... during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary resuscitation board. 880.6080... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6080 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation board. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary... during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary resuscitation board. 880.6080... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6080 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation board. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary... during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary resuscitation board. 880.6080... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6080 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation board. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary... during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...
Athanasopoulos, Panagiotis G.; Hadjittofi, Christopher; Dharmapala, Arinda Dinesh; Orti-Rodriguez, Rafael Jose; Ferro, Alessandra; Nasralla, David; Konstantinidou, Sofia K.; Malagó, Massimo
Abstract Donor organ shortage continues to limit the availability of liver transplantation, a successful and established therapy of end-stage liver diseases. Strategies to mitigate graft shortage include the utilization of marginal livers and recently ex-situ normothermic machine perfusion devices. A 59-year-old woman with cirrhosis due to primary sclerosing cholangitis was offered an ex-situ machine perfused graft with unnoticed severe injury of the suprahepatic vasculature due to road traffic accident. Following a complex avulsion, repair and reconstruction of all donor hepatic veins as well as the suprahepatic inferior vena cava, the patient underwent a face-to-face piggy-back orthotopic liver transplantation and was discharged on the 11th postoperative day after an uncomplicated recovery. This report illustrates the operative technique to utilize an otherwise unusable organ, in the current environment of donor shortage and declining graft quality. Normothermic machine perfusion can definitely play a role in increasing the graft pool, without compromising the quality of livers who had vascular or other damage before being ex-situ perfused. Furthermore, it emphasizes the importance of promptly and thoroughly communicating organ injuries, as well as considering all reconstructive options within the level of expertise at the recipient center. PMID:27082550
Asano, Mamiko; Sakaguchi, Minoru; Tanaka, Satoshi; Kashimura, Keiichiro; Mitani, Tomohiko; Kawase, Masaya; Matsumura, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Takako; Fujita, Yoshikazu; Tabuse, Katsuyoshi
We investigated the effects of microwave irradiation under normothermic conditions on cultured cells. For this study, we developed an irradiation system constituted with semiconductor microwave oscillator (2.45 GHz) and thermos-regulatory applicator, which could irradiate microwaves at varied output powers to maintain the temperature of cultured cells at 37 °C. Seven out of eight types of cultured cells were killed by microwave irradiation, where four were not affected by thermal treatment at 42.5 °C. Since the dielectric properties such as ε’, ε” and tanδ showed similar values at 2.45 GHz among cell types and media, the degree of microwave energy absorbed by cells might be almost the same among cell types. Thus, the vulnerability of cells to microwave irradiation might be different among cell types. In HL-60 cells, which were the most sensitive to microwave irradiation, the viability decreased as irradiation time and irradiation output increased; accordingly, the decrease in viability was correlated to an increase in total joule. However, when a high or low amount of joules per minute was supplied, the correlation between cellular viability and total joules became relatively weak. It is hypothesized that kinds of cancer cells are efficiently killed by respective specific output of microwave under normothermic cellular conditions. PMID:28145466
Ball, Chad G.
Damage control resuscitation (DCR) represents the natural evolution of the initial concept of damage control surgery. It currently includes early blood product transfusion, immediate arrest and/or temporization of ongoing hemorrhage (i.e., temporary intravascular shunts and/or balloon tamponade) as well as restoration of blood volume and physiologic/hematologic stability. As a result, DCR addresses the early coagulopathy of trauma, avoids massive crystalloid resuscitation and leaves the peritoneal cavity open when a patient approaches physiologic exhaustion without improvement. This concept also applies to severe injuries within anatomical transition zones as well as extremities. This review will discuss each of these concepts in detail. PMID:24461267
Meadow, William; Lagatta, Joanne; Andrews, Bree; Lantos, John
This article discusses the ethical issues surrounding the resuscitation of infants who are at great risk to die or survive with significant morbidity. Data are introduced regarding money, outcomes, and prediction. Gestational age influences some of the outcomes after birth more than others do. Prediction is possible at four stages of the resuscitation process. Data suggest that antenatal and delivery room predictions are inadequate, and prediction at the time of discharge is too late. The predictive value (>95%) for the outcome of death or survival with neurodevelopmental impairment is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hassankhani, Hadi; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Rahmani, Azad; Haririan, Hamidreza; Porter, Joanne E
To illuminate the meaning of the lived experiences of resuscitation team members with the presence of the patient's family during resuscitation in the cultural context of Iran. An interpretative phenomenology was used to discover the lived experiences of the nurses and physicians of Tabriz hospitals, Iran, with family presence during resuscitation (FPDR). A total of 12 nurses and 9 physicians were interviewed over a 6-month period. The interviews were audio recorded and semistructured, and were transcribed verbatim. Van Manen's technique was used for data analysis. Two major themes and 10 subthemes emerged, including destructive presence (cessation of resuscitation, interference in resuscitation, disruption to the resuscitation team's focus, argument with the resuscitation team, and adverse mental image in the family) and supportive presence (trust in the resuscitation team, collaboration with the resuscitation team, alleviating the family's concern and settling their nerves, increasing the family's satisfaction, and reducing conflict with resuscitation team members). Participants stated that FPDR may work as a double-edged sword for the family and resuscitation team, hurting or preserving quality. It is thus recommended that guidelines be created to protect patients' and families' rights, while considering the positive aspects of the phenomenon for hospitals. A liaison support person would act to decrease family anxiety levels and would be able to de-escalate any potentially aggressive or confrontational events during resuscitation. Well-trained and expert cardiopulmonary resuscitation team members do not have any stress in the presence of family during resuscitation. Resuscitation events tend to be prolonged when family members are allowed to be present. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Weinstein, P D; Doerfler, M E
Fluid administration in critically ill individuals is frequently a major component of their therapy. There are important effects on blood pressure and maintenance of cardiac output and oxygen delivery, as detailed elsewhere in this text. There are also potentially negative side effects of this therapy, which have been less well defined. Edema of the gastrointestinal tract has been well described, primarily with crystalloid infusions. Gastrointestinal edema may have very complicated effects on albumin kinetics, fluid flux, and ion flux. It may lead to development of ileus. Increased nasogastric tube output may be incorrectly construed as unremitting obstruction rather than a result of the aforementioned changes and increased crystalloid loads. The relationships of intestinal edema to intestinal absorptive function and diarrhea are less clear. At present, changes in type of fluid infusion or correction of serum albumin level to normal cannot be uniformly recommended. The myocardium, although showing evidence of edema with crystalloid infusion, may appear to benefit from colloidal, osmotically active suspensions in the all too few studies that have been done. To date, there is no study giving evidence of clinically different outcome using a variety of fluids that cause, reduce, or prevent this edema. The presence or absence of myocardial edema may be important in patients who demonstrate decreased ventricular function during sepsis or other disorders in which aggressive fluid administration is routine. Edema of the skin has been associated primarily with decreased oxygen tension. Other studies have shown an association with impaired wound healing or increased risk of infection. A direct causal relationship can only be inferred. We are left with a sense that aggressive fluid resuscitation with crystalloid, although improving oxygen delivery, may have other deleterious effects on organ systems, such as the gastrointestinal tract, myocardium, and integument. The edema
Since its introduction in the 1960s as a treatment to restart the heart after sudden cardiac arrest from a heart attack, attempts at cardiopulmonary resuscitation have become more common in other clinical situations. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation can be a lifesaving treatment, with the likelihood of recovery varying greatly depending on individual circumstances; however, overall, the proportion of people who survive following cardiopulmonary resuscitation is relatively low. Anticipatory decisions were recognised as being the best way of ensuring that cardiopulmonary resuscitation was not attempted against individuals' wishes. Since 2001, the British Medical Association, Resuscitation Council (UK) and Royal College of Nursing have published professional guidance on decisions relating to cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The latest version of this guidance was published in June 2016. This paper summarises the key legal and ethical principles that should inform all cardiopulmonary resuscitation decisions, with particular emphasis on the recent changes in law and policy.
Enarson, D A; Didier, E P; Gracey, D R
Records of all patients who developed flail chest after cardiopulmonary resuscitation at Rochester Methodist Hospital between January, 1966 and March 1976 were reviewed. Also, for comparison, records of patients with flail chest resulting from motor vehicle accidents and those of a matched group of patients who underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation without developing flail chest were reviewed. The incidence of flail chest after cardiopulmonary resuscitation was about 5.6 per 100 survivors. The groups who did and did not have flail chest after cardiopulmonary resuscitation were alike in age and in frequency and duration of the resuscitation. Stabilization of the flail chest required mechanical ventilation for 1 to 24 days (mean, 10.7). Flail chest did not significantly lengthen the hospitalization of patients who survived after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The occurrence of flail chest after cardiopulmonary resuscitation did not seem to increase the mortality rate.
Jayaram, Archana; Sima, Adam; Barker, Gail; Thacker, Leroy R
Manual ventilation in the delivery room is provided with devices such as self-inflating bags (SIBs), flow-inflating bags, and T-piece resuscitators. To compare the effect of type of manual ventilation device on overall response to resuscitation among preterm neonates born at < 35 weeks gestation. Retrospective data were collected in 2 time periods. Primary outcome was overall response to resuscitation, as measured by Apgar score. Secondary outcomes were incidence of air leaks, need for chest compressions/epinephrine, need for intubation, and surfactant use. We identified 294 resuscitations requiring ventilation. SIB was used for 135 neonates, and T-piece was used for 159 neonates. There was no significant difference between the 1-min and 5-min Apgar scores between SIB and T-piece (P = .77 and P = .11, respectively), nor were there significant differences in secondary outcomes. The rate of rise of Apgar score was higher, by 0.47, with T-piece, compared to SIB (95% CI 0.08-0.87, P = .02). Although some manikin studies favor T-piece for providing reliable and consistent pressures, our experience did not indicate significant differences in effectiveness of resuscitation between the T-piece and SIB in preterm resuscitations.
Thompson, Melissa; Langlois, Neil E I; Byard, Roger W
Following the death of a woman with blunt force chest trauma, the question was asked how common was the finding at autopsy of a flail chest in decedents after failed cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It was suggested in court that this was an uncommon occurrence. To address this issue, autopsy cases in adults (>18 years) with rib fractures attributable to cardiopulmonary resuscitation were taken from the files of Forensic Science SA over a 7-year period from 2008 to 2014. Flail chest injuries were defined as those arising from fractures at two sites in at least three consecutive ribs. From 236 cases with rib fractures attributed to resuscitation, a total of 43 flail chest injuries were found in 35 cases (14.8%). The majority occurred in the 60-79-year-old age group. These data suggest that flail chest injuries are a more common sequelae of cardiopulmonary resuscitation than has been previously appreciated in autopsy cases, particularly in the elderly. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Godkin, M. Dianne; Toth, Ellen L.
Examined knowledge, attitudes, and opinions of 60 older adults about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Most had little or no accurate knowledge of CPR. Knowledge deficits and misconceptions of older adults should be addressed so that they may become informed and active participants in CPR decision-making process. (BF)
function even in the low volume state. This is likely due to low resistance to flow in the peripheral capillaries due to prevention of cell swelling...limited in their effectiveness. Attempts to modify basic intravenous crystalloids for prehospital resuscitation by adding hypertonic NaCl or starch
To resuscitate means to revive or make go on. This paper is an exploration of my first six months at a Canadian university as a doctoral student. Through a chronological narrative, I explore my experiences through the governing relations of the academy as a way to provoke dialogue about the role of feminist researcher in the institution. By…
View northeast, wharf A, portion AA, details showing earlier piers and braces sloping toward water, reused charred plates for existing decking - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ
Moran, Lauren V; Masters, Grace A; Pingali, Samira; Cohen, Bruce M; Liebson, Elizabeth; Rajarethinam, R P; Ongur, Dost
A childhood history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in psychotic disorders, yet prescription stimulants may interact adversely with the physiology of these disorders. Specifically, exposure to stimulants leads to long-term increases in dopamine release. We therefore hypothesized that individuals with psychotic disorders previously exposed to prescription stimulants will have an earlier onset of psychosis. Age of onset of psychosis (AOP) was compared in individuals with and without prior exposure to prescription stimulants while controlling for potential confounding factors. In a sample of 205 patients recruited from an inpatient psychiatric unit, 40% (n = 82) reported use of stimulants prior to the onset of psychosis. Most participants were prescribed stimulants during childhood or adolescence for a diagnosis of ADHD. AOP was significantly earlier in those exposed to stimulants (20.5 vs. 24.6 years stimulants vs. no stimulants, p < 0.001). After controlling for gender, IQ, educational attainment, lifetime history of a cannabis use disorder or other drugs of abuse, and family history of a first-degree relative with psychosis, the association between stimulant exposure and earlier AOP remained significant. There was a significant gender × stimulant interaction with a greater reduction in AOP for females, whereas the smaller effect of stimulant use on AOP in males did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, individuals with psychotic disorders exposed to prescription stimulants had an earlier onset of psychosis, and this relationship did not appear to be mediated by IQ or cannabis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
When it comes to detecting and treating vineyards for grapevine canker diseases (also called trunk diseases), like Botryosphaeria dieback (Bot canker), Esca, Eutypa dieback and Phomopsis dieback, the earlier the better, says plant pathologist Kendra Baumgartner, with the USDA’s Agricultural Research...
Moore, Christopher A.; Ruark, Jacki L.
This study of the oral motor behaviors of seven toddlers (age 15 months) may be interpreted to indicate that: (1) mandibular coordination follows a developmental continuum from earlier emerging behaviors, such as chewing and sucking, through babbling, to speech, or (2) unique task demands give rise to distinct mandibular coordinative constraints…
Jennifer Pontius; Richard Hallett
Forested ecosystems are threatened by invasive pests, pathogens, and unusual climatic events brought about by climate change. Earlier detection of incipient forest health problems and a quantitatively rigorous assessment method is increasingly important. Here, we describe a method that is adaptable across tree species and stress agents and practical for use in the...
Wada, Masaki; Tamura, Masanori
The Consensus on Science and Treatment Recommendations 2010 supported simulation-based training for education in resuscitation. This approach has been introduced into neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (NCPR) courses in Japan, but no method for teaching instructors has been established. We developed a course for training instructors of NCPR, with inclusion of an instruction practice program. The goal of the study was to evaluate the performance of instructors who completed the course. Based on problems in the conventional instructor training course (old course 1), we developed and implemented a new course. Persons who had completed an NCPR course took the new course after developing two resuscitation scenarios. The new course included lectures and instruction practice, in which participants provided instruction using these scenarios. Instruction by participants was evaluated, and knowledge, opinions and satisfaction were examined by questionnaire after the course. Activity of the participants as instructors for 6 months after certification was also evaluated. The performance of trained instructors was compared between the old and new courses. Of 143 participants in the new course, > 90% had confidence to teach NCPR, while only 50-60% of the 89 participants in the old course indicated that they could instruct on resuscitation procedures and practice (P < 0.001). All participants in the new course recognized the value of scenario practice and all were glad they had taken the course. For 6 months after certification, significantly more participants who had done the new course worked as instructors compared with those who had done the old course (60% vs 34%, P < 0.001). This is the first trial of a resuscitation training course using scenarios that participants developed themselves. A new course including instruction practice for training NCPR instructors was effective for improving instructor performance. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.
Chliara, Daphne; Chalkias, Athanasios; Horopanitis, Evaggelos E; Papadimitriou, Lila; Xanthos, Theodoros
Although researchers in several countries have investigated patients' points of view regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation, there has been no research investigating this issue in Greece. The present study aimed at identifying the attitude of older Greek patients regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation. One basic questionnaire consisting of 34 questions was used in order to identify patients' opinions regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation in five different hospitals from June to November 2011. In total, 300 questionnaires were collected. Although patients' knowledge regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation was poor, most of them would like to be resuscitated in case they suffered an in-hospital cardiac arrest. Also, they believe that they should have the right to accept or refuse treatment. However, the legal and sociocultural norms in Greece do not support patients' choice for the decision to refuse resuscitation. The influence of several factors, such as their general health status or the underlying pathology, could lead patients to give a "do not attempt resuscitation" order. The attitudes of older Greek patients regarding resuscitation are not different from others', whereas the legal and sociocultural norms in Greece do not support patient choice in end-of-life decisions, namely the decision to refuse resuscitation. We advocate the introduction of advanced directives, as well as the establishment and implementation of specific legislation regarding the ethics of resuscitation in Greece. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Stewart, M; Donaldson, L J
As part of the northern region's programme within the national waiting list initiative, schemes have been funded to test the feasibility and acceptability of offering patients the opportunity to travel further afield in order to receive earlier treatment. A total of 484 patients experiencing a long wait for routine surgical operations in the northern region were offered the opportunity to receive earlier treatment outside their local health district; 74% of the patients accepted the offer. The initiative was well received by the participating patients and the majority stated that if the need arose on a future occasion they would prefer to travel for treatment rather than have to wait for lengthy periods for treatment at their local hospital. These findings, interpreted in the light of the National Health Service reforms introduced in April 1991, suggest that for some types of care, patients would welcome greater flexibility in the placing of contracts, not merely reinforcement of historical patterns of referral. PMID:1823553
Jordan, Kim; Elliott, John O; Wall, Sarah; Saul, Emily; Sheth, Rajiv; Coffman, Julie
To examine associations of individual exposure and knowledge of resuscitation mechanics and prognosis with specific decision: Do Not Resuscitate (DNR), Full Code (FC) or Undecided (UD). Cross-sectional questionnaire at 3 sites: geriatric assessment center, internal medicine resident clinic, and inpatient palliative care service. 407 completed the questionnaire: 27% identified as DNR, 24% as FC and 49% as UD. Few (11.8%) respondents reported discussion of DNR status with their primary care doctor. DNR choice was associated with knowledge of DNR mechanics, OR=2.30 (95%CI: 1.23-4.30), physician discussion, OR=5.58 (95%CI: 2.39-13.04) and confidence in understanding own health problems, OR=2.89 (95%CI: 1.04-8.04). FC choice was associated with knowledge of FC mechanics, OR=2.01 (95%CI: 1.03-3.93) and media code exposure, OR=3.80 (95%CI: 1.46-9.92). Knowledge of resuscitation prognosis was negatively associated with FC, OR =0.48 (95%CI: 0.23-0.98). Many individuals lack knowledge or understanding of resuscitation procedure, its risks, and prognosis. Educational efforts, for both patients and healthcare professionals, are needed to improve individual knowledge needed for informed decision. Scheduled time for physician-patient discussion remains important for education about individual health conditions and risk/benefits related to resuscitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gabbott, David; Smith, Gary; Mitchell, Sarah; Colquhoun, Michael; Nolan, Jerry; Soar, Jasmeet; Pitcher, David; Perkins, Gavin; Phillips, Barbara; King, Ben; Spearpoint, Ken
The Royal College of Anaesthetists, the Royal College of Physicians, the Intensive Care Society and the Resuscitation Council (UK) have published new resuscitation standards. The document provides advice to UK healthcare organisations, resuscitation committees and resuscitation officers on all aspects of the resuscitation service. It includes sections on resuscitation training, resuscitation equipment, the cardiac arrest team, cardiac arrest prevention, patient transfer, post-resuscitation care, audit and research. The document makes several recommendations. Healthcare institutions should have, or be represented on, a resuscitation committee that is responsible for all resuscitation issues. Every institution should have at least one resuscitation officer responsible for teaching and conducting training in resuscitation techniques. Staff with patient contact should be given regular resuscitation training appropriate to their expected abilities and roles. Clinical staff should receive regular training in the recognition of patients at risk of cardiopulmonary arrest and the measures required for the prevention of cardiopulmonary arrest. Healthcare institutions admitting acutely ill patients should have a resuscitation team, or its equivalent, available at all times. Clear guidelines should be available indicating how and when to call for the resuscitation team. Cardiopulmonary arrest should be managed according to current national guidelines. Resuscitation equipment should be available throughout the institution for clinical use and for training. The practice of resuscitation should be audited to maintain and improve standards of care. A do not attempt resuscitation (DNAR) policy should be compiled, communicated to relevant members of staff, used and audited regularly. Funding must be provided to support an effective resuscitation service.
Gabbott, David; Smith, Gary; Mitchell, Sarah; Colquhoun, Michael; Nolan, Jerry; Soar, Jasmeet; Pitcher, David; Perkins, Gavin; Phillips, Barbara; King, Ben; Spearpoint, Ken
The Royal College of Anaesthetists, the Royal College of Physicians, the Intensive Care Society and the Resuscitation Council (UK) have published new resuscitation standards. The document provides advice to UK healthcare organisations, resuscitation committees and resuscitation officers on all aspects of the resuscitation service. It includes sections on resuscitation training, resuscitation equipment, the cardiac arrest team, cardiac arrest prevention, patient transfer, post resuscitation care, audit and research. The document makes several recommendations. Healthcare institutions should have, or be represented on, a resuscitation committee that is responsible for all resuscitation issues. Every institution should have at least one resuscitation officer responsible for teaching and conducting training in resuscitation techniques. Staff with patient contact should be given regular resuscitation training appropriate to their expected abilities and roles. Clinical staff should receive regular training in the recognition of patients at risk of cardiopulmonary arrest and the measures required for the prevention of cardiopulmonary arrest. Healthcare institutions admitting acutely ill patients should have a resuscitation team, or its equivalent, available at all times. Clear guidelines should be available indicating how and when to call for the resuscitation team. Cardiopulmonary arrest should be managed according to current national guidelines. Resuscitation equipment should be available throughout the institution for clinical use and for training. The practice of resuscitation should be audited to maintain and improve standards of care. A do not attempt resuscitation (DNAR) policy should be compiled, communicated to relevant members of staff, used and audited regularly. Funding must be provided to support an effective resuscitation service.
Chen, Bihua; Chen, Gang; Dai, Chenxi; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Yuanyuan; Li, Yongqin
Quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis has shown promising results in studying brain injury and functional recovery after cardiac arrest (CA). However, whether the quantitative characteristics of EEG, as potential indicators of neurological prognosis, are influenced by CA causes is unknown. The purpose of this study was designed to compare the quantitative characteristics of early post-resuscitation EEG between asphyxial CA (ACA) and ventricular fibrillation CA (VFCA) in rats. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were randomized into either ACA or VFCA group. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated after 5-min untreated CA. Characteristics of early post-resuscitation EEG were compared, and the relationships between quantitative EEG features and neurological outcomes were investigated. Compared with VFCA, serum level of S100B, neurological deficit score and brain histopathologic damage score were dramatically higher in the ACA group. Quantitative measures of EEG, including onset time of EEG burst, time to normal trace, burst suppression ratio, and information quantity, were significantly lower for CA caused by asphyxia and correlated with the 96-h neurological outcome and survival. Characteristics of earlier post-resuscitation EEG differed between cardiac and respiratory causes. Quantitative measures of EEG not only predicted neurological outcome and survival, but also have the potential to stratify CA with different causes.
The Industrial Revolution saw the creation of many new jobs, but probably none more curious than that of zookeeper. The London Zoological Gardens, established for members in 1828, was opened to the general public in 1847. In 1852 the "Head Keeper in the Serpent Room", Edward Horatio Girling, spent a night farewelling a friend departing for Australia. He arrived at work in an inebriated state and was bitten on the face by a cobra that he was handling in a less than sensible manner. He was taken by cab to University College Hospital where he was resuscitated by a number of doctors, including Joseph Clover then the resident medical officer to the hospital and later to become the leading anaesthetist in London. Clover recorded this event in his diary along with the resuscitation method used. The patient eventually died but his treatment created a flurry of correspondence in the medical and lay press. Interestingly, the attempted resuscitation was with bellows, which had been abandoned by the Royal Humane Society twenty years earlier Clover records other cases of resuscitation with bellows at University College Hospital during his time as a resident medical officer there (1848 to 1853). There is a casebook belonging to Joseph Clover in the Geoffrey Kaye Museum, in Melbourne. This story is one of the many interesting stories uncovered during a study of this book and Clover's other personal papers.
Sustained inflation performed shortly after birth to help clear lung fluid and establish functional residual capacity in preterm infants is gaining popularity, but definitive evidence for its effectiveness is lacking. Although there is a sound physiologic basis for this approach, and much preclinical experimental evidence of effectiveness, the results of recent animal studies and clinical trials have been inconsistent. The most recent data from a multicenter randomized trial suggest a modest benefit of sustained inflation in reducing the need for mechanical ventilation in extremely-low-birth-weight infants. However, the impact may be more modest than earlier retrospective cohort comparisons suggested. The trend toward more airleak and a higher rate of intraventricular hemorrhage is worrisome. Sustained inflation may be ineffective unless some spontaneous respiratory effort is present. Several on-going trials should further clarify the putative benefits of sustained inflation. Delivery room sustained inflation is an attractive concept that holds much promise, but widespread clinical application should await definitive evidence from on-going clinical trials.
Ventres, W B
The Patient Self-Determination Act of 1991 implicitly encourages physicians to discuss advance directives and no-code orders with their patients. The medical literature to date, however, has done little to place resuscitative decision making in the context of how physicians, patients, and families communicate with one another. This paper investigates how interactions between involved parties affect the process and outcome of this decision making. Participant observation and open-ended interviews were conducted with patients, their families, resident physicians, and family medicine faculty members. This report describes three social and cultural issues that commonly influence and shape the process of do-not-resuscitate decision making: judging competency and capacity, dealing with uncertainty, and recognizing attitudes toward death. Improved understanding of the communicative process can facilitate the establishment of meaningful, therapeutic alliances between physicians, patients, and families at an influential juncture in the family life cycle.
Corley, Kevin T T; Axon, Jane E
Early intervention can dramatically alter outcome in foals. Cardio-pulmonary cerebral resuscitation can be successful and clinically worthwhile when applied to foals that arrest as part of the birthing process. Readily available equipment and an ordered plan starting with addressing the respiratory system (airway and breathing) followed by the circulatory system (circulation and drugs) are the keys to success. Hypoglycemia is common in foals that are not nursing and in septic foals. Support of serum glucose can be an important emergency treatment. Respiratory support with oxygen therapy should be considered in all foals following resuscitation and dystocia. Other foals that are likely to benefit from oxygen are those that are dyspneic, cyanotic, meconium-stained after birth,or recumbent. Emergency therapies, applied correctly, are expected to result in decreased mortality and morbidity.
Rosoff, Philip M; Schneiderman, Lawrence J
The Institute of Medicine and the American Heart Association have issued a "call to action" to expand the performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in response to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Widespread advertising campaigns have been created to encourage more members of the lay public to undergo training in the technique of closed-chest compression-only CPR, based upon extolling the virtues of rapid initiation of resuscitation, untempered by information about the often distressing outcomes, and hailing the "improved" results when nonprofessional bystanders are involved. We describe this misrepresentation of CPR as a highly effective treatment as the fetishization of this valuable, but often inappropriately used, therapy. We propose that the medical profession has an ethical duty to inform the public through education campaigns about the procedure's limitations in the out-of-hospital setting and the narrow clinical indications for which it has been demonstrated to have a reasonable probability of producing favorable outcomes.
Tudor, Kelly; Berger, Jill; Polivka, Barbara J; Chlebowy, Rachael; Thomas, Beena
Although strong evidence indicates that the presence of a patient's family during resuscitation has a positive effect on the family, the practice is still controversial and is not consistently implemented. To explore nurses' experience with resuscitation, perceptions of the benefits and risks of having a patient's family members present, and self-confidence in having family presence at their workplace. Differences in demographic characteristics and relationships between nurses' perceptions of self-confidence and perceived risks and benefits of family presence were evaluated. The study was descriptive, with a cross-sectional survey design. A convenience sample of 154 nurses working in inpatient and outpatient units at an urban hospital were surveyed. The 63-item survey included 2 previously validated scales, demographic questions, and opinion questions. Nurses' self-confidence and perceived benefit of family presence were significantly related (r = 0.54; P < .001). Self-confidence was significantly greater in nurses who had completed training in Advanced Cardiac Life Support, had experienced 10 or more resuscitation events, were specialty certified, or were members of nurses' professional organizations. Barriers to family presence included fear of interference by the patient's family, lack of space, lack of support for the family members, fear of trauma to family members, and performance anxiety. Changing the practice of family presence will require strengthening current policy, identifying a team member to attend to the patient's family during resuscitation, and requiring nurses to complete education on evidence that supports family presence and changes in clinical practice. ©2014 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.
include Hextend for volume resuscitation and tissue perfusion, fibrinogen concentrate for hemostasis, and tranexamic acid for hemostasis. These...for hemostasis, and tranexamic acid for hemostasis. These components are tested in a combat-relevant swine polytrauma model of hemorrhagic shock with...HexVasoCntl HexVasoAlb Ctrl 4 4 would not allow adequate blood loss from the aortic tear, preventing testing of fibrinogen and tranexamic acid as
pendulum back” in burn resuscitation to avoid “fluid creep” and the complications of over-resuscitation. We have termed the effects of over...inju- ries. In this environment, colloids may be both an excellent solution to the packing constraints imposed by the battlefield as well as effective ...or decreased urine output despite adequate resuscitation and relative euvolemia (Tables 1 and 2). An example of the effectiveness of this performance
Ann Surg 1979;189: 546–52. 39. Jelenko C III, Williams JB, Wheeler ML, et al. Studies in shock and resuscitation, I: use of a hypertonic, albumin...SUMMARY ARTICLE American Burn Association Practice Guidelines Burn Shock Resuscitation Tam N. Pham, MD,* Leopoldo C . Cancio, MD,† Nicole S. Gibran...practice guidelines burn shock resuscitation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Pham T. N., Cancio L. C
Walker, W M
A relative's right to witness resuscitation is the subject of considerable discussion and debate. This paper explores the presence of relatives in the resuscitation room from a moral and ethical perspective. The focus of discussion is essentially upon the principle of respect for autonomy vs. what appears to be the counter-argument, benevolent paternalism. It is concluded that recognition of a relative's right to witness resuscitation is dependent upon health care professionals' willingness to promote the principle of respect for autonomy.
Baik, Nariae; O’Reilly, Megan; Fray, Caroline; van Os, Sylvia; Cheung, Po-Yin; Schmölzer, Georg M.
Approximately, 10–20% of newborns require breathing assistance at birth, which remains the cornerstone of neonatal resuscitation. Fortunately, the need for chest compression (CC) or medications in the delivery room (DR) is rare. About 0.1% of term infants and up to 15% of preterm infants receive these interventions, this will result in approximately one million newborn deaths annually worldwide. In addition, CC or medications (epinephrine) are more frequent in the preterm population (~15%) due to birth asphyxia. A recent study reported that only 6 per 10,000 infants received epinephrine in the DR. Further, the study reported that infants receiving epinephrine during resuscitation had a high incidence of mortality (41%) and short-term neurologic morbidity (57% hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and seizures). A recent review of newborns who received prolonged CC and epinephrine but had no signs of life at 10 min following birth noted 83% mortality, with 93% of survivors suffering moderate-to-severe disability. The poor prognosis associated with receiving CC alone or with medications in the DR raises questions as to whether improved cardiopulmonary resuscitation methods specifically tailored to the newborn could improve outcomes. PMID:29484288
Morley, Colin J
Stabilisation and resuscitation of babies at birth is one of the most frequently performed procedures and requires considerable skill. If it is not done well, the baby may suffer prolonged hypoxia and bradycardia. Over the last few years there has been a growing interest in carefully evaluating an infant's condition at birth and the details of what is happening during resuscitation. Clinical assessment of an infant at this time is difficult and often inaccurate. Assessments of heart rate, colour, chest excursions, mask leak, tidal volume, inflation and expiration times, endotracheal intubation, and spontaneous breathing are imprecise. Detailed monitoring of gas flow in and out of the baby, integrated to tidal volume and used to calculate the leak around the face mask or endotracheal tube, together with ventilation pressures, pulse oximetry, ECG, and capnography add objectivity to the clinical assessments. These physiological parameters can be used directly to guide care but are also very useful for debriefing, feedback, audit, teaching, and research. With simultaneous video recording of the resuscitation it is possible to see exactly what is happening during the procedure. Endotracheal intubation is a difficult skill to learn and teach. However, this is now much easier with video laryngoscopy showing the intubator and supervisors exactly what is happening at the larynx. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kudo, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Keiji; Okada, Kunihiko; Takemura, Takahiro
Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) followed by operating room sternotomy, rather than resuscitative thoracotomy, might be life-saving for patients with blunt cardiac rupture and cardiac arrest who do not have multiple severe traumatic injuries. A 49-year-old man was injured in a vehicle crash and transferred to the emergency department. On admission, he was hemodynamically stable, but a plain chest radiograph revealed a widened mediastinum, and echocardiography revealed hemopericardium. A computed tomography scan revealed hemopericardium and mediastinal hematoma, without other severe traumatic injuries. However, the patient's pulse was lost soon after he was transferred to the intensive care unit, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated. We initiated ECPR using femorofemoral veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) with heparin administration, which achieved hemodynamic stability. He was transferred to the operating room for sternotomy and cardiac repair. Right ventricular rupture and pericardial sac laceration were identified intraoperatively, and cardiac repair was performed. After repairing the cardiac rupture, the cardiac output recovered spontaneously, and ECMO was discontinued intraoperatively. The patient recovered fully and was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 7. In this patient, ECPR rapidly restored brain perfusion and provided enough time to perform operating room sternotomy, allowing for good surgical exposure of the heart. Moreover, open cardiac massage was unnecessary. ECPR with sternotomy and cardiac repair is advisable for patients with blunt cardiac rupture and cardiac arrest who do not have severe multiple traumatic injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Henry E.; Prince, David; Stephens, Shannon W.; Herren, Heather; Daya, Mohamud; Richmond, Neal; Carlson, Jestin; Warden, Craig; Colella, M. Riccardo; Brienza, Ashley; Aufderheide, Tom P.; Idris, Ahamed; Schmicker, Robert; May, Susanne; Nichol, Graham
Airway management is an important component of resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The optimal approach to advanced airway management is unknown. The Pragmatic Airway Resuscitation Trial (PART) will compare the effectiveness of endotracheal intubation (ETI) and Laryngeal Tube (LT) insertion upon 72-hour survival in adult OHCA. Encompassing United States Emergency Medical Services agencies affiliated with the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC), PART will use a cluster-crossover randomized design. Participating subjects will include adult, non-traumatic OHCA requiring bag-valve-mask ventilation. Trial interventions will include 1) initial airway management with ETI and 2) initial airway management with LT. The primary and secondary trial outcomes are 72-hour survival and return of spontaneous circulation. Additional clinical outcomes will include airway management process and adverse events. The trial will enroll a total of 3,000 subjects. Results of PART may guide the selection of advanced airway management strategies in OHCA. PMID:26851059
Brook, David W.; Katten, Naomi S.; Ning, Yuming; Brook, Judith S.
This research examined the longitudinal pathways from earlier violent television exposure to later drug dependence. African American and Puerto Rican adolescents were interviewed during three points in time (N = 463). Violent television exposure in late adolescence predicted violent television exposure in young adulthood, which in turn was related to tobacco/marijuana use, nicotine dependence, and later drug dependence. Some policy and clinical implications suggest: a) regulating the times when violent television is broadcast; b) creating developmentally targeted prevention/treatment programs; and c) recognizing that watching violent television may serve as a cue regarding increased susceptibility to nicotine and drug dependence. PMID:18612881
Spanjersberg, W R; Bergs, E A; Mushkudiani, N; Klimek, M; Schipper, I B
To study advanced trauma life support (ATLS) protocol adherence prospectively in trauma resuscitation and to analyse time management of daily multidisciplinary trauma resuscitation at a level 1 trauma centre, for both moderately and severely injured patients. All victims of severe blunt trauma were consecutively included. Patients with a revised trauma score (RTS) of 12 were resuscitated by a "minor trauma" team and patients with an RTS of less than 12 were resuscitated by a "severe trauma" team. Digital video recordings were used to analyse protocol compliance and time management during initial assessment. From 1 May to 1 September 2003, 193 resuscitations were included. The "minor trauma" team assessed 119 patients, with a mean injury severity score (ISS) of 7 (range 1-45). Overall protocol compliance was 42%, ranging from 0% for thoracic percussion to 93% for thoracic auscultation. The median resuscitation time was 45.9 minutes (range 39.7-55.9). The "severe team" assessed 74 patients, with a mean ISS of 22 (range 1-59). Overall protocol compliance was 53%, ranging from 4% for thoracic percussion to 95% for thoracic auscultation. Resuscitation took 34.8 minutes median (range 21.6-44.1). Results showed the current trauma resuscitation to be ATLS-like, with sometimes very low protocol compliance rates. Timing of secondary survey and radiology and thus time efficiency remains a challenge in all trauma patients. To assess the effect of trauma resuscitation protocols on outcome, protocol adherence needs to be improved.
Bleijenberg, Eduard; Koster, Rudolph W; de Vries, Hendrik; Beesems, Stefanie G
The Guidelines place emphasis on high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This study aims to measure the impact of post-resuscitation feedback on the quality of CPR as performed by ambulance personnel. Two ambulances are dispatched for suspected cardiac arrest. The crew (driver and paramedic) of the first arriving ambulance is responsible for the quality of CPR. The crew of the second ambulance establishes an intravenous access and supports the first crew. All resuscitation attempts led by the ambulance crew of the study region were reviewed by two research paramedics and structured feedback was given based on defibrillator recording with impedance signal. A 12-months period before introduction of post-resuscitation feedback was compared with a 19-months period after introduction of feedback, excluding a six months run-in interval. Quality parameters were chest compression fraction (CCF), chest compression rate, longest peri-shock pause and longest non-shock pause. In the pre-feedback period 55 cases were analyzed and 69 cases in the feedback period. Median CCF improved significantly in the feedback period (79% vs 86%, p<0.001). The mean chest compression rate was within the recommended range of 100-120/min in 87% of the cases in the pre-feedback period and in 90% of the cases in the feedback period (p=0.65). The duration of longest non-shock pause decreased significantly (40s vs 19s, p<0.001), the duration of the longest peri-shock pause did not change significantly (16s vs 13s, p=0.27). Post-resuscitation feedback improves the quality of resuscitation, significantly increasing CCF and decreasing the duration of longest non-shock pauses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kravet, Steven J; Levine, Rachel B; Rubin, Haya R; Wright, Scott M
Patient discharges from the hospital often occur late in the day and are frequently clustered after 4 PM. When inpatients leave earlier in the day, quality is improved because new admissions awaiting beds are able to leave the emergency department sooner and emergency department waiting room backlog is reduced. Nursing staff, whose work patterns traditionally result in high activity of discharge and admission between 5 PM and 8 PM, benefit by spreading out their work across a longer part of the day. Discharging patients earlier in the day also has the potential to increase patient satisfaction. Despite multiple stakeholders in the discharge planning process, physicians play the most important role. Getting physician buy-in requires an ability to teach physicians about the concept of early-in-the-day discharges and their impact on the process. We defined a new physician-centered discharge planning process and introduced it to an internal medicine team with an identical control team as a comparison. Discharge time of day was analyzed for 1 month. Mean time of day of discharge was 13:39 for the intervention group versus 15:45 for the control group (P<.001). If reproduced successfully, this process could improve quality at an important transition point in patient care.
Stewart, I.T.; Cayan, D.R.; Dettinger, M.D.
The highly variable timing of streamflow in snowmelt-dominated basins across western North America is an important consequence, and indicator, of climate fluctuations. Changes in the timing of snowmelt-derived streamflow from 1948 to 2002 were investigated in a network of 302 western North America gauges by examining the center of mass for flow, spring pulse onset dates, and seasonal fractional flows through trend and principal component analyses. Statistical analysis of the streamflow timing measures with Pacific climate indicators identified local and key large-scale processes that govern the regionally coherent parts of the changes and their relative importance. Widespread and regionally coherent trends toward earlier onsets of springtime snowmelt and streamflow have taken place across most of western North America, affecting an area that is much larger than previously recognized. These timing changes have resulted in increasing fractions of annual flow occurring earlier in the water year by 1-4 weeks. The immediate (or proximal) forcings for the spatially coherent parts of the year-to-year fluctuations and longer-term trends of streamflow timing have been higher winter and spring temperatures. Although these temperature changes are partly controlled by the decadal-scale Pacific climate mode [Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO)], a separate and significant part of the variance is associated with a springtime warming trend that spans the PDO phases. ?? 2005 American Meteorological Society.
Fan, Bihang; Guo, Li; Li, Ning; Chen, Jin; Lin, Henry; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Shen, Miaogen; Rao, Yuhan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Lei
The observed decline of spring dust storms in Northeast Asia since the 1950s has been attributed to surface wind stilling. However, spring vegetation growth could also restrain dust storms through accumulating aboveground biomass and increasing surface roughness. To investigate the impacts of vegetation spring growth on dust storms, we examine the relationships between recorded spring dust storm outbreaks and satellite-derived vegetation green-up date in Inner Mongolia, Northern China from 1982 to 2008. We find a significant dampening effect of advanced vegetation growth on spring dust storms (r = 0.49, p = 0.01), with a one-day earlier green-up date corresponding to a decrease in annual spring dust storm outbreaks by 3%. Moreover, the higher correlation (r = 0.55, p < 0.01) between green-up date and dust storm outbreak ratio (the ratio of dust storm outbreaks to times of strong wind events) indicates that such effect is independent of changes in surface wind. Spatially, a negative correlation is detected between areas with advanced green-up dates and regional annual spring dust storms (r = −0.49, p = 0.01). This new insight is valuable for understanding dust storms dynamics under the changing climate. Our findings suggest that dust storms in Inner Mongolia will be further mitigated by the projected earlier vegetation green-up in the warming world. PMID:25343265
Fan, Bihang; Guo, Li; Li, Ning; Chen, Jin; Lin, Henry; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Shen, Miaogen; Rao, Yuhan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Lei
The observed decline of spring dust storms in Northeast Asia since the 1950s has been attributed to surface wind stilling. However, spring vegetation growth could also restrain dust storms through accumulating aboveground biomass and increasing surface roughness. To investigate the impacts of vegetation spring growth on dust storms, we examine the relationships between recorded spring dust storm outbreaks and satellite-derived vegetation green-up date in Inner Mongolia, Northern China from 1982 to 2008. We find a significant dampening effect of advanced vegetation growth on spring dust storms (r = 0.49, p = 0.01), with a one-day earlier green-up date corresponding to a decrease in annual spring dust storm outbreaks by 3%. Moreover, the higher correlation (r = 0.55, p < 0.01) between green-up date and dust storm outbreak ratio (the ratio of dust storm outbreaks to times of strong wind events) indicates that such effect is independent of changes in surface wind. Spatially, a negative correlation is detected between areas with advanced green-up dates and regional annual spring dust storms (r = -0.49, p = 0.01). This new insight is valuable for understanding dust storms dynamics under the changing climate. Our findings suggest that dust storms in Inner Mongolia will be further mitigated by the projected earlier vegetation green-up in the warming world.
Schneiderhahn, Mary Elizabeth; Fish, Anne Folta
The purpose of this article was to describe the history and leadership dimensions of the role of resuscitation process manager and provide specific examples of how this role is implemented at a Midwest medical center. In 1992, a medical center in the Midwest needed a nurse to manage resuscitation care. This role designation meant that this nurse became central to all quality improvement efforts in resuscitation care. The role expanded as clinical resuscitation guidelines were updated and as the medical center grew. The role became known as the critical care clinical nurse specialist as resuscitation process manager. This clinical care nurse specialist was called a manager, but she had no direct line authority, so she accomplished her objectives by forming a multitude of collaborative networks. Based on a framework by Finkelman, the manager role incorporated specific leadership abilities in quality improvement: (1) coordination of medical center-wide resuscitation, (2) use of interprofessional teams, (3) integration of evidence into practice, and (4) staff coaching to develop leadership. The manager coordinates resuscitation care with the goals of prevention of arrests if possible, efficient and effective implementation of resuscitation protocols, high quality of patient and family support during and after the resuscitation event, and creation or revision of resuscitation policies for in-hospital and for ambulatory care areas. The manager designs a comprehensive set of meaningful and measurable process and outcome indicators with input from interprofessional teams. The manager engages staff in learning, reflecting on care given, and using the evidence base for resuscitation care. Finally, the manager role is a balance between leading quality improvement efforts and coaching staff to implement and sustain these quality improvement initiatives. Revisions to clinical guidelines for resuscitation care since the 1990s have resulted in medical centers developing improved
Ungersböck, Markus; Jurkovic, Anita; Koch, Elisabeth; Lipa, Wolfgang; Scheifinger, Helfried; Zach-Hermann, Susanne
Modern phenology is the study of the timing of recurring biological events in the animal and plant world, the causes of their timing with regard to biotic and abiotic forces, and the interrelation among phases of the same or different species. The relationship between phenology and climate explains the importance of plant phenology for Climate Change studies. Plants require light, water, oxygen mineral nutrients and suitable temperature to grow. In temperate zones the seasonal life cycle of plants is primarily controlled by temperature and day length. Higher spring air temperatures are resulting in an earlier onset of the phenological spring in temperate and cool climate. On the other hand changes in phenology due to climate change do have impact on the climate system itself. Vegetation is a dynamic factor in the earth - climate system and has positive and negative feedback mechanisms to the biogeochemical and biogeophysical fluxes to the atmosphere Since the mid of the 1980s spring springs earlier in Europe and autumn is shifting back to the end of the year resulting in a longer vegetation period. The advancement of spring can be clearly attributed to temperature increase in the months prior to leaf unfolding and flowering, the timing of autumn is more complex and cannot easily be attributed to one or some few parameters. To demonstrate that the observed advancement of spring since the mid of 1980s is pro-longed in 2001 to 2010 and the delay of fall and the lengthening of the growing season is confirmed in the last decade we picked out several indicator plants from the PEP725 database www.pep725.eu. The PEP725 database collects data from different European network operators and thus offers a unique compilation of phenological observations; the database is regularly updated. The data follow the same classification scheme, the so called BBCH coding system so they can be compared. Lilac Syringa vulgaris, birch Betula pendula, beech Fagus and horse chestnut Aesculus
Heathcote, Adam Charles; Jones, Jacqueline; Clarke, Paul
Only a minority of babies require extended resuscitation at birth. Resuscitations concerning babies who die or who survive with adverse outcomes are increasingly subject to medicolegal scrutiny. Our aim was to describe real-life timings of key resuscitation events observed in a historical series of newborns who required full resuscitation at birth. Twenty-seven babies born in our centre over a 10-year period had an Apgar score of 0 at 1 min and required full resuscitation. The median (95% confidence interval) postnatal age at achieving key events were commencing cardiac compressions, 2.0 (1.5-4.0) min; endotracheal intubation, 3.8 (2.0-6.0) min; umbilical venous catheterisation 9.0 (7.5-12.0) min; and administration of first adrenaline dose 10.0 (8.0-14.0) min. The wide range of timings presented from real-life cases may prove useful to clinicians involved in medical negligence claims and provide a baseline for quality improvements in resuscitation training. What is Known: • Only a minority of babies require extended resuscitation at birth; these cases are often subject to medicolegal interrogation • Timings of key resuscitation events are poorly described and documentation of resuscitation events is often lacking yet is open to medicolegal scrutiny What is New: • We present a wide range of real-life timings of key resuscitation events during the era of routine newborn life support training • These timings may prove useful to clinicians involved in medical negligence claims and provide a baseline for quality improvements in resuscitation training.
Mennemeyer, Stephen T.; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald
Older adults who undergo cataract extraction have roughly half the rate of motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement per mile driven compared to cataract patients who do not elect cataract surgery. Currently in the U.S., most insurers do not allow payment for cataract surgery based upon the findings of a vision exam unless accompanied by an individual’s complaint of visual difficulties that seriously interfere with driving or other daily activities and individuals themselves may be slow or reluctant to complain and seek relief. As a consequence, surgery tends to occur after significant vision problems have emerged. We hypothesize that a proactive policy encouraging cataract surgery earlier for a lesser level of complaint would significantly reduce MVCs among older drivers. We used a Monte Carlo model to simulate the MVC experience of the U.S. population from age 60 to 89 under alternative protocols for the timing of cataract surgery which we call “Current Practice” (CP) and “Earlier Surgery” (ES). Our base model finds, from a societal perspective with undiscounted 2010 dollars, that switching to ES from CP reduces by about 21% the average number of MVCs, fatalities, and MVC cost per person. The net effect on total cost – all MVC costs plus cataract surgery expenditures -- is a reduction of about 16%. Quality Adjusted Life Years would increase by about 5%. From the perspective of payers for healthcare, the switch would increase cataract surgery expenditure for ages 65+ by about 8% and for ages 60 to 64 by about 47% but these expenditures are substantially offset after age 65 by reductions in the medical and emergency services component of MVC cost. Similar results occur with discounting at 3% and with various sensitivity analyses. We conclude that a policy of ES would significantly reduce MVCs and their associated consequences. PMID:23369786
Dai, Chenxi; Wang, Zhi; Wei, Liang; Chen, Gang; Chen, Bihua; Zuo, Feng; Li, Yongqin
Early and reliable prediction of neurological outcome remains a challenge for comatose survivors of cardiac arrest (CA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability of EEG, heart rate variability (HRV) features and the combination of them for outcome prognostication in CA model of rats. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 6 groups (n=8 each) with different cause and duration of untreated arrest. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated after 5, 6 and 7min of ventricular fibrillation or 4, 6 and 8min of asphyxia. EEG and ECG were continuously recorded for 4h under normothermia after resuscitation. The relationships between features of early post-resuscitation EEG, HRV and 96-hour outcome were investigated. Prognostic performances were evaluated using the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). All of the animals were successfully resuscitated and 27 of them survived to 96h. Weighted-permutation entropy (WPE) and normalized high frequency (nHF) outperformed other EEG and HRV features for the prediction of survival. The AUC of WPE was markedly higher than that of nHF (0.892 vs. 0.759, p<0.001). The AUC was 0.954 when WPE and nHF were combined using a logistic regression model, which was significantly higher than the individual EEG (p=0.018) and HRV (p<0.001) features. Earlier post-resuscitation HRV provided prognostic information complementary to quantitative EEG in the CA model of rats. The combination of EEG and HRV features leads to improving performance of outcome prognostication compared to either EEG or HRV based features alone. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Training in the modern form of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) started in Singapore in 1983. For the first 15 years, the expansion of training programmes was mainly owing to the interest of a few individuals. Public training in the skill was minimal. In an area of medical care where the greatest opportunity for benefit lies in employing core resuscitation skills in the prehospital environment, very little was being done to address such a need. In 1998, a group of physicians, working together with the Ministry of Health, set up the National Resuscitation Council (NRC). Over the years, the NRC has created national guidelines on resuscitation and reviewed them at five-yearly intervals. Provider training manuals are now available for most programmes. The NRC has set up an active accreditation system for monitoring and maintaining standards of life support training. This has led to a large increase in the number of training centres, as well as recognition and adoption of the council's guidelines in the country. The NRC has also actively promoted the use of bystander CPR through community-based programmes, resulting in a rise in the number of certified providers. Improving the chain of survival, through active community-based training programmes, will likely lead to more lives being saved from sudden cardiac arrest. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.
Training in the modern form of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) started in Singapore in 1983. For the first 15 years, the expansion of training programmes was mainly owing to the interest of a few individuals. Public training in the skill was minimal. In an area of medical care where the greatest opportunity for benefit lies in employing core resuscitation skills in the prehospital environment, very little was being done to address such a need. In 1998, a group of physicians, working together with the Ministry of Health, set up the National Resuscitation Council (NRC). Over the years, the NRC has created national guidelines on resuscitation and reviewed them at five-yearly intervals. Provider training manuals are now available for most programmes. The NRC has set up an active accreditation system for monitoring and maintaining standards of life support training. This has led to a large increase in the number of training centres, as well as recognition and adoption of the council’s guidelines in the country. The NRC has also actively promoted the use of bystander CPR through community-based programmes, resulting in a rise in the number of certified providers. Improving the chain of survival, through active community-based training programmes, will likely lead to more lives being saved from sudden cardiac arrest. PMID:28741008
Winther-Jensen, Matilde; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John; Nielsen, Niklas; Lippert, Freddy K; Køber, Lars; Wanscher, Michael; Søholm, Helle
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is associated with a poor prognosis. As comorbidity and frailty increase with age; ethical dilemmas may arise when OHCA occur in the very old. We aimed to investigate mortality, neurological outcome and post resuscitation care in octogenarians (≥80) to assess whether resuscitation and post resuscitation care should be avoided. During 2007-2011 consecutive OHCA-patients were attended by the physician-based Emergency Medical Services-system in Copenhagen. Pre-hospital data based on Utstein-criteria, and data on post resuscitation care were collected. Primary outcome was successful resuscitation; secondary endpoints were 30-day mortality and neurological outcome (Cerebral Performance Category (CPC)). 2509 OHCA-patients with attempted resuscitation were recorded, 22% (n=558) were octogenarians/nonagenarians. 166 (30% of all octogenarians with resuscitation attempted) octogenarians were successfully resuscitated compared to 830 (43% with resuscitation attempted) patients <80 years. 30-day mortality in octogenarians was significantly higher after adjustment for prognostic factors (HR=1.61 CI: 1.22-2.13, p<0.001). Octogenarians received fewer coronary angiographies (CAG) (14 vs. 37%, p<0.001), and had lower odds of receiving CAG by multivariate logistic regression (OR: 0.19, CI: 0.08-0.44, p<0.001). A favorable neurological outcome (CPC 1/2) in survivors to discharge was found in 70% (n=26) of octogenarians compared to 86% (n=317, p=0.03) in the younger patients. OHCA in octogenarians was associated with a significantly higher mortality rate after adjustment for prognostic factors. However, the majority of octogenarian survivors were discharged with a favorable neurological outcome. Withholding resuscitation and post resuscitation care in octogenarians does not seem justified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lukas, R P; Van Aken, H; Engel, P; Bohn, A
The quality of chest compression is a determinant of survival after cardiac arrest. Therefore, the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) 2010 guidelines on resuscitation strongly focus on compression quality. Despite its impact on survival, observational studies have shown that chest compression quality is not reached by professional rescue teams. Real-time feedback devices for resuscitation are able to measure chest compression during an ongoing resuscitation attempt through a sternal sensor equipped with a motion and pressure detection system. In addition to the electrocardiograph (ECG) ventilation can be detected by transthoracic impedance monitoring. In cases of quality deviation, such as shallow chest compression depth or hyperventilation, feedback systems produce visual or acoustic alarms. Rescuers can thereby be supported and guided to the requested quality in chest compression and ventilation. Feedback technology is currently available both as a so-called stand-alone device and as an integrated feature in a monitor/defibrillator unit. Multiple studies have demonstrated sustainable enhancement in the education of resuscitation due to the use of real-time feedback technology. There is evidence that real-time feedback for resuscitation combined with training and debriefing strategies can improve both resuscitation quality and patient survival. Chest compression quality is an independent predictor for survival in resuscitation and should therefore be measured and documented in further clinical multicenter trials.
In winning second prize in the Logie Medical Ethics Essay Contest in 1997, Carolyn Rosenczweig raised questions about the role patients' family members should be allowed to play during resuscitative efforts by medical staff. She concluded that even though their presence might complicate resuscitation attempts, "blanket policies that exclude all relatives from being present seem a knee-jerk reaction." PMID:9526478
Siempos, Ilias I; Ntaidou, Theodora K; Samonis, George
We reviewed Greek mythology to accumulate tales of resuscitation and we explored whether these tales could be viewed as indirect evidence that ancient Greeks considered resuscitation strategies similar to those currently used. Three compendia of Greek mythology: The Routledge Handbook of Greek Mythology, The Greek Myths by Robert Graves, and Greek Mythology by Ioannis Kakridis were used to find potentially relevant narratives. Thirteen myths that may suggest resuscitation (including 1 case of autoresuscitation) were identified. Methods to attempt mythological resuscitation included use of hands (which may correlate with basic life support procedures), a kiss on the mouth (similar to mouth-to-mouth resuscitation), application of burning torches (which might recall contemporary use of external defibrillators), and administration of drugs (a possible analogy to advanced life support procedures). A careful assessment of relevant myths demonstrated that interpretations other than medical might be more credible. Although several narratives of Greek mythology might suggest modern resuscitation techniques, they do not clearly indicate that ancient Greeks presaged scientific methods of resuscitation. Nevertheless, these elegant tales reflect humankind's optimism that a dying human might be restored to life if the appropriate procedures were implemented. Without this optimism, scientific improvement in the field of resuscitation might not have been achieved.
Lin, Steve; Turgulov, Anuar; Taher, Ahmed; Buick, Jason E; Byers, Adam; Drennan, Ian R; Hu, Samantha; J Morrison, Laurie
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) process measures research and quality assurance has traditionally been limited to the first 5 minutes of resuscitation due to significant costs in time, resources, and personnel from manual data abstraction. CPR performance may change over time during prolonged resuscitations, which represents a significant knowledge gap. Moreover, currently available commercial software output of CPR process measures are difficult to analyze. The objective was to develop and validate a software program to help automate the abstraction and transfer of CPR process measures data from electronic defibrillators for complete episodes of cardiac arrest resuscitation. We developed a software program to facilitate and help automate CPR data abstraction and transfer from electronic defibrillators for entire resuscitation episodes. Using an intermediary Extensible Markup Language export file, the automated software transfers CPR process measures data (electrocardiogram [ECG] number, CPR start time, number of ventilations, number of chest compressions, compression rate per minute, compression depth per minute, compression fraction, and end-tidal CO 2 per minute). We performed an internal validation of the software program on 50 randomly selected cardiac arrest cases with resuscitation durations between 15 and 60 minutes. CPR process measures were manually abstracted and transferred independently by two trained data abstractors and by the automated software program, followed by manual interpretation of raw ECG tracings, treatment interventions, and patient events. Error rates and the time needed for data abstraction, transfer, and interpretation were measured for both manual and automated methods, compared to an additional independent reviewer. A total of 9,826 data points were each abstracted by the two abstractors and by the software program. Manual data abstraction resulted in a total of six errors (0.06%) compared to zero errors by the software program
Nielsen, Anne Møller; Isbye, Dan Lou; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen; Rasmussen, Lars Simon
On the Danish island of Bornholm an intervention was carried out during 2008-2010 aiming at increasing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survival. The intervention included mass media focus on resuscitation and widespread educational activities. The aim of this study was to compare the bystander BLS rate and survival after OHCA on Bornholm in a 3-year follow-up period after the intervention took place. Data on OHCA on Bornholm were collected from September 28th, 2010 to September 27th, 2013 and compared to data from the intervention period, September 28th, 2008 to September 27th, 2010. The bystander BLS rate for non-EMS witnessed OHCAs with presumed cardiac aetiology was significantly higher in the follow-up period (70% [95% CI 61-77] vs. 47% [95% CI 37-57], p=0.001). AEDs were deployed in 22 (18%) cases in the follow-up period and a shock was provided in 13 cases. There was no significant change in all-rhythm 30-day survival for non-EMS witnessed OHCAs with presumed cardiac aetiology (6.7% [95% CI 3-13] in the follow-up period; vs. 4.6% [95% CI 1-12], p=0.76). In a 3-year follow-up period after an intervention engaging laypersons in resuscitation through mass education in BLS combined with a media focus on resuscitation, we observed a persistent significant increase in the bystander BLS rate for all OHCAs with presumed cardiac aetiology. There was no significant difference in 30-day survival. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Sutton, Robert M.; Nadkarni, Vinay; Abella, Benjamin S.
Cardiac arrest is a major public health problem affecting thousands of individuals each year in both the before hospital and in-hospital settings. However, although the scope of the problem is large, the quality of care provided during resuscitation attempts frequently does not meet quality of care standards, despite evidence-based cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines, extensive provider training, and provider credentialing in resuscitation medicine. Although this fact may be disappointing, it should not be surprising. Resuscitation of the cardiac arrest victim is a highly complex task requiring coordination between various levels and disciplines of care providers during a stressful and relatively infrequent clinical situation. Moreover, it requires a targeted, high-quality response to improve clinical outcomes of patients. Therefore, solutions to improve care provided during resuscitation attempts must be multifaceted and targeted to the diverse number of care providers to be successful. PMID:22107978
Lin, Yiqun; Cheng, Adam
The use of simulation for teaching the knowledge, skills, and behaviors necessary for effective pediatric resuscitation has seen widespread growth and adoption across pediatric institutions. In this paper, we describe the application of simulation in pediatric resuscitation training and review the evidence for the use of simulation in neonatal resuscitation, pediatric advanced life support, procedural skills training, and crisis resource management training. We also highlight studies supporting several key instructional design elements that enhance learning, including the use of high-fidelity simulation, distributed practice, deliberate practice, feedback, and debriefing. Simulation-based training is an effective modality for teaching pediatric resuscitation concepts. Current literature has revealed some research gaps in simulation-based education, which could indicate the direction for the future of pediatric resuscitation research. PMID:25878517
Ford, Kelsey; Menchine, Michael; Burner, Elizabeth; Arora, Sanjay; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios; Yersin, Bertrand
Leadership skills are described by the American College of Surgeons' Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) course as necessary to provide care for patients during resuscitations. However, leadership is a complex concept, and the tools used to assess the quality of leadership are poorly described, inadequately validated, and infrequently used. Despite its importance, dedicated leadership education is rarely part of physician training programs. The goals of this investigation were the following: 1. Describe how leadership and leadership style affect patient care; 2. Describe how effective leadership is measured; and 3. Describe how to train future physician leaders. We searched the PubMed database using the keywords "leadership" and then either "trauma" or "resuscitation" as title search terms, and an expert in emergency medicine and trauma then identified prospective observational and randomized controlled studies measuring leadership and teamwork quality. Study results were categorized as follows: 1) how leadership affects patient care; 2) which tools are available to measure leadership; and 3) methods to train physicians to become better leaders. We included 16 relevant studies in this review. Overall, these studies showed that strong leadership improves processes of care in trauma resuscitation including speed and completion of the primary and secondary surveys. The optimal style and structure of leadership are influenced by patient characteristics and team composition. Directive leadership is most effective when Injury Severity Score (ISS) is high or teams are inexperienced, while empowering leadership is most effective when ISS is low or teams more experienced. Many scales were employed to measure leadership. The Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) was the only scale used in more than one study. Seven studies described methods for training leaders. Leadership training programs included didactic teaching followed by simulations. Although programs
Fox, Erin E.; Holcomb, John B.; Wade, Charles E.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Tilley, Barbara C.
Background Choosing the appropriate endpoint for a trauma hemorrhage control trial can determine the likelihood of its success. Recent Phase 3 trials and observational studies have used 24-hour and/or 30-day all-cause mortality as the primary endpoint and some have not used exception from informed consent (EFIC), resulting in multiple failed trials. Five recent high-quality prospective studies among 4,064 hemorrhaging trauma patients provide new evidence to support earlier primary endpoints. Methods The goal of this project was to determine the optimal endpoint for hemorrhage control trials using existing literature and new analyses of previously published data. Results Recent studies among bleeding trauma patients show that hemorrhagic deaths occur rapidly, at a high rate, and in a consistent pattern. Early preventable deaths among trauma patients are largely due to hemorrhage and the median time to hemorrhagic death from admission is 2.0-2.6 hours. Approximately 85% of hemorrhagic deaths occur within 6 hours. The hourly mortality rate due to traumatic injury decreases rapidly after enrollment from 4.6% per hour at 1 hour post-enrollment to 1% per hour at 6 hours to <0.1% per hour by 9 hours and thereafter. Early primary endpoints (within 6 hours) have critically important benefits for hemorrhage control trials, including being congruent with the median time to hemorrhagic death, biologic plausibility, and enabling the use of all-cause mortality, which is definitive and objective. Conclusions Primary endpoints should be congruent with the timing of the disease process. Therefore, if a resuscitation/hemorrhage control intervention is under study, a primary endpoint of all-cause mortality evaluated within the first 6 hours is appropriate. Before choosing the timing of the primary endpoint for a large multicenter trial, we recommend performing a Phase 2 trial under EFIC to better understand the effects of the hemorrhage control intervention and distribution of time
Dowell, Richard C
This paper aimed to estimate the difference in speech perception outcomes that may occur due to timing of cochlear implantation in relation to the progression of hearing loss. Data from a large population-based sample of adults with acquired hearing loss using cochlear implants (CIs) was used to estimate the effects of duration of hearing loss, age, and pre-implant auditory skills on outcomes for a hypothetical standard patient. A total of 310 adults with acquired severe/profound bilateral hearing loss who received a CI in Melbourne, Australia between 1994 and 2006 provided the speech perception data and demographic information to derive regression equations for estimating CI outcomes. For a hypothetical CI candidate with progressive sensorineural hearing loss, the estimates of speech perception scores following cochlear implantation are significantly better if implantation occurs relatively soon after onset of severe hearing loss and before the loss of all functional auditory skills. Improved CI outcomes and quality of life benefit may be achieved for adults with progressive severe hearing loss if they are implanted earlier in the progression of the pathology.
Curran, Vernon; Fleet, Lisa; White, Susan; Bessell, Clare; Deshpandey, Akhil; Drover, Anne; Hayward, Mark; Valcour, James
The neonatal resuscitation program (NRP) has been developed to educate physicians and other health care providers about newborn resuscitation and has been shown to improve neonatal resuscitation skills. Simulation-based training is recommended as an effective modality for instructing neonatal resuscitation and both low and high-fidelity manikin…
Youness, Houssein; Al Halabi, Tarek; Hussein, Hussein; Awab, Ahmed; Jones, Kellie; Keddissi, Jean
The maximal duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is unknown. We report a case of prolonged CPR. We have then reviewed all published cases with CPR duration equal to or more than 20 minutes. The objective was to determine the survival rate, the neurological outcome, and the characteristics of the survivors. Measurements and Main Results. The CPR data for 82 patients was reviewed. The median duration of CPR was 75 minutes. Patients mean age was 43 ± 21 years with no significant comorbidities. The main causes of the cardiac arrests were myocardial infarction (29%), hypothermia (21%), and pulmonary emboli (12%). 74% of the arrests were witnessed, with a mean latency to CPR of 2 ± 6 minutes and good quality chest compression provided in 96% of the cases. Adjunct therapy included extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (18%), thrombolysis (15.8%), and rewarming for hypothermia (19.5%). 83% were alive at 1 year, with full neurological recovery reported in 63 patients. Conclusion. Patients undergoing prolonged CPR can survive with good outcome. Young age, myocardial infarction, and potentially reversible causes of cardiac arrest such as hypothermia and pulmonary emboli predict a favorable result, especially when the arrest is witnessed and followed by prompt and good resuscitative efforts. PMID:26885387
Pestel, Gunther J; Fukui, Kimiko; Kimberger, Oliver; Hager, Helmut; Kurz, Andrea; Hiltebrand, Luzius B
Untreated hypovolemia results in impaired outcome. This study tests our hypothesis whether general hemodynamic parameters detect acute blood loss earlier than monitoring parameters of regional tissue beds. Eight pigs (23-25 kg) were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. A pulmonary artery catheter and an arterial catheter were inserted. Tissue oxygen tension was measured with Clark-type electrodes in the jejunal and colonic wall, in the liver, and subcutaneously. Jejunal microcirculation was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Intravascular volume was optimized using difference in pulse pressure (dPP) to keep dPP below 13%. Sixty minutes after preparation, baseline measurements were taken. At first, 5% of total blood volume was withdrawn, followed by another 5% increment, and then in 10% increments until death. After withdrawal of 5% of estimated blood volume, dPP increased from 6.1% +/- 3.0% to 20.8% +/- 2.7% (P < 0.01). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP) decreased with a blood loss of 10% (P < 0.01). Cardiac output (CO) changed after a blood loss of 20% (P < 0.05). Tissue oxygen tension in central organs, and blood flow in the jejunal muscularis decreased (P < 0.05) after a blood loss of 20%. Tissue oxygen tension in the skin, and jejunal mucosa blood flow decreased (P < 0.05) after a blood loss of 40% and 50%, respectively. In this hemorrhagic pig model systemic hemodynamic parameters were more sensitive to detect acute hypovolemia than tissue oxygen tension measurements or jejunal LDF measurements. Acute blood loss was detected first by dPP. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Johnson, Lynn H.; Mapp, Delicia C.; Rouse, Dwight J.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Mercer, Brian M.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Varner, Michael W.; Iams, Jay D.; Sorokin, Yoram; Ramin, Susan M.; Miodovnik, Menachem; O'Sullivan, Mary J.; Peaceman, Alan M.; Caritis, Steve N.
Objective Assess the relationship between umbilical cord blood magnesium concentration and level of delivery room resuscitation received by neonates. Study design Secondary analysis of a controlled fetal neuroprotection trial that enrolled women at imminent risk for delivery between 24 and 31 weeks’ gestation and randomly allocated them to receive intravenous magnesium sulfate or placebo. The cohort included 1507 infants for whom total cord blood magnesium concentration and delivery room resuscitation information were available. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association between cord blood magnesium concentration and highest level of delivery room resuscitation, using the following hierarchy: none, oxygen only, bag-mask ventilation with oxygen, intubation or chest compressions. Results There was no relationship between cord blood magnesium and delivery room resuscitation (odds ratio [OR] 0.92 for each 1.0 mEq/L increase in magnesium; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-1.03). Maternal general anesthesia was associated with increased neonatal resuscitation (OR 2.51; 95% CI: 1.72-3.68). Each 1-week increase in gestational age at birth was associated with decreased neonatal resuscitation (OR 0.63; 95% CI: 0.60 – 0.66). Conclusion Cord blood magnesium concentration does not correlate with the level of delivery room resuscitation of infants exposed to magnesium sulfate for fetal neuroprotection. PMID:22056282
Gordon, A.S.; Ridolpho, P.F.; Cole, J.E.
This report summarizes the history of the application of cardiopulmonary resuscitation to the electric shock victim located at the top of a utility pole. This dramatic and urgent situation requires that rescue be attempted with procedures which are thoroughly understood and effective. Questions related to the use of resuscitation and precordial thump at the pole top were subjected to experimental testing, both in animals and in humans. Results of this study clearly demonstrate the advantages of postponing resuscitation until the victim has been lowered to the ground. The author concludes with seven recommendations for emergency treatment at the scene.
Ornato, Joseph P; Peberdy, Mary Ann
Both commercial aviation and resuscitation are complex activities in which team members must respond to unexpected emergencies in a consistent, high quality manner. Lives are at stake in both activities and the two disciplines have similar leadership structures, standard setting processes, training methods, and operational tools. Commercial aviation crews operate with remarkable consistency and safety, while resuscitation team performance and outcomes are highly variable. This commentary provides the perspective of two physician-pilots showing how commercial aviation training, operations, and safety principles can be adapted to resuscitation team training and performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
required to demonstrate proficiency through completion of a pretest and posttest including examination of hand- on skills with both animal and simulator...With available technology, this method of resuscitation can be performed by trauma and acute care surgeons who have benefited from instruction on a...the right posterior axillary line at the level of the eighth rib (Table 1). On arrival, his pulse was 119 beats per minute (bpm) and his blood pressure
Tibballs, James; Aickin, Richard; Nuthall, Gabrielle
Guidelines for basic and advanced paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have been revised by Australian and New Zealand Resuscitation Councils. Changes encourage CPR out-of-hospital and aim to improve the quality of CPR in-hospital. Features of basic CPR include: omission of abdominal thrusts for foreign body airway obstruction; commencement with chest compression followed by ventilation in a ratio of 30:2 or compression-only CPR if the rescuer is unwilling/unable to give expired-air breathing when the victim is 'unresponsive and not breathing normally'. Use of automated external defibrillators is encouraged. Features of advanced CPR include: prevention of cardiac arrest by rapid response systems; restriction of pulse palpation to 10 s to diagnosis cardiac arrest; affirmation of 15:2 compression-ventilation ratio for children and for infants other than newly born; initial bag-mask ventilation before tracheal intubation; a single direct current shock of 4 J/kg for ventricular fibrillation (VF) and pulseless ventricular tachycardia followed by immediate resumption of CPR for 2 min without analysis of cardiac rhythm and avoidance of unnecessary interruption of continuous external cardiac compressions. Monitoring of exhaled carbon dioxide is recommended to detect non-tracheal intubation, assess quality of CPR, and to help match ventilation to reduced cardiac output. The intraosseous route is recommended if immediate intravenous access is impossible. Amiodarone is strongly favoured over lignocaine for refractory VF and adrenaline over atropine for severe bradycardia, asystole and pulseless electrical activity. Family presence at resuscitation is encouraged. Therapeutic hypothermia is acceptable after resuscitation to improve neurological outcome. Extracorporeal circulatory support for in-hospital cardiac arrest may be used in equipped centres. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal
Youngquist, Scott T.; Heyming, Theodore; Rosborough, John P.; Niemann, James T.
Objective Hypocalcemia associated with cardiac arrest has been reported. However, mechanistic hypotheses for the decrease in ionized calcium (iCa) vary and its importance unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the relationships of iCa, pH, base excess (BE), and lactate in two porcine cardiac arrest models, and to determine the effect of exogenous calcium administration on postresuscitation hemodynamics. Methods Swine were instrumented and VF was induced either electrically (EVF, n=65) or spontaneously, ischemically induced (IVF) with balloon occlusion of the LAD (n=37). Animals were resuscitated after 7 minutes of VF. BE, iCa, and pH, were determined prearrest and at 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 min after ROSC. Lactate was also measured in 26 animals in the EVF group. Twelve EVF animals were randomized to receive 1 gm of CaCl2 infused over 20 min after ROSC or normal saline. Results iCa, BE, and pH declined significantly over the 60 min following ROSC, regardless of VF type, with the lowest levels observed at the nadir of left ventricular stroke work post resuscitation. Lactate was strongly correlated with BE (r = −0.89, p<0.0001) and iCa (r= −0.40, p < 0.0001). In a multivariate generalized linear mixed model, iCa was 0.005 mg/dL higher for every one unit increase in BE (95% CI 0.003–0.007, p<0.0001), while controlling for type of induced VF. While there was a univariate correlation between iCa and BE, when BE was included in the regression analysis with lactate, only lactate showed a statistically significant relationship with iCa (p=0.02). Postresuscitation CaCl2 infusion improved post-ROSC hemodynamics when compared to saline infusion (LV stroke work control 8 ± 5 gm-m vs 23 ± 4, p = 0.014, at 30 min) with no significant difference in tau between groups. Conclusions Ionized hypocalcemia occurs following ROSC. CaCl2 improves post-ROSC hemodynamics suggesting that hypocalcemia may play a role in early post-resuscitation myocardial dysfunction. PMID
Ford, Kelsey; Menchine, Michael; Burner, Elizabeth; Arora, Sanjay; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios; Yersin, Bertrand
Introduction Leadership skills are described by the American College of Surgeons’ Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) course as necessary to provide care for patients during resuscitations. However, leadership is a complex concept, and the tools used to assess the quality of leadership are poorly described, inadequately validated, and infrequently used. Despite its importance, dedicated leadership education is rarely part of physician training programs. The goals of this investigation were the following: 1. Describe how leadership and leadership style affect patient care; 2. Describe how effective leadership is measured; and 3. Describe how to train future physician leaders. Methods We searched the PubMed database using the keywords “leadership” and then either “trauma” or “resuscitation” as title search terms, and an expert in emergency medicine and trauma then identified prospective observational and randomized controlled studies measuring leadership and teamwork quality. Study results were categorized as follows: 1) how leadership affects patient care; 2) which tools are available to measure leadership; and 3) methods to train physicians to become better leaders. Results We included 16 relevant studies in this review. Overall, these studies showed that strong leadership improves processes of care in trauma resuscitation including speed and completion of the primary and secondary surveys. The optimal style and structure of leadership are influenced by patient characteristics and team composition. Directive leadership is most effective when Injury Severity Score (ISS) is high or teams are inexperienced, while empowering leadership is most effective when ISS is low or teams more experienced. Many scales were employed to measure leadership. The Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) was the only scale used in more than one study. Seven studies described methods for training leaders. Leadership training programs included didactic teaching
Einav, Sharon; Alon, Gady; Kaufman, Nechama; Braunstein, Rony; Carmel, Sara; Varon, Joseph; Hersch, Moshe
To determine whether variables in physicians' backgrounds influenced their decision to forego resuscitating a patient they did not previously know. Questionnaire survey of a convenience sample of 204 physicians working in the departments of internal medicine, anaesthesiology and cardiology in 11 hospitals in Israel. Twenty per cent of the participants had elected to forego resuscitating a patient they did not previously know without additional consultation. Physicians who had more frequently elected to forego resuscitation had practised medicine for more than 5 years (p=0.013), estimated the number of resuscitations they had performed as being higher (p=0.009), and perceived their experience in resuscitation as sufficient (p=0.001). The variable that predicted the outcome of always performing resuscitation in the logistic regression model was less than 5 years of experience in medicine (OR 0.227, 95% CI 0.065 to 0.793; p=0.02). Physicians' level of experience may affect the probability of a patient's receiving resuscitation, whereas the physicians' personal beliefs and values did not seem to affect this outcome.
Taylor, Katherine L; Parshuram, Christopher S; Ferri, Susan; Mema, Briseida
Communication during resuscitation is essential for the provision of coordinated, effective care. Previously, we observed 44% of resuscitation communication originated from participants other than the physician team leader; 65% of which was directed to the team, exclusive of the team leader. We called this outer-loop communication. This institutional review board-approved qualitative study used grounded theory analysis of focus groups and interviews to describe and define outer-loop communication and the role of "event manager" as an additional "leader." Participants were health care staff involved in the medical management of resuscitations in a quaternary pediatric academic hospital. The following 3 domains were identified: the existence and rationale of outer-loop communication; the functions fulfilled by outer-loop communication; and the leadership and learning of event manager skills. The role was recognized by all team members and evolved organically as resuscitation complexity increased. A "good" manager has similar qualities to a "good team leader" with strong nontechnical skills. Event managers were not formally identified and no specific training had occurred. "Outer-loop" communication supports resuscitation activities. An event manager gives direction to the team, coordinates activities, and supports the team leader. We describe a new role in resuscitation in light of structural organizational theory and cognitive load with a view to incorporating this structure into resuscitation training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adabag, Selcuk; Hodgson, Lucinda; Garcia, Santiago; Anand, Vidhu; Frascone, Ralph; Conterato, Marc; Lick, Charles; Wesley, Keith; Mahoney, Brian; Yannopoulos, Demetris
Despite many advances in resuscitation science the outcomes of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) remain poor. The Minnesota Resuscitation Consortium (MRC) is a statewide integrated resuscitation program, established in 2011, to provide standardized, evidence-based resuscitation and post-resuscitation care. The objective of this study is to assess the outcomes of a state-wide integrated resuscitation program. We examined the trends in resuscitation metrics and outcomes in Minnesota since 2011 and compared these to the results from the national Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) program. Since 2011 MRC has expanded significantly providing service to >75% of Minnesota's population. A total of 5192 SCA occurred in counties covered by MRC from 2011 to 2014. In this period, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and use of hypothermia, automatic CPR device and impedance threshold device increased significantly (p<0.0001 for all). Compared to CARES, SCA cases in Minnesota were more likely to be ventricular fibrillation (31% vs. 23%, p<0.0001) but less likely to receive bystander CPR (33% vs. 39%, p<0.0001). Survival to hospital discharge with good or moderate cerebral performance (12% vs. 8%, p<0.0001), survival in SCA with a shockable rhythm (Utstein survival) (38% vs. 33%, p=0.0003) and Utstein survival with bystander CPR (44% vs. 37%, p=0.003) were greater in Minnesota than CARES. State-wide integration of resuscitation services in Minnesota was feasible. Survival rate after cardiac arrest is greater in Minnesota compared to the mean survival rate in CARES. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Bartos, Jason A.; Yannopoulos, Demetris
Purpose of review The ultimate goal of cardiopulmonary resuscitation is long-term neurologically intact survival. Despite numerous well designed studies, the medications currently used in advanced cardiac life support have not demonstrated success in this regard. This review describes the novel therapeutics under investigation to improve functional recovery and survival. Recent findings Whereas current medications focus on achieving return of spontaneous circulation and improved hemodynamics, novel therapies currently in development are focused on improving cellular survival and function by preventing metabolic derangement, protecting mitochondria, and preventing cell death caused by cardiac arrest. Improved cardiac and neurologic function and survival benefits have been observed using animal models of cardiopulmonary arrest. Summary Although substantial data have shown benefits using robust animal models, further human studies are necessary to investigate the potential long-term benefits of these therapies. PMID:23995130
Kattwinkel, J; Niermeyer, S; Nadkarni, V; Tibballs, J; Phillips, B; Zideman, D; Van Reempts, P; Osmond, M
The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR), with representation from North America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Africa, and South America, was formed in 1992 to provide a forum for liaison between resuscitation organizations in the developed world. This consensus document on resuscitation extends previously published ILCOR advisory statements on resuscitation to address the unique and changing physiology of the newly born infant within the first few hours following birth and the techniques for providing advanced life support.
Topjian, Alexis A.; Berg, Robert A.; Bierens, Joost J. L. M.; Branche, Christine M.; Clark, Robert S.; Friberg, Hans; Hoedemaekers, Cornelia W. E.; Holzer, Michael; Katz, Laurence M.; Knape, Johannes T. A.; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Nadkarni, Vinay; van der Hoeven, Johannes G.
Drowning is a leading cause of accidental death. Survivors may sustain severe neurologic morbidity. There is negligible research specific to brain injury in drowning making current clinical management non-specific to this disorder. This review represents an evidence-based consensus effort to provide recommendations for management and investigation of the drowning victim. Epidemiology, brain-oriented prehospital and intensive care, therapeutic hypothermia, neuroimaging/monitoring, biomarkers, and neuroresuscitative pharmacology are addressed. When cardiac arrest is present, chest compressions with rescue breathing are recommended due to the asphyxial insult. In the comatose patient with restoration of spontaneous circulation, hypoxemia and hyperoxemia should be avoided, hyperthermia treated, and induced hypothermia (32–34 °C) considered. Arterial hypotension/hypertension should be recognized and treated. Prevent hypoglycemia and treat hyperglycemia. Treat clinical seizures and consider treating non-convulsive status epilepticus. Serial neurologic examinations should be provided. Brain imaging and serial biomarker measurement may aid prognostication. Continuous electroencephalography and N20 somatosensory evoked potential monitoring may be considered. Serial biomarker measurement (e.g., neuron specific enolase) may aid prognostication. There is insufficient evidence to recommend use of any specific brain-oriented neuroresuscitative pharmacologic therapy other than that required to restore and maintain normal physiology. Following initial stabilization, victims should be transferred to centers with expertise in age-specific post-resuscitation neurocritical care. Care should be documented, reviewed, and quality improvement assessment performed. Preclinical research should focus on models of asphyxial cardiac arrest. Clinical research should focus on improved cardiopulmonary resuscitation, re-oxygenation/reperfusion strategies, therapeutic hypothermia
Otten, Robert Drew
This article discusses the development of an instrument to appraise the comfortability level of college students in performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Methodology and findings of data collection are given. (Author/DF)
Manley, Brett J; Owen, Louise S; Hooper, Stuart B; Jacobs, Susan E; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Doyle, Lex W; Davis, Peter G
Effective resuscitation of the newborn infant has the potential to save many lives around the world and reduce disabilities in children who survive peripartum asphyxia. In this Series paper, we highlight some of the important advances in the understanding of how best to resuscitate newborn infants, which includes monitoring techniques to guide resuscitative efforts, increasing awareness of the adverse effects of hyperoxia, delayed umbilical cord clamping, the avoidance of routine endotracheal intubation for extremely preterm infants, and therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Despite the challenges of performing high-quality clinical research in the delivery room, researchers continue to refine and advance our knowledge of effective resuscitation of newborn infants through scientific experiments and clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Evans, A L; Brody, B A
We studied the use of do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders at three teaching hospitals that did not have official protocols for such orders to see whether their use meets the goals (decision making before a crisis and promoting patient autonomy) that have been identified for such orders. We found that 20% of all patients had or were being considered for DNR orders, that the patient and/or family was usually involved (83%) in the decision not to resuscitate, but rarely involved (25%) in decisions to resuscitate, or in cases of no decision, that a wide range of care was provided to patients with a DNR status, and that partial resuscitative efforts would be employed in some cases. Our main conclusion in light of our findings is that DNR orders are currently not fulfilling their major goals. We offer six proposals for improving future DNR protocols.
Coyer, C; Gascoin, G; Sentilhes, L; Savagner, C; Berton, J; Beringue, F
months confirmed the efficacy of this teaching method. The simulation training increased the participants' perceptions of their knowledge, skills, and confidence in conducting neonatal resuscitation. These preliminary results are very encouraging and argue in favor of generalizing this teaching method. However, this training could be more profitable if it was proposed earlier in the midwifery curriculum and organized with a multidisciplinary team (pediatric and anesthesia residents). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Spinelli, Elena; Davis, Ryan P; Ren, Xiaodan; Sheth, Parth S; Tooley, Trevor R; Iyengar, Amit; Sowell, Brandon; Owens, Gabe E; Bocks, Martin L; Jacobs, Teresa L; Yang, Lynda J; Stacey, William C; Bartlett, Robert H; Rojas-Peña, Alvaro; Neumar, Robert W
To investigate the effects of the combination of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation and thrombolytic therapy on the recovery of vital organ function after prolonged cardiac arrest. Laboratory investigation. University laboratory. Pigs. Animals underwent 30-minute untreated ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest followed by extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation for 6 hours. Animals were allocated into two experimental groups: t-extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (t-ECPR) group, which received streptokinase 1 million units, and control extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (c-ECPR), which did not receive streptokinase. In both groups, the resuscitation protocol included the following physiologic targets: mean arterial pressure greater than 70 mm Hg, cerebral perfusion pressure greater than 50 mm Hg, PaO2 150 ± 50 torr (20 ± 7 kPa), PaCO2 40 ± 5 torr (5 ± 1 kPa), and core temperature 33°C ± 1°C. Defibrillation was attempted after 30 minutes of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A cardiac resuscitability score was assessed on the basis of success of defibrillation, return of spontaneous heart beat, weanability from extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and left ventricular systolic function after weaning. The addition of thrombolytic to extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation significantly improved cardiac resuscitability (3.7 ± 1.6 in t-ECPR vs 1.0 ± 1.5 in c-ECPR). Arterial lactate clearance was higher in t-ECPR than in c-ECPR (40% ± 15% vs 18% ± 21%). At the end of the experiment, the intracranial pressure was significantly higher in c-ECPR than in t-ECPR. Recovery of brain electrical activity, as assessed by quantitative analysis of electroencephalogram signal, and ischemic neuronal injury on histopathologic examination did not differ between groups. Animals in t-ECPR group did not have increased bleeding complications, including intracerebral hemorrhages. In a porcine model of prolonged cardiac
Bureev, A. Sh; Kiseleva, E. Yu; Kutsov, M. S.; Zhdanov, D. S.
The article describes a technique of automated control over cardiopulmonary resuscitation procedures on the basis of acoustic data. The research findings have allowed determining the primary important characteristics of acoustic signals (sounds of blood circulation in the carotid artery and respiratory sounds) and proposing a method to control the performance of resuscitation procedures. This method can be implemented as a part of specialized hardware systems.
comprehensive study showing its utility in combined TBI + HS in our model and demonstrated that HS indeed produces critical CBF levels after TBI...TBI alone—which would even further broaden its potential utility in TBI resuscitation. Our data strongly suggest a beneficial hemodynamic effect of...in potential utility of HBOCs in TBI resuscitation; namely, PNPH is a novel Hb that confers direct neuroprotective rather than neurotoxic effects
Berg, Robert A; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Clark, Amy E; Moler, Frank; Meert, Kathleen; Harrison, Rick E; Newth, Christopher J L; Sutton, Robert M; Wessel, David L; Berger, John T; Carcillo, Joseph; Dalton, Heidi; Heidemann, Sabrina; Shanley, Thomas P; Zuppa, Athena F; Doctor, Allan; Tamburro, Robert F; Jenkins, Tammara L; Dean, J Michael; Holubkov, Richard; Pollack, Murray M
To determine the incidence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in PICUs and subsequent outcomes. Multicenter prospective observational study of children younger than 18 years old randomly selected and intensively followed from PICU admission to hospital discharge in the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network December 2011 to April 2013. Among 10,078 children enrolled, 139 (1.4%) received cardiopulmonary resuscitation for more than or equal to 1 minute and/or defibrillation. Of these children, 78% attained return of circulation, 45% survived to hospital discharge, and 89% of survivors had favorable neurologic outcomes. The relative incidence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation events was higher for cardiac patients compared with non-cardiac patients (3.4% vs 0.8%, p <0.001), but survival rate to hospital discharge with favorable neurologic outcome was not statistically different (41% vs 39%, respectively). Shorter duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was associated with higher survival rates: 66% (29/44) survived to hospital discharge after 1-3 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation versus 28% (9/32) after more than 30 minutes (p < 0.001). Among survivors, 90% (26/29) had a favorable neurologic outcome after 1-3 minutes versus 89% (8/9) after more than 30 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. These data establish that contemporary PICU cardiopulmonary resuscitation, including long durations of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, results in high rates of survival-to-hospital discharge (45%) and favorable neurologic outcomes among survivors (89%). Rates of survival with favorable neurologic outcomes were similar among cardiac and noncardiac patients. The rigorous prospective, observational study design avoided the limitations of missing data and potential selection biases inherent in registry and administrative data.
hyperfibrinolysis. We also describe the concept of damage control resuscitation (DCR), an early and aggressive prevention and treatment of hemorrhagic shock... prevention and treatment of acidosis, hypothermia, and hypocalcemia, avoidance of hemodilution, and hemostatic resuscitation with transfusion of red...are potentially preventable and 66–80% of these deaths occur from hemorrhage.3,4 Rural civilian data indicate that approximately 10% of traumatic
McMullan, David Michael; Thiagarajan, Ravi R; Smith, Kendra M; Rycus, Peter T; Brogan, Thomas V
Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation appears to improve survival in patients with acute refractory cardiopulmonary failure. This analysis was performed to determine survival outcomes and predictors of in-hospital mortality for term and preterm neonates who received extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Retrospective review of data from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization international registry. Pediatric and neonatal ICUs. Infants less than or equal to 30 days. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Demographic, clinical, and survival data from patients who received extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation between 1998 and 2010 were analyzed to determine factors that affect in-hospital mortality. Overall survival to hospital discharge for the 641 neonates who received extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation was 39%. In univariate analysis, gestational age correlated inversely with stroke (odds ratio, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.75-0.95]; p = 0.006) and death (odds ratio, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.78-0.96]; p = 0.005) as did corrected gestational age (odds ratio, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.81-0.97]; p = 0.006) and birth weight (odds ratio, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.38-0.74]; p < 0.001). Dysrhythmia as the primary diagnosis had significantly lower odds of death than single-ventricle cardiac disease (odds ratio, 0.24 [95% CI, 0.06-0.95]; p = 0.04). Higher pre-extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation oxygenation decreased the odds of death (odds ratio, 0.996 [95% CI, 0.994-0.999]; p = 0.01), whereas complications occurring on extracorporeal life support increased the odds of death. In the multivariate analysis, lower birth weight and pre-extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation oxygenation, as well as complications including CNS hemorrhage, pulmonary hemorrhage, acidosis, renal replacement therapy, and mechanical complications, increased the odds of death. Overall survival for neonates receiving extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation is similar to older
Hoff, W S; Reilly, P M; Rotondo, M F; DiGiacomo, J C; Schwab, C W
Definitive trauma team leadership, although difficult to measure, has been shown to improve trauma resuscitation performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an identified command-physician on resuscitation performance. In addition, the leadership capability of four physician combinations functioning as command-physician was studied. Retrospective review. Videotapes of trauma resuscitations performed at a Level I trauma center over a 25-month period were reviewed. The presence of an identified command-physician was determined by multidisciplinary consensus. Resuscitation performance was measured by compliance with three objective criteria: primary survey, secondary survey, and definitive plan; and two subjective criteria: orderliness, and adherence to Advanced Trauma Life Support protocol. Performance was then analyzed (1) as a function of the presence or absence of a command-physician, and (2) between four identified physician combinations: AF (attending surgeon + trauma fellow); F (trauma fellow); ASR (attending surgeon + senior surgical resident); SR (senior surgical resident). Chi square and the Mann-Whitney U tests were applied. A total of 425 trauma resuscitations were reviewed. A command-physician was identified (CP[Pos]) in 365 resuscitations (85.7%); no command-physician was identified (CP[NEG]) in 60 (14.3%). Compliance with completion of secondary survey (81.4%) and formulation of a definitive plan (89.6%) was significantly higher in the CP(POS) group. Subjective scores for orderliness and adherence to Advanced Trauma Life Support protocol were significantly higher in the CP(POS) group. In the CP(POS) resuscitations, formulation of a definitive plan was lower in SR when compared with the other three physician combinations. An identified command-physician enhances trauma resuscitation performance. Completion of the primary and secondary survey is not affected by the physician combination. Prompt formulation of a definitive plan is
den Boer, Maria C; Houtlosser, Mirjam; van Zanten, Henriëtte Anje; Foglia, Elizabeth E; Engberts, Dirk P; Te Pas, Arjan B
Neonatal resuscitation is provided to approximately 3% of neonates. Adequate ventilation is often the key to successful resuscitation, but this can be difficult to provide. There is increasing evidence that inappropriate respiratory support can have severe consequences. Several neonatal intensive care units have recorded and reviewed neonatal resuscitation procedures for quality assessment, education and research; however, ethical dilemmas sometimes make it difficult to implement this review process. We reviewed the literature on the development of recording and reviewing neonatal resuscitation and have summarised the ethical concerns involved. Recording and reviewing vital physiological parameters and video imaging of neonatal resuscitation in the delivery room is a valuable tool for quality assurance, education and research. Furthermore, it can improve the quality of neonatal resuscitation provided. We observed that ethical dilemmas arise as the review process is operating in several domains of healthcare that all have their specific moral framework with requirements and conditions on issues such as consent, privacy and data storage. These moral requirements and conditions vary due to local circumstances. Further research on the ethical aspects of recording and reviewing is desirable before wider implementation of this technique can be recommended. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Olotu, A.; Ndiritu, M.; Ismael, M.; Mohammed, S.; Mithwani, S.; Maitland, K.; Newton, C.R.J.C.
Objective To review the characteristics and outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in children at a rural hospital in Kenya. Patients and method All children aged 0–14 years who experienced ≥1 episode of respiratory or cardiopulmonary arrest during April 2002–2004 were prospectively identified. Demographic variables, cause of hospitalisation, type and duration of arrest, resuscitation measures taken and outcomes were determined. Results 114 children experienced at least one episode of respiratory arrest (RA) or cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA). Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was performed on all children. “Do not resuscitate order” (DNR) was given in 15 patients after initial resuscitation. Eighty two patients (72%) had RA and 32 (28%) had CPA. 25/82 (30%) patients with RA survived initial CPR compared to 5/32 (16%) with CPA. Survival at discharge was 22% (18/82) in children who had RA while no one with CPA survived at discharge. The leading underlying diseases were severe malaria, septicaemia and severe malnutrition. Prolonged resuscitation beyond 15 min and receiving adrenaline [epinephrine] (at least one dose of 10 μg/kg IV) were predictive of poor final outcome. Conclusion Cardiopulmonary arrest after admission has a very poor prognosis in our hospital. Infectious diseases are the main underlying causes of arrest. If a child fails to respond to the basic tenements of PALS within 15 min then it is unlikely that further efforts to sustain life will be fruitful in hospitals where ventilation facilities are not present. PMID:19013705
Luo, Gaoxing; Peng, Yizhi; Yuan, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Wenguang; Wu, Jun; Tang, Jin; Huang, Yuesheng; Fitzgerald, Mark
Fluid resuscitation is one of the critical treatments for the major burn patient in the early phases after injury. We evaluated the practice of fluid resuscitation for severely burned patients with the Third Military Medical University (TMMU) protocol, which is most widely used in many regions of China. Patients with major burns (>30% total body surface area (TBSA)) presenting to Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, between January 2005 and October 2007, were included in this study. Fluid resuscitation was initiated by the TMMU protocol. A total of 71 patients were (46 adults and 25 children) included in this study. All patients survived the first 48 h after injury smoothly and none developed abdominal compartment syndrome or other recognised complications associated with fluid resuscitation. The average quantity of fluid infused was 3.3-61.33% more than that calculated based on the TMMU protocol in both adult and paediatric groups. The average urine output during the first 24h after injury was about 1.2 ml per kg body weight per hour in the two groups, but reached 1.2 ml and 1.7 ml during the second 24h in adult and pediatric groups, respectively. This study indicates that the TMMU protocol for fluid resuscitation is a feasible option for burn patients. Individualised resuscitation - guided by the physiological response to fluid administration - is still important as in other protocols.
Miranda-Utrera, N; Medina-Polo, J; Pamplona-Casamayor, M; Passas-Martínez, J B; Rodríguez-Antolín, A; de la Rosa Kehrmann, F; Duarte-Ojeda, J M; Tejido-Sánchez, A; Villacampa Aubá, F; Andrés Belmonte, A
Non-heartbeating donors (NHBD) are an alternative to heartbeating donors (HBD). Our objective was to compare functional results and kidney survival from NHBDs and HBDs. A retrospective study comparing the results of 236 normothermically preserved kidneys from type i and ii type NHBDs with the results of 250 from HBDs that were transplanted in our center between 2005 and 2012. Homogeneity between groups was tested and we evaluated the presence of delayed graft function (DGF) associated with pretransplant variables of the donor and recipient. Both groups show homogeneity in pretransplant characteristics in terms of: age, HLA incompatibilities, and recipient hemodialysis time. Average follow-up time was 33 months (range 0-87) for NHBDs and 38 months (range 0-90) for HBDs. 5.5% of NHBDs showed primary non-function (PNF) vs. 4% of HBDs (P=.42) and 80.9% of DGF vs. 46.8% of HBDs (P<.001). At the end of the follow-up, there were no statistically significant differences in the survival of grafts (92.8% for NHBD vs. 93.6% for HBD, P=.71) and recipients (99.1% NHBD vs. 98.6% HBD, P=.28). Although the DGF percentage was greater for NHBDs, final creatinine as well as graft and recipient survival were similar for both groups. Therefore, in our experience, kidneys from NHBDs have similar results to those from HBDs and are an excellent source of organs for transplantation. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Sodhi, Kanwalpreet; Singla, Manender Kumar; Shrivastava, Anupam
Despite advances in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and widespread life-support trainings, the outcomes of resuscitation are variable. There is a definitive need for organizational inputs to strengthen the resuscitation process. Our hospital authorities introduced certain changes at the organizational level in our in-house resuscitation protocol. We aimed to study the impact of these changes on the outcomes of resuscitation. The hospital code blue committee decided to reformulate the resuscitation protocols and reframe the code blue team. Various initiatives were taken in the form of infrastructural changes, procurement of equipment, organising certified training programs, conduct of mock code and simulation drills etc. A prospective and retrospective observational study was made over 6 years: a pre-intervention period, which included all cardiac arrests from January 2007 to December 2009, before the implementation of the program, and a post-intervention period from January 2010 to December 2012, after the implementation of the program. The outcomes of interest were response time, immediate survival, day/night survival and survival to discharge ratio. 2,164 in-hospital cardiac arrests were included in the study, 1,042 during the pre-intervention period and 1,122 during the post-intervention period. The survival percentage increased from 26.7 to 40.8 % (p < 0.05), and the survival to discharge ratio increased from 23.4 to 66.6 % (p < 0.05). Both day- and night-time survival improved (p < 0.05) and response time improved from 4 to 1.5 min. A strong hospital-based resuscitation policy with well-defined protocols and infrastructure has potential synergistic effect and plays a big role in improving the outcomes of resuscitation.
Arshid, Muhammad; Lo, Tsz-Yan Milly; Reynolds, Fiona
Recent evidence suggested that the quality of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during adult advanced life support training was suboptimal. This study aimed to assess the CPR quality of a paediatric resuscitation training programme, and to determine whether it was sufficiently addressed by the trainee team leaders during training. CPR quality of 20 consecutive resuscitation scenario training sessions was audited prospectively using a pre-designed proforma. A consultant intensivist and a senior nurse who were also Advanced Paediatric Life Support (APLS) instructors assessed the CPR quality which included ventilation frequency, chest compression rate and depth, and any unnecessary interruption in chest compressions. Team leaders' response to CPR quality and elective change of compression rescuer during training were also recorded. Airway patency was not assessed in 13 sessions while ventilation rate was too fast in 18 sessions. Target compression rate was not achieved in only 1 session. The median chest compression rate was 115 beats/min. Chest compressions were too shallow in 10 sessions and were interrupted unnecessarily in 13 sessions. More than 50% of training sessions did not have elective change of the compression rescuer. 19 team leaders failed to address CPR quality during training despite all team leaders being certified APLS providers. The quality of CPR performance was suboptimal during paediatric resuscitation training and team leaders-in-training had little awareness of this inadequacy. Detailed CPR quality assessment and feedback should be integrated into paediatric resuscitation training to ensure optimal performance in real life resuscitations.
Niles, Dana E; Duval-Arnould, Jordan; Skellett, Sophie; Knight, Lynda; Su, Felice; Raymond, Tia T; Sweberg, Todd; Sen, Anita I; Atkins, Dianne L; Friess, Stuart H; de Caen, Allan R; Kurosawa, Hiroshi; Sutton, Robert M; Wolfe, Heather; Berg, Robert A; Silver, Annemarie; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Nadkarni, Vinay M
Pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality metrics have been reported in few children less than 8 years. Our objective was to characterize chest compression fraction, rate, depth, and compliance with 2015 American Heart Association guidelines across multiple pediatric hospitals. Retrospective observational study of data from a multicenter resuscitation quality collaborative from October 2015 to April 2017. Twelve pediatric hospitals across United States, Canada, and Europe. In-hospital cardiac arrest patients (age < 18 yr) with quantitative cardiopulmonary resuscitation data recordings. None. There were 112 events yielding 2,046 evaluable 60-second epochs of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (196,669 chest compression). Event cardiopulmonary resuscitation metric summaries (median [interquartile range]) by age: less than 1 year (38/112): chest compression fraction 0.88 (0.61-0.98), chest compression rate 119/min (110-129), and chest compression depth 2.3 cm (1.9-3.0 cm); for 1 to less than 8 years (42/112): chest compression fraction 0.94 (0.79-1.00), chest compression rate 117/min (110-124), and chest compression depth 3.8 cm (2.9-4.6 cm); for 8 to less than 18 years (32/112): chest compression fraction 0.94 (0.85-1.00), chest compression rate 117/min (110-123), chest compression depth 5.5 cm (4.0-6.5 cm). "Compliance" with guideline targets for 60-second chest compression "epochs" was predefined: chest compression fraction greater than 0.80, chest compression rate 100-120/min, and chest compression depth: greater than or equal to 3.4 cm in less than 1 year, greater than or equal to 4.4 cm in 1 to less than 8 years, and 4.5 to less than 6.6 cm in 8 to less than 18 years. Proportion of less than 1 year, 1 to less than 8 years, and 8 to less than 18 years events with greater than or equal to 60% of 60-second epochs meeting compliance (respectively): chest compression fraction was 53%, 81%, and 78%; chest compression rate
Setälä, Piritta Anniina; Virkkunen, Ilkka Tapani; Kämäräinen, Antti Jaakko; Huhtala, Heini Sisko Annamari; Virta, Janne Severi; Yli-Hankala, Arvi Mikael; Hoppu, Sanna Elisa
Active compression-decompression (ACD) devices have enhanced end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO 2 ) output in experimental cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) studies. However, the results in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients have shown inconsistent outcomes, and earlier studies lacked quality control of CPR attempts. We compared manual CPR with ACD-CPR by measuring ETCO 2 output using an audiovisual feedback defibrillator to ensure continuous high quality resuscitation attempts. 10 witnessed OHCAs were resuscitated, rotating a 2 min cycle with manual CPR and a 2 min cycle of ACD-CPR. Patients were intubated and the ventilation rate was held constant during CPR. CPR quality parameters and ETCO 2 values were collected continuously with the defibrillator. Differences in ETCO 2 output between manual CPR and ACD-CPR were analysed using a linear mixed model where ETCO 2 output produced by a summary of the 2 min cycles was included as the dependent variable, the patient as a random factor and method as a fixed effect. These comparisons were made within each OHCA case to minimise confounding factors between the cases. Mean length of the CPR episodes was 37 (SD 8) min. Mean compression depth was 76 (SD 1.3) mm versus 71 (SD1.0) mm, and mean compression rate was 100 per min (SD 6.7) versus 105 per min (SD 4.9) between ACD-CPR and manual CPR, respectively. For ETCO 2 output, the interaction between the method and the patient was significant (P<0.001). ETCO 2 output was higher with manual CPR in 6 of the 10 cases. This study suggests that quality controlled ACD-CPR is not superior to quality controlled manual CPR when ETCO 2 is used as a quantitative measure of CPR effectiveness. NCT00951704; Results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Norris, Wendi M; Nielsen, Elizabeth L; Engelberg, Ruth A; Curtis, J Randall
Homeless people are at increased risk of critical illness and are less likely to have surrogate decision makers when critically ill. Consequently, clinicians must make decisions independently or with input from others such as ethics committees or guardians. No prior studies have examined treatment preferences of homeless to guide such decision makers. Interviewer-administered, cross-sectional survey of homeless persons. Homeless shelters in Seattle, WA. Two hundred twenty-nine homeless individuals with two comparison groups: 236 physicians practicing in settings where they are likely to provide care for homeless persons and 111 patients with oxygen-dependent COPD. Participants were asked whether they would want intubation with mechanical ventilation or cardiopulmonary resuscitation in their current health, if they were in a permanent coma, if they had severe dementia, or if they were confined to bed and dependent on others for all care. Homeless men were more likely to want resuscitation than homeless women (p < 0.002) in coma and dementia scenarios. Homeless men and women were both more likely to want resuscitation in these scenarios than physicians (p < 0.001). Nonwhite homeless were more likely to want resuscitation than white homeless people (p < 0.033), and both were more likely to want resuscitation than physicians (p < 0.001). Homeless are also more likely to want resuscitation than patients with COPD. The majority (80%) of homeless who reported not having family or not wanting family to make medical decisions prefer a physician make decisions rather than a court-appointed guardian. Homeless persons are more likely to prefer resuscitation than physicians and patients with severe COPD. Since physicians may be in the position of making medical decisions for homeless patients and since physicians are influenced by their own preferences when making decisions for others, physicians should be aware that, on average, homeless persons prefer more aggressive care
Mullan, Paul C; Wuestner, Elizabeth; Kerr, Tarra D; Christopher, Daniel P; Patel, Binita
Multiple guidelines recommend debriefing of resuscitations to improve clinical performance. We implemented a novel standardized debriefing program using a Debriefing In Situ Conversation after Emergent Resuscitation Now (DISCERN) tool. Following the development of the evidence-based DISCERN tool, we conducted an observational study of all resuscitations (intubation, CPR, and/or defibrillation) at a pediatric emergency department (ED) over one year. Resuscitation interventions, patient survival, and physician team leader characteristics were analyzed as predictors for debriefing. Each debriefing's participants, time duration, and content were recorded. Thematic content of debriefings was categorized by framework approach into Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) elements. There were 241 resuscitations and 63 (26%) debriefings. A higher proportion of debriefings occurred after CPR (p<0.001) or ED death (p<0.001). Debriefing participants always included an attending and nurse; the median number of staff roles present was six. Median intervals (from resuscitation end to start of debriefing) & debriefing durations were 33 (IQR 15, 67) and 10 min (IQR 5, 12), respectively. Common TEAM themes included co-operation/coordination (30%), communication (22%), and situational awareness (15%). Stated reasons for not debriefing included: unnecessary (78%), time constraints (19%), or other reasons (3%). Debriefings with the DISCERN tool usually involved higher acuity resuscitations, involved most of the indicated personnel, and lasted less than 10 min. Future studies are needed to evaluate the tool for adaptation to other settings and potential impacts on education, quality improvement programming, and staff emotional well-being. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Billica, Roger; Gosbee, John; Krupa, Debra T.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) techniques were investigated in microgravity with specific application to planned medical capabilities for Space Station Freedom (SSF). A KC-135 parabolic flight test was performed with the goal of evaluating and quantifying the efficacy of different types of microgravity CPR techniques. The flight followed the standard 40 parabola profile with 20 to 25 seconds of near-zero gravity in each parabola. Three experiments were involved chosen for their clinical background, certification, and practical experience in prior KC-135 parabolic flight. The CPR evaluation was performed using a standard training mannequin (recording resusci-Annie) which was used in practice prior to the actual flight. Aboard the KC-135, the prototype medical restraint system (MRS) for the SSF Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) was used for part of the study. Standard patient and crew restraints were used for interface with the MRS. During the portion of study where CPR was performed without MRS, a set of straps for crew restraint similar to those currently employed for the Space Shuttle program were used. The entire study was recorded via still camera and video.
BACKGROUND: The survival rate of patients after cardiac arrest (CA) remains lower since 2010 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and Emergency Cardiovascular Care (ECC) was published. In clinical trials, the methods and techniques for CPR have been overly described. This article gives an overview of the progress in methods and techniques for CPR in the past years. DATA SOURCES: Original articles about cardiac arrest and CPR from MEDLINE (PubMed) and relevant journals were searched, and most of them were clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs). RESULTS: Forty-two articles on methods and techniques of CPR were reviewed, including chest compression and conventional CPR, chest compression depth and speed, defibrillation strategies and priority, mechanical and manual chest compression, advanced airway management, impedance threshold device (ITD) and active compression-decompression (ACD) CPR, epinephrine use, and therapeutic hypothermia. The results of studies and related issues described in the international guidelines had been testified. CONCLUSIONS: Although large multicenter studies on CPR are still difficult to carry out, progress has been made in the past 4 years in the methods and techniques of CPR. The results of this review provide evidences for updating the 2015 international guidelines. PMID:26056537
Suner, Selim; Jay, Gregory D; Kleinman, Gary J; Woolard, Robert H; Jagminas, Liudvikas; Becker, Bruce M
To compare the "Bellows on Sternum Resuscitation" (BSR) device that permits simultaneous compression and ventilation by one rescuer with two person cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilation in a single blind crossover study performed in the laboratory setting. Tidal volume and compression depth were recorded continuously during 12-min CPR sessions with the BSR device and two person CPR. Six CPR instructors performed a total of 1,894 ventilations and 10,532 compressions in 3 separate 12-min sessions. Mean tidal volume (MTV) and compression rate (CR) with the BSR device differed significantly from CPR with the BVM group (1242 mL vs. 1065 mL, respectively, p = 0.0018 and 63.2 compressions per minute (cpm) vs. 81.3 cpm, respectively, p = 0.0076). Error in compression depth (ECD) rate of 9.78% was observed with the BSR device compared to 8.49% with BMV CPR (p = 0.1815). Error rate was significantly greater during the second half of CPR sessions for both BSR and BVM groups. It is concluded that one-person CPR with the BSR device is equivalent to two-person CPR with BVM in all measured parameters except for CR. Both groups exhibited greater error rate in CPR performance in the latter half of 12-min CPR sessions.
Targeted temperature management is recommended to reduce brain damage after resuscitation from cardiac arrest in humans although the optimal target temperature remains controversial. 1 4 The American Heart Association (AHA) and the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation...
Johnson, Blake; Runyon, Michael; Weekes, Anthony; Pearson, David
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest has high rates of morbidity and mortality, and a growing body of evidence is redefining our approach to the resuscitation of these high-risk patients. Team-focused cardiopulmonary resuscitation (TFCPR), most commonly deployed and described by prehospital care providers, is a focused approach to cardiac arrest care that emphasizes early defibrillation and high-quality, minimally interrupted chest compressions while de-emphasizing endotracheal intubation and intravenous drug administration. TFCPR is associated with statistically significant increases in survival to hospital admission, survival to hospital discharge, and survival with good neurologic outcome; however, the adoption of similar streamlined resuscitation approaches by emergency physicians has not been widely reported. In the absence of a deliberately streamlined approach, such as TFCPR, other advanced therapies and procedures that have not shown similar survival benefit may be prioritized at the expense of simpler evidence-based interventions. This review examines the current literature on cardiac arrest resuscitation. The recent prehospital success of TFCPR is highlighted, including the associated improvements in multiple patient-centered outcomes. The adaptability of TFCPR to the emergency department (ED) setting is also discussed in detail. Finally, we discuss advanced interventions frequently performed during ED cardiac arrest resuscitation that may interfere with early defibrillation and effective high-quality chest compressions. TFCPR has been associated with improved patient outcomes in the prehospital setting. The data are less compelling for other commonly used advanced resuscitation tools and procedures. Emergency physicians should consider incorporating the TFCPR approach into ED cardiac arrest resuscitation to optimize delivery of those interventions most associated with improved outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thallinger, Monica; Ersdal, Hege Langli; Ombay, Crescent; Eilevstjønn, Joar; Størdal, Ketil
To compare ventilation properties and user preference of a new upright neonatal resuscitator developed for easier cleaning, reduced complexity, and possibly improved ventilation properties, with the standard Laerdal neonatal resuscitator. Eighty-seven Tanzanian and Norwegian nursing and medical students without prior knowledge of newborn resuscitation were briefly trained in bag-mask ventilation. The two resuscitators were used in random order on a manikin connected to a test lung with normal or low lung compliance. Data were collected with the Laerdal Newborn Resuscitation Monitor. The students graded mask seal and ease of air entry on a four-point scale ranging from 1 ('difficult') to 4 ('easy') and stated which device they preferred. (Equipment from Laerdal Global Health and Laerdal Medical). For upright versus standard resuscitator and normal lung compliance, mean expiratory lung volume was 15.5 mL vs 13.9 mL (p=0.001), mean mask leakage 48% vs 58% (p<0.001), and mean airway pressure 20 cm H2O vs 19 cm H2O (p=0.003), respectively. For low lung compliance, mean expiratory lung volume was 8.6 mL vs 8.1 mL (p=0.045), mean mask leakage 53% vs 62% (p<0.001), and mean airway pressure 21 cm H2O vs 20 cm H2O (p=0.004) for upright versus standard. The upright resuscitator was preferred by 82% and 68% of students during ventilation with normal and low lung compliance, respectively (p=0.001). Expiratory volumes were higher, mask leakage lower, and mean airway pressure slightly higher with upright versus standard resuscitator when ventilating a manikin. The majority of students preferred the upright resuscitator. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Holcomb, John B.; Swartz, Michael D.; DeSantis, Stacia M.; Greene, Thomas J.; Fox, Erin E.; Stein, Deborah M.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Goodman, Michael; Schreiber, Martin A.; Zielinski, Martin D.; O’Keeffe, Terence; Inaba, Kenji; Tomasek, Jeffrey S.; Podbielski, Jeanette M.; Appana, Savitri; Yi, Misung; Wade, Charles E.
BACKGROUND Earlier use of in-hospital plasma, platelets and red blood cells (RBCs) has improved survival in trauma patients with severe hemorrhage. Retrospective studies have associated improved early survival with prehospital blood product transfusion (PHT). We hypothesized that PHT of plasma and/or RBCs would result in improved survival after injury in patients transported by helicopter. METHODS Adult trauma patients transported by helicopter from the scene to nine Level 1 trauma centers were prospectively observed from Jan–Nov 2015. Five helicopter systems had plasma and/or RBCs while the other four helicopter systems used only crystalloid resuscitation. All patients meeting predetermined high risk criteria were analyzed. Patients receiving PHT were compared to patients not receiving PHT. Our primary analysis compared mortality at 3 hours, 24 hours, and 30 days, using logistic regression to adjust for confounders and site heterogeneity to model patients who were matched on propensity scores. RESULTS 25,118 trauma patients were admitted, 2341 (9%) were transported by helicopter, of which 1058 (45%) met the highest risk criteria. 585/1058 patients were flown on helicopters carrying blood products. In the systems with blood available, prehospital median systolic blood pressure (125 vs 128) and GCS (7 vs 14) was significantly lower, while median ISS was significantly higher (21 vs 14). Unadjusted mortality was significantly higher in the systems with blood products available, at 3 (8.4% vs 3.6%), 24 (12.6% vs 8.9%) hours and 30 days (19.3% vs 13.3%). 24% of eligible patients received a prehospital transfusion. A median of 1 unit of RBCs and plasma were transfused prehospital. Of patients receiving PHT, 24% received only plasma, 7% received only RBCs and 69% received both. In the propensity score matching analysis (n=109), PHT was not significantly associated with mortality at any time point, although only 10% of the high risk sample were able to be matched
Rajaraman, Sivaramakrishnan; Ganesan, Sona; Jayapal, Kavitha; Kannan, Sadhani
Birth Asphyxia is considered to be one of the leading causes of neonatal mortality around the world. Asphyxiated neonates require skilled resuscitation to survive the neonatal period. The project aims to train health professionals in a basic newborn care using a prototype with an ultimate objective to have one person at every delivery trained in neonatal resuscitation. This prototype will be a user-friendly device with which one can get trained in performing neonatal resuscitation in resource-limited settings. The prototype consists of a Force Sensing Resistor (FSR) that measures the pressure applied and is interfaced with Arduino® which controls the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and Light Emitting Diode (LED) indication for pressure and compression counts. With the increase in population and absence of proper medical care, the need for neonatal resuscitation program is not well addressed. The proposed work aims at offering a promising solution for training health care individuals on resuscitating newborn babies under low resource settings. PMID:27417489
Goldstein, D H; Beckwith, R K
To establish a national profile of undergraduate training in resuscitation at Canadian medical schools, to compare the resuscitation training programs of the schools and to determine the cost of teaching seven resuscitation courses. Mail survey in 1989 and follow-up telephone interviews in 1991 to update and verify the information. The undergraduate deans of the 16 Canadian medical schools. The mail survey asked five questions: (a) Is completion of a standard first aid or cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) course a requirement for admission to medical school? (b) Are these courses and those in basic and advanced cardiac, trauma and neurologic life support for children and adults provided to undergraduate students? (c) During which undergraduate year are these courses offered? (d) Is their successful completion required for graduation? and (e) Who funds the training courses? The medical schools placed emphasis on the seven courses differently. More than half the schools required the completion of courses before admission or taught some courses but did not require the completion of the courses for graduation. On average, fewer than three of the seven courses were taught, and the completion of fewer than two was required for graduation. About half of the courses were funded by the universities. The annual projected maximum cost of teaching the seven courses was $1790 per medical student. The seven resuscitation courses have not been fully implemented at the undergraduate level in Canadian medical schools.
Hamilton, Stewart M.; Breakey, Pat
Patient management in the prehospital resuscitative phase after trauma is vitally important to the outcome. Early definitive care remains the essential element in improving morbidity and mortality. In Canada, where a large proportion of trauma occurs at sites distant from a trauma centre, the prehospital resuscitative phase is long and has even greater potential to affect outcome. Conventional teaching about the end points of resuscitation has promoted the concept of normalization of hemodynamic parameters with maintenance of end-organ perfusion, as measured by the hourly urine output. Recent work in patients with a closed head injury and in patients with penetrating torso trauma challenge the notion that trauma patients are homogeneous with respect to these end points. In the Canadian setting of blunt injury, where a closed head injury is usually suspected and often present, the evidence from clinical studies suggests that an aggressive approach to maintaining blood pressure is warranted. In penetrating torso injury in an urban setting, there is evidence to suggest that delaying resuscitation until hemorrhage is controlled is beneficial. More Canadian clinical trials are required in this area. In the meantime, the priorities of resuscitation must be carefully assessed for each patient and pattern of injury. PMID:8599784
Stewart, G. N.; Guthrie, C. C.; Burns, R. L.; Pike, F. H.
The cerebral circulation was interrupted for periods of three to eighty-one minutes by ligation of the innominate and left subclavian arteries proximal to the origin of the vertebral, in ninety-three cats. Eleven dogs were used in the earlier experiments. The eye reflexes disappear very quickly and a period of high blood pressure follows the occlusion immediately; vagus inhibition causes cardiac slowing and a fall in blood pressure, followed by a second rise after the vagus center succumbs to anaemia. Respiration stops temporarily (twenty to sixty seconds) after the beginning of occlusion, and then follows a series of strong gasps of the Cheyne-Stokes type, after which it stops until some time after the restoration of the cerebral circulation. The respiratory and vagus centers lose their power of functioning at approximately the same time. Asphyxial slowing of the heart may occur without the agency of the vagus center. The blood pressure slowly falls to a level which is maintained throughout the remainder of the period of occlusion. The anterior part of the cord and the encephalon lose all function; no reflexes are obtainable. The reflexes of the posterior part of the cord persist; the intravenous injection of strychnine does not affect the anterior part of the cord during the period of occlusion; but does affect the posterior portion of the cord. There is no secretion of tears or saliva, and the intra-ocular pressure is reduced. The blood pressure falls still more after release of the cerebra arteries, but soon begins to rise. The respiration returns suddenly, two to sixty minutes after restoration of the cerebral circulation, the first gasp being a strong one. The rate gradually increases until rapid enough for natural respiration. The eye reflexes and intra-ocular tension return more gradually, ten minutes to three hours after restoration of the cerebral circulation. The anterior part of the cord recovers its functions gradually. The first reflexes occur only on
Athanasopoulos, Panagiotis G; Hadjittofi, Christopher; Dharmapala, Arinda Dinesh; Orti-Rodriguez, Rafael Jose; Ferro, Alessandra; Nasralla, David; Konstantinidou, Sofia K; Malagó, Massimo
Donor organ shortage continues to limit the availability of liver transplantation, a successful and established therapy of end-stage liver diseases. Strategies to mitigate graft shortage include the utilization of marginal livers and recently ex-situ normothermic machine perfusion devices. A 59-year-old woman with cirrhosis due to primary sclerosing cholangitis was offered an ex-situ machine perfused graft with unnoticed severe injury of the suprahepatic vasculature due to road traffic accident. Following a complex avulsion, repair and reconstruction of all donor hepatic veins as well as the suprahepatic inferior vena cava, the patient underwent a face-to-face piggy-back orthotopic liver transplantation and was discharged on the 11th postoperative day after an uncomplicated recovery. This report illustrates the operative technique to utilize an otherwise unusable organ, in the current environment of donor shortage and declining graft quality. Normothermic machine perfusion can definitely play a role in increasing the graft pool, without compromising the quality of livers who had vascular or other damage before being ex-situ perfused. Furthermore, it emphasizes the importance of promptly and thoroughly communicating organ injuries, as well as considering all reconstructive options within the level of expertise at the recipient center.
proceed with the formal Department of the Army review. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Trauma, hemorrhagic shock, cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation ...n/a Introduction Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can save victims of normovolemic cardiac arrest (CA), e.g., ventricular...delayed resuscitation with cardiopulmonary bypass. The primary outcome variable will be survival to hospital discharge with minimal neurologic dysfunction
Curran, Vernon; Fleet, Lisa; Greene, Melanie
Introduction: Resuscitation and life support skills training comprises a significant proportion of continuing education programming for health professionals. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions and attitudes of certified resuscitation providers toward the retention of resuscitation skills, regular skills updating, and methods…
Cohan, S.L.; Mun, S.K.; Petite, J.
Cerebral blood flow was measured by xenon-133 washout in 13 patients 6-46 hours after being resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Patients regaining consciousness had relatively normal cerebral blood flow before regaining consciousness, but all patients who died without regaining consciousness had increased cerebral blood flow that appeared within 24 hours after resuscitation (except in one patient in whom the first measurement was delayed until 28 hours after resuscitation, by which time cerebral blood flow was increased). The cause of the delayed-onset increase in cerebral blood flow is not known, but the increase may have adverse effects on brain function and maymore » indicate the onset of irreversible brain damage.« less
Bruce-Jones, P N
Decisions about cardiopulmonary resuscitation may be based on medical prognosis, quality of life and patients' choices. Low survival rates indicate its overuse. Although the concept of medical futility has limitations, several strong predictors of non-survival have been identified and prognostic indices developed. Early results indicate that consideration of resuscitation in the elderly should be very selective, and support "opt-in" policies. In this minority of patients, quality of life is the principal issue. This is subjective and best assessed by the individual in question. Patients' attitudes cannot be predicted reliably and surrogate decision-making is inadequate. Lay knowledge is poor. However, patients can use prognostic information to make rational choices. The majority welcome discussion of resuscitation and prefer this to be initiated by their doctors; many wish to decide for themselves. There is little evidence that this causes distress. The views of such patients, if competent, should be sought actively.
Page, Richard L
The automated external defibrillator (AED), in combination with effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), is a critical part of the American Heart Association's "Chain of survival." Newer guidelines have simplified resuscitation and emphasized the importance of CPR in providing rapid and deep compressions with minimal interruptions; in fact, CPR should resume immediately after the shock given by the AED, without the delay entailed in checking for pulse or rhythm conversion. Our experience with the AED aboard aircraft, showing 40% long-term survival with the AED in ventricular fibrillation, demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the device. Despite this and other reports of successful AED deployment, AEDs are not yet available at all public locations. Prospective research, as undertaken by the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium, will be the key to future refinements of the guidelines and enhanced survival with use of the AED in sudden cardiac arrest.
Martin, Kelly; Weiss, Scott L.
The pediatric sepsis syndrome remains a common cause of morbidity, mortality, and health care utilization costs worldwide. The initial resuscitation and management of pediatric sepsis is focused on 1) rapid recognition of abnormal tissue perfusion and restoration of adequate cardiovascular function, 2) eradication of the inciting invasive infection, including prompt administration of empiric broad-spectrum antimicrobial medications, and 3) supportive care of organ system dysfunction. Efforts to improve early and aggressive initial resuscitation and ongoing management strategies have improved outcomes in pediatric severe sepsis and septic shock, though many questions still remain as to the optimal therapeutic strategies for many patients. In this article, we will briefly review the definitions, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and pathophysiology of sepsis and provide an extensive overview of both current and novel therapeutic strategies used to resuscitate and manage pediatric patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. PMID:25604591
Robinson, Philip S; Shall, Emma; Rakhit, Roby
Leadership skills directly correlate with the quality of technical performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and clinical outcomes. Despite an improved focus on non-technical skills in CPR training, the leadership of cardiac arrests is often variable. To assess the perceptions of leadership and team working among members of a cardiac arrest team and to evaluate future training needs. Cross-sectional survey of 102 members of a cardiac arrest team at an Acute Hospital Trust in the UK with 892 inpatient beds. Responses sought from doctors, nurses and healthcare assistants to 12 rated statements and 4 dichotomous questions. Of 102 responses, 81 (79%) were from doctors and 21 (21%) from nurses. Among specialist registrars 90% agreed or strongly agreed that there was clear leadership at all arrests compared with between 28% and 49% of nurses and junior doctors respectively. Routine omission of key leadership tasks was reported by as many as 80% of junior doctors and 50% of nurses. Almost half of respondents reported non-adherence with Advanced Life Support (ALS) guidelines. Among junior members of the team, 36% felt confident to lead an arrest and 75% would welcome further dedicated cardiac arrest leadership training. Leadership training is integrated into the ALS (Resus Council, UK) qualification. However, this paper found that in spite of this training; standards of leadership are variable. The findings suggest a pressing need for further dedicated cardiac arrest leadership training with a focus on improving key leadership tasks such as role assignment, team briefing and debriefing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won
Background The use of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in the setting of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has shown improved outcomes compared with conventional CPR. The aim of this study was to determine factors predictive of survival in extracorporeal CPR (E-CPR). Methods Consecutive 85 adult patients (median age, 59 years; range, 18 to 85 years; 56 males) who underwent E-CPR from May 2005 to December 2012 were evaluated. Results Causes of arrest were cardiogenic in 62 patients (72.9%), septic in 18 patients (21.2%), and hypovolemic in 3 patients (3.5%), while the etiology was not specified in 2 patients (2.4%). The survival rate in patients with septic etiology was significantly poorer compared with those with another etiology (0% vs. 24.6%, p=0.008). Septic etiology (hazard ratio [HR], 2.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49 to 5.44; p=0.002) and the interval between arrest and ECLS initiation (HR, 1.05 by 10 minutes increment; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.09; p=0.005) were independent risk factors for mortality. When the predictive value of the E-CPR timing for in-hospital mortality was assessed using the receiver operating characteristic curve method, the greatest accuracy was obtained at a cutoff of 60.5 minutes (area under the curve, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.80; p=0.032) with 47.8% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity. The survival rate was significantly different according to the cutoff of 60.5 minutes (p=0.001). Conclusion These results indicate that efforts should be made to minimize the time between arrest and ECLS application, optimally within 60 minutes. In addition, E-CPR in patients with septic etiology showed grave outcomes, suggesting it to be of questionable benefit in these patients. PMID:27525236
Leske, Jane S.; McAndrew, Natalie S.; Brasel, Karen J.; Feetham, Suzanne
Purpose The primary aim was to examine the effects of family presence during resuscitation (FPDR) in patients who survived trauma from motor vehicle crashes (MVC) and gunshot wounds (GSW) in the emergency department. Background The ongoing controversy of FPDR, dearth of comparative designs, small sample sizes, and survey methods makes it difficult to come to a definitive conclusion about any benefits of FPDR. Methods The Resiliency Model guided the selection of variables. A multivariate, comparison, prospective design was used. A convenience sample of family members participated within three days of admission to critical care. Family strengths were measured by the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Scale, Family Inventory of Resources for Management, and Family Problem Solving Communication Index. Family outcomes were measured by the State anxiety portion of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Acute Stress Disorder Scale, Family Member Well-being Index, and Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit Scale. Results Family members of 140 trauma patients (MVC n=110; 79%; GSW n=30, 21%) participated. Family members ranged in age from 20–84 years (M=46, SD=15, Mdn=47). The majority were female (n=112, 80%) and related to the patient as spouse (n=46, 33%). Participating in the FPDR option reduced anxiety (t= −2.43, p=.04), reduced stress (t= −2.86, p=.005), and fostered well-being (t=3.46, p=.001) but was not significant for satisfaction with critical care (t= −.28, p=.78). Discussion Results demonstrate the positive initial effects of FPDR on family members of patients surviving trauma injury. Long term effects of FPDR remain unknown. PMID:28272181
Kapadia, Vishal S.; Chalak, Lina F.; Sparks, John E.; Allen, James R.; Savani, Rashmin C.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a limited oxygen strategy (LOX) versus a high oxygen strategy (HOX) during delivery room resuscitation decreases oxidative stress in preterm neonates. METHODS: A randomized trial of neonates of 24 to 34 weeks’ gestational age (GA) who received resuscitation was performed. LOX neonates received room air as the initial resuscitation gas, and fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) was adjusted by 10% every 30 seconds to achieve target preductal oxygen saturations (Spo2) as described by the 2010 Neonatal Resuscitation Program guidelines. HOX neonates received 100% O2 as initial resuscitation gas, and Fio2 was adjusted by 10% to keep preductal Spo2 at 85% to 94%. Total hydroperoxide (TH), biological antioxidant potential (BAP), and the oxidative balance ratio (BAP/TH) were analyzed in cord blood and the first hour of life. Secondary outcomes included delivery room interventions, respiratory support on NICU admission, and short-term morbidities. RESULTS: Forty-four LOX (GA: 30 ± 3 weeks; birth weight: 1678 ± 634 g) and 44 HOX (GA: 30 ± 3 weeks; birth weight: 1463 ± 606 g) neonates were included. LOX decreased integrated excess oxygen (∑Fio2 × time [min]) in the delivery room compared with HOX (401 ± 151 vs 662 ± 249; P < .01). At 1 hour of life, BAP/TH was 60% higher for LOX versus HOX neonates (13 [9–16] vs 8 [6–9]) µM/U.CARR, P < .01). LOX decreased ventilator days (3 [0–64] vs 8 [0–96]; P < .05) and reduced the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (7% vs 25%; P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: LOX is feasible and results in less oxygen exposure, lower oxidative stress, and decreased respiratory morbidities and thus is a reasonable alternative for resuscitation of preterm neonates in the delivery room. PMID:24218465
Hendrickse, A D; Ellis, A M; Morris, R W
Realistic training of health personnel for the resuscitation of military casualties is problematic. There are few opportunities for personnel to obtain the necessary experience unless working in a busy emergency or trauma environment. Even so, the specific nature of military trauma means that many aspects of casualty management may not be adequately covered in the civilian domain. This paper discusses the use of advanced simulation technology in the training of military resuscitation teams. Such training has been available to members of the Australian Defence Force (ADF) for two years.
Couper, I D; Thurley, J D; Hugo, J F M
A paediatrician trainer from Australia (JT) spent 3 months in South Africa to assist with the development of neonatal resuscitation training in rural areas, particularly in district hospitals. The project was initiated by the Rural Health Unit at the University of the Witwatersrand and coordinated through the Family Medicine Education Consortium (FaMEC). The Rural Workforce Agency of Victoria together with General Practice and Primary Health Care Northern Territory covered the salary and international travel costs of the trainer, while local costs were funded by provincial departments of health, participants and a Belgian funded FaMEC project. The trainer developed an appropriate one-day skills training course in neonatal resuscitation (NNR), using the South African Paediatric Association Manual of Resuscitation of the Newborn as pre-reading, and a course to train trainers in neonatal resuscitation. From July to October 2004 he moved around the country running the neonatal resuscitation course, and, more importantly, training and accrediting trainers to run their own courses on an ongoing basis. The neonatal resuscitation course involved pre- and post-course multiple-choice question tests to assess knowledge and application, and, later, pre- and post-course skills tests to assess competence. A total of 415 people, including 215 nurses and 192 doctors, attended the neonatal resuscitation courses in 28 different sites in eight provinces. In addition, 97 trainers were trained, in nine sites. The participants rated the course highly. Pre- and post-course tests showed a high level of learning and improved confidence. The logistical arrangements, through the departments of family medicine, worked well, but the programme was very demanding of the trainer. Lessons and experiences were not shared between provinces, leading to repetition of some problems. A clear issue around the country was a lack of adequate equipment in hospitals for neonatal resuscitation, which needs to
Kelleher, Deirdre C; Carter, Elizabeth A; Waterhouse, Lauren J; Burd, Randall S
Barrier precautions protect patients and providers from blood-borne pathogens. Although barrier precaution compliance has been shown to be low among adult trauma teams, it has not been evaluated during paediatric resuscitations in which perceived risk of disease transmission may be low. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with compliance with barrier precautions during paediatric trauma resuscitations. Video recordings of resuscitations performed on injured children (<18 years old) were reviewed to determine compliance with an established policy requiring gowns and gloves. Depending on activation level, trauma team members included up to six physicians, four nurses, and a respiratory therapist. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the effect of team role, resuscitation factors, and injury mechanism on barrier precaution compliance. Over twelve weeks, 1138 trauma team members participated in 128 resuscitations (4.7% penetrating injuries, 9.4% highest level activations). Compliance with barrier precautions was 81.3%, with higher compliance seen among roles primarily at the bedside compared to positions not primarily at the bedside (90.7% vs. 65.1%, p<0.001). Bedside residents (98.4%) and surgical fellows (97.6%) had the highest compliance, while surgical attendings (20.8%) had the lowest (p<0.001). Controlling for role, increased compliance was observed during resuscitations of patients with penetrating injuries (OR=3.97 [95% CI: 1.35-11.70], p=0.01), during resuscitations triaged to the highest activation level (OR=2.61 [95% CI: 1.34-5.10], p=0.005), and among team members present before patient arrival (OR=4.14 [95% CI: 2.29-7.39], p<0.001). Compliance with barrier precautions varies by trauma team role. Team members have higher compliance when treating children with penetrating and high acuity injuries and when arriving before the patient. Interventions integrating barrier precautions into the workflow of team members are
Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Hee Young; Ahn, Hyeong Sik; Lee, Sung Woo
The objective was to determine whether extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR), when compared with conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CCPR), improves outcomes in adult patients, and to determine appropriate conditions that can predict good survival outcome in ECPR patients through a meta-analysis. We searched the relevant literature of comparative studies between ECPR and CCPR in adults, from the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. The baseline information and outcome data (survival, good neurologic outcome at discharge, at 3-6 months, and at 1 year after arrest) were extracted. Beneficial effect of ECPR on outcome was analyzed according to time interval, location of arrest (out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA)), and pre-defined population inclusion criteria (witnessed arrest, initial shockable rhythm, cardiac etiology of arrest and CPR duration) by using Review Manager 5.3. Cochran's Q test and I(2) were calculated. 10 of 1583 publications were included. Although survival to discharge did not show clear superiority in OHCA, ECPR showed statistically improved survival and good neurologic outcome as compared to CCPR, especially at 3-6 months after arrest. In the subgroup of patients with pre-defined inclusion criteria, the pooled meta-analysis found similar results in studies with pre-defined criteria. Survival and good neurologic outcome tended to be superior in the ECPR group at 3-6 months after arrest. The effect of ECPR on survival to discharge in OHCA was not clearly shown. As ECPR showed better outcomes than CCPR in studies with pre-defined criteria, strict indications criteria should be considered when implementation of ECPR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
López-Herce, Jesús; Almonte, Enma; Alvarado, Manuel; Bogado, Norma Beatriz; Cyunel, Mariana; Escalante, Raffo; Finardi, Christiane; Guzmán, Gustavo; Jaramillo-Bustamante, Juan C; Madrid, Claudia C; Matamoros, Martha; Moya, Luis Augusto; Obando, Grania; Reboredo, Gaspar; López, Lissette R; Scheu, Christian; Valenzuela, Alejandro; Yerovi, Rocío; Yock-Corrales, Adriana
To develop a Latin American Consensus about Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. To clarify, reinforce, and adapt some specific recommendations for pediatric patients and to stimulate the implementation of these recommendations in clinical practice. Expert consensus recommendations with Delphi methodology. Latin American countries. Experts in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation from 19 Latin American countries. Delphi methodology for expert consensus. The goal was to reach consensus with all the participating experts for every recommendation. An agreement of at least 80% of the participating experts had to exist in order to deliver a recommendation. Two Delphi voting rounds were sent out electronically. The experts were asked to score between 1 and 9 their level of agreement for each recommendation. The score was then classified into three groups: strong agreement (score 7-9), moderate agreement (score 4-6), and disagreement (score 1-3). Nineteen experts from 19 countries participated in both voting rounds and in the whole process of drafting the recommendations. Sixteen recommendations about organization of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, prevention, basic resuscitation, advanced resuscitation, and postresuscitation measures were approved. Ten of them had a consensus of 100%. Four of them were agreed by all the participants except one (94.7% consensus). One recommendation was agreed by all except two experts (89.4%), and finally, one was agreed by all except three experts (84.2%). All the recommendations reached a level of agreement. This consensus adapts 16 international recommendations to Latin America in order to improve the practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in children. Studies should be conducted to analyze the effectiveness of the implementation of these recommendations.
Wollborn, Jakob; Ruetten, Eva; Schlueter, Bjoern; Haberstroh, Joerg; Goebel, Ulrich; Schick, Martin A
Standardized modeling of cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is crucial to evaluate new treatment options. Experimental porcine models are ideal, closely mimicking human-like physiology. However, anteroposterior chest diameter differs significantly, being larger in pigs and thus poses a challenge to achieve adequate perfusion pressures and consequently hemodynamics during CPR, which are commonly achieved during human resuscitation. The aim was to prove that standardized resuscitation is feasible and renders adequate hemodynamics and perfusion in pigs, using a specifically designed resuscitation board for a pneumatic chest compression device. A "porcine-fit" resuscitation board was designed for our experiments to optimally use a pneumatic compression device (LUCAS® II, Physio-Control Inc.), which is widely employed in emergency medicine and ideal in an experimental setting due to its high standardization. Asphyxial cardiac arrest was induced in 10 German hybrid landrace pigs and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed according to ERC/AHA 2015 guidelines with mechanical chest compressions. Hemodynamics were measured in the carotid and pulmonary artery. Furthermore, arterial blood gas was drawn to assess oxygenation and tissue perfusion. The custom-designed resuscitation board in combination with the LUCAS® device demonstrated highly sufficient performance regarding hemodynamics during CPR (mean arterial blood pressure, MAP 46 ± 1 mmHg and mean pulmonary artery pressure, mPAP of 36 ± 1 mmHg over the course of CPR). MAP returned to baseline values at 2 h after ROSC (80 ± 4 mmHg), requiring moderate doses of vasopressors. Furthermore, stroke volume and contractility were analyzed using pulse contour analysis (106 ± 3 ml and 1097 ± 22 mmHg/s during CPR). Blood gas analysis revealed CPR-typical changes, normalizing in the due course. Thermodilution parameters did not show persistent intravascular volume shift
Kattwinkel, J; Niermeyer, S; Nadkarni, V; Tibballs, J; Phillips, B; Zideman, D; Van Reempts, P; Osmond, M
The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR), with representation from North America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Africa, and South America, was formed in 1992 to provide a forum for liaison between resuscitation organizations in the developed world. This consensus document on resuscitation extends previously published ILCOR advisory statements on resuscitation to address the unique and changing physiology of the newly born infant within the first few hours after birth and the techniques for providing advanced life support. After careful review of the international resuscitation literature and after discussion of key and controversial issues, consensus was reached on almost all aspects of neonatal resuscitation, and areas of controversy and high priority for additional research were delineated. Consensus on resuscitation for the newly born infant included the following principles: Common or controversial medications (epinephrine, volume expansion, naloxone, bicarbonate), special resuscitation circumstances affecting care of the newly born, continuing care of the newly born after resuscitation, and ethical considerations for initiation and discontinuation of resuscitation are discussed. There was agreement that insufficient data exist to recommend changes to current guidelines regarding the use of 21% versus 100% oxygen, neuroprotective interventions such as cerebral hypothermia, use of a laryngeal mask versus endotracheal tube, and use of high-dose epinephrine. Areas of controversy are identified, as is the need for additional research to improve the scientific justification of each component of current and future resuscitation guidelines.
• Introduction to Resuscitation of the Newborn Infant. ARC and NZRC Guideline 2010 • Planning for Neonatal Resuscitation and Identification of the Newborn Infant at Risk. ARC and NZRC Guideline 2010 • Assessment of the Newborn Infant. ARC and NZRC Guideline 2010 • Airway Management and Mask Ventilation of the Newborn Infant. ARC and NZRC Guideline 2010 • Tracheal Intubation and Ventilation of the Newborn Infant. ARC and NZRC Guideline 2010 • Chest Compressions during Resuscitation of the Newborn Infant. ARC and NZRC Guideline 2010 • Medication or Fluids for the Resuscitation of the Newborn Infant. ARC and NZRC Guideline 2010 • The Resuscitation of the Newborn Infant in Special Circumstances. ARC and NZRC Guideline 2010 • After the Resuscitation of a Newborn Infant. ARC and NZRC Guideline 2010 • Ethical Issues in Resuscitation of the Newborn Infant. ARC and NZRC Guideline 2010. © 2011 The Authors. EMA © 2011 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
Hinkelbein, Jochen; Spelten, Oliver; Marks, Jörg; Hellmich, Martin; Böttiger, Bernd W; Wetsch, Wolfgang A
Two earlier studies found that outcome after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in the television medical drama Emergency Room (ER) is not realistic. No study has yet evaluated CPR quality in ER. Retrospective analysis of CPR quality in episodes of ER. Three independent board-certified emergency physicians trained in CPR and the American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines reviewed ER episodes in two 5-year time-frames (2001-2005 and 2005-2009). Congruency with the corresponding 2000 and 2005 AHA guidelines was determined for each CPR scene. None. None. To evaluate whether CPR is in agreement with the specific algorithms of the AHA guidelines. Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney-U-test were used to evaluate statistical significance (P<0.05). A total of 136 on-screen cardiac arrests occurred in 174 episodes. Trauma was the leading cause of cardiac arrest (56.6%), which was witnessed in 80.1%. Return of spontaneous circulation occurred in 38.2%. Altogether, 19.1% of patients survived until ICU admission, and 5.1% were discharged alive. Only one CPR scene was in agreement with the published AHA guidelines. However, low-quality CPR and non-compliance with the guidelines resulted in favorable outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hughes Driscoll, Colleen A; Schub, Jamie A; Pollard, Kristi; El-Metwally, Dina
Handoffs for neonatal resuscitation involve communicating critical delivery information (CDI). The authors sought to achieve ≥95% communication of CDI during resuscitation team requests. CDI included name of caller, urgency of request, location of delivery, gestation of fetus, status of amniotic fluid, and indication for presence of the resuscitation team. Three interventions were implemented: verbal scripted handoff, Spök text messaging, and Engage text messaging. Percentages of CDI communications were analyzed using statistical process control. Following implementation of Engage, the communication of all CDI, except for indication, was ≥95%; communication of indication occurred 93% of the time. Control limits for most CDI were narrower with Engage, indicating greater reliability of communication compared to the verbal handoff and Spök. Delayed resuscitation team arrival, a countermeasure, was not higher with text messaging compared to verbal handoff ( P = 1.00). Text messaging improved communication during high-risk deliveries, and it may represent an effective tool for other delivery centers.
Velayudhareddy, S.; Kirankumar, H
Management of foetal distress is a subject of gynaecological interest, but an anaesthesiologist should know about resuscitation, because he should be able to treat the patient, whenever he is directly involved in managing the parturient patient during labour analgesia and before an emergency operative delivery. Progressive asphyxia is known as foetal distress; the foetus does not breathe directly from the atmosphere, but depends on maternal circulation for its oxygen requirement. The oxygen delivery to the foetus depends on the placental (maternal side), placental transfer and foetal circulation. Oxygen transport to the foetus is reduced physiologically during uterine contractions in labour. Significant impairment of oxygen transport to the foetus, either temporary or permanent may cause foetal distress, resulting in progressive hypoxia and acidosis. Intrauterine foetal resuscitation comprises of applying measures to a mother in active labour, with the intention of improving oxygen delivery to the distressed foetus to the base line, if the placenta is functioning normally. These measures include left lateral recumbent position, high flow oxygen administration, tocolysis to reduce uterine contractions, rapid intravenous fluid administration, vasopressors for correction of maternal hypotension and amnioinfusion for improving uterine blood flow. Intrauterine Foetal Resuscitation measures are easy to perform and do not require extensive resources, but the results are encouraging in improving the foetal well-being. The anaesthesiologist plays a major role in the application of intrauterine foetal resuscitation measures. PMID:21189876
Dagnone, Jeffrey Damon; McGraw, Robert C; Pulling, Cheryl A; Patteson, Ann K
We developed and implemented a series of interprofessional resuscitation rounds targeting fourth year nursing and medical students, and junior residents from a variety of specialty programs. Each two hour session was conducted in our patient simulation lab, and was held weekly during the academic year. Students were given specific instruction on the roles and responsibilities of resuscitation team members, and then teams of five worked through pre-defined Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) scenarios on a high fidelity patient simulator. At the end of each session students completed an anonymous evaluation of the program via a standardized questionnaire using Likert rating scales. A total of 222 evaluations (101 nursing students, 42 medical students, and 79 junior residents) were submitted from October 2005 to April 2006. Mean scores reflected a strong consensus that these rounds were valuable for their training, provided a vehicle for understanding team roles in resuscitation, and that these rounds should be mandatory for all medical and nursing trainees. Participants also expressed a desire for additional interprofessional training. Despite challenges inherent in teaching a diverse group of learners, these interprofessional resuscitation rounds were rated highly by nursing and medical trainees as valuable learning experiences.
Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin
Background/Objective: For effective bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), retention of CPR skills after the training is central. The objective of this study was to find out how much of the CPR skills a group of Nigerian secondary school students would retain six weeks after their first exposure to the conventional CPR training. Materials…
Beck, Kenneth H.; Tomasetti, James A.
Responses to a national survey by regional directors of the American Heart Association, American National Red Cross, and continuing education programs for the deaf indicated that little is done to train the deaf in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and that communication barriers and inadequate training resources are major reasons. (Author)
Weiner, Gary M; Menghini, Karin; Zaichkin, Jeanette; Caid, Ann E; Jacoby, Carrie J; Simon, Wendy M
Neonatal Resuscitation Program instructors spend most of their classroom time giving lectures and demonstrating basic skills. We hypothesized that a self-directed education program could shift acquisition of these skills outside the classroom, shorten the duration of the class, and allow instructors to use their time to facilitate low-fidelity simulation and debriefing. Novice providers were randomly allocated to self-directed education or a traditional class. Self-directed participants received a textbook, instructional video, and portable equipment kit and attended a 90-minute simulation session with an instructor. The traditional class included 6 hours of lectures and instructor-directed skill stations. Outcome measures included resuscitation skill (megacode assessment score), content knowledge, participant satisfaction, and self-confidence. Forty-six subjects completed the study. There was no significant difference between the study groups in either the megacode assessment score (23.8 [traditional] vs 24.5 [self-directed]; P = .46) or fraction that passed the "megacode" (final skills assessment) (56% [traditional] vs 65% [self-directed]; P = .76). There were no significant differences in content knowledge, course satisfaction, or postcourse self-confidence. Content knowledge, years of experience, and self-confidence did not predict resuscitation skill. Self-directed education improves the educational efficiency of the neonatal resuscitation course by shifting the acquisition of cognitive and basic procedural skills outside of the classroom, which allows the instructor to add low-fidelity simulation and debriefing while significantly decreasing the duration of the course.
Fossel, Michael; And Others
A study of preclinical medical students' cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills showed students had a very recent CPR course had a significantly lower failure rate than those with courses one or two years previously. The most frequent errors were in chest compression rate and inability to adhere to the single-rescuer compression-to-ventilation…
Smith, Shane A; Hilsden, R; Beckett, A; McAlister, V C
Damage control resuscitation and early thoracotomy have been used to increase survival after severe injury in combat. There has been a renewed interest in resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) in both civilian and military medical practices. REBOA may result in visceral and limb ischaemia that could be harmful if use of REBOA is premature or prolonged. The purpose of this paper is to align our experience of combat injuries with the known capability of REBOA to suggest an implementation strategy for the use of REBOA in combat care. It may replace the resuscitative effect of thoracotomy; can provide haemostasis of non-compressible torso injuries such as the junctional and pelvic haemorrhage caused by improvised explosive devices. However, prehospital use of REBOA must be in the context of an overall surgical plan and should be restricted to deployment in the distal aorta. Although REBOA is technically easier than a thoracotomy, it requires operator training and skill to add to the beneficial effect of damage control resuscitation and surgery. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Ferreira, Cristiana Araújo G.; Balbino, Flávia Simphronio; Balieiro, Maria Magda F. G.; Mandetta, Myriam Aparecida
Objective: To identify literature evidences related to actions to promote family's presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and invasive procedures in children hospitalized in pediatric and neonatal critical care units. Data sources : Integrative literature review in PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases, from 2002 to 2012, with the following inclusion criteria: research article in Medicine, or Nursing, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, using the keywords "family", "invasive procedures", "cardiopulmonary resuscitation", "health staff", and "Pediatrics". Articles that did not refer to the presence of the family in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and invasive procedures were excluded. Therefore, 15 articles were analyzed. Data synthesis : Most articles were published in the United States (80%), in Medicine and Nursing (46%), and were surveys (72%) with healthcare team members (67%) as participants. From the critical analysis, four themes related to the actions to promote family's presence in invasive procedures and cardiopulmonary resuscitation were obtained: a) to develop a sensitizing program for healthcare team; b) to educate the healthcare team to include the family in these circumstances; c) to develop a written institutional policy; d) to ensure the attendance of family's needs. Conclusions: Researches on these issues must be encouraged in order to help healthcare team to modify their practice, implementing the principles of the Patient and Family Centered Care model, especially during critical episodes. PMID:24676198
Johnston, Smith L.; Campbell, Mark R.; Billica, Roger D.; Gilmore, Stevan M.
End tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO 2) has been previously shown to be an effective non-invasive tool for estimating cardiac output during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Animal models have shown that this diagnostic adjunct can be used as a predictor of survival when EtCO 2 values are maintained above 25% of prearrest values.
Wilks, Jeff; Pendergast, Donna
Objective: This review considers initiatives in various countries to include mandatory first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training in schools, key educational considerations and the supporting empirical evidence, in particular the relevance of first aid and CPR training to broader educational goals of student capability, resilience…
5 2. Experimental Section...limited forward surgical care and delayed evacuation. 1.1.1 Current Fluid Resuscitation Standard of Care By virtue of clinical experience , low cost...bleeding, thereby potentially increasing mortality. Indeed, evidence from experimental animal studies suggests that small-volume hypotensive
Calder, Lisa Anne; Mastoras, George; Rahimpour, Mitra; Sohmer, Benjamin; Weitzman, Brian; Cwinn, A Adam; Hobin, Tara; Parush, Avi
In order to enhance patient safety during resuscitation of critically ill patients, we need to optimize team communication and enhance team situational awareness but little is known about resuscitation team communication patterns. The objective of this study is to understand how teams communicate during resuscitation; specifically to assess for a shared mental model (organized understanding of a team's relationships) and information needs. We triangulated 3 methods to evaluate resuscitation team communication at a tertiary care academic trauma center: (1) interviews; (2) simulated resuscitation observations; (3) live resuscitation observations. We interviewed 18 resuscitation team members about shared mental models, roles and goals of team members and procedural expectations. We observed 30 simulated resuscitation video recordings and documented the timing, source and destination of communication and the information category. We observed 12 live resuscitations in the emergency department and recorded baseline characteristics of the type of resuscitations, nature of teams present and type and content of information exchanges. The data were analyzed using a qualitative communication analysis method. We found that resuscitation team members described a shared mental model. Respondents understood the roles and goals of each team member in order to provide rapid, efficient and life-saving care with an overall need for situational awareness. The information flow described in the interviews was reflected during the simulated and live resuscitations with the most responsible physician and charting nurse being central to team communication. We consolidated communicated information into six categories: (1) time; (2) patient status; (3) patient history; (4) interventions; (5) assistance and consultations; 6) team members present. Resuscitation team members expressed a shared mental model and prioritized situational awareness. Our findings support a need for cognitive aids to
White, J R; Shugerman, R; Brownlee, C; Quan, L
To describe pediatric housestaff resuscitation experience and their ability to perform key resuscitation skills. Cohort study of 63 pediatric residents in a university-based training program. Investigators observed, scored, and timed resident performance on 4 key resuscitation skills. Cognitive ability was tested with 4 written scenarios. Housestaff provided self-reports of the number of months since their last American Heart Association Pediatric Advanced Life Support course, number of mock and actual codes attended, number of times skills were performed, and self-confidence with respect to resuscitation. A total of 45 pediatric residents (71%) participated. Median cognitive score was 5 (range, 1-5). Of all residents, 44 (97%) successfully bag mask-ventilated the mannequin; 24 (53%) and 36 (80%) used the correct bag and mask size, respectively. Thirty-nine residents (87%) placed a tube in the mannequin trachea, 12 (27%) checked that suction was working prior to intubation, and 30 (67%) chose the correct endotracheal tube size. Forty residents (89%) discharged the defibrillator, and 25 (56%) and 32 (71%) correctly chose asynchronous mode and infant paddles, respectively. Thirty-eight residents (84%) inserted an intraosseous line; 35 (78%) had correct placement. Median times for successful skill completion were 83 seconds for bag mask ventilation, 136 seconds for intubation, 149 seconds for defibrillation, and 68 seconds for intraosseous line placement. Pediatric housestaff previously trained in pediatric advanced life support were generally able to reach the end point of 4 key resuscitation skills but less frequently performed the specific subcomponents of each skill. This poor performance and the prolonged time to skill completion suggest the need for greater attention to detail during training.
van Heerden, Carlien; Janse van Rensburg, Elsie S.
Background Many neonatal deaths can be prevented globally through effective resuscitation. South Africa (SA) committed towards attaining the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) set by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, SA’s district hospitals have the highest early neonatal mortality rates. Modifiable and avoidable causes associated with patient-related, administrative and health care provider factors contribute to neonatal mortality. A quality improvement initiative in neonatal resuscitation could contribute towards decreasing neonatal mortality, thereby contributing towards the attainment of the MDG4. Aim The aim of this study was, (1) to explore and describe the existing situation regarding neonatal resuscitation in a district hospital, (2) to develop strategies to sustain a neonatal resuscitation quality improvement initiative and (3) to decrease neonatal mortality. Changes that occurred and the sustainability of strategies were evaluated. Setting A maternity section of a district hospital in South Africa. Methods The National Health Service (NHS) Sustainability Model formed the theoretical framework for the study. The Problem Resolving Action Research model was applied and the study was conducted in three cycles. Purposive sampling was used for the quantitative and qualitative aspects of data collection. Data was analysed accordingly. Results The findings indicated that the strategies formulated and implemented to address factors related to neonatal resuscitation (training, equipment and stock, staff shortages, staff attitude, neonatal transport and protocols) had probable sustainability and contributed towards a reduction in neonatal mortality in the setting. Conclusion These strategies had the probability of sustainability and could potentially improve neonatal outcomes and reduce neonatal mortality to contribute toward South Africa’s’ drive to attain the MDG4. PMID:27380840
Bellomo, Rinaldo; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Presneill, Jeff; French, Craig; Cole, Louise; Story, David; Uchino, Shigehiko; Naka, Toshio; Finfer, Simon; Cooper, D James; Myburgh, John
To explore whether fluid resuscitation with normal saline or 4% albumin is associated with differential changes in routine clinical coagulation tests. Substudy from a large double-blind randomised controlled trial, the SAFE (Saline versus Albumin Fluid Evaluation) study. Three general intensive care units. Cohort of 687 critically ill patients. We randomly allocated patients to receive either 4% human albumin or normal saline for fluid resuscitation, and collected demographic and haematological data. Albumin was administered to 338 patients and saline to 349. At baseline, the two groups had similar mean activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of 37.2 s (albumin) v 39.1 s (saline); mean international normalised ratio (INR) of 1.38 v 1.34, and mean platelet count of 244 x 10(9)/L v 249 x 10(9)/L. After randomisation, during the first day of treatment, the APTT in the albumin group was prolonged by a mean of 2.7 s, but shortened slightly by a mean of -0.9 s in the saline group. The INR did not change in either group, while the platelet count decreased transiently in both groups. Using multivariate analysis of covariance to account for baseline coagulation status, albumin fluid resuscitation (P = 0.01) and a greater overall volume of resuscitation (P = 0.03) were independently associated with prolongation of APTT during the first day. Administration of albumin or of larger fluid volumes is associated with a prolongation of APTT. In ICU patients, the choice and amount of resuscitation fluid may affect a routinely used coagulation test.
Lai, Meng-Kuan; Aritejo, Bayu Aji; Tang, Jing-Shia; Chen, Chien-Liang; Chuang, Chia-Chang
Family presence during resuscitation is an emerging trend, yet it remains controversial, even in countries with relatively high acceptance of family presence during resuscitation among medical professionals. Family presence during resuscitation is not common in many countries, and medical professionals in these regions are unfamiliar with family presence during resuscitation. Therefore, this study predicted the medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation by applying the theory of planned behaviour. A cross-sectional survey. A single medical centre in southern Taiwan. Medical staffs including physicians and nurses in a single medical centre (n=714). A questionnaire was constructed to measure the theory of planned behaviour constructs of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and behavioural intentions as well as the awareness of family presence during resuscitation and demographics. In total, 950 questionnaires were distributed to doctors and nurses in a medical centre. Among the 714 valid questionnaires, only 11 participants were aware of any association in Taiwan that promotes family presence during resuscitation; 94.7% replied that they were unsure (30.4%) or that their unit did not have a family presence during resuscitation policy (74.8%). Regression analysis was performed to predict medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation. The results indicated that only positive attitudes and subjective norms regarding family presence during resuscitation and clinical tenure could predict the intention to allow family presence during resuscitation. Because Family presence during resuscitation practice is not common in Taiwan and only 26.19% of the participants agreed to both items measuring the intention to allow family presence during resuscitation, we recommend the implementation of a family presence during resuscitation education program that will enhance the positive beliefs
Fischer, Henrik; Neuhold, Stephanie; Hochbrugger, Eva; Steinlechner, Barbara; Koinig, Herbert; Milosevic, Ljubisa; Havel, Christof; Frantal, Sophie; Greif, Robert
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during flight is challenging and has to be sustained for long periods. In this setting a mechanical-resuscitation-device (MRD) might improve performance. In this study we compared the quality of resuscitation of trained flight attendants practicing either standard basic life support (BLS) or using a MRD in a cabin-simulator. Prospective, open, randomized and crossover simulation study. Study participants, competent in standard BLS were trained to use the MRD to deliver both chest compressions and ventilation. 39 teams of two rescuers resuscitated a manikin for 12 min in random order, standard BLS or mechanically assisted resuscitation. Primary outcome was "absolute hands-off time" (sum of all periods during which no hand was placed on the chest minus ventilation time). Various parameters describing the quality of chest compression and ventilation were analysed as secondary outcome parameters. Use of the MRD led to significantly less "absolute hands-off time" (164±33 s vs. 205±42 s, p<0.001). The quality of chest compression was comparable among groups, except for a higher compression rate in the standard BLS group (123±14 min(-1) vs. 95±11 min(-1), p<0.001). Tidal volume was higher in the standard BLS group (0.48±0.14 l vs. 0.34±0.13 l, p<0.001), but we registered fewer gastric inflations in the MRD group (0.4±0.3% vs. 16.6±16.9%, p<0.001). Using the MRD resulted in significantly less "absolute hands-off time", but less effective ventilation. The translation of higher chest compression rate into better outcome, as shown in other studies previously, has to be investigated in another human outcome study. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harris, Dylan; Willoughby, Hannah
Patients' preferences for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) relate to their perception about the likelihood of success of the procedure. There is evidence that the lay public largely base their perceptions about CPR on their experience of the portrayal of CPR in the media. The medical profession has generally been critical of the portrayal of CPR on medical drama programmes although there is no recent evidence to support such views. To compare the patient characteristics, cause and success rates of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on medical television drama with published resuscitation statistics. Observational study. 88 episodes of television medical drama were reviewed (26 episodes of Casualty, Casualty, 25 episodes of Holby City, 23 episodes of Grey's Anatomy and 14 episodes of ER) screened between July 2008 and April 2009. The patient's age and sex, medical history, presumed cause of arrest, use of CPR and immediate and long term survival rate were recorded. Immediate survival and survival to discharge following CPR. There were a total of 76 cardio-respiratory arrests and 70 resuscitation attempts in the episodes reviewed. The immediate success rate (46%) did not differ significantly from published real life figures (p=0.48). The resuscitation process appeared to follow current guidelines. Survival (or not) to discharge was rarely shown. The average age of patients was 36 years and contrary to reality there was not an age related difference in likely success of CPR in patients less than 65 compared with those 65 and over (p=0.72). The most common cause of cardiac arrest was trauma with only a minor proportion of arrests due to cardio-respiratory causes such as myocardial infarction. Whilst the immediate success rate of CPR in medical television drama does not significantly differ from reality the lack of depiction of poorer medium to long term outcomes may give a falsely high expectation to the lay public. Equally the lay public may perceive that the
Background Care of the polytrauma patient does not end in the operating room or resuscitation bay. The patient presenting to the intensive care unit following initial resuscitation and damage control surgery may be far from stable with ongoing hemorrhage, resuscitation needs, and injuries still requiring definitive repair. The intensive care physician must understand the respiratory, cardiovascular, metabolic, and immunologic consequences of trauma resuscitation and massive transfusion in order to evaluate and adjust the ongoing resuscitative needs of the patient and address potential complications. In this review, we address ongoing resuscitation in the intensive care unit along with potential complications in the trauma patient after initial resuscitation. Complications such as abdominal compartment syndrome, transfusion related patterns of acute lung injury and metabolic consequences subsequent to post-trauma resuscitation are presented. Methods A non-systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews up to May 2012. Results and conclusion Polytrauma patients with severe shock from hemorrhage and massive tissue injury present major challenges for management and resuscitation in the intensive care setting. Many of the current recommendations for “damage control resuscitation” including the use of fixed ratios in the treatment of trauma induced coagulopathy remain controversial. A lack of large, randomized, controlled trials leaves most recommendations at the level of consensus, expert opinion. Ongoing trials and improvements in monitoring and resuscitation technologies will further influence how we manage these complex and challenging patients. PMID:22989116
Cesana, Francesca; Avalli, Leonello; Garatti, Laura; Coppo, Anna; Righetti, Stefano; Calchera, Ivan; Scanziani, Elisabetta; Cozzolino, Paolo; Malafronte, Cristina; Mauro, Andrea; Soffici, Federica; Sulmina, Endrit; Bozzon, Veronica; Maggioni, Elena; Foti, Giuseppe; Achilli, Felice
Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation is increasingly recognised as a rescue therapy for refractory cardiac arrest, nevertheless data are scanty about its effects on neurologic and cardiac outcome. The aim of this study is to compare clinical outcome in patients with cardiac arrest of ischaemic origin (i.e. critical coronary plaque during angiography) and return of spontaneous circulation during conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation vs refractory cardiac arrest patients needing extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Moreover, we tried to identify predictors of survival after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We enrolled 148 patients with ischaemic cardiac arrest admitted to our hospital from 2011-2015. We compared clinical characteristics, cardiac arrest features, neurological and echocardiographic data obtained after return of spontaneous circulation (within 24 h, 15 days and six months). Patients in the extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation group ( n=63, 43%) were younger (59±9 vs 63±8 year-old, p=0.02) with lower incidence of atherosclerosis risk factors than those with conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In the extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation group, left ventricular ejection fraction was lower than conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation at early echocardiography (19±16% vs 37±11 p<0.01). Survivors in both groups showed similar left ventricular ejection fraction 15 days and 4-6 months after cardiac arrest (46±8% vs 49±10, 47±11% vs 45±13%, p not significant for both), despite a major extent and duration of cardiac ischaemia in extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation patients. At multivariate analysis, the total cardiac arrest time was the only independent predictor of survival. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation patients are younger and have less comorbidities than conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation, but they have worse survival and lower early left ventricular ejection
Schewe, Jens-Christian; Thudium, Marcus O; Kappler, Jochen; Steinhagen, Folkert; Eichhorn, Lars; Erdfelder, Felix; Heister, Ulrich; Ellerkmann, Richard
Despite recent advances in resuscitation algorithms, neurological injury after cardiac arrest due to cerebral ischemia and reperfusion is one of the reasons for poor neurological outcome. There is currently no adequate means of measuring cerebral perfusion during cardiac arrest. It was the aim of this study to investigate the feasibility of measuring near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a potential surrogate parameter for cerebral perfusion in patients with out-of-hospital resuscitations in a physician-staffed emergency medical service. An emergency physician responding to out-of-hospital emergencies was equipped with a NONIN cerebral oximetry device. Cerebral oximetry values (rSO2) were continuously recorded during resuscitation and transport. Feasibility was defined as >80% of total achieved recording time in relation to intended recording time. 10 patients were prospectively enrolled. In 89.8% of total recording time, rSO2 values could be recorded (213 minutes and 20 seconds), thus meeting feasibility criteria. 3 patients experienced return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). rSO2 during manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was lower in patients who did not experience ROSC compared to the 3 patients with ROSC (31.6%, ± 7.4 versus 37.2% ± 17.0). ROSC was associated with an increase in rSO2. Decrease of rSO2 indicated occurrence of re-arrest in 2 patients. In 2 patients a mechanical chest compression device was used. rSO2 values during mechanical compression were increased by 12.7% and 19.1% compared to manual compression. NIRS monitoring is feasible during resuscitation of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and can be a useful tool during resuscitation, leading to an earlier detection of ROSC and re-arrest. Higher initial rSO2 values during CPR seem to be associated with the occurrence of ROSC. The use of mechanical chest compression devices might result in higher rSO2. These findings need to be confirmed by larger studies.
Kassab, Manal; Alnuaimi, Karimeh; Mohammad, Khitam; Creedy, Debra; Hamadneh, Shereen
Newborns who are compromised at birth require rapid attention to stabilize their respiration attempts. Lack of knowledge regarding basic newborn resuscitation is a contributing factor to poor newborn health outcomes and increased mortality. The purpose of this study was to explore Jordanian midwives' experiences, education, and support needs to competently perform basic newborn resuscitation. Qualitative descriptive methodology was used to analyze a convenience sample of 20 midwives. A thematic approach was used to analyze the data. Participants discussed their experiences of basic newborn resuscitation including knowledge, skills, and barriers and suggested solutions to improve practice. Four themes were revealed: lack of knowledge and skills in newborn resuscitation, organizational constraints, inadequate teamwork, and educational needs. The midwives perceived that their ability to perform newborn resuscitation was hindered by lack of knowledge and skills in newborn resuscitation, organizational constraints (such as lack of equipment), and poor co-ordination and communication among team members. © The Author(s) 2015.
Chatterjee, D J; Bukunola, B; Samuels, T L; Induruwage, L; Uncles, D R
A 38-year-old woman experienced a massive postpartum haemorrhage 30 minutes after emergency caesarean delivery. The patient became severely haemodynamically compromised with an unrecordable blood pressure. Rapid fluid resuscitation was limited by the capacity of the intravenous cannula in place at the time and inability to establish additional vascular access using conventional routes in a timely manner. An intraosseous needle was inserted in the proximal humerus at the first attempt and administration of resuscitation fluid by this route subsequently enabled successful placement of further intravenous lines. Blood and blood products were deployed in conjunction with intra-operative cell salvage and transoesophageal Doppler cardiac output monitoring was used to assess adequacy of volume replacement. Haemorrhage control was finally achieved with the use of recombinant factor VIIa and hysterectomy. © 2011 The Authors. Anaesthesia © 2011 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.
Hooper, Timothy J; Nadler, Roy; Badloe, John; Butler, Frank K; Glassberg, Elon
Through necessity, military medicine has been the driver of medical innovation throughout history. The battlefield presents challenges, such as the requirement to provide care while under threat, resource limitation, and prolonged evacuation times, which must be overcome to improve casualty survival. Focus must also be placed on identifying the causes, and timing, of death within the battlefield. By doing so, military medical doctrine can be shaped, appropriate goals set, new concepts adopted, and relevant technologies investigated and implemented. The majority of battlefield casualties still die in the prehospital environment, before reaching a medical treatment facility, and hemorrhage remains the leading cause of potentially survivable death. Many countries have adopted policies that push damage control resuscitation forward into the prehospital setting, while understanding the need for timely medical evacuation. Although these policies vary according to country, the majority share many common principles. These include the need for early catastrophic hemorrhage control at point-of-wounding, judicious use of fluid resuscitation, use of blood products as far forward as possible, and early evacuation to a surgical facility. Some countries place medical providers with the ability, and resources, for advanced resuscitation with the forward fighting units (perhaps at company level), whereas others have established en route resuscitation capabilities. If we are to continue to improve battlefield casualty survival, we must continue to work together and learn from each other. We must also carry on working alongside our civilian colleagues so that the benefits of translational experience are not lost. This review describes several countries current military approaches to prehospital trauma care. These approaches, refined through a decade of experience, merit consideration for integration into civilian prehospital care practice.
An elderly gentleman was successfully revived after undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for cardiac arrest. Post CPR, the patient developed acute pancreatitis which was likely complication of inappropriately delivered chest compressions which caused further complications and resulted in the death of the patient. This case underlines the importance of quality chest compressions that includes correct placement of hands by the operator giving chest compressions to avoid lethal injuries to the receiver.
thrombus (the “pop-clot” pressure); 2) an injectable clot stabilizer (“fix-a-leak”) that is a naturally occurring factor in the clotting cascade (human...recombinant Factor VIIa); and 3) the maximum time up to 24 hours for hypotensive resuscitation below the “pop-the-clot” pressure (“how low for how long...To prevent this blood products are given as soon as possible in the emergency department. Only crystalloids and colloids are currently available on
experimental, mixed research design Methods: For each drug studied, seven swine were assigned to eight ACLS or BLS protocol resuscitation groups ...studied drug overdose. For example, with bupivacaine, seventy- one percent of the epinephrine/lipid group survived compared to 19% of all the groups ...surviving. The Epinephrine only group yielded three survivors and the Lipid emulsion only group yielded one survivor. No swine in the CPR only or
Kapoor, Nidhi; Pawar, Santosh; Sirakova, Tatiana D.; Deb, Chirajyoti; Warren, William L.; Kolattukudy, Pappachan E.
Tuberculosis (TB) is responsible for death of nearly two million people in the world annually. Upon infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) causes formation of granuloma where the pathogen goes into dormant state and can live for decades before resuscitation to develop active disease when the immune system of the host is weakened and/or suppressed. In an attempt to better understand host-pathogen interactions, several groups have been developing in vitro models of human tuberculosis granuloma. However, to date, an in vitro granuloma model in which Mtb goes into dormancy and can subsequently resuscitate under conditions that mimic weakening of the immune system has not been reported. We describe the development of a biomimetic in vitro model of human tuberculosis granuloma using human primary leukocytes, in which the Mtb exhibited characteristics of dormant mycobacteria as demonstrated by (1) loss of acid-fastness, (2) accumulation of lipid bodies (3) development of rifampicin-tolerance and (4) gene expression changes. Further, when these micro granulomas were treated with immunosuppressant anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha monoclonal antibodies (anti-TNFα mAbs), resuscitation of Mtb was observed as has been found in humans. In this human in vitro granuloma model triacylglycerol synthase 1deletion mutant (Δtgs1) with impaired ability to accumulate triacylglycerides (TG), but not the complemented mutant, could not go into dormancy. Deletion mutant of lipY, with compromised ability to mobilize the stored TG, but not the complemented mutant, was unable to come out of dormancy upon treatment with anti-TNFα mAbs. In conclusion, we have developed an in vitro human tuberculosis granuloma model that largely exhibits functional features of dormancy and resuscitation observed in human tuberculosis. PMID:23308269
Resuscitative Hyperkalemia in Noncrush Trauma: A Prospective, Observational Study Robert M. Perkins,*† Matthew C. Aboudara,* Kevin C. Abbott,*† and...Surgical Research, San Antonio, Texas The trauma patient is exposed to physiologic processes and life-saving interventions that predispose to hyperkalemia ...in the care of the massively traumatized patient may or may not increase the risk for hyperkalemia . This prospective, observational study was
Bhat, B V; Biswal, N; Bhatia, B D; Nalini, P
On one day in January 1993, in Pondicherry, India, prior to rounds in the labor room, professors trained 50 final year, undergraduate medical students at the Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research in neonatal resuscitation using a modified program of the neonatal advanced life support course. They compared their results with those from students in the March-April 1992 multiday course, which occurred after some students had finished their labor room rounds. In 1992, the pretest was administered after the theory lectures, while, in 1993, it was administered before the course, including the theory lectures, began. The 1992 students scored significantly higher on the pretest than did the 1993 students (e.g., score of 11-20, 73.3% vs. 0%; p .001). There was essentially no difference in posttest scores between the 2 groups, however. All the 1993 students did the resuscitation procedure on the mannequin on their own. 92% rated the content of the program and use of audiovisual aids to be optimum. The same percentage wanted the neonatal advanced life support program to last one day. About 33% wanted a short respite between lectures. The students identified the following messages to be important: early identification of the high risk neonate, correct resuscitation techniques, and use and misuse of drugs during resuscitation. They all considered the training to be adequate, informative, and applicable to real life during their labor room rounds and later as a basic physician. These findings indicated that the modified neonatal advanced life support course was effective and that professors should conduct it for all final year medical students before the student begin labor room rounds, ideally in one day.
Winckworth, Lucinda C; McLaren, Emma; Lingeswaran, Arvin; Kelsey, Michael
Neonatal infections carry a heavy burden of morbidity and mortality. Poor practice can result in unintentional colonisation of medical equipment with potentially pathogenic organisms. This study will determine the prevalence and type of bacterial contamination on exposed neonatal resuscitation equipment in different clinical settings and explore simple measures to reduce contamination risk. A survey determined the rates of resuscitation equipment usage. All environmentally exposed items were identified on resuscitaires hospital-wide and swabbed for bacterial contamination. A new cleaning and storage policy was implemented and the prevalence of environmentally exposed equipment re-measured post-intervention. Resuscitation equipment was used in 28% of neonatal deliveries. Bacterial colony forming units were present on 44% of the 236 exposed equipment pieces swabbed. There was no significant difference in contamination rates between equipment types. Coagulase negative staphylococcus was the most prevalent species (59 pieces, 25%) followed by Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae (20 pieces, 9% each). Opened items stored inside plastic remained sterile, whilst those in low-use areas had significantly less contamination than those in high-use areas (22% vs. 51%, P < 0.05). Implementing a simple educational programme led to a significant reduction in environmentally exposed equipment (79% reduction, P < 0.01). Pathogenic bacteria can colonise commonly used pieces of neonatal resuscitation equipment. Whilst the clinical significance remains uncertain, equipment should be kept packaged until required and discarded once open, even if unused. Standardising cleaning policies results in rapid and significant improvements in equipment storage conditions, reducing microbial colonisation opportunities. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Introduction Our previous studies demonstrated that 50-60 mmHg mean arterial blood pressure was the ideal target hypotension for uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock during the active hemorrhage in sexually mature rats. The ideal target resuscitation pressure for immature and older rats has not been determined. Methods To elucidate this issue, using uncontrolled hemorrhagic-shock rats of different ages and sexes (6 weeks, 14 weeks and 1.5 years representing pre-adult, adult and older rats, respectively), the resuscitation effects of different target pressures (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 mmHg) on uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock during active hemorrhage and the age and sex differences were observed. Results Different target resuscitation pressures had different resuscitation outcomes for the same age and sex of rats. The optimal target resuscitation pressures for 6-week-old, 14-week-old and 1.5-year-old rats were 40 to 50 mmHg, 50 to 60 mmHg and 70 mmHg respectively. Ideal target resuscitation pressures were significantly superior to other resuscitation pressures in improving the hemodynamics, blood perfusion, organ function and animal survival of uncontrolled hemorrhagic-shock rats (P < 0.01). For same target resuscitation pressures, the beneficial effect on hemorrhagic shock had a significant age difference (P < 0.01) but no sex difference (P > 0.05). Different resuscitation pressures had no effect on coagulation function. Conclusion Hemorrhagic-shock rats at different ages have different target resuscitation pressures during active hemorrhage. The ideal target resuscitation hypotension for 6-week-old, 14-week-old and 1.5-year-old rats was 40 to 50 mmHg, 50 to 60 mmHg and 70 mmHg, respectively. Their resuscitation effects have significant age difference but had no sex difference. PMID:24020401
Pettersen, Trond R; Mårtensson, Jan; Axelsson, Åsa; Jørgensen, Marianne; Strömberg, Anna; Thompson, David R; Norekvål, Tone M
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) remains a cornerstone in the treatment of cardiac arrest, and is directly linked to survival rates. Nurses are often first responders and need to be skilled in the performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. As cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills deteriorate rapidly, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was an association between participants' cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and their practical cardiopulmonary resuscitation test results. This comparative study was conducted at the 2014 EuroHeartCare meeting in Stavanger ( n=133) and the 2008 Spring Meeting on Cardiovascular Nursing in Malmö ( n=85). Participants performed cardiopulmonary resuscitation for three consecutive minutes CPR training manikins from Laerdal Medical®. Data were collected with a questionnaire on demographics and participants' level of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training. Most participants were female (78%) nurses (91%) from Nordic countries (77%), whose main role was in nursing practice (63%), and 71% had more than 11 years' experience ( n=218). Participants who conducted cardiopulmonary resuscitation training once a year or more ( n=154) performed better regarding ventilation volume than those who trained less (859 ml vs. 1111 ml, p=0.002). Those who had cardiopulmonary resuscitation training offered at their workplace ( n=161) also performed better regarding ventilation volume (889 ml vs. 1081 ml, p=0.003) and compression rate per minute (100 vs. 91, p=0.04) than those who had not. Our study indicates a positive association between participants' performance on the practical cardiopulmonary resuscitation test and the frequency of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and whether cardiopulmonary resuscitation training was offered in the workplace. Large ventilation volumes were the most common error at both measuring points.
Gordon, P N; Williamson, S; Lawler, P G
Objective: To determine the frequency and accuracy with which cardiopulmonary resuscitation is portrayed in British television medical dramas. Design: Observational study. Subjects: 64 episodes of three major British television medical dramas: Casualty, Cardiac Arrest, and Medics. Main outcome measures: Frequency of cardiopulmonary resuscitation shown on television; age, sex, and diagnosis of the patients undergoing resuscitation; rate of survival through resuscitation. Results: Overall 52 patients had a cardiorespiratory arrest on screen and 3 had a respiratory arrest alone, all the arrests occurring in 40 of the 64 episodes. Of the 52 patients having cardiorespiratory arrest, 32 (62%) underwent an attempt at cardiopulmonary resuscitation; 8 attempts were successful. All 3 of the patients having respiratory arrests alone received ventilatory support and survived. On 48% of occasions, victims of cardiac arrest seemed to be less than 35 years old. Conclusions: Cardiorespiratory resuscitation is often depicted in British television medical dramas. Patients portrayed receiving resuscitation are likely to be in a younger age group than in real life. Though the reasons for resuscitation are more varied and more often associated with trauma than in reality, the overall success rate is nevertheless realistic. Widespread overoptimism of patients for survival after resuscitation cannot necessarily be blamed on British television medical dramas. Key messagesA quarter of patients in British television medical dramas who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation on screen seemed to surviveThis figure is comparable to initial survival rates in a series of patients in real lifePatients on television are more likely to suffer cardiac arrest as a result of trauma than in real life, and patients undergoing resuscitation are likely to be younger than patients in real lifeThe overall survival rate of patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in British television medical drama seems
Hawkes, Gavin A; Murphy, Geraldine; Dempsey, Eugene M; Ryan, Anthony C
The aim of this study was to develop a mobile phone resuscitation guide (MPRG) and to evaluate its use during simulated resuscitation of a mannequin. An MPRG was developed using EpiSurveyor. A randomised controlled trial was performed in school-going children aged 15-16 years. All subjects were taught infant CPR skills using the American Heart Association Infant CPR Anytime. Two weeks later, the students were randomised to use of MPRG or not, and their CPR skills were re-assessed. The assessment was conducted using previously validated checklists. Twenty-one students participated in this trial. The MPRG group performed notably better in the areas of calling emergency services (80% vs. 36.4%, P = 0.044), completing sufficient CPR cycles (90% vs. 45.5%, P = 0.047) and following the correct CPR sequence (60% vs. 9.1%, P = 0.013). No difference in resuscitation skills of participants was observed. We have shown that participants were more likely to call emergency services if they were using the MPRG. Further trials are needed to investigate the utility of mobile phone guides and whether or not they can reduce the time taken to contact emergency services as well as if they can sustain correct CPR sequence in an in-vivo setting. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
In light of the medically relevant features of the ancient Egyptian mouth-opening ceremony, the question of the effectiveness of medical practices in Egypt thousands of years ago is examined, whereby the religious and cultural framework also plays a significant role. In the Land on the Nile myth and reality clearly generated special conditions which favoured the systematic treatment of questions of resuscitation. Numerous examples show that this had practical consequences in the area of everyday medicine. In addition, rebirth and resurrection were central elements of the cult of the dead which had exact medical equivalents. These equivalents may demonstrate the advanced state of resuscitation practices in Egypt at that time. In this context, a reconstruction of an ancient Egyptian mouth-opening instrument is presented. In the cult of the dead, this instrument played a role which can be compared to the function of a modern laryngoscope. It appears possible that at the time of the pyramids the Egyptians already had an understanding of the technology required to perform instrument-aided artificial respiration. Whether or not they actually possessed a fundamental knowledge of the principles of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation remains unclear. Nevertheless, the astonishingly functional characteristics of the reconstructed mouth-opening instrument suggest that it was developed for more than purely symbolic purposes.
Abella, Benjamin S
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) represents the cornerstone of cardiac arrest resuscitation care. Prompt delivery of high-quality CPR can dramatically improve survival outcomes; however, the definitions of optimal CPR have evolved over several decades. The present review will discuss the metrics of CPR delivery, and the evidence supporting the importance of CPR quality to improve clinical outcomes. The introduction of new technologies to quantify metrics of CPR delivery has yielded important insights into CPR quality. Investigations using CPR recording devices have allowed the assessment of specific CPR performance parameters and their relative importance regarding return of spontaneous circulation and survival to hospital discharge. Additional work has suggested new opportunities to measure physiologic markers during CPR and potentially tailor CPR delivery to patient requirements. Through recent laboratory and clinical investigations, a more evidence-based definition of high-quality CPR continues to emerge. Exciting opportunities now exist to study quantitative metrics of CPR and potentially guide resuscitation care in a goal-directed fashion. Concepts of high-quality CPR have also informed new approaches to training and quality improvement efforts for cardiac arrest care.
López-Herce Cid, Jesús; Rodríguez Núñez, Antonio; Carrillo Álvarez, Ángel; Zeballos Sarrato, Gonzalo; Martínez Fernández-Llamazares, Cecilia; Calvo Macías, Custodio
Cardio-respiratory arrest (CPA) is infrequent in children, but it can occur in any place and at any time. This fact means that every health care facility must always have the staff and material ready to resuscitate a child. These recommendations are the consensus of experts of the Spanish Paediatric and Neonatal Resuscitation Group on the material and medication for paediatric and neonatal resuscitation and their distribution and use. CPR trolleys and backpacks must include the essential material to quickly and efficiently perform a paediatric CPR. At least one CPR trolley must be available in every Primary Care facility, Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Emergency Department, and Pre-hospital Emergency Areas, as well as in paediatric wards, paediatric ambulatory areas, and radiology suites. This trolley must be easily accessible and exclusively include the essential items to perform a CPR and to assist children (from newborns to adolescents) who present with a life-threatening event. Such material must be familiar to all healthcare staff and also include the needed spare parts, as well as enough drug doses. It must also be re-checked periodically. The standardisation and unification of the material and medication of paediatric CPR carts, trolleys, and backpacks, as well as the training of the personnel in their use are an essential part of the paediatric CPR. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Walcott, Gregory; Melnick, Sharon; Killingsworth, Cheryl; Ideker, Raymond
Although return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) is frequently achieved during resuscitation for sudden cardiac arrest, systolic blood pressure can then decrease, requiring additional myocardial support. Previous studies have shown that a series of 1-ms electrical pulses delivered through the defibrillation patches during ventricular fibrillation (VF) can stimulate the autonomic nervous system to increase myocardial function following defibrillation. We hypothesized that a similar series of electrical pulses could increase myocardial function and blood pressure during the early post-resuscitation period. Six swine were studied that underwent 6-7 min. Each animal received 5, 10, 15, or 20 pulse packets consisting of 6 10 A, 1-ms pulses every 3-4 s in random order whenever systolic blood pressure became less than 50 mmHg. All four sets of pulse packets were delivered to each animal. Systolic blood pressure and cardiac function (left ventricular +dP/dt) were increased to pre-stimulation levels or above by all four sets of pulse packets. The increases were significantly greater for the longer than the shorter number of pulse packets. The mean+/-SD duration of the time that the systolic pressure remained above 50 mmHg following pulse delivery was 4.2+/-2.5 min. Electrical stimulation during regular rhythm following prolonged VF and resuscitation can increase blood pressure and cardiac function to above prestimulation levels.
Walcott, Gregory; Melnick, Sharon; Killingsworth, Cheryl; Ideker, Raymond
Background Although return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) is frequently achieved during resuscitation for sudden cardiac arrest, systolic blood pressure can then decrease, requiring additional myocardial support. Previous studies have shown that a series of 1-ms electrical pulses delivered through the defibrillation patches during ventricular fibrillation (VF) can stimulate the autonomic nervous system to increase myocardial function following defibrillation. We hypothesized that a similar series of electrical pulses could increase myocardial function and blood pressure during the early post-resuscitation period. Methods and Results Six swine were studied that underwent 6–7 min. Each animal received 5, 10, 15, or 20 pulse packets consisting of 6 10 A, 1-ms pulses every 3–4 s in random order whenever systolic blood pressure became less than 50 mmHg. All four sets of pulse packets were delivered to each animal. Systolic blood pressure and cardiac function (left ventricular +dP/dt) were increased to pre-stimulation levels or above by all four sets of pulse packets. The increases were significantly greater for the longer than the shorter number of pulse packets. The mean±SD duration of the time that the systolic pressure remained above 50 mmHg following pulse delivery was 4.2±2.5 min. Conclusions Electrical stimulation during regular rhythm following prolonged VF and resuscitation can increase blood pressure and cardiac function to above pre-arrest levels. PMID:19655042
Guerra-Martín, María Dolores; Martínez-Montilla, José Manuel; Amador-Marín, Bárbara
In Spain there are around 25,000 cardiac arrests, many of them in the presence of non-medical personnel. In less than 25% of the cardio-respiratory arrests witnessed, witnesses began cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Soccer is a contact sport with multiple physical characteristics and requirements which pushes your body to the limit, thus leading to a higher chance of developing multiple lesions, including cardio-respiratory arrest. Therefore, our goal was to know the actual situation on training in basic life support in soccer. A literature review was performed on different databases both national (IME, CUIDEN, ENCUENTR@, ENFERMERÍA AL DÍA, ISOC) and international (PUBMED, SCOPUS, CINAHL), with different MESH descriptors related to the topic. A total of 395 references were identified. 17 studies were selected; 8 of them had like main theme cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the remaining 9 spoke on the use of semi-automatic defibrillators. There is a lack of research on this topic in soccer. This strikes our attention because in this area there could be situations requiring immediate rescue action. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of early cardio-respiratory resuscitation because training in basic life support and semi-automatic defibrillators in soccer are fundamental. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Motawea, Mohamad; Al-Kenany, Al-Sayed; Hosny, Mostafa; Aglan, Omar; Samy, Mohamad; Al-Abd, Mohamed
"Electrical shock is the physiological reaction or injury caused by electric current passing through the human body. It occurs upon contact of a human body part with any source of electricity that causes a sufficient current through the skin, muscles, or hair causing undesirable effects ranging from simple burns to death." Ventricular fibrillation is believed to be the most common cause of death after electrical shock. "The ideal duration of cardiac resuscitation is unknown. Typically prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation is associated with poor neurologic outcomes and reduced long term survival. No consensus statement has been made and traditionally efforts are usually terminated after 15-30 minutes." The case under discussion seems worthy of the somewhat detailed description given. It is for a young man who survived after 65 minutes after electrical shock (ES) after prolonged high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), multiple defibrillations, and artificial ventilation without any sequelae. Early start of adequate chest compressions and close adherence to advanced cardiac life support protocols played a vital role in successful CPR.
Roppolo, Lynn P; Saunders, Timothy; Pepe, Paul E; Idris, Ahamed H
Basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation, including use of automated external defibrillators, unequivocally saves lives. However, even when motivated, those wishing to acquire training traditionally have faced a myriad of barriers including the typical time commitment (3-4 h) and the number of certified instructors and equipment caches required. The recent introduction of innovative video-based self-instruction, utilizing individualized inflatable manikins, provides an important breakthrough in cardiopulmonary-resuscitation training. Definitive studies now show that many dozens of persons can be trained simultaneously to perform basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation, including appropriate use of an automated external defibrillator, in less than 30 min. Such training not only requires much less labor intensity and avoids the need for multiple certified instructors, but also, because it is largely focused on longer and more repetitious performance of skills, these life-saving lessons can be retained for long periods of time. Simpler to set-up and implement, the half-hour video-based self-instruction makes it easier for employers, churches, civic groups, school systems and at-risk persons at home to implement such training and it will likely facilitate more frequent re-training. It is now hoped that the ultimate benefit will be more lives saved in communities worldwide.
Becker, Lance B.; Aufderheide, Tom P.; Geocadin, Romergryko G.; Callaway, Clifton W.; Lazar, Ronald M.; Donnino, Michael W.; Nadkarni, Vinay M.; Abella, Benjamin S.; Adrie, Christophe; Berg, Robert A.; Merchant, Raina M.; O'Connor, Robert E.; Meltzer, David O.; Holm, Margo B.; Longstreth, William T.; Halperin, Henry R.
physiological condition that will best answer the question under study. Conference participants were asked to assign an outcome to each of 4 hypothetical cases; however, there was not complete agreement on an ideal outcome measure even after extensive discussion and debate. There was general consensus that it is appropriate for earlier studies to enroll fewer patients and to use earlier time points such as return of spontaneous circulation, simple “alive versus dead,” hospital mortality, or a hemodynamic parameter. For larger studies, a longer time point after arrest should be considered because neurological assessments fluctuate for at least 90 days after arrest. For large trials designed to have a major impact on public health policy, longer-term end points such as 90 days coupled with neurocognitive and quality-of-life assessments should be considered, as should the additional costs of this approach. For studies that will require regulatory oversight, early discussions with regulatory agencies are strongly advised. For neurological assessment of post–cardiac arrest patients, researchers may wish to use the Cerebral Performance Categories or modified Rankin Scale for global outcomes. Conclusions Although there is no single recommended outcome measure for trials of cardiac arrest care, the simple Cerebral Performance Categories or modified Rankin Scale after 90 days provides a reasonable outcome parameter for many trials. The lack of an easy-to-administer neurological functional outcome measure that is well validated in post–cardiac arrest patients is a major limitation to the field and should be a high priority for future development. PMID:21969010
Ko, Rachel Jia Min; Lim, Swee Han; Wu, Vivien Xi; Leong, Tak Yam; Liaw, Sok Ying
Simplifying the learning of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is advocated to improve skill acquisition and retention. A simplified CPR training programme focusing on continuous chest compression, with a simple landmark tracing technique, was introduced to laypeople. The study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the simplified CPR training in improving lay rescuers' CPR performance as compared to standard CPR. A total of 85 laypeople (aged 21-60 years) were recruited and randomly assigned to undertake either a two-hour simplified or standard CPR training session. They were tested two months after the training on a simulated cardiac arrest scenario. Participants' performance on the sequence of CPR steps was observed and evaluated using a validated CPR algorithm checklist. The quality of chest compression and ventilation was assessed from the recording manikins. The simplified CPR group performed significantly better on the CPR algorithm when compared to the standard CPR group (p < 0.01). No significant difference was found between the groups in time taken to initiate CPR. However, a significantly higher number of compressions and proportion of adequate compressions was demonstrated by the simplified group than the standard group (p < 0.01). Hands-off time was significantly shorter in the simplified CPR group than in the standard CPR group (p < 0.001). Simplifying the learning of CPR by focusing on continuous chest compressions, with simple hand placement for chest compression, could lead to better acquisition and retention of CPR algorithms, and better quality of chest compressions than standard CPR. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.
Luo, Xin; Yin, Yujing; You, Guoxing; Chen, Gan; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Jingxiang; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Lian; Zhou, Hong
The optimal oxygen administration strategy during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock (HS) is still controversial. Improving oxygenation and mitigating oxidative stress simultaneously seem to be contradictory goals. To maximize oxygen delivery while minimizing oxidative damage, the authors proposed the notion of gradually increased oxygen administration (GIOA), which entails making the arterial blood hypoxemic early in resuscitation and subsequently gradually increasing to hyperoxic, and compared its effects with normoxic resuscitation, hyperoxic resuscitation, and hypoxemic resuscitation in severe HS. Rats were subjected to HS, and on resuscitation, the rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 8): the normoxic, the hyperoxic, the hypoxemic, and the GIOA groups. Rats were observed for an additional 1 h. Hemodynamics, acid-base status, oxygenation, and oxidative injury were observed and evaluated. Central venous oxygen saturation promptly recovered only in the hyperoxic and the GIOA groups, and the liver tissue partial pressure of oxygen was highest in the GIOA group after resuscitation. Oxidative stress in GIOA group was significantly reduced compared with the hyperoxic group as indicated by the reduced malondialdehyde content, increased catalase activity, and the lower histologic injury scores in the liver. In addition, the tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 expressions in the liver were markedly decreased in the GIOA group than in the hyperoxic and normoxic groups as shown by the immunohistochemical staining. GIOA improved systemic/tissue oxygenation and mitigated oxidative stress simultaneously after resuscitation from severe HS. GIOA may be a promising strategy to improve resuscitation from HS and deserves further investigation.
Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira; Bennett, Deborah; Wise Stauffer, Debra; Champ-Gibson, Erla; Fitzgerald, Cynthia; Corbett, Cynthia
Facilitated family presence at resuscitation is endorsed by multiple nursing and specialty practice organizations. Implementation of this practice is not universal so there is a need to increase familiarity and competence with facilitated family presence at resuscitation during this significant life event. One strategy to promote this practice is to use a nursing student toolkit for pre-licensure and graduate nursing students. The toolkit includes short video simulations of facilitated family presence at resuscitation, a PowerPoint presentation of evidence-based practice, and questions to facilitate guided discussion. This study tested the effectiveness of this toolkit in increasing nursing students' knowledge, perceptions, and confidence in facilitated family presence at resuscitation. Nursing students from five universities in the United States completed the Family Presence Risk-Benefit Scale, Family Presence Self-Confidence Scale, and a knowledge test before and after the intervention. Implementing the facilitated family presence at resuscitation toolkit significantly increased nursing students' knowledge, perceptions, and confidence related to facilitated family presence at resuscitation (p<.001). The effect size was large for knowledge (d=.90) and perceptions (d=1.04) and moderate for confidence (d=.51). The facilitated family presence at resuscitation toolkit used in this study had a positive impact on students' knowledge, perception of benefits and risks, and self-confidence in facilitated family presence at resuscitation. The toolkit provides students a structured opportunity to consider the presence of family members at resuscitation prior to encountering this situation in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Finer, Neil N; Rich, Wade; Halamek, Louis P; Leone, Tina A
Despite advances in the understanding of fetal and neonatal physiology and the technology to monitor and treat premature and full-term neonates, little has changed in resuscitation rooms. The authors' vision for the Fetal and Neonatal Resuscitation and Transition Suite of the future is marked by improvements in the amount of physical space, monitoring technologies, portable diagnostic and therapeutic technologies, communication systems, and capabilities and training of the resuscitation team. Human factors analysis will play an important role in the design and testing of the improvements for safe, effective, and efficient resuscitation of the newborn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Magee, Maclain J; Farkouh-Karoleski, Christiana; Rosen, Tove S
Simulation training is an effective method to teach neonatal resuscitation (NR), yet many pediatrics residents do not feel comfortable with NR. Rapid cycle deliberate practice (RCDP) allows the facilitator to provide debriefing throughout the session. In RCDP, participants work through the scenario multiple times, eventually reaching more complex tasks once basic elements have been mastered. We determined if pediatrics residents have improved observed abilities, confidence level, and recall in NR after receiving RCDP training compared to the traditional simulation debriefing method. Thirty-eight pediatrics interns from a large academic training program were randomized to a teaching simulation session using RCDP or simulation debriefing methods. The primary outcome was the intern's cumulative score on the initial Megacode Assessment Form (MCAF). Secondary outcome measures included surveys of confidence level, recall MCAF scores at 4 months, and time to perform critical interventions. Thirty-four interns were included in analysis. Interns in the RCDP group had higher initial MCAF scores (89% versus 84%, P < .026), initiated positive pressure ventilation within 1 minute (100% versus 71%, P < .05), and administered epinephrine earlier (152 s versus 180 s, P < .039). Recall MCAF scores were not different between the 2 groups. Immediately following RCDP interns had improved observed abilities and decreased time to perform critical interventions in NR simulation as compared to those trained with the simulation debriefing. RCDP was not superior in improving confidence level or retention.
occlusion, regulated flow provided perfusion to capillary beds. Following 70 minutes of partial aortic occlusion, damage control surgery and whole blood ... renal function, and were weaned from aortic occlusion more rapidly. CONCLUSIONS: P-REBOA is capable of limiting exsanguination while providing blood ...resuscitation was performed and all animals were survived to 360 minutes. Animals that tolerated distal flow had decreased levels of lactate, preserved
Hanefeld, C; Lichte, C; Laubenthal, H; Hanke, E; Mügge, A
The prognosis after in-hospital resuscitation has not significantly improved in the last 40 years. This account presents the results over a three-year period of a hospital-wide emergency plan which implements the use of an automated external defibrillator (AED) by the first responder to the emergency call. 15 "defibrillator points" were installed, which could be reached within 30 s from all wards, out-patient departments and other areas, thus making them accessible for immediate defibrillator application. The hospital personnel is trained periodically in the alarm sequence, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and use of the defibrillator. Data on 57 patients who had sustained a cardiac arrest were prospectively recorded and analysed. In 46 patients (81%) the "on-the-spot" personnel (first-responder) was able to apply AED before arrival of the hospital's resuscitation team. Mean period between arrest alarm and activation of the AED was 2.2 (0.7-4.7) min. Ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachyarrhythmia was recorded in 40 patients, making immediate shock delivery by AED possible. Restoration of the circulation was achieved in 23 (80%) of the patients and 20 (50%) were discharged home, 17 (43%) without neurological deficit. The high proportion of first-responder AED applications and evaluation of the personnel training indicate a wide acceptance of the emergency plan among the personnel. An immediate resuscitation plan consisting of an integrated programme of early defibrillation is feasible and seems to achieve an improved prognosis for patients who have sustained an in-hospital cardiac arrest.
Itzhaki, Michal; Bar-Tal, Yoram; Barnoy, Sivia
This article is a report on a study conducted to examine the views of healthcare professionals and lay people regarding the effect of family presence during resuscitation on both the staff performing the resuscitation and the relatives who witness it. Family presence during resuscitation is controversial. Although many professional groups in different countries have recently issued position statements about the practice and have recommended new policy moves, the Israel Ministry of Health has not issued guidelines on the matter. Study design is factorial within-between subjects. Data were collected in Israel in 2008 from a convenience sample of 220 lay people and 201 healthcare staff (52 physicians and 149 nurses) using a questionnaire based on eight different resuscitation scenarios and manipulating blood involvement and resuscitations outcome. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance. Overall, both staff and lay people perceived family presence during resuscitation negatively. Visible bleeding and an unsuccessful outcome significantly influenced both staff's and lay people's perceptions. Female physicians and nurses reacted more negatively to family presence than did male physicians and nurses; lay men responded more negatively than lay women. Changing the current negative perceptions of family presence at resuscitation requires (a) establishing a new national policy, (b) educating healthcare staff to the benefits of the presence of close relatives and (c) training staff to support relatives who want to be present. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Bánfai, Bálint; Pandur, Attila; Pék, Emese; Csonka, Henrietta; Betlehem, József
In cardiac arrest life can be saved by bystanders. Our aim was to determine at what age can schoolchildren perform correct cardiopulmonary resuscitation. 164 schoolchildren (age 7-14) were involved in the study. A basic life support training consisted of 45 minutes education in small groups (8-10 children). They were tested during a 2-minute-long continuous cardiopulmonary resuscitation scenario using the "AMBU CPR Software". Average depth of chest compression was 44.07 ± 12.6 mm. 43.9% of participants were able to do effective chest compressions. Average ventilation volume was 0.17 ± 0.31 liter. 12.8% of participants were able to ventilate effectively the patient. It was significant correlation between the chest compression depth (p<0.001) and ventilation (p<0.001) and the children's age, weight, height and BMI. Primary school children are able to learn cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The ability to do effective chest compressions and ventilation depended on the children's physical capability. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(4), 147-152.
Steltzer, Heidi; Landry, Chris; Painter, Thomas H; Anderson, Justin; Ayres, Edward
Dust deposition to mountain snow cover, which has increased since the late 19(th) century, accelerates the rate of snowmelt by increasing the solar radiation absorbed by the snowpack. Snowmelt occurs earlier, but is decoupled from seasonal warming. Climate warming advances the timing of snowmelt and early season phenological events (e.g., the onset of greening and flowering); however, earlier snowmelt without warmer temperatures may have a different effect on phenology. Here, we report the results of a set of snowmelt manipulations in which radiation-absorbing fabric and the addition and removal of dust from the surface of the snowpack advanced or delayed snowmelt in the alpine tundra. These changes in the timing of snowmelt were superimposed on a system where the timing of snowmelt varies with topography and has been affected by increased dust loading. At the community level, phenology exhibited a threshold response to the timing of snowmelt. Greening and flowering were delayed before seasonal warming, after which there was a linear relationship between the date of snowmelt and the timing of phenological events. Consequently, the effects of earlier snowmelt on phenology differed in relation to topography, which resulted in increasing synchronicity in phenology across the alpine landscape with increasingly earlier snowmelt. The consequences of earlier snowmelt from increased dust deposition differ from climate warming and include delayed phenology, leading to synchronized growth and flowering across the landscape and the opportunity for altered species interactions, landscape-scale gene flow via pollination, and nutrient cycling.
López-Herce, Jesús; Carrillo, Angel
To determine how training in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation is provided in the Iberoamerican countries. Survey. Latin America, Spain, and Portugal. Experts in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation education. A questionnaire was sent to experts in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in 21 countries in Latin America, Spain, and Portugal; we received 15 replies. Pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation training is not included in medical undergraduate or nursing training in any of these countries and pediatric residents receive systematic cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in only four countries. Basic pediatric life support courses, pediatric advanced life support courses, and pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation instructors courses are given in 13 of 15, 14 of 15, and 11 of 15 respondent countries, respectively. Course duration and the number of hours of practical training were variable: basic life support, 5 hrs (range, 4-8 hrs); practical training, 4 hrs (range, 2-5 hrs); advanced life support, 18 hrs (range, 10-30 hrs); and practical training, 14 hrs (range, 5-18 hrs). Only nine countries (60%) had a national group that organized pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation training. Thirteen countries (86.6%) had fewer than five centers offering pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation training. Respondents considered the main obstacles to the expansion of training in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation to be the shortage of instructors (28.5%), students' lack of financial resources (21.4%), and deficiencies in educational organization (21.4%). Pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation training is not uniform across the majority of Iberoamerican countries, with poor organization and little institutional involvement. National groups should be created in each country to plan and coordinate pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and to coordinate with other Iberoamerican countries.
Kleinman, Monica E; Perkins, Gavin D; Bhanji, Farhan; Billi, John E; Bray, Janet E; Callaway, Clifton W; de Caen, Allan; Finn, Judith C; Hazinski, Mary Fran; Lim, Swee Han; Maconochie, Ian; Morley, Peter; Nadkarni, Vinay; Neumar, Robert W; Nikolaou, Nikolaos; Nolan, Jerry P; Reis, Amelia; Sierra, Alfredo F; Singletary, Eunice M; Soar, Jasmeet; Stanton, David; Travers, Andrew; Welsford, Michelle; Zideman, David
Despite significant advances in the field of resuscitation science, important knowledge gaps persist. Current guidelines for resuscitation are based on the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations, which includes treatment recommendations supported by the available evidence. The writing group developed this consensus statement with the goal of focusing future research by addressing the knowledge gaps identified during and after the 2015 International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation evidence evaluation process. Key publications since the 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations are referenced, along with known ongoing clinical trials that are likely to affect future guidelines. © 2018 European Resuscitation Council and American Heart Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2018 European Resuscitation Council and American Heart Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kramer, George C.; Wade, Charles E.; Dubick, Michael A.; Atkins, James L.
Introduction: Logistic constraints on combat casualty care preclude traditional resuscitation strategies which can require volumes and weights 3 fold or greater than hemorrhaged volume. We present a review of quantitative analyses of clinical and animal data on small volume strategies using 1) hypertonic-hyperosmotic solutions (HHS); 2) hemoglobin based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) and 3) closed-loop infusion regimens.Methods and Results: Literature searches and recent queries to industry and academic researchers have allowed us to evaluate the record of 81 human HHS studies (12 trauma trials), 19 human HBOCs studies (3trauma trials) and two clinical studies of closed-loop resuscitation.There are several hundreds animal studies and at least 82 clinical trials and reports evaluating small volume7.2%-7.5% hypertonic saline (HS) most often combined with colloids, e.g., dextran (HSD) or hetastarch(HSS). HSD and HSS data has been published for 1,108 and 392 patients, respectively. Human studies have documented volume sparing and hemodynamic improvements. Meta-analyses suggest improved survival for hypotensive trauma patients treated with HSD with significant reductions in mortality found for patients with blood pressure < 70 mmHg, head trauma, and penetrating injury requiring surgery. HSD and HSS have received regulatory approval in 14 and 3 countries, respectively, with 81,000+ units sold. The primary reported use was head injury and trauma resuscitation. Complications and reported adverse events are surprisingly rare and not significantly different from other solutions.HBOCs are potent volume expanders in addition to oxygen carriers with volume expansion greater than standard colloids. Several investigators have evaluated small volume hyperoncotic HBOCs or HS-HBOC formulations for hypotensive and normotensive resuscitation in animals. A consistent finding in resuscitation with HBOCs is depressed cardiac output. There is some evidence that HBOCs more efficiently unload
Duffy, J. F.; Dijk, D. J.; Klerman, E. B.; Czeisler, C. A.
The contribution of the circadian timing system to the age-related advance of sleep-wake timing was investigated in two experiments. In a constant routine protocol, we found that the average wake time and endogenous circadian phase of 44 older subjects were earlier than that of 101 young men. However, the earlier circadian phase of the older subjects actually occurred later relative to their habitual wake time than it did in young men. These results indicate that an age-related advance of circadian phase cannot fully account for the high prevalence of early morning awakening in healthy older people. In a second study, 13 older subjects and 10 young men were scheduled to a 28-h day, such that they were scheduled to sleep at many circadian phases. Self-reported awakening from scheduled sleep episodes and cognitive throughput during the second half of the wake episode varied markedly as a function of circadian phase in both groups. The rising phase of both rhythms was advanced in the older subjects, suggesting an age-related change in the circadian regulation of sleep-wake propensity. We hypothesize that under entrained conditions, these age-related changes in the relationship between circadian phase and wake time are likely associated with self-selected light exposure at an earlier circadian phase. This earlier exposure to light could account for the earlier clock hour to which the endogenous circadian pacemaker is entrained in older people and thereby further increase their propensity to awaken at an even earlier time.
Wilson, Michael E; Krupa, Artur; Hinds, Richard F; Litell, John M; Swetz, Keith M; Akhoundi, Abbasali; Kashyap, Rahul; Gajic, Ognjen; Kashani, Kianoush
To determine if a video depicting cardiopulmonary resuscitation and resuscitation preference options would improve knowledge and decision making among patients and surrogates in the ICU. Randomized, unblinded trial. Single medical ICU. Patients and surrogate decision makers in the ICU. The usual care group received a standard pamphlet about cardiopulmonary resuscitation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation preference options plus routine code status discussions with clinicians. The video group received usual care plus an 8-minute video that depicted cardiopulmonary resuscitation, showed a simulated hospital code, and explained resuscitation preference options. One hundred three patients and surrogates were randomized to usual care. One hundred five patients and surrogates were randomized to video plus usual care. Median total knowledge scores (0-15 points possible for correct answers) in the video group were 13 compared with 10 in the usual care group, p value of less than 0.0001. Video group participants had higher rates of understanding the purpose of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and resuscitation options and terminology and could correctly name components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. No statistically significant differences in documented resuscitation preferences following the interventions were found between the two groups, although the trial was underpowered to detect such differences. A majority of participants felt that the video was helpful in cardiopulmonary resuscitation decision making (98%) and would recommend the video to others (99%). A video depicting cardiopulmonary resuscitation and explaining resuscitation preference options was associated with improved knowledge of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation options and cardiopulmonary resuscitation terminology among patients and surrogate decision makers in the ICU, compared with receiving a pamphlet on cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Patients and surrogates found the video helpful in decision
Hattori, Yusuke; Ishibashi, Kohei; Noda, Takashi; Okamura, Hideo; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Anzai, Toshihisa; Yasuda, Satoshi; Kusano, Kengo
We describe the case of a 37-year-old woman who presented with complete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation. She was admitted to our hospital due to severe heart failure and was dependent on inotropic agents. Cardiac resynchronization therapy was initiated but did not improve her condition. After the optimization of the pacing timing, we performed earlier right ventricular pacing, which led to an improvement of her heart failure. Earlier right ventricular pacing should be considered in patients with complete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation when cardiac resynchronization therapy is not effective.
Olasveengen, Theresa M; de Caen, Allan R; Mancini, Mary E; Maconochie, Ian K; Aickin, Richard; Atkins, Dianne L; Berg, Robert A; Bingham, Robert M; Brooks, Steven C; Castrén, Maaret; Chung, Sung Phil; Considine, Julie; Couto, Thomaz Bittencourt; Escalante, Raffo; Gazmuri, Raúl J; Guerguerian, Anne-Marie; Hatanaka, Tetsuo; Koster, Rudolph W; Kudenchuk, Peter J; Lang, Eddy; Lim, Swee Han; Løfgren, Bo; Meaney, Peter A; Montgomery, William H; Morley, Peter T; Morrison, Laurie J; Nation, Kevin J; Ng, Kee-Chong; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Nishiyama, Chika; Nuthall, Gabrielle; Ong, Gene Yong-Kwang; Perkins, Gavin D; Reis, Amelia G; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Sayre, Michael R; Schexnayder, Stephen M; Sierra, Alfredo F; Singletary, Eunice M; Shimizu, Naoki; Smyth, Michael A; Stanton, David; Tijssen, Janice A; Travers, Andrew; Vaillancourt, Christian; Van de Voorde, Patrick; Hazinski, Mary Fran; Nolan, Jerry P
The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation has initiated a near-continuous review of cardiopulmonary resuscitation science that replaces the previous 5-year cyclic batch-and-queue approach process. This is the first of an annual series of International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations summary articles that will include the cardiopulmonary resuscitation science reviewed by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation in the previous year. The review this year includes 5 basic life support and 1 pediatric Consensuses on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Each of these includes a summary of the science and its quality based on Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria and treatment recommendations. Insights into the deliberations of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation task force members are provided in Values and Preferences sections. Finally, the task force members have prioritized and listed the top 3 knowledge gaps for each population, intervention, comparator, and outcome question. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc., and European Resuscitation Council.
Chew, Keng Sheng; Ghani, Zuhailah Abdul
Family presence (FP) during resuscitation is an increasingly favoured trend, as it affords many benefits to the critically ill patient's family members. However, a previously conducted study showed that only 15.8% of surveyed Malaysian healthcare staff supported FP during resuscitation. This cross-sectional study used a bilingual self-administered questionnaire to examine the attitudes and perceptions of the general Malaysian public toward the presence of family members during resuscitation of their loved ones. The questionnaires were randomly distributed to Malaysians in three different states and in the federal territory of Kuala Lumpur. Out of a total of 190 survey forms distributed, 184 responses were included for analysis. Of the 184 respondents, 140 (76.1%) indicated that they favoured FP during resuscitation. The most common reason cited was that FP during resuscitation provides family members with the assurance that everything possible had been done for their loved ones (n = 157, 85.3%). Respondents who had terminal illnesses were more likely to favour FP during resuscitation than those who did not, and this was statistically significant (95.0% vs. 73.8%; p = 0.04). FP during resuscitation was favoured by a higher percentage of the general Malaysian public as compared to Malaysian healthcare staff. This could be due to differences in concerns regarding the resuscitation process between members of the public and healthcare staff.
Friedman, Sandra; Gilmore, Dana
A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed to evaluate resuscitation decisions and factors that impact these choices for young people with severe developmental disabilities residing in a skilled nursing facility. Decision-makers were provided with information to clarify resuscitation preferences. Parents/guardians of 30 of the 67 residents…
Pediatric resuscitation has been a topic of discussion for years. It is difficult to keep abreast of changing recommendations, especially for busy pediatricians who do not regularly use these skills. This review will focus on the most recent guidelines for resuscitation drugs. Three specific questions will be discussed: standard dose versus high-dose epinephrine, amiodarone use, and the future of vasopressin in pediatric resuscitation. The issue of using high-dose epinephrine for cardiopulmonary resuscitation refractory to standard dose epinephrine has been a topic of debate for many years. Recently, a prospective, double-blinded study was performed to help settle the debate. These results will be reviewed and compared with previous studies. Amiodarone is a medication that was added to the pediatric resuscitation algorithms with the most recent recommendations from the American Heart Association in 2000. Its use and safety will also be discussed. Another topic that is resurfacing in resuscitation is the use of vasopressin. Its mechanism and comparisons to other agents will be highlighted, although its use in the pediatric patient has not been thoroughly studied. Pediatric resuscitation is a constantly evolving subject that is on the mind of anyone taking care of sick children. Clinicians are continually searching for the most effective methods to resuscitate children in terms of short- and long-term outcomes. It is important to be familiar with not only the agents being used but also the optimal way to use them.
Maguire, Sabine; Mann, Mala; John, Nia; Ellaway, Bev; Sibert, Jo R.; Kemp, Alison M.
Background: There is a diagnostic dilemma when a child presents with rib fractures after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) where child abuse is suspected as the cause of collapse. We have performed a systematic review to establish the evidence base for the following questions: (i) Does cardiopulmonary resuscitation cause rib fractures in…
Reynolds, Joshua C; Grunau, Brian E; Rittenberger, Jon C; Sawyer, Kelly N; Kurz, Michael C; Callaway, Clifton W
Little evidence guides the appropriate duration of resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, and case features justifying longer or shorter durations are ill defined. We estimated the impact of resuscitation duration on the probability of favorable functional outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest using a large, multicenter cohort. This was a secondary analysis of a North American, single-blind, multicenter, cluster-randomized, clinical trial (ROC-PRIMED [Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Prehospital Resuscitation Using an Impedance Valve and Early Versus Delayed]) of consecutive adults with nontraumatic, emergency medical services-treated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Primary exposure was duration of resuscitation in minutes (onset of professional resuscitation to return of spontaneous circulation [ROSC] or termination of resuscitation). Primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge with favorable outcome (modified Rankin scale [mRS] score of 0-3). Subjects were additionally classified as survival with unfavorable outcome (mRS score of 4-5), ROSC without survival (mRS score of 6), or without ROSC. Subject accrual was plotted as a function of resuscitation duration, and the dynamic probability of favorable outcome at discharge was estimated for the whole cohort and subgroups. Adjusted logistic regression models tested the association between resuscitation duration and survival with favorable outcome. The primary cohort included 11 368 subjects (median age, 69 years [interquartile range, 56-81 years]; 7121 men [62.6%]). Of these, 4023 (35.4%) achieved ROSC, 1232 (10.8%) survived to hospital discharge, and 905 (8.0%) had an mRS score of 0 to 3 at discharge. Distribution of cardiopulmonary resuscitation duration differed by outcome (P<0.00001). For cardiopulmonary resuscitation duration up to 37.0 minutes (95% confidence interval, 34.9-40.9 minutes), 99% with an eventual mRS score of 0 to 3 at discharge achieved ROSC. The dynamic probability of an m
Partridge, J Colin; Robertson, Kathryn R; Rogers, Elizabeth E; Landman, Geri Ottaviano; Allen, Allison J; Caughey, Aaron B
Resuscitation of infants at 23 weeks' gestation remains controversial; clinical practices vary. We sought to investigate the cost effectiveness of resuscitation of infants born 23 0/7-23 6/7 weeks' gestation. Decision-analytic modeling comparing universal and selective resuscitation to non-resuscitation for 5176 live births at 23 weeks in a theoretic U.S. cohort. Estimates of death (77%) and disability (64-86%) were taken from the literature. Maternal and combined maternal-neonatal utilities were applied to discounted life expectancy to generate QALYs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated, discounting costs and QALYs. Main outcomes included number of survivors, their outcome status and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for the three strategies. A cost-effectiveness threshold of $100 000/QALY was utilized. Universal resuscitation would save 1059 infants: 138 severely disabled, 413 moderately impaired and 508 without significant sequelae. Selective resuscitation would save 717 infants: 93 severely disabled, 279 moderately impaired and 343 without significant sequelae. For mothers, non-resuscitation is less expensive ($19.9 million) and more effective (127 844 mQALYs) than universal resuscitation ($1.2 billion; 126 574 mQALYs) or selective resuscitation ($845 million; 125 966 mQALYs). For neonates, both universal and selective resuscitation were cost-effective, resulting in 22 256 and 15 134 nQALYS, respectively, versus 247 nQALYs for non-resuscitation. In sensitivity analyses, universal resuscitation was cost-effective from a maternal perspective only at utilities for neonatal death <0.42. When analyzed from a maternal-neonatal perspective, universal resuscitation was cost-effective when the probability of neonatal death was <0.95. Over wide ranges of probabilities for survival and disability, universal and selective resuscitation strategies were not cost-effective from a maternal perspective. Both strategies were cost-effective from
Abolyosr, Ahmad; Sayed, M A; Elanany, Fathy; Smeika, M A; Shaker, S E
To test the feasibility of using the penile corpora cavernosa for blood transfusion and resuscitation purposes. Three male donkeys were used for autologous blood transfusion into the corpus cavernosum during three sessions with a 1-week interval between each. Two blood units (450 mL each) were transfused per session to each donkey. Moreover, three dogs were bled up until a state of shock was produced. The mean arterial blood pressure decreased to 60 mm Hg. The withdrawn blood (mean volume 396.3 mL) was transfused back into their corpora cavernosa under 150 mm Hg pressure. Different transfusion parameters were assessed. The Assiut faculty of medicine ethical committee approved the study before its initiation. For the donkey model, the mean time of blood collection was 12 minutes. The mean time needed to establish corporal access was 22 seconds. The mean time of blood transfusion was 14.2 minutes. The mean rate of blood transfusion was 31.7 mL/min. Mild penile elongation with or without mild penile tumescence was observed on four occasions. All penile shafts returned spontaneously to their pretransfusion state at a maximum of 5 minutes after cessation of blood transfusion. No extravasation, hematoma formation, or color changes occurred. Regarding the dog model, the mean rate of transfusion was 35.2 mL/min. All dogs were resuscitated at the end of the transfusion. The corpus cavernosum is a feasible, simple, rapid, and effective alternative route for blood transfusion and venous access. It can be resorted to whenever necessary. It is a reliable means for volume replacement and resuscitation in males.
Montgomery, Kayla; Hall, A Brad; Keriazes, Georgia
The timely administration of analgesics is crucial to the comprehensive management of trauma patients. When an emergency department (ED) pharmacist participates in trauma resuscitation, the pharmacist acts as a medication resource for trauma team members and facilitates the timely administration of analgesics. This study measured the impact of a pharmacist on time to first analgesic dose administered during trauma resuscitation. All adult (>18 years) patients who presented to this level II trauma center via activation of the trauma response system between January 1, 2009, and May 31, 2013, were screened for eligibility. For inclusion, patients must have received intravenous fentanyl, morphine, or hydromorphone in the trauma bay. The time to medication administration was defined as the elapsed time from ED arrival to administration of first analgesic. There were 1328 trauma response system activations during the study period; of which 340 patients were included. The most common analgesic administered was fentanyl (62% in both groups). When a pharmacist was participating, the mean time to first analgesic administered was decreased (17 vs 21 minutes; P = .03). Among the 78% of patients with documented pain scores, the overall mean reduction in pain scores from ED arrival to ED discharge was similar between the 2 groups. There was a 2.4 point reduction with a pharmacist versus 2.7 without a pharmacist, using a 0 to 10 numeric pain rating scale. The participation of a clinical pharmacist during trauma resuscitation significantly decreased the time to first analgesic administration in trauma patients. The results of this study supplement the literature supporting the integration of clinical ED pharmacists on trauma teams.
Roppolo, L P; Wigginton, J G; Pepe, P E
Since the 1970s, most of the research and debate regarding interventions for cardiopulmonary arrest have focused on advanced life support (ALS) therapies and early defibrillation strategies. During the past decade, however, international guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have not only emphasized the concept of uninterrupted chest compressions, but also improvements in the timing, rate and quality of those compressions. In essence, it has been a ''revolution'' in resuscitation medicine in terms of ''coming full circle'' to the 1960s when basic CPR was first developed. Recent data have indicated the need for minimally-interrupted chest compressions with an accompanying emphasis toward removing rescue ventilation altogether in sudden cardiac arrest, at least in the few minutes after a sudden unheralded collapse. In other studies, transient delays in defibrillation attempts and ALS interventions are even recommended so that basic CPR can be prioritized to first restore and maintain better coronary artery perfusion. New devices have now been developed to modify, in real-time, the performance of basic CPR, during both training and an actual resuscitative effort. Several new adjuncts have been created to augment chest compressions or enhance venous return and evolving technology may now be able to identify ventricular fibrillation (VF) without interrupting chest compressions. A renewed focus on widespread CPR training for the average person has also returned to center stage with ground-breaking training initiatives including validated video-based adult learning courses that can reliably teach and enable long term retention of basic CPR skills and automated external defibrillator (AED) use.
Christ, Martin; von Auenmüller, Katharina Isabel; Grett, Martin; Amirie, Scharbanu; Brand, Michael; Trappe, Hans-Joachim
Background There is hardly any evidence about the influence of living wills on acute life-threatening disease like out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest (OHCA). We therefore initiated this study to quantify the percentage of victims of OHCA who's living wills are available during post-resuscitation care. Methods All victims of OHCA who were admitted to our hospital between January 1 st 2008 and July 31 th 2016 were identified by analysis of our central admission register. Data from individual patients were collected from the patient's health records and anonymously stored on a central database. Results Altogether, there were 343 victims of OHCA admitted to our hospital between January 1 st 2008 and July 31 th 2016, including 16 patients (4.7 %) with living wills and 18 patients (5.2 %) with legal health care proxy. Survival rates were 31.2 % in patients with living wills, 27.8 % in patients with legal health care proxy and 33.3 % in patients without such a document. Conclusion In this study, the percentage of victims of OHCA with available living wills during post-resuscitation care was low. The presentation of living wills or legal health care proxies during post-resuscitation care of victims from OHCA was not equivalent to the patient`s death. Most often, discussion with relatives led to the decision to withdraw further therapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Background Within cardiopulmonary resuscitation external chest compressions (ECC) are of outstanding importance. Frequent training in Basic Life Support (BLS) may improve the performance, but the perfect method or environment is still a matter of research. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether practical performance and retention of skills in resuscitation training may be influenced by the gender composition in learning groups. Methods Participants were allocated to three groups for standardized BLS-training: Female group (F): only female participants; Male group (M): only male participants; Standard group (S): male and female participants. All groups were trained with the standardized 4-step-approach method. Assessment of participants’ performance was done before training (t1), after one week (t2) and eight months later (t3) on a manikin in the same cardiac arrest single-rescuer-scenario. Participants were 251 Laypersons (mean age 21; SD 4; range 18–42 years; females 63%) without previous medical knowledge. Endpoints: compression rate 90-110/min; mean compression depth 38–51 mm. Standardized questionnaires were used for the evaluation of attitude and learning environment. Results After one week group F performed significantly better with respect to the achievement of the correct mean compression depth (F: 63% vs. S: 43%; p = 0.02). Moreover, groups F and S were the only groups which were able to improve their performance concerning the mean compression rate (t1: 35%; t3: 52%; p = 0.04). Female participants felt more comfortable in the female–only environment. Conclusions Resuscitation training in gender-segregated groups has an effect on individual performance with superior ECC skills in the female-only learning groups. Female participants could improve their skills by a more suitable learning environment, while male participants in the standard group felt less distracted by their peers than male participants in the male-only group
Smith, Iain M.; James, Robert H.; Dretzke, Janine; Midwinter, Mark J.
ABSTRACT Introduction: Administration of high ratios of plasma to packed red blood cells is a routine practice for in-hospital trauma resuscitation. Military and civilian emergency teams are increasingly carrying prehospital blood products (PHBP) for trauma resuscitation. This study systematically reviewed the clinical literature to determine the extent to which the available evidence supports this practice. Methods: Bibliographic databases and other sources were searched to July 2015 using keywords and index terms related to the intervention, setting, and condition. Standard systematic review methodology aimed at minimizing bias was used for study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment (protocol registration PROSPERO: CRD42014013794). Synthesis was mainly narrative with random effects model meta-analysis limited to mortality outcomes. Results: No prospective comparative or randomized studies were identified. Sixteen case series and 11 comparative studies were included in the review. Seven studies included mixed populations of trauma and non-trauma patients. Twenty-five of 27 studies provided only very low quality evidence. No association between PHBP and survival was found (OR for mortality: 1.29, 95% CI: 0.84–1.96, P = 0.24). A single study showed improved survival in the first 24 h. No consistent physiological or biochemical benefit was identified, nor was there evidence of reduced in-hospital transfusion requirements. Transfusion reactions were rare, suggesting the short-term safety of PHBP administration. Conclusions: While PHBP resuscitation appears logical, the clinical literature is limited, provides only poor quality evidence, and does not demonstrate improved outcomes. No conclusions as to efficacy can be drawn. The results of randomized controlled trials are awaited. PMID:26825635
Cobo-Vázquez, Carlos; De Blas, Gemma; García-Canas, Pablo; Del Carmen Gasco-García, María
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation requires the provider to adopt positions that could be dangerous for his or her spine, specifically affecting the muscles and ligaments in the lumbar zone and the scapular spinal muscles. Increased fatigue caused by muscular activity during the resuscitation could produce a loss of quality and efficacy, resulting in compromising resuscitation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the maximum time a rescuer can perform uninterrupted chest compressions correctly without muscle fatigue. This pilot study was performed at Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain) with the population recruited following CONSORT 2010 guidelines. From the 25 volunteers, a total of 14 students were excluded because of kyphoscoliosis (4), lumbar muscle pain (1), anti-inflammatory treatment (3), or not reaching 80% of effective chest compressions during the test (6). Muscle activity at the high spinal and lumbar (L5) muscles was assessed using electromyography while students performed continuous chest compressions on a ResusciAnne manikin. The data from force exerted were analyzed according to side and muscle groups using Student's t test for paired samples. The influence of time, muscle group, and side was analyzed by multivariate analyses ( p ≤ .05). At 2 minutes, high spinal muscle activity (right: 50.82 ± 9.95; left: 57.27 ± 20.85 μV/ms) reached the highest values. Activity decreased at 5 and 15 minutes. At 2 minutes, L5 activity (right: 45.82 ± 9.09; left: 48.91 ± 10.02 μV/ms) reached the highest values. After 5 minutes and at 15 minutes, activity decreased. Fatigue occurred bilaterally and time was the most important factor. Fatigue began at 2 minutes. Rescuers exert muscular countervailing forces in order to maintain effective compressions. This imbalance of forces could determine the onset of poor posture, musculoskeletal pain, and long-term injuries in the rescuer.
Wang, Candice; Huang, Chin-Chou; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chen, Jaw-Wen
We investigated the effects of dyadic training on medical students' resuscitation performance during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training.We provided students with a 2-hour training session on CPR for simulated cardiac arrest. Student teams were split into double groups (Dyad training groups: Groups A and B) or Single Groups. All groups received 2 CPR simulation rounds. CPR simulation training began with peer demonstration for Group A, and peer observation for Group B. Then the 2 groups switched roles. Single Groups completed CPR simulation without peer observation or demonstration. Teams were then evaluated based on leadership, teamwork, and team member skills.Group B had the highest first simulation round scores overall (P = 0.004) and in teamwork (P = 0.001) and team member skills (P = 0.031). Group B also had the highest second simulation round scores overall (P < 0.001) and in leadership (P = 0.033), teamwork (P < 0.001), and team member skills (P < 0.001). In the first simulation, there were no differences between Dyad training groups with those of Single Groups in overall scores, leadership scores, teamwork scores, and team member scores. In the second simulation, Dyad training groups scored higher in overall scores (P = 0.002), leadership scores (P = 0.044), teamwork scores (P = 0.005), and team member scores (P = 0.008). Dyad training groups also displayed higher improvement in overall scores (P = 0.010) and team member scores (P = 0.022).Dyad training was effective for CPR training. Both peer observation and demonstration for peers in dyad training can improve student resuscitation performance.
Wang, Candice; Huang, Chin-Chou; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chen, Jaw-Wen
Abstract We investigated the effects of dyadic training on medical students’ resuscitation performance during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training. We provided students with a 2-hour training session on CPR for simulated cardiac arrest. Student teams were split into double groups (Dyad training groups: Groups A and B) or Single Groups. All groups received 2 CPR simulation rounds. CPR simulation training began with peer demonstration for Group A, and peer observation for Group B. Then the 2 groups switched roles. Single Groups completed CPR simulation without peer observation or demonstration. Teams were then evaluated based on leadership, teamwork, and team member skills. Group B had the highest first simulation round scores overall (P = 0.004) and in teamwork (P = 0.001) and team member skills (P = 0.031). Group B also had the highest second simulation round scores overall (P < 0.001) and in leadership (P = 0.033), teamwork (P < 0.001), and team member skills (P < 0.001). In the first simulation, there were no differences between Dyad training groups with those of Single Groups in overall scores, leadership scores, teamwork scores, and team member scores. In the second simulation, Dyad training groups scored higher in overall scores (P = 0.002), leadership scores (P = 0.044), teamwork scores (P = 0.005), and team member scores (P = 0.008). Dyad training groups also displayed higher improvement in overall scores (P = 0.010) and team member scores (P = 0.022). Dyad training was effective for CPR training. Both peer observation and demonstration for peers in dyad training can improve student resuscitation performance. PMID:28353555
Gonzalez, Eduardo; Moore, Ernest E.; Moore, Hunter B.; Chapman, Michael P.; Chin, Theresa L.; Ghasabyan, Arsen; Wohlauer, Max V.; Barnett, Carlton C.; Bensard, Denis D.; Biffl, Walter L.; Burlew, Clay C.; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Pieracci, Fredric M.; Jurkovich, Gregory J.; Banerjee, Anirban; Silliman, Christopher C.; Sauaia, Angela
Background Massive transfusion protocols (MTPs) have become standard of care in the management of bleeding injured patients, yet strategies to guide them vary widely. We conducted a pragmatic, randomized clinical trial (RCT) to test the hypothesis that an MTP goal directed by the viscoelastic assay thrombelastography (TEG) improves survival compared with an MTP guided by conventional coagulation assays (CCA). Methods This RCT enrolled injured patients from an academic level-1 trauma center meeting criteria for MTP activation. Upon MTP activation, patients were randomized to be managed either by an MTP goal directed by TEG or by CCA (ie, international normalized ratio, fibrinogen, platelet count). Primary outcome was 28-day survival. Results One hundred eleven patients were included in an intent-to-treat analysis (TEG = 56, CCA = 55). Survival in the TEG group was significantly higher than the CCA group (log-rank P = 0.032, Wilcoxon P = 0.027); 20 deaths in the CCA group (36.4%) compared with 11 in the TEG group (19.6%) (P = 0.049). Most deaths occurred within the first 6 hours from arrival (21.8% CCA group vs 7.1% TEG group) (P = 0.032). CCA patients required similar number of red blood cell units as the TEG patients [CCA: 5.0 (2–11), TEG: 4.5 (2–8)] (P = 0.317), but more plasma units [CCA: 2.0 (0–4), TEG: 0.0 (0–3)] (P = 0.022), and more platelets units [CCA: 0.0 (0–1), TEG: 0.0 (0–0)] (P = 0.041) in the first 2 hours of resuscitation. Conclusions Utilization of a goal-directed, TEG-guided MTP to resuscitate severely injured patients improves survival compared with an MTP guided by CCA and utilizes less plasma and platelet transfusions during the early phase of resuscitation. PMID:26720428
Mouncey, Paul R; Osborn, Tiffany M; Power, G Sarah; Harrison, David A; Sadique, M Zia; Grieve, Richard D; Jahan, Rahi; Harvey, Sheila E; Bell, Derek; Bion, Julian F; Coats, Timothy J; Singer, Mervyn; Young, J Duncan; Rowan, Kathryn M
Early, goal-directed therapy (EGDT) is recommended in international guidelines for the resuscitation of patients presenting with early septic shock. However, adoption has been limited, and uncertainty about its effectiveness remains. We conducted a pragmatic randomized trial with an integrated cost-effectiveness analysis in 56 hospitals in England. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either EGDT (a 6-hour resuscitation protocol) or usual care. The primary clinical outcome was all-cause mortality at 90 days. We enrolled 1260 patients, with 630 assigned to EGDT and 630 to usual care. By 90 days, 184 of 623 patients (29.5%) in the EGDT group and 181 of 620 patients (29.2%) in the usual-care group had died (relative risk in the EGDT group, 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.20; P=0.90), for an absolute risk reduction in the EGDT group of -0.3 percentage points (95% CI, -5.4 to 4.7). Increased treatment intensity in the EGDT group was indicated by increased use of intravenous fluids, vasoactive drugs, and red-cell transfusions and reflected by significantly worse organ-failure scores, more days receiving advanced cardiovascular support, and longer stays in the intensive care unit. There were no significant differences in any other secondary outcomes, including health-related quality of life, or in rates of serious adverse events. On average, EGDT increased costs, and the probability that it was cost-effective was below 20%. In patients with septic shock who were identified early and received intravenous antibiotics and adequate fluid resuscitation, hemodynamic management according to a strict EGDT protocol did not lead to an improvement in outcome. (Funded by the United Kingdom National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment Programme; ProMISe Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN36307479.).
Reynolds, Joshua C.; Grunau, Brian E.; Rittenberger, Jon C.; Sawyer, Kelly N.; Kurz, Michael C.; Callaway, Clifton W.
Background Little evidence guides the appropriate duration of resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), and case features justifying longer or shorter durations are ill-defined. We estimated the impact of resuscitation duration on the probability of favorable functional outcome in OHCA using a large, multi-center cohort. Methods Secondary analysis of a North American, single blind, multi-center, cluster-randomized clinical trial (ROC-PRIMED) of consecutive adults with non-traumatic, EMS-treated, OHCA. Primary exposure was duration of resuscitation in minutes (onset of professional resuscitation to return of spontaneous circulation [ROSC] or termination of resuscitation). Primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge with favorable outcome (modified Rankin scale [mRS] 0-3). Subjects were additionally classified as survival with unfavorable outcome (mRS 4-5), ROSC without survival (mRS 6), or without ROSC. Subject accrual was plotted as a function of resuscitation duration, and the dynamic probability of favorable outcome at discharge was estimated for the whole cohort and subgroups. Adjusted logistic regression models tested the association between resuscitation duration and survival with favorable outcome. Results The primary cohort included 11,368 subjects (median age 69 years [IQR: 56-81 years]; 7,121 men [62.6%]). Of these, 4,023 (35.4%) achieved ROSC, 1,232 (10.8%) survived to hospital discharge, and 905 (8.0%) had mRS 0-3 at discharge. Distribution of CPR duration differed by outcome (p<0.00001). For CPR duration up to 37.0 minutes (95%CI 34.9-40.9 minutes), 99% with eventual mRS 0-3 at discharge achieved ROSC. Dynamic probability of mRS 0-3 at discharge declined over elapsed resuscitation duration, but subjects with initial shockable cardiac rhythm, witnessed cardiac arrest, and bystander CPR were more likely to survive with favorable outcome after prolonged efforts (30-40 minutes). Adjusting for prehospital (OR 0.93; 95%CI 0.92-0.95) and
... Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier... standards. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured... from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated output of 129 kilonewtons thrust or...
... Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier... standards. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured... from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated output of 129 kilonewtons thrust or...
Cunningham, Anna J.; Carroll, Julia M.
We investigate the effects of age-related factors and formal instruction on the development of reading-related skills in children aged 4 and 7 years. Age effects were determined by comparing two groups of children at the onset of formal schooling; one aged 7 (later-schooled) and one aged 4 (earlier-schooled). Schooling effects were measured by…
Evans, Judy P.; Taylor, Jerome
Reviews the theory of reasoned action to demonstrate how it can be applied to understanding gang violence, and illustrates its potential applicability to a pilot sample of 30 contemporary and 18 earlier gangs living in a large metropolitan community. Results indicate this theory has been helpful in explaining higher levels of violence in…
Mounteney, Jane; Haugland, Siren
The availability of medicines on the illicit drug market is currently high on the international policy agenda, linked to adverse health consequences including addiction, drug related overdoses and injection related problems. Continuous surveillance of illicit use of medicines allows for earlier identification and reporting of emerging trends and increased possibilities for earlier intervention to prevent spread of use and drug related harm. This paper aims to identify data sources capable of monitoring the illicit use of medicines; present trend findings for Rohypnol and Subutex using a multi-indicator monitoring approach; and consider the relevance of such models for policy makers. Data collection and analysis were undertaken in Bergen, Norway, using the Bergen Earlier Warning System (BEWS), a multi-indicator drug monitoring system. Data were gathered at six monthly intervals from April 2002 to September 2006. Drug indicator data from seizures, treatment, pharmacy sales, helplines, key informants and media monitoring were triangulated and an aggregated differential was used to plot trends. Results for the 4-year period showed a decline in the illicit use of Rohypnol and an increase in the illicit use of Subutex. Multi-indicator surveillance models can play a strategic role in the earlier identification and reporting of emerging trends in illicit use of medicines.
Hope, Kirsty; Durrheim, David N; Muscatello, David; Merritt, Tony; Zheng, Wei; Massey, Peter; Cashman, Patrick; Eastwood, Keith
To retrospectively review the performance of a near real-time Emergency Department (ED) Syndromic Surveillance System operating in New South Wales for identifying pneumonia outbreaks of public health importance. Retrospective data was obtained from the NSW Emergency Department data collection for a rural hospital that has experienced a cluster of pneumonia diagnoses among teenage males in August 2006. ED standard reports were examined for signals in the overall count for each respiratory syndrome, and for elevated counts in individual subgroups including; age, sex and admission to hospital status. Using the current thresholds, the ED syndromic surveillance system would have trigged a signal for pneumonia syndrome in children aged 5-16 years four days earlier than the notification by a paediatrician and this signal was maintained for 14 days. If the ED syndromic surveillance system had been operating it could have identified the outbreak earlier than the paediatrician's notification. This may have permitted an earlier public health response. By understanding the behaviour of syndromes during outbreaks of public health importance, response protocols could be developed to facilitate earlier implementation of control measures.
Hayward, Gerald C.; Breneman, David W.; Estrada, Leobardo F.
This report examined enrollment projections for higher education institutions in California in relation to earlier projections conducted in the mid-1990s that forecasted steep declines in enrollment. It notes that California's remarkable economic recovery over the last several years has allowed it to fund higher education enrollment growth at a…
Lim, Chin Tat; Goodman, Stuart B; Huddleston, James I; Harris, Alex H S; Bhowmick, Subhrojyoti; Maloney, William J; Amanatullah, Derek F
Smoking is associated with early postoperative complications, increased length of hospital stay, and an increased risk of revision after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the effect of smoking on time to revision TKA is unknown. A total of 619 primary TKAs referred to an academic tertiary center for revision TKA were retrospectively stratified according to the patient smoking status. Smoking status was then analyzed for associations with time to revision TKA using a Chi square test. The association was also analyzed according to the indication for revision TKA. Smokers (37/41, 90%) have an increased risk of earlier revision for any reason compared to non-smokers (274/357, 77%, p=0.031). Smokers (37/41, 90%) have an increased risk of earlier revision for any reason compared to ex-smokers (168/221, 76%, p=0.028). Subgroup analysis did not reveal a difference in indication for revision TKA (p>0.05). Smokers are at increased risk of earlier revision TKA when compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers. The risk for ex-smokers was similar to that of non-smokers. Smoking appears to have an all-or-none effect on earlier revision TKA as patients who smoked more did not have higher risk of early revision TKA. These results highlight the need for clinicians to urge patients not to begin smoking and encourage smokers to quit smoking prior to primary TKA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bert, J; Gyenge, C; Bowen, B; Reed, R; Lund, T
A validated mathematical model of microvascular exchange in thermally injured humans has been used to predict the consequences of different forms of resuscitation and potential modes of action of pharmaceuticals on the distribution and transport of fluid and macromolecules in the body. Specially, for 10 and/or 50 per cent burn surface area injuries, predictions are presented for no resuscitation, resuscitation with the Parkland formula (a high fluid and low protein formulation) and resuscitation with the Evans formula (a low fluid and high protein formulation). As expected, Parkland formula resuscitation leads to interstitial accumulation of excess fluid, while use of the Evans formula leads to interstitial accumulation of excessive amounts of proteins. The hypothetical effects of pharmaceuticals on the transport barrier properties of the microvascular barrier and on the highly negative tissue pressure generated postburn in the injured tissue were also investigated. Simulations predict a relatively greater amelioration of the acute postburn edema through modulation of the postburn tissue pressure effects.
Hlavaty, Leigh; Sung, LokMan
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation can transmit external injuries to the face, neck, and chest regions of infants. The aim of this study was to compare and contrast observations made during infant autopsies to delineate differences in the external appearance of those who did and those who did not receive resuscitation. We investigated 344 infant deaths between mid 2007 and 2013 in Wayne County, Detroit, Michigan, and identified 38 infants (11%) who displayed abrasions and/or contusions, independent of the cause of death. Of those, 27 infants (71%) were administered resuscitated whereas 11 infants (29%) were not. In both groups, contusions were more common in homicide cases and abrasions in nonhomicide ones, thus having the injuries more reflective of the cause of death than resuscitation. In addition, abrasions were frequently seen in infants who had not received resuscitation.
Garcia, Santiago; Drexel, Todd; Bekwelem, Wobo; Raveendran, Ganesh; Caldwell, Emily; Hodgson, Lucinda; Wang, Qi; Adabag, Selcuk; Mahoney, Brian; Frascone, Ralph; Helmer, Gregory; Lick, Charles; Conterato, Marc; Baran, Kenneth; Bart, Bradley; Bachour, Fouad; Roh, Steven; Panetta, Carmelo; Stark, Randall; Haugland, Mark; Mooney, Michael; Wesley, Keith; Yannopoulos, Demetris
In 2013 the Minnesota Resuscitation Consortium developed an organized approach for the management of patients resuscitated from shockable rhythms to gain early access to the cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) in the metro area of Minneapolis-St. Paul. Eleven hospitals with 24/7 percutaneous coronary intervention capabilities agreed to provide early (within 6 hours of arrival at the Emergency Department) access to the CCL with the intention to perform coronary revascularization for outpatients who were successfully resuscitated from ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia arrest. Other inclusion criteria were age >18 and <76 and presumed cardiac etiology. Patients with other rhythms, known do not resuscitate/do not intubate, noncardiac etiology, significant bleeding, and terminal disease were excluded. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge with favorable neurological outcome. Patients (315 out of 331) who were resuscitated from VT/VF and transferred alive to the Emergency Department had complete medical records. Of those, 231 (73.3%) were taken to the CCL per the Minnesota Resuscitation Consortium protocol while 84 (26.6%) were not taken to the CCL (protocol deviations). Overall, 197 (63%) patients survived to hospital discharge with good neurological outcome (cerebral performance category of 1 or 2). Of the patients who followed the Minnesota Resuscitation Consortium protocol, 121 (52%) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, and 15 (7%) underwent coronary artery bypass graft. In this group, 151 (65%) survived with good neurological outcome, whereas in the group that did not follow the Minnesota Resuscitation Consortium protocol, 46 (55%) survived with good neurological outcome (adjusted odds ratio: 1.99; [1.07-3.72], P=0.03). Early access to the CCL after cardiac arrest due to a shockable rhythm in a selected group of patients is feasible in a large metropolitan area in the United States and is associated with a 65% survival
Hishikawa, Kenji; Goishi, Keiji; Fujiwara, Takeo; Kaneshige, Masao; Ito, Yushi; Sago, Haruhiko
The Japan Resuscitation Council (JRC) Guidelines 2010 for neonatal resuscitation introduced continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in delivery room. The present study evaluated the effect of CPAP for pulmonary air leak at term birth. This retrospective single-centre study used the data of term neonates who were born without major congenital anomalies at our centre between 2008 and 2009, and between 2011 and 2012. Resuscitation according to the JRC Guidelines 2010. We examined the association between the JRC Guidelines 2010, CPAP by face mask and pulmonary air leak. A total of 5038 infants were analysed. The frequency of CPAP by face mask increased after the update of the JRC Guidelines in 2010 (1.7% vs 11.1%; p<0.001). Pulmonary air leak increased at early term (37 weeks: 1.0% vs 3.5%, p=0.02; 38 weeks: 0.7% vs 2.2%, p=0.02). While adjusting for confounders, the JRC Guidelines 2010 was associated with pulmonary air leak in early-term neonates (37 weeks: adjusted OR (aOR) 4.37; 95% CI 1.40 to 17.45; 38 weeks: aOR 2.80; 95% CI 1.04 to 8.91), but this association disappeared while adjusting for face mask CPAP additionally (37 weeks: aOR 1.90; 95% CI 0.47 to 8.71; 38 weeks: aOR 1.66; 95% CI 0.54 to 5.77). Following the update of the JRC guidelines on neonatal resuscitation, we observed an increased use of CPAP via face mask, which was associated with a higher prevalence of pulmonary air leak in early-term neonates in our centre. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Wang, Lixiang; Meng, Qingyi; Yu, Tao
To promote the technical training and scientific popularization of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in China, the Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Specialized Committee of Chinese Research Hospital Association combined with the Science Popularization Branch of the Chinese Medical Association wrote "2018 National consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in China". The formation was based on the general outline about "2016 National consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation in China", and to implement the important strategies included the "three pre" policy, prevention, precognition, and pre-warning, before the cardiac arrest (CA); the "three modernization" methods, standardized, diversified and individualized, during the CA; and the "three life" strategies, the rebirth, the extra and the extended, after the CA; and also combined with the concrete National conditions and clinical practice of China area. The document summarized the evidence of published science about CPR training till now, and recommend the establishment of "the CPR Training Triangle" according to the Chinese National conditions. The bases of the triangle were system, training and person, the core of which was CPR science. The main contents were: (1) The "three training" policy for CPR training: the cultivation of a sound system, which included professional credibility, extensive mobilization and continuous driving force, and the participation of the whole people and continuous improvement; the cultivation of scientific guidelines, which included scientific content, methods and thinking; and the cultivation of a healthy culture, which included the enhancement of civic quality, education of rescue scientifically, and advocate of healthy life. (2) The "three training" program of CPR training: training professional skills, which included standard, multiple, and individual skills; training multidimensional, which included time, space, and human; and training flexible, including problem, time
Hinder, Murray; McEwan, Alistair; Drevhammer, Thomas; Donaldson, Snorri; Tracy, Mark Brian
The T-piece resuscitator (TPR) has seen increased use as a primary resuscitation device with newborns. Traditional TPR design uses a high resistance expiratory valve to produce positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) at resuscitation. A new TPR device that uses a dual flow ratio valve (fluidic flip) to produce PEEP/CPAP is now available (rPAP). We aimed to compare the measured ventilation performance of different TPR devices in a controlled bench test study. Single operator provided positive pressure ventilation to an incremental testlung compliance (Crs) model (0.5-5 mL/cmH 2 O) with five different brands of TPR device (Atom, Neopuff, rPAP, GE Panda warmer and Draeger Resuscitaire). At recommended peak inflation pressure (PIP) 20 cmH 2 O, PEEP of 5 cmH 2 O and rate of 60 inflations per minute. 1864 inflations were analysed. Four of the five devices tested demonstrated inadvertent elevations in mean PEEP (5.5-10.3 cmH 2 O, p<0.001) from set value as Crs was increased, while one device (rPAP) remained at the set value. Measured PIP exceeded the set value in two infant warmer devices (GE and Draeger) with inbuilt TPR at Crs of 0.5 (24.5 and 23.5 cmH 2 O, p<0.001). Significant differences were seen in tidal volumes across devices particularly at higher Crs (p<0.001). Results show important variation in delivered ventilation from set values due to inherent TPR device design characteristics with a range of lung compliances expected at birth. Device-generated inadvertent PEEP and overdelivery of PIP may be clinically deleterious for term and preterm newborns or infants with larger Crs during resuscitation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Riggs, Kevin R.; Becker, Lance B.; Sugarman, Jeremy
Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) promises to be an important advance in the treatment of cardiac arrest. However, ECPR involves ethical challenges that should be addressed as it diffuses into practice. Benefits and risks are uncertain, so the evidence base needs to be further developed, at least through outcomes registries and potentially with randomized trials. To inform decision making, patients’ preferences regarding ECPR should be obtained, both from the general population and from inpatients at risk for cardiac arrest. Fair and transparent appropriate use criteria should be developed and could be informed by economic analyses. PMID:25866287
Bureev, A. Sh.; Zhdanov, D. S.; Kiseleva, E. Yu.; Kutsov, M. S.; Trifonov, A. Yu.
The study is to present the results of works on creation of methods of automatic control procedures of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A method of automatic control procedure of CPR by evaluating the acoustic data of the dynamics of blood flow in the bifurcation of carotid arteries and the dynamics of air flow in a trachea according to the current guidelines for CPR is presented. Evaluation of the patient is carried out by analyzing the respiratory noise and blood flow in the interspaces between the chest compressions and artificial pulmonary ventilation. The device operation algorithm of automatic control procedures of CPR and its block diagram has been developed.
Riggs, Kevin R; Becker, Lance B; Sugarman, Jeremy
Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) promises to be an important advance in the treatment of cardiac arrest. However, ECPR involves ethical challenges that should be addressed as it diffuses into practice. Benefits and risks are uncertain, so the evidence base needs to be further developed, at least through outcomes registries and potentially with randomized trials. To inform decision making, patients' preferences regarding ECPR should be obtained, both from the general population and from inpatients at risk for cardiac arrest. Fair and transparent appropriate use criteria should be developed and could be informed by economic analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Myburgh, John A; Finfer, Simon; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Billot, Laurent; Cass, Alan; Gattas, David; Glass, Parisa; Lipman, Jeffrey; Liu, Bette; McArthur, Colin; McGuinness, Shay; Rajbhandari, Dorrilyn; Taylor, Colman B; Webb, Steven A R
The safety and efficacy of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) for fluid resuscitation have not been fully evaluated, and adverse effects of HES on survival and renal function have been reported. We randomly assigned 7000 patients who had been admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) in a 1:1 ratio to receive either 6% HES with a molecular weight of 130 kD and a molar substitution ratio of 0.4 (130/0.4, Voluven) in 0.9% sodium chloride or 0.9% sodium chloride (saline) for all fluid resuscitation until ICU discharge, death, or 90 days after randomization. The primary outcome was death within 90 days. Secondary outcomes included acute kidney injury and failure and treatment with renal-replacement therapy. A total of 597 of 3315 patients (18.0%) in the HES group and 566 of 3336 (17.0%) in the saline group died (relative risk in the HES group, 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96 to 1.18; P=0.26). There was no significant difference in mortality in six predefined subgroups. Renal-replacement therapy was used in 235 of 3352 patients (7.0%) in the HES group and 196 of 3375 (5.8%) in the saline group (relative risk, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.45; P=0.04). In the HES and saline groups, renal injury occurred in 34.6% and 38.0% of patients, respectively (P=0.005), and renal failure occurred in 10.4% and 9.2% of patients, respectively (P=0.12). HES was associated with significantly more adverse events (5.3% vs. 2.8%, P<0.001). In patients in the ICU, there was no significant difference in 90-day mortality between patients resuscitated with 6% HES (130/0.4) or saline. However, more patients who received resuscitation with HES were treated with renal-replacement therapy. (Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia and others; CHEST ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00935168.).
Rice, H M
A series of 300 cases of fatal carbon-monoxide poisoning showed wide variations in carboxyhaemoglobin saturation. Levels below 50% in 24 subjects under the age of 70 were probably falsely low following attempted resuscitation on the way to hospital. Artificial respiration, especially with oxygen-rich gas, causes dissociation of carboxyhaemoglobin in the lungs of the cadaver while movement of blood into and out of the lungs, with mixing, lowers the saturation levels in the neighbouring large veins. In four cases subclavian blood showed saturation levels much lower than blood from sites further from the lungs. Blood should be taken from the femoral vein to get true readings. PMID:1249248
Bulger, Eileen M.; May, Susanne; Kerby, Jeffery D.; Emerson, Scott; Stiell, Ian G.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Brasel, Karen J.; Tisherman, Samuel A.; Coimbra, Raul; Rizoli, Sandro; Minei, Joseph P.; Hata, J. Steven; Sopko, George; Evans, David C.; Hoyt, David B.
Objective To determine whether out-of-hospital administration of hypertonic fluids would improve survival after severe injury with hemorrhagic shock. Background Hypertonic fluids have potential benefit in the resuscitation of severely injured patients because of rapid restoration of tissue perfusion, with a smaller volume, and modulation of the inflammatory response, to reduce subsequent organ injury. Methods Multicenter, randomized, blinded clinical trial, May 2006 to August 2008, 114 emergency medical services agencies in North America within the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium. Inclusion criteria: injured patients, age ≥ 15 years with hypovolemic shock (systolic blood pressure ≤ 70 mm Hg or systolic blood pressure 71–90 mm Hg with heart rate ≥ 108 beats per minute). Initial resuscitation fluid, 250 mL of either 7.5% saline per 6% dextran 70 (hypertonic saline/dextran, HSD), 7.5% saline (hypertonic saline, HS), or 0.9% saline (normal saline, NS) administered by out-of-hospital providers. Primary outcome was 28-day survival. On the recommendation of the data and safety monitoring board, the study was stopped early (23% of proposed sample size) for futility and potential safety concern. Results A total of 853 treated patients were enrolled, among whom 62% were with blunt trauma, 38% with penetrating. There was no difference in 28-day survival—HSD: 74.5% (0.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], −7.5 to 7.8); HS: 73.0% (−1.4; 95% CI, −8.7–6.0); and NS: 74.4%, P = 0.91. There was a higher mortality for the postrandomization subgroup of patients who did not receive blood transfusions in the first 24 hours, who received hypertonic fluids compared to NS [28-day mortality—HSD: 10% (5.2; 95% CI, 0.4–10.1); HS: 12.2% (7.4; 95% CI, 2.5–12.2); and NS: 4.8%, P < 0.01]. Conclusion Among injured patients with hypovolemic shock, initial resuscitation fluid treatment with either HS or HSD compared with NS, did not result in superior 28-day survival. However
William Thornton, MD, was a polymath who designed the Capitol of the U.S. Capital and the Octagon House, present home of the American Institute of Architecture. He was the founding director of the U.S. Patent Office. His collected papers, which are now preserved at the U.S. Library of Congress, though pruned by the wife who lived almost 40 years after him, are extensive and include comments on science, education, slavery, and politics. His views on sleep and dreaming and his concepts of resuscitation are reviewed as the opinions of an educated man early in the nineteenth century.
Böttcher, Thomas; Szamosvári, Dávid; Clardy, Jon
Only a small fraction of bacteria can autonomously initiate growth on agar plates. Nongrowing bacteria typically enter a metabolically inactive dormant state and require specific chemical trigger factors or signals to exit this state and to resume growth. Micrococcus luteus has become a model organism for this important yet poorly understood phenomenon. Only a few resuscitation signals have been described to date, and all of them are produced endogenously by bacterial species. We report the discovery of a novel type of resuscitation signal that allows M. luteus to grow on agar but not agarose plates. Fractionation of the agar polysaccharide complex and sulfation of agarose allowed us to identify the signal as highly sulfated saccharides found in agar or carrageenans. Purification of hydrolyzed κ-carrageenan ultimately led to the identification of the signal as a small fragment of a large linear polysaccharide, i.e., an oligosaccharide of five or more sugars with a repeating disaccharide motif containing d-galactose-4-sulfate (G4S) 1,4-linked to 3,6-anhydro-α-d-galactose (DA), G4S-(DA-G4S) n ≥2 IMPORTANCE Most environmental bacteria cannot initiate growth on agar plates, but they can flourish on the same plates once growth is initiated. While there are a number of names for and manifestations of this phenomenon, the underlying cause appears to be the requirement for a molecular signal indicating safe growing conditions. Micrococcus luteus has become a model organism for studying this growth initiation process, often called resuscitation, because of its apparent connection with the persistent or dormant form of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , an important human pathogen. In this report, we identify a highly sulfated saccharide from agar or carrageenans that robustly resuscitates dormant M. luteus on agarose plates. We identified and characterized the signal as a small repeating disaccharide motif. Our results indicate that signals inherent in or absent from the
Kessler, Ronald C.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Lee, Sing; Liu, Howard; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Petukhova, Maria V.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Shahly, Victoria L.; Stein, Dan J.; Atwoli, Lukoye; Borges, Guilherme; Bunting, Brendan; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo; Kawakami, Norito; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate M.; Shalev, Arieh Y.; Have, Margreet ten; Torres, Yolanda; Viana, Maria Carmen; Zaslavsky, Alan M.
Although earlier trauma exposure is known to predict post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after subsequent traumas, it is unclear if this association is limited to cases where the earlier trauma led to PTSD. Resolution of this uncertainty has important implications for research on pre-trauma vulnerability to PTSD. We examined this issue in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys with 34,676 respondents who reported lifetime trauma exposure. One lifetime trauma was selected randomly for each respondent. DSM-IV PTSD due to that trauma was assessed. We reported in a previous paper that four earlier traumas involving interpersonal violence significantly predicted PTSD after subsequent random traumas (OR=1.3–2.5). We also assessed 14 lifetime DSM-IV mood, anxiety, disruptive behavior, and substance disorders prior to random traumas. We show in the current report that only prior anxiety disorders significantly predicted PTSD in a multivariate model (OR=1.5–4.3) and that these disorders interacted significantly with three of the earlier traumas (witnessing atrocities, physical violence victimization, rape). History of witnessing atrocities significantly predicted PTSD after subsequent random traumas only among respondents with prior PTSD (OR=5.6). Histories of physical violence victimization (OR=1.5) and rape after age 17 (OR=17.6) significantly predicted only among respondents with no history of prior anxiety disorders. Although only preliminary due to reliance on retrospective reports, these results suggest that history of anxiety disorders and history of a limited number of earlier traumas might usefully be targeted in future prospective studies as distinct foci of research on individual differences in vulnerability to PTSD after subsequent traumas. PMID:28924183
Kessler, R C; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Alonso, J; Bromet, E J; Gureje, O; Karam, E G; Koenen, K C; Lee, S; Liu, H; Pennell, B-E; Petukhova, M V; Sampson, N A; Shahly, V; Stein, D J; Atwoli, L; Borges, G; Bunting, B; de Girolamo, G; Gluzman, S F; Haro, J M; Hinkov, H; Kawakami, N; Kovess-Masfety, V; Navarro-Mateu, F; Posada-Villa, J; Scott, K M; Shalev, A Y; Ten Have, M; Torres, Y; Viana, M C; Zaslavsky, A M
Although earlier trauma exposure is known to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after subsequent traumas, it is unclear whether this association is limited to cases where the earlier trauma led to PTSD. Resolution of this uncertainty has important implications for research on pretrauma vulnerability to PTSD. We examined this issue in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys with 34 676 respondents who reported lifetime trauma exposure. One lifetime trauma was selected randomly for each respondent. DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition) PTSD due to that trauma was assessed. We reported in a previous paper that four earlier traumas involving interpersonal violence significantly predicted PTSD after subsequent random traumas (odds ratio (OR)=1.3-2.5). We also assessed 14 lifetime DSM-IV mood, anxiety, disruptive behavior and substance disorders before random traumas. We show in the current report that only prior anxiety disorders significantly predicted PTSD in a multivariate model (OR=1.5-4.3) and that these disorders interacted significantly with three of the earlier traumas (witnessing atrocities, physical violence victimization and rape). History of witnessing atrocities significantly predicted PTSD after subsequent random traumas only among respondents with prior PTSD (OR=5.6). Histories of physical violence victimization (OR=1.5) and rape after age 17 years (OR=17.6) significantly predicted only among respondents with no history of prior anxiety disorders. Although only preliminary due to reliance on retrospective reports, these results suggest that history of anxiety disorders and history of a limited number of earlier traumas might usefully be targeted in future prospective studies as distinct foci of research on individual differences in vulnerability to PTSD after subsequent traumas.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 19 September 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.194.
Abrams, Joseph Y; Belay, Ermias D; Uehara, Ritei; Maddox, Ryan A; Schonberger, Lawrence B; Nakamura, Yosikazu
To assess if observed higher observed risks of cardiac complications for patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) treated earlier may reflect bias due to confounding from initial disease severity, as opposed to any negative effect of earlier treatment. We used data from Japanese nationwide KD surveys from 1997 to 2004. Receipt of additional intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (data available all years) or any additional treatment (available for 2003-2004) were assessed as proxies for initial disease severity. We determined associations between earlier or later IVIG treatment (defined as receipt of IVIG on days 1-4 vs days 5-10 of illness) and cardiac complications by stratifying by receipt of additional treatment or by using logistic modeling to control for the effect of receiving additional treatment. A total of 48 310 patients with KD were included in the analysis. In unadjusted analysis, earlier IVIG treatment was associated with a higher risk for 4 categories of cardiac complications, including all major cardiac complications (risk ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.15). Stratifying by receipt of additional treatment removed this association, and earlier IVIG treatment became protective against all major cardiac complications when controlling for any additional treatment in logistic regressions (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.80-1.00). Observed higher risks of cardiac complications among patients with KD receiving IVIG treatment on days 1-4 of the illness are most likely due to underlying higher initial disease severity, and patients with KD should continue to be treated with IVIG as early as possible. Published by Elsevier Inc.
DiGiacomo, J Christopher; Angus, L D George
Emergency department resuscitative thoracotomy is an intervention of last resort for the acutely dying victim of trauma. In light of improvements in pre-hospital emergency systems, improved operative strategies for survival such as damage control and improvements in critical care medicine, the most extreme of resuscitation efforts should be re-evaluated for the potential survivor, with success properly defined as the return of vital signs which allow transport of the patient to the operating room. A retrospective review of all patients at a suburban level I trauma center who underwent emergency department resuscitative thoracotomy as an adjunct to the resuscitation efforts normally delivered in the trauma receiving area over a 22 year period was performed. Survival of emergency department resuscitative thoracotomy was defined as restoration of vital signs and transport out of the trauma resuscitation area to the operating room. Sixty-eight patients were identified, of whom 27 survived the emergency department resuscitative thoracotomy and were transported to the operating room. Review of pre-hospital and initial hospital data between these potential long term survivors and those who died in the emergency department failed to demonstrate trends which were predictive of survival of emergency department resuscitative thoracotomy. The only subgroup which failed to respond to emergency department resuscitative thoracotomy was patients without signs of life at the scene who arrived to the treatment facility without signs of life. The patient population of the "potential survivor" has been expanded due to advances in critical care practices, technology, and surgical technique and every opportunity for survival should be provided at the outset. Emergency department resuscitative thoracotomy is warranted for any patient with thoracic or subdiaphragmatic trauma who presents in extremis with a history of signs of life at the scene or organized cardiac activity upon arrival
From the mid-18th century, several different stimulations were used to attempt to resuscitate apparently dead people. These include sound, smell, and light stimulation to the ear, nose and eyes, rubbing the body surface and spirit given to the oral cavity. The most notable stimulation was use of electricity, which was initiated by better understanding of its power by Benjamin Franklin and Luigi A. Galvani. Charles Kite developed the first electrical machine to stimulate the heart, and by 1800, it was found that the most effective site for applying electricity was over the heart.
Masa’Deh, Rami; Saifan, Ahmad; Timmons, Stephen; Nairn, Stuart
Background: During cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, family members, in some hospitals, are usually pushed to stay out of the resuscitation room. However, growing literature implies that family presence during resuscitation could be beneficial. Previous literature shows controversial belief whether or not a family member should be present during resuscitation of their relative. Some worldwide association such as the American Heart Association supports family-witnessed resuscitation and urge hospitals to develop policies to ease this process. The opinions on family-witnessed resuscitation vary widely among various cultures, and some hospitals are not applying such polices yet. This study explores family members’ needs during resuscitation in adult critical care settings. Methods: This is a part of larger study. The study was conducted in six hospitals in two major Jordanian cities. A purposive sample of seven family members, who had experience of having a resuscitated relative, was recruited over a period of six months. Semi-structured interview was utilised as the main data collection method in the study. Findings: The study findings revealed three main categories: families’ need for reassurance; families’ need for proximity; and families’ need for support. The need for information about patient’s condition was the most important need. Updating family members about patient’s condition would reduce their tension and improve their acceptance for the end result of resuscitation. All interviewed family members wanted the option to stay beside their loved one at end stage of their life. Distinctively, most of family members want this option for some religious and cultural reasons such as praying and supplicating to support their loved one. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the importance of considering the cultural and religious dimensions in any family-witnessed resuscitation programs. The study recommends that family members of resuscitated patients should
Olaussen, Alexander; Shepherd, Matthew; Nehme, Ziad; Smith, Karen; Bernard, Stephen; Mitra, Biswadev
Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may generate sufficient cerebral perfusion pressure to make the patient conscious. The incidence and management of this phenomenon are not well described. This systematic review aims to identifying cases where CPR-induced consciousness is mentioned in the literature and explore its management options. The databases Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Cinahl and the Cochrane Library were searched from their commencement to the 8th July 2014. We also searched Google (scholar) for grey literature. We combined MeSH terms and text words for consciousness and CPR, and included studies of all types. The search yielded 1997 unique records, of which 50 abstracts were reviewed. Nine reports, describing 10 patients, were relevant. Six of the patients had CPR performed by mechanical devices, three of these patients were sedated. Four patients arrested in the out-of-hospital setting and six arrested in hospital. There were four survivors. Varying levels of consciousness were described in all reports, including purposeful arm movements, verbal communication, and resuscitation interference. Management strategies directed at consciousness were offered to six patients and included both physical and chemical restraints. CPR-induced consciousness was infrequently reported in the medical literature, and varied in management. Given the increasing use of mechanical CPR, guidelines to identify and manage consciousness during CPR are required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kot, P; Botella, J
In cardiac arrest produced by accidental hypothermia, cardiopulmonary resuscitation must be prolonged until normal body temperature is achieved. There are different rewarming methods. In theory, the more invasive ones are elective in patients with cardiac arrest because of their higher rewarming speed. However, it has not been proven that these methods are better than the non-invasive ones. We present a case report of a patient with cardiac arrest due to accidental hypothermia who was treated without interruption for three hours with heart massage. This is the longest successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation known up-to-date in Spain. In order to rewarm the body, a combination of non-invasive methods was used: active external rewarming with convective warm air, gastric and bladder lavage with warm saline solution and intravenous warm saline infusion. This case shows that it is possible to treat hypothermic cardiac arrest successfully through these rewarming methods, which are both easy to apply and feasible in any hospital. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Olver, Ian N; Eliott, Jaklin A; Blake-Mortimer, Jane
Patients' perceptions of do not resuscitate (DNR) orders and how and when to present the information were sought to aid in framing DNR policy. Semi-structured interviews of 23 patients being treated for cancer, were conducted by a clinical psychologist. The interviews were transcribed and analysed with the aid of a qualitative software package. Discourse analysis enabled hypotheses to be formed based on consistencies and variations of the language used. Most patients understood what DNR meant and preferred DNR orders to 'good palliative care' orders. They saw it as their autonomous right and responsibility to make such decisions. They would seek information on the likely medical outcomes of resuscitation but also would use non-rational criteria based on emotional and social factors to make their decisions. Family considerations suggest that personal autonomy is not the overriding basis of the decision. Patients were unsure of the best timing of a DNR discussion and were prepared to defer to doctors' intuition. Most advocated written DNR orders but few had them. Families were construed as advocates but also seen as constraining individual autonomy. When considering DNR orders, patients recognise the diversity of preferences likely to exist that belie a one policy fits all approach. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Scaife, Eric R; Statler, Kimberly D
Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the most common cause of death and disability in pediatric trauma. This review looks at the strategies to treat TBI in a temporal fashion. We examine the targets for resuscitation from field triage to definitive care in the pediatric ICU. Guidelines for the management of pediatric TBI exist. The themes of contemporary clinical research have been compliance with these guidelines and refinement of treatment recommendations developing a more sophisticated understanding of the pathophysiology of the injured brain. In the field, the aim has been to achieve routine compliance with the resuscitation goals. In the hospital, efforts have been directed at improving our ability to monitor the injured brain, developing techniques that limit brain swelling, and customizing brain perfusion. As our understanding of pediatric TBI evolves, the ambition is that age-specific and perhaps individual brain injury strategies based upon feedback from continuous monitors will be defined. In addition, vogue methods such as hypothermia, hypertonic saline, and aggressive surgical decompression may prove to impact brain swelling and outcomes.
Gazmuri, Raúl J.; Radhakrishnan, Jeejabai
Synopsis Successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest requires reestablishment of aerobic metabolism by reperfusion with oxygenated blood of tissues that have been deprived of oxygen for variables periods of time. However, reperfusion concomitantly activates pathogenic mechanisms known as “reperfusion injury.” At the core of reperfusion injury are mitochondria, playing a critical role as effectors and targets of such injury. Mitochondrial injury compromises oxidative phosphorylation and also prompts release of cytochrome c to the cytosol and bloodstream where it correlates with severity of injury. Main drivers of such injury include Ca2+ overload and oxidative stress. Preclinical work shows that limiting myocardial cytosolic Na+ overload at the time of reperfusion attenuates mitochondrial Ca2+ overload and maintains oxidative phosphorylation yielding functional myocardial benefits that include preservation of left ventricular distensibility. Preservation of left ventricular distensibility enables hemodynamically more effective chest compression. Similar myocardial effect have been reported using erythropoietin hypothesized to protect mitochondrial bioenergetic function presumably through activation of pathways similar to those activated during preconditioning. Incorporation of novel and clinical relevant strategies to protect mitochondrial bioenergetic function are expected to attenuate injury at the time of reperfusion and enhance organ viability ultimately improving resuscitation and survival from cardiac arrest. PMID:22433486
Zeng, Bin; Zhao, Guozhong; Cao, Xiaohong; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Chunling; Hou, Lihua
Salmonella typhi is a pathogen that causes the human disease of typhoid fever. The aim of this study was to investigate the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of S. typhi. Some samples were stimulated at 4°C or -20°C, while others were induced by different concentrations of CuSO4. Total cell counts remained constant throughout several days by acridine orange direct counting; however, plate counts declined to undetectable levels within 48 hours by plate counting at -20°C. The direct viable counts remained fairly constant at this level by direct viable counting. Carbon and nitrogen materials slowly decreased which indicated that a large population of cells existed in the VBNC state and entered the VBNC state in response to exposure to 0.01 or 0.015 mmol/L CuSO4 for more than 14 or 12 days, respectively. Adding 3% Tween 20 or 1% catalase enabled cells to become culturable again, with resuscitation times of 48 h and 24 h, respectively. The atomic force microscope results showed that cells gradually changed in shape from short rods to coccoids, and decreased in size when they entered the VBNC state. Further animal experiments suggested that resuscitated cells might regain pathogenicity.
Bortolotti, Perrine; Saulnier, Fabienne; Colling, Delphine; Redheuil, Alban; Preau, Sebastien
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a frequent disease with degrees of increasing severity responsible for high morbidity. Despite continuous improvement in care, mortality remains significant. Because hypovolemia, together with microcirculatory dysfunction lead to poor outcome, fluid therapy remains a cornerstone of the supportive treatment. However, poor clinical evidence actually support the aggressive fluid therapy recommended in recent guidelines since available data are controversial. Fluid management remains unclear and leads to current heterogeneous practice. Different strategies may help to improve fluid resuscitation in AP. On one hand, integration of fluid therapy in a global hemodynamic resuscitation has been demonstrated to improve outcome in surgical or septic patients. Tailored fluid administration after early identification of patients with high-risk of poor outcome presenting inadequate tissue oxygenation is a major part of this strategy. On the other hand, new decision parameters have been developed recently to improve safety and efficiency of fluid therapy in critically ill patients. In this review, we propose a personalized strategy integrating these new concepts in the early fluid management of AP. This new approach paves the way to a wide range of clinical studies in the field of AP. PMID:25473163
Rinehart, Joseph; Chung, Elena; Canales, Cecilia; Cannesson, Maxime
The authors compared the performance of a group of anesthesia providers to closed-loop (Learning Intravenous Resuscitator [LIR]) management in a simulated hemorrhage scenario using cardiac output monitoring. A prospective cohort study. In silico simulation. University hospital anesthesiologists and the LIR closed-loop fluid administration system. Using a patient simulator, a 90-minute simulated hemorrhage protocol was run, which included a 1,200-mL blood loss over 30 minutes. Twenty practicing anesthesiology providers were asked to manage this scenario by providing fluids and vasopressor medication at their discretion. The simulation program was also run 20 times with the LIR closed-loop algorithm managing fluids and an additional 20 times with no intervention. Simulated patient weight, height, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and cardiac output (CO) were similar at baseline. The mean stroke volume, the mean arterial pressure, CO, and the final CO were higher in the closed-loop group than in the practitioners group, and the coefficient of variance was lower. The closed-loop group received slightly more fluid (2.1 v 1.9 L, p < 0.05) than the anesthesiologist group. Despite the roughly similar volumes of fluid given, the closed-loop maintained more stable hemodynamics than the practitioners primarily because the fluid was given earlier in the protocol and CO optimized before the hemorrhage began, whereas practitioners tended to resuscitate well but only after significant hemodynamic change indicated the need. Overall, these data support the potential usefulness of this closed-loop algorithm in clinical settings in which dynamic predictors are not available or applicable. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Nordberg, Per; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Castren, Maaret; Truhlár, Anatolij; Desruelles, Didier; Forsberg, Sune; Hollenberg, Jacob; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Svensoon, Leif
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH, 32-34°C) has been shown to improve neurological outcome in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) with ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. Earlier initiation of TH may increase the beneficial effects. Experimental studies have suggested that starting TH during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may further enhance its neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether intra-arrest TH (IATH), initiated in the field with trans nasal evaporative cooling (TNEC), would provide outcome benefits when compared to standard of care in patients being resuscitated from OHCA. We describe the methodology of a multi-centre, randomized, controlled trial comparing IATH delivered through TNEC device (Rhinochill, Benechill Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) during CPR to standard treatment, including TH initiated after hospital admission. The primary outcome is neurological intact survival defined as cerebral performance category 1-2 at 90 days among those patients who are admitted to the hospital. Secondary outcomes include survival at 90 days, proportion of patients achieving a return to spontaneous circulation (ROSC), the proportion of patients admitted alive to the hospital and the proportion of patients achieving target temperature (<34°C) within the first 4 hours since CA. This ongoing trial will assess the impact of IATH with TNEC, which may be able to rapidly induce brain cooling and have fewer side effects than other methods, such as cold fluid infusion. If this intervention is found to improve neurological outcome, its early use in the pre-hospital setting will be considered as an early neuro-protective strategy in OHCA. NCT01400373.
Yadav, Kabir; Chamberlain, James M.; Lewis, Vicki R.; Abts, Natalie; Chawla, Shawn; Hernandez, Angie; Johnson, Justin; Tuveson, Genevieve; Burd, Randall S.
Background Use of electronic clinical decision support (eCDS) has been recommended to improve implementation of clinical decision rules. Many eCDS tools, however, are designed and implemented without taking into account the context in which clinical work is performed. Implementation of the pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) clinical decision rule at one Level I pediatric emergency department includes an electronic questionnaire triggered when ordering a head computed tomography using computerized physician order entry (CPOE). Providers use this CPOE tool in less than 20% of trauma resuscitation cases. A human factors engineering approach could identify the implementation barriers that are limiting the use of this tool. Objectives The objective was to design a pediatric TBI eCDS tool for trauma resuscitation using a human factors approach. The hypothesis was that clinical experts will rate a usability-enhanced eCDS tool better than the existing CPOE tool for user interface design and suitability for clinical use. Methods This mixed-methods study followed usability evaluation principles. Pediatric emergency physicians were surveyed to identify barriers to using the existing eCDS tool. Using standard trauma resuscitation protocols, a hierarchical task analysis of pediatric TBI evaluation was developed. Five clinical experts, all board-certified pediatric emergency medicine faculty members, then iteratively modified the hierarchical task analysis until reaching consensus. The software team developed a prototype eCDS display using the hierarchical task analysis. Three human factors engineers provided feedback on the prototype through a heuristic evaluation, and the software team refined the eCDS tool using a rapid prototyping process. The eCDS tool then underwent iterative usability evaluations by the five clinical experts using video review of 50 trauma resuscitation cases. A final eCDS tool was created based on their feedback, with content analysis of the
Farahmand, Alireza; AghaKouchak, Amir; Teixeira, Joao
Each year, droughts cause significant economic and agricultural losses across the world. The early warning and onset detection of drought is of particular importance for effective agriculture and water resource management. Previous studies show that the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI), a measure of precipitation deficit, detects drought onset earlier than other indicators. Here we show that satellite-based near surface air relative humidity data can further improve drought onset detection and early warning. This paper introduces the Standardized Relative Humidity Index (SRHI) based on the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations. The results indicate that the SRHI typically detects the drought onset earlier than the SPI. While the AIRS mission was not originally designed for drought monitoring, we show that its relative humidity data offers a new and unique avenue for drought monitoring and early warning. We conclude that the early warning aspects of SRHI may have merit for integration into current drought monitoring systems.
Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W; Leukefeld, Carl G
This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant's earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W.; Leukefeld, Carl G.
This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant’s earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. PMID:26165963
Farahmand, Alireza; AghaKouchak, Amir; Teixeira, Joao
Each year, droughts cause significant economic and agricultural losses across the world. The early warning and onset detection of drought is of particular importance for effective agriculture and water resource management. Previous studies show that the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI), a measure of precipitation deficit, detects drought onset earlier than other indicators. Here we show that satellite-based near surface air relative humidity data can further improve drought onset detection and early warning. This paper introduces the Standardized Relative Humidity Index (SRHI) based on the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations. The results indicate that the SRHI typically detects the drought onset earlier than the SPI. While the AIRS mission was not originally designed for drought monitoring, we show that its relative humidity data offers a new and unique avenue for drought monitoring and early warning. We conclude that the early warning aspects of SRHI may have merit for integration into current drought monitoring systems. PMID:25711500
Wall, Stephen N.; Lee, Anne CC; Niermeyer, Susan; English, Mike; Keenan, William J.; Carlo, Wally; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bang, Abhay; Narayanan, Indira; Ariawan, Iwan; Lawn, Joy E.
Background Each year approximately 10 million babies do not breathe immediately at birth, of which about 6 million require basic neonatal resuscitation. The major burden is in low-income settings, where health system capacity to provide neonatal resuscitation is inadequate. Objective To systematically review the evidence for neonatal resuscitation content, training and competency, equipment and supplies, cost, and key program considerations, specifically for resource-constrained settings. Results Evidence from several observational studies shows that facility-based basic neonatal resuscitation may avert 30% of intrapartum-related neonatal deaths. Very few babies require advanced resuscitation (endotracheal intubation and drugs) and these newborns may not survive without ongoing ventilation; hence, advanced neonatal resuscitation is not a priority in settings without neonatal intensive care. Of the 60 million nonfacility births, most do not have access to resuscitation. Several trials have shown that a range of community health workers can perform neonatal resuscitation with an estimated effect of a 20% reduction in intrapartum-related neonatal deaths, based on expert opinion. Case studies illustrate key considerations for scale up. Conclusion Basic resuscitation would substantially reduce intrapartum-related neonatal deaths. Where births occur in facilities, it is a priority to ensure that all birth attendants are competent in resuscitation. Strategies to address the gap for home births are urgently required. More data are required to determine the impact of neonatal resuscitation, particularly on long-term outcomes in low-income settings. PMID:19815203
Ates, Ihsan; Kaplan, Mustafa; Demirci, Selim; Altiparmak, Emin
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the liver. Hepatitis B virus infection is one of the most important etilogical factors of HCC. In this case report, a patient with HCC previously infected and having ongoing immunity against hepatitis B virus will be discussed. Ates I, Kaplan M, Demirci S, Altiparmak E. A Hepatocellular Carcinoma Case in a Patient Who had Immunity to Hepatitis B Virus Earlier. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):82-83.
This article outlines an initiative to reduce length of stay for stroke patients within an acute hospital and to facilitate earlier transfer of care. Existing care provision was remodelled and expanded to deliver stroke care to patients within a community bed-based intermediate care facility or intermediate care at home. This new model of care has improved the delivery of rehabilitation through alternative and innovative ways of addressing service delivery that meet the needs of the patients.
LoBue, Christian; Wadsworth, Hannah; Wilmoth, Kristin; Clem, Matthew; Hart, John; Womack, Kyle B.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Lacritz, Laura H.; Rossetti, Heidi C.; Cullum, C. Munro
Objective This study examined whether a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with earlier onset of Alzheimer disease (AD), independent of apolipoprotein ε4 status (Apoe4) and gender. Method Participants with a clinical diagnosis of AD (n=7625) were obtained from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set, and categorized based on self-reported lifetime TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) (TBI+ vs TBI-) and presence of Apoe4. ANCOVAs, controlling for gender, race, and education were used to examine the association between history of TBI, presence of Apoe4, and an interaction of both risk factors on estimated age of AD onset. Results Estimated AD onset differed by TBI history and Apoe4 independently (p’s <.001). The TBI+ group had a mean age of onset 2.5 years earlier than the TBI- group. Likewise, Apoe4 carriers had a mean age of onset 2.3 years earlier than non-carriers. While the interaction was non-significant (p = .34), participants having both a history of TBI and Apoe4 had the earliest mean age of onset compared to those with a TBI history or Apoe4 alone (MDifference = 2.8 & 2.7 years, respectively). These results remained unchanged when stratified by gender. Conclusions History of self-reported TBI can be associated with an earlier onset of AD-related cognitive decline, regardless of Apoe4 status and gender. TBI may be related to an underlying neurodegenerative process in AD, but the implications of age at time of injury, severity, and repetitive injuries remain unclear. PMID:27855547
Paulsen, Jane S.; Nance, Martha; Kim, Ji-In; Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Panegyres, Peter K.; Erwin, Cheryl; Goh, Anita; McCusker, Elizabeth; Williams, Janet K.
The past decade has witnessed an explosion of evidence suggesting that many neurodegenerative diseases can be detected years, if not decades, earlier than previously thought. To date, these scientific advances have not provoked any parallel translational or clinical improvements. There is an urgency to capitalize on this momentum so earlier detection of disease can be more readily translated into improved health-related quality of life for families at risk for, or suffering with, neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measurement in neurodegenerative diseases and the importance of these “patient reported outcomes” for all clinical research. Next, we address HRQOL following early identification or predictive genetic testing in some neurodegenerative diseases: Huntington disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, prion diseases, hereditary ataxias, Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy and Wilson's disease. After a brief report of available direct-to-consumer genetic tests, we address the juxtaposition of earlier disease identification with assumed reluctance towards predictive genetic testing. Forty-one studies examining health related outcomes following predictive genetic testing for neurodegenerative disease suggested that (a) extreme or catastrophic outcomes are rare; (b) consequences commonly include transiently increased anxiety and/or depression; (c) most participants report no regret; (d) many persons report extensive benefits to receiving genetic information; and (e) stigmatization and discrimination for genetic diseases are poorly understood and policy and laws are needed. Caution is appropriate for earlier identification of neurodegenerative diseases but findings suggest further progress is safe, feasible and likely to advance clinical care. PMID:24036231
Liu, Joceline S; Jones, Madeline; Casey, Jessica T; Fuchs, Amanda B; Cashy, John; Lin, William W
To determine the temporal relationship between vasectomy, varicocele, and hypogonadism diagnosis. Many young men undergo their first thorough genitourinary examination in their adult lives at the time of vasectomy consultation, providing a unique opportunity for diagnosis of asymptomatic varicoceles. Varicoceles have recently been implicated as a possible reversible contributor to hypogonadism. Hypogonadism may be associated with significant adverse effect, including decreased libido, impaired cognitive function, and increased cardiovascular events. Early diagnosis and treatment of hypogonadism may prevent these adverse sequelae. Data were collected from the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan database, a large outpatient claims database. We reviewed records between 2003 and 2010 for male patients between the ages of 25 and 50 years with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for hypogonadism, vasectomy, and varicocele, and queried dates of first claim. A total of 15,679 men undergoing vasectomies were matched with 156,790 men with nonvasectomy claims in the same year. Vasectomy patients were diagnosed with varicocele at an earlier age (40.9 vs 42.5 years; P=.009). We identified 224,817 men between the ages of 25 and 50 years with a claim of hypogonadism, of which 5883 (2.6%) also had a claim of varicocele. Men with hypogonadism alone were older at presentation compared with men with an accompanying varicocele (41.3 [standard deviation±6.5] vs 34.9 [standard deviation±6.1]; P<.001). Men undergoing vasectomies are diagnosed with varicoceles at a younger age than age-matched controls. Men with varicoceles present with hypogonadism earlier than men without varicoceles. Earlier diagnosis of varicocele at the time of vasectomy allows for earlier detection of hypogonadism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stilp, Christian E; Assgari, Ashley A
Speech perception is heavily influenced by surrounding sounds. When spectral properties differ between earlier (context) and later (target) sounds, this can produce spectral contrast effects (SCEs) that bias perception of later sounds. For example, when context sounds have more energy in low-F 1 frequency regions, listeners report more high-F 1 responses to a target vowel, and vice versa. SCEs have been reported using various approaches for a wide range of stimuli, but most often, large spectral peaks were added to the context to bias speech categorization. This obscures the lower limit of perceptual sensitivity to spectral properties of earlier sounds, i.e., when SCEs begin to bias speech categorization. Listeners categorized vowels (/ɪ/-/ɛ/, Experiment 1) or consonants (/d/-/g/, Experiment 2) following a context sentence with little spectral amplification (+1 to +4 dB) in frequency regions known to produce SCEs. In both experiments, +3 and +4 dB amplification in key frequency regions of the context produced SCEs, but lesser amplification was insufficient to bias performance. This establishes a lower limit of perceptual sensitivity where spectral differences across sounds can bias subsequent speech categorization. These results are consistent with proposed adaptation-based mechanisms that potentially underlie SCEs in auditory perception. Recent sounds can change what speech sounds we hear later. This can occur when the average frequency composition of earlier sounds differs from that of later sounds, biasing how they are perceived. These "spectral contrast effects" are widely observed when sounds' frequency compositions differ substantially. We reveal the lower limit of these effects, as +3 dB amplification of key frequency regions in earlier sounds was enough to bias categorization of the following vowel or consonant sound. Speech categorization being biased by very small spectral differences across sounds suggests that spectral contrast effects occur
Miranda, Leandro E.; Dagel, Jonah D.; Kaczka, Levi J.; Mower, Ethan; Wigen, S. L.
Reservoirs impounded over floodplain rivers are unique because they may include within their upper reaches extensive shallow water stored over preexistent floodplains. Because of their relatively flat topography and riverine origin, floodplains in the upper reaches of reservoirs provide broad expanses of vegetation within a narrow range of reservoir water levels. Elsewhere in the reservoir, topography creates a band of shallow water along the contour of the reservoir where vegetation often does not grow. Thus, as water levels rise, floodplains may be the first vegetated habitats inundated within the reservoir. We hypothesized that shallow water in reservoir floodplains would attract spawning white crappies Pomoxis annularis earlier than reservoir embayments. Crappie relative abundance over five years in floodplains and embayments of four reservoirs increased as spawning season approached, peaked, and decreased as fish exited shallow water. Relative abundance peaked earlier in floodplains than embayments, and the difference was magnified with higher water levels. Early access to suitable spawning habitat promotes earlier spawning and may increase population fitness. Recognition of the importance of reservoir floodplains, an understanding of how reservoir water levels can be managed to provide timely connectivity to floodplains, and conservation of reservoir floodplains may be focal points of environmental management in reservoirs.
Olasveengen, Theresa M; de Caen, Allan R; Mancini, Mary E; Maconochie, Ian K; Aickin, Richard; Atkins, Dianne L; Berg, Robert A; Bingham, Robert M; Brooks, Steven C; Castrén, Maaret; Chung, Sung Phil; Considine, Julie; Couto, Thomaz Bittencourt; Escalante, Raffo; Gazmuri, Raúl J; Guerguerian, Anne-Marie; Hatanaka, Tetsuo; Koster, Rudolph W; Kudenchuk, Peter J; Lang, Eddy; Lim, Swee Han; Løfgren, Bo; Meaney, Peter A; Montgomery, William H; Morley, Peter T; Morrison, Laurie J; Nation, Kevin J; Ng, Kee-Chong; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Nishiyama, Chika; Nuthall, Gabrielle; Ong, Gene Yong-Kwang; Perkins, Gavin D; Reis, Amelia G; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Sayre, Michael R; Schexnayder, Stephen M; Sierra, Alfredo F; Singletary, Eunice M; Shimizu, Naoki; Smyth, Michael A; Stanton, David; Tijssen, Janice A; Travers, Andrew; Vaillancourt, Christian; Van de Voorde, Patrick; Hazinski, Mary Fran; Nolan, Jerry P
The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation has initiated a near-continuous review of cardiopulmonary resuscitation science that replaces the previous 5-year cyclic batch-and-queue approach process. This is the first of an annual series of International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations summary articles that will include the cardiopulmonary resuscitation science reviewed by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation in the previous year. The review this year includes 5 basic life support and 1 paediatric Consensuses on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Each of these includes a summary of the science and its quality based on Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria and treatment recommendations. Insights into the deliberations of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation task force members are provided in Values and Preferences sections. Finally, the task force members have prioritised and listed the top 3 knowledge gaps for each population, intervention, comparator, and outcome question. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Carolan-Olah, Mary; Kruger, Gina; Brown, Vera; Lawton, Felicity; Mazzarino, Melissa; Vasilevski, Vidanka
Midwifery students feel unprepared to deal with commonly encountered emergencies, such as neonatal resuscitation. Clinical simulation of emergencies may provide a safe forum for students to develop necessary skills. A simulation exercise, for neonatal resuscitation, was developed and evaluated using qualitative methods. Pre and post-simulation questions focussed on student confidence and knowledge of resuscitation. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Pre-simulation questions revealed that most students considered themselves not very confident/unsure about their level of confidence in undertaking neonatal resuscitation. Most correctly identified features of the neonate requiring resuscitation. Post-simulation, students indicated that their confidence and knowledge of neonatal resuscitation had improved. Themes included: gaining confidence; understanding when to call for help; understanding the principles of resuscitation; tailoring simulation/education approaches to student needs. Students benefits included improved knowledge, confidence and skills. Participants unanimously suggested a program of simulation exercises, over a longer period of time, to reinforce knowledge and confidence gains. Ideally, students would like to actively participate in the simulation, rather than observe. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Kamath-Rayne, B D; Josyula, S; Rule, A R L; Vasquez, J C
To evaluate changes in neonatal resuscitation and postnatal care following Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) training at a community hospital in rural Honduras. We hypothesized that HBB training would improve resuscitation and essential newborn care interventions. Direct observation and video recording of delivery room care spanned before and after an initial HBB workshop held in August 2013. Rates of essential newborn care interventions were compared in resuscitations performed by individuals who had and had not received HBB training, and run charts recording performance of newborn care practices over time were developed. Ten percent of deliveries (N=250) were observed over the study period, with 156 newborn resuscitations performed by individuals without HBB training, compared to 94 resuscitations performed by HBB trainees. After HBB training, significant improvements were seen in skin-to-skin care, breastfeeding within 60 min of age, and delayed cord clamping after 1 min (all P<0.01). More babies cared for by HBB trainees received basic neonatal resuscitation such as drying and stimulation. Run charts tracking these practices over time showed significant improvements after HBB training that were sustained during the study period, but remained below ideal goals. With improvement in drying/stimulation practices, fewer babies required bag/mask ventilation. In a rural Honduran community hospital, improvements in basic neonatal resuscitation and postnatal essential newborn care practices can be seen after HBB training. Further improvements in newborn care practices may require focused quality improvement initiatives for hospitals to sustain high quality care.
Lamoureux, Lorissa; Radhakrishnan, Jeejabai; Gazmuri, Raúl J.
A rat model of electrically-induced ventricular fibrillation followed by cardiac resuscitation using a closed chest technique that incorporates the basic components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in humans is herein described. The model was developed in 1988 and has been used in approximately 70 peer-reviewed publications examining a myriad of resuscitation aspects including its physiology and pathophysiology, determinants of resuscitability, pharmacologic interventions, and even the effects of cell therapies. The model featured in this presentation includes: (1) vascular catheterization to measure aortic and right atrial pressures, to measure cardiac output by thermodilution, and to electrically induce ventricular fibrillation; and (2) tracheal intubation for positive pressure ventilation with oxygen enriched gas and assessment of the end-tidal CO2. A typical sequence of intervention entails: (1) electrical induction of ventricular fibrillation, (2) chest compression using a mechanical piston device concomitantly with positive pressure ventilation delivering oxygen-enriched gas, (3) electrical shocks to terminate ventricular fibrillation and reestablish cardiac activity, (4) assessment of post-resuscitation hemodynamic and metabolic function, and (5) assessment of survival and recovery of organ function. A robust inventory of measurements is available that includes – but is not limited to – hemodynamic, metabolic, and tissue measurements. The model has been highly effective in developing new resuscitation concepts and examining novel therapeutic interventions before their testing in larger and translationally more relevant animal models of cardiac arrest and resuscitation. PMID:25938619
Fallat, Mary E
This multiorganizational literature review was undertaken to provide an evidence base for determining whether recommendations for out-of-hospital termination of resuscitation could be made for children who are victims of traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest. Although there is increasing acceptance of out-of-hospital termination of resuscitation for adult traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest when there is no expectation of a good outcome, children are routinely excluded from state termination-of-resuscitation protocols. The decision to withhold resuscitative efforts in a child under specific circumstances (decapitation or dependent lividity, rigor mortis, etc) is reasonable. If there is any doubt as to the circumstances or timing of the traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest, under the current status of limiting termination of resuscitation in the field to persons older than 18 years in most states, resuscitation should be initiated and continued until arrival to the appropriate facility. If the patient has arrested, resuscitation has already exceeded 30 minutes, and the nearest facility is more than 30 minutes away, involvement of parents and family of these children in the decision-making process with assistance and guidance from medical professionals should be considered as part of an emphasis on family-centered care because the evidence suggests that either death or a poor outcome is inevitable.
Fallat, Mary E
This multiorganizational literature review was undertaken to provide an evidence base for determining whether or not recommendations for out-of-hospital termination of resuscitation could be made for children who are victims of traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest. Although there is increasing acceptance of out-of-hospital termination of resuscitation for adult traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest when there is no expectation of a good outcome, children are routinely excluded from state termination-of-resuscitation protocols. The decision to withhold resuscitative efforts in a child under specific circumstances (decapitation or dependent lividity, rigor mortis, etc) is reasonable. If there is any doubt as to the circumstances or timing of the traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest, under the current status of limiting termination of resuscitation in the field to persons older than 18 years in most states, resuscitation should be initiated and continued until arrival to the appropriate facility. If the patient has arrested, resuscitation has already exceeded 30 minutes, and the nearest facility is more than 30 minutes away, involvement of parents and family of these children in the decision-making process with assistance and guidance from medical professionals should be considered as part of an emphasis on family-centered care, because the evidence suggests that either death or a poor outcome is inevitable.
McKittrick, Joanne T; Kinney, Sharon; Lima, Sally; Allen, Meredith
Inadequate resuscitation leads to death or brain injury. Recent recommendations for resuscitation team training to complement knowledge and skills training highlighted the need for development of an effective team resuscitation training session. This study aimed to evaluate and revise an interprofessional team training session which addressed roles and performance during provision of paediatric resuscitation, through incorporation of real-time, real team simulated training episodes. This study was conducted applying the principles of action research. Two cycles of data collection, evaluation and refinement of a 30-40 minute resuscitation training session for doctors and nurses occurred. Doctors and nurses made up 4 groups of training session participants. Their responses to the training were evaluated through thematic analysis of rich qualitative data gathered in focus groups held immediately after each training session. Major themes included the importance of realism, teamwork, and reflective learning. Findings informed important training session changes. These included; committed in-situ training; team diversity; realistic resources; role flexibility, definition and leadership; increased debriefing time and the addition of a team goal. In conclusion, incorporation of interprofessional resuscitation training which addresses team roles and responsibilities into standard medical and nursing training will enhance preparedness for participation in paediatric resuscitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yamada, Nicole K; Fuerch, Janene H; Halamek, Louis P
Current patterns of communication in high-risk clinical situations, such as resuscitation, are imprecise and prone to error. We hypothesized that the use of standardized communication techniques would decrease the errors committed by resuscitation teams during neonatal resuscitation. In a prospective, single-blinded, matched pairs design with block randomization, 13 subjects performed as a lead resuscitator in two simulated complex neonatal resuscitations. Two nurses assisted each subject during the simulated resuscitation scenarios. In one scenario, the nurses used nonstandard communication; in the other, they used standardized communication techniques. The performance of the subjects was scored to determine errors committed (defined relative to the Neonatal Resuscitation Program algorithm), time to initiation of positive pressure ventilation (PPV), and time to initiation of chest compressions (CC). In scenarios in which subjects were exposed to standardized communication techniques, there was a trend toward decreased error rate, time to initiation of PPV, and time to initiation of CC. While not statistically significant, there was a 1.7-second improvement in time to initiation of PPV and a 7.9-second improvement in time to initiation of CC. Should these improvements in human performance be replicated in the care of real newborn infants, they could improve patient outcomes and enhance patient safety. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Lichtenberger, Marla; Orcutt, Connie; Cray, Carolyn; Thamm, Douglas H; DeBehnke, Daniel; Page, Cheryl; Mull, Lori; Kirby, Rebecca
The purpose of this study was to determine the LD(50) for acute blood loss in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), compare the mortality rate among 3 fluid resuscitation groups, and determine the time required for a regenerative RBC response. Prospective study. Medical College of Wisconsin Research facility. Eighteen mallard ducks were included for the LD(50) study and 28 for the fluid resuscitation study. Phlebotomy was performed during both the LD(50) and fluid resuscitation studies. Ducks in the fluid resuscitation study received a 5 mL/kg intravenous bolus of crystalloids, hetastarch (HES), or a hemoglobin-based oxygen-carrying solution (HBOCS). The LD(50) for acute blood loss was 60% of total blood volume. This blood volume was removed in the fluid resuscitation study to create a model of acute blood loss. Following fluid administration, 6 birds in the crystalloid group (66%), 4 birds in the HES group (40%), and 2 birds in the HBOCS group (20%) died. No statistical difference in mortality rate was seen among the 3 fluid resuscitation groups. Relative polychromasia evaluated post-phlebotomy demonstrated regeneration starting at 24 hours and continuing through 48 hours. The LD(50) for acute blood loss in mallard ducks was 60% of their total blood volume. Although no statistical difference in mortality rate was appreciated among the 3 fluid resuscitation groups, a trend of decreased mortality rate was observed in the HBOCS group. An early regenerative response was apparent following acute blood loss.
Peigh, Graham; Cavarocchi, Nicholas; Hirose, Hitoshi
Despite advances in medical care, survival to discharge and full neurologic recovery after cardiac arrest remains less than 20% after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. An alternate approach to traditional cardiopulmonary resuscitation is extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation, which places patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and provides immediate cardiopulmonary support when traditional resuscitation has been unsuccessful. We report the results from extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation at the Thomas Jefferson University. Between 2010 and June 2014, 107 adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation procedures were performed at the Thomas Jefferson University. Patient demographics, survival to discharge, and neurologic recovery of patients who underwent extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation were retrospectively analyzed with institutional review board approval. A total of 23 patients (15 male and 8 female; mean age, 46 ± 12 years) underwent extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. All patients who met criteria were placed on 24-hour hypothermia protocol (target temperature 33°C) with initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The mean duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was 6.2 ± 5.5 days. Nine patients died while on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation from the following causes: anoxic brain injury (4), stroke (4), and bowel necrosis (1). Two patients with anoxic brain injury on extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation donated multiple organs for transplant. The survival to discharge was 30% (7/23 patients) with approximately 100% full neurologic recovery. The extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation procedure provided reasonable patient recovery. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation also allowed for neurologic recovery and made multiorgan procurement possible. On the basis of the survival, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be
Harvey, Merryl E; Pattison, Helen M
To explore healthcare professionals' experiences around the time of newborn resuscitation in the delivery room, when the baby's father was present. A qualitative descriptive, retrospective design using the critical incident approach. Tape-recorded semistructured interviews were undertaken with healthcare professionals involved in newborn resuscitation. Participants recalled resuscitation events when the baby's father was present. They described what happened and how those present, including the father, responded. They also reflected upon the impact of the resuscitation and the father's presence on themselves. Participant responses were analysed using thematic analysis. A large teaching hospital in the UK. Purposive sampling was utilised. It was anticipated that 35-40 participants would be recruited. Forty-nine potential participants were invited to take part. The final sample consisted of 37 participants including midwives, obstetricians, anaesthetists, neonatal nurse practitioners, neonatal nurses and paediatricians. Four themes were identified: 'whose role?' 'saying and doing' 'teamwork' and 'impact on me'. While no-one was delegated to support the father during the resuscitation, midwives and anaesthetists most commonly took on this role. Participants felt the midwife was the most appropriate person to support fathers. All healthcare professional groups said they often did not know what to say to fathers during prolonged resuscitation. Teamwork was felt to be of benefit to all concerned, including the father. Some paediatricians described their discomfort when fathers came to the resuscitaire. None of the participants had received education and training specifically on supporting fathers during newborn resuscitation. This is the first known study to specifically explore the experiences of healthcare professionals of the father's presence during newborn resuscitation. The findings suggest the need for more focused training about supporting fathers. There is also
Huis In 't Veld, Maite A; Allison, Michael G; Bostick, David S; Fisher, Kiondra R; Goloubeva, Olga G; Witting, Michael D; Winters, Michael E
High-quality chest compressions are a critical component of the resuscitation of patients in cardiopulmonary arrest. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is used frequently during emergency department (ED) resuscitations, but there has been limited research assessing its benefits and harms during the delivery of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We hypothesized that use of POCUS during cardiac arrest resuscitation adversely affects high-quality CPR by lengthening the duration of pulse checks beyond the current cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines recommendation of 10s. We conducted a prospective cohort study of adults in cardiac arrest treated in an urban ED between August 2015 and September 2016. Resuscitations were recorded using video equipment in designated resuscitation rooms, and the use of POCUS was documented and timed. A linear mixed-effects model was used to estimate the effect of POCUS on pulse check duration. Twenty-three patients were enrolled in our study. The mean duration of pulse checks with POCUS was 21.0s (95% CI, 18-24) compared with 13.0s (95% CI, 12-15) for those without POCUS. POCUS increased the duration of pulse checks and CPR interruption by 8.4s (95% CI, 6.7-10.0 [p<0.0001]). Age, body mass index (BMI), and procedures did not significantly affect the duration of pulse checks. The use of POCUS during cardiac arrest resuscitation was associated with significantly increased duration of pulse checks, nearly doubling the 10-s maximum duration recommended in current guidelines. It is important for acute care providers to pay close attention to the duration of interruptions in the delivery of chest compressions when using POCUS during cardiac arrest resuscitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brouse, Chad; Ortiz, Daniel; Su, Yan; Oronsky, Bryan; Scicinski, Jan; Cabrales, Pedro
Transfusion of blood remains the gold standard for fluid resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock. Hemoglobin (Hb) within the red blood cell transports oxygen and modulates nitric oxide (NO) through NO scavenging and nitrite reductase. This study was designed to examine the effects of incorporating a novel NO modulator, RRx-001, on systemic and microvascular hemodynamic response after blood transfusion for resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock in a hamster window chamber model. In addition, to RRx-001 the role of low dose of nitrite (1 × 10(-9) moles per animal) supplementation after resuscitation was studied. Severe hemorrhage was induced by arterial controlled bleeding of 50% of the blood volume (BV) and the hypovolemic state was maintained for 1 h. The animals received volume resuscitation by an infusion of 25% of BV using fresh blood alone or with added nitrite, or fresh blood treated with RRx-001 (140 mg/kg) or RRx-001 (140 mg/kg) with added nitrite. Systemic and microvascular hemodynamics were followed at baseline and at different time points during the entire study. Tissue apoptosis and necrosis were measured 8 h after resuscitation to correlate hemodynamic changes with tissue viability. Compared to resuscitation with blood alone, blood treated with RRx-001 decreased vascular resistance, increased blood flow and functional capillary density immediately after resuscitation and preserved tissue viability. Furthermore, in RRx-001 treated animals, both mean arterial pressure (MAP) and met Hb were maintained within normal levels after resuscitation (MAP >90 mmHg and metHb <2%). The addition of nitrite to RRx-001 did not significantly improve the effects of RRx-001, as it increased methemoglobinemia and lower MAP. RRx-001 alone enhanced perfusion and reduced tissue damage as compared to blood; it may serve as an adjunct therapy to the current gold standard treatment for resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock.
Opiyo, Newton; Were, Fred; Govedi, Fridah; Fegan, Greg; Wasunna, Aggrey; English, Mike
Background Birth asphyxia kills 0.7 to 1.6 million newborns a year globally with 99% of deaths in developing countries. Effective newborn resuscitation could reduce this burden of disease but the training of health-care providers in low income settings is often outdated. Our aim was to determine if a simple one day newborn resuscitation training (NRT) alters health worker resuscitation practices in a public hospital setting in Kenya. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a randomised, controlled trial with health workers receiving early training with NRT (n = 28) or late training (the control group, n = 55). The training was adapted locally from the approach of the UK Resuscitation Council. The primary outcome was the proportion of appropriate initial resuscitation steps with the frequency of inappropriate practices as a secondary outcome. Data were collected on 97 and 115 resuscitation episodes over 7 weeks after early training in the intervention and control groups respectively. Trained providers demonstrated a higher proportion of adequate initial resuscitation steps compared to the control group (trained 66% vs control 27%; risk ratio 2.45, [95% CI 1.75–3.42], p<0.001, adjusted for clustering). In addition, there was a statistically significant reduction in the frequency of inappropriate and potentially harmful practices per resuscitation in the trained group (trained 0.53 vs control 0.92; mean difference 0.40, [95% CI 0.13–0.66], p = 0.004). Conclusions/Significance Implementation of a simple, one day newborn resuscitation training can be followed immediately by significant improvement in health workers' practices. However, evidence of the effects on long term performance or clinical outcomes can only be established by larger cluster randomised trials. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN92218092 PMID:18270586
Quek, Nathaniel Xin Ern; Koh, Zhi Xiong; Nadkarni, Nivedita; Singaram, Kanageswari; Ho, Andrew Fu Wah; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock
Background For trauma patients, delays to assessment, resuscitation, and definitive care affect outcomes. We studied the effects of resuscitation area occupancy and trauma team size on trauma team resuscitation speed in an observational study at a tertiary academic institution in Singapore. Methods From January 2014 to January 2015, resuscitation videos of trauma team activated patients with an Injury Severity Score of 9 or more were extracted for review within 14 days by independent reviewers. Exclusion criteria were patients dead on arrival, inter-hospital transfers, and up-triaged patients. Data captured included manpower availability (trauma team size and resuscitation area occupancy), assessment (airway, breathing, circulation, logroll), interventions (vascular access, imaging), and process-of-care time intervals (time to assessment/intervention/adjuncts, time to imaging, and total time in the emergency department). Clinical data were obtained by chart review and from the trauma registry. Results Videos of 70 patients were reviewed over a 13-month period. The median time spent in the emergency department was 154.9 minutes (IQR 130.7–207.5) and the median resuscitation team size was 7, with larger team sizes correlating with faster process-of-care time intervals: time to airway assessment (p = 0.08) and time to disposition (p = 0.04). The mean resuscitation area occupancy rate (RAOR) was 1.89±2.49, and the RAOR was positively correlated with time spent in the emergency department (p = 0.009). Conclusion Our results suggest that adequate staffing for trauma teams and resuscitation room occupancy are correlated with faster trauma resuscitation and reduced time spent in the emergency department. PMID:27136299
Tan, Timothy Xin Zhong; Quek, Nathaniel Xin Ern; Koh, Zhi Xiong; Nadkarni, Nivedita; Singaram, Kanageswari; Ho, Andrew Fu Wah; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Wong, Ting Hway
For trauma patients, delays to assessment, resuscitation, and definitive care affect outcomes. We studied the effects of resuscitation area occupancy and trauma team size on trauma team resuscitation speed in an observational study at a tertiary academic institution in Singapore. From January 2014 to January 2015, resuscitation videos of trauma team activated patients with an Injury Severity Score of 9 or more were extracted for review within 14 days by independent reviewers. Exclusion criteria were patients dead on arrival, inter-hospital transfers, and up-triaged patients. Data captured included manpower availability (trauma team size and resuscitation area occupancy), assessment (airway, breathing, circulation, logroll), interventions (vascular access, imaging), and process-of-care time intervals (time to assessment/intervention/adjuncts, time to imaging, and total time in the emergency department). Clinical data were obtained by chart review and from the trauma registry. Videos of 70 patients were reviewed over a 13-month period. The median time spent in the emergency department was 154.9 minutes (IQR 130.7-207.5) and the median resuscitation team size was 7, with larger team sizes correlating with faster process-of-care time intervals: time to airway assessment (p = 0.08) and time to disposition (p = 0.04). The mean resuscitation area occupancy rate (RAOR) was 1.89±2.49, and the RAOR was positively correlated with time spent in the emergency department (p = 0.009). Our results suggest that adequate staffing for trauma teams and resuscitation room occupancy are correlated with faster trauma resuscitation and reduced time spent in the emergency department.
Oakley, Ed; Stocker, Sergio; Staubli, Georg; Young, Simon
To determine the ability of video recording to identify management errors in trauma resuscitation and to compare this method with medical record review. The resuscitation of children who presented to the emergency department of the Royal Children's Hospital between February 19, 2001, and August 18, 2002, for whom the trauma team was activated was video recorded. The tapes were analyzed, and management was compared with Advanced Trauma Life Support guidelines. Deviations from these guidelines were recorded as errors. Fifty video recordings were analyzed independently by 2 reviewers. Medical record review was undertaken for a cohort of the most seriously injured patients, and errors were identified. The errors detected with the 2 methods were compared. Ninety resuscitations were video recorded and analyzed. An average of 5.9 errors per resuscitation was identified with this method (range: 1-12 errors). Twenty-five children (28%) had an injury severity score of >11; there was an average of 2.16 errors per patient in this group. Only 10 (20%) of these errors were detected in the medical record review. Medical record review detected an additional 8 errors that were not evident on the video recordings. Concordance between independent reviewers was high, with 93% agreement. Video recording is more effective than medical record review in detecting management errors in pediatric trauma resuscitation. Management errors in pediatric trauma resuscitation are common and often involve basic resuscitation principles. Resuscitation of the most seriously injured children was associated with fewer errors. Video recording is a useful adjunct to trauma resuscitation auditing.
Lasa, Javier J; Jain, Parag; Raymond, Tia T; Minard, Charles G; Topjian, Alexis; Nadkarni, Vinay; Gaies, Michael; Bembea, Melania; Checchia, Paul A; Shekerdemian, Lara S; Thiagarajan, Ravi
Although clinical and pharmacologic guidelines exist for the practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in children (Pediatric Advanced Life Support), the practice of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pediatric cardiac patients remains without universally accepted standards. We aim to explore variation in extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation procedures by surveying clinicians who care for this high-risk patient population. A 28-item cross-sectional survey was distributed via a web-based platform to clinicians focusing on cardiopulmonary resuscitation practices and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation team dynamics immediately prior to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cannulation. Pediatric hospitals providing extracorporeal mechanical support services to patients with congenital and/or acquired heart disease. Critical care/cardiology specialist physicians, cardiothoracic surgeons, advanced practice nurse practitioners, respiratory therapists, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation specialists. None. Survey web links were distributed over a 2-month period with critical care and/or cardiology physicians comprising the majority of respondents (75%). Nearly all respondents practice at academic/teaching institutions (97%), 89% were from U.S./Canadian institutions and 56% reported less than 10 years of clinical experience. During extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation, a majority of respondents reported adherence to guideline recommendations for epinephrine bolus dosing (64%). Conversely, 19% reported using only one to three epinephrine bolus doses regardless of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation duration. Inotropic support is held after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cannulation "most of the time" by 58% of respondents and 94% report using afterload reducing/antihypertensive agents "some" to "most of the time" after achieving full extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Interruptions in chest compressions are common
Litt, L; Hirai, K; Basus, V J; James, T L
Although mechanisms of hypothermic neuroprotection during oxygen deprivation have long been investigated, further characterizations of various molecular mechanisms are appropriate. Anticipating future studies of hypothermia and hypoxia/ischemia, we investigated the extent to which our ex vivo, NMR-based, superfused brain slice model might be helpful. (Slices are approximately 350 microm thick, with 18 slices per 8 mm NMR tube.) 31P NMR spectroscopic measurements were made of hypothermia-induced changes in high energy phosphates, while simultaneously monitoring and controlling tissue temperature, using 1H NMR, the high spectroscopic resolution available at 14.1 Tesla (600 MHz for protons), and a recently published protocol. NTP and PCr concentrations in healthy, well-oxygenated slices decreased to (55 +/- 15)% and (66 +/- 30)% of their respective values at 28.0 degrees C when warmed to 38.0 degrees C, in approximate agreement with earlier in vivo studies by others. During 30 min hypoxia NTP and PCr decreased to non-observable values, regardless of temperature. After reoxygenation, NTP and PCr recoveries as percentages of respective prehypoxia values were (63% +/- 16%; 70%) +/- 5%) for hypothermic slices (28.0 degrees C), and (46% +/- 13%; 41% +/- hypothermic neuroprotection during oxygen deprivation in this model, which appears suitable for use in further studies.
Fischer, Henrik; Gruber, Julia; Neuhold, Stephanie; Frantal, Sophie; Hochbrugger, Eva; Herkner, Harald; Schöchl, Herbert; Steinlechner, Barbara; Greif, Robert
Correctly performed basic life support (BLS) and early defibrillation are the most effective measures to treat sudden cardiac arrest. Audiovisual feedback improves BLS. Automated external defibrillators (AED) with feedback technology may play an important role in improving CPR quality. The aim of this simulation study was to investigate if an AED with audiovisual feedback improves CPR parameters during standard BLS performed by trained laypersons. With ethics committee approval and informed consent, 68 teams (2 flight attendants each) performed 12 min of standard CPR with the AED's audiovisual feedback mechanism enabled or disabled. We recorded CPR quality parameters during resuscitation on a manikin in this open, prospective, randomized controlled trial. Between the feedback and control-group we measured differences in compression depth and rate as main outcome parameters and effective compressions, correct hand position, and incomplete decompression as secondary outcome parameters. An effective compression was defined as a compression with correct depth, hand position, and decompression. The feedback-group delivered compression rates closest to the recommended guidelines (101 ± 9 vs. 109 ± 15/min, p=0.009), more effective compressions (20 ± 18 vs. 5 ± 6%, p<0.001), more compressions with correct hand position (96 ± 13 vs. 88 ± 16%, p<0.001), and less leaning (21 ± 31 vs. 77 ± 33%, p<0.001). However, only the control-group adhered to the recommended compression depth (44 ± 7 mm vs. 39 ± 6, p=0.003). Use of an AED's audiovisual feedback system improved some CPR-quality parameters, thus confirming findings of earlier studies with the notable exception of decreased compression depth, which is a key parameter that might be linked to reduced cardiac output. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pytte, Morten; Kramer-Johansen, Jo; Eilevstjønn, Joar; Eriksen, Morten; Strømme, Taevje A; Godang, Kristin; Wik, Lars; Steen, Petter Andreas; Sunde, Kjetil
Adrenaline (epinephrine) is used during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) based on animal experiments without supportive clinical data. Clinically CPR was reported recently to have much poorer quality than expected from international guidelines and what is generally done in laboratory experiments. We have studied the haemodynamic effects of adrenaline during CPR with good laboratory quality and with quality simulating clinical findings and the feasibility of monitoring these effects through VF waveform analysis. After 4 min of cardiac arrest, followed by 4 min of basic life support, 14 pigs were randomised to ClinicalCPR (intermittent manual chest compressions, compression-to-ventilation ratio 15:2, compression depth 30-38 mm) or LabCPR (continuous mechanical chest compressions, 12 ventilations/min, compression depth 45 mm). Adrenaline 0.02 mg/kg was administered 30 s thereafter. Plasma adrenaline concentration peaked earlier with LabCPR than with ClinicalCPR, median (range), 90 (30, 150) versus 150 (90, 270) s (p = 0.007), respectively. Coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) and cortical cerebral blood flow (CCBF) increased and femoral blood flow (FBF) decreased after adrenaline during LabCPR (mean differences (95% CI) CPP 17 (6, 29) mmHg (p = 0.01), FBF -5.0 (-8.8, -1.2) ml min(-1) (p = 0.02) and median difference CCBF 12% of baseline (p = 0.04)). There were no significant effects during ClinicalCPR (mean differences (95% CI) CPP 4.7 (-3.2, 13) mmHg (p = 0.2), FBF -0.2 (-4.6, 4.2) ml min(-1)(p = 0.9) and CCBF 3.6 (-1.8, 9.0)% of baseline (p = 0.15)). Slope VF waveform analysis reflected changes in CPP. Adrenaline improved haemodynamics during laboratory quality CPR in pigs, but not with quality simulating clinically reported CPR performance.
García del Águila, J; López-Messa, J; Rosell-Ortiz, F; de Elías Hernández, R; Martínez del Valle, M; Sánchez-Santos, L; López-Herce, J; Cerdà-Vila, M; Roza-Alonso, C L; Bernardez-Otero, M
Dispatch-assisted bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest has been shown as an effective measure to improve the survival of this process. The development of a unified protocol for all dispatch centers of the different emergency medical services can be a first step towards this goal in our environment. The process of developing a recommendations document and the realization of posters of dispatch-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation, agreed by different actors and promoted by the Spanish Resuscitation Council, is presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Bahramnezhad, Fatemeh; Mehrdad, Neda
Making decision on not to resuscitate is a confusing, conflicting and complex issue and depends on each country's culture and customs. Therefore, each country needs to take action in accordance with its cultural, ethical, religious and legal contexts to develop guidelines in this regard. Since the majority of Iran's people are Muslims, and in Islam, the human life is considered sacred, based on the values of the community, an Iranian Islamic agenda needs to be developed not taking measures about resuscitation of dying patients. It is necessary to develop an Iranian Islamic guidelines package in order to don't resuscitate in dying patients.
Chang, Sanders; Sigel, Keith; Goldstein, Nathan E; Wisnivesky, Juan; Dharmarajan, Kavita V
The American Society of Clinical Oncology recommends that all patients with metastatic disease receive dedicated palliative care (PC) services early in their illness, ideally via interdisciplinary care teams. We investigated the time trends of specialty palliative care consultations from the date of metastatic cancer diagnosis among patients receiving palliative radiation therapy (PRT). A shorter time interval between metastatic diagnosis and first PC consultation suggests earlier involvement of palliative care in a patient's life with metastatic cancer. In this IRB-approved retrospective analysis, patients treated with PRT for solid tumors (bone and brain) at a single tertiary care hospital between 2010 and 2016 were included. Cohorts were arbitrarily established by metastatic diagnosis within approximately two-year intervals: (1) 1/1/2010-3/27/2012; (2) 3/28/2012-5/21/2014; and (3) 5/22/2014-12/31/2016. Cox-proportional hazards regression modelling was used to compare trends of PC consultation among cohorts. Of 284 patients identified, 184 patients received PC consultation, whereas 15 patients died before receiving a PC consult. Median follow-up time until an event or censor was 257 days (range: 1,900). Patients in the most recent cohort had a shorter median time to first PC consult (57 days) compared to those in the first (374 days) and second (186 days) cohorts. On multivariable analysis, patients in the third cohort were more likely to undergo a PC consultation earlier in their metastatic illness (HR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2,2.8). Over a six-year period, palliative care consultation occurred earlier for metastatic patients treated with PRT at our institution. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sullivan, Rachel T; Frommelt, Peter C; Hill, Garick D
The association between Down syndrome and pulmonary hypertension could contribute to more severe pulmonary regurgitation after tetralogy of Fallot repair and possibly earlier pulmonary valve replacement. We compared cardiac magnetic resonance measures of pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular dilation as well as timing of pulmonary valve replacement between those with and without Down syndrome after tetralogy of Fallot repair. Review of our surgical database from 2000 to 2015 identified patients with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis. Those with Down syndrome were compared to those without. The primary outcome of interest was time from repair to pulmonary valve replacement. Secondary outcomes included pulmonary regurgitation and indexed right ventricular volume on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The cohort of 284 patients included 35 (12%) with Down syndrome. Transannular patch repair was performed in 210 (74%). Down syndrome showed greater degree of pulmonary regurgitation (55 ± 14 vs. 37 ± 16%, p = 0.01) without a significantly greater rate of right ventricular dilation (p = 0.09). In multivariable analysis, Down syndrome (HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.5, p = 0.02) and transannular patch repair (HR 5.5, 95% CI 1.7-17.6, p = 0.004) were significant risk factors for valve replacement. Those with Down syndrome had significantly lower freedom from valve replacement (p = 0.03). Down syndrome is associated with an increased degree of pulmonary regurgitation and earlier pulmonary valve replacement after tetralogy of Fallot repair. These patients require earlier assessment by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to determine timing of pulmonary valve replacement and evaluation for and treatment of preventable causes of pulmonary hypertension.
Gerretsen, Philip; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Menon, Mahesh; Pollock, Bruce G; Mamo, David C; Mulsant, Benoit H; Rajji, Tarek K
Impaired insight into illness in schizophrenia is associated with illness severity and deficits in premorbid intellectual function, executive function, and memory. A previous study of patients aged 60 years and older found that illness severity and premorbid intellectual function accounted for variance in insight impairment. As such, we aimed to test whether similar relationships would be observed in earlier life. A retrospective analysis was performed on 1 large sample of participants (n = 171) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia aged 19 to 79 years acquired from 2 studies: (1) a psychosocial intervention trial for older persons with schizophrenia (June 2008 to May 2014) and (2) a diffusion tensor imaging and genetics study of psychosis across the life span (February 2007 to December 2013). We assessed insight into illness using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) item G12 and explored its relationship to illness severity (PANSS total modified), premorbid intellectual function (Wechsler Test of Adult Reading [WTAR]), and cognition. Insight impairment was more severe in later life (≥ 60 years) than in earlier years (t = -3.75, P < .001). Across the whole sample, the variance of impaired insight was explained by PANSS total modified (Exp[B] = 1.070, P < .001) and WTAR scores (Exp[B] = 0.970, P = .028). Although age and cognition were correlated with impaired insight, they did not independently contribute to its variance. However, the relationships between impaired insight and illness severity and between impaired insight and cognition, particularly working memory, were stronger in later life than in earlier life. These results suggest an opportunity for intervention may exist with cognitive-enhancing neurostimulation or medications to improve insight into illness in schizophrenia across the life span. Original study registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT00832845). © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Gangwisch, James E.; Babiss, Lindsay A.; Malaspina, Dolores; Turner, J. Blake; Zammit, Gary K.; Posner, Kelly
Study Objectives: To examine the relationships between parental set bedtimes, sleep duration, and depression as a quasi-experiment to explore the potentially bidirectional relationship between short sleep duration and depression. Short sleep duration has been shown to precede depression, but this could be explained as a prodromal symptom of depression. Depression in an adolescent can affect his/her chosen bedtime, but it is less likely to affect a parent's chosen set bedtime which can establish a relatively stable upper limit that can directly affect sleep duration. Design: Multivariate cross-sectional analyses of the ADD Health using logistic regression. Setting: United States nationally representative, school-based, probability-based sample in 1994-96. Participants: Adolescents (n = 15,659) in grades 7 to 12. Measurements and Results: Adolescents with parental set bedtimes of midnight or later were 24% more likely to suffer from depression (OR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.49) and 20% more likely to have suicidal ideation (1.20, 1.01-1.41) than adolescents with parental set bedtimes of 10:00 PM or earlier, after controlling for covariates. Consistent with sleep duration and perception of getting enough sleep acting as mediators, the inclusion of these variables in the multivariate models appreciably attenuated the associations for depression (1.07, 0.88-1.30) and suicidal ideation (1.09, 0.92-1.29). Conclusions: The results from this study provide new evidence to strengthen the argument that short sleep duration could play a role in the etiology of depression. Earlier parental set bedtimes could therefore be protective against adolescent depression and suicidal ideation by lengthening sleep duration. Citation: Gangwisch JE; Babiss LA; Malaspina D; Turner JB; Zammit GK; Posner K. Earlier parental set bedtimes as a protective factor against depression and suicidal ideation. SLEEP 2010;33(1):97-106. PMID:20120626
Gullón, Alejandra; Verdejo, José; de Miguel, Rosa; Gómez, Ana; Sanz, Jesús
Late diagnosis (LD) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to be a significant problem that increases disease burden both for patients and for the public health system. Guidelines have been updated in order to facilitate earlier HIV diagnosis, introducing "indicator condition-guided HIV testing". In this study, we analysed the frequency of LD and associated risk factors. We retrospectively identified those cases that could be considered missed opportunities for an earlier diagnosis. All patients newly diagnosed with HIV infection who attended Hospital La Princesa, Madrid (Spain) between 2007 and 2014 were analysed. We collected epidemiological, clinical and immunological data. We also reviewed electronic medical records from the year before the HIV diagnosis to search for medical consultations due to clinical indicators. HIV infection was diagnosed in 354 patients. The median CD4 count at presentation was 352 cells/mm(3). Overall, 158 patients (50%) met the definition of LD, and 97 (30.7%) the diagnosis of advanced disease. LD was associated with older age and was more frequent amongst immigrants. Heterosexual relations and injection drug use were more likely to be the reasons for LD than relations between men who have sex with men. During the year preceding the diagnosis, 46.6% of the patients had sought medical advice owing to the presence of clinical indicators that should have led to HIV testing. Of those, 24 cases (14.5%) were classified as missed opportunities for earlier HIV diagnosis because testing was not performed. According to these results, all health workers should pursue early HIV diagnosis through the proper implementation of HIV testing guidelines. Such an approach would prove directly beneficial to the patient and indirectly beneficial to the general population through the reduction in the risk of transmission.
Richards, Doug; Comper, Paul; Hutchison, Michael G.
Objective To determine whether earlier time to initiation of aerobic exercise following acute concussion is associated with time to full return to (1) sport and (2) school or work. Methods A retrospective stratified propensity score survival analysis of acute (≤14 days) concussion was used to determine whether time (days) to initiation of aerobic exercise post-concussion was associated with, both, time (days) to full return to (1) sport and (2) school or work. Results A total of 253 acute concussions [median (IQR) age, 17.0 (15.0–20.0) years; 148 (58.5%) males] were included in this study. Multivariate Cox regression models identified that earlier time to aerobic exercise was associated with faster return to sport and school/work adjusting for other covariates, including quintile propensity strata. For each successive day in delay to initiation of aerobic exercise, individuals had a less favourable recovery trajectory. Initiating aerobic exercise at 3 and 7 days following injury was associated with a respective 36.5% (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.53–0.76) and 73.2% (HR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.16–0.45) reduced probability of faster full return to sport compared to within 1 day; and a respective 45.9% (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.44–0.66) and 83.1% (HR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.10–0.30) reduced probability of faster full return to school/work. Additionally, concussion history, symptom severity, LOC deleteriously influenced concussion recovery. Conclusion Earlier initiation of aerobic exercise was associated with faster full return to sport and school or work. This study provides greater insight into the benefits and safety of aerobic exercise within the first week of the injury. PMID:29668716
Lawrence, David Wyndham; Richards, Doug; Comper, Paul; Hutchison, Michael G
To determine whether earlier time to initiation of aerobic exercise following acute concussion is associated with time to full return to (1) sport and (2) school or work. A retrospective stratified propensity score survival analysis of acute (≤14 days) concussion was used to determine whether time (days) to initiation of aerobic exercise post-concussion was associated with, both, time (days) to full return to (1) sport and (2) school or work. A total of 253 acute concussions [median (IQR) age, 17.0 (15.0-20.0) years; 148 (58.5%) males] were included in this study. Multivariate Cox regression models identified that earlier time to aerobic exercise was associated with faster return to sport and school/work adjusting for other covariates, including quintile propensity strata. For each successive day in delay to initiation of aerobic exercise, individuals had a less favourable recovery trajectory. Initiating aerobic exercise at 3 and 7 days following injury was associated with a respective 36.5% (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.53-0.76) and 73.2% (HR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.16-0.45) reduced probability of faster full return to sport compared to within 1 day; and a respective 45.9% (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.44-0.66) and 83.1% (HR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.10-0.30) reduced probability of faster full return to school/work. Additionally, concussion history, symptom severity, LOC deleteriously influenced concussion recovery. Earlier initiation of aerobic exercise was associated with faster full return to sport and school or work. This study provides greater insight into the benefits and safety of aerobic exercise within the first week of the injury.
Kato, Kazuhiro; Jin, Kazutaka; Itabashi, Hisashi; Iwasaki, Masaki; Kakisaka, Yosuke; Aoki, Masashi; Nakasato, Nobukazu
To clarify whether the presence and timing of peri-ictal heart rate (HR) change is a seizure lateralizing sign in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). Long-term video EEGs were retrospectively reviewed in 21 patients, 7 men and 14 women aged 13 to 67 years, diagnosed as mTLE with MRI lesions in the mesial temporal structures (hippocampal sclerosis in 20 cases, amygdala hypertrophy in 1 case). Seventy-seven partial seizures without secondary generalization were extracted. Peri-ictal HR change was compared between 29 right seizures (9 patients) and 48 left seizures (12 patients). HR abruptly increased in all 29 right seizures and 42 of 48 left seizures. Onset time of HR increase in relation to ictal EEG onset was significantly earlier in right seizures than in left seizures (mean ± SD, -11.5 ± 14.8 vs 9.2 ± 21.7 seconds; p < 0.0001). Time of maximum HR was also significantly earlier in right seizures than in left seizures (36.0 ± 18.1 vs 58.0 ± 28.7 seconds; p < 0.0001). Maximum HR changes from baseline showed no significant difference between right and left seizures (47.5 ± 19.1 vs 40.8 ± 20.0/min). Significantly earlier tachycardia in right than left mTLE seizures supports previous hypotheses that the right cerebral hemisphere is dominant in the sympathetic network. No HR change, or delayed tachycardia possibly due to seizure propagation to the right hemisphere, may be a useful lateralizing sign of left mTLE seizures. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.
Kaplan, Mustafa; Demirci, Selim; Altiparmak, Emin
ABSTRACT Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the liver. Hepatitis B virus infection is one of the most important etilogical factors of HCC. In this case report, a patient with HCC previously infected and having ongoing immunity against hepatitis B virus will be discussed. How to cite this article Ates I, Kaplan M, Demirci S, Altiparmak E. A Hepatocellular Carcinoma Case in a Patient Who had Immunity to Hepatitis B Virus Earlier. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):82-83. PMID:29201732
Smith, Shawn H; Steenhof, Karen; McClure, Christopher J W; Heath, Julie A
Warming temperatures cause temporal changes in growing seasons and prey abundance that drive earlier breeding by birds, especially dietary specialists within homogeneous habitat. Less is known about how generalists respond to climate-associated shifts in growing seasons or prey phenology, which may occur at different rates across land cover types. We studied whether breeding phenology of a generalist predator, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius), was associated with shifts in growing seasons and, presumably, prey abundance, in a mosaic of non-irrigated shrub/grasslands and irrigated crops/pastures. We examined the relationship between remotely-sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and abundance of small mammals that, with insects, constitute approximately 93% of kestrel diet biomass. We used NDVI to estimate the start of the growing season (SoGS) in irrigated and non-irrigated lands from 1992 to 2015 and tested whether either estimate of annual SoGS predicted the timing of kestrel nesting. Finally, we examined relationships among irrigated SoGS, weather and crop planting. NDVI was a useful proxy for kestrel prey because it predicted small mammal abundance and past studies showed that NDVI predicts insect abundance. NDVI-estimated SoGS advanced significantly in irrigated lands (β = -1·09 ± 0·30 SE) but not in non-irrigated lands (β = -0·57 ± 0·53). Average date of kestrel nesting advanced 15 days in the past 24 years and was positively associated with the SoGS in irrigated lands, but not the SoGS in non-irrigated lands. Advanced SoGS in irrigated lands was related to earlier planting of crops after relatively warm winters, which were more common in recent years. Despite different patterns of SoGS change between land cover types, kestrel nesting phenology shifted with earlier prey availability in irrigated lands. Kestrels may preferentially track prey in irrigated lands over non-irrigated lands because of higher quality prey on
Ong, Ken K; Northstone, Kate; Wells, Jonathan CK; Rubin, Carol; Ness, Andy R; Golding, Jean; Dunger, David B
Background Early menarche tends to be preceded by rapid infancy weight gain and is associated with increased childhood and adult obesity risk. As age at menarche is a heritable trait, we hypothesised that age at menarche in the mother may in turn predict her children's early growth and obesity risk. Methods and Findings We tested associations between mother's age at menarche, mother's adult body size and obesity risk, and her children's growth and obesity risk in 6,009 children from the UK population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort who had growth and fat mass at age 9 y measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A subgroup of 914 children also had detailed infancy and childhood growth data. In the mothers, earlier menarche was associated with shorter adult height (by 0.64 cm/y), increased weight (0.92 kg/y), and body mass index (BMI, 0.51 kg/m2/y; all p < 0.001). In contrast, in her children, earlier mother's menarche predicted taller height at 9 y (by 0.41 cm/y) and greater weight (0.80 kg/y), BMI (0.29 kg/m2/y), and fat mass index (0.22 kg/m2/year; all p < 0.001). Children in the earliest mother's menarche quintile (≤11 y) were more obese than the oldest quintile (≥15 y) (OR, 2.15, 95% CI 1.46 to 3.17; p < 0.001, adjusted for mother's education and BMI). In the subgroup, children in the earliest quintile showed faster gains in weight (p < 0.001) and height (p < 0.001) only from birth to 2 y, but not from 2 to 9 y (p = 0.3–0.8). Conclusions Earlier age at menarche may be a transgenerational marker of a faster growth tempo, characterised by rapid weight gain and growth, particularly during infancy, and leading to taller childhood stature, but likely earlier maturation and therefore shorter adult stature. This growth pattern confers increased childhood and adult obesity risks. PMID:17455989
Murata, K; Iwazawa, T; Takayama, T; Yamashita, K; Okagawa, K
This report describes the successful treatment of quadruple cancer including Bowen's disease in a 71-year-old man who had been given injections of salvarsan, an arsenic compound, for syphilis more than 40 years earlier. Resection of a skin lesion on his chest subsequently confirmed a diagnosis of Bowen's disease, 3 years after which he was operated on for concurrent gastric cancer and sigmoid colon cancer. A fourth cancer was discovered on his left vocal cord 2 weeks after this operation; it was resected 2 years later. A discussion of multiple malignant neoplasms and the possible relationship between arsenic and cancer is presented following this case report.
Meaney, Peter A; Bobrow, Bentley J; Mancini, Mary E; Christenson, Jim; de Caen, Allan R; Bhanji, Farhan; Abella, Benjamin S; Kleinman, Monica E; Edelson, Dana P; Berg, Robert A; Aufderheide, Tom P; Menon, Venu; Leary, Marion
The "2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care" increased the focus on methods to ensure that high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is performed in all resuscitation attempts. There are 5 critical components of high-quality CPR: minimize interruptions in chest compressions, provide compressions of adequate rate and depth, avoid leaning between compressions, and avoid excessive ventilation. Although it is clear that high-quality CPR is the primary component in influencing survival from cardiac arrest, there is considerable variation in monitoring, implementation, and quality improvement. As such, CPR quality varies widely between systems and locations. Victims often do not receive high-quality CPR because of provider ambiguity in prioritization of resuscitative efforts during an arrest. This ambiguity also impedes the development of optimal systems of care to increase survival from cardiac arrest. This consensus statement addresses the following key areas of CPR quality for the trained rescuer: metrics of CPR performance; monitoring, feedback, and integration of the patient's response to CPR; team-level logistics to ensure performance of high-quality CPR; and continuous quality improvement on provider, team, and systems levels. Clear definitions of metrics and methods to consistently deliver and improve the quality of CPR will narrow the gap between resuscitation science and the victims, both in and out of the hospital, and lay the foundation for further improvements in the future.
Gonçalves, Gilciane Ribeiro; Peres, Heloisa Helena Ciqueto; Rodrigues, Rita de Cássia; Tronchin, Daisy Maria Rizatto; Pereira, Irene Mari
The purpose of this study was to develop an educational proposal using virtual multimedia resources, to innovate, stimulate and diversify areas of communication and interaction, facilitating nurses' autonomous and reflexive process of teaching and learning. This is an applied research, following the cyclical and interactive phases of designing, planning, developing and implementing. The educational proposal was developed on the TelEduc platform, using specific tools for content organization and communication between students and administrator. The teaching modules were on the following themes: Module 1--Fundamentals of the heart anatomy and physiology in newborns; Module 2--Risk factors for the occurrence of cardiorespiratory arrest in newborns; Module 3--Planning nursing care; Module 4--Medications used in cardiopulmonary arrests in newborns; and Module 5--Cardiorespiratory arrest care in newborns. This study may contribute to innovating teaching in nursing from a virtual educational proposal on the important issue of newborn cardiopulmonary resuscitation care.
Niebrój, L T; Jadamus-Niebrój, D
Ethical dilemmas in medicine should be resolved in light of four essential principles. To specify and guide concrete actions, it is necessary to 'supplement' these principles by certain other (substantive, authority and procedural) rules. The purpose of this paper is to establish and justify the authority rules regarding the order not to resuscitate newborns. The authority rules are intended to indicate who should decide, but they do not determine what should be chosen. Decision regarding newborn's treatment/letting die depends on medical and quality-of-life judgments. Parents, doctors, and society are considered to possess decisional authority in the matter. However, who in a given case should decide ought to be inferred from the reasoning which assumes, as its premises, the medical and quality-of-life judgments. The 'logical' syntax of this reasoning is presented in this paper.
Hu, Sen; Che, Jin-Wei; Tian, Yi-Jun; Sheng, Zhi-Yong
To investigate the effect of carbachol on gastrointestinal function in a dog model of oral resuscitation for burn shock. Twenty Beagle dogs with intubation of the carotid artery, jugular vein and jejunum for 24 h were subjected to 35% total body surface area full-thickness burns, and were divided into three groups: no fluid resuscitation (NR, n = 10), in which animals did not receive fluid by any means in the first 24 h post-burn; oral fluid resuscitation (OR, n = 8), in which dogs were gavaged with glucose-electrolyte solution (GES) with volume and rate consistent with the Parkland formula; and oral fluid with carbachol group (OR/CAR, n = 8), in which dogs were gavaged with GES containing carbachol (20 μg/kg), with the same volume and rate as the OR group. Twenty-four hours after burns, all animals were given intravenous fluid replacement, and 72 h after injury, they received nutritional support. Hemodynamic and gastrointestinal parameters were measured serially with animals in conscious and cooperative state. The mean arterial pressure, cardiac output and plasma volume dropped markedly, and gastrointestinal tissue perfusion was reduced obviously after the burn injury in all the three groups. Hemodynamic parameters and gastrointestinal tissue perfusion in the OR and OR/CAR groups were promoted to pre-injury level at 48 and 72 h, respectively, while hemodynamic parameters in the NR group did not return to pre-injury level till 72 h, and gastrointestinal tissue perfusion remained lower than pre-injury level until 120 h post-burn. CO(2) of the gastric mucosa and intestinal mucosa blood flow of OR/CAR groups were 56.4 ± 4.7 mmHg and 157.7 ± 17.7 blood perfusion units (BPU) at 24 h post-burn, respectively, which were significantly superior to those in the OR group (65.8 ± 5.8 mmHg and 127.7 ± 11.9 BPU, respectively, all P < 0.05). Gastric emptying and intestinal absorption rates of GES were significantly reduced to the lowest level (52.8% and 23.7% of pre
Rajeswaran, Lakshmi; Ehlers, Valerie J
In Botswana nurses provide most health care in the primary, secondary and tertiary level clinics and hospitals. Trauma and medical emergencies are on the increase, and nurses should have cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge and skills in order to be able to implement effective interventions in cardiac arrest situations. The objective of this descriptive study was to assess registered nurses’ CPR knowledge and skills. A pre-test, intervention and re-test time-series research design was adopted, and data were collected from 102 nurses from the 2 referral hospitals in Botswana. A multiple-choice questionnaire and checklist were used to collect data. All nurses failed the pre-test. Their knowledge and skills improved after training, but deteriorated over the three months until the post-test was conducted. The significantly low levels of registered nurses’ CPR skills in Botswana should be addressed by instituting country-wide CPR training and regular refresher courses
Simon, Tracey G; Travis, Anne C; Saltzman, John R
Acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding remains an important cause of hospital admission with an associated mortality of 2-14%. Initial patient evaluation includes rapid hemodynamic assessment, large-bore intravenous catheter insertion and volume resuscitation. A hemoglobin transfusion threshold of 7 g/dL is recommended, and packed red blood cell transfusion may be necessary to restore intravascular volume and improve tissue perfusion. Patients should be risk stratified into low- and high-risk categories, using validated prognostic scoring systems such as the Glasgow-Blatchford, AIMS65 or Rockall scores. Effective early management of acute, nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage is critical for improving patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Meex, Ingrid; De Deyne, Cathy; Dens, Jo; Scheyltjens, Simon; Lathouwers, Kevin; Boer, Willem; Vundelinckx, Guy; Heylen, René; Jans, Frank
Current monitoring during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is limited to clinical observation of consciousness, breathing pattern and presence of a pulse. At the same time, the adequacy of cerebral oxygenation during CPR is critical for neurological outcome and thus survival. Cerebral oximetry, based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), provides a measure of brain oxygen saturation. Therefore, we examined the feasibility of using NIRS during CPR. Recent technologies (FORE-SIGHT™ and EQUANOX™) enable the monitoring of absolute cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2) values without the need for pre-calibration. We tested both FORE-SIGHT™ (five patients) and EQUANOX Advance™ (nine patients) technologies in the in-hospital as well as the out-of-hospital CPR setting. In this observational study, values were not utilized in any treatment protocol or therapeutic decision. An independent t-test was used for statistical analysis. Our data demonstrate the feasibility of both technologies to measure cerebral oxygen saturation during CPR. With the continuous, pulseless near-infrared wave analysis of both FORE-SIGHT™ and EQUANOX™ technology, we obtained SctO2 values in the absence of spontaneous circulation. Both technologies were able to assess the efficacy of CPR efforts: improved resuscitation efforts (improved quality of chest compressions with switch of caregivers) resulted in higher SctO2 values. Until now, the ability of CPR to provide adequate tissue oxygenation was difficult to quantify or to assess clinically due to a lack of specific technology. With both technologies, any change in hemodynamics (for example, ventricular fibrillation) results in a reciprocal change in SctO2. In some patients, a sudden drop in SctO2 was the first warning sign of reoccurring ventricular fibrillation. Both the FORE-SIGHT™ and EQUANOX™ technology allow non-invasive monitoring of the cerebral oxygen saturation during CPR. Moreover, changes in SctO2 values might be
van Haren, Frank
The administration of intravenous fluid to critically ill patients is one of the most common, but also one of the most fiercely debated, interventions in intensive care medicine. Even though many thousands of patients have been enrolled in large trials of alternative fluid strategies, consensus remains elusive and practice is widely variable. Critically ill patients are significantly heterogeneous, making a one size fits all approach unlikely to be successful.New data from basic, animal, and clinical research suggest that fluid resuscitation could be associated with significant harm. There are several important limitations and concerns regarding fluid bolus therapy as it is currently being used in clinical practice. These include, but are not limited to: the lack of an agreed definition; limited and short-lived physiological effects; no evidence of an effect on relevant patient outcomes; and the potential to contribute to fluid overload, specifically when fluid responsiveness is not assessed and when targets and safety limits are not used.Fluid administration in critically ill patients requires clinicians to integrate abnormal physiological parameters into a clinical decision-making model that also incorporates the likely diagnosis and the likely risk or benefit in the specific patient's context. Personalised fluid resuscitation requires careful attention to the mnemonic CIT TAIT: context, indication, targets, timing, amount of fluid, infusion strategy, and type of fluid.The research agenda should focus on experimental and clinical studies to: improve our understanding of the physiological effects of fluid infusion, e.g. on the glycocalyx; evaluate new types of fluids; evaluate novel fluid minimisation protocols; study the effects of a no-fluid strategy for selected patients and scenarios; and compare fluid therapy with other interventions. The adaptive platform trial design may provide us with the tools to evaluate these types of interventions in the intrinsically
Bellamy, R.F.; DeGuzman, L.R.; Pedersen, D.C.
Recent papers have raised doubt as to the magnitude of coronary blood flow during closed-chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We will describe experiments that concern the methods of coronary flow measurement during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Nine anesthetized swine were instrumented to allow simultaneous measurements of coronary blood flow by both electromagnetic cuff flow probes and by the radiomicrosphere technique. Cardiac arrest was caused by electrical fibrillation and closed-chest massage was performed by a Thumper (Dixie Medical Inc., Houston). The chest was compressed transversely at a rate of 66 strokes/min. Compression occupied one-half of the massage cycle. Three different Thumper piston strokes were studied:more » 1.5, 2, and 2.5 inches. Mean aortic pressure and total systemic blood flow measured by the radiomicrosphere technique increased as Thumper piston stroke was lengthened (mean +/- SD): 1.5 inch stroke, 23 +/- 4 mm Hg, 525 +/- 195 ml/min; 2 inch stroke, 33 +/- 5 mm Hg, 692 +/- 202 ml/min; 2.5 inch stroke, 40 +/- 6 mm Hg, 817 +/- 321 ml/min. Both methods of coronary flow measurement (electromagnetic (EMF) and radiomicrosphere (RMS)) gave similar results in technically successful preparations (data expressed as percent prearrest flow mean +/- 1 SD): 1.5 inch stroke, EMF 12 +/- 5%, RMS 16 +/- 5%; 2 inch stroke, EMF 30 +/- 6%, RMS 26 +/- 11%; 2.5 inch stroke, EMF 50 +/- 12%, RMS 40 +/- 20%. The phasic coronary flow signal during closed-chest compression indicated that all perfusion occurred during the relaxation phase of the massage cycle. We concluded that coronary blood flow is demonstrable during closed-chest massage, but that the magnitude is unlikely to be more than a fraction of normal.« less
Delaney, Anthony; Peake, Sandra L; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Cameron, Peter; Holdgate, Anna; Howe, Belinda; Higgins, Alisa; Presneill, Jeffrey; Webb, Steve
The Australasian Resuscitation In Sepsis Evaluation (ARISE) study is an international, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial designed to evaluate the effectiveness of early goal-directed therapy compared with standard care for patients presenting to the ED with severe sepsis. In keeping with current practice, and taking into considerations aspects of trial design and reporting specific to non-pharmacologic interventions, this document outlines the principles and methods for analysing and reporting the trial results. The document is prepared prior to completion of recruitment into the ARISE study, without knowledge of the results of the interim analysis conducted by the data safety and monitoring committee and prior to completion of the two related international studies. The statistical analysis plan was designed by the ARISE chief investigators, and reviewed and approved by the ARISE steering committee. The data collected by the research team as specified in the study protocol, and detailed in the study case report form were reviewed. Information related to baseline characteristics, characteristics of delivery of the trial interventions, details of resuscitation and other related therapies, and other relevant data are described with appropriate comparisons between groups. The primary, secondary and tertiary outcomes for the study are defined, with description of the planned statistical analyses. A statistical analysis plan was developed, along with a trial profile, mock-up tables and figures. A plan for presenting baseline characteristics, microbiological and antibiotic therapy, details of the interventions, processes of care and concomitant therapies, along with adverse events are described. The primary, secondary and tertiary outcomes are described along with identification of subgroups to be analysed. A statistical analysis plan for the ARISE study has been developed, and is available in the public domain, prior to the completion of recruitment into the
Böttiger, Bernd W; Arntz, Hans-Richard; Chamberlain, Douglas A; Bluhmki, Erich; Belmans, Ann; Danays, Thierry; Carli, Pierre A; Adgey, Jennifer A; Bode, Christoph; Wenzel, Volker
Approximately 70% of persons who have an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest have underlying acute myocardial infarction or pulmonary embolism. Therefore, thrombolysis during cardiopulmonary resuscitation may improve survival. In a double-blind, multicenter trial, we randomly assigned adult patients with witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest to receive tenecteplase or placebo during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Adjunctive heparin or aspirin was not used. The primary end point was 30-day survival; the secondary end points were hospital admission, return of spontaneous circulation, 24-hour survival, survival to hospital discharge, and neurologic outcome. After blinded review of data from the first 443 patients, the data and safety monitoring board recommended discontinuation of enrollment of asystolic patients because of low survival, and the protocol was amended. Subsequently, the trial was terminated prematurely for futility after enrolling a total of 1050 patients. Tenecteplase was administered to 525 patients and placebo to 525 patients; the two treatment groups had similar clinical profiles. We did not detect any significant differences between tenecteplase and placebo in the primary end point of 30-day survival (14.7% vs. 17.0%; P=0.36; relative risk, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.65 to 1.15) or in the secondary end points of hospital admission (53.5% vs. 55.0%, P=0.67), return of spontaneous circulation (55.0% vs. 54.6%, P=0.96), 24-hour survival (30.6% vs. 33.3%, P=0.39), survival to hospital discharge (15.1% vs. 17.5%, P=0.33), or neurologic outcome (P=0.69). There were more intracranial hemorrhages in the tenecteplase group. When tenecteplase was used without adjunctive antithrombotic therapy during advanced life support for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, we did not detect an improvement in outcome, in comparison with placebo. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00157261.) 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society
Fernandez, Christina M; Peyton, Jamie L; Miller, Mona; Johnson, Eric G; Kovacic, Jan P
To describe the successful application of CPR in a geriatric chinchilla employing basic and advanced life support measures during cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA). A 13-year-old female intact chinchilla presented to a general and multispecialty referral hospital for a dental procedure. During recovery from anesthesia the patient suffered CPA and CPR was initiated. Noninvasive positive pressure mask ventilation was initiated and external chest compressions were performed. An 18-Ga needle was introduced into the medullary cavity of the right humerus as an intraosseous catheter and provided access for administration of drugs and fluids. After return of spontaneous circulation was noted mannitol was administered via the intraosseous catheter to alleviate suspected increased intracranial pressure. Clinical improvement was noted shortly after administration. Monitoring during the recovery period showed a normal sinus cardiac rhythm and a SpO₂ of 100% while on supplemental oxygen. Neurologic function continued to improve over the following hours. Oxygen therapy was provided via an oxygen cage, and administration of antimicirobials, gastrointestinal protectants, and nutritional supplementation were part of the post resuscitation care. Oxygen therapy was discontinued after 24 hours, during which time normal behaviors were observed and neurologic status was considered appropriate. The patient was discharged 48 hours after CPA. Published reports from clinical practice on the outcomes of CPR for exotic small mammals are limited. This report details the successful outcome of the use of combined basic and advanced life support measures for the provision of CPR in a chinchilla. This report also highlights the utility of an intraosseous catheter for administration of drugs and fluids novel to this species during resuscitation and recovery. To the authors' knowledge this is the first published report of successful CPR following CPA in a geriatric chinchilla. © Veterinary Emergency
The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with 120 compressions per minute (CPM) to CPR with 100 CPM in patients with non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We randomly assigned patients with non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest into two groups upon arrival to the emergency department (ED). The patients received manual CPR either with 100 CPM (CPR-100 group) or 120 CPM (CPR-120 group). The primary outcome measure was sustained restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The secondary outcome measures were survival discharge from the hospital, one-month survival, and one-month survival with good functional status. Of 470 patients with cardiac arrest, 136 patients in the CPR-100 group and 156 patients in the CPR-120 group were included in the final analysis. A total of 69 patients (50.7%) in the CPR-100 group and 67 patients (42.9%) in the CPR-120 group had ROSC (absolute difference, 7.8% points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -3.7 to 19.2%; P = 0.183). The rates of survival discharge from the hospital, one-month survival, and one-month survival with good functional status were not different between the two groups (16.9% vs. 12.8%, P = 0.325; 12.5% vs. 6.4%, P = 0.073; 5.9% vs. 2.6%, P = 0.154, respectively). We did not find differences in the resuscitation outcomes between those who received CPR with 100 CPM and those with 120 CPM. However, a large trial is warranted, with adequate power to confirm a statistically non-significant trend toward superiority of CPR with 100 CPM. (Clinical Trial Registration Information: www.cris.nih.go.kr, cris.nih.go.kr number, KCT0000231) PMID:27510396
Siao, Fu-Yuan; Chiu, Chun-Chieh; Chiu, Chun-Wen; Chen, Ying-Chen; Chen, Yao-Li; Hsieh, Yung-Kun; Lee, Chien-Hui; Wu, Chang-Te; Chou, Chu-Chung; Yen, Hsu-Heng
Refractory ventricular fibrillation, resistant to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), is a life threatening rhythm encountered in the emergency department. Although previous reports suggest the use of extracorporeal CPR can improve the clinical outcomes in patients with prolonged cardiac arrest, the effectiveness of this novel strategy for refractory ventricular fibrillation is not known. We aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of patients with refractory ventricular fibrillation managed with conventional CPR or extracorporeal CPR in our institution. This is a retrospective chart review study from an emergency department in a tertiary referral medical center. We identified 209 patients presenting with cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation between September 2011 and September 2013. Of these, 60 patients were enrolled with ventricular fibrillation refractory to resuscitation for more than 10 min. The clinical outcome of patients with ventricular fibrillation received either conventional CPR, including defibrillation, chest compression, and resuscitative medication (C-CPR, n = 40) or CPR plus extracorporeal CPR (E-CPR, n = 20) were compared. The overall survival rate was 35%, and 18.3% of patients were discharged with good neurological function. The mean duration of CPR was longer in the E-CPR group than in the C-CPR group (69.90 ± 49.6 min vs 34.3 ± 17.7 min, p = 0.0001). Patients receiving E-CPR had significantly higher rates of sustained return of spontaneous circulation (95.0% vs 47.5%, p = 0.0009), and good neurological function at discharge (40.0% vs 7.5%, p = 0.0067). The survival rate in the E-CPR group was higher (50% vs 27.5%, p = 0.1512) at discharge and (50% vs 20%, p = 0. 0998) at 1 year after discharge. The management of refractory ventricular fibrillation in the emergency department remains challenging, as evidenced by an overall survival rate of 35% in this study. Patients with refractory ventricular fibrillation receiving E
Weissman, David G; Schriber, Roberta A; Fassbender, Catherine; Atherton, Olivia; Krafft, Cynthia; Robins, Richard W; Hastings, Paul D; Guyer, Amanda E
Early adolescent onset of substance use is a robust predictor of future substance use disorders. We examined the relation between age of substance use initiation and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the core reward processing (nucleus accumbens; NAcc) to cognitive control (prefrontal cortex; PFC) brain networks. Adolescents in a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin youth reported their substance use annually from ages 10 to 16 years. At age 16, 69 adolescents participated in a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Seed-based correlational analyses were conducted using regions of interest in bilateral NAcc. The earlier that adolescents initiated substance use, the stronger the connectivity between bilateral NAcc and right dorsolateral PFC, right dorsomedial PFC, right pre-supplementary motor area, right inferior parietal lobule, and left medial temporal gyrus. The regions that demonstrated significant positive linear relationships between the number of adolescent years using substances and connectivity with NAcc are nodes in the right frontoparietal network, which is central to cognitive control. The coupling of reward and cognitive control networks may be a mechanism through which earlier onset of substance use is related to brain function over time, a trajectory that may be implicated in subsequent substance use disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Somers-Yeates, Robin; Bennie, Jonathan; Economou, Theodoros; Hodgson, David; Spalding, Adrian; McGregor, Peter K
The ecological impact of night-time lighting is of concern because of its well-demonstrated effects on animal behaviour. However, the potential of light pollution to change plant phenology and its corresponding knock-on effects on associated herbivores are less clear. Here, we test if artificial lighting can advance the timing of budburst in trees. We took a UK-wide 13 year dataset of spatially referenced budburst data from four deciduous tree species and matched it with both satellite imagery of night-time lighting and average spring temperature. We find that budburst occurs up to 7.5 days earlier in brighter areas, with the relationship being more pronounced for later-budding species. Excluding large urban areas from the analysis showed an even more pronounced advance of budburst, confirming that the urban 'heat-island' effect is not the sole cause of earlier urban budburst. Similarly, the advance in budburst across all sites is too large to be explained by increases in temperature alone. This dramatic advance of budburst illustrates the need for further experimental investigation into the impact of artificial night-time lighting on plant phenology and subsequent species interactions. As light pollution is a growing global phenomenon, the findings of this study are likely to be applicable to a wide range of species interactions across the world. © 2016 The Authors.
Aires, Daniel J; Wick, Jo; Shaath, Tarek S; Rajpara, Anand N; Patel, Vikas; Badawi, Ahmed H; Li, Cicy; Fraga, Garth R; Doolittle, Gary; Liu, Deede Y
New melanoma drugs bring enormous benefits but do so at significant costs. Because melanoma grows deeper and deadlier over time, deeper lesions are costlier due to increased sentinel lymph node biopsy, chemotherapy, and disease-associated income loss. Prior studies have justified pigmented lesion biopsies on a "value per life" basis; by contrast we sought to assess how many biopsies are justified per melanoma found on a purely economic basis. We modeled how melanomas in the United States would behave if diagnosis were delayed by 6 months, eg, not biopsied, only observed until the next surveillance visit. Economic loss from delayed biopsy is the obverse of economic benefit of performing biopsy earlier. Growth rates were based on Liu et al. The results of this study can be applied to all patients presenting to dermatologists with pigmented skin lesions suspicious for melanoma. In-situ melanomas were excluded because no studies to date have modeled growth rates analogous to those for invasive melanoma. We assume conservatively that all melanomas not biopsied initially will be biopsied and treated 6 months later. Major modeled costs are (1) increased sentinel lymph node biopsy, (2) increased chemotherapy for metastatic lesions using increased 5-yr death as metastasis marker, and (3) income loss per melanoma death at $413,370 as previously published. Costs avoided by diagnosing melanoma earlier justify 170 biopsies per melanoma found. Efforts to penalize "unnecessary" biopsies may be economically counterproductive.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(5):527-532.
El Chehadeh-Djebbar, Salima; Blair, Edward; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel; Moncla, Anne; Frances, Anne-Marie; Rio, Marlène; Debray, François-Guillaume; Rump, Patrick; Masurel-Paulet, Alice; Gigot, Nadège; Callier, Patrick; Duplomb, Laurence; Aral, Bernard; Huet, Frédéric; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Faivre, Laurence
Cohen syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive condition caused by mutations and/or large rearrangements in the VPS13B gene. CS clinical features, including developmental delay, the typical facial gestalt, chorioretinal dystrophy (CRD) and neutropenia, are well described. CS diagnosis is generally raised after school age, when visual disturbances lead to CRD diagnosis and to VPS13B gene testing. This relatively late diagnosis precludes accurate genetic counselling. The aim of this study was to analyse the evolution of CS facial features in the early period of life, particularly before school age (6 years), to find clues for an earlier diagnosis. Photographs of 17 patients with molecularly confirmed CS were analysed, from birth to preschool age. By comparing their facial phenotype when growing, we show that there are no special facial characteristics before 1 year. However, between 2 and 6 years, CS children already share common facial features such as a short neck, a square face with micrognathia and full cheeks, a hypotonic facial appearance, epicanthic folds, long ears with an everted upper part of the auricle and/or a prominent lobe, a relatively short philtrum, a small and open mouth with downturned corners, a thick lower lip and abnormal eye shapes. These early transient facial features evolve to typical CS facial features with aging. These observations emphasize the importance of ophthalmological tests and neutrophil count in children in preschool age presenting with developmental delay, hypotonia and the facial features we described here, for an earlier CS diagnosis.
Wang, Xin; Gao, Jun; Fan, Zhiguo
It is surprising that many insect species use only the ultraviolet (UV) component of the polarized skylight for orientation and navigation purposes, while both the intensity and the degree of polarization of light from the clear sky are lower in the UV than at longer (blue, green, red) wavelengths. Why have these insects chosen the UV part of the polarized skylight? This strange phenomenon is called the "UV-sky-pol paradox". Although earlier several speculations tried to resolve this paradox, they did this without any quantitative data. A theoretical and computational model has convincingly explained why it is advantageous for certain animals to detect celestial polarization in the UV. We performed a sky-polarimetric approach and built a polarized skylight sensor that models the processing of polarization signals by insect photoreceptors. Using this model sensor, we carried out measurements under clear and cloudy sky conditions. Our results showed that light from the cloudy sky has maximal degree of polarization in the UV. Furthermore, under both clear and cloudy skies the angle of polarization of skylight can be detected with a higher accuracy. By this, we corroborated empirically the soundness of the earlier computational resolution of the UV-sky-pol paradox.
Wang, Xin; Gao, Jun; Fan, Zhiguo
It is surprising that many insect species use only the ultraviolet (UV) component of the polarized skylight for orientation and navigation purposes, while both the intensity and the degree of polarization of light from the clear sky are lower in the UV than at longer (blue, green, red) wavelengths. Why have these insects chosen the UV part of the polarized skylight? This strange phenomenon is called the "UV-sky-pol paradox". Although earlier several speculations tried to resolve this paradox, they did this without any quantitative data. A theoretical and computational model has convincingly explained why it is advantageous for certain animals to detect celestial polarization in the UV. We performed a sky-polarimetric approach and built a polarized skylight sensor that models the processing of polarization signals by insect photoreceptors. Using this model sensor, we carried out measurements under clear and cloudy sky conditions. Our results showed that light from the cloudy sky has maximal degree of polarization in the UV. Furthermore, under both clear and cloudy skies the angle of polarization of skylight can be detected with a higher accuracy. By this, we corroborated empirically the soundness of the earlier computational resolution of the UV-sky-pol paradox.
Lin, Yan; Ma, Changchun; Liu, Chengkang; Wang, Zhening; Yang, Jurong; Liu, Xinmu; Shen, Zhiwei; Wu, Renhua
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a growing cause of mortality in developing countries, warranting investigation into its earlier detection for optimal disease management. A metabolomics based approach provides potential for noninvasive identification of biomarkers of colorectal carcinogenesis, as well as dissection of molecular pathways of pathophysiological conditions. Here, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HNMR) -based metabolomic approach was used to profile fecal metabolites of 68 CRC patients (stage I/II=20; stage III=25 and stage IV=23) and 32 healthy controls (HC). Pattern recognition through principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied on 1H-NMR processed data for dimension reduction. OPLS-DA revealed that each stage of CRC could be clearly distinguished from HC based on their metabolomic profiles. Successive analyses identified distinct disturbances to fecal metabolites of CRC patients at various stages, compared with those in cancer free controls, including reduced levels of acetate, butyrate, propionate, glucose, glutamine, and elevated quantities of succinate, proline, alanine, dimethylglycine, valine, glutamate, leucine, isoleucine and lactate. These altered fecal metabolites potentially involved in the disruption of normal bacterial ecology, malabsorption of nutrients, increased glycolysis and glutaminolysis. Our findings revealed that the fecal metabolic profiles of healthy controls can be distinguished from CRC patients, even in the early stage (stage I/II), highlighting the potential utility of NMR-based fecal metabolomics fingerprinting as predictors of earlier diagnosis in CRC patients.
Lin, Yan; Ma, Changchun; Liu, Chengkang; Wang, Zhening; Yang, Jurong; Liu, Xinmu; Shen, Zhiwei; Wu, Renhua
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a growing cause of mortality in developing countries, warranting investigation into its earlier detection for optimal disease management. A metabolomics based approach provides potential for noninvasive identification of biomarkers of colorectal carcinogenesis, as well as dissection of molecular pathways of pathophysiological conditions. Here, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HNMR) -based metabolomic approach was used to profile fecal metabolites of 68 CRC patients (stage I/II=20; stage III=25 and stage IV=23) and 32 healthy controls (HC). Pattern recognition through principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied on 1H-NMR processed data for dimension reduction. OPLS-DA revealed that each stage of CRC could be clearly distinguished from HC based on their metabolomic profiles. Successive analyses identified distinct disturbances to fecal metabolites of CRC patients at various stages, compared with those in cancer free controls, including reduced levels of acetate, butyrate, propionate, glucose, glutamine, and elevated quantities of succinate, proline, alanine, dimethylglycine, valine, glutamate, leucine, isoleucine and lactate. These altered fecal metabolites potentially involved in the disruption of normal bacterial ecology, malabsorption of nutrients, increased glycolysis and glutaminolysis. Our findings revealed that the fecal metabolic profiles of healthy controls can be distinguished from CRC patients, even in the early stage (stage I/II), highlighting the potential utility of NMR-based fecal metabolomics fingerprinting as predictors of earlier diagnosis in CRC patients. PMID:27107423
Koike, Shinsuke; Takizawa, Ryu; Nishimura, Yukika; Marumo, Kohei; Kinou, Masaru; Kawakubo, Yuki; Rogers, Mark A; Kasai, Kiyoto
Schizophrenia involves impairment in attention, working memory and executive processes associated with prefrontal cortical function, an essential contributor of social functioning. Age at onset is a major factor for predicting social outcome in schizophrenia. In clinical settings, we need an objective assessment tool for evaluating prefrontal function and social outcome. Participants included 22 right-handed patients with schizophrenia and 40 gender- and age-matched healthy controls. We used a 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) instrument to measure oxygenated haemoglobin ([oxy-Hb]) changes over the prefrontal cortex during a random number generation (RNG) task. In healthy controls, we found significant [oxy-Hb] increase in the bilateral dorsolateral (DLPFC; BA9 and BA46) and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC; BA44, 45 and 47). The patients with schizophrenia showed significantly smaller activation than the healthy controls in the same approximate regions. In the patient group, a smaller [oxy-Hb] increase in the right DLPFC region (BA9) was significantly correlated with earlier age at onset. NIRS can detect prefrontal cortical dysfunction associated with an executive task, which was coupled with earlier age at onset in schizophrenia. Multichannel NIRS, a non-invasive and user-friendly instrument, may be useful in evaluating cognitive function and social outcome in clinical settings in psychiatry. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
White, Jocelyn; Fromme, Erik K
Quality standards no longer allow physicians to delay discussing goals of care and resuscitation. We propose 2 novel strategies for discussing goals and resuscitation on admission. The first, SPAM (determine Surrogate decision maker, determine resuscitation Preferences, Assume full care, and advise them to expect More discussion especially with clinical changes), helps clinicians discover patient preferences and decision maker during routine admissions. The second, UFO-UFO (Understand what they know, Fill in knowledge gaps, ask about desired Outcomes, Understand their reasoning, discuss the spectrum Feasible Outcomes), helps patients with poor or uncertain prognosis or family-team conflict. Using a challenging case example, this article illustrates how SPAM and UFO-UFO can help clinicians have patient-centered resuscitation and goals of care discussions at the beginning of care.
Ruiz-García, J; Canal-Fontcuberta, I; Martínez-Sellés, M
Cardiovascular diseases are still the most common cause of death, and heart failure is the most common reason for hospitalization of patients older than 65 years. However, Cardiology attributes low importance to end-of-life care. Cardiac patients' perception of their disease's prognosis and the results of cardiopulmonary resuscitation differ greatly from reality. The "do not resuscitate" order allows patients to pre-emptively express their rejection for cardiopulmonary resuscitation, thereby avoiding its potentially negative consequences. However, these orders are still underused and misinterpreted in cardiac patients. Most of these patients usually have no opportunity to have the necessary conversations with their attending physician on their resuscitation preferences. In this review, we performed an analysis of the causes that could explain this situation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.
How, K L; Reens, N; Stokhof, A A; Hellebrekers, L J
This article reviews the present state of the art of resuscitation of dogs and cats. The purpose of resuscitation is to revive animals so that the vital functions resume together with a normal brain function. Resuscitation must be started as soon as the cardiopulmonary arrest has been confirmed. Adequate ventilation and effective circulation to the most vital body organs, the heart and the brain, have the highest priority. They can be achieved by endotracheal intubation, artificial ventilation with 100% oxygen and rhythmic compression of the closed chest or direct cardiac massage following thoracotomy. Medical therapy is an important part of resuscitation. In the absence of a central venous route, deep endotracheal administration is the preferred method of administration. Most medications can be administered through the endotracheal tube in this fashion.
Fallat, Mary E; Hardy, Courtney
This clinical report addresses the topic of pre-existing do not attempt resuscitation or limited resuscitation orders for children and adolescents undergoing anesthesia and surgery. Pertinent considerations for the clinician include the rights of children, decision-making by parents or legally approved representatives, the process of informed consent, and the roles of surgeon and anesthesiologist. A process of re-evaluation of the do not attempt resuscitation orders, called "required reconsideration," should be incorporated into the process of informed consent for surgery and anesthesia, distinguishing between goal-directed and procedure-directed approaches. The child's individual needs are best served by allowing the parent or legally approved representative and involved clinicians to consider whether full resuscitation, limitations based on procedures, or limitations based on goals is most appropriate. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Thomas, E; Sexton, J; Helmreich, R
Improving teamwork in healthcare may help reduce and manage errors. This paper takes a step toward that goal by (1) proposing a set of teamwork behaviours, or behavioural markers, for neonatal resuscitation; (2) presenting a data form for recording observations about these markers; and (3) comparing and contrasting different sets of teamwork behaviours that have been developed for healthcare. Data from focus groups of neonatal providers, surveys, and video recordings of neonatal resuscitations were used to identify some new teamwork behaviours, to translate existing aviation team behaviours to this setting, and to develop a data collection form. This behavioural marker audit form for neonatal resuscitation lists and defines 10 markers that describe specific, observable behaviours seen during the resuscitation of newborn infants. These markers are compared with those developed by other groups. Future research should determine the relations among these behaviours and errors, and test their usefulness in measuring the impact of team training interventions. PMID:15465957
This paper reports a literature review examining factors that enhance retention of knowledge and skills during and after resuscitation training, in order to identify educational strategies that will optimize survival for victims of cardiopulmonary arrest. Poor knowledge and skill retention following cardiopulmonary resuscitation training for nursing and medical staff has been documented over the past 20 years. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation training is mandatory for nursing staff and is important as nurses often discover the victims of in-hospital cardiac arrest. Many different methods of improving this retention have been devised and evaluated. However, the content and style of this training lack standardization. A literature review was undertaken using the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE and British Nursing Index databases and the keywords 'cardiopulmonary resuscitation', 'basic life support', 'advanced life support' and 'training'. Papers published between 1992 and 2002 were obtained and their reference lists scrutinized to identify secondary references, of these the ones published within the same 10-year period were also included. Those published in the English language that identified strategies to enhance the acquisition or retention of Cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills and knowledge were included in the review. One hundred and five primary and 157 secondary references were identified. Of these, 24 met the criteria and were included in the final literature sample. Four studies were found pertaining to cardiac arrest simulation, three to peer tuition, four to video self-instruction, three to the use of different resuscitation guidelines, three to computer-based learning programmes, two to voice-activated manikins, two to automated external defibrillators, one to self-instruction, one to gaming and the one to the use of action cards. Resuscitation training should be based on in-hospital scenarios and current evidence
Guzman, Jorge A; Dikin, Mathew S; Kruse, James A
Sublingual and intestinal mucosal blood flow and Pco(2) were studied in a canine model of endotoxin-induced circulatory shock and resuscitation. Sublingual Pco(2) (Ps(CO(2))) was measured by using a novel fluorescent optrode-based technique and compared with lingual measurements obtained by using a Stowe-Severinghaus electrode [lingual Pco(2) (Pl(CO(2)))]. Endotoxin caused parallel changes in cardiac output, and in portal, intestinal mucosal, and sublingual blood flow (Q(s)). Different blood flow patterns were observed during resuscitation: intestinal mucosal blood flow returned to near baseline levels postfluid resuscitation and decreased by 21% after vasopressor resuscitation, whereas Q(s) rose to twice that of the preshock level and was maintained throughout the resuscitation period. Electrochemical and fluorescent Pco(2) measurements showed similar changes throughout the experiments. The shock-induced increases in Ps(CO(2)) and Pl(CO(2)) were nearly reversed after fluid resuscitation, despite persistent systemic arterial hypotension. Vasopressor administration induced a rebound of Ps(CO(2)) and Pl(CO(2)) to shock levels, despite higher cardiac output and Q(s), possibly due to blood flow redistribution and shunting. Changes in Pl(CO(2)) and Ps(CO(2)) paralleled gastric and intestinal Pco(2) changes during shock but not during resuscitation. We found that the lingual, splanchnic, and systemic circulations follow a similar pattern of blood flow variations in response to endotoxin shock, although discrepancies were observed during resuscitation. Restoration of systemic, splanchnic, and lingual perfusion can be accompanied by persistent tissue hypercarbia, mainly lingual and intestinal, more so when a vasopressor agent is used to normalize systemic hemodynamic variables.
Lin, Steve; Scales, Damon C
High-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been shown to improve survival outcomes after cardiac arrest. The current standard in studies evaluating CPR quality is to measure CPR process measures-for example, chest compression rate, depth, and fraction. Published studies evaluating CPR feedback devices have yielded mixed results. Newer approaches that seek to optimize CPR by measuring physiological endpoints during the resuscitation may lead to individualized patient care and improved patient outcomes.
Friess, Stuart H; Sutton, Robert M; Bhalala, Utpal; Maltese, Matthew R; Naim, Maryam Y; Bratinov, George; Weiland, Theodore R; Garuccio, Mia; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Becker, Lance B; Berg, Robert A
During cardiopulmonary resuscitation, adequate coronary perfusion pressure is essential for establishing return of spontaneous circulation. Current American Heart Association guidelines recommend standardized interval administration of epinephrine for patients in cardiac arrest. The objective of this study was to compare short-term survival using a hemodynamic directed resuscitation strategy versus chest compression depth-directed cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a porcine model of cardiac arrest. Randomized interventional study. Preclinical animal laboratory. Twenty-four 3-month-old female swine. After 7 minutes of ventricular fibrillation, pigs were randomized to receive one of three resuscitation strategies: 1) Hemodynamic directed care (coronary perfusion pressure-20): chest compressions with depth titrated to a target systolic blood pressure of 100 mm Hg and titration of vasopressors to maintain coronary perfusion pressure greater than 20 mm Hg; 2) Depth 33 mm: target chest compression depth of 33 mm with standard American Heart Association epinephrine dosing; or 3) Depth 51 mm: target chest compression depth of 51 mm with standard American Heart Association epinephrine dosing. All animals received manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation guided by audiovisual feedback for 10 minutes before first shock. Forty-five-minute survival was higher in the coronary perfusion pressure-20 group (8 of 8) compared to depth 33 mm (1 of 8) or depth 51 mm (3 of 8) groups; p equals to 0.002. Coronary perfusion pressures were higher in the coronary perfusion pressure-20 group compared to depth 33 mm (p = 0.004) and depth 51 mm (p = 0.006) and in survivors compared to nonsurvivors (p < 0.01). Total epinephrine dosing and defibrillation attempts were not different. Hemodynamic directed resuscitation targeting coronary perfusion pressures greater than 20 mm Hg during 10 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation for ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest improves short-term survival
Girotra, Saket; Chan, Paul S; Bradley, Steven M
Cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death in developed countries. Although a majority of cardiac arrest patients die during the acute event, a substantial proportion of cardiac arrest deaths occur in patients following successful resuscitation and can be attributed to the development of post-cardiac arrest syndrome. There is growing recognition that integrated post-resuscitation care, which encompasses targeted temperature management (TTM), early coronary angiography and comprehensive critical care, can improve patient outcomes. TTM has been shown to improve survival and neurological outcome in patients who remain comatose especially following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to ventricular arrhythmias. Early coronary angiography and revascularisation if needed may also be beneficial during the post-resuscitation phase, based on data from observational studies. In addition, resuscitated patients usually require intensive care, which includes mechanical ventilator, haemodynamic support and close monitoring of blood gases, glucose, electrolytes, seizures and other disease-specific intervention. Efforts should be taken to avoid premature withdrawal of life-supporting treatment, especially in patients treated with TTM. Given that resources and personnel needed to provide high-quality post-resuscitation care may not exist at all hospitals, professional societies have recommended regionalisation of post-resuscitation care in specialised 'cardiac arrest centres' as a strategy to improve cardiac arrest outcomes. Finally, evidence for post-resuscitation care following in-hospital cardiac arrest is largely extrapolated from studies in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Future studies need to examine the effectiveness of different post-resuscitation strategies, such as TTM, in patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Girotra, Saket; Chan, Paul S; Bradley, Steven M
Cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death in developed countries. Although a majority of cardiac arrest patients die during the acute event, a substantial proportion of cardiac arrest deaths occur in patients following successful resuscitation and can be attributed to the development of post-cardiac arrest syndrome. There is growing recognition that integrated post-resuscitation care, which encompasses targeted temperature management (TTM), early coronary angiography and comprehensive critical care, can improve patient outcomes. TTM has been shown to improve survival and neurological outcome in patients who remain comatose especially following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to ventricular arrhythmias. Early coronary angiography and revascularisation if needed may also be beneficial during the post-resuscitation phase, based on data from observational studies. In addition, resuscitated patients usually require intensive care, which includes mechanical ventilator, haemodynamic support and close monitoring of blood gases, glucose, electrolytes, seizures and other disease-specific intervention. Efforts should be taken to avoid premature withdrawal of life-supporting treatment, especially in patients treated with TTM. Given that resources and personnel needed to provide high-quality post-resuscitation care may not exist at all hospitals, professional societies have recommended regionalisation of post-resuscitation care in specialised ‘cardiac arrest centres’ as a strategy to improve cardiac arrest outcomes. Finally, evidence for post-resuscitation care following in-hospital cardiac arrest is largely extrapolated from studies in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Future studies need to examine the effectiveness of different post-resuscitation strategies, such as TTM, in patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest. PMID:26385451
Kumar, Vasantha Hs; Skrobacz, Annie; Ma, Changxing
Fetal hypoxia from intrapartum events can lead to absent heart rate (HR) or bradycardia at birth requiring aggressive neonatal resuscitation. Neonatal resuscitation guidelines do not differentiate bradycardia (HR <100 beats/min) from absent HR at birth. Given that HR is the primary determinant of resuscitation, we hypothesize that infants with no HR at 1 min would require more extensive resuscitation with worse clinical outcome than infants with bradycardia at 1 min. A retrospective analysis was performed in infants born between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2015 with no HR at 1 min (defined as Apgar score [AS] = 0 at 1 min; absent HR [AHR] group) or bradycardia at 1 min (AS = 1 at 1 min). Patient demographics, resuscitation characteristics and clinical outcomes were analyzed in both the groups. Apgar score was significantly lower in the AHR group over time. The AHR group had significantly higher rates of intubation, chest compression (CC) and i.v. epinephrine (i.v. epi); resulting in longer duration of CC, time to HR > 100 beats/min and duration of resuscitation. Systematic hypotension and death were higher in the AHR group. On logistic regression, CC and cord pH were significantly correlated with AS = 0 at 1 min. Gestational age, birthweight, AS at 5 min, cord pH and first blood gas pH after resuscitation were related to overall mortality. Infants with AHR at 1 min did worse than infants with bradycardia. Education focused on effective positive pressure ventilation and early use of i.v. epinephrine is essential for successful resuscitation of the depressed newborn. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.
cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, hypothermia 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a...the organism during ischemia, using hypothermia , drugs, and fluids, to “buy time” for transport and resuscitative surgery. The purpose of this study...is to test the feasibility of rapidly inducing profound hypothermia (< 10oC) with an aortic flush in trauma victims that have suffered CA and
SUBJECT TERMS Trauma, hemorrhagic shock, cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, hypothermia 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...EPR) was developed to rapidly preserve the organism during ischemia, using hypothermia , drugs, and fluids, to “buy time” for transport and...resuscitative surgery. The purpose of this study is to test the feasibility of rapidly inducing profound hypothermia (< 10oC) with an aortic flush in trauma
Xu, Dun-quan; Gao, Cao; Niu, Wen; Li, Yan; Wang, Yan-xia; Gao, Chang-jun; Ding, Qian; Yao, Li-nong; Chai, Wei; Li, Zhi-chao
Aim: To investigate the protective effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) against inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis in a rat model of resuscitated hemorrhagic shock. Methods: Hemorrhagic shock was induced in adult male SD rats by drawing blood from the femoral artery for 10 min. The mean arterial pressure was maintained at 35–40 mmHg for 1.5 h. After resuscitation the animals were observed for 200 min, and then killed. The lungs were harvested and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was prepared. The levels of relevant proteins were examined using Western blotting and immunohistochemical analyses. NaHS (28 μmol/kg, ip) was injected before the resuscitation. Results: Resuscitated hemorrhagic shock induced lung inflammatory responses and significantly increased the levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and HMGB1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Furthermore, resuscitated hemorrhagic shock caused marked oxidative stress in lung tissue as shown by significant increases in the production of reactive oxygen species H2O2 and ·OH, the translocation of Nrf2, an important regulator of antioxidant expression, into nucleus, and the decrease of thioredoxin 1 expression. Moreover, resuscitated hemorrhagic shock markedly increased the expression of death receptor Fas and Fas-ligand and the number apoptotic cells in lung tissue, as well as the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins FADD, active-caspase 3, active-caspase 8, Bax, and decreased the expression of Bcl-2. Injection with NaHS significantly attenuated these pathophysiological abnormalities induced by the resuscitated hemorrhagic shock. Conclusion: NaHS administration protects rat lungs against inflammatory responses induced by resuscitated hemorrhagic shock via suppressing oxidative stress and the Fas/FasL apoptotic signaling pathway. PMID:24122010
Porter, Joanne E; Miller, Nareeda; Giannis, Anita; Coombs, Nicole
Family Presence During Resuscitation (FPDR), although not a new concept, remains inconsistently implemented by emergency personnel. Many larger metropolitan emergency departments (ED) have instigated a care coordinator role, however these personnel are often from a non-nursing background and have therefore limited knowledge about the clinical aspects of the resuscitation. In rural emergency departments there are simply not enough staff to allocate an independent role. A separate care coordinator role, who is assigned to care for the family and not take part in the resuscitation has been well documented as essential to the successful implementation of FPDR. One rural and one metropolitan emergency department in the state of Victoria, Australia were observed and data was collected on FPDR events. The participants consisted of resuscitation team members, including; emergency trained nurses, senior medical officers, general nurses and doctors. The participants were not told that the data would be recorded around interactions with family members or team discussions regarding family involvement in the resuscitation, following ethical approval involving limited disclosure of the aims of the study. Seventeen adult presentations (Metro n=9, Rural n=8) were included in this study and will be presented as resuscitation case studies. The key themes identified included ambiguity around resuscitation status, keeping the family informed, family isolation and inter-professional communication. During 17 adult resuscitation cases, staff were witnessed communicating with family, which was often limited and isolation resulted. Family were often uninformed or separated from their family member, however when a family liaison person was available it was found to be beneficial. This research indicated that staff could benefit from a designated family liaison role, formal policy and further education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Curran, Vernon; Fleet, Lisa; Greene, Melanie
Resuscitation and life support skills training comprises a significant proportion of continuing education programming for health professionals. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions and attitudes of certified resuscitation providers toward the retention of resuscitation skills, regular skills updating, and methods for enhancing retention. A mixed-methods, explanatory study design was undertaken utilizing focus groups and an online survey-questionnaire of rural and urban health care providers. Rural providers reported less experience with real codes and lower abilities across a variety of resuscitation areas. Mock codes, practice with an instructor and a team, self-practice with a mannequin, and e-learning were popular methods for skills updating. Aspects of team performance that were felt to influence resuscitation performance included: discrepancies in skill levels, lack of communication, and team leaders not up to date on their skills. Confidence in resuscitation abilities was greatest after one had recently practiced or participated in an update or an effective debriefing session. Lowest confidence was reported when team members did not work well together, there was no clear leader of the resuscitation code, or if team members did not communicate. The study findings highlight the importance of access to update methods for improving providers' confidence and abilities, and the need for emphasis on teamwork training in resuscitation. An eclectic approach combining methods may be the best strategy for addressing the needs of health professionals across various clinical departments and geographic locales. Copyright © 2012 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME, Association for Hospital Medical Education.
Kim, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hun; Lee, Kyeong Ryong; Hong, Dae Young; Baek, Kwang Je; Park, Sang O
This study investigated the effect of increasing numbers of training sessions in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on trainees' attitude and CPR quality. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation training for hospital employees was held every year from 2006 to 2010. Participants were recruited among the trainees in 2010. The trainees' attitudes toward CPR were surveyed by questionnaire, and the quality of their CPR was measured using 5-cycle 30:2 CPR on a manikin. Participants were categorized according to the number of consecutive CPR training sessions as T1 (only 2010), T2 (2009 and 2010), T3 (from 2008 to 2010) and T4-5 (from 2006 or 2007 to 2010). The trainee attitude and CPR quality were compared among the 4 groups. Of 923 CPR trainees, 267 were enrolled in the study. There was significant increase in willingness to start CPR and confidence in chest compression and mouth-to-mouth ventilation (MTMV) with increasing number of CPR training sessions attended (especially for ≥ 3 sessions). There was a significant increase in mean compression depth and decrease in percentage of chest compressions with depth of less than 38 mm in the T3 and T4-5 compared with the T1 and T2. No-flow time decreased significantly, and the percentage of MTMV with visible chest rise increased, as the number of training sessions increased. Repeated CPR training improved trainees' attitude and CPR quality. Because the number of training sessions increased (≥3), the willingness to start CPR and the confidence in skills increased significantly, and chest compression depth, no-flow time, and MTMV improved.
Donoghue, Aaron; Hsieh, Ting-Chang; Nishisaki, Akira; Myers, Sage
To describe procedural characteristics of tracheal intubation (TI) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in a pediatric emergency department, and to characterize interruptions in CPR associated with TI performance. Retrospective single center case series. Resuscitations in a pediatric ED are videorecorded for quality improvement. Children who underwent TI while receiving chest compressions were eligible for inclusion. Intubations done by methods other than direct laryngoscopy were excluded. Background data included patient age and training background of intubator. Data on intubation attempts (success, laryngoscopy time) and chest compressions (interruptions, duration of pauses) were collected. Between December 2012 and February 2014, 32 patients had 59 TI attempts performed during CPR. Overall first attempt success at TI was 15/32 (47%); a median of 2 attempts were made per patient (range 1 to 4). Median laryngoscopy time was 47s (range 8-115s). 32/59 (54%) TI attempts had an associated interruption in CPR; the median interruption duration was 25s (range 3-64s). TI attempts without interruption in CPR were successful in 20/32 (63%) compared to 11/27 (41%) when CPR was paused (p=0.09). Laryngoscopy time was not significantly different between TI attempts with (47±21s) and without (47±26s; p=0.2) interruptions in compressions. 25/32 (78%) of pauses exceeded 10s in duration. TI during pediatric CPR results in significant interruptions in chest compressions. Procedural outcomes were not significantly different between attempts with and without compressions paused. In children receiving CPR, TI should be performed without pausing chest compressions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jin, J.; Wang, Y.
Ecosystem-scale water-use efficiency (EWUE), defined as the ratio of gross primary productivity (GPP) to evapotranspiration (ET), is an important indicator for understanding how water couples with the carbon cycle under global change. Relationships between EWUE and abiotic environmental factors (e.g. climatic factors, atmospheric CO2concentration and nitrogen deposition) have been widely investigated, but the variations in EWUE in response to biotic controls remain little understood. Here, we argue that phenology plays an important role in the regulation of EWUE by analyzing springtime EWUE responses to variability of the GPP-based vegetation activity onset (VAO) in temperate and boreal ecosystems using both satellite and flux-tower observations. Based on MODIS productions during 2000-2014, we found that spring EWUE widely significantly increased with the earlier VAO mainly in the mid- and high latitudes (over 50°N), southwestern China and mid-western North America. When AVO advanced a 10-day, the spring EWUE would increase on average by 0.17±0.09 g C kg-1 H2O in temperate and continental climates after removing the effect of environmental factors. The main response patterns of EWUE to phenology suggest that an increase in spring EWUE with an earlier VAO are mainly because the increase in GPP is relatively larger in magnitude compared to that of ET, or due to an increase in GPP accompanied by a decrease in ET, resulting from an advanced VAO. The credibility of the results is also supported by the local-scale observations. By analyzing 66 site-years of flux and meteorological data obtained from 8 temperate deciduous broadleaf forest sites across North America and Europe, spring EWUE increased 0.42±0.08 g C kg-1 H2O with a 10-day advance of VAO across all sites after controlling for environmental factors, mainly because an earlier VAO could lead to a steeper increase in GPP than in ET. Our results and conclusions highlight that phenological factors cannot be
Jansen, Erica C; Marín, Constanza; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Villamor, Eduardo
Early age at menarche is associated with increased breast cancer risk. Red meat consumption in adolescence predicts breast cancer risk, but it is unknown whether it is also related to earlier menarche. We studied the association between intake of red meat at ages 5-12 y and age at menarche in a prospective study. We assessed usual diets with a food-frequency questionnaire in a group of 456 girls aged 8.4 ± 1.7 y and followed them for a median 5.6 y in Bogotá, Colombia. Girls were asked periodically about the occurrence and date of menarche. Median age at menarche was estimated with use of Kaplan-Meier survival probabilities by categories of red meat intake frequency. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare the incidence of menarche by red meat intake frequency, adjusting for potential sociodemographic and dietary confounders including total energy intake and intake frequency of other animal food groups (dairy, poultry, freshwater fish, tuna/sardines, eggs, and innards). Median age at menarche was 12.4 y. After adjustment for total energy intake, maternal parity, and socioeconomic status, red meat intake frequency was inversely associated with age at menarche. When compared with girls with red meat intake <4 times/wk, those consuming it ≥2 times/d had a significantly earlier age at menarche (HR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.41; P-trend = 0.0009). Incidentally, we found that girls with tuna/sardine intake >1 time/wk had a significantly later age at menarche (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.90; P = 0.01) than those with intake <1 time/mo. Intake frequency of other animal food groups was not significantly associated with age at menarche. Higher red meat intake frequency during childhood is associated with an earlier age at menarche, whereas greater fatty fish intake frequency is associated with a later menarcheal age. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Chapman, Rose; Watkins, Rochelle; Bushby, Angela; Combs, Shane
Family witnessed resuscitation is the practice of enabling patients' family members to be present during resuscitation. Research is inconsistent as to the effectiveness or usefulness of this initiative. To evaluate the performance of two scales that assess perceptions of family witnessed resuscitation among a sample of health professionals, in an Australian non-teaching hospital, and explore differences in perceptions according to sociodemographic characteristics and previous experience. Descriptive, replication study, using a cross-sectional survey. An anonymous survey was distributed to 221 emergency department clinicians. Sociodemographic characteristics and perceptions of family witnessed resuscitation using the Family Presence Risk-Benefit and Family Presence Self-confidence Scales were assessed. Exploratory factor analysis was used to evaluate the performance of the scales. One hundred and fourteen doctors and nurses returned the survey (response rate of 51.6%). Both Scales were found to have a single factor structure and a high level of internal consistency. Approximately two-thirds of participants considered that family presence was a right of patients and families, and almost a quarter of respondents had invited family presence during resuscitation on more than five occasions. We found no significant differences in scale scores between doctors and nurses. Our findings confirm the validity of the Family Presence Risk-Benefit and Family Presence Self-Confidence Scales in the Australian context, and highlight the need to support clinicians in the provision of family witnessed resuscitation to all families. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ekmektzoglou, Konstantinos A; Johnson, Elizabeth O; Syros, Periklis; Chalkias, Athanasios; Kalambalikis, Lazaros; Xanthos, Theodoros
Social laws and religious beliefs throughout history underscore the leaps and bounds that the science of resuscitation has achieved from ancient times until today. The effort to resuscitate victims goes back to ancient history, where death was considered a special form of sleep or an act of God. Biblical accounts of resuscitation attempts are numerous. Resuscitation in the Middle Ages was forbidden, but later during Renaissance, any prohibition against performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was challenged, which finally led to the Enlightenment, where scholars attempted to scientifically solve the problem of sudden death. It was then that the various components of CPR (ventilation, circulation, electricity, and organization of emergency medical services) began to take shape. The 19th century gave way to hallmarks both in the ventilatory support (intubation innovations and the artificial respirator) and the open-and closed chest circulatory support. Meanwhile, novel defibrillation techniques had been employed and ventricular fibrillation described. The groundbreaking discoveries of the 20th century finally led to the scientific framework of CPR. In 1960, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation was eventually combined with chest compression and defibrillation to become CPR as we now know it. This review presents the scientific milestones behind one of medicine's most widely used fields.
Assarroudi, Abdolghader; Heshmati Nabavi, Fatemeh; Ebadi, Abbas; Esmaily, Habibollah
Rescuers' psychological competence, particularly their motivation, can improve the cardiopulmonary resuscitation outcomes. Data were collected using semistructured interviews with 24 cardiopulmonary resuscitation team members and analyzed through deductive content analysis based on Vroom's expectancy theory. Nine generic categories were developed: (i) estimation of the chance of survival; (ii) estimation of self-efficacy; (iii) looking for a sign of effectiveness; (iv) supportive organizational structure; (v) revival; (vi) acquisition of external incentives; (vii) individual drives; (viii) commitment to personal values; and (ix) avoiding undesirable social outcomes. When professional rescuers were called to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation, they subjectively evaluated the patient's chance of survival, the likelihood of achieving of the desired outcome, and the ability to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation interventions. If their evaluations were positive, and the consequences of cardiopulmonary resuscitation were considered favorable, they were strongly motivated to perform it. Beyond the scientific aspects, the motivation to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation was influenced by intuitive, emotional, and spiritual aspects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
The Fluid Expansion as Supportive Therapy (FEAST study) was an extremely well conducted study that gave unexpected results. The investigators had reported that febrile children with impaired perfusion treated in low-income countries without access to intensive care are more likely to die if they receive bolus resuscitation with albumin or saline compared with no bolus resuscitation at all. In a secondary analysis of the trial, published in BMC Medicine, the authors found that increased mortality was evident in patients who presented with clinical features of severe shock in isolation or in conjunction with features of respiratory or neurological failure. The cause of excess deaths was primarily refractory shock and not fluid overload. These features are consistent with a potential cardiotoxic or ischemia-reperfusion injury following resuscitation with boluses of intravenous fluid. Although these effects may have been amplified by the absence of invasive monitoring, mechanical ventilation or vasopressors, the results provide compelling insights into the effects of intravenous fluid resuscitation and potential adverse effects that extend beyond the initial resuscitation period. These data add to the increasing body of literature about the safety and efficacy of intravenous resuscitation fluids, which may be applicable to management of other populations of critically ill patients. PMID:23497460
Myburgh, John; Finfer, Simon
The Fluid Expansion as Supportive Therapy (FEAST study) was an extremely well conducted study that gave unexpected results. The investigators had reported that febrile children with impaired perfusion treated in low-income countries without access to intensive care are more likely to die if they receive bolus resuscitation with albumin or saline compared with no bolus resuscitation at all. In a secondary analysis of the trial, published in BMC Medicine, the authors found that increased mortality was evident in patients who presented with clinical features of severe shock in isolation or in conjunction with features of respiratory or neurological failure. The cause of excess deaths was primarily refractory shock and not fluid overload. These features are consistent with a potential cardiotoxic or ischemia-reperfusion injury following resuscitation with boluses of intravenous fluid. Although these effects may have been amplified by the absence of invasive monitoring, mechanical ventilation or vasopressors, the results provide compelling insights into the effects of intravenous fluid resuscitation and potential adverse effects that extend beyond the initial resuscitation period. These data add to the increasing body of literature about the safety and efficacy of intravenous resuscitation fluids, which may be applicable to management of other populations of critically ill patients.
Jönsson, Sofia; Melville, Jacqueline M; Becirovic-Agic, Mediha; Hultström, Michael
Renin-angiotensin-system blockers are thought to increase the risk of acute kidney injury after surgery and haemorrhage. We found that Losartan does not cause renal cortical hypoxia after haemorrhage in rats because of decreased renal vascular resistance, but did not evaluate resuscitation. Study Losartan´s effect on renal cortical and medullary oxygenation, and norepinephrine´s vasopressor effect in a model of resuscitated haemorrhage. After seven days Losartan (60 mg/kg/day) or control treatment, male Wistar rats were haemorrhaged 20 % of the blood volume and resuscitated with Ringer's Acetate. Mean arterial pressure, renal blood flow, and kidney tissue oxygenation was measured at baseline and after resuscitation. Finally, the effect of norepinephrine on mean arterial pressure and renal blood flow was investigated. As expected, Losartan lowered mean arterial pressure but not renal blood flow. Losartan did not affect renal oxygen consumption and oxygen tension. Mean arterial pressure and renal blood flow were lower after resuscitated haemorrhage. Smaller increase of renal vascular resistance in Losartan group translated to smaller decrease in cortical oxygen tension, but no significant difference seen in medullary oxygen tension either between groups or after haemorrhage. The effect of norepinephrine on mean arterial pressure and renal blood flow was similar in controls and Losartan treated rats. Losartan does not decrease renal oxygenation after resuscitated haemorrhage because of a smaller increase in renal vascular resistance. Further, Losartan does not decrease the efficiency of norepinephrine as a vasopressor indicating that blood pressure may be managed effectively during Losartan treatment.
Roh, Young Sook; Issenberg, S Barry; Chung, Hyun Soo; Kim, So Sun; Lim, Tae Ho
Effective training is needed for high-quality performance of staff nurses, who are often the first responders in initiating resuscitation. There is insufficient evidence to identify specific educational strategies that improve outcomes, including early recognition and rescue of the critical patient. This study was conducted to identify perceived competence and educational needs as well as to examine factors influencing perceived competence in resuscitation among staff nurses to build a resuscitation training curriculum. A convenience sample of 502 staff nurses was recruited from 11 hospitals in a single city. Staff nurses were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. On a five-point scale, chest compression was the lowest-rated technical skill (M = 3.33, SD = 0.80), whereas staying calm and focusing on required tasks was the lowest-rated non-technical skill (M = 3.30, SD = 0.80). Work duration, the usefulness of simulation, recent code experience, and recent simulation-based training were significant factors in perceived competence, F(4, 496) = 45.94, p < .001. Simulation-based resuscitation training was the most preferred training modality, and cardiac arrest was the most preferred training topic. Based on this needs assessment, a simulation-based resuscitation training curriculum with cardiac arrest scenarios is suggested to improve the resuscitation skills of staff nurses. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Fruchterman, T M; Spain, D A; Wilson, M A; Harris, P D; Garrison, R N
Complement, a nonspecific immune response, is activated during hemorrhage/resuscitation (HEM/RES) and is involved in cellular damage. We hypothesized that activated complement injures endothelial cells (ETCs) and is responsible for intestinal microvascular hypoperfusion after HEM/RES. Four groups of rats were studied by in vivo videomicroscopy of the intestine: SHAM, HEM/RES, HEM/RES + sCR1 (complement inhibitor, 15 mg/kg intravenously given before resuscitation), and SHAM + sCR1. Hemorrhage was to 50% of mean arterial pressure for 60 minutes followed by resuscitation with shed blood plus an equal volume of saline. ETC function was assessed by response to acetylcholine. Resuscitation restored central hemodynamics to baseline after hemorrhage. After resuscitation, inflow A1 and premucosal A3 arterioles progressively constricted (-24% and -29% change from baseline, respectively), mucosal blood flow was reduced, and ETC function was impaired. Complement inhibition prevented postresuscitation vasoconstriction and gut ischemia. This protective effect appeared to involve preservation of ETC function in the A3 vessels (SHAM 76% of maximal dilation, HEM/RES 61%, HEM/RES + sCR1 74%, P < .05). Complement inhibition preserved ETC function after HEM/RES and maintained gut perfusion. Inhibition of complement activation before resuscitation may be a useful adjunct in patients experiencing major hemorrhage and might prevent the sequelae of gut ischemia.
Ackroyd, Rajeena; Russon, Lynne; Newell, Rob
Doctors are justified withholding a treatment, such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), if it is unlikely to benefit a patient. The success rates for CPR in patients with cancer is <1%. Guidelines produced in 2001 recommended that CPR should be discussed with patients, even when it is unlikely to be successful. Therefore, should oncologists always discuss resuscitation, even when it is likely to be futile? Sixty oncology in-patients and 32 of their relatives were asked their views on CPR, and their views were compared with the oncologist involved in their care. Some 58% of patients wanted to be resuscitated. There was a moderate-strong correlation between patients and their next of kin and the desire for resuscitation. There was also a positive correlation between the doctor's views on suitability for resuscitation, patient's prognostic score, and World Health Organisation (WHO) performance score. Most patients wanted to be resuscitated despite being given the likely poor survival rates from CPR. They also wanted to be involved in the decision-making process, and wanted their next of kin involved, even when, medically, the procedure was unlikely to be successful. The findings that patient and next of kin views correlated well shows that relatives' views are a good representation of patient views. In contrast, consultant's decisions were strongly correlated with the patient's performance status and clinical state. No patients were upset by the study, although nine patients declined to participate.
2017 American Heart Association Focused Update on Adult Basic Life Support and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Quality: An Update to the American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care.
Kleinman, Monica E; Goldberger, Zachary D; Rea, Thomas; Swor, Robert A; Bobrow, Bentley J; Brennan, Erin E; Terry, Mark; Hemphill, Robin; Gazmuri, Raúl J; Hazinski, Mary Fran; Travers, Andrew H
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a lifesaving technique for victims of sudden cardiac arrest. Despite advances in resuscitation science, basic life support remains a critical factor in determining outcomes. The American Heart Association recommendations for adult basic life support incorporate the most recently published evidence and serve as the basis for education and training for laypeople and healthcare providers who perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Kobayashi, M; Takatori, T; Nakajima, M; Sakurada, K; Hatanaka, K; Ikegaya, H; Matsuda, Y; Iwase, H
Rigor mortis is thought to be related to falling ATP levels in muscles postmortem. We measured rigor mortis as tension determined isometrically in three rat leg muscles in liquid paraffin kept at 37 degrees C or 25 degrees C--two red muscles, red gastrocnemius (RG) and soleus (SO) and one white muscle, white gastrocnemius (WG). Onset, half and full rigor mortis occurred earlier in RG and SO than in WG both at 37 degrees C and at 25 degrees C even though RG and WG were portions of the same muscle. This suggests that rigor mortis directly reflects the postmortem intramuscular ATP level, which decreases more rapidly in red muscle than in white muscle after death. Rigor mortis was more retarded at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C in each type of muscle.
Henretta, J C; Hill, M S; Li, W; Soldo, B J; Wolf, D A
We use the first wave of data from the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) study to examine the effects of past parent-to-child financial transfers on selection of a child to provide assistance with basic personal care for unmarried parents. We estimate a fixed-effects conditional logit model and find a positive and significant association between past financial transfers and a child's current helping behavior. The coefficient of past financial transfers is in the direction hypothesized, and its magnitude is 80% as large as that of gender, a well-documented powerful predictor of parental caregiving. There appears to be substantial evidence that earlier parent-to-child financial gifts play a role in determining which child in the family will provide assistance.
Parkinson, Kathryn N; Drewett, Robert F; Le Couteur, Ann S; Adamson, Ashley J
The aim of the study was to examine predictors of eating disorder symptoms in a population based sample at the earliest age at which they can be measured using the Children's Eating Attitudes Test. Data were collected from the longitudinal Gateshead Millennium Study cohort; 609 children participated in the 7 year data sweep (and their mothers and teachers), and 589 children participated in the 9 year data sweep. Eating disorder symptoms at 9 years were higher in boys, and in children from more deprived families. Higher eating disorder symptoms were associated with more body dissatisfaction at 9 years. Higher symptoms were predicted by higher levels of dietary restraint and of emotional symptoms, but not greater body dissatisfaction, 2 years earlier. The study showed that some correlates of high eating disorder symptoms found in adolescents and adults are also found in children, before the rise in diagnosable eating disorders over the pubertal period. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Soliman, Sameh E; Eldomiaty, Wesam; Goweida, Mohamed B; Dowidar, Amgad
To evaluate the clinical presentation of retinoblastoma in Alexandria, Egypt, correlate the timing of accurate diagnosis with the presence of advanced disease and identify causes of delayed presentation. Retrospective noncomparative single institution study reviews demographic and clinical data of all new children with retinoblastoma presenting to Alexandria Main University ocular oncology clinic (OOC) from January 2012 to June 2014. Diagnosis time was from initial parental complaint to retinoblastoma diagnosis and referral time was from retinoblastoma diagnosis to presentation to the Alexandria OCC. Delayed Diagnosis and referral were counted if >2 weeks. Advanced presentation is defined as clinical TNMH (8th edition) staging of cT2 or cT3 (international intraocular retinoblastoma classification group D or E) in at least one eye or the presence of extra-ocular disease (cT4). Seventy eyes of 47 children were eligible: 52% unilateral, 7% with family history and 96% presented with leukocorea. Sixty-four percent of children had advanced intraocular disease and none had extra-ocular disease. Delayed presentation occurred in 58% of children and was significantly associated with advanced disease in both unilaterally and bilate