Science.gov

Sample records for early 1990s due

  1. Enhanced Biennial Variability in the Pacific due to Atlantic Capacitor Effect after the Early 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WANG, L.; Yu, J. Y.; Paek, H.

    2016-12-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific subtropical highs (PSHs) have major impacts on social and ecological systems through their influences on severe natural hazards including tropical storms, coastal erosions, droughts and floods. The ability to forecast ENSO and PSHs requires an understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms that drive their variability. Here we present an Atlantic capacitor effect mechanism to suggest the Atlantic as a key pacemaker of the biennial variability in the Pacific including ENSO and PSHs in recent decades, while the pacemaker was previously considered to be mainly lied within the Pacific or Indian Oceans. The "charging" (i.e., ENSO imprinting the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA) sea surface temperature (SST) via an atmospheric bridge mechanism) and "discharging" (i.e., the NTA SST triggering the following ENSO via a subtropical teleconnection mechanism) process works alternately, generating the biennial rhythmic changes in the Pacific. After the early-1990s, the positive phase of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and global warming provides more favorable background states over the NTA that enable the Atlantic capacitor effect to operate more efficiently, giving rise to enhanced biennial variability in the Pacific which may increase the occurrence frequency of severe natural hazard events. The results highlight the increasing important role of the Atlantic-Pacific coupling as an important pacemaker of the ENSO cycle in recent decades.

  2. Rural Earnings Holding Steady in the Early 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaim, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Current Population Survey data indicate an overall decline in the rural-urban pay gap during the early 1990s (due to declining urban wages, not rising rural wages). In 1993, the earnings of 30 percent of rural full-time workers were below the poverty level. Compares low-income workers by gender, age group, education, and race/ethnicity. (LP)

  3. Early Parenthood and Coming of Age in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenheim, Margaret K., Ed.; Testa, Mark F., Ed.

    This book examines how early parenthood differs historically, cross-nationally (in Korea and Sweden), and by class, race, and age in the United States. Contributors discuss how consequential is early parenthood for the future social and economic well-being of parents and children, whether postponing childbearing beyond the teenage years would…

  4. Early Childhood Education: Policy Issues for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegelin, Dolores A., Ed.

    Noting the separation of child-related policy makers from practitioners who know best what is good and appropriate for children, this anthology is designed as a guide for child-related policy development. The book's chapters are as follows: (1) "Early Childhood Policy" (Dolores A. Stegelin), providing an historical context and…

  5. Thinking Ahead: Early Childhood Teachers' Roles into the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veale, Ann

    This paper discusses roles of early childhood teachers in the context of a perspective which views the changes that have occurred in the education profession as surface changes only, and which suggests that teachers should not lose connections with the roots of their profession. The value of many past beliefs and practices has been confirmed by…

  6. Association of education and the occurrence of low birthweight in rural southern China during the early and late 1990s.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinghui; Liu, Jianmeng; Ye, Rongwei; Ren, Aiguo; Li, Song; Li, Zhu

    2008-04-01

    We examined whether education-related inequalities were associated with the occurrence of low birthweight in 6 counties in southern China in the early and late 1990s. The study population consisted of 111,181 women (65,669 in the early 1990s and 45,482 in the late 1990s) in a population-based Perinatal Health Care Surveillance System. We used the chi(2) test, logistic regression, and concentration index for our analyses. From the early to late 1990s, the mean maternal education level increased significantly, and the percentage of low-birthweight births declined among all groups, for both male and female births, and at all levels of the mother's education. Relative to those with less than 9 years of formal education, there was a decreasing risk of low birthweight among those with 9 to 11 years of formal education (range in adjusted odds ratio=0.69-0.82) and with 12 or more years of formal education (range in adjusted odds ratio=0.51-0.74). Between the early and late 1990s, the concentration index changed from -0.0778 to -0.0656 for male births and from -0.0717 to -0.0813 for female births. Education-related inequalities associated with low birthweight persisted from the early to the late 1990s in surveyed areas.

  7. The increasing control of the Atlantic Ocean on ENSO after the early 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J. Y.; Paek, H.; Wang, L.; Lyu, K.

    2016-12-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the most powerful interannual variability in Earth's climate system. Previous studies have emphasized processes within the tropical Pacific or Indian Oceans for the generation of ENSO. Recent studies have increasingly suggested that the Atlantic Ocean may play an active role in forcing ENSO variability. In this talk, we will present evidence from observational analyses and modeling experiments to show that the Atlantic Ocean became more capable of influencing ENSO properties after the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) changed to its positive phase in the early-1990s. A wave source mechanism is proposed to explain how the positive phase of the AMO can intensify the North Pacific Subtropical High (NPSH) to change the ENSO from the Eastern Pacific (EP) type to the Central Pacific (CP) type. A sequence of processes are identified to suggest that the AMO can displace the Pacific Walker circulation, induce a wave source in the tropical central Pacific, and excite a barotropic wave train toward higher-latitudes to enhance the NPSH, which then triggers subtropical Pacific atmospheric forcing and atmosphere-ocean coupling to increase the occurrence of the CP ENSO. An Atlantic capacitor mechanism is also proposed to explain how the positive phase of the AMO can intensify the quasi-biennial (QB) component of ENSO resulting in a more frequent occurrence of ENSO events. We will show that the capacitor mechanism works only after the AMO warmed up the Atlantic sea surface temperatures after the early-1990s. The increased feedback from the Atlantic to the Pacific has enabled the Atlantic capacitor mechanism to intensify the biennial variability in the Pacific during the past two decades. Our suggestion is very different from the previous prevailing views that have emphasized the Indo-Pacific Oceans as the pacemaker for the biennial variability in ENSO. The increasing control of the Atlantic has enabled the CP ENSO dynamics to

  8. Expectations and beliefs in science communication: Learning from three European gene therapy discussions of the early 1990s.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gitte

    2016-04-01

    There is widespread agreement that the potential of gene therapy was oversold in the early 1990s. This study, however, comparing written material from the British, Danish and German gene therapy discourses of the period finds significant differences: Over-optimism was not equally strong everywhere; gene therapy was not universally hyped. Against that background, attention is directed towards another area of variation in the material: different basic assumptions about science and scientists. Exploring such culturally rooted assumptions and beliefs and their possible significance to science communication practices, it is argued that deep beliefs may constitute drivers of hype that are particularly difficult to deal with. To participants in science communication, the discouragement of hype, viewed as a practical-ethical challenge, can be seen as a learning exercise that includes critical attention to internalised beliefs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Adolescents born prematurely with isolated grade 2 haemorrhage in the early 1990s face increased risks of learning challenges.

    PubMed

    Vohr, Betty R; Allan, Walter; Katz, Karol H; Schneider, Karen; Tucker, Richard; Ment, Laura R

    2014-10-01

    To compare the impact of low-grade haemorrhage on neurocognitive function in 16-year-old adolescents born preterm, by grade of intraventricular haemorrhage, and term controls. We evaluated 338 preterm adolescents (birth weight 600-1250 g) for intelligence, executive function and memory tasks. Eleven had grade 3-4 haemorrhage, 44 had grade 2, 31 had grade 1, and 251 had no haemorrhage. Group comparisons were made with 102 term age-matched controls, and regression models used to identify the risk that low-grade haemorrhage posed for cognitive, executive function and memory deficits. Preterm adolescents with grade 2 haemorrhage had higher deficit rates of verbal intelligence, receptive vocabulary, phonemic fluency, cognitive flexibility and phonological fluency than preterm adolescents with grade 1 or no haemorrhage, compared with term controls. After excluding preterm adolescents with both grade 2 haemorrhage and cystic periventricular leukomalacia, those with isolated grade 2 haemorrhage remained at greater risk of cognitive and executive function deficits than term controls and of cognitive deficits than preterm adolescents with no haemorrhage. Our findings suggest that preterm adolescents born in the early 1990s with isolated grade 2 haemorrhage are at increased risk of learning challenges, including cognitive and executive function deficits. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. An inter-decadal increase in summer sea level pressure over the Mongolian region around the early 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Li, Xiuzhen; Chen, Ruidan

    2018-05-01

    The East Asian summer monsoon is affected by processes in the mid-high latitudes in addition to various tropical and subtropical systems. The present study investigates the summer sea level pressure (SLP) variability over northern East Asia (NEA) and emphasizes the closed active center over the Mongolian region. It is found that the seasonal mean Mongolian SLP (MSLP) anomaly is closely connected with the variability of summertime regional synoptic extra-tropical cyclones on longer time scales. A significant inter-decadal increase in the MSLP around the early 1990s has been detected, which is accompanied by a weakening in the activity of regional extra-tropical cyclones. Recent warming over NEA may have a contribution to the inter-decadal change, which features evidently meridional inhomogeneity around 45°N. The inhomogeneous air temperature anomaly distribution results in decreased vertical wind shear, reduced atmospheric baroclinicity over the Mongolian region, and thus inactive regional cyclones and increased MSLP in the latter decade. The associated temperature anomaly distribution may be partly attributed to regional inhomogeneity in cloud and radiation anomalies, and it is further maintained by two positive feedback mechanisms associated with atmospheric internal processes: one via adiabatic heating and the other via horizontal temperature advection.

  11. Interdecadal change of the controlling mechanisms for East Asian early summer rainfall variation around the mid-1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Kwon, MinHo

    2014-03-01

    East Asian (EA) summer monsoon shows considerable differences in the mean state and principal modes of interannual variation between early summer (May-June, MJ) and late summer (July-August, JA). The present study focuses on the early summer (MJ) precipitation variability. We find that the interannual variation of the MJ precipitation and the processes controlling the variation have been changed abruptly around the mid-1990s. The rainfall anomaly represented by the leading empirical orthogonal function has changed from a dipole-like pattern in pre-95 epoch (1979-1994) to a tripole-like pattern in post-95 epoch (1995-2010); the prevailing period of the corresponding principal component has also changed from 3-5 to 2-3 years. These changes are concurrent with the changes of the corresponding El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) evolutions. During the pre-95 epoch, the MJ EA rainfall anomaly is coupled to a slow decay of canonical ENSO events signified by an eastern Pacific warming, which induces a dipole rainfall feature over EA. On the other hand, during the post-95 epoch the anomalous MJ EA rainfall is significantly linked to a rapid decay of a central Pacific warming and a distinct tripolar sea surface temperature (SST) in North Atlantic. The central Pacific warming-induced Philippine Sea anticyclone induces an increased rainfall in southern China and decreased rainfall in central eastern China. The North Atlantic Oscillation-related tripolar North Atlantic SST anomaly induces a wave train that is responsible for the increase northern EA rainfall. Those two impacts form the tripole-like rainfall pattern over EA. Understanding such changes is important for improving seasonal to decadal predictions and long-term climate change in EA.

  12. Still Missing? History Chapters in Introductory Early Childhood Education Textbooks From the 1990s to the 2010s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochner, Larry; Woitte, Sherry

    2013-01-01

    This article compares history chapters in recent introductory early childhood education textbooks with those from an earlier study, reviewing history chapters on four dimensions: the rationale for the study of history, the dominant story of the history, the facts of the history, and the image of the history. Ten textbooks are reviewed, including…

  13. A Two-Phase Case-Control Study of Autism Risk Among Children Born From the Late 1990s Through the Early 2000s in the United States.

    PubMed

    Geier, David A; Kern, Janet K; Geier, Mark R

    2016-12-29

    BACKGROUND This study evaluated the hypothesis that the 1999 recommendation by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and US Public Health Service (PHS) to reduce exposure to mercury (Hg) from Thimerosal in US vaccines would be associated with a reduction in the long-term risk of being diagnosed with autism. MATERIAL AND METHODS A two-phase assessment utilizing a case (n=73) -control (n=11,783) study in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database (for hypothesis generating) and a more rigorous, independent matched case (n=40) -control (n=40) study (hypothesis testing) was undertaken. RESULTS Analysis of the VAERS database using logistic regression revealed that the odds ratio (OR) for being an autism case in the VAERS database significantly decreased with a more recent year of vaccination in comparison to controls (OR=0.65) from 1998 to 2003. Sex-separated analyses revealed similar significant effects for males (OR=0.62) and females (OR=0.71). Analyses of the matched case-control data revealed, using the t-test statistic, that the mean date of birth among cases diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (2000.5±1.2) was significantly more in the past than in controls (2001.1±1.3). Logistic regression also revealed that the OR for being diagnosed with ASD significantly decreased with a more recent date of birth in comparison to controls (OR=0.67) from 1998-2003. CONCLUSIONS This study reveals that the risk of autism during from the late1990s to early 2000s in the US significantly decreased with reductions in Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines, but future studies should examine this phenomenon in other US populations. Vaccine programs have significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious disease, but Thimerosal should be removed from all vaccines.

  14. Have I Been a Data Scientist from the Start? Parallels from the Geographic Information Science Community in the Early 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    In the early 1990s the author came of age as the technology driving the geographic information system or GIS was beginning to successfully 'handle' geospatial data at a range of scales and formats, and a wide array of information technology products emerged from an expanding GIS industry. However, that small community struggled to reflect the diverse research efforts at play in understanding the deeper issues surrounding geospatial data, and the impediments to that effective use of that data. It was from this need that geographic information science or GIScience arose, to ensure in part that GIS did not fall into the trap of being a technology in search of applications, a one-time, one-off, non-intellectual 'bag of tricks' with no substantive theory underpinning it, and suitable only for a static period of time (e.g., Goodchild, 1992). The community has since debated the issue of "tool versus science' which has also played a role in defining GIS as an actual profession. In turn, GIS has contributed to "methodological versus substantive" questions in science, leading to understandings of how the Earth works versus how the Earth should look. In the author's experience, the multidimensional structuring and scaling data, with integrative and innovative approaches to analyzing, modeling, and developing extensive and spatial data from selected places on land and at sea, have revealed how theory and application are in no way mutually exclusive, and it may often be application that advances theory, rather than vice versa. Increasingly, both the system and science of geographic information have welcomed strong collaborations among computer scientists, information scientists, and domain scientists to solve complex scientific questions. As such, they have paralleled the emergence and acceptance of "data science." And now that we are squarely in an era of regional- to global-scale observation and simulation of the Earth, produce data that are too big, move too fast, and do not

  15. Losing Sight of the Child? Human Capital Theory and Its Role for Early Childhood Education and Care Policies in Finland and England since the Mid-1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell-Barr, Verity; Nygård, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    The international interest in early childhood education and care (ECEC) by supranational organisations, including the European Union, has grown considerably due to its dual function of sustaining parental employment and fostering child development. Focussing primarily on child development debates around ECEC, this article argues that human capital…

  16. A turbocharger for the 1990s

    SciT

    Johnson, E.R.

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports that the large-bore engines of the 1970s and 1980s have seen tremendous amounts of technological improvements. The key buzzwords were: Lower the emissions, and improve the fuel consumption. As the 1990s approach dramatic improvements in specific outputs along with continued research to further improve emissions and fuel consumption. One of the keys to success will have to be the degree to which the industry responds with improvements in turbocharger performance. In 1985, Cooper Bessemer Rotating Products Division began a program to develop the turbocharger of the 1990s. This paper will describe the development of the CB turbochargermore » series from concept to early production.« less

  17. Transportation energy efficiency trends in the 1990s

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-04-01

    In the 1990s : The transportation sector showed little increase : in energy efficiency as transportation activity and : energy use continued to grow. : Passenger travel energy-efficiency levels : improved slightly, mainly due to efficiency ga...

  18. Child Poverty Was Lower at End of 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Carolyn C.

    2001-01-01

    Poverty rates increased in the early 1990s, but between 1994 and 1999 the metro child poverty rate declined 6 percentage points and the nonmetro rate declined 4 percent. In 1999, the poverty rate for nonmetro Black children was about double that of nonmetro White children, but the Black-White gap in poverty narrowed between 1985 and 1999. (TD)

  19. Law Library Service in the 1990's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Bookmark, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This issue of "The Bookmark" presents 20 articles focusing on various aspects of law library services in New York State. The articles are: (1) "Law Library Services in the 1990's" (Christine Bain); (2) "A Librarian's View of Legal Publishing Today" (Margaret Maes Axtmann); (3) "Legal Publishing--A Publisher's View" (Kenneth Lee Halajian); (4)…

  20. Standards and Trade in the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    in the 1990s This Technical Committee decided to work efforts made by EWOS (European Work - on ENs and ENVs for, among ...EMC work is that it possible, the results of our global partner, cannot be performed in isolation, by one the International Electrotechnical Commis...evolution of standards ficient operation and sound management and conformity assessment in the United depend on the

  1. Standard and Trade in the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    in the 1990s This Technical Committee decided to work efforts made by EWOS (European Work - on ENs and ENVs for, among others, a...ratified in October by both the IEC and Procedure. This Procedure has been re- CENELEC. By the time of the 70th Techni- fined on the basis of a full...standards, dards in the United States. which by themselves impose no obliga-

  2. Enterprise storage report for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Fred

    1992-01-01

    Data processing has become an increasingly vital function, if not the most vital function, in most businesses today. No longer only a mainframe domain, the data processing enterprise also includes the midrange and workstation platforms, either local or remote. This expanded view of the enterprise has encouraged more and more businesses to take a strategic, long-range view of information management rather than the short-term tactical approaches of the past. This paper will highlight some of the significant aspects of data storage in the enterprise for the 1990's.

  3. Enterprise storage report for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Fred

    1991-01-01

    Data processing has become an increasingly vital function, if not the most vital function, in most businesses today. No longer only a mainframe domain, the data processing enterprise also includes the midrange and workstation platforms, either local or remote. This expanded view of the enterprise has encouraged more and more businesses to take a strategic, long-range view of information management rather than the short-term tactical approaches of the past. Some of the significant aspects of data storage in the enterprise for the 1990's are highlighted.

  4. Mobile satellite communications in the 1990's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jai

    1992-07-01

    The evolution of Inmarsat global services from a single market and single service of the 1980's to all of the key mobile markets and a wide range of new terminals and services in the 1990's is described. An overview of existing mobile satellite services, as well as new services under implementation for introduction in the near and longer term, including a handheld satellite phone (Inmarsat-P), is provided. The initiative taken by Inmarsat in the integration of its global mobile satellite services with global navigation capability derived from GPS (Global Positioning System) and the GLONASS (Russian GPS) navigation satellite systems and the provision of an international civil overlay for GPS/GLONASS integrity and augmentation is highlighted. To complete the overview of the development of mobile satellite services in the 1990's, the known national and regional mobile satellite system plans and the various recent proposals for both orbiting and geostationary satellite systems for proving handheld satellite phone and/or data messaging services are described.

  5. Explosive Welding in the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalwaney, N. S.; Linse, V. D.

    1985-01-01

    Explosive bonding is a unique joining process with the serious potential to produce composite materials capable of fulfilling many of the high performance materials capable of fulfilling many of the high performance materials needs of the 1990's. The process has the technological versatility to provide a true high quality metallurgical compatible and incompatible systems. Metals routinely explosively bonded include a wide variety of combinations of reactive and refractory metals, low and high density metals and their alloys, corrosion resistant and high strength alloys, and common steels. The major advantage of the process is its ability to custom design and engineer composites with physical and/or mechanical properties that meet a specific or unusual performance requirement. Explosive bonding offers the designer unique opportunities in materials selection with unique combinations of properties and high integrity bonds that cannot be achieved by any other metal joining process. The process and some applications are discussed.

  6. Physics through the 1990s: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume details the interaction of physics and society, and presents a short summary of the progress in the major fields of physics and a summary of the other seven volumes of the Physics through the 1990s series, issues and recommended policy changes are described regarding funding, education, industry participation, small-group university research and large facility programs, government agency programs, and computer database needs. Three supplements report in detail on international issues in physics (the US position in the field, international cooperation and competition-especially on large projects, freedom for scientists, free flow of information, and education of foreign students), the education and supply of physicists (the changes in US physics education, employment and manpower, and demographics of the field), and the organization and support of physics (government, university, and industry research; facilities; national laboratories; and decision making). An executive summary contains recommendations for maintaining excellence in physics. A glossary of scientific terms is appended.

  7. Natural family planning in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Ryder, B; Campbell, H

    1995-07-22

    Natural family planning (NFP) tends to be considered as a matter of chance resulting in unplanned pregnancies and large families. A World Health Organization (WHO) multicenter trial of the ovulation method of NFP was undertaken during 1975-79 with the primary objective of determining what proportion of women of many different cultures could be taught to recognize changes in the cervical mucus around the time of ovulation. The conclusions were that: a) irrespective of cultural, educational, or economic background, over 95% of fertile women could recognize the mucus signs of fertility; b) the fertility rate was 22.6 pregnancies per 100 woman years; c) the preovulatory and postovulatory days designated by the ovulation method of NFP rules as infertile were indeed infertile, as the pregnancies in this phase were 4 per 1000 acts of intercourse. The knowledge gained through the WHO trial and subsequent experience has given NFP organizations and teachers a much greater understanding of the fertile and infertile phases, so that total pregnancy rates have been steadily falling. Of the 11 NFP studies so far reported in the 1990s, the 3 that had total pregnancy rates greater than 5 per 100 woman years were trials of atypical NFP approaches or teaching methods. The results can be compared with reported pregnancy rates of between 0.18 and 3.6 for artificial contraceptive methods in well-motivated couples. One criticism of NFP is that the necessary periods of abstinence may be detrimental to the marital relationship. It is suggested that the sexual revolution of the last 20-30 years has caused marital and family breakdown on a massive scale, thus NFP might be the antidote. Since women are potentially fertile for no more than 6-8 days in the cycle, these easily recognized symptoms empower women through the knowledge they impart regarding their state of fertility. All women are entitled to this simple and fundamental information.

  8. Multimission airborne radar for the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Thomas H.

    1986-07-01

    The continuing trend towards the development and production of aircraft capable of multiple missions indicates that future airborne radars must provide a broad spectrum of air-to-air and air-to-ground modes. This paper investigates the modal and functional requirements of a multimode radar projected for the mid-1990s period. The paper is divided into two sections. In the first, the multimission capabilities of current radars are presented to establish trends and capabilities. In the second, the requirements of the next generation system are established. Current multimode radars lay the basis for future systems. The experience gained on the APG-65 and APG-63/70 radars is presented and conclusions are drawn regarding their impact on future system requirements. Not only are modes and performance reviewed for these radars but also their system architecture. The discussion starts with the APG-65 radar which is the first true multimission radar with programmable signal and data processing. Following this, the evolution of the APG-63 radar, culminating with the most recent upgrading resulting in redesignation of APG-70, is presented. The incorporation of air-to-ground capabilities in the APG-70, resulting from the Dual Role Fighter program, is reviewed. Results from the Advanced Fighter Capabilities Demonstration program are presented showing how high resolution SAR was incorporated into a full weapon delivery solution. The specific radar requirements for the next decade radar system are developed. This development is done in two parts. First, mode requirements are synthesized for air superiority, navigation and strike/interdiction operation. This includes low altitude penetration requirements and a review of radar timeline constraints which arise. Second, the fundamental functional requirements needed to implement the mode requirements are explored. Architectural issues and their impact on reliability and sustainability are also considered.

  9. NASA scientific and technical information for the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.

    1990-01-01

    Projections for NASA scientific and technical information (STI) in the 1990s are outlined. NASA STI for the 1990s will maintain a quality bibliographic and full-text database, emphasizing electronic input and products supplemented by networked access to a wide variety of sources, particularly numeric databases.

  10. Nonmetro Poverty: Assessing the Effect of the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolliffe, Dean

    2003-01-01

    During the 1990s, the poverty rate in nonmetropolitan areas declined to a record low of 13.4 percent. Drawing on census data, aspects of nonmetro poverty during the 1990s are outlined, including effects of urbanization, regional differences, racial and ethnic differences, importance of family structure, needs for assistance and human services,…

  11. Subcortical functional reorganization due to early blindness.

    PubMed

    Coullon, Gaelle S L; Jiang, Fang; Fine, Ione; Watkins, Kate E; Bridge, Holly

    2015-04-01

    Lack of visual input early in life results in occipital cortical responses to auditory and tactile stimuli. However, it remains unclear whether cross-modal plasticity also occurs in subcortical pathways. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, auditory responses were compared across individuals with congenital anophthalmia (absence of eyes), those with early onset (in the first few years of life) blindness, and normally sighted individuals. We find that the superior colliculus, a "visual" subcortical structure, is recruited by the auditory system in congenital and early onset blindness. Additionally, auditory subcortical responses to monaural stimuli were altered as a result of blindness. Specifically, responses in the auditory thalamus were equally strong to contralateral and ipsilateral stimulation in both groups of blind subjects, whereas sighted controls showed stronger responses to contralateral stimulation. These findings suggest that early blindness results in substantial reorganization of subcortical auditory responses. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Subcortical functional reorganization due to early blindness

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fang; Fine, Ione; Watkins, Kate E.; Bridge, Holly

    2015-01-01

    Lack of visual input early in life results in occipital cortical responses to auditory and tactile stimuli. However, it remains unclear whether cross-modal plasticity also occurs in subcortical pathways. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, auditory responses were compared across individuals with congenital anophthalmia (absence of eyes), those with early onset (in the first few years of life) blindness, and normally sighted individuals. We find that the superior colliculus, a “visual” subcortical structure, is recruited by the auditory system in congenital and early onset blindness. Additionally, auditory subcortical responses to monaural stimuli were altered as a result of blindness. Specifically, responses in the auditory thalamus were equally strong to contralateral and ipsilateral stimulation in both groups of blind subjects, whereas sighted controls showed stronger responses to contralateral stimulation. These findings suggest that early blindness results in substantial reorganization of subcortical auditory responses. PMID:25673746

  13. Freshening of the Labrador Sea Surface Waters in the 1990s: Another Great Salinity Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Both the observed and simulated time series of the Labrador Sea surface salinities show a major freshening event since the middles. It continues the series of decoder events of the 1970s and 1980s from which the freshening in the early 1970's was named as the Great Salinity Anomaly (GSA). These events are especially distinguishable in the late summer (August and September) time series. The observed data suggests that the 1990's freshening may equal the GSA in magnitude. This recent event is associated with a large reduction in the overturning rate between the early and latter part of the 1990s. Both the observations and model results indicate that the surface salinity conditions appear to be returning towards normal daring 1999 and 2000 in the coastal area, but offshore, the model predicts the freshening to linger on after peaking 1997.

  14. Changing Contexts for Counselor Preparation in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Harold, Ed.

    The five chapters in this monograph provide guidelines for counselors in the 1990s who will be faced with such societal issues as substance abuse, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), teenage pregnancy, youth unemployment, homelessness, crime and delinquency, and school dropouts. "The Contemporary Counselor in a Changed World" (Harold…

  15. Overcoming Learned Helplessness: Managerial Strategies for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnhold, Rose Marie; Razak, W. Nevell

    1991-01-01

    Discusses problems of work force quality in the United States in the 1990s, strategies for managerial response to these problems, and sources of employee resistance to change. Notes that business and industry may be forced to hire minorities and women with orientations to self and work different from those held by white middle-class men.…

  16. Into The 1990's: Environmental Education in the USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disinger, John F.; Floyd, Donald W.

    1990-01-01

    Activities in environmental education in the United States during the 1980s are summarized, in terms of audiences involved--formal (school), college/university, and nonformal. Discussion focuses on specific programs and materials, in summary fashion. Trends are noted, and speculative projections into the 1990s are offered. (36 references) (Author)

  17. Prospects for Physics in the 1990's Surveyed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    1986-01-01

    A National Academy of Science report ("Physics Through the 1990's") says that American physics has been a highly diversified and productive enterprise, but continued excellence cannot be taken for granted. Progress in six subfields (elementary particle, nuclear, condensed-matter, atomic/molecular, plasma/fluid, and gravitation/cosmology physics)…

  18. Education in the 1990's: A Demographic View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Ernest F.

    Since 1975, the United States has experienced the largest wave of immigration since the beginning of the century. This demographic fact holds important implications for education in the 1990s. First, because the birthrate among recent immigrants is relatively high, an increasing number of first generation Americans will enter the school system. As…

  19. Transpersonal Social Work: A Theory for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Au-Deane S.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that transpersonal psychology contains growing body of literature and theory related to spiritual dimension of human nature and higher states of consciousness. Sees this approach as especially relevant for social work practitioners who are combating social ills of 1990s that manifest as violence, addiction, and spiritual malaise. (Author/NB)

  20. Shakespeare for the 1990s: A Multicultural Tempest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey-Webb, Allen

    1993-01-01

    Argues that William Shakespeare's "The Tempest" is the play that is best suited for the high school English curriculum of the 1990s. Discusses historical and critical aspects the play's key themes. Shows ways of using the play in high school classes, and describes 19 works to read alongside of"The Tempest." (HB)

  1. Vocational Education in the 1990s: Major Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pautler, Albert J., Jr., Ed.

    This book is designed to present issues facing vocational education today and in the immediate future and to serve as a potential agenda for confronting these issues and assisting in responsible and responsive policy development, financing, research, and operation of vocational education programs in the 1990s. The 14 chapters are as follows:…

  2. Korean Higher Education Reforms and Changes since the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Yun Suk

    2011-01-01

    Korean higher education has experienced significant changes since the 1990s. Terms like quality, excellence, competition, efficiency, restructuring, and accountability have become dominant in higher education discourse. These changes are integral parts of higher education reforms implemented by the South Korean government and higher educational…

  3. The echinoderm collagen fibril: a hero in the connective tissue research of the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Szulgit, Greg

    2007-07-01

    Collagen fibrils are some of the most-abundant and important extracellular structures in our bodies, yet we are unsure of their shape and size. This is largely due to an inherent difficulty in isolating them from their surrounding tissues. Echinoderms have collagenous tissues that are similar to ours in many ways, yet they can be manipulated to easily relinquish their collagen fibrils, providing an excellent opportunity to study native fibrillar structure. In the early 1990s, they were found to defy the commonly accepted fibrillar model of the time in that they were much shorter, they were shaped like double-ended spindles, and their centers exhibited a reversal in molecular polarity. Realization of these features helped to reform the questions that were being asked about vertebrate fibrils, shifting the focus toward shape and size. Since then, researchers working with both groups (echinoderms and vertebrates) have worked together to find the structure of native fibrils. This information will be fundamental in understanding what holds collagenous tissues together at the fibrillar level, and could have important implications for people with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Improved zircon iron corals for the 1990s

    SciT

    Decker, C.

    1992-03-01

    CIBA-GEIGY/Drakenfeld Colors is dedicated to the research and development of consistent and cost-effective ceramic stains for the whitewares industry. After identifying the trends in color for the 1990s. CIBA-GEIGY/Drakenfeld Colors initiated an extensive R D project to improve zircon ion corals for the whitewares industry. These color trends indicated a need for stronger and cleaner zircon iron corals. This paper discusses the chemistry and crystal structure of zircon iron corals. A historical review of Drakenfeld corals will also be presented. The most recent development in Drakenfeld corals will then be compared to other commercially available zircon iron corals. Taking intomore » consideration these comparisons, conclusions will be drawn suggesting the coral of choice for the 1990s.« less

  5. Teaching the Vietnam War in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, H. Bruce

    For an instructor who has been teaching the Vietnam War for over 30 years, the War has been teaching him for even longer. One of the objectives in teaching the Vietnam War in the 1990s is what it meant to teach the Vietnam War in the 1960s. It is easy to forget that the antiwar movement began as an attempt to educate the government and the nation,…

  6. French Nuclear Forces in the 1980s and 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    the mid-1990s, the new force structure will be theoretically capable of inflicting massive destruc- tion against the Soviet Union as well as...capacity which turns national territory into a sanctuary. The current French nuclear force structure is shown in table 1 below. -2- TABLE 1 FRENCH...out in favor of the M-2 in 1974 which by 1977 had itself been supplanted by the M-20. The first Sous-marin Nucleaire Lanceur d’Engins I (SNLE) or

  7. Student Borrowing in the 1990s. ACE Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC. Center for Policy Analysis.

    This brief discusses student borrowing to pay for college in the 1990s. Between 1990 and 2000, student loan volume more than doubled in real terms from $16.4 billion to $37.5 billion, and the number of loans made annually also more than doubled, from 4.5 million to 9.4 million. Data, primarily from the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study,…

  8. An interdecadal regime shift in rainfall predictability related to the Ningaloo Nino in the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, T.; Behera, S. K.; Yamagata, T.

    2016-02-01

    The global warming and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) started influencing the coastal ocean off Western Australia, leading to a dramatic change in the regional climate predictability. The warmer ocean started driving rainfall variability regionally there after the late 1990s. Because of this, rainfall predictability near the coastal region of Western Australia on a seasonal time scale was drastically enhanced in the late 1990s; it is significantly predictable 5 months ahead after the late 1990s. The high prediction skill of the rainfall in recent decades is very encouraging and would help to develop an early warning system of Ningaloo Nino/Nina events to mitigate possible societal as well as agricultural impacts in the granary of Western Australia.

  9. An interdecadal regime shift in rainfall predictability related to the Ningaloo Niño in the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, Takeshi; Behera, Swadhin K.; Yamagata, Toshio

    2015-02-01

    The global warming and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) started influencing the coastal ocean off Western Australia, leading to a dramatic change in the regional climate predictability. The warmer ocean started driving rainfall variability regionally there after the late 1990s. Because of this, rainfall predictability near the coastal region of Western Australia on a seasonal time scale was drastically enhanced in the late 1990s; it is significantly predictable 5 months ahead after the late 1990s. The high prediction skill of the rainfall in recent decades is very encouraging and would help to develop an early warning system of Ningaloo Niño/Niña events to mitigate possible societal as well as agricultural impacts in the granary of Western Australia.

  10. Educating and training industrial ecologists for the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Troxell, D E

    1992-02-01

    For industrial ecology to become a reality and flourish, many talents must be integrated into a single system. Basically, there are four types of technologists who must be brought together to create a system: (i) technical specialists-those that can take the state of knowledge to the state of the art and eventually to the state of practice; (ii) technical "generalists"-those that can integrate diverse technologies into a comprehensive solution; (iii) technical managers-those that can lead technical efforts to an optimal solution (these people must have management skills in their area); and (iv) program managers-those that can understand and merge the overall efforts of technology, business, schedule, and finance. The initial questions for industrial ecology in the 1990s are: Do these people presently exist in industry? What will be needed to bring new people (recent graduates) into the field of industrial ecology? For this decade, the people who will develop and lead the concept of industrial ecology are presently in industry. However, certainly few, if any, today understand the concept of industrial ecology as a system issue. Training will be needed for these practitioners of the 1990s so that the overall goal and the mechanism for achieving industrial ecology are understood. A three-tiered approach is presented to define the education/training needed, to conduct training on an industry basis, and then to initiate the training to be done within a corporation. The three tiers propose the use of universities, professional societies, and industry groups. Having universities participate in the training of the 1990s industrial ecologists will give universities insight to the development of industrial ecology, and access to industry needs so that curriculum can be initiated to educate the industrial ecologists of the future.

  11. Physics through the 1990s: Condensed-matter physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume presents the current status of condensed-matter physics from developments since the 1970s to opportunities in the 1990s. Topics include electronic structure, vibrational properties, critical phenomena and phase transitions, magnetism, semiconductors, defects and diffusion, surfaces and interfaces, low-temperature physics, liquid-state physics, polymers, nonlinear dynamics, instabilities, and chaos. Appendices cover the connections between condensed-matter physics and applications of national interest, new experimental techniques and materials, laser spectroscopy, and national facilities for condensed-matter physics research. The needs of the research community regarding support for individual researchers and for national facilities are presented, as are recommendations for improved government-academic-industrial relations.

  12. Dynamic cost shifting in hospitals: evidence from the 1980s and 1990s.

    PubMed

    Clement, J P

    The purpose of this paper is to determine whether dynamic cost shifting occurred among acute care hospitals during the period from the early 1980s to the early 1990s and, if so, whether market factors affected the ability to shift costs. Evidence from this study of California acute care hospitals during three time intervals shows that the hospital did practice dynamic cost shifting, but that their ability to shift costs decreased over time. Surprisingly, hospital competition and HMO penetration did not influence cost shifting. However, increasing HMO penetration (measured as the HMO percentage of hospital discharges) did decrease both net prices and costs for the early part of the study, but later was associated with increases in both.

  13. European Telecommunications Conference. Strategic Planning for the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, J. F.

    1990-06-01

    The European Telecommunications Conference Strategic Planning for the 1990s provided information to delegates and their companies on strategic planning for the European market, particularly after the advent of the European Single Market at the end of 1992. The conference objective was to examine the impact of the initiatives of the European Commission (EC) and the changing attitudes to service provision by public and private sector organizations on industry and marketing. Organized by Blenheim Online and Logica, 40 delegates attended this conference, mainly from Europe, but with a few from the U.S. The papers were designed to illuminate such questions as emerging market sectors, impact of U.S telecommunications organizations in Europe, mergers and acquisition, standards, and value-added services.

  14. Computerized structural mechanics for 1990's: Advanced aircraft needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Backman, B. F.

    1989-01-01

    The needs for computerized structural mechanics (CSM) as seen from the standpoint of the aircraft industry are discussed. These needs are projected into the 1990's with special focus on the new advanced materials. Preliminary design/analysis, research, and detail design/analysis are identified as major areas. The role of local/global analyses in these different areas is discussed. The lessons learned in the past are used as a basis for the design of a CSM framework that could modify and consolidate existing technology and include future developments in a rational and useful way. A philosophy is stated, and a set of analyses needs driven by the emerging advanced composites is enumerated. The roles of NASA, the universities, and the industry are identified. Finally, a set of rational research targets is recommended based on both the new types of computers and the increased complexity the industry faces. Computerized structural mechanics should be more than new methods in structural mechanics and numerical analyses. It should be a set of engineering applications software products that combines innovations in structural mechanics, numerical analysis, data processing, search and display features, and recent hardware advances and is organized in a framework that directly supports the design process.

  15. AIDS and the status of women. Challenges and perspectives for the 1990s.

    PubMed

    1990-10-01

    WHO and the Swedish Government hosted the expert group meeting on women and HIV/AIDS in Vienna, August in 1990. Attendees concentrated their discussions on government recognized entities (national machinery) responsible for women's advancement and how they can assist in forming national policies to better women's status and limit the effect of HIV/AIDS. A very important issue came out of this meeting that had not yet been addressed in AIDS prevention strategies--the fundamental problem of women's subordination as a component of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. In addition, even though national groups for women's advancement have worked hard to rectify subordination, they have not yet addressed AIDS as a barrier to equality. Subordination of women varies from country to country, nevertheless they are all vulnerable to HIV/AIDS worldwide. They do not have equal access to education, information, and health services. They cannot demand that sexual partners practice safe sex. Despite being ill, they are expected to continue caring for their families. The national machinery must be able to assemble needed resources and assure implementation of these policies. It should encourage government policies to improve maternal and child health and family planning services, to control sexually transmitted diseases, and to provide adequate counseling and research. National AIDS committees and national machinery should communicate and form linkages to advance the status of women. Preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS cannot occur, however, if men and women do not cooperate. WHO estimated that at least 500,000 women and children acquired AIDS in the 1980s. It expects an additional 3 million in the 1990s. In the early 1990s, 8-10 million people are infected with HIV.

  16. The Public Secondary School and Teacher in American Films of the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Arleen B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how public secondary schools and educators were portrayed in American films of the 1990s. Thirty films were selected for study that were produced and released in the decade of the 1990s. Content analysis and a "Film Analysis Form" produced answers to eight questions regarding the learning environments, portrayal of…

  17. Population Growth in the 1990s: Patterns within the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Examines population growth during the 1990s for a variety of geographic levels including regions, divisions, states, metropolitan areas, counties, and large cities. Compares growth rates for the 1990s with earlier decades to provide an historical context for present-day trends in population growth and decline. Discusses how differential population…

  18. Concept to Reality: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to US Civil Aircraft of the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    This document is intended to be a companion to NASA SP-2000-4519, 'Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990s'. Material included in the combined set of volumes provides informative and significant examples of the impact of Langley's research on U.S. civil and military aircraft of the 1990s. This volume, 'Concept to Reality: Contributions of the NASA Langley Research Center to U.S. Civil Aircraft of the 1990s', highlights significant Langley contributions to safety, cruise performance, takeoff and landing capabilities, structural integrity, crashworthiness, flight deck technologies, pilot-vehicle interfaces, flight characteristics, stall and spin behavior, computational design methods, and other challenging technical areas for civil aviation. The contents of this volume include descriptions of some of the more important applications of Langley research to current civil fixed-wing aircraft (rotary-wing aircraft are not included), including commercial airliners, business aircraft, and small personal-owner aircraft. In addition to discussions of specific aircraft applications, the document also covers contributions of Langley research to the operation of civil aircraft, which includes operating problems. This document is organized according to disciplinary technologies, for example, aerodynamics, structures, materials, and flight systems. Within each discussion, examples are cited where industry applied Langley technologies to specific aircraft that were in operational service during the 1990s and the early years of the new millennium. This document is intended to serve as a key reference for national policy makers, internal NASA policy makers, Congressional committees, the media, and the general public. Therefore, it has been written for a broad general audience and does not presume any significant technical expertise. An extensive bibliography is provided for technical specialists and others who desire a

  19. A Dramatic Regime Shift in Rainfall Predictability Related to the Ningaloo Niño/Niña in the Late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, T.; Behera, S. K.; Yamagata, T.

    2014-12-01

    The global warming and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) started influencing the coastal ocean off Western Australia, leading to a dramatic change in the regional climate predictability. The warmed ocean started driving rainfall regionally there after the late 1990s. Because of this, rainfall predictability off Western Australia on a seasonal time scale was drastically enhanced in the late 1990s; it is significantly predictable 5 months ahead after the late 1990s. The high prediction skill of the rainfall in recent decades encourages development of an early warning system of Ningaloo Niño/Niña events to mitigate possible societal as well as agricultural impacts in the granary.

  20. Foul weather friends: big business and health care reform in the 1990s in historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Peter; Greer, Scott

    2002-08-01

    Existing accounts of the Clinton health reform efforts of the early 1990s neglect to examine how the change in big business reform interests during the short period between the late 1980s and 1994 might have altered the trajectory of compulsory health insurance legislation in Congress. This article explores evidence that big employers lost their early interest in reform because they believed their private remedies for bringing down health cost inflation were finally beginning to work. This had a discouraging effect on reform efforts. Historical analysis shows how hard times during the Great Depression also aligned big business interests with those of reformers seeking compulsory social insurance. Unlike the present case, however, the economic climate did not quickly improve, and the social insurance reform of the New Deal succeeded. The article speculates, therefore, that had employer health expenditures not flattened out, continuing and even growing big business support might have neutralized small business and other opposition that contributed heavily to the failure of reform. Thus in light of the Clinton administration's demonstrated willingness to compromise with business on details of its plan, some kind of major reform might have succeeded.

  1. Ultraviolet, visible, and gravity astrophysics: A plan for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) receives advice on scientific strategy and priorities from the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Guidance to the OSSA Astrophysics Division, in particular, is provided by dedicated academy committees, ad hoc study groups, and, at ten-year intervals, by broadly mandated astronomy and astrophysics survey committees charged with making recommendations for the coming decade. Many of the academy's recommendations have important implications for the conduct of ultraviolet and visible-light astronomy from space. Moreover, these areas are now poised for an era of rapid growth. Through technological progress, ultraviolet astronomy has already risen from a novel observational technique four decades ago to the mainstream of astronomical research today. Recent developments in space technology and instrumentation have the potential to generate comparably dramatic strides in observational astronomy within the next ten years. In 1989, the Ultraviolet and Visible Astrophysics Branch of the OSSA Astrophysics Division recognized the need for a new, long-range plan that would implement the academy's recommendations in a way that yielded the most advantageous use of new technology. NASA's Ultraviolet, Visible, and Gravity Astrophysics Management Operations Working Group was asked to develop such a plan for the 1990's. Since the branch holds programmatic responsibility for space research in gravitational physics and relativity, as well as for ultraviolet and visible-light astrophysics, missions in those areas were also included. The working group met throughout 1989 and 1990 to survey current astrophysical problems, assess the potential of new technologies, examine prior academy recommendations, and develop the implementation plan. The present report is the product of those deliberations. Key astrophysical questions to be addressed cover topics such as the structure and evolution of the early universe, energetics of active

  2. Cerebral palsy rates among low-birthweight infants fell in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Surman, Geraldine; Newdick, Helen; Johnson, Ann

    2003-07-01

    Using a population-based register, this study sought to ascertain changes in the rate and severity of cerebral palsy (CP) in a geographically defined area of the UK among infants weighing less than 1500 g and born between 1984 and 1995. There were 417414 live births in the area, which included Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Northamptonshire, and Oxfordshire. Of the 898 children with CP (526 males, 372 females), 194 (21.6%) weighed less than 1500 g at birth. The overall CP rate for neonatal survivors fell from 2.5 out of every 1000 in 1984 to 1986 to 1.7 in 1993 to 1995. The rate for those weighing less than 1000 g rose to 90 out of every 1000 neonatal survivors in 1987 to 1989 and then fell to 57 in 1993 to 1995. A similar pattern is seen among infants weighing 1000 to 1499 g at birth, the rate rising to 77 in 1987 to 1988 and then falling to 40 in 1993 to 1995. The rate of severe motor disability among infants weighing less than 1500 g also decreased (24.6 in 1984-1986 to 12.5 in 1993-1995). The relation of these findings to changes in perinatal care in the early 1990s is not known.

  3. An unexpected rise in strontium-90 in US deciduous teeth in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Joseph J; Gould, Jay M; Sternglass, Ernest J; Sherman, Janette D; McDonnell, William

    2003-12-30

    For several decades, the United States has been without an ongoing program measuring levels of fission products in the body. Strontium-90 (Sr-90) concentrations in 2089 deciduous (baby) teeth, mostly from persons living near nuclear power reactors, reveal that average levels rose 48.5% for persons born in the late 1990s compared to those born in the late 1980s. This trend represents the first sustained increase since the early 1960s, before atmospheric weapons tests were banned. The trend was consistent for each of the five states for which at least 130 teeth are available. The highest averages were found in southeastern Pennsylvania, and the lowest in California (San Francisco and Sacramento), neither of which is near an operating nuclear reactor. In each state studied, the average Sr-90 concentration is highest in counties situated closest to nuclear reactors. It is likely that, 40 years after large-scale atmospheric atomic bomb tests ended, much of the current in-body radioactivity represents nuclear reactor emissions.

  4. Did the elimination of lead from petrol reduce crime in the USA in the 1990s?

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    This article assesses the evidence for the hypothesis that a decline in all types of crime since the early 1990s in the USA was a consequence of removing lead from petrol between 1975 and 1985. It describes ecological and econometric studies that have generally but not always found correlations between lead exposures in childhood and some types of crime 20 years later; a small number of epidemiological studies that have found a dose-response relationship between lead exposure in childhood and self-reported and officially recorded criminal offences in young adulthood; and evidence for the biological plausibility of a causal relationship. Lead exposure in childhood may have played a small role in rising and falling crime rates in the USA but it is unlikely to account for the very high percentage of the decline suggested by the ecological studies. The major anomaly in the evidence is that the associations reported in ecological studies are much stronger (explaining 56-90% of the variation in crime rates) than the weaker relationships found in the cohort studies (that typically explain less than 1% of the variance in offending).  Suggestions are made for research that will better assess the contribution that reduced lead exposure has made to declining crime rates in the USA. PMID:24555074

  5. Global child health: challenges and goals in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Reid, R S

    1994-01-01

    The UNICEF message to the pediatricians and child health experts attending the Regional Pediatric Congress of the Union of National Pediatric Societies of Turkish Republics is that the way children are conceptualized in the development process has a major impact on poverty. UNICEF argues that human resource development is the safest way out of population pressure, vanishing forests, and despoiled rivers. Thailand, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore are examples of countries that "sacrificed, deferred consumer gratification of the elites, and disciplined themselves" in order to provide better care for their children in terms of good nutrition, good health care, and rigorous primary and secondary education for all children. Family planning was available to all parents. The emphasis was on hygiene, immunization, clean water supplies, and sanitation. Lower infant and child mortality created confidence in child survival and parental willingness to have fewer children. The working population is healthier due to the state nutrition programs and a better skilled labor force due to education and training. These countries are no longer underdeveloped because of the priority on children for over a generation and a half. Robert Heilbroner has described this strategy for development as based on social development, human development, and protection of children aged under 5 years. The Alma Ata conference in 1976 was instrumental in focusing on the health of the child by setting a standard of health for all by the year 2000. Many countries are moving in the direction proposed in these agendas. The result has been a 33% reduction in child mortality within 10 years and greater immunization in some developing countries than in Europe and North America. Immunization rates in Ankara, Turkey; Calcutta, India; Lagos, Nigeria; and Mexico City are higher than in Washington, D.C. or New York City. The 1990 World Summit for Children found that the following rules are applicable to

  6. [Asbestos risk in the textile industry: braking systems on machinery used until the 1990's].

    PubMed

    Chiappino, G; Pellissetti, D; Moretto, O; Picchi, Ornella

    2005-01-01

    We recently described asbestos risk in the non-asbestos textile industry as the result of fibre dispersion from ceilings, pipe insulation and machines. The widespread use of brakes with asbestos linings on the machines as well as other functional details were considered for a proper evaluation of their role in producing atmospheric pollution All the information was collected on the basis of the personal technical experience of two of the Authors and by direct observation of the machines. All the textile machines (ring spinning, twisting, warping, winding, looms) used until the 1990's were without exception equipped with asbestos-lined mechanical brakes. The heavy action required produced relatively rapid wear of the linings and the dust produced was spread into the atmosphere by the continuous action of the "travelling blowing cleaners" and by the daily cleaning of the machines using compressed air at the end of the shift: violent air blowing undoubtedly caused redispersion of the fine dust from the brakes and also acted as a mechanical grinder on the bundles that sedimented on the machines from the ceilings and pipes, producing more ultrathin respirable fibres. the contribution of textile machinery to atmospheric pollution by asbestos fibres was significant and due both to the widespread use of brakes with asbestos-containing materials and to the continuous action on the machines of compressed air blowers. Asbestos pollution was certainly high in all the factories so that in the near future still further mesothelioma cases among ex-workers are to be expected.

  7. Marriage, divorce, and remarriage in the 1990's.

    PubMed

    Norton, A J; Miller, L F

    1992-10-01

    Recent trends in marriage, divorce and redivorce, and remarriage were gleaned from cohort data from the US Supplement to the Current Population Survey, 1990, on the frequency of women entering and exiting a verity of marital statuses. Marriage patterns are described also in terms of their interrelationship with educational attainment, fertility history, age, race and Hispanic origin, age at marital event, and duration in marital status. the effects of marriage patterns on children are also considered. Future trends are anticipated along with their impact on families. The trend has been toward a significant number of adults and children living in one-parent families. This situation is also usually one of poverty and social deprivation. The time spent by children in one-parent families is estimated at almost 50%. There are 14 detailed tables to supplement the text. The appended tables and discussion provide background information on the accuracy of estimates. The increasing trend of divorce has meant that between the 1960s and 1980 the divorce rate doubled and reached the point where 1 out of 2 marriages was expected to end in divorce. During the 1980s, the rate remained the same, and first marriage and remarriage declined. Declines may be due to delay in marriage or to more people never marrying. Between 1975 and 1990, the percent of women ever married declined for all age groups; for women 20-24 years old the decline was from 63 to 38%. Marriage patterns were different for Blacks and Whites, but both experienced declines in first marriage. Black women will marry later than White women and will include a greater proportion who will never marry. Hispanic patterns were similar those of Whites. The slight drop in the percent divorcing after a first marriage between 1985 and 1990 showed less divorce for the younger age groups and more for the older age groups. 4 of 10 marriages involve a second or higher order marriage for 1 or both partners. The percent remarrying

  8. Smoking and early retirement due to chronic disability.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Tommy; Nilsson, Anton

    2018-05-01

    This paper considers the long-term effects of smoking on disability retirement in Sweden. Smoking is known to have damaging effects on health, but there is limited evidence on how the effects of smoking translate into worse labour market outcomes, such as the inability to work. In contrast to the few previous studies on smoking and disability retirement, we use a large population sample with registry information on smoking, which is recorded for all women who give birth in Sweden. Thanks to these comprehensive data, we are able to account for a much broader range of potential confounders. In particular, by the use of sibling and twin fixed effects, we account for unobserved heterogeneity in childhood environment and family characteristics. Given that smoking is often initiated in adolescence, one would suspect such factors to play important roles. Among individuals aged 50-64 in 2011, a simple model suggested smokers to have a 5 percentage point higher probability of receiving (full) disability pension, making them more than twice as likely as non-smokers to receive this. However, in a model with sibling fixed effects, the size of the effect was reduced by more than a third. The results point to the importance of confounders, such as childhood circumstances or behaviours, which were not accounted for by previous studies. We also consider effects on disability due to different health conditions. In relative terms, effects are the largest for circulatory conditions and tumours. Results are largely driven by health problems severe enough to merit hospitalization, and there is no evidence of a role played by financial incentives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Body mass and social class: a comparison of Finland and Sweden in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Rahkonen, O; Lundberg, O; Lahelma, E; Huuhka, M

    1998-01-01

    High physical weight affects public health as well as people's social relations. This study seeks to examine the distribution of physical weight across the social structure in Finland and Sweden in the early 1990s. We compare physical weight, classified by overweight and obesity, 1) between men and women, 2) between different age groups, and 3) between social classes in these two countries. Comparable interview surveys were conducted in Finland 1994 (N = 8,650, response rate 73%) and in Sweden 1991 (N = 5,306, response rate 79%). Physical weight, overweight and obesity of populations are described in terms of body mass index (BMI = weight (kg)/height (m2)). The average BMI is higher in Finnish men (25.6) and women (24.6) than in their Swedish counterparts (24.6 and 23.2, respectively). In both countries, the average BMI is higher in men than in women below the age of about 55-64 years. In both countries and in both genders the average BMI is higher, the higher the age. The level of overweight as well as obesity is lower in Sweden than in Finland. Social class differences can be found in both countries. The odds ratio for overweight is higher in Finnish male and female farmers (OR = 1.57 and 1.94, respectively) as compared to upper white collars (OR = 1.0). In Sweden, high odds ratio for overweight can be found among male entrepreneurs (OR = 1.80) and female unskilled manuals (OR = 2.65). Obesity varies by social class in Swedish men and women as well as in Finnish women, but not in Finnish men. The results show that Finnish men and women are more often overweight and obese than their Swedish counterparts, but social class differences in overweight and obesity are larger in Sweden than in Finland.

  10. Emergency department arrival times after acute ischemic stroke during the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Kleindorfer, Dawn O; Broderick, Joseph P; Khoury, Jane; Flaherty, Matthew L; Woo, Daniel; Alwell, Kathleen; Moomaw, Charles J; Pancioli, Arthur; Jauch, Edward; Miller, Rosie; Kissela, Brett M

    2007-01-01

    Only 8% of ischemic stroke (IS) patients are eligible for rt-PA, and the largest exclusion criterion is delayed time of presentation to the ED. We sought to investigate whether patients are arriving to the ED more quickly in 1999 than in 1993/94 within our large biracial population of 1.3 million. Using ICD-9 codes 430-436, we ascertained all stroke events that presented to a local ED within our population in 7/93-6/94 and again in 1999. Times were recorded as documented in the medical record. There were 1,792 IS patients that presented to an ED in 1993/94 and 1,973 in 1999. The percentage of patients with documented times arriving in under 3 h improved slightly in 1999 (26% vs. 23% in 93/94, P = 0.03), however, the percentage arriving in under 2 h did not. Blacks significantly improved in arrivals under 3 h: 26% in 1999 compared to 17% in 1993/94 (P = 0.01), while whites did not (26% vs. 25%, P = 0.29). In 1999, only 9% of patients arrived from 3-8 h after symptom onset, the large majority of times were either estimated, unknown, or >8 h. We found only marginal improvement in arrival times during the 1990s. In our population, blacks improved in early arrival after symptom onset, while whites did not. Very few patients arrive 3-8 h after onset; therefore expansion of the acute treatment time window to 8 h is unlikely to dramatically affect acute treatment of ischemic stroke.

  11. Volcanic ash deposition, eelgrass beds, and inshore habitat loss from the 1920s to the 1990s at Chignik, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Mark; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Kinsman, Nicole; Ward, David H.; Hogrefe, Kyle R.

    2018-03-01

    We quantified the shallowing of the seafloor in five of six bays examined in the Chignik region of the Alaska Peninsula, confirming National Ocean Service observations that 1990s hydrographic surveys were shallower than previous surveys from the 1920s. Castle Bay, Chignik Lagoon, Hook Bay, Kujulik Bay and Mud Bay lost volume as calculated from Mean Lower Low Water (Chart Datum) to the deepest depths and four of these sites lost volume from Mean High Water to the deepest depths. Calculations relative to each datum were made because tidal datum records exhibited an increase in tidal range in this region from the 1920s to the 1990s. Our analysis showed that Mud Bay is quickly disappearing while Chignik Lagoon is being reduced to narrow channels. Anchorage Bay was the only site that increased in depth over time, perhaps due to erosion. Volcanoes dominate the landscape of the Chignik area. They have blanketed the region in deep ash deposits before the time frame of this study, and some have had smaller ash-producing eruptions during the time frame of this study. Remobilization of land-deposited ash and redeposition in marine areas - in some locations facilitated by extensive eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds (covering 54% of Chignik Lagoon and 68% of Mud Bay in 2010) - is the most likely cause of shallowing in the marine environment. Loss of shallow water marine habitat may alter future abundance and distribution of several fish, invertebrate and avian species.

  12. The Perpetuation of Subtle Prejudice: Race and Gender Imagery in 1990s Television Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coltrane, Scott; Messineo, Melinda

    2000-01-01

    Analyzed television commercials aired on programs with high ratings for specific target audiences from 1992-94 to investigate how advertising imagery simultaneously constructed racial and gender stereotypes. Results indicated that 1990s television commercials portrayed white men as powerful, white women as sex objects, African American men as…

  13. Growth, Distribution, and Poverty in Africa: Messages from the 1990s. Poverty Dynamics in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiaensen, Luc; Demery, Lionel; Paternostro, Stefano

    This book reviews trends in household well-being in Africa during the 1990s. Using the better data sets now available, the main factors behind observed poverty changes are examined in eight countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, Madagascar, Mauritania, Nigeria, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. A broad view of poverty is taken, which includes income poverty and…

  14. El Nino During the 1990s: Harbinger of Climatic Change or Normal Fluctuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Today, El Nino refers to the extreme warming episodes of the globally effective, coupled ocean-atmospheric interaction commonly known as ENSO (i.e., "El Nino-Southern Oscillation"). Concerning its observed decadal frequency and severity, El Nino during the 1990's has often been regarded as being anomalous. Results of analysis reported herein; however, appear to mitigate this belief.

  15. El Nino During the 1990's: Harbinger of Climatic Change or Normal Fluctuation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Today, El Nino refers to the extreme warming episodes of the globally effective, coupled ocean-atmospheric interaction commonly known as ENSO (i.e., "El Nino-Southern Oscillation"). Concerning its observed decadal frequency and severity, El Nino during the 1990's has often been regarded as being anomalous. Results of analysis reported herein; however, appear to mitigate this belief.

  16. Glass Ceiling in Academic Administration in Turkey: 1990s versus 2000s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunluk-Senesen, Gulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the glass ceiling for academics in the Turkish universities with reference to top administration positions: rectors and deans. Glass ceiling indicators show that the glass ceiling thickened from the 1990s to late 2000s. The findings are discussed against the background of the transformation in the Turkish universities in the…

  17. Mexican American Women's Activism at Indiana University in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Ebelia

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a historical analysis of documents and narratives from Mexican American women that reflect the tumultuous 1990s at Indiana University. Their recollections reveal how they became activists, the racist incidents that compelled them into activism, and the racial tensions and backlash towards identity politics felt by students of…

  18. Grade Inflation Marches On: Grade Increases from the 1990s to 2000s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostal, Jack W.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Sackett, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Grade inflation threatens the integrity of college grades as indicators of academic achievement. In this study, we contribute to the literature on grade inflation by providing the first estimate of the size of grade increases at the student level between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s. By controlling for student characteristics and course-taking…

  19. Putting Children First: A Progressive Family Policy for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamarck, Elaine Ciulla; Galston, William A.

    Four policy papers delineate a progressive family policy for the 1990s that makes the family central among social issues and children central in families. An extensive introduction delineates the split between leaders' and ordinary citizens' views on the family and provides a summary of the papers. The first paper offers an economic review of the…

  20. Major American Higher Education Issues and Challenges in the 1990s. Higher Education Policy Series 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Richard I.

    The purpose of this book is to provide information and insights about what might be expected in United States higher education in the 1990s. The book uses a tone which is described as "forward-realistic" in its discussion of why particular concerns are coming to prominence now, how American postsecondary education is reacting to the issues, and…

  1. A Just Transition? Lessons from Defense Worker Adjustment in the 1990s. Technical Paper No. 237.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Laura; Markusen, Ann

    A study examined the experiences of some 1.4 million American defense industry workers, displaced in the wake of the Cold War, as a way of reviewing and evaluating national policies toward worker adjustment and re-employment as they have evolved in the 1990s. The study found that the federal government, through the Department of Labor,…

  2. Care and Feeding of a Changing Faculty in the 1990s: The Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorby, Donald L.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven important trends seen as potential causes for pharmacy faculty discontent and stress in the 1990s are examined, including trends resulting from resource changes, technological and scientific advances, and changes in society and health care delivery. Resulting problems and possible strategies for addressing them are offered. (MSE)

  3. Public Education: A Major American Growth Industry in the 1990's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenhalt, Samuel M.

    Public education has been a major growth industry in the 1990s, expanding its employment by nearly 24 percent from 1988 to 1998. The 1.8 million jobs added in state and local government education functions placed this sector third among America's growth industries in the sheer magnitude of its employment rise. This report examines the record of…

  4. Dress Fashion in Feminist and Child Rights Campaigns in Ghanaian Public Sculptures of the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essel, Osuanyi Quaicoo; Opoku-Mensah, Isaac

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how dress fashion in outdoor sculptures of the 1990s in the Accra cityscape accentuated feminist activism, sensitised child right campaigns, and encouraged girl-child education in support of governmental efforts and activism of civil society organisations in Ghana. It gives attention to how dress fashion of the time was used…

  5. Parents and Schooling in the 1990s. Parent Involvement at the Middle School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Review, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The "ERIC Review" announces research results, publications, and new programs relevant to each issue's theme topic. This theme issue is devoted to the topic of "Parent Involvement in Education" and contains three principal articles: "Parents and Schooling in the 1990s," by Erwin Flaxman and Morton Inger; "Parent…

  6. Food for Thought: Children's Diets in the 1990s. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Philip; Suitor, Carol

    Since the late 1980s, identifying nutritional problems in children's and adults' diets and developing initiatives to help Americans improve what they eat have received considerable attention. This policy brief summarizes 2 studies of children's nutrition with the objectives of describing the diets of school-age children as of the mid-1990s,…

  7. Issues and Concerns for Local Government: Virginia in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Mark

    Many challenges face local governments in Virginia and nationwide in the 1990s. As federal funding has decreased, local governments have been forced to take on greater responsibilities. This increased workload has created a greater demand for resources and forced many localities to raise taxes. Citizens have often voiced opposition to these tax…

  8. Feature Articles on African Americans in Sports Illustrated in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angela Lumpkin

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study examined whether the coverage of African Americans in the feature articles in Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was representative of their participation levels. Nearly half of the articles featured European Americans; about one-third featured African Americans. More African Americans were featured in basketball, boxing,…

  9. Interdisciplinary research can provide information for the harvesting challenges of the 1990's

    Chris B. LeDoux; John E. Baumgras

    1991-01-01

    Management of our complex forest ecosystems in the economic and political climate of the 1990's is a challenge for planners, managers, and loggers. A multifunctional approach - using the research results of other disciplines and considering all forest uses and values - can improve the effectiveness of forest operations research. Since harvesting cost and revenue...

  10. Pennsylvania and the State System of Higher Education in the 1990s: Demographics and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Kerry L.

    This report presents demographics and information on Pennsylvania's state system of higher education and on issues that may influence that system in the 1990s. Following a brief introduction, the first section treats changes in state demographics including migration, minority groups, accelerated aging of the general population, and family housing.…

  11. Commission Memorandum on Vocational Training in the European Community in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg).

    As new European Community (EC) objectives become prominent in the coming years, vocational training policy will assume increasing importance. The socioeconomic context of the 1990s will be characterized by an accelerating pace of change and the growing role of intangible capital. New forms of work organization with new requirements for…

  12. Women, Citizenship and Canadian Child Care Policy in the 1990s. Occasional Paper No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyyska, Vappu

    This report analyzes developments in Canadian child care policy in the 1990s at the federal, provincial (Ontario), and municipal (Toronto and Peel) levels, highlighting problems that are associated with a male model of citizenship. The report discusses the child care policy process as one in which state bodies are challenged by the diverse and…

  13. Technology Teaching or Mediated Learning, Part II, 1990s: Literacy Linkages and Intervention Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coufal, Kathy L.

    2002-01-01

    Themes during the 1990s included the bootstrapping effects between oral and literate language, importance of supporting emergent literacy, parallels between oral language impairment and academic failure, and challenges in facilitating language learning. This article addresses questions posed in Part I related to use of computer technology for…

  14. Estimation procedures for the combined 1990s periodic forest inventories of California, Oregon, and Washington.

    T.M. Barrett

    2004-01-01

    During the 1990s, forest inventories for California, Oregon, and Washington were conducted by different agencies using different methods. The Pacific Northwest Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis program recently integrated these inventories into a single database. This document briefly describes potential statistical methods for estimating population totals...

  15. El Nino during the 1990s: Harbinger of Climatic Change or Normal Fluctuation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    Today, El Nino refers to the extreme warming episodes of the globally effective, coupled ocean-atmospheric interaction commonly known as ENSO (i.e., "El Nino-Southern Oscillation"). Concerning its observed decadal frequency and severity, El Nino during the 1990s has often been regarded as being anomalous. Results of analysis reported herein, however, appear to mitigate this belief. For example, regarding the frequency and severity of El Nino, the decade of the 1990s is found to compare quite favorably with that of preceding decades. Hence, the 1990s probably should not be regarded as being anomalous. On the other hand, the number of El Nino-related months per decade has sharply increased during the 1990s, as compared to the preceding four decades, hinting of a marginally significant upward trend. Perhaps, this is an indication that the Earth is now experiencing an ongoing global climatic change. Continued vigilance during the new millennium, therefore, is of paramount importance for determining whether or not this "hint" of a global change is real or if it merely reflects a normal fluctuation of climate.

  16. Focus on the 1990's: International Trade Opportunities for the Permian Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midland Coll., TX. Business and Economic Development Center.

    Designed to highlight business opportunities of the 1990s as well as available educational programs relating to international business, this report contains six presentations from a 1990 conference on international trade hosted by Midland College (MC). The first article, "Texas in the Global Economy: Attitude and Opportunity," by John A.…

  17. Rethinking School Finance: An Agenda for the 1990s. The Jossey-Bass Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan R., Ed.

    This book lays the groundwork for rethinking school finance in the context of new educational policy directions for the 1990s. Proposed educational reforms have created several school finance issues: (1) the linkage between the basic school finance structure, educational goals, and the cost of effective schoolwide strategies; (2) site-based…

  18. The Mid-1990s Earned Income Tax Credit Expansion: EITC and Welfare Caseloads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Younghee

    2008-01-01

    Research and policy scholars have suggested that recent welfare caseload reductions have coincided with welfare reform efforts; however, few studies have incorporated the impacts of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) expansions in the 1990s. Using annual state-level administrative data, the author estimated the effects of the fully phased-in…

  19. New Zealand's Response to the Literacy Issues of the 1990's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbrick, Libby

    The 1970 International Educational Achievement (IEA) survey had placed New Zealand's nine- and fourteen-year-olds first in reading achievement in comparison with all other participating countries. By the time the 1990 IEA survey took place, however, mean achievement levels had slipped somewhat, and by the mid-1990s New Zealand's reputation was…

  20. World Agriculture: Review and Prospects into the 1990s. A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winrock International Livestock Research & Training Center. Morrilton, AR.

    The four chapters of this analysis of world agriculture deal with production, consumption, and world trade. World food production and consumption continued to grow rapidly in the 1970's, but at a rate somewhat slower than in the 1960's. It is projected that for the 1990's consumption will increase faster than production in most of the world's…

  1. Strategies for Children in the 1990s. A UNICEF Policy Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This policy review presents the views and proposals of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) concerning development goals and strategies for the 1990s. A brief review of the previous development decades in the first section is followed by an overview of the evolution of the situation of children in the 1980s. The third section summarizes the…

  2. The United States Supreme Court and psychiatry in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Ciccone, J R

    1999-03-01

    In the 1990s, the Supreme Court has decided several cases that have had an impact on psychiatry and psychiatric patients in the criminal justice system, on psychiatric hospitalization, and on psychotherapist-patient privilege. Of the seven cases discussed in this article, Chief Justice Rehnquist and Justice Scalia voted similarly in all seven cases. Since joining the court, Justice Thomas has voted with them. Justice Scalia interprets the Constitution, using what has been termed "textualism": avoid reference to legislative history, and interpret the Constitution according to the plain language meaning of the relevant section. Chief Justice Rehnquist and Justices Scalia and Thomas are inclined to protect states' rights from court decisions that expand US Constitutional power in cases involving civil plaintiffs and criminal defendants. They seek to protect states from being sued in federal courts, and, if there is doubt, lean toward not interfering with state prerogatives. They tend to not find unenumerated rights and prefer clear-cut rules over amorphous standards. Justices Kennedy and O'Connor, at times joined by Justice Souter in the middle of the court, provide the deciding votes in many cases. They seem to prefer a case-by-case pragmatism over a global jurisprudential philosophy. Approaching cases one at a time, they usually avoid broad philosophic pronouncements when they join with Chief Justice Rehnquist. Justice Stevens, joined by Justices Breyer and Ginsburg since they have been appointed to the court, is more likely to favor a broader reading of the 14th Amendment's Due Process and Equal Protection clauses. Of the seven cases, Kennedy and O'Connor voted with the majority in five cases, the dissent in one case (Zinermon v Burch), and split their votes in one case (Foucha v Louisiana, with O'Connor siding with the Court and Kennedy with the dissent). Commager, a noted historian, believed that political issues can be explored, explained, and debated and that

  3. Causes of the Decline in Cigarette Smoking Among African American Youths From the 1970s to the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Foulds, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Adult cigarette smoking prevalence trends among African Americans (AAs) and Whites are similar. However, during the decline in youth smoking that occurred between the mid-1970s and the early 1990s, the drop in smoking rates among AA adolescents was more than double that among Whites. We examined the evidence for potential explanations for this phenomenon. On the basis of our findings, we propose that racial differences in parental attitudes, religious ties, negative perceptions and experiences of the health effects of smoking, worsening poverty, increased use of food stamps, and price sensitivity were major factors contributing to the more rapid decrease in and continued lower rates of smoking among AA youths. PMID:21852655

  4. The Swedish labour market in the 1990s: the very last of the healthy jobs?

    PubMed

    Rostila, Mikael

    2008-03-01

    The economic recession in Sweden in the 1990s influenced several aspects of the labour market, including the psychosocial work environment. This study examined psychosocial working conditions in relation to self-reported ill-health in the 1990s by means of the job strain model. The study was based on two representative cross-sectional samples of Swedish employed men and women in 1991 (n=3,292) and 2000 (n=3,010), together with a panel of employees who were included for both years (n=1,953). The main outcome measures were psychological distress and self-rated poor health. The primary method used was logistic regression. The results suggested that although adverse psychosocial conditions increased during the 1990s, the association with health weakened. However, further analyses showed that poor health increased in most groups with various types of psychosocial conditions, and that reduced relative differences in poor health were discernible. Finally, a longitudinal analysis showed that long-term exposure to and experience of deteriorating psychosocial conditions was most detrimental for health at the end of the 1990s, once health status at baseline had been adjusted for. The increased prevalence of health problems among most groups with various psychosocial conditions during the 1990s, together with reduced relative differences in poor health, might make it more difficult for employers and policy-makers to direct health policies towards specific groups of employees, as the "healthy'' job seems to have disappeared. Another important inference of the results is that psychosocial working conditions seem to be causally related to health.

  5. States and the politics of incrementalism: health policy in Wisconsin during the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Sparer, Michael S

    2004-04-01

    Wisconsin officials during the 1990s seemed poised to enact innovative and comprehensive health care reform. During that era, an ambitious, popular, and reform-minded governor led the state. The state had an unusually professional legislature. The state's economy was strong. Even with these advantages, however, the report card on the state's efforts is mixed. The state enacted a fairly modest set of reforms that were financed largely by the federal government and subject to extensive federal oversight. The Wisconsin story thus seems to be about the politics of incrementalism. But while critics of incrementalist politics point out that the number of uninsured continues to grow, the catalytic federalism witnessed in Wisconsin in the 1990s may well be the best model for implementing health care reform.

  6. Accelerated deforestation in the humid tropics from the 1990s to the 2000s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do-Hyung; Sexton, Joseph O.; Townshend, John R.

    2015-05-01

    Using a consistent, 20 year series of high- (30 m) resolution, satellite-based maps of forest cover, we estimate forest area and its changes from 1990 to 2010 in 34 tropical countries that account for the majority of the global area of humid tropical forests. Our estimates indicate a 62% acceleration in net deforestation in the humid tropics from the 1990s to the 2000s, contradicting a 25% reduction reported by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Forest Resource Assessment. Net loss of forest cover peaked from 2000 to 2005. Gross gains accelerated slowly and uniformly between 1990-2000, 2000-2005, and 2005-2010. However, the gains were overwhelmed by gross losses, which peaked from 2000 to 2005 and decelerated afterward. The acceleration of humid tropical deforestation we report contradicts the assertion that losses decelerated from the 1990s to the 2000s.

  7. A post-1990s assessment of strategic hospital alliances and their marketplace orientations: time to refocus.

    PubMed

    Olden, Peter C; Roggenkamp, Susan D; Luke, Roice D

    2002-01-01

    In past years, many SHAs formed in local urban markets to better compete for managed care contracts. In response to 1990s forces, these SHAs appear to have adapted product, production, and selling orientations to their markets, aimed at large institutional purchasers of health care. However, health care markets have evolved differently than anticipated. SHAs and their hospitals should now adopt the marketing orientation and focus more on patients and enrollees.

  8. AIDS-related knowledge and risks and contraceptive practices in Ghana: the early 1990s.

    PubMed

    Takyi, B K

    2000-04-01

    HIV/AIDS in Africa is transmitted primarily through heterosexual contact. This mode of disease transmission places sexually active childbearing women at high risk of contracting the disease. In this study, data from the 1993/94 Ghana Demographic Health Survey were used to explore the relationship between AIDS-related knowledge and family planning practices, specifically the use of contraceptives and condoms. While the study finds high levels of AIDS-related knowledge among Ghanaian women, this knowledge is yet to translate into increased condom use. It is suggested that the use of rational choice models in AIDS prevention programs may not be adequate to change people's sexual behaviour, especially in societies where the prevailing cultural practices and norms encourage large families and discourage the use of contraceptives of any type. In such settings, there is the need to find appropriate mechanisms that could help increase the use of all types of contraceptives. As contraceptive use increases, it is likely that the use of condoms for AIDS prevention and also for family planning purpose would increase in sub-Saharan Africa.

  9. Factors associated with trends in infant and child mortality in developing countries during the 1990s.

    PubMed Central

    Rutstein, S. O.

    2000-01-01

    The 1990s have seen a remarkable decrease in mortality among infants and children in most developing countries. In some countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, these declines in mortality among children have slowed and are now increasing again. Internationally comparable data derived from survey programmes, such as the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) programme, are available both to document the changes that have occurred in mortality and to provide insight into some of the factors that may explain these trends in mortality. The factors found in repeated DHS programmes that explain these trends fall into five categories: fertility behaviour; nutritional status, breastfeeding, and infant feeding; the use of health services by mothers and for children; environmental health conditions; and socioeconomic status. Both simple analyses and multivariate analyses of changes in these factors between surveys indicate that all factors affected the mortality trends. However, to explain trends in mortality, the variables themselves had to have changed over time. During the 1990s fertility behaviour, breastfeeding, and infant feeding have changed less than other factors and so would seem to have played a smaller role in mortality trends. This study confirms that trends in mortality during the 1990s were related to more than just a handful of variables. It would, therefore, be a mistake to concentrate policy actions on one or a few of these while forsaking others. Countries with the largest decreases in mortality have had substantial improvements in most of the factors that might be used to explain these changes. In some countries mortality has risen. In part these increases can be explained by the factors included in this study, such as deterioration in seeking medical care for children with fever. Other factors that were not measured, such as the increasing resistance of malaria to drug treatment and the increased prevalence of parental HIV/AIDS, may be contributing

  10. Solid Earth science in the 1990s. Volume 3: Measurement techniques and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Reports are contained from the NASA Workshop on Solid Earth Science in the 1990s. The techniques and technologies needed to address the program objectives are discussed. The Measurement Technique and Technology Panel identified (1) candidate measurement systems for each of the measurements required for the Solid Earth Science Program that would fall under the NASA purview; (2) the capabilities and limitations of each technique; and (3) the developments necessary for each technique to meet the science panel requirements. In nearly all cases, current technology or a development path with existing technology was identified as capable of meeting the requirements of the science panels. These technologies and development paths are discussed.

  11. Out-migration and depopulation of the Russian North during the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Heleniak, T

    1999-01-01

    The large-scale out-migration from Russia's northern regions that has taken place over the course of the 1990s is analyzed. "The study is based on unpublished oblast-level migration data compiled by the Russian Government, field work by the author, as well as two extensive 1998 surveys of recent and potential migrants, respectively. Age, gender, and educational level of migrants are analyzed to determine the extent of change in Northern population structure attributable to migration. A concluding section presents Russian Government projections of the North's population to 2010." excerpt

  12. Solid earth science in the 1990s. Volume 1: Program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This is volume one of a three volume series. A plan for solid earth science research for the next decade is outlined. The following topics are addressed: scientific requirements; status of current research; major new emphasis in the 1990's; interagency and international participation; and the program implementation plan. The following fields are represented: plate motion and deformation; lithospheric structure and evolution; volcanology; land surface (processes of change); earth structure and dynamics; earth rotation and reference frames; and geopotential fields. Other topics of discussion include remote sensing, space missions, and space techniques.

  13. Is there any trend change in wind speed in the mid- 1990s in the stratosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krizan, Peter

    2017-04-01

    This poster tries to explain the reasons for trend change of the stratospheric wind speed in the mid-1990s. In the areas of negative (positive) wind speed trend before 1995 the positive (negative) trend is observed after this point Similar change is observed also for total ozone where we observe negative trend before 1995 and positive one after. We use MERRA reanalysis monthly means of the geopotential height from January to March. We suppose the position and strength of polar vortex and Aleutian high plays here very important role.

  14. Why the stratospheric zonal and meridional wind changes trend in the mid -1990s?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krizan, P.

    2016-12-01

    This poster tries to explain the reasons for trend change of the stratospheric zonal and meridional wind in the mid-1990s. In the areas of negative (positive) wind speed trend before 1995 the positive (negative) trend is observed after this point Similar change is observed also for total ozone where we observe negative trend before 1995 and positive one after. We use MERRA reanalysis data especially monthly mean of geopotential from January to March. We suppose the position and strength of polar vortex and Aleutian high plays here very important role..

  15. How have hospitals faced the pricing issues of the 1990's?

    PubMed

    Kleimenhagen, A; Naidu, G M; Pillari, G D

    1994-01-01

    National health care expenditures are rising rapidly, bringing on a health care financing crisis. For this reason, it is useful to see how hospitals are facing the price issues of the 1990's. This study examines the price strategies hospitals follow and analyzes their observations on price sensitivity and payer mix. The results clearly show that hospitals have not given much attention to the pricing variable. The study suggests that marketing and finance will have to work closely together in developing future pricing strategies.

  16. The growth of psychopharmacology in the 1990s: evidence-based practice or irrational exuberance.

    PubMed

    Rosenheck, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The rapid growth in sales of psychotropic medications during the late 1980s and 1990s, eventually reaching $20 billion/year, reflected the increased use of seritonin reuptake inhibitors for depression and atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia. Recently, however, some of the therapeutic claims for these medications have been challenged, and under-appreciated risks have turned out to be significant liabilities. Drug manufacturers increasingly dominate clinical trials research and evidence suggests that study designs and data presentations have been slanted to show products in a favorable light while unfavorable data were suppressed. At the same time, during the 1990s, potentially independent voices did not effectively or consistently present countervailing views. The extensive financial ties between the pharmaceutical industry and academic researchers, professional associations, and consumer groups may also have discouraged expression of critical views. Additionally, the narrow legal mandate of the FDA to evaluate the safety and efficacy of new drugs only in comparison to placebo (rather than in comparison to other treatments) probably limited its contribution. In the absence of reliable, impartial research on the risk and benefits of psychotropic medications, both before and after they are brought to market, pharmacy benefits management cannot achieve its goal of maximizing health care benefits per dollar spent. Further institutional support is needed for independent research, either conducted or funded by the federal government.

  17. Adequacy of dietary intakes and poverty in India: trends in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Mahal, Ajay; Karan, Anup K

    2008-03-01

    Linear programming methods, indicators of nutritional adequacy from the Indian Council of Medical Research and household expenditure survey data from the National Sample Survey Organization were used to construct poverty lines for India. Poverty ratios were calculated for 1993--1994 and 1999--2000 on the basis of nutritional adequacy poverty lines and compared to official estimates of poverty based on energy requirements. Nutritional adequacy poverty lines are higher than official poverty lines, particularly in rural areas. The application of nutritional adequacy poverty lines points to greater rural-urban poverty differences than in official estimates. Declines in rural poverty during the 1990s were also slower under the nutritional adequacy definition, especially in south India. There is a greater degree of rural-urban and regional bias in nutritional adequacy poverty reduction than suggested by official data. Inter-state variations in changes in nutritional poverty and official poverty in the 1990s are largely explained by differences in assumptions on overall price movements. However, relative price movements in food items also played a role, particularly the slow increase in prices of cereals and edible oils in comparison to the prices of pulses, and in some southern states, compared to milk and vegetable prices as well.

  18. Oil and gas markets, companies, and technology in the 1990`s and beyond

    SciT

    Kennedy, J.L.

    1995-08-01

    During the late 1990`s and beyond, oil prices will be stagnant while costs increase, competition for markets and capital will be fierce, funds available for exploration and development will be limited, and environmental extremists will keep prospective areas off-limits. Higher taxes will limit growth in oil and gas demand and reapportion energy market shares. And a campaign to brand oil use as an ``addiction`` that must be cured will gather steam. But opportunities abound, too, even in the US High-quality properties are available throughout the US, independents can find and develop reserves cheaper than the majors, and new tools aremore » available to reduce risks both in the field and in the market. Gas prices are firming and natural gas is often labeled the ``fuel of the future.`` To succeed in the petroleum industry of the 1990`s, all companies must accept change, be creative, and take initiative. To prosper, oil and gas producers and refiners and those who supply and serve the industry must face the new realities of the market. They cannot mark time until the return of 4,000 active rigs and $40/bbl oil. those days are never coming back. Never.« less

  19. Study of a tracking and data acquisition system for the 1990's. Volume 1: User community characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreary, T.

    1981-01-01

    Projected 1990's experiments; navigation requirements and potentials; communications requirements associated with space experiments; alternative forecast options; and operational impacts on experiments are covered. A baseline of plans for the TDAS User Community, including a set of generic experiments developed to supplement existing planning for the 1990's time frame is generated. It includes extensive summaries of collected data, and a bibliography. The data are representative of inputs obtained from NASA planning sources through September 1981.

  20. Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Joseph R.

    2000-01-01

    Established in 1917 as the nation#s first civil aeronautics research laboratory under the National Advisory Commit-tee for Aeronautics (NACA), Langley was a small laboratory that solved the problems of flight for military and civil aviation. Throughout history, Langley has maintained a working partnership with the Department of Defense, U.S. industry, universities, and other government agencies to support the defense of the nation with research. During World War II, Langley directed virtually all of its workforce and facilities to research for military aircraft. Following the war, a balanced program of military and civil projects was undertaken. In some instances Langley research from one aircraft program helped solve a problem in another. At the conclusion of some programs, Langley obtained the research models for additional tests to learn more about previously unknown phenomena. The data also proved useful in later developmental programs. Many of the military aircraft in the U.S. inventory as of late 1999 were over 20 years old. Langley activities that contributed to the development of some of these aircraft began over 50 years prior. This publication documents the role, from early concept stages to problem solving for fleet aircraft, that Langley played in the military aircraft fleet of the United States for the 1990's.

  1. HRSA's role in primary care and public health in the 1990s.

    PubMed Central

    Harmon, R G; Carlson, R H

    1991-01-01

    The principal responsibility of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) is to see to it that primary health care services and qualified health personnel and facilities are available to all Americans, particularly the disadvantaged and the underserved. HRSA's resources are directed toward not only the most financially, functionally, and culturally vulnerable segments of the population but also to those who have significant clinical needs such as pregnant women, children, those infected with HIV. The Agency seeks to carry out its mission in many ways. The central approach, however, is to assure the availability of services to its constituencies directly or indirectly through the more than 50 programs it administers. This article explains HRSA's role in detail and cites its many ramifications for the nation's health in the 1990s. PMID:1899941

  2. Health Reform in Ceará: the process of decentralisation in the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Regianne Leila Rolim; Atkinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to offer an overview of the health reform in Ceará focusing on the decentralisation process in the 1990s. The driving factor behind the Brazilian health reform movement was the necessity to reorganise the national health system and overcome inequalities. For the reformists, decentralisation, and together with it the idea of popular participation, is seen as essential to guarantee the fulfilment of the people’s needs and to incorporate their voice in the decision-making processes of the health system. In the state of Ceará, after the 1986 elections, health reform movement members took control over the management of the state Health Secretariat. This is the main cause of the acceleration of the decentralisation process with the transference of responsibility over the management of health care delivery to municipalities. PMID:25729333

  3. Halo-orbit and lunar-swingby missions of the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquhar, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    A significant number of spacecraft are planning to use halo orbits and lunar-swingby trajectories in the next decade. Four spacecraft will be placed into halo orbits around the earth's sunward libration point, while two others will be stationed near the sun-earth L2 libration point in the distant geomagnetic tail. Six spacecraft, including two of the aforementioned halo orbiters, will make use of lunar-swingby maneuvers to fulfill their mission objectives. Thus, a total of ten spacecraft, five from the Soviet Union, two from Japan, two from the United States, and one from the European Space Agency, will employ halo orbits and/or lunar-swingby trajectories in the 1990's. Pertinent facts are presented for each of these missions.

  4. Amplified summer warming in Europe-West Asia and Northeast Asia after the mid-1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Xiaowei; Lu, Riyu; Li, Shuanglin

    2017-09-01

    Regional temperature changes are a crucial factor in affecting agriculture, ecosystems and societies, which depend greatly on local temperatures. We identify a nonuniform warming pattern in summer around the mid-1990s over the Eurasian continent, with a predominant amplified warming over Europe-West Asia and Northeast Asia but much weaker warming over Central Asia. It is found that the nonuniform warming concurs with both the phase shift of the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) and the decadal change in the Silk Road Pattern (SRP), which is an upper-tropospheric teleconnection pattern over the Eurasian continent during summer. We suggest that the AMO may modulate the decadal change in SRP and then induce the zonal asymmetry in temperature changes. Our results have important implications for decadal prediction of regional warming pattern in Eurasia based on the predictable AMO.

  5. Materials and processes for aircraft environmental controls in the 1990's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgrosso, E. J.; Zajac, T.; Tseka, J.

    1980-10-01

    Changes in materials and processes expected to be used in aircraft environmental control systems (ECS) in the 1990s are analyzed, and a forecast is presented. Results of the study show that the most advanced development would be in the use of a cast high strength alloy steel, i.e., a steel with below 8% alloy content, and a 225 KSI annealed tensile strength. To assure complete densification and enhancement of properties, the casting would be HIP, and modification of its surface chemistry could be achieved through ion implantation. As candidate methods for imparting surface protection, laser glazing and chemical vapor deposition are mentioned. The anticipated changes in the materials and techniques used for construction of ECS components are: the development of rapid solidification rate powders for the production of some alloy systems such as Al-Mg-Li, bearing alloy CRB-7, and titanium alloys, 'near-net-shape' processing, and the use of advanced fiber-reinforced plastics.

  6. A nursing association's leadership in primary health care: policy, projects, and partnerships in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Whyte, N; Stone, S

    2000-06-01

    This paper documents the work of one provincial nursing association, the Registered Nurses Association of British Columbia (RNABC), to promote primary health care (PHC) as the foundation of the health-care system. In 1990 the RNABC embarked on a comprehensive policy program to influence change from a nursing perspective. A wide array of strategies was used over a 10-year period to help make PHC a reality in British Columbia's health-care system. Successful strategies used during this period included: writing and distributing policy papers, conducting and evaluating demonstration projects, and developing partnerships with other groups. Some of the projects and their outcomes are highlighted, followed by a critical reflection on lessons learned through the various initiatives. Although remarkable achievements were made from the RNABC's policy work during the 1990s, the advancement of PHC requires further collaborative efforts using multiple strategies.

  7. Aeronautical research in the United States - Challenges for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Richard H.; Holmes, Bruce J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented of NASA R&D initiatives in air transportation technologies that will dominate its efforts through the 1990s. These efforts are to be concentrated in (1) advanced subsonic transports with greater fuel economy, passenger capacity, and control effectiveness, whose design will be undertaken with state-of-the-art CFD and CAD/CAM systems; (2) a second-generation SST whose propulsion system will be substantially more fuel-efficient than that of Concorde and have far lower atmospheric emissions; and (3) a hypersonic transport predicated on the results of research into materials, cryogenic fuels, propulsion cycles, and propulsion/airframe aerodynamics integration, which will be undertaken in connection with the X-30 testbed.

  8. Tracking and data acquisition system for the 1990's. Volume 7: TDAS space technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatri, R.

    1983-01-01

    The results of the TDAS and user spacecraft technology assessment effort are provided. For each TDAS Satellite enhancement and user spacecraft element previously enumerated, the technology issues are identified and the R&D needed to resolve these issues is delineated. Subsequently, taking into account developments taking place elsewhere, the addition unique TDAS satellite module and user spacecraft element R&D efforts needed are identified, and conclusions are drawn in each case. From these conclusions, it is evident that with additional unique R&D efforts carried out for TDAS and appropriate user spacecraft elements the desired TDAS' capabilities for the 1990's can be realized and user spacecraft can be implemented that adequately interface with the projected TDAS.

  9. A data distribution strategy for the 1990s (files are not enough)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tankenson, Mike; Wright, Steven

    1993-01-01

    Virtually all of the data distribution strategies being contemplated for the EOSDIS era revolve around the use of files. Most, if not all, mass storage technologies are based around the file model. However, files may be the wrong primary abstraction for supporting scientific users in the 1990s and beyond. Other abstractions more closely matching the respective scientific discipline of the end user may be more appropriate. JPL has built a unique multimission data distribution system based on a strategy of telemetry stream emulation to match the responsibilities of spacecraft team and ground data system operators supporting our nations suite of planetary probes. The current system, operational since 1989 and the launch of the Magellan spacecraft, is supporting over 200 users at 15 remote sites. This stream-oriented data distribution model can provide important lessons learned to builders of future data systems.

  10. Tobacco lobby political influence on US state legislatures in the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Givel, M.; Glantz, S.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Throughout the 1990s the tobacco lobby was a potent political force in US state legislatures advancing its pro-tobacco agenda.
OBJECTIVE—To describe the market and political motivations of the tobacco lobby and the strategies they use to achieve these goals in US state legislatures.
DESIGN—This study is a content analysis and summary overview of recently released historical tobacco industry documents; tobacco related government documents; and recent state tobacco control policy reports.
RESULTS—In the 1990s, the tobacco lobby engaged in a comprehensive and aggressive political effort in state legislatures to sell tobacco with the least hindrance using lobbying, the media, public relations, front groups, industry allies, and contributions to legislators. These efforts included campaigns to neutralise clean indoor air legislation, minimise tax increases, and preserve the industry's freedom to advertise and sell tobacco. The tobacco lobby succeeded in increasing the number of states that enacted state pre-emption of stricter local tobacco control laws and prevented the passage of many state tobacco control policies. Public health advocates were able to prevent pre-emption and other pro-tobacco policies from being enacted in several states.
CONCLUSIONS—The tobacco lobby is a powerful presence in state legislatures. Because of the poor public image of the tobacco lobby, it seeks to wield this power quietly and behind the scenes. State and local health advocates, who often have high public credibility, can use this fact against the tobacco lobby by focusing public attention on the tobacco lobby's political influence and policy goals and expose links between the tobacco lobby and its legislative supporters.


Keywords: political lobbying; state legislatures; industry PMID:11387532

  11. Rapid Ice Loss at Vatnajokull,Iceland Since Late 1990s Constrained by Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, W.; Amelung, F.; Dixon, T. H.; Wdowinski, S.

    2012-12-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry time series is applied over Vatnajokull, Iceland by using 15 years ERS data. Ice loss at Vatnajokull accelerates since late 1990s especially after 21th century. Clear uplift signal due to ice mass loss is detected. The rebound signal is generally linear and increases a little bit after 2000. The relative annual velocity (GPS station 7485 as reference) is about 12 mm/yr at the ice cap edge, which matches the previous studies using GPS. The standard deviation compared to 11 GPS stations in this area is about 2 mm/yr. A relative-value modeling method ignoring the effect of viscous flow is chosen assuming elastic half space earth. The final ice loss estimation - 83 cm/yr - matches the climatology model with ground observations. Small Baseline Subsets is applied for time series analysis. Orbit error coupling with long wavelength phase trend due to horizontal plate motion is removed based on a second polynomial model. For simplicity, we do not consider atmospheric delay in this area because of no complex topography and small-scale turbulence is eliminated well after long-term average when calculating the annual mean velocity. Some unwrapping error still exits because of low coherence. Other uncertainties can be the basic assumption of ice loss pattern and spatial variation of the elastic parameters. It is the first time we apply InSAR time series for ice mass balance study and provide detailed error and uncertainty analysis. The successful of this application proves InSAR as an option for mass balance study and it is also important for validation of different ice loss estimation techniques.

  12. The changing nature of nurses' job satisfaction: an exploration of sources of satisfaction in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Tovey, E J; Adams, A E

    1999-07-01

    This paper focuses on the changing nature of nurses' job satisfaction. It compares the major sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction experienced by acute ward nurses in the English National Health Service (NHS) in the early 1990s, with sources identified in previous research. In the light of findings from a pilot study, the suitability of existing research approaches and measurement tools for portraying nurses' contemporary work experiences is examined. The study comprised content analysis of a random sample of 130 nurses' comments about ward organizational issues, collected as part of a national survey. Findings suggest that new measurement tools need to be developed, because new sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction emerged, directly associated with change arising out of the introduction of the NHS internal market. These include pressures associated with new roles, role conflict, lack of job security, 'tight' resources, using new technology, a perceived lowering of standards of patient care, coping with increased amounts of paperwork, and the experience of working in a rapidly and constantly changing environment. Findings also suggest that the nature of nurses' job satisfaction is increasingly being shaped by their position within the organization, denoted by clinical grade, and the organizational culture of individual NHS Trusts. Ward leaders experience dissatisfaction as a result of role conflict and strain, while nurses of lower clinical grades are increasingly concerned with managerial and resource constraints on their ability to provide good quality care. Nurses' satisfaction with management and morale were found to be significantly different between NHS Trusts. While findings may be specific to England, it is argued that they have relevance for the wider, international nursing community. This is because developing an understanding of the changing nature of nurses' job satisfaction may help to resolve recruitment and retention problems.

  13. Inventory of major landscape changes in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania and Slovak Republic 1970s - 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feranec, Ján; Šúri, Marcel; Ot'ahel', Ján; Cebecauer, Tomáš; Kolář, Ján; Soukup, Tomáš; Zdeňková, Dagmar; Waszmuth, Jiří; Vâjdea, Vasile; Vîjdea, Anca-Marina; Nitica, Constantin

    One of the most important achievements in 1998-1999 of Phare Topic Link on Land Cover has been the development and practical application of a methodological approach to landscape change identification and analysis in the territories of four Phare countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, and the Slovak Republic). The changes were identified on a national level from Landsat TM and MSS satellite images by application of the CORINE Land Cover databases for two time horizons (the late 1970s and early 1990s) at the second hierarchic level. Based on identified causality, the landscape changes were grouped into 7 types: intensification of agriculture, extensification of agriculture, urbanisation-industrialisation, enlargement (exhaustion) of natural resources, afforestation, deforestation and other anthropogenic causes. The results of the groupings are presented in the form of contingency tables and maps showing the spatial distribution of the changes. From the point of view of total extent, forest landscape changed the most in the Czech Republic. This change represents a reduction of forest by 167,702 ha and an enlargement of transitional woodland-scrub by about 26,339 ha. In Hungary the most pronounced changes were decrease of forests by 66,622 ha and decrease of arable land, orchards and vineyards by 21,529 ha. The most remarkable changes identified in Romania were decrease of arable land, forests and wetlands by 366,817 ha, 285,887 ha, and 59,967 ha, respectively, as well as enlargement of areas of complex cultivation pattern by almost 347,220 ha. The most pronounced changes in Slovakia were represented by diminution of forest by 94,935 ha and that of heterogeneous agricultural areas by 18,451 ha; enlargement of transitional woodland-scrub areas and urbanised area were about 13,107 ha and 14,990 ha, respectively.

  14. Smoking and subsequent risk of early retirement due to permanent disability.

    PubMed

    Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Osler, Merete; Godtfredsen, Nina S; Prescott, Eva

    2004-03-01

    Smoking is the most important single preventable cause of a variety of common diseases, and a considerable share of premature death is attributable to smoking. Although the effects of smoking on morbidity and mortality are widely recognized, little is known about the impact of smoking on early retirement due to chronic disease. The objective of the study is to determine the effects of smoking behaviour on early retirement due to permanent disability in a large sample of the general population. Follow-up study based on data from three longitudinal population studies conducted in the Copenhagen area. The final study population comprised 9,053 persons, 5,623 men and 3,430 women. Endpoint was grant of disability pension in the period 1980-1985. Baseline information was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Information about disability pensions was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Data analysis was performed by univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses. Smoking was found to be strongly associated with the risk of being granted a disability pension after adjustment for various confounders. The risk increased with daily consumption reaching a maximum odds ratio of 5.66 (1.88-17.00) and 5.61 (2.11-14.92) in heavily smoking men and women, respectively, who were below age 60. Smokers are at considerably higher risk of early retirement due to chronic disease. In addition to the burden of disease, this leads to social and economic problems for the individual and has a significant economic impact on society.

  15. Toward Expanding Tremor Observations in the Northern San Andreas Fault System in the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiao, L. G.; Dreger, D. S.; Nadeau, R. M.; Taira, T.; Guilhem, A.; Luna, B.; Zhang, H.

    2015-12-01

    The connection between tremor activity and active fault processes continues to expand our understanding of deep fault zone properties and deformation, the tectonic process, and the relationship of tremor to the occurrence of larger earthquakes. Compared to tremors in subduction zones, known tremor signals in California are ~5 to ~10 smaller in amplitude and duration. These characteristics, in addition to scarce geographic coverage, lack of continuous data (e.g., before mid-2001 at Parkfield), and absence of instrumentation sensitive enough to monitor these events have stifled tremor detection. The continuous monitoring of these events over a relatively short time period in limited locations may lead to a parochial view of the tremor phenomena and its relationship to fault, tectonic, and earthquake processes. To help overcome this, we have embarked on a project to expand the geographic and temporal scope of tremor observation along the Northern SAF system using available continuous seismic recordings from a broad array of 100s of surface seismic stations from multiple seismic networks. Available data for most of these stations also extends back into the mid-1990s. Processing and analysis of tremor signal from this large and low signal-to-noise dataset requires a heavily automated, data-science type approach and specialized techniques for identifying and extracting reliable data. We report here on the automated, envelope based methodology we have developed. We finally compare our catalog results with pre-existing tremor catalogs in the Parkfield area.

  16. Gay and bisexual men's use of the Internet: research from the 1990s through 2013.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Breslow, Aaron S; Newcomb, Michael E; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    We document the historical and cultural shifts in how gay and bisexual men have used the Internet for sexuality between the 1990s and 2013-including shifting technology as well as research methods to study gay and bisexual men online. Gay and bisexual men have rapidly taken to using the Internet for sexual purposes: for health information seeking, finding sex partners, dating, cybersex, and pornography. Men have adapted to the ever-evolving technological advances that have been made in connecting users to the Internet-from logging on via dial-up modem on a desktop computer to geo-social-sexual networking via handheld devices. In kind, researchers have adapted to the Internet to study gay and bisexual men. Studies have carefully considered the ethics, feasibility, and acceptability of using the Internet to conduct research and interventions. Much of this work has been grounded in models of disease prevention, largely as a result of the ongoing HIV/AIDS epidemic. The need to reduce HIV in this population has been a driving force to develop innovative research and Internet-based intervention methodologies. The Internet, and specifically mobile technology, is an environment gay and bisexual men are using for sexual purposes. These innovative technologies represent powerful resources for researchers to study and provide outreach.

  17. Federal roles to realize national energy-efficiency opportunities in the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, Eric

    1989-10-01

    Improving energy efficiency throughout the U.S. economy is a vital component of our nation's energy future, with many benefits. Improving efficiency can: save money consumers, increase economic productivity and international competitiveness, reduce oil and gas prices by reducing the demand for foreign oil, enhance national security by lowering oil imports, reduce the adverse environmental consequences of fuel cycles, especially acid rain and global warming, add diversity and flexibility to the nation's portfolio of energy resources, respond to public interest in, and support of, energy efficiency. The primary purpose of this report is to suggest expanded roles for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in improving energy efficiency during the 1990s. In an ideal world, the normal workings of the market place would yield optimal energy-efficiency purchase and operating decisions. Unfortunately, distortions in fuel prices, limited access to capital, misplaced incentives, lack of information, and difficulty in processing information complicate energy-related decision making. Thus, consumers in all sectors of the economy underinvest in energy-efficient systems. These market barriers, coupled with growing concern about environmental quality, justify a larger Federal role.

  18. Picture archiving and communication system developments expected in the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drew, Philip G.; Lorah, Lawrence D.; Lydon, Michael J.; Novak, Elliott D.

    1993-01-01

    Among the applications for high-bandwidth systems are medical picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). Viewed in the light of developments anticipated ten years ago when these systems were first discussed, progress has been disappointingly slow. However, with the recognition that teleradiology, digital archives, and computed radiography can be regarded as PAC subsystems, and that systems confined to a single modality can be regarded as mini-PACS, it becomes clear that development of PAC systems has made remarkable progress. Growing from modest size today, the markets for PAC systems and subsystems in the U.S. is likely to exceed $600 million by the end of the decade, a market of the same magnitude as those for CT, MRI, and catheterization lab equipment. This paper discusses the forces that have stimulated growth of PAC systems - among them, the opportunity to provide better service to patients and referring physicians, a chance to expand effective service area, and a possible solution to the ubiquitous problems of lost films - as well as the impediments that have retarded growth - among them, technical limitations, especially of the radiologists' workstations, and cost. A review of these forces allows prediction of likely developments in the 1990s.

  19. Institutional Research Productivity in Science Education for the 1990s: Top 30 Rankings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Settlage, John; Germann, Paul J.

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major science education programs in the United States, where the science education researchers published their research. This research is the first study of the scholarly productivity of science education programs at domestic institutions of higher education. Each issue of the eight research journals ( Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Science Education, International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Science Teacher Education, School Science and Mathematics, Journal of Computers in Math and Science Teaching, Journal of Science Education and Technology, and Journal of Elementary Science Education) published in the 1990s provided the author(s) and their institutional affiliation. The resultant ranking of raw and weighted counts for the top 30 science educations programs shows variation in journals where research was published. Overall, regardless whether the total number of publications (raw) or weighted rating there was 90% agreement among top 10 and 70% agreement among the bottom 10. Potential explanations for variations and uses for rankings are discussed.

  20. Social representations of premature birth from the perspective of individuals born preterm in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Leavy, Pía; Violeta Prina, Martina; Martínez Cáceres, María José; Bauer, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Prematurity is a public health problem that calls to focus on its causes and consequences through a trans disciplinary approach. There are no studies analyzing premature birth from the perspective of individuals born preterm. To identify social representations associated with premature birth of individuals born preterm in the 1990s in Argentina. Twelve focus groups were conducted with individuals born preterm with a birth weight<1500 g assisted at tertiary care facilities between 1990 and 1995. Focus group contents were analyzed based on the social representation theory. Fifty-nine adolescents and youth participated; their median age was 18.5±2.3 years old. Based on the analysis of focus groups, six core themes were developed: life experience, parents' memories and experiences, overprotection body, education, relationship with the medical practice and knowledge. The methodology used allowed to create a space for mutual recognition and reflection for participants. Prematurity is a significant element, especially in those who suffered major sequelae. Adolescents and youth give a warning on the negative effects caused by overprotective parents and reveal the possibility of redefining the challenges associated with their history of premature birth.

  1. Benchmarks for health expenditures, services and outcomes in Africa during the 1990s.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, D. H.; Elmendorf, A. E.; Kandola, K.; Chellaraj, G.

    2000-01-01

    There is limited information on national health expenditures, services, and outcomes in African countries during the 1990s. We intend to make statistical information available for national level comparisons. National level data were collected from numerous international databases, and supplemented by national household surveys and World Bank expenditure reviews. The results were tabulated and analysed in an exploratory fashion to provide benchmarks for groupings of African countries and individual country comparison. There is wide variation in scale and outcome of health care spending between African countries, with poorer countries tending to do worse than wealthier ones. From 1990-96, the median annual per capita government expenditure on health was nearly US$ 6, but averaged US$ 3 in the lowest-income countries, compared to US$ 72 in middle-income countries. Similar trends were found for health services and outcomes. Results from individual countries (particularly Ethiopia, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire and Gabon) are used to indicate how the data can be used to identify areas of improvement in health system performance. Serious gaps in data, particularly concerning private sector delivery and financing, health service utilization, equity and efficiency measures, hinder more effective health management. Nonetheless, the data are useful for providing benchmarks for performance and for crudely identifying problem areas in health systems for individual countries. PMID:10916913

  2. Per capita increase in hospital presentations and admissions among children since the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Andrew; Fuller, David G; Forrester, Mike; Anderson, Kym P; Cooper, Chris; Jenner, Bernard; Marshall, Isaac; Mccloskey, Kate; Sanderson, Christine; Standish, Jane; Vuillermin, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Data regarding temporal trends in per capita paediatric hospital presentations and admissions are required to inform health system and workforce planning. Emergency Department (ED) presentations and admissions to the University Hospital Geelong among patients aged 0 to 16 years over a 12-month period (2012-2013) were determined by review of hospital records and then compared with similar data collected during 1996/1997. 1 During each period, the Geelong region was serviced by a single ED, enabling us to estimate per capita presentation and admission rates. Since 1996/1997, per capita paediatric presentations to the ED increased from 643 to 1837 per 10 000 (186%; 95% confidence interval 181% to 191%). Moreover, the proportion of paediatric ED presentations resulting in hospital admission increased from 12.3% to 18.3% (49%; 95% confidence interval 39% to 59%). There has been a substantial absolute and per capita increase in paediatric ED presentations and hospital admissions since the 1990s. These trends place an increasing burden on the public hospital system, and strategies are required to promote paediatric acute care in the ambulatory setting. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  3. Changes in Land Surface Water Dynamics since the 1990s and Relation to Population Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prigent, C.; Papa, F.; Aires, F.; Jimenez, C.; Rossow, W. B.; Matthews, E.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a remote sensing approach based on multi-satellite observations, which provides an unprecedented estimate of monthly distribution and area of land-surface open water over the whole globe. Results for 1993 to 2007 exhibit a large seasonal and inter-annual variability of the inundation extent with an overall decline in global average maximum inundated area of 6% during the fifteen-year period, primarily in tropical and subtropical South America and South Asia. The largest declines of open water are found where large increases in population have occurred over the last two decades, suggesting a global scale effect of human activities on continental surface freshwater: denser population can impact local hydrology by reducing freshwater extent, by draining marshes and wetlands, and by increasing water withdrawals. Citation: Prigent, C., F. Papa, F. Aires, C. Jimenez, W. B. Rossow, and E. Matthews (2012), Changes in land surface water dynamics since the 1990s and relation to population pressure, in section 4, insisting on the potential applications of the wetland dataset.

  4. Effect of boreal spring precipitation anomaly pattern change in the late 1990s over tropical Pacific on the atmospheric teleconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yuanyuan; Wen, Zhiping; Chen, Ruidan; Li, Xiuzhen; Yang, Xiu-Qun

    2018-02-01

    Observational evidence showed that the leading mode of precipitation variability over the tropical Pacific during boreal spring experienced a pronounced interdecadal change around the late 1990s, characterized by a precipitation pattern shift from an eastern Pacific (EP) type to a central Pacific (CP) type. The distinct impacts of such a precipitation pattern shift on the extratropical atmospheric teleconnection were examined. An apparent poleward teleconnection extending from the tropics to the North Atlantic region was observed after 1998, while, there was no significant teleconnection before 1998. To understand why only the CP-type precipitation mode is associated with a striking atmospheric teleconnection after 1998, diagnostic analyses with the Eliassen-Palm flux and Rossby wave source (RWS) based on the barotropic vorticity equation were performed. The results show that for the EP-type precipitation mode, no significant RWS anomalies appeared over the subtropical Pacific due to the opposite effect of the vortex stretching and absolute vorticity advection processes. For the CP-type precipitation mode, however, there are both significant vorticity forcing source over the subtropical CP and clear poleward-propagation of Rossby wave. The spatial distribution of the CP-type precipitation pattern tends to excite a conspicuous anomalous southerly and a well-organized negative vorticity center over the subtropical CP where both the mean absolute vorticity gradient and mean divergence flow are large, hence, the interaction between the heating-induced anomalous circulation and the basic state made the generation of Rossby waves conceivable and effective. Such corresponding teleconnection responses to the prescribed heating were also examined by using a Linear Baroclinic Model (LBM). It turned out that significant poleward teleconnection pattern is only caused by the CP-type precipitation mode, rather than by the EP-type precipitation mode. Further sensitive experiments

  5. Changing attitudes toward aging policy in the United States during the 1980s and 1990s: a cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, M; Angelelli, J J; Parrott, T M

    2001-01-01

    This research assessed how the attitudes of Americans toward government programs that serve older people changed between the mid-1980s and late 1990s and how much of the shift was dueto intracohort change and how much was due to cohort replacement. Data come from three nationally representative cross-sectional samples, surveyed by telephone in 1986 (N = 1.209), 1990 (N = 1,500), and 1997 (N = 1,559). Attitudes of Americans have become less supportive of expanding entitlement programs for older people and more supportive of cutting their costs and benefits. Between 1986 and 1997, most cohorts, particularly older adults, grew more in favor of maintaining Social Security benefit levels but less in favor of expanding them. Young adults tended to be driving the societal shift in attitudes toward decreasing benefits. Intercohort change was more important than cohort replacement in this process. Analyses of change in 2 attitude domains between 1990 and 1997 revealed that the general population felt less strongly that older people are entitled to benefits and expressed greater opposition to the associated costs. However, young adults moderated their concerns about costs as they got older, although the young adults in the cohort replacing them had become more critical of the principle of entitlement. These findings enhance the understanding of the roles that historical conditions and aging play in shaping the attitudes of adult cohorts toward public programs for older citizens. Discrepant findings based on the intercohort change in younger age groups are reconciled by differentiating maturation effects from period effects on impressionable youth.

  6. Chaparral in southern and central coastal California in the mid-1990s: area, ownership, condition, and change.

    Jeremy S. Fried; Charles L. Bolsinger; Debby Beardsley

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes an inventory of chaparral-dominated lands in southern California conducted during the mid-1990s and provides a review of contemporary literature on the ecological dynamics of chaparral vegetation with emphases on stand development, species composition, and the role of fire. Detailed tables provide estimates of chaparral area by owner, type, size...

  7. Changes in the influence of the western Pacific subtropical high on Asian summer monsoon rainfall in the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yanyan; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiaofan; Wang, Huijun

    2017-10-01

    The Year-to-year variability of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) is primarily controlled by atmosphere-ocean interaction (AOI) between the WPSH and the Indo-Pacific warm pool dipole SST anomalies (AOI mode) and the anomalous SST forcing from the equatorial central Pacific (the CP forcing mode). In this study, we show that the impacts of the WPSH variability on Asian summer monsoon rainfall have changed after the late 1990s. Before the late 1990s (the PRE epoch), the WPSH primarily affects East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and had little influence on Indian summer monsoon (ISM), whereas after the late 1990s (the POST epoch), the WPSH has strengthened its linkage to the ISM while weakened its relationship with the EASM. This epochal change is associated with a change in the leading circulation mode in the Asia-WP region. During the PRE (POST) epoch the WPSH variation is mainly controlled by the AOI (CP forcing) that mainly affects EASM (ISM). The epochal change of the leading mode may be attributed to the change of the ENSO properties in late 1990s: the CP types of El Nino become a leading ENSO mode in the POST epoch. This work provides a new perspective for understanding decadal changes of the ENSO-monsoon relationship through subtropical dynamics.

  8. Determinants of Police Strength in Large U.S. Cities during the 1990s: A Fixed-Effects Panel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, William P.; Ren, Ling; Zhao, Jihong

    2012-01-01

    The 1990s represented a unique decade in which to analyze the determinants of police strength in the United States. This decade was a time in which crime initially increased, then substantially decreased. Furthermore, this decade also was characterized by increases in the minority population throughout large American cities. Finally, the 1990s…

  9. The Condition of the Diverse Regions of Rural America at the Start of the Decade of the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, E. Robert

    This paper constructs a profile of the condition of the diverse areas of rural America at the Beginning of the 1990s. The widely used designation of metropolitan or nonmetropolitan areas based on the metropolitan statistical area (MSA) does not describe the diverse nature of rural America. One alternative typology differentiates nonmetro counties…

  10. From Moscow: Living and Teaching among the Russians in the 1990s. Russian Memoirs Series No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Dora

    This book recounts events in a Russian school during the 1990s when Russia itself was in transition. The book tells the story of an English teacher who dreamed of working in Russia and nearly 30 years later saw her dream come true. Old ways run in parallel with new Western-inspired methods. The outlooks of different generations more than ever…

  11. Peace Education in the 1990s. A Guide to Five Conference Reports from PEC. Peace Education Miniprints, No. 84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerstedt, Ake

    This bibliography lists and indexes a total of 124 papers presented during five international conferences held during the 1990s on the topic of peace education. This miniprint aims to make it easier for peace researchers and peace educators to locate conference contributions of special interest to them. The guide has been organized into three…

  12. Constructivism and the Neoliberal Agenda in the Spanish Curriculum Reform of the 1980s and 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Encarna

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the assumption underlying most education reforms that constructivism is politically neutral and intrinsically democratic. It makes this argument by examining the curriculum reform in Spain during the 1980s and 1990s in light of the neoliberal politics that the country was experiencing at that time. This study employs the…

  13. Trends in How Families Are Portrayed in Children's Literature from the 1950s to the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kariuki, Patrick; Harris, Carmen

    This paper examines how the family has been portrayed in children's literature from the 1950s to the 1990s. Five sample books from each era were randomly selected from the collection of children's literature books from one major university, two colleges, and three public libraries, and each book was examined for content and illustrations. Data on…

  14. The Quality of Life of Hong Kong's Poor Households in the 1990s: Levels of Expenditure, Income Security and Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Hung

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the changes in the quality of life of poor households in Hong Kong in the late 1990s by analyzing their levels of expenditure, income security and poverty before and after 1997. Though there have been significant increases in the levels of expenditure among CSSA recipients, the expenditure among these poorest households in Hong…

  15. Market Forces in Higher Education--Chinese and British Experience between Mid-1980s and Mid-1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Xiaonan

    2010-01-01

    This paper tries to examine how higher education in China and Britain has been affected by market forces between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, from three major issues. Comparing the experiences of both places, the paper argues that unlike the case of British counterpart, where marketisation of education has shifted to a corporate management…

  16. Development Goals and Strategies for Children in the 1990s. A UNICEF Policy Review. Executive Board Decision 1990-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This document presents proposals for goals and strategies for children and development in the 1990s that were approved by the UNICEF Executive Board in April, 1990. The paper proposes that developing human capabilities and meeting basic human needs should be the focus of the UNICEF contribution to the fourth United Nations developmental decade.…

  17. Financing the American Community College in the 1990's: A New Kind of Blues or the Same Old Tune?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Susan Robinson

    Drawing from journal, report, and monographic literature, this paper offers an analysis of community college funding in the 1990's. In the first section, various stories appearing in the "Chronicle of Higher Education" are highlighted, pointing to such financial problems as state deficits and shrinking educational budgets, no federal increases in…

  18. Firm-Based Training for Young Australians: Changes from the 1980s to the 1990s. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Michael; Lamb, Stephen

    Changes in the extent, pattern, and outcomes of young Australians' participation in firm-based training from the 1980s to the 1990s were analyzed by comparing data from the Australian Youth Survey (AYS) and the Australian Longitudinal Survey (ALS). In 1994, 46% of those in the AYS sample participated in formal training (at age 16-24 years) and…

  19. Effects of increased urbanization from 1970's to 1990's on storm-runoff characteristics in Perris Valley, California

    Guay, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Urban areas in Perris Valley, California, have more than tripled during the last 20 years. To quantify the effects of increased urbanization on storm runoff volumes and peak discharges, rainfall-runoff models of the basin were developed to simulate runoff for 1970-75 and 1990-93 conditions. Hourly rainfall data for 1949-93 were used with the rainfall-runoff models to simulate a long-term record of storm runoff. The hydrologic effects of increased urbanization from 1970-75 to 1990-93 were analyzed by comparing the simulated annual peak discharges and volumes, and storm runoff peaks, frequency of annual peak discharges and runoff volumes, and duration of storm peak discharges for each study period. A Log-Pearson Type-III frequency analysis was calculated using the simulated annual peaks to estimate the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence intervals. The estimated 2-year discharge at the outlet of the basin was 646 cubic feet per second for the 1970-75 conditions and 1,328 cubic feet per second for the 1990-93 conditions. The 100-year discharge at the outlet of the basin was about 14,000 cubic feet per second for the 1970-75 and 1990-93 conditions. The station duration analysis used 925 model-simulated storm peaks from each basin to estimate the percent chance a peak discharge is exceeded. At the outlet of the basin, the chances of exceeding 100 cubic feet per second were about 33 percent under 1970-75 conditions and about 59 percent under 1990-93 conditions. The chance of exceeding 2,500 cubic feet per second at the outlet of the basin was less than 1 percent higher under the 1990-93 conditions than under the 1970-75 conditions. The increase in urbanization from the early 1970's to the early 1990's more than doubled the peak discharges with a 2-year return period. However, peak discharges with return periods greater than 50 years were not significantly affected by the change in urbanization.

  20. A Premiere example of the illusion of harm reduction cigarettes in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Pollay, R W; Dewhirst, T

    2003-09-01

    To use the product launch of Player's Premiere as a case study for understanding the new cigarette product development process during the 1990s. We determine the (in)validity of industry claims that: (1) development of the physical product preceded the promotional promise of "less irritation"; (2) "less irritation" was actually realised; (3) advertising informed consumers; and (4) advertising regulations caused the product's failure in the marketplace. Court proceedings assessing the constitutionality of Canada's Tobacco Act, which substantially restricts cigarette advertising. The 2002 Quebec Superior Court trial yielded a new collection of internal documents from Imperial Tobacco Ltd (ITL), including several about the development and marketing of Player's Premiere. Trial testimony and corporate documents were reviewed to determine the validity of the industry representations about the new cigarette product development process, focusing on the case history of Player's Premiere. In direct contradiction to industry testimony, the documentary evidence demonstrates that (1) communications for Player's Premiere, which claimed less irritation, were developed long before finding a product that could deliver on the promise; (2) ITL did not sell a "less irritating" product that matched its promotional promise; (3) the advertising and other communications for Player's Premiere were extensive, relying on the hi-tech appearances ("tangible credibility") of a "unique" filter, yet were uninformative and vague; and (4) Player's Premiere failed in the marketplace, despite extensive advertising and retail support, because it was an inferior product that did not live up to its promotional promise, not because of regulation of commercial speech. New product development entails extensive consumer research to craft all communications tools in fine detail. In the case of Player's Premiere, this crafting created a false and misleading impression of technological advances producing a

  1. A Premiere example of the illusion of harm reduction cigarettes in the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Pollay, R; Dewhirst, T

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To use the product launch of Player's Premiere as a case study for understanding the new cigarette product development process during the 1990s. We determine the (in)validity of industry claims that: (1) development of the physical product preceded the promotional promise of "less irritation"; (2) "less irritation" was actually realised; (3) advertising informed consumers; and (4) advertising regulations caused the product's failure in the marketplace. Setting: Court proceedings assessing the constitutionality of Canada's Tobacco Act, which substantially restricts cigarette advertising. The 2002 Quebec Superior Court trial yielded a new collection of internal documents from Imperial Tobacco Ltd (ITL), including several about the development and marketing of Player's Premiere. Method: Trial testimony and corporate documents were reviewed to determine the validity of the industry representations about the new cigarette product development process, focusing on the case history of Player's Premiere. Results: In direct contradiction to industry testimony, the documentary evidence demonstrates that (1) communications for Player's Premiere, which claimed less irritation, were developed long before finding a product that could deliver on the promise; (2) ITL did not sell a "less irritating" product that matched its promotional promise; (3) the advertising and other communications for Player's Premiere were extensive, relying on the hi-tech appearances ("tangible credibility") of a "unique" filter, yet were uninformative and vague; and (4) Player's Premiere failed in the marketplace, despite extensive advertising and retail support, because it was an inferior product that did not live up to its promotional promise, not because of regulation of commercial speech. Conclusions: New product development entails extensive consumer research to craft all communications tools in fine detail. In the case of Player's Premiere, this crafting created a false and misleading

  2. Development of atmospheric acid deposition in China from the 1990s to the 2010s.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haili; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Qiufeng; Zhu, Jianxing; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Yunhai; Jia, Yanlong; Yu, Guirui

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric acid deposition is a global environmental issue. China has been experiencing serious acid deposition, which is anticipated to become more severe with the country's economic development and increasing consumption of fossil fuels in recent decades. We explored the spatiotemporal variations of acid deposition (wet acid deposition) and its influencing factors by collecting nationwide data on pH and concentrations of sulfate (SO 4 2- ) and nitrate (NO 3 - ) in precipitation between 1980 and 2014 in China. Our results showed that average precipitation pH values were 4.59 and 4.70 in the 1990s and 2010s, respectively, suggesting that precipitation acid deposition in China has not seriously worsened. Average SO 4 2- deposition declined from 40.54 to 34.87 kg S ha -1 yr -1 but average NO 3 - deposition increased from 4.44 to 7.73 kg N ha -1 yr -1 . Specifically, the area of severe precipitation acid deposition in southern China has shrunk to some extent as a result of controlling the pollutant emissions; but the area of moderate precipitation acid deposition has expanded in northern China, associated with rapid industrial and transportation development. Furthermore, we found significant positive correlations between precipitation acid deposition, energy consumption, and rainfall. Our findings provide a relatively comprehensive evaluation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of precipitation acid deposition in China over past three decades, and confirm the idea that strategies implemented to save energy and control pollutant emissions in China have been effective in alleviating precipitation acid deposition. These findings might be used to demonstrate how developing countries could achieve economic development and environmental protection through the implementation of advanced technologies to reduce pollutant emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Expanding atmospheric acid deposition in China from the 1990s to the 2010s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haili; Wang, Qiufeng

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric acid deposition is considered a global environmental issue. China has been experiencing serious acid deposition, which is anticipated to be more serious with the country's economic development and increasing consumption of fossil fuels in recent decades. By collecting nationwide data on pH and concentrations of sulfate (SO42-) and nitrate (NO3-) in precipitation between 1980 and 2014 in China, we explored the spatiotemporal variations of precipitation acid deposition (bulk deposition) and their influencing factors. Our results showed that average precipitation pH values were 4.86 and 4.84 in the 1990s and 2010s, respectively. This suggests that precipitation acid deposition in China has not seriously changes. Average SO42- deposition declined from 30.73 to 28.61 kg S ha-1 yr-1 but average NO3- deposition increased from 4.02 to 6.79 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Specifically, the area of severe precipitation acid deposition in southern China has shrunk to some extent as a result of decreasing pollutant emissions, whereas the area of moderate precipitation acid deposition has expanded in northern China, associated with rapid industrial and transportation development. Significant positive correlations have been found between precipitation acid deposition, energy consumption, and rainfall. Our findings provide a comprehensive evaluation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of precipitation acid deposition in China over past three decades, and confirm the idea that strategies implemented to save energy and reduce pollutant emissions in China have been effective in alleviating precipitation acid deposition. These findings might be used to demonstrate how developing countries could achieve economic development and environmental protection through the implementation of advanced technologies to reduce pollutant emissions.

  4. Gay and Bisexual men's use of the Internet: Research from the 1990s through 2013

    PubMed Central

    Grov, Christian; Breslow, Aaron S.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Rosenberger, Joshua G.; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we document the historical and cultural shifts in how gay and bisexual men have used the Internet for sexuality between the 1990s and 2013. Over that time, gay and bisexual men have rapidly taken to using the Internet for sexual purposes: sexual health information seeking, finding sex partners, dating, cybersex, and pornography. Gay and bisexual men have adapted to the ever-evolving technological advances that have been made in connecting users to the Internet—from logging into the World Wide Web via dial-up modem on a desktop computer to geo-social and sexual networking via a handheld device. In kind, researchers too have adapted to the Internet to study gay and bisexual men, though not at the same rapid pace at which technology (and its users) have advanced. Studies have carefully considered the ethics, feasibility, and acceptability of using the Internet to conduct research and interventions with gay and bisexual men. Much of this work has been grounded in models of disease prevention, largely as a result of the ongoing HIV/AIDS epidemic. The urgent need to reduce HIV in this population has been a driving force to develop innovative research and Internet-based intervention methodologies. Moving forward, a more holistic understanding of gay and bisexual men's sexual behavior might be warranted to address continued HIV and STI disparities. The Internet, and specifically mobile technology, is an environment gay and bisexual men are using for sexual purposes. These innovative technologies represent powerful resources for researchers to study and provide rapidly evolving outreach to gay and bisexual men. PMID:24754360

  5. Early-Onset Central Diabetes Insipidus due to Compound Heterozygosity for AVP Mutations.

    PubMed

    Bourdet, Karine; Vallette, Sophie; Deladoëy, Johnny; Van Vliet, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Genetic cases of isolated central diabetes insipidus are rare, are mostly due to dominant AVP mutations and have a delayed onset of symptoms. Only 3 consanguineous pedigrees with a recessive form have been published. A boy with a negative family history presented polyuria and failure to thrive in the first months of life and was diagnosed with central diabetes insipidus. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a normal posterior pituitary signal. A molecular genetic analysis of the AVP gene showed that he had inherited a previously reported mutation from his Lebanese father and a novel A>G transition in the splice acceptor site of intron 1 (IVS1-2A>G) from his French-Canadian mother. Replacement therapy resulted in the immediate disappearance of symptoms and in weight gain. The early polyuria in recessive central diabetes insipidus contrasts with the delayed presentation in patients with monoallelic AVP mutations. This diagnosis needs to be considered in infants with very early onset of polyuria-polydipsia and no brain malformation, even if there is no consanguinity and regardless of whether the posterior pituitary is visible or not on imaging. In addition to informing family counseling, making a molecular diagnosis eliminates the need for repeated imaging studies. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Ecology and habitat of breeding Northern Goshawks in the inland Pacific Northwest: A summary of research in the 1990s

    DeStefano, S.; McGrath, M.T.; Daw, S.K.; Desimone, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    During the 1990s, we conducted research on the distribution, productivity, and habitat relationships of Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) in eastern Oregon and Washington. Our research was initiated primarily in response to concerns raised about the status of Northern Goshawks in the western US, and coincided with early attempts to list the species as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act and the publication of management guidelines for goshawks in the southwestern US. To develop baseline information on the status, distribution, and habitat relationships of goshawks in eastside forests (i.e., east of the Cascade Mountain Range) in the Pacific Northwest, we established study areas on three national forests in eastern Oregon in 1992, adding a fourth study area in central Washington in 1994. We focused on the breeding season and nesting habitat because of its primary importance to goshawk ecology and the logistical feasibility of finding nests. Density of breeding pairs ranged from 0.03-0.09/100 ha, and annual productivity ranged from 0.3-2.2 young fledged/nest. Goshawks selected forest stands with trees of larger diameter and greater canopy closure for nesting than available in the landscape. Occasionally nests could be found in large trees in open-canopied stands. As distance increased from the nest site, forest type and structure became more heterogeneous and the prevalence of older-seral-stage forest declined. Dry or wet openings were present in most territories, often within close proximity to nest stands. Goshawks ate a variety of mammalian and avian prey. Mammal species made up a larger portion of prey biomass on two of the national forests, but avian species appeared to be more prevalent in the diet of goshawks in the most northern study area. We recommend that the existing management guidelines for goshawks in the Southwest form a basis for management in the inland Pacific Northwest, particularly with regard to nested spatial concepts

  7. Study of the early signal perturbations due to GJ and Elves using the LWPC code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nait Amor, Samir; Ghalila, Hassen; Bouderba, Yasmina

    2015-04-01

    Early events are a Very Low Frequencies (VLF) signal perturbations recorded during a lightning activity. The properties of these signal perturbations and their association to the lightning peak current and/or Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) were widely studied. In a recently analysis a new early signal perturbations whose recovery time persists for several minutes were discovered. The underlying cause of these events is still unclear. In a recently published work, these events were attributed to the lightning peak current and the type of associated TLE. In others, and newly published papers, analyzes were done where all kind of early events were considered. Statistical results showed that the occurrence of long recovery events is independent of the lightning current amplitude and/or TLEs type. To understand which is the main cause of these events, we analyzed two types of early signal perturbations: One was a typical event (~200s time duration) in association with a Gigantic Jet and the second was a long recovery event in association with an elve recorded on December 12 2009 during the EuroSprite campaign. In addition to the VLF signal analysis, we used the Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) code to simulate the unperturbed and perturbed signal parameters (amplitude and phase), to determine the signal modes attenuation coefficient and then to infer the electron density increases in the disturbed region. The results showed that the reference height was reduced from its ambient value (87km) to 66.4 km in the case of the GJ and 74.3 km for the elve. These reference heights decreases affected the propagating signal at the disturbed region by increasing the modes attenuation coefficient. Effectively, the number of modes was reduced from 28 at ambient condition to 9 modes (in the case of GJ) and 17 (in the case of elve). This high attenuation of modes leads to the appearance of null signal perturbations positions due to the interferences. Between two null positions

  8. Managing the Risk for Early Onset Osteoporosis in Long-Duration Astronauts Due to Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2010-01-01

    Early Onset Osteoporosis is probably the most recognized but poorly understood long-term health risk due to spaceflight. Osteoporosis management is primarily prophylactic and clinical interventions rely upon the ability to predict fractures which is currently determined by surrogate measures of bone strength. The RMAT for Early Onset Osteoporosis identified some open issues related to the fact that long-duration astronauts compose a unique group of subjects for which clinical approaches for osteoporosis management do not apply. Long-duration astronauts are healthy, young (25 to 55 years of age), predominantly male, and physical fit relative to the typical osteoporosis patient. Moreover, during prolonged space missions (typically 6-month missions) the skeleton not only adapts to weightlessness, but is influenced by numerous risk factors induced by operational constraints, e.g., inability to maintain preflight weight-bearing and aerobic activities, sub-optimal dietary intake (e.g., high sodium content for food stability, lack of fresh fruit and vegetables), suppression of vitamin D metabolism by uv shielding, and remote medicine care. Moreover, adaptation results in novel changes to astronauts bones that cannot be detected by current medically-useful measures. Consequently, a panel of clinicians (recognized leaders and policy-makers in osteoporosis) was convened to review the dataset of bone measures and bone loss risk factors in long-duration astronauts. Driven by the queries in the RMAT, the panel was charged to determine 1) if an intervention is required to prevent this risk, 2) what type and at what time would intervention be optimal, 3) what is the clinical trigger that would require a medical response from flight surgeons and 4) how should research data be used in the clinical care of astronauts. Hence, the RMAT determined that a bone health policy need to be formulated specific for this unique cohort subjected to a novel skeletal condition

  9. Possible tidal resonance of the early Earth's ocean due to the lunar orbit evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motoyama, M.; Tsunakawa, H.; Takahashi, F.

    2016-12-01

    The ocean tide is one of the most important factors affecting the Earth's surface environment and the evolution of the Earth-Moon system (e.g. Goldreich, 1966). According to the Giant Impact hypothesis, the Moon was formed very near the Earth 4.6 billion years ago (Hartmann and Davis, 1979). At that time, the tidal force would be about several thousand times as strong as the present. However previous studies pointed out that significant attenuation of tidal waves might have occurred due to mechanical response of water motion (e.g. Hansen, 1982; Abe and Ooe, 2001), resulting in relatively calm state like the present ocean.In the present study, we analyze tidal response of the ocean on the early Earth using a model of constant-depth ocean covering all the surface of the rigid Earth. The examined modes of response are not only M2 corresponding to spherical harmonics Y22 but also others such as Y21, since the lunar orbital plane would be inclined.First, estimated is an ocean depth for possible resonance of the individual mode. Eigen frequencies of the fluid on a rotating sphere with no friction are calculated on the basis of previous study (Longuet-Higgins, 1968). These frequencies depend on the Earth's rotation rate and the ocean depth. The Earth's rotation period is assumed to have changed from 5 hours to 24 hours for the past 4.6 billion years (e.g. Mignard, 1980; Stacey and Davis, 2008). It is found that resonance could occur for diurnal modes of Y21 and Y31 with reasonable depths of the ancient ocean (1300 - 5200 m).Then we obtain a 2D response function on a sphere with friction in order to estimate the tidal amplitude of the ocean for main modes . The response function in the present study shows good agreement with the numerical simulation result of the tidal torque response of M2 (Abe et al., 1997). The calculation results suggest that diurnal modes of Y21 and Y31 would grown on the early Earth, while the other modes would fairly be attenuated. In particular

  10. Variability of the seasonally integrated normalized difference vegetation index across the north slope of Alaska in the 1990s

    Stow, D.; Daeschner, Scott; Hope, A.; Douglas, David C.; Petersen, A.; Myneni, Ranga B.; Zhou, L.; Oechel, W.

    2003-01-01

    The interannual variability and trend of above-ground photosynthetic activity of Arctic tundra vegetation in the 1990s is examined for the north slope region of Alaska, based on the seasonally integrated normalized difference vegetation index (SINDVI) derived from local area coverage (LAC) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. Smaller SINDVI values occurred during the three years (1992-1994) following the volcanic eruption of Mt Pinatubo. Even after implementing corrections for this stratospheric aerosol effect and adjusting for changes in radiometric calibration coefficients, an apparent increasing trend of SINDVI in the 1990s is evident for the entire north slope. The most pronounced increase was observed for the foothills physiographical province.

  11. Australia's Youth: Reality and Risk. A National Perspective on Developments That Have Affected 15-19 Year Olds during the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusseldorp Skills Forum, Inc., Sydney (Australia).

    This first annual report by the Dusseldorp Skills Forum on the situation of young Australians provides a national perspective on developments that have affected 15-19 year olds during the 1990s. An overview chapter, "Youth: The Rhetoric and the Reality of the 1990s" (Richard Sweet), addresses these topics: education-work transition; the…

  12. Long-term effects of early parental loss due to divorce on the HPA axis.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Miki; Peleg, Ido; Koren, Danny; Aner, Hamotal; Klein, Ehud

    2007-04-01

    We investigated the long-term effects of divorce and early separation from one parent on HPA axis reactivity, in young adults without psychopathology. Participants were 44 young subjects, 22 whose parents divorced before they reached age 10, and 22 controls. Psychiatric symptomatology was measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), family perceived stress by the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), and bonding by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Assessment of HPA axis function included baseline morning cortisol and ACTH and cortisol response to a CRH stimulation test. No baseline or stimulated group differences were observed for ACTH. Cortisol levels were consistently but insignificantly lower in the divorce group throughout the CRH stimulation reaching statistical significance only at 5 min (p<0.03). Group by time effect reached a trend level (p<0.06). A correlation was found between psychiatric symptomatology and PBI scores; however, both parameters did not correlate with HPA axis activity. A significant correlation was found between DAS scores and ACTH. A regression model revealed a contributing effect for both family stress and child-parent bonding to stimulated ACTH levels. These preliminary findings suggest that even in the absence of adult psychopathology, a history of childhood separation from one parent due to divorce may lead to detectable, albeit mild, long-term alterations in HPA axis activity. Furthermore, they suggest that level of stress at home and parental bonding are important determinants of this effect. It is likely that divorce has significant and sustained effects on children's HPA axis only in the context of a traumatic separation.

  13. Logging impacts of the 1970's vs. the 1990's in the Caspar Creek watershed

    Peter H. Cafferata; Thomas E. Spittler

    1998-01-01

    The Caspar Creek watershed study provides resource professionals with information regarding the impacts of timber operations conducted under varying forest practices on sensitive aquatic habitats. In the South Fork watershed, roads were constructed near watercourse channels in the 1960's, and the watershed was selectively logged using tractors during the early...

  14. Trends in maternal and infant health in poor urban neighborhoods: good news from the 1990s, but challenges remain.

    PubMed

    Howell, Embry M; Pettit, Kathryn L S; Kingsley, G Thomas

    2005-01-01

    During the 1990s, numerous public policy changes occurred that may have affected the health of mothers and infants in low-income neighborhoods. This article examines trends in key maternal and child health indicators to determine whether disparities between high-poverty neighborhoods and other neighborhoods have declined. Using neighborhood-level vital statistics and U.S. Census data, we categorized "neighborhoods" (Census tracts) as being high poverty (greater than 30% of population below the federal poverty level in 1990) or not. We compared trends in four key indicators--births to teenagers, late prenatal care, low birth-weight; and infant mortality--over the 1990s among high-poverty and other neighborhoods in Cuyahoga County, Ohio; Denver, Colorado; Marion County, Indiana; and Oakland, California. In all four metropolitan areas, trends in high-poverty neighborhoods were more favorable than in other neighborhoods. The most consistently positive trend was the reduction in the rate of teen births. The metropolitan areas with the most intensive programs to improve maternal and child health--Cuyahoga County and Oakland-saw the most consistent improvement across all indicators. Still, great disparities between high-poverty and other neighborhoods remain, and only Oakland shows promise of achieving some of the Healthy People 2010 maternal and child health goals in its high-poverty neighborhoods. While there has been a reduction in maternal and infant health disparities between high-poverty and other neighborhoods, much work remains to eliminate disparities and achieve the 2010 goals. Small area data are useful in isolating the neighborhoods that should be targeted. Experience from the 1990s suggests that a combination of several intensive interventions can be effective at reducing disparities.

  15. Is globalization undermining the welfare state? The evolution of the welfare state in developed capitalist countries during the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Vicente; Schmitt, John; Astudillo, Javier

    2004-01-01

    The authors analyze the evolution of macro-indicators of social and economic well-being during the 1990s in the majority of developed capitalist countries, grouped according to their dominant political traditions since the end of World War II. Their analysis shows that, despite the economic globalization of commerce and finance, "politics still matters" in explaining the evolution of the welfare states and labor markets in these countries; the impact of the globalization of financial capital in forcing reductions in the financial resources available for welfare state purposes has been exaggerated.

  16. A history of lumbar disc herniation from Hippocrates to the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Truumees, Eeric

    2015-06-01

    In ancient times, a supernatural understanding of the syndrome of lumbar radiculopathy often involved demonic forces vexing the individual with often crippling pain. The ancient Greeks and Egyptians began to take a more naturalistic view and, critically, suspected a relationship between lumbar spinal pathology and leg symptoms. Relatively little then changed for those with sciatica until the classic works by Cotugno and Kocher arrived in the late 18th century. Early lumbar canal explorations were performed in the late 1800s and early 1900s by MacEwen, Horsley, Krause, Taylor, Dandy, and Cushing, among others. In these cases, when compressive pathologies were found and removed, the lesions typically were (mis-)identified as enchondromas or osteochondritis dissecans. To better understand the history, learn more about the first treatments of lumbar disc herniation, and evaluate the impact of the early influences on modern spine practice, searches of PubMed and Embase were performed using the search terms discectomy, medical history, lumbar spine surgery, herniated disc, herniated nucleus pulposus, sciatica, and lumbar radiculopathy. Additional sources were identified from the reference lists of the reviewed papers. Many older and ancient sources including De Ischiade Nervosa are available in English translations and were used. When full texts were not available, English abstracts were used. The first true, intentional discectomy surgery was performed by Mixter and Barr in 1932. Early on, a transdural approach was favored. In 1938, Love described the intralaminar, extradural approach. His technique, although modified with improved lighting, magnification, and retractors, remains a staple approach to disc herniations today. Other modalities such as chymopapain have been investigated. Some remain a part of the therapeutic armamentarium, whereas others have disappeared. By the 1970s, CT scanning after myelography markedly improved the clinical evaluation of patients with

  17. Nature of Persecutors and Their Behaviors in the Delusions of Schizophrenia: Changes between the 1990s and the 2000s.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun Young; Kim, Daeho; Park, Yong-Chon

    2012-12-01

    Research suggests that the contents of delusions in schizophrenia are influenced by culture and social environment. However, few studies have investigated the chronological change of such delusions within a society. To investigate specifically the changes in the persecutory delusions of schizophrenia that have occurred over time, we compared the nature of the persecutors and their persecutory behaviors among inpatients with schizophrenia. All admissions to the psychiatric unit of Hanyang University Guri Hospital with discharge diagnoses of schizophrenia during two different five-year time frames (1996-2000 and 2006-2010) were reviewed. From their inpatient medical records, we investigated the descriptions of persecutors and their persecutory behaviors in the delusions of 124 patients (54 in the1990s and 72 in the 2000s). Overall, persecutory behaviors and nature of persecutors in the delusions of schizophrenia did not differ between the two time frames. However, subgroup analysis revealed that in women but not in men, rejection as a persecutory behavior was significantly higher in the 1990s (p<0.05). The ten-year time interval may be too short to find significant changes in delusional content in general. However, our additional finding in women may be a result of the tremendous change in status of Korean women during the last decade.

  18. Nature of Persecutors and Their Behaviors in the Delusions of Schizophrenia: Changes between the 1990s and the 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyun Young; Kim, Daeho

    2012-01-01

    Objective Research suggests that the contents of delusions in schizophrenia are influenced by culture and social environment. However, few studies have investigated the chronological change of such delusions within a society. To investigate specifically the changes in the persecutory delusions of schizophrenia that have occurred over time, we compared the nature of the persecutors and their persecutory behaviors among inpatients with schizophrenia. Methods All admissions to the psychiatric unit of Hanyang University Guri Hospital with discharge diagnoses of schizophrenia during two different five-year time frames (1996-2000 and 2006-2010) were reviewed. From their inpatient medical records, we investigated the descriptions of persecutors and their persecutory behaviors in the delusions of 124 patients (54 in the1990s and 72 in the 2000s). Results Overall, persecutory behaviors and nature of persecutors in the delusions of schizophrenia did not differ between the two time frames. However, subgroup analysis revealed that in women but not in men, rejection as a persecutory behavior was significantly higher in the 1990s (p<0.05). Conclusion The ten-year time interval may be too short to find significant changes in delusional content in general. However, our additional finding in women may be a result of the tremendous change in status of Korean women during the last decade. PMID:23251194

  19. Educational Inequalities among Latin American Adolescents: Continuities and Changes over the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s.

    PubMed

    Marteleto, Letícia; Gelber, Denisse; Hubert, Celia; Salinas, Viviana

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine recent trends in educational stratification for Latin American adolescents growing up in three distinct periods: the 1980s, during severe recession; the 1990s, a period of structural adjustments imposed by international organizations; and the late 2000s, when most countries in the region experienced positive and stable growth. In addition to school enrollment and educational transitions, we examine the quality of education through enrollment in private schools, an important aspect of inequality in education that most studies have neglected. We use nationally representative household survey data for the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s in Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Uruguay. Our overall findings confirm the importance of macroeconomic conditions for inequalities in educational opportunity, suggesting important benefits brought up by the favorable conditions of the 2000s. However, our findings also call attention to increasing disadvantages associated with the quality of the education adolescents receive, suggesting the significance of the EMI framework-Effectively Maintained Inequality-and highlighting the value of examining the quality in addition to the quantity of education in order to fully understand educational stratification in the Latin American context.

  20. Accountable care organizations may have difficulty avoiding the failures of integrated delivery networks of the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Burns, Lawton R; Pauly, Mark V

    2012-11-01

    Accountable care organizations are intended to improve the quality and lower the cost of health care through several mechanisms, such as disease management programs, care coordination, and aligning financial incentives for hospitals and physicians. Providers employed several of these mechanisms in forming the integrated delivery networks of the 1990s. The networks failed, however, because of heavy financial losses stemming from hospitals' purchase of physician practices and their inability to align incentives, garner capitated contracts, and develop the infrastructure to manage risk. Although the current mechanisms underlying accountable care organizations continue to evolve, whether and how they will have an impact on quality and costs remains open to question. Care coordination and information technology are proving more complicated and expensive to implement than anticipated, providers may lack the ability to implement these mechanisms, and primary care providers are in short supply. As in the 1990s, success depends on targeting specific populations, such as people with multiple chronic conditions who need and may benefit from coordinated care.

  1. The strengthening relationship between Eurasian snow cover and December haze days in central North China after the mid-1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhicong; Wang, Huijun

    2018-04-01

    The haze pollution in December has become increasingly serious over recent decades and imposes damage on society, ecosystems, and human health. In addition to anthropogenic emissions, climate change and variability were conducive to haze in China. In this study, the relationship between the snow cover over eastern Europe and western Siberia (SCES) and the number of haze days in December in central North China was analyzed. This relationship significantly strengthened after the mid-1990s, which is attributed to the effective connections between the SCES and the Eurasian atmospheric circulations. During 1998-2016, the SCES significantly influenced the soil moisture and land surface radiation, and then the combined underlying drivers of enhanced soil moisture and radiative cooling moved the the East Asia jet stream northward and induced anomalous, anti-cyclonic circulation over central North China. Modulated by such atmospheric circulations, the local lower boundary layer, the decreased surface wind, and the more humid air were conducive to the worsening dispersion conditions and frequent haze occurrences. In contrast, from 1979 to 1997, the linkage between the SCES and soil moisture was negligible. Furthermore, the correlated radiative cooling was distributed narrowly and far from the key area of snow cover. The associated atmospheric circulations with the SCES were not significantly linked with the ventilation conditions over central North China. Consequently, the relationship between the SCES and the number of hazy days in central North China was insignificant before the mid-1990s but has strengthened and has become significant since then.

  2. Educational Inequalities among Latin American Adolescents: Continuities and Changes over the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Marteleto, Letícia; Gelber, Denisse; Hubert, Celia; Salinas, Viviana

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine recent trends in educational stratification for Latin American adolescents growing up in three distinct periods: the 1980s, during severe recession; the 1990s, a period of structural adjustments imposed by international organizations; and the late 2000s, when most countries in the region experienced positive and stable growth. In addition to school enrollment and educational transitions, we examine the quality of education through enrollment in private schools, an important aspect of inequality in education that most studies have neglected. We use nationally representative household survey data for the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s in Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Uruguay. Our overall findings confirm the importance of macroeconomic conditions for inequalities in educational opportunity, suggesting important benefits brought up by the favorable conditions of the 2000s. However, our findings also call attention to increasing disadvantages associated with the quality of the education adolescents receive, suggesting the significance of the EMI framework—Effectively Maintained Inequality—and highlighting the value of examining the quality in addition to the quantity of education in order to fully understand educational stratification in the Latin American context. PMID:22962512

  3. Challenges for Children and Women in the 1990s: Eastern and Southern Africa in Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, Nairobi (Kenya). Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Office.

    This report profiles conditions in the lives of children and women in Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA), and attempts to identify and analyze trends and issues which are emerging in ESA and which have particular significance for UNICEF activities. During the 1980s, ESA experienced unprecedented economic decline due to falling commodity prices and…

  4. What's behind the Good News: The Decline in Teen Pregnancy Rates during the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanigan, Christine

    Noting that rates of teen pregnancies and births have declined over the past decade, this analysis examined how much of the progress is due to fewer teens having sex and how much to lower rates of pregnancy among sexually active teens. The analysis drew on data from the federal government's National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), a large,…

  5. A comparison of the macrophyte cover and macroinvertebrate fauna at three sites on the River Kennet in the mid 1970s and late 1990s.

    PubMed

    Wright, J F; Gunn, R J M; Winder, J M; Wiggers, R; Vowles, K; Clarke, R T; Harris, I

    2002-01-23

    In 1974-1976, baseline studies were carried out on the flora and macroinvertebrate fauna of the R. Kennet at two sites downstream of Marlborough (Savernake Upper and Lower) and at one site upstream of Hungerford (Littlecote). Simplified maps of each site, showing the cover of macrophytes, were obtained monthly between April 1974 and April/June 1976, and replicated quantitative samples of the macroinvertebrates were collected on the dominant macrophyte and on gravel in June 1974, and also in June and December 1975. As a consequence of two major droughts and increasing concern over water quality in the Upper Kennet in the 1990s, the studies recommenced in the summer of 1997 using the same sites and methodologies. Maps and macroinvertebrate samples were obtained in early July and December 1997 and in June of both 1998 and 1999. At the Savernake sites, mapping in summer 1997 confirmed what had been apparent for some years. That is, macrophyte cover (both Ranunculus and Schoenoplectus) was much lower than in the 1970s. In contrast, the site downstream at Littlecote retained a relatively high cover of Ranunculus, despite the drought. In late autumn 1997, phosphate stripping commenced at Marlborough Sewage Treatment Works, the drought ended and in addition, the spring of 1998 was unusually wet. Ranunculus recolonised both Savernake sites with remarkable speed by summer 1998 and retained this dominant position in 1999. Quantitative samples of macroinvertebrates collected on gravel and the dominant macrophyte at each of the three study sites indicated that there was no evidence of major loss of family richness between the 1970s and 1990s as a result of the low flows or enrichment. However, at Savernake (but not Littlecote) in summer 1997, the macroinvertebrate assemblage was affected by low flows and/or enrichment. This took the form of changes in the abundance of some families, with lentic forms being favoured in relation to some lotic families. Following the end of the

  6. Field Feeding System to Support USMC Forces in the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    Swedish Meatballs Ham Slices Beef Pot Roast/Gravy Franks/Brine Chili Con Carne Roast Beef/Gravy Spaghetti/ Meatballs Canadian Bacon/Brinea Stuffed...Peppers Roast Chicken/Gravy Pork/BBQ Sauce Entrees Creamed Ground Beefa Beef Swiss Steak/Gravy Pork Sausage Linksa Scrambled Eggs /Hama Turkey...83. At the time of the analysis there were no commercially available Tray Pack breakfast items. Due to their nature, breakfast entrees (i.e., eggs

  7. Information Systems and Software Engineering Research and Education in Oulu until the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oinas-Kukkonen, Henry; Kerola, Pentti; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Similä, Jouni; Pulli, Petri

    This paper discusses the internationalization of software business in the Oulu region. Despite its small size, the region grew rapidly and very successfully into a global information and communication technology business center. The University of Oulu, which was the northern most university in the world at the time of its establishment (1958) had a strong emphasis on engineering since its very beginning. Research on electronics was carried out since the early 1960s. Later, when the Department of Information Processing Science was founded in 1969, research on information systems and later also on software engineering was carried out. This paper discusses the role of the information systems and software engineering research for the business growth of the region. Special emphasis is put on understanding the role of system-theoretical and software development expertise for transferring research knowledge into practice.

  8. The changing nature of spacecraft operations: From the Vikings of the 1970's to the great observatories of the 1990's and beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledbetter, Kenneth W.

    1992-01-01

    Four trends in spacecraft flight operations are discussed which will reduce overall program costs. These trends are the use of high-speed, highly reliable data communications systems for distributing operations functions to more convenient and cost-effective sites; the improved capability for remote operation of sensors; a continued rapid increase in memory and processing speed of flight qualified computer chips; and increasingly capable ground-based hardware and software systems, notably those augmented by artificial intelligence functions. Changes reflected by these trends are reviewed starting from the NASA Viking missions of the early 70s, when mission control was conducted at one location using expensive and cumbersome mainframe computers and communications equipment. In the 1980s, powerful desktop computers and modems enabled the Magellan project team to operate the spacecraft remotely. In the 1990s, the Hubble Space Telescope project uses multiple color screens and automated sequencing software on small computers. Given a projection of current capabilities, future control centers will be even more cost-effective.

  9. Changing Neurodevelopment at 8 Years in Children Born Extremely Preterm Since the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Anderson, Peter J; Burnett, Alice C; Roberts, Gehan; Davis, Noni; Hickey, Leah; Carse, Elizabeth; Doyle, Lex W

    2017-06-01

    Survival of extremely preterm (EP; <28 weeks' gestation) infants has increased over the last 2 decades. Equivalent reductions in developmental morbidity in early childhood have not been consistently reported. The aim of this study was to determine trends in neurodevelopmental outcomes at 8 years of age of children born EP (22-27 completed weeks' gestation) over the past 2 decades. Population-based cohorts of all EP survivors born in the state of Victoria, Australia in 1991-1992, 1997, and 2005 were recruited at birth. At 8 years of age, general intelligence (IQ), academic achievement, and neurosensory status were assessed. Major neurosensory disability was defined as any of moderate or severe cerebral palsy, IQ <-2 SD relative to term controls, blindness, or deafness. Rates of major neurosensory disability were similar in all eras (1991-1992, 18%; 1997, 15%; 2005, 18%), as were rates of IQ <-2 SD, cerebral palsy, blindness, and deafness. Mean z scores for IQ were similar across eras, but there was some evidence that scores for academic achievement were lower in 2005 than in 1997, and the odds of having academic problems were higher in 2005 than in both earlier eras. These outcomes were not explained by differences in known perinatal care or sociodemographic variables between eras. Contrary to expectations, rates of major neurosensory disability have not improved, and academic performance is poorer at early school age in 2005 than in earlier eras for EP children born in the state of Victoria, Australia. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Emerging Cardiac Imaging Modalities for the Early Detection of Cardiotoxicity Due to Anticancer Therapies.

    PubMed

    López-Fernández, Teresa; Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh

    2017-06-01

    The undeniable advances in the field of oncology have finally led to a decrease in overall cancer-related mortality. However, this population of long-term cancer survivors is now facing a shift toward a substantial increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Because the development of overt cardiotoxicity can be associated with poor outcomes, preclinical identification of cardiac toxicity is important. This will promote early instauration of treatments to prevent overt heart dysfunction and allow oncologists to continue cancer therapy in an uninterrupted manner. Surveillance strategies for the early detection of cardiac injury include cardiac imaging and biomarkers during treatment. In this review, we outline existing cardiac imaging modalities to detect myocardial changes in patients undergoing cancer treatment and in survivors, and their strengths and limitations. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Biopharmaceutical Innovation System in China: System Evolution and Policy Transitions (Pre-1990s-2010s)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hao; Chung, Chao-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: This article sets up the initial discussion of the evolution of biopharmaceutical innovation in China through the perspective of sectoral innovation system (SIS). Methods: Two data sources including archival documentary data and field interviews were used in this study. Archival documentary data was collected from China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). In addition, industrial practitioners and leading researchers in academia were interviewed. Results: Biopharmaceutical in China was established through international knowledge transfer. The firms played more active role in commercializing biopharmaceutical in China though universities and research institutes were starting to interact with local firms and make contribution to biopharmaceutical industrialization. The transition of the Chinese government’s policies continuously shapes the evolution of biopharmaceutical sector. Policies have been dramatic changes before and after 1980s to encourage developing biopharmaceutical as a competitive industry for China. Conclusion: A SIS for biopharmaceutical has been shaped in China. However, currently biopharmaceutical is still a small sector in China, and for the further growth of the industry more synthetic policies should be implemented. Not only the policy supports towards the research and innovation of biopharmaceuticals in the early stage of development should be attended, but also commercialization of biopharmaceutical products in the later stage of sales. PMID:26673466

  12. Biopharmaceutical Innovation System in China: System Evolution and Policy Transitions (Pre-1990s-2010s).

    PubMed

    Hu, Hao; Chung, Chao-Chen

    2015-09-03

    This article sets up the initial discussion of the evolution of biopharmaceutical innovation in China through the perspective of sectoral innovation system (SIS). Two data sources including archival documentary data and field interviews were used in this study. Archival documentary data was collected from China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). In addition, industrial practitioners and leading researchers in academia were interviewed. Biopharmaceutical in China was established through international knowledge transfer. The firms played more active role in commercializing biopharmaceutical in China though universities and research institutes were starting to interact with local firms and make contribution to biopharmaceutical industrialization. The transition of the Chinese government's policies continuously shapes the evolution of biopharmaceutical sector. Policies have been dramatic changes before and after 1980s to encourage developing biopharmaceutical as a competitive industry for China. A SIS for biopharmaceutical has been shaped in China. However, currently biopharmaceutical is still a small sector in China, and for the further growth of the industry more synthetic policies should be implemented. Not only the policy supports towards the research and innovation of biopharmaceuticals in the early stage of development should be attended, but also commercialization of biopharmaceutical products in the later stage of sales. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  13. Educational inequalities in young-adult mortality between the 1990s and the 2000s: regional differences in Belgium.

    PubMed

    De Grande, Hannelore; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Deboosere, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses educational inequalities in young-adult mortality between the 1990s and the 2000s by comparing trends in the three different regions in Belgium stratified by sex. Social inequalities in mortality are of major concern to public health but are rarely studied at young ages. Substantial health differences have been found between the Flemish (FR) and Walloon region (WR) concerning (healthy) life expectancy and avoidable mortality, but little is known about regional differentials in young-adult mortality, and comparisons with the Brussels-Capital Region (BCR) have thus far never been made. Data are derived from record linkage between the Belgian censuses of 1991 and 2001 and register data on death and emigration for the periods 01/03/1991-01/03/1999 and 01/10/2001-01/10/2009. Analyses are restricted to young adults aged 25 to 34 years at the moment of each of the censuses. Absolute (directly standardized mortality rates (ASMRs)) and relative (mortality rate ratio using Poisson regression) measures were calculated. There is a significant drop in young-adult mortality between the 1990s and the 2000s in all regions and both sexes, with the strongest decline in the BCR (e.g. ASMR of men declined from 165.6 [151.1-180.1] per 100,000 person years to 73.8 [88.3-98.3]). The mortality rates remain highest in the WR in the 2000s Between the 1990s and the 2000s, a remarkable change in the educational distribution occurred as well, with much lower proportions of primary educated in all regions in the 2000s in favour of higher proportions in all other educational levels, especially in higher education. All educational groups show lower mortality over time, except for lower educated men in the FR. There is a positive evolution towards lower mortality among the young-adult Belgian population. The WR trails behind in this evolution, which calls for tailored preventive actions. Educational inequalities are marked in all regions and time periods. A more general

  14. Photoluminescence due to early stage of oxygen precipitation in multicrystalline Si for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Fumito; Tajima, Michio; Ogura, Atsushi

    2017-07-01

    To analyze the early stage of oxygen precipitation in n-type multicrytalline Si, the spectral change of photoluminescence (PL) induced by thermal treatment at 450-650 °C was investigated in relation to the changes in excess donor and interstitial oxygen concentrations. We observed the characteristic PL bands in the near-band-edge region and sharp lines in the deep-level region in correspondence with the generation of thermal donors and new donors. The observed PL spectral variation is essentially the same as that in Czochralski-grown Si annealed at 450-650 °C.

  15. CEO expectation: the Star Wars materiel manager of the 1990s, or C-3PO as role model.

    PubMed

    Zenty, T F; Olson, M R

    1993-05-01

    Materiel-intensive expenditures account for a significant portion of all hospital costs, second only to salaries and wages, yet materiel managers may often be overlooked as key members of the management team. This is alarming since the potential exists for materiel managers to impact annual savings of hundreds of thousands of dollars by operating efficient departments. Materiel managers have a tremendous opportunity to enhance their image and improve hospital productivity in the coming decade. The challenges of the 1990s will stretch materiel managers' skills toward enhancing their professionalism and achieving the expectations of themselves and top management. If materiel managers will effectively utilize (C3)PO they will increase their educational levels, continue to learn new skills, maintain a customer-oriented management style, exercise creativity, develop and adhere to standards, and be proactive in their responsibilities. The benefits of their success will be felt by patients, hospitals, the industry, and materiel managers everywhere.

  16. Stereotypes of the elderly in U.S. television commercials from the 1950s to the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Miller, Darryl W; Leyell, Teresita S; Mazachek, Juliann

    2004-01-01

    Critics have charged that American advertisers have often portrayed the elderly with negative stereotypes. These negative portrayals, they suggest, not only offend elderly consumers but also contribute to ageism. This study examined whether American advertisers have indeed used a great deal of negative stereotyping of the elderly, as the critics have suggested. Employing a concept of stereotypes found in cognitive psychology, the authors examined trends in the portrayal of the elderly in television commercials produced in the United States from the 1950s through the 1990s. Results of the study do not support the contentions of the critics. Very little negative stereotyping was discovered. Analysis indicated trends in the appearance of several positive stereotypes, and differences in the stereotyping of gender groups and age segments within the elderly group. Results are interpreted from both marketing and social science perspectives.

  17. The “Cuban Epidemic Neuropathy” of the 1990s: A glimpse from inside a totalitarian disease

    PubMed Central

    Coutin-Churchman, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    During the 1990s, Cuba was struck by a rare epidemic disease. Up to 50,000 people were affected by a pathology compromising primarily the optic nerve but also peripheral nerves and even spinal cord. This is a testimony from a direct witness and participant in the initial study of the epidemics showing that in spite of claims of a “multifactorial” etiology, still in the literature, the root cause of this disease is just result of the deliberate deprivation of the most elementary economic rights by extreme Government control over a population left unable to tend to its elementary survival by itself, in spite of a thorough Government-sponsored, universally celebrated Universal Healthcare System. PMID:25024884

  18. About the variations on lightning activity in Brazil from 1960s to 1990s based on thunderstorm days: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, O.; Pinto, I. R.

    2009-12-01

    Thunder day frequencies (TD) have been collected throughout the world in a systematic way since the beginning of the twenty century, producing the longest lightning-related data set available to investigate possible climatic changes in the global, tropical or, even, regional lightning activity. Such changes may be related to natural climate variations associated with many different large scale phenomena and/or to anthropogenic warming variations. The role of each component may be different at different spatial scales. In Brazil TD data have been recorded in many stations throughout the country. In this report, TD data from 1960s to 1990s in different stations in Brazil are analyzed looking for variations related to volcanic eruptions, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), tropical Atlantic sea-surface temperature (SST) anomaly, Pacific Decadal Oscillation (POD), solar irradiance and urban effects. The preliminary results are discussed in the context of their implications for future climatic changes in the lightning activity.

  19. ERS-1 - Our new window on the oceans for the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.

    1986-05-01

    ESA's First Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) due for launch in 1989 will monitor a carefully selected set of geophysical parameters in an effort to describe the state of the sea-surface. The payload instruments of ERS-1, how they make their measurements, and how the data will be dealt with, are described and discussed. The payload consists of three microwave radars: (1) a wind and wave scatterometer, (2) a synthetic aperture radar, and (3) a radar altimeter. These instruments are complemented by an Along Track Scanning Radiometer and a Precise Range and Range-Rate Experiment. The concept of fast delivery data products is an essential element of the ERS-1 system, meaning that the processed ERS-1 data will be distributed to designated points of contact within three hours of being obtained by the spacecraft. It is concluded that these measurements will lead to a better scientific understanding of ocean-atmosphere interactions; moreover, they will pave the way to the application of such data products to a large range of commercial activities.

  20. Sensitizing events as trigger for discursive renewal and institutional change in Flanders’ environmental health approach, 1970s-1990s

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sensitizing events may trigger and stimulate discursive renewal. From a discursive institutional perspective, changing discourses are the driving force behind the institutional dynamics of policy domains. Theoretically informed by discursive institutionalism, this article assesses the impact of a series of four sensitizing events that triggered serious environmental health concerns in Flanders between the 1970s till the 1990s, and led onto the gradual institutionalization of a Flemish environmental health arrangement. Methods The Policy Arrangement Approach is used as the analytical framework to structure the empirical results of the historical analysis based on document analysis and in-depth interviews. Results Until the 1990s, environmental health was characterized as an ad hoc policy field in Flanders, where agenda setting was based on sensitizing events – also referred to as incident-driven. Each of these events contributed to a gradual rethinking of the epistemological discourses about environmental health risks and uncertainties. These new discourses were the driving forces behind institutional dynamics as they gradually resulted in an increased need for: 1) long-term, policy-oriented, interdisciplinary environmental health research; 2) policy coordination and integration between the environmental and public health policy fields; and 3) new forms of science-policy interactions based on mutual learning. These changes are desirable in order to detect environmental health problems as fast as possible, to react immediately and communicate appropriately. Conclusions The series of four events that triggered serious environmental health concerns in Flanders provided the opportunity to rethink and re-organize the current affairs concerning environmental health and gradually resulted into the institutionalization of a Flemish environmental health arrangement. PMID:23758822

  1. Perturbations in growth trajectory due to early diet affect age-related deterioration in performance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Who-Seung; Monaghan, Pat; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2016-04-01

    Fluctuations in early developmental conditions can cause changes in growth trajectories that subsequently affect the adult phenotype. Here, we investigated whether compensatory growth has long-term consequences for patterns of senescence.Using three-spined sticklebacks ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ), we show that a brief period of dietary manipulation in early life affected skeletal growth rate not only during the manipulation itself, but also during a subsequent compensatory phase when fish caught up in size with controls.However, this growth acceleration influenced swimming endurance and its decline over the course of the breeding season, with a faster decline in fish that had undergone faster growth compensation.Similarly, accelerated growth led to a more pronounced reduction in the breeding period (as indicated by the duration of sexual ornamentation) over the following two breeding seasons, suggesting faster reproductive senescence. Parallel experiments showed a heightened effect of accelerated growth on these age-related declines in performance if the fish were under greater time stress to complete their compensation prior to the breeding season.Compensatory growth led to a reduction in median life span of 12% compared to steadily growing controls. While life span was independent of the eventual adult size attained, it was negatively correlated with the age-related decline in swimming endurance and sexual ornamentation.These results, complementary to those found when growth trajectories were altered by temperature rather than dietary manipulations, show that the costs of accelerated growth can last well beyond the time over which growth rates differ and are affected by the time available until an approaching life-history event such as reproduction.

  2. Short Stature, Accelerated Bone Maturation, and Early Growth Cessation Due to Heterozygous Aggrecan Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Ola; Guo, Michael H.; Dunbar, Nancy; Popovic, Jadranka; Flynn, Daniel; Jacobsen, Christina; Lui, Julian C.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Baron, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Context: Many children with idiopathic short stature have a delayed bone age. Idiopathic short stature with advanced bone age is far less common. Objective: The aim was to identify underlying genetic causes of short stature with advanced bone age. Setting and Design: We used whole-exome sequencing to study three families with autosomal-dominant short stature, advanced bone age, and premature growth cessation. Results: Affected individuals presented with short stature [adult heights −2.3 to −4.2 standard deviation scores (SDS)] with histories of early growth cessation or childhood short stature (height SDS −1.9 to −3.5 SDS), advancement of bone age, and normal endocrine evaluations. Whole-exome sequencing identified novel heterozygous variants in ACAN, which encodes aggrecan, a proteoglycan in the extracellular matrix of growth plate and other cartilaginous tissues. The variants were present in all affected, but in no unaffected, family members. In Family 1, a novel frameshift mutation in exon 3 (c.272delA) was identified, which is predicted to cause early truncation of the aggrecan protein. In Family 2, a base-pair substitution was found in a highly conserved location within a splice donor site (c.2026+1G>A), which is also likely to alter the amino acid sequence of a large portion of the protein. In Family 3, a missense variant (c.7064T>C) in exon 14 affects a highly conserved residue (L2355P) and is strongly predicted to perturb protein function. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that heterozygous mutations in ACAN can cause a mild skeletal dysplasia, which presents clinically as short stature with advanced bone age. The accelerating effect on skeletal maturation has not previously been noted in the few prior reports of human ACAN mutations. Our findings thus expand the spectrum of ACAN defects and provide a new molecular genetic etiology for the unusual child who presents with short stature and accelerated skeletal maturation. PMID:24762113

  3. The role of the chief information officer in the health care organization in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Glaser, J P

    1993-02-01

    During the next decade, the role of the CIO will change in two major areas: 1. The relative importance of the CIO as the person who translates business and clinical needs into information technology ideas will diminish. Although this portion of the CIO role will not disappear, this role will be increasingly filled by senior management, clinicians, and other members of the hospital staff. 2. The CIO role will need to shift from an emphasis on managing implementations and projects to developing and advancing the infrastructure. CIOs need to distinguish between the expression of the asset (the application portfolio) and the information technology infrastructure (the remaining four components of the asset). While being pressured to deliver more applications, they can fail to invest in and manage the infrastructure. This is a mistake. By neglecting management of and investment in the infrastructure (e.g., staff training and data quality) or by failing to take advantage of new technologies, they can hinder the ability of an organization to deliver superior applications. Poor data quality will cripple an executive information system and a too-permissive stance toward hardware and operating system heterogeneity will hinder the ability to deliver a computerized patient record. Although some management of the infrastructure is in place, in general it is insufficient. Few organizations have both a distinct data management function and a technical architecture plan, and also develop and enforce key technical, data, and development standards. This insufficiency will hinder their ability to effectively and efficiently apply their information technology infrastructure. The role of the CIO will evolve due to several powerful forces.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Successful early management of a female patient with a metabolic stroke due to ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tummolo, Albina; Favia, Vito; Bellantuono, Rosa; Bellino, Vito; Ranieri, Antonio; Morrone, Amelia; De Palo, Tommaso; Papadia, Francesco

    2013-05-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTC-D) is a urea cycle disorder caused by dysfunction of ornithine transcarbamylase, which frequently leads to hyperammonemia. Hyperammonemia represents a medical emergency requiring prompt treatment to reduce plasma ammonia levels and prevent severe neurological damage, coma, and death, particularly in patients with acute decompensation-related coma. The clinical symptoms of OTC-D can manifest themselves either at an early stage, which is often associated with severe symptoms, or in later life (late-onset OTC-D), when symptoms may be less severe. There is currently little agreement over diagnostic signs of the condition or the most appropriate therapeutic approach. Hyperammonemia is usually treated with ammonia scavengers, continuous venovenous hemodialysis, and dietary changes. N-carbamylglutamate is approved for the treatment of hyperammonemia in N-acetylglutamate synthetase deficiency and may have efficacy in other urea cycle disorders. Here, we report a 13-year-old girl who was diagnosed with OTC-D at the age of 3 years. On this occasion, the patient presented with vomiting, lethargy, and mental confusion. Despite biochemical parameters being within normal ranges, she was comatose within a few hours. She was promptly treated with a combined therapy of continuous venovenous hemodialysis and N-carbamylglutamate, resulting in a gradual normalization of clinical symptoms within 30 hours. No neurological damage was apparent at 18 months after treatment. This case demonstrates that clinical benefits can be obtained by beginning aggressive treatment of OTC-D within a few hours of the onset of severe neurological symptoms even in the absence of altered biochemical markers.

  5. The response to growth hormone treatment in prepubertal children with growth hormone deficiency in Japan: Comparing three consecutive years of treatment data of The Foundation for Growth Science in Japan between the 1990s and 2000s.

    PubMed

    Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    2017-09-30

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment for children with GH deficiency (GHD) is effective in improving adult height. To achieve favorable effects, GH treatment before puberty is very important, because prepubertal height gain is highly correlated with total height gain. However, no report has studied the effects by analyzing a nationwide data from recent GHD patients in Japan. We investigated the response to GH treatment using data compiled in the Foundation for Growth Science in Japan, and compared the effects between the 1990s and 2000s using analysis of covariance. We analyzed 534 prepubertal GHD subjects treated in the 2000s with three consecutive years of data from the start and investigated predictive factors for the effects. The cumulative height standard deviation score (SDS) change over three years of GH treatment was 0.91 ± 0.57 and 1.20 ± 0.62 in the 1990s and 2000s, respectively. Subjects in the 2000s were divided into three groups by severity, and the cumulative height SDS was 1.60 ± 0.93, 1.20 ± 0.54, and 1.00 ± 0.40 indicating severe, moderate, and mild GHD, respectively. Age and height SDS at the start and severity were identified as independent predictive factors. We also found a significant difference in the effects between the two cohorts after adjusting for the different factors (regression coefficient: -0.069, 95% confidence interval: -0.11 to -0.030, p = 0.0006), which might be due to the GH dose effect. We conclude that the effects of GH treatment in the 2000s had improved compared with those in the 1990s.

  6. Decadal trends of the upper ocean salinity in the tropical Indo-Pacific since mid-1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DU, Y.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-02-01

    A contrasting trend pattern of sea surface salinity (SSS) between the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) is observed during 2004-2013, with significant salinity increase in the WTP and freshening in the SETIO. In this study, we show that increased precipitation around the Maritime Continent (MC), decreased precipitation in the western-central tropical Pacific, and ocean advection processes contribute to the salinity trends in the region. From a longer historical record, these salinity trends started in the mid-1990s, a few years before the Global Warming Hiatus from 1998 to present. The salinity trends are associated a strengthening trend of the Walker Circulation over the tropical Indo-Pacific, which have reversed the long-term salinity changes in the tropical Indo-Pacific as a consequence of global warming. Understanding decadal variations of SSS in the tropical Indo-Pacific will better inform on how the tropical hydrological cycle will be affected by the natural variability and a warming climate.

  7. Decadal trends of the upper ocean salinity in the tropical Indo-Pacific since mid-1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yan; Zhang, Yuhong; Feng, Ming; Wang, Tianyu; Zhang, Ningning; Wijffels, Susan

    2015-11-01

    A contrasting trend pattern of sea surface salinity (SSS) between the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) is observed during 2004-2013, with significant salinity increase in the WTP and freshening in the SETIO. In this study, we show that increased precipitation around the Maritime Continent (MC), decreased precipitation in the western-central tropical Pacific, and ocean advection processes contribute to the salinity trends in the region. From a longer historical record, these salinity trends started in the mid-1990s, a few years before the Global Warming Hiatus from 1998 to present. The salinity trends are associated a strengthening trend of the Walker Circulation over the tropical Indo-Pacific, which have reversed the long-term salinity changes in the tropical Indo-Pacific as a consequence of global warming. Understanding decadal variations of SSS in the tropical Indo-Pacific will better inform on how the tropical hydrological cycle will be affected by the natural variability and a warming climate.

  8. Tropical forests were the primary sources of new agricultural land in the 1980s and 1990s.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, H K; Ruesch, A S; Achard, F; Clayton, M K; Holmgren, P; Ramankutty, N; Foley, J A

    2010-09-21

    Global demand for agricultural products such as food, feed, and fuel is now a major driver of cropland and pasture expansion across much of the developing world. Whether these new agricultural lands replace forests, degraded forests, or grasslands greatly influences the environmental consequences of expansion. Although the general pattern is known, there still is no definitive quantification of these land-cover changes. Here we analyze the rich, pan-tropical database of classified Landsat scenes created by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations to examine pathways of agricultural expansion across the major tropical forest regions in the 1980s and 1990s and use this information to highlight the future land conversions that probably will be needed to meet mounting demand for agricultural products. Across the tropics, we find that between 1980 and 2000 more than 55% of new agricultural land came at the expense of intact forests, and another 28% came from disturbed forests. This study underscores the potential consequences of unabated agricultural expansion for forest conservation and carbon emissions.

  9. Decadal trends of the upper ocean salinity in the tropical Indo-Pacific since mid-1990s

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yan; Zhang, Yuhong; Feng, Ming; Wang, Tianyu; Zhang, Ningning; Wijffels, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A contrasting trend pattern of sea surface salinity (SSS) between the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) is observed during 2004–2013, with significant salinity increase in the WTP and freshening in the SETIO. In this study, we show that increased precipitation around the Maritime Continent (MC), decreased precipitation in the western-central tropical Pacific, and ocean advection processes contribute to the salinity trends in the region. From a longer historical record, these salinity trends started in the mid-1990s, a few years before the Global Warming Hiatus from 1998 to present. The salinity trends are associated a strengthening trend of the Walker Circulation over the tropical Indo-Pacific, which have reversed the long-term salinity changes in the tropical Indo-Pacific as a consequence of global warming. Understanding decadal variations of SSS in the tropical Indo-Pacific will better inform on how the tropical hydrological cycle will be affected by the natural variability and a warming climate. PMID:26522168

  10. Decadal trends of the upper ocean salinity in the tropical Indo-Pacific since mid-1990s.

    PubMed

    Du, Yan; Zhang, Yuhong; Feng, Ming; Wang, Tianyu; Zhang, Ningning; Wijffels, Susan

    2015-11-02

    A contrasting trend pattern of sea surface salinity (SSS) between the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) is observed during 2004-2013, with significant salinity increase in the WTP and freshening in the SETIO. In this study, we show that increased precipitation around the Maritime Continent (MC), decreased precipitation in the western-central tropical Pacific, and ocean advection processes contribute to the salinity trends in the region. From a longer historical record, these salinity trends started in the mid-1990s, a few years before the Global Warming Hiatus from 1998 to present. The salinity trends are associated a strengthening trend of the Walker Circulation over the tropical Indo-Pacific, which have reversed the long-term salinity changes in the tropical Indo-Pacific as a consequence of global warming. Understanding decadal variations of SSS in the tropical Indo-Pacific will better inform on how the tropical hydrological cycle will be affected by the natural variability and a warming climate.

  11. Nursing Home Spending Patterns in the 1990s: The Role of Nursing Home Competition and Excess Demand

    PubMed Central

    Mukamel, Dana B; Spector, William D; Bajorska, Alina

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine nursing home expenditures on clinical, hotel, and administrative activities during the 1990s and to determine the association between nursing home competition and excess demand on expenditures. Data Sources/Study Setting Secondary data sources for 1991, 1996, and 1999 for 500 free-standing nursing homes in New York State. Study Design A retrospective statistical analysis of nursing homes' expenditures. The dependent variables were clinical, hotel, and administrative costs in each year. Independent variables included outputs (inpatient and outpatient), wages, ownership, New York City location, and measures of competition and excess demand. Data Collection/Extraction Method Variables were constructed from annual financial reports submitted by the nursing homes, the Patient Review Instrument and Medicare enrollment data. Principal Findings Clinical and administrative costs have increased over the decade, while hotel expenditures have declined. Increased competition was associated with higher clinical and administrative costs while excess demand was associated with lower clinical and hotel expenditures. Conclusions Nursing home expenditures are sensitive to competition and excess demand conditions. Policies that influence competition in nursing home markets are therefore likely to have an impact on expenditures as well. PMID:16033491

  12. Technical Report: The Development and Experience with UAV Research Applications in Former Czechoslovakia (1960s-1990s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolejka, Jaromír; Plánka, Ladislav

    2018-02-01

    The use of unmanned aerial vehicles in a number of fields of human activity represents the second wave of interest in the development and application of automated flying remotely controlled machines to collect aerial data. The former Czechoslovakia was one of the world's leading countries in the 1960s-1990s in terms of an unprecedented boom of development and applications of flying machines for imaging the Earth's surface. The reasons for their use were the same as today. Since the mid-1960s, radio-controlled (RC) models of aircraft carrying various types of photographic cameras have been developed. In spite of many administrative constraints, kite helicopters, fixed-wing aircrafts, and rogallo-wing aircrafts gradually began to be used in research. The photographic cameras for 1, 2, 4, and 6 bands carried by RC-aircraft models were developed in cooperation with leading Czech companies. These cameras used colour and black-and-white films, positive and negative films, and panchromatic, spectrozonal, and multispectral films. The general methodology and the RC-aircraft model application rules were both developed. The dominant processing method was the visual image interpretation, with and without the assistance of instruments. Optical and digital image mixers were used in Czechoslovakia, so it was possible to use natural and unnatural colour composites to highlight the studied phenomenon. A number of examples of the techniques and the scientific applications are presented in the article.

  13. Atmospheric methane isotopic record favors fossil sources flat in 1980s and 1990s with recent increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Andrew L.; Butenhoff, Christopher L.; Teama, Doaa G.; Röger, Florian H.; Khalil, M. Aslam K.; Rasmussen, Reinhold A.

    2016-09-01

    Observations of atmospheric methane (CH4) since the late 1970s and measurements of CH4 trapped in ice and snow reveal a meteoric rise in concentration during much of the twentieth century. Since 1750, levels of atmospheric CH4 have more than doubled to current globally averaged concentration near 1,800 ppb. During the late 1980s and 1990s, the CH4 growth rate slowed substantially and was near or at zero between 1999 and 2006. There is no scientific consensus on the drivers of this slowdown. Here, we report measurements of the stable isotopic composition of atmospheric CH4 (13C/12C and D/H) from a rare air archive dating from 1977 to 1998. Together with more modern records of isotopic atmospheric CH4, we performed a time-dependent retrieval of methane fluxes spanning 25 y (1984-2009) using a 3D chemical transport model. This inversion results in a 24 [18, 27] Tg y-1 CH4 increase in fugitive fossil fuel emissions since 1984 with most of this growth occurring after year 2000. This result is consistent with some bottom-up emissions inventories but not with recent estimates based on atmospheric ethane. In fact, when forced with decreasing emissions from fossil fuel sources our inversion estimates unreasonably high emissions in other sources. Further, the inversion estimates a decrease in biomass-burning emissions that could explain falling ethane abundance. A range of sensitivity tests suggests that these results are robust.

  14. Atmospheric methane isotopic record favors fossil sources flat in 1980s and 1990s with recent increase.

    PubMed

    Rice, Andrew L; Butenhoff, Christopher L; Teama, Doaa G; Röger, Florian H; Khalil, M Aslam K; Rasmussen, Reinhold A

    2016-09-27

    Observations of atmospheric methane (CH4) since the late 1970s and measurements of CH4 trapped in ice and snow reveal a meteoric rise in concentration during much of the twentieth century. Since 1750, levels of atmospheric CH4 have more than doubled to current globally averaged concentration near 1,800 ppb. During the late 1980s and 1990s, the CH4 growth rate slowed substantially and was near or at zero between 1999 and 2006. There is no scientific consensus on the drivers of this slowdown. Here, we report measurements of the stable isotopic composition of atmospheric CH4 ((13)C/(12)C and D/H) from a rare air archive dating from 1977 to 1998. Together with more modern records of isotopic atmospheric CH4, we performed a time-dependent retrieval of methane fluxes spanning 25 y (1984-2009) using a 3D chemical transport model. This inversion results in a 24 [18, 27] Tg y(-1) CH4 increase in fugitive fossil fuel emissions since 1984 with most of this growth occurring after year 2000. This result is consistent with some bottom-up emissions inventories but not with recent estimates based on atmospheric ethane. In fact, when forced with decreasing emissions from fossil fuel sources our inversion estimates unreasonably high emissions in other sources. Further, the inversion estimates a decrease in biomass-burning emissions that could explain falling ethane abundance. A range of sensitivity tests suggests that these results are robust.

  15. Health-related effects of early part-time sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shiri, Rahman; Kausto, Johanna; Martimo, Kari-Pekka; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2013-01-01

    Previously we reported that early part-time sick leave enhances return to work (RTW) among employees with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). This paper assesses the health-related effects of this intervention. Patients aged 18-60 years who were unable to perform their regular work due to MSD were randomized to part- or full-time sick leave groups. In the former, workload was reduced by halving working time. Using validated questionnaires, we assessed pain intensity and interference with work and sleep, region-specific disability due to MSD, self-rated general health, health-related quality of life (measured via EuroQol), productivity loss, depression, and sleep disturbance at baseline, 1, 3, 8, 12, and 52 weeks. We analyzed the repeated measures data (171-356 observations) with the generalized estimating equation approach. The intervention (part-time sick leave) and control (full-time sick leave) groups did not differ with regard to pain intensity, pain interference with work and sleep, region-specific disability, productivity loss, depression, or sleep disturbance. The intervention group reported better self-rated general health (adjusted P=0.07) and health-related quality of life (adjusted P=0.02) than the control group. In subgroup analyses, the intervention was more effective among the patients whose current problem began occurring <6 weeks before baseline and those with ≤30% productivity loss at baseline. Our findings showed that part-time sick leave did not exacerbate pain-related symptoms and functional disability, but improved self-rated general health and health-related quality of life in the early stage of work disability due to MSD.

  16. Higher Education into the 1990s: New Dimensions. To Commemorate the Jubilee of the Society for Research into Higher Education, 1964-1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Christopher, Ed.; Eggins, Heather, Ed.

    This collection of essays aims to contribute to the understanding of the present predicament and future potential of higher education in the United Kingdom. It considers the new dimensions being introduced into higher education which are likely to have marked effects in the 1990s. It explores the tensions between the past and future, tradition and…

  17. Years of Challenge: The Impact of Demographic and Work Force Trends on Higher Education in the 1990s. A NACUBO Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, K. Scott; And Others

    This report describes national demographic and work force trends that have important implications for institutions and presents recommended management strategies for the 1990s. Among the trends predicted for the next 10 years are the following: (1) a continuing reduction in the traditional 18-24 year-old college-going population; (2) the…

  18. ARL: Setting the Agenda for the 1990s. Minutes of the [Membership] Meeting (112th, Oakland, California, May 5-6, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daval, Nicola, Ed.

    The first of two program sessions at this semiannual meeting addressed the agenda of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) for the 1990s, and the report provides summaries of remarks by Elaine Sloan on the background; D. Kaye Gapen on a report from the Task Force on Review of the ARL Five-Year Plan; and Duane E. Webster on the ARL framework…

  19. A Descriptive Analysis of Race/Ethnicity and Sex of Individuals Appearing on the Covers of "Sports Illustrated" in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the number of individuals pictured on the covers of Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was reflective of their levels of participation by sport, race/ethnicity, and sex. These descriptors of the individuals pictured on each cover between 1990 and 1999 were identified and analyzed. African Americans…

  20. Educating for Location? The Policy Context of "Becoming Asia-Literate" in Five Western Countries/Regions in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, David

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the educational policy responses by five western countries/regions to the "Asian economic miracle" in the 1990s. It begins by stating that the idea of the global economic context has assumed considerable importance in the current educational thinking and debates. It then shows that Asia has been thematized in the…

  1. The Effect of Local Labor Market Conditions in the 1990s on the Likelihood of Community College Students' Persistence and Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kienzl, Gregory S.; Alfonso, Mariana; Melguizo, Tatiana

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes the influence of local labor market conditions on the year-to-year persistence and attainment decisions of a sample of traditional-aged students who attended community colleges during the 1990s. The findings suggest that the enrollment and attainment decisions of these first-time community college students were not made purely…

  2. The Rhetoric of a Reform: The Construction of "Public", "Management" and the "New" in Norwegian Education Reforms of the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trippestad, Tom Are

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a critical rhetorical analysis of the governing and reform ideology of the Norwegian school system of the 1990s. It uses Karl Popper's "The Open Society and its Enemies" as a critical resource in the reading of the reforms, and discusses some of the consequences of the regime's models of leadership and public…

  3. Collective Bargaining in Higher Education: The 1990's. Proceedings of the Annual Conference (18th, New York, New York, April 23-24, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Joel M., Ed.

    This report of proceedings provides transcripts of 14 speeches concerning collective bargaining in higher education. Conference themes were: unionized employment relations; and the economic, political, and legal issues of the 1990s that are viewed as being influential in the collective bargaining process. The speeches are as follows: "Union…

  4. What Have Peace Education Commission Papers Dealt with in the 1990s? Comments on a Guide to Five Conference Reports. Reprints and Miniprints, No. 857.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerstedt, Ake

    Five international conferences were held during the 1990s by the Peace Education Commission, a semi-independent subgroup of the International Peace Research Association. The conferences were held in Groningen (The Netherlands), Firenze (Italy), Kyoto (Japan), Budapest (Hungary), and Valletta (Malta). This document is a brief commentary on the…

  5. Children and Development in the 1990s: A UNICEF Sourcebook on the Occasion of the World Summit for Children (New York, New York, September 20-30, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This eight-part sourcebook provides background information, data, and references relating to child welfare issues throughout the world. The book is organized around a set of goals for children in the 1990s. An introductory section provides an overview of these goals and strategies for achieving them, and discusses infant and child mortality,…

  6. Schooling and wage income losses due to early-childhood growth faltering in developing countries: national, regional, and global estimates.

    PubMed

    Fink, Günther; Peet, Evan; Danaei, Goodarz; Andrews, Kathryn; McCoy, Dana Charles; Sudfeld, Christopher R; Smith Fawzi, Mary C; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2016-07-01

    The growth of >300 million children <5 y old was mildly, moderately, or severely stunted worldwide in 2010. However, national estimates of the human capital and financial losses due to growth faltering in early childhood are not available. We quantified the economic cost of growth faltering in developing countries. We combined the most recent country-level estimates of linear growth delays from the Nutrition Impact Model Study with estimates of returns to education in developing countries to estimate the impact of early-life growth faltering on educational attainment and future incomes. Primary outcomes were total years of educational attainment lost as well as the net present value of future wage earnings lost per child and birth cohort due to growth faltering in 137 developing countries. Bootstrapped standard errors were computed to account for uncertainty in modeling inputs. Our estimates suggest that early-life growth faltering in developing countries caused a total loss of 69.4 million y of educational attainment (95% CI: 41.7 million, 92.6 million y) per birth cohort. Educational attainment losses were largest in South Asia (27.6 million y; 95% CI: 20.0 million, 35.8 million y) as well as in Eastern (10.3 million y; 95% CI: 7.2 million, 12.9 million y) and Western sub-Saharan Africa (8.8 million y; 95% CI: 6.4 million, 11.5 million y). Globally, growth faltering in developing countries caused a total economic cost of $176.8 billion (95% CI: $100.9 billion, $262.6 billion)/birth cohort at nominal exchange rates, and $616.5 billion (95% CI: $365.3 billion, $898.9 billion) at purchasing power parity-adjusted exchange rates. At the regional level, economic costs were largest in South Asia ($46.6 billion; 95% CI: $33.3 billion, $61.1 billion), followed by Latin America ($44.7 billion; 95% CI: $19.2 billion, $74.6 billion) and sub-Saharan Africa ($34.2 billion; 95% CI: $24.4 billion, $45.3 billion). Our results indicate that the annual cost of early

  7. The interdecadal changes of south pacific sea surface temperature in the mid-1990s and their connections with ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Li, Chongyin; Tan, Yanke; Bai, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The characteristic changes of South Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) for the period January 1979 to December 2011, during which the 1990s Pacific pan-decadal variability (PDV) interdecadal regime shifts occurred, were examined. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis was applied to the monthly mean SSTA for two sub-periods: January 1979 to December 1994 (P1) and January 1996 to December 2011 (P2). Both the spatial and temporal features of the leading EOF mode for P1 and P2 showed a remarkable difference. The spatial structure of the leading EOF changed from a tripolar pattern for P1 (EOF-P1) to a dipole-like pattern for P2 (EOF-P2). Besides, EOF-P1 (EOF-P2) had significant spectral peaks at 4.6 yr (2.7 yr). EOF-P2 not only had a closer association with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), but also showed a faster response to ENSO than EOF-P1 based on their lead-lag relationships with ENSO. During the development of ENSO, the South Pacific SSTA associated with ENSO for both P1 and P2 showed a significant eastward propagation. However, after the peak of ENSO, EOF-P1 showed a stronger persistence than EOF-P2, which still showed eastward propagation. The variability of the SSTA associated with the whole process of ENSO evolution during P1 and the SSTA associated with the development of ENSO during P2 support the existence of ocean-to-atmosphere forcing, but the SSTA associated with the decay of ENSO shows the phenomenon of atmosphere-to-ocean forcing.

  8. Interdecadal Change in the Tropical Pacific Precipitation Anomaly Pattern around the Late 1990s during Boreal Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Zhiping; Guo, Yuanyuan; Wu, Renguang

    2017-04-01

    The leading mode of boreal spring precipitation variability over the tropical Pacific experienced a pronounced interdecadal change around the late 1990s. The pattern before 1998 features positive precipitation anomalies over the equatorial eastern Pacific (EP) with positive principle component years. The counterpart after 1998 exhibits a westward shift of the positive center to the equatorial central Pacific (CP). Observational evidence shows that this interdecadal change in the leading mode of precipitation variability is closely associated with a distinctive sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly pattern. The westward shift of the anomalous precipitation center after 1998 is in tandem with a similar shift of maximum warming from the EP to CP. Diagnostic analyses based on a linear equation of the mixed layer temperature anomaly exhibit that an interdecadal enhancement of zonal advection (ZA) feedback process plays a vital role in the shift in the leading mode of both the tropical Pacific SST and the precipitation anomaly during spring. Moreover, the variability of the anomalous zonal current at the upper ocean dominates the ZA feedback change, while the mean zonal SST gradient associated with a La Niña-like pattern of the mean state only accounts for a relatively trivial proportion of the ZA feedback change. It was found that both the relatively rapid decaying of the SST anomalies in the EP and the La Niña-like mean state make it conceivable that the shift of the leading mode of the tropical precipitation anomaly only occurs in spring. In addition, the largest variance of the anomalous zonal current in spring might contribute to the unique interdecadal change in the tropical spring precipitation anomaly pattern.

  9. Recurring OH Flares towards o Ceti - I. Location and structure of the 1990s' and 2010s' events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etoka, S.; Gérard, E.; Richards, A. M. S.; Engels, D.; Brand, J.; Le Bertre, T.

    2017-06-01

    We present the analysis of the onset of the new 2010s OH flaring event detected in the OH ground-state main line at 1665 MHz towards o Ceti and compare its characteristics with those of the 1990s' flaring event. This is based on a series of complementary single-dish and interferometric observations both in OH and H2O obtained with the Nançay Radio telescope, the Medicina and Effelsberg Telescopes, the European VLBI Network and (e)Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network. We compare the overall characteristics of o Ceti's flaring events with those that have been observed towards other thin-shell Miras, and explore the implication of these events with respect to the standard OH circumstellar-envelope model. The role of binarity in the specific characteristics of o Ceti's flaring events is also investigated. The flaring regions are found to be less than ˜400 ± 40 mas (I.e. ≤40 ± 4 au) either side of o Ceti, with seemingly no preferential location with respect to the direction to the companion Mira B. Contrary to the usual expectation that the OH maser zone is located outside the H2O maser zone, the coincidence of the H2O and OH maser velocities suggests that both emissions arise at similar distances from the star. The OH flaring characteristics of Mira are similar to those observed in various Mira variables before, supporting the earlier results that the regions where the transient OH maser emission occurs are different from the standard OH maser zone.

  10. Reconstruction of paediatric organ doses from axial CT scans performed in the 1990s - range of doses as input to uncertainty estimates.

    PubMed

    Olerud, Hilde M; Toft, Benthe; Flatabø, Silje; Jahnen, Andreas; Lee, Choonsik; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle

    2016-09-01

    To assess the range of doses in paediatric CT scans conducted in the 1990s in Norway as input to an international epidemiology study: the EPI-CT study, http://epi-ct.iarc.fr/ . National Cancer Institute dosimetry system for Computed Tomography (NCICT) program based on pre-calculated organ dose conversion coefficients was used to convert CT Dose Index to organ doses in paediatric CT in the 1990s. Protocols reported from local hospitals in a previous Norwegian CT survey were used as input, presuming these were used without optimization for paediatric patients. Large variations in doses between different scanner models and local scan parameter settings are demonstrated. Small children will receive a factor of 2-3 times higher doses compared with adults if the protocols are not optimized for them. For common CT examinations, the doses to the active bone marrow, breast tissue and brain may have exceeded 30 mGy, 60 mGy and 100 mGy respectively, for the youngest children in the 1990s. The doses children received from non-optimised CT examinations during the 1990s are of such magnitude that they may provide statistically significant effects in the EPI-CT study, but probably do not reflect current practice. • Some organ doses from paediatric CT in the 1990s may have exceeded 100 mGy. • Small children may have received doses 2-3 times higher compared with adults. • Different scanner models varied by a factor of 2-3 in dose to patients. • Different local scan parameter settings gave dose variations of a factor 2-3. • Modern CTs and age-adjusted protocols will give much lower paediatric doses.

  11. Return to work after early part-time sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Kausto, Johanna; Shiri, Rahman; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Karppinen, Jaro; Miranda, Helena; Luukkonen, Ritva; Martimo, Kari-Pekka

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of early part-time sick leave on return to work (RTW) and sickness absence among patients with musculoskeletal disorders. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in six occupational health units of medium- and large-size enterprises. Patients aged 18-60 years with musculoskeletal disorders (N=63) unable to perform their regular work were randomly allocated to part- or full-time sick leave. In the former group, workload was reduced by restricting work time by about a half. Remaining work tasks were modified when necessary, as specified in a "fit note" from the physician. The main outcomes were time to return to regular work activities and sickness absence during 12-month follow-up. Time to RTW sustained for ≥4 weeks was shorter in the intervention group (median 12 versus 20 days, P=0.10). Hazard ratio of RTW adjusted for age was 1.60 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.98-2.63] and 1.76 (95% CI 1.21-2.56) after further adjustment for pain interference with sleep and previous sickness absence at baseline. Total sickness absence during the 12-month follow-up was about 20% lower in the intervention than the control group. Compliance with the intervention was high with no discontinuations of part-time sick leave due to musculoskeletal reasons. Early part-time sick leave may provide a faster and more sustainable return to regular duties than full-time sick leave among patients with musculoskeletal disorders. This is the first study to show that work participation can be safely increased with early part-time sick leave.

  12. Early childhood BMI trajectories in monogenic obesity due to leptin, leptin receptor, and melanocortin 4 receptor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kohlsdorf, Katja; Nunziata, Adriana; Funcke, Jan-Bernd; Brandt, Stephanie; von Schnurbein, Julia; Vollbach, Heike; Lennerz, Belinda; Fritsch, Maria; Greber-Platzer, Susanne; Fröhlich-Reiterer, Elke; Luedeke, Manuel; Borck, Guntram; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela; Wabitsch, Martin

    2018-02-27

    To evaluate whether early childhood body mass index (BMI) is an appropriate indicator for monogenic obesity. A cohort of n = 21 children living in Germany or Austria with monogenic obesity due to congenital leptin deficiency (group LEP, n = 6), leptin receptor deficiency (group LEPR, n = 6) and primarily heterozygous MC4 receptor deficiency (group MC4R, n = 9) was analyzed. A control group (CTRL) was defined that consisted of n = 22 obese adolescents with no mutation in the above mentioned genes. Early childhood (0-5 years) BMI trajectories were compared between the groups at selected time points. The LEP and LEPR group showed a tremendous increase in BMI during the first 2 years of life with all patients displaying a BMI >27 kg/m 2 (27.2-38.4 kg/m 2 ) and %BMI P95 (percentage of the 95th percentile BMI for age and sex) >140% (144.8-198.6%) at the age of 2 years and a BMI > 33 kg/m 2 (33.3-45.9 kg/m 2 ) and %BMI P95  > 184% (184.1-212.6%) at the age of 5 years. The MC4R and CTRL groups had a later onset of obesity with significantly lower BMI values at both time points (p < 0.01). As result of the investigation of early childhood BMI trajectories in this pediatric cohort with monogenic obesity we suggest that BMI values >27.0 kg/m 2 or %BMI P95  > 140% at the age of 2 years and BMI values >33.0 kg/m 2 or %BMI P95  > 184% at the age of 5 years may be useful cut points to identify children who should undergo genetic screening for monogenic obesity due to functionally relevant mutations in the leptin gene or leptin receptor gene.

  13. Selective loss of mouse embryos due to the expression of transgenic major histocompatibility class I molecules early in embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Aït-Azzouzene, D; Langkopf, A; Cohen, J; Bleux, C; Gendron, M C; Kanellopoulos-Langevin, C

    1998-05-01

    Among the numerous hypotheses proposed to explain the absence of fetal rejection by the mother in mammals, it has been suggested that regulation of expression of the polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) at the fetal-maternal interface plays a major role. In addition to a lack of MHC gene expression in the placenta throughout gestation, the absence of polymorphic MHC molecules on the early embryo, as well as their low level of expression after midgestation, could contribute to this important biologic phenomenon. In order to test this hypothesis, we have produced transgenic mice able to express polymorphic MHC class I molecules early in embryogenesis. We have placed the MHC class la gene H-2Kb under the control of a housekeeping gene promoter, the hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG) gene minimal promoter. This construct has been tested for functionality after transfection into mouse fibroblast L cells. The analysis of three founder transgenic mice and their progeny suggested that fetoplacental units that could express the H-2Kb heavy chains are unable to survive in utero beyond midgestation. We have shown further that a much higher resorption rate, on days 11 to 13 of embryonic development, is observed among transgenic embryos developing from eggs microinjected at the one-cell stage with the pHMG-Kb construct than in control embryos. This lethality is not due to immune phenomena, since it is observed in histocompatible combinations between mother and fetus. These results are discussed in the context of what is currently known about the regulation of MHC expression at the fetal-maternal interface and in various transgenic mouse models.

  14. Labour market trajectories and early retirement due to permanent disability: a study based on 14 972 new cases in Spain.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Fernando G; Duran, Xavier; Gimeno, David; Vanroelen, Christophe; Martínez, José Miguel

    2015-08-01

    To analyse the impact of labour market trajectory indicators on early retirement, measured by age at onset of permanent disability (PD). Four labour market trajectory indicators were reconstructed in 14 972 new cases of PD recognized between 2004 and 2010: (1) number of employment contracts, (2) number of unemployment periods, (3) number of periods without social security affiliation and (4) percentage of time spent in inactivity. The outcome was measured as the age at onset of PD. Median differences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were compared using a median regression. Analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted for occupational category and total time elapsed between the beginning of working life and the age at onset of PD: separately for each labour market indicator, and adjusted for each other. In men, the age at the onset of PD for workers with 15 or more employment contracts decreased by 4.8 years; and for workers with five or more periods without affiliation it decreased by 4.6 years. In women, the corresponding decreases were 5.8 years for 15 or more contracts and 7.2 years for five or more unaffiliated periods. The results for four indicators slightly changed when they were mutually adjusted. Poor employment conditions, such as having a high number of periods without affiliation, a high number of contracts (in men) and a higher percentage of inactive time (in women) are associated with early retirement due to PD. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiation doses to critical groups since the early 1950s due to discharges of liquid radioactive waste from Sellafield.

    PubMed

    Hunt, G J

    1997-04-01

    First, some of the early work is reviewed on exposure pathways in connection with proposed and early liquid radioactive waste discharges from Sellafield. The main historical features of these discharges, affected by relevant plant operations, are then briefly described. The important radiological exposure pathways resulting from the discharges and people's consumption and occupancy habits are considered. To place the changing scenario onto a consistent basis using present-day methodology, a reconstruction of exposures has been carried out using environmental monitoring data and models. The three major pathways are examined of Porphyra/laverbread consumption in South Wales, fish and shellfish consumption near Sellafield, and external exposure over local and more distant sediments. The results show that over the period 1952 to about 1970 the laverbread pathway was probably critical, taking a cautious approach. Effective dose rates fluctuated at around 1 mSv y(-1) from about 1956 to 1971. From about 1970 to 1985, the fish and shellfish pathway was likely to have been critical, with effective dose rates peaking at about 2 mSv y(-1) in 1975-1976. External exposure was likely to have been of lesser importance than the other two pathways until about 1985, when with the retention of previously-released radiocesium on sediments it has become dominant. This phenomenon applies particularly further afield where radiocesium concentrations have been slower to decline; in the Ribble estuary, houseboat dwellers have been the critical group from about 1985. Effective doses have been at about 0.3 mSv y(-1) and declining; they are due to the effects of radiocesium discharges in earlier years. Dose rates have remained within contemporary ICRP dose limits.

  16. Severe Early-Onset Combined Immunodeficiency due to Heterozygous Gain-of-Function Mutations in STAT1.

    PubMed

    Baris, Safa; Alroqi, Fayhan; Kiykim, Ayca; Karakoc-Aydiner, Elif; Ogulur, Ismail; Ozen, Ahmet; Charbonnier, Louis-Marie; Bakır, Mustafa; Boztug, Kaan; Chatila, Talal A; Barlan, Isil B

    2016-10-01

    Loss and gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in human signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) lead to distinct phenotypes. Although recurrent infections are common to both types of STAT1 mutations, GOF mutations are distinguished by chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and autoimmunity. However, the clinical spectra of STAT1 GOF mutations continue to expand. We here describe two patients with STAT1 GOF mutations presenting early in life with combined immunodeficiency (CID). Clinical data and laboratory findings including immunophenotyping, level of interferon (IFN)-γ/IL-17(+) T cells, interferon-induced STAT1 phosphorylation, and JAK inhibitor assays were evaluated. Sequencing of STAT1 gene was performed by Sanger sequencer. Patient 1 (P1) had persistent oral candidiasis and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection since 2 months of age and later developed cavitary lung lesions due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Patient 2 (P2) presented with oral candidiasis and recurrent pneumonia at 4 months of age and subsequently developed CMV pneumonitis. Both patients suffered heterozygous missense mutations in STAT1, leading to deleterious amino acid substitutions in the DNA binding domain (P1: c.1154C > T; p.T385M; P2. c.971G > T; p.C324F). Circulating CD4(+) T cells of both patients exhibited increased interferon-γ and decreased IL-17 expression as compared to controls. They also exhibited increased IFN-β and -γ-induced STAT1 phosphorylation that was reversed upon treatment with the JAK kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib. STAT1 GOF mutations may present early in life with CID, consistent with the clinical heterogeneity of the disease. JAK kinase inhibitors may potentially be useful in some patients as adjunct therapy pending definitive treatment with bone marrow transplantation.

  17. Reduced vital capacity after methacholine challenge in early childhood--is it due to trapped air or loss of motivation.

    PubMed

    Vilozni, Daphna; Hakim, Fahed; Adler, Adi; Livnat, Galit; Bar-Yishay, Ephraim; Bentur, Lea

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study we assessed the feasibility of measuring bronchial-reactivity (BHR) in young asthmatic children by the determination of PC(20)-FEV(1) along with clinical end-of-test criteria during a methacholine challenge test (MCT). The end-point was associated with a significant reduction in both flow and vital capacity values. The findings could be due to the children's loss of motivation, which may preclude use of this test. Alternatively, if it reflects air trapping during airway obstruction, it might reinforce its applicability in preschool age children. To elucidate the mechanism of low vital capacity at PC(20)-FEV(1) in preschool age children. Twenty-eight children (3.3-6.9 years) with recurrent respiratory symptoms. An MCT was carried out using tripling doses (0.06-13.9 mg/ml) delivered by a dosimeter. Spirometry was measured at baseline and after each inhalation in duplicate sets. Whole body plethysmography was measured at baseline and at end-of-test (defined by clinical criteria) according to the recommendations for older populations. Plethysmography was reliably performed by 20 children before and after MCT. At baseline, lung function was within the healthy range. At end-of-test (PC(20)-FEV(1)=4.02+/-3.47 mg/ml), the spirometry parameters and specific conductance values were markedly reduced in correlation with a significant increase in residual volume and resistance. The study shows that diminished vital capacity is due to the increase in FRC at end-of-test. Our findings support the use of PC(20)-FEV(1) during BHR in young children and suggest that lung volume measurement by a plethysmograph may be feasible in early childhood. Larger studies should be performed to establish the clinical applicability of PC20-FEV1 determination in the preschool age.

  18. Trends in on-road vehicle emissions and ambient air quality in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, from the late 1990s through 2009.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Krish; DenBleyker, Allison; Ma, Lan; Lindhjem, Chris; Yarwood, Greg

    2014-07-01

    On-road vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during 1995-2009 in the Atlanta Metropolitan Statistical Area were estimated using the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model and data from the National Emissions Inventories and the State of Georgia. Statistically significant downward trends (computed using the nonparametric Theil-Sen method) in annual on-road CO, NO(x), and VOC emissions of 6.1%, 3.3%, and 6.0% per year, respectively, are noted during the 1995-2009 period despite an increase in total vehicle distance traveled. The CO and NO(x) emission trends are correlated with statistically significant downward trends in ambient air concentrations of CO and NO(x) in Atlanta ranging from 8.0% to 11.8% per year and from 5.8% to 8.7% per year, respectively, during similar time periods. Weather-adjusted summertime ozone concentrations in Atlanta exhibited a statistically significant declining trend of 2.3% per year during 2001-2009. Although this trend coexists with the declining trends in on-road NO(x), VOC, and CO emissions, identifying the cause of the downward trend in ozone is complicated by reductions in multiple precursors from different source sectors. Implications: Large reductions in on-road vehicle emissions of CO and NO(x) in Atlanta from the late 1990s to 2009, despite an increase in total vehicle distance traveled, contributed to a significant improvement in air quality through decreases in ambient air concentrations of CO and NO(x) during this time period. Emissions reductions in motor vehicles and other source sectors resulted in these improvements and the observed declining trend in ozone concentrations over the past decade. Although these historical trends cannot be extrapolated to the future because pollutant concentration contributions due to on-road vehicle emissions will likely become an increasingly smaller fraction of the atmospheric total, they provide an indication of

  19. Getting a piece of the pie? The economic boom of the 1990s and declining teen birth rates in the United States.

    PubMed

    Colen, Cynthia G; Geronimus, Arline T; Phipps, Maureen G

    2006-09-01

    In the United States, the 1990s was a decade of dramatic economic growth as well as a period characterized by substantial declines in teenage childbearing. This study examines whether falling teen fertility rates during the 1990s were responsive to expanding employment opportunities and whether the implementation of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities Act (PRWORA), increasing rates of incarceration, or restrictive abortion policies may have affected this association. Fixed-effects Poisson regression models were estimated to assess the relationship between age-specific birth rates and state-specific unemployment rates from 1990 to 1999 for Black and White females aged 10-29. Falling unemployment rates in the 1990s were associated with decreased childbearing among African-American women aged 15-24, but were largely unrelated to declines in fertility for Whites. For 18-19 year-old African-Americans, the group for whom teen childbearing is most normative, our model accounted for 85% of the decrease in rates of first births. Young Black women, especially older teens, may have adjusted their reproductive behavior to take advantage of expanded labor market opportunities.

  20. Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Analysis of Dutch Bordetella pertussis Strains Reveals Rapid Genetic Changes with Clonal Expansion during the Late 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Schouls, Leo M.; van der Heide, Han G. J.; Vauterin, Luc; Vauterin, Paul; Mooi, Frits R.

    2004-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, has remained endemic in The Netherlands despite extensive nationwide vaccination since 1953. In the 1990s, several epidemic periods have resulted in many cases of pertussis. We have proposed that strain variation has played a major role in the upsurges of this disease in The Netherlands. Therefore, molecular characterization of strains is important in identifying the causes of pertussis epidemiology. For this reason, we have developed a multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) typing system for B. pertussis. By combining the MLVA profile with the allelic profile based on multiple-antigen sequence typing, we were able to further differentiate strains. The relationships between the various genotypes were visualized by constructing a minimum spanning tree. MLVA of Dutch strains of B. pertussis revealed that the genotypes of the strains isolated in the prevaccination period were diverse and clearly distinct from the strains isolated in the 1990s. Furthermore, there was a decrease in diversity in the strains from the late 1990s, with a remarkable clonal expansion that coincided with the epidemic periods. Using this genotyping, we have been able to show that B. pertussis is much more dynamic than expected. PMID:15292152

  1. Child Care and Canadian Federalism in the 1990s: Canary in a Coal Mine. Occasional Paper No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friendly, Martha

    There is broad recognition in Canada that offering both early childhood education to strengthen healthy development for all children and child care to support mothers' workforce participation is in the public interest. Noting that Canada does not currently provide adequate early childhood care and education, this paper examines federal/provincial…

  2. Wetting and greening Tibetan Plateau in early summer since the late 1970s due to advanced Asian summer monsoon onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenxia; Zhou, Tianjun; Zhang, Lixia

    2016-04-01

    Known as the "the world water tower", the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is the origin of the ten largest rivers in Asia, breeding more than 1.4 billion people, and exerts substantial influences on water resources, agriculture, and ecosystems in downstream countries. This region is one of the most susceptible areas around the world to changing climate due to the high elevation. Observed evidence have shown significant climate changes over the TP, including surface air warming and moistening, glaciers shrinking, winds stilling, solar dimming, and atmospheric heat source weakening. However, as an essential part of the hydrological cycle, precipitation changes on the TP remain an ambiguous picture. Changes in precipitation vary largely with different seasons, time periods and climate zones considered. This study shows a robust increase in precipitation amount over the TP in May, when the rainy season starts, over the period 1979-2014 (31% relative to the climatology). The wetting trend is spatially consistent over the south-eastern TP, to which both precipitation frequency and intensity contribute. Circulation trends show that the wetting TP in May is resulted from the advanced onset of Asian summer monsoon, which onsets 1~2 pentads earlier since 1979. It intensified water vapor transport from the Bay of Bengal (BOB) to south of the TP in May and local anomalous convection. This relationship is further validated by the significant correlation coefficient (0.47) between the onset dates of Asian summer monsoon (particularly the BOB summer monsoon, 0.68) and precipitation over the south-eastern TP in May. The wetting TP in May has further exerted profound impacts on the hydrological cycle and ecosystem, such as moistening the soil and animating vegetation activities throughout early summer. Both decadal variations of soil moisture (from May to June) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) (from May to July) coincide well with that of precipitation over the south

  3. Eco-Early Childhood Education: A New Paradigm of Early Childhood Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunju; Lim, Jaetack

    2007-01-01

    In the early 1990s, university faculty members, early childhood educators, and preschool teachers in South Korea created a new paradigm for education. Eco-early childhood education uses an ecological point of view to reform existing child-centered education. This perspective proposes moving from child- to life-centered, individual- to…

  4. Evolution of educational inequalities in site-specific cancer mortality among Belgian men between the 1990s and 2000s using a "fundamental cause" perspective.

    PubMed

    Vanthomme, Katrien; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Hagedoorn, Paulien; Gadeyne, Sylvie

    2017-07-05

    According to the "fundamental cause" theory, emerging knowledge on health-enhancing behaviours and technologies results in health disparities. This study aims to assess (trends in) educational inequalities in site-specific cancer mortality in Belgian men in the 1990s and the 2000s using this framework. Data were derived from record linkage between the Belgian censuses of 1991 and 2001 and register data on mortality. The study population comprised all Belgian men aged 50-79 years during follow-up. Both absolute and relative inequality measures have been calculated. Despite an overall downward trend in cancer mortality, educational differences are observed for the majority of cancer sites in the 2000s. Generally, inequalities are largest for mortality from preventable cancers. Trends over time in inequalities are rather stable compared with the 1990s. Educational differences in site-specific cancer mortality persist in the 2000s in Belgium, mainly for cancers related to behavioural change and medical interventions. Policy efforts focussing on behavioural change and healthcare utilization remain crucial in order to tackle these increasing inequalities.

  5. Change in the relationship between the Australian summer monsoon circulation and boreal summer precipitation over Central China in the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ruowen; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Tianyu; He, Shengping

    2017-09-01

    Recent study revealed a close connection between the Australian summer monsoon (ASM) and boreal summer precipitation over Central China (SPCC). This study further revealed a strengthening of the ASM-SPCC relationship around the late 1990s. It is found that the relationship between the ASM and the SPCC during 1979-1997 (1998-2014) relationship is statistically insignificant (significant). Further analysis indicated that during 1998-2014, the weakened ASM is concurrent with significant positive sea surface temperature (SST) in the Indian Ocean and South China Sea, which could persist into the following boreal summer and further lead to intensified East Asian summer monsoon, strengthened western North Pacific subtropical high, and anomalous ascending motion over Central China. Consequently, more moisture is transported from the western Pacific northward to Central China where significant anomalous convergence appears. Therefore, the ASM could potentially influence the SPCC during 1998-2014. By contrast, the ASM-related SST and atmospheric circulation anomalies in boreal winter are statistically insignificant during 1979-1997. Such an interdecadal change might be attributed to the interdecadal warming that occurred in the Indian Ocean and South China Sea around the late 1990s. This study might be useful for the prediction of the SPCC.

  6. Comparison of the response of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) in the high-latitude regions of the North Atlantic during the warm periods of the 1920s-1960s and the 1990s-2000s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwater, Ken

    2009-10-01

    Concern about future anthropogenic warming has lead to demands for information on what might happen to fish and fisheries under various climate-change scenarios. One suggestion has been to use past events as a proxy for what will happen in the future. In this paper a comparison between the responses of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) to two major warm periods in the North Atlantic during the 20th century is carried out to determine how reliable the past might be as a predictor of the future. The first warm period began during the 1920s, remained relatively warm through the 1960s, and was limited primarily to the northern regions (>60°N). The second warm period, which again covered the northern regions but also extended farther south (30°N), began in the 1990s and has continued into the present century. During the earlier warm period, the most northern of the cod stocks (West Greenland, Icelandic, and Northeast Arctic cod in the Barents Sea) increased in abundance, individual growth was high, recruitment was strong, and their distribution spread northward. Available plankton data suggest that these cod responses were driven by bottom-up processes. Fishing pressure increased during this period of high cod abundance and the northern cod stocks began to decline, as early as the 1950s in the Barents Sea but during the 1960s elsewhere. Individual growth declined as temperatures cooled and the cod distributions retracted southward. During the warming in the 1990s, the spawning stock biomass of cod in the Barents Sea again increased, recruitment rose, and the stock spread northward, but the individual growth did not improve significantly. Cod off West Greenland also have shown signs of improving recruitment and increasing biomass, albeit they are still very low in comparison to the earlier warming period. The abundance of Icelandic cod, on the other hand, has remained low through the recent warm period and spawning stock biomass and total biomass are at levels near the

  7. Lethal Ultra-Early Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Due to Rupture of De Novo Aneurysm 5 Months After Primary Aneurysmatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Walter, Johannes; Unterberg, Andreas W; Zweckberger, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    Approximately 1% of all patients surviving rupture of a cerebral aneurysm suffer from a second aneurysmatic subarachnoid hemorrhage later in their lives, 61% of which are caused by rupture of a de novo aneurysm. Latency between bleedings is usually many years, and younger patients tend to achieve better outcomes from a second subarachnoid hemorrhage. We report an unusual case of lethal ultra-early rupture of a de novo aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery only 5 months after the initial subarachnoid hemorrhage and complete coiling in a young, healthy male patient. Despite complete aneurysm obliteration, young age, and good recovery, patients may be subjected to secondary subarachnoid hemorrhages from de novo aneurysms after only a few months of the initial bleeding. Early-control magnetic resonance angiography might hence be advisable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Book review: Hollowed ground—Copper mining and community building on Lake Superior, 1840s–1990s

    Schulz, Klaus J.

    2010-01-01

    In 1843, six years before the Forty-niners headed west for the goldfields of California, the United States’ first great mineral rush began to a land that was, as Patrick Henry told Congress, “beyond the most distant wilderness and remote as the moon.” He was referring to the Keweenaw Peninsula of northern Michigan. This rush was not for gold or silver, but for copper. And not just any copper, but native copper, so pure it required little refining before use. The early horde of fortune-seekers came with visions of finding mountains of solid copper, spurred on by stories of large masses of “float copper” that included the famous Ontonagon Boulder, a large mass of native copper originally found lying 32 km up the steep and rugged valley of the Ontonagon River (and now gathering dust in the Smithsonian Museum).

  9. The politics of EPSDT policy in the 1990s: policy entrepreneurs, political streams, and children's health benefits.

    PubMed

    Sardell, A; Johnson, K

    1998-01-01

    The Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program, which was designed to ensure that Medicaid-eligible children receive comprehensive health services, is the only national attempt to provide a right to these services. The political factors that have shaped national EPSDT policy during the past decade are described, based on a conceptual framework developed by John W. Kingdon. The analysis focuses on the roles of two distinct sets of policy entrepreneurs: child health advocates and fiscally conservative governors. Their activities are described in relation to the larger political environment, or "political stream," from the period of the expansion of Medicaid eligibility for pregnant women and children in the late 1980s to the enactment of a new State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) in 1997. The relative saliency of eligibility and benefit issues in children's health policies had a major influence on the politics and outcomes.

  10. The Politics of EPSDT Policy in the 1990s: Policy Entrepreneurs, Political Streams, and Children's Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Sardell, Alice; Johnson, Kay

    1998-01-01

    The Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program, which was designed to ensure that Medicaid-eligible children receive comprehensive health services, is the only national attempt to provide a right to these services. The political factors that have shaped national EPSDT policy during the past decade are described, based on a conceptual framework developed by John W. Kingdon. The analysis focuses on the roles of two distinct sets of policy entrepreneurs: child health advocates and fiscally conservative governors. Their activities are described in relation to the larger political environment, or “political stream,” from the period of the expansion of Medicaid eligibility for pregnant women and children in the late 1980s to the enactment of a new State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) in 1997. The relative saliency of eligibility and benefit issues in children’s health policies had a major influence on the politics and outcomes. PMID:9614420

  11. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) - A concept for an orbiting submillimeter-infrared telescope for the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, P. N.; Gulkis, S.; Kulper, T. B. H.; Kiya, M.

    1983-01-01

    The history and background of the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) are reviewed. The results of the June 1982 Asilomar (CA) workshop are incorporated into the LDR science objectives and telescope concept. The areas where the LDR may have the greatest scientific impact are in the study of star formation and planetary systems in the own and nearby galaxies and in cosmological studies of the structure and evolution of the early universe. The observational requirements for these and other scientific studies give rise to a set of telescope functional requirements. These, in turn, are satisfied by an LDR configuration which is a Cassegrain design with a 20 m diameter, actively controlled, segmented, primary reflector, diffraction limited at a wavelength of 30 to 50 microns. Technical challenges in the LDR development include construction of high tolerance mirror segments, surface figure measurement, figure control, vibration control, pointing, cryogenics, and coherent detectors. Project status and future plans for the LDR are discussed.

  12. Plasticity of Interhemispheric Temporal Lobe White Matter Pathways Due to Early Disruption of Corpus Callosum Development in Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Juranek, Jenifer; Romanowska-Pawliczek, Anna; Hannay, H. Julia; Cirino, Paul T.; Dennis, Maureen; Kramer, Larry A.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is commonly associated with anomalous development of the corpus callosum (CC) because of congenital partial hypogenesis and hydrocephalus-related hypoplasia. It represents a model disorder to examine the effects of early disruption of CC neurodevelopment and the plasticity of interhemispheric white matter connections. Diffusion tensor imaging was acquired on 76 individuals with SBM and 27 typically developing individuals, aged 8–36 years. Probabilistic tractography was used to isolate the interhemispheric connections between the posterior superior temporal lobes, which typically traverse the posterior third of the CC. Early disruption of CC development resulted in restructuring of interhemispheric connections through alternate commissures, particularly the anterior commissure (AC). These rerouted fibers were present in people with SBM and both CC hypoplasia and hypogenesis. In addition, microstructural integrity was reduced in the interhemispheric temporal tract in people with SBM, indexed by lower fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity, and higher radial diffusivity. Interhemispheric temporal tract volume was positively correlated with total volume of the CC, such that more severe underdevelopment of the CC was associated with fewer connections between the posterior temporal lobes. Therefore, both the macrostructure and microstructure of this interhemispheric tract were reduced, presumably as a result of more extensive CC malformation. The current findings suggest that early disruption in CC development reroutes interhemispheric temporal fibers through both the AC and more anterior sections of the CC in support of persistent hypotheses that the AC may serve a compensatory function in atypical CC development. PMID:26798959

  13. The Remarkable 2003-2004 Winter and Other Recent Warm Winters in the Arctic Stratosphere Since the Late 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, Gloria L.; Krueger, Kirstin; Sabutis, Joseph L.; Sena, Sara Amina; Pawson, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The 2003-2004 Arctic winter was remarkable in the 40-year record of meteorological analyses. A major warming beginning in early January 2004 led to nearly two months of vortex disruption with high-latitude easterlies in the middle to lower stratosphere. The upper stratospheric vortex broke up in late December, but began to recover by early January, and in February and March was the strongest since regular observations began in 1979. The lower stratospheric vortex broke up in late January. Comparison with two previous years, 1984-1985 and 1986-1987, with prolonged mid-winter warming periods shows unique characteristics of the 2003-2004 warming period: The length of the vortex disruption, the strong and rapid recovery in the upper stratosphere, and the slow progression of the warming from upper to lower stratosphere. January 2004 zonal mean winds in the middle and lower stratosphere were over two standard deviations below average. Examination of past variability shows that the recent frequency of major stratospheric warmings (seven in the past six years) is unprecedented. Lower stratospheric temperatures were unusually high during six of the past seven years, with five having much lower than usual potential for PSC formation and ozone loss (nearly none in 1998-1999, 2001-2002 and 2003-2004, and very little in 1997-1998 and 2000-2001). Middle and upper stratospheric temperatures, however, were unusually low during and after February. The pattern of five of the last seven years with very low PSC potential would be expected to occur randomly once every approximately 850 years. This cluster of warm winters, immediately following a period of unusually cold winters, may have important implications for possible changes in interannual variability and for determination and attribution of trends in stratospheric temperatures and ozone.

  14. The Remarkable 2003--2004 Winter and Other Recent Warm Winters in the Arctic Stratosphere Since the Late 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, Gloria L.; Kruger, Kirstin; Sabutis, Joseph L.; Sena, Sara Amina; Pawson, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The 2003-2004 Arctic winter was remarkable in the approximately 50-year record of meteorological analyses. A major warming beginning in early January 2004 led to nearly 2 months of vortex disruption with high-latitude easterlies in the middle to lower stratosphere. The upper stratospheric vortex broke up in late December, but began to recover by early January, and in February and March was the strongest since regular observations began in 1979. The lower stratospheric vortex broke up in late January. Comparison with 2 previous years, 1984-1985 and 1986-1987, with prolonged midwinter warming periods shows unique characteristics of the 2003-2004 warming period: The length of the vortex disruption, the strong and rapid recovery in the upper stratosphere, and the slow progression of the warming from upper to lower stratosphere. January 2004 zonal mean winds in the middle and lower stratosphere were over 2 standard deviations below average. Examination of past variability shows that the recent frequency of major stratospheric warmings (7 in the past 6 years) is unprecedented. Lower stratospheric temperatures were unusually high during 6 of the past 7 years, with 5 having much lower than usual potential for polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation and ozone loss (nearly none in 1998-1999, 2001-2002, and 2003-2004, and very little in 1997-1998 and 2000-2001). Middle and upper stratospheric temperatures, however, were unusually low during and after February. The pattern of 5 of the last 7 years with very low PSC potential would be expected to occur randomly once every 850 years. This cluster of warm winters, immediately following a period of unusually cold winters, may have important implications for possible changes in interannual variability and for determination and attribution of trends in stratospheric temperatures and ozone.

  15. Changes in mortality for extremely low birth weight infants in the 1990s: implications for treatment decisions and resource use.

    PubMed

    Meadow, William; Lee, Grace; Lin, Kathy; Lantos, John

    2004-05-01

    Much has changed in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) care over the past decade. High-frequency oscillation, inhaled nitric oxide, and antenatal corticosteroids are now widely available. We wondered how these medical advances had affected both the epidemiology and ethics of life and death for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants in the NICU. We identified 1142 ELBW infants (birth weight [BW] < 1000 g) consecutively admitted to our NICU between 1991 and 2001. We abstracted BW, gestational age, survival or death, and length of stay in the NICU. Statistical analyses were performed by using linear regression and 2-way analysis of variance. Both increasing BW and later year were significantly associated with improved survival. However, for larger ELBW infants, survival was approximately 90% for the entire decade, and large-scale improvement was hardly possible. For smaller infants, greater improvements were both possible and observed, at least early in the decade. From 1991 to 1997, overall ELBW survival increased steadily (approximately 4% per year). However, from 1997 to 2001, there was no significant improvement in survival for ELBW infants. There was no change in the distribution of deaths accounted for by BW subgroups within the ELBW population from 1991 to 2001. Median length of stay for infants who eventually expired before discharge rose from 2 days in 1991 to 10 days in 2001. As a consequence, during the past decade, the percentage of infants whose outcome was "undeclared" by day of life 4 rose from 10% to 20% for ELBW infants overall and to 33% for infants with BWs of 450 to 700 g. The percentage of ELBW NICU bed-days occupied by nonsurvivors remained very low (approximately 7%) from 1991 to 2001. 1) Fewer infants in all ELBW subgroups are dying, compared with a decade ago, and the improvement has been most prominent for BWs of 450 to 700 g, at which mortality was and remains to be greatest. 2) This progress seems to have slowed, or even stopped, by the

  16. Sensitivity to cocaine in adult mice is due to interplay between genetic makeup, early environment and later experience.

    PubMed

    Di Segni, Matteo; Andolina, Diego; Coassin, Alessandra; Accoto, Alessandra; Luchetti, Alessandra; Pascucci, Tiziana; Luzi, Carla; Lizzi, Anna Rita; D'Amato, Francesca R; Ventura, Rossella

    2017-10-01

    Although early aversive postnatal events are known to increase the risk to develop psychiatric disorders later in life, rarely they determine alone the nature and outcome of the psychopathology, indicating that interaction with genetic factors is crucial for expression of psychopathologies in adulthood. Moreover, it has been suggested that early life experiences could have negative consequences or confer adaptive value in different individuals. Here we suggest that resilience or vulnerability to adult cocaine sensitivity depends on a "triple interaction" between genetic makeup x early environment x later experience. We have recently showed that Repeated Cross Fostering (RCF; RCF pups were fostered by four adoptive mothers from postnatal day 1 to postnatal day 4. Pups were left with the last adoptive mother until weaning) experienced by pups affected the response to a negative experience in adulthood in opposite direction in two genotypes leading DBA2/J, but not C57BL/6J mice, toward an "anhedonia-like" phenotype. Here we investigate whether exposure to a rewarding stimulus, instead of a negative one, in adulthood induces an opposite behavioral outcome. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the long-lasting effects of RCF on cocaine sensitivity in C57 and DBA female mice by evaluating conditioned place preference induced by different cocaine doses and catecholamine prefrontal-accumbal response to cocaine using a "dual probe" in vivo microdialysis procedure. Moreover, cocaine-induced c-Fos activity was assessed in different brain regions involved in processing of rewarding stimuli. Finally, cocaine-induced spine changes were evaluated in the prefrontal-accumbal system. RCF experience strongly affected the behavioral, neurochemical and morphological responses to cocaine in adulthood in opposite direction in the two genotypes increasing and reducing, respectively, the sensitivity to cocaine in C57 and DBA mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Welfare and Employment Policies on Young Children: New Findings on Policy Experiments Conducted in the Early 1990s. Social Policy Report. Volume 19, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Pamela A.; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Duncan, Greg J.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, welfare and other public programs for poor families have focused increasingly on promoting parents' self-sufficiency by requiring and supporting employment. Evidence from a diverse set of random-assignment experiments now reveals some of the conditions under which promoting work among low-income, single parents helps or…

  18. Joint geriatric and old-age psychiatric wards in the U.K., 1940s-early 1990s: a historical study.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Claire

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the history of joint geriatric-psychiatric units. For policy making and planning of high-quality clinical service models, clinical and social contexts need to be considered. Longitudinal, contextual information can be provided by historical analyses, including the successes and failures of earlier, similar services. Historical analyses complement clinical, randomised controlled studies and may contribute to ensuring optimum outcomes for future schemes. Standard historical methodology was used, including searching published sources and institutional and personal archives and conducting a 'witness seminar' and individual oral history interviews. Proposals to create joint units have existed since 1947. Most clinically successful units were led by enthusiastic, dedicated clinicians. Joint units had the potential to provide appropriate assessment and treatment for patients with multiple disorders and education for staff and students. Joint units never became widespread. Reasons for the limited success of joint geriatric-psychiatric units might have included personalities of individuals, administrative boundaries separating geriatrics and medicine, unequal numbers of geriatricians and old-age psychiatrists, varying professional ideologies about the meaning of 'integrated' services, lack of reciprocity for each other's inpatients and lack of government support. Identified stumbling blocks need to be considered when planning joint clinical schemes. If current research indicates benefits of integrated wards for patients and their families, there needs to be ways to ensure that personal factors and fashions of management or government re-prioritisation will not lead to their premature termination. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Déjà vu all over again: the similarities between political debates regarding health care in the early 1990s and today.

    PubMed

    McInturff, William D; Weigel, Lori

    2008-01-01

    With health care vaulting back to a foremost concern for voters, strong similarities exist between the zeitgeist today and during the last major debate on this issue. The strong desire for change, economic insecurities, and a desire for a more active role for government-not to mention Hillary Clinton at the forefront of a major policy proposal-all hark back to 1992. However, opinion research demonstrates that many fundamental psychological and philosophical barriers that doomed the previous major reform proposal still exist. The politician who best grasps the lessons from the failure of "Clinton Care" may become our next president.

  20. Monthly estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption in Brazil during the late 1990s and early 2000s

    SciT

    Losey, London M; Andres, Robert Joseph; Marland, Gregg

    2006-12-01

    Detailed understanding of global carbon cycling requires estimates of CO2 emissions on temporal and spatial scales finer than annual and country. This is the first attempt to derive such estimates for a large, developing, Southern Hemisphere country. Though data on energy use are not complete in terms of time and geography, there are enough data available on the sale or consumption of fuels in Brazil to reasonably approximate the temporal and spatial patterns of fuel use and CO2 emissions. Given the available data, a strong annual cycle in emissions from Brazil is not apparent. CO2 emissions are unevenly distributed withinmore » Brazil as the population density and level of development both vary widely.« less

  1. Characterizing Early Psychosocial Functioning of Parents of Children with Moderate to Severe Genital Ambiguity due to Disorders of Sex Development.

    PubMed

    Suorsa, Kristina I; Mullins, Alexandria J; Tackett, Alayna P; Reyes, Kristy J Scott; Austin, Paul; Baskin, Laurence; Bernabé, Kerlly; Cheng, Earl; Fried, Allyson; Frimberger, Dominic; Galan, Denise; Gonzalez, Lynette; Greenfield, Saul; Kropp, Bradley; Meyer, Sabrina; Meyer, Theresa; Nokoff, Natalie; Palmer, Blake; Poppas, Dix; Paradis, Alethea; Yerkes, Elizabeth; Wisniewski, Amy B; Mullins, Larry L

    2015-12-01

    We examined the psychosocial characteristics of parents of children with disorders of sex development at early presentation to a disorders of sex development clinic. Parental anxiety, depression, quality of life, illness uncertainty and posttraumatic stress symptoms were assessed. Additionally we evaluated the relationship of assigned child gender to parental outcomes. A total of 51 parents of children with ambiguous or atypical genitalia were recruited from 7 centers specializing in treatment of disorders of sex development. At initial assessment no child had undergone genitoplasty. Parents completed the Cosmetic Appearance Rating Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, SF-36, Parent Perception of Uncertainty Scale and Impact of Event Scale-Revised. A large percentage of parents (54.5%) were dissatisfied with the genital appearance of their child, and a small but significant percentage reported symptoms of anxiety, depression, diminished quality of life, uncertainty and posttraumatic stress. Few gender differences emerged. Although many parents function well, a subset experience significant psychological distress around the time of diagnosis of a disorder of sex development in their child. Early screening to assess the need for psychosocial interventions is warranted. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Early-onset seizures due to mosaic exonic deletions of CDKL5 in a male and two females.

    PubMed

    Bartnik, Magdalena; Derwińska, Katarzyna; Gos, Monika; Obersztyn, Ewa; Kołodziejska, Katarzyna E; Erez, Ayelet; Szpecht-Potocka, Agnieszka; Fang, Ping; Terczyńska, Iwona; Mierzewska, Hanna; Lohr, Naomi J; Bellus, Gary A; Reimschisel, Tyler; Bocian, Ewa; Mazurczak, Tadeusz; Cheung, Sau Wai; Stankiewicz, Paweł

    2011-05-01

    Mutations in the CDKL5 gene have been associated with an X-linked dominant early infantile epileptic encephalopathy-2. The clinical presentation is usually of severe encephalopathy with refractory seizures and Rett syndrome (RTT)-like phenotype. We attempted to assess the role of mosaic intragenic copy number variation in CDKL5. We have used comparative genomic hybridization with a custom-designed clinical oligonucleotide array targeting exons of selected disease and candidate genes, including CDKL5. We have identified mosaic exonic deletions of CDKL5 in one male and two females with developmental delay and medically intractable seizures. These three mosaic changes represent 60% of all deletions detected in 12,000 patients analyzed by array comparative genomic hybridization and involving the exonic portion of CDKL5. We report the first case of an exonic deletion of CDKL5 in a male and emphasize the importance of underappreciated mosaic exonic copy number variation in patients with early-onset seizures and RTT-like features of both genders.

  3. Life-threatening hypersplenism due to idiopathic portal hypertension in early childhood: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Idiopathic portal hypertension (IPH) is a disorder of unknown etiology and is characterized clinically by portal hypertension, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism accompanied by pancytopenia. This study evaluates the pathogenic concept of the disease by a systematic review of the literature and illustrates novel pathologic and laboratory findings. Case Presentation We report the first case of uncontrolled splenic hyperperfusion and enlargement with subsequent hypersplenism leading to life-threatening complications of IPH in infancy and emergent splenectomy. Conclusions Our results suggest that splenic NO and VCAM-1, rather than ET-1, have a significant impact on the development of IPH, even at a very early stage of disease. The success of surgical interventions targeting the splenic hyperperfusion suggests that the primary defect in the regulation of splenic blood flow seems to be crucial for the development of IPH. Thus, beside other treatment options splenectomy needs to be considered as a prime therapeutic option for IPH. PMID:20961440

  4. Conceptual design of a coherent optical system of modular imaging collectors (COSMIC). [telescope array deployed by space shuttle in 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nein, M. E.; Davis, B. G.

    1982-01-01

    The Coherent Optical System of Modular Imaging Collectors (COSMIC) is the design concept for a phase-coherent optical telescope array that may be placed in earth orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1990s. The initial system module is a minimum redundancy array whose photon collecting area is three times larger than that of the Space Telescope, and possesses a one-dimensional resoution of better than 0.01 arcsec in the visible range. Thermal structural requirements are assessed. Although the coherent beam combination requirements will be met by an active control system, the COSMIC structural/thermal design must meet more stringent performance criteria than even those of the Space Telescope.

  5. Strange old worlds: socio-critical reports about old-age experiences in West German print media (1970s-1990s).

    PubMed

    Streubel, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    This article examines West German images of old age and the elderly in a period when this increasingly became a topical issue. Between the 1970s and the 1990s, the elderly were the subject of socio-critical reports in leading political magazines like Der Spiegel, Die Zeit and Stern. In these specific journalistic formats, the media entered unfamiliar places like old people's homes, the elderly's private apartments or tea dances for senior citizens. By analysing the language used in such media reports, this article shows continuity and change in attitudes towards the elderly, explores the impact of the new old-age model 'the young at heart', and the relevance of gender and generational ascriptions. In doing so, this article uncovers the recent historical context of current social debates about old age.

  6. Health inequalities research in India: a review of trends and themes in the literature since the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Bhan, Nandita; Rao, Krishna Dipankar; Kachwaha, Shivani

    2016-10-06

    Research on health inequalities can be instrumental in drawing attention to the health of socioeconomically vulnerable groups in India in the context of rapid economic growth. It can shape the dialogue for public health action, emphasizing the need for greater investments in health, and monitor effectiveness of health programs. Our objective was to examine trends in studies on health inequalities in the last 25 years. We conducted a systematic literature review of studies on health inequalities published from 1990. The year, 1990, marked the beginning of economic reforms and liberalization in India. We searched PubMED using key terms to identify 8800 articles between 1990 and 2016; we identified 1,312 final studies for review. Key domains of analysis included measures of equity, health outcomes, populations studied, year of publication, study methodology, study focus (descriptive versus analytical), and location of main author. We found an increase in studies on health inequalities after 2005. About 88 % of the studies utilized quantitative methods for analysis. About 8 % of the studies related to health interventions or programs; the number of intervention studies have been increasing since 2010. A majority of studies were led by authors based in India. Early studies focused on mortality, communicable and non-communicable diseases, and nutrition, while later studies have focused on non-communicable diseases, mental health, risk factors, and injuries. Studies on women and children comprised nearly half of the literature; studies on the youth (15-24 years or as defined by the study) and elderly have been rising. Wealth and income were the most common measures of equity, followed by education and gender. The proportion of studies on wealth, education, region and caste have stayed consistent over time, while studies on gender disparities have been rising. In a country as diverse as India with large social inequalities combined with rapid economic growth, research

  7. Impacts of extensive driftnet fishery and late 1990s climate regime shift on dominant epipelagic nekton in the Transition Region and Subtropical Frontal Zone: Implications for fishery management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichii, T.; Nishikawa, H.; Igarashi, H.; Okamura, H.; Mahapatra, K.; Sakai, M.; Wakabayashi, T.; Inagake, D.; Okada, Y.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the impacts of extensive anthropogenic (high seas driftnet squid fishery) and natural (late 1990s major climate regime shift) events on dominant epipelagic fish, squid, and shark in the central North Pacific Transition Region based on a driftnet survey covering the years 1979-2006. Fishing was conducted by Japan, Korea and Taiwan to target neon flying squid in the period 1979-1992, resulting in a decline in stocks of the target species and non-target species (Pacific pomfret and juvenile blue shark), which were by-catch of this fishery. The catch was found to be at the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) level for neon flying squid, the underfished level for juvenile blue shark, but the overfished level for Pacific pomfret. The MSY of Pacific pomfret indicated that this species is more susceptible to exploitation than previously considered. In response to the late 1990s regime shift, neon flying squid and Pacific saury showed low stock levels in 1999-2002 and 1998-2002, respectively, as a result of reduced productivity in their nursery grounds (the Subtropical Frontal Zone and Kuroshio Extension Bifurcation Region, respectively). On the other hand, Pacific pomfret showed no decreasing trend in stock during the low- and intermediate-productivity regimes because of the high productivity of their main spawning/nursery ground (Transition Zone Chlorophyll Front), which was independent of the regime shifts. Thus, squid and saury appear to be more susceptible to the regime shift than pomfret. We discuss the implications for stock management of the species-specific responses to the fishery and the regime shift.

  8. Trends in alcohol intake by education and marital status in urban population in Russia between the mid 1980s and the mid 1990s.

    PubMed

    Malyutina, Sofia; Bobak, Martin; Kurilovitch, Svetlana; Nikitin, Yuri; Marmot, Michael

    2004-01-01

    We investigated changes in the distribution of alcohol consumption by education and marital status in Russia during the period of societal transformation after 1990. Such changes would indicate the potential role of alcohol in the rising social inequalities in mortality. We analysed data from three surveys in random population samples conducted in Novosibirsk as part of the WHO MONICA project in 1985/86 (1533 men, 1292 women), 1988/89 (1700 men, no women) and 1994/95 (1526 men, 1510 women), coinciding with the period of societal transformation. Four measures of drinking were examined in relation to education and marital status: prevalence of drinking at least twice a week; the mean intake in the last week; the mean intake per drinking occasion; and the prevalence of binge drinking (>80 g ethanol for men and >60 g for women) at least once a month. Among men, those with university education had the lowest levels of all measures of drinking. Drinking indices increased over time in all educational groups but most sharply in men with high education, thus leading to a smaller education-related difference in the last survey. With respect to marital status, divorced and widowed men tended to drink most, but the pattern was inconsistent, and the difference between divorced and married men also narrowed over time. Among women, alcohol intake increased between the first and last survey. Differences by education and marital status in women were smaller than in men, and binge drinking was inversely related to education. All indices of alcohol consumption in men increased between the mid 1980s and the mid 1990s. The increase in alcohol intake among men was proportionally similar across categories of education and marital status but the absolute differences increased. The contribution of alcohol to the increase in social differentials in mortality in the 1990s was probably modest.

  9. Early warning of freshwater salinization due to upward brine displacement by species transport simulations combined with a hydrochemical genesis model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Maria; Kühn, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Shallow groundwater resources could be possibly affected by intruding brines, which are displaced along hydraulically conductive faults as result of subsurface activities like CO2 injection. To avoid salinization of potable freshwater aquifers an early detection of intruding saline water is necessary, especially in regions where an initial geogenic salinization already exists. Our study is based on work of Tillner et al. [1] and Langer et al. [2] who investigated the influence of permeable fault systems on brine displacement for the prospective storage site Beeskow-Birkholz in the Northeast German Basin. With a 3D regional scale model considering the deep groundwater system, they demonstrated that the existence of hydraulically conductive faults is not necessarily an exclusion criterion for potential injection sites, because salinization of shallower aquifers strongly depends on the effective damage zone volume, the initial salinity distribution and overlying reservoirs [2], while permeability of fault zones does not influence salinization of shallower aquifers significantly [1]. Here we extracted a 2D cross section regarding the upper 220 m of the study area mainly represented by shallow freshwater aquifers, but also considering an initial geogenic salinization [3]. We took flow rates of the intruding brines from the previous studies [2] and implemented species transport simulations with the program code SHEMAT [4]. Results are investigated and interpreted with the hydrochemical genesis model GEBAH [5] which has been already applied as early warning of saltwater intrusions into freshwater aquifers and surface water [6]. GEBAH allows a categorization of groundwater by the ion ratios of the dissolved components and offers a first indicative determination for an existence and the intensity of saline water intrusion in shallow groundwater aquifer, independent of the concentration of the solution. With our model we investigated the migration of saline water through a

  10. Enhanced biennial variability in the Pacific due to Atlantic capacitor effect.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Yu, Jin-Yi; Paek, Houk

    2017-03-20

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the variability in the Pacific subtropical highs (PSHs) have major impacts on social and ecological systems. Here we present an Atlantic capacitor effect mechanism to suggest that the Atlantic is a key pacemaker of the biennial variability in the Pacific including that in ENSO and the PSHs during recent decades. The 'charging' (that is, ENSO imprinting the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA) sea surface temperature (SST) via an atmospheric bridge mechanism) and 'discharging' (that is, the NTA SST triggering the following ENSO via a subtropical teleconnection mechanism) processes alternate, generating the biennial rhythmic changes in the Pacific. Since the early 1990s, a warmer Atlantic due to the positive phase of Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and global warming trend has provided more favourable background state for the Atlantic capacitor effect, giving rise to enhanced biennial variability in the Pacific that may increase the occurrence frequency of severe natural hazard events.

  11. Enhanced biennial variability in the Pacific due to Atlantic capacitor effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Yu, Jin-Yi; Paek, Houk

    2017-03-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the variability in the Pacific subtropical highs (PSHs) have major impacts on social and ecological systems. Here we present an Atlantic capacitor effect mechanism to suggest that the Atlantic is a key pacemaker of the biennial variability in the Pacific including that in ENSO and the PSHs during recent decades. The `charging' (that is, ENSO imprinting the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA) sea surface temperature (SST) via an atmospheric bridge mechanism) and `discharging' (that is, the NTA SST triggering the following ENSO via a subtropical teleconnection mechanism) processes alternate, generating the biennial rhythmic changes in the Pacific. Since the early 1990s, a warmer Atlantic due to the positive phase of Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and global warming trend has provided more favourable background state for the Atlantic capacitor effect, giving rise to enhanced biennial variability in the Pacific that may increase the occurrence frequency of severe natural hazard events.

  12. Early development of osteoporosis in male smokers with hypoandrogenism due to fascioliasis with or without schistosomiasis added by life style.

    PubMed

    Kilany, Yasser Fouad; Abou Holw, Sahar A; Abouel-Nour, Mohamed Fathy; Morsy, Ayman T A

    2009-12-01

    The multifactor outcome of hypoandrogenemia with the impact of oxidative stress induced by glucose intolerance, fascioliasis with or without schistosomiasis and cumulative smoking influence on bone remodeling and the early development of osteoporotic manifestations were studied. The effect on vascular endothelium immune mediated mechanisms and antioxidant capacity were monitored in cases of youth aged selected male smokers involving 20 with hypoandrogenemia who were either subjected to sedentary life style, glucose intolerance fascioliasis hepatic fibrosis (FHF) (G1) or without (G2) and GI after following 6 months therapy (G3). Monitoring of clinical picture and biochemical assessments of osteoporotic indices (osteocolcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, urinary cyclic AMP), hypoandrogenism (dehydroepiandrosterane sulphate or DHEAS & testosterone) glycemic determinant (insulin) immuno-inflammatory response (interleukein-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, E-selectin, ceruloplasmin) smoking index (serum cotinine), total antioxidant capacity (AOC) and lipid peroxidation (malonedialdehyde) was done before and after 6 months therapeutic program involving supplement of DHEAS, mirazid, chromium picolinate, and megavit zinc alongside smoking cessation and physical exercise daily for at least 30 minutes. Treatment with Mirazid supplied as 10 mg/kg for 6 successive days resulted in 100% cure of fascioliasis whether single or combined with schistosomiasis.

  13. A major Early Miocene thermal pulse due to subduction segmentation and rollback in the western Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spakman, W.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Vissers, R.

    2012-12-01

    Geological studies have shown that Eo-Oligocene subduction related high-pressure, low-temperature metasediments and peridotites of the Alboran region (Spain, Morocco) and the Kabylides (Algeria) experienced a major Early Miocene (~21 Ma) thermal pulse requiring asthenospheric temperatures at ~60 km depth. Despite earlier propositions, the cause of this thermal pulse is still controversial while also the paleogeographic origin of the Alboran and Kabylides units is debated. Here, we relate the thermal pulse to segmentation of the West Alpine-Tethyan slab under the SE Iberian margin (Baleares-Sardinia). We restore the Alboran rocks farther east than previously assumed, to close to the Balearic Islands, adjacent to Sardinia. We identify three major lithosphere faults, the NW-SE trending North Balearic Transform Zone (NBTZ) and the ~W-E trending Emile Baudot and North African transforms that accommodated the Miocene subduction evolution of slab segmentation, rollback, and migration of Alboran and Kabylides rocks to their current positions. The heat pulse occurred S-SE of the Baleares where slab segmentation along the NBTZ triggered radially outgrowing S-SW rollback opening a slab window that facilitated local ascent of asthenosphere below the rapidly extending Alboran-Kabylides accretionary prism. Subsequent slab rollback carried the Kabylides and Alboran domains to their present positions. Our new reconstruction is in line with tomographically imaged mantle structure and focuses attention on the crucial role of evolving subduction segmentation driving HT-metamorphism and subsequent extension, fragmentation, and dispersion of geological terrains.

  14. Climate forcing due to the 8200 cal yr BP event observed at Early Neolithic sites in the eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weninger, Bernhard; Alram-Stern, Eva; Bauer, Eva; Clare, Lee; Danzeglocke, Uwe; Jöris, Olaf; Kubatzki, Claudia; Rollefson, Gary; Todorova, Henrieta; van Andel, Tjeerd

    2006-11-01

    We explore the hypothesis that the abrupt drainage of Laurentide lakes and associated rapid switch of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation 8200 yr ago had a catastrophic influence on Neolithic civilisation in large parts of southeastern Europe, Anatolia, Cyprus, and the Near East. The event at 8200 cal yr BP is observed in a large number of high-resolution climate proxies in the Northern Hemisphere, and in many cases corresponds to markedly cold and arid conditions. We identify the relevant archaeological levels of major Neolithic settlements in Central Anatolia, Cyprus, Greece and Bulgaria, and examine published stratigraphic, architectural, cultural and geoarchaeological studies for these sites. The specific archaeological events and processes we observe at a number of these sites during the study interval 8400-8000 cal yr BP lead us to refine some previously established Neolithisation models. The introduction of farming to South-East Europe occurs in all study regions (Thrace, Macedonia, Thessaly, Bulgaria) near 8200 cal yr BP. We observe major disruptions of Neolithic cultures in the Levant, North Syria, South-East Anatolia, Central Anatolia and Cyprus, at the same time. We conclude that the 8200 cal yr BP aridity event triggered the spread of early farmers, by different routes, out of West Asia and the Near East into Greece and Bulgaria.

  15. In the Early Stages of Diabetes, Rat Retinal Mitochondria Undergo Mild Uncoupling due to UCP2 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Osorio-Paz, Ixchel; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Salceda, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    In order to maintain high transmembrane ionic gradients, retinal tissues require a large amount of energy probably provided by a high rate of both, glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. However, little information exists on retinal mitochondrial efficiency. We analyzed the retinal mitochondrial activity in ex vivo retinas and in isolated mitochondria from normal rat retina and from short-term streptozotocin-diabetic rats. In normal ex vivo retinas, increasing glucose concentrations from 5.6mM to 30mM caused a four-fold increase in glucose accumulation and CO2 production. Retina from diabetic rats accumulated similar amounts of glucose. However, CO2 production was not as high. Isolated mitochondria from normal rat retina exhibited a resting rate of oxygen consumption of 14.6 ± 1.1 natgO (min.mg prot)-1 and a respiratory control of 4.0. Mitochondria from 7, 20 and 45 days diabetic rats increased the resting rate of oxygen consumption and the activity of the electron transport complexes; under these conditions the mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreased. In spite of this, the ATP synthesis was not modified. GDP, an UCP2 inhibitor, increased mitochondrial membrane potential and superoxide production in controls and at 45 days of diabetes. The role of UCP2 is discussed. The results suggest that at the early stage of diabetes we studied, retinal mitochondria undergo adaptations leading to maintain energetic requirements and prevent oxidative stress. PMID:25951172

  16. In the Early Stages of Diabetes, Rat Retinal Mitochondria Undergo Mild Uncoupling due to UCP2 Activity.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Paz, Ixchel; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Salceda, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    In order to maintain high transmembrane ionic gradients, retinal tissues require a large amount of energy probably provided by a high rate of both, glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. However, little information exists on retinal mitochondrial efficiency. We analyzed the retinal mitochondrial activity in ex vivo retinas and in isolated mitochondria from normal rat retina and from short-term streptozotocin-diabetic rats. In normal ex vivo retinas, increasing glucose concentrations from 5.6 mM to 30 mM caused a four-fold increase in glucose accumulation and CO2 production. Retina from diabetic rats accumulated similar amounts of glucose. However, CO2 production was not as high. Isolated mitochondria from normal rat retina exhibited a resting rate of oxygen consumption of 14.6 ± 1.1 natgO (min.mg prot)(-1) and a respiratory control of 4.0. Mitochondria from 7, 20 and 45 days diabetic rats increased the resting rate of oxygen consumption and the activity of the electron transport complexes; under these conditions the mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreased. In spite of this, the ATP synthesis was not modified. GDP, an UCP2 inhibitor, increased mitochondrial membrane potential and superoxide production in controls and at 45 days of diabetes. The role of UCP2 is discussed. The results suggest that at the early stage of diabetes we studied, retinal mitochondria undergo adaptations leading to maintain energetic requirements and prevent oxidative stress.

  17. A method to determine the mammographic regions that show early changes due to the development of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karemore, Gopal; Nielsen, Mads; Karssemeijer, Nico; Brandt, Sami S.

    2014-11-01

    It is well understood nowadays that changes in the mammographic parenchymal pattern are an indicator of a risk of breast cancer and we have developed a statistical method that estimates the mammogram regions where the parenchymal changes, due to breast cancer, occur. This region of interest is computed from a score map by utilising the anatomical breast coordinate system developed in our previous work. The method also makes an automatic scale selection to avoid overfitting while the region estimates are computed by a nested cross-validation scheme. In this way, it is possible to recover those mammogram regions that show a significant difference in classification scores between the cancer and the control group. Our experiments suggested that the most significant mammogram region is the region behind the nipple and that can be justified by previous findings from other research groups. This result was conducted on the basis of the cross-validation experiments on independent training, validation and testing sets from the case-control study of 490 women, of which 245 women were diagnosed with breast cancer within a period of 2-4 years after the baseline mammograms. We additionally generalised the estimated region to another, mini-MIAS study and showed that the transferred region estimate gives at least a similar classification result when compared to the case where the whole breast region is used. In all, by following our method, one most likely improves both preclinical and follow-up breast cancer screening, but a larger study population will be required to test this hypothesis.

  18. Early developed ASD (adjacent segmental disease) in patients after surgical treatment of the spine due to cancer metastases.

    PubMed

    Guzik, Grzegorz

    2017-05-12

    The causes of ASD are still relatively unknown. Correlation between clinical status of patients and radiological MRI findings is of primary importance. The radiological classifications proposed by Pfirmann and Oner are most commonly used to assess intradiscal degenerative changes. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of the extension of spine fixation on the risk of developing ASD in a short time after surgery. A total of 332 patients with spinal tumors were treated in our hospital between 2010 and 2013. Of these patients, 287 underwent surgeries. A follow-up MRI examination was performed 12 months after surgical treatment. The study population comprised of 194 patients. Among metastases, breast cancer was predominant (29%); neurological deficits were detected in 76 patients. Metastases were seen in the thoracic (45%) and lumbar (30%) spine; in 25% of cases, they were of multisegmental character. Pathological fractures concerned 88% of the patients. Statistical calculations were made using the χ2 test. Statistical analysis was done using the Statistica v. 10 software. A p value <0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. The study population was divided on seven groups according to applied treatment. Clinical signs of ASD were noted in only seven patients. Two patients had symptoms of nerve root irritation in the lumbar spine. Twenty-two patients (11%) were diagnosed with ASD according to the MRI classifications by Oner, Rijt, and Ramos, while the more sensitive Pfirmann classification allowed to detect the disease in 46 patients (24%). Healthy or almost healthy discs of Oner type I correlated with the criteria of Pfirmann types II and III. The percentage of the incidence of ASD diagnosed 1 year after the surgery using the Pfirmann classifications was significantly higher than diagnosed according to the clinical examination. The incidence of ASD in patients after spine surgeries due to cancer metastases does not differ between the study groups

  19. SCOLT History 1990s-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClendon, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    The Southern Conference on Language Teaching (SCOLT), like many other language-related organizations, flourishes in the context of periodic educational agendas and reforms, in turn, influenced by economic, political, and social ideologies of the time, and it is therefore instructive to revisit briefly the educational landscape of the previous two…

  20. Environment in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goudie, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    Traces the history of futuristic predictions of environmental changes. Focuses on particular documents published on environmental change predictions. Identifies particular instances of environmental change, such as the rate of species loss and the greenhouse effect. Maintains that predictions of future environmental changes are fraught with…

  1. Issues for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Edith; Brown, Arnold

    1986-01-01

    Discussed are the issues now emerging that seem likely to dominate thinking, planning, and decision-making in the United States and elsewhere during the next decade. These include campus unrest, China as a world economic force, controlling health-care, birth defects, role of the computer in education, and human language/computer language. (RM)

  2. Parenting in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri, Elsa; Smith, Kate

    This study examined family formation, employment, child-care arrangements, parenting, family activities, and attitudes and values of British parents. Subjects were nearly 6,000 British 33-year-old married parents, originally subjects in the longitudinal National Child Development Study, which traced the lives of all those in Great Britain born in…

  3. Early identification in primary health care of people at risk for sick leave due to work-related stress - study protocol of a randomized controlled trial (RCT).

    PubMed

    Holmgren, Kristina; Sandheimer, Christine; Mårdby, Ann-Charlotte; Larsson, Maria E H; Bültmann, Ute; Hange, Dominique; Hensing, Gunnel

    2016-11-25

    Early identification of persons at risk of sickness absence due to work-related stress is a crucial problem for society in general, and primary health care in particular. Tho date, no established method to do this exists. This project's aim is to evaluate whether systematic early identification of work-related stress can prevent sickness absence. This paper presents the study design, procedure and outcome measurements, as well as allocation and baseline characteristics of the study population. The study is a two-armed randomized controlled trial with follow-up at 3, 6 and 12 months. Non-sick-listed employed women and men, aged 18 to 64 years, who had mental and physical health complaints and sought care at primary health care centers (PHCC) were eligible to participate. At baseline work-related stress was measured by the Work Stress Questionnaire (WSQ), combined with feedback at consultation, at PHCC. The preventive intervention included early identification of work-related stress by the WSQ, GP training in the use of WSQ, GP feedback at consultation and finding suitable preventive measures. A process evaluation was used to explore how to facilitate future implementation and structural use of the WSQ at the PHCC. The primary outcome to compare the preventive sick leave intervention by the general practitioner (GP) versus treatment as usual is sick leave data obtained from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency register. Early screening for sick leave due to work-related stress makes it possible not only to identify those at risk for sick leave, but also to put focus on the patient's specific work-related stress problems, which can be helpful in finding suitable preventive measures. This study investigates if use of the WSQ by GPs at PHCCs, combined with feedback at consultation, prevents future sickness absence. ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT02480855 . Registered 20 May 2015.

  4. Investigating the Effect of Social Changes on Age-Specific Gun-Related Homicide Rates in New York City During the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Messner, Steven F.; Tracy, Melissa; Vlahov, David; Goldmann, Emily; Tardiff, Kenneth J.; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed whether New York City's gun-related homicide rates in the 1990s were associated with a range of social determinants of homicide rates. Methods. We used cross-sectional time-series data for 74 New York City police precincts from 1990 through 1999, and we estimated Bayesian hierarchical models with a spatial error term. Homicide rates were estimated separately for victims aged 15–24 years (youths), 25–34 years (young adults), and 35 years or older (adults). Results. Decreased cocaine consumption was associated with declining homicide rates in youths (posterior median [PM] = 0.25; 95% Bayesian confidence interval [BCI] = 0.07, 0.45) and adults (PM = 0.07; 95% BCI = 0.02, 0.12), and declining alcohol consumption was associated with fewer homicides in young adults (PM = 0.14; 95% BCI = 0.02, 0.25). Receipt of public assistance was associated with fewer homicides for young adults (PM = –104.20; 95% BCI = –182.0, –26.14) and adults (PM = –28.76; 95% BCI = –52.65, –5.01). Misdemeanor policing was associated with fewer homicides in adults (PM = –0.01; 95% BCI = –0.02, –0.001). Conclusions. Substance use prevention policies and expansion of the social safety net may be able to cause major reductions in homicide among age groups that drive city homicide trends. PMID:20395590

  5. A comparison of river discharge calculated by using a regional climate model output with different reanalysis datasets in 1980s and 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X.; Yoshikane, T.; Hara, M.; Adachi, S. A.; Wakazuki, Y.; Kawase, H.; Kimura, F.

    2014-12-01

    To check the influence of boundary input data on a modeling result, we had a numerical investigation of river discharge by using runoff data derived by a regional climate model with a 4.5-km resolution as input data to a hydrological model. A hindcast experiment, which to reproduce the current climate was carried out for the two decades, 1980s and 1990s. We used the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) (ver. 3.2.1) with a two-way nesting technique and the WRF single-moment 6-class microphysics scheme. Noah-LSM is adopted to simulate the land surface process. The NCEP/NCAR and ERA-Interim 6-hourly reanalysis datasets were used as the lateral boundary condition for the runs, respectively. The output variables used for river discharge simulation from the WRF model were underground runoff and surface runoff. Four rivers (Mogami, Agano, Jinzu and Tone) were selected in this study. The results showed that the characteristic of river discharge in seasonal variation could be represented and there were overestimated compared with measured one.

  6. The nurse manager's work in the hospital environment during the 1990s and 2000s: responsibility, accountability and expertise in nursing leadership.

    PubMed

    Surakka, Tiina

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the study was to describe and compare the characteristics of the nurse manager's work in different hospital environments and at different times. Business values and pressures for cost efficiency have become a reality in health care. The data comprised the diaries of 155 nurse managers working in one Finnish health district's hospitals in the 1990s and 2000s. In addition, focus group interviews were used as a data source. The data were subjected to qualitative and quantitative content analysis. The nurse manager's work comprises responsibility activities, accountability activities, and traditional bedside nursing. They also described the recognition of the underlying premises of their work and outcome orientation. Their descriptions of work varied between university and rural hospitals, between psychiatric and somatic nursing and between different wards. The work changed in the 2000s as the nurse manager's role changed from nurse to nurse leader. It appears that nurse managers have succeeded in integrating different leadership models into their daily work pattern. A new leadership model was devised based on an emerging nursing framework. Nurse leaders should assess who can assume leadership positions in health care and on what grounds.

  7. Discrimination of 1990s original automotive paint systems: a collaborative study of black nonmetallic base coat/clear coat finishes using infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ryland, S; Bishea, G; Brun-Conti, L; Eyring, M; Flanagan, B; Jergovich, T; MacDougall, D; Suzuki, E

    2001-01-01

    The 1990s saw the introduction of significantly new types of paint binder chemistries into the automotive finish coat market. Considering the pronounced changes in the binders that can now be found in automotive paints and their potential use in a wide variety of finishes worldwide, the Paint Subgroup of the Scientific Working Group for Materials (SWGMAT) initiated a validation study to investigate the ability of commonly accepted methods of forensic paint examination to differentiate between these newer types of paints. Nine automotive paint systems typical of original equipment applications were acquired from General Motors Corporation in 1992. They consisted of steel panels coated with typical electrocoat primers and/or primer surfacers followed by a black nonmetallic base coat and clear coat. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the discrimination power of common forensic techniques when applied to the newer generation original automotive finishes. The second purpose was to evaluate interlaboratory reproducibility of automotive paint spectra collected on a variety of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometers and accessories normally used for forensic paint examinations. The results demonstrate that infrared spectroscopy is an effective tool for discriminating between the major automotive paint manufacturers' formulation types which are currently used in original finishes. Furthermore, and equally important, the results illustrate that the mid-infrared spectra of these finishes are generally quite reproducible even when comparing data from different laboratories, commercial FT-IR instruments, and accessories in a "real world," mostly uncontrolled, environment.

  8. Rehabilitation of Persons with Long-Term Mental Illness in the 1990s. A Report of the Mary E. Switzer Memorial Seminar (12th, Washington, D.C., June 15-17, 1988). Switzer Monograph, 12th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Leonard G., Ed.; Hansen, Carl E., Ed.

    The focus of the six seminar papers is on the rehabilitation needs of persons with long-term mental illness, followed by excerpts of reviews and comments, as well as summary recommendations. "Rehabilitation Programs in the 1980s: Laying the Groundwork for the 1990s" (William Anthony) notes that deinstitutionalization is a historical fact…

  9. Varieties of Universalism: Post-1990s Developments in the Initial School-Based Model of VET in Finland and Sweden and Implications for Transitions to the World of Work and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virolainen, M.; Persson Thunqvist, D.

    2017-01-01

    The Nordic countries are often referred to as a group even though their education systems and training models are very different. The aim of this study is to advance understanding of those differences and compare the developments and organisation of initial vocational education and training (IVET) in Finland and Sweden since the 1990s as examples…

  10. Developments in Microcomputing--Discovering New Opportunities for Libraries in the 1990s. Festschrift in Honour of Richard De Gennero. Papers presented at the International Essen Symposium (12th, Essen, West Germany, October 23-26, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helal, Ahmed H., Ed.; Weiss, Joachim W., Ed.

    The 16 papers in this collection explore the microcomputer revolution as it affects library information systems: (1) "HyperMedia/Multimedia Technology and New Opportunities for Libraries in the 1990s" (Ching-chih Chen); (2) "Use of CD-ROMs in West German Libraries" (David I. Raitt and Ching-chih Chen); (3) "Purposes of Interactive Optical Discs…

  11. Changing Dimensions: Managing Library and Information Services for the 1990s: A Global Perspective. Proceedings of the Asian/Pacific American Librarians Association [Conference] (Atlanta, Georgia, July 1, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Ravindra Nath, Ed.

    The theme of the 1991 Asian/Pacific American Librarians Association (APALA) was "Changing Dimensions: Managing Library Information Services for the 1990s and Beyond." Members and speakers were invited to discuss this topic from all dimensions of library and information related fields. Presenters had the options either to write on actual…

  12. Organizational Futures: Staffing Research Libraries in the 1990s. Minutes of the [Semiannual] Meeting of the Association of Research Libraries (105th, Washington, D.C., October 24-25, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC.

    Program presentations on issues related to staffing considerations in research libraries and business meeting minutes are combined in this report from the Association of Research Libraries (ARL). Under the program title, "Organizational Futures: Staffing Research Libraries in the 1990's," a report by the Task Force on Research Library Staffing…

  13. Institutional Research: Its Place in the 1990's. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the North East Association for Institutional Research (17th, Albany, New York, October 21-23, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North East Association for Institutional Research.

    This document contains papers presented at a conference addressing the direction for the institutional research profession in the 1990s. Papers are as follows: "Reassessing Admission Policies at Public Universities: Cognitive vs. Non-Cognitive Predictors of 'Academic Success'" (Marios H. Agrotes); "Accommodating Team Member Cognitive Styles"…

  14. EARLY OR DELAYED SURGICAL TREATMENT IN COMPOUND LIMB FRACTURES DUE TO HIGH VELOCITY MISSILE INJURIES: A 5-YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY FROM MEDICAL CITY IN BAGHDAD

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hilli, Ali Bakir; Salih, Dheyaa Saeed

    2010-01-01

    Background Compound limb fractures due to high-velocity missiles are complex and usually associated with multiple other injuries. These can occur in both military and civilian settings. Highvelocity missiles are presently used by terrorists worldwide. Early surgical debridement and skeletal fixation are the gold standards in managing these injuries, but data supporting these recommendations are lacking. Aim of the study Our aim was to determine the relationship between time (the time of injury to the time of surgical treatment) and the rate of deep infection in patients treated in Medical City, Baghdad, Iraq due to terrorist activity from 2004-2008. Design This is a retrospective review of a series of open limb fractures. Patients and method A total of 102 civilian patients with 114 limb fractures due to high-velocity missile injuries were selected for this study from Medical City records. Patients were followed in the outpatient department in Medical City Teaching Complex both clinically and radiologically. Results Surgical treatment was accomplished in less than six hours from time of injury in group A (55 fractures, 48.4%) and more than six hours in group B (59 fractures, 51.7%). The infection rate for group A was 30.9% and group B was 23.7%. Conclusion A very high infection rate was noted for these injuries, and there was no increase in the rate of deep infection in patients treated more than six hours after the injury. PMID:21045979

  15. Early or delayed surgical treatment in compound limb fractures due to high velocity missile injuries: a 5-year retrospective study from Medical City in Baghdad.

    PubMed

    Al-Hilli, Ali Bakir; Salih, Dheyaa Saeed

    2010-01-01

    Compound limb fractures due to high-velocity missiles are complex and usually associated with multiple other injuries. These can occur in both military and civilian settings. High-velocity missiles are presently used by terrorists worldwide. Early surgical debridement and skeletal fixation are the gold standards in managing these injuries, but data supporting these recommendations are lacking. Our aim was to determine the relationship between time (the time of injury to the time of surgical treatment) and the rate of deep infection in patients treated in Medical City, Baghdad, Iraq due to terrorist activity from 2004-2008. This is a retrospective review of a series of open limb fractures. A total of 102 civilian patients with 114 limb fractures due to high-velocity missile injuries were selected for this study from Medical City records. Patients were followed in the outpatient department in Medical City Teaching Complex both clinically and radiologically. Surgical treatment was accomplished in less than six hours from time of injury in group A (55 fractures, 48.4%) and more than six hours in group B (59 fractures, 51.7%). The infection rate for group A was 30.9% and group B was 23.7%. A very high infection rate was noted for these injuries, and there was no increase in the rate of deep infection in patients treated more than six hours after the injury.

  16. Trends in educational inequalities in premature mortality in Belgium between the 1990s and the 2000s: the contribution of specific causes of deaths.

    PubMed

    Renard, Françoise; Gadeyne, Sylvie; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Tafforeau, Jean; Deboosere, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Reducing socioeconomic inequalities in mortality, a key public health objective may be supported by a careful monitoring and assessment of the contributions of specific causes of death to the global inequality. The 1991 and 2001 Belgian censuses were linked with cause-of-death data, each yielding a study population of over 5 million individuals aged 25-64, followed up for 5 years. Age-standardised mortality rates (ASMR) were computed by educational level (EL) and cause. Inequalities were measured through rate differences (RDs), rate ratios (RRs) and population attributable fractions (PAFs). We analysed changes in educational inequalities between the 1990s and the 2000s, and decomposed the PAF into the main causes of death. All-cause and avoidable ASMR decreased in all ELs and both sexes. Lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease (IHD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and suicide in men, and IHD, stroke, lung cancer and COPD in women had the highest impact on population mortality. RDs decreased in men but increased in women. RRs and PAFs increased in both sexes, albeit more in women. In men, the impact of lung cancer and COPD inequalities on population mortality decreased while that of suicide and IHD increased. In women, the impact of all causes except IHD increased. Absolute inequalities decreased in men while increasing in women; relative inequalities increased in both sexes. The PAFs decomposition revealed that targeting mortality inequalities from lung cancer, IHD, COPD in both sexes, suicide in men and stroke in women would have the largest impact at population level. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Notes from the laboratories of democracy: state government enactments of market- and state-based health insurance reforms in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Barrilleaux, Charles; Brace, Paul

    2007-08-01

    We identify two policy strategies that state governments pursue to reduce uninsurance, and we classify policies as being either state based or market based. The two policy strategies are distinguished by whether states rely on the institutional capabilities of the state or market processes to provide insurance. We develop and test models to explain states' adoptions of each type of policy. Using Poisson regression, we evaluate hypotheses suggested by the two strategies with data from U.S. states in the 1990s. The results indicate that institutionally more-capable state governments with strong liberal-party presence in the legislature adopt more state-based policies and fewer market-based policies. By contrast, the model of market-based, business-targeted reforms reveals that government capability plays a smaller role. Instead, these policies are driven by economic affluence, political competition, higher incomes, greater uninsurance, and more previous attempts to address the uninsurance problem. These findings reveal distinct institutional, partisan, electoral and demographic influences that shape state-based and market-based strategies. First, policy choices can be driven by the presence or absence of state capability. The domain of feasible policy choices open to states with institutional capability may be decidedly different than that available to states with fewer institutional resources. Second, while market-based policy approaches may be the most feasible politically, they may be the least successful in remedying practical uninsurance issues. These results thus reveal that institutional characteristics of states create an important foundation for policy choice and policy success or failure. These results would suggest that the national government's strategy of pursuing market-based solutions to the problem will not result in its being solved.

  18. Early Access to the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory for Patients Resuscitated From Cardiac Arrest Due to a Shockable Rhythm: The Minnesota Resuscitation Consortium Twin Cities Unified Protocol.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Santiago; Drexel, Todd; Bekwelem, Wobo; Raveendran, Ganesh; Caldwell, Emily; Hodgson, Lucinda; Wang, Qi; Adabag, Selcuk; Mahoney, Brian; Frascone, Ralph; Helmer, Gregory; Lick, Charles; Conterato, Marc; Baran, Kenneth; Bart, Bradley; Bachour, Fouad; Roh, Steven; Panetta, Carmelo; Stark, Randall; Haugland, Mark; Mooney, Michael; Wesley, Keith; Yannopoulos, Demetris

    2016-01-07

    In 2013 the Minnesota Resuscitation Consortium developed an organized approach for the management of patients resuscitated from shockable rhythms to gain early access to the cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) in the metro area of Minneapolis-St. Paul. Eleven hospitals with 24/7 percutaneous coronary intervention capabilities agreed to provide early (within 6 hours of arrival at the Emergency Department) access to the CCL with the intention to perform coronary revascularization for outpatients who were successfully resuscitated from ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia arrest. Other inclusion criteria were age >18 and <76 and presumed cardiac etiology. Patients with other rhythms, known do not resuscitate/do not intubate, noncardiac etiology, significant bleeding, and terminal disease were excluded. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge with favorable neurological outcome. Patients (315 out of 331) who were resuscitated from VT/VF and transferred alive to the Emergency Department had complete medical records. Of those, 231 (73.3%) were taken to the CCL per the Minnesota Resuscitation Consortium protocol while 84 (26.6%) were not taken to the CCL (protocol deviations). Overall, 197 (63%) patients survived to hospital discharge with good neurological outcome (cerebral performance category of 1 or 2). Of the patients who followed the Minnesota Resuscitation Consortium protocol, 121 (52%) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, and 15 (7%) underwent coronary artery bypass graft. In this group, 151 (65%) survived with good neurological outcome, whereas in the group that did not follow the Minnesota Resuscitation Consortium protocol, 46 (55%) survived with good neurological outcome (adjusted odds ratio: 1.99; [1.07-3.72], P=0.03). Early access to the CCL after cardiac arrest due to a shockable rhythm in a selected group of patients is feasible in a large metropolitan area in the United States and is associated with a 65% survival

  19. Early fiberoptic bronchoscopy during non-invasive ventilation in patients with decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to community-acquired-pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Inefficient clearance of copious respiratory secretion is a cause of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) failure, especially in chronic respiratory patients with community-acquired-pneumonia (CAP) and impaired consciousness. We postulated that in such a clinical scenario, when intubation and conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) are strongly recommended, the suction of secretions with fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FBO) may increase the chance of NPPV success. The objective of this pilot study was, firstly, to verify the safety and effectiveness of early FBO during NPPV and, secondly, to compare the hospital outcomes of this strategy versus a CMV-based strategy in patients with decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to CAP who are not appropriate candidates for NPPV because of inefficient mucous clearance and hypercapnic encephalopathy (HE). Methods This is a 12-month prospective matched case-control study performed in one respiratory semi-intensive care unit (RSICU) with expertise in NPPV and in one intensive care unit (ICU). Fifteen acutely decompensated COPD patients with copious secretion retention and HE due to CAP undergoing NPPV in RSICU, and 15 controls (matched for arterial blood gases, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation score III, Kelly-Matthay scale, pneumonia extension and severity) receiving CMV in the ICU were studied. Results Two hours of NPPV significantly improved arterial blood gases, Kelly and cough efficiency scores without FBO-related complications. NPPV avoided intubation in 12/15 patients (80%). Improvement in arterial blood gases was similar in the two groups, except for a greater PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio with CMV. The rates of overall and septic complications, and of tracheostomy were lower in the NPPV group (20%, 20%, and 0%) versus the CMV group (80%, 60%, and 40%; P < 0.05). Hospital mortality, duration of hospitalisation and duration of ventilation were similar

  20. Early fiberoptic bronchoscopy during non-invasive ventilation in patients with decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to community-acquired-pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Scala, Raffaele; Naldi, Mario; Maccari, Uberto

    2010-01-01

    Inefficient clearance of copious respiratory secretion is a cause of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) failure, especially in chronic respiratory patients with community-acquired-pneumonia (CAP) and impaired consciousness. We postulated that in such a clinical scenario, when intubation and conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) are strongly recommended, the suction of secretions with fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FBO) may increase the chance of NPPV success. The objective of this pilot study was, firstly, to verify the safety and effectiveness of early FBO during NPPV and, secondly, to compare the hospital outcomes of this strategy versus a CMV-based strategy in patients with decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to CAP who are not appropriate candidates for NPPV because of inefficient mucous clearance and hypercapnic encephalopathy (HE). This is a 12-month prospective matched case-control study performed in one respiratory semi-intensive care unit (RSICU) with expertise in NPPV and in one intensive care unit (ICU). Fifteen acutely decompensated COPD patients with copious secretion retention and HE due to CAP undergoing NPPV in RSICU, and 15 controls (matched for arterial blood gases, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation score III, Kelly-Matthay scale, pneumonia extension and severity) receiving CMV in the ICU were studied. Two hours of NPPV significantly improved arterial blood gases, Kelly and cough efficiency scores without FBO-related complications. NPPV avoided intubation in 12/15 patients (80%). Improvement in arterial blood gases was similar in the two groups, except for a greater PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio with CMV. The rates of overall and septic complications, and of tracheostomy were lower in the NPPV group (20%, 20%, and 0%) versus the CMV group (80%, 60%, and 40%; P < 0.05). Hospital mortality, duration of hospitalisation and duration of ventilation were similar in the two groups. In patients

  1. Temporal evolution of the anthropogenic CO2 and acidification of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savy, J.-P.; Yao, K. M.; Touratier, F.; Goyet, C.

    2012-04-01

    Since the beginning of the industrial era, humankind consumption of fossil fuels at increasing rates has led to increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations by approximately 105 ppm. In the same time, the Mediterranean coastal regions experienced a brutal population growth, from 94 million habitants in 1950 to 274 million in 2000, generating a strong anthropogenic pressure on the Mediterranean marine ecosystems. To follow the man-induced changes on the Mediterranean carbonate system properties (pH; total alkalinity, AT; total inorganic carbon CT, and CO2 partial pressure, pCO2), an entire body-research has recently emerged in order to quantify both the present and future penetration of anthropogenic carbon (CANT) in the Mediterranean Sea and the inferred acidification of its waters. From monthly observations accumulated over more than a decade (from 1993 to 2005) at DYFAMED time-series station (DYnamique des Flux Atmosphériques en MEDiterranée) located in the central part of the Ligurian Sea, Touratier and Goyet (2009) have estimated the temporal evolution of CANT of the western Mediterranean Sea. This study highlights that concentrations of anthropogenic CO2 are much higher at DYFAMED site (> 50 mol.kg-1) than those found in the Atlantic Ocean. Our study, conducted with measurements performed at 10 meters depth from 1995 to 2011 at the same location, allowed us to investigate the temporal evolution of CANT into the upper seawater layer. Our results indicate an averaged annual CANT increase of 3 µmol.kg-1 and a linked pH drop of 0.0032 per year confirming the ongoing acidification of the Mediterranean water masses. These results suggest the vulnerability and the endangerment of the Mediterranean ecosystems by the massive human-induced CO2 emissions. Touratier F. and C. Goyet (2009). Decadal evolution of anthropogenic CO2 in the north western Mediterranean Sea (at the Dyfamed site) from the mid-1990's to the mid-2000's. Deep Sea Research Part I, 56, 1708-1716

  2. Heterochronic opsin expression due to early light deprivation results in drastically shifted visual sensitivity in a cichlid fish: Possible role of thyroid hormone signaling.

    PubMed

    Karagic, Nidal; Härer, Andreas; Meyer, Axel; Torres-Dowdall, Julián

    2018-06-14

    During early ontogeny, visual opsin gene expression in cichlids is influenced by prevailing light regimen. Red light, for example, leads to an early switch from the expression of short-wavelength sensitive to long-wavelength sensitive opsins. Here, we address the influence of light deprivation on opsin expression. Individuals reared in constant darkness during the first 14 days post-hatching (dph) showed a general developmental delay compared with fish reared under a 12:12 hr light-dark cycle (control group). Several characters including pigmentation patterns and eye development, appeared later in dark-reared individuals. Quantitative real-time PCR and fluorescent in situ hybridization at six time points during the 14 days period revealed that fish from the control group expressed opsin genes from 5 dph on and maintained a short-wavelength sensitive phenotype (sws1, rh2b, and rh2a). Onset of opsin expression in dark-reared Midas cichlids was delayed by 4 days and visual sensitivity rapidly progressed toward a long-wavelength sensitive phenotype (sws2b, rh2a, and lws). Shifts in visual sensitivities toward longer wavelengths are mediated by thyroid hormone (TH) in many vertebrates. Compared to control fish, dark-reared individuals showed elevated dio3 expression levels - a validated proxy for TH concentration - suggesting higher circulating TH levels. Despite decelerated overall development, ontogeny of opsin gene expression was accelerated, resulting in retinae with long-wavelength shifted predicted sensitivities compared to light-reared individuals. Indirect evidence suggests that this was due to altered TH metabolism. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Early in situ changes in chondrocyte biomechanical responses due to a partial meniscectomy in the lateral compartment of the mature rabbit knee joint.

    PubMed

    Fick, J M; P Ronkainen, A; Madden, R; Sawatsky, A; Tiitu, V; Herzog, W; Korhonen, R K

    2016-12-08

    We determined the biomechanical responses of chondrocytes to indentation at specific locations within the superficial zone of cartilage (i.e. patellar, femoral groove, femoral condylar and tibial plateau sites) taken from female New Zealand white rabbits three days after a partial meniscectomy in the lateral compartment of a knee joint. Confocal laser scanning microscopy combined with a custom indentation system was utilized to image chondrocyte responses at sites taken from ten contralateral and experimental knee joints. Cell volume, height, width and depth changes, global, local axial and transverse strains and Young׳s moduli were determined. Histological assessment was performed and proteoglycan content from the superficial zone of each site was determined. Relative to contralateral group cells, patellar, femoral groove and lateral femoral condyle cells in the experimental group underwent greater volume decreases (p < 0.05), due to smaller lateral expansions (with greater decreases in cell height only for the lateral femoral condyle cells; p < 0.05) whereas medial femoral and medial tibial plateau cells underwent smaller volume decreases (p < 0.05), due to less deformation in cell height (p < 0.05). Proteoglycan content was reduced in the patellar (p > 0.05), femoral groove, medial femoral condyle and medial tibial plateau experimental sites (p < 0.05). The findings suggest: (i) cell biomechanical responses to cartilage loading in the rabbit knee joint can become altered as early as 3 days after a partial meniscectomy, (ii) are site-specific, and (iii) occur before alterations in tissue mechanics or changes detectable with histology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Histological and Transcriptomic Changes in Male Zebrafish Testes Due to Early Life Exposure to Low Level 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin.

    PubMed

    Baker, Bridget B; Yee, Jeremiah S; Meyer, Danielle N; Yang, Doris; Baker, Tracie R

    2016-10-01

    We have shown that zebrafish (Danio rerio) are an excellent model for evaluating the link between early life stage exposure to environmental chemicals and disease in adulthood and subsequent unexposed generations. Previously, we used this model to identify transgenerational effects of dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD]) on skeletal development, sex ratio, and reproductive capacity. Transgenerational inheritance of TCDD toxicity, notably decreased reproductive capacity, appears to be mediated through the male germ line. Thus, we examine testicular tissue for structural and gene expression changes using histology, microarray, and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Histological analysis revealed decreased spermatozoa with concurrent increase in spermatogonia, and decreased germinal epithelium thickness in TCDD-exposed males compared with controls. We also identified altered expression of genes associated with testis development, steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis, hormone metabolism, and xenobiotic response. Altered genes are in pathways involving lipid metabolism, molecular transport, small molecule biochemistry, cell morphology, and metabolism of vitamins and minerals. These data will inform future investigations to elucidate the mechanism of adult-onset and transgenerational infertility due to TCDD exposure in zebrafish.

  5. Theoretical evaluation of burns to the human respiratory tract due to inhalation of hot gas in the early stage of fires.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yong-Gang; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Jun

    2006-06-01

    A transient two-dimensional mathematical model for heat and water vapor transport across the respiratory tract of human body was established and applied to predict the thermal impact of inhaled hot gas to the nasal tissues during the early stage of fires. Influences of individual's physiological status and environment variables were comprehensively investigated through numerical calculations. Burn evaluation was performed using the classical Henriques model to predict the time for thermal injury to occur. It was shown that decreasing the air velocity and increasing the respiratory rate is helpful to minimize the burn over the respiratory tract. The effect of relative humidity of surrounding dry hot air could be ignored in predicting burns for short duration exposures. Due to evaporation cooling on the mucousal membrane, the burn often occurs at certain positions underneath the skin of the tract near the inlet of the respiratory tract. Most of the tissues near the surface suffer injury immediately after exposure to fire, while in the deeper tissues, serious damage occurs after a relatively longer time period. The method presented in this paper may suggest a valuable approach to theoretically evaluate the injury of hot air to the human respiratory tract under various fire situations.

  6. Changing mortality patterns in East and West Germany and Poland. II: Short-term trends during transition and in the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, E.; Shkolnikov, V.; McKee, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To examine trends in life expectancy at birth and age and cause specific patterns of mortality in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) and Poland during political transition and throughout the 1990s in both parts of Germany and in Poland.
METHODS—Decomposition of life expectancy by age and cause of death. Changes in life expectancy during transition by cause of death were examined using data for 1988/89 and 1990/91 for the former GDR and Poland; examination of life expectancy changes after transition were based on 1992-97 data for Germany and 1991-96 data for Poland.
RESULTS—In both the former GDR and Poland male life expectancy at birth declined by almost one year during transition, mainly attributable to rising death rates from external causes and circulatory diseases. Female life expectancy in Poland deteriorated by 0.3 years, largely attributable to increasing circulatory mortality among the old, while in East German female rising death rates in children and young adults were nearly outbalanced by declining circulatory mortality among those over 70. Between 1991/92 and 1996/97, male life expectancy at birth increased by 2.4 years in the former GDR, 1.2 years in old Federal Republic, and 2.0 years in Poland (women: 2.3, 0.9, and 1.2 years). In East Germany and Poland, the overall improvement was largely attributable to falling mortality among men aged 40-64, while those over 65 contributed the largest proportion to life expectancy gains in women. The change in deaths among men aged 15-39 accounted for 0.4 of a year to life expectancy at birth in East Germany and Poland, attributable largely to greater decreases from external causes. Among those over 40, absolute contributions to changing life expectancy were greater in the former GDR than in the other two entities in both sexes, largely attributable to circulatory diseases. A persisting East-west life expectancy gap in Germany of 2.1 years in men in 1997 was largely

  7. A glass fiber-reinforced composite - bioactive glass cranioplasty implant: A case study of an early development stage implant removed due to a late infection.

    PubMed

    Posti, Jussi P; Piitulainen, Jaakko M; Hupa, Leena; Fagerlund, Susanne; Frantzén, Janek; Aitasalo, Kalle M J; Vuorinen, Ville; Serlo, Willy; Syrjänen, Stina; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2015-03-01

    This case study describes the properties of an early development stage bioactive glass containing fiber-reinforced composite calvarial implant with histology that has been in function for two years and three months. The patient is a 33-year old woman with a history of substance abuse, who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury later unsuccessfully treated with an autologous bone flap and a custom-made porous polyethylene implant. She was thereafter treated with developmental stage glass fiber-reinforced composite - bioactive glass implant. After two years and three months, the implant was removed due to an implant site infection. The implant was analyzed histologically, mechanically, and in terms of chemistry and dissolution of bioactive glass. Mechanical integrity of the load bearing fiber-reinforced composite part of the implant was not affected by the in vivo period. Bioactive glass particles demonstrated surface layers of hydroxyapatite like mineral and dissolution, and related increase of pH was considerably less after two and three months period than that for fresh bioactive glass. There was a difference in the histology of the tissues inside the implant areas near to the margin of the implant that absorbed blood during implant installation surgery, showed fibrous tissue with blood vessels, osteoblasts, collagenous fibers with osteoid formation, and tiny clusters of more mature hard tissue. In the center of the implant, where there was less absorbed blood, only fibrous tissue was observed. This finding is in line with the combined positron emission tomography - computed tomography examination with (18F)-fluoride marker, which demonstrated activity of the mineralizing bone by osteoblasts especially at the area near to the margin of the implant 10 months after implantation. Based on these promising reactions found in the bioactive glass containing fiber-reinforced composite implant that has been implanted for two years and three months, calvarial

  8. Assessment of the current internal dose due to 137Cs and 90Sr for people living within the Semipalatinsk Test Site, Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Semiochkina, N; Voigt, G; Mukusheva, M; Bruk, G; Travnikova, I; Strand, P

    2004-02-01

    The Semipalatinsk Test Site in Kazakhstan was one of the major sites used by the USSR for testing nuclear weapons for more than 40 y. Since the early 1990's, responsibility for the site has passed to the Kazakh authorities. There has been a gradual re-establishment of agricultural use such as horse and sheep farming. Therefore, it has become important to evaluate the current and future risk to people living on and using the contaminated area. Internal dose assessment is one of the main components of the total dose when deriving risk factors for population living within the test site. Internal doses based on food monitoring and whole body measurements were calculated for adults and are in the range of 13-500 microSv y(-1) due to radiocesium and radiostrontium.

  9. Early-Onset Bipolar Spectrum Disorders: Diagnostic Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danner, Stephanie; Fristad, Mary A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Birmaher, Boris; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Demeter, Christine; Findling, Robert L.; Kowatch, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid 1990s, early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSDs) have received increased attention in both the popular press and scholarly press. Rates of diagnosis of BPSD in children and adolescents have increased in inpatient, outpatient, and primary care settings. BPSDs remain difficult to diagnose, particularly in youth. The current…

  10. A Relationship with a Purpose: Accreditation Facilitation Projects and Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flis, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Describes use of accreditation facilitation projects (AFP) begun in the 1990s to provide varying levels and types of support to early childhood programs engaged in the self-study process for accreditation with the National Association for the Education of Young Children. Presents insights about the early childhood program/AFP relationship related…

  11. Early urinary diversion with ileal conduit and vesicovaginostomy in the treatment of radiation cystitis due to carcinoma cervix: a study from a tertiary care hospital in South India.

    PubMed

    Banerji, John Samuel; Devasia, Antony; Kekre, Nitin Sudhakar; Chacko, Ninan

    2015-10-01

    To study the magnitude of radiation cystitis following radiation therapy for carcinoma cervix, and propose an algorithm to decide on early diversion, with or without vesicovaginostomy. Women who developed radiation cystitis following radiotherapy for carcinoma cervix from January 1998 to December 2011 were included in this retrospective study. Electronic hospital records were analysed to document the presence of radiation cystitis. All women who developed evidence of radiation-induced cystitis, according to the common toxicity and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria, were included in the study. We looked at transfusion requirements, number of hospital admissions, quality of life and cost involved. Chi-square tests were done where applicable. SPSS version 16 was used for analysis. Of the 902 patients who received radiation for carcinoma cervix in the 13-year period, 62 (6.87%) developed grade 3/4 cystitis. Twenty-eight of them underwent ileal conduit diversion, with 18 undergoing concomitant vesicovaginostomy. When compared with the patients who did not have diversion, the transfusion requirements, number of hospital admissions and quality of life had a statistically significant difference. Cost analysis of early diversion too showed a marginal benefit with early diversion. The limitation of the study was that it was retrospective in nature. In radiation cystitis, multiple hospital admissions and consequential increase in cost is the norm. In severe disease, early diversion is a prudent, cost-effective approach with good quality of life and early return to normal activity. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  12. Future change in seasonal march of snow water equivalent due to global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, M.; Kawase, H.; Ma, X.; Wakazuki, Y.; Fujita, M.; Kimura, F.

    2012-04-01

    Western side of Honshu Island in Japan is one of the heaviest snowfall areas in the world, although the location is relatively lower latitude than other heavy snowfall areas. Snowfall is one of major source for agriculture, industrial, and house-use in Japan. The change in seasonal march of snow water equivalent, e.g., snowmelt season and amount will strongly influence to social-economic activities (ex. Ma et al., 2011). We performed the four numerical experiments including present and future climate simulations and much-snow and less-snow cases using a regional climate model. Pseudo-Global-Warming (PGW) method (Kimura and Kitoh, 2008) is applied for the future climate simulations. NCEP/NCAR reanalysis is used for initial and boundary conditions in present climate simulation and PGW method. MIROC 3.2 medres 2070s output under IPCC SRES A2 scenario and 1990s output under 20c3m scenario used for PGW method. In much-snow cases, Maximum total snow water equivalent over Japan, which is mostly observed in early February, is 49 G ton in the present simulation, the one decreased 26 G ton in the future simulation. The decreasing rate of snow water equivalent due to climate change was 49%. Main cause of the decrease of the total snow water equivalent is strongly affected by the air temperature rise due to global climate change. The difference in present and future precipitation amount is little.

  13. Locking-In Effects Due to Early Interventions? An Evaluation of a Multidisciplinary Screening Programs for Avoiding Long-Term Sickness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Per; Lindahl, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this article, we estimate the effect of a multidisciplinary collaboration program on the length of sickness absence. The intention with the program was to avoid long-term sickness absence by providing an early and holistic evaluation of the sick-listed individuals' conditions. The target group was individuals who were at risk of…

  14. The Impact on Higher Education. Part of a Symposium: Funding Shortfalls and Their Impact on Policy Making in the 1990's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, John R.; Kenney, Gordon E.

    This paper examines the impact on higher education of funding shortfalls that are due to significant reductions of college budgets by state legislatures and that result in trimming of services and laying off of employees. First, an overview of national trends and statistics describes retrenchment as a key institutional response. A look at some…

  15. Severe early-onset epileptic encephalopathy due to mutations in the KCNA2 gene: Expansion of the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum.

    PubMed

    Hundallah, Khaled; Alenizi, Asma'a; AlHashem, Amal; Tabarki, Brahim

    2016-07-01

    Recently, de novo loss- or gain-of-function mutations in the KCNA2 gene; have been described in individuals with epileptic encephalopathy, ataxia or intellectual disability. In this report, we describe a further case of KCNA2-early-onset epileptic encephalopathy. The patient presented since birth with intractable seizures, progressive microcephaly, developmental delay, and progressive brain atrophy. Whole-exome sequencing showed a novel de novo mutation in the KCNA2 gene: c.1120A > G (p.Thr374Ala). This case expands the genotypic and phenotypic disease spectrum of this genetic form of KCNA2-early onset epileptic encephalopathy. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Early and long-term results after reconstructive surgery in 42 children and two young adults with renovascular hypertension due to fibromuscular dysplasia and middle aortic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sandmann, W; Dueppers, P; Pourhassan, S; Voiculescu, A; Klee, D; Balzer, K M

    2014-05-01

    This retrospective study presents the early and late results of pediatric patients who underwent reconstructive surgery for renovascular hypertension (RVH) between 1979 and 2009. From 1979 to 2009 44 patients (male 22; mean age 13±5.2 years, range 1-19 years; early childhood 7 [1-6 years], middle childhood 5 [7-10 years]; adolescents 32 [11-19 years]) with renovascular hypertension underwent surgery for abdominal aortic stenoses (n=6), renal artery stenosis (RAS) (n=25) or for combined lesions (n=13). Nineteen aortic stenoses (bypass/interposition 10/5, patch dilatation/thromboendarterectomy 2/2), 51 renal arteries (interposition 36, resection+reimplantation 13, patch dilatation/aneurysmorraphy 1 each), and 10 visceral arteries (resection+reimplantation 6, interposition 3, patch dilatation 1) were reconstructed. Each patient underwent duplex studies and if required intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography. Reoperations within 30 postoperative days were required in four (9%) of the patients for occlusion of four arteries (6%), achieving a combined technical success rate of 94%. After 114±81 months 36 patients were re-examined by duplex and magnetic resonance angiography (2 not surgery-related deaths 7/12 years postoperatively, 8 patients lived abroad). Twelve patients had required a second and three a third procedure. Hypertension was cured early/late postoperatively in 27%/56%, improved in 41%/44%, and remained unchanged in 32%/0%. Best late results were obtained in patients with isolated aortic disease and at the age of middle childhood. Reconstructive surgery for pediatric RVH yields good results at every age and every type of lesion. However, these children should be followed up closely and to avoid early cardiovascular disease and death in later life, surgery should not be delayed. Copyright © 2013 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Longterm Work Productivity Costs Due to Absenteeism and Permanent Work Disability in Patients with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Nationwide Register Study of 7831 Patients.

    PubMed

    Martikainen, Janne A; Kautiainen, Hannu; Rantalaiho, Vappu; Puolakka, Kari T

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the development and potential disproportional distribution of longterm productivity costs (PC) and their determinants leading to work absenteeism and permanent work disability in working-aged patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A cohort of subjects with early RA was created by identifying the new cases of RA from the national drug reimbursement register that had been granted a special reimbursement for their antirheumatic medications for RA from 2000-2007. The dataset was enriched by cross-linking with other national registries detailing work absenteeism days and permanent disability pensions. In the base case, the human capital approach was applied to estimate PC based on subjects' annual number of absenteeism days and incomes. Hurdle regression analysis was applied to study the determinants of PC. Among the 7831 subjects with early RA, the mean (bootstrapped 95% CI) annual PC per person-observation year was €4800 (4547-5070). The annual PC declined after the first year of RA diagnosis, but increased significantly in subsequent years. In addition, the PC was heavily disproportionally concentrated in a small fraction of patients with RA, because only around 20% of patients accounted for the majority of total annual PC. The initiation of active drug treatment during the first 3 months after RA diagnosis significantly reduced the cumulative PC when compared with no drug treatment. The longterm PC increased significantly in parallel with years elapsing after RA diagnosis. Further, the majority of these PC are incurred by a small proportion of patients.

  18. Two siblings with early infantile myoclonic encephalopathy due to mutation in the gene encoding mitochondrial glutamate/H+ symporter SLC25A22.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Rony; Basel-Vanagaite, Lina; Goldberg-Stern, Hadassah; Halevy, Ayelet; Shuper, Avinoam; Feingold-Zadok, Michal; Behar, Doron M; Straussberg, Rachel

    2014-11-01

    To characterize a new subset of early myoclonic encephalopathy usually associated with metabolic etiologies with a new genetic entity. We describe two siblings with early myoclonic encephalopathy born to consanguineous parents of Arab Muslim origin from Israel. We used homozygosity mapping and candidate gene sequencing to reveal the genetic basis of the myoclonic syndrome. We found a rare missense mutation in the gene encoding one of the two mitochondrial glutamate/H symporters, SLC25A22. The phenotype of early myoclonic encephalopathy was first linked to the same mutation in 2005 in patients of the same ethnicity as our family. Owing to the devastating nature of this encephalopathy, we focus attention on its clinical history, epileptic semiology, distinct electroencephalography features, and genetic basis. We provide the evidence that an integrated diagnostic strategy combining homozygosity mapping with candidate gene sequencing is efficient in consanguineous families with highly heterogeneous autosomal recessive diseases. Copyright © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. From Universalism to Selectivity? The Background, Discourses and Ideas of Recent Early Childhood Education and Care Reforms in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundkvist, Marina; Nyby, Josefine; Autto, Janne; Nygård, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Universal public childcare for children under seven has been central in Finland since the mid-1990s, capacitating both gender equality and children's human capital and wellbeing. In 2015, as a further step in the development of this system, early learning and childhood pedagogy was strengthened through the early childhood education and care (ECEC)…

  20. Charting the trajectory of domestic violence policy change in the Republic of Ireland since the mid-1990s – a path towards integration?

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Noreen; Coen, Liam

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This paper assesses the policy developments pertaining to the implementation of an integrated approach to domestic violence over the past 15 years. The contextual setting is outlined in terms of the international policy response to the problem of domestic violence based on an ecological perspective. Description of policy and case Periods of core strategic policy and related structural developments are considered illustrating the Irish experience of domestic violence policy-making and service provision. The value of adopting an integrated approach to domestic violence based on the rationale of improving strategic policy formulation, coordinating service provision and facilitating joined-up governance is set out. The core facilitators and challenges associated with such an approach are described. Analysis and conclusion The policy framework and restructured landscape of domestic violence in Ireland has undergone significant change over the past decade and a half. The paper uses a three-dimensional matrix of domestic violence policy development and service integration as a means of addressing horizontal, vertical and resource aspects of collaboration and integration. While the changes have been characterised by significant phases of fluctuation in terms of coordinated action and the situation currently appears promising, however it is too early to judge the outcomes of the most recent reforms. PMID:25337062

  1. Charting the trajectory of domestic violence policy change in the Republic of Ireland since the mid-1990s - a path towards integration?

    PubMed

    Kearns, Noreen; Coen, Liam

    2014-07-01

    This paper assesses the policy developments pertaining to the implementation of an integrated approach to domestic violence over the past 15 years. The contextual setting is outlined in terms of the international policy response to the problem of domestic violence based on an ecological perspective. Periods of core strategic policy and related structural developments are considered illustrating the Irish experience of domestic violence policy-making and service provision. The value of adopting an integrated approach to domestic violence based on the rationale of improving strategic policy formulation, coordinating service provision and facilitating joined-up governance is set out. The core facilitators and challenges associated with such an approach are described. The policy framework and restructured landscape of domestic violence in Ireland has undergone significant change over the past decade and a half. The paper uses a three-dimensional matrix of domestic violence policy development and service integration as a means of addressing horizontal, vertical and resource aspects of collaboration and integration. While the changes have been characterised by significant phases of fluctuation in terms of coordinated action and the situation currently appears promising, however it is too early to judge the outcomes of the most recent reforms.

  2. Bioenergetic Insufficiencies Due to Metabolic Alterations Regulated by the Inhibitory Receptor PD-1 Are an Early Driver of CD8(+) T Cell Exhaustion.

    PubMed

    Bengsch, Bertram; Johnson, Andy L; Kurachi, Makoto; Odorizzi, Pamela M; Pauken, Kristen E; Attanasio, John; Stelekati, Erietta; McLane, Laura M; Paley, Michael A; Delgoffe, Greg M; Wherry, E John

    2016-08-16

    Dynamic reprogramming of metabolism is essential for T cell effector function and memory formation. However, the regulation of metabolism in exhausted CD8(+) T (Tex) cells is poorly understood. We found that during the first week of chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, before severe dysfunction develops, virus-specific CD8(+) T cells were already unable to match the bioenergetics of effector T cells generated during acute infection. Suppression of T cell bioenergetics involved restricted glucose uptake and use, despite persisting mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and upregulation of many anabolic pathways. PD-1 regulated early glycolytic and mitochondrial alterations and repressed transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α. Improving bioenergetics by overexpression of PGC-1α enhanced function in developing Tex cells. Therapeutic reinvigoration by anti-PD-L1 reprogrammed metabolism in a subset of Tex cells. These data highlight a key metabolic control event early in exhaustion and suggest that manipulating glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolism might enhance checkpoint blockade outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Early warning indicators for process failure due to organic overloading by rapeseed oil in one-stage continuously stirred tank reactor, sewage sludge and waste digesters.

    PubMed

    Kleyböcker, A; Liebrich, M; Verstraete, W; Kraume, M; Würdemann, H

    2012-11-01

    Early warning indicators for process failures were investigated to develop a reliable method to increase the production efficiency of biogas plants. Organic overloads by the excessive addition of rapeseed oil were used to provoke the decrease in the gas production rate. Besides typical monitoring parameters, as pH, methane and hydrogen contents, biogas production rate and concentrations of fatty acids; carbon dioxide content, concentrations of calcium and phosphate were monitored. The concentration ratio of volatile fatty acids to calcium acted as an early warning indicator (EWI-VFA/Ca). The EWI-VFA/Ca always clearly and reliably indicated a process imbalance by exhibiting a 2- to 3-fold increase 3-7days before the process failure occurred. At this time, it was still possible to take countermeasures successfully. Furthermore, increases in phosphate concentration and in the concentration ratio of phosphate to calcium also indicated a process failure, in some cases, even earlier than the EWI-VFA/Ca. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Severe early onset retinitis pigmentosa in a Moroccan patient with Heimler syndrome due to novel homozygous mutation of PEX1 gene.

    PubMed

    Ratbi, Ilham; Jaouad, Imane Cherkaoui; Elorch, Hamza; Al-Sheqaih, Nada; Elalloussi, Mustapha; Lyahyai, Jaber; Berraho, Amina; Newman, William G; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2016-10-01

    Heimler syndrome (HS) is a rare recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), amelogenesis imperfecta, nail abnormalities, and occasional or late-onset retinal pigmentation. It is the mildest form known to date of peroxisome biogenesis disorder caused by hypomorphic mutations of PEX1 and PEX6 genes. We report on a second Moroccan family with Heimler syndrome with early onset, severe visual impairment and important phenotypic overlap with Usher syndrome. The patient carried a novel homozygous missense variant c.3140T > C (p.Leu1047Pro) of PEX1 gene. As standard biochemical screening of blood for evidence of a peroxisomal disorder did not provide a diagnosis in the individuals with HS, patients with SNHL and retinal pigmentation should have mutation analysis of PEX1 and PEX6 genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Early life stress impairs social recognition due to a blunted response of vasopressin release within the septum of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Lukas, Michael; Bredewold, Remco; Landgraf, Rainer; Neumann, Inga D; Veenema, Alexa H

    2011-07-01

    Early life stress poses a risk for the development of psychopathologies characterized by disturbed emotional, social, and cognitive performance. We used maternal separation (MS, 3h daily, postnatal days 1-14) to test whether early life stress impairs social recognition performance in juvenile (5-week-old) and adult (16-week-old) male Wistar rats. Social recognition was tested in the social discrimination test and defined by increased investigation by the experimental rat towards a novel rat compared with a previously encountered rat. Juvenile control and MS rats demonstrated successful social recognition at inter-exposure intervals of 30 and 60 min. However, unlike adult control rats, adult MS rats failed to discriminate between a previously encountered and a novel rat after 60 min. The social recognition impairment of adult MS rats was accompanied by a lack of a rise in arginine vasopressin (AVP) release within the lateral septum seen during social memory acquisition in adult control rats. This blunted response of septal AVP release was social stimulus-specific because forced swimming induced a rise in septal AVP release in both control and MS rats. Retrodialysis of AVP (1 μg/ml, 3.3 μl/min, 30 min) into the lateral septum during social memory acquisition restored social recognition in adult MS rats at the 60-min interval. These studies demonstrate that MS impairs social recognition performance in adult rats, which is likely caused by blunted septal AVP activation. Impaired social recognition may be linked to MS-induced changes in other social behaviors like aggression as shown previously. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A serious but rare complication of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding: bowel obstruction due to caecal volvulus.

    PubMed

    Agahi, Afshin; Harle, Robin

    2009-08-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is a widely performed surgical procedure for the treatment of morbid obesity. LAGB complications have declined since its development in the early 1990s. However, LAGB complications are still occurring and can sometimes be serious and life threatening. These complications are related either to the band or to the access port, such as band slippage or tubing disconnection, retrospectively. We report a rare case of bowel obstruction due to caecal volvulus caused by connecting tube used in LAP-BAND system in a bariatric operation, which obstructed a caecal loop, in a female who had undergone LAGB 2 years previously. Diagnosis of bowel obstruction was established with plain abdominal radiograph appearances. Follow-up abdominal computed tomography findings confirmed the diagnosis of caecal obstruction and revealed the underlying cause for this obstruction. Surgery was performed, and intraoperative examination demonstrated that connecting tube of the LAP-BAND system was a main causative factor. We can hypothesize that bowel obstruction secondary to LAGB operation may become frequently diagnosed as more LAGB operations performed worldwide. The emergence of many problems, such as this, can be minimized with enhancement in the development of better surgical materials, proper operative technique, and close postoperative management and follow-up.

  7. Enhanced biennial variability in the Pacific due to Atlantic capacitor effect

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Yu, Jin-Yi; Paek, Houk

    2017-01-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the variability in the Pacific subtropical highs (PSHs) have major impacts on social and ecological systems. Here we present an Atlantic capacitor effect mechanism to suggest that the Atlantic is a key pacemaker of the biennial variability in the Pacific including that in ENSO and the PSHs during recent decades. The ‘charging' (that is, ENSO imprinting the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA) sea surface temperature (SST) via an atmospheric bridge mechanism) and ‘discharging' (that is, the NTA SST triggering the following ENSO via a subtropical teleconnection mechanism) processes alternate, generating the biennial rhythmic changes in the Pacific. Since the early 1990s, a warmer Atlantic due to the positive phase of Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and global warming trend has provided more favourable background state for the Atlantic capacitor effect, giving rise to enhanced biennial variability in the Pacific that may increase the occurrence frequency of severe natural hazard events. PMID:28317857

  8. Reducing Occurrence and Severity of Pneumonia Due to Pandemic H1N1 2009 by Early Oseltamivir Administration: A Retrospective Study in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Higuera Iglesias, Anjarath Lorena; Kudo, Koichiro; Manabe, Toshie; Corcho Berdugo, Alexander Enrique; Baeza, Ariel Corrales; Ramos, Leticia Alfaro; Gutiérrez, René Guevara; Manjarrez Zavala, María Eugenia; Takasaki, Jin; Izumi, Shinyu; Bautista, Edgar; Perez Padilla, José Rogelio

    2011-01-01

    Background Anti-viral treatment has been used to treat severe or progressive illness due to pandemic H1N1 2009. A main cause of severe illness in pandemic H1N1 2009 is viral pneumonia; however, it is unclear how effective antiviral treatment is against pneumonia when administered >48 hours after symptom onset. Therefore, we aimed to determine how time from symptom onset to antiviral administration affected the effectiveness of antiviral treatment against pneumonia due to pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Methods/Principal Findings A retrospective medical chart review of 442 patients was conducted in a hospital in Mexico. Subjects had tested positive for pandemic H1N1 2009 virus by real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction and were administered oseltamivir. Median time from symptom onset to oseltamivir administration was 5.0 days (range, 0–43). 442 subjects, 71 (16.1%) had severe pneumonia which required mechanical ventilation, 191 (43.2%) had mild to moderate pneumonia, and 180 (40%) did not have pneumonia. Subjects were divided into four groups based on time to oseltamivir administration: ≤2, 3–7, 8–14, and >14 days. Severity of respiratory features was associated with time to treatment, and multivariate analysis indicated that time to oseltamivir administration was associated with severity of respiratory features. A proportional odds model indicated that 50% probability for occurrence of pneumonia of any severity and that of severe pneumonia in patients who would develop pneumonia reached at approximately 3.4 and 21 days, respectively, after symptom onset. Patients with a shorter time to oseltamivir administration were discharged earlier from the hospital. Conclusions Earlier initiation of oseltamivir administration after symptom onset significantly reduced occurrence and severity of pneumonia and shortened hospitalization due to pandemic H1N1 2009. Even when administered >48 hours after symptom onset, oseltamivir showed considerable potential for

  9. Decreasing boron concentrations in UK rivers: insights into reductions in detergent formulations since the 1990s and within-catchment storage issues.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin; Williams, Richard J; Bowes, Michael J; Harrass, Michael C; Neal, Margaret; Rowland, Philip; Wickham, Heather; Thacker, Sarah; Harman, Sarah; Vincent, Colin; Jarvie, Helen P

    2010-02-15

    The changing patterns of riverine boron concentration are examined for the Thames catchment in southern/southeastern England using data from 1997 to 2007. Boron concentrations are related to an independent marker for sewage effluent, sodium. The results show that boron concentrations in the main river channels have declined with time especially under baseflow conditions when sewage effluent dilution potential is at its lowest. While boron concentrations have reduced, especially under low-flow conditions, this does not fully translate to a corresponding reduction in boron flux and it seems that the "within-catchment" supplies of boron to the river are contaminated by urban sources. The estimated boron reduction in the effluent input to the river based on the changes in river chemistry is typically around 60% and this figure matches with an initial survey of more limited data for the industrial north of England. Data for effluent concentrations at eight sewage treatment works within the Kennet also indicate substantial reductions in boron concentrations: 80% reduction occurred between 2001 and 2008. For the more contaminated rivers there are issues of localised rather than catchment-wide sources and uncertainties over the extent and nature of water/boron stores. Atmospheric sources average around 32 to 61% for the cleaner and 4 to 14% for the more polluted parts. The substantial decreases in the boron concentrations correspond extremely well with the timing and extent of European wide trends for reductions in the industrial and domestic usage of boron-bearing compounds. It clearly indicates that such reductions have translated into lower average and peak concentrations of boron in the river although the full extent of these reductions has probably not yet occurred due to localised stores that are still to deplete.

  10. Becoming Global Elites through Transnational Language Learning?: The Case of Korean Early Study Abroad in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Sohee; Park, Joseph Sung-Yul

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, early study abroad (ESA) in English-speaking countries has been a popular educational strategy for pre-university Korean students to acquire important language skills such as global English, which is imagined to help them prepare for the competition in global educational and occupational market. However, as ESA, commonly…

  11. Exploring Staff Perceptions: Early Childhood Teacher Educators Examine Online Teaching and Learning Challenges and Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Julie; Lennox, Sandra; Walker, Sue; Walsh, Kerryann

    2007-01-01

    Early Childhood teacher educators at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) have been engaging with online teaching and learning since the mid 1990s. On campus students have lectures and tutorials supported by information and communication technologies via QUT's home grown learning management system, Online Learning and Teaching (OLT). We…

  12. Early Childhood Intervention in Portugal: An Overview Based on the Developmental Systems Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Ana Isabel; Grande, Catarina; Aguiar, Cecilia; de Almeida, Isabel Chaves; Felgueiras, Isabel; Pimentel, Julia Serpa; Serrano, Ana Maria; Carvalho, Leonor; Brandao, Maria Teresa; Boavida, Tania; Santos, Paula; Lopes-dos-Santos, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Research studies on early childhood intervention (ECI) in Portugal are diffuse regarding both program components and the geographical area under scrutiny. Since the 1990s, a growing body of knowledge and evidence in ECI is being gathered, based on postgraduate teaching, in-service training, and research. This article draws on the systems theory…

  13. Sensory deprivation due to otitis media episodes in early childhood and its effect at later age: A psychoacoustic and speech perception measure.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Hemanth Narayan; Koonoor, Vishal

    2016-11-01

    Past research has reported that children with repeated occurrences of otitis media at an early age have a negative impact on speech perception at a later age. The present study necessitates documenting the temporal and spectral processing on speech perception in noise from normal and atypical groups. The present study evaluated the relation between speech perception in noise and temporal; and spectral processing abilities in children with normal and atypical groups. The study included two experiments. In the first experiment, temporal resolution and frequency discrimination of listeners with normal group and three subgroups of atypical groups (had a history of OM) a) less than four episodes b) four to nine episodes and c) More than nine episodes during their chronological age of 6 months to 2 years) were evaluated using measures of temporal modulation transfer function and frequency discrimination test. In the second experiment, SNR 50 was evaluated on each group of study participants. All participants had normal hearing and middle ear status during the course of testing. Demonstrated that children with atypical group had significantly poorer modulation detection threshold, peak sensitivity and bandwidth; and frequency discrimination to each F0 than normal hearing listeners. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation seen between measures of temporal resolution; frequency discrimination and speech perception in noise. It infers atypical groups have significant impairment in extracting envelope as well as fine structure cues from the signal. The results supported the idea that episodes of OM before 2 years of agecan produce periods of sensory deprivation that alters the temporal and spectral skills which in turn has negative consequences on speech perception in noise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Neutrophil depletion in the early inflammatory phase delayed cutaneous wound healing in older rats: improvements due to the use of un-denatured camel whey protein

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While it is known that advanced age alters the recruitment of neutrophils during wound healing, thereby delaying the wound healing process, little is known about prolonged wound healing in advanced ages. Thus, we investigated the correlation of neutrophil recruitment with healing events, and the impact of whey protein (WP) on neutrophil activation. Methods The animals were allocated into wounded young group, wounded older group and wounded older rats with daily treatment of WP at a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight. Results Our results pointed to a marked deficiency in the number of neutrophils in the wounds of older rats, which was accompanied with impairment of the healing process. In the group of older rats, phagocytic activity, as tested by fluorescence microscopy, declined throughout the first 24 hours after wounding. Both the neutrophil number and the phagocytic activity recovered in older rats which received WP supplementation. Interestingly, WP was found to significantly up-regulate the MIP-1α and CINC-1 mRNA expression in old rats. On the other hand, the wound size in older rats was significantly higher than that in younger ones. Blood angiogenesis was also significantly delayed in the older group as opposed to the young rats. WP, however, was found to return these indices to normal levels in the older rats. Proliferation and epidermal migration of the keratinocytes and the collagen deposition were also returned to the normal rates. Conclusions This data confirms the critical role of neutrophil recruitment in the early inflammatory phase of wound healing in older rats. In addition, WP protein was used to improve neutrophil function in older rats, healing events returned to a more normal profile. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2100966986117779. PMID:24593823

  15. The Central Bright Spot Sign: A Potential New MR Imaging Sign for the Early Diagnosis of Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy due to Giant Cell Arteritis.

    PubMed

    Remond, P; Attyé, A; Lecler, A; Lamalle, L; Boudiaf, N; Aptel, F; Krainik, A; Chiquet, C

    2017-07-01

    A rapid identification of the etiology of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is crucial because it determines therapeutic management. Our aim was to assess MR imaging to study the optic nerve head in patients referred with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, due to either giant cell arteritis or the nonarteritic form of the disease, compared with healthy subjects. Fifteen patients with giant cell arteritis-related anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and 15 patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy from 2 medical centers were prospectively included in our study between August 2015 and May 2016. Fifteen healthy subjects and patients had undergone contrast-enhanced, flow-compensated, 3D T1-weighted MR imaging. The bright spot sign was defined as optic nerve head enhancement with a 3-grade ranking system. Two radiologists and 1 ophthalmologist independently performed blinded evaluations of MR imaging sequences with this scale. Statistical analysis included interobserver agreement. MR imaging scores were significantly higher in patients with giant cell arteritis-related anterior ischemic optic neuropathy than in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy ( P ≤ .05). All patients with giant cell arteritis-related anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (15/15) and 7/15 patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy presented with the bright spot sign. No healthy subjects exhibited enhancement of the anterior part of the optic nerve. There was a significant relationship between the side of the bright spot and the side of the anterior ischemic optic neuropathy ( P ≤ .001). Interreader agreement was good for observers (κ = 0.815). Here, we provide evidence of a new MR imaging sign that identifies the acute stage of giant cell arteritis-related anterior ischemic optic neuropathy; patients without this central bright spot sign always had a nonarteritic pathophysiology and therefore did not require emergency corticosteroid

  16. Early-Onset L-dopa-Responsive Parkinsonism with Pyramidal Signs Due to ATP13A2, PLA2G6, FBXO7 and Spatacsin Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Paisán-Ruiz, Coro; Guevara, Rocio; Federoff, Monica; Hanagasi, Hasmet; Sina, Fardaz; Elahi, Elahe; Schneider, Susanne A.; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Bajaj, Nin; Emre, Murat; Singleton, Andrew B.; Hardy, John; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Brandner, Sebastian; Lees, Andrew J.; Houlden, Henry

    2018-01-01

    Seven autosomal recessive genes associated with juvenile and young-onset Levodopa-responsive parkinsonism have been identified. Mutations in PRKN, DJ-1, and PINK1 are associated with a rather pure parkinsonian phenotype, and have a more benign course with sustained treatment response and absence of dementia. On the other hand, Kufor-Rakeb syndrome has additional signs, which distinguish it clearly from Parkinson’s disease including supranu-clear vertical gaze palsy, myoclonic jerks, pyramidal signs, and cognitive impairment. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type I (Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome) due to mutations in PANK2 gene may share similar features with Kufor-Rakeb syndrome. Mutations in three other genes, PLA2G6 (PARK14), FBXO7 (PARK15), and Spatacsin (SPG11) also produce clinical similar phenotypes in that they presented with rapidly progressive parkinsonism, initially responsive to Levodopa treatment but later, developed additional features including cognitive decline and loss of Levodopa responsiveness. Here, using homozygosity mapping and sequence analysis in families with complex parkinsonisms, we identified genetic defects in the ATP13A2 (1 family), PLA2G6 (1 family) FBXO7 (2 families), and SPG11 (1 family). The genetic heterogeneity was surprising given their initially common clinical features. On careful review, we found the FBXO7 cases to have a phenotype more similar to PRKN gene associated parkinsonism. The ATP13A2 and PLA2G6 cases were more seriously disabled with additional swallowing problems, dystonic features, severe in some, and usually pyramidal involvement including pyramidal weakness. These data suggest that these four genes account for many cases of Levodopa responsive parkinsonism with pyramidal signs cases formerly categorized clinically as pallido-pyramidal syndrome. 3 2010 Movement Disorder Society PMID:20669327

  17. Early-onset L-dopa-responsive parkinsonism with pyramidal signs due to ATP13A2, PLA2G6, FBXO7 and spatacsin mutations.

    PubMed

    Paisán-Ruiz, Coro; Guevara, Rocio; Federoff, Monica; Hanagasi, Hasmet; Sina, Fardaz; Elahi, Elahe; Schneider, Susanne A; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Bajaj, Nin; Emre, Murat; Singleton, Andrew B; Hardy, John; Bhatia, Kailash P; Brandner, Sebastian; Lees, Andrew J; Houlden, Henry

    2010-09-15

    Seven autosomal recessive genes associated with juvenile and young-onset Levodopa-responsive parkinsonism have been identified. Mutations in PRKN, DJ-1, and PINK1 are associated with a rather pure parkinsonian phenotype, and have a more benign course with sustained treatment response and absence of dementia. On the other hand, Kufor-Rakeb syndrome has additional signs, which distinguish it clearly from Parkinson's disease including supranuclear vertical gaze palsy, myoclonic jerks, pyramidal signs, and cognitive impairment. Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type I (Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome) due to mutations in PANK2 gene may share similar features with Kufor-Rakeb syndrome. Mutations in three other genes, PLA2G6 (PARK14), FBXO7 (PARK15), and Spatacsin (SPG11) also produce clinical similar phenotypes in that they presented with rapidly progressive parkinsonism, initially responsive to Levodopa treatment but later, developed additional features including cognitive decline and loss of Levodopa responsiveness. Here, using homozygosity mapping and sequence analysis in families with complex parkinsonisms, we identified genetic defects in the ATP13A2 (1 family), PLA2G6 (1 family) FBXO7 (2 families), and SPG11 (1 family). The genetic heterogeneity was surprising given their initially common clinical features. On careful review, we found the FBXO7 cases to have a phenotype more similar to PRKN gene associated parkinsonism. The ATP13A2 and PLA2G6 cases were more seriously disabled with additional swallowing problems, dystonic features, severe in some, and usually pyramidal involvement including pyramidal weakness. These data suggest that these four genes account for many cases of Levodopa responsive parkinsonism with pyramidal signs cases formerly categorized clinically as pallido-pyramidal syndrome. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  18. Early trends in landcover change and forest fragmentation due to shale-gas development in Pennsylvania: a potential outcome for the Northcentral Appalachians.

    PubMed

    Drohan, P J; Brittingham, M; Bishop, J; Yoder, K

    2012-05-01

    Worldwide shale-gas development has the potential to cause substantial landscape disturbance. The northeastern U.S., specifically the Allegheny Plateau in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky, is experiencing rapid exploration. Using Pennsylvania as a proxy for regional development across the Plateau, we examine land cover change due to shale-gas exploration, with emphasis on forest fragmentation. Pennsylvania's shale-gas development is greatest on private land, and is dominated by pads with 1-2 wells; less than 10 % of pads have five wells or more. Approximately 45-62 % of pads occur on agricultural land and 38-54 % in forest land (many in core forest on private land). Development of permits granted as of June 3, 2011, would convert at least 644-1072 ha of agricultural land and 536-894 ha of forest land. Agricultural land conversion suggests that drilling is somewhat competing with food production. Accounting for existing pads and development of all permits would result in at least 649 km of new road, which, along with pipelines, would fragment forest cover. The Susquehanna River basin (feeding the Chesapeake Bay), is most developed, with 885 pads (26 % in core forest); permit data suggests the basin will experience continued heavy development. The intensity of core forest disturbance, where many headwater streams occur, suggests that such streams should become a focus of aquatic monitoring. Given the intense development on private lands, we believe a regional strategy is needed to help guide infrastructure development, so that habitat loss, farmland conversion, and the risk to waterways are better managed.

  19. Database Software for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beiser, Karl

    1990-01-01

    Examines trends in the design of database management systems for microcomputers and predicts developments that may occur in the next decade. Possible developments are discussed in the areas of user interfaces, database programing, library systems, the use of MARC data, CD-ROM applications, artificial intelligence features, HyperCard, and…

  20. AIDS among blacks in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Nickens, H

    1990-04-01

    In the black community, many health indicators are going in the wrong direction. Black life expectancy is going down. Our middle class is growing but our poor are growing also. It is no longer even jarring to talk about black males as an endangered species. Black women are groaning under family responsibilities. Too many of our young people are better armed than the police and kill each other for "diss'in," ie, he was disrespecting me. It is appropriate that AIDS be responded to as a crisis, but we also have a weighty, preexisting set of long-standing and equally lethal health and social ills. The infrastructure we build in response to AIDS and the lessons we learn from this disease must be developed with this broader view in mind.

  1. Education Finance in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augenblick, John; And Others

    Over the past 2 years, nearly half the states have been debating the fairness and/or constitutionality of their school financing systems. Renewed interest can be traced to changing demographic and economic contexts since the 1970s and a decade of reform calling for qualitative school improvements. Although school revenue more than doubled between…

  2. The Compost Pile Meets the 1990's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Todd

    1991-01-01

    Advocates composting as a valuable alternative to the landfill for waste management. As much as two-thirds of garbage can be composted, and the process has become more cost effective. Some challenges to composting are producing a compost product that will sell and dealing with the odor created by the process. (KS)

  3. Workplace loyalty in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Umiker, W

    1995-03-01

    The loyalty paradigm is evolving as part of our cultural modifications. We must enunciate our own standards and temper them with realism. Employers can seldom promise permanent jobs, and employees are reluctant to hitch their stars to one organization. In health care institutions, ethical considerations may result in divergent allegiances. The new loyalty paradigm is affected by the movements toward participative management and team building. A number of suggestions are offered for enhancing a pragmatic form of loyalty.

  4. Shiftwork Scheduling for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Richard M.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses the problems of scheduling shift work, touching on such topics as employee desires, health requirements, and business needs. He presents a method for developing shift schedules that addresses these three areas. Implementation hints are also provided. (CH)

  5. Parenting Teenagers in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Bob

    Parents who are having difficulty coping with their child's behavior need to understand the reasons for their child's behavior and to feel confident in their way of handling the situation. This book explains how to make, maintain, repair and strengthen relationships with teenagers. It encourages parents to take control of the parenting situation…

  6. Microgravity research opportunities for the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Committee on Microgravity Research (CMGR) was made a standing committee of the Space Studies Board (SSB) and charged with developing a long-range research strategy. The scientific disciplines contained within the microgravity program, and covered in this report, include fluid mechanics and transport phenomena, combustion, biological sciences and biotechnology, materials science, and microgravity physics. The purpose of this report is to recommend means to accomplish the goal of advancing science and technology in each of the component disciplines. Microgravity research should be aimed at making significant impacts in each discipline emphasized. The conclusions and recommendations presented in this report fall into five categories: (1) overall goals for the microgravity research program; (2) general priorities among the major scientific disciplines affected by gravity; (3) identification of the more promising experimental challenges and opportunities within each discipline; (4) general scientific recommendations that apply to all microgravity-related disciplines; and (5) recommendations concerning administrative policies and procedures that are essential to the conduct of excellent laboratory science.

  7. World Food Prospects for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrant, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Addresses world hunger issues and the increasing world population. Sees continued imbalance between supply and demand. Points out Europe and the United States are dealing with surplus production, whereas developing nations continue to import needed food. Argues solving hunger problems requires eliminating poverty through development programs.…

  8. Physics through the 1990s: Nuclear physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume begins with a non-mathematical introduction to nuclear physics. A description of the major advances in the field follows, with chapters on nuclear structure and dynamics, fundamental forces in the nucleus, and nuclei under extreme conditions of temperature, density, and spin. Impacts of nuclear physics on astrophysics and the scientific and societal benefits of nuclear physics are then discussed. Another section deals with scientific frontiers, describing research into the realm of the quark-gluon plasma; the changing description of nuclear matter, specifically the use of the quark model; and the implications of the standard model and grand unified theories of elementary-particle physics; and finishes with recommendations and priorities for nuclear physics research facilities, instrumentation, accelerators, theory, education, and data bases. Appended are a list of national accelerator facilities, a list of reviewers, a bibliography, and a glossary.

  9. Micros for the 1990's: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosch, Audrey N.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses new hardware and software developments for microcomputers and considers strategies for future library microcomputing. Topics discussed include developments with Macintosh computers; the importance of local area networks (LANs); upgrading options for hardware; operating system upgrades; dynamic data exchange (DDE); microcomputer…

  10. The ambiguities of the 'partnership' between civil society and the state in Uganda's AIDS response during the 1990s and 2000s as demonstrated in the development of TASO.

    PubMed

    Grebe, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    This article critically investigates state-civil society relations in the Ugandan AIDS response by tracing the history of Uganda's 'multisectoral' and 'partnership' approaches, particularly as it pertains to The AIDS Support Organisation (TASO). It finds that the Ugandan government's reputation for good leadership on AIDS is more ambiguous than commonly supposed and that the much-vaunted 'partnership' approach has not enabled strong critical civil society voices to emerge or prevented the harmful impact of a socially conservative agenda. By the 1990s, TASO had become the most important provider of medical and psychosocial support services to HIV/AIDS patients, but was less effective in influencing policy or holding the state accountable (because the political context prevented a more activist stance). The effectiveness of civil society has been constrained by an authoritarian political culture and institutions that discourage vocal criticism. Despite these limitations, however, state-civil society partnership did contribute to the emergence of a relatively effective coalition for action against HIV/AIDS. Donors were essential in encouraging the emergence of this coalition.

  11. Early phytocannabinoid chemistry to endocannabinoids and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mechoulam, Raphael; Hanuš, Lumír O; Pertwee, Roger; Howlett, Allyn C

    2014-11-01

    Isolation and structure elucidation of most of the major cannabinoid constituents--including Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), which is the principal psychoactive molecule in Cannabis sativa--was achieved in the 1960s and 1970s. It was followed by the identification of two cannabinoid receptors in the 1980s and the early 1990s and by the identification of the endocannabinoids shortly thereafter. There have since been considerable advances in our understanding of the endocannabinoid system and its function in the brain, which reveal potential therapeutic targets for a wide range of brain disorders.

  12. Early Retirement Incentives and Student Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D.

    2014-01-01

    Early retirement incentives (ERIs) are increasingly prevalent in education as districts seek to close budget gaps by replacing expensive experienced teachers with lower-cost newer teachers. Combined with the aging of the teacher workforce, these ERIs are likely to change the composition of teachers dramatically in the coming years. We use exogenous variation from an ERI program in Illinois in the mid-1990s to provide the first evidence in the literature of the effects of large-scale teacher retirements on student achievement. We find the program did not reduce test scores; likely, it increased them, with positive effects most pronounced in lower-SES schools. PMID:25436038

  13. Learning "from Europe" and "for Europe" with David Raffe--Insights into Early Years of European Cooperation in "Vocational Education and Training Research"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kämäräinen, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a picture on the contribution of David Raffe to European cooperation in the field of vocational education and training (VET). It is based on the experiences of the author and his colleagues on European events and projects in which David participated from the early 1990s until 2009. The Section 2 gives impressions of David's…

  14. Crohn's disease patients carrying Nod2/CARD15 gene variants have an increased and early need for first surgery due to stricturing disease and higher rate of surgical recurrence.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Arostegui, Juan I; Sans, Miquel; Tassies, Dolors; Plaza, Susana; Delgado, Salvadora; Lacy, Antonio M; Pique, Josep M; Yagüe, Jordi; Panés, Julián

    2005-11-01

    To study the predictive value of Nod2/CARD15 gene variants along with disease phenotypic characteristics for requirement of initial surgery and for surgical recurrence in Crohn's disease (CD). Nod2/CARD15 gene variants play an important role in the susceptibility to CD. Studies of genotype-phenotype relationship suggest that these variants are associated with development of intestinal strictures. Preliminary reports analyzing the association between these variants and need for surgery have produced inconsistent results. A total of 170 CD patients were included prospectively in the study and followed up regularly for a mean of 7.4 +/- 6.1 years. Clinical characteristics of CD, time and indication for surgery, and recurrence were registered. Nod2/CARD15 gene variants were determined by DNA sequencing analysis. Surgery for stricturing disease was significantly more frequent in patients with Nod2/CARD15 variants in the univariate analysis (odds ratio [OR], 3.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-9.27), and it was required at an earlier time (P = 0.004). Only Nod2/CARD15 variants (OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.21-10.5) and stricturing phenotype at diagnosis of CD (OR, 9.34; 95% CI, 2.56-33.3) were independent predictive factors of initial surgery for stricturing lesions in the multivariate analysis. Among 70 patients that required surgery, postoperative recurrence was also more frequent in patients with Nod2/CARD15 variants in the univariate and multivariate analysis (OR, 3.29; 95% CI, 1.13-9.56), and reoperation was needed at an earlier time (P = 0.03). Nod2/CARD15 variants are associated with early initial surgery due to stenosis and with surgical recurrence in Crohn's disease. Patients with these variants could benefit from preventive and/or early therapeutic strategies.

  15. [The role of biochemical markers with special regard to troponin, CK-MB, NT-proBNP as early biomarkers of cardiotoxicity among women after chemotherapy due to breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Stachowiak, Paweł; Milchert-Leszczyńska, Marta; Falco, Michał; Polakowska, Małgorzata; Wojtarowicz, Andrzej; Kaliszczak, Robert; Safranow, Krzysztof; Kornacewicz-Jach, Zdzisława

    Cardiotoxicity of drugs in oncology is a growing problem which cardiologists and oncologists have to struggle with. So far, researchers have been looking for biochemical markers which could help to extract a group more prone to developing complications after chemotherapy. Authors’ reports are inconsistent in this topic. This study assesses the role of troponin I, CK-MB and NT-proBNP as early predictive markers for later cardiotoxicity among patients with breast cancer treated with chemotherapy. One hundred five patients with breast cancer, without either heart failure or more than moderate severity of valvular heart diseases were qualified to the study. NT-proBNP concentration significantly increased just after the first cycle of chemotherapy, either in a subgroup which developed cardiotoxicity or without this end point (p<0.001, p=0.004). CK-MB did not change significantly during observation. Troponin I did not change in any of the patients. During observation HDL-cholesterol concentration significantly decreased. A transient increase of the concentration of LDL-cholesterol had been noted, but later it decreased below baseline level. Troponin I has too low sensitivity to be used as a prognostic marker for further cardiotoxicity after chemotherapy. No prognostic values have been noted of NT-proBNP and CK-MB due to the lack of differences in both a subgroup with and without cardiotoxicity.

  16. Changes in concentrations of cortisol and melatonin in plasma, expression of synaptophysin, and ultrastructural properties of pinealocytes in goat kids in situations of stress due to early weaning: the effect of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Redondo, E; Franco, A; Garcia, A; Masot, A J

    2010-06-01

    To analyse the changes in some histo-physiological parameters of the pineal gland of goat kids in situations of stress due to early weaning, and the effect of exogenous treatment with melatonin. Twenty-four 6-day-old Verata goat kids were used; 12 suckled their dams throughout the study (non-weaned groups), and the other 12 were removed from their dams and fed a milk replacer (weaned groups). Six goat kids in each group were treated with melatonin, and the other six with double-distilled pyrogen-free water (Day 0). On Days 28-29, blood samples were collected at 0600, 1000, 1400, 1800, 2200, 0200 and 0600 hours, to determine concentrations of cortisol and melatonin in plasma. On Days 29 and 30, six animals per group (three at 1400 and three at 0200 hours, respectively) were subject to euthanasia and the weight of their pineal glands determined. The structural immunocytochemistry, morphometric analysis, ultrastructural analysis and immunotransmission electron microscopy of the pineal glands were established. Concentrations of cortisol in plasma were significantly higher in weaned than in non-weaned goat kids (p<0.05), and treatment with melatonin reduced the concentrations in weaned kids (p<0.05). Concentrations of melatonin in plasma showed a similar pattern in the four groups, with peak values at 0200 and troughs at 1400 hours. Mean concentrations of melatonin in plasma in weaned goat kids were significantly lower than those in the other groups (p<0.05). In weaned goat kids not treated with melatonin, the weight and volume of the pineal gland, and number of pinealocytes, were significantly lower when compared with those from non-weaned kids (p<0.05). Quantitative ultrastructural analysis of pinealocytes showed the relative volume of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex was significantly lower in weaned than non-weaned goat kids (p<0.05); treatment with melatonin significantly increased these parameters in weaned kids. Taken together, these

  17. Human due diligence.

    PubMed

    Harding, David; Rouse, Ted

    2007-04-01

    Most companies do a thorough job of financial due diligence when they acquire other companies. But all too often, deal makers simply ignore or underestimate the significance of people issues in mergers and acquisitions. The consequences are severe. Most obviously, there's a high degree of talent loss after a deal's announcement. To make matters worse, differences in decision-making styles lead to infighting; integration stalls; and productivity declines. The good news is that human due diligence can help companies avoid these problems. Done early enough, it helps acquirers decide whether to embrace or kill a deal and determine the price they are willing to pay. It also lays the groundwork for smooth integration. When acquirers have done their homework, they can uncover capability gaps, points of friction, and differences in decision making. Even more important, they can make the critical "people" decisions-who stays, who goes, who runs the combined business, what to do with the rank and file-at the time the deal is announced or shortly thereafter. Making such decisions within the first 30 days is critical to the success of a deal. Hostile situations clearly make things more difficult, but companies can and must still do a certain amount of human due diligence to reduce the inevitable fallout from the acquisition process and smooth the integration. This article details the steps involved in conducting human due diligence. The approach is structured around answering five basic questions: Who is the cultural acquirer? What kind of organization do you want? Will the two cultures mesh? Who are the people you most want to retain? And how will rank-and-file employees react to the deal? Unless an acquiring company has answered these questions to its satisfaction, the acquisition it is making will be very likely to end badly.

  18. Wetting and greening Tibetan Plateau in early summer in recent decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenxia; Zhou, Tianjun; Zhang, Lixia

    2017-06-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) plays an essential role in the global hydrological cycle. Unlike the well-recognized surface warming, changes in precipitation over the TP and the underlying mechanisms remain ambiguous. A significant increase in the amount of precipitation over the southeastern TP in May over 1979-2014 (13.46% decade-1 of the climatology) is identified in this study, based on homogenized daily rain gauge data. Both the increased precipitation frequency and intensity have contributions. The coherent increases in soil moisture content and vegetation activities further confirm the precipitation trend, indicating a wetting and greening TP in the early summer in recent decades. The moisture budget analysis shows that this wetting trend in the past four decades is dominated by the increased water vapor convergence due to circulation changes, while increases in specific humidity play a minor role. The wetting trend over the TP in May results directly from the earlier onset of the South Asian summer monsoon (ASM) since the late 1970s associated with the phase transition of Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation around the late 1990s. The earlier onset of the ASM triggers low-level southwesterly anomalies over the northern Indian Ocean, promoting moisture convergence and increased precipitation over the TP in May. Specifically, the increased amount of precipitation after the onset of the ASM explains 95% of the increase in the total amount of precipitation in May.

  19. Work Force Changes and Age Discrimination: Educating Business Leaders in the 1990s and Beyond. A Project To Produce an Educational Package on Age Discrimination in Employment for Business Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Washington, DC. Commission on Legal Problems of the Elderly.

    The purposes of the project that developed this education package for business were as follows: (1) enhance employer knowledge and understanding of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), especially in its application to corporate downsizing and the use of early retirement incentives; (2) discourage employer practices that violate the act…

  20. Positive trends in organic carbon storage in Swedish agricultural soils due to unexpected socio-economic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, C.; Bolinder, M. A.; Eriksson, J.; Lundblad, M.; Kätterer, T.

    2015-03-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a crucial role in the global carbon cycle as a potential sink or source. Land management influences SOC storage, so the European Parliament decided in 2013 that changes in carbon stocks within a certain land use type, including arable land, must be reported by all member countries in their national inventory reports for greenhouse gas emissions. Here we show the temporal dynamics of SOC during the past two decades in Swedish agricultural soils, based on soil inventories conducted in 1988-1997 (Inventory I), 2001-2007 (Inventory II) and from 2010 onwards (Inventory III), and link SOC changes with trends in agricultural management. From Inventory I to Inventory II, SOC increased in 16 out of 21 Swedish counties, while from Inventory I to Inventory III it increased in 18 out of 21 counties. Mean topsoil (0-20 cm) SOC concentration for the entire country increased from 2.48 to 2.67% C (a relative increase of 7.7%, or 0.38% yr-1) over the whole period. We attributed this to a substantial increase in ley as a proportion of total agricultural area in all counties. The horse population in Sweden has more than doubled since 1981 and was identified as the main driver for this management change (R2 = 0.72). Due to subsidies introduced in the early 1990s, the area of long-term set-aside (mostly old leys) also contributed to the increase in area of ley. The carbon sink function of Swedish agricultural soils demonstrated in this study differs from trends found in neighbouring countries. This indicates that country-specific or local socio-economic drivers for land management must be accounted for in larger-scale predictions.

  1. Positive trends in organic carbon storage in Swedish agricultural soils due to unexpected socio-economic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, C.; Bolinder, M. A.; Eriksson, J.; Lundblad, M.; Kätterer, T.

    2015-06-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a crucial role in the global carbon cycle as a potential sink or source. Land management influences SOC storage, so the European Parliament decided in 2013 that changes in carbon stocks within a certain land use type, including arable land, must be reported by all member countries in their national inventory reports for greenhouse gas emissions. Here we show the temporal dynamics of SOC during the past 2 decades in Swedish agricultural soils, based on soil inventories conducted in 1988-1997 (Inventory I), 2001-2007 (Inventory II) and from 2010 onwards (Inventory III), and link SOC changes with trends in agricultural management. From Inventory I to Inventory II, SOC increased in 16 out of 21 Swedish counties, while from Inventory I to Inventory III it increased in 18 out of 21 counties. Mean topsoil (0-20 cm) SOC concentration for the entire country increased from 2.48 to 2.67% C (a relative increase of 7.7%, or 0.38% yr-1) over the whole period. We attributed this to a substantial increase in ley as a proportion of total agricultural area in all counties. The horse population in Sweden has more than doubled since 1981 and was identified as the main driver for this management change (R2 = 0.72). Due to subsidies introduced in the early 1990s, the area of long-term set-aside (mostly old leys) also contributed to the increase in area of ley. The carbon sink function of Swedish agricultural soils demonstrated in this study differs from trends found in neighbouring countries. This indicates that country-specific or local socio-economic drivers for land management must be accounted for in larger-scale predictions.

  2. Attractiveness of the landscape: Reconstruction of Early to Middle Holocene landscape and occupation history of Flevoland (central Netherlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Biggelaar, Don; Kluiving, Sjoerd; Van Balen, Ronald; Kasse, Kees; Kolen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The onset of the Holocene (11 500 BP) is marked by climate warming. Climate warming induced the growth of vegetation, which in combination with precipitation and a long period of non-deposition resulted in the formation of soils at the top of the Pleistocene deposits. As these soils have been present at the surface in Flevoland (central Netherlands) during most of the Mesolithic and Neolithic period, the top Pleistocene is an important archaeological level. Prior to the 1990s, prehistoric occupation in wetland areas, such as the Flevoland region, was seen as a challenging living environment due to its marginal nature. However, since the early 1990s a different approach was raised concerning the suitability of wetland occupation by Mesolithic and Neolithic people. Instead of adapting to the natural conditions, prehistoric people selected an area suitable to their way of life. The question remains why it took so long (Mesolithic-Neolithic transition period: 5300-4600 cal BC) for the inhabitants of the Lower Rhine Basin to adapt to the Neolithic lifestyle, in contrast to the adaptation in the loess zone and later in Britain. This difference in adaptation of the Neolithic lifestyle during this transition period cannot be solely explained by a difference in attitude or other cultural arguments. As postglacial sea-level rise caused large parts of Flevoland (central Netherlands) to inundate during the Late Mesolithic and Early Neolithic, the availability of natural resources also changed. It is hypothesized that the availability of a wide range of natural resources, and not exclusively the soil type, predominantly determined the suitability and attractiveness of a region for hunter/gatherers and therefore delayed the transition to a Neolithic lifestyle. To test this hypothesis we have compared two selected areas on the basis of the following parameters: elevation, slope gradient relative to sea-level rise, soil type, past vegetation and the number of archaeological

  3. Trends in young-adult mortality between the 1990s and the 2000s in urban and non-urban areas in Belgium: the role of a changing educational composition in overall mortality decline.

    PubMed

    De Grande, Hannelore; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Deboosere, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    This study probes into the evolution in young-adult mortality according to urbanisation degree in Belgium and moves beyond mere description through decomposing mortality trends into changes in educational distribution and in overall mortality. As most of young-adult deaths are preventable and an enormous cost and loss to society, this study addresses a highly relevant public-health topic. Individual record-linked data between the Belgian censuses of 1991 and 2001 and register data on death and emigrations are used. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), directly standardized to the European Population of 2013 are calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI), as well as a decomposition measure to pinpoint the proportion mortality change attributable to differences in educational composition over time. The young-adult population consists of 2,458,637 19-34 year-olds in 1991, with 11,898 deaths in a five-year period, and is slightly smaller in 2001 with 2,174,368 young adults and 8138 deaths. Overall, there is a positive evolution towards lower young-adult mortality, with the strongest declines in men living in large urban areas (ASMR from 149.0 [CI 142.1-155.8] in 1991-1996 to 94.6 [88.9-100.3] in 2001-2006). Decomposition analysis shows that the decrease in male mortality in non-urban areas over time is largely due to changes in the educational composition, while mortality in urban areas mainly decreases because of a decline in overall mortality. In urban areas all educational groups have benefitted over time. This clearly demonstrates that living and growing up in an urban area does not always have to imply a health penalty, but can have health advantages as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Monitoring and modeling agricultural drought for famine early warning (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdin, J. P.; Funk, C.; Budde, M. E.; Lietzow, R.; Senay, G. B.; Smith, R.; Pedreros, D.; Rowland, J.; Artan, G. A.; Husak, G. J.; Michaelsen, J.; Adoum, A.; Galu, G.; Magadzire, T.; Rodriguez, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) makes quantitative estimates of food insecure populations, and identifies the places and periods during which action must be taken to assist them. Subsistence agriculture and pastoralism are the predominant livelihood systems being monitored, and they are especially drought-sensitive. At the same time, conventional climate observation networks in developing countries are often sparse and late in reporting. Consequently, remote sensing has played a significant role since FEWS NET began in 1985. Initially there was heavy reliance on vegetation index imagery from AVHRR to identify anomalies in landscape greenness indicative of drought. In the latter part of the 1990s, satellite rainfall estimates added a second, independent basis for identification of drought. They are used to force crop water balance models for the principal rainfed staple crops in twenty FEWS NET countries. Such models reveal seasonal moisture deficits associated with yield reduction on a spatially continuous basis. In 2002, irrigated crops in southwest Asia became a concern, and prompted the implementation of a gridded energy balance model to simulate the seasonal mountain snow pack, the main source of irrigation water. MODIS land surface temperature data are also applied in these areas to directly estimate actual seasonal evapotranspiration on the irrigated lands. The approach reveals situations of reduced irrigation water supply and crop production due to drought. The availability of MODIS data after 2000 also brought renewed interest in vegetation index imagery. MODIS NDVI data have proven to be of high quality, thanks to significant spectral and spatial resolution improvements over AVHRR. They are vital to producing rapid harvest assessments for drought-impacted countries in Africa and Asia. The global food crisis that emerged in 2008 has led to expansion of FEWS NET monitoring to over 50 additional countries. Unlike previous practice, these

  5. Oak woodlands and other hardwood forests of California, 1990s.

    K.L. Waddell; T.M. Barrett

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a multiownership assessment of oak woodlands and other hardwood forests in California, excluding only reserved lands outside of national forests. Because sampling intensity on woodlands was doubled from the previous 1981-84 inventory, and because national forests were inventoried, this is the most complete assessment to date for California...

  6. IRM Concepts: Building Blocks for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Darrell E.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a conceptual overview of information resources management (IRM) by synthesizing concepts put forward during the 1980s and charts opportunities to move these concepts into practice. It is argued that the reorganization required by IRM is justified by better use of resources, better decision making, and an improved corporate structure. (21…

  7. Physics through the 1990s: elementary-particle physics

    SciT

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The volume begins with a non-mathematical discussion of the motivation behind, and basic ideas of, elementary-particle physics theory and experiment. The progress over the past two decades with the quark model and unification of the electromagnetic and weak interactions is reviewed. Existing theoretical problems in the field, such as the origin of mass and the unification of the fundamental forces, are detailed, along with experimental programs to test the new theories. Accelerators, instrumentation, and detectors are described for both current and future facilities. Interactions with other areas of both theoretical and applied physics are presented. The sociology of the fieldmore » is examined regarding the education of graduate students, the organization necessary in large-scale experiments, and the decision-making process involved in high-cost experiments. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for maintaining US excellence in theory and experiment are given. Appendices list both current and planned accelerators, and present statistical data on the US elementary-particle physics program. A glossary is included.« less

  8. Teaching and Learning Mathematics in the 1990s: 1990 Yearbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, Thomas J., Ed.; Hirsch, Christian R., Ed.

    This yearbook includes 28 articles related to teachers and students of mathematics education and their changing roles. Part 1, "New Perspectives on Teaching and Learning," focuses on the relationship between research and practice and suggests a perspective based on the belief that mathematical learning consists of students constructing…

  9. Gendered Patterns in Computing Work in the Late 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panteli, Niki; Stack, Janet; Ramsay, Harvie

    2001-01-01

    Data on information technology employment in Britain and interviews in four companies depicted experiences of women in computing. Gender disparities in numbers and distribution, salaries, division of labor, and career progression were found. Masculine values in computing culture, gender differences in working style, and attitudes toward computers…

  10. Technical Services Research Needs for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veaner, Allen B.

    1983-01-01

    Research needs in area of library technical services are identified, focusing on costs, the catalog, bibliographic data, new cataloging code, subject access in online catalogs, acquisitions, serials control system, universal technical processing terminals, data storage devices, robots and artificial intelligence, bibliographic instruction, and…

  11. SPRAWL IN THE 1990S Measurement, Distribution, and Trends.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Russ; Hynes, H Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Although sprawl is a growing national debate, there have been few efforts to measure or monitor changes in degree of sprawl over time. By using a methodology that employs census data, this sprawl index allows computation of levels of sprawl and examination of temporal and geographic changes. The results show that sprawl has increased over the past decade in many metropolitan areas. There are important geographic variations in sprawl, implying that it is neither inevitable nor universal.

  12. Physics through the 1990s: Elementary-particle physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume begins with a non-mathematical discussion of the motivation behind, and basic ideas of, elementary-particle physics theory and experiment. The progress over the past two decades with the quark model and unification of the electromagnetic and weak interactions is reviewed. Existing theoretical problems in the field, such as the origin of mass and the unification of the fundamental forces, are detailed, along with experimental programs to test the new theories. Accelerators, instrumentation, and detectors are described for both current and future facilities. Interactions with other areas of both theoretical and applied physics are presented. The sociology of the field is examined regarding the education of graduate students, the organization necessary in large-scale experiments, and the decision-making process involved in high-cost experiments. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for maintaining US excellence in theory and experiment are given. Appendices list both current and planned accelerators, and present statistical data on the US elementary-particle physics program. A glossary is included.

  13. Security Options for Malaysia in the 1990s.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-08

    Malaysia Plan, p. 195. 2 0 Statement by Malaysia’s Deputy Defence Minister, Dato Abang Abu Bakar quoted by The New Straits Times (Kuala Lumpur: 13 March...Malaysia has a constitutional monarchy 4or& of government. The Yang Dipertuan Agong (King) is chosen every 5 years from among the Sultans (rulers) of...and Dutch spheres of influence. The Pangkor Treaty of 1874 between the British and the Sultan of Perak marked the beginning of British colonial rule

  14. The Top 10 Careers for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a survey of experts from industry and academia which attempted to identify the top ten major career fields for engineers, including materials, biotechnology, automation and robotics, computer engineering, metals and mining, neural modeling, along with marine, aerospace, environmental and energy-related engineering. (TW)

  15. Engineering Personnel Data Needs for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel.

    This report summarizes the deliberations of the Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel's Committee on Data Needs for Monitoring Labor-Market Conditions for Engineers. The purpose of this report is to help the profession make existing data bases on engineers more complete, accurate, and compatible. The report is also intended to help…

  16. Older Adults: Community College Students of the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Ford M.

    With a declining pool of youth to draw from, community colleges need to be concerned about what can be done to serve the needs of a burgeoning older adult population. Recent research on the educational needs of older adults reveals that they are interested in: (1) information on such personal business and financial topics as social security…

  17. Adolescence and Poverty: Challenge for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelman, Peter B., Ed.; Ladner, Joyce, Ed.

    The current situation for poor adolescents in the United States is reviewed in this collection of essays, and some strategies and insights for policymakers are presented. The essays of this volume cover the basic interactions of adolescence and poverty from theoretical and anecdotal perspectives. Critical issues of education and employment are…

  18. Marriage, Divorce, and Remarriage in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Arthur J.; Miller, Louisa F.

    This paper presents results of a survey of the marriage and fertility histories of women in the United States conducted in June 1990 by the Bureau of the Census as a supplement to the Current Population Survey. The marriage and fertility history surveys were taken in 1971, 1975, 1980, 1985, and 1990. This paper focuses on recent trends in…

  19. Competition and Competence: Employment Trends for the 1990's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwood, Janet L.

    Foreign trade has become an increasingly important factor affecting employment in the United States, and competent workers must be educated to promote the U.S. position in the international economy. Concern is expressed about recent growth in the service industries, because it is believed that service industries have lower levels of productivity…

  20. Enhancing Transfer Effectiveness: A Model for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Paul; And Others

    In an effort to identify effective transfer practices appropriate to different community college circumstances, and to establish a quantitative database that would enable valid comparisons of transfer between their 28 member institutions, the National Effective Transfer Consortium (NETC) sponsored a survey of more than 30,000 students attending…

  1. Information planning for the 1980's and 1990's.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, J B; Peterson, R C; Surnamer, J

    1984-07-01

    With the shift in reimbursement, new medical technology, and increased competition, hospitals must be managed more effectively. Management information systems are being developed to meet these new challenges. This article provides an overview of the types of information needed and outlines the development of a comprehensive information systems plan.

  2. Zinc: health effects and research priorities for the 1990s.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, C T; Sandstead, H H; Prasad, A S; Newberne, P M; Fraker, P J

    1994-01-01

    This review critically summarizes the literature on the spectrum of health effects of zinc status, ranging from symptoms of zinc deficiency to excess exposure. Studies on zinc intake are reviewed in relation to optimum requirements as a function of age and sex. Current knowledge on the biochemical properties of zinc which are critical to the essential role of this metal in biological systems is summarized. Dietary and physiological factors influencing the bioavailability and utilization of zinc are considered with special attention to interactions with iron and copper status. The effects of zinc deficiency and toxicity are reviewed with respect to specific organs, immunological and reproductive function, and genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Finally, key questions are identified where research is needed, such as the risks to human health of altered environmental distribution of zinc, assessment of zinc status in humans, effects of zinc status in relation to other essential metals on immune function, reproduction, neurological function, and the cardiovascular system, and mechanistic studies to further elucidate the biological effects of zinc at the molecular level. PMID:7925188

  3. Race and Special Educational Needs in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diniz, Fernando Almeida

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of effects of "institutionalized racism" on the education of black and minority children with special educational needs in the United Kingdom focuses on a Scottish study which raised issues concerning: racism in special education research; over and under representation in special education; equitable assessment, curriculum and…

  4. New directions: health care human resources in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Tomorrow's health care executive will know more about how government really works, have a strong financial background, be a good marketer--and have to deal with increasing professional staff shortages.

  5. New Opportunities for Employment in the 1990's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellendorf, George W.

    Changes already well underway in the world of work will affect the opportunities for full employment, and these changes will have an impact upon all working persons, including the hearing impaired. In the year 2000, many more women, more older persons, and more individuals with different language backgrounds and cultures will be in the work force.…

  6. Hip, Hype, Hope: Social Studies Reform for the 1990's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Murry R.

    1993-01-01

    Maintains that current efforts to reform education and social studies are cycles of media hyperbole and political hope. Contends that issues underlying various programs are really about power and control. Argues that social studies has a role in making schools and students models of democratic thought and action. (CFR)

  7. Adolescence in the 1990s. Risk and Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takanishi, Ruby, Ed.

    This collection, which grew out of the work of the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, presents chapters by some thoughtful and influential people who are currently studying and working with adolescents. Their perspectives provide valuable insight into the situation of the adolescent in today's climate. Chapters include: (1) "Changing…

  8. Laboratory automation: a challenge for the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Mordini, C

    1994-01-01

    THERE IS TREMENDOUS PRESSURE ON INDUSTRY AND LABORATORIES TO DEVELOP INCREASINGLY COMPLEX PROCUCTS: for example catalysts, chiral chemicals, drugs and ceramics; conform to regulations; cope with increasingly severe competition; and meet steadily increasing costs. It is difficult, in this situation, to remain productive and competitive. It is vital to be equipped with, and be able to use appropriately, all the suitable methodologies and technologies. Working methods and personnel have to be appropriate. The future depends on three interdependent domains: automation in the broadest sense of the word, instrumentation and information systems. The easy work has already been done. Between 1984 and 1990, it was a question of going from nothing to something; now, it is necessary to increase and optimize.THEREFORE, THE CRUCIAL QUESTION IS NOW: 'how can we go quicker in experimentation and acquire more knowledge, while spending less money?' One solution is to use all the aspects of automation (robotics, instrumentation, data). Successful laboratory automation depends.on: shortened time to market; improved efficiency/cost ratio; motivation/competence/ expertise; communication; and knowledge acquisition. This paper examines some of the major technological areas of application.

  9. Laboratory automation: a challenge for the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Mordini, Claude

    1994-01-01

    There is tremendous pressure on industry and laboratories to develop increasingly complex procucts: for example catalysts, chiral chemicals, drugs and ceramics; conform to regulations; cope with increasingly severe competition; and meet steadily increasing costs. It is difficult, in this situation, to remain productive and competitive. It is vital to be equipped with, and be able to use appropriately, all the suitable methodologies and technologies. Working methods and personnel have to be appropriate. The future depends on three interdependent domains: automation in the broadest sense of the word, instrumentation and information systems. The easy work has already been done. Between 1984 and 1990, it was a question of going from nothing to something; now, it is necessary to increase and optimize. Therefore, the crucial question is now: ‘how can we go quicker in experimentation and acquire more knowledge, while spending less money?’ One solution is to use all the aspects of automation (robotics, instrumentation, data). Successful laboratory automation depends.on: shortened time to market; improved efficiency/cost ratio; motivation/competence/ expertise; communication; and knowledge acquisition. This paper examines some of the major technological areas of application. PMID:18924998

  10. Space science in the 1990's and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntress, Wesley T., Jr.; Kicza, Mary E.; Feeley, T. Jens

    NASA's Office of Space Sciences is changing its approach to our missions, both current and future. Budget realities are necessitating that we change the way we do business and the way we look at our role in the Federal Government. These challenges are being met by a new and innovative approach that focuses on achieving a balanced world-class space science program that requires far less resources while providing an enhanced role for technology and education as integral components of our Research and Development (R&D) programs.

  11. Health Cost Containment, Wellness, and the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasica, Edward R.

    Virtually every employer has it in their power to reduce their employee health care costs by 10-20 percent or more. The solution to the rising health care costs problem is a total health care system. Most cost savings potential will be centered in three areas: control of wasteful and often harmful use of the health care system; provider price…

  12. [Occupational health services in Norway in the 1990's].

    PubMed

    Wannag, A

    1995-02-28

    Around 1,100 physicians are engaged (part time or full time) in the occupational health service. The service takes about 5% of the national resource of physicians' work, costs the businesses around NOK 600 millions annually and covers 35% of the work force. The occupational health service is a heterogeneous service with great variations in organization, size, resources, costs and activities. 40% of the physicians' work concerns work-related activities. Treatment of workers' diseases which are not related to exposure at the work place takes up 22% of the physicians' working time. A fair proportion of the personnel in the occupational health service are well educated, but the service as a whole makes only a partial effort to promote the national objectives for the working environment. In spite of this, no authority has accepted responsibility for supervising the service.

  13. United Nations - Divided States: Peacekeeping in the 1990S

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Ireland, University of California Press, Berkely , Los Angeles & Oxford, 1990, p. 19-20. 157 transition of governments, or have become highly politicized...the organization had gained "a certain independent position, and that this tendency has led to the acceptance of an independent 5 2 Graham T. Allison ...New York, 1991. David A. Ablin & Marlowe Hood, ed., The Cambodian Agony, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., Armonk, New York, 1987. Graham T. Allison , Essence of

  14. HIV Counselling in the 1990s and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bor, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Counseling for HIV prevention and antibody testing is at the forefront of psychological support services. Recently, there has been a determined effort to develop a range of psychotherapeutic approaches to help people cope with and adjust to living with terminal illness. Introduces a growing interest in the field for counseling those affected by…

  15. Physics through the 1990s: Elementary-particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The volume begins with a non-mathematical discussion of the motivation behind, and basic ideas of, elementary-particle physics theory and experiment. The progress over the past two decades with the quark model and unification of the electromagnetic and weak interactions is reviewed. Existing theoretical problems in the field, such as the origin of mass and the unification of the fundamental forces, are detailed, along with experimental programs to test the new theories. Accelerators, instrumentation, and detectors are described for both current and future facilities. Interactions with other areas of both theoretical and applied physics are presented. The sociology of the field is examined regarding the education of graduate students, the organization necessary in large-scale experiments, and the decision-making process involved in high-cost experiments. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for maintaining US excellence in theory and experiment are given. Appendices list both current and planned accelerators, and present statistical data on the US elementary-particle physics program. A glossary is included.

  16. Redistricting in the 1990s: A Guide for Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, William P., Ed.

    This guide provides basic information for members of minority groups who wish to participate effectively in the reapportionment that will take place as a result of the 1990 Census. The guide focuses on Blacks and Hispanics--the largest minority groups and the only ones for which there are reliable population figures that are more recent than the…

  17. Progressive Education for the 1990s: Transforming Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jervis, Kathe, Ed.; Montag, Carol, Ed.

    In this collection, educators examine progressive education from both historical and practical standpoints, addressing the daily struggles confronting progressively oriented teachers as they create classrooms to support their values. After an introduction, "Class Values," by C. Montag, the following essays are presented: (1) "Large…

  18. A Proposal for Urban Policy in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fainstein, Susan S.; Fainstein, Norman

    1995-01-01

    Argues that urban policy should entail a unifying mix of economic, physical, and social initiatives that emphasize job creation and retention and social equity. The author explores a proposal for urban policy involving neighborhood-based planning, regulation of capital flight, local development funding, human capital formation, physical…

  19. INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE 1990S

    EPA Science Inventory

    A set of criteria was developed for the purpose of subjectively prioritizing industry segments for their pollution prevention potential and their opportunity for improvement. Using this set of criteria, high priority industries were selected from a Standard Industry Classificatio...

  20. Homeless Children in America: Challenges for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Yvonne

    The 1980s brought an unprecedented rise in the number of homeless families with children. That there may be as many as three million homeless persons in the United States, with families representing one-third of this population, indicates that homelessness is a social problem of catastrophic proportions. This paper finds that while Federal…

  1. Coast Guard Strategic Management: Law Enforcement in the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    inherently linked to policy. As Wildavsky states, "budgeting is concerned with translating financial resources into human purposes," and a budget is "a link...between financial resources and human behavior in order to accomplish policy objectives...a series of goals with price tags attached." (Ref. 26:p. 2... financial resources and human behavior in accomplishing policy objec- tives." [Ref. 26:p. 2] 71 There is often a tendency for budgeting to drive out

  2. Ethiopia’s Economic Prospects for the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    official market. V nder European (’ ommunity (EC) pressure, the PlJR- made ni inor concessions to Peasant producers in 1987 115, pp. 17-1 ]. The Soviet...bureaucracy and begun the manufacture of !ight planes, it has not been permitted to expand into fields such as hotel construction and management, tourism

  3. CENDI - A strategic interagency alliance in the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caponio, Joseph; Buffum, Elizabeth; Cotter, Gladys; Smith, Kent; Molholm, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    The goals, functions, and accomplishments of the CENDI Group, a government interagency cooperative organization formed to improve federal research and development productivity and R&D information management systems through information exchange, are briefly reviewed. The five member agencies are the Departments of Commerce, Energy, Defense, and Health and Human Services, and NASA. CENDI provides a means for its members to share technologies, resources, ideas, information, management activities, and standards. The top priorities of CENDI are: work with R&D managers to improve productivity; provide technical data and information to all users; improve the effectiveness and efficiency of all CENDI agency operations; and familiarize R&D managers and policy makers with the value of STI.

  4. Challenges in the 1990's for astronaut training simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Patrick M.; Hajare, Ankur R.; Stark, George E.

    1990-01-01

    New challenges for the simulation community at the Johnson Space Center both in near and long terms are considered. In the near term, the challenges of supporting an increasing flight rate, maintaining operations while replacing obsolete subsystems, and incorporating forthcoming changes to the Space Shuttle are discussed, and focus is placed on a change of forward flight-deck instruments from electro-mechanical devices to electronic displays. Training astronauts for complex concurrent missions involving multiple spacecraft and geographically dispersed ground facilities is considered to be foremost of the long-term challenges, in addition to the tasks of improving the simulator reliability and the operational efficiency of the facilities.

  5. Operational Alternatives for Air Assault Forces in the 1990s.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    combined arms fashion. The study stipulates that the helicopter, as an entity, is an accepted system in the arsenal and operational doctrines of...modern armies. Generally accepted roles include tactical and administrative transport, and weapons system platform. At issue is the Optimtm con... system also requires a concomitant adjustment in tactics and extant force structures to acccmodate the missions and doctrines that emerge. 11. U.S

  6. Problems and Prospects of Turkey in the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    water for personal consumption, irrigation and power generation. With the depletion of underground aquifers and the growing salinity and pollution of...100,000 Dammam 200,000 Homs 100,000 Al Khobar 200,000 Damascus 600,000 Hufuf 200,000 1,100,055 806,60s Bahrain Manama 200,000 Jordan Qatar Amman 600,008

  7. Combatting Pilot Attrition in the USAF in the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    Air Weaoons Control Officer, would oe a Watch Officer on an Air Base Operations staff. The last c’ass oz oosition is designated as an ANY position...which the 1OC belonqs. a oortion of the ANf positions designated by manning formulas devised by the Directorate in charge of Production Control and...also controls pDroouction and promotion quotas. it is the "sine ous non ’ for the Career Managers. Their management scheme is driven o’, the mismatch

  8. Hospital positioning: a strategic tool for the 1990s.

    PubMed

    San Augustine, A J; Long, W J; Pantzallis, J

    1992-03-01

    The authors extend the process of market positioning in the health care sector by focusing on the simultaneous utilization of traditional research methods and emerging new computer-based adaptive perceptual mapping technologies and techniques.

  9. The Rural Rebound of the 1990s and Beyond

    Kenneth M. Johnson

    2002-01-01

    During most of the twentieth century, rural America experienced widespread and protracted outmigration. The magnitude of this loss varied from decade to decade, but the pattern was quite consistent: rural areas grew only when an excess of births over deaths offset the number of people who moved away from these communities. Many rural communities suffered population...

  10. Reshaping Education in the 1990s: Perspectives on Secondary Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pole, Christopher J., Ed.; Chawla-Duggan, Rita, Ed.

    The 1988 Education Reform Act precipitated major educational change in the United Kingdom. This book is a compilation of papers originally presented at the 1994 Centre for Educational Development Appraisal and Research (CEDAR) conference at the University of Warwick (England). The papers focus on changes that have occurred and are occurring in the…

  11. An Unfinished Jigsaw: The 16+ Curriculum in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kershaw, Noel

    Education reform in Great Britain during the last 15 years has been piecemeal, and all the pieces are not yet in place for broad and balanced post-16 education. The last 10 years of debate have achieved much common ground among the goals perceived by government, industry, and education. Three major ways of looking at the post-16 curriculum have…

  12. Ten power mega-trends for the 1990`s

    SciT

    Zimmer, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    Changes in the power generation industry have accelerated, with the progress of new legislation, globalization, financing and technology leading the way. Major trends shaping the future of the industry this decade include: fuels; niche markets; utility generation; financing; retail service; transmission; geographic regions; repowering; international developments; and regulation. These factors are discussed briefly.

  13. Social Security Protection of Women: Prospects for the 1990's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Irene

    1992-01-01

    Social security systems in many countries must serve different populations of women, both as beneficiaries and as insured workers. As more women are acquiring their own social security rights, it is unclear what jobs they will have, what the benefits will be, what family responsibilities they will have, and what social policies will affect their…

  14. (UK) Schmidt - AAO style into the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, A.

    Recommendations on the use of the AAO UK Schmidt telescope during the next three years are presented. There are four important functions which must be maintained: (1) the science from the schmidt material must continue to be of the same high quality as that on which the Schmidt's reputation has been built; (2) the service to the Australian and British communities must continue despite the new trim (slim) appearance of the Schmidt staff and budget; (3) links with ROE, its plate library and photolabs which provide some of the survey atlases must be maintained; and (4) Australian and British usage of the UK's large measuring machines APM and COSMOS should be promoted.

  15. Federal Information Policies in the 1990s: Views and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernon, Peter, Ed.; And Others

    This book uses a cross-disciplinary approach to profile developments through November 1995 concerning important U.S. government information policy issues. Information policy analyses benefit from a historical perspective while seeking to identify current areas of agreement and disagreement, especially at a time when the United States is moving…

  16. Physics through the 1990s: Atomic, molecular and optical physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume presents a program of research initiatives in atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The current state of atomic, molecular, and optical physics in the US is examined with respect to demographics, education patterns, applications, and the US economy. Recommendations are made for each field, with discussions of their histories and the relevance of the research to government agencies. The section on atomic physics includes atomic theory, structure, and dynamics; accelerator-based atomic physics; and large facilities. The section on molecular physics includes spectroscopy, scattering theory and experiment, and the dynamics of chemical reactions. The section on optical physics discusses lasers, laser spectroscopy, and quantum optics and coherence. A section elucidates interfaces between the three fields and astrophysics, condensed matter physics, surface science, plasma physics, atmospheric physics, and nuclear physics. Another section shows applications of the three fields in ultra-precise measurements, fusion, national security, materials, medicine, and other topics.

  17. Physics through the 1990s: Plasmas and fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume contains recommendations for programs in, and government support of, plasma and fluid physics. Four broad areas are covered: the physics of fluids, general plasma physics, fusion, and space and astrophysical plasmas. In the first section, the accomplishments of fluid physics and a detailed review of its sub-fields, such as combustion, non-Newtonian fluids, turbulence, aerodynamics, and geophysical fluid dynamics, are described. The general plasma physics section deals with the wide scope of the theoretical concepts involved in plasma research, and with the machines; intense beam systems, collective and laser-driven accelerators, and the associated diagnostics. The section on the fusion plasma research program examines confinement and heating systems, such as Tokamaks, magnetic mirrors, and inertial-confinement systems, and several others. Finally, theory and experiment in space and astrophysical plasma research is detailed, ranging from the laboratory to the solar system and beyond. A glossary is included.

  18. The use of teetaimed in Estonia, 1880s-1990s.

    PubMed

    Sõukand, Renata; Kalle, Raivo

    2012-10-01

    This research contributes to a better understanding of the criteria used for the selection of plants for making beverages. Worldwide, not only the leaves of Camellia sinensis, but also various other plants are used for making tea. We argue that the selection of plants for making tea (in Estonian teetaimed) depends on specific features possessed by or attributed to the plants. 54 plant taxa and one lichen were identified as being used for making tea, based on the analysis of Estonian historical handwritten archival records on plant use for the period from 1887 to 1994. The influence of popular literature on the use of plants for making tea was also assessed. The suitability of a plant for making tea depends on a combination of factors like multifunctional use, mild taste and attributed medicinal properties. The variety of medicinal properties attributed to teetaimed in folk medicine allowed herbal tea drinking to be considered as mild disease prevention. Hence, the roots of the Estonian tea tradition lie in the medicinal use of the plants, not oriental ceremonial tea drinking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rural Policies for the 1990s. Rural Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Cornelia B., Ed.; Christenson, James A., Ed.

    Written by some of the foremost experts on rural America, this book focuses on policy-relevant research on the problems of rural areas. In each chapter, rural policy needs are identified by examining the flow of events and rural sociology of the 1980s. Chapters are: (1) "Critical Times for Rural America: The Challenge for Rural Policy in the…

  20. Restructuring African American Families in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Narviar Cathcart; Hill, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Examines family life factors that contribute to, or inhibit, the development of a child's emotional health and social well-being. Special problems in the socialization of African Americans are discussed, and the goals and practices these families should strive for to help them survive are explored. (GR)

  1. Retirement patterns and bridge jobs in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Quinn, J F

    1999-02-01

    During most of the post-World War II period, American men have been leaving the labor force at earlier and earlier ages. Evidence suggests that this trend has been under way for more than a century. However, in the mid-1980s, this trend came to an abrupt halt. Male labor force participation rates have been flat since 1985, and have actually increased over the past several years. Understanding these issues is especially important given the looming increase in the Social Security normal retirement age to 67 and the possibility of even more increases in the ages of eligibility under Social Security and Medicare reform. Because of the influx of married women into the labor market in the post-World War II period, older women's participation rates did not decline as men's did. In contrast, their rates were relatively steady, rising or falling very slowly. Since the mid-1980s, however, older women's participation rates have increased significantly. Many more older men and women are working today than the pre-1986 trends would have suggested. Many older Americans leave the labor force gradually, utilizing "bridge jobs" between employment on a full-time career job and complete labor force withdrawal. These bridge jobs are often part-time, often in a new line of work, and sometimes involve a switch from wage and salary work to self-employment. Estimates suggest that between one-third and one-half of older Americans will work on a bridge job before retiring completely, and for these workers retirement is best viewed as a process, not as a single event. These changes in retirement behavior are consistent with societal changes that have altered the relative attractiveness of work and leisure late in life. Mandatory retirement has been outlawed for most American workers. Social Security has become more age-neutral, no longer penalizing the average worker who wants to continue working after age 65. An increasing proportion of employer pension coverage has been in defined contribution plans, which do not contain the age-specific retirement incentives that many defined benefit plans do. The composition of jobs has shifted from manufacturing to service occupations. Americans are living longer and healthier lives, and many look forward to years to productive activity after age 65. These structural changes have been accompanied by an important cyclical factor: the strength of the American economy over the past decade. This has increased the demand for all types of labor, including older workers. Evidence suggests that there is more than this cyclical factor at work, however, and that new attitudes about work late in life are developing. Labor supply decisions late in life are correlated in expected ways with the individual's health (measured in several ways), age, and pension and health insurance status. Retirement patterns in America are much richer and more varied than the stereotypical one-step view of retirement suggests. Public policy is changing in ways that make continued work late in life more likely. If employers are willing to provide flexible job opportunities to meet the needs of these potential employees, then society can tap a growing pool of older, experienced, and willing workers for years to come.

  2. SPRAWL IN THE 1990S Measurement, Distribution, and Trends

    PubMed Central

    LOPEZ, RUSS; HYNES, H. PATRICIA

    2006-01-01

    Although sprawl is a growing national debate, there have been few efforts to measure or monitor changes in degree of sprawl over time. By using a methodology that employs census data, this sprawl index allows computation of levels of sprawl and examination of temporal and geographic changes. The results show that sprawl has increased over the past decade in many metropolitan areas. There are important geographic variations in sprawl, implying that it is neither inevitable nor universal. PMID:16990927

  3. Editorial: Trends in Mental Retardation in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowitz, Louis

    1989-01-01

    Issues in mental retardation to be addressed in the next decade include homogenization of disabilities, aging of the population, increasing information and research needs, diagnosis, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, legal and ethical problems, caregiving, adolescent care, health care delivery, lifelong disabilities, vocational opportunities,…

  4. Challenges for deep space communications in the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumas, Larry N.; Hornstein, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The discussion of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) examines the evolving character of aerospace missions and the corresponding changes in the DSN architecture. Deep space missions are reviewed, and it is noted that the two 34-m and the 70-m antenna subnets of the DSN are heavily loaded and more use is expected. High operational workload and the challenge of network cross-support are the design drivers for a flexible DSN architecture configuration. Incorporated in the design are antenna arraying for aperture augmentation, beam-waveguide antennas for frequency agility, and connectivity with non-DSN sites for cross-support. Compatibility between spacecraft and ground-facility designs is important for establishing common international standards of communication and data-system specification.

  5. Interesting times on Krakatau: stand dynamics in the 1990s.

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, R J; Partomihardjo, T; Jones, S H

    1999-01-01

    The Krakatau Islands, Indonesia, have provided an opportunity for ecologists to track primary succession from the 'clean slate' of 1883, through forest closure in the 1920s, to the contemporary period, in which successional changes take the form of alterations in composition and stature of forest stands rather than gross changes in ecosystem type. This paper reports on permanent forest plots established on the islands in 1989, and fully surveyed again in both 1992 and 1997. Since 1989, the plots have been subject to natural disturbance phenomena in the form of varying combinations of, for example, deposition of volcanic ejecta, landslides, lightning strikes, storm damage and drought. These effects have been concentrated between 1992 and 1997, during which the volcano Anak Krakatau has deposited ash on the islands of Sertung and Panjang, but not on Rakata. Data on stand responses are presented for growth rates (dbh (diameter at breast height, 1.3 m) increment), stem recruitment and mortality, biomass changes partitioned into mortality, ingrowth and growth of established trees), and compositional shifts. The discussion focuses on evaluation of questions and successional models framed earlier in the programme. One general finding is that the stand dominants as of 1989 have tended to decline in number within the plots, generally through low levels of recruitment failing to balance rates of mortality. The effects of disturbance to the plots appear to be evident in terms of mortality and recruitment, dbh increment, and changes in biomass. The patterns of change in the eight plots are quite varied, such that relatively few generalizations are possible. The difficulties of establishing meaningful baseline rates for tree growth and stand biomass are discussed. PMID:11605628

  6. Physics through the 1990s: Scientific interfaces and technological applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume examines the scientific interfaces and technological applications of physics. Twelve areas are dealt with: biological physics-biophysics, the brain, and theoretical biology; the physics-chemistry interface-instrumentation, surfaces, neutron and synchrotron radiation, polymers, organic electronic materials; materials science; geophysics-tectonics, the atmosphere and oceans, planets, drilling and seismic exploration, and remote sensing; computational physics-complex systems and applications in basic research; mathematics-field theory and chaos; microelectronics-integrated circuits, miniaturization, future trends; optical information technologies-fiber optics and photonics; instrumentation; physics applications to energy needs and the environment; national security-devices, weapons, and arms control; medical physics-radiology, ultrasonics, MNR, and photonics. An executive summary and many chapters contain recommendations regarding funding, education, industry participation, small-group university research and large facility programs, government agency programs, and computer database needs.

  7. Gender and Social Work Education: Directions for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tice, Karen

    1990-01-01

    To move beyond the incomplete curricular reform that characterized compliance with Council on Social Work Education curriculum policy standards on women, it is proposed that a gender-inclusive curriculum be developed, including changes in the knowledge base, teaching strategies, and departmental practices. (Author/MSE)

  8. On the Edge: Intelligent CALL in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, John

    1989-01-01

    Examines the possibilities of developing computer-assisted language learning (CALL) based on the best of modern technology, arguing that artificial intelligence (AI) strategies will radically improve the kinds of exercises that can be performed. Recommends combining AI technology with other tools for delivering instruction, such as simulation and…

  9. Changing Direction: Federal Transportation Spending in the 1990's

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-03-01

    In this report, the Surface Transportation Policy Project analyzes ten years of data from the U.S. Department of Transportation's Fiscal Management Information System as well as reports from the Federal Transit Administration that track how the state...

  10. Toward the 1990s: Emerging Themes in School Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrill, Jerry L.

    1990-01-01

    Over the years, school counseling has transcended its traditional vocational guidance function. Various trends and themes in school counseling are explored, including information access and use, prevention versus remediation issues, environmental engineering challenges, professional adaptability and change, and creation of school support systems…

  11. Rural Passenger Mobility in the 1990s: Emerging Local Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stommes, Eileen S.

    1990-01-01

    Describes current changes in rural transportation services. Describes general thrust of innovative efforts to provide rural passenger transportation despite declining resources. Describes public-private transportation cooperation, human-service agency coordination, linking state and local bus services, mixed passenger-package functions, community…

  12. Higher Education into the 1990s. A Discussion Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education and Science, London (England).

    An analysis of Great Britain's higher education system, primarily between 1981 and 1994, considers the possible implication of demographic trends and how that pattern may change over the next 15 years. The purpose of the paper is to direct public attention to the issues and encourage debate rather than present discrete policy options. Planning…

  13. A roadmap for regulatory survival in the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayad, R. S.; Mccollister, S. B.; Olson, R. D.

    1994-01-01

    There have been many changes over the last several years in the ways that we're required to label, handle, and dispose of the products of our manufacturing processes...and we all know there will be more, not fewer, environmental regulations to deal with in the years to come. It is important to be aware of how a chemical is listed by federal or state regulations or recommending bodies. For example, if a chemical has been listed by OSHA, IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer), or NTP (the National Toxicology Program) as a carcinogen, this listing will trigger hazard communication requirements. It may cause restrictions on the levels of a chemical that you may release into the air or water as well as how you manage your plant wastes. Understanding how a chemical is listed is the first critical step in overall compliance. Once a chemical makes one of these lists as a hazardous material or a carcinogen, your emissions, labelling, or MSD sheets may need to be changed in order to comply with federal or state regulations. Being fully aware of how the chemicals you use are listed by all pertinent bodies is the essential compass that you must have to follow the regulatory road map.

  14. Space science in the 1990's and beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntress, Wesley T., Jr.; Kicza, Mary E.; Feeley, T. Jens

    1994-01-01

    NASA's Office of Space Sciences is changing its approach to our missions, both current and future. Budget realities are necessitating that we change the way we do business and the way we look at our role in the Federal Government. These challenges are being met by a new and innovative approach that focuses on achieving a balanced world-class space science program that requires far less resources while providing an enhanced role for technology and education as integral components of our Research and Development (R&D) programs.

  15. A strawman SLR program plan for the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J.

    1994-01-01

    A series of programmatic and technical goals for the satellite laser ranging (SLR) network are presented. They are: (1) standardize the performance of the global SLR network; (2) improve the geographic distribution of stations; (3) reduce costs of field operations and data processing; (4) expand the 24 hour temporal coverage to better serve the growing constellation of satellites; (5) improve absolute range accuracy to 2 mm at key stations; (6) improve satellite force, radiative propagation, and station motion models and investigate alternative geodetic analysis techniques; (7) support technical intercomparison and the Terrestrial Reference Frame through global collocations; (8) investigate potential synergisms between GPS and SLR.

  16. Reforming U.S. Teacher Education in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    In the spirit of educational reform efforts, public schools have national goals for the first time and are under pressure to adopt a national curriculum, national testing, and parental choice of schools. School reform depends on upgrading teacher education. Only a more carefully recruited, better prepared, and more professionally rewarded teaching…

  17. Senior Adults and Computers in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawhon, Tommie; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Older adults use computers for entertainment, education, and creative and business endeavors. Computer training helps them increase productivity, learn skills, and boost short-term memory. Electronic mail, online services, and the Internet encourage socialization. Adapted technology helps disabled and ill elders use computers. (SK)

  18. Teaching about Japan in the 1990s: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, John J.; Grossman, David L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the influence of Japan on educational reform in the United States. Identifies economic self-interest and global competitiveness as the motivations for increased U.S. instruction about Asia and the Pacific region. Expresses concern that such a competitive outlook is unlikely to produce a global perspective. (DK)

  19. PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT: A RESEARCH STRATEGY FOR THE 1990S

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mounting evidence suggests that we are facing a new generation of environmental problems - problems that threaten not just isolated areas, but global ecological resources; not just the health of certain individuals, but our ability to sustain life on this planet. Coping with thes...

  20. Macro management of microelectronics in India in 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Parmod K.

    1992-08-01

    Development of microelectronics is taking place at a very fast rate all over the globe, including India. New technologies are introduced at very short intervals in order to capture the consumer market. It is essential that these technologies are managed properly at the macro level in order to bring the desired results. Microelectronics plays a very vital role in office automation for achieving cost effective results in a highly competitive environment. Introduction of various facilities like laser printers, photo copiers, dictaphone-selectronic boards, electronic telexes, teleconference rooms, telephone answering machines, computer, word processors, sensors, etc. have all revolutionized the industry. Keeping the above in view, the present and future status of microelectronics, with special emphasis on its role in office automation in India, are discussed in detail in this paper.

  1. James Madison's Practical Ideals for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delattre, Edwin J.

    This paper examines recent behavior of public officials at various levels of government in the United States, finds a systemic failure to meet ethical standards, and concludes that the wisdom of James Madison has much applicability to current times. Given his keen perception of human nature, Madison would not be too surprised at today's poor…

  2. Information Security in the 1990s: Keeping the Locks on.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovac, Ron J.

    1999-01-01

    As the Internet proliferates, it drastically increases an institution's level of data insecurity. Hacker attacks can result in denial of service, data corruption or erasure, and passive theft (via spoofing, splicing, or session stealing). To ensure data security, a firewall (screening software program) and a security policy should be implemented.…

  3. Flexible Pay Programs for the 1990s and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Maureen; Luthman, Elmer

    1988-01-01

    Collaboration of faculty and staff with administration to design flexible total compensation programs that can be "customized" to their particular needs is discussed. The implementation of the Ford Motor Company's Employee Involvement Program when designing the Taurus automobile is described. (MLW)

  4. Forces Shaping the Electronic Publishing Industry of the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Donald T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the conventional publishing industry, and discusses a study of the electronic publishing industry and its products and processes. Discusses seven major forces affecting it--technology, economics, demographics, social trends, government policies, applications growth, and industry trends--and outlines principles to follow for success in…

  5. The impact of early discharge laws on the health of newborns.

    PubMed

    Evans, William N; Garthwaite, Craig; Wei, Heng

    2008-07-01

    Using an interrupted time series design and a census of births in California over a 6-year period, we show that state and federal laws passed in the late 1990s designed to increase the length of postpartum hospital stays reduced considerably the fraction of newborns that were discharged early. The law had little impact on re-admission rates for privately insured, vaginally delivered newborns, but reduced re-admission rates for privately insured c-section-delivered and Medicaid-insured vaginally delivered newborns by statistically significant amounts. Our calculations suggest the program was not cost saving.

  6. Justice and Due Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney-Browning, Mabel C.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a directory of educational materials in the areas of justice and due process. Materials are listed in three categories--films, books, and project-created materials. For each entry, information is presented on title, author, publisher or developer, publication date, price, and annotation. (DB)

  7. Paying One's Dues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisniewski, Richard

    Predicated on the premise that social justice cannot be achieved without social action, that change does not occur without change agents, and that the only significant reforms in schools are those promoting social justice, it is argued that teachers who are reformers in education must be willing to pay their dues. Traditional approaches to reform…

  8. Hydro-ecological degradation due to human impacts in the Twin Streams Watershed, Auckland, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrecillas Nunez, C.; Miguel-rodriguez, A.

    2012-12-01

    As a collaborative project between the Faculties of Engineering of the University of Sinaloa, Mexico and the University of Auckland, an inter-disciplinary team researched historical information, monitoring results and modelling completed over the last ten years to establish the cause-effect relationship of development and human impacts in the watershed and recommend strategies to offset them .The research program analyzed the performance of the Twin Streams watershed over time with modelling of floods, hydrological disturbance indicators, analysis of water quality and ecological information, cost / benefit, harbor modelling and contaminant loads. The watershed is located in the west of Auckland and comprises 10,356 hectare: 8.19% ecologically protected area, 29.70% buffer zone, 6.67% peri-urban, 30.98% urban, 16.04% parks, and 8.42% other; average impermeability is 19.1%. Current population is 129,475 (2011) forecast to grow to 212,798 by 2051. The watershed includes 317.5 km of streams that drain to the Waitemata Harbor. The human impact can be traced back to the 1850s when the colonial settlers logged the native forests, dammed streams and altered the channel hydro-ecology resulting in significant erosion, sediment and changes to flows. In the early 1900s native vegetation started to regenerate in the headwaters, while agriculture and horticulture become established in rest of the watershed leading to the use of quite often very harmful pesticides and insecticides, such as DDT which is still detected in current environmental monitoring programs, and more erosion and channel alterations. As land become unproductive in the 1950s it stared to be urbanized, followed by more intensive urban development in the 1990s. Curiously there was no regulatory regime to control land use in the early stages and consequently over 400 houses were built in the floodplains, as well there were no legislation to control environmental impacts until 1991. Consequently today there is a

  9. Osteoporosis in survivors of early life starvation.

    PubMed

    Weisz, George M; Albury, William R

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide evidence for the association of early life nutritional deprivation and adult osteoporosis, in order to suggest that a history of such deprivation may be an indicator of increased risk of osteoporosis in later life. The 'fetal programming' of a range of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in adults was first proposed in the 1990s and more recently extended to disorders of bone metabolism. Localised famines during World War II left populations in whom the long-term effects of maternal, fetal and infantile nutritional deprivation were studied. These studies supported the original concept of 'fetal programming' but did not consider bone metabolism. The present paper offers clinical data from another cohort of World War II famine survivors - those from the Holocaust. The data presented here, specifically addressing the issue of osteoporosis, report on 11 Holocaust survivors in Australia (five females, six males) who were exposed to starvation in early life. The cases show, in addition to other metabolic disorders associated with early life starvation, various levels of osteoporosis, often with premature onset. The cohort studied is too small to support firm conclusions, but the evidence suggests that the risk of adult osteoporosis in both males and females is increased by severe starvation early in life - not just in the period from gestation to infancy but also in childhood and young adulthood. It is recommended that epidemiological research on this issue be undertaken, to assist planning for the future health needs of immigrants to Australia coming from famine affected backgrounds. Pending such research, it would be prudent for primary care health workers to be alert to the prima facie association between early life starvation and adult osteoporosis, and to take this factor into account along with other indicators when assessing a patient's risk of osteoporosis in later life.

  10. Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on early intervention. The four articles presented on this theme are: (1) "Deaf Infants, Hearing Mothers: A Research Report" (Kathryn P. Meadow-Orlans, and others), reporting findings on effects of auditory loss on early development; (2) "Maintaining Involvement of Inner City Families in Early Intervention Programs through…

  11. Paracetamol/acetaminophen (single administration) for perineal pain in the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Chou, Doris; Abalos, Edgardo; Gyte, Gillian M L; Gülmezoglu, A Metin

    2013-01-31

    Perineal pain is a common but poorly studied adverse outcome following childbirth. Pain may result from perineal trauma due to bruising, spontaneous tears, surgical incisions (episiotomies), or in association with operative births (ventouse or forceps assisted births). To determine the efficacy of a single administration of paracetamol (acetaminophen) systemic drugs used in the relief of acute postpartum perineal pain We updated the search of the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register on 6 November 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing paracetamol (acetaminophen) in a single dose compared with placebo for women with early postpartum perineal pain. We excluded quasi-RCTs and cross-over studies. Two review authors assessed each paper for inclusion and extracted data. One review author reviewed the decisions and confirmed calculations for pain relief scores. We did not identify any new trials from the updated search so the results remain unchanged as follows.We have included 10 studies describing two dosages of paracetamol. Of these, five studies (526 women) assessed 500 mg to 650 mg and six studies (841 women) assessed 1000 mg of paracetamol. We chose to use random-effects meta-analyses because of the heterogeneity in dosage used. Studies were from the 1970s to the early 1990s, and there was insufficient information to assess the risk of bias adequately, hence the findings need to be interpreted within this context.More women experienced pain relief with paracetamol compared with placebo (average risk ratio (RR) 2.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.59 to 2.89, 10 studies, 1279 women). In addition, there were significantly fewer women having additional pain relief with paracetamol compared with placebo (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.55, eight studies, 1132 women). Both the 500 mg to 650 mg and 1000 mg doses were effective in providing more pain relief than placebo.Maternal and neonatal potential adverse drug effects were not assessed in

  12. Early Childhood Inclusion in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Hua-Fang; Wu, Pei-Fang

    2017-01-01

    In accordance with the Special Education Act that indicates that young children with special needs must have individualized educational plans and receive education with their typically developing peers in the general education setting, Taiwan implemented an experimental preschool inclusion program in 1989. Subsequently, during the 1990s, there was…

  13. 34 CFR 303.440 - Filing a due process complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND... early intervention services to the infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family under part... filing a due process complaint under this part, in the time allowed by that State law, except that the...

  14. 34 CFR 303.440 - Filing a due process complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND... early intervention services to the infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family under part... filing a due process complaint under this part, in the time allowed by that State law, except that the...

  15. 34 CFR 303.440 - Filing a due process complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND... early intervention services to the infant or toddler with a disability and his or her family under part... filing a due process complaint under this part, in the time allowed by that State law, except that the...

  16. Definition of technology development missions for early Space Station satellite servicing. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Executive Summary volume 1, includes an overview of both phases of the Definition of Technology Development Missions for Early Space Station Satellite Servicing. The primary purpose of Phase 1 of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Satellite Servicing Phase 1 study was to establish requirements for demonstrating the capability of performing satellite servicing activities on a permanently manned Space Station in the early 1990s. The scope of Phase 1 included TDM definition, outlining of servicing objectives, derivation of initial Space Station servicing support requirements, and generation of the associated programmatic schedules and cost. The purpose of phase 2 of the satellite servicing study was to expand and refine the overall understanding of how best to use the manned space station as a test bed for demonstration of satellite servicing capabilities.

  17. Single-Molecule Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging: From Early Steps to Recent Advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moerner, William E.

    The initial steps toward optical detection and spectroscopy of single molecules arose out of the study of spectral hole-burning in inhomogeneously broadened optical absorption profiles of molecular impurities in solids at low temperatures. Spectral signatures relating to the fluctuations of the number of molecules in resonance led to the attainment of the single-molecule limit in 1989. In the early 1990s, many fascinating physical effects were observed for individual molecules such as spectral diffusion, optical switching, vibrational spectra, and magnetic resonance of a single molecular spin. Since the mid-1990s when experiments moved to room temperature, a wide variety of biophysical effects may be explored, and a number of physical phenomena from the low temperature studies have analogs at high temperature. Recent advances worldwide cover a huge range, from in vitro studies of enzymes, proteins, and oligonucleotides, to observations in real time of a single protein performing a specific function inside a living cell. Because each single fluorophore acts a light source roughly 1 nm in size, microscopic observation of individual fluorophores leads naturally to localization beyond the optical diffraction limit. Combining this with active optical control of the number of emitting molecules leads to superresolution imaging, a new frontier for optical microscopy beyond the optical diffraction limit and for chemical design of photoswitchable fluorescent labels. Finally, to study one molecule in aqueous solution without surface perturbations, a new electrokinetic trap is described (the ABEL trap) which can trap single small biomolecules without the need for large dielectric beads.

  18. How evidence-based medicine is failing due to biased trials and selective publication.

    PubMed

    Every-Palmer, Susanna; Howick, Jeremy

    2014-12-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) was announced in the early 1990s as a 'new paradigm' for improving patient care. Yet there is currently little evidence that EBM has achieved its aim. Since its introduction, health care costs have increased while there remains a lack of high-quality evidence suggesting EBM has resulted in substantial population-level health gains. In this paper we suggest that EBM's potential for improving patients' health care has been thwarted by bias in the choice of hypotheses tested, manipulation of study design and selective publication. Evidence for these flaws is clearest in industry-funded studies. We argue EBM's indiscriminate acceptance of industry-generated 'evidence' is akin to letting politicians count their own votes. Given that most intervention studies are industry funded, this is a serious problem for the overall evidence base. Clinical decisions based on such evidence are likely to be misinformed, with patients given less effective, harmful or more expensive treatments. More investment in independent research is urgently required. Independent bodies, informed democratically, need to set research priorities. We also propose that evidence rating schemes are formally modified so research with conflict of interest bias is explicitly downgraded in value. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Early Rockets

    2004-04-15

    In addition to Dr. Robert Goddard's pioneering work, American experimentation in rocketry prior to World War II grew, primarily in technical societies. This is an early rocket motor designed and developed by the American Rocket Society in 1932.

  20. Early Rockets

    2004-04-15

    During the 19th century, rocket enthusiasts and inventors began to appear in almost every country. Some people thought these early rocket pioneers were geniuses, and others thought they were crazy. Claude Ruggieri, an Italian living in Paris, apparently rocketed small animals into space as early as 1806. The payloads were recovered by parachute. As depicted here by artist Larry Toschik, French authorities were not always impressed with rocket research. They halted Ruggieri's plans to launch a small boy using a rocket cluster. (Reproduced from a drawing by Larry Toschik and presented here courtesy of the artist and Motorola Inc.)

  1. Onychomycosis due to nondermatophytic molds.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung Min; Suh, Moo Kyu; Ha, Gyoung Yim

    2012-05-01

    Although there have been many studies about onychomycosis due to nondermatophytic molds (NDM), few studies about etiologic agents including NDM in onychomycosis have been reported in Korea. This study investigated onychomycosis due to NDM in the Gyeongju area of Korea. In the 10-year period from 1999~2009, we reviewed 59 patients with onychomycosis due to NDM. The etiologic agents were identified by cultures on Sabouraud's Dextrose agar with and without cycloheximide. In some cases, internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis was done. NDM isolated considered pathogens when the presence of fungal elements was identified by direct microscopy observation and in follow-up cultures yielding the same fungi. Onychomycosis due to NDM comprised 2.3% of all onychomycosis. Of the 59 patients with onychomycosis due to NDM, 84.7% were toenail onychomycosis and 15.3% were fingernail onychomycosis. The incidence rate was highest in the fifth decade (27.1%). The ratio of male to female patients was 1:1.6. The frequency of associated diseases, in descending order, was hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cerebral hematoma. Distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis (86.4%) was the most common clinical type of onychomycosis. Aspergillus spp. was the most frequently isolated etiologic agent of onychomycosis due to NDM (83.0%). Other causative agents were Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (10.2%), Acremonium spp. (3.4%), Fusarium solani (1.7%), and Chaetomium globosum (1.7%). Because of the increase in onychomycosis due to NDM, we suggest the need of a careful mycological examination in patients with onychomycosis.

  2. Early Rockets

    1950-01-01

    Test firing of a Redstone Missile at Redstone Test Stand in the early 1950's. The Redstone was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the von Braun Team under the management of the U.S. Army. The Redstone was the first major rocket development program in the United States.

  3. Early Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Nuys, Ute Elisabeth

    1986-01-01

    Presents reviews of the following mathematics software designed to teach young children counting, number recognition, visual discrimination, matching, addition, and subtraction skills; Stickybear Numbers, Learning with Leeper, Getting Ready to Read and Add, Counting Parade, Early Games for Young Children, Charlie Brown's 1,2,3's, Let's Go Fishing,…

  4. Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Donald L.; Willis, Sherry L.

    This book summarizes theory and discusses major issues pertaining to child development in the early childhood years. Chapter I provides an introduction to the conceptual framework and major theories of child development. Chapter II deals with motor, sensory, and perceptual development. Chapter III focuses on the cognitive-developmental theory of…

  5. Early Rockets

    2004-04-15

    During the early introduction of rockets to Europe, they were used only as weapons. Enemy troops in India repulsed the British with rockets. Later, in Britain, Sir William Congreve developed a rocket that could fire to about 9,000 feet. The British fired Congreve rockets against the United States in the War of 1812.

  6. Early Rockets

    2004-04-15

    In the 19th Century, experiments in America, Europe, and elsewhere attempted to build postal rockets to deliver mail from one location to another. The idea was more novel than successful. Many stamps used in these early postal rockets have become collector's items.

  7. Occupational asthma due to formaldehyde.

    PubMed Central

    Burge, P S; Harries, M G; Lam, W K; O'Brien, I M; Patchett, P A

    1985-01-01

    Bronchial provocation studies on 15 workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde are described. The results show that formaldehyde exposure can cause asthmatic reactions, and suggest that these are sometimes due to hypersensitivity and sometimes to a direct irritant effect. Three workers had classical occupational asthma caused by formaldehyde fumes, which was likely to be due to hypersensitivity, with late asthmatic reactions following formaldehyde exposure. Six workers developed immediate asthmatic reactions, which were likely to be due to a direct irritant effect as the reactions were shorter in duration than those seen after soluble allergen exposure and were closely related to histamine reactivity. The breathing zone concentrations of formaldehyde required to elicit these irritant reactions (mean 4.8 mg/m3) were higher than those encountered in buildings recently insulated with urea formaldehyde foam, but within levels sometimes found in industry. Images PMID:4023975

  8. [Dehydration due to "mouth broken"].

    PubMed

    Meijler, D P M; van Mossevelde, P W J; van Beek, R H T

    2012-09-01

    Two children were admitted to a medical centre due to dehydration after an oral injury and the extraction of a tooth. One child complained of "mouth broken". Dehydration is the most common water-electrolyte imbalance in children. Babies and young children are prone to dehydration due to their relatively large body surface area, the high percentage extracellular fluid, and the limited ability of the kidneys to conserve water. After the removal ofa tooth, after an oral trauma or in case of oral discomfort, a child is at greater risk of dehydration by reduced fluid and food intake due to oral pain and/or discomfort and anxiety to drink. In those cases, extra attention needs to be devoted to the intake of fluids.

  9. [Asthma due to grain dust].

    PubMed

    Baur, X; Preisser, A; Wegner, R

    2003-06-01

    The actual literature as well as two case reports described in detail show that grain dust induces asthmatic reactions and ODTS which are obviously not of allergic origin. For diagnosis occupational-type exposure tests are decisive whereas allergological testing usually is not. Endotoxins which are present in the grain dust samples in high concentrations have to be regarded as the major causative components. To avoid irreversible lung function impairment a comprehensive early diagnosis is necessary. Generally, a remarkable reduction of exposure to dust with high levels of airborne endotoxin in agriculture has to be achieved since in many workplaces corresponding exposures are still rather high.

  10. Teacher Dismissal and Due Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leichner, Edward C.; Blackstone, Sidney

    1977-01-01

    This article addresses due process requirements in the nonrenewal and dismissal of tenured and nontenured teachers. The Georgia Fair Dismissal Law is used as a basis for discussing the grounds for teacher dismissal. Dismissal grounds discussed are 1) incompetency; 2) insubordination; 3) willful neglect of duties; 4) immorality; 5) inciting,…

  11. Meningoencephalitis due to Gemella haemolysans.

    PubMed

    Galen, Benjamin T; Banach, David B; Gitman, Melissa R; Trow, Terence K

    2014-01-01

    Gemella haemolysans is an uncommon but described cause of invasive disease in humans. We report a case of meningitis due to G. haemolysans that did not grow in cerebrospinal fluid culture, demonstrating a potential role for direct 16S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing in culture-negative cerebrospinal fluid when bacterial meningitis is suspected.

  12. Dermatosis due to plants (phytodermatosis).

    PubMed

    dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva

    2010-01-01

    Dermatosis caused by plants is relatively common and may occur by various pathogenic mechanisms. Dermatitis due to physical trauma, pharmacological action, irritation, sensitization, mediated by IgE and induced by light are described. Pseudophytodermatosis caused by plant-delivered elements is also described in the introduction to this work.

  13. Due Process Hearing Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, David F.

    2009-01-01

    William is 9 years of age, residing with his parent within the boundaries of an unnamed district ("the District"). As a student with autism he is eligible for special education programming and services. There was one issue presented for this due process hearing: What was the appropriate program and placement for him for the 2008-2009 school year?…

  14. Due Process Hearing Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, David F.

    2008-01-01

    Ben is a 16-year-old student who resides with his family in an unnamed School District. He is eligible for special education by reason of specific learning disability and ADHD. His parents requested a due process hearing, alleging that the District failed to provide him with a free appropriate public education (FAPE) and requesting reimbursement…

  15. Due Process Hearing Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, David F.

    2009-01-01

    "Chuck" is a 10-year-old student residing in an unnamed District ("the District"), identified as eligible for specially designed instruction because of a specific learning disability. His parents' due process complaint (filed in December 2008) requested compensatory education for the period September 2006 to June 2008. They believed that Chuck,…

  16. Due Process Hearing Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, David F.; Jones, Marni Gail

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a due process hearing case study of a mother who contended that his son, D.J., has been denied of a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) of his School District after being suspended from school. D.J., an elementary student, had been described as hyperactive, inattentive, defiant, and often volatile. He was identified…

  17. Early Risers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Chistina

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author features Bard High School Early College, the first public school in the country to offer a free, full-time college curriculum--and all the credits that go with it--to high schoolers. In Bard's four-year program, students race through high school requirements in 9th and 10th grades, then take college courses in 11th and…

  18. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ibrahim; Pergel, Ahmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Ozer, Ender

    2013-01-01

    Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature.

  19. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Pergel, Ahmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Ozer, Ender

    2013-01-01

    Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature. PMID:23983714

  20. Total gastrectomy due to ferric chloride intoxication.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, A Mesut; Abramson, Leonardo; Vera, Raúl A; Duza, Guillermo E; Palermo, Mariano

    2015-09-01

    The ferric chloride intoxication is frequently caused by accident. Its toxicity is generally underrated, which can lead to fatal evolution or irreversible consequences. In this case, the caustic condition of the substance is related to the toxic properties of iron. A 36-year-old male patient arrives by ambulance indicating sensory deterioration. He presents erosive injuries in the buccal cavity and in the oropharynx, brownish teeth and metabolic acidosis. Toxicology tests and ferritin blood dosage are requested, which show a result from 1400 mg/dl. The symptoms are interpreted as acute iron intoxication. Due to the unfavorable evolution of his condition, an abdominal and pelvic CT scan are performed, which show extensive pneumoperitoneum and free fluid in the abdominal cavity. An exploratory laparotomy, a total gastrectomy with esophagostomy and feeding jejunostomy, washing and drainage due to perforated gastric necrosis caused by caustic ingestion are performed. In our country, there is a high rate of intoxication caused by iron compounds, although it is not statistically measured. Nevertheless, the ferric chloride intoxication is extremely infrequent. The ingestion of this product leads to complications, which are associated with the iron concentration and its condition as a caustic agent. The surgical indications in the presence of intoxication caused by iron compounds are: stomach evacuation of iron, gastric necrosis, perforation or peritonitis and stenosis. Early or prophylactic gastrectomy is contraindicated. However, if complications that require immediate surgical intervention arise, there should be no hesitation and the corresponding procedure should be performed.

  1. 34 CFR 303.420 - Due process procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... infant's or toddler's development is so rapid that undue delay could be potentially harmful. [58 FR 40959... AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND... Children § 303.420 Due process procedures. Each system must include written procedures including procedures...

  2. 34 CFR 303.420 - Due process procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... infant's or toddler's development is so rapid that undue delay could be potentially harmful. [58 FR 40959... AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND... Children § 303.420 Due process procedures. Each system must include written procedures including procedures...

  3. Growth hormone and early treatment.

    PubMed

    Antoniazzi, F; Cavarzere, P; Gaudino, R

    2015-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) not only for GH deficiency (GHD) but also for other childhood growth disorders with growth failure and/or short stature. GHD is the most frequent endocrine disorder presenting with short stature in childhood. During neonatal period, metabolic effects due to congenital GHD require a prompt replacement therapy to avoid possible life-threatening complications. In childhood and adolescence, growth impairment is the most evident effect of GHD and early treatment has the aim of restore normal growth and to reach normal adult height. We reassume in this review the conditions causing GHD and the diagnostic challenge to reach an early diagnosis, and an early treatment, necessary to obtain the best results. Finally, we summarize results obtained in clinical studies about pediatric patients with GHD treated at an early age, in which a marked early catch-up growth and a normalization of adult height were obtained.

  4. Inflation Due to Quantum Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eingorn, Maxim V.; Rusov, Vitaliy D.

    2015-08-01

    In the framework of a cosmological model of the Universe filled with a nonrelativistic particle soup, we easily reproduce inflation due to the quantum potential. The lightest particles in the soup serve as a driving force of this simple, natural and promising mechanism. It is explicitly demonstrated that the appropriate choice of their mass and fraction leads to reasonable numbers of e-folds. Thus, the direct introduction of the quantum potential into cosmology of the earliest Universe gives ample opportunities of successful reconsideration of the modern inflationary theory.

  5. Maculopathy due to drug inhalation.

    PubMed

    Asensio-Sánchez, V M; Gonzalez-Buendia, L; Marcos-Fernández, M

    2014-08-01

    A case of maculopathy due to "poppers" is described. Poppers is a drug composed of various forms of alkyl nitrite. A 39 year-old man, who had been using poppers for years, was seen in the clinic with phosphenes, reduced visual acuity and central scotoma. The SD-OCT in the right eye showed disruption at the level of the IS/OS junction line. The SD-OCT scan in the left eye showed an outer rectangular retinal hole and an outer retinal cyst. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Depressive disorder due to craniopharyngioma.

    PubMed Central

    Spence, S A; Taylor, D G; Hirsch, S R

    1995-01-01

    Secondary causes of depression are legion, and must always be considered in patients presenting with features atypical of primary idiopathic depressive disorder. The case described is that of a middle-aged woman presenting initially with a major depressive disorder who was subsequently found to have a craniopharyngioma, leading to a revised diagnosis of mood disorder due to the tumour. Some features of the presentation might have led to earlier diagnosis had their localizing significance been recognized. Diencephalic lesions should always be considered in patients presenting with the hypersomnic-hyperphagic variant of depressive disorder. Images Figure 1 PMID:8544149

  7. Early Rockets

    2004-04-15

    This photograph is of the engine for the Redstone rocket. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and the production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the "reliable workhorse" for America's early space program. As an example of its versatility, the Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile.

  8. Early Rockets

    2004-04-15

    The image depicts Redstone missile being erected. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and the production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the "reliable workhorse" for America's early space program. As an example of the versatility, Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile

  9. Early Rockets

    1958-05-15

    Redstone missile No. 1002 on the launch pad at Cape Canaveral, Florida, on May 16, 1958. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the "reliable workhorse" for America's early space program. As an example of the versatility, Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile

  10. DYSTOCIA DUE TO SOFT TISSUE

    PubMed Central

    DeCarle, Donald W.

    1954-01-01

    In dystocia caused by abnormal conditions of the soft parts, the etiologic changes may be either in the genital tissues or in adjacent soft structures. Broadly, the conditions causing the difficulty may be grouped as follows: (1) anomalies or congenital modifications; (2) tumors; (3) modifications due to age, accident or surgical operations; (4) modification of the expulsive forces; (5) abnormalities of the products of conception. Often in such circumstances cesarean section is necessary. Sometimes when tumor is present it can be removed before it interferes with delivery, but decision to excise the growth must be guided by such factors as the location of the lesion and the stage of gestation. This would determine to what extent the maintenance of pregnancy would be jeopardized by surgical intervention before term. PMID:13190430

  11. Occupational injuries due to violence.

    PubMed

    Hales, T; Seligman, P J; Newman, S C; Timbrook, C L

    1988-06-01

    Each year in the United States, an estimated 800 to 1,400 people are murdered at work, and an unknown number of nonfatal injuries due to workplace violence occur. Based on Ohio's workers' compensation claims from 1983 through 1985, police officers, gasoline service station employees, employees of the real estate industry, and hotel/motel employees were found to be at the highest risk for occupational violent crime (OVC) injury and death. Grocery store employees, specifically those working in convenience food stores, and employees of the real estate industry had the most reported rapes. Four previously unidentified industries at increased risk of employee victimization were described. Identification of industries and occupations at high risk for crime victimization provides the opportunity to focus preventive strategies to promote employee safety and security in the workplace.

  12. [Lung disorders due to metals].

    PubMed

    Rüegger, M

    1995-03-11

    Though metals represent the largest group of elements they rather rarely cause respiratory diseases. This article will therefore review the most important ones caused by inhaled dusts of metals and some of their inorganic compounds, but leaving aside silicosis and silicatosis as well as iatrogenically induced metal pneumopathies. Among toxic inflammatory diseases metal fume fever, an influenza-like condition caused by zinc oxide, ranks as the commonest. Activities such as oxi-acetylene cutting and welding of zinc covered metal pieces account for about 90% of all cases compensated in Switzerland. Due to the non-recurrent character of this type of work, the typical waning of symptoms while exposure is going on has become seldom. Toxic pneumonia caused by inhaled metal fumes occurs rather seldom. However, serious cases have been reported where soldiers were exposed to zinc chloride from smoke bombs. The existence and extent of chronic airflow limitation due to occupational exposure to metallic dusts have not been widely examined but are to be assumed when there is poor occupational hygiene. Concerning asthma, there are at least four metals and several of their compounds which have been proven to cause variable airway narrowing, namely chromium, nickel, platinum and cobalt (the latter as hardmetal). Platinum complex salts (chloro-compounds) are very potent sensitizers leading to a notable prevalence of asthma among exposed workforces. Nevertheless, there have been no such cases in Switzerland for more than ten years. Hard-metal not only causes asthma but also an alveolitis-like interstitial lung disease progressing to fibrosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Effects of early menarche on physical and psychosocial health problems in adolescent girls and adult women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The menarcheal age of Korean women has been rapidly decreasing for the last 50 years, and the average menarcheal age of women born in the 1990s is approaching 12.6 years. In addition, interest in early puberty has been increasing recently owing to the rapid increase in precocious puberty. Generally, out of concern for short stature and early menarche, idiopathic central precocious puberty in female adolescents is treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. Studies to date have described the association between early menarche and psychosocial problems such as delinquency and risky sexual behavior, as well as physical health problems such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and breast cancer throughout the lifespan of women. However, the pathophysiological mechanism underlying this association has not been clarified thus far. In this article, we review and discuss the existing literature to describe the current understanding of the effects of early menarche on the physical and psychosocial health of adolescent girls and adult women. PMID:27721839

  14. Why Recruits Separate Early

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    our sample were reportedly unable to adjust to the military environment due to social or emotional immaturity. This problem was especially prevalent...Table 9. Table 9 REASONS FOR EARLY SEPARATION 1. Mental health. Phobias , suicide threats and attempts, emotional immaturity, and personality and...hliurfl’lutf t’ htrtiuug tht .’ plinittol piioL’m.9 evIn’ thfll I b’ r i’lli. vre’.Ilv ifao~ , ýI ll.tv ill it](- rv ’: 111nil tln1 (i~..󈧏 4 P A W4.11

  15. Hydropneumothorax Due to Esophageal Rupture.

    PubMed

    Shiber, Joseph R; Fontane, Emily; Ra, Jin H; Kerwin, Andrew J

    2017-06-01

    A brief review of the historical aspects of esophageal rupture is presented along with a case and current recommendations for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. A 97-year-old woman complained of acute dyspnea without prior vomiting. Chest x-ray study showed a large right pneumothorax with associated effusion. A thoracostomy tube was placed with return of > 1 L turbid fluid with polymicrobial culture and elevated pleural fluid amylase level. Chest computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated overt leakage of oral contrast into the right pleural space. She was treated with ongoing pleural evacuation, antibiotics, antifungals, and total parenteral nutrition. The patient and family declined surgical resection as well as endoscopic stent placement. In 1724, Boerhaave described spontaneous rupture of the esophagus postmortem; Boerhaave syndrome remains the name for complete disruption of the esophageal wall in the absence of pre-existing pathology typically occurring after vomiting. It most commonly occurs in the distal left posterolateral thoracic esophagus. Contrast esophagram is considered the "gold standard" for diagnosing esophageal rupture although CT esophagography also shows good diagnostic performance. Treatment includes nil per os status, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and drainage of the pleural space. Surgical repair of the esophageal perforation should be done early if the patient is deemed a good candidate, and esophageal stenting is also an option. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Esophageal perforation should be suspected in patients with new pleural effusion, often with overt pneumothorax, that is polymicrobial with elevated amylase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The early history of ideas on brief interventions for alcohol.

    PubMed

    McCambridge, Jim; Cunningham, John A

    2014-04-01

    This study explores the early development of brief interventions for alcohol using a history of ideas approach with a particular focus on intervention content. The source publications of the key primary studies published from approximately 1962 to 1992 were examined, followed by a brief review of the earliest reviews in this field. These studies were placed in the context of developments in alcohol research and in public health. After early pioneering work on brief interventions, further advances were not made until thinking about alcohol problems and their treatment, most notably on controlled drinking, along with wider changes in public health, created new conditions for progress. There was then a golden era of rapid advance in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when preventing the development of problem drinking became important for public health reasons, in addition to helping already problematic drinkers. Many research challenges identified at that time remain to be met. The content of brief interventions changed over the period of study, although not in ways well informed by research advances, and there were also obvious continuities, with a renewed emphasis on the facilitation of self-change being one important consequence of the development of internet applications. Ideas about brief interventions have changed in important ways. Brief interventions have been studied with different populations of drinkers, with aims embracing both individual and population-level perspectives, and without well-specified contents. The brief intervention field is an appropriate target for further historical investigations, which may help thinking about addressing alcohol and other problems. © 2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. The early history of ideas on brief interventions for alcohol

    PubMed Central

    McCambridge, Jim; Cunningham, John A

    2014-01-01

    Aims This study explores the early development of brief interventions for alcohol using a history of ideas approach with a particular focus on intervention content. Methods The source publications of the key primary studies published from approximately 1962 to 1992 were examined, followed by a brief review of the earliest reviews in this field. These studies were placed in the context of developments in alcohol research and in public health. Results After early pioneering work on brief interventions, further advances were not made until thinking about alcohol problems and their treatment, most notably on controlled drinking, along with wider changes in public health, created new conditions for progress. There was then a golden era of rapid advance in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when preventing the development of problem drinking became important for public health reasons, in addition to helping already problematic drinkers. Many research challenges identified at that time remain to be met. The content of brief interventions changed over the period of study, although not in ways well informed by research advances, and there were also obvious continuities, with a renewed emphasis on the facilitation of self-change being one important consequence of the development of internet applications. Conclusions Ideas about brief interventions have changed in important ways. Brief interventions have been studied with different populations of drinkers, with aims embracing both individual and population-level perspectives, and without well-specified contents. The brief intervention field is an appropriate target for further historical investigations, which may help thinking about addressing alcohol and other problems. PMID:24354855

  18. Fat embolism due to bilateral femoral fracture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Porpodis, Konstantinos; Karanikas, Michael; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Konoglou, Maria; Domvri, Kalliopi; Mitrakas, Alexandros; Boglou, Panagiotis; Bakali, Stamatia; Iordanidis, Alkis; Zervas, Vasilis; Courcoutsakis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome is usually associated with surgery for large bone fractures. Symptoms usually occur within 36 hours of hospitalization after traumatic injury. We present a case with fat embolism syndrome due to femur fracture. Prompt supportive treatment of the patient's respiratory system and additional pharmaceutical treatment provided the positive clinical outcome. There is no specific therapy for fat embolism syndrome; prevention, early diagnosis, and adequate symptomatic treatment are very important. Most of the studies in the last 20 years have shown that the incidence of fat embolism syndrome is reduced by early stabilization of the fractures and the risk is even further decreased with surgical correction rather than conservative management.

  19. Sensing the bed-rock movement due to ice unloading from space using InSAR time-series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, W.; Amelung, F.; Dixon, T. H.; Wdowinski, S.

    2014-12-01

    Ice-sheets in the Arctic region are retreating rapidly since late 1990s. Typical ice loss rates are 0.5 - 1 m/yr at the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, ~ 1 m/yr at the Icelandic ice sheets, and several meters per year at the edge of Greenland ice sheet. Such load decreasing causes measurable (several millimeter per year) deformation of the Earth's crust from Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR). Using small baseline time-series analysis, this signal is retrieved after noises such as orbit error, atmospheric delay and DEM error being removed. We present results from Vatnajokull ice cap, Petermann glacier and Barnes ice cap using ERS, Envisat and TerraSAR-X data. Up to 2 cm/yr relative radar line-of-sight displacement is detected. The pattern of deformation matches the shape of ice sheet very well. The result in Iceland was used to develop a new model for the ice mass balance estimation from 1995 to 2010. Other applications of this kind of technique include validation of ICESat or GRACE based ice sheet model, Earth's rheology (Young's modulus, viscosity and so on). Moreover, we find a narrow (~ 1km) uplift zone close to the periglacial area of Petermann glacier which may due to a special rheology under the ice stream.

  20. [Neurologic complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to intracranial aneurysm rupture].

    PubMed

    Rama-Maceiras, P; Fàbregas Julià, N; Ingelmo Ingelmo, I; Hernández-Palazón, J

    2010-12-01

    The high rates of morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage due to spontaneous rupture of an intracranial aneurysm are mainly the result of neurologic complications. Sixty years after cerebral vasospasm was first described, this problem remains unsolved in spite of its highly adverse effect on prognosis after aneurysmatic rupture. Treatment is somewhat empirical, given that uncertainties remain in our understanding of the pathophysiology of this vascular complication, which involves structural and biochemical changes in the endothelium and smooth muscle of vessels. Vasospasm that is refractory to treatment leads to cerebral infarction. Prophylaxis, early diagnosis, and adequate treatment of neurologic complications are key elements in the management of vasospasm if neurologic damage, lengthy hospital stays, and increased use of health care resources are to be avoided. New approaches to early treatment of cerebral lesions and cortical ischemia in cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to aneurysm rupture should lead to more effective, specific management.