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Sample records for earlier research indicating

  1. Research promises earlier warning for grapevine canker diseases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    When it comes to detecting and treating vineyards for grapevine canker diseases (also called trunk diseases), like Botryosphaeria dieback (Bot canker), Esca, Eutypa dieback and Phomopsis dieback, the earlier the better, says plant pathologist Kendra Baumgartner, with the USDA’s Agricultural Research...

  2. Earlier warning: a multi-indicator approach to monitoring trends in the illicit use of medicines.

    PubMed

    Mounteney, Jane; Haugland, Siren

    2009-03-01

    The availability of medicines on the illicit drug market is currently high on the international policy agenda, linked to adverse health consequences including addiction, drug related overdoses and injection related problems. Continuous surveillance of illicit use of medicines allows for earlier identification and reporting of emerging trends and increased possibilities for earlier intervention to prevent spread of use and drug related harm. This paper aims to identify data sources capable of monitoring the illicit use of medicines; present trend findings for Rohypnol and Subutex using a multi-indicator monitoring approach; and consider the relevance of such models for policy makers. Data collection and analysis were undertaken in Bergen, Norway, using the Bergen Earlier Warning System (BEWS), a multi-indicator drug monitoring system. Data were gathered at six monthly intervals from April 2002 to September 2006. Drug indicator data from seizures, treatment, pharmacy sales, helplines, key informants and media monitoring were triangulated and an aggregated differential was used to plot trends. Results for the 4-year period showed a decline in the illicit use of Rohypnol and an increase in the illicit use of Subutex. Multi-indicator surveillance models can play a strategic role in the earlier identification and reporting of emerging trends in illicit use of medicines.

  3. Identified research directions for using manufacturing knowledge earlier in the product lifecycle

    PubMed Central

    Hedberg, Thomas D.; Hartman, Nathan W.; Rosche, Phil; Fischer, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Design for Manufacturing (DFM), especially the use of manufacturing knowledge to support design decisions, has received attention in the academic domain. However, industry practice has not been studied enough to provide solutions that are mature for industry. The current state of the art for DFM is often rule-based functionality within Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems that enforce specific design requirements. That rule-based functionality may or may not dynamically affect geometry definition. And, if rule-based functionality exists in the CAD system, it is typically a customization on a case-by-case basis. Manufacturing knowledge is a phrase with vast meanings, which may include knowledge on the effects of material properties decisions, machine and process capabilities, or understanding the unintended consequences of design decisions on manufacturing. One of the DFM questions to answer is how can manufacturing knowledge, depending on its definition, be used earlier in the product lifecycle to enable a more collaborative development environment? This paper will discuss the results of a workshop on manufacturing knowledge that highlights several research questions needing more study. This paper proposes recommendations for investigating the relationship of manufacturing knowledge with shape, behavior, and context characteristics of product to produce a better understanding of what knowledge is most important. In addition, the proposal includes recommendations for investigating the system-level barriers to reusing manufacturing knowledge and how model-based manufacturing may ease the burden of knowledge sharing. Lastly, the proposal addresses the direction of future research for holistic solutions of using manufacturing knowledge earlier in the product lifecycle. PMID:27990027

  4. Identified research directions for using manufacturing knowledge earlier in the product lifecycle.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, Thomas D; Hartman, Nathan W; Rosche, Phil; Fischer, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Design for Manufacturing (DFM), especially the use of manufacturing knowledge to support design decisions, has received attention in the academic domain. However, industry practice has not been studied enough to provide solutions that are mature for industry. The current state of the art for DFM is often rule-based functionality within Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems that enforce specific design requirements. That rule-based functionality may or may not dynamically affect geometry definition. And, if rule-based functionality exists in the CAD system, it is typically a customization on a case-by-case basis. Manufacturing knowledge is a phrase with vast meanings, which may include knowledge on the effects of material properties decisions, machine and process capabilities, or understanding the unintended consequences of design decisions on manufacturing. One of the DFM questions to answer is how can manufacturing knowledge, depending on its definition, be used earlier in the product lifecycle to enable a more collaborative development environment? This paper will discuss the results of a workshop on manufacturing knowledge that highlights several research questions needing more study. This paper proposes recommendations for investigating the relationship of manufacturing knowledge with shape, behavior, and context characteristics of product to produce a better understanding of what knowledge is most important. In addition, the proposal includes recommendations for investigating the system-level barriers to reusing manufacturing knowledge and how model-based manufacturing may ease the burden of knowledge sharing. Lastly, the proposal addresses the direction of future research for holistic solutions of using manufacturing knowledge earlier in the product lifecycle.

  5. The Earlier the Better? Taking the AP® in 10th Grade. Research Report No. 2012-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Awilda; McKillip, Mary E. M.; Niu, Sunny X.

    2013-01-01

    In this report, the authors examine the impact of scoring a 1 or 2 on an AP® Exam in 10th grade on later AP Exam participation and performance. As access to AP courses increases within and across schools, a growing number of students are taking AP courses and exams in the earlier grades of high school. Using a matched sample of AP and no-AP…

  6. Conceptualizing Indicator Domains for Evaluating Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen; Rowe, Wendy; Ferkins, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to share thinking about meta-level evaluation of action research (AR), and to introduce indicator domains for assessing and measuring inputs, outputs and outcomes. Meta-level and multi-site evaluation has been rare in AR beyond project implementation and participant satisfaction. The paper is the first of several…

  7. Elementary Physics Considerations Indicate an Elegant Construction Technique For the Pyramids At Giza. Our Information Indicates They and the Sphinx Were Engineered and Built Around BCE 2500, Not Earlier!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mc Leod, Roger D.; Mc Leod, David M.

    2002-10-01

    Archimedes articulated an applied physics experience of many children who observe the upward movement of floating objects when they get into their "tubs." This same principle can effectively allow massive Egyptian construction blocks and obelisks to be elevated and erected. Platform bases at Giza were leveled by means of water channels that were cut into the rock. There is a canal behind the pyramids. The bathtub technique can elevate or transport the water-borne block (or obelisk) to sites involved, including the Sphinx temple. Water outflow from the barge locks (tubs) can erode Sphinx surrounds, without invoking 7000+ year-ago rainy weather. Our previously detailed account of how constellations, Canis Major, Phoenix, Leo can be detected at sites like America's Stonehenge, while they are below the local horizon, also indicates ancient Egyptians may have done likewise. Orion, or Leo the Sphinx could have been detected while they were in the "underground," around BCE 2500, in alignments otherwise requiring a date of BCE 1050.

  8. Zoonotic infections in Alaska: disease prevalence, potential impact of climate change and recommended actions for earlier disease detection, research, prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Hueffer, Karsten; Parkinson, Alan J; Gerlach, Robert; Berner, James

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 60 years, Alaska's mean annual temperature has increased by 1.6°C, more than twice the rate of the rest of the United States. As a result, climate change impacts are more pronounced here than in other regions of the United States. Warmer temperatures may allow some infected host animals to survive winters in larger numbers, increase their population and expand their range of habitation thus increasing the opportunity for transmission of infection to humans. Subsistence hunting and gathering activities may place rural residents of Alaska at a greater risk of acquiring zoonotic infections than urban residents. Known zoonotic diseases that occur in Alaska include brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis, giardiasis/cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, rabies and tularemia. Actions for early disease detection, research and prevention and control include: (1) determining baseline levels of infection and disease in both humans and host animals; (2) conducting more research to understand the ecology of infection in the Arctic environment; (3) improving active and passive surveillance systems for infection and disease in humans and animals; (4) improving outreach, education and communication on climate-sensitive infectious diseases at the community, health and animal care provider levels; and (5) improving coordination between public health and animal health agencies, universities and tribal health organisations.

  9. Zoonotic infections in Alaska: disease prevalence, potential impact of climate change and recommended actions for earlier disease detection, research, prevention and control

    PubMed Central

    Hueffer, Karsten; Parkinson, Alan J.; Gerlach, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 60 years, Alaska's mean annual temperature has increased by 1.6°C, more than twice the rate of the rest of the United States. As a result, climate change impacts are more pronounced here than in other regions of the United States. Warmer temperatures may allow some infected host animals to survive winters in larger numbers, increase their population and expand their range of habitation thus increasing the opportunity for transmission of infection to humans. Subsistence hunting and gathering activities may place rural residents of Alaska at a greater risk of acquiring zoonotic infections than urban residents. Known zoonotic diseases that occur in Alaska include brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis, giardiasis/cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, rabies and tularemia. Actions for early disease detection, research and prevention and control include: (1) determining baseline levels of infection and disease in both humans and host animals; (2) conducting more research to understand the ecology of infection in the Arctic environment; (3) improving active and passive surveillance systems for infection and disease in humans and animals; (4) improving outreach, education and communication on climate-sensitive infectious diseases at the community, health and animal care provider levels; and (5) improving coordination between public health and animal health agencies, universities and tribal health organisations. PMID:23399790

  10. A Review on the research and practice of city sustainable development indicators and indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Ning

    2017-10-01

    City sustainable development indicators and indices have become a hot issue in academic research and practical application, alongside the high-speed worldwide urbanization and driven by the actual managing demand. This article is aimed at a clear understanding of the progress in relevant research and practice. This is done by collecting common indicators and indices for city sustainable development and making comparison of the assessment process and contents, so as to find out main obstacles for the development of this research field and explore the direction for efforts to be made next step. The article divides these indicators and indices into two categories: ① indicators serving as single index which can provide an explicit description on the relationship between economic activities and environmental carrying capacity, but have a narrow scope of assessment and use complicated methods to collect and calculate data; ② indices based on indicator systems which can represent multiple processes, could reflect the view of strong sustainability and are easy to use, but can hardly depict the responding relationship between social, environmental and economic changes for city sustainable development or assure the scientific rigor of weight setting. Practices on indicators and indices for city sustainable development was summarized, and its problems were reviewed with China being representative of transitioning countries. According to the review, great progress has been achieved in the research and practice of indicators and indices for city sustainable development, but consistency of theories, rationality of indicators and scientific rigor of methodology are to be improved significantly.

  11. Delivering Quality and Choice. How Performance Indicators Help and How Performance Indicators Hinder. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Adrian; Simpson, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    This document reports on a research project held in 2005, which looked to see how performance indicators related to area needs. It shows the results of research across four Learning and Skills Council (LSC) areas, with contributions also from national stakeholders and other witnesses. Findings include: (1) Performance indicators are regarded as…

  12. An earlier de motu cordis.

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Walter J.

    2004-01-01

    Thirteenth century medical science, like medieval scholarship in general, was directed at reconciliation of Greek philosophy/science with prevailing medieval theology and philosophy. Peter of Spain [later Pope John XXI] was the leading medical scholar of his time. Peter wrote a long book on the soul. Imbedded in it was a chapter on the motion of the heart. Peter's De Motu was based on his own medical experience and Galen's De Usu Partium and De Usu Respirationis and De Usu Pulsuum. This earlier De Motu defines a point on the continuum of intellectual development leading to us and into the future. Thirteenth century scholarship relied on past authority to a degree that continues to puzzle and beg explanation. Images Fig. 1 PMID:17060956

  13. A proposal for a quantitative indicator of original research output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onofrio, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    The use of quantitative indicators of scientific productivity seems now quite widespread for assessing researchers and research institutions. There is a general perception, however, that these indicators are not necessarily representative of the originality of the research carried out, being primarily indicative of a more or less prolific scientific activity and of the size of the targeted scientific subcommunity. We first discuss some of the drawbacks of the broadly adopted h-index and of the fact that it represents, in an average sense, an indicator derivable from the total number of citations. Then we propose an indicator which, although not immune from biases, seems more in line with the general expectations for quantifying what is typically considered original work. Qualitative arguments on how different indicators may shape the future of science are finally discussed.

  14. Exploring indicators of interdisciplinary research and education success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Gemma; Blanch, Anicet; Blaschke, Alfred Paul; Brouwer, Roy; Bucher, Christian; Farnleitner, Andreas; Fürnkranz-Prskawetz, Alexia; Loucks, Daniel Pete; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Parajka, Juraj; Pfeifer, Norbert; Rechberger, Helmut; Wagner, Wolfgang; Zessner, Matthias; Blöschl, Günter

    2017-04-01

    Interdisciplinary research and education programmes aim to produce groundbreaking research, often on socially relevant topics, and to produce experts with the skills to work across disciplines. However, there are many outstanding questions on the effectiveness of interdisciplinary programmes. Such as whether they produce novel and groundbreaking research, whether interdisciplinary graduates are leading to a more interdisciplinary culture of research and practice in academia and beyond, and whether an interdisciplinary approach can more effectively address issues of societal relevance than a mono-disciplinary approach. The Vienna Doctoral Programme on Water Resource Systems at Vienna University of Technology is currently in its eighth year and offers a valuable case study to contribute to understanding interdisciplinary research and education. Ten different research fields are covered by the Programme and because collaborative research takes place both between researchers from different research fields (cross-disciplinary research) and from researchers from the same research field (mono-disciplinary research) we are able to compare the impacts of each research type. We specifically explored three questions: i) whether cross-disciplinary research leads to more innovative scientific findings than mono-disciplinary research, ii) whether cross-disciplinary researchers develop professional skills that benefit their future careers, and iii) whether cross-disciplinary research produces findings of greater societal relevance than mono-disciplinary research. To conduct the evaluation we identified a variety of indicators. Journal impact factors (IF) and citation rates of ISI indexed publications were used to compare scientific innovativeness. Based on these indicators, our findings suggest that cross-disciplinary work is more innovative. The cross-disciplinary work is published in journals with a slightly higher impact factor (mean IF is 2.36) and receives slightly more

  15. Social Indicators Research and Health-Related Quality of Life Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalos, Alex C.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this essay is to build a bridge between two intersecting areas of research, social indicators research on the one hand and health-related quality of life research on the other. The first substantive section of the paper introduces key concepts and definitions in the social indicators research tradition, e.g., social indicators,…

  16. [An earlier diagnosis of depression].

    PubMed

    Campagne, D M

    Data of the last decade indicate that, in the Western world and also in Spain, an important part of general practicioners' consultations are related to mental health, but depression is consistently underdiagnosed. Causes are lack of time and back-up, as well as lack of specific training. In Spain, there is no national health service primary care database with actualized clinical information as to mental health. There is evident clinical interest in a more agile diagnostic, resulting from a recollection of data from voluntary selective screening and continuing evaluation of adult depression along the model used by other National Health Systems. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Indicators of Early Research Productivity Among Primary Care Fellows

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, John F; Lanphear, Bruce P; Curtis, Peter; Vu, Kieu O

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Little is known about the impact of fellowship training in primary care on subsequent research productivity. Our goal was to identify characteristics of research fellows and their training associated with subsequent publications and research funding. DESIGN Mail survey in 1998. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS 1988–1997 graduates of 25 National Research Service Award primary care research fellowships in the United States. OUTCOME MEASURES 1) Publishing 1 or more papers per year since the beginning of fellowship, or 2) serving as principal investigator (PI) on a federal or non-federal grant. RESULTS One hundred forty-six of two hundred fifteen program graduates (68%) completed the survey. The median age was 38 years, and 51% were male. Thirty-two percent had published 1 or more papers per year, and 44% were PIs. Male gender (odds ratio [OR], 3.6; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.4 to 9.2), self-reported allocation of 40% or more of fellowship time to research (OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.8 to 11.2), and having an influential mentor during fellowship (OR, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.5 to 17.2) were independently associated with publishing 1 or more papers per year. Fellows with funding as a PI were also more likely to have an influential mentor (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.3 to 7.2). CONCLUSION Primary care fellows who had influential mentors were more productive in research early after fellowship. Awareness of the indicators of early research success can inform the policies of agencies that fund research training and the curricula of training programs themselves.

  18. Review of Research On Angle-of-Attack Indicator Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vie, Lisa R.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a literature review to determine the potential benefits of a display of angle-of-attack (AoA) on the flight deck of commercial transport that may aid a pilot in energy state awareness, upset recovery, and/or diagnosis of air data system failure. This literature review encompassed an exhaustive list of references available and includes studies on the benefits of displaying AoA information during all phases of flight. It also contains information and descriptions about various AoA indicators such as dial, vertical and horizontal types as well as AoA displays on the primary flight display and the head up display. Any training given on the use of an AoA indicator during the research studies or experiments is also included for review

  19. Assessing research impact in academic clinical medicine: a study using Research Excellence Framework pilot impact indicators

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Funders of medical research the world over are increasingly seeking, in research assessment, to complement traditional output measures of scientific publications with more outcome-based indicators of societal and economic impact. In the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) developed proposals for the Research Excellence Framework (REF) to allocate public research funding to higher education institutions, inter alia, on the basis of the social and economic impact of their research. In 2010, it conducted a pilot exercise to test these proposals and refine impact indicators and criteria. Methods The impact indicators proposed in the 2010 REF impact pilot exercise are critically reviewed and appraised using insights from the relevant literature and empirical data collected for the University of Oxford’s REF pilot submission in clinical medicine. The empirical data were gathered from existing administrative sources and an online administrative survey carried out by the university’s Medical Sciences Division among 289 clinical medicine faculty members (48.1% response rate). Results The feasibility and scope of measuring research impact in clinical medicine in a given university are assessed. Twenty impact indicators from seven categories proposed by HEFCE are presented; their strengths and limitations are discussed using insights from the relevant biomedical and research policy literature. Conclusions While the 2010 pilot exercise has confirmed that the majority of the proposed indicators have some validity, there are significant challenges in operationalising and measuring these indicators reliably, as well as in comparing evidence of research impact across different cases in a standardised manner. It is suggested that the public funding agencies, medical research charities, universities, and the wider medical research community work together to develop more robust methodologies for capturing and describing impact

  20. Emotional Intelligence: What Does the Research Really Indicate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherniss, Cary; Extein, Melissa; Goleman, Daniel; Weissberg, Roger P.

    2006-01-01

    In her critique of emotional intelligence (EI) theory and research, Waterhouse (2006) makes several claims. First, she argues that there are "many conflicting constructs of EI," implying that it cannot be a valid concept given this multiplicity of views. Second, she cites some research and opinion suggesting that "EI has not been differentiated…

  1. Roadway departure warning indicators : synthesis of noise and bicycle research

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-06-01

    The United States National Park Service has voiced concern about roadway departure : warning indicators (rumble strips) being installed in locations that affect the natural : sound environment inside the park. Rumble strips can effectively alert erra...

  2. Mental Indices in Consumers with Disabilities. Research Brief. Summer 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard-Jones, Kathy; Butler, Laura Smith; Prout, H. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    Kentucky's National Core Indicators project exists to develop a set of data elements that are used to report, on a statewide and national basis, the quality of services supporting people with disabilities. This is accomplished in Kentucky by performing a minimum of 400 direct interviews with consumers and their families annually. Collected data…

  3. Toward Explaining Earlier Retirement after 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ippolito, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Rule changes in the social security system and pension plans suggest that labor force participation rates for men aged 55 to 64 fell by 20 percent from 1970 through 1986 because of the increase in social security benefits and a change in private pension rules encouraging earlier retirement. (Author/JOW)

  4. Bibliometric Indicators of University Research Performance in Flanders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Berghe, Herman; Houben, Josee A.; de Bruin, Renger E.; Moed, Henk F.; Kint, Andre; Spruyt, Eric H. J.; Luwel, Marc

    1998-01-01

    Bibliometric studies were conducted on research performance at three Flemish universities: University of Ghent, Catholic University of Leuven, and University of Antwerp. This article outlines the methodology, presents the outcomes for the faculties of medicine, science, and pharmaceutical science; and focuses on the reactions of department…

  5. Does Speech Emerge from Earlier Appearing Oral Motor Behaviors?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Christopher A.; Ruark, Jacki L.

    1996-01-01

    This study of the oral motor behaviors of seven toddlers (age 15 months) may be interpreted to indicate that: (1) mandibular coordination follows a developmental continuum from earlier emerging behaviors, such as chewing and sucking, through babbling, to speech, or (2) unique task demands give rise to distinct mandibular coordinative constraints…

  6. Earlier snowmelt and warming lead to earlier but not necessarily more plant growth.

    PubMed

    Livensperger, Carolyn; Steltzer, Heidi; Darrouzet-Nardi, Anthony; Sullivan, Patrick F; Wallenstein, Matthew; Weintraub, Michael N

    2016-01-01

    Climate change over the past ∼50 years has resulted in earlier occurrence of plant life-cycle events for many species. Across temperate, boreal and polar latitudes, earlier seasonal warming is considered the key mechanism leading to earlier leaf expansion and growth. Yet, in seasonally snow-covered ecosystems, the timing of spring plant growth may also be cued by snowmelt, which may occur earlier in a warmer climate. Multiple environmental cues protect plants from growing too early, but to understand how climate change will alter the timing and magnitude of plant growth, experiments need to independently manipulate temperature and snowmelt. Here, we demonstrate that altered seasonality through experimental warming and earlier snowmelt led to earlier plant growth, but the aboveground production response varied among plant functional groups. Earlier snowmelt without warming led to early leaf emergence, but often slowed the rate of leaf expansion and had limited effects on aboveground production. Experimental warming alone had small and inconsistent effects on aboveground phenology, while the effect of the combined treatment resembled that of early snowmelt alone. Experimental warming led to greater aboveground production among the graminoids, limited changes among deciduous shrubs and decreased production in one of the dominant evergreen shrubs. As a result, we predict that early onset of the growing season may favour early growing plant species, even those that do not shift the timing of leaf expansion. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  7. Alzheimer's and Dementia Testing for Earlier Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... focused on early detection of Alzheimer's disease. Imaging technologies used in Alzheimer's research Structural imaging provides information ... chemical changes linked to specific diseases. Molecular imaging technologies include PET, fMRI and single photon emission computed ...

  8. An earlier origin for the Acheulian.

    PubMed

    Lepre, Christopher J; Roche, Hélène; Kent, Dennis V; Harmand, Sonia; Quinn, Rhonda L; Brugal, Jean-Philippe; Texier, Pierre-Jean; Lenoble, Arnaud; Feibel, Craig S

    2011-08-31

    The Acheulian is one of the first defined prehistoric techno-complexes and is characterized by shaped bifacial stone tools. It probably originated in Africa, spreading to Europe and Asia perhaps as early as ∼1 million years (Myr) ago. The origin of the Acheulian is thought to have closely coincided with major changes in human brain evolution, allowing for further technological developments. Nonetheless, the emergence of the Acheulian remains unclear because well-dated sites older than 1.4 Myr ago are scarce. Here we report on the lithic assemblage and geological context for the Kokiselei 4 archaeological site from the Nachukui formation (West Turkana, Kenya) that bears characteristic early Acheulian tools and pushes the first appearance datum for this stone-age technology back to 1.76 Myr ago. Moreover, co-occurrence of Oldowan and Acheulian artefacts at the Kokiselei site complex indicates that the two technologies are not mutually exclusive time-successive components of an evolving cultural lineage, and suggests that the Acheulian was either imported from another location yet to be identified or originated from Oldowan hominins at this vicinity. In either case, the Acheulian did not accompany the first human dispersal from Africa despite being available at the time. This may indicate that multiple groups of hominins distinguished by separate stone-tool-making behaviours and dispersal strategies coexisted in Africa at 1.76 Myr ago.

  9. Earlier Violent Television Exposure and Later Drug Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Brook, David W.; Katten, Naomi S.; Ning, Yuming; Brook, Judith S.

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the longitudinal pathways from earlier violent television exposure to later drug dependence. African American and Puerto Rican adolescents were interviewed during three points in time (N = 463). Violent television exposure in late adolescence predicted violent television exposure in young adulthood, which in turn was related to tobacco/marijuana use, nicotine dependence, and later drug dependence. Some policy and clinical implications suggest: a) regulating the times when violent television is broadcast; b) creating developmentally targeted prevention/treatment programs; and c) recognizing that watching violent television may serve as a cue regarding increased susceptibility to nicotine and drug dependence. PMID:18612881

  10. Accreting Binary Populations in the Earlier Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornschemeier, Ann

    2010-01-01

    It is now understood that X-ray binaries dominate the hard X-ray emission from normal star-forming galaxies. Thanks to the deepest (2-4 Ms) Chandra surveys, such galaxies are now being studied in X-rays out to z approximates 4. Interesting X-ray stacking results (based on 30+ galaxies per redshift bin) suggest that the mean rest-frame 2-10 keV luminosity from z=3-4 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), is comparable to the most powerful starburst galaxies in the local Universe. This result possibly indicates a similar production mechanism for accreting binaries over large cosmological timescales. To understand and constrain better the production of X-ray binaries in high-redshift LBGs, we have utilized XMM-Newton observations of a small sample of z approximates 0.1 GALEX-selected Ultraviolet-Luminous Galaxies (UVLGs); local analogs to high-redshift LBGs. Our observations enable us to study the X-ray emission from LBG-like galaxies on an individual basis, thus allowing us to constrain object-to-object variances in this population. We supplement these results with X-ray stacking constraints using the new 3.2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (completed spring 2010) and LBG candidates selected from HST, Swift UVOT, and ground-based data. These measurements provide new X-ray constraints that sample well the entire z=0-4 baseline

  11. Changes toward earlier streamflow timing across western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, I.T.; Cayan, D.R.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    The highly variable timing of streamflow in snowmelt-dominated basins across western North America is an important consequence, and indicator, of climate fluctuations. Changes in the timing of snowmelt-derived streamflow from 1948 to 2002 were investigated in a network of 302 western North America gauges by examining the center of mass for flow, spring pulse onset dates, and seasonal fractional flows through trend and principal component analyses. Statistical analysis of the streamflow timing measures with Pacific climate indicators identified local and key large-scale processes that govern the regionally coherent parts of the changes and their relative importance. Widespread and regionally coherent trends toward earlier onsets of springtime snowmelt and streamflow have taken place across most of western North America, affecting an area that is much larger than previously recognized. These timing changes have resulted in increasing fractions of annual flow occurring earlier in the water year by 1-4 weeks. The immediate (or proximal) forcings for the spatially coherent parts of the year-to-year fluctuations and longer-term trends of streamflow timing have been higher winter and spring temperatures. Although these temperature changes are partly controlled by the decadal-scale Pacific climate mode [Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO)], a separate and significant part of the variance is associated with a springtime warming trend that spans the PDO phases. ?? 2005 American Meteorological Society.

  12. Earlier vegetation green-up has reduced spring dust storms

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Bihang; Guo, Li; Li, Ning; Chen, Jin; Lin, Henry; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Shen, Miaogen; Rao, Yuhan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The observed decline of spring dust storms in Northeast Asia since the 1950s has been attributed to surface wind stilling. However, spring vegetation growth could also restrain dust storms through accumulating aboveground biomass and increasing surface roughness. To investigate the impacts of vegetation spring growth on dust storms, we examine the relationships between recorded spring dust storm outbreaks and satellite-derived vegetation green-up date in Inner Mongolia, Northern China from 1982 to 2008. We find a significant dampening effect of advanced vegetation growth on spring dust storms (r = 0.49, p = 0.01), with a one-day earlier green-up date corresponding to a decrease in annual spring dust storm outbreaks by 3%. Moreover, the higher correlation (r = 0.55, p < 0.01) between green-up date and dust storm outbreak ratio (the ratio of dust storm outbreaks to times of strong wind events) indicates that such effect is independent of changes in surface wind. Spatially, a negative correlation is detected between areas with advanced green-up dates and regional annual spring dust storms (r = −0.49, p = 0.01). This new insight is valuable for understanding dust storms dynamics under the changing climate. Our findings suggest that dust storms in Inner Mongolia will be further mitigated by the projected earlier vegetation green-up in the warming world. PMID:25343265

  13. Earlier vegetation green-up has reduced spring dust storms.

    PubMed

    Fan, Bihang; Guo, Li; Li, Ning; Chen, Jin; Lin, Henry; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Shen, Miaogen; Rao, Yuhan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Lei

    2014-10-24

    The observed decline of spring dust storms in Northeast Asia since the 1950s has been attributed to surface wind stilling. However, spring vegetation growth could also restrain dust storms through accumulating aboveground biomass and increasing surface roughness. To investigate the impacts of vegetation spring growth on dust storms, we examine the relationships between recorded spring dust storm outbreaks and satellite-derived vegetation green-up date in Inner Mongolia, Northern China from 1982 to 2008. We find a significant dampening effect of advanced vegetation growth on spring dust storms (r = 0.49, p = 0.01), with a one-day earlier green-up date corresponding to a decrease in annual spring dust storm outbreaks by 3%. Moreover, the higher correlation (r = 0.55, p < 0.01) between green-up date and dust storm outbreak ratio (the ratio of dust storm outbreaks to times of strong wind events) indicates that such effect is independent of changes in surface wind. Spatially, a negative correlation is detected between areas with advanced green-up dates and regional annual spring dust storms (r = -0.49, p = 0.01). This new insight is valuable for understanding dust storms dynamics under the changing climate. Our findings suggest that dust storms in Inner Mongolia will be further mitigated by the projected earlier vegetation green-up in the warming world.

  14. U.S. EPA OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) has prepared fifteen technical guidelines to evaluate the suitability of an ecological indicator in a monitoring program. The guidelines were fashioned to provide a consistent framework for indicator review and to provide direction f...

  15. EPA OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES FOR TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) has prepared fifteen technical guidelines to evaluate the suitability of an ecological indicator in a monitoring program. The guidelines were fashioned to provide a consistent framework for indicator review and to provide direction f...

  16. Applying Quality Indicators to Single-Case Research Designs Used in Special Education: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Jeremy D.; Dattilo, John; Rusch, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how specific guidelines and heuristics have been used to identify methodological rigor associated with single-case research designs based on quality indicators developed by Horner et al. Specifically, this article describes how literature reviews have applied Horner et al.'s quality indicators and evidence-based criteria.…

  17. A 2-1-1 research collaboration: participant accrual and service quality indicators.

    PubMed

    Eddens, Katherine S; Alcaraz, Kassandra I; Kreuter, Matthew W; Rath, Suchitra; Greer, Regina

    2012-12-01

    In times of crises, 2-1-1 serves as a lifeline in many ways. These crises often cause a spike in call volume that can challenge 2-1-1's ability to meet its service quality standards. For researchers gathering data through 2-1-1s, a sudden increase in call volume might reduce accrual as 2-1-1 has less time to administer study protocols. Research activities imbedded in 2-1-1 systems may affect directly 2-1-1 service quality indicators. Using data from a 2-1-1 research collaboration, this paper examines the impact of crises on call volume to 2-1-1, how call volume affects research participant accrual through 2-1-1, and how research recruitment efforts affect 2-1-1 service quality indicators. t-tests were used to examine the effect of call volume on research participant accrual. Linear and logistic regressions were used to examine the effect of research participant accrual on 2-1-1 service quality indicators. Data were collected June 2010-December 2011; data were analyzed in 2012. Findings from this collaboration suggest that crises causing spikes in call volume adversely affect 2-1-1 service quality indicators as well as accrual of research participants. Administering a brief (2-3 minute) health risk assessment did not affect service quality negatively, but administering a longer (15-18 minute) survey had a modest adverse effect on these indicators. In 2-1-1 research collaborations, both partners need to understand the dynamic relationship among call volume, research accrual, and service quality and adjust expectations accordingly. If research goals include administering a longer survey, increased staffing of 2-1-1 call centers may be needed to avoid compromising service quality. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Indicators as Judgment Devices: An Empirical Study of Citizen Bibliometrics in Research Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammarfelt, Björn; Rushforth, Alexander D.

    2017-01-01

    A researcher's number of publications has been a fundamental merit in the competition for academic positions since the late 18th century. Today, the simple counting of publications has been supplemented with a whole range of bibliometric indicators, which supposedly not only measures the volume of research but also its impact. In this study, we…

  19. Teaching and Research Quality Indicators and the Shaping of Higher Education. AIR 1997 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Elizabeth C.; Patrick, William J.

    Two important sets of performance indicators for institutions of higher education have become established in the United Kingdom: research quality ratings and teaching quality ratings. The research quality ratings and, to a lesser extent, the teaching quality ratings influence the level of government funding provided to higher education…

  20. Trend of earlier spring in central Europe continued

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungersböck, Markus; Jurkovic, Anita; Koch, Elisabeth; Lipa, Wolfgang; Scheifinger, Helfried; Zach-Hermann, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    Modern phenology is the study of the timing of recurring biological events in the animal and plant world, the causes of their timing with regard to biotic and abiotic forces, and the interrelation among phases of the same or different species. The relationship between phenology and climate explains the importance of plant phenology for Climate Change studies. Plants require light, water, oxygen mineral nutrients and suitable temperature to grow. In temperate zones the seasonal life cycle of plants is primarily controlled by temperature and day length. Higher spring air temperatures are resulting in an earlier onset of the phenological spring in temperate and cool climate. On the other hand changes in phenology due to climate change do have impact on the climate system itself. Vegetation is a dynamic factor in the earth - climate system and has positive and negative feedback mechanisms to the biogeochemical and biogeophysical fluxes to the atmosphere Since the mid of the 1980s spring springs earlier in Europe and autumn is shifting back to the end of the year resulting in a longer vegetation period. The advancement of spring can be clearly attributed to temperature increase in the months prior to leaf unfolding and flowering, the timing of autumn is more complex and cannot easily be attributed to one or some few parameters. To demonstrate that the observed advancement of spring since the mid of 1980s is pro-longed in 2001 to 2010 and the delay of fall and the lengthening of the growing season is confirmed in the last decade we picked out several indicator plants from the PEP725 database www.pep725.eu. The PEP725 database collects data from different European network operators and thus offers a unique compilation of phenological observations; the database is regularly updated. The data follow the same classification scheme, the so called BBCH coding system so they can be compared. Lilac Syringa vulgaris, birch Betula pendula, beech Fagus and horse chestnut Aesculus

  1. Reviewers’ Ratings and Bibliometric Indicators: Hand in Hand When Assessing Over Research Proposals?

    PubMed Central

    Cabezas-Clavijo, Álvaro; Robinson-García, Nicolás; Escabias, Manuel; Jiménez-Contreras, Evaristo

    2013-01-01

    Background The peer review system has been traditionally challenged due to its many limitations especially for allocating funding. Bibliometric indicators may well present themselves as a complement. Objective We analyze the relationship between peers’ ratings and bibliometric indicators for Spanish researchers in the 2007 National R&D Plan for 23 research fields. Methods and Materials We analyze peers’ ratings for 2333 applications. We also gathered principal investigators’ research output and impact and studied the differences between accepted and rejected applications. We used the Web of Science database and focused on the 2002-2006 period. First, we analyzed the distribution of granted and rejected proposals considering a given set of bibliometric indicators to test if there are significant differences. Then, we applied a multiple logistic regression analysis to determine if bibliometric indicators can explain by themselves the concession of grant proposals. Results 63.4% of the applications were funded. Bibliometric indicators for accepted proposals showed a better previous performance than for those rejected; however the correlation between peer review and bibliometric indicators is very heterogeneous among most areas. The logistic regression analysis showed that the main bibliometric indicators that explain the granting of research proposals in most cases are the output (number of published articles) and the number of papers published in journals that belong to the first quartile ranking of the Journal Citations Report. Discussion Bibliometric indicators predict the concession of grant proposals at least as well as peer ratings. Social Sciences and Education are the only areas where no relation was found, although this may be due to the limitations of the Web of Science’s coverage. These findings encourage the use of bibliometric indicators as a complement to peer review in most of the analyzed areas. PMID:23840840

  2. Traffic fatality indicators in Brazil: State diagnosis based on data envelopment analysis research.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Jorge Tiago; Shen, Yongjun; Hermans, Elke; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert; Ferraz, Antonio Clóvis Pinto

    2015-08-01

    The intense economic growth experienced by Brazil in recent decades and its consequent explosive motorization process have evidenced an undesirable impact: the increasing and unbroken trend in traffic fatality numbers. In order to contribute to road safety diagnosis on a national level, this study presents a research into two main indicators available in Brazil: mortality rate (represented by fatalities per capita) and fatality rate (represented by two sub-indicators, i.e., fatalities per vehicle and fatalities per vehicle kilometer traveled). These indicators were aggregated into a composite indicator or index through a multiple layer data envelopment analysis (DEA) composite indicator model, which looks for the optimum combination of indicators' weights for each decision-making unit, in this case 27 Brazilian states. The index score represents the road safety performance, based on which a ranking of states can be made. Since such a model has never been applied for road safety evaluation in Brazil, its parameters were calibrated based on the experience of more consolidated European Union research in ranking its member countries using DEA techniques. Secondly, cluster analysis was conducted aiming to provide more realistic performance comparisons and, finally, the sensitivity of the results was measured through a bootstrapping method application. It can be concluded that by combining fatality indicators, defining clusters and applying bootstrapping procedures a trustworthy ranking can be created, which is valuable for nationwide road safety planning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Measuring Infant and Young Child Complementary Feeding Practices: Indicators, Current Practice, and Research Gaps.

    PubMed

    Ruel, Marie T

    2017-01-01

    The publication of the WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators in 2008 equipped the nutrition and broader development community with an invaluable tool for measuring, documenting, and advocating for faster progress in improving these practices in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The indicators, with 5 of them focusing on complementary feeding (CF) practices, were originally designed for population level assessment, targeting, monitoring, and evaluation. This chapter takes stock of where we are with the existing CF indicators: it reviews how the indicators have been used, what we have learned, and what their strengths and limitations are, and it suggests a way forward. We find that the indicators have been used extensively for population level assessments and country comparisons, and to track progress. They have also been adopted by researchers in program impact evaluations and in research seeking to understand the determinants and consequences of poor CF practices for child growth and development outcomes. In addition to generating a wealth of knowledge and unveiling the severity of the global problem of poor CF practices in LMICs, the indicators have been an invaluable tool to raise awareness and call for urgent action on improving CF practices at scale. The indicators have strengths and limitations, which are summarized in this chapter. Although enormous progress has been achieved since the indicators were released in 2008, we feel it is time to reflect and revisit the CF indicators, improve them, develop new ones, and promote their appropriate use. Better indicators are critically important to stimulate action and investments in improving CF practices at scale. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Scientific Research in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Potential for Excellence and Indicators of Underdevelopment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshayea, Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the status of scientific research and development efforts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and then sheds lights on the potential for excellence in this area in terms of organization and structure, financing and partnership, and human resources. Accordingly, the study reviews both achievements and indicators of underdevelopment…

  5. Pursuing Quality Evidence: Applying Single-Subject Quality Indicators to Non-Experimental Qualitative Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, Robert A.; Yamamoto, Kathryn K.; Folk, Eric; Kong, Eran; Otsuji, Derek N.

    2013-01-01

    The need for quality evidence in support of strategies used while working with persons with autism and intellectual disability (ID) has been long been recognized by researchers and practitioners. The authors reviewed and applied a number of evidence-based indicators, developed through the "What Works Clearinghouse" (WWC), to the conduct…

  6. Relationships between Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Statistics and Bibliometric Indicators: A Principal Components Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Dean

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed 2005-2006 Web of Science bibliometric data from institutions belonging to the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and corresponding ARL statistics to find any associations between indicators from the two data sets. Principal components analysis on 36 variables from 103 universities revealed obvious associations between…

  7. Scientific Knowledge Suppresses but Does Not Supplant Earlier Intuitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shtulman, Andrew; Valcarcel, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    When students learn scientific theories that conflict with their earlier, naive theories, what happens to the earlier theories? Are they overwritten or merely suppressed? We investigated this question by devising and implementing a novel speeded-reasoning task. Adults with many years of science education verified two types of statements as quickly…

  8. Socioeconomic indicators in epidemiologic research: A practical example from the LIFEPATH study

    PubMed Central

    d’Errico, Angelo; Ricceri, Fulvio; Stringhini, Silvia; Carmeli, Cristian; Kivimaki, Mika; Bartley, Mel; McCrory, Cathal; Bochud, Murielle; Vollenweider, Peter; Tumino, Rosario; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Barros, Henrique; Giles, Graham; Severi, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Background Several social indicators have been used in epidemiological research to describe socioeconomic position (SEP) of people in societies. Among SEP indicators, those more frequently used are education, occupational class and income. Differences in the incidence of several health outcomes have been reported consistently, independently from the indicator employed. Main objectives of the study were to present the socioeconomic classifications of the social indicators which will be employed throughout the LIFEPATH project and to compare social gradients in all-cause mortality observed in the participating adult cohorts using the different SEP indicators. Methods Information on the available social indicators (education, own and father’s occupational class, income) from eleven adult cohorts participating in LIFEPATH was collected and harmonized. Mortality by SEP for each indicator was estimated by Poisson regression on each cohort and then evaluated using a meta-analytical approach. Results In the meta-analysis, among men mortality was significantly inversely associated with both occupational class and education, but not with father’s occupational class; among women, the increase in mortality in lower social strata was smaller than among men and, except for a slight increase in the lowest education category, no significant differences were found. Conclusions Among men, the proposed three-level classifications of occupational class and education were found to predict differences in mortality which is consistent with previous research. Results on women suggest that classifying them through their sole SEP, without considering that of their partners, may imply a misclassification of their social position leading to attenuation of mortality differences. PMID:28557991

  9. Merging universal and indicated prevention programs: the Fast Track model. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    PubMed

    2000-01-01

    Fast Track is a multisite, multicomponent preventive intervention for young children at high risk for long-term antisocial behavior. Based on a comprehensive developmental model, this intervention includes a universal-level classroom program plus social-skill training, academic tutoring, parent training, and home visiting to improve competencies and reduce problems in a high-risk group of children selected in kindergarten. The theoretical principles and clinical strategies utilized in the Fast Track Project are described to illustrate the interplay between basic developmental research, the understanding of risk and protective factors, and a research-based model of preventive intervention that integrates universal and indicated models of prevention.

  10. Indicators of ocean health and human health: developing a research and monitoring framework.

    PubMed Central

    Knap, Anthony; Dewailly, Eric; Furgal, Chris; Galvin, Jennifer; Baden, Dan; Bowen, Robert E; Depledge, Michael; Duguay, Linda; Fleming, Lora E; Ford, Tim; Moser, Fredricka; Owen, Richard; Suk, William A; Unluata, Umit

    2002-01-01

    We need to critically assess the present quality of the marine ecosystem, especially the connection between ecosystem change and threats to human health. In this article we review the current state of indicators to link changes in marine organisms with eventual effects to human health, identify research opportunities in the use of indicators of ocean and human health, and discuss how to establish collaborations between national and international governmental and private sector groups. We present a synthesis of the present state of understanding of the connection between ocean health and human health, a discussion of areas where resources are required, and a discussion of critical research needs and a template for future work in this field. To understand fully the interactions between ocean health and human health, programs should be organized around a "models-based" approach focusing on critical themes and attributes of marine environmental and public health risks. Given the extent and complex nature of ocean and human health issues, a program networking across geographic and disciplinary boundaries is essential. The overall goal of this approach would be the early detection of potential marine-based contaminants, the protection of marine ecosystems, the prevention of associated human illness, and by implication, the development of products to enhance human well-being. The tight connection between research and monitoring is essential to develop such an indicator-based effort. PMID:12204815

  11. Scientometric indicators for Brazilian research on High Energy Physics, 1983-2013.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Gonzalo R; Vanz, Samile A S; Barbosa, Marcia C

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of Brazilian research on High Energy Physics (HEP) indexed by Web of Science (WoS) from 1983 to 2013. Scientometric indicators for output, collaboration and impact were used to characterize the field under study. The results show that the Brazilian articles account for 3% of total HEP research worldwide and that the sharp rise in the scientific activity between 2009 and 2013 may have resulted from the consolidation of graduate programs, the increase of the funding and of the international collaboration as well as the implementation of the Rede Nacional de Física de Altas Energias (RENAFAE) in 2008. Our results also indicate that the collaboration patterns in terms of the authors, the institutions and the countries confirm the presence of Brazil in multinational Big Science experiments, which may also explain the prevalence of foreign citing documents (all types), emphasizing the international prestige and visibility of the output of Brazilian scientists. We concluded that the scientometric indicators suggested scientific maturity in the Brazilian HEP community due to its long history of experimental research.

  12. Deriving evaluation indicators for knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in the context of climate research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treffeisen, Renate; Grosfeld, Klaus; Kuhlmann, Franziska

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in the field of climate science have captured intensive attention in recent years as being an important part of research activities. Therefore, the demand and pressure to develop a set of indicators for the evaluation of different activities in this field have increased, too. Research institutes are being asked more and more to build up structures in order to map these activities and, thus, are obliged to demonstrate the success of these efforts. This paper aims to serve as an input to stimulate further reflection on the field of evaluation of knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in the context of climate sciences. The work performed in this paper is embedded in the efforts of the German Helmholtz Association in the research field of earth and environment and is driven by the need to apply suitable indicators for knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in climate research center evaluations. We carry out a comparative analysis of three long-term activities and derive a set of indicators for measuring their output and outcome by balancing the wide diversity and range of activity contents as well as the different tools to realize them. The case examples are based on activities which are part of the regional Helmholtz Climate Initiative Regional Climate Change (REKLIM) and the Climate Office for Polar Regions and Sea Level Rise at the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research. Both institutional units have been working on a wide range of different knowledge transfer and dialogue processes since 2008/2009. We demonstrate that indicators for the evaluation must be based on the unique objectives of the individual activities and the framework they are embedded in (e.g., research foci which provide the background for the performed knowledge transfer and dialogue processes) but can partly be classified in a principle two-dimensional scheme. This scheme might serve as a usable basis for

  13. The methodological quality of nurse-sensitive indicators in Dutch hospitals: A descriptive exploratory research study.

    PubMed

    Kieft, R A M M; Stalpers, D; Jansen, A P M; Francke, A L; Delnoij, D M J

    2018-06-01

    Nurse-sensitive indicators (NSIs) are increasingly being developed and used to establish quality of nursing care in Western countries. The objective was to gain insights into the methodological quality of mandatory NSIs in Dutch hospitals, including indicators for pain, wound care, malnutrition and delirium. A descriptive exploratory design was used, starting with desk research into publicly available documents and reports describing the development of the NSIs included in this study. We used the validated Appraisal of Indicators through Research and Evaluation (AIRE) instrument to evaluate the methodological quality. Although the purpose and relevance of each individual NSI have been described, no detailed information about the criteria for selecting these topics is available. It is not clear which specific stakeholders participated and how their input was used. We found no information about the process of collecting and compiling scientific evidence. It is unclear whether and to what extent the usability of NSIs has been tested. The methodological quality of NSIs used in Dutch hospitals is less than optimal in various ways and it is therefore questionable if the indicators are accurate enough to identify changes or improve nursing practice. Our study also provides an example of how the methodological quality of NSIs can be assessed systematically, which is relevant considering the increasing use of NSIs in various countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The use of citation indicators to identify and support high-quality research in Poland.

    PubMed

    Pilc, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    In large, mostly English-speaking countries, where the "critical mass" of scientists working in different subfields of science is achieved, the peer review system may be sufficient to assess the quality of scientific research. However, in smaller countries, outside the Anglo-American circle, it is important to introduce different systems to identify research of high quality. In Poland, a parametric system for assessing the quality of research has been introduced. It was largely based on the impact factor of scientific journals. While the use of this indicator to assess research quality is highly questionable, the implementation of the system in the Polish reality is even worse. Therefore it is important to change and improve the system currently used by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education to both evaluate and, more importantly, finance science in Poland. Here, a system based on three factors, i.e. the impact factor, the institutional h-index, and the institutional number of citations, is proposed. The scientific quality of institutions in Division VI: Medical Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences were evaluated and the results were compared with the existing system. Moreover, a method to identify high-quality researchers and institutions at the national level based on the quantity of highly cited papers is shown. Additionally, an attempt to identify the highest quality Polish research on an international level is proposed. This is based on the number of individual citations, the individual h-index, the number of publications, and the priority of the discovery.

  15. Indicators of national focus of the research published by Public Health journals edited in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Packer, Abel Laerte

    2015-07-01

    This report presents a set of bibliometric indicators and statistics which explain the high level of production of articles on research in public and collective health in Brazil which are published in the main nationally edited journals in the field. The predominance of publications in the Portuguese language by Brazilian authors results in a lower impact in terms of citations received as measured by the bibliometric indexes Scimago/Scopus and JCR/WoS. These bibliometric indexes are used to measure the production and performance of research and journals. Nevertheless, the performance of these same journals stands out in SciELO, and is competitive internationally in the broader context of Google Scholar Metrics. The challenge faced by journals in Brazil is developing and applying editorial policies for the valuation of research with a national focus, and its internationalization.

  16. Measurement properties of comorbidity indices in maternal health research: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Kazuyoshi; D'Souza, Rohan; Inada, Eiichi; Lapinsky, Stephen E; Fowler, Robert A

    2017-11-13

    Maternal critical illness occurs in 1.2 to 4.7 of every 1000 live births in the United States and approximately 1 in 100 women who become critically ill will die. Patient characteristics and comorbid conditions are commonly summarized as an index or score for the purpose of predicting the likelihood of dying; however, most such indices have arisen from non-pregnant patient populations. We sought to systematically review comorbidity indices used in health administrative datasets of pregnant women, in order to critically appraise their measurement properties and recommend optimal tools for clinicians and maternal health researchers. We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify studies published from 1946 and 1947, respectively, to May 2017 that describe predictive validity of comorbidity indices using health administrative datasets in the field of maternal health research. We applied a methodological PubMed search filter to identify all studies of measurement properties for each index. Our initial search retrieved 8944 citations. The full text of 61 articles were identified and assessed for final eligibility. Finally, two eligible articles, describing three comorbidity indices appropriate for health administrative data remained: The Maternal comorbidity index, the Charlson comorbidity index and the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index. These studies of identified indices had a low risk of bias. The lack of an established consensus-building methodology in generating each index resulted in marginal sensibility for all indices. Only the Maternal Comorbidity Index was derived and validated specifically from a cohort of pregnant and postpartum women, using an administrative dataset, and had an associated c-statistic of 0.675 (95% Confidence Interval 0.647-0.666) in predicting mortality. Only the Maternal Comorbidity Index directly evaluated measurement properties relevant to pregnant women in health administrative datasets; however, it has only modest

  17. Earlier Age at Menopause, Work and Tobacco Smoke Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Lora E; Levis, Silvina; LeBlanc, William G; Dietz, Noella A; Arheart, Kristopher L; Wilkinson, James D; Clark, John; Serdar, Berrin; Davila, Evelyn P; Lee, David J

    2009-01-01

    Objective Earlier age at menopause onset has been associated with increased all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality risks. Risk of earlier age at menopause associated with primary and secondary tobacco smoke exposure was assessed. Design Cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of US women. Methods 7596 women participants (representing an estimated 79 million US women) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III were asked: time since last menstrual period, occupation, and tobacco use (including home and workplace secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure). Blood cotinine and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were assessed. Logistic regressions for the odds of earlier age at menopause, stratified on race/ethnicity in women 25-50 years and adjusted for survey design, were controlled for age, BMI, education, tobacco smoke exposure, and occupation. Results Among 5029 US women ≥ 25 years with complete data, earlier age at menopause was found among all smokers, and among service and manufacturing industry sector workers. Among women age 25-50 years, there was an increased risk of earlier age at menopause with both primary smoking and with SHS exposure, particularly among Black women. Conclusions Primary tobacco use and SHS exposure were associated with an increased odds of earlier age at menopause in a representative sample of US women. Earlier age at menopause was found for some women worker groups with greater potential occupational SHS exposure. Thus, control of SHS exposures in the workplace may decrease the risk of mortality and morbidity associated with earlier age at menopause in US women workers. PMID:18626414

  18. Indicators of sustainable capacity building for health research: analysis of four African case studies.

    PubMed

    Bates, Imelda; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Squire, S Bertel; Ansong, Daniel; Nhlema-Simwaka, Bertha; Baba, Amuda; Theobald, Sally

    2011-03-28

    Despite substantial investment in health capacity building in developing countries, evaluations of capacity building effectiveness are scarce. By analysing projects in Africa that had successfully built sustainable capacity, we aimed to identify evidence that could indicate that capacity building was likely to be sustainable. Four projects were selected as case studies using pre-determined criteria, including the achievement of sustainable capacity. By mapping the capacity building activities in each case study onto a framework previously used for evaluating health research capacity in Ghana, we were able to identify activities that were common to all projects. We used these activities to derive indicators which could be used in other projects to monitor progress towards building sustainable research capacity. Indicators of sustainable capacity building increased in complexity as projects matured and included- early engagement of stakeholders; explicit plans for scale up; strategies for influencing policies; quality assessments (awareness and experiential stages)- improved resources; institutionalisation of activities; innovation (expansion stage)- funding for core activities secured; management and decision-making led by southern partners (consolidation stage).Projects became sustainable after a median of 66 months. The main challenges to achieving sustainability were high turnover of staff and stakeholders, and difficulties in embedding new activities into existing systems, securing funding and influencing policy development. Our indicators of sustainable capacity building need to be tested prospectively in a variety of projects to assess their usefulness. For each project the evidence required to show that indicators have been achieved should evolve with the project and they should be determined prospectively in collaboration with stakeholders.

  19. New forecasting methodology indicates more disease and earlier mortality ahead for today's younger Americans.

    PubMed

    Reither, Eric N; Olshansky, S Jay; Yang, Yang

    2011-08-01

    Traditional methods of projecting population health statistics, such as estimating future death rates, can give inaccurate results and lead to inferior or even poor policy decisions. A new "three-dimensional" method of forecasting vital health statistics is more accurate because it takes into account the delayed effects of the health risks being accumulated by today's younger generations. Applying this forecasting technique to the US obesity epidemic suggests that future death rates and health care expenditures could be far worse than currently anticipated. We suggest that public policy makers adopt this more robust forecasting tool and redouble efforts to develop and implement effective obesity-related prevention programs and interventions.

  20. Matching the Statistical Model to the Research Question for Dental Caries Indices with Many Zero Counts.

    PubMed

    Preisser, John S; Long, D Leann; Stamm, John W

    2017-01-01

    Marginalized zero-inflated count regression models have recently been introduced for the statistical analysis of dental caries indices and other zero-inflated count data as alternatives to traditional zero-inflated and hurdle models. Unlike the standard approaches, the marginalized models directly estimate overall exposure or treatment effects by relating covariates to the marginal mean count. This article discusses model interpretation and model class choice according to the research question being addressed in caries research. Two data sets, one consisting of fictional dmft counts in 2 groups and the other on DMFS among schoolchildren from a randomized clinical trial comparing 3 toothpaste formulations to prevent incident dental caries, are analyzed with negative binomial hurdle, zero-inflated negative binomial, and marginalized zero-inflated negative binomial models. In the first example, estimates of treatment effects vary according to the type of incidence rate ratio (IRR) estimated by the model. Estimates of IRRs in the analysis of the randomized clinical trial were similar despite their distinctive interpretations. The choice of statistical model class should match the study's purpose, while accounting for the broad decline in children's caries experience, such that dmft and DMFS indices more frequently generate zero counts. Marginalized (marginal mean) models for zero-inflated count data should be considered for direct assessment of exposure effects on the marginal mean dental caries count in the presence of high frequencies of zero counts. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Matching the Statistical Model to the Research Question for Dental Caries Indices with Many Zero Counts

    PubMed Central

    Preisser, John S.; Long, D. Leann; Stamm, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Marginalized zero-inflated count regression models have recently been introduced for the statistical analysis of dental caries indices and other zero-inflated count data as alternatives to traditional zero-inflated and hurdle models. Unlike the standard approaches, the marginalized models directly estimate overall exposure or treatment effects by relating covariates to the marginal mean count. This article discusses model interpretation and model class choice according to the research question being addressed in caries research. Two datasets, one consisting of fictional dmft counts in two groups and the other on DMFS among schoolchildren from a randomized clinical trial (RCT) comparing three toothpaste formulations to prevent incident dental caries, are analysed with negative binomial hurdle (NBH), zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB), and marginalized zero-inflated negative binomial (MZINB) models. In the first example, estimates of treatment effects vary according to the type of incidence rate ratio (IRR) estimated by the model. Estimates of IRRs in the analysis of the RCT were similar despite their distinctive interpretations. Choice of statistical model class should match the study’s purpose, while accounting for the broad decline in children’s caries experience, such that dmft and DMFS indices more frequently generate zero counts. Marginalized (marginal mean) models for zero-inflated count data should be considered for direct assessment of exposure effects on the marginal mean dental caries count in the presence of high frequencies of zero counts. PMID:28291962

  2. Derivation of indices of socioeconomic status for health services research in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Earnest, Arul; Ong, Marcus E.H.; Shahidah, Nur; Chan, Angelique; Wah, Win; Thumboo, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Background Environmental contexts have been shown to predict health behaviours and outcomes either directly or via interaction with individual risk factors. In this paper, we created indexes of socioeconomic disadvantage (SEDI) and socioeconomic advantage (SAI) in Singapore to test the applicability of these concepts in an Asian context. These indices can be used for health service resource allocation, research and advocacy. Methods We used principal component analysis (PCA) to create SEDI and SAI using a structured and iterative process to identify and include influential variables in the final index. Data at the master plan geographical level was obtained from the most recent Singapore census 2010. Results The 3 areas with highest SEDI scores were Outram (120.1), followed by Rochor (111.0) and Downtown Core (110.4). The areas with highest SAI scores were Tanglin, River Valley and Newton. The SAI had 89.6% of variation explained by the final model, as compared to 67.1% for SEDI, and we recommend using both indices in any analysis. Conclusion These indices may prove useful for policy-makers to identify spatially varying risk factors, and in turn help identify geographically targeted intervention programs, which can be more cost effective to conduct. PMID:26844087

  3. Research on energy stock market associated network structure based on financial indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Xian; An, Haizhong

    2018-01-01

    A financial market is a complex system consisting of many interacting units. In general, due to the various types of information exchange within the industry, there is a relationship between the stocks that can reveal their clear structural characteristics. Complex network methods are powerful tools for studying the internal structure and function of the stock market, which allows us to better understand the stock market. Applying complex network methodology, a stock associated network model based on financial indicators is created. Accordingly, we set threshold value and use modularity to detect the community network, and we analyze the network structure and community cluster characteristics of different threshold situations. The study finds that the threshold value of 0.7 is the abrupt change point of the network. At the same time, as the threshold value increases, the independence of the community strengthens. This study provides a method of researching stock market based on the financial indicators, exploring the structural similarity of financial indicators of stocks. Also, it provides guidance for investment and corporate financial management.

  4. Updates on ultrasound research in implant dentistry: a systematic review of potential clinical indications.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Vaishnavi; Chan, Hsun-Liang; MacEachern, Mark; Kripfgans, Oliver D

    2018-05-23

    Ultrasonography has shown promising diagnostic value in dental implant imaging research; however, exactly how ultrasound was used and at what stage of implant therapy it can be applied has not been systematically evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this review is to investigate potential indications of ultrasound use in the three implant treatment phases, namely planning, intraoperative and postoperative phase. Eligible manuscripts were searched in major databases with a combination of key words related to the use of ultrasound imaging in implant therapy. An initial search yielded 414 articles, after further review, 28 articles were finally included for this systematic review. Ultrasound was found valuable, though at various development stages, for evaluating (1) soft tissues, (2) hard tissues (3) vital structures and (4) implant stability. B-mode, the main function to image anatomical structures of interest, has been evaluated in pre-clinical and clinical studies. Quantitative ultrasound parameters, e.g. sound speed and amplitude, are being developed to evaluate implant-bone stability, mainly in simulation and pre-clinical studies. Ultrasound could be potentially useful in all 3 treatment phases. In the planning phase, ultrasound could evaluate vital structures, tissue biotype, ridge width/density, and cortical bone thickness. During surgery, it can provide feedback by identifying vital structures and bone boundary. At follow-up visits, it could evaluate marginal bone level and implant stability. Understanding the current status of ultrasound imaging research for implant therapy would be extremely beneficial for accelerating translational research and its use in dental clinics.

  5. Dendrochronological assessment of drought severity indices for Panola Mountain Research Watershed, Georgia, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, A.; Aulenbach, B. T.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying the relation between drought severity and tree growth is important to predict future growth rates as climate change effects the frequency and severity of future droughts. Two commonly used metrics of drought severity are the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). These indices are often calculated from proximal weather station data and therefore may not be very accurate at the local watershed scale. The accuracy of these commonly used measures of drought severity was compared to a recently developed, locally calibrated model of water limitation based on the difference between potential and actual evapotranspiration (ETDIFF). Relative accuracies of the drought indices were assessed on the strength of correlations with a 20-year tree-ring index chronology (1986-2006) developed from 22 loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) trees in water-limited landscape positions at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed (PMRW), a 41-hectare forested watershed located in north-central Georgia. We used SPI and PDSI index values from the weather station located at the Atlanta Airport, approximately 36 kilometers from PMRW. ETDIFF was calculated based on precipitation, temperature, runoff, and solar radiation data collected at PMRW. Annual index values for all three drought indices were calculated as the mean value over the growing season (May to September). All three indices had significant Pearson correlations with the tree-ring index (p = 0.044, 0.007, 0.002 for SPI, PDSI, and ETDIFF, respectively). The ETDIFF method had the strongest correlation (R2 = 0.40) compared to SPI and PDSI results (R2 = 0.19 and 0.32, respectively). Results suggest SPI and PDSI provided a general measure of drought conditions, however, the locally calibrated model of water limitation appears to measure drought severity more accurately. Future studies on the ecological effects of drought may benefit from adopting ETDIFF as a measure of drought severity.

  6. Indicators of hearing protection use: self-report and researcher observation.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Stephanie C; Neitzel, Richard; Daniell, William E; Seixas, Noah S

    2009-10-01

    Hearing protection devices (HPD) are commonly used to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss. There is a large body of research on hearing protection use in industry, and much of it relies on workers' self-reported use of hearing protection. Based on previous studies in fixed industry, worker self-report has been accepted as an adequate and reliable tool to measure this behavior among workers in many industrial sectors. However, recent research indicates self-reported hearing protection use may not accurately reflect subject behavior in industries with variable noise exposure. This study compares workers' self-reported use of hearing protection with their observed use in three workplaces with two types of noise environments: one construction site and one fixed industry facility with a variable noise environment, and one fixed industry facility with a steady noise environment. Subjects reported their use of hearing protection on self-administered surveys and activity cards, which were validated using researcher observations. The primary outcome of interest in the study was the difference between the self-reported use of hearing protection in high noise on the activity card and survey: (1) over one workday, and (2) over a 2-week period. The primary hypotheses for the study were that subjects in workplaces with variable noise environments would report their use of HPDs less accurately than subjects in the stable noise environment, and that reporting would be less accurate over 2 weeks than over 1 day. In addition to noise variability, other personal and workplace factors thought to affect the accuracy of self-reported hearing protection use were also analyzed. This study found good agreement between subjects' self-reported HPD use and researcher observations. Workers in the steady noise environment self-reported hearing protection use more accurately on the surveys than workers in variable noise environments. The findings demonstrate the potential importance

  7. View northeast, wharf A, portion AA, details showing earlier piers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast, wharf A, portion AA, details showing earlier piers and braces sloping toward water, reused charred plates for existing decking - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  8. Prescription stimulant use is associated with earlier onset of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Moran, Lauren V; Masters, Grace A; Pingali, Samira; Cohen, Bruce M; Liebson, Elizabeth; Rajarethinam, R P; Ongur, Dost

    2015-12-01

    A childhood history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in psychotic disorders, yet prescription stimulants may interact adversely with the physiology of these disorders. Specifically, exposure to stimulants leads to long-term increases in dopamine release. We therefore hypothesized that individuals with psychotic disorders previously exposed to prescription stimulants will have an earlier onset of psychosis. Age of onset of psychosis (AOP) was compared in individuals with and without prior exposure to prescription stimulants while controlling for potential confounding factors. In a sample of 205 patients recruited from an inpatient psychiatric unit, 40% (n = 82) reported use of stimulants prior to the onset of psychosis. Most participants were prescribed stimulants during childhood or adolescence for a diagnosis of ADHD. AOP was significantly earlier in those exposed to stimulants (20.5 vs. 24.6 years stimulants vs. no stimulants, p < 0.001). After controlling for gender, IQ, educational attainment, lifetime history of a cannabis use disorder or other drugs of abuse, and family history of a first-degree relative with psychosis, the association between stimulant exposure and earlier AOP remained significant. There was a significant gender × stimulant interaction with a greater reduction in AOP for females, whereas the smaller effect of stimulant use on AOP in males did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, individuals with psychotic disorders exposed to prescription stimulants had an earlier onset of psychosis, and this relationship did not appear to be mediated by IQ or cannabis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comprehensive methods for earlier detection and monitoring of forest decline

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Pontius; Richard Hallett

    2014-01-01

    Forested ecosystems are threatened by invasive pests, pathogens, and unusual climatic events brought about by climate change. Earlier detection of incipient forest health problems and a quantitatively rigorous assessment method is increasingly important. Here, we describe a method that is adaptable across tree species and stress agents and practical for use in the...

  10. STRATEGIES FOR EVALUATING INDICATORS BASED ON GUIDELINES FROM THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD) has prepared technical guidelines to evaluate the suitability of ecological indicators for monitoring programs. The guidelines were adopted by ORD to provide a consistent framework for indicator review...

  11. Understanding Violence in Contemporary and Earlier Gangs: An Exploratory Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judy P.; Taylor, Jerome

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the theory of reasoned action to demonstrate how it can be applied to understanding gang violence, and illustrates its potential applicability to a pilot sample of 30 contemporary and 18 earlier gangs living in a large metropolitan community. Results indicate this theory has been helpful in explaining higher levels of violence in…

  12. Travelling for earlier surgical treatment: the patient's view.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, M; Donaldson, L J

    1991-01-01

    As part of the northern region's programme within the national waiting list initiative, schemes have been funded to test the feasibility and acceptability of offering patients the opportunity to travel further afield in order to receive earlier treatment. A total of 484 patients experiencing a long wait for routine surgical operations in the northern region were offered the opportunity to receive earlier treatment outside their local health district; 74% of the patients accepted the offer. The initiative was well received by the participating patients and the majority stated that if the need arose on a future occasion they would prefer to travel for treatment rather than have to wait for lengthy periods for treatment at their local hospital. These findings, interpreted in the light of the National Health Service reforms introduced in April 1991, suggest that for some types of care, patients would welcome greater flexibility in the placing of contracts, not merely reinforcement of historical patterns of referral. PMID:1823553

  13. Two new discipline-independent indices to quantify individual's scientific research output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentinuzzi, M. E.; Laciar, E.; Atrio, J. L.

    2007-11-01

    Interest in quantitative measurement of scientific output has been steadily growing because of increasing needs in the evaluation of candidates for new positions and promotions in academic careers. Recently, a new index H was proposed; it is based on an hyperbolic relationship between the number of citations and the number of papers of a given investigator, which intersects with the equality straight line. The crossing point gives the number of papers that received at least H references in a predetermined period of time. Such index neglects the contribution of the less cited papers and depends strongly on the discipline. Herein, using Hirsch's crossing point idea, we propose two new normalized indices, selectivity S and amplitude A, that are independent on the discipline and that take into account the whole spectrum of published and cited papers. The proposed method was applied to 100 scientists using information obtained from SCOPUS. The potential function appeared as the best fit to the data. Correlation coefficients were always high (r = 0.79 ± 0.11). Most of the authors displayed a marked selectivity because a typical researcher concentrates only on a single subject or perhaps a few while a wide reach did not predominate. In conclusion, these parameters are proposed as a way to complement the scientific evaluation process of a candidate.

  14. Benefits and limitations of drug studies in temperament research: biochemical responses as indicators of temperament.

    PubMed

    Netter, Petra

    2018-04-19

    This paper presents a discussion of principles and problems of neurotransmitter challenge tests using examples of experiments, most of which were performed in the author's laboratory. Drugs targeting synthesis, release, receptors or reuptake of dopamine, serotonin and noradrenergic transmitter (TM) systems were used for characterizing or discriminating certain temperament or personality traits and their sub-factors. Any personality or temperament trait is characterized by multiple TM responses, thus constellations of hormone responses to drugs acting on different TM systems or on different sources of TM activity were investigated within individuals in crossover designs. The major conclusions are: (i) intra-individual patterns of hormone responses to different TM-related drugs, or to agonists and antagonists, can help to discriminate subtypes of temperament dimensions, and (ii) the latency and shape of response curves may help specify processes of biological responses related to psychological dimensions and reveal common TM sensitivities in clusters of traits. TM sensitivity, defined by hormone responses, does not always correspond to accompanying behavioural indicators, but may provide more specific information on underlying mechanisms. Additional consideration of drug doses and experimental induction of stressors may serve to identify temperament-related susceptibilities to certain drugs. Limitations of the challenge approach and recommendations for future research are discussed.This article is part of the theme issue 'Diverse perspectives on diversity: multi-disciplinary approaches to taxonomies of individual differences'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  15. Responsible research and innovation indicators for science education assessment: how to measure the impact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heras, Maria; Ruiz-Mallén, Isabel

    2017-12-01

    The emerging paradigm of responsible research and innovation (RRI) in the European Commission policy discourse identifies science education as a key agenda for better equipping students with skills and knowledge to tackle complex societal challenges and foster active citizenship in democratic societies. The operationalisation of this broad approach in science education demands, however, the identification of assessment frameworks able to grasp the complexity of RRI process requirements and learning outcomes within science education practice. This article aims to shed light over the application of the RRI approach in science education by proposing a RRI-based analytical framework for science education assessment. We use such framework to review a sample of empirical studies of science education assessments and critically analyse it under the lenses of RRI criteria. As a result, we identify a set of 86 key RRI assessment indicators in science education related to RRI values, transversal competences and experiential and cognitive aspects of learning. We argue that looking at science education through the lenses of RRI can potentially contribute to the integration of metacognitive skills, emotional aspects and procedural dimensions within impact assessments so as to address the complexity of learning.

  16. Surrogate Indicators of Radionuclide Migration at the Amargosa Desert Research Site, Nye County, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stonestrom, D. A.; Andraski, B. J.; Baker, R. J.; Luo, W.; Michel, R. L.

    2005-05-01

    Contaminant-transport processes are being investigated at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS), adjacent to the Nation's first commercial disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste. Gases containing tritium and radiocarbon are migrating through a 110-m thick unsaturated zone from unlined trenches that received waste from 1962 to 1992. Information on plume dynamics comes from an array of shallow (<2 m) and two vertical arrays of deep (5-109 m) gas-sampling ports, plus ground-water monitoring wells. Migration is dominated by lateral transport in the upper 50 m of sediments. Radiological analyses require ex-situ wet-chemical techniques, because in-situ sensors for the radionuclides of interest do not exist. As at other LLRW-disposal facilities, radionuclides at the ADRS are mixed with varying amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other substances. Halogenated-methanes, -ethanes, and -ethenes dominate the complex mixture of VOCs migrating from the disposal area. These compounds and their degradates provide a distinctive "fingerprint" of contamination originating from low-level radioactive waste. Carbon-dioxide and VOC anomalies provide indicator proxies for radionuclide contamination. Spatial and temporal patterns of co-disposed and byproduct constituents provide field-scale information about physical and biochemical processes involved in transport. Processes include reduction and biorespiration within trenches, and largely non-reactive, barometrically dispersed diffusion away from trenches.

  17. EnviroAtlas: Providing Nationwide Geospatial Ecosystem Goods and Services Indicators and Indices to Inform Decision-Making, Research, and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neale, A. C.

    2016-12-01

    EnviroAtlas is a multi-organization effort led by the US Environmental Protection Agency to develop, host and display a large suite of nation-wide geospatial indicators and indices of ecosystem services. This open access tool allows users to view, analyze, and download a wealth of geospatial data and other resources related to ecosystem goods and services. More than 160 national indicators of ecosystem service supply, demand, and drivers of change provide a framework to inform decisions and policies at multiple spatial scales, educate a range of audiences, and supply data for research. A higher resolution component is also available, providing over 100 data layers for finer-scale analyses for selected communities across the US. The ecosystem goods and services data are organized into seven general ecosystem benefit categories: clean and plentiful water; natural hazard mitigation; food, fuel, and materials; climate stabilization; clean air; biodiversity conservation; and recreation, culture, and aesthetics. Each indicator is described in terms of how it is important to human health or well-being. EnviroAtlas includes data describing existing ecosystem markets for water quality and quantity, biodiversity, wetland mitigation, and carbon credits. This presentation will briefly describe the EnviroAtlas data and tools and how they are being developed and used in ongoing research studies and in decision-making contexts.

  18. Unified Multimodal Measurement for Performance Indication Research, Evaluation, and Effectiveness (UMMPIREE): Phase I Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2018-01-25

    generally a researcher into methods and techniques (i.e., the science) of assessment. This stakeholder may observe ongoing events/experiments or may use... Research Visualization Tool. A first step toward finding a method to link research . 3.1.2 Phase II: Linking and the Network Approach During Phase I, we...innovations. In the former realm, UMMPIREE will develop a method to link assessments from different research studies to guide research

  19. Development and Experimental Application of International Affairs Indicators. Volume B. Supportive Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    i INDICATORS Approaches to Early Warning The Quantitative Indicators Approach: A ... 5 Summary Indicators and Early Warning...Indicators for Early ^ Wa rning 3. Quantitative Signs of Unusual or Ominous Activity 9 13 4. Simulated Cables 25 5 . TEXSCAN...Behavior) for Czechoslovakia 1 mmmmm mmm LIST OF FIGURES vi Pa£« 1. 2. 3. 4. 5 . 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. U. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18

  20. Indices of Quality in the Undergraduate Experience. AAHE-ERIC/Higher Education Research Report No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuh, George D.

    Indices and manifestations of quality in undergraduate education are considered and a four-part framework is developed. Context indices represent institutional characteristics that remain relatively stable over time (e.g., expenditures per student and size of student body), while input indices reflect characteristics of entering students (e.g.,…

  1. Impact of the present-on-admission indicator on hospital quality measurement: experience with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Inpatient Quality Indicators.

    PubMed

    Glance, Laurent G; Osler, Turner M; Mukamel, Dana B; Dick, Andrew W

    2008-02-01

    The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) has constructed Inpatient Quality Indicator (IQI) mortality measures to measure hospital quality using routinely available administrative data. With the exception of California, New York State, and Wisconsin, administrative data do not include a present-on-admission (POA) indicator to distinguish between preexisting conditions and complications. The extent to which the lack of a POA indicator biases quality assessment based on the AHRQ mortality measures is unknown. To examine the impact of the POA indicator on hospital quality assessment based on the AHRQ mortality measures using enhanced administrative data from California, which includes a POA indicator. Retrospective cohort study based on 2.07 million inpatient admissions between 1998 and 2000 in the California State Inpatient Database. The AHRQ IQI software was used to calculate risk-adjusted mortality rates using either (1) routine administrative data that included all the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9-CM codes or (2) enhanced administrative data that included only the ICD-9-CM codes representing preexisting conditions. The inclusion of the POA indicator frequently results in changes in the quality ranking of hospitals classified as high-quality or low-quality using routine administrative data. Twenty-seven percent (stroke) to 94% (coronary artery bypass graft) of hospitals classified as high-quality using routine administrative data were reclassified as intermediate- or low-quality hospitals using the enhanced administrative data. Twenty-five percent (congestive heart failure) to 76% (percutaneous coronary intervention) of hospitals classified as low-quality hospitals using enhanced administrative data were misclassified as intermediate-quality hospitals using routine administrative data. Despite the fact that the AHRQ IQIs were primarily intended to serve as a screening tool, they are being increasingly used to publicly report hospital

  2. Discharging patients earlier in the day: a concept worth evaluating.

    PubMed

    Kravet, Steven J; Levine, Rachel B; Rubin, Haya R; Wright, Scott M

    2007-01-01

    Patient discharges from the hospital often occur late in the day and are frequently clustered after 4 PM. When inpatients leave earlier in the day, quality is improved because new admissions awaiting beds are able to leave the emergency department sooner and emergency department waiting room backlog is reduced. Nursing staff, whose work patterns traditionally result in high activity of discharge and admission between 5 PM and 8 PM, benefit by spreading out their work across a longer part of the day. Discharging patients earlier in the day also has the potential to increase patient satisfaction. Despite multiple stakeholders in the discharge planning process, physicians play the most important role. Getting physician buy-in requires an ability to teach physicians about the concept of early-in-the-day discharges and their impact on the process. We defined a new physician-centered discharge planning process and introduced it to an internal medicine team with an identical control team as a comparison. Discharge time of day was analyzed for 1 month. Mean time of day of discharge was 13:39 for the intervention group versus 15:45 for the control group (P<.001). If reproduced successfully, this process could improve quality at an important transition point in patient care.

  3. Smoking is associated with earlier time to revision of total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chin Tat; Goodman, Stuart B; Huddleston, James I; Harris, Alex H S; Bhowmick, Subhrojyoti; Maloney, William J; Amanatullah, Derek F

    2017-10-01

    Smoking is associated with early postoperative complications, increased length of hospital stay, and an increased risk of revision after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the effect of smoking on time to revision TKA is unknown. A total of 619 primary TKAs referred to an academic tertiary center for revision TKA were retrospectively stratified according to the patient smoking status. Smoking status was then analyzed for associations with time to revision TKA using a Chi square test. The association was also analyzed according to the indication for revision TKA. Smokers (37/41, 90%) have an increased risk of earlier revision for any reason compared to non-smokers (274/357, 77%, p=0.031). Smokers (37/41, 90%) have an increased risk of earlier revision for any reason compared to ex-smokers (168/221, 76%, p=0.028). Subgroup analysis did not reveal a difference in indication for revision TKA (p>0.05). Smokers are at increased risk of earlier revision TKA when compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers. The risk for ex-smokers was similar to that of non-smokers. Smoking appears to have an all-or-none effect on earlier revision TKA as patients who smoked more did not have higher risk of early revision TKA. These results highlight the need for clinicians to urge patients not to begin smoking and encourage smokers to quit smoking prior to primary TKA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Later endogenous circadian temperature nadir relative to an earlier wake time in older people

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, J. F.; Dijk, D. J.; Klerman, E. B.; Czeisler, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of the circadian timing system to the age-related advance of sleep-wake timing was investigated in two experiments. In a constant routine protocol, we found that the average wake time and endogenous circadian phase of 44 older subjects were earlier than that of 101 young men. However, the earlier circadian phase of the older subjects actually occurred later relative to their habitual wake time than it did in young men. These results indicate that an age-related advance of circadian phase cannot fully account for the high prevalence of early morning awakening in healthy older people. In a second study, 13 older subjects and 10 young men were scheduled to a 28-h day, such that they were scheduled to sleep at many circadian phases. Self-reported awakening from scheduled sleep episodes and cognitive throughput during the second half of the wake episode varied markedly as a function of circadian phase in both groups. The rising phase of both rhythms was advanced in the older subjects, suggesting an age-related change in the circadian regulation of sleep-wake propensity. We hypothesize that under entrained conditions, these age-related changes in the relationship between circadian phase and wake time are likely associated with self-selected light exposure at an earlier circadian phase. This earlier exposure to light could account for the earlier clock hour to which the endogenous circadian pacemaker is entrained in older people and thereby further increase their propensity to awaken at an even earlier time.

  5. Benchmarking statewide trauma mortality using Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's patient safety indicators.

    PubMed

    Ang, Darwin; McKenney, Mark; Norwood, Scott; Kurek, Stanley; Kimbrell, Brian; Liu, Huazhi; Ziglar, Michele; Hurst, James

    2015-09-01

    Improving clinical outcomes of trauma patients is a challenging problem at a statewide level, particularly if data from the state's registry are not publicly available. Promotion of optimal care throughout the state is not possible unless clinical benchmarks are available for comparison. Using publicly available administrative data from the State Department of Health and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) patient safety indicators (PSIs), we sought to create a statewide method for benchmarking trauma mortality and at the same time also identifying a pattern of unique complications that have an independent influence on mortality. Data for this study were obtained from State of Florida Agency for Health Care Administration. Adult trauma patients were identified as having International Classification of Disease ninth edition codes defined by the state. Multivariate logistic regression was used to create a predictive inpatient expected mortality model. The expected value of PSIs was created using the multivariate model and their beta coefficients provided by the AHRQ. Case-mix adjusted mortality results were reported as observed to expected (O/E) ratios to examine mortality, PSIs, failure to prevent complications, and failure to rescue from death. There were 50,596 trauma patients evaluated during the study period. The overall fit of the expected mortality model was very strong at a c-statistic of 0.93. Twelve of 25 trauma centers had O/E ratios <1 or better than expected. Nine statewide PSIs had failure to prevent O/E ratios higher than expected. Five statewide PSIs had failure to rescue O/E ratios higher than expected. The PSI that had the strongest influence on trauma mortality for the state was PSI no. 9 or perioperative hemorrhage or hematoma. Mortality could be further substratified by PSI complications at the hospital level. AHRQ PSIs can have an integral role in an adjusted benchmarking method that screens at risk trauma centers in the state

  6. Research Report: A Case Study of Some Performance Indicators in Higher Education in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, D. W.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The potential for performance indicators for the teaching function in higher education was examined. Study of data from Lanchester Polytechnic and Loughborough University indicates that there is support for the systematic collection of data on instruction and resource utilization patterns within and across institutions. (Author/LBH)

  7. Research Questions to Identify Ecological Indicators Most Useful for Linking Ecosystems and Human Wellbeing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods While the desirability of ecological indicators that foster social science interpretation and use as well as public comprehension is well established, guidelines for developing indicators that meet these needs are not as well developed. In the past f...

  8. Reducing Older Driver Motor Vehicle Collisions via Earlier Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mennemeyer, Stephen T.; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Older adults who undergo cataract extraction have roughly half the rate of motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement per mile driven compared to cataract patients who do not elect cataract surgery. Currently in the U.S., most insurers do not allow payment for cataract surgery based upon the findings of a vision exam unless accompanied by an individual’s complaint of visual difficulties that seriously interfere with driving or other daily activities and individuals themselves may be slow or reluctant to complain and seek relief. As a consequence, surgery tends to occur after significant vision problems have emerged. We hypothesize that a proactive policy encouraging cataract surgery earlier for a lesser level of complaint would significantly reduce MVCs among older drivers. We used a Monte Carlo model to simulate the MVC experience of the U.S. population from age 60 to 89 under alternative protocols for the timing of cataract surgery which we call “Current Practice” (CP) and “Earlier Surgery” (ES). Our base model finds, from a societal perspective with undiscounted 2010 dollars, that switching to ES from CP reduces by about 21% the average number of MVCs, fatalities, and MVC cost per person. The net effect on total cost – all MVC costs plus cataract surgery expenditures -- is a reduction of about 16%. Quality Adjusted Life Years would increase by about 5%. From the perspective of payers for healthcare, the switch would increase cataract surgery expenditure for ages 65+ by about 8% and for ages 60 to 64 by about 47% but these expenditures are substantially offset after age 65 by reductions in the medical and emergency services component of MVC cost. Similar results occur with discounting at 3% and with various sensitivity analyses. We conclude that a policy of ES would significantly reduce MVCs and their associated consequences. PMID:23369786

  9. The Making of Comparability: Education Indicator Research from Jullien De Paris to the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso, Manuel; Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    2017-01-01

    The authors examine indicator research over three periods and discuss shifts in policy usage over time. The study compares influential actors that reflect discursive shifts in how, and for what purpose, indicators were used: (1) Jullien de Paris, (2) faculty at Teachers College at Columbia University in the early-twentieth century (notably Paul…

  10. Publications as an indicator of increased tobacco control research productivity (quantity and quality) in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Kira, Anette; Glover, Marewa; Bullen, Chris; Viehbeck, Sarah

    2011-06-01

    Tobacco control (TC) research capacity and productivity are critical for developing evidence-informed interventions that will reduce the harmful effects of smoking. The aim of this paper was to investigate New Zealand's (NZ) TC research capacity along with the quantity and quality of publications, following two government initiatives aimed, in part, at improving the quantity and quality of NZ TC research. Scopus was searched for articles with at least one NZ author and where the topic was of primary relevance to TC. Publications were organized into two time periods, following the government initiatives, 1993-2003 and 2004-2009. We analyzed the number of publications, publication journals, type of publications, impact (using the impact factor), and authorship. There has been an increase in number and impact of publications and number of authors. The number of publications has increased from an average of 14 (1994-2003) to 38 per year (2004-2009). The number of journals published increased from 64 to 86. The impact during 2004-2009 was almost threefold than in 1993-2003. The number of authors increased from 212 to 345, and the number of authors who had at least one first-authored publication increased from 80 to 124. These results show an encouraging trend in NZ TC research, with an increase in research productivity, quality, and in research capacity. It is possible that government-initiated and -funded infrastructural support contributed to increasing needed TC research, which supports the worth of such initiatives.

  11. A vantage from space can detect earlier drought onset: an approach using relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Farahmand, Alireza; AghaKouchak, Amir; Teixeira, Joao

    2015-02-25

    Each year, droughts cause significant economic and agricultural losses across the world. The early warning and onset detection of drought is of particular importance for effective agriculture and water resource management. Previous studies show that the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI), a measure of precipitation deficit, detects drought onset earlier than other indicators. Here we show that satellite-based near surface air relative humidity data can further improve drought onset detection and early warning. This paper introduces the Standardized Relative Humidity Index (SRHI) based on the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations. The results indicate that the SRHI typically detects the drought onset earlier than the SPI. While the AIRS mission was not originally designed for drought monitoring, we show that its relative humidity data offers a new and unique avenue for drought monitoring and early warning. We conclude that the early warning aspects of SRHI may have merit for integration into current drought monitoring systems.

  12. A Vantage from Space Can Detect Earlier Drought Onset: An Approach Using Relative Humidity

    PubMed Central

    Farahmand, Alireza; AghaKouchak, Amir; Teixeira, Joao

    2015-01-01

    Each year, droughts cause significant economic and agricultural losses across the world. The early warning and onset detection of drought is of particular importance for effective agriculture and water resource management. Previous studies show that the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI), a measure of precipitation deficit, detects drought onset earlier than other indicators. Here we show that satellite-based near surface air relative humidity data can further improve drought onset detection and early warning. This paper introduces the Standardized Relative Humidity Index (SRHI) based on the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations. The results indicate that the SRHI typically detects the drought onset earlier than the SPI. While the AIRS mission was not originally designed for drought monitoring, we show that its relative humidity data offers a new and unique avenue for drought monitoring and early warning. We conclude that the early warning aspects of SRHI may have merit for integration into current drought monitoring systems. PMID:25711500

  13. Transportation literature search & synthesis report : research and state DOT practice on construction cost indices.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-01-18

    The literature review identifies completed research and other authoritative information in an area of interest. The citations below are representative, rather than exhaustive, of available English-language studies on the topic. Primary online resourc...

  14. [Use of area-level socioeconomic indicators in epidemiological research: experience in Spain and advancement opportunities].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Berjón, María Felicitas; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Esnaola, Santiago; Prieto-Salceda, María Dolores; Duque, Ignacio; Rodrigo, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    To determine the use of area-level socioeconomic indicators in epidemiological studies in Spain. We included studies analyzing the association of area-level socioeconomic indicators and health indicators in Spain published in peer-reviewed journals. An electronic search was conducted in PubMed-Medline, SCI-Expanded, SSCI, Embase, and the Spanish Medical Index (until December 31, 2012). A manual search was also conducted of the references of the selected studies. Each of the articles initially selected on the basis of the title and abstract was reviewed by two investigators. Information was obtained on the publication and methodology (design and study areas, information sources, health and socioeconomic indicators, and statistical analysis). We included 142 studies published since 1988 (58.4% since 2005). More than half (59.9%) were in English. The level of analysis was ecological in 73.2% and multilevel in 19.0%. The areas most frequently analyzed were census tracts (35 studies), especially within cities or autonomous regions, followed by the provinces (30 studies), mostly concerning Spain overall. The dependent variable most frequently analyzed was mortality and the socioeconomic dimension most commonly used was employment (71.1%). In the last decade in Spain, there has been an increase in the number of studies examining the association of area-level socioeconomic and health indicators, as well as in the complexity of design and analysis. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. The associations of earlier trauma exposures and history of mental disorders with PTSD after subsequent traumas

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Lee, Sing; Liu, Howard; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Petukhova, Maria V.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Shahly, Victoria L.; Stein, Dan J.; Atwoli, Lukoye; Borges, Guilherme; Bunting, Brendan; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo; Kawakami, Norito; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate M.; Shalev, Arieh Y.; Have, Margreet ten; Torres, Yolanda; Viana, Maria Carmen; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2017-01-01

    Although earlier trauma exposure is known to predict post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after subsequent traumas, it is unclear if this association is limited to cases where the earlier trauma led to PTSD. Resolution of this uncertainty has important implications for research on pre-trauma vulnerability to PTSD. We examined this issue in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys with 34,676 respondents who reported lifetime trauma exposure. One lifetime trauma was selected randomly for each respondent. DSM-IV PTSD due to that trauma was assessed. We reported in a previous paper that four earlier traumas involving interpersonal violence significantly predicted PTSD after subsequent random traumas (OR=1.3–2.5). We also assessed 14 lifetime DSM-IV mood, anxiety, disruptive behavior, and substance disorders prior to random traumas. We show in the current report that only prior anxiety disorders significantly predicted PTSD in a multivariate model (OR=1.5–4.3) and that these disorders interacted significantly with three of the earlier traumas (witnessing atrocities, physical violence victimization, rape). History of witnessing atrocities significantly predicted PTSD after subsequent random traumas only among respondents with prior PTSD (OR=5.6). Histories of physical violence victimization (OR=1.5) and rape after age 17 (OR=17.6) significantly predicted only among respondents with no history of prior anxiety disorders. Although only preliminary due to reliance on retrospective reports, these results suggest that history of anxiety disorders and history of a limited number of earlier traumas might usefully be targeted in future prospective studies as distinct foci of research on individual differences in vulnerability to PTSD after subsequent traumas. PMID:28924183

  16. The associations of earlier trauma exposures and history of mental disorders with PTSD after subsequent traumas.

    PubMed

    Kessler, R C; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Alonso, J; Bromet, E J; Gureje, O; Karam, E G; Koenen, K C; Lee, S; Liu, H; Pennell, B-E; Petukhova, M V; Sampson, N A; Shahly, V; Stein, D J; Atwoli, L; Borges, G; Bunting, B; de Girolamo, G; Gluzman, S F; Haro, J M; Hinkov, H; Kawakami, N; Kovess-Masfety, V; Navarro-Mateu, F; Posada-Villa, J; Scott, K M; Shalev, A Y; Ten Have, M; Torres, Y; Viana, M C; Zaslavsky, A M

    2017-09-19

    Although earlier trauma exposure is known to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after subsequent traumas, it is unclear whether this association is limited to cases where the earlier trauma led to PTSD. Resolution of this uncertainty has important implications for research on pretrauma vulnerability to PTSD. We examined this issue in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys with 34 676 respondents who reported lifetime trauma exposure. One lifetime trauma was selected randomly for each respondent. DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition) PTSD due to that trauma was assessed. We reported in a previous paper that four earlier traumas involving interpersonal violence significantly predicted PTSD after subsequent random traumas (odds ratio (OR)=1.3-2.5). We also assessed 14 lifetime DSM-IV mood, anxiety, disruptive behavior and substance disorders before random traumas. We show in the current report that only prior anxiety disorders significantly predicted PTSD in a multivariate model (OR=1.5-4.3) and that these disorders interacted significantly with three of the earlier traumas (witnessing atrocities, physical violence victimization and rape). History of witnessing atrocities significantly predicted PTSD after subsequent random traumas only among respondents with prior PTSD (OR=5.6). Histories of physical violence victimization (OR=1.5) and rape after age 17 years (OR=17.6) significantly predicted only among respondents with no history of prior anxiety disorders. Although only preliminary due to reliance on retrospective reports, these results suggest that history of anxiety disorders and history of a limited number of earlier traumas might usefully be targeted in future prospective studies as distinct foci of research on individual differences in vulnerability to PTSD after subsequent traumas.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 19 September 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.194.

  17. Identifying Indicators of Progress in Thermal Spray Research Using Bibliometrics Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.-T.; Khor, K. A.; Yu, L.-G.

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the research publications on thermal spray in the period of 1985-2015 using the data from Web of Science, Scopus and SciVal®. Bibliometrics analysis was employed to elucidate the country and institution distribution in various thermal spray research areas and to characterize the trends of topic change and technology progress. Results show that China, USA, Japan, Germany, India and France were the top countries in thermal spray research, and Xi'an Jiaotong University, Universite de Technologie Belfort-Montbeliard, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, ETH Zurich, National Research Council of Canada, University of Limoges were among the top institutions that had high scholarly research output during 2005-2015. The terms of the titles, keywords and abstracts of the publications were analyzed by the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model and visually mapped using the VOSviewer software to reveal the progress of thermal spray technology. It is found that thermal barrier coating was consistently the main research area in thermal spray, and high-velocity oxy-fuel spray and cold spray developed rapidly in the last 10 years.

  18. Bibliometric indices: defining academic productivity and citation rates of researchers, departments and journals.

    PubMed

    Garner, Rebecca M; Hirsch, Joshua A; Albuquerque, Felipe C; Fargen, Kyle M

    2018-02-01

    There has been an increasing focus on academic productivity for the purposes of promotion and funding within departments and institutions but also for comparison of individuals, institutions, specialties, and journals. A number of quantitative indices are used to investigate and compare academic productivity. These include various calculations attempting to analyze the number and citations of publications in order to capture both the quality and quantity of publications, such as the h index, the e index, impact factor, and Eigenfactor score. The indices have varying advantages and limitations and thus a basic knowledge is required in order to understand their potential utility within academic medicine. This article describes the various bibliometric indices and discusses recent applications of these metrics within the neurological sciences. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. The case for earlier cochlear implantation in postlingually deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Dowell, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed to estimate the difference in speech perception outcomes that may occur due to timing of cochlear implantation in relation to the progression of hearing loss. Data from a large population-based sample of adults with acquired hearing loss using cochlear implants (CIs) was used to estimate the effects of duration of hearing loss, age, and pre-implant auditory skills on outcomes for a hypothetical standard patient. A total of 310 adults with acquired severe/profound bilateral hearing loss who received a CI in Melbourne, Australia between 1994 and 2006 provided the speech perception data and demographic information to derive regression equations for estimating CI outcomes. For a hypothetical CI candidate with progressive sensorineural hearing loss, the estimates of speech perception scores following cochlear implantation are significantly better if implantation occurs relatively soon after onset of severe hearing loss and before the loss of all functional auditory skills. Improved CI outcomes and quality of life benefit may be achieved for adults with progressive severe hearing loss if they are implanted earlier in the progression of the pathology.

  20. The New Zealand Indices of Multiple Deprivation (IMD): A new suite of indicators for social and health research in Aotearoa, New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    For the past 20 years, the New Zealand Deprivation Index (NZDep) has been the universal measure of area-based social circumstances for New Zealand (NZ) and often the key social determinant used in population health and social research. This paper presents the first theoretical and methodological shift in the measurement of area deprivation in New Zealand since the 1990s and describes the development of the New Zealand Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). We briefly describe the development of Data Zones, an intermediary geographical scale, before outlining the development of the New Zealand Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), which uses routine datasets and methods comparable to current international deprivation indices. We identified 28 indicators of deprivation from national health, social development, taxation, education, police databases, geospatial data providers and the 2013 Census, all of which represented seven Domains of deprivation: Employment; Income; Crime; Housing; Health; Education; and Geographical Access. The IMD is the combination of these seven Domains. The Domains may be used individually or in combination, to explore the geography of deprivation and its association with a given health or social outcome. Geographic variations in the distribution of the IMD and its Domains were found among the District Health Boards in NZ, suggesting that factors underpinning overall deprivation are inconsistent across the country. With the exception of the Access Domain, the IMD and its Domains were statistically and moderately-to-strongly associated with both smoking rates and household poverty. The IMD provides a more nuanced view of area deprivation circumstances in Aotearoa NZ. Our vision is for the IMD and the Data Zones to be widely used to inform research, policy and resource allocation projects, providing a better measurement of area deprivation in NZ, improved outcomes for Māori, and a more consistent approach to reporting and monitoring the social

  1. The New Zealand Indices of Multiple Deprivation (IMD): A new suite of indicators for social and health research in Aotearoa, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Exeter, Daniel John; Zhao, Jinfeng; Crengle, Sue; Lee, Arier; Browne, Michael

    2017-01-01

    For the past 20 years, the New Zealand Deprivation Index (NZDep) has been the universal measure of area-based social circumstances for New Zealand (NZ) and often the key social determinant used in population health and social research. This paper presents the first theoretical and methodological shift in the measurement of area deprivation in New Zealand since the 1990s and describes the development of the New Zealand Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). We briefly describe the development of Data Zones, an intermediary geographical scale, before outlining the development of the New Zealand Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), which uses routine datasets and methods comparable to current international deprivation indices. We identified 28 indicators of deprivation from national health, social development, taxation, education, police databases, geospatial data providers and the 2013 Census, all of which represented seven Domains of deprivation: Employment; Income; Crime; Housing; Health; Education; and Geographical Access. The IMD is the combination of these seven Domains. The Domains may be used individually or in combination, to explore the geography of deprivation and its association with a given health or social outcome. Geographic variations in the distribution of the IMD and its Domains were found among the District Health Boards in NZ, suggesting that factors underpinning overall deprivation are inconsistent across the country. With the exception of the Access Domain, the IMD and its Domains were statistically and moderately-to-strongly associated with both smoking rates and household poverty. The IMD provides a more nuanced view of area deprivation circumstances in Aotearoa NZ. Our vision is for the IMD and the Data Zones to be widely used to inform research, policy and resource allocation projects, providing a better measurement of area deprivation in NZ, improved outcomes for Māori, and a more consistent approach to reporting and monitoring the social

  2. Responsible Research and Innovation Indicators for Science Education Assessment: How to Measure the Impact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heras, Maria; Ruiz-Mallén, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    The emerging paradigm of responsible research and innovation (RRI) in the European Commission policy discourse identifies science education as a key agenda for better equipping students with skills and knowledge to tackle complex societal challenges and foster active citizenship in democratic societies. The operationalisation of this broad…

  3. Nation-Level Indicators of Gender Equity in Psychological Research: Theoretical and Methodological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2012-01-01

    Power and inequality are central concepts in feminist theory and practice. Yet, with a few notable exceptions, there is relatively little empirical research on gender and power within feminist psychology. A search of PsycINFO for articles published in "Psychology of Women Quarterly" for the years 2000-2011 yielded only 14 empirical articles with…

  4. Capitalizing on Knowledge from Public Research Institutions: Indications from New Technology-Based Firms in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynskey, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge spillovers from universities and other public research institutions (PRIs) are viewed as essential for innovation. Previous studies examining the impact of such spillovers have been confined to the West, and there are no comparable studies using empirical data from Japan that explore the relationship between spillovers from PRIs and…

  5. Assessing Statistical Change Indices in Selected Social Work Intervention Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Amanda D.; Huggins-Hoyt, Kimberly Y.; Pettus, Joelle

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined how evaluation and intervention research (IR) studies assessed statistical change to ascertain effectiveness. Methods: Studies from six core social work journals (2009-2013) were reviewed (N = 1,380). Fifty-two evaluation (n= 27) and intervention (n = 25) studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies were…

  6. Cross-Sector Research Associated with Nutrition: Comparison of Private and Public Schools on Health Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Marco A.

    Healthy People 2010 is the initiative that defines the U.S. health agenda and guides policy. The initiative provides direction for individuals to change personal behaviors and for organizations and communities to support good health through health promotion policies. The objective of this research was to compare public and private schools on…

  7. Eco-tourism Education Effectiveness Indicator System Research for Macau SAR in Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Mei

    2018-01-01

    The study of education in Ecotourism is one of the many important focuses among the field of Ecotourism; and the evaluation of Ecotourism education effectiveness in Ecotourism is a key topic in it. The result of this study can be very useful in the development of Ecotourism education. In addition, affect greatly in its improvement in the future. The Delphi method had been used in this study to establish a valid indicator system of evaluation in Ecotourism education; then followed by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) with 11 paired-comparison matrices being constructed. Weights of these evaluation indicators were then determined by using Matlab 7.1. Throughout, data was obtained by doing sampling surveys, and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method was used to calculate the validity of Ecotourism education, where validity was classified into different levels. As the result, the evaluation model of the education effectiveness in Ecotourism was constructed. The Macau Special Administrative Region (Macau SAR) was chosen in this case for the empirical stage. Data of ecological knowledge, ecological cultural level, ecological consciousness, ecological ethics and ecological behaviors of tourists, who had entered and exited Macau SAR, was collected and analyzed in SPSS. Differences and impact of these indicators were studied to conclude the effect of its education in Ecotourism of this region. In addition, the results of education effectiveness in Ecotourism were also compared among different population subgroups and observations were given accordingly.

  8. Measuring socio-economic position in dietary research: is choice of socio-economic indicator important?

    PubMed

    Turrell, Gavin; Hewitt, Belinda; Patterson, Carla; Oldenburg, Brian

    2003-04-01

    To examine the association between socio-economic position (SEP) and diet, by assessing the unadjusted and simultaneously adjusted (independent) contributions of education, occupation and household income to food purchasing behaviour. The sample was randomly selected using a stratified two-stage cluster design, and the response rate was 66.4%. Data were collected by face-to-face interview. Food purchasing was examined on the basis of three composite indices that reflected a household's choice of grocery items (including meat and chicken), fruit and vegetables. Brisbane City, Australia, 2000. : Non-institutionalised residents of private dwellings located in 50 small areas (Census Collectors Districts). When shopping, respondents in lower socio-economic groups were less likely to purchase grocery foods that were high in fibre and low in fat, salt and sugar. Disadvantaged groups purchased fewer types of fresh fruits and vegetables, and less often, than their counterparts from more advantaged backgrounds. When the relationship between SEP and food purchasing was examined using each indicator separately, education and household income made an unadjusted contribution to purchasing behaviour for all three food indices; however, occupation was significantly related only with the purchase of grocery foods. When education and occupation were simultaneously adjusted for each other, the socio-economic patterning with food purchase remained largely unchanged, although the strength of the associations was attenuated. When household income was introduced into the analysis, the association between education, occupation and food purchasing behaviour was diminished or became non-significant; income, however, showed a strong, graded association with food choice. The food purchasing behaviours of socio-economically disadvantaged groups were least in accord with dietary guideline recommendations, and hence are more consistent with greater risk for the development of diet

  9. Basic Research of Intrinsic Tamper Indication Markings Defined by Pulsed Laser Irradiation (Quad Chart).

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, Neville R.

    Objective: We will research how short (ns) and ultrashort (fs) laser pulses interact with the surfaces of various materials to create complex color layers and morphological patterns. Method: We are investigating the site-specific, formation of microcolor features. Also, research includes a fundamental study of the physics underlying periodic ripple formation during femtosecond laser irradiation. Status of effort: Laser induced color markings were demonstrated on an increased number of materials (including metal thin films) and investigated for optical properties and microstructure. Technology that allows for marking curved surfaces (and large areas) has been implemented. We have used electro-magnetic solvers to modelmore » light-solid interactions leading to periodic surface ripple patterns. This includes identifying the roles of surface plasmon polaritons. Goals/Milestones: Research corrosion resistance of oxide color markings (salt spray, fog, polarization tests); Through modeling, investigate effects of multi-source scattering and interference on ripple patterns; Investigate microspectrophotometry for mapping color; and Investigate new methods for laser color marking curved surfaces and large areas.« less

  10. [Research advances in indices and methods for nutritional status evaluation in patients with liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Li, H; Zhang, L

    2017-03-20

    In recent years, malnutrition in patients with liver cirrhosis has been taken more and more seriously in clinical physicians, and patients' nutritional status is closely associated with prognosis. At present, there are many methods for the evaluation of nutritional status in patients with liver cirrhosis, but there are still no unified standards. This article reviews the common evaluation indices and methods used in clinical practice in China and foreign countries, in order to provide a basis for accurately evaluating nutritional status and guiding nutritional therapy in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  11. Indicators for the use of robotic labs in basic biomedical research: a literature analysis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Robotic labs, in which experiments are carried out entirely by robots, have the potential to provide a reproducible and transparent foundation for performing basic biomedical laboratory experiments. In this article, we investigate whether these labs could be applicable in current experimental practice. We do this by text mining 1,628 papers for occurrences of methods that are supported by commercial robotic labs. Using two different concept recognition tools, we find that 86%–89% of the papers have at least one of these methods. This and our other results provide indications that robotic labs can serve as the foundation for performing many lab-based experiments. PMID:29134146

  12. Hemodynamic parameters change earlier than tissue oxygen tension in hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Pestel, Gunther J; Fukui, Kimiko; Kimberger, Oliver; Hager, Helmut; Kurz, Andrea; Hiltebrand, Luzius B

    2010-05-15

    Untreated hypovolemia results in impaired outcome. This study tests our hypothesis whether general hemodynamic parameters detect acute blood loss earlier than monitoring parameters of regional tissue beds. Eight pigs (23-25 kg) were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. A pulmonary artery catheter and an arterial catheter were inserted. Tissue oxygen tension was measured with Clark-type electrodes in the jejunal and colonic wall, in the liver, and subcutaneously. Jejunal microcirculation was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Intravascular volume was optimized using difference in pulse pressure (dPP) to keep dPP below 13%. Sixty minutes after preparation, baseline measurements were taken. At first, 5% of total blood volume was withdrawn, followed by another 5% increment, and then in 10% increments until death. After withdrawal of 5% of estimated blood volume, dPP increased from 6.1% +/- 3.0% to 20.8% +/- 2.7% (P < 0.01). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP) decreased with a blood loss of 10% (P < 0.01). Cardiac output (CO) changed after a blood loss of 20% (P < 0.05). Tissue oxygen tension in central organs, and blood flow in the jejunal muscularis decreased (P < 0.05) after a blood loss of 20%. Tissue oxygen tension in the skin, and jejunal mucosa blood flow decreased (P < 0.05) after a blood loss of 40% and 50%, respectively. In this hemorrhagic pig model systemic hemodynamic parameters were more sensitive to detect acute hypovolemia than tissue oxygen tension measurements or jejunal LDF measurements. Acute blood loss was detected first by dPP. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Local indicators of climate change: The potential contribution of local knowledge to climate research

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-García, Victoria; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Guèze, Maximilien; Garcés, Ariadna; Mallo, Miguel; Vila-Gómez, Margarita; Vilaseca, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Local knowledge has been proposed as a place-based tool to ground-truth climate models and to narrow their geographic sensitivity. To assess the potential role of local knowledge in our quest to understand better climate change and its impacts, we first need to critically review the strengths and weaknesses of local knowledge of climate change and the potential complementarity with scientific knowledge. With this aim, we conducted a systematic, quantitative meta-analysis of published peer-reviewed documents reporting local indicators of climate change (including both local observations of climate change and observed impacts on the biophysical and the social systems). Overall, primary data on the topic are not abundant, the methodological development is incipient, and the geographical extent is unbalanced. On the 98 case studies documented, we recorded the mention of 746 local indicators of climate change, mostly corresponding to local observations of climate change (40%), but also to observed impacts on the physical (23%), the biological (19%), and the socioeconomic (18%) systems. Our results suggest that, even if local observations of climate change are the most frequently reported type of change, the rich and fine-grained knowledge in relation to impacts on biophysical systems could provide more original contributions to our understanding of climate change at local scale. PMID:27642368

  14. Association of journal quality indicators with methodological quality of clinical research articles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kirby P; Schotland, Marieka; Bacchetti, Peter; Bero, Lisa A

    2002-06-05

    The ability to identify scientific journals that publish high-quality research would help clinicians, scientists, and health-policy analysts to select the most up-to-date medical literature to review. To assess whether journal characteristics of (1) peer-review status, (2) citation rate, (3) impact factor, (4) circulation, (5) manuscript acceptance rate, (6) MEDLINE indexing, and (7) Brandon/Hill Library List indexing are predictors of methodological quality of research articles, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 243 original research articles involving human subjects published in general internal medical journals. The mean (SD) quality score of the 243 articles was 1.37 (0.22). All journals reported a peer-review process and were indexed on MEDLINE. In models that controlled for article type (randomized controlled trial [RCT] or non-RCT), journal citation rate was the most statistically significant predictor (0.051 increase per doubling; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.037-0.065; P<.001). In separate analyses by article type, acceptance rate was the strongest predictor for RCT quality (-0.113 per doubling; 95% CI, -0.148 to -0.078; P<.001), while journal citation rate was the most predictive factor for non-RCT quality (0.051 per doubling; 95% CI, 0.044-0.059; P<.001). High citation rates, impact factors, and circulation rates, and low manuscript acceptance rates and indexing on Brandon/Hill Library List appear to be predictive of higher methodological quality scores for journal articles.

  15. Research Ranking of Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences Based on International Indicators: An Experience From I.R. of Iran.

    PubMed

    Baradaran Eftekhari, Monir; Sobhani, Zahra; Eltemasi, Masoumeh; Ghalenoee, Elham; Falahat, Katayoun; Habibi, Elham; Djalalinia, Shirin; Paykari, Niloofar; Ebadifar, Asghar; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, international ranking systems have been used by diverse users for various purposes. In most of these rankings, different aspects of performance of universities and research institutes, especially scientific performance, have been evaluated and ranked. In this article, we aimed to report the results of research ranking of Iranian universities of medical sciences (UMSs) based on some international indicators in 2015. In this study, after reviewing the research indicators of the majority of international ranking systems, with the participation of key stakeholders, we selected eight research indicators, namely research output, high-quality publications, leadership, total citations, citations per paper in 2015, papers per faculty member and h-index. The main sources for data gathering were Scopus, PubMed, and ISI, Web of Science. Data were extracted and normalized for Iranian governmental UMSs for 2015. A total of 18023 articles were indexed in 2015 in Scopus with affiliations of UMSs affiliation. Almost 17% of all articles were published in top journals and 15% were published with international collaborations. The maximum h-index (h-index = 110) belonged to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The average paper per faculty member was 1.14 (Max = 2.5, Min = 0.13). The mean citation per published articles in Scopus was 0.33. Research ranking of Iranian UMSs can create favorable competition among them towards knowledge production.

  16. Indicators for tracking programmes to strengthen health research capacity in lower- and middle-income countries: a qualitative synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The monitoring and evaluation of health research capacity strengthening (health RCS) commonly involves documenting activities and outputs using indicators or metrics. We sought to catalogue the types of indicators being used to evaluate health RCS and to assess potential gaps in quality and coverage. Methods We purposively selected twelve evaluations to maximize diversity in health RCS, funders, countries, and approaches to evaluation. We explored the quality of the indicators and extracted them into a matrix across individual, institutional, and national/regional/network levels, based on a matrix in the ESSENCE Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation framework. We synthesized across potential impact pathways (activities to outputs to outcomes) and iteratively checked our findings with key health RCS evaluation stakeholders. Results Evaluations varied remarkably in the strengths of their evaluation designs. The validity of indicators and potential biases were documented in a minority of reports. Indicators were primarily of activities, outputs, or outcomes, with little on their inter-relationships. Individual level indicators tended to be more quantitative, comparable, and attentive to equity considerations. Institutional and national–international level indicators were extremely diverse. Although linkage of activities through outputs to outcomes within evaluations was limited, across the evaluations we were able to construct potential pathways of change and assemble corresponding indicators. Conclusions Opportunities for improving health RCS evaluations include work on indicator measurement properties and development of indicators which better encompass relationships with knowledge users. Greater attention to evaluation design, prospective indicator measurement, and systematic linkage of indicators in keeping with theories of change could provide more robust evidence on outcomes of health RCS. PMID:24725961

  17. The Political Is Personal: Measurement and Application of Nation-Level Indicators of Gender Equity in Psychological Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Grabe, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    Consistent with the dictum, "the personal is political," feminist scholars have maintained that gender equity in security, access to education, economic opportunity, and property ownership are central to women's well-being. Empirical research evaluating this thesis can include nation-level indicators of gender equity, such as the United Nation…

  18. Quality Indicators for Single-Case Research on Social Skill Interventions for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shin-Yi; Parrila, Rauno

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a quality checklist that parents, teachers, clinicians, and policy-makers with basic research skills can use to systematically evaluate the methodological quality of single-case studies on social skill training of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). We provide a rationale for included quality indicators, and…

  19. Simultaneous and Comparable Numerical Indicators of International, National and Local Collaboration Practices in English-Medium Astrophysics Research Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Méndez, David I.; Alcaraz, M. Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We report an investigation on collaboration practices in research papers published in the most prestigious English-medium astrophysics journals. Method: We propose an evaluation method based on three numerical indicators to study and compare, in absolute terms, three different types of collaboration (international, national and…

  20. Water Intake and Hydration Indices in Healthy European Adults: The European Hydration Research Study (EHRS).

    PubMed

    Malisova, Olga; Athanasatou, Adelais; Pepa, Alex; Husemann, Marlien; Domnik, Kirsten; Braun, Hans; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Ortega, Juan F; Fernandez-Elias, Valentin E; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2016-04-06

    Hydration status is linked with health, wellness, and performance. We evaluated hydration status, water intake, and urine output for seven consecutive days in healthy adults. Volunteers living in Spain, Germany, or Greece (n = 573, 39 ± 12 years (51.1% males), 25.0 ± 4.6 kg/m² BMI) participated in an eight-day study protocol. Total water intake was estimated from seven-day food and drink diaries. Hydration status was measured in urine samples collected over 24 h for seven days and in blood samples collected in fasting state on the mornings of days 1 and 8. Total daily water intake was 2.75 ± 1.01 L, water from beverages 2.10 ± 0.91 L, water from foods 0.66 ± 0.29 L. Urine parameters were: 24 h volume 1.65 ± 0.70 L, 24 h osmolality 631 ± 221 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο, 24 h specific gravity 1.017 ± 0.005, 24 h excretion of sodium 166.9 ± 54.7 mEq, 24 h excretion of potassium 72.4 ± 24.6 mEq, color chart 4.2 ± 1.4. Predictors for urine osmolality were age, country, gender, and BMI. Blood indices were: haemoglobin concentration 14.7 ± 1.7 g/dL, hematocrit 43% ± 4% and serum osmolality 294 ± 9 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο. Daily water intake was higher in summer (2.8 ± 1.02 L) than in winter (2.6 ± 0.98 L) (p = 0.019). Water intake was associated negatively with urine specific gravity, urine color, and urine sodium and potassium concentrations (p < 0.01). Applying urine osmolality cut-offs, approximately 60% of participants were euhydrated and 20% hyperhydrated or dehydrated. Most participants were euhydrated, but a substantial number of people (40%) deviated from a normal hydration level.

  1. The use of echocardiographic indices in defining and assessing right ventricular systolic function in critical care research.

    PubMed

    Huang, Stephen J; Nalos, Marek; Smith, Louise; Rajamani, Arvind; McLean, Anthony S

    2018-05-22

    Many echocardiographic indices (or methods) for assessing right ventricular (RV) function are available, but each has its strengths and limitations. In some cases, there might be discordance between the indices. We conducted a systematic review to audit the echocardiographic RV assessments in critical care research to see if a consistent pattern existed. We specifically looked into the kind and number of RV indices used, and how RV dysfunction was defined in each study. Studies conducted in critical care settings and reported echocardiographic RV function indices from 1997 to 2017 were searched systematically from three databases. Non-adult studies, case reports, reviews and secondary studies were excluded. These studies' characteristics and RV indices reported were summarized. Out of 495 non-duplicated publications found, 81 studies were included in our systematic review. There has been an increasing trend of studying RV function by echocardiography since 2001, and most were conducted in ICU. Thirty-one studies use a single index, mostly TAPSE, to define RV dysfunction; 33 used composite indices and the combinations varied between studies. Seventeen studies did not define RV dysfunction. For those using composite indices, many did not explain their choices. TAPSE seemed to be the most popular index in the last 2-3 years. Many studies used combinations of indices but, apart from cor pulmonale, we could not find a consistent pattern of RV assessment and definition of RV dysfunction amongst these studies.

  2. New Evidence: Data Documenting Parental Support for Earlier Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Elissa M.; Moore, Michele J.; Johnson, Tammie; Forrest, Jamie; Jordan, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies document support for sexuality education to be taught in high school, and often, in middle school. However, little research has been conducted addressing support for sexuality education in elementary schools. Methods: As part of the state Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Survey administration, the…

  3. Earlier Is Better: Learning English in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsairi, Meshari A.

    2018-01-01

    Various studies have been carried out in order to find out the suitable age for foreign language acquisition. Every research study has had a different Critical Period (CP) and most of them have not been really close together in terms of years. Critical Period refers to the actual time frame during which foreign language acquisition should take…

  4. Is Earlier Better? Mastery of Reading Fluency in Early Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Yonghan; Chaparro, Erin A.; Preciado, Jorge; Cummings, Kelli D.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The goal of the present study was to provide empirical evidence for the importance of mastering reading fluency in early schooling. Study participants were 1,322 students in 3rd grade in 42 schools in a northwestern state. These students were assessed using a battery of reading skill tests as well as comprehensive tests of more…

  5. Factors associated with late diagnosis of HIV infection and missed opportunities for earlier testing.

    PubMed

    Gullón, Alejandra; Verdejo, José; de Miguel, Rosa; Gómez, Ana; Sanz, Jesús

    2016-10-01

    Late diagnosis (LD) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to be a significant problem that increases disease burden both for patients and for the public health system. Guidelines have been updated in order to facilitate earlier HIV diagnosis, introducing "indicator condition-guided HIV testing". In this study, we analysed the frequency of LD and associated risk factors. We retrospectively identified those cases that could be considered missed opportunities for an earlier diagnosis. All patients newly diagnosed with HIV infection who attended Hospital La Princesa, Madrid (Spain) between 2007 and 2014 were analysed. We collected epidemiological, clinical and immunological data. We also reviewed electronic medical records from the year before the HIV diagnosis to search for medical consultations due to clinical indicators. HIV infection was diagnosed in 354 patients. The median CD4 count at presentation was 352 cells/mm(3). Overall, 158 patients (50%) met the definition of LD, and 97 (30.7%) the diagnosis of advanced disease. LD was associated with older age and was more frequent amongst immigrants. Heterosexual relations and injection drug use were more likely to be the reasons for LD than relations between men who have sex with men. During the year preceding the diagnosis, 46.6% of the patients had sought medical advice owing to the presence of clinical indicators that should have led to HIV testing. Of those, 24 cases (14.5%) were classified as missed opportunities for earlier HIV diagnosis because testing was not performed. According to these results, all health workers should pursue early HIV diagnosis through the proper implementation of HIV testing guidelines. Such an approach would prove directly beneficial to the patient and indirectly beneficial to the general population through the reduction in the risk of transmission.

  6. A Review of Quality of Life after Predictive Testing for and Earlier Identification of Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Jane S.; Nance, Martha; Kim, Ji-In; Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Panegyres, Peter K.; Erwin, Cheryl; Goh, Anita; McCusker, Elizabeth; Williams, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed an explosion of evidence suggesting that many neurodegenerative diseases can be detected years, if not decades, earlier than previously thought. To date, these scientific advances have not provoked any parallel translational or clinical improvements. There is an urgency to capitalize on this momentum so earlier detection of disease can be more readily translated into improved health-related quality of life for families at risk for, or suffering with, neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measurement in neurodegenerative diseases and the importance of these “patient reported outcomes” for all clinical research. Next, we address HRQOL following early identification or predictive genetic testing in some neurodegenerative diseases: Huntington disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, prion diseases, hereditary ataxias, Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy and Wilson's disease. After a brief report of available direct-to-consumer genetic tests, we address the juxtaposition of earlier disease identification with assumed reluctance towards predictive genetic testing. Forty-one studies examining health related outcomes following predictive genetic testing for neurodegenerative disease suggested that (a) extreme or catastrophic outcomes are rare; (b) consequences commonly include transiently increased anxiety and/or depression; (c) most participants report no regret; (d) many persons report extensive benefits to receiving genetic information; and (e) stigmatization and discrimination for genetic diseases are poorly understood and policy and laws are needed. Caution is appropriate for earlier identification of neurodegenerative diseases but findings suggest further progress is safe, feasible and likely to advance clinical care. PMID:24036231

  7. It's about time: Earlier rewards increase intrinsic motivation.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Kaitlin; Fishbach, Ayelet

    2018-06-01

    Can immediate (vs. delayed) rewards increase intrinsic motivation? Prior research compared the presence versus absence of rewards. By contrast, this research compared immediate versus delayed rewards, predicting that more immediate rewards increase intrinsic motivation by creating a perceptual fusion between the activity and its goal (i.e., the reward). In support of the hypothesis, framing a reward from watching a news program as more immediate (vs. delayed) increased intrinsic motivation to watch the program (Study 1), and receiving more immediate bonus (vs. delayed, Study 2; and vs. delayed and no bonus, Study 3) increased intrinsic motivation in an experimental task. The effect of reward timing was mediated by the strength of the association between an activity and a reward, and was specific to intrinsic (vs. extrinsic) motivation-immediacy influenced the positive experience of an activity, but not perceived outcome importance (Study 4). In addition, the effect of the timing of rewards was independent of the effect of the magnitude of the rewards (Study 5). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. EnviroAtlas: Providing Nationwide Geospatial Ecosystem Goods and Services Indicators and Indices to Inform Decision-Making, Research, and Education

    EPA Science Inventory

    EnviroAtlas is a multi-organization effort led by the US Environmental Protection Agency to develop, host and display a large suite of nation-wide geospatial indicators and indices of ecosystem services. This open access tool allows users to view, analyze, and download a wealth o...

  9. Earlier surgery improves outcomes from painful chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ke, Nengwen; Jia, Dan; Huang, Wei; Nunes, Quentin M; Windsor, John A; Liu, Xubao; Sutton, Robert

    2018-05-01

    The timing of surgery for painful chronic pancreatitis (CP) may affect outcomes.Clinical course, Izbicki pain scores, and pancreatic function were retrospectively compared and analyzed between patients undergoing either early or late surgery (< 3 or ≥ 3 years from diagnosis) for painful CP in a single center from 2007 to 2012.The early surgery group (n = 98) more frequently than the late group (n = 199) had abdominal pain with jaundice (22.4% vs 9.5%, P = .002) and pancreatic mass +/- ductal dilatation (47% vs 27%, P < .001), but less frequently abdominal pain alone (73.5% vs 85.9%, P = .009), ductal dilatation alone (31% vs 71%, P < .001), parenchymal calcification (91.8% vs 100%, P < .001) or exocrine insufficiency (60% vs 72%, P = .034); there were no other significant differences. The early group had longer hospital stay (14.4 vs 12.2 days, P = .009), but no difference in complications. Significantly greater pain relief followed early surgery (complete 69% vs 47%, partial 22% vs 37%, none 8% vs 16%, P = .01) with lower rates of exocrine (60% vs 80%, P = .005) and endocrine insufficiency (36% vs 53%, P = .033).Our data indicate that early surgery results in higher rates of pain relief and pancreatic sufficiency than late surgery for chronic pancreatitis patients. Frey and Berne procedures showed better results than other surgical procedures.

  10. Arctic Indicators of Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanitski, D.; Druckenmiller, M.; Fetterer, F. M.; Gerst, M.; Intrieri, J. M.; Kenney, M. A.; Meier, W.; Overland, J. E.; Stroeve, J. C.; Trainor, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic is undergoing unprecedented change. Indicators of change enable better decision-making at the community to policy levels. The results presented here focus on a subset of physical, biological, societal, and economic indicators of Arctic change recommended in one of a group of papers emanating from the earlier National Climate Indicators System (NCIS) work led by Kenney et al. (2016). The intent of the NCIS was to establish a "system of physical, natural, and societal indicators that communicate and inform decisions about key aspects of the physical climate, climate impacts, vulnerabilities, and preparedness" in support of the sustained U.S. National Climate Assessment. Our analysis, guided by a tailored selection and recommendation criteria, resulted in a list of "existing" indicators, as well as those "in development", "recommended", and "aspirational". A goal of this effort is to identify a set of both lagging and leading indicators that is based on reliable and sustained data sources with known user communities. We intend for these indicators to guide decision-makers in their responses to climate change, and ideally help inform decisions of groups like the Arctic Council and U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) as they develop plans and priorities.

  11. New evidence: data documenting parental support for earlier sexuality education.

    PubMed

    Barr, Elissa M; Moore, Michele J; Johnson, Tammie; Forrest, Jamie; Jordan, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies document support for sexuality education to be taught in high school, and often, in middle school. However, little research has been conducted addressing support for sexuality education in elementary schools. As part of the state Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Survey administration, the Florida Department of Health conducted the Florida Child Health Survey (FCHS) by calling back parents who had children in their home and who agreed to participate (N = 1715). Most parents supported the following sexuality education topics being taught specifically in elementary school: communication skills (89%), human anatomy/reproductive information (65%), abstinence (61%), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (53%), and gender/sexual orientation issues (52%). Support was even greater in middle school (62-91%) and high school (72-91%) for these topics and for birth control and condom education. Most parents supported comprehensive sexuality education (40.4%), followed by abstinence-plus (36.4%) and abstinence-only (23.2%). Chi-square results showed significant differences in the type of sexuality education supported by almost all parent demographic variables analyzed including sex, race, marital status, and education. Results add substantial support for age-appropriate school-based sexuality education starting at the elementary school level, the new National Sexuality Education Standards, and funding to support evidence-based abstinence-plus or comprehensive sexuality education. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  12. Earlier surgery improves outcomes from painful chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Nengwen; Jia, Dan; Huang, Wei; Nunes, Quentin M.; Windsor, John A.; Liu, Xubao; Sutton, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The timing of surgery for painful chronic pancreatitis (CP) may affect outcomes. Clinical course, Izbicki pain scores, and pancreatic function were retrospectively compared and analyzed between patients undergoing either early or late surgery (< 3 or ≥ 3 years from diagnosis) for painful CP in a single center from 2007 to 2012. The early surgery group (n = 98) more frequently than the late group (n = 199) had abdominal pain with jaundice (22.4% vs 9.5%, P = .002) and pancreatic mass +/− ductal dilatation (47% vs 27%, P < .001), but less frequently abdominal pain alone (73.5% vs 85.9%, P = .009), ductal dilatation alone (31% vs 71%, P < .001), parenchymal calcification (91.8% vs 100%, P < .001) or exocrine insufficiency (60% vs 72%, P = .034); there were no other significant differences. The early group had longer hospital stay (14.4 vs 12.2 days, P = .009), but no difference in complications. Significantly greater pain relief followed early surgery (complete 69% vs 47%, partial 22% vs 37%, none 8% vs 16%, P = .01) with lower rates of exocrine (60% vs 80%, P = .005) and endocrine insufficiency (36% vs 53%, P = .033). Our data indicate that early surgery results in higher rates of pain relief and pancreatic sufficiency than late surgery for chronic pancreatitis patients. Frey and Berne procedures showed better results than other surgical procedures. PMID:29742705

  13. Predictability and possible earlier awareness of extreme precipitation across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavers, David; Pappenberger, Florian; Richardson, David; Zsoter, Ervin

    2017-04-01

    Extreme hydrological events can cause large socioeconomic damages in Europe. In winter, a large proportion of these flood episodes are associated with atmospheric rivers, a region of intense water vapour transport within the warm sector of extratropical cyclones. When preparing for such extreme events, forecasts of precipitation from numerical weather prediction models or river discharge forecasts from hydrological models are generally used. Given the strong link between water vapour transport (integrated vapour transport IVT) and heavy precipitation, it is possible that IVT could be used to warn of extreme events. Furthermore, as IVT is located in extratropical cyclones, it is hypothesized to be a more predictable variable due to its link with synoptic-scale atmospheric dynamics. In this research, we firstly provide an overview of the predictability of IVT and precipitation forecasts, and secondly introduce and evaluate the ECMWF Extreme Forecast Index (EFI) for IVT. The EFI is a tool that has been developed to evaluate how ensemble forecasts differ from the model climate, thus revealing the extremeness of the forecast. The ability of the IVT EFI to capture extreme precipitation across Europe during winter 2013/14, 2014/15, and 2015/16 is presented. The results show that the IVT EFI is more capable than the precipitation EFI of identifying extreme precipitation in forecast week 2 during forecasts initialized in a positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phase. However, the precipitation EFI is superior during the negative NAO phase and at shorter lead times. An IVT EFI example is shown for storm Desmond in December 2015 highlighting its potential to identify upcoming hydrometeorological extremes.

  14. Does age at onset of first major depressive episode indicate the subtype of major depressive disorder?: the clinical research center for depression study.

    PubMed

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Hahn, Sang-Woo; Hwang, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Park, Yong Chon

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of age at onset of the first major depressive episode on the clinical features of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) in a large cohort of Korean depressed patients. We recruited 419 MDD patients of age over 18 years from the Clinical Research Center for Depression study in South Korea. At the start of the study, the onset age of the first major depressive episode was self-reported by the subjects. The subjects were divided into four age-at-onset subgroups: childhood and adolescent onset (ages <18), early adult onset (ages 18-44), middle adult onset (ages 45-59), and late onset (ages 60+). Using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and ordinal logistic regression analysis with adjusting the effect of age, the relationships between clinical features and age at onset of MDD were evaluated. There was an apparent, but inconsistent correlation between clinical features and age at onset. Earlier onset MDD was significantly associated with higher proportion of female gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.570, p=0.022], more previous suicide attempts (AOR=0.635, p=0.038), greater number of previous depressive episodes (F=3.475, p=0.016) and higher scores on the brief psychiatric rating scale (F=3.254, p=0.022), its negative symptom subscale (F=6.082, p<0.0001), and the alcohol use disorder identification test (F=7.061, p<0.0001). Early age at onset may increase the likelihood of distinguishable MDD subtype, and age at onset of the first major depressive episode is a promising clinical indicator for the clinical presentation, course, and outcome of MDD.

  15. Indications of Recruitment Challenges in Research with U.S. Military Service Members: A ClinicalTrials.gov Review.

    PubMed

    Cook, Wendy A; Doorenbos, Ardith Z

    2017-03-01

    The success of military-relevant health research often depends on recruiting adequate numbers of U.S. military service members as research participants. Researchers have reported difficulties in recruiting service member research participants. Reviews of ClinicalTrials.gov, an online clinical trial registry of publicly and privately sponsored studies, have identified challenges in participant recruitment and barriers to study completion in various research populations. The purpose of this study was to identify indications of difficulty recruiting U.S. military service members as research participants based on data from study records in ClinicalTrials.gov. Records of studies starting between 2005 and 2014 were collected from ClinicalTrials.gov and updated through January 2016. Three hundred and two studies that included ≥25% U.S. military service member research participants were (1) compared to a comparison group of 302 studies, each with <5% service member participants and (2) compared by the proportion of service member participants within studies in the military group ("many" ≥25% but <100% service members and "all" 100% service members). Groups were evaluated and compared for recruitment status; reasons for study withdrawal, termination, or suspension; achievement of ≥85% of the anticipated enrollment; and differences in achieving recruitment goals according to study sponsor. Twelve percent of studies in the military group had been withdrawn, terminated, or suspended; enrollment and funding problems were the most common reasons. The comparison group had 11% of studies withdrawn, terminated, or suspended; the most common reasons were enrollment problems and sponsor decision. All study groups had indications of difficulty adequately achieving participant enrollment goals. Among studies with known anticipated and actual enrollment, approximately half in both the military group (47.9%) and comparison group (50.3%) achieved ≥85% of the anticipated enrollment

  16. Measuring high-density built environment for public health research: Uncertainty with respect to data, indicator design and spatial scale.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guibo; Webster, Chris; Ni, Michael Y; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2018-05-07

    Uncertainty with respect to built environment (BE) data collection, measure conceptualization and spatial scales is evident in urban health research, but most findings are from relatively lowdensity contexts. We selected Hong Kong, an iconic high-density city, as the study area as limited research has been conducted on uncertainty in such areas. We used geocoded home addresses (n=5732) from a large population-based cohort in Hong Kong to extract BE measures for the participants' place of residence based on an internationally recognized BE framework. Variability of the measures was mapped and Spearman's rank correlation calculated to assess how well the relationships among indicators are preserved across variables and spatial scales. We found extreme variations and uncertainties for the 180 measures collected using comprehensive data and advanced geographic information systems modelling techniques. We highlight the implications of methodological selection and spatial scales of the measures. The results suggest that more robust information regarding urban health research in high-density city would emerge if greater consideration were given to BE data, design methods and spatial scales of the BE measures.

  17. Using Administrative Mental Health Indicators in Heart Failure Outcomes Research: Comparison of Clinical Records and International Classification of Disease Coding.

    PubMed

    Bender, Miriam; Smith, Tyler C

    2016-01-01

    Use of mental indication in health outcomes research is of growing interest to researchers. This study, as part of a larger research program, quantified agreement between administrative International Classification of Disease (ICD-9) coding for, and "gold standard" clinician documentation of, mental health issues (MHIs) in hospitalized heart failure (HF) patients to determine the validity of mental health administrative data for use in HF outcomes research. A 13% random sample (n = 504) was selected from all unique patients (n = 3,769) hospitalized with a primary HF diagnosis at 4 San Diego County community hospitals during 2009-2012. MHI was defined as ICD-9 discharge diagnostic coding 290-319. Records were audited for clinician documentation of MHI. A total of 43% (n = 216) had mental health clinician documentation; 33% (n = 164) had ICD-9 coding for MHI. ICD-9 code bundle 290-319 had 0.70 sensitivity, 0.97 specificity, and kappa 0.69 (95% confidence interval 0.61-0.79). More specific ICD-9 MHI code bundles had kappas ranging from 0.44 to 0.82 and sensitivities ranging from 42% to 82%. Agreement between ICD-9 coding and clinician documentation for a broadly defined MHI is substantial, and can validly "rule in" MHI for hospitalized patients with heart failure. More specific MHI code bundles had fair to almost perfect agreement, with a wide range of sensitivities for identifying patients with an MHI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Validation of alternative indicators of social support in perinatal outcomes research using quality of the partner relationship.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Julie A; Low, Lisa Kane; Seng, Julia S

    2013-07-01

    To test alternatives to the current research and clinical practice of assuming that married or partnered status is a proxy for positive social support. Having a partner is assumed to relate to better health status via the intermediary process of social support. However, women's health research indicates that having a partner is not always associated with positive social support. An exploratory post hoc analysis focused on posttraumatic stress and childbearing was conducted using a large perinatal database from 2005-2009. To operationalize partner relationship, four variables were analysed: partner ('yes' or 'no'), intimate partner violence ('yes' or 'no'), the combination of those two factors, and the woman's appraisal of the quality of her partner relationship via a single item. Construct validity of these four alternative variables was assessed in relation to appraisal of the partner's social support in labour and the postpartum using linear regression standardized betas and adjusted R-squares. Predictive validity was assessed using unadjusted and adjusted linear regression modelling. Four groups were compared. Married, abused women differed most from married, not abused women in relation to the social support, and depression outcomes used for validity checks. The variable representing the women's appraisals of their partner relationships accounts for the most variance in predicting depression scores. Our results support the validity of operationalizing the impact of the partner relationship on outcomes using a combination of partnered status and abuse status or using a subjective rating of quality of the partner relationship. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Earlier Vegetation Activity Onset Enhances Springtime Water-use Efficiency in Temperate and Boreal Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, J.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Ecosystem-scale water-use efficiency (EWUE), defined as the ratio of gross primary productivity (GPP) to evapotranspiration (ET), is an important indicator for understanding how water couples with the carbon cycle under global change. Relationships between EWUE and abiotic environmental factors (e.g. climatic factors, atmospheric CO2concentration and nitrogen deposition) have been widely investigated, but the variations in EWUE in response to biotic controls remain little understood. Here, we argue that phenology plays an important role in the regulation of EWUE by analyzing springtime EWUE responses to variability of the GPP-based vegetation activity onset (VAO) in temperate and boreal ecosystems using both satellite and flux-tower observations. Based on MODIS productions during 2000-2014, we found that spring EWUE widely significantly increased with the earlier VAO mainly in the mid- and high latitudes (over 50°N), southwestern China and mid-western North America. When AVO advanced a 10-day, the spring EWUE would increase on average by 0.17±0.09 g C kg-1 H2O in temperate and continental climates after removing the effect of environmental factors. The main response patterns of EWUE to phenology suggest that an increase in spring EWUE with an earlier VAO are mainly because the increase in GPP is relatively larger in magnitude compared to that of ET, or due to an increase in GPP accompanied by a decrease in ET, resulting from an advanced VAO. The credibility of the results is also supported by the local-scale observations. By analyzing 66 site-years of flux and meteorological data obtained from 8 temperate deciduous broadleaf forest sites across North America and Europe, spring EWUE increased 0.42±0.08 g C kg-1 H2O with a 10-day advance of VAO across all sites after controlling for environmental factors, mainly because an earlier VAO could lead to a steeper increase in GPP than in ET. Our results and conclusions highlight that phenological factors cannot be

  20. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Primary Productivity (NDVI) of Coastal Alaskan Tundra: Decreased Vegetation Growth Following Earlier Snowmelt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamon, John A.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Stone, Robert S.; Tweedie, Craig E.

    2015-01-01

    In the Arctic, earlier snowmelt and longer growing seasons due to warming have been hypothesized to increase vegetation productivity. Using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from both field and satellite measurements as an indicator of vegetation phenology and productivity, we monitored spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation growth for a coastal wet sedge tundra site near Barrow, Alaska over three growing seasons (2000-2002). Contrary to expectation, earlier snowmelt did not lead to increased productivity. Instead, productivity was associated primarily with precipitation and soil moisture, and secondarily with growing degree days, which, during this period, led to reduced growth in years with earlier snowmelt. Additional moisture effects on productivity and species distribution, operating over a longer time scale, were evident in spatial NDVI patterns associated with microtopography. Lower, wetter regions dominated by graminoids were more productive than higher, drier locations having a higher percentage of lichens and mosses, despite the earlier snowmelt at the more elevated sites. These results call into question the oft-stated hypothesis that earlier arctic growing seasons will lead to greater vegetation productivity. Rather, they agree with an emerging body of evidence from recent field studies indicating that early-season, local environmental conditions, notably moisture and temperature, are primary factors determining arctic vegetation productivity. For this coastal arctic site, early growing season conditions are strongly influenced by microtopography, hydrology, and regional sea ice dynamics, and may not be easily predicted from snowmelt date or seasonal average air temperatures alone. Our comparison of field to satellite NDVI also highlights the value of in-situ monitoring of actual vegetation responses using field optical sampling to obtain detailed information on surface conditions not possible from satellite observations alone.

  1. Earlier Detection of Tumor Treatment Response Using Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Imaging with Oscillating Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Daniel C.; Loveless, Mary E.; Does, Mark D.; Yue, Zou; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Gore, John C.

    2011-01-01

    An improved method for detecting early changes in tumors in response to treatment, based on a modification of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, has been demonstrated in an animal model. Early detection of therapeutic response in tumors is important both clinically and in pre-clinical assessments of novel treatments. Non-invasive imaging methods that can detect and assess tumor response early in the course of treatment, and before frank changes in tumor morphology are evident, are of considerable interest as potential biomarkers of treatment efficacy. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is sensitive to changes in water diffusion rates in tissues that result from structural variations in the local cellular environment, but conventional methods mainly reflect changes in tissue cellularity and do not convey information specific to micro-structural variations at sub-cellular scales. We implemented a modified imaging technique using oscillating gradients of the magnetic field for evaluating water diffusion rates over very short spatial scales that are more specific for detecting changes in intracellular structure that may precede changes in cellularity. Results from a study of orthotopic 9L gliomas in rat brains indicate that this method can detect changes as early as 24 hours following treatment with 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU), when conventional approaches do not find significant effects. These studies suggest that diffusion imaging using oscillating gradients may be used to obtain an earlier indication of treatment efficacy than previous magnetic resonance imaging methods. PMID:21190804

  2. Life Outcomes and Higher Education: The Need for Longitudinal Research Using a Broad Range of Quality of Life Indicators.

    PubMed

    Sheppard-Jones, Kathleen; Kleinert, Harold; Butler, Laura; Whaley, Barry

    2018-02-01

    Higher education is increasingly becoming an option for young adults with intellectual disability (ID). Although initial evaluations of postsecondary education for this population have been promising, a broader "quality of life" framework needs to be adopted in order to truly understand the impact of these programs. Moreover, researchers and program evaluators must collect longitudinal data that follows former students for multiple years and uses multiple measures. We conducted a pilot evaluation of the life outcomes of students who had attended at least two semesters in Kentucky's supported higher education program for students with ID, collecting data on life status and experiences using measures from the National Core Indicators-Adult Consumer Survey. The findings from this pilot study show better outcomes for young adults who participated in a postsecondary education program compared to young adults who did not, but these findings need to be considered in light of several limitations. In many respects, our data provided more new questions than answers. Recommendations for collecting and evaluating broad-based, longitudinal data to gain insight into the potential benefits of postsecondary education for people with intellectual disability are discussed.

  3. Ethograms indicate stable well-being during prolonged training phases in rhesus monkeys used in neurophysiological research.

    PubMed

    Hage, Steffen R; Ott, Torben; Eiselt, Anne-Kathrin; Jacob, Simon N; Nieder, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Awake, behaving rhesus monkeys are widely used in neurophysiological research. Neural signals are typically measured from monkeys trained with operant conditioning techniques to perform a variety of behavioral tasks in exchange for rewards. Over the past years, monkeys' psychological well-being during experimentation has become an increasingly important concern. We suggest objective criteria to explore whether training sessions during which the monkeys work under controlled water intake over many days might affect their behavior. With that aim, we analyzed a broad range of species-specific behaviors over several months ('ethogram') and used these ethograms as a proxy for the monkeys' well-being. Our results show that monkeys' behavior during training sessions is unaffected by the duration of training-free days in-between. Independently of the number of training-free days (two or nine days) with ad libitum food and water supply, the monkeys were equally active and alert in their home group cages during training phases. This indicates that the monkeys were well habituated to prolonged working schedules and that their well-being was stably ensured during the training sessions.

  4. Evaluation of a Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program in ChE Indicates Benefit from a Collaborative Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follmer, D. Jake; Gomez, Esther; Zappe, Sarah; Kumar, Manish

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how a collaborative research environment in a structured research experience impacts undergraduate student outcomes. Students demonstrated significant gains in research skills and provided positive appraisals of their collaborative experiences. Emphasis on collaboration among students in an undergraduate research program…

  5. Where There Is Smoke, There Is (the Potential for) Fire: Soft Indicators of Research and Policy Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John; Holmes, Bryn; Leitch, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing literature examining the impact of research on informing policy, and of research and policy on practice. Research and policy do not have the same types of impact on practice but can be evaluated using similar approaches. Sometimes the literature provides a platform for methodological debate but mostly it is concerned with how…

  6. Earlier Snowmelt Changes the Ratio Between Early and Late Season Forest Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, J. F.; Molotch, N. P.; Trujillo, E.; Litvak, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Future projections of declining snowpack and increasing potential evaporation associated with climate warming are predicted to advance the timing of snowmelt in mountain ecosystems globally. This scenario has direct implications for snowmelt-driven forest productivity, but the net effect of temporally shifting moisture dynamics is unknown with respect to the annual carbon balance. Accordingly, this study uses both satellite- and tower-based observations to document the forest productivity response to snowpack and potential evaporation variability between 1989 and 2012 throughout the southern Rocky Mountain ecoregion, USA. These results show that a combination of low snow accumulation and record high potential evaporation in 2012 resulted in the 34-year minimum ecosystem productivity that could be indicative of future conditions. Moreover, early and late season productivity were significantly and inversely related, suggesting that future shifts toward earlier or reduced snowmelt could increase late-season moisture stress to vegetation and thus restrict productivity despite a longer growing season. This relationship was further subject to modification by summer precipitation, and the controls on the early/late season productivity ratio are explored within the context of ecosystem carbon storage in the future. Any perturbation to the carbon cycle at this scale represents a potential feedback to climate change since snow-covered forests represent an important global carbon sink.

  7. Sediment connectivity in a small catchment with badlands: Testing connectivity indices using fallout radionuclide tracers at the Vallcebre Research Catchments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallart, Francesc; Latron, Jérôme; Vuolo, Diego; Martínez-Carreras, Núria; Pérez-Gallego, Nuria; Estrany, Joan; Ferrer, Laura

    2015-04-01

    At the Vallcebre Research Catchments (South Eastern Pyrenees), results obtained during over 20 years showed that badlands are the primary sources of sediments to the drainage network. Parent lutitic rocks are weathered during winter producing regoliths, which are eroded from badland surfaces mainly during summer intense rainstorms. Even if the produced sediments are mainly fine, due to the ephemeral nature of summer runoff events most of them are deposited on the stream beds, where may remain during some time (months to years). Within the MEDhyCON project, a fallout radionuclides (FRNs) tracing experiment (i.e., excess lead 210 (Pbx-210) and beryllium 7 (Be-7)) is being carried out in order to investigate sediment connectivity. A simplified Pbx-210 balance model on badland surfaces suggested a seasonal sawtooth-like activity pattern: FRN would be accumulated in regoliths from October to June and depleted in summer. Early summer erosion events would produce the sediments with the highest activity whereas late summer events would produce sediments with the least activity coming from the deeper regolith horizons. These findings lead us to intend two sediment connectivity indices analysing respectively the temporal and spatial variability of the Pb-210 activities within the fine sediments: (1) The temporal variability of activities in suspended sediments at the gauging stations, being a measure of sediment transfer, ergo connectivity; a high variability mimicking regolith activity temporal pattern would represent high connectivity, whereas a low variability would involve that the sediments were pooled in a large and slowly moving stock. (2) The ratio between fine sediment activities at the sources and fine stream sediment activities downstream; fine stream sediment activities higher than those at their sources and increasing downstream (ratio lower than the unity) may indicate long-term permanence (low connectivity) of sediments in the stream beds, because once

  8. The cortical representation of the speech envelope is earlier for audiovisual speech than audio speech.

    PubMed

    Crosse, Michael J; Lalor, Edmund C

    2014-04-01

    Visual speech can greatly enhance a listener's comprehension of auditory speech when they are presented simultaneously. Efforts to determine the neural underpinnings of this phenomenon have been hampered by the limited temporal resolution of hemodynamic imaging and the fact that EEG and magnetoencephalographic data are usually analyzed in response to simple, discrete stimuli. Recent research has shown that neuronal activity in human auditory cortex tracks the envelope of natural speech. Here, we exploit this finding by estimating a linear forward-mapping between the speech envelope and EEG data and show that the latency at which the envelope of natural speech is represented in cortex is shortened by >10 ms when continuous audiovisual speech is presented compared with audio-only speech. In addition, we use a reverse-mapping approach to reconstruct an estimate of the speech stimulus from the EEG data and, by comparing the bimodal estimate with the sum of the unimodal estimates, find no evidence of any nonlinear additive effects in the audiovisual speech condition. These findings point to an underlying mechanism that could account for enhanced comprehension during audiovisual speech. Specifically, we hypothesize that low-level acoustic features that are temporally coherent with the preceding visual stream may be synthesized into a speech object at an earlier latency, which may provide an extended period of low-level processing before extraction of semantic information.

  9. Earlier response assessment in invasive aspergillosis based on the kinetics of serum Aspergillus galactomannan: proposal for a new definition.

    PubMed

    Nouér, Simone A; Nucci, Marcio; Kumar, Naveen Sanath; Grazziutti, Monica; Barlogie, Bart; Anaissie, Elias

    2011-10-01

    Current criteria for assessing treatment response of invasive aspergillosis (IA) rely on nonspecific subjective parameters. We hypothesized that an Aspergillus-specific response definition based on the kinetics of serum Aspergillus galactomannan index (GMI) would provide earlier and more objective response assessment. We compared the 6-week European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) response criteria with GMI-based response among 115 cancer patients with IA. Success according to GMI required survival with repeatedly negative GMI for ≥2 weeks. Time to response and agreement between the 2 definitions were the study endpoints. Success according to EORTC/MSG and GMI criteria was observed in 73 patients (63%) and 83 patients (72%), respectively. The GMI-based response was determined at a median of 21 days after treatment initiation (range, 15-41 days), 3 weeks before the EORTC/MSG time point, in 72 (87%) of 83 responders. Agreement between definitions was shown in all 32 nonresponders and in 73 of the 83 responders (91% overall), with an excellent κ correlation coefficient of 0.819. Among 10 patients with discordant response (EORTC/MSG failure, GMI success), 1 is alive without IA 3 years after diagnosis; for the other, aspergillosis could not be detected at autopsy. The presence of other life-threatening complications in the remaining 8 patients indicates that IA had resolved. The Aspergillus-specific GMI-based criteria compare favorably to current response definitions for IA and significantly shorten time to response assessment. These criteria rely on a simple, reproducible, objective, and Aspergillus-specific test and should serve as the primary endpoint in trials of IA.

  10. Indicator-Assisted Evaluation and Funding of Research: Visualizing the Influence of Grants on the Number and Citation Counts of Research Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyack, Kevin W.; Borner, Katy

    2003-01-01

    Reports research on analyzing and visualizing the impact of government funding on the amount and citation counts of research publications. Provides an example using grant and publication data from Behavioral and Social Science Research at the National Institute on Aging (NIA) using the VxInsight[R] visualization tool. (Author/LRW)

  11. Some Relationships Among and Between Measures of Employee Perceptions and Other Indices of Organizational Effectiveness. Research Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Benjamin; Synder, Robert A.

    Relationships among two measures of job satisfaction and one of organizational climate, among seven production and turnover indices of organizational effectiveness, and between the two sets of measures were investigated in 50 life insurance agencies (N=522). It was shown that: (1) climate and satisfaction measures are correlated for some people…

  12. Can social media data lead to earlier detection of drug‐related adverse events?

    PubMed Central

    Cremieux, Pierre; Audenrode, Marc Van; Vekeman, Francis; Karner, Paul; Zhang, Haimin; Greenberg, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To compare the patient characteristics and the inter‐temporal reporting patterns of adverse events (AEs) for atorvastatin (Lipitor®) and sibutramine (Meridia®) in social media (AskaPatient.com) versus the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). Methods We identified clinically important AEs associated with atorvastatin (muscle pain) and sibutramine (cardiovascular AEs), compared their patterns in social media postings versus FAERS and used Granger causality tests to assess whether social media postings were useful in forecasting FAERS reports. Results We analyzed 998 and 270 social media postings between 2001 and 2014, 69 003 and 7383 FAERS reports between 1997 and 2014 for atorvastatin and sibutramine, respectively. Social media reporters were younger (atorvastatin: 53.9 vs. 64.0 years, p < 0.001; sibutramine: 36.8 vs. 43.8 years, p < 0.001). Social media reviews contained fewer serious AEs (atorvastatin, pain: 2.5% vs. 38.2%; sibutramine, cardiovascular issues: 7.9% vs. 63.0%; p < 0.001 for both) and concentrated on fewer types of AEs (proportion comprising the top 20 AEs: atorvastatin, 88.7% vs. 55.4%; sibutramine, 86.3% vs. 65.4%) compared with FAERS. While social media sibutramine reviews mentioning cardiac issues helped predict those in FAERS 11 months later (p < 0.001), social media atorvastatin reviews did not help predict FAERS reports. Conclusions Social media AE reporters were younger and focused on less‐serious and fewer types of AEs than FAERS reporters. The potential for social media to provide earlier indications of AEs compared with FAERS is uncertain. Our findings highlight some of the promises and limitations of online social media versus conventional pharmacovigilance sources and the need for careful interpretation of the results. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27601271

  13. Delusions and underlying needs in older adults with Alzheimer's disease: influence of earlier life experiences and the current environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Jy; Cheng, Wen-Yun; Lai, Pei-Ru; Pai, Ming-Chyi

    2014-12-01

    Delusions are one of the most severe psychiatric symptoms of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), which often increase the stress experienced by caregivers. The purpose of this study was to understand the influences of earlier life experiences and the current environment on delusions, as well as the underlying needs of older adults with AD who experience delusions. Using an exploratory research design with a qualitative approach and purposive sampling, 20 family caregivers were interviewed. Two psychosocial types of attributes of delusion were categorized: Type A, the influence of earlier life experiences; and Type B, current environmental influences. The underlying needs of those with delusions include physical comfort, a desire to be secure, and a sense of belonging. The contents of delusions are easily influenced by patients' earlier negative experiences and responsibilities, whereas the current environment exerts a crucial influence on the occurrence, frequency, and severity of specific delusions. These results can facilitate planning for patient-centered care by enhancing health care providers' understanding of the psychosocial and environmental attributes and needs behind delusions. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Geographical Locational Knowledge as an Indicator of Children's Views of the World: Research from Sweden and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Ruth; Vinterek, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Children's locational knowledge is often used to clarify underlying conceptual understandings of the world in which they live. Although there has been some exploration of how European children view their world there is little recent research on Scandinavian children's knowledge and associated perceptions of the wider world, or about Australian…

  15. Daily use, especially of high-potency cannabis, drives the earlier onset of psychosis in cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Di Forti, Marta; Sallis, Hannah; Allegri, Fabio; Trotta, Antonella; Ferraro, Laura; Stilo, Simona A; Marconi, Arianna; La Cascia, Caterina; Reis Marques, Tiago; Pariante, Carmine; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Paparelli, Alessandra; Kolliakou, Anna; Prata, Diana; Gaughran, Fiona; David, Anthony S; Morgan, Craig; Stahl, Daniel; Khondoker, Mizanur; MacCabe, James H; Murray, Robin M

    2014-11-01

    Cannabis use is associated with an earlier age of onset of psychosis (AOP). However, the reasons for this remain debated. We applied a Cox proportional hazards model to 410 first-episode psychosis patients to investigate the association between gender, patterns of cannabis use, and AOP. Patients with a history of cannabis use presented with their first episode of psychosis at a younger age (mean years = 28.2, SD = 8.0; median years = 27.1) than those who never used cannabis (mean years = 31.4, SD = 9.9; median years = 30.0; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.16-1.74; P < .001). This association remained significant after controlling for gender (HR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.11-1.68; P < .001). Those who had started cannabis at age 15 or younger had an earlier onset of psychosis (mean years = 27.0, SD = 6.2; median years = 26.9) than those who had started after 15 years (mean years = 29.1, SD = 8.5; median years = 27.8; HR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.06-1.84; P = .050). Importantly, subjects who had been using high-potency cannabis (skunk-type) every day had the earliest onset (mean years = 25.2, SD = 6.3; median years = 24.6) compared to never users among all the groups tested (HR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.50- 2.65; P < .0001); these daily users of high-potency cannabis had an onset an average of 6 years earlier than that of non-cannabis users. Daily use, especially of high-potency cannabis, drives the earlier onset of psychosis in cannabis users. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Urine specific gravity as an indicator of dehydration in Olympic combat sport athletes; considerations for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Zubac, Damir; Reale, Reid; Karnincic, Hrvoje; Sivric, Anamaria; Jelaska, Igor

    2018-05-10

    Urine specific gravity (U SG ) is the most commonly reported biochemical marker used in research and applied settings to detect fluid deficits in athletes, including those participating in combat sports. Despite the popularity of its use, there has been a growing debate regarding the diagnostic accuracy and the applicability of U SG in characterizing whole-body fluid status and fluctuations. Moreover, recent investigations report universally high prevalence of hypohydration (∼90%) via U SG assessment in combat sport athletes, often in spite of stable body-mass. Given the widespread use in both research and practice, and its use in a regulatory sense as a 'hydration test' in combat sports as a means to detect dehydration at the time of weigh-in; understanding the limitations and applicability of U SG assessment is of paramount importance. Inconsistencies in findings of U SG readings, possibly as a consequence of diverse methodological research approaches and/or overlooked confounding factors, preclude a conclusive position stand within current combat sports research and practice. Thus the primary aim of this paper is to critically review the literature regarding U SG assessment of hydration status in combat sports research and practice. When taken on balance, the existing literature suggests: the use of laboratory derived benchmarks in applied settings, inconsistent sampling methodologies, the incomplete picture of how various confounding factors affect end-point readings, and the still poorly understood potential of renal adaptation to dehydration in combat athletes; make the utility of hydration assessment via U SG measurement quite problematic, particularly when diet and training is not controlled.

  17. Biological consequences of earlier snowmelt from desert dust deposition in alpine landscapes.

    PubMed

    Steltzer, Heidi; Landry, Chris; Painter, Thomas H; Anderson, Justin; Ayres, Edward

    2009-07-14

    Dust deposition to mountain snow cover, which has increased since the late 19(th) century, accelerates the rate of snowmelt by increasing the solar radiation absorbed by the snowpack. Snowmelt occurs earlier, but is decoupled from seasonal warming. Climate warming advances the timing of snowmelt and early season phenological events (e.g., the onset of greening and flowering); however, earlier snowmelt without warmer temperatures may have a different effect on phenology. Here, we report the results of a set of snowmelt manipulations in which radiation-absorbing fabric and the addition and removal of dust from the surface of the snowpack advanced or delayed snowmelt in the alpine tundra. These changes in the timing of snowmelt were superimposed on a system where the timing of snowmelt varies with topography and has been affected by increased dust loading. At the community level, phenology exhibited a threshold response to the timing of snowmelt. Greening and flowering were delayed before seasonal warming, after which there was a linear relationship between the date of snowmelt and the timing of phenological events. Consequently, the effects of earlier snowmelt on phenology differed in relation to topography, which resulted in increasing synchronicity in phenology across the alpine landscape with increasingly earlier snowmelt. The consequences of earlier snowmelt from increased dust deposition differ from climate warming and include delayed phenology, leading to synchronized growth and flowering across the landscape and the opportunity for altered species interactions, landscape-scale gene flow via pollination, and nutrient cycling.

  18. Earlier Right Ventricular Pacing in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy for a Patient with Right Axis Deviation.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yusuke; Ishibashi, Kohei; Noda, Takashi; Okamura, Hideo; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Anzai, Toshihisa; Yasuda, Satoshi; Kusano, Kengo

    2017-09-01

    We describe the case of a 37-year-old woman who presented with complete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation. She was admitted to our hospital due to severe heart failure and was dependent on inotropic agents. Cardiac resynchronization therapy was initiated but did not improve her condition. After the optimization of the pacing timing, we performed earlier right ventricular pacing, which led to an improvement of her heart failure. Earlier right ventricular pacing should be considered in patients with complete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation when cardiac resynchronization therapy is not effective.

  19. Use of cone beam computed tomography in implant dentistry: current concepts, indications and limitations for clinical practice and research.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Michael M; Horner, Keith; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2017-02-01

    Diagnostic radiology is an essential component of treatment planning in the field of implant dentistry. This narrative review will present current concepts for the use of cone beam computed tomography imaging, before and after implant placement, in daily clinical practice and research. Guidelines for the selection of three-dimensional imaging will be discussed, and limitations will be highlighted. Current concepts of radiation dose optimization, including novel imaging modalities using low-dose protocols, will be presented. For preoperative cross-sectional imaging, data are still not available which demonstrate that cone beam computed tomography results in fewer intraoperative complications such as nerve damage or bleeding incidents, or that implants inserted using preoperative cone beam computed tomography data sets for planning purposes will exhibit higher survival or success rates. The use of cone beam computed tomography following the insertion of dental implants should be restricted to specific postoperative complications, such as damage of neurovascular structures or postoperative infections in relation to the maxillary sinus. Regarding peri-implantitis, the diagnosis and severity of the disease should be evaluated primarily based on clinical parameters and on radiological findings based on periapical radiographs (two dimensional). The use of cone beam computed tomography scans in clinical research might not yield any evident beneficial effect for the patient included. As many of the cone beam computed tomography scans performed for research have no direct therapeutic consequence, dose optimization measures should be implemented by using appropriate exposure parameters and by reducing the field of view to the actual region of interest. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Experimental Researches on the Durability Indicators and the Physiological Comfort of Fabrics using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristian, L.; Ostafe, M. M.; Manea, L. R.; Apostol, L. L.

    2017-06-01

    The work pursued the distribution of combed wool fabrics destined to manufacturing of external articles of clothing in terms of the values of durability and physiological comfort indices, using the mathematical model of Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Principal Components Analysis (PCA) applied in this study is a descriptive method of the multivariate analysis/multi-dimensional data, and aims to reduce, under control, the number of variables (columns) of the matrix data as much as possible to two or three. Therefore, based on the information about each group/assortment of fabrics, it is desired that, instead of nine inter-correlated variables, to have only two or three new variables called components. The PCA target is to extract the smallest number of components which recover the most of the total information contained in the initial data.

  1. The Fischa-Dagnitz spring, Southern Vienna Basin: a multi tracer time series study re-assessing earlier conceptual assumptions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suckow, Axel; Gerber, Christoph; Kralik, Martin; Sültenfuss, Jürgen; Purtschert, Roland

    2013-04-01

    The gravel aquifer of the Southern Vienna Basin is a very important backup drinking water resource for the city of Vienna. A discharge location, the Fischa-Dagnitz spring in the Southern Vienna Basin, Austria, was re-investigated in 2011, five years after the gas exchange tracer test published in (Stolp et al., 2010), and sampled for stable isotopes 18O/2H, tritium, 3He, SF6 and 85Kr (Gerber et al., 2012). Additionally, new tritium time series data (Davis et al., 1967), previously not considered in Stolp et al. (2010), were included. These show a higher and earlier tritium peak of >300 TU in 1965 in the discharge of the Fischa-Dagnitz spring as compared to 221 TU in 1972 considered in Stolp et al. (2010). The new 3He, SF6 and 85Kr gas tracer data from 2011 confirm the earlier finding for 3He of Stolp et al. (2010) and indicate a more recent equilibration with the atmosphere than the water bound tracers 18O, 2H and tritium. A new modelling attempt using the Lumpy code (Suckow, 2012) confirmed the discrepancy between the tritium data and the gaseous tracers 3He, SF6 and 85Kr. No steady-state combination of local recharge (represented by an exponential model) and Schwarza river infiltration flowing through the gravel aquifer (represented by a parallel dispersion model) can equally well explain both the tritium time series and the gas tracer results. A revised conceptual model proposes that a pinching of the aquifer at unconformities in the gravel body or a fault zone known in the gravel body forces groundwater along the flow path closer to the surface and exposes it to the atmosphere. This would tend to reset the "dating" clock for the gaseous tracers 3He, SF6 and 85Kr, which can equilibrate quickly with the atmosphere, but not for tritium, which marks the transport behaviour of the water itself. These findings are of importance also for other multi-tracer assessments of groundwater movement in phreatic aquifer systems. References: Davis, G.H., Payne, B.R., Dincer, T

  2. The Cardiovascular Health in Ambulatory Care Research Team performance indicators for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a modified Delphi panel study.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jack V; Maclagan, Laura C; Ko, Dennis T; Atzema, Clare L; Booth, Gillian L; Johnston, Sharon; Tu, Karen; Lee, Douglas S; Bierman, Arlene; Hall, Ruth; Bhatia, R Sacha; Gershon, Andrea S; Tobe, Sheldon W; Sanmartin, Claudia; Liu, Peter; Chu, Anna

    2017-04-25

    High-quality ambulatory care can reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but important gaps exist in the provision of cardiovascular preventive care. We sought to develop a set of key performance indicators that can be used to measure and improve cardiovascular care in the primary care setting. As part of the Cardiovascular Health in Ambulatory Care Research Team initiative, we established a 14-member multidisciplinary expert panel to develop a set of indicators for measuring primary prevention performance in ambulatory cardiovascular care. We used a 2-stage modified Delphi panel process to rate potential indicators, which were identified from the literature and national cardiovascular organizations. The top-rated indicators were pilot tested to determine their measurement feasibility with the use of data routinely collected in the Canadian health care system. A set of 28 indicators of primary prevention performance were identified, which were grouped into 5 domains: risk factor prevalence, screening, management, intermediate outcomes and long-term outcomes. The indicators reflect the major cardiovascular risk factors including smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and atrial fibrillation. All indicators were determined to be amenable to measurement with the use of population-based administrative (physician claims, hospital admission, laboratory, medication), survey or electronic medical record databases. The Cardiovascular Health in Ambulatory Care Research Team indicators of primary prevention performance provide a framework for the measurement of cardiovascular primary prevention efforts in Canada. The indicators may be used by clinicians, researchers and policy-makers interested in measuring and improving the prevention of cardiovascular disease in ambulatory care settings. Copyright 2017, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  3. Expression and testing in plants of ArcLight, a genetically-encoded voltage indicator used in neuroscience research.

    PubMed

    Matzke, Antonius J M; Matzke, Marjori

    2015-10-12

    It is increasingly appreciated that electrical controls acting at the cellular and supra-cellular levels influence development and initiate rapid responses to environmental cues. An emerging method for non-invasive optical imaging of electrical activity at cell membranes uses genetically-encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs). Developed by neuroscientists to chart neuronal circuits in animals, GEVIs comprise a fluorescent protein that is fused to a voltage-sensing domain. One well-known GEVI, ArcLight, undergoes strong shifts in fluorescence intensity in response to voltage changes in mammalian cells. ArcLight consists of super-ecliptic (SE) pHluorin (pH-sensitive fluorescent protein) with an A227D substitution, which confers voltage sensitivity in neurons, fused to the voltage-sensing domain of the voltage-sensing phosphatase of C iona i ntestinalis (Ci-VSD). In an ongoing effort to adapt tools of optical electrophysiology for plants, we describe here the expression and testing of ArcLight and various derivatives in different membranes of root cells in Arabidopsis thaliana. Transgenic constructs were designed to express ArcLight and various derivatives targeted to the plasma membrane and nuclear membranes of Arabidopsis root cells. In transgenic seedlings, changes in fluorescence intensity of these reporter proteins following extracellular ATP (eATP) application were monitored using a fluorescence microscope equipped with a high speed camera. Coordinate reductions in fluorescence intensity of ArcLight and Ci-VSD-containing derivatives were observed at both the plasma membrane and nuclear membranes following eATP treatments. However, similar responses were observed for derivatives lacking the Ci-VSD. The dispensability of the Ci-VSD suggests that in plants, where H(+) ions contribute substantially to electrical activities, the voltage-sensing ability of ArcLight is subordinate to the pH sensitivity of its SEpHluorin base. The transient reduction of Arc

  4. Variations in a university subject pool as a function of earlier or later participation and self-report: a replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Larry C; Walsh, R Patricia

    2002-10-01

    The present study replicated and extended earlier research on temporal sampling effects in university subject pools. Data were obtained from 236 participants, 79 men and 157 women, in a university subject pool during a 15-wk. semester. Without knowing the purpose of the study, participants self-selected to participate earlier (Weeks 4 and 5; n = 105) or later (Weeks 14 and 15; n = 131). Three hypotheses were investigated: (1) that the personality patterns of earlier and later participants on the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and the Personality Research Form differ significantly, with earlier participants scoring higher on the latter scales reflecting social responsibility and higher on former Conscientiousness and Neuroticism scales; (2) that there are similar significant differences between participants in the earlier and later groups compared to the male and female college normative samples for the two tests: and (3) that earlier participants will have higher actual Scholastic Assessment Test scores and Grade Point Averages. Also investigated was whether participants' foreknowledge that their actual Scholastic Assessment Test scores and Grade Point Averages would be obtained would affect their accuracy of self-report. In contrast to prior research, neither the first nor second hypothesis was supported by the current study; there do not appear to be consistent differences on personality variables. However, the third hypothesis was supported. Earlier participants had higher actual high school Grade Point Average, college Grade Point Average, and Scholastic Assessment Test Verbal scores. Foreknowledge that actual Scholastic Assessment Test scores and Grade Point Averages would be obtained did not affect the accuracy of self-report. In addition, later participants significantly over-reported their scores, and significantly more women than men and more first-year than senior-year subjects participated in the early group.

  5. 40 CFR 87.21 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier... standards. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured... from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated output of 129 kilonewtons thrust or...

  6. 40 CFR 87.21 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.21 Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier... standards. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured... from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated output of 129 kilonewtons thrust or...

  7. Reading-Related Skills in Earlier- and Later-Schooled Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Anna J.; Carroll, Julia M.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effects of age-related factors and formal instruction on the development of reading-related skills in children aged 4 and 7 years. Age effects were determined by comparing two groups of children at the onset of formal schooling; one aged 7 (later-schooled) and one aged 4 (earlier-schooled). Schooling effects were measured by…

  8. Identifying pneumonia outbreaks of public health importance: can emergency department data assist in earlier identification?

    PubMed

    Hope, Kirsty; Durrheim, David N; Muscatello, David; Merritt, Tony; Zheng, Wei; Massey, Peter; Cashman, Patrick; Eastwood, Keith

    2008-08-01

    To retrospectively review the performance of a near real-time Emergency Department (ED) Syndromic Surveillance System operating in New South Wales for identifying pneumonia outbreaks of public health importance. Retrospective data was obtained from the NSW Emergency Department data collection for a rural hospital that has experienced a cluster of pneumonia diagnoses among teenage males in August 2006. ED standard reports were examined for signals in the overall count for each respiratory syndrome, and for elevated counts in individual subgroups including; age, sex and admission to hospital status. Using the current thresholds, the ED syndromic surveillance system would have trigged a signal for pneumonia syndrome in children aged 5-16 years four days earlier than the notification by a paediatrician and this signal was maintained for 14 days. If the ED syndromic surveillance system had been operating it could have identified the outbreak earlier than the paediatrician's notification. This may have permitted an earlier public health response. By understanding the behaviour of syndromes during outbreaks of public health importance, response protocols could be developed to facilitate earlier implementation of control measures.

  9. Tidal Wave II Revisited: A Review of Earlier Enrollment Projections for California Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Gerald C.; Breneman, David W.; Estrada, Leobardo F.

    This report examined enrollment projections for higher education institutions in California in relation to earlier projections conducted in the mid-1990s that forecasted steep declines in enrollment. It notes that California's remarkable economic recovery over the last several years has allowed it to fund higher education enrollment growth at a…

  10. Earlier reperfusion in patients with ST-elevation Myocardial infarction by use of helicopter

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) reperfusion therapy should be initiated as soon as possible. This study evaluated whether use of a helicopter for transportation of patients is associated with earlier initiation of reperfusion therapy. Material and methods A prospective study was conducted, including patients with STEMI and symptom duration less than 12 hours, who had primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) performed at Aarhus University Hospital in Skejby. Patients with a health care system delay (time from emergency call to first coronary intervention) of more than 360 minutes were excluded. The study period ran from 1.1.2011 until 31.12.2011. A Western Denmark Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) project was initiated 1.6.2011 for transportation of patients with time-critical illnesses, including STEMI. Results The study population comprised 398 patients, of whom 376 were transported by ambulance Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and 22 by HEMS. Field-triage directly to the PCI-center was used in 338 of patients. The median system delay was 94 minutes among those field-triaged, and 168 minutes among those initially admitted to a local hospital. Patients transported by EMS and field-triaged were stratified into four groups according to transport distance from the scene of event to the PCI-center: ≤25 km., 26–50 km., 51–75 km. and > 75 km. For these groups, the median system delay was 78, 89, 99, and 141 minutes. Among patients transported by HEMS and field-triaged the estimated median transport distance by ground transportation was 115 km, and the observed system delay was 107 minutes. Based on second order polynomial regression, it was estimated that patients with a transport distance of >60 km to the PCI-center may benefit from helicopter transportation, and that transportation by helicopter is associated with a system delay of less than 120 minutes even at a transport distance up to 150 km

  11. Earlier reperfusion in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction by use of helicopter.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Lars; Stengaard, Carsten; Hansen, Troels Martin; Lassen, Jens Flensted; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl

    2012-10-04

    In patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) reperfusion therapy should be initiated as soon as possible. This study evaluated whether use of a helicopter for transportation of patients is associated with earlier initiation of reperfusion therapy. A prospective study was conducted, including patients with STEMI and symptom duration less than 12 hours, who had primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) performed at Aarhus University Hospital in Skejby. Patients with a health care system delay (time from emergency call to first coronary intervention) of more than 360 minutes were excluded. The study period ran from 1.1.2011 until 31.12.2011. A Western Denmark Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) project was initiated 1.6.2011 for transportation of patients with time-critical illnesses, including STEMI. The study population comprised 398 patients, of whom 376 were transported by ambulance Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and 22 by HEMS. Field-triage directly to the PCI-center was used in 338 of patients. The median system delay was 94 minutes among those field-triaged, and 168 minutes among those initially admitted to a local hospital. Patients transported by EMS and field-triaged were stratified into four groups according to transport distance from the scene of event to the PCI-center: ≤25 km., 26-50 km., 51-75 km. and > 75 km. For these groups, the median system delay was 78, 89, 99, and 141 minutes. Among patients transported by HEMS and field-triaged the estimated median transport distance by ground transportation was 115 km, and the observed system delay was 107 minutes. Based on second order polynomial regression, it was estimated that patients with a transport distance of >60 km to the PCI-center may benefit from helicopter transportation, and that transportation by helicopter is associated with a system delay of less than 120 minutes even at a transport distance up to 150 km. The present study indicates that use of a

  12. Can social media data lead to earlier detection of drug-related adverse events?

    PubMed

    Duh, Mei Sheng; Cremieux, Pierre; Audenrode, Marc Van; Vekeman, Francis; Karner, Paul; Zhang, Haimin; Greenberg, Paul

    2016-12-01

    To compare the patient characteristics and the inter-temporal reporting patterns of adverse events (AEs) for atorvastatin (Lipitor ® ) and sibutramine (Meridia ® ) in social media (AskaPatient.com) versus the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). We identified clinically important AEs associated with atorvastatin (muscle pain) and sibutramine (cardiovascular AEs), compared their patterns in social media postings versus FAERS and used Granger causality tests to assess whether social media postings were useful in forecasting FAERS reports. We analyzed 998 and 270 social media postings between 2001 and 2014, 69 003 and 7383 FAERS reports between 1997 and 2014 for atorvastatin and sibutramine, respectively. Social media reporters were younger (atorvastatin: 53.9 vs. 64.0 years, p < 0.001; sibutramine: 36.8 vs. 43.8 years, p < 0.001). Social media reviews contained fewer serious AEs (atorvastatin, pain: 2.5% vs. 38.2%; sibutramine, cardiovascular issues: 7.9% vs. 63.0%; p < 0.001 for both) and concentrated on fewer types of AEs (proportion comprising the top 20 AEs: atorvastatin, 88.7% vs. 55.4%; sibutramine, 86.3% vs. 65.4%) compared with FAERS. While social media sibutramine reviews mentioning cardiac issues helped predict those in FAERS 11 months later (p < 0.001), social media atorvastatin reviews did not help predict FAERS reports. Social media AE reporters were younger and focused on less-serious and fewer types of AEs than FAERS reporters. The potential for social media to provide earlier indications of AEs compared with FAERS is uncertain. Our findings highlight some of the promises and limitations of online social media versus conventional pharmacovigilance sources and the need for careful interpretation of the results. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Cardiac Complications, Earlier Treatment, and Initial Disease Severity in Kawasaki Disease.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Joseph Y; Belay, Ermias D; Uehara, Ritei; Maddox, Ryan A; Schonberger, Lawrence B; Nakamura, Yosikazu

    2017-09-01

    To assess if observed higher observed risks of cardiac complications for patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) treated earlier may reflect bias due to confounding from initial disease severity, as opposed to any negative effect of earlier treatment. We used data from Japanese nationwide KD surveys from 1997 to 2004. Receipt of additional intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (data available all years) or any additional treatment (available for 2003-2004) were assessed as proxies for initial disease severity. We determined associations between earlier or later IVIG treatment (defined as receipt of IVIG on days 1-4 vs days 5-10 of illness) and cardiac complications by stratifying by receipt of additional treatment or by using logistic modeling to control for the effect of receiving additional treatment. A total of 48 310 patients with KD were included in the analysis. In unadjusted analysis, earlier IVIG treatment was associated with a higher risk for 4 categories of cardiac complications, including all major cardiac complications (risk ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.15). Stratifying by receipt of additional treatment removed this association, and earlier IVIG treatment became protective against all major cardiac complications when controlling for any additional treatment in logistic regressions (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.80-1.00). Observed higher risks of cardiac complications among patients with KD receiving IVIG treatment on days 1-4 of the illness are most likely due to underlying higher initial disease severity, and patients with KD should continue to be treated with IVIG as early as possible. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Do emotional support and classroom organization earlier in the year set the stage for higher quality instruction?

    PubMed

    Curby, Timothy W; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Abry, Tashia

    2013-10-01

    Many teachers believe that providing greater emotional and organizational supports in the beginning of the year strengthens their ability to teach effectively as the year progresses. Some interventions, such as the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach, explicitly embed this sequence into professional development efforts. We tested the hypothesis that earlier emotional and organizational supports set the stage for improved instruction later in the year in a sample of third- and fourth-grade teachers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the RC approach. Further, we examined the extent to which the model generalized for teachers using varying levels of RC practices as well as whether or not teachers were in the intervention or control groups. Teachers' emotional, organizational, and instructional interactions were observed using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008) on five occasions throughout the year. Results indicated a reciprocal relation between emotional and instructional supports. Specifically, higher levels of emotional support earlier in the year predicted higher instructional support later in the year. Also, higher levels of instructional support earlier in the year predicted higher emotional support later in the year. Classroom organization was not found to have longitudinal associations with the other domains across a year. This pattern was robust when controlling for the use of RC practices as well as across intervention and control groups. Further, teachers' use of RC practices predicted higher emotional support and classroom organization throughout the year, suggesting the malleability of this teacher characteristic. Discussion highlights the connection between teachers' emotional and instructional supports and how the use of RC practices improves teachers' emotionally supportive interactions with students. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  15. Compulsive buying: Earlier illicit drug use, impulse buying, depression, and adult ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2015-08-30

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant's earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Compulsive Buying: Earlier Illicit Drug Use, Impulse Buying, Depression, and Adult ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W.; Leukefeld, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant’s earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. PMID:26165963

  17. A Hepatocellular Carcinoma Case in a Patient Who had Immunity to Hepatitis B Virus Earlier.

    PubMed

    Ates, Ihsan; Kaplan, Mustafa; Demirci, Selim; Altiparmak, Emin

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the liver. Hepatitis B virus infection is one of the most important etilogical factors of HCC. In this case report, a patient with HCC previously infected and having ongoing immunity against hepatitis B virus will be discussed. Ates I, Kaplan M, Demirci S, Altiparmak E. A Hepatocellular Carcinoma Case in a Patient Who had Immunity to Hepatitis B Virus Earlier. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):82-83.

  18. Facilitating earlier transfer of care from acute stroke services into the community.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer

    This article outlines an initiative to reduce length of stay for stroke patients within an acute hospital and to facilitate earlier transfer of care. Existing care provision was remodelled and expanded to deliver stroke care to patients within a community bed-based intermediate care facility or intermediate care at home. This new model of care has improved the delivery of rehabilitation through alternative and innovative ways of addressing service delivery that meet the needs of the patients.

  19. Traumatic Brain Injury History is Associated with Earlier Age of Onset of Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    LoBue, Christian; Wadsworth, Hannah; Wilmoth, Kristin; Clem, Matthew; Hart, John; Womack, Kyle B.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Lacritz, Laura H.; Rossetti, Heidi C.; Cullum, C. Munro

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined whether a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with earlier onset of Alzheimer disease (AD), independent of apolipoprotein ε4 status (Apoe4) and gender. Method Participants with a clinical diagnosis of AD (n=7625) were obtained from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set, and categorized based on self-reported lifetime TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) (TBI+ vs TBI-) and presence of Apoe4. ANCOVAs, controlling for gender, race, and education were used to examine the association between history of TBI, presence of Apoe4, and an interaction of both risk factors on estimated age of AD onset. Results Estimated AD onset differed by TBI history and Apoe4 independently (p’s <.001). The TBI+ group had a mean age of onset 2.5 years earlier than the TBI- group. Likewise, Apoe4 carriers had a mean age of onset 2.3 years earlier than non-carriers. While the interaction was non-significant (p = .34), participants having both a history of TBI and Apoe4 had the earliest mean age of onset compared to those with a TBI history or Apoe4 alone (MDifference = 2.8 & 2.7 years, respectively). These results remained unchanged when stratified by gender. Conclusions History of self-reported TBI can be associated with an earlier onset of AD-related cognitive decline, regardless of Apoe4 status and gender. TBI may be related to an underlying neurodegenerative process in AD, but the implications of age at time of injury, severity, and repetitive injuries remain unclear. PMID:27855547

  20. Diagnosis of varicoceles in men undergoing vasectomy may lead to earlier detection of hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Joceline S; Jones, Madeline; Casey, Jessica T; Fuchs, Amanda B; Cashy, John; Lin, William W

    2014-06-01

    To determine the temporal relationship between vasectomy, varicocele, and hypogonadism diagnosis. Many young men undergo their first thorough genitourinary examination in their adult lives at the time of vasectomy consultation, providing a unique opportunity for diagnosis of asymptomatic varicoceles. Varicoceles have recently been implicated as a possible reversible contributor to hypogonadism. Hypogonadism may be associated with significant adverse effect, including decreased libido, impaired cognitive function, and increased cardiovascular events. Early diagnosis and treatment of hypogonadism may prevent these adverse sequelae. Data were collected from the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan database, a large outpatient claims database. We reviewed records between 2003 and 2010 for male patients between the ages of 25 and 50 years with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for hypogonadism, vasectomy, and varicocele, and queried dates of first claim. A total of 15,679 men undergoing vasectomies were matched with 156,790 men with nonvasectomy claims in the same year. Vasectomy patients were diagnosed with varicocele at an earlier age (40.9 vs 42.5 years; P=.009). We identified 224,817 men between the ages of 25 and 50 years with a claim of hypogonadism, of which 5883 (2.6%) also had a claim of varicocele. Men with hypogonadism alone were older at presentation compared with men with an accompanying varicocele (41.3 [standard deviation±6.5] vs 34.9 [standard deviation±6.1]; P<.001). Men undergoing vasectomies are diagnosed with varicoceles at a younger age than age-matched controls. Men with varicoceles present with hypogonadism earlier than men without varicoceles. Earlier diagnosis of varicocele at the time of vasectomy allows for earlier detection of hypogonadism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Perceptual sensitivity to spectral properties of earlier sounds during speech categorization.

    PubMed

    Stilp, Christian E; Assgari, Ashley A

    2018-02-28

    Speech perception is heavily influenced by surrounding sounds. When spectral properties differ between earlier (context) and later (target) sounds, this can produce spectral contrast effects (SCEs) that bias perception of later sounds. For example, when context sounds have more energy in low-F 1 frequency regions, listeners report more high-F 1 responses to a target vowel, and vice versa. SCEs have been reported using various approaches for a wide range of stimuli, but most often, large spectral peaks were added to the context to bias speech categorization. This obscures the lower limit of perceptual sensitivity to spectral properties of earlier sounds, i.e., when SCEs begin to bias speech categorization. Listeners categorized vowels (/ɪ/-/ɛ/, Experiment 1) or consonants (/d/-/g/, Experiment 2) following a context sentence with little spectral amplification (+1 to +4 dB) in frequency regions known to produce SCEs. In both experiments, +3 and +4 dB amplification in key frequency regions of the context produced SCEs, but lesser amplification was insufficient to bias performance. This establishes a lower limit of perceptual sensitivity where spectral differences across sounds can bias subsequent speech categorization. These results are consistent with proposed adaptation-based mechanisms that potentially underlie SCEs in auditory perception. Recent sounds can change what speech sounds we hear later. This can occur when the average frequency composition of earlier sounds differs from that of later sounds, biasing how they are perceived. These "spectral contrast effects" are widely observed when sounds' frequency compositions differ substantially. We reveal the lower limit of these effects, as +3 dB amplification of key frequency regions in earlier sounds was enough to bias categorization of the following vowel or consonant sound. Speech categorization being biased by very small spectral differences across sounds suggests that spectral contrast effects occur

  2. Floodplains within reservoirs promote earlier spawning of white crappies Pomoxis annularis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Dagel, Jonah D.; Kaczka, Levi J.; Mower, Ethan; Wigen, S. L.

    2015-01-01

    Reservoirs impounded over floodplain rivers are unique because they may include within their upper reaches extensive shallow water stored over preexistent floodplains. Because of their relatively flat topography and riverine origin, floodplains in the upper reaches of reservoirs provide broad expanses of vegetation within a narrow range of reservoir water levels. Elsewhere in the reservoir, topography creates a band of shallow water along the contour of the reservoir where vegetation often does not grow. Thus, as water levels rise, floodplains may be the first vegetated habitats inundated within the reservoir. We hypothesized that shallow water in reservoir floodplains would attract spawning white crappies Pomoxis annularis earlier than reservoir embayments. Crappie relative abundance over five years in floodplains and embayments of four reservoirs increased as spawning season approached, peaked, and decreased as fish exited shallow water. Relative abundance peaked earlier in floodplains than embayments, and the difference was magnified with higher water levels. Early access to suitable spawning habitat promotes earlier spawning and may increase population fitness. Recognition of the importance of reservoir floodplains, an understanding of how reservoir water levels can be managed to provide timely connectivity to floodplains, and conservation of reservoir floodplains may be focal points of environmental management in reservoirs.

  3. Missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis of HIV in patients who presented with advanced HIV disease: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Itzchak; Maor, Yasmin; Mahroum, Naim; Olmer, Liraz; Wieder, Anat; Litchevski, Vladislav; Mor, Orna; Rahav, Galia

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify and characterise missed opportunities for earlier HIV diagnosis in patients diagnosed with advanced HIV. Design A retrospective observational cohort study. Setting A central tertiary medical centre in Israel. Measures The proportion of patients with advanced HIV, the proportion of missed opportunities to diagnose them earlier, and the rate of clinical indicator diseases (CIDs) in those patients. Results Between 2010 and 2015, 356 patients were diagnosed with HIV, 118 (33.4%) were diagnosed late, 57 (16%) with advanced HIV disease. Old age (OR=1.45 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.74)) and being heterosexual (OR=2.65 (95% CI 1.21 to 5.78)) were significant risk factors for being diagnosed late. All patients with advanced disease had at least one CID that did not lead to an HIV test in the 5 years prior to AIDS diagnosis. The median time between CID and AIDS diagnosis was 24 months (IQR 10–30). 60% of CIDs were missed by a general practitioner and 40% by a specialist. Conclusions Missed opportunities to early diagnosis of HIV occur in primary and secondary care. Lack of national guidelines, lack of knowledge regarding CIDs and communication barriers with patients may contribute to a late diagnosis of HIV. PMID:28186940

  4. Transcriptional analysis of micronutrient zinc-associated response for enhanced carbohydrate utilization and earlier solventogenesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Wu, You-Duo; Xue, Chuang; Chen, Li-Jie; Wan, Hui-Hui; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2015-11-20

    The micronutrient zinc plays vital roles in ABE fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. In order to elucidate the zinc-associated response for enhanced glucose utilization and earlier solventogenesis, transcriptional analysis was performed on cells grown in glucose medium at the exponential growth phase of 16 h without/with supplementary zinc. Correspondingly, the gene glcG (CAC0570) encoding a glucose-specific PTS was significantly upregulated accompanied with the other two genes CAC1353 and CAC1354 for glucose transport in the presence of zinc. Additionally, genes involved in the metabolisms of six other carbohydrates (maltose, cellobiose, fructose, mannose, xylose and arabinose) were differentially expressed, indicating that the regulatory effect of micronutrient zinc is carbohydrate-specific with respects to the improved/inhibited carbohydrate utilization. More importantly, multiple genes responsible for glycolysis (glcK and pykA), acidogenesis (thlA, crt, etfA, etfB and bcd) and solventogenesis (ctfB and bdhA) of C. acetobutylicum prominently responded to the supplementary zinc at differential expression levels. Comparative analysis of intracellular metabolites revealed that the branch node intermediates such as acetyl-CoA, acetoacetyl-CoA, butyl-CoA, and reducing power NADH remained relatively lower whereas more ATP was generated due to enhanced glycolysis pathway and earlier initiation of solventogenesis, suggesting that the micronutrient zinc-associated response for the selected intracellular metabolisms is significantly pleiotropic.

  5. Pavement smoothness indices : research brief.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-08-01

    Many in the asphalt industry believe that initial pavement smoothness directly relates to : pavement life. Public perception of smoothness is also important. Oregon is interested in : determining the appropriate method of measurement to quantify smoo...

  6. Trends of earlier palliative care consultation in advanced cancer patients receiving palliative radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sanders; Sigel, Keith; Goldstein, Nathan E; Wisnivesky, Juan; Dharmarajan, Kavita V

    2018-06-06

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology recommends that all patients with metastatic disease receive dedicated palliative care (PC) services early in their illness, ideally via interdisciplinary care teams. We investigated the time trends of specialty palliative care consultations from the date of metastatic cancer diagnosis among patients receiving palliative radiation therapy (PRT). A shorter time interval between metastatic diagnosis and first PC consultation suggests earlier involvement of palliative care in a patient's life with metastatic cancer. In this IRB-approved retrospective analysis, patients treated with PRT for solid tumors (bone and brain) at a single tertiary care hospital between 2010 and 2016 were included. Cohorts were arbitrarily established by metastatic diagnosis within approximately two-year intervals: (1) 1/1/2010-3/27/2012; (2) 3/28/2012-5/21/2014; and (3) 5/22/2014-12/31/2016. Cox-proportional hazards regression modelling was used to compare trends of PC consultation among cohorts. Of 284 patients identified, 184 patients received PC consultation, whereas 15 patients died before receiving a PC consult. Median follow-up time until an event or censor was 257 days (range: 1,900). Patients in the most recent cohort had a shorter median time to first PC consult (57 days) compared to those in the first (374 days) and second (186 days) cohorts. On multivariable analysis, patients in the third cohort were more likely to undergo a PC consultation earlier in their metastatic illness (HR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2,2.8). Over a six-year period, palliative care consultation occurred earlier for metastatic patients treated with PRT at our institution. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Earlier Pulmonary Valve Replacement in Down Syndrome Patients Following Tetralogy of Fallot Repair.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Rachel T; Frommelt, Peter C; Hill, Garick D

    2017-08-01

    The association between Down syndrome and pulmonary hypertension could contribute to more severe pulmonary regurgitation after tetralogy of Fallot repair and possibly earlier pulmonary valve replacement. We compared cardiac magnetic resonance measures of pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular dilation as well as timing of pulmonary valve replacement between those with and without Down syndrome after tetralogy of Fallot repair. Review of our surgical database from 2000 to 2015 identified patients with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis. Those with Down syndrome were compared to those without. The primary outcome of interest was time from repair to pulmonary valve replacement. Secondary outcomes included pulmonary regurgitation and indexed right ventricular volume on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The cohort of 284 patients included 35 (12%) with Down syndrome. Transannular patch repair was performed in 210 (74%). Down syndrome showed greater degree of pulmonary regurgitation (55 ± 14 vs. 37 ± 16%, p = 0.01) without a significantly greater rate of right ventricular dilation (p = 0.09). In multivariable analysis, Down syndrome (HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.5, p = 0.02) and transannular patch repair (HR 5.5, 95% CI 1.7-17.6, p = 0.004) were significant risk factors for valve replacement. Those with Down syndrome had significantly lower freedom from valve replacement (p = 0.03). Down syndrome is associated with an increased degree of pulmonary regurgitation and earlier pulmonary valve replacement after tetralogy of Fallot repair. These patients require earlier assessment by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to determine timing of pulmonary valve replacement and evaluation for and treatment of preventable causes of pulmonary hypertension.

  8. Insight Into Illness and Cognition in Schizophrenia in Earlier and Later Life.

    PubMed

    Gerretsen, Philip; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Menon, Mahesh; Pollock, Bruce G; Mamo, David C; Mulsant, Benoit H; Rajji, Tarek K

    2017-04-01

    Impaired insight into illness in schizophrenia is associated with illness severity and deficits in premorbid intellectual function, executive function, and memory. A previous study of patients aged 60 years and older found that illness severity and premorbid intellectual function accounted for variance in insight impairment. As such, we aimed to test whether similar relationships would be observed in earlier life. A retrospective analysis was performed on 1 large sample of participants (n = 171) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia aged 19 to 79 years acquired from 2 studies: (1) a psychosocial intervention trial for older persons with schizophrenia (June 2008 to May 2014) and (2) a diffusion tensor imaging and genetics study of psychosis across the life span (February 2007 to December 2013). We assessed insight into illness using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) item G12 and explored its relationship to illness severity (PANSS total modified), premorbid intellectual function (Wechsler Test of Adult Reading [WTAR]), and cognition. Insight impairment was more severe in later life (≥ 60 years) than in earlier years (t = -3.75, P < .001). Across the whole sample, the variance of impaired insight was explained by PANSS total modified (Exp[B] = 1.070, P < .001) and WTAR scores (Exp[B] = 0.970, P = .028). Although age and cognition were correlated with impaired insight, they did not independently contribute to its variance. However, the relationships between impaired insight and illness severity and between impaired insight and cognition, particularly working memory, were stronger in later life than in earlier life. These results suggest an opportunity for intervention may exist with cognitive-enhancing neurostimulation or medications to improve insight into illness in schizophrenia across the life span. Original study registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT00832845). © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  9. Earlier Parental Set Bedtimes as a Protective Factor Against Depression and Suicidal Ideation

    PubMed Central

    Gangwisch, James E.; Babiss, Lindsay A.; Malaspina, Dolores; Turner, J. Blake; Zammit, Gary K.; Posner, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the relationships between parental set bedtimes, sleep duration, and depression as a quasi-experiment to explore the potentially bidirectional relationship between short sleep duration and depression. Short sleep duration has been shown to precede depression, but this could be explained as a prodromal symptom of depression. Depression in an adolescent can affect his/her chosen bedtime, but it is less likely to affect a parent's chosen set bedtime which can establish a relatively stable upper limit that can directly affect sleep duration. Design: Multivariate cross-sectional analyses of the ADD Health using logistic regression. Setting: United States nationally representative, school-based, probability-based sample in 1994-96. Participants: Adolescents (n = 15,659) in grades 7 to 12. Measurements and Results: Adolescents with parental set bedtimes of midnight or later were 24% more likely to suffer from depression (OR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.49) and 20% more likely to have suicidal ideation (1.20, 1.01-1.41) than adolescents with parental set bedtimes of 10:00 PM or earlier, after controlling for covariates. Consistent with sleep duration and perception of getting enough sleep acting as mediators, the inclusion of these variables in the multivariate models appreciably attenuated the associations for depression (1.07, 0.88-1.30) and suicidal ideation (1.09, 0.92-1.29). Conclusions: The results from this study provide new evidence to strengthen the argument that short sleep duration could play a role in the etiology of depression. Earlier parental set bedtimes could therefore be protective against adolescent depression and suicidal ideation by lengthening sleep duration. Citation: Gangwisch JE; Babiss LA; Malaspina D; Turner JB; Zammit GK; Posner K. Earlier parental set bedtimes as a protective factor against depression and suicidal ideation. SLEEP 2010;33(1):97-106. PMID:20120626

  10. Earlier time to aerobic exercise is associated with faster recovery following acute sport concussion

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Doug; Comper, Paul; Hutchison, Michael G.

    2018-01-01

    Objective To determine whether earlier time to initiation of aerobic exercise following acute concussion is associated with time to full return to (1) sport and (2) school or work. Methods A retrospective stratified propensity score survival analysis of acute (≤14 days) concussion was used to determine whether time (days) to initiation of aerobic exercise post-concussion was associated with, both, time (days) to full return to (1) sport and (2) school or work. Results A total of 253 acute concussions [median (IQR) age, 17.0 (15.0–20.0) years; 148 (58.5%) males] were included in this study. Multivariate Cox regression models identified that earlier time to aerobic exercise was associated with faster return to sport and school/work adjusting for other covariates, including quintile propensity strata. For each successive day in delay to initiation of aerobic exercise, individuals had a less favourable recovery trajectory. Initiating aerobic exercise at 3 and 7 days following injury was associated with a respective 36.5% (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.53–0.76) and 73.2% (HR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.16–0.45) reduced probability of faster full return to sport compared to within 1 day; and a respective 45.9% (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.44–0.66) and 83.1% (HR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.10–0.30) reduced probability of faster full return to school/work. Additionally, concussion history, symptom severity, LOC deleteriously influenced concussion recovery. Conclusion Earlier initiation of aerobic exercise was associated with faster full return to sport and school or work. This study provides greater insight into the benefits and safety of aerobic exercise within the first week of the injury. PMID:29668716

  11. Earlier time to aerobic exercise is associated with faster recovery following acute sport concussion.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, David Wyndham; Richards, Doug; Comper, Paul; Hutchison, Michael G

    2018-01-01

    To determine whether earlier time to initiation of aerobic exercise following acute concussion is associated with time to full return to (1) sport and (2) school or work. A retrospective stratified propensity score survival analysis of acute (≤14 days) concussion was used to determine whether time (days) to initiation of aerobic exercise post-concussion was associated with, both, time (days) to full return to (1) sport and (2) school or work. A total of 253 acute concussions [median (IQR) age, 17.0 (15.0-20.0) years; 148 (58.5%) males] were included in this study. Multivariate Cox regression models identified that earlier time to aerobic exercise was associated with faster return to sport and school/work adjusting for other covariates, including quintile propensity strata. For each successive day in delay to initiation of aerobic exercise, individuals had a less favourable recovery trajectory. Initiating aerobic exercise at 3 and 7 days following injury was associated with a respective 36.5% (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.53-0.76) and 73.2% (HR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.16-0.45) reduced probability of faster full return to sport compared to within 1 day; and a respective 45.9% (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.44-0.66) and 83.1% (HR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.10-0.30) reduced probability of faster full return to school/work. Additionally, concussion history, symptom severity, LOC deleteriously influenced concussion recovery. Earlier initiation of aerobic exercise was associated with faster full return to sport and school or work. This study provides greater insight into the benefits and safety of aerobic exercise within the first week of the injury.

  12. Earlier tachycardia onset in right than left mesial temporal lobe seizures.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kazuhiro; Jin, Kazutaka; Itabashi, Hisashi; Iwasaki, Masaki; Kakisaka, Yosuke; Aoki, Masashi; Nakasato, Nobukazu

    2014-10-07

    To clarify whether the presence and timing of peri-ictal heart rate (HR) change is a seizure lateralizing sign in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). Long-term video EEGs were retrospectively reviewed in 21 patients, 7 men and 14 women aged 13 to 67 years, diagnosed as mTLE with MRI lesions in the mesial temporal structures (hippocampal sclerosis in 20 cases, amygdala hypertrophy in 1 case). Seventy-seven partial seizures without secondary generalization were extracted. Peri-ictal HR change was compared between 29 right seizures (9 patients) and 48 left seizures (12 patients). HR abruptly increased in all 29 right seizures and 42 of 48 left seizures. Onset time of HR increase in relation to ictal EEG onset was significantly earlier in right seizures than in left seizures (mean ± SD, -11.5 ± 14.8 vs 9.2 ± 21.7 seconds; p < 0.0001). Time of maximum HR was also significantly earlier in right seizures than in left seizures (36.0 ± 18.1 vs 58.0 ± 28.7 seconds; p < 0.0001). Maximum HR changes from baseline showed no significant difference between right and left seizures (47.5 ± 19.1 vs 40.8 ± 20.0/min). Significantly earlier tachycardia in right than left mTLE seizures supports previous hypotheses that the right cerebral hemisphere is dominant in the sympathetic network. No HR change, or delayed tachycardia possibly due to seizure propagation to the right hemisphere, may be a useful lateralizing sign of left mTLE seizures. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. A Hepatocellular Carcinoma Case in a Patient Who had Immunity to Hepatitis B Virus Earlier

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Mustafa; Demirci, Selim; Altiparmak, Emin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the liver. Hepatitis B virus infection is one of the most important etilogical factors of HCC. In this case report, a patient with HCC previously infected and having ongoing immunity against hepatitis B virus will be discussed. How to cite this article Ates I, Kaplan M, Demirci S, Altiparmak E. A Hepatocellular Carcinoma Case in a Patient Who had Immunity to Hepatitis B Virus Earlier. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):82-83. PMID:29201732

  14. Earlier nesting by generalist predatory bird is associated with human responses to climate change.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shawn H; Steenhof, Karen; McClure, Christopher J W; Heath, Julie A

    2017-01-01

    Warming temperatures cause temporal changes in growing seasons and prey abundance that drive earlier breeding by birds, especially dietary specialists within homogeneous habitat. Less is known about how generalists respond to climate-associated shifts in growing seasons or prey phenology, which may occur at different rates across land cover types. We studied whether breeding phenology of a generalist predator, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius), was associated with shifts in growing seasons and, presumably, prey abundance, in a mosaic of non-irrigated shrub/grasslands and irrigated crops/pastures. We examined the relationship between remotely-sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and abundance of small mammals that, with insects, constitute approximately 93% of kestrel diet biomass. We used NDVI to estimate the start of the growing season (SoGS) in irrigated and non-irrigated lands from 1992 to 2015 and tested whether either estimate of annual SoGS predicted the timing of kestrel nesting. Finally, we examined relationships among irrigated SoGS, weather and crop planting. NDVI was a useful proxy for kestrel prey because it predicted small mammal abundance and past studies showed that NDVI predicts insect abundance. NDVI-estimated SoGS advanced significantly in irrigated lands (β = -1·09 ± 0·30 SE) but not in non-irrigated lands (β = -0·57 ± 0·53). Average date of kestrel nesting advanced 15 days in the past 24 years and was positively associated with the SoGS in irrigated lands, but not the SoGS in non-irrigated lands. Advanced SoGS in irrigated lands was related to earlier planting of crops after relatively warm winters, which were more common in recent years. Despite different patterns of SoGS change between land cover types, kestrel nesting phenology shifted with earlier prey availability in irrigated lands. Kestrels may preferentially track prey in irrigated lands over non-irrigated lands because of higher quality prey on

  15. Earlier Mother's Age at Menarche Predicts Rapid Infancy Growth and Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Ken K; Northstone, Kate; Wells, Jonathan CK; Rubin, Carol; Ness, Andy R; Golding, Jean; Dunger, David B

    2007-01-01

    Background Early menarche tends to be preceded by rapid infancy weight gain and is associated with increased childhood and adult obesity risk. As age at menarche is a heritable trait, we hypothesised that age at menarche in the mother may in turn predict her children's early growth and obesity risk. Methods and Findings We tested associations between mother's age at menarche, mother's adult body size and obesity risk, and her children's growth and obesity risk in 6,009 children from the UK population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort who had growth and fat mass at age 9 y measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A subgroup of 914 children also had detailed infancy and childhood growth data. In the mothers, earlier menarche was associated with shorter adult height (by 0.64 cm/y), increased weight (0.92 kg/y), and body mass index (BMI, 0.51 kg/m2/y; all p < 0.001). In contrast, in her children, earlier mother's menarche predicted taller height at 9 y (by 0.41 cm/y) and greater weight (0.80 kg/y), BMI (0.29 kg/m2/y), and fat mass index (0.22 kg/m2/year; all p < 0.001). Children in the earliest mother's menarche quintile (≤11 y) were more obese than the oldest quintile (≥15 y) (OR, 2.15, 95% CI 1.46 to 3.17; p < 0.001, adjusted for mother's education and BMI). In the subgroup, children in the earliest quintile showed faster gains in weight (p < 0.001) and height (p < 0.001) only from birth to 2 y, but not from 2 to 9 y (p = 0.3–0.8). Conclusions Earlier age at menarche may be a transgenerational marker of a faster growth tempo, characterised by rapid weight gain and growth, particularly during infancy, and leading to taller childhood stature, but likely earlier maturation and therefore shorter adult stature. This growth pattern confers increased childhood and adult obesity risks. PMID:17455989

  16. Quadruple cancer including Bowen's disease after arsenic injections 40 years earlier: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Murata, K; Iwazawa, T; Takayama, T; Yamashita, K; Okagawa, K

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the successful treatment of quadruple cancer including Bowen's disease in a 71-year-old man who had been given injections of salvarsan, an arsenic compound, for syphilis more than 40 years earlier. Resection of a skin lesion on his chest subsequently confirmed a diagnosis of Bowen's disease, 3 years after which he was operated on for concurrent gastric cancer and sigmoid colon cancer. A fourth cancer was discovered on his left vocal cord 2 weeks after this operation; it was resected 2 years later. A discussion of multiple malignant neoplasms and the possible relationship between arsenic and cancer is presented following this case report.

  17. Earlier adolescent substance use onset predicts stronger connectivity between reward and cognitive control brain networks.

    PubMed

    Weissman, David G; Schriber, Roberta A; Fassbender, Catherine; Atherton, Olivia; Krafft, Cynthia; Robins, Richard W; Hastings, Paul D; Guyer, Amanda E

    2015-12-01

    Early adolescent onset of substance use is a robust predictor of future substance use disorders. We examined the relation between age of substance use initiation and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the core reward processing (nucleus accumbens; NAcc) to cognitive control (prefrontal cortex; PFC) brain networks. Adolescents in a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin youth reported their substance use annually from ages 10 to 16 years. At age 16, 69 adolescents participated in a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Seed-based correlational analyses were conducted using regions of interest in bilateral NAcc. The earlier that adolescents initiated substance use, the stronger the connectivity between bilateral NAcc and right dorsolateral PFC, right dorsomedial PFC, right pre-supplementary motor area, right inferior parietal lobule, and left medial temporal gyrus. The regions that demonstrated significant positive linear relationships between the number of adolescent years using substances and connectivity with NAcc are nodes in the right frontoparietal network, which is central to cognitive control. The coupling of reward and cognitive control networks may be a mechanism through which earlier onset of substance use is related to brain function over time, a trajectory that may be implicated in subsequent substance use disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Light pollution is associated with earlier tree budburst across the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Somers-Yeates, Robin; Bennie, Jonathan; Economou, Theodoros; Hodgson, David; Spalding, Adrian; McGregor, Peter K

    2016-06-29

    The ecological impact of night-time lighting is of concern because of its well-demonstrated effects on animal behaviour. However, the potential of light pollution to change plant phenology and its corresponding knock-on effects on associated herbivores are less clear. Here, we test if artificial lighting can advance the timing of budburst in trees. We took a UK-wide 13 year dataset of spatially referenced budburst data from four deciduous tree species and matched it with both satellite imagery of night-time lighting and average spring temperature. We find that budburst occurs up to 7.5 days earlier in brighter areas, with the relationship being more pronounced for later-budding species. Excluding large urban areas from the analysis showed an even more pronounced advance of budburst, confirming that the urban 'heat-island' effect is not the sole cause of earlier urban budburst. Similarly, the advance in budburst across all sites is too large to be explained by increases in temperature alone. This dramatic advance of budburst illustrates the need for further experimental investigation into the impact of artificial night-time lighting on plant phenology and subsequent species interactions. As light pollution is a growing global phenomenon, the findings of this study are likely to be applicable to a wide range of species interactions across the world. © 2016 The Authors.

  19. Economic Costs Avoided by Diagnosing Melanoma Six Months Earlier Justify >100 Benign Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Aires, Daniel J; Wick, Jo; Shaath, Tarek S; Rajpara, Anand N; Patel, Vikas; Badawi, Ahmed H; Li, Cicy; Fraga, Garth R; Doolittle, Gary; Liu, Deede Y

    2016-05-01

    New melanoma drugs bring enormous benefits but do so at significant costs. Because melanoma grows deeper and deadlier over time, deeper lesions are costlier due to increased sentinel lymph node biopsy, chemotherapy, and disease-associated income loss. Prior studies have justified pigmented lesion biopsies on a "value per life" basis; by contrast we sought to assess how many biopsies are justified per melanoma found on a purely economic basis. We modeled how melanomas in the United States would behave if diagnosis were delayed by 6 months, eg, not biopsied, only observed until the next surveillance visit. Economic loss from delayed biopsy is the obverse of economic benefit of performing biopsy earlier. Growth rates were based on Liu et al. The results of this study can be applied to all patients presenting to dermatologists with pigmented skin lesions suspicious for melanoma. In-situ melanomas were excluded because no studies to date have modeled growth rates analogous to those for invasive melanoma. We assume conservatively that all melanomas not biopsied initially will be biopsied and treated 6 months later. Major modeled costs are (1) increased sentinel lymph node biopsy, (2) increased chemotherapy for metastatic lesions using increased 5-yr death as metastasis marker, and (3) income loss per melanoma death at $413,370 as previously published. Costs avoided by diagnosing melanoma earlier justify 170 biopsies per melanoma found. Efforts to penalize "unnecessary" biopsies may be economically counterproductive.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(5):527-532.

  20. Changing facial phenotype in Cohen syndrome: towards clues for an earlier diagnosis.

    PubMed

    El Chehadeh-Djebbar, Salima; Blair, Edward; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel; Moncla, Anne; Frances, Anne-Marie; Rio, Marlène; Debray, François-Guillaume; Rump, Patrick; Masurel-Paulet, Alice; Gigot, Nadège; Callier, Patrick; Duplomb, Laurence; Aral, Bernard; Huet, Frédéric; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Faivre, Laurence

    2013-07-01

    Cohen syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive condition caused by mutations and/or large rearrangements in the VPS13B gene. CS clinical features, including developmental delay, the typical facial gestalt, chorioretinal dystrophy (CRD) and neutropenia, are well described. CS diagnosis is generally raised after school age, when visual disturbances lead to CRD diagnosis and to VPS13B gene testing. This relatively late diagnosis precludes accurate genetic counselling. The aim of this study was to analyse the evolution of CS facial features in the early period of life, particularly before school age (6 years), to find clues for an earlier diagnosis. Photographs of 17 patients with molecularly confirmed CS were analysed, from birth to preschool age. By comparing their facial phenotype when growing, we show that there are no special facial characteristics before 1 year. However, between 2 and 6 years, CS children already share common facial features such as a short neck, a square face with micrognathia and full cheeks, a hypotonic facial appearance, epicanthic folds, long ears with an everted upper part of the auricle and/or a prominent lobe, a relatively short philtrum, a small and open mouth with downturned corners, a thick lower lip and abnormal eye shapes. These early transient facial features evolve to typical CS facial features with aging. These observations emphasize the importance of ophthalmological tests and neutrophil count in children in preschool age presenting with developmental delay, hypotonia and the facial features we described here, for an earlier CS diagnosis.

  1. Empirical corroboration of an earlier theoretical resolution to the UV paradox of insect polarized skylight orientation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Gao, Jun; Fan, Zhiguo

    2014-02-01

    It is surprising that many insect species use only the ultraviolet (UV) component of the polarized skylight for orientation and navigation purposes, while both the intensity and the degree of polarization of light from the clear sky are lower in the UV than at longer (blue, green, red) wavelengths. Why have these insects chosen the UV part of the polarized skylight? This strange phenomenon is called the "UV-sky-pol paradox". Although earlier several speculations tried to resolve this paradox, they did this without any quantitative data. A theoretical and computational model has convincingly explained why it is advantageous for certain animals to detect celestial polarization in the UV. We performed a sky-polarimetric approach and built a polarized skylight sensor that models the processing of polarization signals by insect photoreceptors. Using this model sensor, we carried out measurements under clear and cloudy sky conditions. Our results showed that light from the cloudy sky has maximal degree of polarization in the UV. Furthermore, under both clear and cloudy skies the angle of polarization of skylight can be detected with a higher accuracy. By this, we corroborated empirically the soundness of the earlier computational resolution of the UV-sky-pol paradox.

  2. Empirical corroboration of an earlier theoretical resolution to the UV paradox of insect polarized skylight orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Gao, Jun; Fan, Zhiguo

    2014-02-01

    It is surprising that many insect species use only the ultraviolet (UV) component of the polarized skylight for orientation and navigation purposes, while both the intensity and the degree of polarization of light from the clear sky are lower in the UV than at longer (blue, green, red) wavelengths. Why have these insects chosen the UV part of the polarized skylight? This strange phenomenon is called the "UV-sky-pol paradox". Although earlier several speculations tried to resolve this paradox, they did this without any quantitative data. A theoretical and computational model has convincingly explained why it is advantageous for certain animals to detect celestial polarization in the UV. We performed a sky-polarimetric approach and built a polarized skylight sensor that models the processing of polarization signals by insect photoreceptors. Using this model sensor, we carried out measurements under clear and cloudy sky conditions. Our results showed that light from the cloudy sky has maximal degree of polarization in the UV. Furthermore, under both clear and cloudy skies the angle of polarization of skylight can be detected with a higher accuracy. By this, we corroborated empirically the soundness of the earlier computational resolution of the UV-sky-pol paradox.

  3. NMR-based fecal metabolomics fingerprinting as predictors of earlier diagnosis in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Ma, Changchun; Liu, Chengkang; Wang, Zhening; Yang, Jurong; Liu, Xinmu; Shen, Zhiwei; Wu, Renhua

    2016-05-17

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a growing cause of mortality in developing countries, warranting investigation into its earlier detection for optimal disease management. A metabolomics based approach provides potential for noninvasive identification of biomarkers of colorectal carcinogenesis, as well as dissection of molecular pathways of pathophysiological conditions. Here, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HNMR) -based metabolomic approach was used to profile fecal metabolites of 68 CRC patients (stage I/II=20; stage III=25 and stage IV=23) and 32 healthy controls (HC). Pattern recognition through principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied on 1H-NMR processed data for dimension reduction. OPLS-DA revealed that each stage of CRC could be clearly distinguished from HC based on their metabolomic profiles. Successive analyses identified distinct disturbances to fecal metabolites of CRC patients at various stages, compared with those in cancer free controls, including reduced levels of acetate, butyrate, propionate, glucose, glutamine, and elevated quantities of succinate, proline, alanine, dimethylglycine, valine, glutamate, leucine, isoleucine and lactate. These altered fecal metabolites potentially involved in the disruption of normal bacterial ecology, malabsorption of nutrients, increased glycolysis and glutaminolysis. Our findings revealed that the fecal metabolic profiles of healthy controls can be distinguished from CRC patients, even in the early stage (stage I/II), highlighting the potential utility of NMR-based fecal metabolomics fingerprinting as predictors of earlier diagnosis in CRC patients.

  4. NMR-based fecal metabolomics fingerprinting as predictors of earlier diagnosis in patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yan; Ma, Changchun; Liu, Chengkang; Wang, Zhening; Yang, Jurong; Liu, Xinmu; Shen, Zhiwei; Wu, Renhua

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a growing cause of mortality in developing countries, warranting investigation into its earlier detection for optimal disease management. A metabolomics based approach provides potential for noninvasive identification of biomarkers of colorectal carcinogenesis, as well as dissection of molecular pathways of pathophysiological conditions. Here, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HNMR) -based metabolomic approach was used to profile fecal metabolites of 68 CRC patients (stage I/II=20; stage III=25 and stage IV=23) and 32 healthy controls (HC). Pattern recognition through principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied on 1H-NMR processed data for dimension reduction. OPLS-DA revealed that each stage of CRC could be clearly distinguished from HC based on their metabolomic profiles. Successive analyses identified distinct disturbances to fecal metabolites of CRC patients at various stages, compared with those in cancer free controls, including reduced levels of acetate, butyrate, propionate, glucose, glutamine, and elevated quantities of succinate, proline, alanine, dimethylglycine, valine, glutamate, leucine, isoleucine and lactate. These altered fecal metabolites potentially involved in the disruption of normal bacterial ecology, malabsorption of nutrients, increased glycolysis and glutaminolysis. Our findings revealed that the fecal metabolic profiles of healthy controls can be distinguished from CRC patients, even in the early stage (stage I/II), highlighting the potential utility of NMR-based fecal metabolomics fingerprinting as predictors of earlier diagnosis in CRC patients. PMID:27107423

  5. Association between severe dorsolateral prefrontal dysfunction during random number generation and earlier onset in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Koike, Shinsuke; Takizawa, Ryu; Nishimura, Yukika; Marumo, Kohei; Kinou, Masaru; Kawakubo, Yuki; Rogers, Mark A; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2011-08-01

    Schizophrenia involves impairment in attention, working memory and executive processes associated with prefrontal cortical function, an essential contributor of social functioning. Age at onset is a major factor for predicting social outcome in schizophrenia. In clinical settings, we need an objective assessment tool for evaluating prefrontal function and social outcome. Participants included 22 right-handed patients with schizophrenia and 40 gender- and age-matched healthy controls. We used a 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) instrument to measure oxygenated haemoglobin ([oxy-Hb]) changes over the prefrontal cortex during a random number generation (RNG) task. In healthy controls, we found significant [oxy-Hb] increase in the bilateral dorsolateral (DLPFC; BA9 and BA46) and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC; BA44, 45 and 47). The patients with schizophrenia showed significantly smaller activation than the healthy controls in the same approximate regions. In the patient group, a smaller [oxy-Hb] increase in the right DLPFC region (BA9) was significantly correlated with earlier age at onset. NIRS can detect prefrontal cortical dysfunction associated with an executive task, which was coupled with earlier age at onset in schizophrenia. Multichannel NIRS, a non-invasive and user-friendly instrument, may be useful in evaluating cognitive function and social outcome in clinical settings in psychiatry. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. New formulae for Zagreb indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cangul, Ismail Naci; Yurttas, Aysun; Togan, Muge; Cevik, Ahmet Sinan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we study with some graph descriptors also called topological indices. These descriptors are useful in determination of some properties of chemical structures and preferred to some earlier descriptors as they are more practical. Especially the first and second Zagreb indices together with the first and second multiplicative Zagreb indices are considered and they are calculated in terms of the smallest and largest vertex degrees and vertex number for some well-known classes of graphs.

  7. Trends in performance indicators of neuroimaging anatomy research publications: a bibliometric study of major neuroradiology journal output over four decades based on web of science database.

    PubMed

    Wing, Louise; Massoud, Tarik F

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative, qualitative, and innovative application of bibliometric research performance indicators to anatomy and radiology research and education can enhance cross-fertilization between the two disciplines. We aim to use these indicators to identify long-term trends in dissemination of publications in neuroimaging anatomy (including both productivity and citation rates), which has subjectively waned in prestige during recent years. We examined publications over the last 40 years in two neuroradiological journals, AJNR and Neuroradiology, and selected and categorized all neuroimaging anatomy research articles according to theme and type. We studied trends in their citation activity over time, and mathematically analyzed these trends for 1977, 1987, and 1997 publications. We created a novel metric, "citation half-life at 10 years postpublication" (CHL-10), and used this to examine trends in the skew of citation numbers for anatomy articles each year. We identified 367 anatomy articles amongst a total of 18,110 in these journals: 74.2% were original articles, with study of normal anatomy being the commonest theme (46.7%). We recorded a mean of 18.03 citations for each anatomy article, 35% higher than for general neuroradiology articles. Graphs summarizing the rise (upslope) in citation rates after publication revealed similar trends spanning two decades. CHL-10 trends demonstrated that more recently published anatomy articles were likely to take longer to reach peak citation rate. Bibliometric analysis suggests that anatomical research in neuroradiology is not languishing. This novel analytical approach can be applied to other aspects of neuroimaging research, and within other subspecialties in radiology and anatomy, and also to foster anatomical education. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Integrated Tree-Ring-Radiocarbon High-Resolution Timeframe to Resolve Earlier Second Millennium BCE Mesopotamian Chronology.

    PubMed

    Manning, Sturt W; Griggs, Carol B; Lorentzen, Brita; Barjamovic, Gojko; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Kromer, Bernd; Wild, Eva Maria

    2016-01-01

    years earlier than previous assessments, indicating that it likely has no association with the subsequent Santorini volcanic eruption.

  9. Integrated Tree-Ring-Radiocarbon High-Resolution Timeframe to Resolve Earlier Second Millennium BCE Mesopotamian Chronology

    PubMed Central

    Griggs, Carol B.; Lorentzen, Brita; Barjamovic, Gojko; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Kromer, Bernd; Wild, Eva Maria

    2016-01-01

    years earlier than previous assessments, indicating that it likely has no association with the subsequent Santorini volcanic eruption. PMID:27409585

  10. Higher Childhood Red Meat Intake Frequency Is Associated with Earlier Age at Menarche.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Erica C; Marín, Constanza; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Villamor, Eduardo

    2016-03-09

    Early age at menarche is associated with increased breast cancer risk. Red meat consumption in adolescence predicts breast cancer risk, but it is unknown whether it is also related to earlier menarche. We studied the association between intake of red meat at ages 5-12 y and age at menarche in a prospective study. We assessed usual diets with a food-frequency questionnaire in a group of 456 girls aged 8.4 ± 1.7 y and followed them for a median 5.6 y in Bogotá, Colombia. Girls were asked periodically about the occurrence and date of menarche. Median age at menarche was estimated with use of Kaplan-Meier survival probabilities by categories of red meat intake frequency. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare the incidence of menarche by red meat intake frequency, adjusting for potential sociodemographic and dietary confounders including total energy intake and intake frequency of other animal food groups (dairy, poultry, freshwater fish, tuna/sardines, eggs, and innards). Median age at menarche was 12.4 y. After adjustment for total energy intake, maternal parity, and socioeconomic status, red meat intake frequency was inversely associated with age at menarche. When compared with girls with red meat intake <4 times/wk, those consuming it ≥2 times/d had a significantly earlier age at menarche (HR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.41; P-trend = 0.0009). Incidentally, we found that girls with tuna/sardine intake >1 time/wk had a significantly later age at menarche (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.90; P = 0.01) than those with intake <1 time/mo. Intake frequency of other animal food groups was not significantly associated with age at menarche. Higher red meat intake frequency during childhood is associated with an earlier age at menarche, whereas greater fatty fish intake frequency is associated with a later menarcheal age. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Onset of rigor mortis is earlier in red muscle than in white muscle.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M; Takatori, T; Nakajima, M; Sakurada, K; Hatanaka, K; Ikegaya, H; Matsuda, Y; Iwase, H

    2000-01-01

    Rigor mortis is thought to be related to falling ATP levels in muscles postmortem. We measured rigor mortis as tension determined isometrically in three rat leg muscles in liquid paraffin kept at 37 degrees C or 25 degrees C--two red muscles, red gastrocnemius (RG) and soleus (SO) and one white muscle, white gastrocnemius (WG). Onset, half and full rigor mortis occurred earlier in RG and SO than in WG both at 37 degrees C and at 25 degrees C even though RG and WG were portions of the same muscle. This suggests that rigor mortis directly reflects the postmortem intramuscular ATP level, which decreases more rapidly in red muscle than in white muscle after death. Rigor mortis was more retarded at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C in each type of muscle.

  12. Selection of children to provide care: the effect of earlier parental transfers.

    PubMed

    Henretta, J C; Hill, M S; Li, W; Soldo, B J; Wolf, D A

    1997-05-01

    We use the first wave of data from the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) study to examine the effects of past parent-to-child financial transfers on selection of a child to provide assistance with basic personal care for unmarried parents. We estimate a fixed-effects conditional logit model and find a positive and significant association between past financial transfers and a child's current helping behavior. The coefficient of past financial transfers is in the direction hypothesized, and its magnitude is 80% as large as that of gender, a well-documented powerful predictor of parental caregiving. There appears to be substantial evidence that earlier parent-to-child financial gifts play a role in determining which child in the family will provide assistance.

  13. Earlier predictors of eating disorder symptoms in 9-year-old children. A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Kathryn N; Drewett, Robert F; Le Couteur, Ann S; Adamson, Ashley J

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine predictors of eating disorder symptoms in a population based sample at the earliest age at which they can be measured using the Children's Eating Attitudes Test. Data were collected from the longitudinal Gateshead Millennium Study cohort; 609 children participated in the 7 year data sweep (and their mothers and teachers), and 589 children participated in the 9 year data sweep. Eating disorder symptoms at 9 years were higher in boys, and in children from more deprived families. Higher eating disorder symptoms were associated with more body dissatisfaction at 9 years. Higher symptoms were predicted by higher levels of dietary restraint and of emotional symptoms, but not greater body dissatisfaction, 2 years earlier. The study showed that some correlates of high eating disorder symptoms found in adolescents and adults are also found in children, before the rise in diagnosable eating disorders over the pubertal period. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical presentation of retinoblastoma in Alexandria: A step toward earlier diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Sameh E; Eldomiaty, Wesam; Goweida, Mohamed B; Dowidar, Amgad

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical presentation of retinoblastoma in Alexandria, Egypt, correlate the timing of accurate diagnosis with the presence of advanced disease and identify causes of delayed presentation. Retrospective noncomparative single institution study reviews demographic and clinical data of all new children with retinoblastoma presenting to Alexandria Main University ocular oncology clinic (OOC) from January 2012 to June 2014. Diagnosis time was from initial parental complaint to retinoblastoma diagnosis and referral time was from retinoblastoma diagnosis to presentation to the Alexandria OCC. Delayed Diagnosis and referral were counted if >2 weeks. Advanced presentation is defined as clinical TNMH (8th edition) staging of cT2 or cT3 (international intraocular retinoblastoma classification group D or E) in at least one eye or the presence of extra-ocular disease (cT4). Seventy eyes of 47 children were eligible: 52% unilateral, 7% with family history and 96% presented with leukocorea. Sixty-four percent of children had advanced intraocular disease and none had extra-ocular disease. Delayed presentation occurred in 58% of children and was significantly associated with advanced disease in both unilaterally and bilaterally affected children (p = 0.003, 0.002 respectively). The delay in diagnosis was more in unilateral cases while the delay in referral was more in bilateral cases. The main cause of delayed presentation in unilateral retinoblastoma was misdiagnosis (30%) while parental shopping for second medical opinion (30%) was the main cause in bilateral children. Delayed diagnosis is a problem affecting retinoblastoma management. Better medical education and training, health education and earlier screening are recommended to achieve earlier diagnosis.

  15. Do BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier onset of natural menopause?

    PubMed

    van Tilborg, Theodora C; Broekmans, Frank J; Pijpe, Anouk; Schrijver, Lieske H; Mooij, Thea M; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Verhoef, Senno; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A; Adank, Muriel A; van Asperen, Christi J; van Doorn, Helena C; van Os, Theo A; Bos, Anna M; Rookus, Matti A; Ausems, Margreet G

    2016-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier age at natural menopause (ANM), although to date findings are inconclusive. This study assessed the influence of BRCA mutation status on ANM, and aimed to explore the reasons of inconsistency in the literature. Cross-sectional assessment from an ongoing nationwide cohort study among members of BRCA1/2 mutated families. Information was obtained by a standardized questionnaire. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed, and Cox regression was used to assess the association between BRCA1/2 mutation status and ANM. Adjustments were made for birth cohort, family, smoking, use of hormonal contraceptives, and parity. A total of 1,208 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and 2,211 proven noncarriers were included. Overall, no association was found between BRCA1/2 mutation status and ANM (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.06 [95% CI, 0.87-1.30]). We examined if the null finding was due to informative censoring by uptake of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. Indeed, within the oldest birth cohort, in which the percentage of surgical menopause events was lowest and comparable between carriers and noncarriers, the HR for earlier natural menopause in carriers was 1.45 (95% CI, 1.09-1.94). The second oldest birth cohort, however, demonstrated a decreased HR (0.67 [95% CI, 0.46-0.98]), and thus no trend over birth cohorts was found. Various types of selection bias hamper the comparison of ANM between BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and noncarriers, genetically tested in the clinic.

  16. Quantifying the economic value and quality of life impact of earlier influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bruce Y; Bartsch, Sarah M; Brown, Shawn T; Cooley, Philip; Wheaton, William D; Zimmerman, Richard K

    2015-03-01

    Influenza vaccination is administered throughout the influenza disease season, even as late as March. Given such timing, what is the value of vaccinating the population earlier than currently being practiced? We used real data on when individuals were vaccinated in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, and the following 2 models to determine the value of vaccinating individuals earlier (by the end of September, October, and November): Framework for Reconstructing Epidemiological Dynamics (FRED), an agent-based model (ABM), and FluEcon, our influenza economic model that translates cases from the ABM to outcomes and costs [health care and lost productivity costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)]. We varied the reproductive number (R0) from 1.2 to 1.6. Applying the current timing of vaccinations averted 223,761 influenza cases, $16.3 million in direct health care costs, $50.0 million in productivity losses, and 804 in QALYs, compared with no vaccination (February peak, R0 1.2). When the population does not have preexisting immunity and the influenza season peaks in February (R0 1.2-1.6), moving individuals who currently received the vaccine after September to the end of September could avert an additional 9634-17,794 influenza cases, $0.6-$1.4 million in direct costs, $2.1-$4.0 million in productivity losses, and 35-64 QALYs. Moving the vaccination of just children to September (R0 1.2-1.6) averted 11,366-1660 influenza cases, $0.6-$0.03 million in direct costs, $2.3-$0.2 million in productivity losses, and 42-8 QALYs. Moving the season peak to December increased these benefits, whereas increasing preexisting immunity reduced these benefits. Even though many people are vaccinated well after September/October, they likely are still vaccinated early enough to provide substantial cost-savings.

  17. Earlier parental set bedtimes as a protective factor against depression and suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Gangwisch, James E; Babiss, Lindsay A; Malaspina, Dolores; Turner, J Blake; Zammit, Gary K; Posner, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    To examine the relationships between parental set bedtimes, sleep duration, and depression as a quasi-experiment to explore the potentially bidirectional relationship between short sleep duration and depression. Short sleep duration has been shown to precede depression, but this could be explained as a prodromal symptom of depression. Depression in an adolescent can affect his/her chosen bedtime, but it is less likely to affect a parent's chosen set bedtime which can establish a relatively stable upper limit that can directly affect sleep duration. Multivariate cross-sectional analyses of the ADD Health using logistic regression. United States nationally representative, school-based, probability-based sample in 1994-96. Adolescents (n = 15,659) in grades 7 to 12. Adolescents with parental set bedtimes of midnight or later were 24% more likely to suffer from depression (OR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.49) and 20% more likely to have suicidal ideation (1.20, 1.01-1.41) than adolescents with parental set bedtimes of 10:00 PM or earlier, after controlling for covariates. Consistent with sleep duration and perception of getting enough sleep acting as mediators, the inclusion of these variables in the multivariate models appreciably attenuated the associations for depression (1.07, 0.88-1.30) and suicidal ideation (1.09, 0.92-1.29). The results from this study provide new evidence to strengthen the argument that short sleep duration could play a role in the etiology of depression. Earlier parental set bedtimes could therefore be protective against adolescent depression and suicidal ideation by lengthening sleep duration.

  18. Organized screening detects breast cancer at earlier stage regardless of molecular phenotype.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Claire M B; Jiang, Li; Whitehead, Marlo; Racz, Jennifer M; Groome, Patti A

    2018-06-16

    Mortality reduction attributable to organized breast screening is modest. Screening may be less effective at detecting more aggressive cancers at an earlier stage. This study was conducted to determine the relative efficacy of screening mammography to detect cancers at an earlier stage by molecular phenotype. We identified 2882 women with primary invasive breast cancer diagnosed between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 and who had a mammogram through the Ontario Breast Screening Program in the 28 months before diagnosis. Five tumor phenotypes were defined by expression of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors and HER2/neu oncogene. We conducted univariable and multivariable analyses to describe the predictors of detection as an interval cancer. Additional analyses identified predictors of detection at stages II, III, or IV compared with stage I, by phenotype. Analyses were adjusted for the effects of age, grade, and breast density. ER negative and HER2 positive tumors were over-represented among interval cancers, and triple negative cancers were more likely than ER +/HER2 - cancers to be detected as interval cancers OR 2.5 (95% CI 2.0-3.2, p < 0.0001). Method of detection (interval vs. screen) and molecular phenotype were independently associated with stage at diagnosis (p < 0.0001), but there was no interaction between method of detection and phenotype (p = 0.44). In a screened population, triple negative and HER2 + breast cancers are diagnosed at a higher stage but this appears to be due to higher growth rates of these tumors rather than a relative inability of screening to detect them.

  19. Health care strategies to promote earlier presentation of symptomatic breast cancer: perspectives of women and family physicians

    PubMed Central

    Heisey, R.; Clemons, M.; Granek, L.; Fergus, K.; Hum, S.; Lord, B.; McCready, D.R.; Fitzgerald, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Many women with symptoms suggestive of a breast cancer diagnosis delay presentation to their family physician. Although factors associated with delay have been well described, there is a paucity of data on strategies to mitigate delay. Objectives We conducted a qualitative research project to examine factors related to delay and to identify health care system changes that might encourage earlier presentation. Methods Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with women who sought care 12 weeks or more after self-detection of breast cancer symptoms and with family physicians whose practices included patients meeting that criterion. Results The women and physicians both suggested a need for clearer screening mammography guidelines for women 40–49 years of age and for better messaging concerning breast awareness. The use of additional hopeful testimonials from breast cancer survivors were suggested to help dispel the notion of cancer as a “death sentence.” Educational initiatives were proposed, aimed at both increasing awareness of “non-lump” breast cancer symptoms and advising women that a previous benign diagnosis does not ensure that future symptoms are not cancer. Women wanted empathic nonjudgmental access to care. Improved methods to track compliance with screening mammography and with periodic health exams and access to a rapid diagnostic process were suggested. Conclusions A list of “at-risk situations for delay” in diagnosis of breast cancer was developed for physicians to assist in identifying women who might delay. Health care system changes actionable both at the health policy level and in the family physician’s office were identified to encourage earlier presentation of women with symptomatic breast cancer. PMID:21980254

  20. Long-term effects of earlier initiated continuous Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) for low-birth-weight (LBW) infants in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Shuko; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Rabesandratana, Norotiana; Andrianarimanana, Diavolana; Nakayama, Takeo; Mori, Rintaro

    2011-12-01

    To examine the long-term effects of earlier initiated continuous Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) for relatively stable low-birth-weight (LBW) infants in a resource-limited country. A randomized controlled trial with long-term follow-up was performed in LBW infants in Madagascar. Earlier continuous KMC (intervention group) was initiated as soon as possible within 24 h postbirth, and later continuous KMC (control group: conventional care) was initiated after complete stabilization. Outcome measures were mortality or readmission, nutritional indicators at 6-12 months postbirth and feeding condition at 6 months postbirth (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00531492). A total of 72 infants were followed for mortality or readmission at 6-12 months postbirth. There was no difference between the two groups (7/36 vs. 7/36, Risk ratio (RR), 1.00; 95% CIs, 0.39-2.56; p = 1.00). The proportion of exclusive breast feeding (EBF) at 6 months postbirth was significantly higher with earlier KMC than later KMC (12/29 vs. 4/26; RR 2.69; 95% CIs, 1.00-7.31; p = 0.04). There were no differences in nutritional indicators between the two groups at 6-12 months postbirth. Earlier initiated continuous KMC results in a significantly higher proportion of EBF at 6 months postbirth. Further larger-scale long-term evaluations of earlier initiated continuous KMC for LBW infants are needed. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  1. [Quality management in a clinical research facility: Evaluation of changes in quality in-house figures and the appraisal of in-house quality indicators].

    PubMed

    Aden, Bile; Allekotte, Silke; Mösges, Ralph

    2016-12-01

    For long-term maintenance and improvement of quality within a clinical research institute, the implementation and certification of a quality management system is suitable. Due to the implemented quality management system according to the still valid DIN EN ISO 9001:2008 desired quality objectives are achieved effectively. The evaluation of quality scores and the appraisal of in-house quality indicators make an important contribution in this regard. In order to achieve this and draw quality assurance conclusions, quality indicators as sensible and sensitive as possible are developed. For this, own key objectives, the retrospective evaluation of quality scores, a prospective follow-up and also discussions establish the basis. In the in-house clinical research institute the measures introduced by the quality management led to higher efficiency in work processes, improved staff skills, higher customer satisfaction and overall to more successful outcomes in relation to the self-defined key objectives. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  2. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, Center Director Roy Bridges (left), Program Manager of the International Space Station (ISS) Randy Brinkley (second from left) and STS-98 Commander Ken Cockrell (right) applaud the unveiling of the name "Destiny" for the U.S. Laboratory module. The lab, which is behnd them on a workstand, is scheduled to be launched on STS-98 on Space Shuttle Endeavour in early 2000. It will become the centerpiece of scientific research on the ISS. The Shuttle will spend six days docked to the Station while the laboratory is attached and three spacewalks are conducted to compete its assembly. The laboratory will be launched with five equipment racks aboard, which will provide essential functions for Station systems, including high data-rate communications, and maintain the Station's orientation using control gyroscopes launched earlier. Additional equipment and research racks will be installed in the laboratory on subsequent Shuttle flights.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-12-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, Center Director Roy Bridges (left), Program Manager of the International Space Station (ISS) Randy Brinkley (second from left) and STS-98 Commander Ken Cockrell (right) applaud the unveiling of the name "Destiny" for the U.S. Laboratory module. The lab, which is behnd them on a workstand, is scheduled to be launched on STS-98 on Space Shuttle Endeavour in early 2000. It will become the centerpiece of scientific research on the ISS. The Shuttle will spend six days docked to the Station while the laboratory is attached and three spacewalks are conducted to compete its assembly. The laboratory will be launched with five equipment racks aboard, which will provide essential functions for Station systems, including high data-rate communications, and maintain the Station's orientation using control gyroscopes launched earlier. Additional equipment and research racks will be installed in the laboratory on subsequent Shuttle flights.

  3. Community indicators

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Andrea; Wells, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Community indicators are used to assess the impact of alcohol on communities. This article reviews the main data sources for community indicators, discusses their strengths and limitations, and discusses indicators used in reference to four main topics relating to alcohol use and problems at the community level: alcohol use, patterns, and problems; alcohol availability; alcohol-related health outcomes/trauma; and alcohol-related crime and enforcement. It also reviews the challenges associated with collecting community indicator data, along with important innovations in the field that have contributed to better knowledge of how to collect and analyze community-level data on the impact of alcohol. PMID:24881322

  4. Adult Trade Apprentices: Exploring the Significance of Recognition of Prior Learning and Skill Sets for Earlier Completion. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Jo; Blomberg, Davinia

    2015-01-01

    The nature of apprenticeships is changing. Increasing proportions of adult apprentices are prompting demand for various alternative pathways to completion. One option for an alternative pathway to accelerate completion is the use of recognition of prior learning (RPL) to identify existing skills and knowledge in combination with gap training. This…

  5. A picture is worth a thousand words: maps of HIV indicators to inform research, programs, and policy from NA-ACCORD and CCASAnet clinical cohorts.

    PubMed

    Althoff, Keri N; Rebeiro, Peter F; Hanna, David B; Padgett, Denis; Horberg, Michael A; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Abraham, Alison G; Hogg, Robert; Gill, M John; Wolff, Marcelo J; Mayor, Angel; Rachlis, Anita; Williams, Carolyn; Sterling, Timothy R; Kitahata, Mari M; Buchacz, Kate; Thorne, Jennifer E; Cesar, Carina; Cordero, Fernando M; Rourke, Sean B; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Pape, Jean W; Cahn, Pedro; McGowan, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Maps are powerful tools for visualization of differences in health indicators by geographical region, but multi-country maps of HIV indicators do not exist, perhaps due to lack of consistent data across countries. Our objective was to create maps of four HIV indicators in North, Central, and South American countries. Using data from the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) and the Caribbean, Central, and South America network for HIV epidemiology (CCASAnet), we mapped median CD4 at presentation for HIV clinical care, proportion retained in HIV primary care, proportion prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART), and the proportion with suppressed plasma HIV viral load (VL) from 2010 to 2012 for North, Central, and South America. The 15 Canadian and US clinical cohorts and 7 clinical cohorts in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru represented approximately 2-7% of persons known to be living with HIV in these countries. Study populations were selected for each indicator: median CD4 at presentation for care was estimated among 14,811 adults; retention was estimated among 87,979 adults; ART use was estimated among 84,757 adults; and suppressed VL was estimated among 51,118 adults. Only three US states and the District of Columbia had a median CD4 at presentation >350 cells/mm(3). Haiti, Mexico, and several states had >85% retention in care; lower (50-74%) retention in care was observed in the US West, South, and Mid-Atlantic, and in Argentina, Brazil, and Peru. ART use was highest (90%) in Mexico. The percentages of patients with suppressed VL in the US South and Northeast were lower than in most of Central and South America. These maps provide visualization of gaps in the quality of HIV care and allow for comparison between and within countries as well as monitoring policy and programme goals within geographical boundaries.

  6. A picture is worth a thousand words: maps of HIV indicators to inform research, programs, and policy from NA-ACCORD and CCASAnet clinical cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Althoff, Keri N; Rebeiro, Peter F; Hanna, David B; Padgett, Denis; Horberg, Michael A; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Abraham, Alison G; Hogg, Robert; Gill, M John; Wolff, Marcelo J; Mayor, Angel; Rachlis, Anita; Williams, Carolyn; Sterling, Timothy R; Kitahata, Mari M; Buchacz, Kate; Thorne, Jennifer E; Cesar, Carina; Cordero, Fernando M; Rourke, Sean B; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Pape, Jean W; Cahn, Pedro; McGowan, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Maps are powerful tools for visualization of differences in health indicators by geographical region, but multi-country maps of HIV indicators do not exist, perhaps due to lack of consistent data across countries. Our objective was to create maps of four HIV indicators in North, Central, and South American countries. Methods Using data from the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) and the Caribbean, Central, and South America network for HIV epidemiology (CCASAnet), we mapped median CD4 at presentation for HIV clinical care, proportion retained in HIV primary care, proportion prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART), and the proportion with suppressed plasma HIV viral load (VL) from 2010 to 2012 for North, Central, and South America. The 15 Canadian and US clinical cohorts and 7 clinical cohorts in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru represented approximately 2–7% of persons known to be living with HIV in these countries. Results Study populations were selected for each indicator: median CD4 at presentation for care was estimated among 14,811 adults; retention was estimated among 87,979 adults; ART use was estimated among 84,757 adults; and suppressed VL was estimated among 51,118 adults. Only three US states and the District of Columbia had a median CD4 at presentation >350 cells/mm3. Haiti, Mexico, and several states had >85% retention in care; lower (50–74%) retention in care was observed in the US West, South, and Mid-Atlantic, and in Argentina, Brazil, and Peru. ART use was highest (90%) in Mexico. The percentages of patients with suppressed VL in the US South and Northeast were lower than in most of Central and South America. Conclusions These maps provide visualization of gaps in the quality of HIV care and allow for comparison between and within countries as well as monitoring policy and programme goals within geographical boundaries. PMID:27049052

  7. Number of Diverticulitis Episodes Before Resection and Factors Associated With Earlier Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Simianu, Vlad V.; Fichera, Alessandro; Bastawrous, Amir L.; Davidson, Giana H.; Florence, Michael G.; Thirlby, Richard C.; Flum, David R.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Despite professional recommendations to delay elective colon resection for patients with uncomplicated diverticulitis, early surgery (after <3 preceding episodes) appears to be common. Several factors have been suggested to contribute to early surgery, including increasing numbers of younger patients, a lower threshold to operate laparoscopically, and growing recognition of “smoldering” (or nonrecovering) diverticulitis episodes. However, the relevance of these factors in early surgery has not been well tested, and most prior studies have focused on hospitalizations, missing outpatient events and making it difficult to assess guideline adherence in earlier interventions. OBJECTIVE To describe patterns of episodes of diverticulitis before surgery and factors associated with earlier interventions using inpatient, outpatient, and antibiotic prescription claims. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This investigation was a nationwide retrospective cohort study from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2012. The dates of the analysis were July 2014 to May 2015. Participants were immunocompetent adult patients (age range, 18-64 years) with incident, uncomplicated diverticulitis. EXPOSURE Elective colectomy for diverticulitis. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Inpatient, outpatient, and antibiotic prescription claims for diverticulitis captured in the MarketScan (Truven Health Analytics) databases. RESULTS Of 87 461 immunocompetent patients having at least 1 claim for diverticulitis, 6.4% (n = 5604) underwent a resection. The final study cohort comprised 3054 nonimmunocompromised patients who underwent elective resection for uncomplicated diverticulitis, of whom 55.6% (n = 1699) were male. Before elective surgery, they had a mean (SD) of 1.0 (0.9) inpatient claims, 1.5 (1.5) outpatient claims, and 0.5 (1.2) antibiotic prescription claims related to diverticulitis. Resection occurred after fewer than 3 episodes in 94.9% (2897 of 3054) of patients if counting inpatient

  8. The characteristics of national health initiatives promoting earlier cancer diagnosis among adult populations: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Calanzani, Natalia; Weller, David; Campbell, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The increasing burden of cancer morbidity and mortality has led to the development of national health initiatives to promote earlier cancer diagnosis and improve cancer survival. This protocol describes a systematic review aiming to identify the evidence about such initiatives among the adult population. We will describe their components, stakeholders and target populations, and summarise their outcomes. Methods and analysis We will search databases and websites for peer-reviewed publications and grey literature on national health initiatives in high-income countries as defined by the World Bank. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed-methods studies will be included and assessed for their methodological quality. Study selection, quality assessment and data extraction will be carried out independently by two reviewers. Narrative synthesis will be used to analyse the findings. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review analyses secondary data and ethical approval is not required. Review findings will be helpful to researchers, policy makers, governments and other key stakeholders developing similar initiatives and assessing cancer outcomes. The results will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal in order to reach a diverse group of healthcare professionals, researchers and policy makers. This systematic review protocol is registered at PROSPERO (CRD42016047233). PMID:28698336

  9. Quantifying the Economic Value and Quality of Life Impact of Earlier Influenza Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Bartsch, Sarah M.; Brown, Shawn T.; Cooley, Philip; Wheaton, William D.; Zimmerman, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Influenza vaccination is administered throughout the influenza disease season, even as late as March. Given such timing, what is the value of vaccinating the population earlier than currently being practiced? Methods We used real data on when individuals were vaccinated in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, and the following 2 models to determine the value of vaccinating individuals earlier (by the end of September, October, and November): Framework for Reconstructing Epidemiological Dynamics (FRED), an agent-based model (ABM), and FluEcon, our influenza economic model that translates cases from the ABM to outcomes and costs [health care and lost productivity costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)]. We varied the reproductive number (R0) from 1.2 to 1.6. Results Applying the current timing of vaccinations averted 223,761 influenza cases, $16.3 million in direct health care costs, $50.0 million in productivity losses, and 804 in QALYs, compared with no vaccination (February peak, R0 1.2). When the population does not have preexisting immunity and the influenza season peaks in February (R0 1.2–1.6), moving individuals who currently received the vaccine after September to the end of September could avert an additional 9634–17,794 influenza cases, $0.6–$1.4 million in direct costs, $2.1–$4.0 million in productivity losses, and 35–64 QALYs. Moving the vaccination of just children to September (R0 1.2–1.6) averted 11,366–1660 influenza cases, $0.6–$0.03 million in direct costs, $2.3–$0.2 million in productivity losses, and 42–8 QALYs. Moving the season peak to December increased these benefits, whereas increasing preexisting immunity reduced these benefits. Conclusion Even though many people are vaccinated well after September/October, they likely are still vaccinated early enough to provide substantial cost-savings. PMID:25590676

  10. Evaluation of Nine Consensus Indices in Delphi Foresight Research and Their Dependency on Delphi Survey Characteristics: A Simulation Study and Debate on Delphi Design and Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Birko, Stanislav; Dove, Edward S.; Özdemir, Vural

    2015-01-01

    The extent of consensus (or the lack thereof) among experts in emerging fields of innovation can serve as antecedents of scientific, societal, investor and stakeholder synergy or conflict. Naturally, how we measure consensus is of great importance to science and technology strategic foresight. The Delphi methodology is a widely used anonymous survey technique to evaluate consensus among a panel of experts. Surprisingly, there is little guidance on how indices of consensus can be influenced by parameters of the Delphi survey itself. We simulated a classic three-round Delphi survey building on the concept of clustered consensus/dissensus. We evaluated three study characteristics that are pertinent for design of Delphi foresight research: (1) the number of survey questions, (2) the sample size, and (3) the extent to which experts conform to group opinion (the Group Conformity Index) in a Delphi study. Their impacts on the following nine Delphi consensus indices were then examined in 1000 simulations: Clustered Mode, Clustered Pairwise Agreement, Conger’s Kappa, De Moivre index, Extremities Version of the Clustered Pairwise Agreement, Fleiss’ Kappa, Mode, the Interquartile Range and Pairwise Agreement. The dependency of a consensus index on the Delphi survey characteristics was expressed from 0.000 (no dependency) to 1.000 (full dependency). The number of questions (range: 6 to 40) in a survey did not have a notable impact whereby the dependency values remained below 0.030. The variation in sample size (range: 6 to 50) displayed the top three impacts for the Interquartile Range, the Clustered Mode and the Mode (dependency = 0.396, 0.130, 0.116, respectively). The Group Conformity Index, a construct akin to measuring stubbornness/flexibility of experts’ opinions, greatly impacted all nine Delphi consensus indices (dependency = 0.200 to 0.504), except the Extremity CPWA and the Interquartile Range that were impacted only beyond the first decimal point (dependency

  11. Evaluation of Nine Consensus Indices in Delphi Foresight Research and Their Dependency on Delphi Survey Characteristics: A Simulation Study and Debate on Delphi Design and Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Birko, Stanislav; Dove, Edward S; Özdemir, Vural

    2015-01-01

    The extent of consensus (or the lack thereof) among experts in emerging fields of innovation can serve as antecedents of scientific, societal, investor and stakeholder synergy or conflict. Naturally, how we measure consensus is of great importance to science and technology strategic foresight. The Delphi methodology is a widely used anonymous survey technique to evaluate consensus among a panel of experts. Surprisingly, there is little guidance on how indices of consensus can be influenced by parameters of the Delphi survey itself. We simulated a classic three-round Delphi survey building on the concept of clustered consensus/dissensus. We evaluated three study characteristics that are pertinent for design of Delphi foresight research: (1) the number of survey questions, (2) the sample size, and (3) the extent to which experts conform to group opinion (the Group Conformity Index) in a Delphi study. Their impacts on the following nine Delphi consensus indices were then examined in 1000 simulations: Clustered Mode, Clustered Pairwise Agreement, Conger's Kappa, De Moivre index, Extremities Version of the Clustered Pairwise Agreement, Fleiss' Kappa, Mode, the Interquartile Range and Pairwise Agreement. The dependency of a consensus index on the Delphi survey characteristics was expressed from 0.000 (no dependency) to 1.000 (full dependency). The number of questions (range: 6 to 40) in a survey did not have a notable impact whereby the dependency values remained below 0.030. The variation in sample size (range: 6 to 50) displayed the top three impacts for the Interquartile Range, the Clustered Mode and the Mode (dependency = 0.396, 0.130, 0.116, respectively). The Group Conformity Index, a construct akin to measuring stubbornness/flexibility of experts' opinions, greatly impacted all nine Delphi consensus indices (dependency = 0.200 to 0.504), except the Extremity CPWA and the Interquartile Range that were impacted only beyond the first decimal point (dependency = 0

  12. Primary outcome indices in illicit drug dependence treatment research: systematic approach to selection and measurement of drug use end-points in clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Dennis M.; Bigelow, George E.; Brigham, Gregory S.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Allan J.; Gardin, John G.; Hamilton, John A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Hughes, John R.; Lindblad, Robert; Marlatt, G. Alan; Preston, Kenzie L.; Selzer, Jeffrey A.; Somoza, Eugene C.; Wakim, Paul G.; Wells, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Clinical trials test the safety and efficacy of behavioral and pharmacological interventions in drug-dependent individuals. However, there is no consensus about the most appropriate outcome(s) to consider in determining treatment efficacy or on the most appropriate methods for assessing selected outcome(s). We summarize the discussion and recommendations of treatment and research experts, convened by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse, to select appropriate primary outcomes for drug dependence treatment clinical trials, and in particular the feasibility of selecting a common outcome to be included in all or most trials. Methods A brief history of outcomes employed in prior drug dependence treatment research, incorporating perspectives from tobacco and alcohol research, is included. The relative merits and limitations of focusing on drug-taking behavior, as measured by self-report and qualitative or quantitative biological markers, are evaluated. Results Drug-taking behavior, measured ideally by a combination of self-report and biological indicators, is seen as the most appropriate proximal primary outcome in drug dependence treatment clinical trials. Conclusions We conclude that the most appropriate outcome will vary as a function of salient variables inherent in the clinical trial, such as the type of intervention, its target, treatment goals (e.g. abstinence or reduction of use) and the perspective being taken (e.g. researcher, clinical program, patient, society). It is recommended that a decision process, based on such trial variables, be developed to guide the selection of primary and secondary outcomes as well as the methods to assess them. PMID:21781202

  13. Presetting ECG electrodes for earlier heart rate detection in the delivery room.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Rashmi; Zayek, Michael; Eyal, Fabien

    2018-07-01

    To determine whether heart rate (HR) could be detected earlier than by pulse oximeter (POX), using a novel method of application of electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes during neonatal resuscitation in the delivery room. ECG electrodes were set before delivery to be applied to the back of infants' thorax. Time to detect HR was recorded as soon as a numerical HR along with a recognizable and persistent QRS complex was observed on ECG monitor (HRECG) and a plethysmographic waveform was seen on POX monitor (HRPOX). Out of 334 infants, 49 were <31 weeks of gestational age. Overall, the median (interquartile range, IQR) time to detect HRECG was significantly shorter [29 (5, 60) seconds] than time by POX [60 (45,120) seconds], (p < 0.001). Similarly, in <31-week infants, the median (IQR) time to detect HRECG was 10 (2, 40) seconds compared to 60 (30,120) seconds by POX, (p < 0.001). Failure to have HR detected by 1 minute occurred in 30%, 54% and 20% of infants by ECG, POX and either of the devices, respectively. In the delivery room, electrodes applied by the study method are more effective than pulse oximetry in providing the neonatal team with timely HR information that is necessary for proper resuscitative actions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The Chinese Visible Human (CVH) datasets incorporate technical and imaging advances on earlier digital humans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shao-Xiang; Heng, Pheng-Ann; Liu, Zheng-Jin; Tan, Li-Wen; Qiu, Ming-Guo; Li, Qi-Yu; Liao, Rong-Xia; Li, Kai; Cui, Gao-Yu; Guo, Yan-Li; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Guang-Jiu; Shan, Jing-Lu; Liu, Ji-Jun; Zhang, Wei-Guo; Chen, Xian-Hong; Chen, Jin-Hua; Wang, Jian; Chen, Wei; Lu, Ming; You, Jian; Pang, Xue-Li; Xiao, Hong; Xie, Yong-Ming; Cheng, Jack Chun-Yiu

    2004-01-01

    We report the availability of a digitized Chinese male and a digitzed Chinese female typical of the population and with no obvious abnormalities. The embalming and milling procedures incorporate three technical improvements over earlier digitized cadavers. Vascular perfusion with coloured gelatin was performed to facilitate blood vessel identification. Embalmed cadavers were embedded in gelatin and cryosectioned whole so as to avoid section loss resulting from cutting the body into smaller pieces. Milling performed at −25 °C prevented small structures (e.g. teeth, concha nasalis and articular cartilage) from falling off from the milling surface. The male image set (.tiff images each of 36 Mb) has a section resolution of 3072 × 2048 pixels (∼170 μm, the accompanying magnetic resonance imaging and computer tomography data have a resolution of 512 × 512, i.e. ∼440 μm). The Chinese Visible Human male and female datasets are available at http://www.chinesevisiblehuman.com. (The male is 90.65 Gb and female 131.04 Gb). MPEG videos of direct records of real-time volume rendering are at: http://www.cse.cuhk.edu.hk/~crc PMID:15032906

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of Earlier Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy for Uninsured HIV-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schackman, Bruce R.; Goldie, Sue J.; Weinstein, Milton C.; Losina, Elena; Zhang, Hong; Freedberg, Kenneth A.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. This study was designed to examine the societal cost-effectiveness and the impact on government payers of earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy for uninsured HIV-infected adults. Methods. A state-transition simulation model of HIV disease was used. Data were derived from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, published randomized trials, and medical care cost estimates for all government payers and for Massachusetts, New York, and Florida. Results. Quality-adjusted life expectancy increased from 7.64 years with therapy initiated at 200 CD4 cells/μL to 8.21 years with therapy initiated at 500 CD4 cells/μL. Initiating therapy at 500 CD4/μL was a more efficient use of resources than initiating therapy at 200 CD4/μL and had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $17 300 per quality-adjusted life-year gained, compared with no therapy. Costs to state payers in the first 5 years ranged from $5500 to $24 900 because of differences among the states in the availability of federal funds for AIDS drug assistance programs. Conclusions. Antiretroviral therapy initiated at 500 CD4 cells/μL is cost-effective from a societal perspective compared with therapy initiated later. States should consider Medicaid waivers to expand access to early therapy. PMID:11527782

  16. Colorectal cancer occurs earlier in those exposed to tobacco smoke: implications for screening

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Martin C.; Cummings, K. Michael; Michalek, Arthur M.; Reid, Mary E.; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Hyland, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the USA. While various lifestyle factors have been shown to alter the risk for colorectal cancer, recommendations for the early detection of CRC are based only on age and family history. Methods This case-only study examined the age at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in subjects exposed to tobacco smoke. Subjects included all patients who attended RPCI between 1957 and 1997, diagnosed with colorectal cancer, and completed an epidemiologic questionnaire. Adjusted linear regression models were calculated for the various smoking exposures. Results Of the 3,540 cases of colorectal cancer, current smokers demonstrated the youngest age of CRC onset (never: 64.2 vs. current: 57.4, P < 0.001) compared to never smokers, followed by recent former smokers. Among never smokers, individuals with past second-hand smoke exposure were diagnosed at a significantly younger age compared to the unexposed. Conclusion This study found that individuals with heavy, long-term tobacco smoke exposure were significantly younger at the time of CRC diagnosis compared to lifelong never smokers. The implication of this finding is that screening for colorectal cancer, which is recommended to begin at age 50 years for persons at average risk should be initiated 5–10 years earlier for persons with a significant lifetime history of exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:18264728

  17. Towards earlier inclusion of Children in Tuberculosis (TB) drugs trials: Consensus statements from an Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Nachman, Sharon; Ahmed, Amina; Amanullah, Farhana; Becerra, Mercedes C; Botgros, Radu; Brigden, Grania; Browning, Renee; Gardiner, Elizabeth; Hafner, Richard; Hesseling, Anneke; How, Cleotilde; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Lessem, Erica; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Mbelle, Nontombi; Marais, Ben; McIlleron, Helen; Mc Neeley, David F; Mendel, Carl; Murray, Stephen; Navarro, Eileen; Oramasionwu, Gloria E; Porcalla, Ariel R; Powell, Clydette; Powell, Mair; Rigaud, Mona; Rouzier, Vanessa; Samson, Pearl; Schaaf, H. Simon; Shah, Seema; Starke, Jeff; Swaminathan, Soumya; Wobudeya, Eric; Worrell, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Children represent a significant proportion of the global tuberculosis (TB) burden, and may be disproportionately more affected by its most severe clinical manifestations. Currently available treatments for pediatric drug-susceptible (DS) and drug-resistant (DR) TB, albeit generally effective, are hampered by high pill burden, long duration of treatment, coexistent toxicities, and an overall lack of suitable, child-friendly formulations. The complex and burdensome nature of administering the existing regimens to treat DS TB also contributes to the rise of DR TB strains. Despite the availability and use of these therapies for decades, a dearth of dosing evidence in children underscores the importance of sustained efforts for TB drug development to better meet the treatment needs of children with TB. Several new TB drugs and regimens with promising activity against both DS and DR TB strains have recently entered clinical development and are in various phases of clinical evaluation in adults or have received marketing authorization for adults. However, initiation of clinical trials to evaluate these drugs in children is often deferred, pending the availability of complete safety and efficacy data in adults or after drug approval. This document summarizes consensus statements from an international panel of childhood TB opinion leaders which support the initiation of evaluation of new TB drugs and regimens in children at earlier phases of the TB Drug development cycle. PMID:25957923

  18. The response of aboveground plant productivity to earlier snowmelt and summer warming in an Arctic ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livensperger, C.; Steltzer, H.; Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Sullivan, P.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Weintraub, M. N.

    2012-12-01

    Plant communities in the Arctic are undergoing changes in structure and function due to shifts in seasonality from changing winters and summer warming. These changes will impact biogeochemical cycling, surface energy balance, and functioning of vertebrate and invertebrate communities. To examine seasonal controls on aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in a moist acidic tundra ecosystem in northern Alaska, we shifted the growing season by accelerating snowmelt (using radiation absorbing shadecloth) and warming air and soil temperature (using 1 m2 open-top chambers), individually and in combination. After three years, we measured ANPP by harvesting up to 16 individual ramets, tillers and rhizomes for each of 7 plant species, including two deciduous shrubs, two graminoids, two evergreen shrubs and one forb during peak season. Our results show that ANPP per stem summed across the 7 species increased when snow melt occurred earlier. However, standing biomass, excluding current year growth, was also greater. The ratio of ANPP/standing biomass decreased in all treatments compared to the control. ANPP per unit standing biomass summed for the four shrub species decreases due to summer warming alone or in combination with early snowmelt; however early snowmelt alone did not lead to lower ANPP for the shrubs. ANPP per tiller or rhizome summed for the three herbaceous species increased in response to summer warming. Understanding the differential response of plants to changing seasonality will inform predictions of future Arctic plant community structure and function.

  19. Earlier onset of motor deficits in mice with double mutations in Dyt1 and Sgce.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Yang, Guang; Li, Jindong; DeAndrade, Mark P; Zhou, Tong; Li, Yuqing

    2010-10-01

    DYT1 early-onset generalized torsion dystonia is an inherited movement disorder caused by mutations in DYT1 coding for torsinA with ∼30% penetrance. Most of the DYT1 dystonia patients exhibit symptoms during childhood and adolescence. On the other hand, DYT1 mutation carriers without symptoms during these periods mostly do not exhibit symptoms later in their life. Little is known about what controls the timing of the onset, a critical issue for DYT1 mutation carriers. DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia is caused by mutations in SGCE coding for ε-sarcoglycan. Two dystonia patients from a single family with double mutations in DYT1 and SGCE exhibited more severe symptoms. A recent study suggested that torsinA contributes to the quality control of ε-sarcoglycan. Here, we derived mice carrying mutations in both Dyt1 and Sgce and found that these double mutant mice showed earlier onset of motor deficits in beam-walking test. A novel monoclonal antibody against mouse ε-sarcoglycan was developed by using Sgce knock-out mice to avoid the immune tolerance. Western blot analysis suggested that functional deficits of torsinA and ε-sarcoglycan may independently cause motor deficits. Examining additional mutations in other dystonia genes may be beneficial to predict the onset in DYT1 mutation carriers.

  20. Design a Fuzzy Rule-based Expert System to Aid Earlier Diagnosis of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Safdari, Reza; Arpanahi, Hadi Kazemi; Langarizadeh, Mostafa; Ghazisaiedi, Marjan; Dargahi, Hossein; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2018-01-01

    Screening and health check-up programs are most important sanitary priorities, that should be undertaken to control dangerous diseases such as gastric cancer that affected by different factors. More than 50% of gastric cancer diagnoses are made during the advanced stage. Currently, there is no systematic approach for early diagnosis of gastric cancer. to develop a fuzzy expert system that can identify gastric cancer risk levels in individuals. This system was implemented in MATLAB software, Mamdani inference technique applied to simulate reasoning of experts in the field, a total of 67 fuzzy rules extracted as a rule-base based on medical expert's opinion. 50 case scenarios were used to evaluate the system, the information of case reports is given to the system to find risk level of each case report then obtained results were compared with expert's diagnosis. Results revealed that sensitivity was 92.1% and the specificity was 83.1%. The results show that is possible to develop a system that can identify High risk individuals for gastric cancer. The system can lead to earlier diagnosis, this may facilitate early treatment and reduce gastric cancer mortality rate.

  1. Attachment styles, earlier interpersonal relationships and schizotypy in a non-clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Berry, Katherine; Band, Rebecca; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Barrowclough, Christine; Wearden, Alison

    2007-12-01

    This paper investigates associations between adult attachment style, relationships with significant others during childhood, traumatic life-events and schizotypy. Relationships between attachment and hypothesized correlates were investigated in a cross-sectional design using an analogue sample. The reliability of the attachment and trauma measures was investigated using a test-retest design. Three hundred and four students completed the self-report version of the Psychosis Attachment Measure (PAM), maternal and paternal versions of the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Attachment History Questionnaire, a measure of trauma and the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences scale through an internet website. As predicted, there were statistically significant associations between insecure attachment in adult relationships and experiences of negative interpersonal events. Both earlier interpersonal experiences and adult attachment style predicted schizotypy, and adult attachment style emerged as an independent predictor of positive schizotypal characteristics. The findings support associations between adult attachment style and previous interpersonal experiences and between adult attachment and schizotypy. The PAM is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used to explore attachment styles in analogue samples and associations between attachment styles and psychotic symptoms in clinical samples.

  2. Infliximab for uveitis of Behçet's syndrome: a trend for earlier initiation.

    PubMed

    Guzelant, Gul; Ucar, Didar; Esatoglu, Sinem Nihal; Hatemi, Gulen; Ozyazgan, Yilmaz; Yurdakul, Sebahattin; Seyahi, Emire; Yazici, Hasan; Hamuryudan, Vedat

    2017-01-01

    The prognosis of uveitis in Behçet's syndrome (BS) has improved over decades. Whether this is related to the use of more aggressive management strategies is not known. This is a retrospective study of BS patients who received infliximab (IFX) for refractory eye disease between 2003-2015. The patients were divided into two groups according to the date of onset of in IFX treatment as before and after 2013. We compared the two groups in terms of disease characteristics at the onset of IFX treatment and response to treatment. There were 43 patients in the old and 14 patients in the new group. The duration of uveitis and previous immunosuppressive treatment before the initiation of IFX were significantly shorter in the new group compared to the old group (p=0.043 and p=0.028, respectively). The baseline visual acuity (VA) at the initiation of IFX was better in the new group, but this was only significant for the left eye. Treatment with IFX was effective in both groups in preserving VA and this was more pronounced in the new group. Attack frequency under IFX was significantly lower in the new group (p<0.001). IFX seems to be initiated earlier and also in less severe cases during the course of BS uveitis than before. Despite the few numbers of patients and relatively short duration of follow-up, our results give a hint that this change has improved the outcome.

  3. Citations to papers from Brazilian institutions: a more effective indicator to assess productivity and the impact of research in graduate programs.

    PubMed

    Meneghini, R

    2011-08-01

    A recent assessment of 4400 postgraduate courses in Brazil by CAPES (a federal government agency dedicated to the improvement of the quality of and research at the postgraduate level) stimulated a large amount of manifestations in the press, scientific journals and scientific congresses. This gigantic effort to classify 16,400 scientific journals in order to provide indicators for assessment proved to be puzzling and methodologically erroneous in terms of gauging the institutions from a metric point of view. A simple algorithm is proposed here to weigh the scientometric indicators that should be considered in the assessment of a scientific institution. I conclude here that the simple gauge of the total number of citations accounts for both the productivity of scientists and the impact of articles. The effort spent in this exercise is relatively small, and the sources of information are fully accessible. As an exercise to estimate the value of the methodology, 12 institutions of physics (10 from Brazil, one from the USA and one from Italy) have been evaluated.

  4. Deformation strain is the main physical driver for skeletal precursors to undergo osteogenesis in earlier stages of osteogenic cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Ramani-Mohan, Ram-Kumar; Schwedhelm, Ivo; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Krug, Melanie; Schwarz, Thomas; Jakob, Franz; Walles, Heike; Hansmann, Jan

    2018-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells play a major role during bone remodelling and are thus of high interest for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Mechanical stimuli, that is, deformation strain and interstitial fluid-flow-induced shear stress, promote osteogenic lineage commitment. However, the predominant physical stimulus that drives early osteogenic cell maturation is not clearly identified. The evaluation of each stimulus is challenging, as deformation and fluid-flow-induced shear stress interdepend. In this study, we developed a bioreactor that was used to culture mesenchymal stem cells harbouring a strain-responsive AP-1 luciferase reporter construct, on porous scaffolds. In addition to the reporter, mineralization and vitality of the cells was investigated by alizarin red staining and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Quantification of the expression of genes associated to bone regeneration and bone remodelling was used to confirm alizarin red measurements. Controlled perfusion and deformation of the 3-dimensional scaffold facilitated the alteration of the expression of osteogenic markers, luciferase activity, and calcification. To isolate the specific impact of scaffold deformation, a computational model was developed to derive a perfusion flow profile that results in dynamic shear stress conditions present in periodically loaded scaffolds. In comparison to actually deformed scaffolds, a lower expression of all measured readout parameters indicated that deformation strain is the predominant stimulus for skeletal precursors to undergo osteogenesis in earlier stages of osteogenic cell maturation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Reduced abundance and earlier collection of bumble bee workers under intensive cultivation of a mass-flowering prairie crop.

    PubMed

    Galpern, Paul; Johnson, Sarah A; Retzlaff, Jennifer L; Chang, Danielle; Swann, John

    2017-04-01

    One of the most commonly seeded crops in Canada is canola, a cultivar of oilseed rape ( Brassica napus ). As a mass-flowering crop grown intensively throughout the Canadian Prairies, canola has the potential to influence pollinator success across tens of thousands of square kilometers of cropland. Bumble bees ( Bombus sp.) are efficient pollinators of many types of native and crop plants. We measured the influence of this mass-flowering crop on the abundance and phenology of bumble bees, and on another species of social bee (a sweat bee; Halictus rubicundus ), by continuously deploying traps at different levels of canola cultivation intensity, spanning the start and end of canola bloom. Queen bumble bees were more abundant in areas with more canola cover, indicating that this crop is attractive to queens. However, bumble bee workers were significantly fewer in these locations later in the season, suggesting reduced colony success. The median collection dates of workers of three bumble bee species were earlier near canola fields, suggesting a dynamic response of colonies to the increased floral resources. Different species experienced this shift to different extents. The sweat bee was not affected by canola cultivation intensity. Our findings suggest that mass-flowering crops such as canola are attractive to bumble bee queens and therefore may lead to higher rates of colony establishment, but also that colonies established near this crop may be less successful. We propose that the effect on bumble bees can be mitigated by spacing the crop more evenly with respect to alternate floral resources.

  6. Earlier flowering did not alter pollen limitation in an early flowering shrub under short-term experimental warming.

    PubMed

    Pan, Cheng-Chen; Feng, Qi; Zhao, Ha-Lin; Liu, Lin-De; Li, Yu-Lin; Li, Yu-Qiang; Zhang, Tong-Hui; Yu, Xiao-Ya

    2017-06-05

    In animal pollinated plants, phenological shifts caused by climate change may have important ecological consequences. However, no empirical evidence exists at present on the consequences that flowering phenology shifts have on the strength of pollen limitation under experimental warming. Here, we investigated the effects of experimental warming on flowering phenology, flower density, reproductive success, and pollen limitation intensity in Caragana microphylla and evaluated whether earlier flowering phenology affected plant reproduction and the level of pollen limitation using warmed and unwarmed open top chambers in the Horqin Sandy Land of Inner Mongolia, northern China. The results of this study indicated that artificial warming markedly advanced flower phenology rather than extending the duration of the flowering. Additionally, warming was found to significantly reduce flower density which led to seed production reduction, since there were insignificant effects observed on fruit set and seed number per fruit. Experimental floral manipulations showed that warming did not affect pollen limitation. These results revealed the negative effects of advanced phenology induced by warming on flower density and reproductive output, as well as the neutral effects on reproductive success and pollen limitation intensity of long surviving plants.

  7. The two faces of selective memory retrieval: Earlier decline of the beneficial than the detrimental effect with older age.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Alp; Schlichting, Andreas; John, Thomas; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2015-12-01

    Recent work with young adults has shown that, depending on study context access, selective memory retrieval can both impair and improve recall of other memories (Bäuml & Samenieh, 2010). Here, we investigated the 2 opposing effects of selective retrieval in older age. In Experiment 1, we examined 64 younger (20-35 years) and 64 older participants (above 60 years), and manipulated study context access using list-method directed forgetting. Whereas both age groups showed a detrimental effect of selective retrieval on to-be-remembered items, only younger but not older adults showed a beneficial effect on to-be-forgotten items. In Experiment 2, we examined 112 participants from a relatively wide age range (40-85 years), and manipulated study context access by varying the retention interval between study and test. Overall, a detrimental effect of selective retrieval arose when the retention interval was relatively short, but a beneficial effect when the retention interval was prolonged. Critically, the size of the beneficial but not the detrimental effect of retrieval decreased with age and this age-related decline was mediated by individuals' working memory capacity, as measured by the complex operation span task. Together, the results suggest an age-related dissociation in retrieval dynamics, indicating an earlier decline of the beneficial than the detrimental effect of selective retrieval with older age. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Position indicator

    DOEpatents

    Tanner, David E.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear reactor system is described in which a position indicator is provided for detecting and indicating the position of a movable element inside a pressure vessel. The movable element may be a valve element or similar device which moves about an axis. Light from a light source is transmitted from a source outside the pressure vessel to a first region inside the pressure vessel in alignment with the axis of the movable element. The light is redirected by a reflector prism to a second region displaced radially from the first region. The reflector prism moves in response to movement of the movable element about its axis such that the second region moves arcuately with respect to the first region. Sensors are arrayed in an arc corresponding to the arc of movement of the second region and signals are transmitted from the sensors to the exterior of the reactor vessel to provide indication of the position of the movable element.

  9. A comparative proteomic strategy for subcellular proteome research: ICAT approach coupled with bioinformatics prediction to ascertain rat liver mitochondrial proteins and indication of mitochondrial localization for catalase.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao-Sheng; Dai, Jie; Sheng, Quan-Hu; Zhang, Lei; Xia, Qi-Chang; Wu, Jia-Rui; Zeng, Rong

    2005-01-01

    Subcellular proteomics, as an important step to functional proteomics, has been a focus in proteomic research. However, the co-purification of "contaminating" proteins has been the major problem in all the subcellular proteomic research including all kinds of mitochondrial proteome research. It is often difficult to conclude whether these "contaminants" represent true endogenous partners or artificial associations induced by cell disruption or incomplete purification. To solve such a problem, we applied a high-throughput comparative proteome experimental strategy, ICAT approach performed with two-dimensional LC-MS/MS analysis, coupled with combinational usage of different bioinformatics tools, to study the proteome of rat liver mitochondria prepared with traditional centrifugation (CM) or further purified with a Nycodenz gradient (PM). A total of 169 proteins were identified and quantified convincingly in the ICAT analysis, in which 90 proteins have an ICAT ratio of PM:CM>1.0, while another 79 proteins have an ICAT ratio of PM:CM<1.0. Almost all the proteins annotated as mitochondrial according to Swiss-Prot annotation, bioinformatics prediction, and literature reports have a ratio of PM:CM>1.0, while proteins annotated as extracellular or secreted, cytoplasmic, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomal, and so on have a ratio of PM:CM<1.0. Catalase and AP endonuclease 1, which have been known as peroxisomal and nuclear, respectively, have shown a ratio of PM:CM>1.0, confirming the reports about their mitochondrial location. Moreover, the 125 proteins with subcellular location annotation have been used as a testing dataset to evaluate the efficiency for ascertaining mitochondrial proteins by ICAT analysis and the bioinformatics tools such as PSORT, TargetP, SubLoc, MitoProt, and Predotar. The results indicated that ICAT analysis coupled with combinational usage of different bioinformatics tools could effectively ascertain mitochondrial proteins and distinguish contaminant

  10. Detection, attribution, and sensitivity of trends toward earlier streamflow in the Sierra Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maurer, E.P.; Stewart, I.T.; Bonfils, Celine; Duffy, P.B.; Cayan, D.

    2007-01-01

    Observed changes in the timing of snowmelt dominated streamflow in the western United States are often linked to anthropogenic or other external causes. We assess whether observed streamflow timing changes can be statistically attributed to external forcing, or whether they still lie within the bounds of natural (internal) variability for four large Sierra Nevada (CA) basins, at inflow points to major reservoirs. Streamflow timing is measured by "center timing" (CT), the day when half the annual flow has passed a given point. We use a physically based hydrology model driven by meteorological input from a global climate model to quantify the natural variability in CT trends. Estimated 50-year trends in CT due to natural climate variability often exceed estimated actual CT trends from 1950 to 1999. Thus, although observed trends in CT to date may be statistically significant, they cannot yet be statistically attributed to external influences on climate. We estimate that projected CT changes at the four major reservoir inflows will, with 90% confidence, exceed those from natural variability within 1-4 decades or 4-8 decades, depending on rates of future greenhouse gas emissions. To identify areas most likely to exhibit CT changes in response to rising temperatures, we calculate changes in CT under temperature increases from 1 to 5??. We find that areas with average winter temperatures between -2??C and -4??C are most likely to respond with significant CT shifts. Correspondingly, elevations from 2000 to 2800 in are most sensitive to temperature increases, with CT changes exceeding 45 days (earlier) relative to 1961-1990. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Earlier surgical intervention in congenital heart disease results in better outcome and resource utilization.

    PubMed

    Panni, Roheena Z; Ashfaq, Awais; Amanullah, Muhammad M

    2011-12-29

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) accounts for a major proportion of disease in the pediatric age group. The objective of the study was to estimate the cost of illness associated with CHD pre, intra and postoperatively; among patients referred to a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. This is the first study conducted to estimate the cost of managing CHD in Pakistan. A prevalence based cost of illness study design was used to estimate the cost of cardiac surgery (corrective & palliative) for congenital heart defects in children ≤ 5 years of age from June 2006 to June 2009. A total of 120 patients were enrolled after obtaining an informed consent and the data was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. The mean age at the time of surgery in group A (1-12 mo age) was 6.08 ± 2.80 months and in group B (1-5 yrs) was 37.10 ± 19.94 months. The cost of surgical admission was found to be significantly higher in the older group, p = 0.001. The total number and cost of post-operative outpatient visits was also higher in group B, p = 0.003. Pre and post operative hospital admissions were not found to be significantly different among the two groups, p = 0.166 and 0.627, respectively. The number of complications were found to be different between the two groups (p = 0.019). Majority of these were contributed by hemorrhage and post-operative seizures. This study concluded that significant expenditure is incurred by people with CHD; with the implication that resources could be saved by earlier detection and awareness campaigns.

  12. Assessment of risk factors for earlier onset of sporadic Alzheimer's disease dementia.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fabricio Ferreira; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Smith, Marilia Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacological treatment has mild effects for patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD); therefore, the search for modifiable risk factors is an important challenge. Though risk factors for AD are widely recognized, elements that influence the time of dementia onset have not been comprehensively reported. We aimed to investigate which risk factors might be related to the age of onset of AD in a sample of patients with highly variable educational levels, taking into account the Framingham risk scoring as the sole measure of vascular risk. We included 209 consecutive late-onset AD patients to find out which factors among educational levels, coronary heart disease risk estimated by way of Framingham risk scores, history of head trauma or depression, surgical procedures under general anesthesia, family history of neurodegenerative diseases, gender, marital status and APOE haplotypes might be related to the age of dementia onset in this sample of patients with low mean schooling. Mean age of AD onset was 73.38±6.5 years old, unaffected by schooling or family history of neurodegenerative diseases. Patients who were APOE-ε4 carriers, married, or with history of depression, had earlier onset of AD, particularly when they were women. Coronary heart disease risk was marginally significant for later onset of AD. APOE haplotypes, marital status and history of depression were the most important factors to influence the age of AD onset in this sample. While midlife cerebrovascular risk factors may increase incidence of AD, they may lead to later dementia onset when present in late life.

  13. Clinical Evidence for the Earlier Initiation of Insulin Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The natural history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a relentless progression of β-cell failure and dysregulation of β-cell function with increasing metabolic derangement. Insulin remains the only glucose-lowering therapy that is efficacious throughout this continuum. However, the timing of introduction and the choice of insulin therapy remain contentious because of the heterogeneity of T2DM and the well-recognized behavioral and therapeutic challenges associated with this mode of therapy. Nevertheless, the early initiation of basal insulin has been shown to improve glycemic control and affect long-term outcomes in people with T2DM and is a treatment strategy supported by international guidelines as part of an individualized approach to chronic disease management. The rationale for early initiation of insulin is based on evidence demonstrating multifaceted benefits, including overcoming the glucotoxic effects of hyperglycemia, thereby facilitating “β-cell rest,” and preserving β-cell mass and function, while also improving insulin sensitivity. Independent of its effects on glycemic control, insulin possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that may help protect against endothelial dysfunction and damage resulting in vascular disease. Insulin therapy and the achievement of good glycemic control earlier in T2DM provide long-term protection to end organs via “metabolic memory” regardless of subsequent treatments and degree of glycemic control. This is evidenced from long-term observations continuing from trials such as the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study. As such, early initiation of insulin therapy may not only help to avoid the effects of prolonged glycemic burden, but may also positively alter the course of disease progression. PMID:23786228

  14. Metamorphosis Is Ancestral for Crown Euarthropods, and Evolved in the Cambrian or Earlier.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Joanna M

    2017-09-01

    Macroevolutionary developmental biology employs fossilized ontogenetic data and phylogenetic comparative methods to probe the evolution of development at ancient nodes. Despite the prevalence of ecologically differentiated larval forms in marine invertebrates, it has been frequently presumed that the ancestors of arthropods were direct developers, and that metamorphosis may not have evolved until the Ordovician or later. Using fossils and new dated phylogenies, I infer that metamorphosis was likely ancestral for crown arthropods, contradicting this assumption. Based on a published morphological dataset encompassing 217 exceptionally preserved fossil and 96 extant taxa, fossils were directly incorporated into both the topology and age estimates, as in "tip dating" analyses. Using data from post-embryonic fossils representing 25 species throughout stem and crown arthropod lineages (as well as most of the 96 extant taxa), characters for metamorphosis were assigned based on inferred ecological changes in development (e.g., changes in habitat and adaptive landscape). Under all phylogenetic hypotheses, metamorphosis was supported as most likely ancestral to both ecdysozoans and euarthropods. Care must be taken to account for potential drastic post-embryonic morphological changes in evolutionary analyses. Many stem group euarthrpods may have had ecologically differentiated larval stages that did not preserve in the fossil record. Moreover, a complex life cycle and planktonic ecology may have evolved in the Ediacaran or earlier, and may have typified the pre-Cambrian explosion "wormworld" prior to the origin of crown group euarthropods. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Selection for Earlier Flowering Crop Associated with Climatic Variations in the Sahel

    PubMed Central

    Vigouroux, Yves; Mariac, Cédric; De Mita, Stéphane; Pham, Jean-Louis; Gérard, Bruno; Kapran, Issoufou; Sagnard, Fabrice; Deu, Monique; Chantereau, Jacques; Ali, Abdou; Ndjeunga, Jupiter; Luong, Viviane; Thuillet, Anne-Céline; Saïdou, Abdoul-Aziz; Bezançon, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Climate changes will have an impact on food production and will require costly adaptive responses. Adapting to a changing environment will be particularly challenging in sub-Saharan Africa where climate change is expected to have a major impact. However, one important phenomenon that is often overlooked and is poorly documented is the ability of agro-systems to rapidly adapt to environmental variations. Such an adaptation could proceed by the adoption of new varieties or by the adaptation of varieties to a changing environment. In this study, we analyzed these two processes in one of the driest agro-ecosystems in Africa, the Sahel. We performed a detailed study in Niger where pearl millet is the main crop and covers 65% of the cultivated area. To assess how the agro-system is responding to recent recurrent drought, we analyzed samples of pearl millet landraces collected in the same villages in 1976 and 2003 throughout the entire cultivated area of Niger. We studied phenological and morphological differences in the 1976 and 2003 collections by comparing them over three cropping seasons in a common garden experiment. We found no major changes in the main cultivated varieties or in their genetic diversity. However, we observed a significant shift in adaptive traits. Compared to the 1976 samples, samples collected in 2003 displayed a shorter lifecycle, and a reduction in plant and spike size. We also found that an early flowering allele at the PHYC locus increased in frequency between 1976 and 2003. The increase exceeded the effect of drift and sampling, suggesting a direct effect of selection for earliness on this gene. We conclude that recurrent drought can lead to selection for earlier flowering in a major Sahelian crop. Surprisingly, these results suggest that diffusion of crop varieties is not the main driver of short term adaptation to climatic variation. PMID:21573243

  16. Earlier disability of the patients followed in Multiple Sclerosis centers compared to outpatients.

    PubMed

    Debouverie, M; Laforest, L; Van Ganse, E; Guillemin, F

    2009-02-01

    The currently published works regarding the multiple sclerosis (MS) natural history report data were collected most often on population of patients recruited in MS centers. The aim was to compare the natural history of a population of patients followed in a MS centre (MSC) with patients followed outside a MS centre (NMSC). Cases were identified through the LORSEP cohort, a network of neurologists (private ambulatory practice, hospitals, and MS centers) in France. A total of 3602 patients had been analyzed: 1036 MSC patients and 2566 NMSC patients. No difference was observed regarding gender and initial symptoms. Conversely, MSC patients were younger at MS onset and were more likely to have a primary progressive initial form. Median times (years) to the EDSS scores of 3, 4, and 6 were 5.8 (5.0-6.8), 8.4 (7.9-9.0), 16.0 (14.8-18.1) in the MSC group, respectively, whereas corresponding times were 8.4 (7.9-9.0), 12.3 (11.4-13.4), 19.1 (18.0-20.2) in the NMSC group. These differences according to the type of MS supervision were statistically significant for EDSS3 (P < 0.0001), EDSS4 (P < 0.0001), and EDSS6 (P = 0.01), respectively. These findings were confirmed in Cox multivariate models. The patients followed in a MS centre had earlier disability than patients managed otherwise. Analyses exclusively conducted in patients with MS supervised in specialized centers may falsely misestimate the times needed to reach major disability landmarks. Before using registries to study the natural history of MS, efforts should be performed to verify in how far data are exhaustive and to understand the local health care system.

  17. Phylogenomic analysis of Copepoda (Arthropoda, Crustacea) reveals unexpected similarities with earlier proposed morphological phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Eyun, Seong-Il

    2017-01-19

    Copepods play a critical role in marine ecosystems but have been poorly investigated in phylogenetic studies. Morphological evidence supports the monophyly of copepods, whereas interordinal relationships continue to be debated. In particular, the phylogenetic position of the order Harpacticoida is still ambiguous and inconsistent among studies. Until now, a small number of molecular studies have been done using only a limited number or even partial genes and thus there is so far no consensus at the order-level. This study attempted to resolve phylogenetic relationships among and within four major copepod orders including Harpacticoida and the phylogenetic position of Copepoda among five other crustacean groups (Anostraca, Cladocera, Sessilia, Amphipoda, and Decapoda) using 24 nuclear protein-coding genes. Phylogenomics has confirmed the monophyly of Copepoda and Podoplea. However, this study reveals surprising differences with the majority of the copepod phylogenies and unexpected similarities with postembryonic characters and earlier proposed morphological phylogenies; More precisely, Cyclopoida is more closely related to Siphonostomatoida than to Harpacticoida which is likely the most basally-branching group of Podoplea. Divergence time estimation suggests that the origin of Harpacticoida can be traced back to the Devonian, corresponding well with recently discovered fossil evidence. Copepoda has a close affinity to the clade of Malacostraca and Thecostraca but not to Branchiopoda. This result supports the hypothesis of the newly proposed clades, Communostraca, Multicrustacea, and Allotriocarida but further challenges the validity of Hexanauplia and Vericrustacea. The first phylogenomic study of Copepoda provides new insights into taxonomic relationships and represents a valuable resource that improves our understanding of copepod evolution and their wide range of ecological adaptations.

  18. Chemistry, physiology and neuropsychology of schizophrenia: towards an earlier diagnosis of schizophrenia I.

    PubMed

    Kornhuber, H H

    1983-01-01

    Data supporting the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia are presented. The glutamate hypothesis is linked to the dopamine hypothesis by the fact that dopamine synapses inhibit the release of glutamate in the striate and mesolimbic system. The glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia may open a way to find better drugs for treatment. The concept of schizophrenia I is described. It consists of "negative symptoms" such as disconcentration or reduction of energy. Schizophrenia I precedes and follows schizophrenia II with "positive symptoms," e.g. hallucinations and delusions. Schizophrenia I so far cannot be diagnosed as schizophrenia unless schizophrenia II appears. Chemical, physiological or neuropsychological methods for the diagnosis of schizophrenia I would render an earlier treatment of schizophrenia possible and thus make social and occupational rehabilitation more efficient. An objective diagnosis of schizophrenia I may also elucidate the mode of genetic transmission of schizophrenia. Several neuropsychological methods distinguish schizophrenic patients as a group from normals. Some of them are based on a specific disturbance of long term concentration. The EEG also distinguishes schizophrenics from normals when analyzed during voluntary movement. For schizophrenics it takes more effort to initiate a voluntary movement, and there are several features of the EEG correlated to this. Moreover, the longer motor reaction time of schizophrenics is paralleled by a longer duration of the Bereitschaftspotential in schizophrenia. Furthermore, there is a difference in the theta rhythm between schizophrenic patients and normals in a task which requires concentration. Some of the children of schizophrenic parents show a disturbance of concentration in both reaction time tasks and the d 2 test.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Can Biannual Ultrasound Surveillance Detect Smaller Second Cancers or Detect Cancers Earlier in Patients with Breast Cancer History?

    PubMed

    You, Jai Kyung; Song, Mi Kyung; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Youk, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Park, Vivian Youngjean; Park, Seho; Kim, Seung Il; Park, Byeong-Woo

    2018-07-01

    The aim of the work described here was to evaluate whether surveillance with biannual ultrasound (US) plus annual mammography (biannual group) for women with a history of breast cancer surgery results in earlier detection or in the detection of smaller second cancers than annual US plus mammography (annual group). Additionally, we compared the prevalence of distant metastases or palpable second cancers between the biannual and annual groups. The institutional review board of our institution approved this retrospective study, and patient consent was waived. Between January 2011 and December 2012, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical and imaging follow-up of 3023 patients with mammographic and US surveillance after breast cancer surgery to assess second cancers detected by local surveillance (locoregional recurrence, contralateral breast cancer or distant metastasis). The biannual and annual groups were divided with respect to the mean surveillance interval and compared with respect to clinicopathologic findings. Multivariable logistic regression with propensity score methods was used to examine the effect of the type of surveillance on outcomes. As for the size of the second cancer, no difference was seen between the biannual and annual groups (12.8 ± 6.6 mm vs. 14.1 ± 7.1 mm, p = 0.461); neither was there a significant difference between the groups in the presence of symptoms at the time of diagnosis of the second cancer (17.0% [8/47] vs. 10% [2/20], p = 0.711). Regardless of detection by local surveillance, the prevalence of distant metastases did not differ between the two groups (1.1% [27/2370] vs. 1.0% [7/653], p = 0.88) on univariate or multivariate analysis. The results of our retrospective study indicate that second cancers detected by biannual US surveillance in patients with a history of breast cancer surgery are not smaller and do not occur earlier than those detected by annual US surveillance. However, a randomized

  20. Chemical Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prombain, Dorothy R.; And Others

    This science sourcebook was written for intermediate grade teachers to provide guidance in teaching a specially developed unit on chemical indicators. Directions and suggestions for guiding student science activities are given. Some of the activities concern soil testing, crystals, and household powders such as sugar and salt. A list of necessary…

  1. Prevalence, incidence, indication, and choice of antidepressants in patients with and without chronic kidney disease: a matched cohort study in UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

    PubMed

    Iwagami, Masao; Tomlinson, Laurie A; Mansfield, Kathryn E; McDonald, Helen I; Smeeth, Liam; Nitsch, Dorothea

    2017-07-01

    People with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased prevalence of depression, anxiety, and neuropathic pain. We examined prevalence, incidence, indication for, and choice of antidepressants among patients with and without CKD. Using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we identified patients with CKD (two measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73m 2 for ≥3 months) between April 2004 and March 2014. We compared those with CKD to a general population cohort without CKD (matched on age, sex, general practice, and calendar time [index date]). We identified any antidepressant prescribing in the six months prior to index date (prevalence), the first prescription after index date among non-prevalent users (incidence), and recorded diagnoses (indication). We compared antidepressant choice between patients with and without CKD among patients with a diagnosis of depression. There were 242 349 matched patients (median age 76 [interquartile range 70-82], male 39.3%) with and without CKD. Prevalence of antidepressant prescribing was 16.3 and 11.9%, and incidence was 57.2 and 42.4/1000 person-years, in patients with and without CKD, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, CKD remained associated with higher prevalence and incidence of antidepressant prescription. Regardless of CKD status, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were predominantly prescribed for depression or anxiety, while tricyclic antidepressants were prescribed for neuropathic pain or other reasons. Antidepressant choice was similar in depressed patients with and without CKD. The rate of antidepressant prescribing was nearly one and a half times higher among people with CKD than in the general population. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Left preference for sport tasks does not necessarily indicate left-handedness: sport-specific lateral preferences, relationship with handedness and implications for laterality research in behavioural sciences.

    PubMed

    Loffing, Florian; Sölter, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In the elite domain of interactive sports, athletes who demonstrate a left preference (e.g., holding a weapon with the left hand in fencing or boxing in a 'southpaw' stance) seem overrepresented. Such excess indicates a performance advantage and was also interpreted as evidence in favour of frequency-dependent selection mechanisms to explain the maintenance of left-handedness in humans. To test for an overrepresentation, the incidence of athletes' lateral preferences is typically compared with an expected ratio of left- to right-handedness in the normal population. However, the normal population reference values did not always relate to the sport-specific tasks of interest, which may limit the validity of reports of an excess of 'left-oriented' athletes. Here we sought to determine lateral preferences for various sport-specific tasks (e.g., baseball batting, boxing) in the normal population and to examine the relationship between these preferences and handedness. To this end, we asked 903 participants to indicate their lateral preferences for sport-specific and common tasks using a paper-based questionnaire. Lateral preferences varied considerably across the different sport tasks and we found high variation in the relationship between those preferences and handedness. In contrast to unimanual tasks (e.g., fencing or throwing), for bimanually controlled actions such as baseball batting, shooting in ice hockey or boxing the incidence of left preferences was considerably higher than expected from the proportion of left-handedness in the normal population and the relationship with handedness was relatively low. We conclude that (i) task-specific reference values are mandatory for reliably testing for an excess of athletes with a left preference, (ii) the term 'handedness' should be more cautiously used within the context of sport-related laterality research and (iii) observation of lateral preferences in sports may be of limited suitability for the verification of

  3. Left Preference for Sport Tasks Does Not Necessarily Indicate Left-Handedness: Sport-Specific Lateral Preferences, Relationship with Handedness and Implications for Laterality Research in Behavioural Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Loffing, Florian; Sölter, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In the elite domain of interactive sports, athletes who demonstrate a left preference (e.g., holding a weapon with the left hand in fencing or boxing in a ‘southpaw’ stance) seem overrepresented. Such excess indicates a performance advantage and was also interpreted as evidence in favour of frequency-dependent selection mechanisms to explain the maintenance of left-handedness in humans. To test for an overrepresentation, the incidence of athletes' lateral preferences is typically compared with an expected ratio of left- to right-handedness in the normal population. However, the normal population reference values did not always relate to the sport-specific tasks of interest, which may limit the validity of reports of an excess of ‘left-oriented’ athletes. Here we sought to determine lateral preferences for various sport-specific tasks (e.g., baseball batting, boxing) in the normal population and to examine the relationship between these preferences and handedness. To this end, we asked 903 participants to indicate their lateral preferences for sport-specific and common tasks using a paper-based questionnaire. Lateral preferences varied considerably across the different sport tasks and we found high variation in the relationship between those preferences and handedness. In contrast to unimanual tasks (e.g., fencing or throwing), for bimanually controlled actions such as baseball batting, shooting in ice hockey or boxing the incidence of left preferences was considerably higher than expected from the proportion of left-handedness in the normal population and the relationship with handedness was relatively low. We conclude that (i) task-specific reference values are mandatory for reliably testing for an excess of athletes with a left preference, (ii) the term ‘handedness’ should be more cautiously used within the context of sport-related laterality research and (iii) observation of lateral preferences in sports may be of limited suitability for the

  4. Earlier Endpoints Are Required for Hemorrhagic Shock Trials among Severely Injured Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Erin E.; Holcomb, John B.; Wade, Charles E.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Tilley, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Choosing the appropriate endpoint for a trauma hemorrhage control trial can determine the likelihood of its success. Recent Phase 3 trials and observational studies have used 24-hour and/or 30-day all-cause mortality as the primary endpoint and some have not used exception from informed consent (EFIC), resulting in multiple failed trials. Five recent high-quality prospective studies among 4,064 hemorrhaging trauma patients provide new evidence to support earlier primary endpoints. Methods The goal of this project was to determine the optimal endpoint for hemorrhage control trials using existing literature and new analyses of previously published data. Results Recent studies among bleeding trauma patients show that hemorrhagic deaths occur rapidly, at a high rate, and in a consistent pattern. Early preventable deaths among trauma patients are largely due to hemorrhage and the median time to hemorrhagic death from admission is 2.0-2.6 hours. Approximately 85% of hemorrhagic deaths occur within 6 hours. The hourly mortality rate due to traumatic injury decreases rapidly after enrollment from 4.6% per hour at 1 hour post-enrollment to 1% per hour at 6 hours to <0.1% per hour by 9 hours and thereafter. Early primary endpoints (within 6 hours) have critically important benefits for hemorrhage control trials, including being congruent with the median time to hemorrhagic death, biologic plausibility, and enabling the use of all-cause mortality, which is definitive and objective. Conclusions Primary endpoints should be congruent with the timing of the disease process. Therefore, if a resuscitation/hemorrhage control intervention is under study, a primary endpoint of all-cause mortality evaluated within the first 6 hours is appropriate. Before choosing the timing of the primary endpoint for a large multicenter trial, we recommend performing a Phase 2 trial under EFIC to better understand the effects of the hemorrhage control intervention and distribution of time

  5. Childhood hair product use and earlier age at menarche in a racially diverse study population: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    James-Todd, Tamarra; Terry, Mary Beth; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Deierlein, Andrea; Senie, Ruby

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that hair products containing endocrine disrupting chemicals could alter puberty. We evaluated the association between childhood hair product use and age at menarche in a racially diverse study population. We recruited 300 African-American, African-Caribbean, Hispanic, and white women from the New York City metropolitan area who were between 18-77 years of age. Data were collected retrospectively on hair oil, lotion, leave-in conditioner, perm, and other types of hair products used before age 13. Recalled age at menarche ranged from 8 to 19 years. We used multivariable binomial regression to evaluate the association between hair product use and age at menarche (<12 vs. ≥12), adjusting for potential confounders. African-Americans were more likely to use hair products and reached menarche earlier than other racial/ethnic groups. Women reporting childhood hair oil use had a risk ratio of 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.9) for earlier menarche, adjusting for race/ethnicity and year of birth. Hair perm users had an increased risk for earlier menarche (adjusted risk ratio = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8). Other types of hair products assessed in this study were not associated with earlier menarche. Childhood hair oil and perm use were associated with earlier menarche. If replicated, these results suggest that hair product use may be important to measure in evaluating earlier age at menarche. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An earlier age of breast cancer diagnosis related to more frequent use of antiperspirants/deodorants and underarm shaving.

    PubMed

    McGrath, K G

    2003-12-01

    Breast cancer incidence suggests a lifestyle cause. A lifestyle factor used near the breast is the application of antiperspirants/deodorants accompanied by axillary shaving. A previous study did not support a link with breast cancer. If these habits have a role in breast cancer development, women using antiperspirants/deodorants and shaving their underarms frequently would be expected to have an earlier age of diagnosis than those doing so less often. An earlier age of diagnosis would also be expected in those starting to use deodorants and shaving at an earlier age. This is the first study to investigate the intensity of underarm exposure in a cohort of breast cancer survivors. Four hundred and thirty-seven females diagnosed with breast cancer were surveyed. Once grouped by their frequency of underarm hygiene habits, the mean age of diagnosis was the primary end point. Secondary end points included the overall frequency of these habits, and potential usage group confounding variables were evaluated. All statistical tests were two-sided. Frequency and earlier onset of antiperspirant/deodorant usage with underarm shaving were associated with an earlier age of breast cancer diagnosis. Combined habits are likely for this earlier age of diagnosis. In conclusion, underarm shaving with antiperspirant/deodorant use may play a role in breast cancer. It is not clear which of these components are involved. Reviewed literature insinuates absorption of aluminium salts facilitated by dermal barrier disruption. Case-controlled investigations are needed before alternative underarm hygiene habits are suggested.

  7. Earlier detection of breast cancer by surveillance of women at familial risk.

    PubMed

    Tilanus-Linthorst, M M; Bartels, C C; Obdeijn, A I; Oudkerk, M

    2000-03-01

    A positive family history increases the risk for breast cancer which oft en occurs at a much younger age than in the general population. We stud ied whether surveillance of these women resulted in the detection of bre ast cancer in an earlier stage than in symptomatic patients with a famil y history. Between January 1994 and April 1998, 294 women with 15-25% r isk (moderate), mean age:43.3 (22-75) years, were screened with a yearly physical examination and mammography from 5 years before the youngest ag e of onset in the family and 384 women with >25% risk (high) for breast cancer, mean age: 42.9 (20-74) years were screened with a physical examination every 6 months and yearly mammography. From September 1995 breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was also carried out for 109 high risk women where mammography showed over 50% density. 26 breast cancers detected under surveillance were significantly more often found in an early T1N0 stage than the 24 breast cancers in patients with a family history referred in that period because of symptoms: 81 versus 46% (P=0.018). Patients under surveillance were also less frequently node-positive than the symptomatic group: 19 versus 42% (P=0.12). 20 patients with a family history referred by our national screening programme in that period had 21 breast cancers detected, 81% in stage T1N0 and 5% node-positive, which was comparable to the results in our national screening programme T1N0 66%, N+ 24% resulting in a 30% reduction in mortality. The incidence in women under surveillance was 10.1 per 1000 in the 'high' risk group and 13.3 per 1000 in the 'moderate' risk group. Expected incidence in an average risk population aged 40-50 years is 1.5, expected if the group consisted of only gene carriers 15 per 1000. 23% of the breast cancers in the surveillance group were detected at physical examination, but occult at mammography. 38% were detected at mammography and clinically occult. Breast MRI (in the subgroup) detected 3 occult

  8. Recent Perplexing Behavior in Solar Activity Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopresto, James C.

    1997-05-01

    Calcium K and Hα and SOHO He II UV plage and sunspot ara have been monitored using images on the INTERNET since November of 1992. The purpose of the project is to determine the degree of correlation between changing plage area and solar irradiance changes (also obtained via the INTERNET). Also the project provides a low cost process to involve undergraduates in astronomy research. When using weighted weekly averages for both spot Hα plage pixel counts, we see the expected decline from the last maximum. The activity continues to decline, or at best, has flattened out over the past several months. In contrast, the K-line plage pixel count from both Big Bear and Sacramento Peak show an upswing since mid-1995 or earlier. The k2 measurments from both Kitt Peak and Sacramento Peak are in general agreement with the spot and Hα behavior, indicating wer are in, or barely passed minimum. Images high in the chromosphere, detailing the magnetic network, may be more senstive to smaller field changes. This might be a partial explanation for the earlier upswing in K line and He 304 activity, which are receiving radiation near or at the top of the chromosphere.

  9. The evaluation of clinical and cost outcomes associated with earlier initiation of insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Smolen, Harry J; Murphy, Daniel R; Gahn, James C; Yu, Xueting; Curtis, Bradley H

    2014-09-01

    The treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) follows a stepwise progression. As a treatment loses its effectiveness, it is typically replaced with a more complex and frequently more costly treatment. Eventually this progression leads to the use of basal insulin typically with concomitant treatments (e.g., metformin, a GLP-1 RA [glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist], a TZD [thiazolidinedione] or a DPP-4i [dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor]) and, ultimately, to basal-bolus insulin in some forms. As the cost of oral antidiabetics (OADs) and noninsulin injectables have approached, and in some cases exceeded, the cost of insulin, we reexamined the placement of insulin in T2DM treatment progression. Our hypothesis was that earlier use of insulin produces clinical and cost benefits due to its superior efficacy and treatment scalability at an acceptable cost when considered over a 5-year period. To (a) estimate clinical and payer cost outcomes of initiating insulin treatment for patients with T2DM earlier in their treatment progression and (b) estimate clinical and payer cost outcomes resulting from delays in escalating treatment for T2DM when indicated by patient hemoglobin A1c levels. We developed a Monte Carlo microsimulation model to estimate patients reaching target A1c, diabetes-related complications, mortality, and associated costs under various treatment strategies for newly diagnosed patients with T2DM. Treatment efficacies were modeled from results of randomized clinical trials, including the time and rate of A1c drift. A typical treatment progression was selected based on the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes guidelines as the standard of care (SOC). Two treatment approaches were evaluated: two-stage insulin (basal plus antidiabetics followed by biphasic plus metformin) and single-stage insulin (biphasic plus metformin). For each approach, we analyzed multiple strategies. For each analysis

  10. From the study of fire effects on individual soil properties to the development of soil quality indices. 1. The pioneer research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Zornoza, Raúl

    2013-04-01

    Although forest fires must be considered as a natural factor in Mediterranean ecosystems, the modification of its natural regime during last five decades has thansformed them in an environmental problem. In the Valencia region (E Spain) 1994 was the worst year in the history affecting more than 120,000 hectares. I started my Ph.D that year by studying the effects of fires in soil properties. The availability to be able to analyse a great set of different types of soil properties in the laboratories of University of Alicante allowed me to explore how fires could affect physical, chemical and micobiological soil properties. After years studying different soil properties, finding that several factors are involved, including: fire intensity and severity, vegetation, soil type, climate conditions, etc. (Mataix-Solera and Doerr, 2004; Mataix-Solera et al., 2008, 2011) my research as Ph-D supervisor has been focussed to investigate more in depth some selected properties, such as aggregate stability and water repellency (Arcenegui et al., 2007, 2008). But one of the main problems in the studies conducted with samples affected by wildfires is that for the evaluation of the fire impact in the soil it is necessary to have control (unburned) soil samples from a similar non-affected near area. The existing spatial variability under field conditions does not allow having comparable samples in some acses to develop a correct assessment. With this idea in mind one of my Ph.D researcher (R. Zornoza) dedicated his thesis to develope soil quality indices capable to assess the impact of soil perturbations without comparing groups of samples, but evaluating the equilibrium among different soil properties within each soil sample (Zornoza et al., 2007, 2008). Key words: wildfire, Mediterranean soils, soil degradation, wàter repellency, aggregate stability References: Arcenegui, V., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Zornoza, R., Mayoral, A.M., Morales, J., 2007. Factors controlling the

  11. Earlier versus later continuous Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) for stable low-birth-weight infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nagai, S; Andrianarimanana, D; Rabesandratana, N; Yonemoto, N; Nakayama, T; Mori, R

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of earlier continuous Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) for relatively stable low-birth-weight (LBW) infants in a resource-limited country. A randomized controlled trial was performed in LBW infants at a referral hospital in Madagascar. Earlier continuous KMC (intervention) was begun as soon as possible, within 24 h postbirth, and later continuous KMC (control: conventional care) was begun after complete stabilization (generally after 24 h postbirth). Main outcome measure was mortality during the first 28 days postbirth. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00531492. A total of 73 infants (intervention 37, control 36) were included. Earlier continuous KMC had higher but no statistically different mortality in the first 28 days postbirth (1 vs. 2; risk ratio, 1.95; 95% CIs, 0.18-20.53; p = 1.00). There were no differences in incidence of morbidities. Body weight loss from birth to 24 h postbirth was significantly less in earlier KMC infants compared with later KMC infants. (-34.81 g vs. -73.97 g; mean difference, 39.16 g; 95% CIs, 10.30-68.03; p = 0.01; adjusted p = 0.02). Adverse events and duration of hospitalization were not different between the two groups. Further evaluations of earlier continuous KMC including measurement of KMC dose, are needed in resource-limited countries.

  12. Earlier school start times are associated with higher rates of behavioral problems in elementary schools.

    PubMed

    Keller, Peggy S; Gilbert, Lauren R; Haak, Eric A; Bi, Shuang; Smith, Olivia A

    2017-04-01

    Early school start times may curtail children's sleep and inadvertently promote sleep restriction. The current study examines the potential implications for early school start times for behavioral problems in public elementary schools (student ages 5-12 years) in Kentucky. School start times were obtained from school Web sites or by calling school offices; behavioral and disciplinary problems, along with demographic information about schools, were obtained from the Kentucky Department of Education. Estimated associations controlled for teacher/student ratio, racial composition, school rank, enrollment, and Appalachian location. Associations between early school start time and greater behavioral problems (harassment, in-school removals, suspensions, and expulsions) were observed, although some of these associations were found only for schools serving the non-Appalachian region. Findings support the growing body of research showing that early school start times may contribute to student problems, and extend this research through a large-scale examination of elementary schools, behavioral outcomes, and potential moderators of risk. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermal Control Materials on MISSE-5 with Comparison to Earlier Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria; Zwiener, James M.; Pippin, Gary

    2007-01-01

    A variety of thermal control materials were flown on the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE)-5. Several types of beta cloth, as used in multi-layer insulation blankets, were flown, including samples from the same batch as used on the International Space Station. Two candidate sunshade materials for the James Webb Space Telescope were also exposed on MISSE-5. The white thermal control coating AZ93 was applied to Kapton instead of aluminum; this sample maintained good solar absorptance and did not indicate any significant level of contamination to the MISSE-5 experiment. Marker coatings maintained their color. Thermo-optical properties are discussed, along with comparable data from MISSE-2 and the Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA) - I experiments.

  14. Dementia incidence and mortality in middle-income countries, and associations with indicators of cognitive reserve: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Martin; Acosta, Daisy; Ferri, Cleusa P; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Rodriguez, Juan J Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph D; Dewey, Michael E; Acosta, Isaac; Jotheeswaran, Amuthavalli T; Liu, Zhaorui

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Results of the few cohort studies from countries with low incomes or middle incomes suggest a lower incidence of dementia than in high-income countries. We assessed incidence of dementia according to criteria from the 10/66 Dementia Research Group and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV, the effect of dementia at baseline on mortality, and the independent effects of age, sex, socioeconomic position, and indicators of cognitive reserve. Methods We did a population-based cohort study of all people aged 65 years and older living in urban sites in Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Venezuela, and rural and urban sites in Peru, Mexico, and China, with ascertainment of incident 10/66 and DSM-IV dementia 3–5 years after cohort inception. We used questionnaires to obtain information about age in years, sex, educational level, literacy, occupational attainment, and number of household assets. We obtained information about mortality from all sites. For participants who had died, we interviewed a friend or relative to ascertain the likelihood that they had dementia before death. Findings 12 887 participants were interviewed at baseline. 11 718 were free of dementia, of whom 8137 (69%) were reinterviewed, contributing 34 718 person-years of follow-up. Incidence for 10/66 dementia varied between 18·2 and 30·4 per 1000 person-years, and were 1·4–2·7 times higher than were those for DSM-IV dementia (9·9–15·7 per 1000 person-years). Mortality hazards were 1·56–5·69 times higher in individuals with dementia at baseline than in those who were dementia-free. Informant reports suggested a high incidence of dementia before death; overall incidence might be 4–19% higher if these data were included. 10/66 dementia incidence was independently associated with increased age (HR 1·67; 95% CI 1·56–1·79), female sex (0·72; 0·61–0·84), and low education (0·89; 0·81–0·97), but not with occupational attainment (1

  15. Marijuana and Cannabinoids in ESRD and Earlier Stages of CKD.

    PubMed

    Rein, Joshua L; Wyatt, Christina M

    2018-02-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used recreational drug in the United States, and legal recreational and medicinal use has gained public acceptance during the last decade. Twenty-nine US states have established medical marijuana programs, 8 of which have also legalized recreational marijuana, and Canada is expected to legalize recreational marijuana in 2018. Advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are chronic conditions with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Patients experience substantial symptom burden that is frequently undertreated due to adverse medication side effects. This article reviews the available evidence for the use of medical marijuana to manage chronic pain, nausea/vomiting, anorexia/cachexia, and pruritus, all of which are frequently reported by patients with advanced CKD or ESRD. Potential adverse health effects of medical and recreational marijuana use are also discussed. Regardless of personal, social, and political beliefs, marijuana use is becoming mainstream, and nephrologists should be aware of the potential impact on our patient population. Further research is warranted to investigate the renal endocannabinoid system, the impact of marijuana use on kidney disease outcomes, and the risks and benefits of medical marijuana use on symptoms of advanced CKD and ESRD. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Recognizing an individual face: 3D shape contributes earlier than 2D surface reflectance information.

    PubMed

    Caharel, Stéphanie; Jiang, Fang; Blanz, Volker; Rossion, Bruno

    2009-10-01

    The human brain recognizes faces by means of two main diagnostic sources of information: three-dimensional (3D) shape and two-dimensional (2D) surface reflectance. Here we used event-related potentials (ERPs) in a face adaptation paradigm to examine the time-course of processing for these two types of information. With a 3D morphable model, we generated pairs of faces that were either identical, varied in 3D shape only, in 2D surface reflectance only, or in both. Sixteen human observers discriminated individual faces in these 4 types of pairs, in which a first (adapting) face was followed shortly by a second (test) face. Behaviorally, observers were as accurate and as fast for discriminating individual faces based on either 3D shape or 2D surface reflectance alone, but were faster when both sources of information were present. As early as the face-sensitive N170 component (approximately 160 ms following the test face), there was larger amplitude for changes in 3D shape relative to the repetition of the same face, especially over the right occipito-temporal electrodes. However, changes in 2D reflectance between the adapter and target face did not increase the N170 amplitude. At about 250 ms, both 3D shape and 2D reflectance contributed equally, and the largest difference in amplitude compared to the repetition of the same face was found when both 3D shape and 2D reflectance were combined, in line with observers' behavior. These observations indicate that evidence to recognize individual faces accumulate faster in the right hemisphere human visual cortex from diagnostic 3D shape information than from 2D surface reflectance information.

  17. Indice Bibliografico de Investigaciones Pedagogicas 1948-1968. Estudio y Tesis. Volumen I. (Bibliographic Index of Pedagogical Research, 1948-1968. Studies and Theses. Volume I.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico Univ., Rio Piedras.

    This bibliography presents a comprehensive index of research from 1948 to 1968 on topics relating to Puerto Ricans and education. Included are studies from Puerto Rican, U.S. and European universities and research centers. The bibliography, which is divided into three separate books, is organized by subject: Part 1 cites literature on:…

  18. Diminishing Funding and Rising Expectations: Trends and Challenges for Public Research Universities. A Companion to Science and Engineering Indicators 2012. NSB-12-45

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Research universities, both public and private alike, are the leading producers of science and engineering (S&E) bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. They are contributors to economic development at the local, state, and national levels, performing over half of the Nation's total basic research in 2009, and they educate and train our…

  19. Sentinel plant monitoring of Phytophthora ramorum at a research nursery over a six-year-period indicates limited aerial pathogen spread

    Treesearch

    Tomas Pastalka; Karen Suslow; Wolfgang Schweigkofler

    2017-01-01

    The National Ornamentals Research Site at Dominican University of California (NORS-DUC) is a research nursery that was established in 2009 to study invasive plant pathogens like Phytophthora ramorum, causal agent of sudden oak death and ramorum blight. In order to fulfill federal and state regulations, the possible...

  20. Return of hunger following a relatively high carbohydrate breakfast is associated with earlier recorded glucose peak and nadir

    PubMed Central

    Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Morrison, Shannon A.; Goree, Laura Lee T.; Ellis, Amy C.; Casazza, Krista; Desmond, Renee; Gower, Barbara A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that a breakfast meal with high carbohydrate/ low fat results in an earlier increase in postprandial glucose and insulin, a greater decrease below baseline in postprandial glucose, and an earlier return of appetite, compared to a low carbohydrate/high fat meal. Design Overweight but otherwise healthy adults (n=64) were maintained on one of two eucaloric diets: high carbohydrate/low fat (HC/LF; 55:27:18% kcals from carbohydrate: fat: protein) versus low carbohydrate/high fat (LC/HF; 43:39:18% kcals from carbohydrate: fat: protein). After 4 weeks of acclimation to the diets, participants underwent a meal test during which circulating glucose and insulin and self-reported hunger and fullness, were measured before and after consumption of breakfast from their assigned diets. Results The LC/HF meal resulted in a later time at the highest and lowest recorded glucose, higher glucose concentrations at 3 and 4 hours post-meal, and lower insulin incremental area under the curve. Participants consuming the LC/HF meal reported lower appetite 3 and 4 hours following the meal, a response that was associated with the timing of the highest and lowest recorded glucose. Conclusions Modest increases in meal carbohydrate content at the expense of fat content may facilitate weight gain over the long-term by contributing to an earlier rise and fall of postprandial glucose concentrations and an earlier return of appetite. PMID:24819342

  1. 37 CFR 1.78 - Claiming benefit of earlier filing date and cross-references to other applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claiming benefit of earlier filing date and cross-references to other applications. 1.78 Section 1.78 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN...

  2. 37 CFR 1.78 - Claiming benefit of earlier filing date and cross-references to other applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claiming benefit of earlier filing date and cross-references to other applications. 1.78 Section 1.78 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN...

  3. Motion of Caribbean Plate during last 7 million years and implications for earlier Cenozoic movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, Lynn R.; McCann, William R.; Kafka, Alan L.

    1982-12-01

    The direction and rate of movement of the Caribbean plate with respect to North America are determined from the slip vectors of shallow earthquakes and from the configuration of downgoing seismic zones in the Greater and Lesser Antilles. A calibration of the relative plate motion for the northeastern Caribbean using data from other subduction zones indicates an average rate of 3.7±0.5 cm/yr for the past 7 million years (Ma). The direction of plate motion inferred from focal mechanisms (ENE) is nearly the same as that deduced from the configuration of downgoing seismic zones going around the major bend in the arc. With respect to North America, the Caribbean plate is moving at an angular velocity of 0.36°/Ma about a center of rotation near 66°N, 132°W. Vector addition using those data and that for the relative motion of North and South America indicates that the Caribbean is moving at an angular velocity of 0.47°/Ma about a center of rotation near 60°N, 88°W with respect to South America. The presence of intermediate-depth earthquakes beneath Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands is ascribed to the curvature of the plate boundary and a component of underthrusting that has been going on for at least the past 7 Ma and is likely occurring today. The alternative hypothesis that earthquakes beneath those areas are occurring in materials that were subducted during the Eocene, the last major episode of magmatism, is not tenable from thermal considerations. The lack of recent magmatism in the eastern Greater Antilles is ascribed to the relatively small component of underthrusting. The 2 cm/yr rate of seafloor creation along the mid-Cayman spreading center for the past 2.4 Ma does not appear to reflect the total Caribbean-North American plate motion while the 4 cm/yr spreading rate from 6.0 to 2.4 Ma does. Between the mid-Cayman spreading center and eastern Guatemala, the northern boundary of the Caribbean plate is narrow and follows the southern margin of the Cayman

  4. Traumatic brain injury history is associated with an earlier age of dementia onset in autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Schaffert, Jeff; LoBue, Christian; White, Charles L; Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Didehbani, Nyaz; Lacritz, Laura; Rossetti, Heidi; Dieppa, Marisara; Hart, John; Cullum, C Munro

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate whether a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) with reported loss of consciousness (LOC) is a risk factor for earlier onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in an autopsy-confirmed sample. Data from 2,133 participants with autopsy-confirmed AD (i.e., at least Braak neurofibrillary tangle stages III to VI and CERAD neuritic plaque score moderate to frequent) were obtained from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC). Participants were categorized by presence/absence of self-reported remote (i.e., >1 year prior to their first Alzheimer's Disease Center visit) history of TBI with LOC (TBI+ vs. TBI-). Analyses of Covariance (ANCOVA) controlling for sex, education, and race compared groups on clinician-estimated age of symptom onset and age of diagnosis. Average age of onset was 2.34 years earlier (p = .01) for the TBI+ group (n = 194) versus the TBI- group (n = 1900). Dementia was diagnosed on average 2.83 years earlier (p = .002) in the TBI+ group (n = 197) versus the TBI- group (n = 1936). Using more stringent neuropathological criteria (i.e., Braak stages V-VI and CERAD frequent), both age of AD onset and diagnosis were 3.6 years earlier in the TBI+ group (both p's < .001). History of TBI with reported LOC appears to be a risk factor for earlier AD onset. This is the first study to use autopsy-confirmed cases, supporting previous investigations that used clinical criteria for the diagnosis of AD. Further investigation as to possible underlying mechanisms of association is needed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1984-01-01

    This potpourri surveys research on various topics: neurologically based curricula, midafternoon slumps in student attention, accounting for contexts in research, feelings of powerlessness among students and teachers, further equity implications of computers in schools, misreporting of research findings, and accounting for media transfer in…

  6. Quantifying Faculty Productivity in Japan: Development and Application of the Achievement-Motivated Key Performance Indicator. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.8.16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aida, Misako; Watanabe, Satoshi P.

    2016-01-01

    Universities throughout the world are trending toward more performance based methods to capture their strengths, weaknesses and productivity. Hiroshima University has developed an integrated objective measure for quantifying multifaceted faculty activities, namely the "Achievement-Motivated Key Performance Indicator" (A-KPI), in order to…

  7. Taking Targets to Task Revisited: How Indicators of Progress on Access to Education can Mislead. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Keith M.

    2011-01-01

    "Education for All" (EFA) identifies goals and targets and translates these into indicators which are used to evaluate progress and influence flows of external financing. The search for evidence based policy depends on measures of performance that can link cause and effect and that represent real gains in progress towards desired…

  8. Indicators of Performance. Papers Presented at the Annual Conference of the Society for Research into Higher Education (15th, Brighton, England, December 19-20, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billing, David, Ed.

    Thirty-two papers on performance indicators are presented based on the conference themes of performance of the higher education system at the national level, institutional evaluation, and assessment of staff and students. Papers and authors include the following: "Higher Education Systems at National Level" (A. Thompson); "The CNAA…

  9. Occupational Survey Report on Business Data Programmers: Task Data From Workers and Supervisors Indicating Job Relevance and Training Criticalness. Research and Development Series No. 108.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammerman, Harry L.; Pratzner, Frank C.

    The Center for Vocational Education is continuing its programatic research efforts to develop more effective procedures for identifying valid and necessary curriculum content. The occupational task survey report for the occupation of business data programer is a product resulting from this effort. The task inventory data summarized were collected…

  10. To achieve an earlier IFN-γ response is not sufficient to control Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Vilaplana, Cristina; Prats, Clara; Marzo, Elena; Barril, Carles; Vegué, Marina; Diaz, Jorge; Valls, Joaquim; López, Daniel; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2014-01-01

    The temporo-spatial relationship between the three organs (lung, spleen and lymph node) involved during the initial stages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has been poorly studied. As such, we performed an experimental study to evaluate the bacillary load in each organ after aerosol or intravenous infection and developed a mathematical approach using the data obtained in order to extract conclusions. The results showed that higher bacillary doses result in an earlier IFN-γ response, that a certain bacillary load (BL) needs to be reached to trigger the IFN-γ response, and that control of the BL is not immediate after onset of the IFN-γ response, which might be a consequence of the spatial dimension. This study may have an important impact when it comes to designing new vaccine candidates as it suggests that triggering an earlier IFN-γ response might not guarantee good infection control, and therefore that additional properties should be considered for these candidates.

  11. New spatially continuous indices of redlining and racial bias in mortgage lending: links to survival after breast cancer diagnosis and implications for health disparities research.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Zhou, Yuhong; Matthews, Kevin; Bemanian, Amin; Laud, Purushottam W; Nattinger, Ann B

    2016-07-01

    Racial health disparities continue to be a serious problem in the United States and have been linked to contextual factors, including racial segregation. In some cases, including breast cancer survival, racial disparities appear to be worsening. Using the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) database, we extend current spatial analysis methodology to derive new, spatially continuous indices of (1) racial bias in mortgage lending and (2) redlining. We then examine spatial patterns of these indices and the association between these new measures and breast cancer survival among Black/African American women in the Milwaukee, Wisconsin metropolitan area. These new measures can be used to examine relationships between mortgage discrimination and patterns of disease throughout the United States. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Research on the marketing status of antimicrobial products and the use of antimicrobial agents indicated on product labels from 1991 through 2005].

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Harunobu; Miyano, Naoko; Matsunaga, Ichiro; Nakashima, Naomi; Kaniwa, Masa-aki

    2007-05-01

    To clarify the marketing status of antimicrobial products, descriptions on the labels of commercially available antimicrobial products were investigated from 1991 through 2005, and the results were analyzed using a database system on antimicrobial deodorant agents. A classification table of household antimicrobial products was prepared and revised, based on which target products were reviewed for any changes in the product type. The number of antimicrobial products markedly increased over 3 years starting from 1996, among which there were many products apparently not requiring antimicrobial processing. More recently, in the 2002 and 2004 surveys, while sales of kitchenware and daily necessities decreased, chemical products, baby articles, and articles for pets increased; this poses new problems. To clarify the use of antimicrobial agents in the target products, a 3-step (large, intermediate, small) classification table of antimicrobial agents was also prepared, based on which antimicrobial agents indicated on the product labels were checked. The rate of identifying the agents increased. However, this is because of the increase of chemical products and baby articles, both of which more frequently indicated the ingredient agents on the labels, and the decrease of kitchenware and daily necessities, which less frequently indicated them on the labels. Therefore there has been little change in the actual identification rate. The agents used are characterized by product types: quaternary ammonium salts, metal salts, and organic antimicrobials are commonly used in textiles, plastics, and chemical products, respectively. Since the use of natural organic agents has recently increased, the safety of these agents should be evaluated.

  13. Daily Use, Especially of High-Potency Cannabis, Drives the Earlier Onset of Psychosis in Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Di Forti, Marta; Sallis, Hannah; Allegri, Fabio; Trotta, Antonella; Ferraro, Laura; Stilo, Simona A.; Marconi, Arianna; La Cascia, Caterina; Reis Marques, Tiago; Pariante, Carmine; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Paparelli, Alessandra; Kolliakou, Anna; Prata, Diana; Gaughran, Fiona; David, Anthony S.; Morgan, Craig; Stahl, Daniel; Khondoker, Mizanur; MacCabe, James H.; Murray, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis use is associated with an earlier age of onset of psychosis (AOP). However, the reasons for this remain debated. Methods: We applied a Cox proportional hazards model to 410 first-episode psychosis patients to investigate the association between gender, patterns of cannabis use, and AOP. Results: Patients with a history of cannabis use presented with their first episode of psychosis at a younger age (mean years = 28.2, SD = 8.0; median years = 27.1) than those who never used cannabis (mean years = 31.4, SD = 9.9; median years = 30.0; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.16–1.74; P < .001). This association remained significant after controlling for gender (HR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.11–1.68; P < .001). Those who had started cannabis at age 15 or younger had an earlier onset of psychosis (mean years = 27.0, SD = 6.2; median years = 26.9) than those who had started after 15 years (mean years = 29.1, SD = 8.5; median years = 27.8; HR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.06–1.84; P = .050). Importantly, subjects who had been using high-potency cannabis (skunk-type) every day had the earliest onset (mean years = 25.2, SD = 6.3; median years = 24.6) compared to never users among all the groups tested (HR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.50- 2.65; P < .0001); these daily users of high-potency cannabis had an onset an average of 6 years earlier than that of non-cannabis users. Conclusions: Daily use, especially of high-potency cannabis, drives the earlier onset of psychosis in cannabis users. PMID:24345517

  14. How to Develop Critical Thinking Skills Within the Armys Officer Education System (OES) Earlier in an Officer’s Career

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-13

    thinking emerges.”31 Military leaders should minimize bureaucracy when possible in an attempt to facilitate creative thinking . Consequently, a...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY HOW TO DEVELOP CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS WITHIN THE ARMY’S OFFICER EDUCTION SYSTEM (OES) EARLIER IN AN...Force Dragon’s Heart.” iv Abstract Critical thinking skills are required by strategic leaders to solve complex problems in an environment

  15. An inhibitor of polyamine synthesis arrests cells at an earlier stage of G1 than does calcium deprivation.

    PubMed Central

    Cheetham, B F

    1983-01-01

    Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) completely inhibits the induction of thymidine kinase after serum stimulation of quiescent fibroblasts only if added within 3 h after serum, whereas calcium deprivation blocks this induction up to 12 h after serum stimulation. Experiments in which one of these blocks was imposed as the other was released confirmed that cells blocked by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) are arrested at an earlier stage in G1 than cells blocked by calcium deprivation. PMID:6843551

  16. Sensory, physical and chemical characteristics of cooked ham manufactured from rapidly chilled and earlier deboned M. semimembranosus.

    PubMed

    Tomović, Vladimir M; Jokanović, Marija R; Petrović, Ljiljana S; Tomović, Mila S; Tasić, Tatjana A; Ikonić, Predrag M; Sumić, Zdravko M; Sojić, Branislav V; Skaljac, Snežana B; Sošo, Milena M

    2013-01-01

    Effects of rapid chilling of carcasses (at -31°C in the first 3h of chilling, and then at 2-4°C) and earlier deboning (8h post-mortem), compared to rapid (till 24h post-mortem) and conventional chilling (at 2-4°C, till 24h post-mortem), on quality characteristics of pork M. semimebranosus and cooked ham were investigated. Quality measurements included pH value, colour (CIEL a b values) and total aerobic count of M. semimebranosus, as well as sensory (colour, juiciness, texture, and flavour), physical (pH value, colour - CIEL a b values and texture - Warner-Bratzler shear and penetration forces) and chemical (protein, total fat, and moisture content) characteristics of cooked ham. The cooked ham was manufactured from pieces of M. semimebranosus with ultimate lightness (CIEL value) lower than 50. Rapid chilling and earlier deboning significantly increased quantity of M. semimebranosus desirable for cooked ham manufacturing. Earlier start of pork fabrication did not affect important quality characteristics of cooked ham. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A primary care Web-based Intervention Modeling Experiment replicated behavior changes seen in earlier paper-based experiment.

    PubMed

    Treweek, Shaun; Francis, Jill J; Bonetti, Debbie; Barnett, Karen; Eccles, Martin P; Hudson, Jemma; Jones, Claire; Pitts, Nigel B; Ricketts, Ian W; Sullivan, Frank; Weal, Mark; MacLennan, Graeme

    2016-12-01

    Intervention Modeling Experiments (IMEs) are a way of developing and testing behavior change interventions before a trial. We aimed to test this methodology in a Web-based IME that replicated the trial component of an earlier, paper-based IME. Three-arm, Web-based randomized evaluation of two interventions (persuasive communication and action plan) and a "no intervention" comparator. The interventions were designed to reduce the number of antibiotic prescriptions in the management of uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection. General practitioners (GPs) were invited to complete an online questionnaire and eight clinical scenarios where an antibiotic might be considered. One hundred twenty-nine GPs completed the questionnaire. GPs receiving the persuasive communication did not prescribe an antibiotic in 0.70 more scenarios (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.17-1.24) than those in the control arm. For the action plan, GPs did not prescribe an antibiotic in 0.63 (95% CI = 0.11-1.15) more scenarios than those in the control arm. Unlike the earlier IME, behavioral intention was unaffected by the interventions; this may be due to a smaller sample size than intended. A Web-based IME largely replicated the findings of an earlier paper-based study, providing some grounds for confidence in the IME methodology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Inevitable end-of-21st-century trends toward earlier surface runoff timing in California's Sierra Nevada Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, M. A.; Hall, A. D.; Sun, F.; Walton, D.; Berg, N.

    2015-12-01

    Hybrid dynamical-statistical downscaling is used to produce surface runoff timing projections for California's Sierra Nevada, a high-elevation mountain range with significant seasonal snow cover. First, future climate change projections (RCP8.5 forcing scenario, 2081-2100 period) from five CMIP5 global climate models (GCMs) are dynamically downscaled. These projections reveal that future warming leads to a shift toward earlier snowmelt and surface runoff timing throughout the Sierra Nevada region. Relationships between warming and surface runoff timing from the dynamical simulations are used to build a simple statistical model that mimics the dynamical model's projected surface runoff timing changes given GCM input or other statistically-downscaled input. This statistical model can be used to produce surface runoff timing projections for other GCMs, periods, and forcing scenarios to quantify ensemble-mean changes, uncertainty due to intermodel variability and consequences stemming from choice of forcing scenario. For all CMIP5 GCMs and forcing scenarios, significant trends toward earlier surface runoff timing occur at elevations below 2500m. Thus, we conclude that trends toward earlier surface runoff timing by the end-of-the-21st century are inevitable. The changes to surface runoff timing diagnosed in this study have implications for many dimensions of climate change, including impacts on surface hydrology, water resources, and ecosystems.

  19. Recent gestational diabetes was associated with mothers stopping predominant breastfeeding earlier in a multi-ethnic population.

    PubMed

    Baerug, Anne; Sletner, Line; Laake, Petter; Fretheim, Atle; Løland, Beate Fossum; Waage, Christin W; Birkeland, Kåre I; Jenum, Anne Karen

    2018-06-01

    It has previously been shown that breastfeeding may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in mothers with recent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study compared the cessation of predominant breastfeeding in mothers with and without recent GDM in a multi-ethnic population. From May 2008 to May 2010, healthy pregnant women attending antenatal care provided by community health services in Eastern Oslo, Norway were recruited. We included 616 women-58% non-Western-and interviewed and examined them at a mean of 15 and 28 weeks of gestation and 14 weeks' postpartum. Cox regression models examined the association between GDM, as assessed by the 2013 World Health Organization criteria, and breastfeeding cessation. Overall, 190 of the 616 (31%) mothers had GDM and they ended predominant breastfeeding earlier than mothers without GDM, with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.33 and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 1.01-1.77. Mothers of South Asian origin ended predominant breastfeeding earlier than Western European mothers in the adjusted analysis (aHR 1.53, 95% CI: 1.04-2.25), but Middle Eastern mothers did not. Recent gestational diabetes was associated with earlier cessation of predominant breastfeeding in Western European and non-Western women. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, Stephen

    In May of 1999, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences hosted a conference on ways to improve the scientific quality of educational research. In medicine, thanks to work 40 years ago by 2 researchers, Howard Hyatt and Frederick Mosteller, the commitment of medical professionals to base their diagnoses and prescriptions on clinical trials in…

  1. HIV serostatus disclosure: development and validation of indicators considering target and modality. Results from a community-based research in 5 countries.

    PubMed

    Préau, Marie; Beaulieu-Prévost, Dominic; Henry, Emilie; Bernier, Adeline; Veillette-Bourbeau, Ludivine; Otis, Joanne

    2015-12-01

    HIV serostatus disclosure is a complex challenge for persons living with HIV (PLHIV). Despite its beneficial effects, it can also lead to stigmatization and rejection. The current lack of multi-dimensional measurement tools impede an in-depth understanding of the dynamic of disclosure. To develop and validate complex measures of serostatus disclosure. This international community based research study was performed by joint research teams (researchers/community based organizations (CBO)) in five countries (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, Mali, Morocco and Romania). A convenience sample of 1500 people living with HIV (PLHIV) in contact with local CBO were recruited in 2011 (300 in each country). Face-to-face interviews were performed using a 125-item questionnaire covering HIV status disclosure to 23 potential disclosure targets and related issues (including personal history with HIV, people's reaction to disclosure, sexuality). A principal component analysis and a hierarchical cluster analysis were performed, in order to identify the main components of HIV disclosure, create measures and classify participants into profiles. Patterns of disclosure were summarized using two main measures: direct and indirect disclosure. Disclosure to sexual partners, whether steady or not, was different from patterns of disclosure to other targets. Among the participants, three profiles emerged - labelled Restricted disclosure, Mainly indirect disclosure and Mainly direct disclosure, respectively representing 61%, 13% and 26% of the total sample. The profiles were associated with different aspects of PLHIV's lives, including self-efficacy, functional limitations and social exclusion. Patterns varied across the five studied countries. Results suggest that multi-dimensional constructs should be used to measure disclosure in order to improve understanding of the disclosure process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and Validation of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Measures of Potentially Preventable Emergency Department (ED) Visits: The ED Prevention Quality Indicators for General Health Conditions.

    PubMed

    Davies, Sheryl; Schultz, Ellen; Raven, Maria; Wang, Nancy Ewen; Stocks, Carol L; Delgado, Mucio Kit; McDonald, Kathryn M

    2017-10-01

    To develop and validate rates of potentially preventable emergency department (ED) visits as indicators of community health. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project 2008-2010 State Inpatient Databases and State Emergency Department Databases. Empirical analyses and structured panel reviews. Panels of 14-17 clinicians and end users evaluated a set of ED Prevention Quality Indicators (PQIs) using a Modified Delphi process. Empirical analyses included assessing variation in ED PQI rates across counties and sensitivity of those rates to county-level poverty, uninsurance, and density of primary care physicians (PCPs). ED PQI rates varied widely across U.S. communities. Indicator rates were significantly associated with county-level poverty, median income, Medicaid insurance, and levels of uninsurance. A few indicators were significantly associated with PCP density, with higher rates in areas with greater density. A clinical and an end-user panel separately rated the indicators as having strong face validity for most uses evaluated. The ED PQIs have undergone initial validation as indicators of community health with potential for use in public reporting, population health improvement, and research. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  3. [Main indicators of educational activity at the Department of Operative Techniques and Surgical Research at the University of Debrecen between 2000-2013].

    PubMed

    Pető, Katalin; Németh, Norbert; Lesznyák, Tamás; Furka, István; Mikó, Irén

    2013-06-01

    The authors provide a review about the main parameters of the gradual and postgradual educational activity of the Department of Operative Techniques and Surgical Research between 2000-2013. In this period of time several new subjects and courses have been introduced. The thematics have been widened, and the educational topics underwent a significant change and development: new teaching videos, revised note-books and a new textbook have been prepared through these years. Further, new training models (surgical training models, phantom and biomodels) have also been evolved. The educational activity of the Department was supported significantly several times (financial, contribution, grants) from the University of Debrecen, partner companies, HEFOP and TÁMOP grants. Infrastructural development in conjunction with the above increased the quality of educational standards in gradual and postgradual education, too. All these changes and developments were presented on various professional meetings and published in relevant journals, as part ofinternal quality control.

  4. Sociometric Indicators of Leadership: An Exploratory Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2018-01-01

    streamline existing observational protocols and assessment methods . This research provides an initial test of sociometric badges in the context of the U.S...understand, the requirements of the mission. Traditional research and assessment methods focusing on leader and follower interactions require direct...based methods of social network analysis. Novel Measures of Leadership Building on these findings and earlier research , it is apparent that

  5. Profiles of High-Performing STEM Majors. ACT Research Report Series 2017-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westrick, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Building upon the research findings in an earlier ACT Research Report (Westrick, 2016), this study used data from 119,131 students at 26 four-year institutions to make comparisons between STEM majors earning semester GPAs of 3.0 or higher and their STEM peers earning semester GPAs less than 3.0. The results indicate that the higher-performing…

  6. Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Measurements of Ordinary Chondrite (OC) Meteorites from Antarctica Indicate Distinct Terrestrial Carbonate Species using a Stepped Acid Extraction Procedure Impacting Mars Carbonate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, M. E.; Niles, P. B.; Locke, D.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the stable isotope values of terrestrial, secondary carbonate minerals from five OC meteorites collected in Antarctica. These samples were selected for analysis based upon their size and collection proximity to known Martian meteorites. They were also selected based on petrologic type (3+) such that they were likely to be carbonate-free before falling to Earth. This study has two main tasks: 1) characterize the isotopic composition of terrestrial, secondary carbonate minerals formed on meteorites in Antarctica, and 2) study the mechanisms of carbonate formation in cold and arid environments with Antarctica as an analog for Mars. Two samples from each meteorite, each ~0.5g, was crushed and dissolved in pure phosphoric acid for 3 sequential reactions: a) Rx0 for 1 hour at 30°C, b) Rx1 for 18 hours at 30°C, and c) Rx2 for 3 hours at 150°C. CO2 was distilled by freezing with liquid nitrogen from each sample tube, then separated from organics and sulfides with a TRACE GC using a Restek HayeSep Q 80/100 6' 2mm stainless column, and then analyzed on a Thermo MAT 253 IRMS in Dual Inlet mode. This system was built at NASA/JSC over the past 3 years and proof tested with known carbonate standards to develop procedures, assess yield, and quantify expected uncertainties. Two distinct species of carbonates are found based on the stepped extraction technique: 1) Ca-rich carbonate released at low temperatures, and 2) Mg, or Fe-rich carbonate released at high temperatures. Preliminary results indicate that most of the carbonates present in the ordinary chondrites analyzed have δ13C=+5‰, which is consistent with formation from atmospheric CO2 δ13C=-7‰ at -20°C. The oxygen isotopic compositions of the carbonates vary between +4‰ and +34‰ with the Mg-rich and/or Fe-rich carbonates possessing the lowest δ18O values. This suggests that the carbonates formed under a wide range of temperatures. However, the carbonate oxygen

  7. Retrospective study of reasons for improved survival in patients with breast cancer in east Anglia: earlier diagnosis or better treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Stockton, D.; Davies, T.; Day, N.; McCann, J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the recent fall in mortality from breast cancer in England and Wales, and to determine the relative contributions of improvements in treatment and earlier detection of tumours. DESIGN: Retrospective study of all women with breast cancer registered by the East Anglian cancer registry and diagnosed between 1982 and 1989. SUBJECTS: 3965 patients diagnosed 1982-5 compared with 4665 patients diagnosed 1986-9, in three age groups 0-49, 50-64, > or = 65 years, with information on stage at diagnosis and survival. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Three year relative survival rates by time period, age group, and stage; relative hazard ratios for each time period and age group derived from Cox's proportional hazards model, adjusted for single year of age and stage. RESULTS: Survival improved in the later time period, although there was little stage specific improvement. The proportion of early stage tumours increased especially in the 50-64 year age group, and adjustment for stage accounted for over half of the improvement in survival in women aged under 65 years. CONCLUSION: Over half of the drop in mortality in women aged under 65 years seems to be attributable to earlier detection of tumours, which has been observed since the mid-1980s. This could have resulted from an increase in breast awareness predating the start of the breast screening programme. PMID:9056796

  8. Combined circulating tumor DNA and protein biomarker-based liquid biopsy for the earlier detection of pancreatic cancers

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Joshua D.; Javed, Ammar A.; Thoburn, Christopher; Wong, Fay; Tie, Jeanne; Gibbs, Peter; Schmidt, C. Max; Yip-Schneider, Michele T.; Allen, Peter J.; Schattner, Mark; Brand, Randall E.; Singhi, Aatur D.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Hong, Seung-Mo; Kim, Song Cheol; Falconi, Massimo; Doglioni, Claudio; Weiss, Matthew J.; Ahuja, Nita; He, Jin; Makary, Martin A.; Maitra, Anirban; Hanash, Samir M.; Dal Molin, Marco; Wang, Yuxuan; Li, Lu; Ptak, Janine; Dobbyn, Lisa; Schaefer, Joy; Silliman, Natalie; Popoli, Maria; Goggins, Michael G.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Klein, Alison P.; Tomasetti, Cristian; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert; Lennon, Anne Marie

    2017-01-01

    The earlier diagnosis of cancer is one of the keys to reducing cancer deaths in the future. Here we describe our efforts to develop a noninvasive blood test for the detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. We combined blood tests for KRAS gene mutations with carefully thresholded protein biomarkers to determine whether the combination of these markers was superior to any single marker. The cohort tested included 221 patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and 182 control patients without known cancer. KRAS mutations were detected in the plasma of 66 patients (30%), and every mutation found in the plasma was identical to that subsequently found in the patient’s primary tumor (100% concordance). The use of KRAS in conjunction with four thresholded protein biomarkers increased the sensitivity to 64%. Only one of the 182 plasma samples from the control cohort was positive for any of the DNA or protein biomarkers (99.5% specificity). This combinatorial approach may prove useful for the earlier detection of many cancer types. PMID:28874546

  9. Field evidence for earlier leaf-out dates in alpine grassland on the eastern Tibetan Plateau from 1990 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Zhou, H K; Yao, B Q; Xu, W X; Ye, X; Fu, J J; Jin, Y X; Zhao, X Q

    2014-08-01

    Worldwide, many plant species are experiencing an earlier onset of spring phenophases due to climate warming. Rapid recent temperature increases on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) have triggered changes in the spring phenology of the local vegetation. However, remote sensing studies of the land surface phenology have reached conflicting interpretations about green-up patterns observed on the TP since the mid-1990s. We investigated this issue using field phenological observations from 1990 to 2006, for 11 dominant plants on the TP at the levels of species, families (Gramineae-grasses and Cyperaceae-sedges) and vegetation communities (alpine meadow and alpine steppe). We found a significant trend of earlier leaf-out dates for one species (Koeleria cristata). The leaf-out dates of both Gramineae and Cyperaceae had advanced (the latter significantly, starting an average of 9 days later per year than the former), but the correlation between them was significant. The leaf-out dates of both vegetation communities also advanced, but the pattern was only significant in the alpine meadow. This study provides the first field evidence of advancement in spring leaf phenology on the TP and suggests that the phenology of the alpine steppe can differ from that of the alpine meadow. These findings will be useful for understanding ecosystem responses to climate change and for grassland management on the TP. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Combined circulating tumor DNA and protein biomarker-based liquid biopsy for the earlier detection of pancreatic cancers.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joshua D; Javed, Ammar A; Thoburn, Christopher; Wong, Fay; Tie, Jeanne; Gibbs, Peter; Schmidt, C Max; Yip-Schneider, Michele T; Allen, Peter J; Schattner, Mark; Brand, Randall E; Singhi, Aatur D; Petersen, Gloria M; Hong, Seung-Mo; Kim, Song Cheol; Falconi, Massimo; Doglioni, Claudio; Weiss, Matthew J; Ahuja, Nita; He, Jin; Makary, Martin A; Maitra, Anirban; Hanash, Samir M; Dal Molin, Marco; Wang, Yuxuan; Li, Lu; Ptak, Janine; Dobbyn, Lisa; Schaefer, Joy; Silliman, Natalie; Popoli, Maria; Goggins, Michael G; Hruban, Ralph H; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Klein, Alison P; Tomasetti, Cristian; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Vogelstein, Bert; Lennon, Anne Marie

    2017-09-19

    The earlier diagnosis of cancer is one of the keys to reducing cancer deaths in the future. Here we describe our efforts to develop a noninvasive blood test for the detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. We combined blood tests for KRAS gene mutations with carefully thresholded protein biomarkers to determine whether the combination of these markers was superior to any single marker. The cohort tested included 221 patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and 182 control patients without known cancer. KRAS mutations were detected in the plasma of 66 patients (30%), and every mutation found in the plasma was identical to that subsequently found in the patient's primary tumor (100% concordance). The use of KRAS in conjunction with four thresholded protein biomarkers increased the sensitivity to 64%. Only one of the 182 plasma samples from the control cohort was positive for any of the DNA or protein biomarkers (99.5% specificity). This combinatorial approach may prove useful for the earlier detection of many cancer types.

  11. Accessing Real-Life Episodic Information from Minutes versus Hours Earlier Modulates Hippocampal and High-Order Cortical Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Honey, C. J.; Simony, E.; Arcaro, M. J.; Norman, K. A.; Hasson, U.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that formation of new episodic memories depends on hippocampus, but in real-life settings (e.g., conversation), hippocampal amnesics can utilize information from several minutes earlier. What neural systems outside hippocampus might support this minutes-long retention? In this study, subjects viewed an audiovisual movie continuously for 25 min; another group viewed the movie in 2 parts separated by a 1-day delay. Understanding Part 2 depended on retrieving information from Part 1, and thus hippocampus was required in the day-delay condition. But is hippocampus equally recruited to access the same information from minutes earlier? We show that accessing memories from a few minutes prior elicited less interaction between hippocampus and default mode network (DMN) cortical regions than accessing day-old memories of identical events, suggesting that recent information was available with less reliance on hippocampal retrieval. Moreover, the 2 groups evinced reliable but distinct DMN activity timecourses, reflecting differences in information carried in these regions when Part 1 was recent versus distant. The timecourses converged after 4 min, suggesting a time frame over which the continuous-viewing group may have relied less on hippocampal retrieval. We propose that cortical default mode regions can intrinsically retain real-life episodic information for several minutes. PMID:26240179

  12. To Achieve an Earlier IFN-γ Response Is Not Sufficient to Control Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Marzo, Elena; Barril, Carles; Vegué, Marina; Diaz, Jorge; Valls, Joaquim; López, Daniel; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2014-01-01

    The temporo-spatial relationship between the three organs (lung, spleen and lymph node) involved during the initial stages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has been poorly studied. As such, we performed an experimental study to evaluate the bacillary load in each organ after aerosol or intravenous infection and developed a mathematical approach using the data obtained in order to extract conclusions. The results showed that higher bacillary doses result in an earlier IFN-γ response, that a certain bacillary load (BL) needs to be reached to trigger the IFN-γ response, and that control of the BL is not immediate after onset of the IFN-γ response, which might be a consequence of the spatial dimension. This study may have an important impact when it comes to designing new vaccine candidates as it suggests that triggering an earlier IFN-γ response might not guarantee good infection control, and therefore that additional properties should be considered for these candidates. PMID:24959669

  13. Screening for Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: Determinants and Rationale for an Earlier Age to Commence Screening

    PubMed Central

    Carethers, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is a highly cost-effective approach to reduce morbidity and mortality of patients, as well as reduce the prevalence of CRC in populations. Current recommendations for CRC screening for the asymptomatic general population begin at age 50 years, an age after which ~95% of cancers occur. Determinants that modify the timing and frequency for screening include a personal or family history of adenomatous polyps or CRC, the age of onset of these colonic lesions, and the presence or potential for a patient to harbor a higher-risk syndrome such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), or Lynch syndrome.. Although race, like family history, is a heritable factor, it has not engendered inclusion in the same broad systematic screening recommendations despite multiple studies demonstrating a disparity in the incidence and mortality from CRC, and the potential for targeted screening to reduce the disparity. In particular, African Americans, when compared to Caucasians, (a) have lower CRC screening utilization rates, (b) have an earlier presentation of CRC (0-8 years younger than Caucasians) and, more often have aggressive biological features more prone to metastasis, (c) have a higher CRC prevalence at all ages and a higher proportion of CRCs before 50 years of age (~11% vs 5% in Caucasians), (d) are less likely to know or transmit personal or family history of adenomas or CRC that might change their screening to an earlier age, (e) present with 7-15% excess right-sided CRCs that are not microsatellite unstable, (f) show higher frequencies of high-risk adenomas at every decile of age, and an excess of high-risk proximal adenomas that mirror the excess of proximal CRCs, (g) have cancers that demonstrate lower proportions of good prognostic biomarkers such as MSI and higher proportions of bad prognosticators such as EMAST, (h) may possess gut microbiota more conducive to initiating and/or propagating colonic

  14. Effects of earlier sea ice breakup on survival and population size of polar bears in western Hudson Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Regehr, E.V.; Lunn, N.J.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, I.

    2007-01-01

    Some of the most pronounced ecological responses to climatic warming are expected to occur in polar marine regions, where temperature increases have been the greatest and sea ice provides a sensitive mechanism by which climatic conditions affect sympagic (i.e., with ice) species. Population-level effects of climatic change, however, remain difficult to quantify. We used a flexible extension of Cormack-Jolly-Seber capture-recapture models to estimate population size and survival for polar bears (Ursus maritimus), one of the most ice-dependent of Arctic marine mammals. We analyzed data for polar bears captured from 1984 to 2004 along the western coast of Hudson Bay and in the community of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. The Western Hudson Bay polar bear population declined from 1,194 (95% CI = 1,020-1,368) in 1987 to 935 (95% CI = 794-1,076) in 2004. Total apparent survival of prime-adult polar bears (5-19 yr) was stable for females (0.93; 95% CI = 0.91-0.94) and males (0.90; 95% CI = 0.88-0.91). Survival of juvenile, subadult, and senescent-adult polar bears was correlated with spring sea ice breakup date, which was variable among years and occurred approximately 3 weeks earlier in 2004 than in 1984. We propose that this correlation provides evidence for a causal association between earlier sea ice breakup (due to climatic warming) and decreased polar bear survival. It may also explain why Churchill, like other communities along the western coast of Hudson Bay, has experienced an increase in human-polar bear interactions in recent years. Earlier sea ice breakup may have resulted in a larger number of nutritionally stressed polar bears, which are encroaching on human habitations in search of supplemental food. Because western Hudson Bay is near the southern limit of the species' range, our findings may foreshadow the demographic responses and management challenges that more northerly polar bear populations will experience if climatic warming in the Arctic continues as

  15. Earlier Age of Onset of Chronic Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus After a Hypertensive Disorder of Pregnancy or Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Heida, Karst Y; Franx, Arie; van Rijn, Bas B; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Boer, Jolanda M A; Verschuren, Monique W M; Oudijk, Martijn A; Bots, Michiel L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T

    2015-12-01

    A prospective cohort study was conducted to assess the impact of a history of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on the risk and age of onset of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life, independent of hypertension and T2D. Between 1993 and 1997, 22 265 ever-pregnant women were included from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-NL study, aged 20 to 70 years at baseline. Details on complications of pregnancy and known hypertension were obtained by questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured at enrollment. Participants were followed for the occurrence of CVD events. Data were analyzed using ANCOVA, multivariable logistic regression, and Cox proportional hazard (with HDP and GDM as time-dependent variables for T2D and CVD) models. At enrollment, women with a HDP reported diagnosis of hypertension 7.7 years earlier (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.9-8.5) and women with GDM reported diagnosis of T2D 7.7 years earlier (95% CI 5.8-9.6) than women without pregnancy complications. After adjustment for potential confounders, HDP was associated with presence of hypertension at enrollment (odds ratio 2.12, 95% CI 1.98-2.28) and onset of CVD later in life (hazard ratio 1.21, 95% CI 1.10-1.32). After including the intermediates hypertension and T2D in the model, the risk of CVD later in life decreased (hazard ratio 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.20). GDM was associated with an increased risk of developing T2D later in life (hazard ratio 3.68, 95% CI 2.77-4.90), but not with risk of CVD. HDP and GDM have a substantial impact on the risk of CVD and are potentially important indicators for preventive cardiovascular risk management. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Earlier and greater hand pre-shaping in the elderly: a study based on kinematic analysis of reaching movements to grasp objects.

    PubMed

    Tamaru, Yoshiki; Naito, Yasuo; Nishikawa, Takashi

    2017-11-01

    Elderly people are less able to manipulate objects skilfully than young adults. Although previous studies have examined age-related deterioration of hand movements with a focus on the phase after grasping objects, the changes in the reaching phase have not been studied thus far. We aimed to examine whether changes in hand shape patterns during the reaching phase of grasping movements differ between young adults and the elderly. Ten healthy elderly adults and 10 healthy young adults were examined using the Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Functions and kinetic analysis of hand pre-shaping reach-to-grasp tasks. The results were then compared between the two groups. For kinetic analysis, we measured the time of peak tangential velocity of the wrist and the inter-fingertip distance (the distance between the tips of the thumb and index finger) at different time points. The results showed that the elderly group's performance on the Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Functions was significantly lower than that of the young adult group, irrespective of whether the dominant or non-dominant hand was used, indicating deterioration of hand movement in the elderly. The peak tangential velocity of the wrist in either hand appeared significantly earlier in the elderly group than in the young adult group. The elderly group also showed larger inter-fingertip distances with arch-like fingertip trajectories compared to the young adult group for all object sizes. To perform accurate prehension, elderly people have an earlier peak tangential velocity point than young adults. This allows for a longer adjustment time for reaching and grasping movements and for reducing errors in object prehension by opening the hand and fingers wider. Elderly individuals gradually modify their strategy based on previous successes and failures during daily living to compensate for their decline in dexterity and operational capabilities. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  17. Science and Engineering Indicators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-08

    documents as well as policy documents. The Indicators report. Consistent with its congressional man- reports now serve the needs of a very wide audience date...information on science and technology Nation’s science policy ; as a basis for policymaking and as a tool for research and assessment on a worldwide basis. * to...encourage quantification of the common dimen- The success of providing valid and comparable data sions of science policy , leading to improvements in

  18. Low protein content of drainage fluid is a good predictor for earlier chest tube removal after lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Olgac, Guven; Cosgun, Tugba; Vayvada, Mustafa; Ozdemir, Atilla; Kutlu, Cemal Asim

    2014-10-01

    Owing to the great absorption capability of the pleura for transudates, the protein content of draining pleural fluid may be considered as a more adequate determinant than its daily draining amount in the decision-making for earlier chest tube removal. In an a priori pilot study, we observed that the initially draining protein-rich exudate converts to a transudate quickly in most patients after lobectomies. Thus, chest tubes draining high-volume but low-protein fluids can safely be removed earlier in the absence of an air leak. This randomized study aims to investigate the validity and clinical applicability of this hypothesis as well as its influence on the timing for chest tube removal and earlier discharge after lobectomy. Seventy-two consecutive patients undergoing straightforward lobectomy were randomized into two groups. Patients with conditions affecting postoperative drainage and with persisting air leaks beyond the third postoperative day were excluded. Drains were removed if the pleural fluid to blood protein ratio (PrRPl/B) was ≤0.5, regardless of its daily draining amount in the study arm (Group S; n = 38), and patients in the control arm (Group C; n = 34) had their tubes removed if daily drainage was ≤250 ml regardless of its protein content. Patients were discharged home immediately or the following morning after removal of the last drain. All cases were followed up regarding the development of symptomatic pleural effusions and hospital readmissions for a redrainage procedure. Demographic and clinical characteristics as well as the pattern of decrease in PrRPl/B were the same between groups. The mean PrRPl/B was 0.65 and 0.67 (95% CI = 0.60-0.69 and 0.62-0.72) on the first postoperative day, and it remarkably dropped down to 0.39 and 0.33 (95% CI = 0.33-0.45 and 0.27-0.39) on the second day in Groups S and C, respectively, and remained below 0.5 on the third day (repeated-measures of ANOVA design, post hoc 'within-group' comparison of the first

  19. The HepHIV 2017 Conference in Malta: joining forces for the earlier diagnosis of HIV and viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Raben, D; Hoekstra, M; Sperle, I; Amato Gauci, A J; Gauci, C; West, B; Sullivan, A; Lazarus, J V; Platteau, T; Rockstroh, J K

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the article is to provide an overview of the results of the HepHIV 2017 Conference organized by the HIV in Europe initiative under the Maltese EU Presidency in January 2017. A thourough review of all conference presentations (oral and poster presentations) was performed to retrieve the key outcomes of the conference. The key result from the conference was a call to action summarising key priorities in HIV and viral hepatitis testing and linkage to care. This included improving monitoring of viral hepatitis and HIV, mixing testing strategies and ensuring policy support. The important contribution and outcomes of EU funded projects OptTEST and EuroHIVEdat was highlighted. An integrated approach to earlier testing and linkage to care across diseases is needed in Europe and the HepHIV conferences create an important forum to reach this aim. © 2018 British HIV Association.

  20. Complementary functions of the two brain hemispheres: comparisons with earlier conceptions and implications for individual and society.

    PubMed

    Zeier, H

    1989-07-01

    The concept of different functions for the left and right cerebral hemispheres coincides in an astonishing way with earlier philosophical and psychological work which divided the human mind into two complementary functions without having a neurophysiological explanation. Representative are the ideas of Fichte, Hegel and Jung. The latter postulated the two subsystems Ego and Self and associated the conscious functions of the Ego with the intellect, the capacity for rational thought, and the Self with the mind, which also includes the emotional feelings. For the harmonic development and self-realization of man the functions of both systems in complementary interaction are required. Therefore, the current overaccentuation of the intellect and of progress directed technical-scientific thinking should be corrected by making better use of the much neglected functions of the right hemisphere.

  1. Combining in Vitro Diagnostics with in Vivo Imaging for Earlier Detection of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Challenges and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Laeseke, Paul F.; Chen, Ru; Jeffrey, R. Brooke; Brentnall, Teresa A.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth-leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States and is associated with a dismal prognosis, particularly when diagnosed at an advanced stage. Overall survival is significantly improved if PDAC is detected at an early stage prior to the onset of symptoms. At present, there is no suitable screening strategy for the general population. Available diagnostic serum markers are not sensitive or specific enough, and clinically available imaging modalities are inadequate for visualizing early-stage lesions. In this article, the role of currently available blood biomarkers and imaging tests for the early detection of PDAC will be reviewed. Also, the emerging biomarkers and molecularly targeted imaging agents being developed to improve the specificity of current imaging modalities for PDAC will be discussed. A strategy incorporating blood biomarkers and molecularly targeted imaging agents could lead to improved screening and earlier detection of PDAC in the future. © RSNA, 2015 PMID:26599925

  2. The Sooner, the Worse? Association between Earlier Age of Sexual Initiation and Worse Adolescent Health and Well-being Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Alfonso; Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Carlos, Silvia; de Irala, Jokin

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assesses the association between age of sexual initiation during adolescence and a selection of well-being outcomes regarding that first relationship. High-school adolescents from El Salvador (2,686) and from Peru (3,399) replied to a paper-pencil questionnaire. Those who were sexually initiated replied to several questions regarding their age at sexual initiation, condom use, satisfaction and reasons/circumstances for that sexual relationship. Approximately 19% of participants were sexually initiated (n = 1,179). After retaining participants with valid responses and with sexual initiation ages between 13 and 17, the final sample for this paper consisted of 996 sexually initiated participants (526 Salvadorians and 470 Peruvians). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that those who initiated sex at earlier ages had worse outcomes compared to those who initiated at older ages. Specifically, they had lower odds of having used a condom, of having good memories of that experience and of having had that first relationship because they were in love. Conversely, they had higher odds of having had that first sexual relationship as a result of peer pressure (“Most of my friends already had sex”), because of partner pressure (“I was afraid to lose him/her,” “My partner told me he/she would leave me” or “I did not know how to say no to a person who insisted”), or as a consequence of different forms of impaired autonomy (“I was under the influence of alcohol or drugs” or “As a consequence of seeing sexual images”). Results show that sex at earlier ages is associated with worse adolescent health and well-being outcomes. PMID:28798715

  3. Adverse childhood experiences predict earlier age of drinking onset: results from a representative US sample of current or former drinkers.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Emily F; Edwards, Erika M; Heeren, Timothy; Hingson, Ralph W

    2008-08-01

    Our goal was to determine whether adverse childhood experiences predicted the age at which drinking was initiated and drinking motives in a representative sample of current or former drinkers in the United States. In 2006, a probability sample of 3592 US current or former drinkers aged 18 to 39 were surveyed. Multinomial logistic regression examined whether each of 10 adverse childhood experiences was associated with earlier ages of drinking onset, controlling for demographics, parental alcohol use, parental attitudes toward drinking, and peers' drinking in adolescence. We also examined whether there was a graded relationship between the number of adverse childhood experiences and age of drinking onset and whether adverse childhood experiences were related to self-reported motives for drinking during the first year that respondents drank. Sixty-six percent of respondents reported >or=1 adverse childhood experiences, and 19% reported experiencing >or=4. The most commonly reported adverse childhood experiences were parental separation/divorce (41.3%), living with a household member who was a problem drinker (28.7%), mental illness of a household member (24.8%), and sexual abuse (19.1%). Of the 10 specific adverse childhood experiences assessed, 5 were significantly associated with initiating drinking at or=21 years of age) after adjustment for confounders, including physical abuse, sexual abuse, having a mentally ill household member, substance abuse in the home, and parental discord or divorce. Compared with those without adverse childhood experiences, respondents with adverse childhood experiences were substantially more likely to report that they drank to cope during the first year that they used alcohol. Results suggest that children with particular adverse childhood experiences may initiate drinking earlier than their peers and that they may be more likely to drink to cope with problems (rather than for pleasure or to be

  4. Antiretroviral treatment-based cost saving interventions may offset expenses for new patients and earlier treatment start.

    PubMed

    Angeletti, C; Pezzotti, P; Antinori, A; Mammone, A; Navarra, A; Orchi, N; Lorenzini, P; Mecozzi, A; Ammassari, A; Murachelli, S; Ippolito, G; Girardi, E

    2014-03-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has become the main driver of total costs of caring for persons living with HIV (PLHIV). The present study estimated the short/medium-term cost trends in response to the recent evolution of national guidelines and regional therapeutic protocols for cART in Italy. We developed a deterministic mathematical model that was calibrated using epidemic data for Lazio, a region located in central Italy with about six million inhabitants. In the Base Case Scenario, the estimated number of PLHIV in the Lazio region increased over the period 2012-2016 from 14 414 to 17 179. Over the same period, the average projected annual cost for treating the HIV-infected population was €147.0 million. An earlier cART initiation resulted in a rise of 2.3% in the average estimated annual cost, whereas an increase from 27% to 50% in the proportion of naïve subjects starting cART with a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimen resulted in a reduction of 0.3%. Simplification strategies based on NNRTIs co-formulated in a single tablet regimen and protease inhibitor/ritonavir-boosted monotherapy produced an overall reduction in average annual costs of 1.5%. A further average saving of 3.3% resulted from the introduction of generic antiretroviral drugs. In the medium term, cost saving interventions could finance the increase in costs resulting from the inertial growth in the number of patients requiring treatment and from the earlier treatment initiation recommended in recent guidelines. © 2013 British HIV Association.

  5. Analysis of arrhythmic events is useful to detect lead failure earlier in patients followed by remote monitoring.

    PubMed

    Nishii, Nobuhiro; Miyoshi, Akihito; Kubo, Motoki; Miyamoto, Masakazu; Morimoto, Yoshimasa; Kawada, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Koji; Watanabe, Atsuyuki; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Morita, Hiroshi; Ito, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    Remote monitoring (RM) has been advocated as the new standard of care for patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). RM has allowed the early detection of adverse clinical events, such as arrhythmia, lead failure, and battery depletion. However, lead failure was often identified only by arrhythmic events, but not impedance abnormalities. To compare the usefulness of arrhythmic events with conventional impedance abnormalities for identifying lead failure in CIED patients followed by RM. CIED patients in 12 hospitals have been followed by the RM center in Okayama University Hospital. All transmitted data have been analyzed and summarized. From April 2009 to March 2016, 1,873 patients have been followed by the RM center. During the mean follow-up period of 775 days, 42 lead failure events (atrial lead 22, right ventricular pacemaker lead 5, implantable cardioverter defibrillator [ICD] lead 15) were detected. The proportion of lead failures detected only by arrhythmic events, which were not detected by conventional impedance abnormalities, was significantly higher than that detected by impedance abnormalities (arrhythmic event 76.2%, 95% CI: 60.5-87.9%; impedance abnormalities 23.8%, 95% CI: 12.1-39.5%). Twenty-seven events (64.7%) were detected without any alert. Of 15 patients with ICD lead failure, none has experienced inappropriate therapy. RM can detect lead failure earlier, before clinical adverse events. However, CIEDs often diagnose lead failure as just arrhythmic events without any warning. Thus, to detect lead failure earlier, careful human analysis of arrhythmic events is useful. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Does earlier arrival of the retrieval team improve short-term outcomes in outborn extremely premature infants?

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Janet B; Davies, Mark W

    2018-05-31

    The risk of mortality and morbidity is increased in outborn, extremely premature infants. We aim to determine whether earlier arrival of the retrieval team after the birth of infants less than 29 weeks gestation improves short-term mortality and morbidity. This is a retrospective analysis of a cohort of infants less than 29 weeks gestation who were retrieved to the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital (RBWH) over a 5-year period. Demographic information regarding the infant and mother, retrieval team arrival time and outcome data was collected. Primary outcomes investigated were mortality prior to discharge from hospital or a composite of mortality or severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH). Data on 105 infants were analysed; 88 infants (83.8%) survived to discharge home, and 79 (75.2%) survived to discharge without severe IVH. On univariate analysis, there was no significant association between age at arrival of the retrieval team and death prior to discharge (P = 0.94) or death prior to discharge or severe IVH (P = 0.83). On logistic regression analysis, age at arrival of retrieval team remained non-significant for a reduction in death prior to discharge and composite of death or severe IVH (P = 0.70 and P = 0.99, respectively). The earlier arrival of the retrieval team is not associated with improved short-term outcomes in outborn, extremely preterm infants who are retrieved and admitted to a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit - for infants where the retrieval team arrived within about 8 h of birth. © 2018 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  7. Earlier Visual N1 Latencies in Expert Video-Game Players: A Temporal Basis of Enhanced Visuospatial Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Andrew J.; Patston, Lucy L. M.; Westermann, Christine; Kirk, Ian J.; Tippett, Lynette J.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing behavioural evidence suggests that expert video game players (VGPs) show enhanced visual attention and visuospatial abilities, but what underlies these enhancements remains unclear. We administered the Poffenberger paradigm with concurrent electroencephalogram (EEG) recording to assess occipital N1 latencies and interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT) in expert VGPs. Participants comprised 15 right-handed male expert VGPs and 16 non-VGP controls matched for age, handedness, IQ and years of education. Expert VGPs began playing before age 10, had a minimum 8 years experience, and maintained playtime of at least 20 hours per week over the last 6 months. Non-VGPs had little-to-no game play experience (maximum 1.5 years). Participants responded to checkerboard stimuli presented to the left and right visual fields while 128-channel EEG was recorded. Expert VGPs responded significantly more quickly than non-VGPs. Expert VGPs also had significantly earlier occipital N1s in direct visual pathways (the hemisphere contralateral to the visual field in which the stimulus was presented). IHTT was calculated by comparing the latencies of occipital N1 components between hemispheres. No significant between-group differences in electrophysiological estimates of IHTT were found. Shorter N1 latencies may enable expert VGPs to discriminate attended visual stimuli significantly earlier than non-VGPs and contribute to faster responding in visual tasks. As successful video-game play requires precise, time pressured, bimanual motor movements in response to complex visual stimuli, which in this sample began during early childhood, these differences may reflect the experience and training involved during the development of video-game expertise, but training studies are needed to test this prediction. PMID:24058667

  8. Earlier visual N1 latencies in expert video-game players: a temporal basis of enhanced visuospatial performance?

    PubMed

    Latham, Andrew J; Patston, Lucy L M; Westermann, Christine; Kirk, Ian J; Tippett, Lynette J

    2013-01-01

    Increasing behavioural evidence suggests that expert video game players (VGPs) show enhanced visual attention and visuospatial abilities, but what underlies these enhancements remains unclear. We administered the Poffenberger paradigm with concurrent electroencephalogram (EEG) recording to assess occipital N1 latencies and interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT) in expert VGPs. Participants comprised 15 right-handed male expert VGPs and 16 non-VGP controls matched for age, handedness, IQ and years of education. Expert VGPs began playing before age 10, had a minimum 8 years experience, and maintained playtime of at least 20 hours per week over the last 6 months. Non-VGPs had little-to-no game play experience (maximum 1.5 years). Participants responded to checkerboard stimuli presented to the left and right visual fields while 128-channel EEG was recorded. Expert VGPs responded significantly more quickly than non-VGPs. Expert VGPs also had significantly earlier occipital N1s in direct visual pathways (the hemisphere contralateral to the visual field in which the stimulus was presented). IHTT was calculated by comparing the latencies of occipital N1 components between hemispheres. No significant between-group differences in electrophysiological estimates of IHTT were found. Shorter N1 latencies may enable expert VGPs to discriminate attended visual stimuli significantly earlier than non-VGPs and contribute to faster responding in visual tasks. As successful video-game play requires precise, time pressured, bimanual motor movements in response to complex visual stimuli, which in this sample began during early childhood, these differences may reflect the experience and training involved during the development of video-game expertise, but training studies are needed to test this prediction.

  9. Endochondral fracture healing with external fixation in the Sost knockout mouse results in earlier fibrocartilage callus removal and increased bone volume fraction and strength.

    PubMed

    Morse, A; Yu, N Y C; Peacock, L; Mikulec, K; Kramer, I; Kneissel, M; McDonald, M M; Little, D G

    2015-02-01

    Sclerostin deficiency, via genetic knockout or anti-Sclerostin antibody treatment, has been shown to cause increased bone volume, density and strength of calluses following endochondral bone healing. However, there is limited data on the effect of Sclerostin deficiency on the formative early stage of fibrocartilage (non-bony tissue) formation and removal. In this study we extensively investigate the early fibrocartilage callus. Closed tibial fractures were performed on Sost(-/-) mice and age-matched wild type (C57Bl/6J) controls and assessed at multiple early time points (7, 10 and 14days), as well as at 28days post-fracture after bony union. External fixation was utilized, avoiding internal pinning and minimizing differences in stability stiffness, a variable that has confounded previous research in this area. Normal endochondral ossification progressed in wild type and Sost(-/-) mice with equivalent volumes of fibrocartilage formed at early day 7 and day 10 time points, and bony union in both genotypes by day 28. There were no significant differences in rate of bony union; however there were significant increases in fibrocartilage removal from the Sost(-/-) fracture calluses at day 14 suggesting earlier progression of endochondral healing. Earlier bone formation was seen in Sost(-/-) calluses over wild type with greater bone volume at day 10 (221%, p<0.01). The resultant Sost(-/-) united bony calluses at day 28 had increased bone volume fraction compared to wild type calluses (24%, p<0.05), and the strength of the fractured Sost(-/-) tibiae was greater than that that of wild type fractured tibiae. In summary, bony union was not altered by Sclerostin deficiency in externally-fixed closed tibial fractures, but fibrocartilage removal was enhanced and the resultant united bony calluses had increased bone fraction and increased strength. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 5 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Present Value Conversion Factors for Earlier Commencing Date of Annuities of Current and Former...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Present Value Conversion Factors for Earlier Commencing Date of Annuities of Current and Former Spouses of Deceased Separated Employees A...—Present Value Conversion Factors for Earlier Commencing Date of Annuities of Current and Former Spouses of...

  11. Psychological health in siblings who lost a brother or sister to cancer 2 to 9 years earlier.

    PubMed

    Eilegård, Alexandra; Steineck, Gunnar; Nyberg, Tommy; Kreicbergs, Ulrika

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess long-term psychological distress in siblings who lost a brother or sister to cancer 2 to 9 years earlier, as compared with a control group of non-bereaved siblings from the general population. During 2009, we conducted a nationwide follow-up study in Sweden by using an anonymous study-specific questionnaire. Siblings who had lost a brother or sister to cancer between the years 2000 and 2007 and also a control group of non-bereaved siblings from the general population were invited to participate. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure psychological distress, and to test for differences in the ordinal outcome responses between the groups, we used Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank-sum test. Among the bereaved siblings, 174/240 (73%) participated and 219/293 (75%) among the non-bereaved. Self-assessed low self-esteem (p = 0.002), difficulties falling asleep (p = 0.005), and low level of personal maturity (p = 0.007) at follow-up were more prevalent among bereaved siblings. However, anxiety (p = 0.298) and depression (p = 0.946), according to HADS, were similar. Bereaved siblings are at increased risk of low self-esteem, low level of personal maturity and difficulties falling asleep as compared with non-bereaved peers. Yet, the bereaved were not more likely to report anxiety or depression. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Coping and emotional distress during acute hospitalization in older persons with earlier trauma: the case of Holocaust survivors.

    PubMed

    Kimron, Lee; Cohen, Miri

    2012-06-01

    Older persons with earlier trauma are often more vulnerable to stresses of old age. To examine the levels of emotional distress in relation to cognitive appraisal of acute hospitalization and coping strategies in Holocaust survivors compared with an age- and education-matched group of elderly persons without Holocaust experience. This is a cross-sectional study of 63 Holocaust survivors, 65 years and older, hospitalized for an acute illness, and 57 age-, education- and hospital unit-matched people without Holocaust experience. Participants completed appraisal and coping strategies (COPE) questionnaires, and the brief symptoms inventory (BSI-18). Holocaust survivors reported higher levels of emotional distress, appraised the hospitalization higher as a threat and lower as a challenge, and used more emotion-focused and less problem-focused or support-seeking coping strategies than the comparison group. Study variables explained 65% of the variance of emotional distress; significant predictors of emotional distress in the final regression model were not having a partner and more use of emotion-focused coping. The latter mediated the relation of group variable and challenge appraisal to emotional distress. Health professionals must be aware of the potential impact of the hospital environment on the survivors of Holocaust as well as survivors of other trauma. Being sensitive to their specific needs may reduce the negative impact of hospitalization.

  13. Bilateral breast calciphylaxis in a patient who survived earlier extensive tissue necrosis 5 years previously: A case report.

    PubMed

    Verstappen, E M J; Maaskant-Braat, A J G; Scheltinga, M R

    2018-05-07

    Calciphylaxis is a rare condition including patchy dermal necrosis that mostly affects chronic hemodialysis patients. The syndrome usually heralds impending death although patients may survive following a set of measures including an adapted dialysis regimen. The present case is a unique patient who recovered from an earlier episode of upper leg calciphylaxis 5 years previously but developed fatal bilateral breast necrosis. A 69 year old Caucasian woman with a history of atrial fibrillation, hypertension, CVA, hyperparathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism and end stage renal disease with hemodialysis recovered in 2012 from extensive symptomatic left upper leg necrosis due to calciphylaxis. In 2017, she developed painful, necrotic ulcers on both breasts, again due to calciphylaxis. She had no history of anticoagulants use but she did use prednisolone 5mg/day. She received adequate wound care, pain medication, antibiotics and dialysis frequency was increased with an addition of sodium thiosulfate. A bilateral ablation was discussed but she decided to stop all treatment following pulmonary aspiration and passed away one week later. Calciphylaxis is a rare diagnosis that should be considered in patients with renal insufficiency developing painful patches of skin necrosis. A multidisciplinary treatment approach including hyperparathyroidectomy, modified hemodialysis and wound treatment is recommended. There is limited evidence for surgical intervention. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Filarial parasites develop faster and reproduce earlier in response to host immune effectors that determine filarial life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Babayan, Simon A; Read, Andrew F; Lawrence, Rachel A; Bain, Odile; Allen, Judith E

    2010-10-19

    Humans and other mammals mount vigorous immune assaults against helminth parasites, yet there are intriguing reports that the immune response can enhance rather than impair parasite development. It has been hypothesized that helminths, like many free-living organisms, should optimize their development and reproduction in response to cues predicting future life expectancy. However, immune-dependent development by helminth parasites has so far eluded such evolutionary explanation. By manipulating various arms of the immune response of experimental hosts, we show that filarial nematodes, the parasites responsible for debilitating diseases in humans like river blindness and elephantiasis, accelerate their development in response to the IL-5 driven eosinophilia they encounter when infecting a host. Consequently they produce microfilariae, their transmission stages, earlier and in greater numbers. Eosinophilia is a primary host determinant of filarial life expectancy, operating both at larval and at late adult stages in anatomically and temporally separate locations, and is implicated in vaccine-mediated protection. Filarial nematodes are therefore able to adjust their reproductive schedules in response to an environmental predictor of their probability of survival, as proposed by evolutionary theory, thereby mitigating the effects of the immune attack to which helminths are most susceptible. Enhancing protective immunity against filarial nematodes, for example through vaccination, may be less effective at reducing transmission than would be expected and may, at worst, lead to increased transmission and, hence, pathology.

  15. Hepatitis B and C virus prevalence in couples attending an in vitro fertilization clinic in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia: comparison with ten years earlier.

    PubMed

    Albadran, Asma; Hibshi, Ali; Saeed, Bahjat; Coskun, Serdar; Awartani, Khalid Arab

    2017-01-01

    Viral hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) are a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia. Recent data has indicated a major reduction in viral hepatitis prevalence in Saudi population. However, there is limited data for infertile Saudi couples. To determine the prevalence of HCV and HBV attending an in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinic in Saudi Arabia between 2012 and 2015 to compare with the prevalence 10 years earlier in the same center. Retrospective prevalence study. Tertiary care center in Riyadh. Data on the prevalence of HBV and HCV was collected on all couples seen at the IVF unit between 2002-2005 and 2012-2015. Prevalence of HBV and HCV. In 4442 patients during 2002-2005 and 5747 patients during 2012-2015, the prevalence of HBV was significantly less in 2012-2015 compared with 2002-2005 (1.67% [97 patients] vs 4.7% [210 patients], P < .0001), respectively, but HCV prevalence was similar for the two periods (0.7% for both periods) (P=.887). The hepatitis B seroprevalence rate was higher in males compared to females during 2002-2005 (6.3% vs 3.1%) (P < .0001) and 2012-2015 (2.4% vs 1.1% ) (P < .0001), respectively. The significant drop in HBV prevalence was most likely due to the introduction of the vaccination program in 1989, while reasons for HCV prevalence remaining unchanged are unclear. No data on confounding factors that may have affected the prevalence.

  16. Progressively implementation of the new degrees at E.T.S. of Agriculture Engineering and extinction of the earlier degrees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arce, A.; Caniego, J.; Vazquez, J.; Serrano, A.; Tarquis, A. M.; Cartagena, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    The Bologna process is to improve the quality of education, mobility, diversity and the competitiveness and involves three fundamental changes: transform of the structure of titles, changing in methods of teaching and implementation of the systems of quality assurance. Once that the new degrees have been implemented with this structure, and began at E.T.S. of Agriculture Engineering (ETSIA) at Madrid from 2010-2011 course, the main aim of this work is to deeply study the changes in teaching methodology as well as progressively implementation of the educational planning of the three new degrees: Engineering and Agronomic Graduate, Food Industry Engineering Graduate and Agro-environmental Graduate. Each one of them presents 240 ECTS with a common first course and will have access to an official Master in Agronomic Engineering. As part as an educational innovation project awarded by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) to improve educational quality, the second course has been designed with the main objective to continue the educative model implemented last course. This model identifies several teaching activities and represents a proper teaching style at ETSIA-UPM. At the same time, a monitoring and development coordination plans have been established. On the other hand, a procedure to extinguish the earlier plans of Agriculture Engineering was also defined. Other activities related to this Project were the information improvement of the grades, in particular at High Schools centers, improving the processes of reception, counseling and tutoring and mentoring. Likewise, cooperative working workshops and programs to support the teaching of English language were implemented. Satisfaction surveys and opinion polls were done to professors and students involved in first course in order to test several aspects of this project. The students surveys were analyzed taking in account the academic results and their participation in mentoring activities giving a highly

  17. Dendrophenology: Inferring the response of North American eastern deciduous forests to an earlier spring from tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmore, A. J.; Nelson, D. M.; Craine, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    There is wide agreement that anthropogenic climate warming has influenced the phenology of forests during the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. A critical question for predicting the magnitude of future warming under different emissions scenarios is the degree to which forest productivity responds to longer growing seasons in the face of concurrent changes in other drivers of productivity. Longer growing seasons can lead to increased photosynthesis and productivity, which would represent a negative feedback to rising CO2 and consequently warming. Alternatively, increased demand for soil resources due to a longer photosynthetically active period in conjunction with other global change factors might exacerbate resource limitation, restricting forest productivity response to a longer growing season. In this case, increased spring-time productivity has the potential to increase plant N limitation by increasing plant demand for N more than N supplies, or increasing early-season ecosystem N losses. Long-term direct measurements are not yet available to specifically address this question, but advances in remote sensing and dendroecological methods present opportunities to acquire information retrospectively to advance understanding of how phenological changes and resource availability to trees have been affecting forest productivity. Here we show that for 222 trees representing three species in eastern North America over the past 30 years earlier spring phenology has caused declines in N availability to trees by increasing demand for N relative to supply. The observed decline in N availability is not associated with reduced wood production, suggesting that other environmental changes such as increased atmospheric CO2 and water availability have likely overwhelmed reduced N availability. Given current trajectories of environmental changes, N limitation will likely continue to increase for these forests, possibly further limiting C sequestration potential.

  18. Health Disparities in Mid-to-Late Life: The Role of Earlier Life Family and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Rucker C.; Schoeni, Robert F.; Rogowski, Jeannette A.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between neighborhoods of residence in young adulthood and health in mid to late life in the United States are examined using the 1968-2005 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). The sample consists of persons who were aged 20-30 in 1968 and are followed for a period of 38 years (N=2,730). Four-level hierarchical random effects models of self-assessed general health status as a function of individual, family, and neighborhood factors are estimated. Using the original sampling design of the PSID, we analyze adult health trajectories of married couples and neighbors followed from young adulthood through elderly ages to assess the magnitudes of the possible causal effects of family and neighborhood characteristics in young adulthood on health in mid to late life. Estimates suggest disparities in neighborhood conditions in young adulthood account for one-quarter of the variation in mid-to-late-life health. Living in poor neighborhoods during young adulthood is strongly associated with negative health outcomes in later life. This result is robust even in the presence of a reasonably large amount of potential unobservable individual and family factors that may significantly affect both neighborhood of residence and subsequent health status. Racial differences in health status in mid to late life are also associated with family and neighborhood socioeconomic conditions earlier in life. Three quarters of the black-white gap in health status at ages over 55 can be accounted for by differences in childhood socioeconomic status and neighborhood and family factors in young adulthood. PMID:22212443

  19. Adult bacterial meningitis-a quality registry study: earlier treatment and favourable outcome if initial management by infectious diseases physicians.

    PubMed

    Grindborg, Ö; Naucler, P; Sjölin, J; Glimåker, M

    2015-06-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is challenging for the admitting physician because it is a rare but fulminant disease, usually presenting without typical symptoms, and rapid treatment is pivotal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of initial management by infectious diseases (ID) physicians vs. non-ID physicians. A total of 520 consecutive adults (>17 years old), 110 with initial ID management and 410 with non-ID management, registered in the Swedish quality registry for community-acquired ABM January 2008 to December 2013, were analysed retrospectively. Primary outcome was appropriate treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids <1 hour from admission. Secondary analyses were mortality during hospital stay and persisting neurological and hearing deficits at follow-up after 2 to 6 months. Differences in diagnostic treatment sequences also were analysed. Appropriate treatment <1 hour from admission was achieved significantly more often (41%) by ID physicians vs. non-ID physicians (24%) with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.40 to 4.14; p < 0.01) adjusted for confounders. The door-to-antibiotic time was significantly shorter, and significantly more patients were administered corticosteroids together with the first doses of antibiotics in the ID group. A trend of decreased mortality (4.5% vs. 8.0%) and sequelae at follow-up (24% vs. 44%; adjusted OR 0.55: 95% CI 0.31 to 1.00; p 0.05) were observed in the ID group vs. the non-ID group. Antibiotics were started without prior neuroimaging more often in the ID group (86% vs. 57%; p < 0.001). Initial management at the emergency department by ID physicians is associated with earlier appropriate treatment, more appropriate diagnostic treatment sequences and favourable outcome. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Earlier occurrence and increased explanatory power of climate for the first incidence of potato late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans in Fennoscandia

    PubMed Central

    Wiik, Lars; Hannukkala, Asko; Andreasson, Erik; Chen, Deliang; Ou, Tinghai; Liljeroth, Erland; Lankinen, Åsa

    2017-01-01

    Background Late blight (caused by Phytophthora infestans) is a devastating potato disease that has been found to occur earlier in the season over the last decades in Fennoscandia. Up until now the reasons for this change have not been investigated. Possible explanations for this change are climate alterations, changes in potato production or changes in pathogen biology, such as increased fitness or changes in gene flow within P. infestans populations. The first incidence of late blight is of high economic importance since fungicidal applications should be typically applied two weeks before the first signs of late blight and are repeated on average once a week. Methods We use field observations of first incidence of late blight in experimental potato fields from five sites in Sweden and Finland covering a total of 30 years and investigate whether the earlier incidence of late blight can be related to the climate. Results We linked the field data to meteorological data and found that the previous assumption, used in common late blight models, that the disease only develops at relative humidity levels above 90% had to be rejected. Rather than the typically assumed threshold relationship between late blight disease development and relative humidity we found a linear relationship. Our model furthermore showed two distinct responses of late blight to climate. At the beginning of the observation time (in Sweden until the early 90s and in Finland until the 2000s) the link between climate and first incidence was very weak. However, for the remainder of the time period the link was highly significant, indicating a change in the biological properties of the pathogen which could for example be a change in the dominating reproduction mode or a physiological change in the response of the pathogen to climate. Conclusions The study shows that models used in decision support systems need to be checked and re-parametrized regularly to be able to capture changes in pathogen biology

  1. Earlier occurrence and increased explanatory power of climate for the first incidence of potato late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans in Fennoscandia.

    PubMed

    Lehsten, Veiko; Wiik, Lars; Hannukkala, Asko; Andreasson, Erik; Chen, Deliang; Ou, Tinghai; Liljeroth, Erland; Lankinen, Åsa; Grenville-Briggs, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Late blight (caused by Phytophthora infestans) is a devastating potato disease that has been found to occur earlier in the season over the last decades in Fennoscandia. Up until now the reasons for this change have not been investigated. Possible explanations for this change are climate alterations, changes in potato production or changes in pathogen biology, such as increased fitness or changes in gene flow within P. infestans populations. The first incidence of late blight is of high economic importance since fungicidal applications should be typically applied two weeks before the first signs of late blight and are repeated on average once a week. We use field observations of first incidence of late blight in experimental potato fields from five sites in Sweden and Finland covering a total of 30 years and investigate whether the earlier incidence of late blight can be related to the climate. We linked the field data to meteorological data and found that the previous assumption, used in common late blight models, that the disease only develops at relative humidity levels above 90% had to be rejected. Rather than the typically assumed threshold relationship between late blight disease development and relative humidity we found a linear relationship. Our model furthermore showed two distinct responses of late blight to climate. At the beginning of the observation time (in Sweden until the early 90s and in Finland until the 2000s) the link between climate and first incidence was very weak. However, for the remainder of the time period the link was highly significant, indicating a change in the biological properties of the pathogen which could for example be a change in the dominating reproduction mode or a physiological change in the response of the pathogen to climate. The study shows that models used in decision support systems need to be checked and re-parametrized regularly to be able to capture changes in pathogen biology. While this study was performed with

  2. Earlier growing seasons and changes in migration timing influence carbon uptake and plant production in Arctic coastal wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leffler, A. J.; Beard, K. H.; Kelsey, K.; Choi, R. T.; Welker, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The wetlands of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska are important breeding areas for geese and are experiencing rapid climate change, specifically earlier onset of the growing season. Consequently, geese arrive 'later' in the growing season than in the past, potentially setting up a phenological mismatch with consequences for their nutrition, plant growth, and C and N processes in the ecosystem. We examined the interactive effects between the start of the growing season and Black Brant arrival time on these processes in a manipulative experiment. Advancing the growing season had a modest influence on CO2 exchange and plant growth. An early growing season shifted the rate of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) by 1-1.5 µmol m-2 s-1 toward a carbon (C) source. This change was driven by an increase in the rate of ecosystem respiration (ER). The advanced growing season nearly doubled the rate of leaf elongation in the early summer and this difference persisted as taller vegetation later in the year; belowground biomass was not affected. Timing of grazing had greater influence on CO2 exchange and plant growth. Grazing early in the season shifted the system to a carbon source by ca. 2 μmol m-2 s-1 while delaying grazing enhanced the carbon sink by 1 μmol m-2 s-1. Here, the influence was not through ER, but through reducing and enhancing standing leaf area, respectively. Early grazing also reduced season-long root production by over 50% while delayed grazing enhanced root production by 30%. Although delaying grazing enhanced C uptake and promoted plant growth in this ecosystem, leaf tissue in delayed-grazing plots had C:N of 16.7 compared to 14.2 in the typical-grazing plots, potentially reducing the digestibility of goose forage and slowing rates of decomposition. Biotic forcing in arctic tundra can thus be major drivers of ecosystem function and need to be considered as tundra system respond to changing conditions.

  3. CRITICAL EVALUATION OF ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) has prepared fifteen technical guidelines to evaluate the suitability of an ecological indicator in a monitoring program. The guidelines were fashioned to provide a consistent framework for indicator review and to provide guidance fo...

  4. Science Indicators and Science Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Harvey

    1982-01-01

    Discusses science/society interface and difficulties involved in developing realistic science indicators. Topics include: intrinsic vs. extrinsic indicators; four problems society faces as a result of technological activities (toxic chemicals, radioactive wastes, auto safety, cancer); research and development (R&D) priorities; international…

  5. Science and Engineering Indicators 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Science Indicators series was designed to provide a broad base of quantitative information about U.S. science, engineering, and technology for use by policymakers, researchers, and the general public. "Science and Engineering Indicators 2010" contains analyses of key aspects of the scope, quality, and vitality of the Nation's science…

  6. Scale-Independent Bibliometric Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, J. Sylvan

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the author's critique of Anthony F. J. van Raan's article titled, "Measurement of Central Aspects of Scientific Research: Performance, Interdisciplinarity, Structure." van Raan makes an excellent case for using bibliometric data to measure some central aspects of scientific research and to construct indicators of…

  7. Biogeochemical fingerprints of life: earlier analogies with polar ecosystems suggest feasible instrumentation for probing the Galilean moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chela-Flores, J.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Tuniz, C.

    2015-07-01

    We base our search for the right instrumentation for detecting biosignatures on Europa on the analogy suggested by the recent work on polar ecosystems in the Canadian Arctic at Ellesmere Island. In that location sulphur patches (analogous to the Europan patches) are accumulating on glacial ice lying over saline springs rich in sulphate and sulphide. Their work reinforces earlier analogies in Antarctic ecosystems that are appropriate models for possible habitats that will be explored by the European Space Agency JUpiter ICy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission to the Jovian System. Its Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO) will include orbits around Europa and Ganymede. The Galileo orbital mission discovered surficial patches of non-ice elements on Europa that were widespread and, in some cases possibly endogenous. This suggests the possibility that the observed chemical elements in the exoatmosphere may be from the subsurface ocean. Spatial resolution calculations of Cassidy and co-workers are available, suggesting that the atmospheric S content can be mapped by a neutral mass spectrometer, now included among the selected JUICE instruments. In some cases, large S-fractionations are due to microbial reduction and disproportionation (although sometimes providing a test for ecosystem fingerprints, even though with Sim - Bosak - Ono we maintain that microbial sulphate reduction large sulphur isotope fractionation does not require disproportionation. We address the question of the possible role of oxygen in the Europan ocean. Instrument issues are discussed for measuring stable S-isotope fractionations up to the known limits in natural populations of δ34 ~ -70‰. We state the hypothesis of a Europa anaerobic oceanic population of sulphate reducers and disproportionators that would have the effect of fractionating the sulphate that reaches the low-albedo surficial regions. This hypothesis is compatible with the time-honoured expectation of Kaplan and co-workers (going back to the

  8. Higher dose rate Gamma Knife radiosurgery may provide earlier and longer-lasting pain relief for patients with trigeminal neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Lee, John Y K; Sandhu, Sukhmeet; Miller, Denise; Solberg, Timothy; Dorsey, Jay F; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) utilizes cobalt-60 as its radiation source, and thus dose rate varies as the fixed source decays over its half-life of approximately 5.26 years. This natural decay results in increasing treatment times when delivering the same cumulative dose. It is also possible, however, that the biological effective dose may change based on this dose rate even if the total dose is kept constant. Because patients are generally treated in a uniform manner, radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) represents a clinical model whereby biological efficacy can be tested. The authors hypothesized that higher dose rates would result in earlier and more complete pain relief but only if measured with a sensitive pain assessment tool. One hundred thirty-three patients were treated with the Gamma Knife Model 4C unit at a single center by a single neurosurgeon during a single cobalt life cycle from January 2006 to May 2012. All patients were treated with 80 Gy with a single 4-mm isocenter without blocking. Using an output factor of 0.87, dose rates ranged from 1.28 to 2.95 Gy/min. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)-Facial was administered before the procedure and at the first follow-up office visit 1 month from the procedure (mean 1.3 months). Phone calls were made to evaluate patients after their procedures as part of a retrospective study. Univariate and multivariate linear regression was performed on several independent variables, including sex, age in deciles, diagnosis, follow-up duration, prior surgery, and dose rate. In the short-term analysis (mean 1.3 months), patients' self-reported pain intensity at its worst was significantly correlated with dose rate on multivariate analysis (p = 0.028). Similarly, patients' self-reported interference with activities of daily living was closely correlated with dose rate on multivariate analysis (p = 0.067). A 1 Gy/min decrease in dose rate resulted in a 17% decrease in pain intensity at its worst and a 22% decrease

  9. Mineralization of mandibular third molars can estimate chronological age--Brazilian indices.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fernando Toledo; Capelozza, Ana Lúcia Álvares; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; de Bullen, Izabel Regina Fischer Rubira

    2012-06-10

    Forensic age estimation is an important element of anthropological research, as it produces one of the primary sources of data that researchers use to establish the identity of a person living or the identity of unknown bodily remains. The aim of this study was to determine if the chronology of third molar mineralization could be an accurate indicator of estimated age in a sample Brazilian population. If so, mineralization could determine the probability of an individual being 18 years or older. The study evaluated 407 panoramic radiographs of males and females from the past 5 years in order to assess the mineralization status of the mandibular third molars. The evaluation was carried out using an adaptation of Demirjian's system. The results indicated a strong correlation between chronological age and the mineralization of the mandibular third molars. The results indicated that modern Brazilian generation tends to demonstrate an earlier mandibular third molar mineralization than older Brazilian generation and people of other nationalities. Males reached developmental stages slightly earlier than females, but statistically significant differences between the sex were not found. The probability that an individual with third molar mineralization stage H had reached an age of 18 years or older was 96.8-98.6% for males and females, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An Evaluation of Stereoscopic Digital Mammography for Earlier Detection of Breast Cancer and Reduced Rate of Recall

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    on a pair of high -resolution, LCD medical monitors. The change to the new workstation has required us to rewrite the software... In the original CRT-based system, the two 7 images forming a stereo pair were displayed alternately on the same CRT face, at a high frame rate (120 Hz...then, separately, receive the stereo screening exam on the research GE digital mammography unit.

  11. [CBO guideline 'Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism; revision of the earlier guidelines. Dutch Organization for Quality Assurance in Hospitals].

    PubMed

    Büller, H R; van der Meer, J; Oudkerk, M

    2000-08-05

    Diagnosis of clinically suspected deep venous thrombosis is based on a clinical score, serial compression ultrasonography and D-dimer assay. For the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism perfusion scintigraphy, ventilation scintigraphy, echography of the leg veins and pulmonary angiography in that order lead to the lowest mortality, morbidity and costs. Diagnostics with spiral CT followed by pulmonary angiography leads to equal mortality and fewer angiography procedures. Decision rules based on anamnesis, physical examination, blood gas analysis and chest radiograph have proved to be insufficiently reliable. The present D-dimer assays have too little sensitivity and too much variability. Thrombo-prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin is indicated for general surgery, joint replacement of the knee or hip, cranial and spinal surgery, subarachnoid haemorrhage after surgical treatment of an aneurysm, acute myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke or spinal cord lesion, intensive care patients, patients with acute paralysis due to a neuromuscular disorder, and bedridden patients with a risk factor. Prophylaxis has to be continued as long as the indication exists. In the acute phase of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism treatment with (low-molecular-weight) heparin in an adequate dose is necessary. When started at the same time as coumarin derivatives the treatment with heparin has to be continued for at least 5 days. The risk of postthrombotic syndrome after deep venous thrombosis will be lowered by carrying compression stockings for at least 2 years after the event.

  12. Better evidence for earlier assessment and surgical intervention for refractory epilepsy (The BEST study): a mixed methods study protocol.

    PubMed

    Rapport, Frances; Shih, Patti; Mitchell, Rebecca; Nikpour, Armin; Bleasel, Andrew; Herkes, Geoffrey; Vagholkar, Sanjyot; Mumford, Virginia

    2017-08-21

    One-third of patients with refractory epilepsy may be candidates for resective surgery, which can lead to positive clinical outcomes if efficiently managed. In Australia, there is currently between a 6-month and 2-year delay for patients who are candidates for respective epilepsy surgery from the point of referral for surgical assessment to the eventual surgical intervention. This is a major challenge for implementation of effective treatment for individuals who could potentially benefit from surgery. This study examines implications of delays following the point of eligibility for surgery, in the assessment and treatment of patients, and the factors causing treatment delays. Mixed methods design: Observations of qualitative consultations, patient and healthcare professional interviews, and health-related quality of life assessments for a group of 10 patients and six healthcare professionals (group 1); quantitative retrospective medical records' reviews examining longitudinal outcomes for 50 patients assessed for, or undergoing, resective surgery between 2014 and 2016 (group 2); retrospective epidemiological study of all individuals hospitalised with a diagnosis of epilepsy in New South Wales (NSW) in the last 5 years (2012-2016; approximately 11 000 hospitalisations per year, total 55 000), examining health services' use and treatment for individuals with epilepsy, including refractory surgery outcomes (group 3). Ethical approval has been granted by the North Sydney Local Health District Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC/17/HAWKE/22) and the NSW Population & Health Services Research Ethics Committee (HREC/16/CIPHS/1). Results will be disseminated through publications, reports and conference presentations to patients and families, health professionals and researchers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Specific anti-EL4-lymphoma immunity in mice cured 2 years earlier with doxorubicin and interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Ehrke, M J; Verstovsek, S; Zaleskis, G; Ho, R L; Ujházy, P; Maccubbin, D L; Mihich, E

    1996-05-01

    This laboratory has reported the conditions for an effective, non-toxic, chemoimmunotherapy utilizing doxorubicin in combination with prolonged administration of interleukin-2 and the identification of the critical role of activated CD8+ T cells in the therapeutic effect. Mice (C57BL/6) cured in those studies have been followed for the remainder of their life spans. These mice, approximately 2 months of age when initially inoculated with syngeneic EL4 lymphoma, survived for more than 2 years, the normal life span of C57BL/6 mice. Mice 4 months old reinoculated with the EL4 cells all survived. At about 1 year of age mice were sacrificed and the ability of their thymocytes and splenocytes to develop specific CD8+ anti-EL4 activity was as high as it had been at the time of tumor rejection. At about 2 years of age EL4 was reimplanted into mice; all of them survived. These surviving mice, at 2 years 2 months of age, as well as a group of 2-year-old mice not rechallenged, were killed and functional antitumor activity and phenotype characteristics of various lymphocyte populations were determined in comparison to those of young and age-matched control mice. The phenotyping of the lymphocytes from the cured mice indicated very notable differences in subset distribution and increased CD44 expression. Functionally they developed high levels of anti-EL4 activity, which was ablated by combined treatment with monoclonal antibodies against CD8 and CD44, indicating the role of memory cells. Consistent with cells from aged mice, these same cell populations had a very reduced allogeneic responsiveness. It appears that cured mice have developed an immune memory specific for EL4.

  14. Thermal indicator for wells

    DOEpatents

    Gaven, Jr., Joseph V.; Bak, Chan S.

    1983-01-01

    Minute durable plate-like thermal indicators are employed for precision measuring static and dynamic temperatures of well drilling fluids. The indicators are small enough and sufficiently durable to be circulated in the well with drilling fluids during the drilling operation. The indicators include a heat resistant indicating layer, a coacting meltable solid component and a retainer body which serves to unitize each indicator and which may carry permanent indicator identifying indicia. The indicators are recovered from the drilling fluid at ground level by known techniques.

  15. Toward Earlier Inclusion of Pregnant and Postpartum Women in Tuberculosis Drug Trials: Consensus Statements From an International Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Amita; Mathad, Jyoti S.; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M.; Albano, Jessica D.; Botgros, Radu; Brown, Vikki; Browning, Renee S.; Dawson, Liza; Dooley, Kelly E.; Gnanashanmugam, Devasena; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Kim, Peter; Lyerly, Anne D.; Mirochnick, Mark; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Montepiedra, Grace; Piper, Jeanna; Sahin, Leyla; Savic, Radojka; Smith, Betsy; Spiegel, Hans; Swaminathan, Soumya; Watts, D. Heather; White, Amina

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women of childbearing age (15–44 years). Despite increased tuberculosis risk during pregnancy, optimal clinical treatment remains unclear: safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic data for many tuberculosis drugs are lacking, and trials of promising new tuberculosis drugs exclude pregnant women. To advance inclusion of pregnant and postpartum women in tuberculosis drug trials, the US National Institutes of Health convened an international expert panel. Discussions generated consensus statements (>75% agreement among panelists) identifying high-priority research areas during pregnancy, including: (1) preventing progression of latent tuberculosis infection, especially in women coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus; (2) evaluating new agents/regimens for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; and (3) evaluating safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of tuberculosis drugs already in use during pregnancy and postpartum. Incorporating pregnant women into clinical trials would extend evidence-based tuberculosis prevention and treatment standards to this special population. PMID:26658057

  16. Performance indicators of work activity.

    PubMed

    Lahoz, Manoela de Assis; Camarotto, João Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of performance is a current topic in the management of people in companies, used as a parameter of effectiveness of processes and operations of production. The methods and models of the indicators of current use in the production have concentrated in the assessment of people's performance as determinative resource of the organizational success in the search for the competitiveness. Associated with the classic indicators of performance assessment of the production proceeding, other indicators are used in the assessment of risks and hazards, however with methods focused in the tasks, without connection with the real work activity. The present article explores literature on the models of performance measurement in use in companies and a field research to understand how companies interpret and use indicators that relate health and work, to direct future studies on the subject. Regarding the literature review, one can see that health indicators can be basically divided into two major groups: the legal and managerial indicators. When conducting case studies, it can be realized that companies do not have precisely the concept of health indicator, or were unable to define which of the indicators could be considered indicators of health, considering that absenteeism was the indicator mentioned by the four companies.

  17. Appropriate therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus in view of pancreatic β-cell glucose toxicity: "the earlier, the better".

    PubMed

    Kaneto, Hideaki; Matsuoka, Taka-Aki; Kimura, Tomohiko; Obata, Atsushi; Shimoda, Masashi; Kamei, Shinji; Mune, Tomoatsu; Kaku, Kohei

    2016-03-01

    Pancreatic β-cells secrete insulin when blood glucose levels become high; however, when β-cells are chronically exposed to hyperglycemia, β-cell function gradually deteriorates, which is known as β-cell glucose toxicity. In the diabetic state, nuclear expression of the pancreatic transcription factors pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX-1) and v-Maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family, protein A (MafA) is decreased. In addition, incretin receptor expression in β-cells is decreased, which is likely involved in the impairment of incretin effects in diabetes. Clinically, it is important to select appropriate therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) so that β-cell function can be preserved. In addition, when appropriate pharmacological interventions against β-cell glucose toxicity are started at the early stages of diabetes, β-cell function is substantially restored, which is not observed if treatment is started at advanced stages. These observations indicate that it is likely that downregulation of pancreatic transcription factors and/or incretin receptors is involved in β-cell dysfunction observed in T2DM and it is very important to start appropriate pharmacological intervention against β-cell glucose toxicity in the early stages of diabetes. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Evidence for an earlier greenhouse cooling effect in the stratosphere before the 1980s over the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerefos, C. S.; Tourpali, K.; Zanis, P.; Eleftheratos, K.; Repapis, C.; Goodman, A.; Wuebbles, D.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Luterbacher, J.

    2014-01-01

    significance of these trends. Model results are in line with re-analysis and the observations, indicating a persistent cooling in the lower stratosphere during summer before and after the 1980s by -0.33 °C decade-1; a feature that is also seen throughout the year. However, the lower stratosphere modelled trends are generally lower than re-analysis and the observations. The contrasting effects of ozone depletion at polar latitudes in winter/spring and the anticipated strengthening of the Brewer Dobson circulation from man-made global warming at polar latitudes are discussed. Our results provide additional evidence for an early greenhouse cooling signal in the lower stratosphere before the 1980s, which it appears well in advance relative to the tropospheric greenhouse warming signal. Hence it may be postulated that the stratosphere could have provided an early warning of man-made climate change. The suitability for early warning signals in the stratosphere relative to the troposphere is supported by the fact that the stratosphere is less sensitive to changes due to cloudiness, humidity and man-made aerosols. Our analysis also indicates that the relative contribution of the lower stratosphere vs. the upper troposphere low frequency variability is important for understanding the added value of the long term tropopause variability related to human induced global warming.

  19. Development and Validation of an Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Indicator for Mortality After Congenital Heart Surgery Harmonized With Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1) Methodology.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Kathy J; Koch Kupiec, Jennifer; Owens, Pamela L; Romano, Patrick S; Geppert, Jeffrey J; Gauvreau, Kimberlee

    2016-05-20

    The National Quality Forum previously approved a quality indicator for mortality after congenital heart surgery developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Several parameters of the validated Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1) method were included, but others differed. As part of the National Quality Forum endorsement maintenance process, developers were asked to harmonize the 2 methodologies. Parameters that were identical between the 2 methods were retained. AHRQ's Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases (SID) 2008 were used to select optimal parameters where differences existed, with a goal to maximize model performance and face validity. Inclusion criteria were not changed and included all discharges for patients <18 years with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure codes for congenital heart surgery or nonspecific heart surgery combined with congenital heart disease diagnosis codes. The final model includes procedure risk group, age (0-28 days, 29-90 days, 91-364 days, 1-17 years), low birth weight (500-2499 g), other congenital anomalies (Clinical Classifications Software 217, except for 758.xx), multiple procedures, and transfer-in status. Among 17 945 eligible cases in the SID 2008, the c statistic for model performance was 0.82. In the SID 2013 validation data set, the c statistic was 0.82. Risk-adjusted mortality rates by center ranged from 0.9% to 4.1% (5th-95th percentile). Congenital heart surgery programs can now obtain national benchmarking reports by applying AHRQ Quality Indicator software to hospital administrative data, based on the harmonized RACHS-1 method, with high discrimination and face validity. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  20. Treatment Effect in Earlier Trials of Patients With Chronic Medical Conditions: A Meta-Epidemiologic Study.

    PubMed

    Alahdab, Fares; Farah, Wigdan; Almasri, Jehad; Barrionuevo, Patricia; Zaiem, Feras; Benkhadra, Raed; Asi, Noor; Alsawas, Mouaz; Pang, Yifan; Ahmed, Ahmed T; Rajjo, Tamim; Kanwar, Amrit; Benkhadra, Khalid; Razouki, Zayd; Murad, M Hassan; Wang, Zhen

    2018-03-01

    To determine whether the early trials in chronic medical conditions demonstrate an effect size that is larger than that in subsequent trials. We identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating a drug or device in patients with chronic medical conditions through meta-analyses (MAs) published between January 1, 2007, and June 23, 2015, in the 10 general medical journals with highest impact factor. We estimated the prevalence of having the largest effect size or heterogeneity in the first 2 published trials. We evaluated the association of the exaggerated early effect with several a priori hypothesized explanatory variables. We included 70 MAs that had included a total of 930 trials (average of 13 [range, 5-48] RCTs per MA) with average follow-up of 24 (range, 1-168) months. The prevalence of the exaggerated early effect (ie, proportion of MAs with largest effect or heterogeneity in the first 2 trials) was 37%. These early trials had an effect size that was on average 2.67 times larger than the overall pooled effect size (ratio of relative effects, 2.67; 95% CI, 2.12-3.37). The presence of exaggerated effect was not significantly associated with trial size; number of events; length of follow-up; intervention duration; number of study sites; inpatient versus outpatient setting; funding source; stopping a trial early; adequacy of random sequence generation, allocation concealment, or blinding; loss to follow-up or the test for publication bias. Trials evaluating treatments of chronic medical conditions published early in the chain of evidence commonly demonstrate an exaggerated treatment effect compared with subsequent trials. At the present time, this phenomenon remains unpredictable. Considering the increasing morbidity and mortality of chronic medical conditions, decision makers should act on early evidence with caution. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Decision making with environmental indices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoag, Dana L.; Ascough, James C.; Keske-Handley, C.; Koontz, Lynne; Burk, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    Since Ott's seminal book on environmental indices (1978), the use of indices has expanded into several natural resource disciplines, including ecological studies, environmental policymaking, and agricultural economics. However, despite their increasing use in natural resource disciplines, researchers and public decision makers continue to express concern about validity of these instruments to capture and communicate multidimensional, and sometimes disparate, characteristics of research data and stakeholder interests. Our purpose is to demonstrate how useful indices can be for communicating environmental information to decision makers. We discuss how environmental indices have evolved over four stages: 1) simple; 2) compound multicriteria; 3) the impact matrix and 4) disparate stakeholder management. We provide examples of simple and compound indices that were used by policy decision makers. We then build a framework, called an Impact Matrix (IM), that comprehensively accounts for multiple indices but lets the user decide how to integrate them. The IM was shaped from the concept of a financial risk payoff matrix and applied to ecosystem risk. While the IM offers flexibility, it does not address stakeholder preferences about which index to use. Therefore, the last phase in our evolutionary ladder includes stakeholder indices to specifically address disparate stakeholder preferences. Finally, we assert that an environmental index has the potential to increase resource efficiency, since the number of decision making resources may be reduced, and hence improve upon resource productivity

  2. Molecular classification of endometrial carcinoma on diagnostic specimens is highly concordant with final hysterectomy: Earlier prognostic information to guide treatment.

    PubMed

    Talhouk, Aline; Hoang, Lien N; McConechy, Melissa K; Nakonechny, Quentin; Leo, Joyce; Cheng, Angela; Leung, Samuel; Yang, Winnie; Lum, Amy; Köbel, Martin; Lee, Cheng-Han; Soslow, Robert A; Huntsman, David G; Gilks, C Blake; McAlpine, Jessica N

    2016-10-01

    Categorization and risk stratification of endometrial carcinomas is inadequate; histomorphologic assessment shows considerable interobserver variability, and risk of metastases and recurrence can only be derived after surgical staging. We have developed a Proactive Molecular Risk classification tool for Endometrial cancers (ProMisE) that identifies four distinct prognostic subgroups. Our objective was to assess whether molecular classification could be performed on diagnostic endometrial specimens obtained prior to surgical staging and its concordance with molecular classification performed on the subsequent hysterectomy specimen. Sequencing of tumors for exonuclease domain mutations (EDMs) in POLE and immunohistochemistry for mismatch repair (MMR) proteins and p53 were applied to both pre- and post-staging archival specimens from 60 individuals to identify four molecular subgroups: MMR-D, POLE EDM, p53 wild type, p53 abn (abnormal). Three gynecologic subspecialty pathologists assigned histotype and grade to a subset of samples. Concordance of molecular and clinicopathologic subgroup assignments were determined, comparing biopsy/curetting to hysterectomy specimens. Complete molecular and pathologic categorization was achieved in 57 cases. Concordance metrics for pre- vs. post-staging endometrial samples categorized by ProMisE were highly favorable; average per ProMisE class sensitivity(0.9), specificity(0.96), PPV(0.9), NPV(0.96) and kappa statistic 0.86(95%CI, 0.72-0.93), indicating excellent agreement. We observed the highest level of concordance for 'p53 abn' tumors, the group associated with the worst prognosis. In contrast, grade and histotype assignment from original pathology reports pre- vs. post-staging showed only moderate levels of agreement (kappa=0.55 and 0.44 respectively); even with subspecialty pathology review only moderate levels of agreement were observed. Molecular classification can be achieved on diagnostic endometrial samples and accurately

  3. 2011 Annual Survey of Journalism and Mass Communication Enrollments: Enrollments Decline, Reversing the Increase of a Year Earlier, and Suggesting Slow Growth for Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Kalpen, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    Enrollments in journalism and mass communication programs declined in the autumn of 2011, compared to a year earlier. Enrollments were down slightly at the senior and junior levels and substantially at the freshman level. Enrollment increased at the sophomore level. The majority of administrators say they have made curricular changes in the past…

  4. Fluid leak indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, George E. (Inventor); Loo, Shu (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A fluid leak indicator (30) for detecting and indicating leaks in visually inaccessible fluid tubing joints (20, 21), such as those obstructed by insulation (24), includes a bag system (25) and a wicking system (30) surrounding or wrapping the joints (20, 21) under the visual obstructing material (24). Leaking fluid is collected in the bag (25) or on the wicking material (34) where it is conducted along the wicking material (34) to a visibly accessible capturing transparent indicator bulb (35) for providing a visual indication of the leak without requiring a chemical change in the capturing indicator bulb (35).

  5. Fluid leak indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, G. E.; Loo, S. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A fluid leak indicator for detecting and indicating leaks in visually inaccessible fluid tubing joints, such as those obstructed by insulation includes a bag system and a wicking system surrounding or wrapping the joints under the visual obstructing material. Leaking fluid is collected in the bag or on the wicking material where it is conducted along the wicking material to a visily accessible capturing transparent indicator bulb for providing a visual indication of the leak without requiring a chemical change in the capturing indicator bulb.

  6. Advanced seasonal reproductive development in a male urban bird is reflected in earlier plasma luteinizing hormone rise but not energetic status.

    PubMed

    Davies, Scott; Behbahaninia, Hirbod; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Meddle, Simone L; Waites, Kyle; Deviche, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Urban animals inhabit an environment considerably different than do their non-urban conspecifics, and to persist urban animals must adjust to these novel environments. The timing of seasonal reproductive development (i.e., growth of gonads and secondary sex organs) is a fundamental determinant of the breeding period and is frequently advanced in urban bird populations. However, the underlying mechanism(s) by which birds adjust the timing of reproductive development to urban areas remain(s) largely unknown. Here, we compared the timing of vernal reproductive development in free-ranging urban and non-urban male Abert's Towhees, Melozone aberti, in Phoenix, Arizona, USA, and tested the non-mutually exclusive hypotheses that earlier reproductive development is due to improved energetic status and/or earlier increase in endocrine activity of the reproductive system. We found that urban birds initiated testicular development earlier than non-urban birds, but this disparity was not associated with differences in body condition, fat stores, or innate immune performance. These results provide no support for the hypothesis that energetic constraints are responsible for delayed reproductive development of non-urban relative to urban male Abert's Towhees. Urban birds did, however, increase their plasma luteinizing hormone, but not plasma testosterone, earlier than non-urban birds. These findings suggest that adjustment to urban areas by Abert's Towhees involves increases in the endocrine activity of the anterior pituitary gland and/or hypothalamus earlier than non-urban towhees. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 5 Indicators of Decimal Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Kathleen; Monson, Debra; Ahrendt, Sue; Colum, Karen; Wiley, Bethann; Wyberg, Terry

    2015-01-01

    The authors of this article collaborated with fourth-grade teachers from two schools to support implementation of a research-based fraction and decimal curriculum (Rational Number Project: Fraction Operations and Initial Decimal Ideas). Through this study, they identified five indicators of rich conceptual understanding of decimals, which are…

  8. Allowance market pricing indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    Regardless of whether buyers and sellers rely on one allowance price indicator or a combination of several, the publication of price indicators has facilitated trading in the SO{sub 2} allowance market. Buyers and sellers feel more comfortable with a price benchmark against which to measure their actions; liquidity has increased; and transactions are easier to conclude. At this market`s present stage of development, five price indicators are worthy of discussion: EPA Allowance Auctions; Compliance Strategies Review`s EATX; Utility Environment Report`s price range; Cantor Fitzgerald`s Allowance Price Indicators; and Emissions Exchange Corporation`s Exchange Values. But experience in other markets indicates thatmore » (1) others will be created as the market develops, and (2) all published price indicators will tend to converge as time passes.« less

  9. Climate Change Indicators

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presents information, charts and graphs showing measured climate changes across 40 indicators related to greenhouse gases, weather and climate, oceans, snow and ice, heath and society, and ecosystems.

  10. The association between cannabis use and earlier age at onset of schizophrenia and other psychoses: meta-analysis of possible confounding factors.

    PubMed

    Myles, Nicholas; Newall, Hannah; Nielssen, Olav; Large, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis showed that the mean age of onset of psychosis among cannabis users was almost three years earlier than that of non-cannabis users. However, because cannabis users usually smoke tobacco, the use of tobacco might independently contribute to the earlier onset of psychosis. We aimed to use meta-analysis to compare the extent to which cannabis and tobacco use are each associated with an earlier age at onset of schizophrenia and other psychoses. We also examined other factors that might have contributed to the finding of an earlier age of onset among cannabis users, including the proportion of males in the samples, the diagnostic inclusion criteria and aspects of study quality. The electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and ISI Web of Science, were searched for English-language peer-reviewed publications that reported age at onset of schizophrenia and other psychoses separately for cannabis users and non-users, or for tobaccosmokers and non-smokers. Meta-analysis showed that the age at onset of psychosis for cannabis users was 32 months earlier than for cannabis non-users (SMD=- 0.399, 95%CI -0.493 - -0.306, z=-8.34, p < 0.001), and was two weeks later in tobacco smokers compared with non-smokers (SMD=0.002, 95%CI -0.094 - 0.097, z=0.03, p=0.974). The main results were not affected by subgroup analyses examining studies of a single sex, the methods for making psychiatric diagnoses and measures of study quality. The results suggest that the association between cannabis use and earlier onset of psychosis is robust and is not the result either of tobacco smoking by cannabis using patients or the other potentially confounding factors we examined. This supports the hypothesis that, in some patients, cannabis use plays a causal role in the development of schizophrenia and raises the possibility of treating schizophrenia with new pharmacological treatments that have an affinity for endo-cannabinoid receptors.

  11. Validity of the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality Patient Safety Indicators and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Hospital-acquired Conditions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Winters, Bradford D; Bharmal, Aamir; Wilson, Renee F; Zhang, Allen; Engineer, Lilly; Defoe, Deidre; Bass, Eric B; Dy, Sydney; Pronovost, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    The Agency for Health Care Research and Quality Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs) and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hospital-acquired Conditions (HACs) are increasingly being used for pay-for-performance and public reporting despite concerns over their validity. Given the potential for these measures to misinform patients, misclassify hospitals, and misapply financial and reputational harm to hospitals, these need to be rigorously evaluated. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess PSI and HAC measure validity. We searched MEDLINE and the gray literature from January 1, 1990 through January 14, 2015 for studies that addressed the validity of the HAC measures and PSIs. Secondary outcomes included the effects of present on admission (POA) modifiers, and the most common reasons for discrepancies. We developed pooled results for measures evaluated by ≥3 studies. We propose a threshold of 80% for positive predictive value or sensitivity for pay-for-performance and public reporting suitability. Only 5 measures, Iatrogenic Pneumothorax (PSI 6/HAC 17), Central Line-associated Bloodstream Infections (PSI 7), Postoperative hemorrhage/hematoma (PSI 9), Postoperative deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolus (PSI 12), and Accidental Puncture/Laceration (PSI 15), had sufficient data for pooled meta-analysis. Only PSI 15 (Accidental Puncture and Laceration) met our proposed threshold for validity (positive predictive value only) but this result was weakened by considerable heterogeneity. Coding errors were the most common reasons for discrepancies between medical record review and administrative databases. POA modifiers may improve the validity of some measures. This systematic review finds that there is limited validity for the PSI and HAC measures when measured against the reference standard of a medical chart review. Their use, as they currently exist, for public reporting and pay-for-performance, should be publicly reevaluated in light of these

  12. Temperature-indicating Paints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penzig, F

    1939-01-01

    This report is an attempt at a new method of coating the surface of the cylinder with materials that undergo chemical change at definite temperatures as indicated by a change in color. In this way it was hoped that the substance itself would indicate directly the position of its isotherms, which in measurements with thermocouples requires a tedious amount of labor.

  13. Fisheries indicators, freshwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kwak, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater fisheries exist among diverse ecosystems and fauna, provide societal benefits, and are influenced by human activities. Fisheries scientists assess the status and sustainability of fisheries by multiple approaches, including abundance and condition indices, population parameters, community indices, modeling, and surveys of habitat and human dimensions. The future sustainability of freshwater fisheries is limited not by available methods but by society’s will.

  14. Science Indicators, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. National Science Board.

    In this report the National Science Board presents the first results from a newly initiated effort to develop indicators of the state of the scientific enterprise in the Unite States. The ultimate goal of this effort is a set of indices which will reveal the strengths and weaknesses of U.S. science and technology, in terms of the capacity and…

  15. School Readiness Indicator Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Julia; Ling, Thomson; Moore, Eric; Halle, Tamara; Hair, Beth; Moore, Kris; Zaslow, Marty

    This report provides a compilation of indicators of school readiness used in national, state, and local surveys in the United States, delineating the advantages and disadvantages for each indicator. The report begins with a legend to assist in interpreting the tables and includes contact information for national and state surveys. The remainder of…

  16. Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

  17. Retractable Visual Indicator Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackler, George R. (Inventor); Gamboa, Ronald J. (Inventor); Dominquez, Victor (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A retractable indicator assembly may be mounted on a container which transmits air through the container and removes deleterious gases with an activated charcoal medium in the container. The assembly includes: an elongate indicator housing has a chamber therein; a male adaptor with an external threads is used for sealing engagement with the container; a plug located at the upper end of the housing; a housing that includes a transparent wall portion for viewing at least a portion of the chamber; a litmus indicator, moveable by a retractable rod from a retracted position within the container to an extended position within the chamber of the housing; and an outer housing that is secured to the upper end of the rod, and protects the indicator housing while the litmus indicator is in its normally retracted position. The assembly may be manually manipulated between its extended position wherein the litmus indicator may be viewed through the transparent wall of the indicator housing, and a retracted position wherein the outer housing encloses the indicator housing and engages the exterior of the container.

  18. Developing Scoring Algorithms (Earlier Methods)

    Cancer.gov

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  19. Classifying Cereal Data (Earlier Methods)

    Cancer.gov

    The DSQ includes questions about cereal intake and allows respondents up to two responses on which cereals they consume. We classified each cereal reported first by hot or cold, and then along four dimensions: density of added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium.

  20. GIS Teacher Training: Empirically-Based Indicators of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Höhnle, Steffen; Fögele, Janis; Mehren, Rainer; Schubert, Jan Christoph

    2016-01-01

    In spite of various actions, the implementation of GIS (geographic information systems) in German schools is still very low. In the presented research, teaching experts as well as teaching novices were presented with empirically based constraints for implementation stemming from an earlier survey. In the process of various group discussions, the…

  1. Ten NCI Researchers Among Spring Research Festival Award Winners | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    In a ceremony at the Fort Detrick Community Activities Center earlier this week, Maj. Gen. Barbara R. Holcomb, the commanding officer of the Fort Detrick garrison, distributed the awards for outstanding presentations and posters at the 2017 Spring Research Festival.

  2. A reversal of the shift towards earlier spring phenology in several Mediterranean reptiles and amphibians during the 1998-2013 warming slowdown.

    PubMed

    Prodon, Roger; Geniez, Philippe; Cheylan, Marc; Devers, Florence; Chuine, Isabelle; Besnard, Aurelien

    2017-12-01

    Herps, especially amphibians, are particularly susceptible to climate change, as temperature tightly controls many parameters of their biological cycle-above all, their phenology. The timing of herps' activity or migration period-in particular the dates of their first appearance in spring and first breeding-and the shift to earlier dates in response to warming since the last quarter of the 20 th century has often been described up to now as a nearly monotonic trend towards earlier phenological events. In this study, we used citizen science data opportunistically collected on reptiles and amphibians in the northern Mediterranean basin over a period of 32 years to explore temporal variations in herp phenology. For 17 common species, we measured shifts in the date of the species' first spring appearance-which may be the result of current changes in climate-and regressed the first appearance date against temperatures and precipitations. Our results confirmed the expected overall trend towards earlier first spring appearances from 1983 to 1997, and show that the first appearance date of both reptiles and amphibians fits well with the temperature in late winter. However, the trend towards earlier dates was stopped or even reversed in most species between 1998 and 2013. We interpret this reversal as a response to cooling related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in the late winter and early spring. During the positive NAO episodes, for certain species only (mainly amphibians), the effect of a warm weather, which tends to advance the phenology, seems to be counterbalanced by the adverse effects of the relative dryness. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Ahead of others in the authorship order: names with middle initials appear earlier in author lists of academic articles in psychology

    PubMed Central

    Igou, Eric R.; van Tilburg, Wijnand A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Middle name initials are often used by people in contexts where intellectual performance matters. Given this association, middle initials in people’s names indicate intellectual capacity and performance (Van Tilburg and Igou, 2014). In the current research, we examined whether middle initials are associated with a typical academic indicator of intellectual performance: authorship order of journal articles. In psychology, authorship early in the author list of an article should correspond with greater contribution to this intellectual endeavor compared to authorship appearing later in the author list. Given that middle initials indicate intellectual capacity and performance, we investigated whether there would be a positive relationship between middle initials in author names and early (vs. late) appearance of names in author lists of academic journal articles in psychology. In two studies, we examined the relationship between amount of authors’ middle initials and authorship order. Study 1 used a sample of 678 articles from social psychology journals published in the years 2006 and 2007. Study 2 used a sample of 696 articles from journals of multiple sub-disciplines in psychology published in the years from 1970 to 2013. Middle initials in author names were overrepresented early (vs. late) in author lists. We discuss implications of our findings for academic decisions on authorship orders, potential avenues of further investigation, and applications. PMID:25954226

  4. Age of diagnosis of breast cancer in china: almost 10 years earlier than in the United States and the European union.

    PubMed

    Song, Qing-Kun; Li, Jing; Huang, Rong; Fan, Jin-Hu; Zheng, Rong-Shou; Zhang, Bao-Ning; Zhang, Bin; Tang, Zhong-Hua; Xie, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Hong-Jian; He, Jian-Jun; Li, Hui; Li, Jia-Yuan; Qiao, You-Lin; Chen, Wan-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to describe the age distribution of breast cancer diagnosis among Chinese females for comparison with the United States and the European Union, and provide evidence for the screening target population in China. Median age was estimated from hospital databases from 7 tertiary hospitals in China. Population-based data in China, United States and European Union was extracted from the National Central Cancer Registry, SEER program and GLOBOCAN 2008, respectively. Age-standardized distribution of breast cancer at diagnosis in the 3 areas was estimated based on the World Standard Population 2000. The median age of breast cancer at diagnosis was around 50 in China, nearly 10 years earlier than United States and European Union. The diagnosis age in China did not vary between subgroups of calendar year, region and pathological characteristics. With adjustment for population structure, median age of breast cancer at diagnosis was 50~54 in China, but 55~59 in United States and European Union. The median diagnosis age of female breast cancer is much earlier in China than in the United States and the European Union pointing to racial differences in genetics and lifestyle. Screening programs should start at an earlier age for Chinese women and age disparities between Chinese and Western women warrant further studies.

  5. Moderately premature infants at Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program in California are discharged home earlier than their peers in Massachusetts and the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Profit, J; Zupancic, J A F; McCormick, M C; Richardson, D K; Escobar, G J; Tucker, J; Tarnow‐Mordi, W; Parry, G

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare gestational age at discharge between infants born at 30–34+6 weeks gestational age who were admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in California, Massachusetts, and the United Kingdom. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting Fifty four United Kingdom, five California, and five Massachusetts NICUs. Subjects A total of 4359 infants who survived to discharge home after admission to an NICU. Main outcome measures Gestational age at discharge home. Results The mean (SD) postmenstrual age at discharge of the infants in California, Massachusetts, and the United Kingdom were 35.9 (1.3), 36.3 (1.3), and 36.3 (1.9) weeks respectively (p  =  0.001). Compared with the United Kingdom, adjusted discharge of infants occurred 3.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4 to 6.5) days earlier in California, and 0.9 (95% CI −1.2 to 3.0) days earlier in Massachusetts. Conclusions Infants of 30–34+6 weeks gestation at birth admitted and cared for in hospitals in California have a shorter length of stay than those in the United Kingdom. Certain characteristics of the integrated healthcare approach pursued by the health maintenance organisation of the NICUs in California may foster earlier discharge. The California system may provide opportunities for identifying practices for reducing the length of stay of moderately premature infants. PMID:16449257

  6. Decreased length of stay and earlier oral feeding associated with standardized postoperative clinical care for total gastrectomies at a cancer center.

    PubMed

    Selby, Luke V; Rifkin, Marissa B; Yoon, Sam S; Ariyan, Charlotte E; Strong, Vivian E

    2016-09-01

    Standardization of postoperative care has been shown to decrease postoperative length of stay. In June 2009, we standardized postoperative care for all gastrectomies at our institution. Four years' worth of total gastrectomies (2 years prior to standardization and 2 years after standardization) were reviewed to determine the effect of standardization on postoperative care, length of stay, complications, and readmissions. Between June 2007 and July 2011, 99 patients underwent curative intent open total gastrectomy: 51 patients prior to standardization, and 48 patients poststandardization. Patients were predominantly male (70%); median age was 63; and median body mass index was 26. Standardization of postoperative care was associated with a decrease in median time to beginning both clear liquids and a postgastrectomy diet, earlier removal of epidural catheters, earlier use of oral pain medication, less time receiving intravenous fluids, and decreased length of stay (all P < .01). Groups showed no differences in complication rates, complication severity, diet intolerance, return to our Urgent Care Center, or readmission. Institution of standardized postoperative orders for total gastrectomy was associated with a significantly decreased length of stay and earlier oral feeding without increasing postoperative complications, early postoperative outpatient visits, or readmissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The radon indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuelsson, L.

    2005-11-01

    The radon indicator is an efficient instrument for measuring the radon daughter concentrations in a house or dwelling. Physics or environmental science students could build a radon indicator as a student project. Another possibility would be to use a radon indicator in a student investigation of radon levels in different houses. Finally the radon indicator is an excellent device for producing a radioactive source, free of charge, for the study of α-, β- and γ-radiation. The half-life of the activity collected is approximately 40 min. The radon indicator makes use of an electrostatic method by which charged particles are drawn to a small aluminium plate with a high negative voltage (-5 kV), thus creating a strong electric field between the plate and a surrounding copper wire. The radioactivity on the plate is subsequently measured by a GM-counter and the result calculated in Bq m-3. The collecting time is just 5.5 min and therefore the instrument is only suitable for use in a short-time method for indicating the radon concentration. An improved diagram, ground-radon and/or wall-radon in houses, is presented on the basis of the author's measurements recorded with the radon indicator over many years. This diagram is very useful when discussing how to reduce radiation levels in homes.

  8. Tamper indicating bolt

    DOEpatents

    Blagin, Sergei V.; Barkanov, Boris P.

    2004-09-14

    A tamper-indicating fastener has a cylindrical body with threads extending from one end along a portion of the body, and a tamper indicating having a transducer for converting physical properties of the body into electronic data; electronics for recording the electronic data; and means for communicating the recorded information to a remote location from said fastener. The electronics includes a capacitor that varies as a function of force applied by the fastener, and non-volatile memory for recording instances when the capacitance varies, providing an indication of unauthorized access.

  9. Outcomes of Medically Indicated Preterm Births Differ by Indication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Michelle J; Kuper, Spencer G; Steele, Robin; Sievert, Rachel A; Tita, Alan T; Harper, Lorie M

    2018-07-01

     We aim to examine whether outcomes of preterm birth (PTB) are further modified by the indication for delivery.  We performed a retrospective cohort study of all singletons delivered at 23 to 34 weeks from 2011 to 2014. Women were classified by their primary indication for delivery: maternal (preeclampsia) or fetal/obstetric (growth restriction, nonreassuring fetal status, and vaginal bleeding). The primary neonatal outcome was a composite of neonatal death, cord pH <7 or base excess < - 12, 5-minute Apgar ≤3, C-reactive protein during resuscitation, culture-proven sepsis, intraventricular hemorrhage, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Secondary outcomes included the individual components of the primary outcome. Groups were compared using Student's t -test and chi-squared tests. Logistic regression was used to adjust for confounding variables.  Of 528 women, 395 (74.8%) were delivered for maternal and 133 (25.2%) for fetal/obstetric indications. Compared with those delivered for a maternal indication, those with a fetal/obstetric indication for delivery had an increased risk of the composite neonatal outcome (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-3.21) and acidemia at birth (AOR: 4.2, 95% CI: 1.89-9.55).  Preterm infants delivered for fetal/obstetric indications have worsened outcomes compared with those delivered for maternal indications. Additional research is needed to further tailor counseling specific to the indication for delivery. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Indicators: Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Benthic (meaning “bottom-dwelling”) macroinvertebrates are small aquatic animals and the aquatic larval stages of insects. Benthic macroinvertebrates are commonly used as indicators of the biological condition of waterbodies.

  11. Sustainability Indicators and Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is about preserving human existence. Indicators and metrics are absolutely necessary to provide at least a semi-quantitative assessment of progress towards or away from sustainability. Otherwise, it becomes impossible to objectively assess whether progress is bei...

  12. Health expectancy indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Robine, J. M.; Romieu, I.; Cambois, E.

    1999-01-01

    An outline is presented of progress in the development of health expectancy indicators, which are growing in importance as a means of assessing the health status of populations and determining public health priorities. PMID:10083720

  13. The Chace air indicator.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-01-01

    The study reported here has revealed very poor agreement between air contents determined by the Chace air indicator (CAI) and those by the pressure method. In tests of highway concretes the pressure method gave values typically 30% higher than antici...

  14. Indicators: Sediment Enzymes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sediment enzymes are proteins that are produced by microorganisms living in the sediment or soil. They are indicators of key ecosystem processes and can help determine which nutrients are affecting the biological community of a waterbody.

  15. Indicators: Fish Assemblage

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fish assemblage refers to the variety and abundance of fish species in a given waterbody. Fish are sensitive indicators of physical and chemical habitat degradation, environmental contamination, migration barriers, and overall ecosystem productivity.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Public Health Indicators (EPHIs), quantitative measures of health factors and environmental influences tracked over time, can be used to identify specific areas and populations for intervention and prevention efforts and to evaluate the outcomes of implemented polic...

  17. Health Care Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Donham, Carolyn S.; Letsch, Suzanne W.; Maple, Brenda T.; Singer, Naphtale; Cowan, Cathy A.

    1991-01-01

    Contained in this regular feature of the journal is a section on each of the following four topics community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they provide indicators of the direction and magnitude of health care costs prior to the availability of more comprehensive data. PMID:10112766

  18. Aircraft control position indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Dale V. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An aircraft control position indicator was provided that displayed the degree of deflection of the primary flight control surfaces and the manner in which the aircraft responded. The display included a vertical elevator dot/bar graph meter display for indication whether the aircraft will pitch up or down, a horizontal aileron dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will roll to the left or to the right, and a horizontal dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will turn left or right. The vertical and horizontal display or displays intersect to form an up/down, left/right type display. Internal electronic display driver means received signals from transducers measuring the control surface deflections and determined the position of the meter indicators on each dot/bar graph meter display. The device allows readability at a glance, easy visual perception in sunlight or shade, near-zero lag in displaying flight control position, and is not affected by gravitational or centrifugal forces.

  19. Indicator Systems and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canright, Shelley; Grabowski, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Participants in the workshop session were actively engaged in a hands-on, minds-on approach to learning about indicators and evaluation processes. The six hour session was broken down into three two hour sessions. Each session was built upon an instructional model which moved from general understanding to specific IITA application. Examples and practice exercises served to demonstrate tand reinforce the workshop concepts. Each successive session built upon the previous session and addressed the major steps in the evaluation process. The major steps covered in the workshop included: project descriptions, writing goals and objectives for categories, determining indicators and indicator systems for specific projects, and methods and issues of data collection. The workshop served as a baseline upon which the field centers will build during the summer in undertaking a comprehensive examination and evaluation of their existing K-12 education projects.

  20. Enzymatic temperature change indicator

    DOEpatents

    Klibanov, Alexander M.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    1989-01-21

    A temperature change indicator is described which is composed of an enzyme and a substrate for that enzyme suspended in a solid organic solvent or mixture of solvents as a support medium. The organic solvent or solvents are chosen so as to melt at a specific temperature or in a specific temperature range. When the temperature of the indicator is elevated above the chosen, or critical temperature, the solid organic solvent support will melt, and the enzymatic reaction will occur, producing a visually detectable product which is stable to further temperature variation.

  1. Eight indicators of unilateral pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Melchionne, Kevin

    2010-12-01

    Unintended pregnancy often leads to undesirable outcomes for both mothers and children. However, the definition of unintended pregnancy in the sociology of family formation has been restricted to the intentions of mothers. The intentions of fathers--and, with them, the possible role of disagreement about pregnancy intention--remain outside most conceptual frameworks and research programs. This article draws together a number of indicators of unilateral pregnancy in research on contemporary family formation in the United States. Studies of pregnancy intendedness and contraceptive use consistently provide evidence suggesting a significant role for unilateral pregnancy in family formation. Working on the assumption that unilateral pregnancy presents great potential for social dislocation, this article argues for the integration of the concept of unilateral pregnancy into the theoretical framework informing research on family formation.

  2. M-Mode Ultrasound Reveals Earlier Gluteus Minimus Activity in Individuals With Chronic Hip Pain During a Step-down Task.

    PubMed

    Dieterich, Angela V; Deshon, Louise; Strauss, Geoffrey R; McKay, Jan; Pickard, Christine M

    2016-04-01

    Controlled laboratory study. The hip abductor muscles are important hip joint stabilizers. Hip joint pain may alter muscle recruitment. Motion-mode (M-mode) ultrasound enables noninvasive measurements of the onset of deep and superficial muscle motion, which is associated with activation onset. To compare (1) the onset of superficial and deep gluteus medius and gluteus minimus muscle motion relative to the instant of peak ground reaction force and (2) the level of swing-phase muscle motion during step-down between subjects with chronic hip pain and controls using M-mode ultrasound. Thirty-five subjects with anterior, nontraumatic hip pain for more than 6 months (mean ± SD age, 54 ± 9 years) and 35 controls (age, 57 ± 7 years) were scanned on the lateral hip of the leading leg during frontal step-down onto a force platform using M-mode ultrasound. Computerized motion detection with the Teager-Kaiser energy operator was applied on the gluteus minimus and the deep and superficial gluteus medius to determine the time lag between muscle motion onset and instant of peak ground reaction force and the level of gluteus minimus motion during the swing phase. Time lags and motion levels were averaged per subject, and t tests were used to determine between-group differences. In participants with hip pain, gluteus minimus motion onset was 103 milliseconds earlier (P = .002) and superficial gluteus medius motion was 70 milliseconds earlier (P = .047) than those in healthy control participants. The level of gluteus minimus swing-phase motion was higher with pain (P = .006). Increased gluteus minimus motion during the swing phase and earlier gluteus minimus and superficial gluteus medius motion in individuals with hip pain suggest an overall increase of muscle activity, possibly a protective behavior.

  3. Does patient reporting lead to earlier detection of drug safety signals? A retrospective comparison of time to reporting between patients and healthcare professionals in a global database.

    PubMed

    Rolfes, Leàn; van Hunsel, Florence; Caster, Ola; Taavola, Henric; Taxis, Katja; van Puijenbroek, Eugène

    2018-03-09

    To explore if there is a difference between patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs) in time to reporting drug-adverse drug reaction (ADR) associations that led to drug safety signals. This was a retrospective comparison of time to reporting selected drug-ADR associations which led to drug safety signals between patients and HCPs. ADR reports were selected from the World Health Organization Global database of individual case safety reports, VigiBase. Reports were selected based on drug-ADR associations of actual drug safety signals. Primary outcome was the difference in time to reporting between patients and HCPs. The date of the first report for each individual signal was used as time zero. The difference in time between the date of the reports and time zero was calculated. Statistical differences in timing were analysed on the corresponding survival curves using a Mann-Whitney U test. In total, 2822 reports were included, of which 52.7% were patient reports, with a median of 25% for all included signals. For all signals, median time to signal detection was 10.4 years. Overall, HCPs reported earlier than patients: median 7.0 vs. 8.3 years (P < 0.001). Patients contributed a large proportion of reports on drug-ADR pairs that eventually became signals. HCPs reported 1.3 year earlier than patients. These findings strengthen the evidence on the value of patient reporting in signal detection and highlight an opportunity to encourage patients to report suspected ADRs even earlier in the future. © 2018 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  4. What have we learned after more than 30 years of research into the effects of sunlight, water type, nutrients, temperature and biotic interactions on decay of fecal indicators and pathogens?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many waterborne pathogens originate in the gastrointestinal tract of humans or other animals (the primary habitat), and enter water bodies (secondary habitat) via direct fecal deposition, runoff, or sewage discharges. Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) such as fecal coliforms, entero...

  5. Indicators: Dissolved Oxygen

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is the amount of oxygen that is present in water. It is an important measure of water quality as it indicates a water body's ability to support aquatic life. Water bodies receive oxygen from the atmosphere and from aquatic plants.

  6. Science & Engineering Indicators--1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. National Science Board.

    This volume is the ninth in the biennial "Science Indicators" series initiated by the National Science Board. The series provides a broad base of quantitative information about the structure and function of United States science and technology and comparisons with other advanced industrial countries. An overview of science and technology…

  7. Lichen indicator [Section 4

    Treesearch

    Paul L. Patterson; Susan Will-Wolf; Marie T. Trest

    2009-01-01

    Lichens are very responsive to environmental stressors in forests, including changes in forest structure, air quality, and climate. Each lichen species on a plot is an indicator of how lichen communities respond to ecological conditions. Individual lichen species occur erratically and even common species are often absent from plots with suitable habitat. The combined...

  8. ZERO-TIME INDICATOR

    DOEpatents

    Sander, H.H.

    1960-08-30

    The travel time of a nuclear shock wave from its point of origin to a location can be determined accurately by an apparatus for noting and comparably recording both zerotime, as indicated by the electromagnetic transient associated with the nuclear detonation, and shock wave arrival time.

  9. Landscape-based Indicators

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is based on data and experience gained through the GLNPO-funded Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Consortium (GLCWC) and the EPA-STAR funded Great Lakes Ecological Indicators Project (GLEI). EPA-MED author Trebitz and other MED personnel were collaborators on the GLEI proje...

  10. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  11. Triboluminescent indicator system

    DOEpatents

    Goods, Steven H.; Dentinger, Paul M.; Whinnery, Jr., Leroy L.

    2003-06-24

    There is provided a light emitting device comprising a plurality of triboluminescent particles dispersed throughout a low density, frangible body and activated by rapidly crushing the body in order to transfer mechanical energy to some portion of the particles. The light emitted by these mechanically excited particles is collected and directed into a light conduit and transmitted to a detector/indicator means.

  12. Performance Indicators in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, David J.

    Evaluation of education involves assessing the effectiveness of schools and trying to determine how best to improve them. Since evaluation often deals only with the question of effectiveness, performance indicators in education are designed to make evaluation more complete. They are a set of statistical models which relate several important…

  13. Documentation for the machine-readable version of A Finding List of Stars of Spectral Type F2 and Earlier in a North Galactic Pole Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The machine-readable data set is the result of an objective-prism survey made with an 80 cm/120 cm Schmidt telescope. The F2 and earlier stars were isolated from later type objects by using the MK classification criteria. The catalog contains 601 stars and includes cross identifications to the BD and HD catalogs, coordinates, photographic magnitudes and spectral types. A separate file contains the remarks from the original data tables merged with those following the data. The machine-readable files are described.

  14. Science & Engineering Indicators--1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. National Science Board.

    This report provides policymakers in both the public and private sectors with a broad base of quantitative information about U.S. science and engineering (S&E) research and education and U.S. technology in a global context. Chapter 1, "Elementary and Secondary Science and Mathematics Education," discusses the student's achievement, interest,…

  15. The Transfer Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arthur M.

    1991-01-01

    Inconsistencies in the definition of transfer from two-year to four-year institutions and in the calculation of the transfer rate have given rise to incongruous findings. For example, one researcher in 1989 reported a transfer rate of less than 12% for the colleges in Illinois at the same time that the Chancellor's Office of the California…

  16. Trochleoplasty: Indications and Technique.

    PubMed

    Nolan, John E; Schottel, Patrick C; Endres, Nathan K

    2018-05-09

    Trochlear dysplasia is a well-described risk factor for patellar instability. Trochleoplasty has emerged as a procedure within the surgical armamentarium for patellar instability, yet its role is unclear. A variety of trochleoplasty procedures have emerged. The purpose of this review is to clarify indications for trochleoplasty, outline the technical steps involved in performing common trochleoplasties and report the published outcomes and potential complications of these procedures. Patellar instability with severe trochlear dysplasia is the main indication for trochleoplasty. Three types of trochleoplasty have emerged: (1) lateral facet elevation; (2) sulcus deepening; and (3) recession wedge. Deepening and recession wedge trochleoplasties are the most commonly performed. Trochleoplasty is a surgical option for addressing patellar instability in patients with severe trochlear dysplasia. Deepening and recession wedge trochleoplasties that address Dejour B and D dysplastic trochleas are the most studied, with both short- and midterm outcomes reported. Long-term outcomes are lacking and comparative studies are needed.

  17. Health Care Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Donham, Carolyn S.; Sensenig, Arthur L.

    1994-01-01

    This regular feature of the journal includes a discussion of each of the following four topics: community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; health care prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they allow us to anticipate the direction and magnitude of health care cost changes prior to the availability of more comprehensive data. PMID:10142373

  18. Cholesteatoma has a high prevalence in Turner syndrome, highlighting the need for earlier diagnosis and the potential benefits of otoscopy training for paediatricians.

    PubMed

    Lim, D B N; Gault, E J; Kubba, H; Morrissey, M S C; Wynne, D M; Donaldson, M D C

    2014-07-01

    Girls with Turner syndrome are prone to cholesteatoma, a serious suppurative middle ear disease. We aimed to confirm its high prevalence in Turner syndrome, identify risk factors and suggest possible strategies for earlier detection. We reviewed 179 girls with Turner syndrome between 1989 and 2012 to identify cases of cholesteatoma. Seven girls (3.9%) had cholesteatoma (index girls) and each was compared with three age-matched girls without cholesteatoma (comparison girls). All the index girls had either the 45,X or 45,X/46X,i(Xq) karyotypes. Nine ears were initially affected, with three recurrences in two girls. Median age at first cholesteatoma presentation was 11.9 years (range: 7.5-15.2), with otorrhoea for three (range: one to seven) months in all 12 affected ears. Index girls had a significantly higher proportion of previous recurrent acute (p = 0.007) and chronic otitis media (p = 0.008), chronic perforation (p = 0.038) aural polyps (p < 0.0001) and tympanic membrane retraction (p = 0.0001) than comparison girls. Cholesteatoma has a high prevalence in Turner syndrome. Risk factors include 45,X and 46,XiXq karyotypes; a history of chronic otitis media, tympanic membrane retraction and persistent otorrhoea; and older age. Earlier recognition of ear disease is needed and otoscopy training for paediatricians caring for Turner syndrome patients may be beneficial. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Reanalysis of the occurrence of back pain among construction workers: modelling for the interdependent effects of heavy physical work, earlier back accidents, and aging.

    PubMed

    Nurminen, M

    1997-11-01

    To re-examine the relation between heavy physical work and the occurrence of sciatic pain among construction workers reported previously to be absent in an epidemiological study. METHODS-Poisson log linear regression was used to model for the frequency of sciatic pain among concrete reinforcement workers and maintenance house painters with adjustment for the interactive effects of earlier back accidents and aging that modified the relation. Concrete reinforcement work not only had a direct effect on the frequency of sciatic pain, but it also contributed significantly to the risk indirectly through earlier back accidents. The risk of sciatic pain increased from age 25 to 54 in a different manner for a worker depending on his occupational group and record of back accidents. Epidemiological studies on low back pain need to be analysed with sound methodology. This is important in view of future meta-analyses that will be performed for the purpose of providing guidelines on the prevention of back disorders in heavy physical work.

  20. Oral Exposure to Paraquat Triggers Earlier Expression of Phosphorylated α-Synuclein in the Enteric Nervous System of A53T Mutant Human α-Synuclein Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Naudet, Nicolas; Antier, Emilie; Gaillard, Damien; Morignat, Eric; Lakhdar, Latifa; Baron, Thierry; Bencsik, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The misfolded α-synuclein protein, phosphorylated at serine 129 (pSer129 α-syn), is the hallmark of Parkinson disease (PD). Detected also in the enteric nervous system (ENS), it supports the recent theory that PD could start in the gut, rather than the brain. In a previous study, using a transgenic mouse model of human synucleinopathies expressing the A53T mutant α-synuclein (TgM83), in which a neurodegenerative process associated with α-synuclein occurs spontaneously in the brain, we have shown earlier onset of pSer129 α-syn in the ENS. Here, we used this model to study the impact of paraquat (PQ) a neurotoxic herbicide incriminated in PD in agricultural workers) on the enteric pSer129 α-syn expression in young mice. Orally delivered in the drinking water at 10 mg/kg/day for 6–8 weeks, the impact of PQ was measured in a time-dependent manner on weight, locomotor abilities, pSer129 α-syn, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression levels in the ENS. Remarkably, pSer129 α-syn was detected in ENS earlier under PQ oral exposure and enteric GFAP expression was also increased. These findings bring additional support to the theory that neurotoxic agents such as PQ initiate idiopathic PD after oral delivery. PMID:29040593

  1. Oral Exposure to Paraquat Triggers Earlier Expression of Phosphorylated α-Synuclein in the Enteric Nervous System of A53T Mutant Human α-Synuclein Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Naudet, Nicolas; Antier, Emilie; Gaillard, Damien; Morignat, Eric; Lakhdar, Latifa; Baron, Thierry; Bencsik, Anna

    2017-12-01

    The misfolded α-synuclein protein, phosphorylated at serine 129 (pSer129 α-syn), is the hallmark of Parkinson disease (PD). Detected also in the enteric nervous system (ENS), it supports the recent theory that PD could start in the gut, rather than the brain. In a previous study, using a transgenic mouse model of human synucleinopathies expressing the A53T mutant α-synuclein (TgM83), in which a neurodegenerative process associated with α-synuclein occurs spontaneously in the brain, we have shown earlier onset of pSer129 α-syn in the ENS. Here, we used this model to study the impact of paraquat (PQ) a neurotoxic herbicide incriminated in PD in agricultural workers) on the enteric pSer129 α-syn expression in young mice. Orally delivered in the drinking water at 10 mg/kg/day for 6-8 weeks, the impact of PQ was measured in a time-dependent manner on weight, locomotor abilities, pSer129 α-syn, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression levels in the ENS. Remarkably, pSer129 α-syn was detected in ENS earlier under PQ oral exposure and enteric GFAP expression was also increased. These findings bring additional support to the theory that neurotoxic agents such as PQ initiate idiopathic PD after oral delivery. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc.

  2. Social Area Indicators of Educational Need. A Study of the Use of Census Descriptions of School Neighbourhoods in Guiding Decisions Concerning the Allocation of Resources to Educationally Disadvantaged Schools in Australia. ACER Research Monograph No. 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Kenneth N.

    The purpose of this study was to develop, validate, and describe indicators of educational disadvantage to be used in Australia to identify schools and students most in need of assistance from the Disadvantaged Schools Program. Initially, a detailed review was prepared of the resource allocation responses which have been made in Australia to the…

  3. Tamper-indicating seal

    DOEpatents

    Fiarman, S.; Degen, M.F.; Peters, H.F.

    1982-08-13

    There is disclosed a tamper-indicating seal that permits in the field inspection and detection of tampering. Said seal comprises a shrinkable tube having a visible pattern of markings which is shrunk over th item to be sealed, and a second transparent tube, having a second visible marking pattern, which is shrunk over the item and the first tube. The relationship between the first and second set of markings produces a pattern so that the seal may not be removed without detection. The seal is particularly applicable to UF/sub 6/ cylinder valves.

  4. Health indicators 1991.

    PubMed

    Dawson, N

    1991-01-01

    This is the second edition of a database developed by the Canadian Centre for Health Information (CCHI). It features 49 health indicators, under one cover containing the most recent data available from a variety of national surveys. This information may be used to establish health goals for the population and to offer objective measures of their success. The database can be accessed through CANSIM, Statistics Canada's socio-economic electronic database and retrieval system, or through a personal computer package which enables the user to retrieve and analyze the 1.2 million data points in the system.

  5. Electroconvulsive therapy and its different indications

    PubMed Central

    Baghai, Thomas C.; Möller, Hans-Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    In spite of recent developments in the pharmacotherapy of depressive disorders, the delay until clinical improvement can be achieved, and the considerable rate of nonresponse and nonremission, are major problems which remain unresolved. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a nonpharmacoloqic bioloqical treatment which has been proven to be a highly effective treatment option, predominantly for depression, but also for schizophrenia and other indications. Though there is a lack of controlled investigations on long-term treatments, ECT can also be used for relapse prevention during maintenance therapies. The safety and tolerabitity of electroconvulsive treatment have been enhanced by the use of modified stimulation techniques and by progress in modern anesthesia. Thus, today a safe treatment can also be offered to patients with higher somatic risks, ECT still represents an important option, especially in the therapy of treatmentresistant psychiatric disorders after medication treatment failures. Earlier consideration of ECT may reduce the rate of chronic and difficult-to-treat psychiatric disorders. PMID:18472488

  6. Pavement Functional Condition Indicators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-01

    HiuhSiwed Rnod ffiillh’ hquiimml h’vulu- uimii. Keseareh Report No 7,vi (Center for Highway Keseareh, I he I niversiiN ol lesas at Austin. 1%K). "• Ko ^er S...III Scull AFB. Illim.is i?) Ko >al At-’ Wi«)dlifut(jf, 1-Jif>laral 111 Kiiiiliduc Al-H. Mk-liijjan (4) Zijvibnwkfii AH. limuam IS) Miiioi AKB, Norlh...K.J. IVters. Surltur hruiimi Slmly iif \\II nmi Hinhuury HKK-TI (Hifilm.iy Research Board. 147.1). "’I /uhi .oiil I. Sko «. A SIIKIV HI ihf

  7. Enhanced tamper indicator

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.

    2003-07-08

    The present invention provides an apparatus and method whereby the reliability and tamper-resistance of tamper indicators can be improved. A flexible connector may be routed through a latch for an enclosure such as a door or container, and the free ends of the flexible connector may be passed through a first locking member and firmly attached to an insert through the use of one or more attachment members such as set screws. A second locking member may then be assembled in interlocking relation with the first locking member to form an interlocked assembly around the insert. The insert may have one or more sharp projections extending toward the first or second locking member so that any compressive force applied in an attempt to disassemble the interlocked assembly results in permanent, visible damage to the first or second locking member.

  8. International energy indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, E., Jr.

    1981-12-01

    Data on international energy indicators were tabulated and graphically represented. The following data are presented: world crude oil production, 1974 to October 1981; OPEC crude oil productive capacity; world crude oil and refined product inventory levels, 1975 to October, 1981; oil consumption in OECD countries, 1975 to October 1981; USSR crude oil production and exports, 1975 to October 1981; free world and US nuclear electricity generation, 1973 to December, 1981 and current capacity. Specific US data presented are: US domestic oil supply, 1977 to June, 1981; US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973 to October, 1981; landed cost of Saudi crude current and 1974 dollars; US coal trade, 1975 to September, 1981; US natural gas trade, 1981; and energy/GNP ratio.

  9. Flammability Indices for Refrigerants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Osami

    This paper introduces a new index to classify flammable refrigerants. A question on flammability indices that ASHRAE employs arose from combustion test results of R152a and ammonia. Conventional methods of not only ASHRAE but also ISO and Japanese High-pressure gas safety law to classify the flammability of refrigerants are evaluated to show why these methods conflict with the test results. The key finding of this paper is that the ratio of stoichiometric concentration to LFL concentration (R factor) represents the test results most precisely. In addition, it has excellent correlation with other flammability parameters such as flame speed and pressure rise coefficient. Classification according to this index gives reasonable flammability order of substances including ammonia, R152a and carbon monoxide. Theoretical background why this index gives good correlation is also discussed as well as the insufficient part of this method.

  10. Callous-Unemotional Traits Trajectories Interact with Earlier Conduct Problems and Executive Control to Predict Violence and Substance Use Among High Risk Male Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Waller, Rebecca; Fish, Ari M; Hyde, Luke W

    2015-11-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, conduct problems (CP), and deficits in executive control are all linked to the development of more severe antisocial behavior, including violence and substance use. Though previous research has examined the impact of these factors on antisocial outcomes, little work has examined trajectories of CU traits across adolescence and how these trajectories predict greater antisocial behavior in adulthood. Moreover, no study has assessed how severity of early CP and executive control may exacerbate these pathways and increase risk for later violence and substance use. The current study (a) identified trajectories of CU traits among a large, high-risk sample of adolescent males, (b) examined the relationship between CU traits trajectories and future violence and substance use, and (c) examined whether early CP and executive control moderated the effects of a high CU traits trajectory membership and high CP on violence and substance use. Results indicated that: (a) CU traits could be grouped into three stable trajectories across adolescence, (b) the 'high' CU traits trajectory, particularly in the presence of 'elevated' CP, was related to higher violence and substance use, over and above a variety of environmental risk factors, and (c) the effects the 'high' CU traits trajectory on both violence and substance and in the presence of 'elevated' CP was stronger among youth with high executive control. These findings highlight the utility of identifying subgroups of youth who differ on trajectories of CU traits for understanding the development and maintenance of severe antisocial behavior.

  11. Verbal abuse, like physical and sexual abuse, in childhood is associated with an earlier onset and more difficult course of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Post, Robert M; Altshuler, Lori L; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L; Frye, Mark A; Rowe, Michael; Leverich, Gabriele S; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E; Nolen, Willem A

    2015-05-01

    Physical or sexual abuse in childhood is known to have an adverse effect on the course of bipolar disorder, but the impact of verbal abuse has not been well elucidated. We examined the occurrence and frequency (never to frequently) of each type of abuse in childhood in 634 US adult outpatients (average age 40 years). Patients gave informed consent and provided information about their age of onset and course of illness prior to study entry. Verbal abuse alone occurred in 24% of the patients. Similar to a history of physical or sexual abuse, a history of verbal abuse was related to an earlier age of onset of bipolar disorder and other poor prognosis characteristics, including anxiety and substance abuse comorbidity, rapid cycling, and a deteriorating illness course as reflected in ratings of increasing frequency or severity of mania and depression. A lasting adverse impact of the experience of verbal abuse in childhood is suggested by its relationship to an earlier age of onset of bipolar disorder, other poor prognosis factors, and a deteriorating course of illness. Verbal abuse is a common confound in comparison groups defined by a lack of physical or sexual abuse. Ameliorating the impact of verbal abuse on the unfolding course of bipolar disorder appears to be an important target of therapeutics and worthy of attempts at primary and secondary prophylaxis. Family-based treatments that focus on psychoeducation, enhancing intra-family communication, and coping skills may be particularly helpful. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Increased body mass index is associated with earlier time to loss of response to infliximab in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Harper, Jason W; Sinanan, Mika N; Zisman, Timothy L

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is an emerging problem in the care of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and has been associated with a diminished response to adalimumab. Whether obesity influences the response to infliximab (IFX) is not known. A retrospective cohort of 124 subjects with IBD initiating IFX, naive to biologic therapy, was identified. Subjects were stratified according to their weight and body mass index (BMI). The primary outcome was the first occurrence of an IBD flare defined as dose escalation of IFX, corticosteroid use, discontinuation of IFX, hospitalization, or surgery. Multivariable logistic regression was performed considering body mass and BMI as categorical and continuous variables. Obese (BMI > 30 kg/m) patients with Crohn's disease were more likely to have an IBD flare than nonobese patients (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 3.03, P < 0.001); overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m) patients with ulcerative colitis trended toward a similar observation (HR: 9.68, P = 0.06). When considered as continuous variables, increasing mass and BMI were associated with earlier IBD flare in both Crohn's disease (adjusted HR: 1.06 per unit increase in BMI [P = 0.02] and 1.02 per kg increase in body mass [P = 0.02]) and ulcerative colitis (adjusted HR: 1.3 per unit increase in BMI [P = 0.01] and 1.11 per kg increase in body mass [P = 0.004]). Increased body weight is associated with an earlier time to loss of response to IFX in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, a novel finding given that IFX is the only antitumor necrosis factor agent whose dosing reflects increased body weight.

  13. Impact of 6-month earlier versus postponed initiation of rotigotine on long-term outcome: post hoc analysis of patients with early Parkinson's disease with mild symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Timmermann, Lars; Asgharnejad, Mahnaz; Boroojerdi, Babak; Dohin, Elisabeth; Woltering, Franz; Elmer, Lawrence W

    2015-01-01

    Investigate impact of 6-month earlier versus postponed initiation of rotigotine in patients with early Parkinson's disease (PD) with mild symptom severity. Long-term benefit of rotigotine in early-PD has been demonstrated: SP702 (NCT00594165) and SP716 (NCT00599196) were long-term, open-label extensions of double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of 6-month maintenance; rotigotine was well tolerated for up to 6 years, and demonstrated efficacy (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS] II + III below baseline) for ∼ 2 years (SP702) and ∼ 4 years (SP716). Post hoc analysis of patients at Hoehn and Yahr 1-2; groups defined by treatment received in 6-month double-blind studies: 'Rotigotine-Rotigotine' received rotigotine (n = 221), 'Placebo-Rotigotine' received placebo (n = 125). At the start of open-label rotigotine maintenance, UPDRS II + III mean ± SD change from double-blind baseline was: -8.5 ± 10.6 'Rotigotine-Rotigotine', -7.7 ± 9.0 'Placebo-Rotigotine.' After this initial improvement scores gradually increased: It took ∼ 45 months for mean scores to cross baseline in 'Rotigotine-Rotigotine', and ∼ 21 months in 'Placebo-Rotigotine.' At the time mean UPDRS II + III had crossed baseline in 'Placebo-Rotigotine' (open-label week 84; ∼ 21 months), treatment difference (LS-mean) to 'Rotigotine-Rotigotine' change from baseline was -3.89 (95% CI -6.94, -0.84); p = 0.013. In this post hoc analysis, 6-month earlier initiation of rotigotine resulted in slower return to baseline mean UPDRS II + III; initiation of rotigotine in patients with minimal/no functional disability or impairment may lead to an extended benefit.

  14. Adiposity, Dysmetabolic Traits, and Earlier Onset of Female Puberty in Adolescent Offspring of Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Clinical Study Within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Grunnet, Louise G; Hansen, Susanne; Hjort, Line; Madsen, Camilla M; Kampmann, Freja B; Thuesen, Anne Cathrine B; Granstrømi, Charlotta; Strøm, Marin; Maslova, Ekaterina; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Damm, Peter; Chavarro, Jorge E; Hu, Frank B; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Vaag, Allan

    2017-12-01

    Offspring of pregnancies affected by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk of the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the extent to which these dysmetabolic traits may be due to offspring and/or maternal adiposity is unknown. We examined body composition and associated cardiometabolic traits in 561 9- to 16-year-old offspring of mothers with GDM and 597 control offspring. We measured anthropometric characteristics; puberty status; blood pressure; and fasting glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and lipid levels; and conducted a DEXA scan in a subset of the cohort. Differences in the outcomes between offspring of mothers with GDM and control subjects were examined using linear and logistic regression models. After adjustment for age and sex, offspring of mothers with GDM displayed higher weight, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), systolic blood pressure, and resting heart rate and lower height. Offspring of mothers with GDM had higher total and abdominal fat percentages and lower muscle mass percentages, but these differences disappeared after correction for offspring BMI. The offspring of mothers with GDM displayed higher fasting plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, HOMA-insulin resistance (IR), and plasma triglyceride levels, whereas fasting plasma HDL cholesterol levels were decreased. Female offspring of mothers with GDM had an earlier onset of puberty than control offspring. Offspring of mothers with GDM had significantly higher BMI, WHR, fasting glucose, and HOMA-IR levels after adjustment for maternal prepregnancy BMI, and glucose and HOMA-IR remained elevated in the offspring of mothers with GDM after correction for both maternal and offspring BMIs. In summary, adolescent offspring of women with GDM show increased adiposity, an adverse cardiometabolic profile, and earlier onset of puberty among girls. Increased fasting glucose and HOMA-IR levels among the offspring of mothers with GDM may be explained by the programming effects of hyperglycemia

  15. Bangladesh indicators improving.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    In April 1996, at the 52nd Session of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), the delegate from Bangladesh reported improvements in various demographic indicators for Bangladesh. Infant mortality and maternal mortality have fallen to 84/1000 and 4.5/1000, respectively, while life expectancy at birth has risen to 58 years. The Expanded Programme of Immunization and expanded use of oral rehydration therapy have played key roles in improving child survival. The contraceptive prevalence rate is at about 45%. The total fertility rate has decreased from 4.3 to 3.4. The Government of Bangladesh has an action plan to improve the status of women by developing or redirecting political, economic, and social processes and institutions to enable women to participate in decision making at the family, community, national, and international levels. The number of elderly is rising and is rather large in absolute terms; so the Ministry of Social Welfare is addressing problems the elderly encounter. The government's social development policies are geared to minimizing poverty, improving living standards, and developing human resources.

  16. Ergodicity of financial indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, A. V.; Rühl, T.

    2010-05-01

    We introduce the concept of the ensemble averaging for financial markets. We address the question of equality of ensemble and time averaging in their sequence and investigate if these averagings are equivalent for large amount of equity indices and branches. We start with the model of Gaussian-distributed returns, equal-weighted stocks in each index and absence of correlations within a single day and show that even this oversimplified model captures already the run of the corresponding index reasonably well due to its self-averaging properties. We introduce the concept of the instant cross-sectional volatility and discuss its relation to the ordinary time-resolved counterpart. The role of the cross-sectional volatility for the description of the corresponding index as well as the role of correlations between the single stocks and the role of non-Gaussianity of stock distributions is briefly discussed. Our model reveals quickly and efficiently some anomalies or bubbles in a particular financial market and gives an estimate of how large these effects can be and how quickly they disappear.

  17. Stereoelectroencephalography: Indication and Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    IIDA, Koji; OTSUBO, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) is a method for invasive study of patients with refractory epilepsy. Localization of the epileptogenic zone in SEEG relied on the hypothesis of anatomo-electro-clinical analysis limited by X-ray, analog electroencephalography (EEG), and seizure semiology in the 1950s. Modern neuroimaging studies and digital video-EEG have developed the hypothesis aiming at more precise localization of the epileptic network. Certain clinical scenarios favor SEEG over subdural EEG (SDEEG). SEEG can cover extensive areas of bilateral hemispheres with highly accurate sampling from sulcal areas and deep brain structures. A hybrid technique of SEEG and subdural strip electrode placement has been reported to overcome the SEEG limitations of poor functional mapping. Technological advances including acquisition of three-dimensional angiography and magnetic resonance image (MRI) in frameless conditions, advanced multimodal planning, and robot-assisted implantation have contributed to the accuracy and safety of electrode implantation in a simplified fashion. A recent meta-analysis of the safety of SEEG concluded the low value of the pooled prevalence for all complications. The complications of SEEG were significantly less than those of SDEEG. The removal of electrodes for SEEG was much simpler than for SDEEG and allowed sufficient time for data analysis, discussion, and consensus for both patients and physicians before the proceeding treatment. Furthermore, SEEG is applicable as a therapeutic alternative for deep-seated lesions, e.g., nodular heterotopia, in nonoperative epilepsies using SEEG-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation. We review the SEEG method with technological advances for planning and implantation of electrodes. We highlight the indication and efficacy, advantages and disadvantages of SEEG compared with SDEEG. PMID:28637943

  18. Precipitation Indices Low Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Engelen, A. F. V.; Ynsen, F.; Buisman, J.; van der Schrier, G.

    2009-09-01

    Since 1995, KNMI published a series of books(1), presenting an annual reconstruction of weather and climate in the Low Countries, covering the period AD 763-present, or roughly, the last millennium. The reconstructions are based on the interpretation of documentary sources predominantly and comparison with other proxies and instrumental observations. The series also comprises a number of classifications. Amongst them annual classifications for winter and summer temperature and for winter and summer dryness-wetness. The classification of temperature have been reworked into peer reviewed (2) series (AD 1000-present) of seasonal temperatures and temperature indices, the so called LCT (Low Countries Temperature) series, now incorporated in the Millennium databases. Recently we started a study to convert the dryness-wetness classifications into a series of precipitation; the so called LCP (Low Countries Precipitation) series. A brief outline is given here of the applied methodology and preliminary results. The WMO definition for meteorological drought has been followed being that a period is called wet respectively dry when the amount of precipitation is considerable more respectively less than usual (normal). To gain a more quantitative insight for four locations, geographically spread over the Low Countries area (De Bilt, Vlissingen, Maastricht and Uccle), we analysed the statistics of daily precipitation series, covering the period 1900-present. This brought us to the following definition, valid for the Low Countries: A period is considered as (very) dry respectively (very) wet if over a continuous period of at least 60 days (~two months) cq 90 days (~three months) on at least two out of the four locations 50% less resp. 50% more than the normal amount for the location (based on the 1961-1990 normal period) has been measured. This results into the following classification into five drought classes hat could be applied to non instrumental observations: Very wet period

  19. Climate Indicators for Energy and Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilbanks, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Two of the key categories of climate indicators are energy and infrastructure. For energy supply and use, many indicators are available for energy supply and consumption; and some indicators are available to assess implications of climate change, such as changes over time in heating and cooling days. Indicators of adaptation and adaptive capacity are more elusive. For infrastructure, which includes more than a dozen different sectors, general indicators are not available, beyond counts of major disasters and such valuable contributions as the ASCE "report cards." In this case, research is needed, for example to develop credible metrics for assessing the resilience of built infrastructures to climate change and other stresses.

  20. Next-generation genomic shotgun sequencing indicates greater genetic variability in the mitochondria of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix relative to H. nobilis from the Mississippi River, USA and provides tools for research and detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, John J; Eackles, Michael S.; Stauffer, Jay R; King, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    We characterized variation within the mitochondrial genomes of the invasive silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis) from the Mississippi River drainage by mapping our Next-Generation sequences to their publicly available genomes. Variant detection resulted in 338 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for H. molitrix and 39 for H. nobilis. The much greater genetic variation in H. molitrix mitochondria relative to H. nobilis may be indicative of a greater North American female effective population size of the former. When variation was quantified by gene, many tRNA loci appear to have little or no variability based on our results whereas protein-coding regions were more frequently polymorphic. These results provide biologists with additional regions of DNA to be used as markers to study the invasion dynamics of these species.

  1. Community Interests and Indicator System Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Meg

    2009-01-01

    Testing the validity of indicator systems is a task almost always left to the scientific community, in standard practice and in keeping with the quest for objectivity prevalent in politics and in society as a whole. This paper calls for a reinvigorated agenda within indicators research to question this practice and develop alternative…

  2. Future Development of Nursing Home Quality Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arling, Greg; Kane, Robert L.; Lewis, Teresa; Mueller, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Nursing home quality indicators have been developed over the past 10 years to quantify nursing home quality and to draw systematic comparisons between facilities. Although these indicators have been applied widely for nursing home regulation, quality improvement, and public reporting, researchers and stakeholders have raised concerns about their…

  3. [Expression of p27 and proliferative (MIB-1), mitotic (MI) and apoptotic indices in early-phase (EGF) gastric carcinoma. Results of a study by the Italian Gastric Cancer Research Group (IRGGC)].

    PubMed

    Saragoni, L; Morgagni, P; De Manzoni, G; Tomezzoli, A; Roviello, F; Marrelli, D; Di Leo, A; Vindigni, C; Kurihara, H; Fociani, P

    2003-02-01

    Since the Japanese Society for Gastroenterology and Endoscopy (JSGE) introduced the definition of Early Gastric Cancer (EGC), much more and deeper studies were done, which demonstrated that EGC was a more complex phase of the neoplastic disease with different morphologic characteristics, tightly linked to the prognosis. We evaluated the clinical impact of some prognostic factors, known being important in the advanced lesions, in a series of EGC patients with special reference to the clinicomorphological features. We analysed the mitotic (MI) and apoptotic (AI) indices and the immunohistochemical expression of p27 and MIB-1 in 83 EGC cases consecutively recruited in the hospitals of Forlì, Verona, Siena and Milan (IRGGC) in the period 1994-95. The classifications of JSGE, Lauren and Kodama were used to define the macroscopic, microscopic and growth pattern types, respectively. Decreased p27 expression correlated with the macroscopic escavated lesions and diffused mixed histotypes; the increase of MIB-1 detection with tumour size larger than 2 cm, but lesser than 4 cm; MI with intestinal histologic types and AI with mucosal and penetrating lesions, according to Kodama. Statistical analysis showed significative correlations among MIB-1, MI and AI, but not with p27 and the other variables. All these factors did not influence the prognosis of our patients. In our series, p27, MIB-1, MI, and AI did not add any useful clinical. So, in EGC patients the morphological features have still the most important role in influencing the prognosis and treatment of patients.

  4. EPA APPROACH TO EVALUATION OF INDICATORS FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD) is continuing research efforts initiated by the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) on ecological indicator development. An ORD Ecological Indicators Working Group has been form...

  5. A Framework for Sustainability Indicators at EPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this document is to provide useful methods and guidance to support the application of sustainability indicators in EPA decision making, and particularly within the Office of Research and Development’s (ORD) research programs. The primary target audience is EPA rese...

  6. Molecular screening of the ghrelin gene in Italian obese children: the Leu72Met variant is associated with an earlier onset of obesity.

    PubMed

    Miraglia del Giudice, E; Santoro, N; Cirillo, G; Raimondo, P; Grandone, A; D'Aniello, A; Di Nardo, M; Perrone, L

    2004-03-01

    To test whether ghrelin variants could play a role in modulating some aspects of the obese phenotype during childhood. We screened the ghrelin gene in 300 Italian obese children and adolescents (mean age 10.5+/-3.2 y; range 4-19 y) and 200 controls by using the single-strand conformation polymorphism and the restriction fragment length polymoprhism analysis. No mutations were detected with the exception of two previously described polymorphisms, Arg51Gln and Leu72Met. For both variations, allelic frequencies were similar between patients and controls. Interestingly, we showed that the Leu72Met polymorphism was associated with differences in the age at obesity onset. Patients with the Met72 allele became obese earlier than homozygous patients for the wild Leu72 allele. The logrank test comparing the plots of the complement of Kaplan-Meier estimates between the two groups of patients was statistically significant (P<0.0001). It is unlikely that ghrelin variations cause the obesity due to single-gene mutations. The Leu72Met polymorphism of the ghrelin gene seems to play a role in anticipating the onset of obesity among children suggesting, therefore, that ghrelin may be involved in the pathophysiology of human adiposity.

  7. Resistance to Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin accumulation in maize inbred lines involves an earlier and enhanced expression of lipoxygenase (LOX) genes.

    PubMed

    Maschietto, Valentina; Marocco, Adriano; Malachova, Alexandra; Lanubile, Alessandra

    2015-09-01

    Fusarium verticillioides causes ear rot in maize and contaminates the kernels with the fumonisin mycotoxins. It is known that plant lipoxygenase (LOX)-derived oxylipins regulate defence against pathogens and that the host-pathogen lipid cross-talk influences the pathogenesis. The expression profiles of fifteen genes of the LOX pathway were studied in kernels of resistant and susceptible maize lines, grown in field condition, at 3, 7 and 14 days post inoculation (dpi) with F. verticillioides. Plant defence responses were correlated with the pathogen growth, the expression profiles of fungal FUM genes for fumonisin biosynthesis and fumonisin content in the kernels. The resistant genotype limited fungal growth and fumonisin accumulation between 7 and 14 dpi. Pathogen growth became exponential in the susceptible line after 7 dpi, in correspondence with massive transcription of FUM genes and fumonisins augmented exponentially at 14 dpi. LOX pathway genes resulted strongly induced after pathogen inoculation in the resistant line at 3 and 7 dpi, whilst in the susceptible line the induction was reduced or delayed at 14 dpi. In addition, all genes resulted overexpressed before infection in kernels of the resistant genotype already at 3 dpi. The results suggest that resistance in maize may depend on an earlier activation of LOX genes and genes for jasmonic acid biosynthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Executive Control Over Cognition: Stronger and Earlier Rule-Based Modulation of Spatial Category Signals in Prefrontal Cortex Relative to Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Shikha J.; Blackman, Rachael K.; Sakellaridi, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Human cognition is characterized by flexibility, the ability to select not only which action but which cognitive process to engage to best achieve the current behavioral objective. The ability to tailor information processing in the brain to rules, goals, or context is typically referred to as executive control, and although there is consensus that prefrontal cortex is importantly involved, at present we have an incomplete understanding of how computational flexibility is implemented at the level of prefrontal neurons and networks. To better understand the neural mechanisms of computational flexibility, we simultaneously recorded the electrical activity of groups of single neurons within prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex of monkeys performing a task that required executive control of spatial cognitive processing. In this task, monkeys applied different spatial categorization rules to reassign the same set of visual stimuli to alternative categories on a trial-by-trial basis. We found that single neurons were activated to represent spatially defined categories in a manner that was rule dependent, providing a physiological signature of a cognitive process that was implemented under executive control. We found also that neural signals coding rule-dependent categories were distributed between the parietal and prefrontal cortex—however, not equally. Rule-dependent category signals were stronger, more powerfully modulated by the rule, and earlier to emerge in prefrontal cortex relative to parietal cortex. This suggests that prefrontal cortex may initiate the switch in neural representation at a network level that is important for computational flexibility. PMID:22399773

  9. Preoperative left ventricular internal dimension in end-diastole as earlier identification of early patent ductus arteriosus operation and postoperative intensive care in very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Saida, Ken; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Hiroma, Takehiko; Takigiku, Kiyohiro; Yasukochi, Satoshi

    2013-10-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is common in premature infants. In very low birth weight infants (VLBWI), PDA requires surgical therapy in many cases. It is unclear to know at-risk infants showing cardio-dysfunction after PDA surgery. The purpose of this study was to identify at-risk infants showing cardio-dysfunction after surgery for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). We examined the relationship between left ventricular (LV) performance before and after PDA ligation in a retrospective observational cohort study. We studied 64 preterm neonates with symptomatic PDA before and after surgical ligation. Echocardiographic examinations were performed pre- and postoperatively. M-mode measurements included left ventricular internal dimension in end-diastole (LVIDd) and LV fractional shortening (FS). All cases showed decreased LVFS after PDA closure. Most cases (49/64, 77%) showed postoperative FS decreased to below normal (<28%). Preoperative relative LVIDd was significantly larger in abnormal FS infants (137 ± 18%) than in normal FS infants (118 ± 11%; p<0.01). A cut-off value of preoperative relative LVIDd (absolute LVIDd/normal value) for predicting postoperative cardio-dysfunction was 127.4% (sensitivity, 0.735; specificity, 0.933; area under curve, 0.817). Determination of preoperative LVIDd might facilitate earlier identification of infants needing early PDA surgery and postoperative intensive care. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. IGF and myostatin pathways are respectively induced during the earlier and the later stages of skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by clenbuterol, a β₂-adrenergic agonist.

    PubMed

    Abo, Tokuhisa; Iida, Ryo-Hei; Kaneko, Syuhei; Suga, Takeo; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Yamane, Akira

    2012-12-01

    Clenbuterol, a β₂-adrenergic agonist, increases the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) is reported to work as a potent positive regulator in the clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscles. However, the precise regulatory mechanism for the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle induced by clenbuterol is unknown. Myostatin, a member of the TGFβ super family, is a negative regulator of muscle growth. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the function of myostatin and IGF in the hypertrophy of rat masseter muscle induced by clenbuterol. To investigate the function of myostatin and IGF in regulatory mechanism for the clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscles, we analysed the expression of myostatin and phosphorylation levels of myostatin and IGF signaling components in the masseter muscle of rat to which clenbuterol was orally administered for 21 days. Hypertrophy of the rat masseter muscle was induced between 3 and 14 days of oral administration of clenbuterol and was terminated at 21 days. The expression of myostatin and the phosphorylation of smad2/3 were elevated at 21 days. The phosphorylation of IGF receptor 1 (IGFR1) and akt1 was elevated at 3 and 7 days. These results suggest that myostatin functions as a negative regulator in the later stages in the hypertrophy of rat masseter muscle induced by clenbuterol, whereas IGF works as a positive regulator in the earlier stages. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Diagnostic indices for vertiginous diseases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Vertigo and dizziness are symptoms which are reported frequently in clinical practice. We aimed to develop diagnostic indices for four prevalent vertiginous diseases: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Menière's disease (MD), vestibular migraine (VM), and phobic postural vertigo (PPV). Methods Based on a detailed questionnaire handed out to consecutive patients presenting for the first time in our dizziness clinic we preselected a set of seven questions with desirable diagnostic properties when compared with the final diagnosis after medical workup. Using exact logistic regression analysis diagnostic scores, each comprising of four to six items that can simply be added up, were built for each of the four diagnoses. Results Of 193 patients 131 questionnaires were left after excluding those with missing consent or data. Applying the suggested cut-off points, sensitivity and specificity were 87.5 and 93.5% for BPPV, 100 and 87.4% for MD, 92.3 and 83.7% for VM, 73.7 and 84.1% for PPV, respectively. By changing the cut-off points sensitivity and specificity can be adjusted to meet diagnostic needs. Conclusions The diagnostic indices showed promising diagnostic properties. Once further validated, they could provide an ease to use and yet flexible tool for screening vertigo in clinical practice and epidemiological research. PMID:20973968

  12. Spring Indices (SI): National (and Global) Indicators of Climate Impacts on Ecosystems and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt, J. L.; Schwartz, M. D.; Ault, T. R.; McCabe, G. J.; Macalady, A. K.; Pederson, G. T.; Cook, B. P.; Henebry, G. M.; Moore, D. J.; Enquist, C.

    2011-12-01

    Indicators are vital in everyday life, such as tracking blood pressure to assess your health or monitoring the nation's economy using unemployment rates. Tracking the state of the environment in a uniform and integrated manner requires simple and broadly-applicable indicators of year-to-year variability and change. For example, indices such as the Start of Season (SOS) in remotely-sensed land surface phenology, Center of Mass (CM) in the hydrology of snowfed inland waters, and other biogeophysical metrics are being widely used as metrics of global change in seasonal timing. Here, we present a new, standardized spring index (SSI) that uses only daily minimum and maximum temperatures as input. This builds on an earlier version of the spring indices (SI) for lilac and honeysuckle phenology (first leaf and first flower) that required plant chilling to be satisfied over winter. The SSI tracks the transition from winter to spring by tallying phenologically relevant variables, (such as the number and intensity of warm days and total hours of sunlight) from January 1st onward, while ignoring the chilling requirement. This adjustment allows determination of first leaf and first bloom dates across the entire USA, including southernmost latitudes. Outputs from the new SSI is highly correlated with the earlier version, and both models process weather data into indices directly related to growth and development of many plants. Spatially averaged anomalies of SSI are well correlated with remotely sensed data and phenological observations from a wide variety of trees and shrubs in Europe, China, and North America. An advantage of SSI is that it only "sees" the atmosphere, meaning that it is free of local biological effects. Therefore, it can enhance the ability to identify important relationships between the large-scale climate modes of variability and the index itself, an advantage over other plant-based indices (such as SOS). If the state of these atmospheric modes can be

  13. Selected instability indices in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siedlecki, Mariusz

    2009-04-01

    A climatology of various parameters associated with severe weather and convective storms has been created for Europe that involves using radiosounding data collected at the University of Wyoming for the period from 1991 to 2005. The analysis is based on monthly means, frequency distributions of such parameters as convective available potential energy (CAPE), convective inhibition energy (CIN), KI - index, total totals index (TTI), and the severe weather threat index (SWEAT). Monthly average CAPE values exceeding 300 Jkg-1 are observed over the west Mediterranean Sea and the neighboring coastal countries. The similar seasonal cycle and spatial distributions exhibit CIN fields with summer monthly means above 100 Jkg-1 observed on the south part of the researched domain. The KI, TTI, and SWEAT indices, which assess both the lapse ratio between 850 and 500 hPa and low level humidity, show the privileged region (the Alpine area and the Carpathian Basin) with the highest instability conditions. Orography clearly plays an important role in this structure. Farther from this area, the monthly average decreases to the east, west, north, and south of the research domain. Ward’s procedure was applied to create objective regionalization according to instability conditions. This method tends to produce two regions with relatively different instability conditions and few subregions with similar conditions. The first region, covering the Alpine area, the west Mediterranean Sea, west Turkey and the southern Ukraine, is characterized by the highest instability. The rest of the investigated area is the second region with a more stable atmosphere.

  14. White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei that had received the hot-water extract of Spirulina platensis showed earlier recovery in immunity and up-regulation of gene expressions after pH stress.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Tayag, Carina Miranda; Huang, Chien-Lun; Tsui, Wen-Ching; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2010-12-01

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which had been immersed in seawater (35‰, pH 8.2) containing the hot-water extract of Spirulina platensis at 0 (control), 200, 400, and 600 mg L(-1) for 3 h, were transferred to seawater at pH 6.8, and the immune parameters and transcripts of the lipopolysaccharide- and β-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), and integrin β (IB) were examined 6-96 h post-transfer. Shrimp with no exposure to the hot-water extract and no pH change served as the background control. Results indicated that the hyaline cells, granular cells (including semi-granular cells), total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, and lysozyme activity of shrimp transferred to seawater at pH 6.8 significantly decreased to the lowest at 6 h post-transfer. These immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg L(-1) of the extract were significantly higher than those of control shrimp at 24-96 h post-transfer, and had returned to the background values earlier at 48-72 h post-transfer with significant transcripts of LGBP, PX, and IB at 24, 6, and 24 h, respectively, whereas these parameters of control shrimp returned to the original values at ≥96 h post-transfer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Earlier anal sexarche and co-occurring sexual risk are associated with current HIV-related risk behaviors among an online sample of men who have sex with men in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Doug H.; Suharlim, Christian; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Lim, Sin How; Koe, Stuart; Wei, Chongyi

    2014-01-01

    Studies of heterosexual populations across the globe and men who have sex with men (MSM) in a few developed countries showed that earlier sexual debut (sexarche) was associated with higher levels of co-occurring and subsequent HIV risk behaviors. We examined the relationships between earlier anal sexarche, unprotected earlier anal sexarche and current HIV risks among MSM from Asia. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among MSM (N = 10,826) in Asia in 2010. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to identify co-occurring (i.e., sexual experiences during sexarche) and current HIV-related risk factors (i.e., past six months) associated with earlier anal sexarche (before the age of 18) and unprotected earlier anal sexarche, respectively. Earlier anal sexarche was significantly associated with lack of condom use, being anal receptive or both receptive and insertive, and having a partner who were older during sexarche. It was also associated with current HIV-related risk behaviors including having multiple male sexual partners, having been paid for sex, and increased frequencies of recreational drug use. Unprotected earlier anal sexarche was significantly associated with inconsistent condom use in the past the six months. Improved and culturally sensitive sex education at schools should be included in national and regional HIV/AIDS prevention programming and policies in Asia. Such sex education programs should incorporate curriculum that address sexuality, sexual orientation, and sexual behaviors beyond those related to reproductive health. PMID:24920344

  16. Earlier anal sexarche and co-occurring sexual risk are associated with current HIV-related risk behaviors among an online sample of men who have sex with men in Asia.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Doug H; Suharlim, Christian; Guadamuz, Thomas E; Lim, Sin How; Koe, Stuart; Wei, Chongyi

    2014-12-01

    Studies of heterosexual populations across the globe and men who have sex with men (MSM) in a few developed countries showed that earlier sexual debut (sexarche) was associated with higher levels of co-occurring and subsequent HIV risk behaviors. We examined the relationships between earlier anal sexarche, unprotected earlier anal sexarche and current HIV risks among MSM from Asia. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among MSM (N = 10,826) in Asia in 2010. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to identify co-occurring (i.e., sexual experiences during sexarche) and current HIV-related risk factors (i.e., past 6 months) associated with earlier anal sexarche (before the age of 18) and unprotected earlier anal sexarche, respectively. Earlier anal sexarche was significantly associated with lack of condom use, being anal receptive or both receptive and insertive, and having a partner who were older during sexarche. It was also associated with current HIV-related risk behaviors including having multiple male sexual partners, having been paid for sex, and increased frequencies of recreational drug use. Unprotected earlier anal sexarche was significantly associated with inconsistent condom use in the past the 6 months. Improved and culturally sensitive sex education at schools should be included in national and regional HIV/AIDS prevention programming and policies in Asia. Such sex education programs should incorporate curriculum that address sexuality, sexual orientation, and sexual behaviors beyond those related to reproductive health.

  17. Health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of earlier eligibility for adult antiretroviral therapy and expanded treatment coverage: a combined analysis of 12 mathematical models.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Jeffrey W; Menzies, Nicolas A; Stover, John; Cambiano, Valentina; Chindelevitch, Leonid; Cori, Anne; Hontelez, Jan A C; Humair, Salal; Kerr, Cliff C; Klein, Daniel J; Mishra, Sharmistha; Mitchell, Kate M; Nichols, Brooke E; Vickerman, Peter; Bakker, Roel; Bärnighausen, Till; Bershteyn, Anna; Bloom, David E; Boily, Marie-Claude; Chang, Stewart T; Cohen, Ted; Dodd, Peter J; Fraser, Christophe; Gopalappa, Chaitra; Lundgren, Jens; Martin, Natasha K; Mikkelsen, Evelinn; Mountain, Elisa; Pham, Quang D; Pickles, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Platt, Lucy; Pretorius, Carel; Prudden, Holly J; Salomon, Joshua A; van de Vijver, David A M C; de Vlas, Sake J; Wagner, Bradley G; White, Richard G; Wilson, David P; Zhang, Lei; Blandford, John; Meyer-Rath, Gesine; Remme, Michelle; Revill, Paul; Sangrujee, Nalinee; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Doherty, Meg; Shaffer, Nathan; Easterbrook, Philippa J; Hirnschall, Gottfried; Hallett, Timothy B

    2014-01-01

    DALY averted compared with 2010 guidelines. In Zambia, expansion of eligibility to adults with a CD4 count threshold of 500 cells per μL ranged from improving health outcomes while reducing costs (ie, dominating the previous guidelines) to $749 per DALY averted. In both countries results were similar for expansion of eligibility to all HIV-positive adults, and when substantially expanded treatment coverage was assumed. Expansion of treatment coverage in the general population was also cost effective. In India, the cost for extending eligibility to all HIV-positive adults ranged from $131 to $241 per DALY averted, and in Vietnam extending eligibility to patients with CD4 counts of 500 cells per μL or less cost $290 per DALY averted. In concentrated epidemics, expanded access for key populations was also cost effective. Our estimates suggest that earlier eligibility for antiretroviral therapy is very cost effective in low-income and middle-income settings, although these estimates should be revisited when more data become available. Scaling up antiretroviral therapy through earlier eligibility and expanded coverage should be considered alongside other high-priority health interventions competing for health budgets. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, WHO. Copyright © 2014 Eaton et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC-ND. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  18. The association between peer, parental influence and tobacco product features and earlier age of onset of regular smoking among adults in 27 European countries.

    PubMed

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Agaku, Israel T; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2015-10-01

    Factors that influence smoking initiation and age of smoking onset are important considerations in tobacco control. We evaluated European Union (EU)-wide differences in the age of onset of regular smoking, and the potential role of peer, parental and tobacco product design features on the earlier onset of regular smoking among adults <40 years old in 27 EU countries. We analysed data from 4442 current and former smokers aged 15-39 years, collected for the Eurobarometer 77.1 survey (2012). Respondents reported their age at regular smoking onset and factors that influenced their decision to start smoking, including peer influence, parental influence and features of tobacco products. Multi-variable logistic regression, adjusted for age; geographic region; education; difficulty to pay bills; and gender, was used to assess the role of the various pro-tobacco influences on early onset of regular smoking (i.e. <18 years). Among ever smokers, the mean age of onset of regular smoking was 16.6 years, ranging from 15.8 to 18.8 years in member countries. 68.1% responded that they started smoking regularly when they were <18 years old. Ever smokers who reported they were influenced by peers (OR = 1.70; 95%CI 1.30-2.20) or parents (OR = 1.60; 95%CI 1.21-2.12) were more likely to have started smoking regularly <18 years old. No significant association between design and marketing features of tobacco products and an early initiation of regular smoking was observed (OR = 1.04; 95%CI 0.83-1.31). We identified major differences in smoking initiation patterns among EU countries, which may warrant different approaches in the prevention of tobacco use. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  19. Unresolved grief and its consequences. A nationwide follow-up of teenage loss of a parent to cancer 6-9 years earlier.

    PubMed

    Bylund-Grenklo, T; Fürst, C J; Nyberg, T; Steineck, G; Kreicbergs, U

    2016-07-01

    The early loss of a parent is a tragedy and a serious life event. This study investigated grief resolution and morbidity in cancer-bereaved teenagers 6 to 9 years after the loss of a parent to cancer. In a nationwide population-based study of 622 of 851 (73 %) youths who as teenagers 6 to 9 years earlier had lost a parent to cancer, we explored the magnitude of unresolved grief and its association with psychological and physiological morbidity. Participants answered a study-specific anonymous questionnaire including questions about if they had worked through their grief and about their current health. Six to nine years post-loss 49 % reported unresolved grief (8 % no and 41 % a little grief resolution). They had, in comparison with youths reporting resolved grief, statistically significantly elevated risks, e.g. for insomnia (sons' relative risk (RR) 2.3, 95 % CI 1.3-4.0; daughters' RR 1.7, 95 % CI 1.1-2.7), fatigue (sons' RR 1.8, 95 % CI 1.3-2.5; daughters' RR 1.4, 95 % CI 1.1-1.7) and moderate to severe depression, i.e. score >9, PHQ-9 (sons' RR 3.6, 95 % CI 1.4-8.8; daughters' RR 1.8, 95 % CI 1.1-3.1). Associations remained for insomnia in sons, exhaustion in daughters and fatigue in both sons and daughters when depression, negative intrusive thoughts and avoiding reminders of the parents' disease or death were included in a model. Approximately half of cancer-bereaved youth report no or little grief resolution 6 to 9 years post-loss, which is associated with fatigue, sleeping problems and depressive symptoms.

  20. Earlier therapeutic effects associated with high dose (2.0 mg) Ranibizumab for treatment of vascularized pigment epithelial detachments in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chan, C K; Abraham, P; Sarraf, D; Nuthi, A S D; Lin, S G; McCannel, C A

    2015-01-01

    Summary statement Intravitreal high dose (2 mg) ranibizumab may lead to quicker resolution of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and associated retinal pigment epithelial detachment in eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration, although it may possibly correlate with RPE tears in certain cases. Purpose This prospective study compared the outcomes of 0.5 vs 2.0 mg intravitreal ranibizumab injections (RI) for treating vascularized pigment epithelial detachment (vPED) due to age-related macular degeneration. Methods Patients with vPED were randomized to receive 2.0 vs 0.5 mg RI monthly for 12 months or for 4 months and then repeated on a pro-re nata basis. Optical coherence tomography, fundus photography, and fluorescein and indocyanine-green angiography were obtained at baseline and subsequent specific intervals. Outcome measures were best-corrected standardized visual acuities, central 1-mm thickness, surface area (SA), greatest linear diameter (GLD), heights (PED and CNV), and amount of subretinal fluid (SRF) and cystoid macular edema (CME). Results Both groups yielded reductions of the central 1-mm thickness, PED and CNV SA and PED height and GLD, SRF, and CME. Vision improvement and reduction in SRF and PED height occurred earlier for eyes receiving the 2.0 mg dose. Cataract progression was similar but RPE tears developed more often with the 2.0 mg dose. Conclusions There were similar visual and anatomical outcomes at the end of the study; however, the higher dose yielded more rapid reductions and more complete resolution of the PED, although there was possible increased tendency for an RPE tear with the higher dose. PMID:25277305

  1. History of the recommended atomic-weight values from 1882 to 1997: A comparision of differences from current values to the estimated uncertainties of earlier values.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, T.B.; Peiser, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    International commissions and national committees for atomic weights (mean relative atomic masses) have recommended regularly updated, best values for these atomic weights as applicable to terrestrial sources of the chemical elements. Presented here is a historically complete listing starting with the values in F. W. Clarke's 1882 recalculation, followed by the recommended values in the annual reports of the American Chemical Society's Atomic Weights Commission. From 1903, an International Commission published such reports and its values (scaled to an atomic weight of 16 for oxygen) are here used in preference to those of national committees of Britain, Germany, Spain, Switzerland, and the U.S.A. We have, however, made scaling adjustments from Ar(16O) to Ar(12C) where not negligible. From 1920, this International Commission constituted itself under the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Since then, IUPAC has published reports (mostly biennially) listing the recommended atomic weights, which are reproduced here. Since 1979, these values have been called the "standard atomic weights" and, since 1969, all values have been published, with their estimated uncertainties. Few of the earlier values were published with uncertainties. Nevertheless, we assessed such uncertainties on the basis of our understanding of the likely contemporary judgement of the values' reliability. While neglecting remaining uncertainties of 1997 values, we derive "differences" and a retrospective index of reliability of atomic-weight values in relation to assessments of uncertainties at the time of their publication. A striking improvement in reliability appears to have been achieved since the commissions have imposed upon themselves the rule of recording estimated uncertainties from all recognized sources of error.

  2. Lay persons alerted by mobile application system initiate earlier cardio-pulmonary resuscitation: A comparison with SMS-based system notification.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Maria Luce; Muschietti, Sandro; Burkart, Roman; Benvenuti, Claudio; Conte, Giulio; Regoli, François; Mauri, Romano; Klersy, Catherine; Moccetti, Tiziano; Auricchio, Angelo

    2017-05-01

    We compared the time to initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by lay responders and/or first responders alerted either via Short Message Service (SMS) or by using a mobile application-based alert system (APP). The Ticino Registry of Cardiac Arrest collects all data about out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) occurring in the Canton of Ticino. At the time of a bystander's call, the EMS dispatcher sends one ambulance and alerts the first-responders network made up of police officers or fire brigade equipped with an automatic external defibrillator, the so called "traditional" first responders, and - if the scene was considered safe - lay responders as well. We evaluated the time from call to arrival of traditional first responders and/or lay responders when alerted either via SMS or the new developed mobile APP. Over the study period 593 OHCAs have occurred. Notification to the first responders network was sent via SMS in 198 cases and via mobile APP in 134 cases. Median time to first responder/lay responder arrival on scene was significantly reduced by the APP-based system (3.5 [2.8-5.2]) compared to the SMS-based system (5.6 [4.2-8.5] min, p 0.0001). The proportion of lay responders arriving first on the scene significantly increased (70% vs. 15%, p<0.01) with the APP. Earlier arrival of a first responder or of a lay responder determined a higher survival rate. The mobile APP system is highly efficient in the recruitment of first responders, significantly reducing the time to the initiation of CPR thus increasing survival rates. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Earlier defibrotide initiation post-diagnosis of veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome improves Day +100 survival following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Paul G; Smith, Angela R; Triplett, Brandon M; Kernan, Nancy A; Grupp, Stephan A; Antin, Joseph H; Lehmann, Leslie; Miloslavsky, Maja; Hume, Robin; Hannah, Alison L; Nejadnik, Bijan; Soiffer, Robert J

    2017-07-01

    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) is a progressive, potentially fatal complication of conditioning for haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). The VOD/SOS pathophysiological cascade involves endothelial-cell activation and damage, and a prothrombotic-hypofibrinolytic state. Severe VOD/SOS (typically characterized by multi-organ dysfunction) may be associated with >80% mortality. Defibrotide is approved for treating severe hepatic VOD/SOS post-HSCT in the European Union, and for hepatic VOD/SOS with renal or pulmonary dysfunction post-HSCT in the United States. Previously, defibrotide (25 mg/kg/day in 4 divided doses for a recommended ≥21 days) was available through an expanded-access treatment protocol for patients with VOD/SOS. Data from this study were examined post-hoc to determine if the timing of defibrotide initiation post-VOD/SOS diagnosis affected Day +100 survival post-HSCT. Among 573 patients, defibrotide was started on the day of VOD/SOS diagnosis in approximately 30%, and within 7 days in >90%. The relationship between Day +100 survival and treatment initiation before/after specific days post-diagnosis showed superior survival when treatment was initiated closer to VOD/SOS diagnosis with a statistically significant trend over time for better outcomes with earlier treatment initiation (P < 0·001). These results suggest that initiation of defibrotide should not be delayed after diagnosis of VOD/SOS. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Haematology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Ensemble Response in Mushroom Body Output Neurons of the Honey Bee Outpaces Spatiotemporal Odor Processing Two Synapses Earlier in the Antennal Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Strube-Bloss, Martin F.; Herrera-Valdez, Marco A.; Smith, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Neural representations of odors are subject to computations that involve sequentially convergent and divergent anatomical connections across different areas of the brains in both mammals and insects. Furthermore, in both mammals and insects higher order brain areas are connected via feedback connections. In order to understand the transformations and interactions that this connectivity make possible, an ideal experiment would compare neural responses across different, sequential processing levels. Here we present results of recordings from a first order olfactory neuropile – the antennal lobe (AL) – and a higher order multimodal integration and learning center – the mushroom body (MB) – in the honey bee brain. We recorded projection neurons (PN) of the AL and extrinsic neurons (EN) of the MB, which provide the outputs from the two neuropils. Recordings at each level were made in different animals in some experiments and simultaneously in the same animal in others. We presented two odors and their mixture to compare odor response dynamics as well as classification speed and accuracy at each neural processing level. Surprisingly, the EN ensemble significantly starts separating odor stimuli rapidly and before the PN ensemble has reached significant separation. Furthermore the EN ensemble at the MB output reaches a maximum separation of odors between 84–120 ms after odor onset, which is 26 to 133 ms faster than the maximum separation at the AL output ensemble two synapses earlier in processing. It is likely that a subset of very fast PNs, which respond before the ENs, may initiate the rapid EN ensemble response. We suggest therefore that the timing of the EN ensemble activity would allow retroactive integration of its signal into the ongoing computation of the AL via centrifugal feedback. PMID:23209711

  5. Illustrating Chemiluminescence with Siloxene Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Ray

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the nature of light-producing reactions and provides a procedure for demonstrating chemical luminescence using siloxene indicator. Indicates source of this chemical and safety precautions. (SK)

  6. The evolution of tooth wear indices

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Tooth wear—attrition, erosion and abrasion—is perceived internationally as an ever-increasing problem. Clinical and epidemiological studies, however, are difficult to interpret and compare due to differences in terminology and the large number of indices that have been developed for diagnosing, grading and monitoring dental hard tissue loss. These indices have been designed to identify increasing severity and are usually numerical. Some record lesions on an aetiological basis (e.g. erosion indices), others record lesions irrespective of aetiology (tooth wear indices); none have universal acceptance, complicating the evaluation of the true increase in prevalence reported. This article considers the ideal requirements for an erosion index. It reviews the literature to consider how current indices have evolved and discusses if these indices meet the clinical and research needs of the dental profession. PMID:17701430

  7. Researcher / Researched: Repositioning Research Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meerwald, Agnes May Lin

    2013-01-01

    "Researcher / Researched" calls for a complementary research methodology by proposing autoethnography as both a method and text that crosses the boundaries of conventional and alternative methodologies in higher education. Autoethnography rearticulates the researcher / researched positions by blurring the boundary between them. This…

  8. Review of Cuttability Indices and A New Rockmass Classification Approach for Selection of Surface Miners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Kaushik; Ghose, A. K.

    2011-09-01

    Rock excavation is carried out either by drilling and blasting or using rock-cutting machines like rippers, bucket wheel excavators, surface miners, road headers etc. Economics of mechanised rock excavation by rock-cutting machines largely depends on the achieved production rates. Thus, assessment of the performance (productivity) is important prior to deploying a rock-cutting machine. In doing so, several researchers have classified rockmass in different ways and have developed cuttability indices to correlate machine performance directly. However, most of these indices were developed to assess the performance of road headers/tunnel-boring machines apart from a few that were developed in the earlier days when the ripper was a popular excavating equipment. Presently, around 400 surface miners are in operation around the world amongst which, 105 are in India. Until now, no rockmass classification system is available to assess the performance of surface miners. Surface miners are being deployed largely on trial and error basis or based on the performance charts provided by the manufacturer. In this context, it is logical to establish a suitable cuttability index to predict the performance of surface miners. In this present paper, the existing cuttability indices are reviewed and a new cuttability indexes proposed. A new relationship is also developed to predict the output from surface miners using the proposed cuttability index.

  9. Patients present earlier and survival has improved, but pre-ART attrition is high in a six-year HIV cohort data from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mulissa, Zewdie; Jerene, Degu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2010-10-11

    Previous studies showed higher early mortality rates among patients treated with antiretroviral drugs in settings with limited resources. One of the reasons was late presentation of patients to care. With improved access to HIV services, we expect improvements in disease stage at presentation. Our objective was to assess the effect of improved availability of HIV services on patient presentation to care and subsequent pre-ART and on-ART outcomes. At Arba Minch Hospital in Ethiopia, we reviewed baseline characteristics and outcomes of 2191 adult HIV patients. Nearly a half were in WHO stage III at presentation. About two-thirds of the patients (1428) started ART. Patients enrolled in the early phase (OR = 4.03, 95% CI 3.07-5.27), men (OR = 1.78, 95%CI 1.47-2.16), and those aged 45 years and above (OR = 2.04, 95%CI 1.48-2.82) were at higher risk of being in advanced clinical stage at presentation. The pre-treatment mortality rate was 13.1 per 100 PYO, ranging from 1.4 in the rapid scale-up phase to 25.9 per 100 PYO in the early phase. A quarter of the patients were lost to follow-up before starting treatment. Being in less advanced stage (HR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.6, 2.2), being in the recent cohort (HR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.6, 2.6), and rural residence (HR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.5, 2.2) were independent predictors of pre-ART loss to follow-up. Of those who started ART, 13.4% were lost to follow-up and 15.4% died. The survival improved during the study. Patients with advanced disease, men and older people had higher death rates. Patients started to present at earlier stages of their illness and death has decreased among adult HIV patients visiting Arba Minch Hospital. However, many patients were lost from pre-treatment follow-up. Early treatment start contributed to improved survival. Both pre-ART and on-ART patient retention mechanisms should be strengthened.

  10. Health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of earlier eligibility for adult antiretroviral therapy and expanded treatment coverage: a combined analysis of 12 mathematical models.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Jeffrey W; Menzies, Nicolas A; Stover, John; Cambiano, Valentina; Chindelevitch, Leonid; Cori, Anne; Hontelez, Jan A C; Humair, Salal; Kerr, Cliff C; Klein, Daniel J; Mishra, Sharmistha; Mitchell, Kate M; Nichols, Brooke E; Vickerman, Peter; Bakker, Roel; Bärnighausen, Till; Bershteyn, Anna; Bloom, David E; Boily, Marie-Claude; Chang, Stewart T; Cohen, Ted; Dodd, Peter J; Fraser, Christophe; Gopalappa, Chaitra; Lundgren, Jens; Martin, Natasha K; Mikkelsen, Evelinn; Mountain, Elisa; Pham, Quang D; Pickles, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Platt, Lucy; Pretorius, Carel; Prudden, Holly J; Salomon, Joshua A; van de Vijver, David A M C; de Vlas, Sake J; Wagner, Bradley G; White, Richard G; Wilson, David P; Zhang, Lei; Blandford, John; Meyer-Rath, Gesine; Remme, Michelle; Revill, Paul; Sangrujee, Nalinee; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Doherty, Meg; Shaffer, Nathan; Easterbrook, Philippa J; Hirnschall, Gottfried; Hallett, Timothy B

    2013-12-10

    New WHO guidelines recommend ART initiation for HIV-positive persons with CD4 cell counts ≤500 cells/µL, a higher threshold than was previously recommended. Country decision makers must consider whether to further expand ART eligibility accordingly. We used multiple independent mathematical models in four settings-South Africa, Zambia, India, and Vietnam-to evaluate the potential health impact, costs, and cost-effectiveness of different adult ART eligibility criteria under scenarios of current and expanded treatment coverage, with results projected over 20 years. Analyses considered extending eligibility to include individuals with CD4 ≤500 cells/µL or all HIV-positive adults, compared to the previous recommendation of initiation with CD4 ≤350 cells/µL. We assessed costs from a health system perspective, and calculated the incremental cost per DALY averted ($/DALY) to compare competing strategies. Strategies were considered 'very cost-effective' if the $/DALY was less than the country's per capita gross domestic product (GDP; South Africa: $8040, Zambia: $1425, India: $1489, Vietnam: $1407) and 'cost-effective' if $/DALY was less than three times per capita GDP. In South Africa, the cost per DALY averted of extending ART eligibility to CD4 ≤500 cells/µL ranged from $237 to $1691/DALY compared to 2010 guidelines; in Zambia, expanded eligibility ranged from improving health outcomes while reducing costs (i.e. dominating current guidelines) to $749/DALY. Results were similar in scenarios with substantially expanded treatment access and for expanding eligibility to all HIV-positive adults. Expanding treatment coverage in the general population was therefore found to be cost-effective. In India, eligibility for all HIV-positive persons ranged from $131 to $241/DALY and in Vietnam eligibility for CD4 ≤500 cells/µL cost $290/DALY. In concentrated epidemics, expanded access among key populations was also cost-effective. Earlier ART eligibility is estimated

  11. One-year follow-up of myocardial perfusion and function evaluated by gated SPECT MIBI in patients with earlier myocardial infarction and chronic total occlusion.

    PubMed

    Pavlovic, Smiljana V; Sobic-Saranovic, Dragana P; Beleslin, Branko D; Ostojic, Miodrag C; Nedeljkovic, Milan A; Giga, Vojislav L; Petrasinovic, Zorica R; Artiko, Vera M; Todorovic-Tirnanic, Mila V; Obradovic, Vladimir B

    2009-01-01

    Optimal treatment for chronic total occlusion (CTO) in the infarct-related coronary artery is not clear. Our aim was to assess myocardial perfusion, left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), and left ventricular size using gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging with 99mTc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile in patients with CTO before and 1 year after recanalization. Thirty patients with earlier myocardial infarction and at least one CTO underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as well as nitrate-enhanced gated SPECT myocardial perfusion and dobutamine stress echocardiography before and 11 +/- 1 months after recanalization. They were divided into three groups based on the outcome of the follow-up angiography: (i) successful recanalization with no evidence of in-stent restenosis (n=13); (ii) successful recanalization with in-stent restenosis (n=7) and (iii) unsuccessful recanalization (n=10). Overall success of recanalization for CTO was 74%. In group 1, myocardial viability was preserved in 11 of 13 (85%) patients at baseline. Gated SPECT at 1 year showed a significant decrease in perfusion abnormalities (29 +/- 12 to 23 +/- 14%, P < 0.05) and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) (168 +/- 47 to 151 +/- 47 ml, P < 0.05). Improvement in EF (51 +/- 11 to 54 +/- 13%, P > 0.05) and reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume (ESV) (84 +/- 37 to 77 +/- 40 ml, P > 0.05) did not reach the level of significance. Myocardial viability was preserved in only two of seven patients (28%) in group 2. Neither mean perfusion abnormalities (37 +/- 24 to 35 +/- 22%, P > 0.05) nor global left ventricular parameters (EF 41 +/- 15 vs. 42 +/- 19%, EDV 298 +/- 33 vs. 299 +/- 57 mL, ESV 197 +/- 12 vs. 195 +/- 32 ml; P > 0.05) changed at the follow-up. In group 3, myocardial viability was preserved in seven of 10 patients (70%) at baseline, but no significant changes in perfusion (40 +/- 18 vs. 41 +/- 19%, P > 0.05) and left

  12. Social Indicators and Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Elizabeth

    The paper examines the concept of social indicators as ways of evaluating macro level adult education programs. In general social indicators deal with social factors which affect the quality of life of the population. Social scientists are recognizing the need for both economic and social indicators. Even as the need for social indicators is…

  13. Brief Report: Applying an Indicator Set to Survey the Health of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Patricia Noonan

    2008-01-01

    This report gives an account of applying a health survey tool by the "Pomona" Group that earlier documented the process of developing a set of health indicators for people with intellectual disabilities in Europe. The "Pomona" health indicator set mirrors the much larger set of health indicators prepared by the European…

  14. GENETIC INDICATORS IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    University of California, Davis, Bodega Bay Marine Laboratory; US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory, Molecular Ecology Research Division, Cincinnati, OH; US EPA National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Gulf Ecology Division, Gulf Breeze, FL;...

  15. A Recommended Set of Key Arctic Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanitski, D.; Druckenmiller, M.; Fetterer, F. M.; Gerst, M.; Intrieri, J. M.; Kenney, M. A.; Meier, W.; Overland, J. E.; Stroeve, J.; Trainor, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic is an interconnected and environmentally sensitive system of ice, ocean, land, atmosphere, ecosystems, and people. From local to pan-Arctic scales, the area has already undergone major changes in physical and societal systems and will continue at a pace that is greater than twice the global average. Key Arctic indicators can quantify these changes. Indicators serve as the bridge between complex information and policy makers, stakeholders, and the general public, revealing trends and information people need to make important socioeconomic decisions. This presentation evaluates and compiles more than 70 physical, biological, societal and economic indicators into an approachable summary that defines the changing Arctic. We divided indicators into "existing," "in development," "possible," and "aspirational". In preparing a paper on Arctic Indicators for a special issue of the journal Climatic Change, our group established a set of selection criteria to identify indicators to specifically guide decision-makers in their responses to climate change. A goal of the analysis is to select a manageable composite list of recommended indicators based on sustained, reliable data sources with known user communities. The selected list is also based on the development of a conceptual model that identifies components and processes critical to our understanding of the Arctic region. This list of key indicators is designed to inform the plans and priorities of multiple groups such as the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC), and the Arctic Council.

  16. Research Findings on Heat Treatment of Pathogens and Indicator Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heat or thermal treatment has been used for many years for reducing the densities of pathogens in food and beverages. Its application for disinfection of municipal sludges has occurred only recently. One method for achieving Class A biosolids is to thermally treat sludges either ...

  17. Comprehensive highway corridor planning with sustainability indicators : [research summary].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-04-01

    The Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) has initiated major planning : efforts to improve transportation efficiency, safety and sustainability on critical : highway corridors through its Comprehensive Highway Corridor (CHC) program. : It is i...

  18. Higher Education Wellness Methods for Institutional Athletics: Research Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Gloria; Gunn, Lindsey

    College and university administrators who must make decisions regarding athletic programs and student services need more information on lifestyle choices and health service needs of athletes in major college sports. This study was conducted to identify lifestyle choices and health service needs of athletes in three major sports at a selected…

  19. Some Indicators of Literacy Development in Prekindergarten: A Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurss, Joanne R.

    During a 5-month period, an attempt was made to describe the literacy concepts of 12 children 5 years of age who attended a prekindergarten program rich in oral language experiences. Assessments were made in the classroom of the children's concepts of print, phoneme awareness, logo recognition, reading, and writing, through use of (1) the…

  20. Indications and Warning Methodology for Strategic Intelligence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-12-01

    WARNING METHODOLOGY FOR STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCE by Susann Kimmelman December 2017 Thesis Co-Advisors: Robert Simeral James Wirtz THIS...Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INDICATIONS AND WARNING METHODOLOGY FOR STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Susann...enterprise. The research found that, for homeland security, implementing a human-centric indications and warning methodology that focuses on the actor as

  1. Statistical Indicators for Religious Studies: Indicators of Level and Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herteliu, Claudiu; Isaic-Maniu, Alexandru

    2009-01-01

    Using statistic indicators as vectors of information relative to the operational status of a phenomenon, including a religious one, is unanimously accepted. By introducing a system of statistic indicators we can also analyze the interfacing areas of a phenomenon. In this context, we have elaborated a system of statistic indicators specific to the…

  2. National Wetland Plant List Indicator Rating Definitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    ER D C/ CR RE L TN -1 2- 1 National Wetland Plant List Indicator Rating Definitions Co ld R eg io ns R es ea rc h an d En gi ne er in... Rating Definitions Robert W. Lichvar Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center 72 Lyme...status ratings in the United States. In 2012 the list, now called the National Wetland Plant List, was updated and approved for use for various

  3. Evidence for stabilization of the ice-cemented cryosphere in earlier martian history: Implications for the current abundance of groundwater at depth on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, David K.; Head, James W.

    2017-05-01

    , atmospheric pressure, obliquity, and surface heat flux conditions under which the downward-propagating cryosphere freezing front matches the inferred ice-cemented cryosphere. The thermal models which can best reproduce the inferred ice-cemented cryosphere occur for obliquities between 25° and 45° and CO2 atmospheric pressures ≤600 mbar, but require increased heat fluxes and surface temperatures/pressures relative to the Amazonian period. Because the inferred ice-cemented cryosphere is much thinner compared with Amazonian-aged cryosphere thermal models, we suggest that the ice-cemented cryosphere ceased growing when it exhausted the underlying groundwater supply (i.e., ICC stabilization) in a more ancient period in Mars geologic history. Our thermal analysis suggests that this ICC stabilization likely occurred sometime before or at ∼3.0-3.3 Ga (during or before the Late Hesperian or Early Amazonian period). If groundwater remained below the ICC during the earlier Late Noachian period, our models predict that mean annual surface temperatures during this time were ≥212-227 K. If the Late Noachian had a pure CO2 atmosphere, this places a minimum bound on the Late Noachian atmospheric pressure of ≥390-850 mbar. These models suggest that deep groundwater is not abundant or does not persist in the subsurface of Mars today, and that diffusive loss of ice from the subsurface has been minimal.

  4. Preventive research and interventive research: in favour of to act rather than to react.

    PubMed

    Erren, T C

    2002-08-01

    Conventional wisdom knows that "prevention is better than cure". However, in the many cases where we do not understand how to cure or intervent, prevention is not only better but may be the only way to promote public health. As the principal basis for preventive action, this paper advocates to focus more on preventive rather than on interventive research. Preventive research, as defined here, aims to identify a determinant A in the environment which causes an undesirable health effect B in the human body. Preventive research ends when the critical nature of A is convincingly established and ways to avoid A are identified. Interventive research, as defined here, aims to understand and manipulate the chain from A to B within the human body. Examples of real (poliomyelitis, lung cancer, AIDS) and possible scourges (BSE) from the last and this century indicate that preventive research has delivered culprits but that interventive research could not-and likely will not-unravel the whole chain from A to B. Based also on conceptual considerations it is concluded that, while both research approaches are needed, a strategy with more emphasis on preventive research and taking action at an earlier stage may lead to more community success.

  5. Tiltmeter Indicates Sense of Slope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lonborg, J. O.

    1985-01-01

    Tiltmeter indicates sense and magnitude of slope used in locations where incline not visible to operator. Use of direct rather than alternating current greatly simplifies design of instrument capable of indicating sense of slope.

  6. Surface flow visualization using indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowder, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    Surface flow visualization using indicators in the cryogenic wind tunnel which requires a fresh look at materials and procedures to accommodate the new test conditions is described. Potential liquid and gaseous indicators are identified. The particular materials illustrate the various requirements an indicator must fulfill. The indicator must respond properly to the flow phenomenon of interest and must be observable. Boundary layer transition is the most important phenomenon for which flow visualization indicators may be employed. The visibility of a particular indicator depends on utilizing various optical or chemical reactions. Gaseous indicators are more difficult to utilize, but because of their diversity may present unusual and useful opportunities. Factors to be considered in selecting an indicator include handling safety, toxicity, potential for contamination of the tunnel, and cost.

  7. Edible Acid-Base Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mebane, Robert C.; Rybolt, Thomas R.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on the colors observed during titrations of 15 natural indicators obtained from common fruits and vegetables. These edible indicators can be used for a variety of teacher demonstrations or for simple student experiments. (JN)

  8. Electronic health indicators in the selected countries: Are these indicators the best?

    PubMed

    Afshari, Somaye; Khorasani, Elahe; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Atighechian, Golrokh; Darab, Mohsen Ghaffari

    2013-01-01

    Many changes have been made in different sciences by developing and advancing information and communication technology in last two decades. E-health is a very broad term that includes many different activities related to the use of electronic devices, software as well as hardware in health organizations. The aim of this study is comparing electronic health indicators in the selected countries and discussion on the best indicators. This study has chosen 12 countries randomly based on the regional division of the WHO. The relevant numbers of health indicators and general indicators and information technology indicators are extracted of these countries. We use data from the Bitarf's comparative study, which is conducted by the Iranian Supreme Council of Information Technology in 2007. By using Pearson correlation test, the relations between health general indicators and IT indicators are studied. Data was analyzed based on the research objectives using SPSS software and in accordance with research questions Pearson correlation test were used. The findings show that there is a positive relation between indicators related to IT and "Total per capita health, healthy life expectancy, percent literacy". Furthermore, there is a mutual relation between IT indicators and "mortality indicator". This study showed differences between selective indicators among different countries. The modern world, with its technological advances, is not powerless in the face of these geographic and health disparity challenges. Researchers must not rely on the available indicators. They must consider indicators like e-business companies, electronic data internet, medical supplies, health electronic record, health information system, etc., In future, continuous studies in this field, to provide the exact and regular reports of amount of using of these indicators through different countries must be necessary.

  9. Social Indicators and Social Forecasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Denis F.

    The paper identifies major types of social indicators and explains how they can be used in social forecasting. Social indicators are defined as statistical measures relating to major areas of social concern and/or individual well being. Examples of social indicators are projections, forecasts, outlook statements, time-series statistics, and…

  10. Omission of Causal Indicators: Consequences and Implications for Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre-Urreta, Miguel I.; Rönkkö, Mikko; Marakas, George M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the central assumptions of the causal-indicator literature is that all causal indicators must be included in the research model and that the exclusion of one or more relevant causal indicators would have severe negative consequences by altering the meaning of the latent variable. In this research we show that the omission of a relevant…

  11. Obama Indicates Strong Support for Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-05-01

    In remarks delivered at the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) annual meeting on 27 April, U.S. President Barack Obama indicated his administration's strong support for science and for pursuing a clean energy economy. He also announced a goal that the United States “will devote more than 3% of our [gross domestic product] to research and development.” “This represents the largest commitment to scientific research and innovation in American history,” Obama said, noting that the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act already is providing the nation with its largest single boost to investment in basic research.

  12. Quality indicators for pharmaceutical care: a comprehensive set with national scores for Dutch community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Teichert, Martina; Schoenmakers, Tim; Kylstra, Nico; Mosk, Berend; Bouvy, Marcel L; van de Vaart, Frans; De Smet, Peter A G M; Wensing, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Background The quality of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies in the Netherlands has been assessed annually since 2008. The initial set has been further developed with pharmacists and patient organizations, the healthcare inspectorate, the government and health insurance companies. The set over 2012 was the first set of quality indicators for community pharmacies which was validated and supported by all major stakeholders. The aims of this study were to describe the validated set of quality indicators for community pharmacies and to report their scores over 2012. In subanalyses the score development over 5 years was described for those indicators, that have been surveyed before and remained unchanged. Methods Community pharmacists in the Netherlands were invited in 2013 to provide information for the set of 2012. Quality indicators were mapped by categories relevant for pharmaceutical care and defined for structures, processes and dispensing outcomes. Scores for categorically-measured quality indicators were presented as the percentage of pharmacies reporting the presence of a quality aspect. For numerical quality indicators, the mean of all reported scores was expressed. In subanalyses for those indicators that had been questioned previously, scores were collected from earlier measurements for pharmacies providing their scores in 2012. Multilevel analysis was used to assess the consistency of scores within one pharmacy over time by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Results For the set in 2012, 1739 Dutch community pharmacies (88 % of the total) provided information for 66 quality indicators in 10 categories. Indicator scores on the presence of quality structures showed relatively high quality levels. Scores for processes and dispensing outcomes were lower. Subanalyses showed that overall indicators scores improved within pharmacies, but this development differed between pharmacies. Conclusions A set of validated quality indicators provided

  13. Use of comparative performance indicators in rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Zidarov, Diana; Poissant, Lise; Sicotte, Claude

    The development of performance indicators that enable benchmarking between organizations is an important mechanism for accountability, organizational learning, and performance improvement. In the province of Quebec (Canada), 21 rehabilitation organizations developed a common set of performance indicators through interorganizational collaboration. The aims of this study were to describe the rehabilitation organizations' use of a common set of performance indicators and to identify the factors influencing such use. A qualitative survey was performed. Individual semistructured interviews were conducted with executives (n = 18) working at 16 rehabilitation organizations using a common set of performance indicators. A thematic analysis of the factors of use was performed according to the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. The use of performance indicators was categorized as purposeful, political, or passive. Our results showed that all organizations used the common set of performance indicators. Four factors were identified as important to all the rehabilitation organizations to explain their interest in comparative performance indicators: the need to develop their own performance indicators, the compatibility of performance information with organizational needs, complexity/simplicity of performance information, and the support offered by their common association. Sixty-three percent of rehabilitation organizations made purposeful or political use of performance indicators. Three main factors contributed to typify those organizations from the others: the perceived quality of the performance indicators, the leadership of decision makers, and the resources available. Our results showed that use of performance indicators can support the initiation of projects for improving the quality of care. Key recommendations are proposed to decision makers that may enhance performance indicators' use.

  14. Hydrologic indices for nontidal wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lent, Robert M.; Weiskel, Peter K.; Lyford, Forest P.; Armstrong, David S.

    1997-01-01

    Two sets of hydrologic indices were developed to characterize the water-budget components of nontidal wetlands. The first set consisted of six water-budget indices for input and output variables, and the second set consisted of two hydrologic interaction indices derived from the water-budget indices. The indices then were applied to 19 wetlands with previously published water-budget data. Two trilinear diagrams for each wetland were constructed, one for the three input indices and another for the three output indices. These two trilinear diagrams then were combined with a central quadrangle to form a Piper-type diagram, with data points from the trilinear diagrams projected onto the quadrangle. The quadrangle then was divided into nine fields that summarized the water-budget information. Two quantitative "interaction indices" were calculated from two of the six water-budget indices (precipitation and evapotranspiration). They also were obtained graphically from the water-budget indices, which were first projected to the central quadrangle of a Piper-type diagram from the flanking trilinear plots. The first interaction index (l) defines the strength of interaction between a wetland and the surrounding ground- and surface-water system. The second interaction index (S) defines the nature of the interaction between the wetland and the surrounding ground- and surface-water system (source versus sink). Evaluation of these indices using published wetland water-budget data illustrates the usefulness of the technique.

  15. Campus Prosociality as a Sustainability Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Timothy M.; Sullivan, Abigail V.; Stapp, Jared R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Prosociality may in part determine sustainability behavior. Prior research indicates that pro-environmental behavior correlates with prosocial attitudes, and separately, that prosociality correlates with social support in homes and communities. Therefore, prosociality may constitute a keystone variable linking human well-being with…

  16. Econometric Models for Forecasting of Macroeconomic Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukhanova, Elena I.; Shirnaeva, Svetlana Y.; Mokronosov, Aleksandr G.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the research topic was stipulated by the necessity to carry out an effective controlled process by the economic system which can hardly be imagined without indices forecasting characteristic of this system. An econometric model is a safe tool of forecasting which makes it possible to take into consideration the trend of indices…

  17. Distinguishing Valid from Invalid Causal Indicator Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadogan, John W.; Lee, Nick

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary from Issue 14, n3, authors John Cadogan and Nick Lee applaud the paper by Aguirre-Urreta, Rönkkö, and Marakas "Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives", 14(3), 75-97 (2016), since their explanations and simulations work toward demystifying causal indicator models, which are often used by scholars…

  18. Electronic health indicators in the selected countries: Are these indicators the best?

    PubMed Central

    Afshari, Somaye; Khorasani, Elahe; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Atighechian, Golrokh; Darab, Mohsen Ghaffari

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many changes have been made in different sciences by developing and advancing information and communication technology in last two decades. E-health is a very broad term that includes many different activities related to the use of electronic devices, software as well as hardware in health organizations. Aims: The aim of this study is comparing electronic health indicators in the selected countries and discussion on the best indicators. Settings and Design: This study has chosen 12 countries randomly based on the regional division of the WHO. The relevant numbers of health indicators and general indicators and information technology indicators are extracted of these countries. We use data from the Bitarf's comparative study, which is conducted by the Iranian Supreme Council of Information Technology in 2007. Materials and Methods: By using Pearson correlation test, the relations between health general indicators and IT indicators are studied. Statistical Analysis Used: Data was analyzed based on the research objectives using SPSS software and in accordance with research questions Pearson correlation test were used. Results: The findings show that there is a positive relation between indicators related to IT and “Total per capita health, healthy life expectancy, percent literacy”. Furthermore, there is a mutual relation between IT indicators and “mortality indicator”. Conclusion: This study showed differences between selective indicators among different countries. The modern world, with its technological advances, is not powerless in the face of these geographic and health disparity challenges. Researchers must not rely on the available indicators. They must consider indicators like e-business companies, electronic data internet, medical supplies, health electronic record, health information system, etc., In future, continuous studies in this field, to provide the exact and regular reports of amount of using of these indicators through different

  19. Engine-over-the-wing noise research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reshotko, M.; Goodykoontz, J. H.; Dorsch, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    Acoustic measurements for large model eingine-over-the-wing (EOW) research configurations having both conventional and powered lift applications were taken for flap positions typical of takeoff and approach and at locations simulating flyover and sideline. The results indicate that the noise is shielded by the wing and redirected above it, making the EOW concept a prime contender for quiet aircraft. The large-scale noise data are in agreement with earlier small-model results. Below the wing, the EOW configuration is about 10 PNdb quieter than the engine-under-the-wing externally-blown-flap for powered lift, and up to 10 db quieter than the nozzle alone at high frequencies for conventional lift applications.

  20. QSPR modeling: graph connectivity indices versus line graph connectivity indices

    PubMed

    Basak; Nikolic; Trinajstic; Amic; Beslo

    2000-07-01

    Five QSPR models of alkanes were reinvestigated. Properties considered were molecular surface-dependent properties (boiling points and gas chromatographic retention indices) and molecular volume-dependent properties (molar volumes and molar refractions). The vertex- and edge-connectivity indices were used as structural parameters. In each studied case we computed connectivity indices of alkane trees and alkane line graphs and searched for the optimum exponent. Models based on indices with an optimum exponent and on the standard value of the exponent were compared. Thus, for each property we generated six QSPR models (four for alkane trees and two for the corresponding line graphs). In all studied cases QSPR models based on connectivity indices with optimum exponents have better statistical characteristics than the models based on connectivity indices with the standard value of the exponent. The comparison between models based on vertex- and edge-connectivity indices gave in two cases (molar volumes and molar refractions) better models based on edge-connectivity indices and in three cases (boiling points for octanes and nonanes and gas chromatographic retention indices) better models based on vertex-connectivity indices. Thus, it appears that the edge-connectivity index is more appropriate to be used in the structure-molecular volume properties modeling and the vertex-connectivity index in the structure-molecular surface properties modeling. The use of line graphs did not improve the predictive power of the connectivity indices. Only in one case (boiling points of nonanes) a better model was obtained with the use of line graphs.