Science.gov

Sample records for early 4th instars

  1. [Anti-feeding activity of total ginsenoside from Panax ginseng to 4th-instar Mythimna separata larvae].

    PubMed

    Tan, Shi-qiang; Ma, Lin; Xu, Yong-hua; Lei, Feng-jie; Zhang, Ai-hua; Zhang, Lian-xue

    2015-07-01

    This paper is in order to study the anti-feeding and growth inhibition activity of toatal ginsenoside of ginseng stems and leaves against 4th-instar Mythimna separata larvae. Simulating natural growing condition indoors, on the base, To study the anti-feeding and growth inhibition activity of toatal ginsenoside against 4th-instar M. separata larvae by leaf disc test. The toatal ginsenoside appeared to be of significant antifeeding activity against 4th-instar M. separata larvae. The 4th-instar M. separata larvae fed on the leaves of Sorghum bicolor treated with 20, 10, 5 g · L(-1) toatal ginsenoside. At 8 h, non-selective anti-feeding rate were 88.67%, 64.40% and 47.36%, and selective anti-feeding rate were 62.49% , 44.29% and 34.19%; Compared with the photographic, The toatal ginsenoside conld make the development period had prolonged 13h in treated group. The toatal ginsenoside had significant inhibition effect on feeding and growth and development against 4th-instar M. separata larvae, and inhibition effect increases as the increase of concentration ginsenoside.

  2. Effectiveness of oxfendazole against early and later 4th-stage Strongylus vulgaris in ponies.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, J O; McCraw, B M; Pennock, P; Ducharme, N G; Baird, J D

    1986-03-01

    Twenty pony foals (reared worm free), 6.5 to 10 weeks of age, were inoculated with Strongylus vulgaris and allocated to 5 groups, each with 4 foals. One week after inoculation, 1 group of 4 foals was given oxfendazole (OFZ) at a dosage rate of 10 mg/kg of body weight, another group was given 2 such treatments 48 hours apart, and a 3rd group was given a placebo. All treatments were administered by stomach tube. Three weeks later, foals were euthanatized and necropsied in a test for efficacy against early 4th-stage larvae. Oxfendazole was 80% and 94.9% effective against early 4th-stage S vulgaris with 1 and 2 doses, respectively. A 4th group of 4 foals was given 2 treatments of OFZ, 48 hours apart, about 8 weeks after inoculation, and a 5th group was given a placebo. These foals were euthanatized and necropsied 5 weeks after treatment in a test for efficacy against later 4th-stage larvae. Two doses of OFZ were 96.6% effective against later 4th-stage larvae.

  3. On-plant movement and feeding of western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) early instars on corn.

    PubMed

    Paula-Moraes, S V; Hunt, T E; Wright, R J; Hein, G L; Blankenship, E E

    2012-12-01

    Western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith), has undergone a recent eastward expansion from the western U.S. Corn Belt to Pennsylvania and parts of Canada. Little is known about its ecology and behavior, particularly during the early instars, on corn (Zea mays L.). There is a narrow treatment window for larvae, and early detection of the pest in the field is essential. An understanding of western bean cutworm larval feeding and early-instar dispersal is essential to understand larval survival and establishment in corn. Studies were conducted in 2009 through 2011 in Nebraska to determine the feeding and dispersal of early-instar western bean cutworm on corn. The treatment design was a factorial with three corn stages (pretassel, tassel, and posttassel) and five corn plant zones (tassel, above ear, primary ear, secondary ear, and below ear) in a randomized complete block design. The effects of different corn tissues on larval survival and development were investigated in laboratory studies in a randomized complete block design during 2009 and 2011. Treatments were different corn tissues (leaf alone, leaf with developing tassel, pollen, pollen plus silk, and silk alone). Results demonstrated that neonate larvae move to the upper part of the plant, independent of corn stage. Larval growth was optimal when fed on tassel tissue. Overall results indicated a selective benefit for movement of the early instar to upper part of the plant.

  4. The Effect of the Early Intervention Program (EIP) on 4th Grade Mathematic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Tiffany H.

    2014-01-01

    Some schools have adopted homogenous grouping of students for academic instruction in response to the No Child Left Behind Act, which requires school districts to ensure academic achievement for all students. The early intervention program (EIP) in mathematics is provided for below-grade level students, yet many of them continue to perform poorly…

  5. Loblolly pine grown under elevated CO2 affects early instar pine sawfly performance.

    PubMed

    Williams, R S; Lincoln, D E; Thomas, R B

    1994-06-01

    Seedlings of loblolly pine Pinus taeda (L.), were grown in open-topped field chambers under three CO 2 regimes: ambient, 150 μl l -1 CO 2 above ambient, and 300 μl l -1 CO 2 above ambient. A fourth, non-chambered ambient treatment was included to assess chamber effects. Needles were used in 96 h feeding trials to determine the performance of young, second instar larvae of loblolly pine's principal leaf herbivore, red-headed pine sawfly, Neodiprion lecontei (Fitch). The relative consumption rate of larvae significantly increased on plants grown under elevated CO 2 , and needles grown in the highest CO 2 regime were consumed 21% more rapidly than needles grown in ambient CO 2 . Both the significant decline in leaf nitrogen content and the substantial increase in leaf starch content contributed to a significant increase in the starch:nitrogen ratio in plants grown in elevated CO 2 . Insect consumption rate was negatively related to leaf nitrogen content and positively related to the starch:nitrogen ratio. Of the four volatile leaf monoterpenes measured, only β-pinene exhibited a significant CO 2 effect and declined in plants grown in elevated CO 2 . Although consumption changed, the relative growth rates of larvae were not different among CO 2 treatments. Despite lower nitrogen consumption rates by larvae feeding on the plants grown in elevated CO 2 , nitrogen accumulation rates were the same for all treatments due to a significant increase in nitrogen utilization efficiency. The ability of this insect to respond at an early, potentially susceptible larval stage to poorer food quality and declining levels of a leaf monoterpene suggest that changes in needle quality within pines in future elevated-CO 2 atmospheres may not especially affect young insects and that tree-feeding sawflies may respond in a manner similar to herb-feeding lepidopterans.

  6. A technique for sexing fully developed embryos and early-instar larvae of the gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Gilbert Levesque

    1963-01-01

    Because variation in sex ratio is an important factor in the population dynamics of the gypsy moth (Porthetria dispar), it is necessary to have some means of determining the ratio of males to females in a population at the beginning of the larval period as well as in the later stages. For determining the sex of fully developed embryos and early-...

  7. USNAVSO/4th Fleet

    Science.gov Websites

    . FOURTH Fleet (USNAVSO/FOURTHFLT) employs maritime forces in cooperative maritime security operations in €­(Hidden)‬ USNAVSO/4th Fleet News Retrieving Data Links Secretary of the Navy Chief of Naval Operations Department of Defense U.S. Southern Command SOCIAL MEDIA Quick Links US Navy Recruiting | No Fear Act Data

  8. The 4th Thermodynamic Principle?

    SciTech Connect

    Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz; Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco

    2007-04-28

    It should be emphasized that the 4th Principle above formulated is a thermodynamic principle and, at the same time, is mechanical-quantum and relativist, as it should inevitably be and its absence has been one of main the theoretical limitations of the physical theory until today.We show that the theoretical discovery of Dimensional Primitive Octet of Matter, the 4th Thermodynamic Principle, the Quantum Hexet of Matter, the Global Hexagonal Subsystem of Fundamental Constants of Energy and the Measurement or Connected Global Scale or Universal Existential Interval of the Matter is that it is possible to be arrived at a global formulationmore » of the four 'forces' or fundamental interactions of nature. The Einstein's golden dream is possible.« less

  9. The Combination of Early and Rapid Type I IFN, IL-1α, and IL-1β Production Are Essential Mediators of RNA-Like Adjuvant Driven CD4+ Th1 Responses

    PubMed Central

    Madera, Rachel F.; Wang, Jennifer P.; Libraty, Daniel H.

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing need for novel vaccine adjuvants that can provide safe and potent T-helper type 1 (Th1) activity. RNA-like immune response modifiers (IRMs) are candidate T-cell adjuvants that skew acquired immune responses towards a Th1 phenotype. We set out to delineate the essential signaling pathways by which the RNA-like IRMs, resiquimod (R-848) and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), augment CD4+ T-helper 1 (Th1) responses. Highly purified murine conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and conventional CD4+ T-cells were co-cultured in allogeneic and MHC congenic mixed leukocyte reactions. The activation of CD4+ Th1 cells was examined utilizing cells from mice deficient in specific RNA-sensing pattern recognition receptors and signaling mediators. R-848 and poly I:C stimulation of Type I interferon production and signaling in cDCs was essential but not sufficient for driving CD4+ Th1 responses. The early and rapid production of IL-1α and IL-1β was equally critical for the optimal activation of Th1 CD4+ T-cells. R-848 activation of Toll-like receptor 7/MyD88-dependent signaling in cDCs led to a rapid upregulation of pro-IL-1α and pro-IL-1β production compared to poly I:C activation of MyD88-independent signaling pathways. The in vitro data show that CD4+ T-cell adjuvant activity of RNA-like IRMs is mediated by a critical combination of early and rapid Type I interferon, IL-1α and IL-1β production. These results provide important insights into the key signaling pathways responsible for RNA-like IRM CD4+ Th1 activation. A better understanding of the critical signaling pathways by which RNA-like IRMs stimulate CD4+ Th1 responses is relevant to the rational design of improved vaccine adjuvants. PMID:22206014

  10. Early Education and the Exceptional Child. Proceedings of the Annual Montana Symposium (4th, Billings, Montana, April 27-29, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Christine Y., Ed.

    The proceedings of a 1983 symposium on early education and the exceptional child features 18 presentations of overall issues, cost effectiveness, special projects, social interaction, and curriculum and instructional issues. Works with the following titles and authors are included: "Education: A Look to the Future" (J. Tawney); "Movement from…

  11. Associations Between the 2nd to 4th Digit Ratio and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Population-Based Samples of Boys and Girls: Findings from the Study to Explore Early Development.

    PubMed

    Schieve, Laura A; Tian, Lin; Dowling, Nicole; Croen, Lisa; Hoover-Fong, Julie; Alexander, Aimee; Shapira, Stuart K

    2018-07-01

    The ratio of the index (2nd) finger to ring (4th) finger lengths (2D:4D) is a proxy for fetal testosterone and estradiol. Studies suggesting 2D:4D is inversely associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in males were limited by lack of confounder and subgroup assessments. Studies of females are sparse. We examined associations between ASD and 2D:4D among children in the Study to Explore Early Development; we considered case subgroups and numerous potential demographic and maternal-perinatal health confounders. We observed a modest inverse association between ASD and right-hand 2D:4D in males; subgroup analyses indicated associations were limited to ASD cases with birth defects/genetic syndromes or dysmorphic features. We observed a positive association between ASD and left-hand 2D:4D in females, overall and within most case subgroups.

  12. The Leap into 4th Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Fourth grade is a pivotal year, in which students commonly face increased academic demands. According to Anderson, teachers can help students make a smooth transition to 4th grade by introducing these new challenges in ways that are in line with 4th graders' common developmental characteristics: incredible energy and emotion, industriousness and…

  13. 17. 4th floor roof, view south, 4th and 5th floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. 4th floor roof, view south, 4th and 5th floor setback to left and atrium structure to right - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  14. 4th Annual Predictive Toxicology Summit 2012.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhanfeng

    2013-08-01

    This meeting report presents a brief summary on the 4th Annual Predictive Toxicology Summit 2012, which was held on 15 - 16 February 2012 in London. The majority of presentations came from global pharmaceutical companies, although small and medium enterprise (SME) and academic researchers were represented too. Major regulatory bodies were also present. The article highlights the summit, which was considered a good learning opportunity to catch up on the recent advances in predictive toxicology. Predictive toxicology has become more and more important due to social and economic pressure and scientific reasons. Technological developments are rapid, but there is a gulf between the technology developers and the pharmaceutical end users; hence, early engagement is desirable. Stem cell-derived cell-based assays as well as three-dimensional in vitro tissue/organ model development are within the reach now, but a lot needs to be done to optimise and validate the developed protocols and products. The field of predictive toxicology needs fundamental research of interdisciplinary nature, which requires much needed trained personnel and funding.

  15. Associations between the 2nd to 4th Digit Ratio and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Population-Based Samples of Boys and Girls: Findings from the Study to Explore Early Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieve, Laura A.; Tian, Lin; Dowling, Nicole; Croen, Lisa; Hoover-Fong, Julie; Alexander, Aimee; Shapira, Stuart K.

    2018-01-01

    The ratio of the index (2nd) finger to ring (4th) finger lengths (2D:4D) is a proxy for fetal testosterone and estradiol. Studies suggesting 2D:4D is inversely associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in males were limited by lack of confounder and subgroup assessments. Studies of females are sparse. We examined associations between ASD and…

  16. Early Learning Left Out: Building an Early-Learning System to Secure America's Future. Federal, State and School District Investments by Child Age. 4th Edition. 2010-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Charles

    2013-01-01

    As a society, are we investing enough in our youngest children? The BUILD Initiative's latest report, Early Learning Left Out, by CFPC director Charles Bruner, provides a clear answer that current investments fall far short. The report draws upon the most recent federal, state, and public school budget information--and what we know about effective…

  17. 166. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 4TH AVENUE. VIEW NORTHEAST DOWN 4TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    166. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 4TH AVENUE. VIEW NORTHEAST DOWN 4TH AVE. FROM BUILDING 44 SHOWING, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, BUILDING 46, 48, 55, AND 50 (PART OF ENLISTED BARRACKS COMPLEX), AND BUILDINGS 17, 16, 484, 483, 374, AND 375 (IN THE WAREHOUSE COMPLEX). - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  18. Kids & Family Reading Report™. 4th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholastic Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the 4th Edition of Scholastic's biannual study of children's and parents' attitudes and behaviors about reading. Much has changed since the first "Kids & Family Reading Report" was issued in 2006, but literacy remains the critical skill needed for school success. Today's children are growing up in a world full of…

  19. The suitability of biotypes Q and B of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) at different nymphal instars as hosts for Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli

    2016-01-01

    Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is a solitary endoparasitoid that is commercially reared and released for augmentative biological control of whiteflies infesting greenhouse crops. In most areas in China, the invasive and destructive whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype Q has replaced B. tabaci biotype B and has become dominant between the two. A better understanding of the suitability of different nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B as hosts for E. formosa is needed to improve the use of this parasitoid for biological control. Parasitism of the four nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B by the commercial strain of E. formosa mass reared on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was assessed in the laboratory. The results indicated that E. formosa parasitized and successfully developed on all instars of both biotypes but performed best on the 3rd instar of B. tabaci biotype B and on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of B. tabaci biotype Q. The host-feeding rate of the adult parasitoid was generally higher on nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotype Q than on the corresponding nymphal instars of biotype B and was significantly higher on the 2nd and 3rd instars. For both whitefly biotypes, the parasitoid's immature developmental period was the longest on the 1st instar, intermediate on the 2nd and 3rd instars, and the shortest on the 4th instar. The parasitoid emergence rate was significantly lower on the 1st instar than on the other three instars and did not significantly differ between B. tabaci biotype B and biotype Q. Offspring longevity was greater on the 3rd and 4th instars than on the 1st instar and did not significantly differ between the two B. tabaci biotypes. The results indicate that commercially-produced E. formosa can parasitize all instars of B. tabaci biotypes B and Q, making this parasitoid a promising tool for the management of the two biotypes of B. tabaci present in

  20. 4th Generation ECR Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, Claude M.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D.S.

    2008-12-01

    The concepts and technical challenges related to developing a 4th generation ECR ion source with an RF frequency greater than 40 GHz and magnetic confinement fields greater than twice Becr will be explored in this paper. Based on the semi-empirical frequency scaling of ECR plasma density with the square of operating frequency, there should be significant gains in performance over current 3rd generation ECR ion sources, which operate at RF frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz. While the 3rd generation ECR ion sources use NbTi superconducting solenoid and sextupole coils, the new sources will need to use different superconducting materialsmore » such as Nb3Sn to reach the required magnetic confinement, which scales linearly with RF frequency. Additional technical challenges include increased bremsstrahlung production, which may increase faster than the plasma density, bremsstrahlung heating of the cold mass and the availability of high power continuous wave microwave sources at these frequencies. With each generation of ECR ion sources, there are new challenges to be mastered, but the potential for higher performance and reduced cost of the associated accelerator continue to make this a promising avenue for development.« less

  1. Insecticide Resistance in Eggs and First Instars of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Brittany E.; Miller, Dini M.

    2015-01-01

    Two strains of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., eggs and first instars collected from pyrethroid-resistant adults were evaluated for insecticide resistance and compared to a susceptible strain. Dose-response bioassays were conducted using two insecticide formulations (Temprid: imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin, and Transport: acetamiprid/bifenthrin). The lethal concentration (LC50) for the two resistant egg strains exposed to imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin ranged from 3 to 5-fold higher than susceptible strain eggs. Resistant strain eggs dipped into formulations of acetamiprid/bifenthrin had LC50 values which were significantly greater (39 to 1,080-fold) than susceptible strain eggs. Similar to eggs, resistant strain first instars exposed to residual applications of imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin had LC50 values ranging from 121 to 493-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. When resistant strain first instars were treated with acetamiprid/bifenthrin, they had LC50 values that were 99 to >1,900-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. To determine differences between egg and first instar resistance, stage resistance ratios (SRR) were compared between the two stages. There was little difference between the egg and first instar stages, indicated by small SRR values ranging from 1.1 to 10.0. This study suggests that insecticide resistance is expressed early during bed bug development. PMID:26463070

  2. Insecticide Resistance in Eggs and First Instars of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Campbell, Brittany E; Miller, Dini M

    2015-01-15

    Two strains of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., eggs and first instars collected from pyrethroid-resistant adults were evaluated for insecticide resistance and compared to a susceptible strain. Dose-response bioassays were conducted using two insecticide formulations (Temprid: imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin, and Transport: acetamiprid/ bifenthrin). The lethal concentration (LC50) for the two resistant egg strains exposed to imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin ranged from 3 to 5-fold higher than susceptible strain eggs. Resistant strain eggs dipped into formulations of acetamiprid/bifenthrin had LC50 values which were significantly greater (39 to 1,080-fold) than susceptible strain eggs. Similar to eggs, resistant strain first instars exposed to residual applications of imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin had LC50 values ranging from 121 to 493-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. When resistant strain first instars were treated with acetamiprid/bifenthrin, they had LC50 values that were 99 to >1,900-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. To determine differences between egg and first instar resistance, stage resistance ratios (SRR) were compared between the two stages. There was little difference between the egg and first instar stages, indicated by small SRR values ranging from 1.1 to 10.0. This study suggests that insecticide resistance is expressed early during bed bug development.

  3. Impact of the Stem Extract of Thevetia neriifolia on the Feeding Potential and Histological Architecture of the Midgut Epithelial Tissue of Early Fourth Instars of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Monika; Gupta, Kamal Kumar; Kumar, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera Hübner is one of the most important agricultural crop pests in the world causing heavy crop yield losses. The continued and indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides in agriculture for their control has received wide public apprehension because of multifarious problems, including insecticide resistance, resurgence of pest species, environmental pollution, and toxic hazards to humans and nontarget organisms. These problems have necessitated the need to explore and develop alternative strategies using eco-friendly and biodegradable plant products. In view of this, the efficacy of Thevetia neriifolia methanol stem extract was evaluated against the early fourth instars of H. armigera as an antifeedant and stomach poison agent. Feeding of larvae with the diet containing 0.005%–5.0% extract resulted in 2.06%–37.35% antifeedant index; the diet with 5.0% extract caused 54.3% reduced consumption. The negative impact of extract on larval feeding resulted in 37.5%–77.7% starvation, causing adverse effects on the larval weight. Choice between control and experimental diet resulted in feeding preference of larvae for the control diet, leading to 7.3%–42.9% reduced consumption of extract-containing diet. The only exception was the diet with 0.005% extract, which could not cause any deterrence. The midgut histological architecture of H. armigera larvae fed with 0.005%–0.05% extract-containing diet with negligible antifeedant potential showed significant damage, shrinkage, and distortion and vacuolization of gut tissues and peritrophic membrane, causing the disintegration of epithelial, goblet, and regenerative cells; the damage increased with the increase in concentration. These changes in the gut caused negative impact on the digestion and absorption of food and thus nutritional deficiency in the larvae, which could probably affect their growth and development. This study reveal the appreciable stomach poison potential of T. neriifolia stem

  4. The risk of a second diagnostic window with 4th generation HIV assays: Two cases.

    PubMed

    Niederhauser, C; Ströhle, A; Stolz, M; Müller, F; Tinguely, C

    2009-08-01

    Despite the improved sensitivity of the 4th generation combined antigen/antibody HIV assays, detection of HIV in the early phase of an infection may still be ineffective. Description of two cases that highlight the existence of the "second diagnostic window phase" observed with commonly used sensitive 4th generation HIV assays. Samples were screened with different 4th generation HIV assays. HIV infection was confirmed with an HIV I/II antibody assay, a HIV-1 p24 antigen assay, the INNO-LIA HIV I/II Score Line immunoassay and HIV-1 PCR. In both investigated cases, the limitations of the 4th generation HIV assays within the second diagnostic window were apparent. The overall sensitivity of the commercial 4th generation HIV assays is currently higher than the 3rd generation HIV assays. Nevertheless, the rare occurrence of a second diagnostic window with 4th generation HIV assays strongly suggests that the following up testing algorithms need to be adjusted accordingly.

  5. Promoting Maternal and Infant Health in the 4th Trimester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbiest, Sarah B.; Tully, Kristin P.; Stuebe, Alison M.

    2017-01-01

    The "4th trimester" refers to the transition period after childbirth when infants are adjusting to life outside the womb and mothers are adjusting to new parenthood. This critical period is marked by significant biological, psychological, and social changes, which are currently insufficiently supported. The 4th trimester perspective…

  6. Morphometric analysis of instar variation in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Measurements of head capsule, mandible, metanotum, and body weight were done on larvae of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionide) from the second to the last instar. Instar number varied from 14 to 18, but 15 or 16 instars were the most common. The value of dimensional measurements was evalua...

  7. 4th integrated transportation management systems (ITMS) conference : white papers

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-07-01

    This report provides the technical papers prepared for the 4th Integrated Transportation Management Systems (ITMS) Conference held in Newark, New Jersey on July 15-18, 2001. The Conference was sponsored by the Transportation Research Board (TRB), the...

  8. 4th integrated transportation management systems (ITMS) conference : conference proceedings

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-08-01

    This report documents the proceedings from the 4th Integrated Transportation Management Systems (ITMS) Conference, ITMS: A Key Strategy to Optimize Surface Transportation System Performance, held in Newark, New Jersey on July 15-18, 2001. The Confere...

  9. The 4th order GISS model of the global atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalnay-Rivas, E.; Bayliss, A.; Storch, J.

    1977-01-01

    The new GISS 4th order model of the global atmosphere is described. It is based on 4th order quadratically conservative differences with the periodic application of a 16th order filter on the sea level pressure and potential temperature equations, a combination which is approximately enstrophy conserving. Several short range forecasts indicate a significant improvement over 2nd order forecasts with the same resolution (approximately 400 km). However the 4th order forecasts are somewhat inferior to 2nd order forecasts with double resolution. This is probably due to the presence of short waves in the range between 1000 km and 2000 km, which are computed more accurately by the 2nd order high resolution model. An operation count of the schemes indicates that with similar code optimization, the 4th order model will require approximately the same amount of computer time as the 2nd order model with the same resolution. It is estimated that the 4th order model with a grid size of 200 km provides enough accuracy to make horizontal truncation errors negligible over a period of a week for all synoptic scales (waves longer than 1000 km).

  10. Successful 4th kidney transplantation: a case report from Iran.

    PubMed

    Nourbala, Mohammad Hossein; Ghadian, Alireza; Einollahi, Behzad; Azarabadi, Mehdi

    2013-05-21

    Kidney transplantation is generally considered the best option for most patients with end-stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy, even for patients with graft failure. Here, we describe a case of a 49-year-old man who received his 1st kidney transplant the United Kingdom from his brother when he was 18 years old in. Thirty-one year after the first transplant, he underwent successful 4th living-unrelated kidney transplantation with no serious complications at our transplant center. He continued to have excellent allograft function and his latest serum creatinine 33 months after his 4th transplant was 1.2 mg/dL. To our knowledge, this is the first case of 4th kidney transplantation from Iran.

  11. Roles of uptake, biotransformation, and target site sensitivity in determining the differential toxicity of chlorpyrifos to second to fourth instar Chironomous riparius (Meigen)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchwalter, D.B.; Sandahl, J.F.; Jenkins, J.J.; Curtis, L.R.

    2004-01-01

    Early life stages of aquatic organisms tend to be more sensitive to various chemical contaminants than later life stages. This research attempted to identify the key biological factors that determined sensitivity differences among life stages of the aquatic insect Chironomous riparius. Specifically, second to fourth instar larvae were exposed in vivo to both low and high waterborne concentrations of chlorpyrifos to examine differences in accumulation rates, chlorpyrifos biotransformation, and overall sensitivity among instars. In vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) assays were performed with chlorpyrifos and the metabolite, chlorpyrifos-oxon, to investigate potential target site sensitivity differences among instars. Earlier instars accumulated chlorpyrifos more rapidly than later instars. There were no major differences among instars in the biotransformation rates of chlorpyrifos to the more polar metabolites, chlorpyrifos-oxon, and chlorpyridinol (TCP). Homogenate AChE activities from second to fourth instar larvae were refractory to chlorpyrifos, even at high concentrations. In contrast, homogenate AChE activities were responsive in a dose-dependent manner to chlorpyrifos-oxon. In general, it appeared that chlorpyrifos sensitivity differences among second to fourth instar C. riparius were largely determined by differences in uptake rates. In terms of AChE depression, fourth instar homogenates were more sensitive to chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon than earlier instars. However, basal AChE activity in fourth instar larvae was significantly higher than basal AChE activity in second to third instar larvae, which could potentially offset the apparent increased sensitivity to the oxon. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Improving 4th Grade Primary School Students' Reading Comprehension Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulut, Aydin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out action research to investigate reading comprehension skills when using the SQ3R reading comprehension strategy. To that end, this strategy was used for improving the reading comprehension skills of 7 primary school 4th grade students who had problems with these skills. An action plan was prepared for 3hours a…

  13. Summary of the 4th Nordic Symposium on Digital Pathology.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Claes; Waltersson, Marie; Persson, Anders; Treanor, Darren

    2017-01-01

    The Nordic symposium on digital pathology (NDP) was created to promote knowledge exchange across stakeholders in health care, industry, and academia. In 2016, the 4 th NDP installment took place in Linköping, Sweden, promoting development and collaboration in digital pathology for the benefit of routine care advances. This article summarizes the symposium, gathering 170 attendees from 13 countries. This summary also contains results from a survey on integrated diagnostics aspects, in particular radiology-pathology collaboration.

  14. Summary of the 4th Nordic Symposium on Digital Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Lundström, Claes; Waltersson, Marie; Persson, Anders; Treanor, Darren

    2017-01-01

    The Nordic symposium on digital pathology (NDP) was created to promote knowledge exchange across stakeholders in health care, industry, and academia. In 2016, the 4th NDP installment took place in Linköping, Sweden, promoting development and collaboration in digital pathology for the benefit of routine care advances. This article summarizes the symposium, gathering 170 attendees from 13 countries. This summary also contains results from a survey on integrated diagnostics aspects, in particular radiology-pathology collaboration. PMID:28382222

  15. 4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference Proceedings (Abstracts)

    SciTech Connect

    Frank W. Telewski; Lothar H. Koehler; Frank W. Ewers

    2003-07-20

    The 4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference facilitated an interdisciplinary exchange between scientists, engineers, and educators addressing the major questions encountered in the field of Plant Biomechanics. Subjects covered by the conference include: Evolution; Ecology; Mechanoreception; Cell Walls; Genetic Modification; Applied Biomechanics of Whole Plants, Plant Products, Fibers & Composites; Fluid Dynamics; Wood & Trees; Fracture Mechanics; Xylem Pressure & Water Transport; Modeling; and Introducing Plant Biomechanics in Secondary School Education.

  16. 76 FR 37649 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... annual July 4th Fireworks Display (Tahoe City 4th of July Fireworks Display). This action is necessary to... INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce the safety zone for the annual Tahoe City 4th of July Fireworks in...

  17. Report of the 4th European Zebrafish Principal Investigator Meeting.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Susana S; Distel, Martin; Linker, Claudia; Fior, Rita; Monteiro, Rui; Bianco, Isaac H; Portugues, Ruben; Strähle, Uwe; Saúde, Leonor

    2016-12-01

    The European Zebrafish Principal Investigator Meeting (EZPM) is an ideal forum for group leaders using this fantastic animal model not only to discuss science but also to strengthen their interactions, to push forward technological advances, and to define guidelines for the use of this fish in research. The city of Lisbon (Portugal) was voted by the European group leaders to be the setting for the 4th EZPM, and the organizing committee, composed by Leonor Saúde (iMM Lisboa, PT), Susana Lopes (CEDOC, PT), Michael Orger (Champalimaud Foundation, PT), Rui Oliveira (ISPA, PT), and António Jacinto (CEDOC, PT), was very enthusiastic to organize a productive event. The 4th EZPM took place from March 15 to 19 at Pavilhão do Conhecimento, a Science Museum and Educational Center winner of The Great Prize FAD of Arquitecture 1999 and The Society for Environmental Graphic Design Award 2011. Over 5 days, 135 group leaders (89 men and 46 women) coming from 19 different European countries and also from the United States, Turkey, Israel, Chile, and Singapore presented and discussed their recent research achievements. In addition to the scientific oral and poster presentations, the group leaders gathered in very lively community sessions on morphants versus mutants (chaired by Didier Stainier, Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, DE), funding issues (chaired by Uwe Strahle, KIT-ITG, DE), and gender equality (chaired by Corinne Houart, KCL, United Kingdom). One of the highlights of the 4th EZPM was the guided visit to Oceanário de Lisboa, an international award-winning place that celebrates life with a stunning display of living aquatic creatures.

  18. Fine PM2.5 around July 4th

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data used in these analyses was obtained from publically-available sources, specifically the EPA's AirNow website (https://www.epa.gov/outdoor-air-quality-data). The dataset provided includes the subset of data from AirNow that was used in our analyses.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Dickerson, A., A. Benson, B. Buckley, and E. Chan. Concentrations of individual fine particulate matter components in the United States around July 4th. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health. Springer Netherlands, NETHERLANDS, 1-10, (2016).

  19. 4TH Marine Division Operation Plan Number 49-44

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1944-12-26

    information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE MAY 1972 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND...assigned (Annex DOG to Adm 0 No. ;44-44,. (2) 4th Tk Bn (less Cos A, B, & C), on landing, be prepared to assume control of Tk Elms as released and Spt...the Atk. (3) 41th Ned Bn, on landing Bn Ho and on Div order, assume control of Cos A, B, and C ashore, prepared to land the remainder of the Bn on Div

  20. A Method for Evaluating Insecticide Efficacy against Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius, Eggs and First Instars.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Brittany E; Miller, Dini M

    2017-03-15

    Standard toxicity evaluations of insecticides against insect pests are primarily conducted on adult insects. Evaluations are based on a dose-response or concentration-response curve, where mortality increases as the dose or concentration of an insecticide is increased. Standard lethal concentration (LC50) and lethal dose (LD50) tests that result in 50% mortality of a test population can be challenging for evaluating toxicity of insecticides against non-adult insect life stages, such as eggs and early instar or nymphal stages. However, this information is essential for understanding insecticide efficacy in all bed bug life stages, which affects control and treatment efforts. This protocol uses a standard dipping bioassay modified for bed bug eggs and a contact insecticidal assay for treating nymphal first instars. These assays produce a concentration-response curve to further quantify LC50 values for insecticide evaluations.

  1. Special Issue: 4th International Workshop on Space Radiation (IWSRR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    This special issue of the journal "Radiation and Environmental Biophysics" contains 20 peer-reviewed papers contributed by leading space radiation researcher's world-wide attending the 4th IWSRR. Manuscripts cover a broad range of topics ranging from radiation environments and transport in shielding and planetary surfaces to new results in understanding the biological effects of protons and high-charge and energy (HZE) nuclei on the risk of cancer, and degenerative diseases such as central nervous system effects, heart disease, and cataracts. The issue provides a snapshot of the state-of-the-art of the research in this field, demonstrating both the important results gathered in the past few years with experiments at accelerators, and the need for more research to quantify the risk and develop countermeasures.

  2. Magendie and Luschka: Holes in the 4th ventricle.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Eliasz

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a complex liquid formed mainly by the choroid plexuses. After filling the ventricular system where it circulates, CSF flows out to the subarachnoid spaces through openings in the 4 th ventricle. Following numerous studies on CSF pathways, these openings were first discovered in the 19 th century by two notable researchers, François Magendie and Hubert von Luschka, who described the median and lateral openings subsequently named after them. Even after the studies of Axel Key and Gustav Magnus Retzius confirming these openings, their existence was questioned by many anatomists, yet acknowledged by others. Finally gaining the acceptance of all, recognition of the holes endures to the present day. Interest in these openings may be attributed to the several congenital or acquired pathological conditions that may affect them, usually associated with hydrocephalus. We report some historical aspects of these apertures and their discoverers.

  3. 77 FR 40266 - Safety Zone; Conneaut 4th of July Festival, Lake Erie, Conneaut, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Conneaut 4th of July Festival, Lake Erie, Conneaut, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Conneaut 4th of July Festival Fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to... vessels during the Conneaut 4th of July Festival Fireworks. This zone will be effective and enforced from...

  4. 76 FR 37650 - Safety Zone; 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display Berkeley, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display Berkeley, CA AGENCY: Coast... the 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display. Unauthorized persons or vessels are... display. Background and Purpose The City of Berkeley Marina will sponsor the 4th of July Festival Berkeley...

  5. 77 FR 30242 - Safety Zone; City of Tonawanda July 4th Celebration, Niagara River, Tonawanda, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; City of Tonawanda July 4th Celebration, Niagara River, Tonawanda, NY AGENCY: Coast... vessels from a portion of the Niagara River during the City of Tonawanda July 4th Celebration fireworks... read as follows: Sec. 165.T09-0352 Safety Zone; City of Tonawanda July 4th Celebration, Niagara River...

  6. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th... § 165.166 Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The following area.... on July 4th. If the event is cancelled due to inclement weather then this section is in effect from 6...

  7. 77 FR 39172 - Safety Zone: Skagway Harbor, Skagway, AK for 4th of July Fireworks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone: Skagway Harbor, Skagway, AK for 4th of July Fireworks AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... of the Small Boat Harbor, Skagway, Alaska, to limit access for the duration of the 4th of July... Inlet for the City of Skagway, Alaska, sponsored 4th of July fireworks display. A no-action alternative...

  8. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th... § 165.166 Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The following area.... on July 4th. If the event is cancelled due to inclement weather then this section is in effect from 6...

  9. 75 FR 26157 - Safety Zone; Reedville July 4th Celebration, Cockrell's Creek, Reedville, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Reedville July 4th Celebration, Cockrell's Creek, Reedville, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard... Reedville July 4th Celebration event. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement on... established in the interest of public safety during the Reedville July 4th Celebration event and will be...

  10. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th... § 165.166 Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The following area.... on July 4th. If the event is cancelled due to inclement weather then this section is in effect from 6...

  11. 75 FR 34639 - Safety Zone; Reedville July 4th Celebration, Cockrell's Creek, Reedville, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Reedville July 4th Celebration, Cockrell's Creek, Reedville, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard... Cockrell's Creek in the vicinity of Reedville, Virginia in support of the Reedville July 4th Celebration... notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Reedville July 4th Celebration, Cockrell's Creek, Reedville...

  12. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th... § 165.166 Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY. (a) Regulated area. The following area.... on July 4th. If the event is cancelled due to inclement weather then this section is in effect from 6...

  13. 75 FR 35649 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the Tahoe City 4th of... safety zone for the annual Tahoe City 4th of July Fireworks in 33 CFR 165.1191 on July 4, 2010, from 9 a...

  14. 75 FR 34636 - Safety Zone; Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks Display AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... waters of Lake Tahoe, for the Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks Display. This safety zone is... Safety Zone; Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks Display. (a) Location. This temporary safety zone is...

  15. Modelling of Technological Solutions to 4th Generation DH Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigants, Edgars; Prodanuks, Toms; Vigants, Girts; Veidenbergs, Ivars; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2017-11-01

    Flue gas evaporation and condensing processes are investigated in a direct contact heat exchanger - condensing unit, which is installed after a furnace. By using equations describing processes of heat and mass transfer, as well as correlation coherences for determining wet gas parameters, a model is formed to create a no-filling, direct contact heat exchanger. Results of heating equipment modelling and experimental research on the gas condensing unit show, that the capacity of the heat exchanger increases, when return temperature of the district heating network decreases. In order to explain these alterations in capacity, the character of the changes in water vapour partial pressure, in the propelling force of mass transfer, in gas and water temperatures and in the determining parameters of heat transfer are used in this article. The positive impact on the direct contact heat exchanger by the decreased district heating (DH) network return temperature shows that introduction of the 4th generation DH system increases the energy efficiency of the heat exchanger. In order to make an assessment, the methodology suggested in the paper can be used in each particular situation.

  16. PREFACE: 4th International Hadron Physics Conference (TROIA'14)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dağ, Hüseyin; Erkol, Güray; Küçükarslan, Ayşe; Özpineci, Altuğ

    2014-11-01

    The 4th International Conference on Hadron Physics, TROIA'14, was held at Canakkale, Turkey on 1-5 July 2014. Ozyegin University, Middle East Technical University, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkish Atomic Energy Authority and HadronPhysics2 Consortium sponsored the conference. It aimed at bringing together the experts and the young scientists working on experimental and theoretical hadron physics. About 50 participants from 10 countries attended the conference. The topics covered included: . Chiral Perturbation Theory . QCD Sum Rules . Effective Field Theory . Exotic Hadrons . Hadron Properties from Lattice QCD . Experimental Results and Future Perspectives . Hadronic Distribution Amplitudes The conference presentations were organized such that the morning sessions contained invited talks and afternoon sessions were devoted to contributed talks. The speakers of the invited talks were: C. Alexandrou, A. Gal, L. Tolos, J.R. Pelaez and M. Schindler. We had also guest speakers D. A. Demir and T. Senger. The conference venue was a resort hotel around Canakkale. As a social program, a guided full-day excursion to the excavation site of the ancient Troia town and Assos was organized. We believe that this conference provided a medium for young scientists and experts in the field to effectively communicate and share ideas. We would like to express our sincere thanks to supporting agencies and to all participants for their contributions and stimulating discussions. We are also grateful to the Scientific Secretary, Bora Işıldak, and all other members of the Organizing Committee for their patience and efforts. 30.10.2014 The Editors

  17. Cage Regional Energy Budgets from the GLAS 4TH Order Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, G. F.; Alexder, M. A.; Shubert, S. D.

    1984-01-01

    The status and future plans of a study to (1) assess the accuracy of regional energy balance calculations obtained from the 4th-order model, (2) determine the impact of satellite data on the calculations, and (3) determine their utility for ocean energy transport studies are discussed. An equation is presented which models the vertically-integrated, time and areally-averaged total energy content of a region of the atmosphere extending from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. All of the terms of the equation were evaluated using early versions of the GLAS FGGE IIIb analysis, and analysis with satellite data deleted. Results show that the budget is dominated by the surface fluxes, net radiation, and horizontal atmospoheric divergence.

  18. A novel acute HIV infection staging system based on 4th generation immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Ananworanich, Jintanat; Fletcher, James L K; Pinyakorn, Suteeraporn; van Griensven, Frits; Vandergeeten, Claire; Schuetz, Alexandra; Pankam, Tippawan; Trichavaroj, Rapee; Akapirat, Siriwat; Chomchey, Nitiya; Phanuphak, Praphan; Chomont, Nicolas; Michael, Nelson L; Kim, Jerome H; de Souza, Mark

    2013-05-29

    Fourth generation (4thG) immunoassay (IA) is becoming the standard HIV screening method but was not available when the Fiebig acute HIV infection (AHI) staging system was proposed. Here we evaluated AHI staging based on a 4thG IA (4thG staging). Screening for AHI was performed in real-time by pooled nucleic acid testing (NAT, n=48,828 samples) and sequential enzyme immunoassay (EIA, n=3,939 samples) identifying 63 subjects with non-reactive 2nd generation EIA (Fiebig stages I (n=25), II (n=7), III (n=29), IV (n=2)). The majority of samples tested (n=53) were subtype CRF_01AE (77%). NAT+ subjects were re-staged into three 4thG stages: stage 1 (n=20; 4th gen EIA-, 3rd gen EIA-), stage 2 (n=12; 4th gen EIA+, 3rd gen EIA-), stage 3 (n=31; 4th gen EIA+, 3rd gen EIA+, Western blot-/indeterminate). 4thG staging distinguishes groups of AHI subjects by time since presumed HIV exposure, pattern of CD8+ T, B and natural killer cell absolute numbers, and HIV RNA and DNA levels. This staging system further stratified Fiebig I subjects: 18 subjects in 4thG stage 1 had lower HIV RNA and DNA levels than 7 subjects in 4thG stage 2. Using 4th generation IA as part of AHI staging distinguishes groups of patients by time since exposure to HIV, lymphocyte numbers and HIV viral burden. It identifies two groups of Fiebig stage I subjects who display different levels of HIV RNA and DNA, which may have implication for HIV cure. 4th generation IA should be incorporated into AHI staging systems.

  19. Urban Infrasound Observations - Examples from July 4th 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, S.; Hayward, C.; Golden, P.; McKenna, M.; Simpson, C.

    2012-12-01

    , the Heroy Building Rooftop Array, is a two-element 30m line on a single rooftop. Large-scale fireworks displays in Dallas on 4 July 2012 provided an opportunity to identify and characterize known signals in an urban setting. The identified events were associated with one of these fireworks displays about 2 km from the arrays. Signals from these sources were used to tune processing parameters for an automatic coherent detection process, Progressive Multichannel Correlation Method (PMCC). PMCC was then used to scan the data for all possible firework sources in the urban environment and determine temporal, back azimuth, apparent velocity, and frequency information about the sources. The signal frequencies seen were 10-80 Hz and documented the details of the nearly 30 minute firework show. The resulting PMCC analysis showed potential to effectively identify other, lower frequency sources in the urban environment. These data were also is used to characterize the noise environment. Significant roof-to-roof noise differences may be related to the building configurations and mechanical equipment, as well as the interactions of the winds with the structures. During the evening of July 4th , additional ground deployed infrasound gauges provided a comparison of free surface and rooftop measurements. Permission to publish was granted by Director, Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory.

  20. 4th-Grade Readers . . . Not Too Old to Snuggle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutshall, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Although parents and teachers appreciate the value of reading aloud to early elementary children, they often forget that upper elementary children can still benefit from individual attention during reading. A small pilot study in a South Carolina elementary school demonstrates the value of pairing adults and children for regular reading time.…

  1. The Effects of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Vocabulary Skills of 4th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilen, Didem; Tavil, Zekiye Müge

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of cooperative learning strategies on the vocabulary skills of 4th grade students. The study was also designed to ascertain the attitudes of the students in the experimental group towards cooperative learning. Out of 96 4th grade students enrolled in the private school where the study took…

  2. 77 FR 38486 - Safety Zone; City of Tonawanda July 4th Celebration, Niagara River, Tonawanda, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; City of Tonawanda July 4th Celebration, Niagara River, Tonawanda, NY AGENCY... safety zone on the Niagara River, Tonawanda, New York. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Niagara River during the City of Tonawanda July 4th Celebration fireworks on July...

  3. 75 FR 33170 - Safety Zone; City of Martinez 4th of July Fireworks, Martinez, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0371] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; City of Martinez 4th of July Fireworks, Martinez, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... of Martinez 4th of July Fireworks, Martinez, CA. (a) Location. This temporary safety zone is...

  4. The school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We are attempting to uncover the school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students. Data was collected within a time frame for the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) set at two months at the WT Cheney Elementary School and South Wood Elementary for 4th grade stud...

  5. 29. VIEW OF 4TH FLOOR'S TELEPHONE RACKS WITH CABLE TRAYS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF 4TH FLOOR'S TELEPHONE RACKS WITH CABLE TRAYS ABOVE. THESE ARE NEWER APPARATUS AND NOT ORIGINAL. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. 97. VIEW NORTHWEST OF 4TH FLOOR OF BUILDING 112; NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. VIEW NORTHWEST OF 4TH FLOOR OF BUILDING 112; NOTE REMNANTS OF BEARING SUPPORTS FOR OVERHEAD BELT AND PULLEY POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  7. 18. DETAILED OFFSHORE VIEW OF 4TH TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAILED OFFSHORE VIEW OF 4TH TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TRANSITION FROM WOOD BENTS TO CONCRETE BENTS - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  8. 1. WEST AND NORTH (OBLIQUE VIEW) SIDES, FROM ACROSS 4TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST AND NORTH (OBLIQUE VIEW) SIDES, FROM ACROSS 4TH STREET, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Warehouse, North of A Street, between Fourth & Maritime Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  9. TID Test Results for 4th Generation iPad(TradeMark)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guertin, S. M.; Allen, G. R.; McClure, S. S.; LaBel, K. A.

    2013-01-01

    TID testing of 4th generation iPads is reported. Of iPad subsystems, results indicate that the charging circuitry and display drivers fail at lowest TID levels. Details of construction are investigated for additional testing of components.

  10. 29. 4TH STREET FROM NEAR ITS INTERSECTION WITH J STREET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. 4TH STREET FROM NEAR ITS INTERSECTION WITH J STREET, LOOKING NORTH, WITH WAREHOUSE 333 AT LEFT AND WAREHOUSES 433, 432 & 431 AT RIGHT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Maritime Street at Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  11. 4th floor sacking deck looking east from 1945 elevator to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4th floor sacking deck looking east from 1945 elevator to 1913 elevator indicating spout used to load bulk grain into rail cars - Stewart Company Grain Elevator, 16 West Carson Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  12. 16. 4th floor roof, view west, north side of setback ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. 4th floor roof, view west, north side of setback to left and delivery stair bulkhead to right - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  13. 5. Double crib barn, main floor, 4th room from northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Double crib barn, main floor, 4th room from northeast, southeast and southwest walls - Wilkins Farm, Barn, South side of Dove Hollow Road, 6000 feet east of State Route 259, Lost City, Hardy County, WV

  14. Report of the 4th Workshop for Technology Transfer for Intelligent Compaction Consortium.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-03-01

    On October 2728, 2015, the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) hosted the 4th workshop for : the Technology Transfer for Intelligent Compaction Consortium (TTICC), a Transportation Pooled Fund : (TPF5(233)) initiative designed to identify, s...

  15. Pooled nucleic acid testing increases the diagnostic yield of acute HIV infections in a high-risk population compared to 3rd and 4th generation HIV enzyme immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Krajden, Mel; Cook, Darrel; Mak, Annie; Chu, Ken; Chahil, Navdeep; Steinberg, Malcolm; Rekart, Michael; Gilbert, Mark

    2014-09-01

    We compared a 3rd generation (gen) and two 4th gen HIV enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to pooled nucleic acid testing (PNAT) for the identification of pre- and early seroconversion acute HIV infection (AHI). 9550 specimens from males >18 year from clinics attended by men who have sex with men were tested by Siemens ADVIA Centaur(®) HIV 1/O/2 (3rd gen) and HIV Combo (4th gen), as well as by Abbott ARCHITECT(®) HIV Ag/Ab Combo (4th gen). Third gen non-reactive specimens were also tested by Roche COBAS(®) Ampliprep/COBAS® TaqMan HIV-1 Test v.2 in pools of 24 samples. Sensitivity and specificity of the three EIAs for AHI detection were compared. 7348 persons contributed 9435 specimens and had no evidence of HIV infection, 79 (94 specimens) had established HIV infection, 6 (9 specimens) had pre-seroconversion AHI and 9 (12 specimens) had early seroconversion AHI. Pre-seroconversion AHI cases were not detected by 3rd gen EIA, whereas 2/6 (33.3%) were detected by Siemens 4th gen, 4/6 (66.7%) by Abbott 4th gen and 6/6 (100%) by PNAT. All three EIAs and PNAT detected all individuals with early seroconversion AHI. Overall sensitivity/specificity for the EIAs relative to WB or NAT resolved infection status was 93.6%/99.9% for Siemens 3rd gen, 95.7%/99.7% for Siemens 4th gen and 97.9%/99.2% for Abbott 4th gen. While both 4th gen EIAs demonstrated improved sensitivity for AHI compared to 3rd gen EIA, PNAT identified more AHI cases than either 4th gen assay. PNAT is likely to remain a useful strategy to identify AHI in high-risk populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Painting of fourth and chromosome-wide regulation of the 4th chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Anna-Mia; Stenberg, Per; Bernhardsson, Carolina; Larsson, Jan

    2007-05-02

    Drosophila melanogaster exhibits two expression-regulating systems that target whole, specific chromosomes: the dosage compensation system whereby the male-specific lethal complex doubles transcription of genes on the male X-chromosome and the chromosome 4-specific protein Painting of fourth, POF. POF is the first example of an autosome-specific protein and its presence raises the question of the universality of chromosome-specific regulation. Here we show that POF and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) are involved in the global regulation of the 4th chromosome. Contrary to previous conclusions, Pof is not essential for survival of diplo-4th karyotype flies. However, Pof is essential for survival of haplo-4th individuals and expression of chromosome 4 genes in diplo-4th individuals is decreased in the absence of Pof. Mapping of POF using chromatin immunoprecipitation suggested that it binds within genes. Furthermore, we show that POF binding is dependent on heterochromatin and that POF and HP1 bind interdependently to the 4th chromosome. We propose a balancing mechanism involving POF and HP1 that provides a feedback system for fine-tuning expression status of genes on the 4th chromosome.

  17. Painting of fourth and chromosome-wide regulation of the 4th chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Anna-Mia; Stenberg, Per; Bernhardsson, Carolina; Larsson, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster exhibits two expression-regulating systems that target whole, specific chromosomes: the dosage compensation system whereby the male-specific lethal complex doubles transcription of genes on the male X-chromosome and the chromosome 4-specific protein Painting of fourth, POF. POF is the first example of an autosome-specific protein and its presence raises the question of the universality of chromosome-specific regulation. Here we show that POF and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) are involved in the global regulation of the 4th chromosome. Contrary to previous conclusions, Pof is not essential for survival of diplo-4th karyotype flies. However, Pof is essential for survival of haplo-4th individuals and expression of chromosome 4 genes in diplo-4th individuals is decreased in the absence of Pof. Mapping of POF using chromatin immunoprecipitation suggested that it binds within genes. Furthermore, we show that POF binding is dependent on heterochromatin and that POF and HP1 bind interdependently to the 4th chromosome. We propose a balancing mechanism involving POF and HP1 that provides a feedback system for fine-tuning expression status of genes on the 4th chromosome. PMID:17318176

  18. Systematically frameshifting by deletion of every 4th or 4th and 5th nucleotides during mitochondrial transcription: RNA self-hybridization regulates delRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    In mitochondria, secondary structures punctuate post-transcriptional RNA processing. Recently described transcripts match the human mitogenome after systematic deletions of every 4th, respectively every 4th and 5th nucleotides, called delRNAs. Here I explore predicted stem-loop hairpin formation by delRNAs, and their associations with delRNA transcription and detected peptides matching their translation. Despite missing 25, respectively 40% of the nucleotides in the original sequence, del-transformed sequences form significantly more secondary structures than corresponding randomly shuffled sequences, indicating biological function, independently of, and in combination with, previously detected delRNA and thereof translated peptides. Self-hybridization decreases delRNA abundances, indicating downregulation. Systematic deletions of the human mitogenome reveal new, unsuspected coding and structural informations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 77 FR 39422 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Niceville July 4th Fireworks Show; Boggy Bayou...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ...-AA00 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Niceville July 4th Fireworks Show; Boggy Bayou... Guard will enforce a Safety Zone for the Niceville July 4th Fireworks Show in Boggy Bayou, Niceville... July 4th Fireworks Show. During the enforcement period, entry into, transiting or anchoring in the...

  20. 75 FR 38721 - Safety Zone; Munising 4th of July Fireworks, South Bay, Lake Superior, Munising, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Munising 4th of July Fireworks, South Bay, Lake Superior, Munising, MI AGENCY: Coast... portion of South Bay during the Munising 4th of July Fireworks display, July 4, 2010. This temporary... from hazards associated with the Munising 4th of July Fireworks display. Based on the explosive hazards...

  1. 75 FR 34379 - Safety Zone; Mackinac Island 4th of July Fireworks, Lake Huron, Mackinac Island, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Mackinac Island 4th of July Fireworks, Lake Huron, Mackinac Island, MI AGENCY: Coast... of Lake Huron during the Mackinac Island 4th of July Fireworks display on July 4, 2010. This... and vessels during the setup, and launching of fireworks in conjunction with the Mackinac Island 4th...

  2. 75 FR 34374 - Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton, 4th of July Fireworks Display...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton, 4th of July Fireworks Display... July 4th fireworks display. This safety zone is established to ensure the safety of participants and... will sponsor the Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton 4th of July Fireworks Display on July 4...

  3. 75 FR 38718 - Safety Zone; Sault Sainte Marie 4th of July Fireworks, St. Mary's River, Sault Sainte Marie, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Sault Sainte Marie 4th of July Fireworks, St. Mary's River, Sault Sainte Marie, MI... restrict vessels from a portion of the St. Mary's River during the Sault Sainte Marie 4th of July Fireworks... the setup and launching of fireworks in conjunction with the Sault Sainte Marie 4th of July Fireworks...

  4. 75 FR 35294 - Safety Zone; Marquette 4th of July Fireworks, Marquette Harbor, Lake Superior, Marquette, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Marquette 4th of July Fireworks, Marquette Harbor, Lake Superior, Marquette, MI... vessels from a portion of Marquette Harbor during the Marquette 4th of July Fireworks display. This... vessels during the setup and launching of fireworks in conjunction with the Marquette 4th of July...

  5. Charactering baseline shift with 4th polynomial function for portable biomedical near-infrared spectroscopy device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ke; Ji, Yaoyao; Pan, Boan; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    The continuous-wave Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices have been highlighted for its clinical and health care applications in noninvasive hemodynamic measurements. The baseline shift of the deviation measurement attracts lots of attentions for its clinical importance. Nonetheless current published methods have low reliability or high variability. In this study, we found a perfect polynomial fitting function for baseline removal, using NIRS. Unlike previous studies on baseline correction for near-infrared spectroscopy evaluation of non-hemodynamic particles, we focused on baseline fitting and corresponding correction method for NIRS and found that the polynomial fitting function at 4th order is greater than the function at 2nd order reported in previous research. Through experimental tests of hemodynamic parameters of the solid phantom, we compared the fitting effect between the 4th order polynomial and the 2nd order polynomial, by recording and analyzing the R values and the SSE (the sum of squares due to error) values. The R values of the 4th order polynomial function fitting are all higher than 0.99, which are significantly higher than the corresponding ones of 2nd order, while the SSE values of the 4th order are significantly smaller than the corresponding ones of the 2nd order. By using the high-reliable and low-variable 4th order polynomial fitting function, we are able to remove the baseline online to obtain more accurate NIRS measurements.

  6. Collaborative study for the establishment of the 4(th) International Standard for Streptomycin.

    PubMed

    Jorajuria, S; Raphalen, C; Dujardin, V; Daas, A

    2015-01-01

    An international collaborative study was organised to establish the 4(th) World Health Organization (WHO) International Standard (IS) for Streptomycin. Fourteen laboratories from different countries participated. Potencies of the candidate material were estimated by microbiological assays with sensitive micro-organisms. To ensure continuity between consecutive batches, the 3(rd) IS for Streptomycin was used as a reference. Based on the results of the study, the 4(th) IS for Streptomycin was adopted at the meeting of the WHO Expert Committee for Biological Standardization (ECBS) in 2015 with an assigned potency of 76 000 International Units (IU) per vial. The 4(th) IS for Streptomycin is available from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM).

  7. Description of third instar larvae of Anastrepha curitis, Anastrepha pickeli and Anastrepha pulchra (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We describe and illustrate for the first time the third instar larvae of three Anastrepha species, Anastrepha pickeli Lima, Anastrepha pulchra Stone, and Anastrepha curitis Stone, and also the second instar of A. curitis. Internal structures, such as the cephalopharyngeal skeleton and spiracles, and...

  8. Instar development of the Douglas-fir tussock moth in relation to field temperatures.

    Treesearch

    Roy C. Beckwith; David G. Grimble; Julie C. Weatherby

    1993-01-01

    Instar development is recorded for the Douglas-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudotsugata) for two different elevations in the Boise National Forest, Idaho, in 1991. The percentage of the population by instars is associated with accumulated degree-days after eclosion, which can be used to predict the proper timing for spray application. For all...

  9. 55. TOP (4TH) FLOOR OF 187380 WING LOOKING NORTH, WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. TOP (4TH) FLOOR OF 1873-80 WING LOOKING NORTH, WEST SIDE. NOTE SECTION, LEFT SIDE, MIDDLEGROUND, WHERE SMALL HIGH WINDOWS INDICATE POINT AT WHICH 1852 WING JOINS THIS WING. - Boston Manufacturing Company, 144-190 Moody Street, Waltham, Middlesex County, MA

  10. Parents in Partnership for Proficiency: For 3rd & 4th Graders and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiner, Christine; And Others

    This document contains a series of learning materials for 3rd and 4th graders and their families. The materials are designed to augment classroom learning. Included are worksheets, games, and other skill building activities for writing, reading, math, citizenship, and science. These activities are meant to help children prepare for proficiency…

  11. Assessment of an Engineering Technology Outreach Program for 4th-7th Grade Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, Elizabeth M.; Christman, Jeanne; Garrick, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a workshop led by female Engineering Technology students, with support from female faculty, to provide an introduction to Engineering Technology to 4th-7th grade girls through a series of interactive laboratory experiments. This outreach program was developed to improve attitudes towards science and engineering in middle…

  12. 11. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO NORTHEAST, WITH WRAPPER (LEFT), PRESS (CENTER), AND CUTTER (RIGHT, BEHIND CHUTE); BUCKET CONVEYOR AT RIGHT MOVED WASTE FROM PRESS TO 5TH FLOOR FOR RE-MANUFACTURE - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  13. Relationships between Grade Levels, Personal Factors, and Instructional Variation among 4th-12th Grade Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jacquelyn M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to investigate relationships between grade levels, personal factors of teachers, and instructional variety used by 4th-12th grade teachers in Kern County, California. The population under investigation included 2,844 teachers. 235 elementary, middle school/junior high, and secondary teachers…

  14. Proceedings of the 4th fire in eastern oak forests conference

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey; Michael C. Stambaugh; Stacy L. Clark; Callie J., eds. Schweitzer

    2012-01-01

    Contains 14 full-length papers and 40 abstracts of posters that were presented at the 4th Fire in Eastern Oak Forests conference, held in Springfield, MO, May 17-19, 2011. The conference was attended by over 250 people from 65 different organizations and entities, representing 22 states and 1 Canadian province.

  15. Using 4th order Runge-Kutta method for solving a twisted Skyrme string equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadi, Miftachul; Anderson, Malcolm; Husein, Andri

    2016-03-01

    We study numerical solution, especially using 4th order Runge-Kutta method, for solving a twisted Skyrme string equation. We find numerically that the value of minimum energy per unit length of vortex solution for a twisted Skyrmion string is 20.37 × 1060 eV/m.

  16. Reading Development and Achievement of 4th-Grade Hmong Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahowald, Megan; Loughnane, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners alike have noted that Hmong students in the United States do not achieve as well as their monolingual peers and other bilingual students. The current mixed-methods study is designed to describe reading development and achievement of 4th-grade Hmong students in one large, urban school district. This study explores the…

  17. 4th level of 1945 warehouse indicating drag conveyor. From here ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4th level of 1945 warehouse indicating drag conveyor. From here screenings were pumped from the elevator leg to this conveyor. The grains were ground, then conveyed back down to the first floor for bagging. - Stewart Company Grain Elevator, 16 West Carson Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  18. 45. Master plan of 4th floor, building 1, U.S. Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Master plan of 4th floor, building 1, U.S. Naval supply activities, New York, Brooklyn, New York, public works department, March 2, 1953. Drawing #BK-S1-4. Scale 1/16=1. - U.S. Navy Fleet Supply Base, Storehouse No. 1, 830 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  19. Best Practices for Improving the Writing of 3rd and 4th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eftekhari, Parastou Afshar

    2017-01-01

    Scores on a state comprehensive assessment test showed that writing skills of 4th grade students enrolled in a K-8 magnet school in the southeastern part of the United States were below target. The assistant principal of the K-8 magnet school explained that a review of 3-year longitudinal data revealed that the number of students who met…

  20. 94. VIEW OF PILINGS ON SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH 4TH TEE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. VIEW OF PILINGS ON SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH 4TH TEE IN THE BACKGROUND, FACING WEST-SOUTHWEST FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE TACKLE BOX. RAMP OF PIER EXTENSION IS VISIBLE ON RIGHT - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  1. 20. TYPICAL VIEW OF FRONT WINDOWS FROM 4TH TO 9TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. TYPICAL VIEW OF FRONT WINDOWS FROM 4TH TO 9TH FLOOR WITH WHITE GLAZED TERRA COTTA SILL AND HEADERS. MULLIONS ARE ORANGE BROWN BRICKS LIKE THE WALLS. BRICKS ARE IN FLEMISH BOND PATTERN. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  2. 77 FR 56208 - Filing Dates for the Kentucky Special Election in the 4th Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION [Notice 2012-06] Filing Dates for the Kentucky Special Election in the 4th Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Kentucky has scheduled a general election on November 6, 2012, to fill the U.S...

  3. 4th level of 1913 elevator indicating sacking scale, part of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4th level of 1913 elevator indicating sacking scale, part of the bagging system and nate to the sewing machine. Discharge spout for the grain bin to the left - Stewart Company Grain Elevator, 16 West Carson Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  4. Effectiveness of Web Quest in Enhancing 4th Grade Students' Spiritual Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jwaifell, Mustafa; Al-Mouhtadi, Reham; Aldarabah, Intisar

    2015-01-01

    Spiritual intelligence has gained great interest from a good number of the researchers and scholars, while there is a lack of using new technologies such as WebQuest as an instructional tool; which is one of the e-learning applications in education in enhancing spiritual intelligence of 4th graders in Jordanian schools. This study aimed at…

  5. Identification and phenology of Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cixiidae) nymphal instars.

    PubMed

    Cargnus, E; Pavan, F; Mori, N; Martini, M

    2012-10-01

    Urtica dioica and Convolvulus arvensis are the main host plants of Hyalesthes obsoletus and play an important role in the epidemiology of Bois noir of grapevines. The earliest survey, which was carried out to compare the phenology of nymphal instars on U. dioica and C. arvensis, had highlighted some problems in the identification of the instars. Therefore, the correct identification of nymphs to species and instar level became a preliminary aim of this research. Adults and nymphs attributable to H. obsoletus were collected during 2008-2010 in three flatland vineyard habitats of northern Italy on U. dioica, C. arvensis and Artemisia verlotorum. Nymphs and morphologically identified adults of H. obsoletus were submitted to molecular identification. Morphometric and morphological studies were carried out on nymphs collected in the field or obtained in laboratory rearings. Molecular methods not only confirmed the identity of adults, but also allowed the assignment of the nymphs to this species. Morphometric and morphological characteristics (e.g. body and head-thoracic lengths, number of thoracic pits) showed the existence of five nymphal instars. Morphometric differences between newly hatched and older first-instar nymphs were observed. A key to distinguish the five instars was proposed. Evident differences between H. obsoletus nymphs studied here and elsewhere were identified. According to differences in adult-flight period, an earlier phenology of nymphs on C. arvensis than on U. dioica was observed. In particular, the typical overwintering instar was the second on U. dioica and the third on C. arvensis.

  6. THE FIRST LASING OF 193 NM SASE, 4TH HARMONIC HGHG AND ESASE AT THE NSLS SDL.

    SciTech Connect

    WANG, X.J.; SHEN Y.; WATANABE, T.

    2006-08-28

    The first lasing of three types of single-pass high-gain FELs, SASE at 193 nm, 4th harmonic HGHG at 199 nm and ESASE at the Source Development Lab (SDL) of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is reported. The saturation of 4th harmonic HGHG and ESASE FELs was observed. We also observed the spectral broadening and instability of the 4th harmonic HGHG.

  7. Reforming the 4th-Year Curriculum as a Springboard to Graduate Medical Training: One School's Experiences and Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Wackett, Andrew; Daroowalla, Feroza; Lu, Wei-Hsin; Chandran, Latha

    2016-01-01

    Concerns regarding the quality of training in the 4th year of medical school and preparation of graduates to enter residency education persist and are borne out in the literature. We reviewed the published literature regarding Year 4 concerns as well as institutional efforts to improve the 4th-year curriculum from several schools. Based on input from key stakeholders, we established 4 goals for our Year 4 curriculum reform: (a) standardize the curricular structure, (b) allow flexibility and individualization, (c) improve the preparation for residency, and (d) improve student satisfaction. After the reform, we evaluated the outcomes using results from the Association of American Medical Colleges Questionnaire, student focus groups, and program director surveys. This article describes the context, process, and outcomes of the reform of the Year 4 curriculum at Stony Brook University School of Medicine. We were able to achieve all four stated goals for the reform. The significant components of the change included a flexible adaptable curriculum based on individual needs and preferences, standardized learning objectives across the year, standardized competency-based evaluations regardless of discipline, reinforcement of clinical skills, and training for the transition to the workplace as an intern. The reform resulted in increased student satisfaction, increased elective time, and increased preparedness for residency training as perceived by the graduates. The Program Director survey showed significant changes in ability to perform a medical history and exam, management of common medical conditions and emergencies, clinical reasoning and problem-solving skills, working and communication with the healthcare team, and overall professionalism in meeting obligations inherent in the practice of medicine. Lessons learned from our 4th-year reform process are discussed. Listening to the needs of the stakeholders was an important step in ensuring buy-in, having an institutional

  8. 4th European Seminars in Virology on Oncogenic and Oncolytic Viruses, in Bertinoro (Bologna), Italy.

    PubMed

    Reale, Alberto; Messa, Lorenzo; Vitiello, Adriana; Loregian, Arianna; Palù, Giorgio

    2017-10-01

    The 4th European Seminars in Virology (EuSeV), which was focused on oncogenic and oncolytic viruses, was held in Bertinoro (Bologna), Italy, from June 10 to 12, 2016. This article summarizes the plenary lectures and aims to illustrate the main topics discussed at 4th EuSeV, which brought together knowledge and expertise in the field of oncogenic and oncolytic viruses from all over the world. The meeting was divided in two parts, "Mechanisms of Viral Oncogenesis" and "Viral Oncolysis and Immunotherapy," which were both focused on dissecting the complex and multi-factorial interplay between cancer and human viruses and on exploring new anti-cancer strategies. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2641-2648, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Assessing the Organization and Capabilities of 4th Marine Logistics Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-14

    Logistics Group (MLG) should adopt further organizational changes within specific parameters to complement the structure and capabilities of the Active...In order to enhance operational effectiveness and continue its mandated responsibility to augment and reinforce, 4th MLG should adopt further...of the Deputy Commandant, Installations and Logistics (DC, I&L), Marine Forces Reserve ( MFR ), and the MLGs. The paper also relies heavily on the

  10. 11(th) National Meeting of Organic Chemistry and 4(th) Meeting of Therapeutic Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Maria Emília; Araújo, Maria João; do Vale, Maria Luísa; Andrade, Paula B; Branco, Paula; Gomes, Paula; Moreira, Rui; Pinho E Melo, Teresa M V D; Freitas, Victor

    2016-03-17

    For the first time under the auspices of Sociedade Portuguesa de Química, the competences of two important fields of Chemistry are brought together into a single event, the 11st National Organic Chemistry Meeting and the the 4th National Medicinal Chemistry Meeting, to highlight complementarities and to promote new synergies. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report.

  11. 11th National Meeting of Organic Chemistry and 4th Meeting of Therapeutic Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Maria Emília; Araújo, Maria João; do Vale, Maria Luísa; Andrade, Paula B.; Branco, Paula; Gomes, Paula; Moreira, Rui; Pinho e Melo, Teresa M.V.D.; Freitas, Victor

    2016-01-01

    For the first time under the auspices of Sociedade Portuguesa de Química, the competences of two important fields of Chemistry are brought together into a single event, the 11st National Organic Chemistry Meeting and the the 4th National Medicinal Chemistry Meeting, to highlight complementarities and to promote new synergies. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report. PMID:27102166

  12. 10. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO SOUTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO SOUTHWEST, WITH AUTOMATIC CUTTER (LEFT), PRESS (CENTER), AND WRAPPER (RIGHT); LARGE CHUTE AT CENTER FROM 5TH FLOOR BINS TO 3RD FLOOR SOAP MILLS; OVERHEAD AND FLOOR (LOWER RIGHT) FINISHED GOODS CONVEYORS TO G BLOCK (HAER NO. NJ-71-NN) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  13. Registration of High Angular Resolution Diffusion MRI Images Using 4th Order Tensors⋆

    PubMed Central

    Barmpoutis, Angelos; Vemuri, Baba C.; Forder, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Registration of Diffusion Weighted (DW)-MRI datasets has been commonly achieved to date in literature by using either scalar or 2nd-order tensorial information. However, scalar or 2nd-order tensors fail to capture complex local tissue structures, such as fiber crossings, and therefore, datasets containing fiber-crossings cannot be registered accurately by using these techniques. In this paper we present a novel method for non-rigidly registering DW-MRI datasets that are represented by a field of 4th-order tensors. We use the Hellinger distance between the normalized 4th-order tensors represented as distributions, in order to achieve this registration. Hellinger distance is easy to compute, is scale and rotation invariant and hence allows for comparison of the true shape of distributions. Furthermore, we propose a novel 4th-order tensor re-transformation operator, which plays an essential role in the registration procedure and shows significantly better performance compared to the re-orientation operator used in literature for DTI registration. We validate and compare our technique with other existing scalar image and DTI registration methods using simulated diffusion MR data and real HARDI datasets. PMID:18051145

  14. [Description of the last instar larva and pupa of Cryptophlebia cortesi Clarke (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A

    2006-01-01

    A description of the last instar larva and pupa of Cryptophlebia cortesi Clarke, based on specimens collected on yaro, Acacia macracantha Bonpl & Humb ex Willd. (Fabaceae), in the Chaca valley, Primera Región, Chile, is presented.

  15. Rapid stimulation of sodium intake combining aldosterone into the 4th ventricle and the blockade of the lateral parabrachial nucleus.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, S; Melo, M R; Leite, G F; Nascimento, P A; Andrade-Franzé, G M F; Menani, J V; Colombari, E

    2017-03-27

    Chronic infusion of aldosterone into the 4th ventricle (4th V) induces robust daily sodium intake, whereas acute injection of aldosterone into the 4th V produces no sodium intake. The inhibitory mechanism of the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) restrains sodium intake induced by different natriorexigenic stimuli and might affect the acute response to aldosterone into the 4th V. In the present study, 1.8% NaCl and water intake was tested in rats treated with acute injections of aldosterone into the 4th V combined with the blockade of the inhibitory mechanisms with injections of moxonidine (α 2 adrenergic/imidazoline agonist) or methysergide (a serotonergic antagonist) into the LPBN. Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannulas implanted in the 4th V and bilaterally in the LPBN were used. Aldosterone (250 or 500ng) into the 4th V combined with vehicle into the LPBN induced no 1.8% NaClintake compared to control (1.5±1.1 and 1.1±0.4, respectively, vs. vehicle into 4th V: 1.0±0.5ml/2h). However, aldosterone (250 or 500ng) into the 4th V combined with moxonidine (0.5nmol) into the LPBN induced strong ingestion of 1.8% NaCl (12.7±4.6 and 17.6±3.7ml/2h, respectively). Aldosterone (250ng) into the 4th V combined with methysergide (4μg) into the LPBN also induced 1.8% NaCl intake (17.6±5.4ml/2h). These data suggest that the inhibitory mechanisms of the LPBN counteract the facilitation of sodium intake produced by aldosterone injected into the 4th, restraining sodium intake in this condition. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Defensive effect of surface flavonoid aglycones of Betula pubescens leaves against first instar Epirrita autumnata larvae.

    PubMed

    Lahtinen, Maria; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Kapari, Lauri; Lempa, Kyösti; Ossipov, Vladimir; Sinkkonen, Jari; Valkama, Elena; Haukioja, Erkki; Pihlaja, Kalevi

    2004-11-01

    The surface of birch leaves contains glandular trichomes that secrete exudates containing flavonoid aglycones. We investigated the biological activities of white birch (Betula pubescens) leaf surface exudates against larvae of the autumnal moth, Epirrita autumnata, a common insect pest of birch. We found that tree-specific mortality (up to 100%) of first instar larvae correlated strongly with the tree-specific contents of surface flavonoid aglycones (r(s) = 0.905) in emerging leaves. We also found that first instars clearly preferred birch buds from which surface exudates had been removed. In addition, the duration of the first instar was shortened by 29%, and the weights and relative growth rates of first instars improved by 8% and 52%, respectively, as a result of removal of the exudates from their leaf diet. The correlation of tree-specific foliar contents of flavonoid aglycones, especially 5-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxyflavanone, with changes in larval performance, suggests that flavonoid aglycones are responsible for the changes observed in first instar larval performance. The results show that chemical characteristics of birch leaves are effective against neonate E. autumnata larvae. However, the removal of leaf surface exudates from fully expanded leaves did not affect the leaf acceptance for the voracious fifth instars. This is probably a result of reduction in contents of flavonoid aglycones compared to those of emerging leaves.

  17. The Effect of the Thinking-Aloud Strategy on the Reading Comprehension Skills of 4th Grade Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sönmez, Yasemin; Sulak, Süleyman Erkam

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study, which is designed in quasi-experimental model, is to examine the effect of the thinking aloud strategy on the reading comprehension skills of the 4th grade primary school students. For this purpose, in the second semester of 2016-2017 academic year, the reading comprehension levels of 26 students in the 4th grade at a…

  18. 75 FR 38723 - Safety Zone; St. Ignace 4th of July Fireworks, East Moran Bay, Lake Huron, St. Ignace, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; St. Ignace 4th of July Fireworks, East Moran Bay, Lake Huron, St. Ignace, MI AGENCY... safety zone on East Moran Bay, Lake Huron, St. Ignace, Michigan. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of East Moran Bay during the St. Ignace 4th of July Fireworks display, July 4, 2010...

  19. Increase Reading Fluency of 4th and 5th Grade Students with Learning Disabilities Using Readers' Theatre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountford, Kathy A.

    2007-01-01

    The following Action Research Project Report is to improve the oral reading fluency of the 4th and 5th grade students with learning disabilities. The targeted population participating in this study consisted of a total of ten participants of which five were 4th grade students and five were 5th grade students located in a middle class community…

  20. 78 FR 23866 - Safety Zone; Crescent City 4th of July Fireworks; Crescent City Harbor, Crescent City, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Crescent City 4th of July Fireworks; Crescent City Harbor, Crescent City, CA AGENCY... a temporary safety zone in the navigable waters near Crescent City, CA in support of the Crescent City 4th of July Fireworks on July 4, 2013. This safety zone is necessary to ensure the safety of...

  1. 78 FR 23869 - Safety Zone; Redwood City 4th of July Fireworks Show; Port of Redwood City, Redwood City, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Redwood City 4th of July Fireworks Show; Port of Redwood City, Redwood City, CA... establish a temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of the Port of Redwood City near Redwood City, CA in support of the Redwood City 4th of July Fireworks Show on July 4, 2013. This safety zone is...

  2. 76 FR 33157 - Safety Zones; July 4th Fireworks Displays Within the Captain of the Port Miami Zone, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2011-0439] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; July 4th Fireworks Displays Within the Captain of the Port Miami Zone, FL AGENCY...-0439 Safety Zones; July 4th Fireworks Displays within the Captain of the Port Miami Zone, FL. (a...

  3. PREFACE: 4th Workshop on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductors (TMCSIV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomić, Stanko; Probert, Matt; Migliorato, Max; Pal, Joydeep

    2014-06-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at the 4th International Conference on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductor materials and nanostructures. The conference was held at the MediaCityUK, University of Salford, Manchester, UK on 22-24 January 2014. The previous conferences in this series took place in 2012 at the University of Leeds, in 2010 at St William's College, York and in 2008 at the University of Manchester, UK. The development of high-performance computer architectures is finally allowing the routine use of accurate methods for calculating the structural, thermodynamic, vibrational, optical and electronic properties of semiconductors and their hetero- and nano-structures. The scope of this conference embraces modelling, theory and the use of sophisticated computational tools in semiconductor science and technology, where there is substantial potential for time-saving in R&D. Theoretical approaches represented in this meeting included: Density Functional Theory, Semi-empirical Electronic Structure Methods, Multi-scale Approaches, Modelling of PV devices, Electron Transport, and Graphene. Topics included, but were not limited to: Optical Properties of Quantum Nanostructures including Colloids and Nanotubes, Plasmonics, Magnetic Semiconductors, Photonic Structures, and Electronic Devices. This workshop ran for three days, with the objective of bringing together UK and international leading experts in the theoretical modelling of Group IV, III-V and II-VI semiconductors, as well as students, postdocs and early-career researchers. The first day focused on providing an introduction and overview of this vast field, aimed particularly at students, with several lectures given by recognized experts in various theoretical approaches. The following two days showcased some of the best theoretical research carried out in the UK in this field, with several contributions also from representatives of

  4. [A development of Byzantine Christian charities during the 4(th)-7(th) centuries and the birth of the hospital].

    PubMed

    Nam, Sung Hyun

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to examine the beginning and the development of Christian Charities during the 4(th)-6(th) centuries which would eventually result in the birth of the hospital in modern sense in the first half of the 7(th) century. For this purpose, I looked carefully into various primary sources concerning the early Christian institutions for the poor and the sick. Above all, it's proper to note that the first xenodocheion where hospitality was combined with a systematic caring, is concerned with the Trinitarian debate of the 4(th) century. In 356, Eustathios, one of the leaders of homoiousios group, established xenodocheion to care for the sick and the lepers in Sebaste of Armenia, whereas his opponent Aetios, doctor and leader of the heteroousios party, was reckoned to have combined the medical treatment with his clerical activities. Then, Basil of Caesarea, disciple of Eustathios of Sebaste, also founded in 372 a magnificent benevolent complex named 'Basileias' after its founder. I scrupulously analysed several contemporary materials mentioning the charitable institution of Caesarea which was called alternatively katagogia, ptochotropheion, xenodocheion. John Chrysostome also founded several nosokomeia in Constantinople at the end of the 4(th) century and the beginning of the 5(th) century. Apparently, the contemporary sources mention that doctors existed for these Charities, but there is no sufficient proof that these 'Christian Hospitals,' Basileias or nosokomeia of Constantinople were hospitals in modern sense. Imperial constitutions began to mention ptochotropheion, xenodocheion and orphanotropheion since the second half of the 5(th) century and then some Justinian laws evoked nosokomium, brephotrophia, gerontocomia. These laws reveal that 'Christian Hospitals' were well clarified and deeply rooted in Byzantine society already in these periods. And then, new benevolent institutions emerged in the 6(th) century: nosokomeia for a specific class and

  5. Intra-instar larval cannibalism in Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Crasta, Graziano; Bellini, Romeo; Comandatore, Francesco; Rossi, Paolo; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio; Urbanelli, Sandra

    2016-11-02

    Cannibalism has been observed in a wide range of animal taxa and its importance in persistence and stability of populations has been documented. In anopheline malaria vectors the inter-instar cannibalism between fourth- and first-instar larvae (L4-L1) has been shown in several species, while intra-instar cannibalism remains poorly investigated. In this study we tested the occurrence of intra-instar cannibalism within larvae of second-, third- and fourth-instar (L2, L3 and L4) of Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) and An. stephensi. Experiments were set up under laboratory conditions and the effects of larval density, duration of the contact period among larvae and the presence of an older larva (i.e. a potential cannibal of bigger size) on cannibalism rate were analysed. Cannibalism was assessed by computing the number of missing larvae after 24 and 48 h from the beginning of the experiments and further documented by records with a GoPro videocamera. Intra-instar cannibalism was observed in all larval instars of both species with higher frequency in An. gambiae (s.s.) than in An. stephensi. In both species the total number of cannibalistic events increased from 0-24 to 0-48 h. The density affected the cannibalism rate, but its effect was related to the larval instar and to the presence of older larvae. Interestingly, the lower cannibalism rate between L4 larvae was observed at the highest density and the cannibalism rate between L3 larvae decreased when one L4 was added. The present study provides experimental evidence of intra-instar cannibalism in the malaria vectors An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. stephensi and highlights the possible occurrence of complex interactions between all larval instars potentially present in the breeding sites. We hypothesize that the high density and the presence of a potential cannibal of bigger size could affect the readiness to attack conspecifics, resulting into low risk larval behavior and lower cannibalism rate. The understanding of

  6. Can astronomy enhance UNESCO World Heritage recognition? The paradigm of 4th Dynasty Egyptian pyramids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    2015-08-01

    The pyramids of Egypt, notably those of the 4th Dinasty as Giza, have always be considered an unmistikable part of human world heritage as the only surviving wonders of the Ancient World. Their majesty, technical hability and innovative character have always beeen considered as representative of ancient Egyptian ingenuity. However, past and present fringe theories about the pyramids and astronomy have always polluted the role of our discipline in the design, construction and symbolism of these impressive monuments. This is indeed unfear. Fortunately, things have started to change in the last couple of decades and now astronomy is interpreted as a neccessary tool for the correct interpretation of the astral eschatology present in the 5th and 6th Dynasty Texts of the Pyramids. Although the pyramid complexes of the 4th Dynasty are mute, there is however recent research showing that a strong astral symbolism could be hidden in many aspects of the complex architecture and in the design of these exceptional monuments. This idea comes from several hints obtained not only from planning and construction, but also from epigraphy and the analysis of celestial and local landscapes. Chronology also plays a most relevant role on this. The pyramid complexes of the 4th Dynasty at Meidum, Dahshur, Giza and Abu Rowash -- all of which enjoy UNESCO World Heritage recognition -- willl be scrutinized. As a consequence, we will show how astronomy can certainly enhance the face value of these extraordinary monuments as a definitive proof of the ancient Egyptian quest for Ma'at, i.e. their perennial obsesion for Cosmic Order.

  7. Metabolic alterations in the nymphal instars of Diaphorina citri induced by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the putative pathogen of huanglongbing

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Shelley E.

    2018-01-01

    Currently, huanglongbing is the most damaging disease of citrus causing huge economic losses. The disease is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). The pathogen is transmitted in a persistent propagative circulative manner within its vector, the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. Exploring the metabolic alteration in the vector may lead to a better understanding of the nutritional needs of CLas and to designing an artificial medium for culturing the pathogen. It has been shown that the nymphal stages have a greater role in transmission mainly because they feed on plants more actively than adults. In this study, we carried out an untargeted comparative metabolomic analysis for healthy and CLas-infected 4th / 5th instar nymphs. The metabolic analysis was performed using trimethylsilylation and methyl chloroformate derivatization followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Overall, the changes in the nymph metabolism due to the infection with CLas were more pronounced than in adults, as we previously published. Nymphs reared on CLas-infected Valencia sweet orange were higher in many metabolites, mainly those of the TCA cycle, C16 and C18 fatty acids, glucose, sucrose, L-proline, L-serine, pyroglutamic acid, saccharic acid, threonic acid and myo-inositol than those reared on healthy plants. In contrast, CLas-infected nymphs were lower in putrescine, glycine, L -phenylalanine, L -tyrosine, L -valine, and chiro-inositol. The information provided from this study may contribute in acceleration of the availability of CLas in culture and consequent screening of antibacterial compounds to discover a definitive solution for huanglongbing. PMID:29370262

  8. Metabolic alterations in the nymphal instars of Diaphorina citri induced by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the putative pathogen of huanglongbing.

    PubMed

    Killiny, Nabil; Jones, Shelley E

    2018-01-01

    Currently, huanglongbing is the most damaging disease of citrus causing huge economic losses. The disease is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). The pathogen is transmitted in a persistent propagative circulative manner within its vector, the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. Exploring the metabolic alteration in the vector may lead to a better understanding of the nutritional needs of CLas and to designing an artificial medium for culturing the pathogen. It has been shown that the nymphal stages have a greater role in transmission mainly because they feed on plants more actively than adults. In this study, we carried out an untargeted comparative metabolomic analysis for healthy and CLas-infected 4th / 5th instar nymphs. The metabolic analysis was performed using trimethylsilylation and methyl chloroformate derivatization followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Overall, the changes in the nymph metabolism due to the infection with CLas were more pronounced than in adults, as we previously published. Nymphs reared on CLas-infected Valencia sweet orange were higher in many metabolites, mainly those of the TCA cycle, C16 and C18 fatty acids, glucose, sucrose, L-proline, L-serine, pyroglutamic acid, saccharic acid, threonic acid and myo-inositol than those reared on healthy plants. In contrast, CLas-infected nymphs were lower in putrescine, glycine, L -phenylalanine, L -tyrosine, L -valine, and chiro-inositol. The information provided from this study may contribute in acceleration of the availability of CLas in culture and consequent screening of antibacterial compounds to discover a definitive solution for huanglongbing.

  9. APTWG: The 4th Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, K.; Kwon, J. M.; Leconte, M.; Ko, W. H.; Inagaki, S.; Todo, Y.; Kosuga, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This conference report summarizes the contributions to, and discussions at, the 4th Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting held at Kyushu University, Japan, during 10-13 June 2014. The topics of the meeting were organized under five main headings: turbulence suppression and transport barrier formation, effect of magnetic topology on MHD activity and transport, non-diffusive contribution of momentum and particle transport, non-local transport and turbulence spreading and coupling, energetic particles and instability. The Young Researchers' Forum which was held in this meeting is also described in this report.

  10. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference and Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor); Burnham, Calvin (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The papers presented at the 4th International Conference Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity held at the Marriott Orlando World Center, Orlando, Florida, are contained in this document and encompass the research, technology, applications, funding, political, and social aspects of superconductivity. Specifically, the areas covered included: high-temperature materials; thin films; C-60 based superconductors; persistent magnetic fields and shielding; fabrication methodology; space applications; physical applications; performance characterization; device applications; weak link effects and flux motion; accelerator technology; superconductivity energy; storage; future research and development directions; medical applications; granular superconductors; wire fabrication technology; computer applications; technical and commercial challenges, and power and energy applications.

  11. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference and Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor); Burnham, Calvin (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the 4th International Conference Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity held June 27-July 1, 1994 in Orlando, Florida. These documents encompass research, technology, applications, funding, political, and social aspects of superconductivity. The areas covered included: high-temperature materials; thin films; C-60 based superconductors; persistent magnetic fields and shielding; fabrication methodology; space applications; physical applications; performance characterization; device applications; weak link effects and flux motion; accelerator technology; superconductivity energy; storage; future research and development directions; medical applications; granular superconductors; wire fabrication technology; computer applications; technical and commercial challenges; and power and energy applications.

  12. [Discussion on several contents of textbook Acupuncture and Moxibustion (New Century 4th Edition)].

    PubMed

    Tian, Kaiyu

    2018-02-12

    The textbook Acupuncture and Moxibustion (New Century 4th Edition) was published by China Press of Traditional Chinese Medicine in August of 2016. The author proposed several discussions in the textbook. The information, including the issue date of China national standard Standardized Manipulations of Acupuncture and Moxibustion , the number of foreign countries where China medical teams were assigned, and the number of acupuncture indications recommended by WHO, was not accurate. The content, including several methods of acupoint location, specification of filiform needles, rotating angle of needle, disinfection of needles and skin, locations and indications of scalp acupuncture, etc. should be corrected. Besides, the writing of textbooks should follow national or industry standards.

  13. The 4th Report of the Working Group on ECG diagnosis of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Bacharova, Ljuba; Estes, Harvey E; Schocken, Douglas D; Ugander, Martin; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Hill, Joseph A; Bang, Lia E; Schlegel, Todd T

    The 4th Report provides a brief review of publications focused on the electrocardiographic diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy published during the period of 2010 to 2016 by the members of the Working Group on ECG diagnosis of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy. The Working Group recommended that ECG research and clinical attention be redirected from the estimation of LVM to the identification of electrical remodeling, to better understanding the sequence of events connecting electrical remodeling to outcomes. The need for a re-definition of terms and for a new paradigm is also stressed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Multi-Dimensional Asymptotically Stable 4th Order Accurate Schemes for the Diffusion Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abarbanel, Saul; Ditkowski, Adi

    1996-01-01

    An algorithm is presented which solves the multi-dimensional diffusion equation on co mplex shapes to 4th-order accuracy and is asymptotically stable in time. This bounded-error result is achieved by constructing, on a rectangular grid, a differentiation matrix whose symmetric part is negative definite. The differentiation matrix accounts for the Dirichlet boundary condition by imposing penalty like terms. Numerical examples in 2-D show that the method is effective even where standard schemes, stable by traditional definitions fail.

  15. Fast and Analytical EAP Approximation from a 4th-Order Tensor.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Aurobrata; Deriche, Rachid

    2012-01-01

    Generalized diffusion tensor imaging (GDTI) was developed to model complex apparent diffusivity coefficient (ADC) using higher-order tensors (HOTs) and to overcome the inherent single-peak shortcoming of DTI. However, the geometry of a complex ADC profile does not correspond to the underlying structure of fibers. This tissue geometry can be inferred from the shape of the ensemble average propagator (EAP). Though interesting methods for estimating a positive ADC using 4th-order diffusion tensors were developed, GDTI in general was overtaken by other approaches, for example, the orientation distribution function (ODF), since it is considerably difficult to recuperate the EAP from a HOT model of the ADC in GDTI. In this paper, we present a novel closed-form approximation of the EAP using Hermite polynomials from a modified HOT model of the original GDTI-ADC. Since the solution is analytical, it is fast, differentiable, and the approximation converges well to the true EAP. This method also makes the effort of computing a positive ADC worthwhile, since now both the ADC and the EAP can be used and have closed forms. We demonstrate our approach with 4th-order tensors on synthetic data and in vivo human data.

  16. Spiritual Health Scale 2011: Defining and Measuring 4th Dimension of Health

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Neera; Chaturvedi, SK; Nandan, Deoki

    2011-01-01

    In the midst of physical comforts provided by the unprecedented developments in all spheres of life, the humanity is at cross roads and looking at something beyond these means. Spirituality has now been identified globally as an important aspect for providing answers to many questions related to health and happiness. The World Health Organization is also keen at looking beyond physical, mental and social dimensions of the health, and the member countries are actively exploring the 4th Dimension of the health i.e. the spiritual health and its impact on the overall health and happiness of an individual. National Institute of Health and Family Welfare (NIHFW), realized this need and initiated a research study in this direction. In this study, an effort was made to define this 4th Dimension of health from a common worldly person's perspective and measure it. 3 Domains, 6 Constructs and 27 Determinants of spiritual health were identified through a scientific process. A statistically reliable and valid Spiritual Health Scale (SHS 2011) containing 114 items has been developed. Construct validity and test- retest reliability has been established for urban educated adult population. The scale is first of its kind in the world to measure the spiritual health of a common worldly person, which is devoid of religious and cultural bias. Its items have universal applicability. PMID:22279257

  17. 4th International Symposium on Autophagy: exploiting the frontiers of autophagy research.

    PubMed

    Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa; Deretic, Vojo; Neufeld, Thomas; Levine, Beth; Cuervo, Ana Maria

    2007-01-01

    The 4th International Symposium on Autophagy was held in Mishima, a small town between Tokyo and Kyoto, October 1-5, 2006 (http://isa4th.umin.jp/). The meeting was organized by the group of Eiki Kominami. Approximately 150 participants took part in this well-organized meeting in the spacious and comfortable Toray Conference Hall (Fig. 1). The social program offered opportunities for informal discussions, Japanese culture (from karaoke singing to traditional drumming; Fig. 2), history and nature (a visit to a steaming volcano; Fig. 3), as well as delicious Japanese food. The scientific program started with two plenary lectures on Sunday evening. Daniel Klionsky gave an overview of Atg9 cycling in yeast and Shigekazu Nagata talked about apoptosis and engulfment of dead cells by macrophages. The meeting consisted of five oral sessions and two poster sessions covering a wide range of autophagy-related topics. Exciting unpublished results were presented in all sessions, showing how quickly autophagy research is progressing. Two themes were discussed in many sessions during the symposium: the role of autophagy in the degradation of aggregate-prone proteins and protein aggregates, and the possible role of p62 in autophagy.

  18. Beliefs about the causes of obesity in a national sample of 4th year medical students.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Sean M; Burgess, Diana J; Burke, Sara E; Przedworski, Julia M; Dovidio, John F; Hardeman, Rachel; Morris, Megan; van Ryn, Michelle

    2015-11-01

    Physician knowledge of the complex contributors to obesity varies. We do not know whether today's medical students are graduating with deep understanding of the causes of obesity. Our objective was to assess beliefs about causes of obesity in a national sample of 4th year medical students. We randomly selected 2000 4th year students from a random sample of 50 U.S. medical schools and asked them to rate the importance of several factors as causes of obesity. Of those invited, 1244 (62%) responded. We conducted latent class analysis to identify groups with similar response patterns. Most students demonstrated knowledge that obesity has multiple contributors. Students fell into 1 of 4 classes: (1) more likely to endorse all contributors (28%), (2) more likely to endorse physiological contributors (27%), (3) more likely to endorse behavioral or social contributors (24%), and (4) unlikely to endorse contributors outside of overeating and physical activity (22%). Though students were generally aware of multiple causes, there were 4 distinct patterns of beliefs, with implications for patient care. Targeted interventions may help to improve depth of knowledge about the causes of obesity and lead to more effective care for obese patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Symmetric Positive 4th Order Tensors & Their Estimation from Diffusion Weighted MRI⋆

    PubMed Central

    Barmpoutis, Angelos; Jian, Bing; Vemuri, Baba C.; Shepherd, Timothy M.

    2009-01-01

    In Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Image (DW-MRI) processing a 2nd order tensor has been commonly used to approximate the diffusivity function at each lattice point of the DW-MRI data. It is now well known that this 2nd-order approximation fails to approximate complex local tissue structures, such as fibers crossings. In this paper we employ a 4th order symmetric positive semi-definite (PSD) tensor approximation to represent the diffusivity function and present a novel technique to estimate these tensors from the DW-MRI data guaranteeing the PSD property. There have been several published articles in literature on higher order tensor approximations of the diffusivity function but none of them guarantee the positive semi-definite constraint, which is a fundamental constraint since negative values of the diffusivity coefficients are not meaningful. In our methods, we parameterize the 4th order tensors as a sum of squares of quadratic forms by using the so called Gram matrix method from linear algebra and its relation to the Hilbert’s theorem on ternary quartics. This parametric representation is then used in a nonlinear-least squares formulation to estimate the PSD tensors of order 4 from the data. We define a metric for the higher-order tensors and employ it for regularization across the lattice. Finally, performance of this model is depicted on synthetic data as well as real DW-MRI from an isolated rat hippocampus. PMID:17633709

  20. Design of a Nb3Sn Magnet for a 4th Generation ECR Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Prestemon, S,; Trillaud, F.; Caspi, S.

    2008-08-17

    The next generation of Electron Cyclotron Resonant (ECR) ion sources are expected to operate at a heating radio frequency greater than 40 GHz. The existing 3rd generation systems, exemplified by the state of the art system VENUS, operate in the 10-28 GHz range, and use NbTi superconductors for the confinement coils. The magnetic field needed to confine the plasma scales with the rf frequency, resulting in peak fields on the magnets of the 4th generation system in excess of 10 T. High field superconductors such as Nb{sub 3}Sn must therefore be considered. The magnetic design of a 4th. generation ECRmore » ion source operating at an rf frequency of 56 GHz is considered. The analysis considers both internal and external sextupole configurations, assuming commercially available Nb{sub 3}Sn material properties. Preliminary structural design issues are discussed based on the forces and margins associated with the coils in the different configurations, leading to quantitative data for the determination of a final magnet design.« less

  1. Fast and Analytical EAP Approximation from a 4th-Order Tensor

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Aurobrata; Deriche, Rachid

    2012-01-01

    Generalized diffusion tensor imaging (GDTI) was developed to model complex apparent diffusivity coefficient (ADC) using higher-order tensors (HOTs) and to overcome the inherent single-peak shortcoming of DTI. However, the geometry of a complex ADC profile does not correspond to the underlying structure of fibers. This tissue geometry can be inferred from the shape of the ensemble average propagator (EAP). Though interesting methods for estimating a positive ADC using 4th-order diffusion tensors were developed, GDTI in general was overtaken by other approaches, for example, the orientation distribution function (ODF), since it is considerably difficult to recuperate the EAP from a HOT model of the ADC in GDTI. In this paper, we present a novel closed-form approximation of the EAP using Hermite polynomials from a modified HOT model of the original GDTI-ADC. Since the solution is analytical, it is fast, differentiable, and the approximation converges well to the true EAP. This method also makes the effort of computing a positive ADC worthwhile, since now both the ADC and the EAP can be used and have closed forms. We demonstrate our approach with 4th-order tensors on synthetic data and in vivo human data. PMID:23365552

  2. Computational aspects of the nonlinear normal mode initialization of the GLAS 4th order GCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navon, I. M.; Bloom, S. C.; Takacs, L.

    1984-01-01

    Using the normal modes of the GLAS 4th Order Model, a Machenhauer nonlinear normal mode initialization (NLNMI) was carried out for the external vertical mode using the GLAS 4th Order shallow water equations model for an equivalent depth corresponding to that associated with the external vertical mode. A simple procedure was devised which was directed at identifying computational modes by following the rate of increase of BAL sub M, the partial (with respect to the zonal wavenumber m) sum of squares of the time change of the normal mode coefficients (for fixed vertical mode index) varying over the latitude index L of symmetric or antisymmetric gravity waves. A working algorithm is presented which speeds up the convergence of the iterative Machenhauer NLNMI. A 24 h integration using the NLNMI state was carried out using both Matsuno and leap-frog time-integration schemes; these runs were then compared to a 24 h integration starting from a non-initialized state. The maximal impact of the nonlinear normal mode initialization was found to occur 6-10 hours after the initial time.

  3. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSquare2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachos, Dimitrios; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2015-09-01

    The 4th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE) took place in Mykonos, Greece, from Friday 5th June to Monday 8th June 2015. The Conference was attended by more than 150 participants and hosted about 200 oral, poster, and virtual presentations. There were more than 600 pre-registered authors. The 4th IC-MSQUARE consisted of different and diverging workshops and thus covered various research fields where Mathematical Modeling is used, such as Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Integrable Systems, Dynamical Systems, Computational Nanoscience, Biological Physics, Computational Biomechanics, Complex Networks, Stochastic Modeling, Fractional Statistics, DNA Dynamics, Macroeconomics etc. The scientific program was rather intense as after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, three parallel oral and one poster session were running every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with a high quality of talks creating an innovative and productive scientific environment for all attendees. We would like to thank the Keynote Speaker and the Invited Speakers for their significant contribution to IC-MSQUARE. We also would like to thank the Members of the International Advisory and Scientific Committees as well as the Members of the Organizing Committee.

  4. Crime rates and sedentary behavior among 4th grade Texas school children.

    PubMed

    Brown, H Shelton; Pérez, Adriana; Mirchandani, Gita G; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H

    2008-05-14

    Although per capita crime has generally fallen over the period which coincides with the obesity epidemic, it has not fallen uniformly across communities. It also has not fallen enough to allay fears on the part of parents. Over the past 30 years, technological changes have made the indoor alternatives to playing outside, where children are more vulnerable to criminal activity, more enjoyable (cable TV, video games, and the internet) and comfortable (the spread of air conditioning to low income neighborhoods). We determined whether indoor sedentary behavior patterns are associated with community crime statistics. 4th graders in the U.S. are typically 9 or 10 years old. We used data from the 2004-2005 Texas School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) survey linked with U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics data for the years 2000 through 2005 and Texas State data on sexual offenders. The probability-based sample included a total of 7,907 children in grade four. Multistage probability sampling weights were used. The dependent variables included were hours of TV watching, video game playing, computer use and total indoor sedentary behavior after school. Incremental Relative Rates were computed for community crime rates including robberies, all violent crimes, murders, assaults, property crimes, rapes, burglaries, larcenies and motor vehicle thefts as well as for sexual offenders living in the neighborhood. The neighborhood refers to the areas where the students at each school live. In the case of sexual offenders, sexual offenders per capita are estimated using the per capita rate in the zip code of the school attended; all other crime statistics are estimated by the crimes per capita in the police department jurisdiction covering the school attended. After controlling for sex, age, and African-American and Hispanic, cross-sectional associations were determined using multivariate Poisson regression. 4th grade boys were

  5. Crime rates and sedentary behavior among 4th grade Texas school children

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H Shelton; Pérez, Adriana; Mirchandani, Gita G; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Although per capita crime has generally fallen over the period which coincides with the obesity epidemic, it has not fallen uniformly across communities. It also has not fallen enough to allay fears on the part of parents. Over the past 30 years, technological changes have made the indoor alternatives to playing outside, where children are more vulnerable to criminal activity, more enjoyable (cable TV, video games, and the internet) and comfortable (the spread of air conditioning to low income neighborhoods). We determined whether indoor sedentary behavior patterns are associated with community crime statistics. 4th graders in the U.S. are typically 9 or 10 years old. Methods We used data from the 2004–2005 Texas School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) survey linked with U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics data for the years 2000 through 2005 and Texas State data on sexual offenders. The probability-based sample included a total of 7,907 children in grade four. Multistage probability sampling weights were used. The dependent variables included were hours of TV watching, video game playing, computer use and total indoor sedentary behavior after school. Incremental Relative Rates were computed for community crime rates including robberies, all violent crimes, murders, assaults, property crimes, rapes, burglaries, larcenies and motor vehicle thefts as well as for sexual offenders living in the neighborhood. The neighborhood refers to the areas where the students at each school live. In the case of sexual offenders, sexual offenders per capita are estimated using the per capita rate in the zip code of the school attended; all other crime statistics are estimated by the crimes per capita in the police department jurisdiction covering the school attended. After controlling for sex, age, and African-American and Hispanic, cross-sectional associations were determined using multivariate Poisson regression

  6. Ecology of Meimuna mongolica (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) Nymphs: Instars, Morphological Variation, Vertical Distribution and Population Density, Host-Plant Selection, and Emergence Phenology

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinglong; Yang, Mingsheng; Liu, Yunxiang; Wei, Cong

    2015-01-01

    The cicada Meimuna mongolica (Distant) (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) is one of the most important pests of economic forest in Guanzhong Plain of Shaanxi Province, China. Information about ecological characteristics and some sustainable control measures of this species is urgently required for its control. In this study, nymphal instars, morphological variation, vertical distribution, and population density in soil, and emergence phenology of nymphs of M. mongolica on three main host plants (Pinus tabuliformis Carr., Populus tomentosa Carr., and Pyrus xerophila Yü) were studied, based on combined morphological and molecular identification, investigation of the first-instar nymphs hatched from eggs and others excavated from soil, and investigation of exuviae in the adult emergence period. Five nymphal instars of M. mongolica were redetermined according to the distribution plots of the head capsule widths of the nymphs. Nymphs of third and fourth instars showed morphological variation, which is closely related to host-plant association. The mean densities of nymphs in soil under the three host plants were significantly different, indicating a distinct host preference. The nymphs could extend their distribution from the 0–10 cm soil layer to the 51–60 cm soil layer underground but not beyond 60 cm soil layer under all the three host plants. The 21–30 cm soil layer under all the three host plants has the highest nymphal population density. The sex ratio of the entire population was nearly 50:50, but males dominated in the early half of the duration of the emergence. These ecological characteristics of M. mongolica could provide important information for sustainable control measures.

  7. [Associated factors to availability and use of electronic media in children from preschool to 4th grade].

    PubMed

    Camargo, Diana Marina; Orozco, Luis Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The increased availability of electronic media has changed the behavior in children and young people by encouraging sedentary lifestile, with health effects from a very young age. To characterize the availability and use of electronic media and its associated factors in children from preschool through 4 th grade. A cross-sectional study with cluster sampling was carried out. Parents filled out the demographic survey, the availability and use of electronic media at home and in the child´s room. Log-binomial regression models were applied to estimate prevalence ratios adjusted for the sampling. Seven hundred and ten parents answered. The average age of the children was 6.7 years and 49.7% were male. Factors such as the mother working out of the house and family income were positively associated with the availability of electronic media at home and in the child´s room. The availability of a TV, computer and console in the child´s room, contributes to longer use of these electronic media. Both, the male gender and age of the child, were positively associated with the availability and use of electronic media. This is the first study in Colombia that reports the availability and use of electronic media in children. It is clear that modern life encourages sedentary behavior from the earliest years of life, which has been associated with health problems from early childhood. Intervention studies are needed aimed at reducing these behaviors in our context.

  8. Identification of 4th intercostal space using sternal notch to xiphoid length for accurate electrocardiogram lead placement.

    PubMed

    Day, Kevin; Oliva, Isabel; Krupinski, Elizabeth; Marcus, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Precordial ECG lead placement is difficult in obese patients with increased chest wall soft tissues due to inaccurate palpation of the intercostal spaces. We investigated whether the length of the sternum (distance between the sternal notch and xiphoid process) can accurately predict the location of the 4th intercostal space, which is the traditional location for V1 lead position. Fifty-five consecutive adult chest computed tomography examinations were reviewed for measurements. The sternal notch to right 4th intercostal space distance was 67% of the sternal notch to xiphoid process length with an overall correlation of r=0.600 (p<0.001). The above measurement may be utilized to locate the 4th intercostal space for accurate placement of the precordial electrodes in adults in whom the 4th intercostal space cannot be found by physical exam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Analysis of the 4th generation outer space bred Angelica dahurica by FTIR spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan-ying; Wu, Peng-le; Liu, Mei-yi; Wang, Zhi-zhou; Guo, Xi-hua; Guan, Ying

    2012-03-01

    The major components of the 4th generation outer space bred angelica and the ground group were determined and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and second derivative spectrum, considering the large mutation of the plants with space mutagenesis. The results show that the content of the coumarin (1741 cm(-1)), which is the main active components of the space angelica dahurica increased, and the content of the protein (1 459, 1 419 cm(-1)) and the fat (930 cm(-1)) increased slightly, whereas the content of the starch and the dietary fiber reduced drastically. There are obvious differences between the peak values of the second derivative spectra of the plants, revealing that the outer space angelica dahurica contained amine component at 1 279 cm(-1). Space mutation breeding is favor of breeding angelica with better idiosyncrasy.

  10. Report on the 4th International IUPAP Women in Physics Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Cynthia

    2011-10-01

    Stellenbosch, South Africa was the site of the 4^th International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) International Conference on Women in Physics, which took place on April 5^th-8^th. This conference brought together the diverse contributions of 250 female physicist attendees from nearly 60 countries worldwide to dissect the challenges faced by female physicists worldwide and to propose strategies to attract and retain more girls and women to the field. Having served as a member of the U.S. Delegation, I will discuss the resolutions reached and highlight the most important results of Global Survey of Physicists, where nearly 15,000 physicists shine light on how gender affects their lives and careers.

  11. Effectiveness of ivermectin against later 4th-stage Strongylus vulgaris in ponies.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, J O; McCraw, B M; Pennock, P W; Vasey, J

    1982-09-01

    Twelve pony foals were reared worm-free and inoculated with Strongylus vulgaris. Approximately 8 weeks after they were inoculated, 6 foals were given ivermectin IM at a dosage rate of 200 micrograms/kg of body weight and 6 were given a placebo. All foals were necropsied 35 days after treatment. Ivermectin was 98.9% effective in eliminating later 4th-stage S vulgaris larvae located near the origin of major intestinal arteries and in reducing clinical signs and permitting resolution of lesions associated with verminous arteritis. One pony foal reared on pasture and with evidence of arteritis of the cranial mesenteric and ileocolic arteries on arteriography was treated with ivermectin at a dosage rate of 200 micrograms/kg of body weight. On arteriographs taken subsequently, there was evidence of regression of the lesion, and at necropsy 9 weeks after treatment, there was no arteritis or larvae in those arteries.

  12. Performance simulation of a detector for 4th generation photon sources: The AGIPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potdevin, G.; Trunk, U.; Graafsma, H.; Agipd Consortium

    2009-08-01

    Future 4th generation photon sources, such as the European XFEL based in Hamburg, will deliver around 1012 X-ray photons in less than 100 fs with full lateral coherence. These new sources will offer unprecedented possibilities in photon science. The high peak brilliance, combined with a 5 MHz repetition rate poses very high demands for the 2D detectors. In order to provide appropriate detectors during XFEL startup, three dedicated development projects have been initiated, one of them being the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD) project which is a collaborative effort between DESY, PSI, University of Bonn, and University of Hamburg. An essential part of the AGIPD project is the development of a simulation tool for the complete detection system. The simulation tool as well as preliminary simulations of the detector characteristics is presented.

  13. Beyond the genomics blueprint: the 4th Human Variome Project Meeting, UNESCO, Paris, 2012.

    PubMed

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Smith, Timothy D; Robinson, Helen M

    2013-07-01

    The 4th Biennial Meeting of the Human Variome Project Consortium was held at the headquarters of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in Paris, 11-15 June 2012. The Human Variome Project, a nongovernmental organization and an official partner of UNESCO, enables the routine collection, curation, interpretation, and sharing of information on all human genetic variation. This meeting was attended by more than 180 delegates from 39 countries and continued the theme of addressing issues of implementation in this unique project. The meeting was structured around the four main themes of the Human Variome Project strategic plan, "Project Roadmap 2012-2016": setting normative function, behaving ethically, sharing knowledge, and building capacity. During the meeting, the members held extensive discussions to formulate an action plan in the key areas of the Human Variome Project. The actions agreed on were promulgated at the Project's two Advisory Council and Scientific Advisory Committee postconference meetings.

  14. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis 4th Quarter FY 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System, as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 84 reportable events (29 from the 4th quarter fiscal year 2016 and 55 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 39 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and Bmore » conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (two from this quarter and 37 from the prior three quarters).« less

  15. [3rd and 4th generation estroprogestatives French controversy: What effect on women's behavior?].

    PubMed

    Torres, Luis; Frapard, Christian; Daumas, Aurélie; Guibert, Nicolas; Lagouanelle-Simeoni, Marie-Claude; Rakoto, Jean-Claude; Villani, Patrick; Sambuc, Roland

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the reasons given by women who have changed or suspended their contraceptive method in 2013. What influence had the 3rd and 4th generation estroprogestatives (EP) French controversy and advices from doctors? Did they notice any consequences of the controversy on their lifestyle? Did they feel an impact on their behavior to health professionals? A study was conducted on women of childbearing age. Data collection took place between November 4 and December 16, 2013. The included subjects were between 18 and 55 years old females. Subjects were surveyed through an anonymous self-administered questionnaire distributed through pharmacies. The protocol called for the construction of clusters of subjects by having heard about, or not, of the controversy. Patients reporting having heard about the controversy have formed the "exposed" group while the others have formed the "unexposed" group. We compared two parameters between these two groups: the rate of subjects who reported having modified or suspended their contraceptive method in 2013 on one hand, and the rate of subjects who reported having made a change in their contraceptive method without or against advices from a doctor on the other hand. The sample included 988 subjects. The average age was 34 years. The level of exposure to media debates was 86.5%. Of the respondents, 19.8% were under 3rd or 4th generation EP in 2012, thus directly involved in the discussions and affected by health recommendations. Of the patients, 38.5% reported having changed their contraception in 2013. In these women, when they confirmed having heard about the controversy, 40.1% of them claimed to have conducted this process without or against advices from a doctor. This number dropped to 18.2% for those who had not heard of it. Media coverage of the 3rd and 4th generation EP vascular risk was not mentioned more by patients who suspended all medical contraceptive method than it was by

  16. General Chemistry Collection for Students (CD-ROM), Abstract of Special Issue 16, 4th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-07-01

    The General Chemistry Collection contains both new and previously published JCE Software programs that are intended for use by introductory-level chemistry students. These peer-reviewed programs for Macintosh and for Windows are available on a single CD-ROM for convenient distribution to and access by students, and the CD may be adopted for students to purchase as they would a textbook. General Chemistry Collection covers a broad range of topics providing students with interesting information, tutorials, and simulations that will be useful to them as they study chemistry for the first time. There are 22 programs included in the General Chemistry Collection 4th Edition. Their titles and the general chemistry topics they cover are listed in Table 1. Features in This Edition General Chemistry Collection, 4th edition includes:

    • Lessons for Introductory Chemistry and INQUAL-S, two new programs not previously published by JCE Software (abstracts appear below)
    • Writing Electron Dot Structures (1) and Viscosity Measurement: A Virtual Experiment for Windows (2), two programs published individually by JCE Software
    • Periodic Table Live! LE, a limited edition of Periodic Table Live!, 2nd Edition (3) (this replaces Chemistry Navigator (4) and Illustrated Periodic Table (5))
    • Many of the programs from previous editions (6)1
    Hardware and Software Requirements System requirements are given in Table 2. Some programs have additional requirements. See the individual program abstracts at JCE Online, or documentation included on the CD-ROM for more specific information. Licensing and Discounts for Adoptions The General Chemistry Collection is intended for use by individual students. Institutions and faculty members may adopt General Chemistry Collection 4th Edition as they would a textbook. We can arrange for CDs to be packaged with laboratory manuals or other course materials or to be sold for direct distribution to students through the campus

  17. STO-2: Support for 4th Year Operations, Recovery, and Science ASU Co-I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groppi, Christopher

    This is a Co-Investigator proposal for "STO-2: Support for 4th Year Operations, Recovery, and Science" with Prof. Christopher K. Walker (University of Arizona) as PI. As a participant in the STO-2 mission, ASU will participate in instrument design and construction, mission I&T, flight operations and data analysis. ASU has unique capabilities in the field of direct metal micromachining, which it will bring to bear on the STO-2 cold optical assembly, flight mixers and LO hardware. In addition, our extensive experience with receiver integration and test will supplement the capabilities of the PI institution during the I&T phase at the University of Arizona, CSBF (Palestine, TX) and in Antarctica. Both the ASU PI and student will also participate in data analysis and publication after the flight.

  18. The 4th annual European League Against Rheumatism congress in Lisbon: a personal perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2004-01-01

    The 4th annual European League Against Rheumatism congress, held in Lisbon, 18–21 June 2003, had a record turnout of more than 8600 delegates and the abstract submissions increased to 2600. A heat wave and a somewhat substandard venue hampered some of the activities, notably the poster sessions. The scientific program was comprehensive and of a high class, and it was organized in 10–12 parallel sessions. The European League Against Rheumatism standing committees are expanding their activities and stimulating European cooperation (e.g. by creating databases and guidelines, and by starting research programs). The standing committees presented several areas where European cooperative work is in progress. Advances in drug therapy were a prominent theme and were well presented. Commercialism remains a problem for this meeting as for other similar large meetings, where satellite symposia surround the scientific program of the congress and often duplicate this. PMID:14979931

  19. 4th Circuit: asymptomatic HIV is not a disability under ADA.

    PubMed

    1997-09-05

    The 4th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that [name removed], who is HIV-positive, cannot continue with his lawsuit alleging that NationsBank of Maryland fired him because of his HIV status. The court decided that [name removed] did not make a case of discrimination against his employer because his work performance was substandard. Additionally, the court ruled that HIV infection in and of itself does not constitute a disability and therefore [name removed] is not protected by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The court ruled that [name removed] failed to prove that his asymptomatic HIV infection was an impairment or that it substantially limits a major life activity. When the ADA was enacted in 1990 it was presumed that anyone with HIV would be protected from discrimination and reports filed by both the House of Representatives and the Senate indicated that legislators felt that HIV infection constituted an impairment. This ruling made by the 4th Circuit seems to discount the legislation's intent. The court rejected [name removed]'s suggestion that the ability to procreate and engage in intimate sexual relations was a limitation of a major life activity. Dissenters argued that the opinion is not based on sound medical facts because HIV, even if it is asymptomatic, is an impairment. The dissent also contends that Mr. [Name removed] was not given fair and ample opportunity to prove that his HIV infection is disabling. The court was in sharp disagreement relative to [name removed]'s job performance. The court majority said that [name removed] failed to meet sales goals and engaged in unprofessional behavior. The dissent countered that [name removed]'s sales record exceeded that of another employee who was not terminated.

  20. Food-based Science Curriculum Increases 4th Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Hovland, Jana A.; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G.; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R.; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W.

    2013-01-01

    Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students’ understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the FoodMASTER curriculum were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. The purpose of this study was to: 1) assess 4th graders food-related multidisciplinary science knowledge, and 2) compare gains in food-related science knowledge after implementation of an integrated, food-based curriculum. During the 2009–2010 school year, FoodMASTER researchers implemented a hands-on, food-based intermediate curriculum in eighteen 4th grade classrooms in Ohio (n=9) and North Carolina (n=9). Sixteen classrooms in Ohio (n=8) and North Carolina (n=8), following their standard science curricula, served as comparison classrooms. Students completed a researcher-developed science knowledge exam, consisting of 13 multiple-choice questions administered pre- and post-test. Only subjects with pre- and post-test scores were entered into the sample (Intervention n=343; Control n=237). No significant differences were observed between groups at pre-test. At post-test, the intervention group scored (9.95±2.00) significantly higher (p=.000) than the control group (8.84±2.37) on a 13-point scale. These findings suggest the FoodMASTER intermediate curriculum is more effective than a standard science curriculum in increasing students’ multidisciplinary science knowledge related to food. PMID:25152539

  1. Report of the 4th World Climate Research Programme International Conference on Reanalyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Rixen, Michel; van Oevelen, Peter; Asrar, Ghassem; Compo, Gilbert; Onogi, Kazutoshi; Simmons, Adrian; Trenberth, Kevin; Behringer, Dave; Bhuiyan, Tanvir Hossain; hide

    2012-01-01

    The 4th WCRP International Conference on Reanalyses provided an opportunity for the international community to review and discuss the observational and modelling research, as well as process studies and uncertainties associated with reanalysis of the Earth System and its components. Characterizing the uncertainty and quality of reanalyses is a task that reaches far beyond the international community of producers, and into the interdisciplinary research community, especially those using reanalysis products in their research and applications. Reanalyses have progressed greatly even in the last 5 years, and newer ideas, projects and data are coming forward. While reanalysis has typically been carried out for the individual domains of atmosphere, ocean and land, it is now moving towards coupling using Earth system models. Observations are being reprocessed and they are providing improved quality for use in reanalysis. New applications are being investigated, and the need for climate reanalyses is as strong as ever. At the heart of it all, new investigators are exploring the possibilities for reanalysis, and developing new ideas in research and applications. Given the many centres creating reanalyses products (e.g. ocean, land and cryosphere research centres as well as NWP and atmospheric centers), and the development of new ideas (e.g. families of reanalyses), the total number of reanalyses is increasing greatly, with new and innovative diagnostics and output data. The need for reanalysis data is growing steadily, and likewise, the need for open discussion and comment on the data. The 4th Conference was convened to provide a forum for constructive discussion on the objectives, strengths and weaknesses of reanalyses, indicating potential development paths for the future.

  2. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Medical exposures, including hormone therapy, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Friis, Søren; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina; Auvinen, Anssi; Straif, Kurt; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    The 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends limiting - or avoiding when possible - the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) because of the increased risk of cancer, nevertheless acknowledging that prescription of HRT may be indicated under certain medical conditions. Current evidence shows that HRT, generally prescribed as menopausal hormone therapy, is associated with an increased risk of cancers of the breast, endometrium, and ovary, with the risk pattern depending on factors such as the type of therapy (oestrogen-only or combined oestrogen-progestogen), duration of treatment, and initiation according to the time of menopause. Carcinogenicity has also been established for anti-neoplastic agents used in cancer therapy, immunosuppressants, oestrogen-progestogen contraceptives, and tamoxifen. Medical use of ionising radiation, an established carcinogen, can provide major health benefits; however, prudent practices need to be in place, with procedures and techniques providing the needed diagnostic information or therapeutic gain with the lowest possible radiation exposure. For pharmaceutical drugs and medical radiation exposure with convincing evidence on their carcinogenicity, health benefits have to be balanced against the risks; potential increases in long-term cancer risk should be considered in the context of the often substantial and immediate health benefits from diagnosis and/or treatment. Thus, apart from HRT, no general recommendations on reducing cancer risk were given for carcinogenic drugs and medical radiation in the 4th edition of European Code against Cancer. It is crucial that the application of these measures relies on medical expertise and thorough benefit-risk evaluation. This also pertains to cancer-preventive drugs, and self-medication with aspirin or other potential chemopreventive drugs is strongly discouraged because of the possibility of serious, potentially lethal, adverse events. Copyright © 2015 International

  3. 4th generation HIV screening in Massachusetts: a partnership between laboratory and program.

    PubMed

    Goodhue, Tammy; Kazianis, Arthur; Werner, Barbara G; Stiles, Tracy; Callis, Barry P; Dawn Fukuda, H; Cranston, Kevin

    2013-12-01

    The Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Office of HIV/AIDS (OHA) and Hinton State Laboratory Institute (HSLI) have offered HIV screening since 1985. Point-of-care screening and serum collection for laboratory-based testing is conducted at clinic and non-clinic-based sites across Massachusetts as part of an integrated communicable disease screening intervention. MDPH aimed to transition to a 4th generation HIV screening-based algorithm for testing all serum specimens collected at OHA-funded programs and submitted to the HSLI to detect acute HIV infections, detect and differentiate HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections, eliminate indeterminate results, reduce cost and turnaround time, and link newly diagnosed HIV+ individuals to care. The HSLI and OHA created a joint project management team to plan and lead the transition. The laboratory transitioned successfully to a 4th generation screening assay as part of a revised diagnostic algorithm. In the 12 months since implementation, a total of 7984 serum specimens were tested with 258 (3.2%) positive for HIV-1 and one positive for HIV-2. Eight were reported as acute HIV-1 infections. These individuals were linked to medical care and partner services in a timely manner. Turnaround time was reduced and the laboratory realized an overall cost savings of approximately 15%. The identification of eight acute HIV infections in the first year underscores the importance of using the most sensitive screening tests available. A multi-disciplinary program and laboratory team was critical to the success of the transition, and the lessons learned may be useful for other jurisdictions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Larvicidal potential of ethanolic extracts of dried fruits of three species of peppercorns against different instars of an indian strain of dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sarita; Warikoo, Radhika; Wahab, Naim

    2010-09-01

    Larvicidal bioassay was carried out in the laboratory to assess the potential of ethanolic extracts of dried fruits of three species of peppercorns: Long pepper, Piper longum L., Black pepper, Piper nigrum, and White pepper, Piper nigrum against the different instars of field-collected Indian strain of dengue fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti L.). The investigations established the larvicidal potential of all the varieties of pepper fruits against Ae. aegypti. Against early fourth instar, the ethanolic extracts of Black and White P. nigrum proved to be 30-40% less toxic than the extracts of P. longum, whereas against third instars, white pepper extracts exhibited 7% more efficacy than that of black pepper and 47% more toxicity than that of long pepper. The results also revealed that the extracts of all the three pepper species were 11-25 times more toxic against the third instar larvae as compared to the early fourth instars. The lethal concentration, 50% (LC(50)) values obtained with ethanolic extracts of P. longum, White P. nigrum and Black P. nigrum against early fourth instar larvae were 0.248, 0.356, and 0.405 ppm, respectively, and the lethal concentration, 90% (LC(90)) values were 0.605, 0.758, and 0.801 ppm, respectively. Whereas against third instar larvae, the LC(50) values recorded with three extracts were 0.022, 0.015, and 0.016 ppm and the LC(90) values recorded were 0.054, 0.034, and 0.046 ppm, respectively. The larvae treated with all the pepper species showed initial abnormal behavior in their motion followed by excitation, convulsions, and paralysis, leading to 100% kill indicating delayed larval toxicity and effects of the extracts on the neuromuscular system. Observations of morphological alterations on treated larvae under light microscopy revealed that most organs, except anal papillae, had a normal structural appearance as that of controls. The structural deformation in the form of shrinkage in the internal membrane exhibited by anal papillae

  5. Instar- and stage-specific photoperiodic diapause response of Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The western tarnished plant bug (Lygus hesperus Knight)(Hemiptera:Miridae) is a polyphagous pest of numerous western crops. This pest overwinters in a relatively short duration adult diapause, but many details regarding diapause induction and maintenance remain unstudied. Instar-specific responses t...

  6. Effectiveness of artificial bark flaps in mediating migration of late-instar gypsy moth larvae

    Treesearch

    Michael L. McManus; Harvey R. Smith

    1984-01-01

    Field studies demonstrated that migrating larval instars of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), preferred resting locations placed on tree boles at 4.6 m over those placed at 1.5 and 3 m. More larvae were found beneath bark flaps than beneath flaps of hard black plastic.

  7. Mobility of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) late third instars and teneral adults in test arenas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mobility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), late third instars before pupation, teneral adults before flight, and mature adults restricted from flight was studied under mulches in greenhouse cage tests, in horizontal pipes, vertical bottles and pipes filled with sand, and by observati...

  8. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: how many instars are there?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    After more than a century since the description of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and dozens of scientific articles on the basic biology of the insect, there is still debate on the number of female larval instars. This paper analyzes the metamorphosis of H. hampei females thr...

  9. Effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on diapausing 5th instar codling moth metabolism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diapausing 5th instars of codling moth, Cydia pomonella, are serious quarantine pests of in-shell walnuts. Previous research indicates that heat treatments in combination with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and low concentrations of oxygen may be effective for controlling this pest in walnuts...

  10. Regression estimators for late-instar gypsy moth larvae at low pupulation densities

    Treesearch

    W.E. Wallnr; A.S. Devito; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    1989-01-01

    Two regression estimators were developed for determining densities of late-instar gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), larvae from burlap band and pyrethrin spray counts on oak trees in Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New York. Studies were conducted by marking larvae on individual burlap banded trees within 15...

  11. [Last instar larva, pupa and a new distribution record of Periploca otrebla Vargas (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae)].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A

    2007-01-01

    A description and figures of the last instar larva and pupa of Periploca otrebla Vargas are presented, based on specimens collected on Acacia macracantha (Fabaceae) in the type locality, Azapa valley, Arica Province, northern Chile. The Chaca valley, Arica Province, northern Chile, is mentioned as a new locality for the geographic distribution of P. otrebla, previously known only from the type locality.

  12. Ingestion of a marked bacterial pathogen of cotton conclusively demonstrates feeding by first instar southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long-held dogma dictates that 1st instars of Nezara viridula (L.) do not feed, yet recent observations of stylet activity within a food source suggest otherwise. As a cosmopolitan pest of cotton and other high-value cash crops, confirmation of feeding by 1st instars may ultimately influence the biol...

  13. Developmental plasticity in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): Analysis of Instar Variation in Number and Development Time under Different Diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The variation in instar number and the pattern of sequential instar development time of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied under 4 different diet regimes. Addition of dietary supplements consisting of dry potato or a mix of dry potato and dry egg whites significantly reduced...

  14. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials (Nanosafe2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardif, F.; Damlencourt, J.-F.; Schuster, F.; Gaultier, V.

    2015-05-01

    This volume contains a collection of contributions presented at the 4th International Conference on Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials (NANOSAFE 2014) held in Grenoble, France, from 18th to 20th November 2014. The issues of fast progress in the field of Nanosafety are up to the potential benefits that nanotechnology can bring to mankind. Making more efficient - more sustainable - easier to share mineral resources, increasing the yields of new energy technologies, enabling drugs that act selectively and locally are just few examples of the wide range of nanomaterial applications that currently benefit humanity. Nevertheless, the dynamic development of nanomaterials requires the adhesion from the general public who rightly demand major progresses in Nanosafety as a prerequisite. This is our exciting responsibility and challenge! Following the successful outcome of the three past international conferences on safe production and use of nanomaterials: Nanosafe 2008, 2010 and 2012, the organizing committee has the pleasure to welcoming you again to Minatec, Grenoble with some of the most famous specialists in the field. This year, two new topics have been added dealing with the "New Application of Nanomaterials" and "Nano-responsible Development" in addition to the usual issues addressed in previous Nanosafe conferences such as Expology, Detection and Characterization, Toxicology, Environmental Interactions, Nanomaterials Release, Life Cycle Analysis, Regulation and Standardization, Risk Management. The debates in 2012 proved highly successful so this formula has been kept in 2014 with 3 round tables: Nano-Responsible Development, Risks and Benefits for the Environment, Toxicology Progress. In this 4th edition, there were more than 330 registered participants from 28 different countries including 160 oral presentation covering the whole Nanosafety issues in 12 sessions, satellite workshops and round tables. This high number of participants makes this edition one of

  15. PREFACE: 4th International Symposium on Instrumentation Science and Technology (ISIST'2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiubin, Tan

    2006-10-01

    On behalf of the International Program Committee of ISIST'2006 and the symposium coordinators, I would like to thank all the participants for their presence at the 4th International Symposium on Instrumentation Science and Technology (ISIST'2006), a platform for scientists, researchers and experts from different parts of the world to present their achievements and to exchange their views on ways and means to further develop modern instrumentation science and technology. In the present information age, instrumentation science and technology is playing a more and more important role, not only in the acquisition and conversion of information at the very beginning of the information transformation chain, but also in the transfer, manipulation and utilization of information. It provides an analysis and test means for bioengineering, medical engineering, life science, environmental engineering and micro/nanometer technology, and integrates these disciplines to form new subdivisions of their own. The major subject of the symposium is crossover and fusion between instrumentation science and technology and other sciences and technologies. ISIST'2006 received more than 800 full papers from 12 countries and regions, from which 300 papers were finally selected by the international program committee for inclusion in the proceedings of ISIST'2006, published in 2 volumes. The major topics include instrumentation basic theory and methodology, sensors and conversion technology, signal and image processing, instruments and systems, laser and optical fiber instrumentation, advanced optical instrumentation, optoelectronics instrumentation, MEMS, nanotechnology and instrumentation, biomedical and environmental instrumentation, automatic test and control. The International Symposium on Instrumentation Science and Technology (ISIST) is sponsored by ICMI, NSFC, CSM, and CIS, and organized by ICMI, HIT and IC-CSM, and held every two years. The 1st symposium was held in LuoYang, China in

  16. Effectiveness of fenbendazole against later 4th-stage Strongylus vulgaris in ponies.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, J O; McCraw, B M; Pennock, P W; Baird, J D

    1983-12-01

    Twelve pony foals (reared worm-free) were inoculated with Strongylus vulgaris. Approximately 8 weeks later, 4 of the foals were given fenbendazole (10% suspension) at a dosage rate of 10 mg/kg of body weight daily for 5 days and 4 foals were given the suspension at a dosage rate of 50 mg/kg daily for 3 days; the remaining foals were given a placebo. All treatments were administered by stomach tube. Fenbendazole was 99.6 and 97.9% effective in the 2 treatment groups, respectively, in eliminating later 4th-stage S vulgaris larvae located near the origin of major intestinal arteries. On microscopic examination of the ileocolic artery from fenbendazole-treated foals, a few larval remnants were found beneath the tunica intima in small organized mural thrombi overgrown with endothelium. It would appear that larvae are rapidly destroyed after administration of fenbendazole. A pony foal reared on pasture and with arteriographic evidence of arteritis of the cranial mesenteric and ileocolic arteries was treated with fenbendazole (10% suspension) by stomach tube at a dosage rate of 50 mg/kg of body weight daily for 3 days. By arteriographic examination made 4 weeks later, there was evidence of regression of the lesion, and at necropsy done a week later, there was no arteritis or larvae in the lumen of those arteries.

  17. Teaching systems thinking to 4th and 5th graders using Environmental Dashboard display technology

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Shane; Frantz, Cindy M.; Roose, Deborah; Ginn, Joel; Rosenberg Daneri, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Tackling complex environmental challenges requires the capacity to understand how relationships and interactions between parts result in dynamic behavior of whole systems. There has been convincing research that these “systems thinking” skills can be learned. However, there is little research on methods for teaching these skills to children or assessing their impact. The Environmental Dashboard is a technology that uses “sociotechnical” feedback–information feedback designed to affect thought and behavior. Environmental Dashboard (ED) combines real-time information on community resource use with images and words that reflect pro-environmental actions of community members. Prior research indicates that ED supports the development of systems thinking in adults. To assess its impact on children, the technology was installed in a primary school and children were passively exposed to ED displays. This resulted in no measurable impact on systems thinking skills. The next stage of this research examined the impact of actively integrating ED into lessons on electricity in 4th and 5th grade. This active integration enhanced both content-related systems thinking skills and content retention. PMID:28448586

  18. Teaching systems thinking to 4th and 5th graders using Environmental Dashboard display technology.

    PubMed

    Clark, Shane; Petersen, John E; Frantz, Cindy M; Roose, Deborah; Ginn, Joel; Rosenberg Daneri, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Tackling complex environmental challenges requires the capacity to understand how relationships and interactions between parts result in dynamic behavior of whole systems. There has been convincing research that these "systems thinking" skills can be learned. However, there is little research on methods for teaching these skills to children or assessing their impact. The Environmental Dashboard is a technology that uses "sociotechnical" feedback-information feedback designed to affect thought and behavior. Environmental Dashboard (ED) combines real-time information on community resource use with images and words that reflect pro-environmental actions of community members. Prior research indicates that ED supports the development of systems thinking in adults. To assess its impact on children, the technology was installed in a primary school and children were passively exposed to ED displays. This resulted in no measurable impact on systems thinking skills. The next stage of this research examined the impact of actively integrating ED into lessons on electricity in 4th and 5th grade. This active integration enhanced both content-related systems thinking skills and content retention.

  19. 4th annual primary care ethics conference: ethics education and lifelong learning

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, John; McKenzie-Edwards, Emma; Misselbrook, David

    2014-01-01

    Primary care ethics is a field of study that has recently found new life, with calls to establish the relevance of ethical discussion in general practice, to gather a body of literature and to carve out an intellectual space for primary care on the academic landscape of bioethics. In this report, we reflect on the key strands of the 4th primary care ethics conference held at the Royal Society of Medicine, on a theme of ethics education and lifelong learning: first, to produce insights that have relevance for policy and practice; and second, to illustrate the idea that not only is ethics relevant in primary care, but primary care is relevant in medical ethics. Core themes included the advantages and disadvantages of prescriptive ways of doing ethics in education, ethical reflection and potential risk to professional status, the need to deal with societal change and to take on board the insights gained from empirical work, whether this is about different kinds of fatherhood, or work on the causes of moral distress in healthcare workers. PMID:25949739

  20. PREFACE: 4th National Conference on Processing and Characterization of Materials (NCPCM 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-02-01

    This volume contains selected full length technical papers amongst forty oral presentations made in the 4th National Conference on Processing and Characterization of Materials (NCPCM 2014), NIT Rourkela, Rourkela, Odisha, India, December 5 - 6, 2014. The first conference of the NCPCM series was held at the same place in December 2011. Seeing the enthusiasm of the participants, it was decided to organize such conference in Rourkela every year. The basic idea was to establish a periodical national forum for multi-scale approaches in processing and characterization of materials in the eastern part of India. The conference NCPCM 2014 has successfully carried the tradition of previous conferences; more than fifty participants from twenty different organizations across India have registered. The conference was consisted of six technical sessions of about fifty contributory talks along with three keynote lectures. A metallography contest was also organized during the event. Out of these, thirty four best peer-reviewed contributions are published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. We would like to thank all the contributors, members of the organizing committee, session chairs as well as colleagues and students who helped with the preparation of the conference and, particularly, with the preparation of this volume. We convey our heartiest gratitude to the sponsors and advertisers for their contribution.

  1. A Teaching Model for Scaffolding 4th Grade Students' Scientific Explanation Writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hsiu-Ting; Wang, Kuo-Hua

    2014-08-01

    Improving students scientific explanations is one major goal of science education. Both writing activities and concept mapping are reported as effective strategies for enhancing student learning of science. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a teaching model, named the DCI model, which integrates a Descriptive explanation writing activity, Concept mapping, and an Interpretive explanation writing activity, is introduced in a 4th grade science class to see if it would improve students' scientific explanations and understanding. A quasi-experimental design, including a non-randomized comparison group and a pre- and post-test design, was adopted for this study. An experimental group of 25 students were taught using the DCI teaching model, while a comparison group received a traditional lecture teaching. A rubric and content analysis was used to assess students' scientific explanations. The independent sample t test was used to measure difference in conceptual understanding between the two groups, before and after instruction. Then, the paired t test analysis was used to understand the promotion of the DCI teaching model. The results showed that students in the experimental group performed better than students in the comparison group, both in scientific concept understanding and explanation. Suggestions for using concept mapping and writing activities (the DCI teaching model) in science classes are provided in this study.

  2. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Alcohol drinking and cancer.

    PubMed

    Scoccianti, Chiara; Cecchini, Michele; Anderson, Annie S; Berrino, Franco; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Espina, Carolina; Key, Timothy J; Leitzmann, Michael; Norat, Teresa; Powers, Hilary; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is the third leading risk factor for disease and mortality in Europe. As evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs, a causal relationship is established for consumption of alcoholic beverages and cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, liver, colorectum and female breast, even at low and moderate alcohol intakes. The higher the amount of alcohol consumed, the higher the risk of developing cancer. In Europe, an estimated 10% (95% CI: 7%-13%) of all cancer cases in men and 3% (95% CI: 1%-5%) of all cancer cases in women are attributable to alcohol consumption. Several biological mechanisms explain the carcinogenicity of alcohol; among them, ethanol and its genotoxic metabolite, acetaldehyde, play a major role. Taking all this evidence into account, a recommendation of the 4th edition of European Code against Cancer is: "If you drink alcohol of any type, limit your intake. Not drinking alcohol is better for cancer prevention." Copyright © 2016 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. A comprehensive allometric analysis of 2nd digit length to 4th digit length in humans.

    PubMed

    Lolli, Lorenzo; Batterham, Alan M; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Flegr, Jaroslav; Weston, Kathryn L; Atkinson, Greg

    2017-06-28

    It has been widely reported that men have a lower ratio of the 2nd and 4th human finger lengths (2D : 4D). Size-scaling ratios, however, have the seldom-appreciated potential for providing biased estimates. Using an information-theoretic approach, we compared 12 candidate models, with different assumptions and error structures, for scaling untransformed 2D to 4D lengths from 154 men and 262 women. In each hand, the two-parameter power function and the straight line with intercept models, both with normal, homoscedastic error, were superior to the other models and essentially equivalent to each other for normalizing 2D to 4D lengths. The conventional 2D : 4D ratio biased relative 2D length low for the generally bigger hands of men, and vice versa for women, thereby leading to an artefactual indication that mean relative 2D length is lower in men than women. Conversely, use of the more appropriate allometric or linear regression models revealed that mean relative 2D length was, in fact, greater in men than women. We conclude that 2D does not vary in direct proportion to 4D for both men and women, rendering the use of the simple 2D : 4D ratio inappropriate for size-scaling purposes and intergroup comparisons. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Detector Outline Document for the Fourth Concept Detector ("4th") at the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Barbareschi, Daniele; et al.

    We describe a general purpose detector ( "Fourth Concept") at the International Linear Collider (ILC) that can measure with high precision all the fundamental fermions and bosons of the standard model, and thereby access all known physics processes. The 4th concept consists of four basic subsystems: a pixel vertex detector for high precision vertex definitions, impact parameter tagging and near-beam occupancy reduction; a Time Projection Chamber for robust pattern recognition augmented with three high-precision pad rows for precision momentum measurement; a high precision multiple-readout fiber calorimeter, complemented with an EM dual-readout crystal calorimeter, for the energy measurement of hadrons, jets,more » electrons, photons, missing momentum, and the tagging of muons; and, an iron-free dual-solenoid muon system for the inverse direction bending of muons in a gas volume to achieve high acceptance and good muon momentum resolution. The pixel vertex chamber, TPC and calorimeter are inside the solenoidal magnetic field. All four subsytems separately achieve the important scientific goal to be 2-to-10 times better than the already excellent LEP detectors, ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL. All four basic subsystems contribute to the identification of standard model partons, some in unique ways, such that consequent physics studies are cogent. As an integrated detector concept, we achieve comprehensive physics capabilities that puts all conceivable physics at the ILC within reach.« less

  5. Structural study of dehydration mechanisms of NH4Th(NO3)5·9H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyazev, A. V.; Komshina, M. E.; Baranov, E. V.; Savushkin, I. A.; Nipruk, O. V.; Lukoyanov, A. Yu.

    2017-12-01

    The new pentanitrate thorium compounds NH4Th(NO3)5·nH2O were synthesized and their crystal structures were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis: space group P21/n, a = 10.5476(5), b = 14.0444(7), c = 15.5287(8) Å, β = 109.4999(7)°, Z = 4; R = 0.0246 (NH4Th(NO3)5·9H2O); space group P212121, a = 8.7039(4), b = 11.9985(6), c = 16.3531(8) Å, Z = 4; R = 0.0259 (NH4Th(NO3)5·5H2O). Features of structural changes in the dehydration were revealed. Conditions of thermal decomposition of the thorium compound were established using differential scanning calorimetry. The compound was investigated by IR spectroscopy and its bands are assigned.

  6. The relationship between the carrying angle and the distal extent of the 2nd and 4th fingertips.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, M; Tattemur, Y; Karacan, K; Erdal, M

    2012-08-01

    The angle towards the lateral side between the arm and forearm when the forearm is in full extension and supination is defined as the carrying angle. It is well known that the 2nd finger is longer in women whereas the 4th finger is longer in men, due to in-utero hormonal effects. In the present study, the relationship between the carrying angle and the distal extent of the 2nd and 4th fingertips is studied. The findings reveal that the carrying angle was greater both in left and right sides in women than in men. In addition, while the distal extent of the 2nd fingertips was longer in women, the 4th fingertip was longer in men. There was a moderately positive correlation between the carrying angle and the distal fingertip lengths. Therefore, it could be suggested that the morphometric factors play role on the distal extent of the fingertips other than the hormonal effects.

  7. Learning Natural Selection in 4th Grade with Multi-Agent-Based Computational Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickes, Amanda Catherine; Sengupta, Pratim

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate how elementary school students develop multi-level explanations of population dynamics in a simple predator-prey ecosystem, through scaffolded interactions with a multi-agent-based computational model (MABM). The term "agent" in an MABM indicates individual computational objects or actors (e.g., cars), and these agents obey simple rules assigned or manipulated by the user (e.g., speeding up, slowing down, etc.). It is the interactions between these agents, based on the rules assigned by the user, that give rise to emergent, aggregate-level behavior (e.g., formation and movement of the traffic jam). Natural selection is such an emergent phenomenon, which has been shown to be challenging for novices (K16 students) to understand. Whereas prior research on learning evolutionary phenomena with MABMs has typically focused on high school students and beyond, we investigate how elementary students (4th graders) develop multi-level explanations of some introductory aspects of natural selection—species differentiation and population change—through scaffolded interactions with an MABM that simulates predator-prey dynamics in a simple birds-butterflies ecosystem. We conducted a semi-clinical interview based study with ten participants, in which we focused on the following: a) identifying the nature of learners' initial interpretations of salient events or elements of the represented phenomena, b) identifying the roles these interpretations play in the development of their multi-level explanations, and c) how attending to different levels of the relevant phenomena can make explicit different mechanisms to the learners. In addition, our analysis also shows that although there were differences between high- and low-performing students (in terms of being able to explain population-level behaviors) in the pre-test, these differences disappeared in the post-test.

  8. 4th International Conference on Energy and Environment 2013 (ICEE 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Chandan Kumar; Shamsuddin, Abd Halim Bin; Ahmad, Ibrahim Bin; Desa, Mohamed Nor Bin Mohamed; Din, Norashidah Bte Md; Bte Mohd, Lariyah; Hamid, Nasri A.; See, Ong Hang; Hafiz Nagi, Farrukh; Yong, Lee Choon; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh; Mei, Goh Su; Abdullah, Fairuz Bin; Satgunam, Meenaloshini

    2013-06-01

    The 4th International Conference on Energy & Environment 2013 (ICEE2013) was organized by the Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) to provide a platform for creating and sharing ideas among engineers, researchers, scientists, industrialists and students in sustainable green energy and technologies. The theme 'Shaping a Sustainable Future through Advancement in Green Energy Technology' is in line with the University's vision to be a leading global energy university that shapes a sustainable future. The general scopes of the conference are renewable energy, smart grid, green technology, energy policies and economics, sustainable green energy and environment, sustainable education, international cooperation and innovation and technology transfer. Five international keynote speakers delivered their speeches in specialized areas of green energy technology and sustainability. In addition, the conference highlights several special parallel sessions by notable invited presenters in their niche areas, which are: Hybrid Energy Power Quality & Distributed Energy Smart Grid Nuclear Power & Technologies Geohazard Management Greener Environment for Sustainability Advances in Computational Fluid Dynamics The research papers presented in ICEE2013 are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES). EES is abstracted and indexed in SCOPUS, GeoBase, GeoRef, Compendex, Inspec, Chemical Abstracts Service, NASA Astrophysics Data System, and International Nuclear Information System (INIS). With the comprehensive programme outline, the organizing committee hopes that the ICEE2013 was a notable intellectual sharing session for the research and academic community in Malaysia and regionally. The organizing committee expresses gratitude to the ICEE2013 delegates for their great support and contributions to the event.

  9. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Environment, occupation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Espina, Carolina; Straif, Kurt; Friis, Søren; Kogevinas, Manolis; Saracci, Rodolfo; Vainio, Harri; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    People are exposed throughout life to a wide range of environmental and occupational pollutants from different sources at home, in the workplace or in the general environment - exposures that normally cannot be directly controlled by the individual. Several chemicals, metals, dusts, fibres, and occupations have been established to be causally associated with an increased risk of specific cancers, such as cancers of the lung, skin and urinary bladder, and mesothelioma. Significant amounts of air pollutants - mainly from road transport and industry - continue to be emitted in the European Union (EU); an increased occurrence of lung cancer has been attributed to air pollution even in areas below the EU limits for daily air pollution. Additionally, a wide range of pesticides as well as industrial and household chemicals may lead to widespread human exposure, mainly through food and water. For most environmental pollutants, the most effective measures are regulations and community actions aimed at reducing and eliminating the exposures. Thus, it is imperative to raise awareness about environmental and occupational carcinogens in order to motivate individuals to be proactive in advocating protection and supporting initiatives aimed at reducing pollution. Regulations are not homogeneous across EU countries, and protective measures in the workplace are not used consistently by all workers all the time; compliance with regulations needs to be continuously monitored and enforced. Therefore, the recommendation on Environment and Occupation of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer, focusing on what individuals can do to reduce their cancer risk, reads: "In the workplace, protect yourself against cancer-causing substances by following health and safety instructions." Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ultraviolet radiation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Greinert, Rüdiger; de Vries, Esther; Erdmann, Friederike; Espina, Carolina; Auvinen, Anssi; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is part of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted naturally from the sun or from artificial sources such as tanning devices. Acute skin reactions induced by UVR exposure are erythema (skin reddening), or sunburn, and the acquisition of a suntan triggered by UVR-induced DNA damage. UVR exposure is the main cause of skin cancer, including cutaneous malignant melanoma, basal-cell carcinoma, and squamous-cell carcinoma. Skin cancer is the most common cancer in fair-skinned populations, and its incidence has increased steeply over recent decades. According to estimates for 2012, about 100,000 new cases of cutaneous melanoma and about 22,000 deaths from it occurred in Europe. The main mechanisms by which UVR causes cancer are well understood. Exposure during childhood appears to be particularly harmful. Exposure to UVR is a risk factor modifiable by individuals' behaviour. Excessive exposure from natural sources can be avoided by seeking shade when the sun is strongest, by wearing appropriate clothing, and by appropriately applying sunscreens if direct sunlight is unavoidable. Exposure from artificial sources can be completely avoided by not using sunbeds. Beneficial effects of sun or UVR exposure, such as for vitamin D production, can be fully achieved while still avoiding too much sun exposure and the use of sunbeds. Taking all the scientific evidence together, the recommendation of the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer for ultraviolet radiation is: "Avoid too much sun, especially for children. Use sun protection. Do not use sunbeds." Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ionising and non-ionising radiation and cancer.

    PubMed

    McColl, Neil; Auvinen, Anssi; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina; Erdmann, Friederike; de Vries, Esther; Greinert, Rüdiger; Harrison, John; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Ionising radiation can transfer sufficient energy to ionise molecules, and this can lead to chemical changes, including DNA damage in cells. Key evidence for the carcinogenicity of ionising radiation comes from: follow-up studies of the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan; other epidemiological studies of groups that have been exposed to radiation from medical, occupational or environmental sources; experimental animal studies; and studies of cellular responses to radiation. Considering exposure to environmental ionising radiation, inhalation of naturally occurring radon is the major source of radiation in the population - in doses orders of magnitude higher than those from nuclear power production or nuclear fallout. Indoor exposure to radon and its decay products is an important cause of lung cancer; radon may cause approximately one in ten lung cancers in Europe. Exposures to radon in buildings can be reduced via a three-step process of identifying those with potentially elevated radon levels, measuring radon levels, and reducing exposure by installation of remediation systems. In the 4th Edition of the European Code against Cancer it is therefore recommended to: "Find out if you are exposed to radiation from naturally high radon levels in your home. Take action to reduce high radon levels". Non-ionising types of radiation (those with insufficient energy to ionise molecules) - including extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields as well as radiofrequency electromagnetic fields - are not an established cause of cancer and are therefore not addressed in the recommendations to reduce cancer risk. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PREFACE: 4th International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Alexandre; Abe, Sumiyoshi; Li, Wei

    2015-04-01

    This volume contains 24 contributed papers presented at the 4th International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS) held during October 12-16, 2014 in Yichang, China. Each paper was peer-reviewed by at least one referee chosen from a distinguished international panel. The previous three workshops of this series were organized in 2008, 2010, and 2012, in Le Mans, France, Wuhan, China, and Kazan, Russia, respectively. The SPMCS international workshop series is destined mainly to communicate and exchange research results and information on the fundamental challenges and questions in the vanguard of statistical physics, thermodynamics and mathematics for complex systems. More specifically, the topics of interest touch, but are not limited to, the following: • Fundamental aspects in the application of statistical physics and thermodynamics to complex systems and their modeling • Finite size and non-extensive system • Fluctuation theorems and equalities, quantum thermodynamics • Variational principle for random dynamics • Fractal geometry, fractional mathematics More than 50 participants from 7 countries participated in SPMCS-2014. 35 oral contributions were presented at the workshop. We would like to take this opportunity to thank the members of the Scientific Program Committee, many of whom acted as reviewers of the papers and responded promptly. We would also like to thank the organizing committee, the session chairs, the technicians and the students for the smooth running of the whole workshop. Thanks also go to China Three Gorges University who provided generous support for the conference venue, as well as exquisite refreshments for the tea breaks. The workshop was also partially supported by Central China Normal University and the Programme of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities under grant NO. B08033. Special thanks are due to Ms Juy Zhu who has done excellent editing work with great effort.

  13. Support for the 4th Pan-American Congress on Plants and Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Carpita, Nicholas C.

    Intellectual Merit: Following the success of the first three Pan-American Congresses on Plants and BioEnergy held biennially, the 4th congress will be held at the University of Guelph, Canada June 4-7, 2014. We aim to continue a tradition of showcasing major advances in energy crop improvement yet keep in perspective the realities of the economic drivers and pressures that govern the translation of scientific success into a commercial success. The congress is endorsed by the American Society of Plant Biologists and the Canadian Society of Plant Biologists. The program will cover a range of disciplines, including algal and plant systemsmore » for bioenergy, plant genetics and genomics, gene discovery for improvement of bioenergy production and quality, regulatory mechanisms of synthesis and degradation, strategies for 3rd generation biofuel production and the promise of synthetic biology in production of biofuels and bio-based products, cropping systems and productivity for biomass production, and mitigation of environmental impacts of bioenergy production. Broader Impacts: We are requesting support to generate stipends for domestic and permanent-resident students, post-doctorals, and pre-tenured faculty members to attend and benefit from the outstanding program. The stipends will be limited to registration and on-site lodging costs, with partial support for travel in instances of great need. So that as great a number can benefit as possible, airfare costs will be provided for only applicants with great need. ASPB has endorsed this meeting and will assist in advertising and promoting the meeting. ASPB has a long-standing commitment to increase participation and advance the careers in plant biology of women, minorities and underrepresented scientists, and they will assist us in identifying worthy candidates.« less

  14. The Ratio of 2nd to 4th Digit Length in Korean Alcohol-dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Lee, Yu-Sang; Won, Sung-Doo; Kim, Dai Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. Methods In this study, we recruited 87 male patients with alcohol dependence from the alcohol center of one psychiatric hospital and 52 healthy male volunteers who were all employees in the same hospital as controls. We captured images of the right and left hands of patients and controls using a scanner and extracted data with a graphics program. We measured the 2D:4D of each hand and compared the alcohol dependence group with the control group. We analyzed these ratios using an independent-samples t-test. Results The mean 2D:4D of patients was 0.934 (right hand) and 0.942 (left hand), while the mean 2D:4D of controls was 0.956 (right hand) and 0.958 (left hand). Values for both hands were significantly lower for patients than controls (p<0.001, right hand; p=0.004, left hand). Conclusion Patients who are alcohol dependent have a significantly lower 2D:4D than controls, similar to the results of previous studies, which suggest that a higher prenatal testosterone level in the gonadal period is related to alcoholism. Furthermore, 2D:4D is a possible predictive marker of alcohol dependence. PMID:27121425

  15. The Ratio of 2nd to 4th Digit Length in Korean Alcohol-dependent Patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Lee, Yu-Sang; Won, Sung-Doo; Kim, Dai Jin

    2016-05-31

    The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. In this study, we recruited 87 male patients with alcohol dependence from the alcohol center of one psychiatric hospital and 52 healthy male volunteers who were all employees in the same hospital as controls. We captured images of the right and left hands of patients and controls using a scanner and extracted data with a graphics program. We measured the 2D:4D of each hand and compared the alcohol dependence group with the control group. We analyzed these ratios using an independent-samples t-test. The mean 2D:4D of patients was 0.934 (right hand) and 0.942 (left hand), while the mean 2D:4D of controls was 0.956 (right hand) and 0.958 (left hand). Values for both hands were significantly lower for patients than controls (p<0.001, right hand; p=0.004, left hand). Patients who are alcohol dependent have a significantly lower 2D:4D than controls, similar to the results of previous studies, which suggest that a higher prenatal testosterone level in the gonadal period is related to alcoholism. Furthermore, 2D:4D is a possible predictive marker of alcohol dependence.

  16. Acoustic activity cycles of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) early instars after Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) treatments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) is a pest of many crop and ornamental palm tree species in subtropical regions worldwide. Larvae tunnel and feed unseen in the trunks, ultimately causing irreparable harm and killing the palm. Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin is under evaluation as ...

  17. Instar- and host-associated differentiation of bacterial communities in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Campolo, Orlando; Medina, Raul F.; Palmeri, Vincenzo

    2018-01-01

    Microorganisms are acknowledged for their role in shaping insects’ evolution, life history and ecology. Previous studies have shown that microbial communities harbored within insects vary through ontogenetic development and among insects feeding on different host-plant species. In this study, we characterized the bacterial microbiota of the highly polyphagous Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), at different instars and when feeding on different host-plant species. Our results show that the bacterial microbiota hosted within the Mediterranean fruit fly differs among instars and host-plant species. Most of the bacteria harbored by the Mediterranean fruit fly belong to the phylum Proteobacteria, including genera of Alphaproteobacteria such as Acetobacter and Gluconobacter; Betaprotobacteria such as Burkholderia and Gammaproteobacteria such as Pseudomonas. PMID:29518170

  18. Comparing Science Learning among 4th-, 5th-, and 6th-Grade Students: STS versus Textbook-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Robert E.; Choi, AeRan; Yager, Stuart O.; Akcay, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen 4th-, 5th-, and 6th-grade teachers from five school districts each taught two sections of science--one with a Science-Technology-Society (STS) approach and the other with a more traditional textbook approach in which basic science concepts were the major organizers. Local, current, and personally relevant issues provided the context and…

  19. Using Inquiry-Based Instruction to Teach Research Methods to 4th-Grade Students in an Urban Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Ellen M.; Cullen, Rebecca; Ciaravino, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    When a college professor who teaches research methods to graduate education students was approached by a local public urban elementary school to help them teach research skills to 4th-graders, it was thought that the process would be simple--take what we did at the college level and differentiate it for the childhood classroom. This article will…

  20. 4th Annual SATN Conference 2011: Curriculum Transformation at Universities of Technology: Towards Development of New Generation Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mthembu, T.

    2012-01-01

    The South African Technology Network (SATN) would like to thank the Editor of the "South African Journal of Higher Education" (SAJHE) for the opportunity to publish papers read at the 4th Annual SATN Conference that was hosted by Central University of Technology and held in Bloemfontein in November 2011. The journal makes it possible for…

  1. Native American Students' Understanding of Geologic Time Scale: 4th-8th Grade Ojibwe Students' Understanding of Earth's Geologic History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Younkyeong; Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Geologic time scale is a very important concept for understanding long-term earth system events such as climate change. This study examines forty-three 4th-8th grade Native American--particularly Ojibwe tribe--students' understanding of relative ordering and absolute time of Earth's significant geological and biological events. This study also…

  2. Teacher Implementation of Reform-Based Mathematics and Implications for Algebra Readiness: A Qualitative Study of 4th Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Stephen Korb

    2011-01-01

    This study looked at 4th grade classrooms to see "how" teachers implement NCTM standards-based or reform-based mathematics instruction and then analyzed it for the capacity to improve students' "algebra readiness." The qualitative study was based on classroom observations, teacher and administrator interviews, and teacher surveys. The study took…

  3. An Evaluation of Factors Affecting Decision Making among 4th Grade Elementary School Students with Low Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaskaya, Alper; Calp, Sükran; Kuru, Oguzhan

    2017-01-01

    Decision making is one of the most important life skills. While making correct, timely, accurate and appropriate decisions lead to positive changes in one's life, making incorrect decisions may have a negative impact. It is an important issue to examine what the 4th grade students in primary school have about the decision-making ability to be…

  4. Investigation of Academic Success, Self-Esteem and Academic Self-Concept in 4th Class Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çetinkaya, Seher

    2017-01-01

    In Turkey due to changes in the age starting school implemented during the 2012-2013 academic year, children ages from 60 months to 84 months were subject to the same educational program in the same class. By the 2015-2016 academic year these children were at the end of 4th class. This research aimed to investigate the Turkish and mathematic…

  5. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered…

  6. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (4th, Eindhoven, the Netherlands, July 6-8, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Calders, Toon; Conati, Cristina; Ventura, Sebastian; Romero, Cristobal; Stamper, John

    2011-01-01

    The 4th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2011) brings together researchers from computer science, education, psychology, psychometrics, and statistics to analyze large datasets to answer educational research questions. The conference, held in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, July 6-9, 2011, follows the three previous editions…

  7. Impacts of a Discussion-Based Academic Language Program on Classroom Interactions in 4th through 7th Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRusso, Maria; Jones, Stephanie M.; Kim, Ha Yeon; Kim, James; Donovan, Suzanne; Snow, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory analysis of treatment-control differences in the quality of classroom interactions in 4th through 7th grade urban classrooms. Word Generation (WG) is a research-based academic language program for middle school students designed to teach novel vocabulary and literacy through language arts, math, science, and…

  8. Analysis of Lexical Quality and Its Relation to Writing Quality for 4th Grade, Primary School Students in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez Vera, Gabriela; Sotomayor, Carmen; Bedwell, Percy; Domínguez, Ana María; Jéldrez, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have addressed vocabulary quality in developing writing skill in Spanish. Even less addressed it within the Chilean educational system. The specific objective of this study was to characterize, using a comprehensive set of indicators, the quality of the vocabulary produced by Chilean 4th grade students. Based on a national writing…

  9. The Effects of Teaching Reading Using the Gradual Release of Responsibility Model and 4th Grade Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Marthel I.

    2017-01-01

    Students' inability to meet grade level standards in reading on state and national assessments continues to be a problem across the nation. This causal comparative cohort model sought to examine the effect of the Gradual Release of Responsibility Model (GRRM) on 4th grade reading achievement, gender, and socio-economic status, and to examine…

  10. Differences in the 2nd to 4th digit length ratio in humans reflect shifts along the common allometric line

    PubMed Central

    Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Ratios often lead to biased conclusions concerning the actual relationships between examined traits and comparisons of the relative size of traits among groups. Therefore, the use of ratios has been abandoned in most comparative studies. However, ratios such as body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio are widely used in evolutionary biology and medicine. One such, the ratio of the 2nd to the 4th finger (2D : 4D), has been the subject of much recent interest in both humans and animals. Most studies agree that 2D : 4D is sexually dimorphic. In men, the 2nd digit tends to be shorter than the 4th, while in women the 2nd digit tends to be of the same size or slightly longer than the 4th. Nevertheless, here we demonstrate that the sexes do not greatly differ in the scaling between the 2nd and 4th digit. Sexual differences in 2D : 4D are mainly caused by the shift along the common allometric line with non-zero intercept, which means 2D : 4D necessarily decreases with increasing finger length, and the fact that men have longer fingers than women. We conclude that previously published results on the 2D : 4D ratio are biased by its covariation with finger length. We strongly recommend regression-based approaches for comparisons of hand shape among different groups. PMID:19553247

  11. Effect of the SQ4R Technique on the Reading Comprehension of Elementary School 4th Grade Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basar, Murat; Gürbüz, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effect of SQ4R (Survey, Question, Read, Reflect, Recite, Review) technique of the reading comprehension ability of elementary school 4th grade students. The sampling was constituted by 57 students from two different branches of the Ataturk Elementary School in the center of Usak region during the 2nd…

  12. Morphology and identification of first instars of African blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) commonly of forensic importance.

    PubMed

    Szpila, Krzysztof; Villet, Martin H

    2011-07-01

    Scanning electron microscopy images of the first instars of Calliphora croceipalpis Jaennicke, 1876; Chrysomya chloropyga (Wiedemann, 1818); Chrysomya marginalis (Wiedemann, 1830); and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are presented for the first time, and the following morphological structures are documented: pseudocephalon, antenna, maxillary palpus, facial mask, labial lobe, thoracic and abdominal spinulation, spiracular field, posterior spiracles, and anal pads. Light microscopy photographs and line illustrations are provided for the cephaloskeleton in lateral and ventral views, and the "ectostomal sclerite" and "chitinized teeth" of the cephaloskeleton are recognized as integral parts of the mouthhooks. New diagnostic features of the cephaloskeleton and the spinulation of the abdominal segments are described. These results allow refinement, clarification, and correction of earlier descriptions, which are reviewed. The relative taxonomic importance of various morphological characters of the first instars of necrophagous blow flies is discussed, and details of the cephaloskeleton and the spinulation of the abdominal segments are highlighted as the characters most useful for species identification. Finally, a key for identifying first instars of common African carrion blow flies is provided.

  13. Thermal death kinetics of fifth-instar Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, J A; Wang, S; Tang, J

    2003-04-01

    Heat treatments have been suggested as alternatives to chemical fumigants for control of postharvest insects in dried fruits and nuts. Conventional forced hot air treatments heat product too slowly to be practical, but radio frequency treatments are capable of more rapid product heating. While developing radio frequency heat treatments for dried fruits and nuts, the heat tolerance of nondiapausing and diapausing fifth-instar larvae of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), was determined using a heating block system developed by Washington State University. Both a 0.5th order kinetic model and a classical empirical model were used to estimate lethal exposure times for temperatures of 44-52 degrees C for nondiapausing fifth-instar larvae. We obtained 95% mortality at exposures suitable for practical radio frequency treatments (< or = 5 min) with temperatures of 50 and 52 degrees C. Diapausing larvae were significantly more tolerant than nondiapausing larvae at the lowest treatment temperature and shortest exposure, but differences were not significant at more extreme temperature-time combinations. Previous studies showed that fifth-instar larvae of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), were more heat tolerant than either diapausing or nondiapausing Indianmeal moth larvae. Consequently, efficacious treatments for navel orangeworm would also control Indianmeal moth.

  14. Limbic system development underlies the emergence of classical fear conditioning during the 3rd and 4th weeks of life in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Deal, Alex L.; Erickson, Kristen J.; Shiers, Stephanie I.; Burman, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Classical fear conditioning creates an association between an aversive stimulus and a neutral stimulus. Although the requisite neural circuitry is well understood in mature organisms, the development of these circuits is less well studied. The current experiments examine the ontogeny of fear conditioning and relate it to neuronal activation assessed through immediate early gene (IEG) expression in the amygdala, hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, and hypothalamus of periweanling rats. Rat pups were fear conditioned, or not, during the 3rd or 4th weeks of life. Neuronal activation was assessed by quantifying expression of FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene (FOS) using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in Experiment 1. Fos and early growth response gene-1 (EGR1) expression was assessed using qRT-PCR in Experiment 2. Behavioral data confirm that both auditory and contextual fear continue to emerge between PD 17 and 24. The IEG expression data are highly consistent with these behavioral results. IHC results demonstrate significantly more FOS protein expression in the basal amygdala of fear conditioned PD 23 subjects compared to control subjects, but no significant difference at PD 17. qRT-PCR results suggest specific activation of the amygdala only in older subjects during auditory fear expression. A similar effect of age and conditioning status was also observed in the perirhinal cortex during both contextual and auditory fear expression. Overall, the development of fear conditioning occurring between the 3rd and 4th weeks of life appears to be at least partly attributable to changes in activation of the amygdala and perirhinal cortex during fear conditioning or expression. PMID:26820587

  15. International consensus on military research priorities and gaps - Survey results from the 4th International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance.

    PubMed

    Lovalekar, Mita; Sharp, Marilyn A; Billing, Daniel C; Drain, Jace R; Nindl, Bradley C; Zambraski, Edward J

    2018-06-06

    The objectives of this study were to identify perceived priorities related to military personnel's health and physical performance, among attendees at the 4th International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance (ICSPP), and to determine if perceived priorities had changed between the 3rd ICSPP survey held in 2014 and the 4th ICSPP survey held in 2017. Electronic survey. Respondents were asked to grade priority areas on a Likert scale, and average ratings were used to rank priority areas. Responses to free text questions were analyzed qualitatively. Responses to the 4th ICSPP survey were described and compared to responses to the 3rd ICSPP survey. The 4th ICSPP survey respondents were a diverse group (40.6% military, 58.9% civilian). The two most important priority areas identified were physical demands in operational environments (mean score=4.41/5) and measuring physical performance/fitness (4.38/5), which were also the top two areas in the 3rd ICSPP survey. There was remarkable overlap in the rankings of priority areas between the two surveys. Sleep and nutrition were emerging priority areas and were perceived as relatively more important in the 4th ICSPP survey compared to the 3rd ICSPP survey. The greatest perceived emerging threat was resilience/psychological fitness of recruits (4.16/5). Physiological status monitoring (2.79/4) was identified as the most important technology. Despite the diverse backgrounds of the respondents, there was a clear continuing consensus about perceived important priority areas influencing military personnel's health and physical performance. Soldier resiliency and assessment of physiological status were research topics identified as top priorities. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  16. Outcomes following surgical repair using layered closure of unrepaired 4th degree perineal tear in rural western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Goh, Judith T W; Tan, Stephanie B M; Natukunda, Harriet; Singasi, Isaac; Krause, Hannah G

    2016-11-01

    In many rural low-income countries, perineal tears at time of vaginal birth are not repaired at time of delivery. The aims of this study are to describe the surgical technique for management of the unrepaired 4th degree tear, performed without flaps, and short-term follow up on anal incontinence symptoms using a validated questionnaire. Women presenting to fistula camps in western Uganda with unrepaired 4th degree tears were interviewed using the Cleveland Clinic Continence Score. Interviews were undertaken pre-operatively, at 4-6 weeks post-operatively and 12 months following surgery. Repair of the 4th degree tear was performed in layers, with an overlapping anal sphincter repair and reconstruction of the perineal body, without flaps. All women were examined prior to discharge. 68 women completed pre-operative Cleveland Clinic Continence Scores. Prior to surgery, 59 % of women complained of daily incontinence to solid stools. Over 70 % of women complained of restriction to lifestyle due to the unrepaired 4th degree tear. About 50 % of the women are rejected by their husbands because of the condition. Only 1 woman had wound breakdown on Day 2. At 4 to 6 weeks follow-up, 61 women were contacted and all reported perfect continence. This study highlights the hidden problem of unrepaired 4th degree tears in rural areas of low-income countries where most deliveries are undertaken in the village without professional health care workers. These tears have significant impact on quality of life and anal incontinence. Short-term outcomes following surgical repair using a layered closure are promising.

  17. 4th Rare Disease South Eastern Europe (See) Meeting Skopje, Macedonia (November 14th, 2015).

    PubMed

    Gucev, Zoran; Tasic, Velibor; Polenakovic, Momir

    2015-01-01

    The 4th meeting on rare diseases in South Eastern Europe (SEE) was held in Skopje, at the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts (MASA) on the 14(th) of November 2015. The focuses were metabolic, rare brain diseases as well as the rare dysmorphic syndrome. The authors of the report are particularly keen on stating that one of the main goals of the meeting, namely to help the treatment of patients with rare disease has begun to bear fruits. The talk on an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound as a drug candidate for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB (Morquio disease type B) was enlightening. To date, there is no treatment available to be offered to patients, but chaperones lead mutated proteins to adopt a native-like conformation and to successfully traffic to their normal cellular destination. DORPHAN is developing an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB. A talk on recent developments in the laboratory diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) was particularly interesting, covering the laboratory diagnosis of the MPS diseases by a strategy of clinical examination, biochemical analysis of urine samples, enzyme tests and genetic characterization of underlying mutations. New techniques were developed, including analysis of urinary glycosaminoglycans with tandem mass spectrometry, miniaturized enzyme tests or novel synthetic substrates for enzyme assays using mass spectrometry detection of products using dried blood spots. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of these methods in newborn screening programs have been demonstrated. Neuromuscular RDs, and especially familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) were a topic of the Bulgarian colleagues. Diagnosis, screening and the role of microglia were also topics of particular interest. In summary, this year RD meeting was exciting and productive on a wide range of diseases and on a novel insights on

  18. PREFACE: 4th Global Conference on Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruda, H. E.; Khotsianovsky, A.

    2015-12-01

    IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering is publishing a volume of conference proceedings that contains a selection of papers presented at the 4th Global Conference on Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE 2015), which is an annual event that started in 2012. CMSE 2015, technically supported by the Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering of University of Macau, organized by Wuhan Advance Materials Society, was successfully held at the University of Macau-new campus located on Hengqin Island from August 3rd-6th, 2015. It aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and scholars to exchange and share their experience and research results on all aspects of Materials Science and Engineering, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted. Macau, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, where East meets West, turned out to be an ideal meeting place for domestic and overseas participants of this annual international conference. The conference program included keynote presentations, special sessions, oral and poster contributions. From several hundred submissions, 52 of the most promising and mainstream, IOP-relevant, contributions were included in this volume. The submissions present original ideas or results of general significance, supported by clear reasoning, compelling evidence and methods, theories and practices relevant to the research. The authors state clearly the problems and the significance of their research to theory and practice. Being a successful conference, this event gathered more than 200 qualified and high-level researchers and experts from over 40 countries, including 10 keynote speakers from 6 countries, which created a good platform for worldwide researchers and engineers to enjoy the academic communication. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we would like to thank all participants of this conference, and particularly the

  19. FOREWORD: 4th International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-10-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 4th International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, NCMIP 2014 (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2014.html). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, on May 23, 2014. The prior editions of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, firstly within the scope of ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/), and secondly at the initiative of Institut Farman, in May 2012 and May 2013, (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2012.html), (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2013.html). The New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP) Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed, inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finances. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the

  20. PREFACE: 9th World Congress on Computational Mechanics and 4th Asian Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, N.; Valliappan, S.; Li, Q.; Russell, A.

    2010-07-01

    The use for mathematical models of natural phenomena has underpinned science and engineering for centuries, but until the advent of modern computers and computational methods, the full utility of most of these models remained outside the reach of the engineering communities. Since World War II, advances in computational methods have transformed the way engineering and science is undertaken throughout the world. Today, theories of mechanics of solids and fluids, electromagnetism, heat transfer, plasma physics, and other scientific disciplines are implemented through computational methods in engineering analysis, design, manufacturing, and in studying broad classes of physical phenomena. The discipline concerned with the application of computational methods is now a key area of research, education, and application throughout the world. In the early 1980's, the International Association for Computational Mechanics (IACM) was founded to promote activities related to computational mechanics and has made impressive progress. The most important scientific event of IACM is the World Congress on Computational Mechanics. The first was held in Austin (USA) in 1986 and then in Stuttgart (Germany) in 1990, Chiba (Japan) in 1994, Buenos Aires (Argentina) in 1998, Vienna (Austria) in 2002, Beijing (China) in 2004, Los Angeles (USA) in 2006 and Venice, Italy; in 2008. The 9th World Congress on Computational Mechanics is held in conjunction with the 4th Asian Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics under the auspices of Australian Association for Computational Mechanics (AACM), Asian Pacific Association for Computational Mechanics (APACM) and International Association for Computational Mechanics (IACM). The 1st Asian Pacific Congress was in Sydney (Australia) in 2001, then in Beijing (China) in 2004 and Kyoto (Japan) in 2007. The WCCM/APCOM 2010 publications consist of a printed book of abstracts given to delegates, along with 247 full length peer reviewed papers published with

  1. Proposal to support the 4th international conference on nitrification and related processes (ICoN4)

    SciTech Connect

    Klotz, Martin Gunter

    The 4th International Conference on Nitrification and Related Processes (ICoN4) commencing between June 27 and July 1, 2015, at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada brings together an international collection of academic, government, and private sector researchers of the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle to share their scientific discoveries, innovations and pertinent societal impacts. The classical understanding of “nitrification” describes the two-step transformation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrite to nitrate; however, we now know from the analysis genome sequences, the application of ‘omics technologies, microbial ecology, biogeochemistry, and microbial physiology that the transformation of ammonium is not performedmore » by a few particular groups of microorganisms nor is it confined to oxic environments. Past ICoN meetings have explored the interconnections between ammonium- and nitrite-consuming processes in all ecosystems, the emission of greenhouse gases by these processes and their control, and the intersection between intermediates of the nitrification process and other elemental cycles; this has generated tremendous progress in our understanding of the global nitrogen cycle and it has generated excitement in the next generation of N cycle researchers. Nitrification research has a long-standing connection to the Community Science Program of the DOE. Between 1999 and 2001, the JGI generated the first genome sequence of an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718, and it has subsequently sequenced, or is in the process of sequencing over 50 additional genomes from ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, and ammonia-oxidizing archaea. Autotrophic ammonia- and nitrite-transforming microorganisms play also a critical role in carbon cycling and sequestration in nearly all ecosystems. Not only do they control the concentration and speciation of biologically available N to plants and other

  2. INSTAR: simulating the biological cycle of a forest pest in Mediterranean pine stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez-Muñoz, María; Bonet García, Francisco J.; Hódar, José A.

    2017-04-01

    The pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) is a typically Mediterranean forest pest feeding on pine needles during its larval stages. The outbreaks of this pest cause important landscape impacts and public health problems (i.e. larvae are very urticant). Larvae feed during winter months and cold temperature is the main limiting factor in their development. Therefore, rising temperatures are thought to benefit this species. Indeed, observations suggest that outbreaks are becoming more frequent and populations are shifting uphill. The objective of this work is to simulate the biological cycle of T. pityocampa to make predictions about where and when outbreaks will occur. Thus, we have created a model called INSTAR that will help to identify hotspots and foresee massive defoliation episodes. This will enhance the information available for the control of this pest. INSTAR is an Agent-Based Model, which allows the inclusion of important characteristics of the system: emergence, feedback (i.e. interaction between agents and their environment), adaptation (i.e. decision based on the mentioned interactions) and path dependence (i.e. possibilities at one time point are determined by past conditions). These characteristics arise from a set of functions simulating pine growth, processionary development, mortality and movement. These functions are easily extrapolable to other similar biological processes and therefore INSTAR aims at serving of example for other forest pest models. INSTAR is the first comprehensive approach to simulate the biological cycle of T pityocampa. It simulates the pest development in a given area, from which elevation and pine trees are considered. Moreover, it is also a good example of integrating environmental information into a population dynamic model: meteorological variables and soil moisture are obtained from a hydrological model (WiMMed, Herrero et al. 2009) executed for the area of interest. These variables are the inputs of the

  3. PREFACE: The 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dengqing; Kaczmarczyk, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers presented at the 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013) run under the auspices of the Institute of Physics Applied Mechanics Group and hosted by Harbin Institute of Technology (China) from 7-9 January 2013. The conference has been organized in collaboration with the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and follows a one day seminar on Ropes, Cables, Belts and Chains: Theory and Applications and the MoSS2006 symposium held at the University of Northampton (UK) in 2004 and 2006, respectively, the MoSS2008 symposium held at the University of Maryland Baltimore County (USA) in 2008 and the MoSS2010 symposium hosted by Mondragon University and held in San Sebastian (Spain) in 2010. The remit of the Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures series involves a broad range of scientific areas. Applications of slender structures include terrestrial, marine and space systems. Moving elastic elements such as ropes, cables, belts and tethers are pivotal components of many engineering systems. Their lengths often vary when the system is in operation. The applications include vertical transportation installations and, more recently, space tether propulsion systems. Traction drive elevator installations employ ropes and belts of variable length as a means of suspension, and also for the compensation of tensile forces over the traction sheave. In cranes and mine hoists, cables and ropes are subject to length variation in order to carry payloads. Tethers experiencing extension and retraction are important components of offshore and marine installations, as well as being proposed for a variety of different space vehicle propulsion systems based on different applications of momentum exchange and electrodynamic interactions with planetary magnetic fields. Furthermore, cables and slender rods are used extensively in civil engineering

  4. Determining the Number of Instars in Simulium quinquestriatum (Diptera: Simuliidae) Using k-Means Clustering via the Canberra Distance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yao Ming; Jia, Ruo; Xun, Hui; Yang, Jie; Chen, Qiang; Zeng, Xiang Guang; Yang, Ming

    2018-02-21

    Simulium quinquestriatum Shiraki (Diptera: Simuliidae), a human-biting fly that is distributed widely across Asia, is a vector for multiple pathogens. However, the larval development of this species is poorly understood. In this study, we determined the number of instars in this pest using three batches of field-collected larvae from Guiyang, Guizhou, China. The postgenal length, head capsule width, mandibular phragma length, and body length of 773 individuals were measured, and k-means clustering was used for instar grouping. Four distance measures-Manhattan, Euclidean, Chebyshev, and Canberra-were determined. The reported instar numbers, ranging from 4 to 11, were set as initial cluster centers for k-means clustering. The Canberra distance yielded reliable instar grouping, which was consistent with the first instar, as characterized by egg bursters and prepupae with dark histoblasts. Females and males of the last cluster of larvae were identified using Feulgen-stained gonads. Morphometric differences between the two sexes were not significant. Validation was performed using the Brooks-Dyar and Crosby rules, revealing that the larval stage of S. quinquestriatum is composed of eight instars.

  5. A Novel Ecdysone Receptor Mediates Steroid-Regulated Developmental Events during the Mid-Third Instar of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Costantino, Benjamin F. B.; Bricker, Daniel K.; Alexandre, Kelly; Shen, Kate; Merriam, John R.; Antoniewski, Christophe; Callender, Jenna L.; Henrich, Vincent C.; Presente, Asaf; Andres, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    The larval salivary gland of Drosophila melanogaster synthesizes and secretes glue glycoproteins that cement developing animals to a solid surface during metamorphosis. The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is an essential signaling molecule that modulates most of the physiological functions of the larval gland. At the end of larval development, it is known that 20E—signaling through a nuclear receptor heterodimer consisting of EcR and USP—induces the early and late puffing cascade of the polytene chromosomes and causes the exocytosis of stored glue granules into the lumen of the gland. It has also been reported that an earlier pulse of hormone induces the temporally and spatially specific transcriptional activation of the glue genes; however, the receptor responsible for triggering this response has not been characterized. Here we show that the coordinated expression of the glue genes midway through the third instar is mediated by 20E acting to induce genes of the Broad Complex (BRC) through a receptor that is not an EcR/USP heterodimer. This result is novel because it demonstrates for the first time that at least some 20E-mediated, mid-larval, developmental responses are controlled by an uncharacterized receptor that does not contain an RXR-like component. PMID:18566664

  6. Climatic changes and social transformations in the Near East and North Africa during the 'long' 4th millennium BC: A comparative study of environmental and archaeological evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Joanne; Brooks, Nick; Banning, Edward B.; Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Campbell, Stuart; Clare, Lee; Cremaschi, Mauro; di Lernia, Savino; Drake, Nick; Gallinaro, Marina; Manning, Sturt; Nicoll, Kathleen; Philip, Graham; Rosen, Steve; Schoop, Ulf-Dietrich; Tafuri, Mary Anne; Weninger, Bernhard; Zerboni, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores the possible links between rapid climate change (RCC) and social change in the Near East and surrounding regions (Anatolia, central Syria, southern Israel, Mesopotamia, Cyprus and eastern and central Sahara) during the 'long' 4th millennium (∼4500-3000) BC. Twenty terrestrial and 20 marine climate proxies are used to identify long-term trends in humidity involving transitions from humid to arid conditions and vice versa. The frequency distribution of episodes of relative aridity across these records is calculated for the period 6300-2000 BC, so that the results may be interpreted in the context of the established arid episodes associated with RCC around 6200 and 2200 BC (the 8.2 and 4.2 kyr events). We identify two distinct episodes of heightened aridity in the early-mid 4th, and late 4th millennium BC. These episodes cluster strongly at 3600-3700 and 3100-3300 BC. There is also evidence of localised aridity spikes in the 5th and 6th millennia BC. These results are used as context for the interpretation of regional and local archaeological records with a particular focus on case studies from western Syria, the middle Euphrates, southern Israel and Cyprus. Interpretation of the records involves the construction of plausible narratives of human-climate interaction informed by concepts of adaptation and resilience from the literature on contemporary (i.e. 21st century) climate change and adaptation. The results are presented alongside well-documented examples of climatically-influenced societal change in the central and eastern Sahara, where detailed geomorphological studies of ancient environments have been undertaken in tandem with archaeological research. While the narratives for the Near East and Eastern Mediterranean remain somewhat speculative, the use of resilience and adaptation frameworks allows for a more nuanced treatment of human-climate interactions and recognises the diversity and context-specificity of human responses to climatic

  7. The Implications of Temperature-Mediated Plasticity in Larval Instar Number for Development within a Marine Invertebrate, the Shrimp Palaemonetes varians

    PubMed Central

    Oliphant, Andrew; Hauton, Chris; Thatje, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Variations in larval instar number are common among arthropods. Here, we assess the implications of temperature-mediated variations in larval instar number for larval development time, larval growth rates, and juvenile dry weight within the palaemonid shrimp, Palaemonetes varians. In contrast with previous literature, which focuses on terrestrial arthropods, particularly model and pest species often of laboratory lines, we use wild shrimp, which differ in their life history from previous models. Newly-hatched P. varians larvae were first reared at 5, 10, 17, 25, and 30°C to assess their thermal scope for development. Larvae developed at 17, 25, and 30°C. At higher temperatures, larvae developed through fewer larval instars. Two dominant developmental pathways were observed; a short pathway of four instars and a long pathway of five instars. Longer developmental pathways of six to seven instars were rarely observed (mostly at lower temperatures) and consisted of additional instars as ‘repeat’ instars; i.e. little developmental advance over the preceding instar. To assess the implications of temperature-mediated variation in larval instar number, newly-hatched larvae were then reared at 15, 20, and 25°C. Again, the proportion of larvae developing through four instars increased with temperature. At all temperatures, larval development time and juvenile dry weight were greater for larvae developing through five instars. Importantly, because of the increasing proportion of larvae developing through four instars with increasing temperature, larval traits associated with this pathway (reduced development time and juvenile dry weight) became more dominant. As a consequence of increasing growth rate with temperature, and the shift in the proportion of larvae developing through four instars, juvenile dry weight was greatest at intermediate temperatures (20°C). We conclude that at settlement P. varians juveniles do not follow the temperature-size rule; this is of

  8. The implications of temperature-mediated plasticity in larval instar number for development within a marine invertebrate, the shrimp Palaemonetes varians.

    PubMed

    Oliphant, Andrew; Hauton, Chris; Thatje, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Variations in larval instar number are common among arthropods. Here, we assess the implications of temperature-mediated variations in larval instar number for larval development time, larval growth rates, and juvenile dry weight within the palaemonid shrimp, Palaemonetes varians. In contrast with previous literature, which focuses on terrestrial arthropods, particularly model and pest species often of laboratory lines, we use wild shrimp, which differ in their life history from previous models. Newly-hatched P. varians larvae were first reared at 5, 10, 17, 25, and 30 °C to assess their thermal scope for development. Larvae developed at 17, 25, and 30 °C. At higher temperatures, larvae developed through fewer larval instars. Two dominant developmental pathways were observed; a short pathway of four instars and a long pathway of five instars. Longer developmental pathways of six to seven instars were rarely observed (mostly at lower temperatures) and consisted of additional instars as 'repeat' instars; i.e. little developmental advance over the preceding instar. To assess the implications of temperature-mediated variation in larval instar number, newly-hatched larvae were then reared at 15, 20, and 25 °C. Again, the proportion of larvae developing through four instars increased with temperature. At all temperatures, larval development time and juvenile dry weight were greater for larvae developing through five instars. Importantly, because of the increasing proportion of larvae developing through four instars with increasing temperature, larval traits associated with this pathway (reduced development time and juvenile dry weight) became more dominant. As a consequence of increasing growth rate with temperature, and the shift in the proportion of larvae developing through four instars, juvenile dry weight was greatest at intermediate temperatures (20 °C). We conclude that at settlement P. varians juveniles do not follow the temperature-size rule; this is of

  9. A selected review of abstracts from the 4th Quadrennial Meeting of the World Federation of Neuro-Oncology.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Marc C

    2014-03-01

    The 4th Quadrennial Meeting of the World Federation of Neuro-Oncology (WFNO), San Francisco, CA, USA, 21-24 November 2013 The 4th Quadrennial Meeting of the World Federation of Neuro-Oncology (WFNO) was the largest neuro-oncology meeting that meets once every 4 years and brings together clinicians and scientists from all parts of the world whose focus is on new brain cancer clinical trials and research primarily pertaining to gliomas. The WFNO 2013 meeting included 1 education day, 2.5 days of presentation, 13 sunrise sessions, one town hall meeting, one mini-symposium, 130 oral presentations and 900 abstracts. This short meeting review highlights select adult clinical abstracts presented at WFNO 2013 that will only in part encompass the contents of a large and multifaceted meeting.

  10. Structure, Meaning, and Acquisition in Spanish: Papers from the 4th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, James F., Ed.; Geeslin, Kimberly L., Ed.; Clemens, J. Clancy, Ed.

    This collection of papers is divided into four sections. Section 1, "Historical Linguistics," includes "The Grammaticalization of Non-Dative Reflexes of Latin ill- in Spanish" (Jose R. Carrasquel) and "'Esto es Ligero de Fazer': Object to Subject Raising in Medieval and Early Modern Spanish" (Mark Davies). Section 2, "Language Acquisition and…

  11. R&W Club Frederick Hosts 4th Annual Golf Tournament Benefiting The Children’s Inn at NIH | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The R&W Club Frederick’s 4th Annual Golf Tournament to benefit the Children’s Inn at NIH teed off on time despite cloudy weather and scattered showers. Employees from NCI at Frederick, the main NIH campus, and Leidos Biomed, along with family and friends, came to enjoy an afternoon at the beautiful Maryland National Golf Club in Middletown and to support a wonderful charity.

  12. Abstracts for the 4th Annual Congress on Medicine & Science in Ultra-Endurance Sports, May 30, 2017, Denver, Colorado.

    PubMed

    2017-04-01

    The 4th Annual Congress on Medicine & Science in Ultra-Endurance Sports will be held on May 30, 2017, in Denver, Colorado. While prior meetings have been multiple-day events, the 2017 Congress will be an intense 1-day preconference to the American College of Sports Medicine annual meeting. Details of this Congress, as well as past and future meetings, can be found at the Ultra Sports Science Foundation Web site: http://ultrasportsscience.us.

  13. Reliability of a new 4th generation FloTrac algorithm to track cardiac output changes in patients receiving phenylephrine.

    PubMed

    Ji, Fuhai; Li, Jian; Fleming, Neal; Rose, David; Liu, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Phenylephrine is often used to treat intra-operative hypotension. Previous studies have shown that the FloTrac cardiac monitor may overestimate cardiac output (CO) changes following phenylephrine administration. A new algorithm (4th generation) has been developed to improve performance in this setting. We performed a prospective observational study to assess the effects of phenylephrine administration on CO values measured by the 3rd and 4th generation FloTrac algorithms. 54 patients were enrolled in this study. We used the Nexfin, a pulse contour method shown to be insensitive to vasopressor administration, as the reference method. Radial arterial pressures were recorded continuously in patients undergoing surgery. Phenylephrine administration times were documented. Arterial pressure recordings were subsequently analyzed offline using three different pulse contour analysis algorithms: FloTrac 3rd generation (G3), FloTrac 4th generation (G4), and Nexfin (nf). One minute of hemodynamic measurements was analyzed immediately before phenylephrine administration and then repeated when the mean arterial pressure peaked. A total of 157 (4.6 ± 3.2 per patient, range 1-15) paired sets of hemodynamic recordings were analyzed. Phenylephrine induced a significant increase in stroke volume (SV) and CO with the FloTrac G3, but not with FloTrac G4 or Nexfin algorithms. Agreement between FloTrac G3 and Nexfin was: 0.23 ± 1.19 l/min and concordance was 51.1%. In contrast, agreement between FloTrac G4 and Nexfin was: 0.19 ± 0.86 l/min and concordance was 87.2%. In conclusion, the pulse contour method of measuring CO, as implemented in FloTrac 4th generation algorithm, has significantly improved its ability to track the changes in CO induced by phenylephrine.

  14. Groupwise Registration and Atlas Construction of 4th-Order Tensor Fields Using the ℝ+ Riemannian Metric*

    PubMed Central

    Barmpoutis, Angelos

    2010-01-01

    Registration of Diffusion-Weighted MR Images (DW-MRI) can be achieved by registering the corresponding 2nd-order Diffusion Tensor Images (DTI). However, it has been shown that higher-order diffusion tensors (e.g. order-4) outperform the traditional DTI in approximating complex fiber structures such as fiber crossings. In this paper we present a novel method for unbiased group-wise non-rigid registration and atlas construction of 4th-order diffusion tensor fields. To the best of our knowledge there is no other existing method to achieve this task. First we define a metric on the space of positive-valued functions based on the Riemannian metric of real positive numbers (denoted by ℝ+). Then, we use this metric in a novel functional minimization method for non-rigid 4th-order tensor field registration. We define a cost function that accounts for the 4th-order tensor re-orientation during the registration process and has analytic derivatives with respect to the transformation parameters. Finally, the tensor field atlas is computed as the minimizer of the variance defined using the Riemannian metric. We quantitatively compare the proposed method with other techniques that register scalar-valued or diffusion tensor (rank-2) representations of the DWMRI. PMID:20436782

  15. Required and Elective Experiences During the 4th Year: An Analysis of ACGME Accredited Psychiatry Residency Program Websites.

    PubMed

    Vestal, Heather S; Belitsky, Richard; Bernstein, Carol A; Chaukos, Deanna; Cohen, Mitchell B; Dickstein, Leah J; Hilty, Donald M; Hutner, Lucy; Sakman, Ferda; Scheiber, Stephen C; Wrzosek, Marika I; Silberman, Edward K

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and describe required and elective components of the 4th post-graduate year (PGY4) in psychiatry residency programs. We reviewed the websites of all 193 2014-2015 ACGME accredited psychiatry residency programs for content describing the specific components of the PGY4 year. Nearly all residency programs (99 %) had some form of required experiences during the PGY4 year. Ninety-four percent had clinical requirements for PGY4 residents, with longitudinal outpatient clinic being the most common (77 %). All programs offered some elective time during PGY4, but the amount of time ranged from 2 months to 100 %. Virtually all residency programs include some requirements in the 4th year (most commonly didactics and outpatient clinic) in addition to a broad array of elective experiences. Although 3 years may suffice for residents to complete ACGME requirements, a variety of factors may motivate programs to include required 4th year curricula. Future studies should explore the rationales for and possible benefits of programmatic requirements throughout 4 versus only 3 years of psychiatric training.

  16. Kidney retransplantation from HLA-incompatible living donors: A single-center study of 3rd/4th transplants.

    PubMed

    Barnes, James C H; Goodyear, Stephen J; Imray, Caitlin E A; Lam, For Tai; Kashi, Habib S; Tan, Lam Chin; Higgins, Robert; Imray, Christopher H E

    2017-11-01

    The demand for kidney retransplantation following graft failure is rising. Repeat transplantation is often associated with poorer outcomes due to both immunological and surgical challenges. The aim of this study was to compare surgical and functional outcomes of kidney retransplantation in recipients that had previously had at least two kidney transplants with a focus on those with antibody incompatibility. We analyzed 66 patients who underwent renal transplantation at a single center between 2003 and 2011. Consecutive patients receiving their 3rd or 4th kidney were case-matched with an equal number of 1st and 2nd transplants. Twenty-two 3rd and 4th kidney transplants were matched with 22 first and 22 seconds transplants. Operative times and length of stay were equivalent between the subgroups. Surgical complication rates were similar in all groups (22.7% in 1st and 2nd transplants, and 27.2% in 3rd/4th transplants). There was no significant difference in patient or graft survival over 5 years. Graft function was similar between transplant groups at 1, 3, and 5 years. Third and fourth kidney transplants can be performed safely with similar outcomes to 1st and 2nd transplants. Kidney retransplantation from antibody-incompatible donors may be appropriate for highly sensitized patients. © 2017 The Authors Clinical Transplantation Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Complete set of invariants of a 4th order tensor: the 12 tasks of HARDI from ternary quartics.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulo, Théo; Ghosh, Aurobrata; Deriche, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    Invariants play a crucial role in Diffusion MRI. In DTI (2nd order tensors), invariant scalars (FA, MD) have been successfully used in clinical applications. But DTI has limitations and HARDI models (e.g. 4th order tensors) have been proposed instead. These, however, lack invariant features and computing them systematically is challenging. We present a simple and systematic method to compute a functionally complete set of invariants of a non-negative 3D 4th order tensor with respect to SO3. Intuitively, this transforms the tensor's non-unique ternary quartic (TQ) decomposition (from Hilbert's theorem) to a unique canonical representation independent of orientation - the invariants. The method consists of two steps. In the first, we reduce the 18 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) of a TQ representation by 3-DOFs via an orthogonal transformation. This transformation is designed to enhance a rotation-invariant property of choice of the 3D 4th order tensor. In the second, we further reduce 3-DOFs via a 3D rotation transformation of coordinates to arrive at a canonical set of invariants to SO3 of the tensor. The resulting invariants are, by construction, (i) functionally complete, (ii) functionally irreducible (if desired), (iii) computationally efficient and (iv) reversible (mappable to the TQ coefficients or shape); which is the novelty of our contribution in comparison to prior work. Results from synthetic and real data experiments validate the method and indicate its importance.

  18. Behavioral response of fifth instar nymphs of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to pyrethroids.

    PubMed

    Alzogaray, R A; Zerba, E N

    2001-01-15

    The hyperactivity (an increase in locomotor activity) and repellency produced by eight pyrethroids, applied as films on filter paper, were evaluated on fifth instar nymphs of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) using a video tracking technique. All the pyrethroids studied produced hyperactivity. As a trend, hyperactivity produced by cyanopyrethroids was higher than that produced by non-cyanopyrethroids. Hyperactivity was not observed when nymphs were pretreated with the sulphydryl reagent N-ethylmaleimide before exposure to the pyrethroids. The eight pyrethroids failed to produce repellency. No repellency was also observed for the flowable formulation of deltamethrin at the concentration recommended for T. infestans control.

  19. The Effect of Mathematical Worksheets Based on Multiple Intelligences Theory on the Academic Achievement of the Students in the 4th Grade Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inan, Cemil; Erkus, Serdar

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the effect of Math worksheets based on the Multiple Intelligences Theory on the academic achievement of students in the 4th grade primary school. The sample of the research consists of 64 (32 experimental and 32 control) students who are studying in the 4th grade in a primary school affiliated to the Ministry…

  20. CeLAND: search for a 4th light neutrino state with a 3 PBq 144Ce- 144Pr electron antineutrino generator in KamLAND

    SciTech Connect

    Gando, A; Gando, Y; Hayashida, S

    The reactor neutrino and gallium anomalies can be tested with a 3-4 PBq (75-100 kCi scale) 144Ce- 144Pr antineutrino beta-source deployed at the center or next to a large low-background liquid scintillator detector. The antineutrino generator will be produced by the Russian reprocessing plant PA Mayak as early as 2014, transported to Japan, and deployed in the Kamioka Liquid Scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) as early as 2015. KamLAND's 13 m diameter target volume provides a suitable environment to measure the energy and position dependence of the detected neutrino flux. A characteristic oscillation pattern would be visible for a baseline of about 10 m or less, providing a very clean signal of neutrino disappearance into a yet-unknown, sterile neutrino state. This will provide a comprehensive test of the electron dissaperance neutrino anomalies and could lead to the discovery of a 4th neutrino state for Δmmore » $$2\\atop{new}$$ ≳ 0.1 eV 2 and sin 2(2θ new) > 0.05.« less

  1. Cold tolerance of first-instar nymphs of the Australian plague locust, Chortoicetes terminifera.

    PubMed

    Woodman, James D

    2010-04-01

    The cold tolerance of first-instar nymphs of the Australian plague locust, Chortoicetes terminifera, was examined using measures of total body water content, supercooling point and mortality for a range of sub-zero temperature exposure regimes. The supercooling points for starved and fed nymphs were -13.1+/-0.9 and -12.6+/-1.6 degrees C, and freezing caused complete mortality. Above these temperatures, nymphs were cold tolerant to different degrees based on whether they were starved or given access to food and water for 24h prior to exposure. The rate of cooling also had a significant effect on mortality. Very rapid cooling to -7 degrees C caused 84 and 87% mortality for starved and fed nymphs respectively, but this significantly decreased for starved nymphs if temperature declined by more ecologically realistic rates of 0.5 and 0.1 degrees C min(-1). These results are indicative of a rapid cold hardening response and are discussed in terms of the likely effects of cold nights and frost on first-instar nymphal survival in the field. Crown Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Parnassius apollo last-instar larvae development prediction by analysis of weather condition as a tool in the species' conservation.

    PubMed

    Łozowski, Bartosz; Kędziorski, Andrzej; Nakonieczny, Mirosław; Łaszczyca, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    Parnassius apollo (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) has already disappeared or is under threat of extinction in many of its former habitats. It has been documented that weather conditions--anomalies in particular--contributed to this process. In this study, we combined developmental data obtained previously for the last-instar Apollo larvae (collected in 1996, 1997, and 2003) with corresponding meteorological data to assess the effects of ambient temperature and rainfall episodes on the duration and the completion of the instar. For comparing the temperature effect, we applied the degree-day concept. We found significant positive correlation between the number of rainy days during the instar development (x) and its duration time (y): y=8.293+0.936x (±2.813) (r=0.662, P<10(-7)). Logarithmic transformation of the growth curves of the last-instar Apollo larvae revealed that there was no difference in growth among females; however, there was slower growth of males in 2003 in comparison to 1996. Growth (y) of female Apollo larvae as a function of instar duration (x) can by described by one common equation, irrespectively of the year: y=317.6+502.3 lnx (±263.3) (r=0.82, P<10(-4)). Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. An ecological study of food desert prevalence and 4th grade academic achievement in new york state school districts.

    PubMed

    Frndak, Seth E

    2014-12-02

    This ecological study examines the relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level. Sample included 232 suburban and urban school districts in New York State. Multiple open-source databases were merged to obtain: 4(th) grade science, English and math scores, school district demographic composition (NYS Report Card), regional socioeconomic indicators (American Community Survey), school district quality (US Common Core of Data), and food desert data (USDA Food Desert Atlas). Multiple regression models assessed the percentage of variation in achievement scores explained by food desert variables, after controlling for additional predictors. The proportion of individuals living in food deserts significantly explained 4th grade achievement scores, after accounting for additional predictors. School districts with higher proportions of individuals living in food desert regions demonstrated lower 4th grade achievement across science, English and math. Food deserts appear to be related to academic achievement at the school district level among urban and suburban regions. Further research is needed to better understand how food access is associated with academic achievement at the individual level. Significance for public healthThe prevalence of food deserts in the United States is of national concern. As poor nutrition in United States children continues to spark debate, food deserts are being evaluated as potential sources of low fruit and vegetable intake and high obesity rates. Cognitive development and IQ have been linked to nutrition patterns, suggesting that children in food desert regions may have a disadvantage academically. This research evaluates if an ecological relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level can be demonstrated. Results suggest that food desert prevalence may relate to poor academic performance at the school district level. Significant variation in

  4. 4th Global CRO Council for Bioanalysis: coadministered drugs stability, EMA/US FDA guidelines, 483s and carryover.

    PubMed

    Lowes, Steve; Jersey, Jim; Shoup, Ronald; Garofolo, Fabio; Needham, Shane; Couerbe, Philippe; Lansing, Tim; Bhatti, Masood; Sheldon, Curtis; Hayes, Roger; Islam, Rafiq; Lin, Zhongping; Garofolo, Wei; Moussallie, Marc; Teixeira, Leonardo de Souza; Rocha, Thais; Jardieu, Paula; Truog, James; Lin, Jenny; Lundberg, Richard; Breau, Alan; Dilger, Carmen; Bouhajib, Mohammed; Levesque, Ann; Gagnon-Carignan, Sofi; Jenkins, Rand; Nicholson, Robert; Lin, Ming Hung; Karnik, Shane; DeMaio, William; Smith, Kirk; Cojocaru, Laura; Allen, Mike; Fatmi, Saadya; Sayyarpour, Farhad; Malone, Michele; Fang, Xinping

    2012-04-01

    The Global CRO Council for Bioanalysis (GCC) was formed in September 2010. Since then, the representatives of the member companies come together periodically to openly discuss bioanalysis and the regulatory challenges unique to the outsourcing industry. The 4th GCC Closed Forum brought together experts from bioanalytical CROs to share and discuss recent issues in regulated bioanalysis, such as the impact of coadministered drugs on stability, some differences between European Medicines Agency and US FDA bioanalytical guidance documents and lessons learned following recent Untitled Letters. Recent 483s and agency findings, as well as issues on method carryover, were also part of the topics discussed.

  5. Synapses as therapeutic targets for autism spectrum disorders: an international symposium held in pavia on july 4th, 2014.

    PubMed

    Curatolo, Paolo; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Bozzi, Yuri; Catania, Maria Vincenza; D'Angelo, Egidio; Mapelli, Lisa; Oberman, Lindsay M; Rosenmund, Christian; Cherubini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    New progresses into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been discussed in 1 day international symposium held in Pavia (Italy) on July 4th, 2014 entitled "synapses as therapeutic targets for autism spectrum disorders" (satellite of the FENS Forum for Neuroscience, Milan, 2014). In particular, world experts in the field have highlighted how animal models of ASDs have greatly advanced our understanding of the molecular pathways involved in synaptic dysfunction leading sometimes to "synaptic clinical trials" in children.

  6. [Comments on the seven clinical questions & answers in Japanese gastric treatment guidelines of the 4th edition].

    PubMed

    Xu, J M

    2017-03-23

    Japanese gastric cancer treatment guidelines of the 4th Edition proposed solutions to 7 clinically contentious questions. However, the solutions to question 1-3 are not complete and may cause ambiguity. In order to avoid the wrong choice of surgical resection, the solutions to question 1-3 should be clearly defined. For question 1-3, we suggest provisos be added such as patients with resectable M1 disease and without any other non-curable factors, after whose status and tumor biological behavior being fully understood and being fully discussed by a multidisciplinary team, can be recommended to receive comprehensive treatment including surgical resection.

  7. The effect of within-instar development on tracheal diameter and hypoxia-inducible factors α and β in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Lundquist, Taylor A; Kittilson, Jeffrey D; Ahsan, Rubina; Greenlee, Kendra J

    2017-12-12

    As insects grow within an instar, body mass increases, often more than doubling. The increase in mass causes an increase in metabolic rate and hence oxygen demand. However, the insect tracheal system is hypothesized to increase only after molting and may be compressed as tissues grow within an instar. The increase in oxygen demand in the face of a potentially fixed or decreasing supply could result in hypoxia as insects near the end of an instar. To test these hypotheses, we first used synchrotron X-ray imaging to determine how diameters of large tracheae change within an instar and after molting to the next instar in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Large tracheae did not increase in diameter within the first, second, third, and fourth instars, but increased upon molting. To determine if insects are hypoxic at the end of instars, we used the presence of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) as an index. HIF-α and HIF-β dimerize in hypoxia and act as a transcription factor that turns on genes that will increase oxygen delivery. We sequenced both of these genes and measured their mRNA levels at the beginning and end of each larval instar. Finally, we obtained an antibody to HIF-α and measured protein expression during the same time. Both mRNA and protein levels of HIFs were increased at the end of most instars. These data support the hypothesis that some insects may experience hypoxia at the end of an instar, which could be a signal for molting. As caterpillars grow within an instar, major tracheae do not increase in size, while metabolic demand increases. At the same life stages, caterpillars increased expression of hypoxia inducible factors, suggesting that they become hypoxic near the end of an instar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fluorescence Imaging of Posterior Spiracles from Second and Third Instars of Forensically-important Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)*

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Danielle; Miller, Amy L.; Showman, Angelique; Tobita, Caitlyn; Shimoda, Lori M.N.; Sung, Carl; Stokes, Alexander J.; Tomberlin, Jeffrey K.; Carter, David O.; Turner, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Entomological protocols for aging blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae to estimate the time of colonization (TOC) are commonly used to assist in death investigations. While the methodologies for analysing fly larvae differ, most rely on light microscopy, genetic analysis or, more rarely, electron microscopy. This pilot study sought to improve resolution of larval stage in the forensically-important blow fly Chrysomya rufifacies using high-content fluorescence microscopy and biochemical measures of developmental marker proteins. We established fixation and mounting protocols, defined a set of measurable morphometric criteria and captured developmental transitions of 2nd instar to 3rd instar using both fluorescence microscopy and anti-ecdysone receptor Western blot analysis. The data show that these instars can be distinguished on the basis of robust, non-bleaching, autofluorescence of larval posterior spiracles. High content imaging techniques using confocal microscopy, combined with morphometric and biochemical techniques, may therefore aid forensic entomologists in estimating TOC. PMID:27706817

  9. Defensive responses by a social caterpillar are tailored to different predators and change with larval instar and group size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure, Melanie; Despland, Emma

    2011-05-01

    Gregariousness in animals is widely accepted as a behavioral adaptation for protection from predation. However, predation risk and the effectiveness of a prey's defense can be a function of several other factors, including predator species and prey size or age. The objective of this study was to determine if the gregarious habit of Malacosoma disstria caterpillars is advantageous against invertebrate natural enemies, and whether it is through dilution or cooperative defenses. We also examined the effects of larval growth and group size on the rate and success of attacks. Caterpillars of M. disstria responded with predator-specific behaviors, which led to increased survival. Evasive behaviors were used against stinkbugs, while thrashing by fourth instar caterpillars and holding on to the silk mat by second instar caterpillars was most efficient against spider attacks. Collective head flicking and biting by groups of both second and fourth instar caterpillars were observed when attacked by parasitoids. Increased larval size decreased the average number of attacks by spiders but increased the number of attacks by both stinkbugs and parasitoids. However, increased body size decreased the success rate of attacks by all three natural enemies and increased handling time for both predators. Larger group sizes did not influence the number of attacks from predators but increased the number of attacks and the number of successful attacks from parasitoids. In all cases, individual risk was lower in larger groups. Caterpillars showed collective defenses against parasitoids but not against the walking predators. These results show that caterpillars use different tactics against different natural enemies. Overall, these tactics are both more diverse and more effective in fourth instar than in second instar caterpillars, confirming that growth reduces predation risk. We also show that grouping benefits caterpillars through dilution of risk, and, in the case of parasitoids, through

  10. An automated method to assay locomotor activity in third instar Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    PubMed

    Graham, Stephanie; Rogers, Ryan P; Alper, Richard H

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to describe a novel application of an automated data acquisition/data reduction system, DanioVision™ by Noldus. DanioVision™ has the ability to detect changes in locomotor activity in third instar Drosophila melanogaster larvae. The noncompetitive GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin (PTX), was used as a pharmacologic agent to decrease locomotor activity. Two strains of Drosophila were used in these studies; wild-type flies and flies with a mutation in the Rdl gene (Rdl(MD-RR)). Rdl(MD-RR)Drosophila are naturally occurring mutants that express an aberrant form of the GABAA receptor, which has a lower affinity for PTX, but not GABA itself. Larvae, extracted from food in 20% sucrose, were randomly placed into vials containing vehicle or PTX (0.03-3mM). After incubation of 2-24h, individual larvae were put in each well of a 6-well culture plate previously coated with 2% agar, the plate was then placed in the DanioVision™ apparatus. The activity of individual larva was recorded for 5 min, digitized and analyzed using Ethovision® XT software. Incubation of third instar wild-type larvae in 1mM PTX for 4 or 24h decreased activity; whereas, a 2h incubation in PTX was without effect. PTX caused a concentration-dependent decrease in activity as demonstrated by consistently reduced locomotor activity with 1.0 and 3.0mM: 0.3mM resulted in variable decreases in locomotor activity and 0.03 mM yielded no effect. By contrast, PTX did not affect activity in Rdl(MD-RR) larvae even at the highest concentration, 3.0mM. Using an automated data acquisition system, it was found that PTX decreases activity in third instar Drosophila larvae due to a selective blockade of the GABAA receptor. The method will reduce the likelihood of human error and bias, as well as increase the speed and ease of data collection and analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Seismically induced liquefaction structures in La Magdalena archaeological site, the 4th century AD Roman Complutum (Madrid, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Pascua, M. A.; Silva, P. G.; Perucha, M. A.; Giner-Robles, J. L.; Heras, C.; Bastida, A. B.; Carrasco, P.; Roquero, E.; Lario, J.; Bardaji, T.; Pérez-López, R.; Elez, J.

    2016-10-01

    The ancient Roman city of Complutum (Alcalá de Henares, Madrid), founded in the 1st century AD, was one of the most important cities of Hispania. The old Roman city was destroyed, abruptly abandoned, relocated close by and rebuilt during the late 4th century AD. Destruction of the city and its relocation has not yet been explained by archaeologists. In this paper, with our multidisciplinary approach, we identify and characterize earthquake archaeological effects (EAEs) affecting the archaeological site, the La Magdalena, an agricultural holding 4 km from the core of Complutum. The most important EAEs in the site are liquefactions (sand dikes and explosive sand-gravel craters) affecting Roman structures, such as water tanks (cisterns), houses and graves. Ground liquefaction generated significant ground cracks, explosive craters and folds in foundations of buildings. Several other Roman sites throughout the valley were also abandoned abruptly during the 4th century AD, in some cases with EAEs of similar origin. This suggests the occurrence of a 5.0-6.6 Mw seismic event in the zone, in accordance with the minimum empirical limit of seismically-induced liquefaction and the maximum surface rupture length of the Henares fault.

  12. Electrical muscle stimulation in thomboprophylaxis: review and a derived hypothesis about thrombogenesis-the 4th factor.

    PubMed

    Stefanou, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) is an FDA-approved thromboprophylactic method. Thrombus pathogenesis is considered to depend on factors related to components of the vessel wall, the velocity of blood, and blood consistency-collectively known as, the Virchow's triad. The testimony supporting the thromboprophylactic effects of the EMS is reviewed. An emphasis is placed on the fact that, EMS has demonstrated, in certain circumstances, an efficacy rate that cannot be fully explained by the Virchow's triad; also that, in reviewing relevant evidence and the theorized pathophysiological mechanisms, several findings collectively point to a potentially missed point. Remarkably, venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) is extremely more common in the lower versus the upper extremities even when the blood velocities equalize; EMS had synergistic effects with intermittent compressive devices, despite their presumed identical mechanism of action; sleep is not thrombogenic; non-peroperative EMS is meaningful only if applied ≥5 times daily; neural insult increases VTEs more than the degree expected by the hypomobility-related blood stasis; etc. These phenomena infer the presence of a 4th thrombogenetic factor: neural supply to the veins provides direct antithrombic effects, by inducing periodic vessel diameter changes and/or by neuro-humoral, chemically acting factors. EMS may stimulate or substitute the 4th factor. This evidence-based hypothesis is analyzed. A novel pathophysiologic mechanism of thrombogenesis is supported; and, based on this, the role of EMS in thromboprophylaxis is expanded. Exploration of this mechanism may provide new targets for intervention.

  13. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Process of reviewing the scientific evidence and revising the recommendations.

    PubMed

    Minozzi, Silvia; Armaroli, Paola; Espina, Carolina; Villain, Patricia; Wiseman, Martin; Schüz, Joachim; Segnan, Nereo

    2015-12-01

    The European Code Against Cancer is a set of recommendations to give advice on cancer prevention. Its 4th edition is an update of the 3rd edition, from 2003. Working Groups of independent experts from different fields of cancer prevention were appointed to review the recommendations, supported by a Literature Group to provide scientific and technical support in the assessment of the scientific evidence, through systematic reviews of the literature. Common procedures were developed to guide the experts in identifying, retrieving, assessing, interpreting and summarizing the scientific evidence in order to revise the recommendations. The Code strictly followed the concept of providing advice to European Union citizens based on the current best available science. The advice, if followed, would be expected to reduce cancer risk, referring both to avoiding or reducing exposure to carcinogenic agents or changing behaviour related to cancer risk and to participating in medical interventions able to avert specific cancers or their consequences. The information sources and procedures for the review of the scientific evidence are described here in detail. The 12 recommendations of the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer were ultimately approved by a Scientific Committee of leading European cancer and public health experts. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dorsally exophytic glioblastoma arising from the medulla oblongata in an adult presenting as 4th ventricular mass.

    PubMed

    Das, Kuntal Kanti; Bettaswamy, Guru Prasad; Mehrotra, Anant; Jaiswal, Sushila; Jaiswal, Awadhesh Kumar; Behari, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Brainstem gliomas are relatively rare in adults (<2% of all gliomas). Exophytic gliomas are focal brainstem lesions, which project into the 4 th ventricle or cerebellopontine angles. These exophytic lesions are usually of low-grade histology (pilocytic astrocytoma or ganglioglioma) and have a relatively better outcome compared with brainstem gliomas as a whole. Glioblastoma is the commonest primary glial cell neoplasm and mostly occurs in the supratentorial compartment. It is rather uncommon in the brainstem and seldom has been described as having an exophytic growth pattern. Here we describe an exophytic brainstem glioblastoma arising from the medulla oblongata in a 55-year-old lady who presented with a 4 th ventricular mass, and present a brief review of the literature. Till now, six cases of glioblastoma arising from the medulla oblongata have been reported. So, ours is the seventh such report. To the best of our knowledge, it also happens to be the sixth reported case of dorsally exophytic brainstem glioblastoma till date.

  15. Normal limits of pediatric Frank lead electrocardiograms. Differences in data obtained in 4th or 5th intercostal spaces.

    PubMed

    Robert, A; Derwael-Barchy, C; Fesler, R; Brasseur, L A; Brohet, C R

    1984-01-01

    Frank lead electrocardiograms (VCGs) were recorded from 970 young subjects in order to establish normal limits for pediatric VCGs. In 245 children and 231 adolescents, the thoracic electrodes were located at the levels of the 4th and of the 5th intercostal space with subjects in supine position. Pairwise comparisons of 211 linear and angular parameters were made, using the 4th interspace as the reference. In children, there were 155 parameters with statistically significant differences and 56 parameters without significant differences between levels 4 and 5. In adolescents, corresponding figures were 158 parameters with significant differences and 53 without. Results for selected measurements showed an increase of the amplitude of Q and R waves in leads X and Y, a decrease of Q and R waves in lead Z and an increase of maximal spatial and planar QRS vectors, with the QRS loop being more anteriorly oriented by shifting the electrodes from level 4 to level 5. The mean differences in amplitude and orientation were generally small and of little practical value. However, the percentile distribution of the differences indicated that substantial changes in either direction can occur in some subjects. Thus, quantitative analysis of the pediatric Frank VCGs can be critically affected by modification of electrode placement. It is suggested that normal limits should be determined for each recording level and that criteria for analysis should be applied only to VCGs recorded at the same specified level.

  16. Could larger diameter of 4th generation ceramic bearing decrease the rate of dislocation after THA?

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Kyun; Ha, Yong-Chan; Jo, Woo-Lam; Kim, Tae-Young; Jung, Woon-Hwa; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2016-05-01

    Fourth generation (Delta) ceramic bearing was developed to reduce dislocation after total hip arthroplasty (THA) by increasing the head diameter. We tested a hypothesis that 32/36 mm Delta ceramic bearing decreases the dislocation rate. We also evaluated ceramic-related complications and early outcome of this thin liner-on-large head ceramic bearing. We performed a prospective study on patients who underwent THA with use of 32/36 mm Delta ceramic bearing. The dislocation rate was compared with the historical dislocation rate of third generation 28 mm ceramic bearing. We also evaluated ceramic fracture, squeak, short-term results and survival. Follow-up period was minimum 2 years. Between April 2010 and February 2012, we enrolled 250 consecutive patients (278 hips). All patients received cementless prostheses. Four patients (4 hips) who received metal shells ≤ 46 mm and 28 mm heads were excluded. Three patients died and 2 patients were lost within 2 years. The remaining 241 patients (269 hips) were followed for 24-46 months. There were 142 men (161 hips) and 99 women (108 hips) with a mean age of 53.7 years (range, 17-75 years) at the index operation. Dislocation occurred in three hips (1.1%). An old age was a risk factor for dislocation. Ceramic fracture and squeaking did not occur in any patient. Mean Harris hip score was 90.3 points at the latest follow-up. All acetabular and femoral components had bone-ingrowth stability. No hip had detectable wear or osteolysis. The survival was 99.3% in the best case scenario and 97.8% in the worst at 48 months. Total hip arthroplasty with use of 32/36 mm Delta ceramic bearing showed lower incidence of hip dislocation compared with 28 mm third generation ceramic bearing. A caution should be paid to prevent a fall in senile patients even though a large head is used. The short-term results of THA with this type of ceramic articulation are encouraging and we did not find any ceramic-related complications. Copyright

  17. First-instar western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: chrysomelidae) response to carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Strnad, S.P.; Bergman, M.K.; Fulton, W.C.

    1986-08-01

    Responses of first-instar western corn rootworm to CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ gas gradients were studied in a laboratory test arena. Number of larvae reaching the gas source, number of turns toward and away from the gas source, larval velocity, and number of turns per cm traveled were recorded. Larvae exhibited a positive chemotactic response to CO/sub 2/ but not N/sub 2/ or air. There was no indication that a kinesis of any type was involved because velocities and turning rates were not significantly different among treatments. Results indicate that newly hatched larve may use CO/sub 2/ to locate cornmore » roots.« less

  18. Effects of buprofezin on the ultrastructure of the third instar cuticle of the insect Trialeurodes vaporariorum.

    PubMed

    De Cock, A; Degheele, D

    1991-01-01

    Treatment with buprofezin at the beginning of the third instar of Trialeurodes vaporariorum results in death of the larvae at the time of moulting. Electron microscopic observations, after treatment of the larvae with 20 mg a.i./l buprofezin, does not reveal any difference in the ultrastructural profile before apolysis, however formation of a normal lamellate procuticle is disturbed. The pharate procuticle is amorphous, varying in thickness and the mean thickness is greatly reduced. The subcuticle is interrupted several times at locations corresponding with the thinnest places of the pharate cuticle. Epidermal cells contain unusual structures such as myelin figures and hypertrophied mitochondria indicating that buprofezin may have an additional toxic effect on epidermal cells.

  19. X-38 Ship #2 Landing on Lakebed, Completing the Program's 4th Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space shuttles. The X-38 itself was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station, although two later versions were planned at 100 percent of the CRV size. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force-NASA X-24 lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970s. The current vehicle design is base lined with life support supplies for about nine hours of orbital free flight from the space station. It's landing will be fully automated with backup systems which allow the crew to control orientation in orbit, select a deorbit site, and steer the parafoil, if necessary. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131, V132, and V-131R) are 28.5 feet long, 14.5 feet wide, and weigh approximately 16,000 pounds on average. The vehicles have a nitrogen-gas-operated attitude control system and a bank of batteries for internal power. The actual CRV to be flown in space was expected to be 30 feet long. The X-38 project is a joint effort between the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas (JSC), Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (LaRC) and Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California (DFRC) with the program office located at JSC. A contract was awarded to Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, for construction of the X-38 test airframes. The first vehicle was delivered to the JSC in September 1996. The vehicle was fitted with avionics, computer systems and other hardware at Johnson. A second vehicle was delivered to JSC in December 1996. Flight research

  20. Description and key to the fifth-instars of some Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) associated with coffee plants in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maccagnan, D H B; Martinelli, N M

    2011-01-01

    Fifth-instars of the cicada species Dorisiana drewseni (Stål), Dorisiana viridis (Olivier), Fidicina mannifera (Fabricius), Fidicinoides pronoe (Walker) and Carineta fasciculata (Germar) are described and illustrated. Moreover, a key to the nymphs of these species along with Quesada gigas (Olivier) is also provided.

  1. Description of Larval Instars To Fill a Gap in Forensic Entomology: The Larvae of Paralucilia pseudolyrcea (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Da Silva, S M; Vairo, K P; Moura, M O

    2018-05-04

    A fundamental assumption of forensic entomology for estimating the postmortem interval is that insect species are accurately identified, which depends on diagnostic morphological characters. Larvae of the blow fly Paralucilia pseudolyrcea (Mello, 1969) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were sampled from four corpses in the state of Paraná, Brazil, but despite the forensic importance of this species, morphological data for the identification of its larval instars are lacking, limiting its usefulness in such cases. Thus, the main goal of this study was to describe the larval instars of P. pseudolyrcea. The material was obtained from a colony established by larvae collected from a corpse of a murder case. Overall, the distribution of spines is a key character for identifying this species in the first, second and third instars. Other characteristics, such as the presence of an accessory oral sclerite, the small cirri, the number of lobes of the anterior spiracle and the morphology of posterior spiracles, separates P. pseudolyrcea from other necrophagous blow flies. The detailed morphological description provided here facilitates the identification of larval instars of P. pseudolyrcea and their differentiation from those of other calliphorid species.

  2. 4th Stage Transvaginal omental herniation during VBAC complicated by shoulder dystocia: a unique presentation of uterine rupture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Uterine rupture is a common complication in women attempting their first virginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC) but the risk diminishes with subsequent VBACs. It occurs in rates of 0.5-9% and is influenced by various factors. Case presentation A unique case of uterine rupture in a Kenyan woman of African descent during a repeat VBAC complicated by shoulder dystocia was discovered during the 4th stage of labour when omentum was noted protruding through the vagina. She had delivered 4 years earlier by caesarean section. Conclusion It is not common to experience uterine rupture among women attempting repeat VBAC. When it occurs, it may not always follow the known pattern intra-partum and is often associated with poor foetal outcome. PMID:23521920

  3. 4th Annual Conference for African-American Researchers in the Mathematical Sciences (CAARMS4). Preliminary Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tapia, Richard

    1998-06-01

    In June, The Center for Research on Parallel Computation (CRPC), an NSF-funded Science and Technology Center, hosted the 4th Annual Conference for African-American Reserachers in the Mathematical Sciences (CAARMS4) at Rice University. The main goal of this conference was to highlight current work by African-American researchers and graduate students in mathematics. This conference strengthened the mathematical sciences by encouraging the increased participation of African-American and underrepresented groups into the field, facilitating working relationships between them and helping to cultivate their careers. In addition to the talks there was a graduate student poster session and tutorials on topics in mathematics andmore » computer science. These talks, presentations, and discussions brought a broader perspective to the critical issues involving minority participation in mathematics.« less

  4. 4th Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Louis

    2014-12-02

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. There was one shipment of two drums sent for offsite treatment and disposal. This report summarizes the 4th quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annualmore » summaries for FY 2014.« less

  5. An analysis of the larval instars of the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, in northern California black walnut, Juglans hindsii, and a new host record for Hylocurus hirtellus

    Treesearch

    Paul.L. Dallara; Mary.L. Flint; Steven. J. Seybold

    2012-01-01

    By measuring and analyzing larval head capsule widths, we determined that a northern California population of the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), has three larval instars. We also developed rules to classify P. juglandis larval instars. Overlap in the ranges of widths among...

  6. Application of a frequency distribution method for determining instars of the beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from widths of cast head capsules

    Treesearch

    Y. Chen; S. J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Instar determination of field-collected insect larvae has generally been based on the analysis of head capsule width frequency distributions or bivariate plotting, but few studies have tested the validity of such methods. We used head capsules from exuviae of known instars of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae),...

  7. Evidence of human-induced morphodynamic changes along the Campania coastal areas (southern Italy) since the 3rd-4th cent. AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo Ermolli, Elda; Romano, Paola; Liuzza, Viviana; Amato, Vincenzo; Ruello, Maria Rosaria; Di Donato, Valentino

    2014-05-01

    Campania has always offered suitable climatic and physiographic conditions for human settlements since prehistoric times. In particular, many Graeco-Roman towns developed along its coasts starting from the 7th-6th cent. BC. In the last decade, geoarchaelogical surveys have been carried out in the archaeological excavations of Neapolis, Paestum and Elea-Velia allowing the main steps of the landscape evolution around these towns to be defined in detail. The greek town of Neapolis rose in the late 6th cent. BC [1] on a terrace overlooking a low-relief rocky coast surrounded by volcanic hills. Port activities developed in a protected bay facing the town from the 4th-2nd cent. BC up to the 4th cent. AD, as testified by the discovery of structures and shipwrecks [2, 3, 4]. Starting from the 3rd cent. AD a spit bar formed at the bay entrance causing the progressive establishment of a lagoon which was gradually filled up by alluvial inputs and completely closed in the 5th cent. AD. During the same period, episodes of increased alluvial inputs were also recorded further west along the coast, where a narrow sandy beach formed at the cliff toe. The greek town of Poseidonia, renamed Paestum by the Romans, was founded in the 540 BC on a travertine terrace facing the sandy littoral of a prograding coastal plain [5]. In front of the main town door, a coastal lagoon developed thanks to the growth of a dune ridge and was probably used for harbor activities [5]. After this period the shoreline shifted seawards, another dune ridge formed and the back-ridge depression was filled with fluvial-marshy deposits, slowly drying up. Phases of travertine deposition, which characterized the SE sector of the plain all along the Holocene, were recorded in the northern and southern quarters of the town in historical times and were connected to the abandonment of the town in the early Medieval times. The greek colony of Elea-Velia was located on top of a siliciclastic promontory where the ruins of

  8. Identifying 1st instar larvae for three forensically important blowfly species using "fingerprint" cuticular hydrocarbon analysis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Hannah E; Adam, Craig D; Drijfhout, Falko P

    2014-07-01

    Calliphoridae are known to be the most forensically important insects when it comes to establishing the minimum post mortem interval (PMImin) in criminal investigations. The first step in calculating the PMImin is to identify the larvae present to species level. Accurate identification which is conventionally carried out by morphological analysis is crucial because different insects have different life stage timings. Rapid identification in the immature larvae stages would drastically cut time in criminal investigations as it would eliminate the need to rear larvae to adult flies to determine the species. Cuticular hydrocarbon analysis on 1st instar larvae has been applied to three forensically important blowflies; Lucilia sericata, Calliphora vicina and Calliphora vomitoria, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and principal component analysis (PCA). The results show that each species holds a distinct "fingerprint" hydrocarbon profile, allowing for accurate identification to be established in 1-day old larvae, when it can be challenging to apply morphological criteria. Consequently, this GC-MS based technique could accelerate and strengthen the identification process, not only for forensically important species, but also for other entomological samples which are hard to identify using morphological features. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Late-instar Behavior of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae in Different Thermal and Nutritive Environments.

    PubMed

    Reiskind, Michael H; Janairo, M Shawn

    2015-09-01

    The effects of temperature on ectotherm growth have been well documented. How temperature affects foraging behavior is less well explored, and has not been studied in larval mosquitoes. We hypothesized that temperature changes foraging behavior in the aquatic larval phase of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. Based on empirical results in other systems, we predicted that foraging effort would increase at higher temperatures in these insects. We tested this prediction over three temperature conditions at two food levels. We measured behaviors by video recording replicated cohorts of fourth-instar mosquitoes and assessing individual behavior and time budgets using an ethogram. We found both food level and temperature had significant impacts on larval foraging behavior, with more time spent actively foraging at low food levels and at low temperatures, and more occurrences of active foraging at both temperature extremes. These results are contrary to some of our predictions, but fit into theoretical responses to temperature based upon dynamic energy budget models. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Treatment-seeking behaviour and social status of women with pelvic organ prolapse, 4th-degree obstetric tears, and obstetric fistula in western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Krause, Hannah G; Natukunda, Harriet; Singasi, Isaac; Hicks, Sylvia S W; Goh, Judith T W

    2014-11-01

    This study looks at a trilogy of women's health issues including severe pelvic organ prolapse, unrepaired 4th degree obstetric tears and obstetric fistula, all of which can cause significant suffering in the lives of women and their families. Women undergoing surgery for severe pelvic organ prolapse, unrepaired 4th degree obstetric tears and obstetric fistulae, were interviewed to assess their perceptions of what caused their condition, subsequent impact on their social situation and sexual activity, and whether they had sought treatment previously. One hundred fifty women participated in the survey, including 69 undergoing surgery for genito-urinary fistula, 25 with faecal incontinence only (including 24 women with unrepaired 4th degree obstetric tears and 1 woman with an isolated rectovaginal fistula), and 56 women with severe pelvic organ prolapse. All groups of women were exposed to abandonment by their families with 42 % of women with genito-urinary fistula, 21 % with unrepaired 4th degree obstetric tear, and 25 % of women with severe pelvic organ prolapse rejected by their husbands. Most of the women had actively sought treatment for their condition with no success due to unavailability of treatment or misinformation. This study confirms the social stigma associated with obstetric fistula, however also highlights the social stigma faced by women suffering with severe pelvic organ prolapse and unrepaired 4th degree obstetric tears in western Uganda. There is an urgent need for education and training in obstetric management and pelvic organ prolapse management in such areas of limited resources.

  11. Advances in urea cycle neuroimaging: Proceedings from the 4th International Symposium on urea cycle disorders, Barcelona, Spain, September 2013.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Colón, Ileana; Fricke, Stanley; VanMeter, John; Gropman, Andrea L

    2014-01-01

    Our previous imaging research performed as part of a Urea Cycle Rare Disorders Consortium (UCRDC) grant, has identified specific biomarkers of neurologic injury in ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, OTCD. While characterization of mutations can be achieved in most cases, this information does not necessarily predict the severity of the underlying neurological syndrome. The biochemical consequences of any mutation may be modified additionally by a large number of factors, including contributions of other enzymes and transport systems that mediate flux through the urea cycle, diet and other environmental factors. These factors likely vary from one patient to another, and they give rise to heterogeneity of clinical severity. Affected cognitive domains include non-verbal learning, fine motor processing, reaction time, visual memory, attention, and executive function. Deficits in these capacities may be seen in symptomatic patients, as well as asymptomatic carriers with normal IQ and correlate with variances in brain structure and function in these patients. Using neuroimaging we can identify biomarkers that reflect the downstream impact of UCDs on cognition. This manuscript is a summary of the presentation from the 4th International Consortium on urea cycle disorders held in, Barcelona, Spain, September 2, 2014. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. "Can HIV be eradicated from an infected individual?" Piot, Ho and scientific community meet at 4th Retroviral Conference.

    PubMed

    Macinnis R

    1997-01-01

    More than 2300 medical and scientific professionals attended the 4th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infection held in Washington, DC, during January 22-26, 1997, to discuss the latest information on treatment for HIV/AIDS and opportunistic infections. The keynote speakers were Dr. David Ho, a researcher at the Aaron Diamond AIDS Institute, and Dr. Peter Piot, Director of UNAIDS. Dr. Ho told the audience that reasons exist to be hopeful about prolonging the life of people with AIDS even though HIV has not yet been eliminated from any infected individual. He urged the media to carefully and accurately portray HIV/AIDS, and stressed that there is no cure for AIDS and that safer sex practices should be maintained in order to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV. In his address, Dr. Piot considered how HIV/AIDS treatment and care options translate to the reality of developing countries in which 90% of all HIV/AIDS cases reside. Recognizing researchers' accomplishments in developing treatment therapies against HIV/AIDS, Piot urged them to focus upon the development of preventive technology, including microbicides, vaccines, and a way to prevent mother-to-fetus HIV transmission. Dr. Piot also discussed a proposed UNAIDS plan to make advanced therapies against HIV/AIDS available in developing countries.

  13. Quality of Education Predicts Performance on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition Word Reading Subtest

    PubMed Central

    Sayegh, Philip; Arentoft, Alyssa; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Dean, Andy C.; Thames, April D.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether self-rated education quality predicts Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition (WRAT-4) Word Reading subtest and neurocognitive performance, and aimed to establish this subtest's construct validity as an educational quality measure. In a community-based adult sample (N = 106), we tested whether education quality both increased the prediction of Word Reading scores beyond demographic variables and predicted global neurocognitive functioning after adjusting for WRAT-4. As expected, race/ethnicity and education predicted WRAT-4 reading performance. Hierarchical regression revealed that when including education quality, the amount of WRAT-4's explained variance increased significantly, with race/ethnicity and both education quality and years as significant predictors. Finally, WRAT-4 scores, but not education quality, predicted neurocognitive performance. Results support WRAT-4 Word Reading as a valid proxy measure for education quality and a key predictor of neurocognitive performance. Future research should examine these findings in larger, more diverse samples to determine their robust nature. PMID:25404004

  14. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-04-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered through classroom observations and interviews in four Turkish elementary schools. Focus group interviews with 47 students and individual interviews with 17 teachers and 10 parents were conducted. Participants identified a wide range of SIS, including TV, magazines, newspapers, internet, peers, teachers, families, science centers/museums, science exhibitions, textbooks, science books, and science camps. Students reported using various SIS in school-based and non-school contexts to satisfy their cognitive, affective, personal, and social integrative needs. SIS were used for science courses, homework/project assignments, examination/test preparations, and individual science-related research. Students assessed SIS in terms of the perceived accessibility of the sources, the quality of the content, and the content presentation. In particular, some sources such as teachers, families, TV, science magazines, textbooks, and science centers/museums ("directive sources") predictably led students to other sources such as teachers, families, internet, and science books ("directed sources"). A small number of sources crossed context boundaries, being useful in both school and out. Results shed light on the connection between science education and science communication in terms of promoting science learning.

  15. Ab initio studies of Th3N4, Th2N3 and Th2N2(NH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obodo, K. O.; Chetty, N.

    2014-09-01

    Using density functional theory within the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof generalized gradient approximation [GGA (PBE)] implemented in the VASP codes, we investigate the structural, elastic and electronic properties of Th3N4, Th2N3 and Th2N2(NH). The calculated structural properties of these thorium-based nitrides are in good agreement with experimental data. We observe that all the Th-N based compounds that we considered are energetically favorable and elastically stable. We find that Th3N4 is semiconducting with a band gap of 1.59 eV, which compares well with the experimental band gap of 1.7 eV and we find Th2N3 to be metallic. Th2N2(NH), which is crystallographically equivalent to Th2N3, is insulating with a band gap of 2.12 eV. This is due to the -(NH) group that effects a shifting of the energy bands that results in the opening of a gap at the Fermi-level. The Th-N based compounds that we considered are predominantly ionic.

  16. Identification of DRG-1 As a Melanoma-Associated Antigen Recognized by CD4+ Th1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kiniwa, Yukiko; Li, Jiang; Wang, Mingjun; Sun, Chuang; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Wang, Rong-Fu; Wang, Helen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Clinical studies have demonstrated the feasibility of cancer immunotherapy using tumor antigens recognized by CD8+ T cells. However, the overall immune responses induced by these antigens are too weak and transient to induce tumor regression in the majority of patients who received immunization. A growing body of evidence suggests that CD4+ T helper (Th) cells play an important role in antitumor immunity. Therefore, the identification of MHC class II-restricted tumor antigens capable of stimulating CD4+ T cells may provide opportunities for developing effective cancer vaccines. To this end, we describe the identification of developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 1 (DRG-1) as a melanoma-associated antigen recognized by HLA-DR11-restricted CD4+ Th1 cells. Epitope mapping analysis showed that the DRG1248-268 epitope of DRG-1 was required for T cell recognition. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that DRG-1 was highly expressed in melanoma cell lines but not in normal tissues. DRG-1 knockdown by lentiviral-based shRNA suppressed melanoma cell proliferation and soft agar colony formation. Taken together, these data suggest that DRG-1 plays an important role in melanoma cell growth and transformation, indicating that DRG1 may represent a novel target for CD4+ T cell-mediated immunotherapy in melanoma. PMID:25993655

  17. Identification of DRG-1 As a Melanoma-Associated Antigen Recognized by CD4+ Th1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kiniwa, Yukiko; Li, Jiang; Wang, Mingjun; Sun, Chuang; Lee, Jeffrey E; Wang, Rong-Fu; Wang, Helen Y

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Clinical studies have demonstrated the feasibility of cancer immunotherapy using tumor antigens recognized by CD8(+) T cells. However, the overall immune responses induced by these antigens are too weak and transient to induce tumor regression in the majority of patients who received immunization. A growing body of evidence suggests that CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells play an important role in antitumor immunity. Therefore, the identification of MHC class II-restricted tumor antigens capable of stimulating CD4(+) T cells may provide opportunities for developing effective cancer vaccines. To this end, we describe the identification of developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 1 (DRG-1) as a melanoma-associated antigen recognized by HLA-DR11-restricted CD4(+) Th1 cells. Epitope mapping analysis showed that the DRG1248-268 epitope of DRG-1 was required for T cell recognition. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that DRG-1 was highly expressed in melanoma cell lines but not in normal tissues. DRG-1 knockdown by lentiviral-based shRNA suppressed melanoma cell proliferation and soft agar colony formation. Taken together, these data suggest that DRG-1 plays an important role in melanoma cell growth and transformation, indicating that DRG1 may represent a novel target for CD4(+) T cell-mediated immunotherapy in melanoma.

  18. Development of Partially-Coherent Wavefront Propagation Simulation Methods for 3rd and 4th Generation Synchrotron Radiation Sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Chubar O.; Berman, L; Chu, Y.S.

    2012-04-04

    Partially-coherent wavefront propagation calculations have proven to be feasible and very beneficial in the design of beamlines for 3rd and 4th generation Synchrotron Radiation (SR) sources. These types of calculations use the framework of classical electrodynamics for the description, on the same accuracy level, of the emission by relativistic electrons moving in magnetic fields of accelerators, and the propagation of the emitted radiation wavefronts through beamline optical elements. This enables accurate prediction of performance characteristics for beamlines exploiting high SR brightness and/or high spectral flux. Detailed analysis of radiation degree of coherence, offered by the partially-coherent wavefront propagation method, ismore » of paramount importance for modern storage-ring based SR sources, which, thanks to extremely small sub-nanometer-level electron beam emittances, produce substantial portions of coherent flux in X-ray spectral range. We describe the general approach to partially-coherent SR wavefront propagation simulations and present examples of such simulations performed using 'Synchrotron Radiation Workshop' (SRW) code for the parameters of hard X-ray undulator based beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II), Brookhaven National Laboratory. These examples illustrate general characteristics of partially-coherent undulator radiation beams in low-emittance SR sources, and demonstrate advantages of applying high-accuracy physical-optics simulations to the optimization and performance prediction of X-ray optical beamlines in these new sources.« less

  19. Impact of the French 3rd and 4th generation pill scare in women seeking termination of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Caillot, O; Aubry, M; Duros, S; Boyer, L; Van Valenberg, C; Levêque, J; Lavoué, V

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the contraceptive profile of women seeking termination of pregnancy following the debate on 3rd and 4th generation pills in France in 2012. Single-center case-control study comparing the attitude to contraception before (between 02/15/2012 and 07/16/2012) and after the debate (between 02/25/2013 and 06/24/2013). A total of 291 patients consulted before and 601 after the debate. We showed that there were more students (+9.5%), more single women (+8.3%) and fewer working women (-7.7%) in the cohort after the debate. After the termination procedure, prescriptions for long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods increased (+7.8%, P=0.03), in particular in patients aged 25 or younger, including nulliparous (+12.6%, P=0.02). The media alert about the pill led to a change in the contraceptive standard in the post-abortion period and altered patient profiles. An increase was notably observed in certain vulnerable populations (high school students, unemployed and single women). It remains to be seen whether these changes are transient or permanent. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Meeting report: 4th ISIRV antiviral group conference: Novel antiviral therapies for influenza and other respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    McKimm-Breschkin, Jennifer L; Fry, Alicia M

    2016-05-01

    The International Society for Influenza and other Respiratory Virus Diseases (isirv) held its 4th Antiviral Group Conference at the University of Texas on 2-4 June, 2015. With emerging resistance to the drugs currently licensed for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza viruses, primarily the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu) and the M2 inhibitors amantadine and rimantadine, and the lack of effective interventions against other respiratory viruses, the 3-day programme focused on the discovery and development of inhibitors of several virus targets and key host cell factors involved in virus replication or mediating the inflammatory response. Virus targets included the influenza haemagglutinin, neuraminidase and M2 proteins, and both the respiratory syncytial virus and influenza polymerases and nucleoproteins. Therapies for rhinoviruses and MERS and SARS coronaviruses were also discussed. With the emerging development of monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics, the potential implications of antibody-dependent enhancement of disease were also addressed. Topics covered all aspects from structural and molecular biology to preclinical and clinical studies. The importance of suitable clinical trial endpoints and regulatory issues were also discussed from the perspectives of both industry and government. This meeting summary provides an overview, not only for the conference participants, but also for those interested in the current status of antivirals for respiratory viruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Internal fixation of proximal fractures of the 2nd and 4th metacarpal and metatarsal bones using bioabsorbable screws.

    PubMed

    Mageed, M; Steinberg, T; Drumm, N; Stubbs, N; Wegert, J; Koene, M

    2018-03-01

    Fractures involving the proximal one-third of the splint bone are relatively rare and are challenging to treat. A variety of management techniques have been reported in the literature. The aim of this retrospective case series was to describe the clinical presentation and evaluate the efficacy of bioabsorbable polylactic acid screws in internal fixation of proximal fractures of the 2nd and 4th metacarpal and metatarsal bones in horses. The medical records, diagnostic images and outcome of all horses diagnosed with a proximal fracture of the splint bones and treated with partial resection and internal fixation of the proximal stump using bioabsorbable polylactic acid screws between 2014 and 2015 were reviewed. Eight horses met the inclusion criteria. The results showed that there were no complications encountered during screw placement or postoperatively. Six horses returned to full work 3 months after the operation and two horses remained mildly lame. On follow-up radiographs 12 months postoperatively (n = 2) the screws were not completely absorbed. The screws resulted in a cone-shaped radiolucency, which was progressively replaced from the outer margins by bone sclerosis. The use of bioabsorbable screws for fixation of proximal fractures of the splint bone appears to be a safe and feasible technique and may offer several advantages over the use of traditional metallic implants. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  2. [Role of rostral ventrolateral medulla in the pressor response to intraventricular (4th) injection of substance P].

    PubMed

    Zhang, X H; Ni, H

    1998-04-01

    Experiments were done in rabbits anaesthetized with urethane and immobilized under artificial respiration. It was found that substance P (SP, 0.8 ng/kg dissolved in 100 microliters artificial cerebro-spinal fluid, CSF) injected into the 4th ventricle induced either a rise or a drop of pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) with predominated pressor response. In addition, a rise in carotid arterial pressure (CAP) and reduction in heart rate (HR) were also observed, whereas no significant alteration in PAP, CAP and HR was observed. Microinjection of SP receptor antagonist [D-Pro2, D-Phe7, D-Trp9]--SP (5-10 ng dissolved in 0.5 microliter CSF) or phentolamine (2-3 micrograms dissolved in 0.5 microliter CSF) into the bilateral rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM) prior to intraventricular injection of SP could block the SP-induced pressor responses in pulmonary and carotid arteries, while microinjection of SP receptor antagonist or phentolamine into bilateral caudal ventrolateral medulla (cVLM) at the same dosage had no effect. The results show that SP-induced pulmonary and carotid pressor responses may be mediated through SP-receptor and alpha-adrenergic receptors in the rostral ventro-lateral medulla (rVLM).

  3. Terminal-instar larval systematics and biology of west European species of Ormyridae associated with insect galls (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Jose F.; Nieves, María Hernández; Gayubo, Severiano F.; Nieves-Aldrey, Jose Luis

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A systematic study of the genus Ormyrus (Chalcidoidea, Ormyridae) was conducted based on the morphology and biology of the terminal-instar larvae of ten west European species that are parasitoids of gall wasps and gallflies of the families Cynipidae, Eurytomidae and Tephritidae. The first detailed descriptions are provided of the terminal-instar larvae of these ten species using SEM images to illustrate diagnostic characters with systematic values. A key is provided for the identification of ormyrid larvae associated with galls in Europe, which is based particularly on characters of the head, mouthparts and mandibles. Although only limited informative variation in body shape was found, the setation of the head provided several characters of potential taxonomic value. The larval biology of the ten ormyrid species inhabiting different galls is also summarised. Although Ormyrus larvae are usually solitary idiobiont ectoparasitoids of the host larva of various gall-inhabiting insects, evidence of secondary phytophagy was observed in some species. PMID:28144185

  4. The St. Jude Cancer Education for Children Program Pilot Study: Determining the Knowledge Acquisition and Retention of 4th-Grade Students.

    PubMed

    Ayers, Katherine; Villalobos, Aubrey Van Kirk; Li, Zhenghong; Krasin, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    In 2006, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital began developing a school-based outreach program known as the St. Jude Cancer Education for Children Program (SJCECP). The program aimed to teach children about cancer and healthy habits that can prevent the formation of cancers into adulthood. During the 2010-2011 academic years, we conducted a pilot evaluation of the SJCECP curriculum, with the primary objective of evaluating the impact of the intervention on knowledge acquisition and retention among 4th-grade students participating in the program. Seven local schools and 481 students from the Memphis area participated in the program evaluation. The results of this study show that 4th-grade students are able to acquire gains in knowledge related to cells, cancer, and healthy living after receiving the SJCECP intervention. We conclude that the program can be a useful tool for improving knowledge of cancer concepts at the 4th-grade level.

  5. Description of Cyclocephala distincta Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini) immatures and identification key for third instars of some Cyclocephala species.

    PubMed

    Souza, Thamyrys Bezerra De; Maia, Artur Campos Dália; Albuquerque, Cleide Maria Ribeiro De; Iannuzzi, Luciana

    2014-10-08

    The larval instars and pupa of Cyclocephala distincta Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini) are described and compared to those of other known congenerics. Adult C. distincta, specialized flower visitors of Neotropical palms (Arecaceae), were collected in an area of native Atlantic Forest cover in the northeastern coast of Brazil and reared in captivity. The larvae of C. distincta diff---er from those of the other congenerics because of a distinctive pattern and arrangement of the setae on the raster.

  6. Description of fourth instar larva and pupa of Atrichopogon delpontei Cavalieri and Chiossone (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Brazilian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Marino, Pablo I; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Ferreira-Keppler, Ruth; Ronderos, María M

    2017-01-01

    The fourth instar larva and pupa of Atrichopogon delpontei Cavalieri and Chiossone are described for the first time. The immatures were collected from stream margins in the northern Brazilian states Rondônia and Piauí, and subsequently reared to adults. Larvae and pupae are illustrated and photomicrographed. Details on the rearing process and feeding behavior in laboratory, bionomics and notes on habitats are also provided.

  7. Description of the final-instar larva and pupa of Neoneuromus ignobilis Navás, 1932 (Megaloptera: Corydalidae).

    PubMed

    Cao, Chengquan; Liu, Fangqing; Tong, Chao; Fang, Yaqian; Xu, Huimin; Li, Xin; Liu, Xingyue

    2018-02-11

    The immature stages of only one species of the dobsonfly genus Neoneuromus van der Weele are known. The final-instar larva and pupa of N. ignobilis Navás, 1932, the most common and widespread species of the genus, is herein described for the first time. Several morphological features of the larvae were found to distinguish N. ignobilis from other dobsonfly species with similar large-sized mature larvae.

  8. Subjective depth of field in presence of 4th-order and 6th-order Zernike spherical aberration using adaptive optics technology.

    PubMed

    Benard, Yohann; Lopez-Gil, Norberto; Legras, Richard

    2010-12-01

    To study the impact on the subjective depth of field of 4th-order spherical aberration and its combination with 6th-order spherical aberration and analyze the accuracy of image-quality metrics in predicting the impact. Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université Paris-Sud, Orsay, France. Case series. Subjective depth of field was defined as the range of defocus at which the target (3 high-contrast letters at 20/50) was perceived acceptable. Depth of field was measured using 0.18 diopter (D) steps in young subjects with the addition of the following spherical aberration values: ±0.3 μm and ±0.6 μm 4th-order spherical aberration with 3.0 mm and 6.0 mm pupils and ±0.3 μm 4th-order spherical aberration with ±0.1 μm 6th-order spherical aberration for 6.0 mm pupils. The addition of ±0.3 and ±0.6 μm 4th-order spherical aberration increased depth of field by 30% and 45%, respectively. The combination of 4th-order spherical aberration and 6th-order spherical aberration of opposite signs increased depth of field more than 4th-order spherical aberration alone (ie, 63%), while the combination of 4th-order spherical aberration and 6th-order spherical aberration of the same signs did not (ie, 24%). Whereas the midpoint of the depth of field could be predicted by image-quality metrics, none was found a good predictor of objectionable depth of field. Subjective depth of field increased when 4th-order spherical aberration and 6th-order spherical aberration of opposite signs were added but could not be predicted with image-quality metrics. Copyright © 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Update from the 4th Edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Head and Neck Tumours: Odontogenic and Maxillofacial Bone Tumors.

    PubMed

    Wright, John M; Vered, Marilena

    2017-03-01

    The 4th edition of the World Health Organization's Classification of Head and Neck Tumours was published in January of 2017. This article provides a summary of the changes to Chapter 4 Tumours of the oral cavity and mobile tongue and Chapter 8 Odontogenic and maxillofacial bone tumours. Odontogenic cysts which were eliminated from the 3rd 2005 edition were included in the 4th edition as well as other unique allied conditons of the jaws. Many new tumors published since 2005 have been included in the 2017 classification.

  10. Choice of hunting site as a consequence of experience in late-instar crab spiders.

    PubMed

    Morse, Douglass H

    1999-08-01

    Earlier experiences may play an important role in the choice of hunting sites, but their effects on the foraging repertoire of most animals remain poorly understood. I tested the role of previous flower choices (hunting sites) by penultimate-instar female crab spiders Misumena vatia in making subsequent patch-choice decisions. M. vatia is a sit-and-wait predator, and the two flower species used, ox-eye daisy Chrysanthemum leucanthemum and common buttercup Ranunculus acris, are important hunting sites. Spiders with different immediate experience showed similar short-term (<1 day) giving-up times on the two flower species, independent of their previous substrate. However, four-fifths of the individuals that remained a day or longer tended to leave buttercups sooner than daisies, especially if they had previously occupied daisies. Thus they may directly assess the quality of a potential hunting site, perhaps in response to prey abundance, but previous experience may play a minor role as well. Of spiders that made several consecutive choices of hunting sites, those on daisies often confined these runs to daisies (one of two years); those on buttercups did not exhibit comparable fidelity. Spiders molting into the adult stage almost always subsequently chose the same flower species (either daisy or buttercup) as the one on which they molted. Thus, juvenile experiences may influence adults, the critical stage when virtually all of the spiders' reproductive resources are gathered, even if this resulted from imprinting on their molt sites rather than carrying information over the molt.

  11. Breakfast patterns among low-income, ethnically-diverse 4th-6th grade children in an urban area.

    PubMed

    Lawman, Hannah G; Polonsky, Heather M; Vander Veur, Stephanie S; Abel, Michelle L; Sherman, Sandy; Bauer, Katherine W; Sanders, Tim; Fisher, Jennifer O; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Ng, Janet; Van Wye, Gretchen; Foster, Gary D

    2014-06-14

    Increasing school breakfast participation has been advocated as a method to prevent childhood obesity. However, little is known about children's breakfast patterns outside of school (e.g., home, corner store). Policies that increase school breakfast participation without an understanding of children's breakfast habits outside of school may result in children consuming multiple breakfasts and may undermine efforts to prevent obesity. The aim of the current study was to describe morning food and drink consumption patterns among low-income, urban children and their associations with relative weight. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of data obtained from 651 4th-6th graders (51.7% female, 61.2% African American, 10.7 years) in 2012. Students completed surveys at school that included all foods eaten and their locations that morning. Height and weight were measured by trained research staff. On the day surveyed, 12.4% of youth reported not eating breakfast, 49.8% reported eating one breakfast, 25.5% reported eating two breakfasts, and 12.3% reported eating three or more breakfasts. The number of breakfasts consumed and BMI percentile showed a significant curvilinear relationship, with higher mean BMI percentiles observed among children who did not consume any breakfast and those who consumed ≥ 3 breakfasts. Sixth graders were significantly less likely to have consumed breakfast compared to younger children. A greater proportion of obese youth had no breakfast (18.0%) compared to healthy weight (10.1%) and overweight youth (10.7%, p = .01). When promoting school breakfast, policies will need to be mindful of both over- and under-consumption to effectively address childhood obesity and food insecurity. NCT01924130 from http://clinicaltrials.gov/.

  12. Preface: Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Neutron Scattering (Lund, Sweden, 25 29 June 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennie, Adrian R.

    2008-03-01

    Approximately 700 delegates came to the small university city of Lund in southern Sweden at the end of June 2007 to attend the 4th European Conference on Neutron Scattering. The majority of these participants are primarily interested in specific areas of condensed matter science and use neutron techniques as a powerful tool to study the structure and dynamic behaviour of materials. These range from liquids, superconductors, magnetic materials and archaeological artefacts. The diversity of scientific problems is reflected by the attendance of many laboratories with specializations in numerous different disciplines. The maturity of the technique is shown by the fact that neutron scattering is now applied widely in so many areas. Most results from neutron scattering experiements are published as articles that primarily relate to a specific scientific discipline in the context of problem oriented research. The neutron scattering conference provided an opportunity to exchange ideas between different fields. It is hoped that this collection of papers, from participants that submitted articles on applications of neutron scattering, will continue to promote the exchange of ideas for new studies, as was seen at the conference. The papers that describe instrumentation and advances in methods of neutron scattering will appear separately in Measurement Science and Technology Worldwide activity in developing new facilities for neutron scattering and the motivation for substantial projects, such as the new target station at the ISIS facility in the UK or the proposed European Spallation Source, comes from unique information obtained from working with neutrons. The results reported in the following papers show that there is substantial exciting work still to be performed as the community of users expands into new fields. The participants, as well as the organizers, are extremely grateful to the numerous sponsors that helped to make the conference a resounding success. We are

  13. On the Occasion of the 4th Congress of Infectiologists of Bosnia and Herzegovina with International Participation

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Koluder-Cimic, Nada; Ahmetagic, Sead; Baljic, Rusmir

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The 4th Congress of Infectiologists of Bosnia-Herzegovina with international participation was held in Konjic, on 30. May to 02. June 2012. In addition to the prominent infectious disease experts from almost all university centers in B&H, the teachers at medical schools in Bosnia-Herzegovina, infectious disease specialists who work in health institutions in B&H, this Congress was attended by infectious disease experts from Serbia (12 participants), Turkey (3 participants), Croatia (3 participants), Macedonia (3 participants), Germany (2 participants) and Montenegro (2 participants). Topics included: Infections of the skin, soft tissue and bones, Sepsis and endocarditis, Infectious diseases emergencies and pediatric infectology, Emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, Hospital infections, Sexualy transmitted diseases, Infectious diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. Participating invited speakers were following professors: Salih Hosoglu (Turkey), Hakan Leblebicioglu (Turkey), Resat Ozaras (Turkey), Karsten Plötz (Germany), Ilija Kuzman (Croatia), Bruno Baršić (Croatia), Goran Tešović (Croatia). In addition to experts in infectious diseases at this Congress, their works were presented by experts from other medical disciplines, but with infectious character issues (Professors: Sead Ahmetagić, Ismet Gavrankapetanović, Zora Vukobrat-Bijedić, Senija Rašić, Halima Resić, Adnan Kapidžić, Ivo Curić, Jelena Ravlija, Amela Begić, Izet Mašić, Sadeta Hamzić, and others). Some of the papers that were presented at this Congress have been published in extenso, in the Medical Archives and Materia Socio Medica. One part as abstracts (both journals are indexed in over 10 databases), and will be electronically available to the general scientific community in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Europe and worldwide. In this way, the Bosnian infectious disease experts, as a science and profession, will be worthily represented to the colleagues from other countries in the

  14. Relationship of workplace violence and perpetrators on sleep disturbance-data from the 4th Korean working conditions survey.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Taejun; Ye, Byeongjin; Kim, Jung-Il; Park, Siwoo

    2016-01-01

    The present study analyzed relationship of workplace violence and perpetrators of violence on sleep disturbance among wage workers in Korea. The present study used data from the 4th Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) of 2014 in selecting a total of 25,138wage workers as the study population, which excluded those who failed or refused to respond to questions required for the present study. The workplace violence experience group included people who satisfied at least one of six relevant criteria (verbal abuse, unwanted sexual attention, threatening or humiliating behavior, physical violence, bullying/harassment, and sexual harassment) and the group was divided according to whether the perpetrator of violence was a client or colleague. Presence of sleep disturbance was determined based on subjective symptoms felt within the past 12 months by each individual. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the effects on sleep distance according to general, occupational, and psychosocial characteristics, as well as the types of workplace violence and perpetrators of violence. Workplace violence was found as a factor affecting sleep disturbance (OR = 3.773, 95 % CI = 3.058-4.655), and with respect to perpetrators of violence, complaint of sleep disturbance symptoms was higher when the perpetrator was a colleague or boss (OR = 5.688, 95 % CI 4.189-7.723) than a client (OR = 2.992, 95 % CI 2.301-3.890). Workplace violence had an effect on occurrence of sleep disturbance and when the perpetrators of violence was a boss or colleague at work, the risk for symptoms such as sleep disturbance increased, which indicated the need for appropriate intervention from a workplace healthcare perspective, including preventive education of workplace violence among employees.

  15. Evaluation of two 4th generation point-of-care assays for the detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection.

    PubMed

    Stafylis, Chrysovalantis; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2017-01-01

    Fourth generation assays detect simultaneously antibodies for HIV and the p24 antigen, identifying HIV infection earlier than previous generation tests. Previous studies have shown that the Alere Determine HIV-1/2 Combo has lower than anticipated performance in detecting antibodies for HIV and the p24 antigen. Furthermore, there are currently very few studies evaluating the performance of Standard Diagnostics BIOLINE HIV Ag/Ab Combo. To evaluate the performance of the Alere Determine HIV-1/2 Combo and the Standard Diagnostics BIOLINE HIV Ag/Ab Combo in a panel of frozen serum samples. The testing panel included 133 previously frozen serum specimens from the UCLA Clinical Microbiology & Immunoserology laboratory. Reference testing included testing for HIV antibodies by a 3rd generation enzyme immunoassay followed by HIV RNA detection. Antibody negative and RNA positive sera were also tested by a laboratory 4th generation HIV Ab/Ag enzyme immunoassay. Reference testing yielded 97 positives for HIV infection and 36 negative samples. Sensitivity of the Alere test was 95% (88-98%), while the SD Bioline sensitivity was 91% (83-96%). Both assays showed 100% (90-100%) specificity. No indeterminate or invalid results were recorded. Among 13 samples with acute infection (HIV RNA positive, HIV antibody negative), 12 were found positive by the first assay and 8 by the second. The antigen component of the Alere assay detected 10 acute samples, while the SD Bioline assay detected only one. Both rapid assays showed very good overall performance in detecting HIV infection in frozen serum samples, but further improvements are required to improve the performance in acute infection.

  16. Benefits of a 4th Ice Class in the Simulated Radar Reflectivities of Convective Systems Using a Bulk Microphysics Scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Stephen E.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Chern, Jiun-Dar; Wu, Di; Li, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous cloud microphysical schemes designed for cloud and mesoscale models are currently in use, ranging from simple bulk to multi-moment, multi-class to explicit bin schemes. This study details the benefits of adding a 4th ice class (hail) to an already improved 3-class ice bulk microphysics scheme developed for the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model based on Rutledge and Hobbs (1983,1984). Besides the addition and modification of several hail processes from Lin et al. (1983), further modifications were made to the 3-ice processes, including allowing greater ice super saturation and mitigating spurious evaporationsublimation in the saturation adjustment scheme, allowing graupelhail to become snow via vapor growth and hail to become graupel via riming, and the inclusion of a rain evaporation correction and vapor diffusivity factor. The improved 3-ice snowgraupel size-mapping schemes were adjusted to be more stable at higher mixing rations and to increase the aggregation effect for snow. A snow density mapping was also added. The new scheme was applied to an intense continental squall line and a weaker, loosely-organized continental case using three different hail intercepts. Peak simulated reflectivities agree well with radar for both the intense and weaker case and were better than earlier 3-ice versions when using a moderate and large intercept for hail, respectively. Simulated reflectivity distributions versus height were also improved versus radar in both cases compared to earlier 3-ice versions. The bin-based rain evaporation correction affected the squall line case more but did not change the overall agreement in reflectivity distributions.

  17. The Relationship of Values in Elementary School 4th Grade Social Studies Textbook with the Attainments and Their Level of Being Included in Student Workbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Abdurrahman

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the relationship of values in elementary school 4th grade Social Studies textbook with the attainments and their level of being included in student workbook are tried to be determined. Case study, which is a qualitative research method, was applied for this research. To collect data, document analysis technique, which is among the…

  18. Autism: Proceedings of Annual Meeting of the National Society for Autistic Children (4th, June 22-24, 1972, Flint Michigan).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Society for Autistic Children, Syracuse, NY.

    Presented are proceedings of the 4th annual (1972) meeting of the National Society for Autistic Children including 11 papers given at the meeting. Listed are officers and board members of the society, the convention committee members, and recipients of citations and awards. The president's report notes past goals, accomplishments, and future…

  19. Color duplex assessment of 4th and 5th internal mammary artery perforators: the pedicles of the medially based lower pole breast flaps.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Monem, Kareem; Elshahat, Ahmed; Abou-Gamrah, Sherif; Eldin Abol-Atta, Hossam; Abd Eltawab, Reda; Massoud, Karim

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of a breast after mastectomy using the contralateral lower pole breast flap is an appealing procedure because it uses the tissues that were going to be excised during reduction of the sound breast to achieve symmetry. Literature mentioned that these flaps are supplied by the lower internal mammary artery perforators (IMAPs) with no further details. The aim of this study was to determine the site, size, and number of the 4th and 5th IMAPs by using preoperative color Duplex ultrasound and intraoperative exploration. Twenty breasts in 10 patients who presented for reduction mammoplasty were included in this study. Preoperative color duplex was used to determine IMAPs in the 4th and 5th intercostal spaces. These perforators were localized intraoperatively. Intravenous fluorescein injection was used to determine the perfusion of the lower pole breast flap on the basis of these perforators. Statistically, the 4th IMAPs diameters were significantly larger than the 5th IMAPs diameters (P < .05). The lower pole breast flap was perfused through these perforators. Color Duplex ultrasound is an accurate tool to preoperatively determine the 4th and 5th IMAPs.

  20. Color Duplex Assessment of 4th and 5th Internal Mammary Artery Perforators: The Pedicles of the Medially Based Lower Pole Breast Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Monem, Kareem; Elshahat, Ahmed; Abou-Gamrah, Sherif; Eldin Abol-Atta, Hossam; Abd Eltawab, Reda; Massoud, Karim

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Reconstruction of a breast after mastectomy using the contralateral lower pole breast flap is an appealing procedure because it uses the tissues that were going to be excised during reduction of the sound breast to achieve symmetry. Literature mentioned that these flaps are supplied by the lower internal mammary artery perforators (IMAPs) with no further details. The aim of this study was to determine the site, size, and number of the 4th and 5th IMAPs by using preoperative color Duplex ultrasound and intraoperative exploration. Method: Twenty breasts in 10 patients who presented for reduction mammoplasty were included in this study. Preoperative color duplex was used to determine IMAPs in the 4th and 5th intercostal spaces. These perforators were localized intraoperatively. Intravenous fluorescein injection was used to determine the perfusion of the lower pole breast flap on the basis of these perforators. Results: Statistically, the 4th IMAPs diameters were significantly larger than the 5th IMAPs diameters (P < .05). The lower pole breast flap was perfused through these perforators. Conclusion: Color Duplex ultrasound is an accurate tool to preoperatively determine the 4th and 5th IMAPs. PMID:22292100

  1. Nation and Language: Modern Aspects of Socio-Linguistic Development. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference (Lithuania, October 21-22, 2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 4th international conference "Nation and Language: Modern Aspects of Socio-Linguistic Development" continues an eight-year old tradition. The conference is organized by Kaunas University of Technology Panevezys Institute and aims to bring scientists and researchers together for a general scientific discussion on new trends in…

  2. The Attitude of the Students towards the Value of "Paying Attention to Being Healthy" in 4th Grade Elementary Social Sciences Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tahiroglu, Mustafa; Cetin, Turhan

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to define the teaching of the value of "Paying Attention to Being Healthy" in 4th grade elementary Social Sciences course and to determine the students' attitude towards this value. To reach this goal, activities to teach the value of paying attention to being healthy were prepared and conducted. The effect of these…

  3. The Effect of the Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction through Cooperative Learning on 4th Grade Students' Understanding of Earth and Sky Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celikten, Oksan; Ipekcioglu, Sevgi; Ertepinar, Hamide; Geban, Omer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the conceptual change oriented instruction through cooperative learning (CCICL) and traditional science instruction (TI) on 4th grade students' understanding of earth and sky concepts and their attitudes toward earth and sky concepts. In this study, 56 fourth grade students from the…

  4. U.S. Dietary and Physical Activity Guideline Knowledge and Corresponding Behaviors among 4th and 5th Grade Students: A Multi-Site Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Martinez, Stephanie; Armstrong-Florian, Traci; Farrell, Vanessa; Martinez, Cathy; Whitmer, Evelyn; Hartz, Vern; Blake, Samuel; Nicolini, Ariana; Misner, Scottie

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of U.S. dietary and physical activity recommendations and corresponding behaviors were surveyed among 4th and 5th graders in five Arizona counties to determine the need for related education in SNAP-Ed eligible schools. A <70% target response rate was the criterion. Participants correctly identified recommendations for: fruit, 20%;…

  5. Meeting Materials for the 4th NRC Meeting on the Guidance for and the Review of EPA's Toxicological Assessment of Inorganic Arsenic

    EPA Science Inventory

    On December 2-3, 2015, the National Research Council (NRC) hosted the 4th meeting of the committee formed to peer review the draft IRIS assessment of inorganic arsenic. EPA presented background and overview materials during the public session on December 2nd. This information co...

  6. Unmet Needs of Low Academic Level Adult (0-4th Grade Level) Students: A Follow-Up Study. A Special Demonstration/Teacher Training Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portage Township Schools, IN.

    An Indiana 310 Project was conducted to determine the needs of very low level adult basic education students (0-4th grade). Specifically, the study sought to answer the following four questions: (1) What brings low academic level students into ABE programs? (2) What aspects of the ABE programs do low academic level students dislike? (3) Why do low…

  7. Examining Differentiation and Utilization of iPads across Content Areas in an Independent, PreK-4th Grade Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milman, Natalie B.; Carlson-Bancroft, Angela; Vanden Boogart, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods case study examined the implementation of a 1:1 iPad initiative in a suburban, co-educational, independent, preK-4th grade elementary school in the United States. This article focuses on how teachers used iPads to differentiate instruction and across multiple content areas. Findings show the processes by which teachers employed…

  8. Examining the Reading of Informational Text in 4th Grade Class and Its Relation with Students' Reading Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Dan; Beecher, Constance; Cho, Byeong-Young

    2018-01-01

    Being proficient in independently reading and writing complex informational text has become a need for college and career success. While there is a great deal of agreement on the importance of the reading of informational text in early grades and teachers are encouraged to increase amount of the reading of informational text in early grades, few…

  9. Comparison of Visual Assessment of Breast Density in BI-RADS 4th and 5th Editions With Automated Volumetric Measurement.

    PubMed

    Youk, Ji Hyun; Kim, So Jung; Son, Eun Ju; Gweon, Hye Mi; Kim, Jeong-Ah

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare visual assessments of mammographic breast density by radiologists using BI-RADS 4th and 5th editions in correlation with automated volumetric breast density measurements. A total of 337 consecutive full-field digital mammographic examinations with standard views were retrospectively assessed by two radiologists for mammographic breast density according to BI-RADS 4th and 5th editions. Fully automated measurement of the volume of fibroglandular tissue and total breast and percentage breast density was performed with a commercially available software program. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement was assessed with kappa statistics. The distributions of breast density categories for both editions of BI-RADS were compared and correlated with volumetric data. Interobserver agreement on breast density category was moderate to substantial (κ = 0.58-0.63) with use of BI-RADS 4th edition and substantial (κ = 0.63-0.66) with use of the 5th edition but without significant difference between the two editions. For intraobserver agreement between the two editions, the distributions of density category were significantly different (p < 0.0001), the proportions of dense breast increased, and the proportion of fatty breast decreased with use of the 5th edition compared with the 4th edition (p < 0.0001). All volumetric breast density data, including percentage breast density, were significantly different among density categories (p < 0.0001) and had significant correlation with visual assessment for both editions of BI-RADS (p < 0.01). Assessment using BI-RADS 5th edition revealed a higher proportion of dense breast than assessment using BI-RADS 4th edition. Nevertheless, automated volumetric density assessment had good correlation with visual assessment for both editions of BI-RADS.

  10. A Brief Boot Camp for 4th-Year Medical Students Entering into Pediatric and Family Medicine Residencies

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Mark; Mangold, Karen; Trainor, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The transition from medical student to intern is a challenging process characterized by a steep learning curve. Focused courses targeting skills necessary for success as a resident have increased self-perceived preparedness, confidence, and medical knowledge. Our aim was to create a brief educational intervention for 4th-year medical students entering pediatric, family practice, and medicine/pediatric residencies to target skills necessary for an internship. The curriculum used a combination of didactic presentations, small group discussions, role-playing, facilitated debriefing, and simulation-based education. Participants completed an objective structured clinical exam requiring synthesis and application of multiple boot camp elements before and after the elective. Participants completed anonymous surveys assessing self-perceived preparedness for an internship, overall and in regards to specific skills, before the elective and after the course. Participants were asked to provide feedback about the course. Using checklists to assess performance, students showed an improvement in performing infant lumbar punctures (47.2% vs 77.0%; p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.2, 0.4%) and providing signout (2.5 vs. 3.9 (5-point scale) p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.6, 2.3). They did not show an improvement in communication with a parent. Participants demonstrated an increase in self-reported preparedness for all targeted skills, except for obtaining consults and interprofessional communication. There was no increase in reported overall preparedness. All participants agreed with the statements, “The facilitators presented the material in an effective manner,” “I took away ideas I plan to implement in internship,” and “I think all students should participate in a similar experience.” When asked to assess the usefulness of individual modules, all except order writing received a mean Likert score > 4. A focused boot camp addressing key knowledge and skills

  11. Access to the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics through Early Numeracy Skill Building for Students with Significant Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Bree A.; Staples, Kelli

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of systematic early numeracy skill instruction on grade-aligned 4th and 5th grade Common Core math skill acquisition for three 4th and 5th grade students with a significant intellectual disability. Students were taught early numeracy skills (e.g., number identification, making sets to five items, simple addition)…

  12. Acoustical detection of early instar Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Canary Island date palm Phoenix canariensis (Arecales: Arecaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), is of international concern due to destructive larval feeding within palm trees. Originating from tropical Asia, RPW has spread throughout the eastern hemisphere where it has become a significant economic pest to the ornamental and date...

  13. Something going on in Milan: a review of the 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference.

    PubMed

    Segré, C

    2010-01-01

    The 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference was held at the IFOM-IEO-Campus in Milan from 19-21 May 2010 http://www.semm.it/events_researchPast.phpThe Conference covered many topics related to cancer, from basic biology to clinical aspects of the disease. All attendees presented their research, by either giving a talk or presenting a poster. This conference is an opportunity to introduce PhD students to top cancer research institutes across Europe.THE CORE PARTICIPANTING INSTITUTES INCLUDED: European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM)-IFOM-IEO Campus, MilanBeatson Institute for Cancer Research (BICR), GlasgowCambridge Research Institute (CRI), Cambridge, UKMRC Gray Institute of Radiation Biology (GIROB), OxfordLondon Research Institute (LRI), LondonPaterson Institute for Cancer Research (PICR), ManchesterThe Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI), Amsterdam'You organizers have crushed all my prejudices towards Italians. Congratulations, I enjoyed the conference immensely!' Even if it might have sounded like rudeness for sure this was supposed to be a genuine compliment (at least, that's how we took it), also considering that it was told by a guy who himself was the fusion of two usually antithetical concepts: fashion style and English nationality.The year 2010 has marked an important event for Italian research in the international scientific panorama: the European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM) had the honour to host the 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference, which was held from 19-21 May 2010 at the IFOM-IEO-Campus (http://www.semm.it/events_researchPast.php) in Milan.The conference was attended by more than one hundred students, coming from a selection of cutting edge European institutes devoted to cancer research. The rationale behind it is the promotion of cooperation among young scientists across Europe to debate about science and to exchange ideas and experiences. But that is not all, it is also designed for PhD students to get in touch

  14. Book gill development in embryos and first and second instars of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus L. (Chelicerata, Xiphosura).

    PubMed

    Farley, Roger D

    2010-09-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the development of the opisthosomal appendages and book gills of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Later embryonic stages were examined as well as the first and second instars. The observations are compared with a much earlier light microscopic description of book gill development in the horseshoe crab and with book lung development in scorpion embryos and first and second instars in a recent study with SEM. After the third embryonic molt in the horseshoe crab, the opisthosomal appendages are of sufficient size so they could be fractured or dissected open so internal cells and other structures could be examined. The opisthosomal appendages and book gill lamellae of first and second instars were also opened. The observations support the earlier histological report that the gill lamellae are a hypodermal outgrowth from the posterior surface of the preceding branchial appendages. The genital operculum, branchial appendages and gill lamellae are very thin and consist of external cuticle, hypodermis and space holders. The latter help hold the cuticle walls in place so hemolymph can flow through the narrow channels. The space holders are formed from cell processes that extend into the lumen from the hypodermis just inside the external cuticle. In the recent SEM study in scorpion embryos and in some histological investigations in spider embryos, the book lung lamellae are formed by alignment of cells from an invaginated sac or mass of cells. This clearly differs from the mode of formation of gill lamellae as observed in this and earlier investigations. These reports of differences in embryology refine but do not preclude hypotheses about book gill/book lung homology since addition, deletion or modification of ancestral features often occur for the benefit of the embryos and larvae. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Tissue localization and expression difference of endogenous beta-glucosidase in digestive system of Musca domestica third instar larvae].

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong; Zhang, Shu; Wu, Jian-Wei; Guo, Guo; Fu, Ping

    2013-08-01

    To study the tissue localization and expression difference of endogenous beta-glucosidase in digestive system of Musca domestica third instar larvae. The digestive system of the 3rd instar larvae of Musca domestic was taken for the below tests. Tissue localization of endogenous beta-glucosidase mRNA was identified by in situ hybridization. Cellulase was localized by immunohistochemistry. The enzymatic activity of beta-glucosidase was measured by 3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid(DNS) assay. The relative mRNA expression levels of M. domestica beta-glucosidase gene in these organs were determined by RT-PCR. Beta-glucosidase mRNA, with in situ hybridization, was shown in the epithelial cells of midgut, salivary glands and foregut of the larvae. The immunohistochemical analysis on larvae tissues revealed that cellulase was produced and secreted by the epithelial cells of the midgut, salivary glands and foregut. beta-glucosidase activity in salivary glands, foregut, midgut, and hindgut was (0.80 +/- 0.06), (0.38 +/- 0.02), (1.20 +/- 0.05) and (0.26 +/- 0.02) IU/mg, respectively. There was significant difference in beta-glucosidase activity among these digestive organs (P < 0.05). The activity level of beta-glucosidase was highest in midgut [(45.45 +/- 1.27)%], and lowest in hindgut [(9.85 +/- 0.88)%]. However, beta-glucosidase gene were only expressed in the salivary gland, foregut and midgut. Significant differences in gene expression level of beta-glucosidase was found among these organs (P < 0.05). The relative expression quantity of beta-glucosidase gene in midgut and salivary glands were 5 and 3 times higher than that in foregut. The endogenous beta-glucosidase gene is expressed in the foregut, midgut and salivary glands. The midgut and salivary glands of Musca domestica 3rd instar larvae are the primary organs of this enzyme secretion.

  16. European Glaucoma Society Terminology and Guidelines for Glaucoma, 4th Edition - Part 1Supported by the EGS Foundation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Foreword It gives me pleasure to introduce the 4th edition of the EGS Guidelines. The Third edition proved to be extremely successful, being translated into 7 languages with over 70000 copies being distributed across Europe; it has been downloadable, free, as a pdf file for the past 4 years. As one of the main objectives of the European Glaucoma Society has been to both educate and standardize glaucoma practice within the EU, these guidelines were structured so as to play their part. Glaucoma is a living specialty, with new ideas on causation, mechanisms and treatments constantly appearing. As a number of years have passed since the publication of the last edition, changes in some if not all of these ideas would be expected. For this new edition of the guidelines a number of editorial teams were created, each with responsibility for an area within the specialty; updating where necessary, introducing new diagrams and Flowcharts and ensuring that references were up to date. Each team had writers previously involved with the last edition as well as newer and younger members being co-opted. As soon as specific sections were completed they had further editorial comment to ensure cross referencing and style continuity with other sections. Overall guidance was the responsibility of Anders Heijl and Carlo Traverso. Tribute must be made to the Task Force whose efforts made the timely publication of the new edition possible. Roger Hitchings Chairman of the EGS Foundation www.eugs.org The Guidelines Writers and Contributors  Augusto Azuara Blanco Luca Bagnasco Alessandro Bagnis Keith Barton Christoph Baudouin Boel Bengtsson Alain Bron Francesca Cordeiro Barbara Cvenkel Philippe Denis Christoph Faschinger Panayiota Founti Stefano Gandolfi David Garway Heath Francisco Goni Franz Grehn Anders Heijl Roger Hitchings Gabor Hollo Tony Hommer Michele Iester Jost Jonas Yves Lachkar Giorgio Marchini Frances Meier Gibbons Stefano Miglior Marta Misiuk-Hojo Maria Musolino Jean Philippe

  17. A global perspective for managing obesity and improving health: conventional treatment and surgical options: 4th Annual Obesity Summit, London, April 2016.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Adeel Nazir; Edwards, Kimberley L

    2016-12-01

    4th Annual Obesity Summit, London, 12-14 April 2016 There are more than 1.9 billion overweight people worldwide, culminating in high rates of Type 2 diabetes; and cardiovascular, digestive and other health problems. This makes obesity a startling phenomenon and a significant global health epidemic. To address this, The 2016 Obesity Summit, 4th in the series of obesity-related annual events organized by EuroSciCon, was held from 12 to 14 April 2016 at Cineworld, The O2 in London. This conference set the stage for three days of stimulating high-quality presentations on the advancements in obesity in an informal academic setting. Approximately 156 delegates including students, researchers, healthcare professionals and scientists from 36 countries around the world attended the event. This meeting report summarizes some of the most outstanding presentations.

  18. The Issues Papers. National Forum on Issues in Vocational Assessment (4th, St. Louis, Missouri, March 9-11, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Ronald R., Ed.

    Of the 50 papers, selected titles include "Redefining the Client, Expanding the Evaluator's Role" (Weldon, Gibson); "Professional Contacts for Evaluator's Expanding Roles" (Dowd); "Vocational Evaluators and the Law" (Kass); "Ethics in Vocational Evaluation" (Early); "Professional Advocacy in Vocational Evaluation and Assessment" (Bowers et al.);…

  19. Comparison of Detection Limits of 4th Generation Combination HIV Antigen/Antibody, p24 Antigen and Viral Load Assays on Diverse HIV Isolates.

    PubMed

    Stone, Mars; Bainbridge, John; Sanchez, Ana M; Keating, Sheila M; Pappas, Andrea; Rountree, Wes; Todd, Chris; Bakkour, Sonia; Manak, Mark; Peel, Sheila A; Coombs, Robert W; Ramos, Eric M; Shriver, M Kathleen; Contestable, Paul; Nair, Sangeetha Vijaysri; Wilson, David H; Stengelin, Martin; Murphy, Gary; Hewlett, Indira; Denny, Thomas N; Busch, Michael P

    2018-05-23

    Detection of acute HIV infection is critical for HIV public health and diagnostics. Clinical 4 th generation antigen-antibody (Ag/Ab) combination (combo) and p24 Ag immunoassays have enhanced detection of acute infection compared to Ab alone assays, but require ongoing evaluation with currently circulating diverse subtypes. Genetically and geographically diverse HIV clinical isolates were used to assess clinical HIV diagnostic, blood screening and next generation assays. Blinded 300 member panels of 20 serially diluted well-characterized antibody negative HIV isolates were distributed to manufacturers and end-user labs to assess relative analytic sensitivity of currently approved and pre-approved clinical HIV 4 th generation Ag/Ab combo or p24 Ag alone immunoassays across diverse subtypes. The limits of virus detection (LODs) were estimated for different subtypes relative to confirmed viral loads. Analysis of immunoassay sensitivity was benchmarked against confirmed viral load measurements on the blinded panel. Based on the proportion of positive results on 300 observations all Ag/Ab combo and standard sensitivity p24 Ag assays performed similarly and within half log LODs, illustrating similar breadth of reactivity and diagnostic utility. Ultrasensitive p24 Ag assays achieved dramatically increased sensitivities, while the rapid combo-assays performed poorly. Similar performance of the different commercially available 4 th gen assays on diverse subtypes supports their use in broad geographic settings with locally circulating HIV clades and recombinant strains. Next generation pre-clinical ultrasensitive p24 Ag assays achieved dramatically improved sensitivity, while p24 Ag detection by rapid 4 th gen assays performed poorly. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Morphometric study of third-instar larvae from five morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Canal, Nelson A.; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Salas, Juan O. Tigrero; Selivon, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The occurrence of cryptic species among economically important fruit flies strongly affects the development of management tactics for these pests. Tools for studying cryptic species not only facilitate evolutionary and systematic studies, but they also provide support for fruit fly management and quarantine activities. Previous studies have shown that the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, is a complex of cryptic species, but few studies have been performed on the morphology of its immature stages. An analysis of mandible shape and linear morphometric variability was applied to third-instar larvae of five morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus complex: Mexican, Andean, Ecuadorian, Peruvian and Brazilian-1. Outline geometric morphometry was used to study the mouth hook shape and linear morphometry analysis was performed using 24 linear measurements of the body, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, mouth hook and hypopharyngeal sclerite. Different morphotypes were grouped accurately using canonical discriminant analyses of both the geometric and linear morphometry. The shape of the mandible differed among the morphotypes, and the anterior spiracle length, number of tubules of the anterior spiracle, length and height of the mouth hook and length of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were the most significant variables in the linear morphometric analysis. Third-instar larvae provide useful characters for studies of cryptic species in the Anastrepha fraterculus complex. PMID:26798253

  1. Guanine nucleotide-binding protein α subunit hypofunction in children with short stature and disproportionate shortening of the 4th and 5th metacarpals.

    PubMed

    Inta, Ioana Monica; Choukair, Daniela; Bender, Sebastian; Kneppo, Carolin; Knauer-Fischer, Sabine; Meyenburg, Kahina; Ivandic, Boris; Pfister, Stefan M; Bettendorf, Markus

    2014-01-01

    GNAS encodes the α subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsα). Maternal inherited Gsα mutations cause pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP-Ia), associated with shortening of the 4th and 5th metacarpals. Here we investigated the Gsα pathway in short patients with distinct shortening of the 4th and 5th metacarpals. In 571 children with short stature and 4 patients with PHP-Ia metacarpal bone lengths were measured. In identified patients we analysed the Gsα protein function in platelets, performed GNAS sequencing, and epigenetic analysis of four significant differentially methylated regions. In 51 patients (8.9%) shortening of the 4th and 5th metacarpals was more pronounced than their height deficit. No GNAS coding mutations were identified in 20 analysed patients, except in 2 PHP-Ia patients. Gsα activity was reduced in all PHP-Ia patients and in 25% of the analysed patients. No significant methylation changes were identified. Our findings suggest that patients with short stature and distinct metacarpal bone shortening could be part of the wide variety of PHP/PPHP, therefore it was worthwhile analysing the Gsα protein function and GNAS gene in these patients in order to further elucidate the phenotype and genotype of Gsα dysfunction.

  2. Guest Editor's introduction: Selected papers from the 4th USENIX Conference on Object-Oriented Technologies and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sventek, Joe

    1998-12-01

    Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, 1501 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA Introduction The USENIX Conference on Object-Oriented Technologies and Systems (COOTS) is held annually in the late spring. The conference evolved from a set of C++ workshops that were held under the auspices of USENIX, the first of which met in 1989. Given the growing diverse interest in object-oriented technologies, the C++ focus of the workshop eventually became too narrow, with the result that the scope was widened in 1995 to include object-oriented technologies and systems. COOTS is intended to showcase advanced R&D efforts in object-oriented technologies and software systems. The conference emphasizes experimental research and experience gained by using object-oriented techniques and languages to build complex software systems that meet real-world needs. COOTS solicits papers in the following general areas: application of, and experiences with, object-oriented technologies in particular domains (e.g. financial, medical, telecommunication); the architecture and implementation of distributed object systems (e.g. CORBA, DCOM, RMI); object-oriented programming and specification languages; object-oriented design and analysis. The 4th meeting of COOTS was held 27 - 30 April 1998 at the El Dorado Hotel, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Several tutorials were given. The technical program proper consisted of a single track of six sessions, with three paper presentations per session. A keynote address and a provocative panel session rounded out the technical program. The program committee reviewed 56 papers, selecting the best 18 for presentation in the technical sessions. While we solicit papers across the spectrum of applications of object-oriented technologies, this year there was a predominance of distributed, object-oriented papers. The accepted papers reflected this asymmetry, with 15 papers on distributed objects and 3 papers on object-oriented languages. The papers in this special issue are

  3. Future perspectives in melanoma research : Meeting report from the "Melanoma Bridge". Napoli, December 1st-4th 2015.

    PubMed

    Ascierto, Paolo A; Agarwala, Sanjiv; Botti, Gerardo; Cesano, Alessandra; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Davies, Michael A; Demaria, Sandra; Dummer, Reinhard; Eggermont, Alexander M; Ferrone, Soldano; Fu, Yang Xin; Gajewski, Thomas F; Garbe, Claus; Huber, Veronica; Khleif, Samir; Krauthammer, Michael; Lo, Roger S; Masucci, Giuseppe; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Postow, Michael; Puzanov, Igor; Silk, Ann; Spranger, Stefani; Stroncek, David F; Tarhini, Ahmad; Taube, Janis M; Testori, Alessandro; Wang, Ena; Wargo, Jennifer A; Yee, Cassian; Zarour, Hassane; Zitvogel, Laurence; Fox, Bernard A; Mozzillo, Nicola; Marincola, Francesco M; Thurin, Magdalena

    2016-11-15

    The sixth "Melanoma Bridge Meeting" took place in Naples, Italy, December 1st-4th, 2015. The four sessions at this meeting were focused on: (1) molecular and immune advances; (2) combination therapies; (3) news in immunotherapy; and 4) tumor microenvironment and biomarkers. Recent advances in tumor biology and immunology has led to the development of new targeted and immunotherapeutic agents that prolong progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of cancer patients. Immunotherapies in particular have emerged as highly successful approaches to treat patients with cancer including melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), bladder cancer, and Hodgkin's disease. Specifically, many clinical successes have been using checkpoint receptor blockade, including T cell inhibitory receptors such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1. Despite demonstrated successes, responses to immunotherapy interventions occur only in a minority of patients. Attempts are being made to improve responses to immunotherapy by developing biomarkers. Optimizing biomarkers for immunotherapy could help properly select patients for treatment and help to monitor response, progression and resistance that are critical challenges for the immuno-oncology (IO) field. Importantly, biomarkers could help to design rational combination therapies. In addition, biomarkers may help to define mechanism of action of different agents, dose selection and to sequence drug combinations. However, biomarkers and assays development to guide cancer immunotherapy is highly challenging for several reasons: (i) multiplicity of immunotherapy agents with different mechanisms of action including immunotherapies that target activating and inhibitory T cell receptors (e.g., CTLA-4, PD-1, etc.); adoptive T cell therapies that include tissue infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), and

  4. Proceedings of the 4th Interservice/Industry Training Equipment Conference, 16-18 November 1982. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    8217~ INTRODUCTION Since motion is perceived through stimulation of several physiological rec~ptor systems (visual, vestibular, haptic and auditory ), ~any...scenario. C? in battle is highly stressing. There- fore, a training simulator must stimulate the players both physically and mentally. On the physical...development of the concepts used today began in the early 70s Raytheon devel- oped a system that could stimulate the actual ship’s sonar system

  5. A novel cytochrome P450 gene (CYP4G25) of the silkmoth Antheraea yamamai: cloning and expression pattern in pharate first instar larvae in relation to diapause.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Kuwano, Eiichi; Suzuki, Koichi

    2008-03-01

    A new cytochrome P450 gene, CYP4G25, was identified as a differentially expressed gene between the diapausing and post-diapausing pharate first instar larvae of the wild silkmoth Antheraea yamamai, using subtractive cDNA hybridization. The cDNA sequence of CYP4G25 has an open reading frame of 1674 nucleotides encoding 557 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis of the putative CYP4G25 protein disclosed the motif FXXGXRXCXG that is essential for heme binding in P450 cytochromes. Hybridization in situ demonstrated predominant expression of CYP4G25 in the integument of pharate first instar larvae. Northern blotting analysis showed an intensive signal after the initiation of diapause and no or weak expression throughout the periods of pre-diapause and post-diapause, including larval development. These results indicate that CYP4G25 is strongly associated with diapause in pharate first instar larvae.

  6. Morphology and identification of the final instar nymphs of three cicadas (Hemiptera, Cicadidae) in Guanzhong Plain, China based on comparative morphometrics

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Zehai; Li, Qinglong; Wei, Cong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present investigation provides comparative morphometrics of the final instar nymphs of three dominant cicada species, i.e., Cryptotympana atrata (Fabricius), Meimuna mongolica (Distant) and Platypleura kaempferi (Fabricius), in Guanzhong Plain, China. Particularly, characters on the antennae, legs, and apex of abdomen of both males and females of these three species were investigated and analyzed. In addition, the numbers of hind tibial spines of the final instar nymphs of 21 representatives of Cicadoidea were compared. The results provide useful characteristics for nymph identification of related species and for further taxonomic and phylogenetic analysis of Cicadoidea. PMID:25147447

  7. Morphology and identification of the final instar nymphs of three cicadas (Hemiptera, Cicadidae) in Guanzhong Plain, China based on comparative morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Hou, Zehai; Li, Qinglong; Wei, Cong

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation provides comparative morphometrics of the final instar nymphs of three dominant cicada species, i.e., Cryptotympana atrata (Fabricius), Meimuna mongolica (Distant) and Platypleura kaempferi (Fabricius), in Guanzhong Plain, China. Particularly, characters on the antennae, legs, and apex of abdomen of both males and females of these three species were investigated and analyzed. In addition, the numbers of hind tibial spines of the final instar nymphs of 21 representatives of Cicadoidea were compared. The results provide useful characteristics for nymph identification of related species and for further taxonomic and phylogenetic analysis of Cicadoidea.

  8. Interaction Between Short-Term Heat Pretreatment and Avermectin On 2nd Instar Larvae of Diamondback Moth, Plutella Xylostella (Linn)

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaojun; Tian, Sufen; Wang, Dehui; Gao, Fei

    2009-01-01

    Based on the cooperative virulence index (c.f.), the interaction effect between short-term heat pretreatment and avermectin on 2nd instar larvae of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), was assessed. The results suggested that the interaction results between short-term heat pretreatment and avermectin on the tested insects varied with temperature level as well as its duration and avermectin concentration. Interaction between heat pretreatment at 30°C and avermectin mainly resulted in addition. Meanwhile, pretreatment at 35°C for 2 or 4 h could antagonize the toxicity of avermectin at lower concentrations, which indicated a hormetic effect occurred. The results indicate that cooperative virulence index (c.f.) may be adopted in hormetic effect assessment. PMID:19809544

  9. [The comparison of 4th, 5th and 6th year medical students knowledge of rules and practical skills in the interpretation of electrocardiograms at Jagiellonian University].

    PubMed

    Pudło, Joanna; Wierdak, Mateusz; Macioł, Karolina; Gumul, Katarzyna; Lelakowski, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) examination is one of the most frequent administered diagnostic tests. It is commonly ordered by General Practitioners, and it has became a routinely administered examination during admission to the hospital. During their studies, medical students has numerous opportunities to review and interpret the results of these tests. The aim of our research was to statistically compare and contrast the knowledge of the rules and practical skills in the interpretation of ECGs in 4th, 5th and 6th year medical students at Jagiellonian University. We wanted to better define in which year the students acquire the most of their clinical skills and determine if 6th year students have sufficient knowledge and skills to adequately perform in their future career. We additionally wanted to understand from which source students draw their knowledge of the ECG. The population of 249- 4th, 5th and 6th year medical students of Jagiellonian University were asked to reply to an anonymous questionnaire. The questionnaire was comprised of three parts. The fist part contains four simple ECGs (STEMI, RBBB, PVC, normogram--sinus rhythm). The second part contained six questions regarding their theoretical knowledge. The third part contained seven questions which evaluated the students' background and approach to the problem. Students filled the questionnaire without prior preparation to avoid the short-term "examination knowledge". The question that was most frequent answered correctly was question regarding the proper time (in milliseconds) of QRS complex (24.1%). Differences in the percentage of correct answers to questionnaire amongst 4th and 5th year students were statistically uncharacteristic. The percentage of correct answers of 6th year students increased by about 16% (p < 0.0001). The comparison of answers between 6th year students - who in prior semester completed a cardiology course (group A 6th year) and 6th year students who did not yet complete cardiology

  10. Relevance of cutoff on a 4th generation ELISA performance in the false positive rate during HIV diagnostic in a low HIV prevalence setting.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Lucía; Mateos, María Luisa; Holguín, África

    2017-07-01

    Despite the high specificity of fourth-generation enzyme immunoassays (4th-gen-EIA) for screening during HIV diagnosis, their positive predictive value is low in populations with low HIV prevalence. Thus, screening should be optimized to reduce false positive results. The influence of sample cutoff (S/CO) values by a 4th-gen-EIA with the false positive rate during the routine HIV diagnosis in a low HIV prevalence population was evaluated. A total of 30,201 sera were tested for HIV diagnosis using Abbott Architect ® HIV-Ag/Ab-Combo 4th-gen-EIA at a hospital in Spain during 17 months. Architect S/CO values were recorded, comparing the HIV-1 positive results following Architect interpretation (S/CO≥1) with the final HIV-1 diagnosis by confirmatory tests (line immunoassay, LIA and/or nucleic acid test, NAT). ROC curve was also performed. Among the 30,201 HIV performed tests, 256 (0.85%) were positive according to Architect interpretation (S/CO≥1) but only 229 (0.76%) were definitively HIV-1 positive after LIA and/or NAT. Thus, 27 (10.5%) of 256 samples with S/CO≥1 by Architect were false positive diagnose. The false positive rate decreased when the S/CO ratio increased. All 19 samples with S/CO ≤10 were false positives and all 220 with S/CO>50 true HIV-positives. The optimal S/CO cutoff value provided by ROC curves was 32.7. No false negative results were found. We show that very low S/CO values during HIV-1 screening using Architect can result HIV negative after confirmation by LIA and NAT. The false positive rate is reduced when S/CO increases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison between Hardy-Rand-Rittler 4th edition and Ishihara color plate tests for detection of dyschromatopsia in optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Huna-Baron, Ruth; Glovinsky, Yoseph; Habot-Wilner, Zohar

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the specificity-sensitivity balance of the Hardy-Rand-Rittler (HRR) 4th edition with the Ishihara color plate tests for color-vision defects in patients with optic neuropathy. This is a prospective case-control study. The study group included 43 patients (48 eyes) with newly diagnosed optic neuropathy, and the control group included 33 patients (33 right eyes) who were referred to the eye clinic for conditions other than optic nerve or retinal macular disorders. Individuals with visual acuity of less than 20/70 (0.54 Log MAR) were excluded. All patients underwent comprehensive eye examination and color-vision evaluation with both tests in a random order under standardized lighting conditions. The scores of the Ishihara and HRR tests were set as the number of plates identified out of 12 and six respectively. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was statistically significantly better when using the HRR test (area under curve [AUC] = 0.93 ± 0.03) than for the Ishihara test (AUC = 0.77 ± 0.05) (P = 0.0006). The best specificity-sensitivity balance for the HRR was 100 % and 79 % respectively, and for the Ishihara test 100 % and 48 % respectively. The HRR 4th edition test proved to be superior to the Ishihara test in detecting acquired dyschromatopsia due to optic neuropathy. We recommend using the HRR 4th edition test as a screening method for detection of color-vision defects in patients with optic neuropathy.

  12. Ovarian and adipose tissue dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome: report of the 4th special scientific meeting of the Androgen Excess and PCOS Society.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Bulent O; Azziz, Ricardo

    2010-07-01

    Significant advances have been made in our understanding of ovarian dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and alterations in adipose tissue function are likely to play an important role in its pathophysiology. This review highlights the principal novel concepts presented at the 4th special scientific meeting of the Androgen Excess and PCOS Society, "Ovarian and Adipose Tissue Dysfunction: Potential Roles in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome," which occurred on June 6, 2008 in San Francisco, California. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Tumors of the 4th ventricle and the craniospinal transitional zone. Review of patients of the Neurosurgical Clinic of the Department of Medicine of the Karl Marx University].

    PubMed

    Niebeling, H G; Fried, H; Goldhahn, W E; Skrzypczak, J; Brachmann, J; Eichler, I

    1983-01-01

    From a total of 1,028 infratentorial tumours operated on at the Neurosurgical Hospital of the Section Medicine of the Karl-Marx University Leipzig in the last 30 years, 167 tumours in the region of the 4th ventrical have been selected. Their statistical processing was carried out with respect to specific localisation, average age, kind of tumour, sex, clinical findings, duration of case history, application of instrumental diagnostic procedures and radicality of operation, success and failure. Some fundamental conclussions are drawn. A subdivision in detail will be contained in the following articles based on this material.

  14. Technical aspects of neonatal screening using tandem mass spectrometry. Report from the 4th meeting of the International Society for Neonatal Screening.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, H; Jensen, U G

    1999-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of amino acids (AA) and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry is an emerging technology used to screen neonatal dried blood spot samples for disorders in the metabolism of AA, organic acids and fatty acids. This paper provides a brief review of some of the technically oriented issues which emerged at the 4th meeting of the International Society for Neonatal Screening in Stockholm, 1999. The information covers sample preparation, instrumentation, data acquistion modes, internal standards, interpretation, confounding factors and practical screening experience.

  15. [History of the 4th Department of Internal Medicine of the First Faculty of Medicine at Charles University and the General University Hospital in Prague].

    PubMed

    Bartůněk, Petr

    In 2015, the doctors and nurses of the 4th Department of Internal Medicine of the First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and the General University Hospital in Prague celebrated the 70th anniversary of its founding. The article summarizes the clinics contribution to the field of internal medicine, and particularly to angiology, hepatogastroenterology and lipidology. It comments the clinics current activities and the possibilities of its further development. Attention is also paid to the tradition of high ethical and professional standards of medical care in accordance with the norms established by the clinic's founder, prof. MUDr. Bohumil Prusík.

  16. 4H-Chromene-based anticancer agents towards multi-drug resistant HL60/MX2 human leukemia: SAR at the 4th and 6th positions.

    PubMed

    Puppala, Manohar; Zhao, Xinghua; Casemore, Denise; Zhou, Bo; Aridoss, Gopalakrishnan; Narayanapillai, Sreekanth; Xing, Chengguo

    2016-03-15

    4H-Chromene-based compounds, for example, CXL017, CXL035, and CXL055, have a unique anticancer potential that they selectively kill multi-drug resistant cancer cells. Reported herein is the extended structure-activity relationship (SAR) study, focusing on the ester functional group at the 4th position and the conformation at the 6th position. Sharp SARs were observed at both positions with respect to cellular cytotoxic potency and selectivity between the parental HL60 and the multi-drug resistant HL60/MX2 cells. These results provide critical guidance for future medicinal optimization. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. What does the 4th edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Head and Neck Tumors (2017) bring new about mucosal melanomas?

    PubMed

    Xavier Júnior, José Cândido Caldeira; Ocanha-Xavier, Juliana Polizel

    2018-03-01

    The recently published 4th Edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Head and Neck Tumors addresses the most relevant and updated aspects of tumor biology, including clinical presentation, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and prognosis of head and neck tumors. The objective of the present study is to compare these updates to the 3rd edition of that book with regard to mucosal melanomas and to highlight the potential factors that differ those tumors from cutaneous melanomas. We observed progress in the understanding of oral and sinonasal mucosal melanomas, which also present themselves, in the molecular scope, differently form cutaneous melanomas.

  18. THz pulses from 4th generation X-ray light sources: Perspectives for fully synchronized THz pump X-ray probe experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gensch, M.

    2010-02-03

    In this paper the prospects of terahertz (THz) pulses generated at 4th generation X-ray light sources are presented on the example of recent results from a prototype set-up at the soft X-ray FEL FLASH. It is shown, that the THz pulses from the relativistic ultra short electron bunches have unique properties, that at FLASH are utilized for novel THz pump X-ray probe experiments with a robust few fs resolution. Based on these experiences it is discussed, how future facilities can benefit from implementation of similar or further improved instrumentation.

  19. Lineage-associated tracts defining the anatomy of the Drosophila first instar larval brain

    PubMed Central

    Hartenstein, Volker; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Lovick, Jennifer; Kong, Angel; Omoto, Jaison; Ngo, Kathy; Viktorin, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    Fixed lineages derived from unique, genetically specified neuroblasts form the anatomical building blocks of the Drosophila brain. Neurons belonging to the same lineage project their axons in a common tract, which is labeled by neuronal markers. In this paper, we present a detailed atlas of the lineage-associated tracts forming the brain of the early Drosophila larva, based on the use of global markers (anti-Neuroglian, anti-Neurotactin, Inscuteable-Gal4>UAS-chRFP-Tub) and lineage-specific reporters. We describe 68 discrete fiber bundles that contain axons of one lineage or pairs/small sets of adjacent lineages. Bundles enter the neuropil at invariant locations, the lineage tract entry portals. Within the neuropil, these fiber bundles form larger fascicles that can be classified, by their main orientation, into longitudinal, transverse, and vertical (ascending/descending) fascicles. We present 3D digital models of lineage tract entry portals and neuropil fascicles, set into relationship to commonly used, easily recognizable reference structures such as the mushroom body, the antennal lobe, the optic lobe, and the Fasciclin II-positive fiber bundles that connect the brain and ventral nerve cord. Correspondences and differences between early larval tract anatomy and the previously described late larval and adult lineage patterns are highlighted. Our L1 neuro-anatomical atlas of lineages constitutes an essential step towards following morphologically defined lineages to the neuroblasts of the early embryo, which will ultimately make it possible to link the structure and connectivity of a lineage to the expression of genes in the particular neuroblast that gives rise to that lineage. Furthermore, the L1 atlas will be important for a host of ongoing work that attempts to reconstruct neuronal connectivity at the level of resolution of single neurons and their synapses. PMID:26141956

  20. Lineage-associated tracts defining the anatomy of the Drosophila first instar larval brain.

    PubMed

    Hartenstein, Volker; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Lovick, Jennifer K; Kong, Angel; Omoto, Jaison J; Ngo, Kathy T; Viktorin, Gudrun

    2015-10-01

    Fixed lineages derived from unique, genetically specified neuroblasts form the anatomical building blocks of the Drosophila brain. Neurons belonging to the same lineage project their axons in a common tract, which is labeled by neuronal markers. In this paper, we present a detailed atlas of the lineage-associated tracts forming the brain of the early Drosophila larva, based on the use of global markers (anti-Neuroglian, anti-Neurotactin, inscuteable-Gal4>UAS-chRFP-Tub) and lineage-specific reporters. We describe 68 discrete fiber bundles that contain axons of one lineage or pairs/small sets of adjacent lineages. Bundles enter the neuropil at invariant locations, the lineage tract entry portals. Within the neuropil, these fiber bundles form larger fascicles that can be classified, by their main orientation, into longitudinal, transverse, and vertical (ascending/descending) fascicles. We present 3D digital models of lineage tract entry portals and neuropil fascicles, set into relationship to commonly used, easily recognizable reference structures such as the mushroom body, the antennal lobe, the optic lobe, and the Fasciclin II-positive fiber bundles that connect the brain and ventral nerve cord. Correspondences and differences between early larval tract anatomy and the previously described late larval and adult lineage patterns are highlighted. Our L1 neuro-anatomical atlas of lineages constitutes an essential step towards following morphologically defined lineages to the neuroblasts of the early embryo, which will ultimately make it possible to link the structure and connectivity of a lineage to the expression of genes in the particular neuroblast that gives rise to that lineage. Furthermore, the L1 atlas will be important for a host of ongoing work that attempts to reconstruct neuronal connectivity at the level of resolution of single neurons and their synapses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of added CeCl3 on resistance of fifth-instar larvae of silkworm to Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Xie, Yi; Cheng, Zhe; Cheng, Jie; Hu, Rengping; Cui, Yaling; Gong, Xiaolan; Shen, Weide; Hong, Fashui

    2012-06-01

    One of the most important agents causing lethal disease in the silkworm is the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), while low-dose rare earths are demonstrated to increase immune capacity in animals. However, very little is known about the effects of added CeCl(3) on decreasing BmNPV infection of silkworm. The present study investigated the effects of added CeCl(3) to an artificial diet on resistance of fifth-instar larvae of silkworm to BmNPV infection. Our findings indicated that added CeCl(3) significantly decreased inhibition of growth and mortality of fifth-instar larvae caused by BmNPV infection. Furthermore, the added CeCl(3) obviously decreased lipid peroxidation level and accumulation of reactive oxygen species such as O(2)(-), H(2)O(2), (·)OH, and NO and increased activities of the antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, ascorbate, and glutathione contents in the BmNPV-infected fifth-instar larvae. In addition, the added CeCl(3) could significantly promote acetylcholine esterase activity and attenuate the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the BmNPV-infected fifth-instar larvae. These findings suggested that added CeCl(3) may relieve oxidative damage and neurotoxicity of silkworm caused by BmNPV infection via increasing antioxidant capacity and acetylcholine esterase activity.

  2. Ultrastructure and development of the new stylets inside pre-molting first instar nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ultrastructure and development of new stylets was studied in pre-molting first instar nymph of Diaphorina citri. Two oval-shaped masses of cuboidal hypodermal cells, located in the cephalic region, had long extensions that ended with developing pairs of mandibular and maxillary stylets, apparent...

  3. Description of the last instar larva and new contributions to the knowledge of the pupa of Dasyhelea mediomunda Minaya (Diptera, Culicomorpha, Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Díaz, Florentina; Anjos-Santos, Danielle; Funes, Amparo; Ronderos, María M

    2016-01-01

    The fourth instar larva of Dasyhelea mediomunda Minaya is described for the first time and a complete description of the pupa is provided, through use of phase-contrast microscope and scanning electron microscope. Studied specimens were collected in a pond connected to a small wetland "mallin" on the Patagonian steppe, Chubut province, Argentina.

  4. Description of the larva and pupa of Phileurus truncatus (Palisot de Beauvois, 1806) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Phileurini) with a key to described third instars of New World Phileurini.

    PubMed

    Arguez, Katherine M; Moore, Matthew R; Branham, Marc A

    2017-12-10

    The third instar and pupa of Phileurus truncatus (Palisot de Beauvois, 1806) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Phileurini) is described for the first time based on specimens from Florida, United States of America. An identification key to the third instars of New World Phileurini is also provided.

  5. From palmistry to anthropometry: can 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) predict the risk of prostate cancer?

    PubMed

    Salomão, Layla; Figueiredo, Rui Teófilo; Oliveira Santos, Rafael; Damião, Ronaldo; da Silva, Eloisio Alexsandro

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is inversely related to androgen exposure during the fetal period, which may represent a risk factor for several steroid-related diseases. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between 2D:4D ratio and the risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa). We assessed the 2D:4D ratio of 474 men >40 years old, stratified into three groups: group 1 (n = 222) patients with PCa, group 2 (n = 82) subjects with high risk of PCa, and group 3 (n = 170) men with low risk of PCa. Subjects were submitted to a digital picture of the ventral surface of the right hand and 2nd and 4th fingers measurements were determined by the distance from the proximal crease to the tip using computer-assisted analysis. The mean serum prostate-specific antigen level was 7.5 ng/ml in the high-risk group and 0.92 ng/ml in the low-risk group (p < 0.05). The mean 2D:4D ratios were 0.96 ± 0.04, 0.97 ± 0.04 and 0.96 ± 0.04 for the PCa, high-risk and low-risk groups, respectively, and no difference was found among the three groups (p = 0.12). Anthropometry of the hand using the 2D:4D ratio is not a predictor of PCa. 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. The Development of Adultoid Reproductives and Brachypterous Neotenic Reproductives From the Last Instar Nymphs in Reticulitermes labralis (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiao Hong; Xue, Wei; Liu, He; Chen, Jiao Ling; Zhang, Xiao Jing; Xing, Lian Xi; Liu, Ming Hua

    2015-01-01

    Secondary reproductives develop primarily from nymphs. However, they have been rarely studied; in particular, the development of adultoid reproductives (AR) with floppy wings is still unclear. In this study, the change in juvenile hormone (JH) levels, vitellogenin gene expression, and oogenesis during the development of AR and brachypterous neotenic reproductives (BN) from the last instar nymphs of Reticulitermes labralis are investigated and compared. The results showed that the AR derived from the last instar nymphs by molting, and they were more similar to neotenic reproductives in morphology. In addition, the paired AR were not able to survive in the absence of workers. In R. labralis, the process of the last instar nymphs developing into AR and BN took an increase in JH level as a starting point. The JH level of the last instar nymphs molting into BN was approximately 1.5-fold higher than that of the AR. Additionally, The JHIII level of BN peaked on day 5, and that of AR peaked on day 10, which induced the onset of vitellogenesis in BN and AR, respectively. After molting, the vitellogenin gene expression levels of both BN and AR initially increased and then declined, and the expression levels in the BN were significantly higher than those in the AR. In addition, the oocytes of BN matured earlier than those of the AR, and the number of eggs laid by the BN was higher than the number laid by the AR. Our results demonstrate that, in R. labralis, the last instar nymphs can develop into AR, which are significantly different from BN in their development. PMID:26494776

  7. The 4th Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference, 5-9 April 2014, Florence, Italy: a summary of topics and trends.

    PubMed

    Abayomi, Olukayode; Amato, Davide; Bailey, Candace; Bitanihirwe, Byron; Bowen, Lynneice; Burshtein, Shimon; Cullen, Alexis; Fusté, Montserrat; Herrmann, Ana P; Khodaie, Babak; Kilian, Sanja; Lang, Qortni A; Manning, Elizabeth E; Massuda, Raffael; Nurjono, Milawaty; Sadiq, Sarosh; Sanchez-Gutierrez, Teresa; Sheinbaum, Tamara; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Simon, Nicholas; Spiteri-Staines, Anneliese; Sirijit, Suttajit; Toftdahl, Nanna Gilliam; Wadehra, Sunali; Wang, Yi; Wigton, Rebekah; Wright, Susan; Yagoda, Sergey; Zaytseva, Yuliya; O'Shea, Anne; DeLisi, Lynn E

    2014-11-01

    The 4th Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference was held in Florence, Italy, April 5-9, 2014 and this year had as its emphasis, "Fostering Collaboration in Schizophrenia Research". Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs for each oral session, summarized the important contributions of each session and then each report was integrated into a final summary of data discussed at the entire conference by topic. It is hoped that by combining data from different presentations, patterns of interest will emerge and thus lead to new progress for the future. In addition, the following report provides an overview of the conference for those who were present, but could not participate in all sessions, and those who did not have the opportunity to attend, but who would be interested in an update on current investigations ongoing in the field of schizophrenia research. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. THE 4th SCHIZOPHRENIA INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH SOCIETY CONFERENCE, 5–9 APRIL 2014, FLORENCE, ITALY: A summary of topics and trends

    PubMed Central

    Abayomi, Olukayode; Amato, Davide; Bailey, Candace; Bitanihirwe, Byron; Bowen, Lynneice; Burshtein, Shimon; Cullen, Alexis; Fusté, Montserrat; Herrmann, Ana P; Khodaie, Babak; Kilian, Sanja; Lang, Qortni A; Manning, Elizabeth E; Massuda, Raffael; Nurjono, Milawaty; Sadiq, Sarosh; Sanchez-Gutierrez, Teresa; Sheinbaum, Tamara; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Simon, Nicholas; Spiteri-Staines, Anneliese; Sirijit, Suttajit; Toftdahl, Nanna Gilliam; Wadehra, Sunali; Wang, Yi; Wigton, Rebekah; Wright, Susan; Yagoda, Sergey; Zaytseva, Yuliya; O’Shea, Anne; DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2015-01-01

    The 4th Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference was held in Florence, Italy, April 5–9, 2014.and this year had as its emphasis, “Fostering Collaboration in Schizophrenia Research”. Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs for each oral session, summarized the important contributions of each session and then each report was integrated into a final summary of data discussed at the entire conference by topic. It is hoped that by combining data from different presentations, patterns of interest will emerge and thus lead to new progress for the future. In addition, the following report provides an overview of the conference for those who were present, but could not participate in all sessions, and those who did not have the opportunity to attend, but who would be interested in an update on current investigations ongoing in the field of schizophrenia research. PMID:25306204

  9. Computational modes and the Machenauer N.L.N.M.I. of the GLAS 4th order model. [NonLinear Normal Mode Initialization in numerical weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navon, I. M.; Bloom, S.; Takacs, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    An attempt was made to use the GLAS global 4th order shallow water equations to perform a Machenhauer nonlinear normal mode initialization (NLNMI) for the external vertical mode. A new algorithm was defined for identifying and filtering out computational modes which affect the convergence of the Machenhauer iterative procedure. The computational modes and zonal waves were linearly initialized and gravitational modes were nonlinearly initialized. The Machenhauer NLNMI was insensitive to the absence of high zonal wave numbers. The effects of the Machenhauer scheme were evaluated by performing 24 hr integrations with nondissipative and dissipative explicit time integration models. The NLNMI was found to be inferior to the Rasch (1984) pseudo-secant technique for obtaining convergence when the time scales of nonlinear forcing were much smaller than the time scales expected from the natural frequency of the mode.

  10. [Medicolegal Assessment for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain - 4th Update of the German Guideline for Medicolegal Assessment of Persons in Chronic Pain].

    PubMed

    Schiltenwolf, Marcus

    2018-03-09

    Medicolegal assessments of claimants with chronic muskuloskeletal pain conditions are frequent. The first German guideline published in 2005 for the medicolegal assessment of claimants in chronic pain is now available in its 4th version (AWMF register number 094 - 003). It gives recommendations for the procedure and serves to ensure the quality of expert opinions when complaints about chronic pain are the leading symptom. In the current version, the indications for ordering medical assessments in pain syndromes have been reformulated, the assessment criteria have been adapted to ICF specifications, and an unequivocal distinction has been introduced between questions of state and causal assessment. A separate chapter on symptom validity assessment has been engrafted. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Development of a low-noise, 4th-order readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors in gamma spectrometer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia; Su, Lin; Wei, Xiaomin; Zheng, Ran; Hu, Yann

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an ASIC readout circuit development, which aims to achieve low noise. In order to compensate the leakage current and improve gain, a dual-stage CSA has been utilized. A 4th-order high-linearity shaper is proposed to obtain a Semi-Gaussian wave and further decrease the noise induced by the leakage current. The ASIC has been designed and fabricated in a standard commercial 2P4M 0.35 μm CMOS process. Die area of one channel is about 1190 μm×147 μm. The input charge range is 1.8 fC. The peaking time can be adjusted from 1 μs to 3 μs. Measured ENC is about 55e- (rms) at input capacitor of 0 F. The gain is 271 mV/fC at the peaking time of 1 μs.

  12. Probing ultra-fast processes with high dynamic range at 4th-generation light sources: Arrival time and intensity binning at unprecedented repetition rates

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalev, S.; Green, B.; Golz, T.

    Here, understanding dynamics on ultrafast timescales enables unique and new insights into important processes in the materials and life sciences. In this respect, the fundamental pump-probe approach based on ultra-short photon pulses aims at the creation of stroboscopic movies. Performing such experiments at one of the many recently established accelerator-based 4th-generation light sources such as free-electron lasers or superradiant THz sources allows an enormous widening of the accessible parameter space for the excitation and/or probing light pulses. Compared to table-top devices, critical issues of this type of experiment are fluctuations of the timing between the accelerator and external laser systemsmore » and intensity instabilities of the accelerator-based photon sources. Existing solutions have so far been only demonstrated at low repetition rates and/or achieved a limited dynamic range in comparison to table-top experiments, while the 4th generation of accelerator-based light sources is based on superconducting radio-frequency technology, which enables operation at MHz or even GHz repetition rates. In this article, we present the successful demonstration of ultra-fast accelerator-laser pump-probe experiments performed at an unprecedentedly high repetition rate in the few-hundred-kHz regime and with a currently achievable optimal time resolution of 13 fs (rms). Our scheme, based on the pulse-resolved detection of multiple beam parameters relevant for the experiment, allows us to achieve an excellent sensitivity in real-world ultra-fast experiments, as demonstrated for the example of THz-field-driven coherent spin precession.« less

  13. Probing ultra-fast processes with high dynamic range at 4th-generation light sources: Arrival time and intensity binning at unprecedented repetition rates.

    PubMed

    Kovalev, S; Green, B; Golz, T; Maehrlein, S; Stojanovic, N; Fisher, A S; Kampfrath, T; Gensch, M

    2017-03-01

    Understanding dynamics on ultrafast timescales enables unique and new insights into important processes in the materials and life sciences. In this respect, the fundamental pump-probe approach based on ultra-short photon pulses aims at the creation of stroboscopic movies. Performing such experiments at one of the many recently established accelerator-based 4th-generation light sources such as free-electron lasers or superradiant THz sources allows an enormous widening of the accessible parameter space for the excitation and/or probing light pulses. Compared to table-top devices, critical issues of this type of experiment are fluctuations of the timing between the accelerator and external laser systems and intensity instabilities of the accelerator-based photon sources. Existing solutions have so far been only demonstrated at low repetition rates and/or achieved a limited dynamic range in comparison to table-top experiments, while the 4th generation of accelerator-based light sources is based on superconducting radio-frequency technology, which enables operation at MHz or even GHz repetition rates. In this article, we present the successful demonstration of ultra-fast accelerator-laser pump-probe experiments performed at an unprecedentedly high repetition rate in the few-hundred-kHz regime and with a currently achievable optimal time resolution of 13 fs (rms). Our scheme, based on the pulse-resolved detection of multiple beam parameters relevant for the experiment, allows us to achieve an excellent sensitivity in real-world ultra-fast experiments, as demonstrated for the example of THz-field-driven coherent spin precession.

  14. Probing ultra-fast processes with high dynamic range at 4th-generation light sources: Arrival time and intensity binning at unprecedented repetition rates

    DOE PAGES

    Kovalev, S.; Green, B.; Golz, T.; ...

    2017-03-06

    Here, understanding dynamics on ultrafast timescales enables unique and new insights into important processes in the materials and life sciences. In this respect, the fundamental pump-probe approach based on ultra-short photon pulses aims at the creation of stroboscopic movies. Performing such experiments at one of the many recently established accelerator-based 4th-generation light sources such as free-electron lasers or superradiant THz sources allows an enormous widening of the accessible parameter space for the excitation and/or probing light pulses. Compared to table-top devices, critical issues of this type of experiment are fluctuations of the timing between the accelerator and external laser systemsmore » and intensity instabilities of the accelerator-based photon sources. Existing solutions have so far been only demonstrated at low repetition rates and/or achieved a limited dynamic range in comparison to table-top experiments, while the 4th generation of accelerator-based light sources is based on superconducting radio-frequency technology, which enables operation at MHz or even GHz repetition rates. In this article, we present the successful demonstration of ultra-fast accelerator-laser pump-probe experiments performed at an unprecedentedly high repetition rate in the few-hundred-kHz regime and with a currently achievable optimal time resolution of 13 fs (rms). Our scheme, based on the pulse-resolved detection of multiple beam parameters relevant for the experiment, allows us to achieve an excellent sensitivity in real-world ultra-fast experiments, as demonstrated for the example of THz-field-driven coherent spin precession.« less

  15. Selection of reference genes for tissue/organ samples on day 3 fifth-instar larvae in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Wang, Genhong; Chen, Yanfei; Zhang, Xiaoying; Bai, Bingchuan; Yan, Hao; Qin, Daoyuan; Xia, Qingyou

    2018-06-01

    The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is one of the world's most economically important insect. Surveying variations in gene expression among multiple tissue/organ samples will provide clues for gene function assignments and will be helpful for identifying genes related to economic traits or specific cellular processes. To ensure their accuracy, commonly used gene expression quantification methods require a set of stable reference genes for data normalization. In this study, 24 candidate reference genes were assessed in 10 tissue/organ samples of day 3 fifth-instar B. mori larvae using geNorm and NormFinder. The results revealed that, using the combination of the expression of BGIBMGA003186 and BGIBMGA008209 was the optimum choice for normalizing the expression data of the B. mori tissue/organ samples. The most stable gene, BGIBMGA003186, is recommended if just one reference gene is used. Moreover, the commonly used reference gene encoding cytoplasmic actin was the least appropriate reference gene of the samples investigated. The reliability of the selected reference genes was further confirmed by evaluating the expression profiles of two cathepsin genes. Our results may be useful for future studies involving the quantification of relative gene expression levels of different tissue/organ samples in B. mori. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Comparative proteomics and expression analysis of five genes in Epicauta chinensis larvae from the first to fifth instar.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiurong; Wang, Dun; Lv, Shumin; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    Blister beetle is an important insect model for both medicinal and pure research. Previous research has mainly focused on its biology and biochemistry, but very little data is yet available in the molecular biology. This study uses differential proteomics technology to analyze the soluble proteins extracted from each of the 5 instars larvae of Epicauta chinensis. 42 of the differentially-expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Some of these proteins' function and their expression profiles are analyzed. Our analysis revealed dynamics regulation of the following proteins: Axin-like protein pry-1 (APR-1), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), vitellogenin (Vg) and lysozyme C (Lmz-S). APR-1 negatively regulates the Wnt signaling pathway. Its overexpression could result in embryo, leg, eye and ovary ectopica or malformation. DLD catalyzes the pyruvate into acetyl-CoA, the latter is the starting material of juvenile hormone (JH) and ipsdienol biosynthesis through the MVA pathway in insects. While Vg synthesis can be regulated by JH and stimulated by food factors. So DLD may affect the synthesis of JH, ipsdienol and Vg indirectly. The activity of lysozyme is an indicator of the immunity. Nutrition/food should be taken into account for its potential role during the development of larva in the future. Among the five genes and their corresponding proteins' expression, only hsc70 gene showed a good correspondence with the protein level. This reflects the fluctuating relationship between mRNA and protein levels.

  17. [Description of Melolonthidae (Coleoptera) third instar larvae associated to Agave tequilana var. Azul and their population fluctuation in Jalisco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    García, Gabriel L; Ortega-Arenas, Laura; Hernández, Héctor G; García, Agustín A; Nápoles, Jesús R; Cortés, Ramón R

    2009-01-01

    Third instars of white grubs of six species associated to agave tequilero in Jalisco, México were described from 1,145 specimens collected from soil samples from September 2006 to August 2007, in the municipalities of Ixtlahuacán del Río, Tepatitlán de Morelos and San Juan de Escobedo, Jalisco, México. Diagnostic characters were illustrated and a key was also included. Cyclocephala comata (Bates) was the most abundant species (63.2%), followed by Phyllophaga ravida (Blanchard) (21.9%), Phyllophaga polyphylla (Bates) (9.4%), Phyllophaga misteca (Bates) (4.1%), Strategus aloeus (L.) (1.1%) and Anomala hoepfneri (Bates) (0.3%). Phyllophaga ravida and A. hoepfneri are reported for the first time on the agave plant and the latter is a new record for the State of Jalisco. All Melolonthidae species showed a marked seasonality with lower number of larvae in June 2007 and high number in August 2007, which is associated with the region's rainy season and the agave plant age, respectively.

  18. Larvae of the genus Eleodes (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae): matrix-based descriptions, cladistic analysis, and key to late instars

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Aaron D.; Dornburg, Rebecca; Wheeler, Quentin D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Darkling beetle larvae (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) are collectively referred to as false wireworms. Larvae from several species in the genus Eleodes are considered to be agricultural pests, though relatively little work has been done to associate larvae with adults of the same species and only a handful of species have been characterized in their larval state. Morphological characters from late instar larvae were examined and coded to produce a matrix in the server-based content management system mx. The resulting morphology matrix was used to produce larval species descriptions, reconstruct a phylogeny, and build a key to the species included in the matrix. Larvae are described for the first time for the following 12 species: Eleodes anthracinus Blaisdell, Eleodes carbonarius (Say), Eleodes caudiferus LeConte, Eleodes extricatus (Say), Eleodes goryi Solier, Eleodes hispilabris (Say), Eleodes nigropilosus LeConte, Eleodes pilosus Horn, Eleodes subnitens LeConte, Eleodes tenuipes Casey, Eleodes tribulus Thomas, and Eleodes wheeleri Aalbu, Smith & Triplehorn. The larval stage of Eleodes armatus LeConte is redescribed with additional characters to differentiate it from the newly described congeneric larvae. PMID:25009429

  19. Eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its larvicidal property against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Ali, Zainal Abidin; Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Yahya, Rosiyah; Wan Sulaiman, Wan Yusoff; Puteh, Rustam

    2017-03-01

    In this study, larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesised using apple extract against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti was determined. As a result, the AgNPs showed moderate larvicidal effects against Ae. aegypti larvae (LC 50  = 15.76 ppm and LC 90  = 27.7 ppm). In addition, comparison of larvicidal activity performance of AgNPs at high concentration prepared using two different methods showed that Ae. aegypti larvae was fully eliminated within the duration of 2.5 h. From X-ray diffraction, the AgNP crystallites were found to exhibit face centred cubic structure. The average size of these AgNPs as estimated by particle size distribution was in the range of 50-120 nm. The absorption maxima of the synthesised Ag showed characteristic Ag surface plasmon resonance peak. This green synthesis provides an economic, eco-friendly and clean synthesis route to Ag.

  20. Description of the final instar of Trichomalopsis peregrina (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae), with data and comments on the preimaginal stages

    SciTech Connect

    Tormos, J.; Asis, J.D.; Frago, E.

    The preimaginal stages of T. peregrina are described. The egg displays a sculptured chorion, which is found only on those deposited externally. The immature larvae are characterized by their peculiarities in (a) a setose ring on the thoracic and abdominal segments, (b) an anal notch and (c) size and the sensory structures of the head capsule. The final instar is described and illustrated. Morphological structures of diagnostic value are discussed. The most salient character shown by the mature larva of this species lies in the epistoma, which is complete. (author) [Spanish] Se describen las fases de huevo y larva demore » T. peregrina. El huevo, como es caracteristico en los que se depositan externamente, presenta un corion ornamentado. Las larvas inmaduras exhiben peculiaridades en (a) el anillo setoso de los segmentos toracicos y abdominales, (b) la escotadura anal y (c) el tamano, y estructuras sensoriales, de la capsula cefalica. El estado de caracter mas sobresaliente presentado por la larva madura de esta especie radica en la presencia de un epistoma totalmente diferenciado. (author)« less

  1. The 4th R: Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Curtis

    1983-01-01

    Reviews sources of information on materials for teaching reasoning with a microcomputer. Suggests microcomputer magazines, catalogs of commercial materials, CONDUIT (a nonprofit organization devoted to educational computer use), and local microcomputer users groups. Lists Apple II software for strategy games with reasoning applications. (DMM)

  2. Installation Contracting Course (4th)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-27

    faith and don’t be hostile. B. Computing the Settlement Amount. 1. Sources to consult when determining settlement amount. a. Independent government...552, 104 Stat . 2736 (1990). 1. In November 1990, Congress amended the Contract Disputes Act by authorizing the use of "any alternative means of dispute... independently for a contract to be awarded to the responsible offeror submitting the lowest evaluated price. 2. A price is "based on" adequate price

  3. Recirculating Aquaculture (4th edition)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Typically recirculating (closed) aquatic production systems have higher capital and operating costs than many of the extensive systems such as cage culture in natural waters and raceway and/or pond culture systems. However, when the control provided by recirculating systems and the benefits this env...

  4. First description and bionomic notes for the final-instar larva and pupa of an Oriental dobsonfly species, Neoneuromus sikkimmensis (van der Weele, 1907) (Megaloptera: Corydalidae).

    PubMed

    Cao, Chengquan; Tong, Chao; Chen, Shengzhi; Liu, Zhiwei; Xu, Faqiong; Liu, Qian; Liu, Xingyue

    2016-10-31

    Neoneuromus van der Weele, 1909, a member of megalopteran subfamily Corydalinae, is a common and widespread dobsonfly genus of the Oriental Region. The adult taxonomy of Neoneuromus is relatively well-known but the larvae and pupae are undescribed. In this paper we describe the last-instar larva and the pupa of N. sikkimmensis (van der Weele, 1907), representing the first detailed description of any immature stage of Neoneuromus. Information on the bionomics of this species is also reported.

  5. Proteome analysis of gut and salivary gland proteins of fifth-instar nymph and adults of the sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps.

    PubMed

    Bezdi, Mohammad Saadati; Toorchi, Mahmoud; Pourabad, Reza Farshbaf; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Nouri, Mohammad-Zaman; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2012-10-01

    In the digestive system of the sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), the salivary gland has a key role in extra oral digestion and the gut is the main site for digestion of food. In this study, proteomics was used to study the role of proteins involved in digestion. The amount of feeding on wheat grain by adult insects increased by comparison to fifth-instar nymphs. Proteins of the gut and salivary gland in adults and fifth-instar nymphs were analyzed 1 day after feeding. The proteins related to digestion, metabolism, and defense against toxins were accumulated in the gut of adult insects. Three plant proteins including serpin, dehydroascorbate reductase, and β-amylase were accumulated in guts of adults. In the salivary gland, phospholipase A2 and arginine kinase were increased in adults. Heat shock protein 70 increased in the gut of fifth-instar nymphs. Proteomic analysis revealed that most of changed proteins in digestive system of sunn pest were increased in adults. This study provided more targets derived from gut and salivary gland for pest management. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Muscidae (Diptera) of forensic importance-an identification key to third instar larvae of the western Palaearctic region and a catalogue of the muscid carrion community.

    PubMed

    Grzywacz, Andrzej; Hall, Martin J R; Pape, Thomas; Szpila, Krzysztof

    2017-05-01

    The Muscidae is one of the main dipteran families recognized as important for medico-legal purposes. Although an association of adult flies with decomposing human and animal bodies is documented for about 200 taxa worldwide, cadavers and carrion represents a breeding habitat for considerably fewer species. Species that do colonize dead human bodies can do so under diverse environmental conditions and, under certain circumstances, Muscidae may be the only colonizers of a body. Because of difficulties in identification, many studies have identified immature and/or adult muscids only to the genus or family level. This lack of detailed species-level identifications hinders detailed investigation of their medico-legal usefulness in carrion succession-oriented experiments. Identification to species level of third instars of Muscidae of forensic importance and the utility of larval morphological characters for taxonomic purposes were subjected to an in-depth revision. A combination of characters allowing for the discrimination of third instar muscids from other forensically important dipterans is proposed. An identification key for third instar larvae, which covers the full set of cadaver-colonising species of Muscidae from the western Palaearctic (Europe, North Africa, Middle East), is provided. This key will facilitate more detailed and species-specific knowledge of the occurrence of Muscidae in forensic entomology experiments and real cases. The carrion-visiting Muscidae worldwide are catalogued, and those species breeding in animal carrion and dead human bodies are briefly discussed with regard to their forensic importance.

  7. A Kinesthetic Learning Approach to Earth Science for 3rd and 4th Grade Students on the Pajarito Plateau, Los Alamos, NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wershow, H. N.; Green, M.; Stocker, A.; Staires, D.

    2010-12-01

    Current efforts towards Earth Science literacy in New Mexico are guided by the New Mexico Science Benchmarks [1]. We are geoscience professionals in Los Alamos, NM who believe there is an important role for non-traditional educators utilizing innovative teaching methods. We propose to further Earth Science literacy for local 3rd and 4th grade students using a kinesthetic learning approach, with the goal of fostering an interactive relationship between the students and their geologic environment. We will be working in partnership with the Pajarito Environmental Education Center (PEEC), which teaches the natural heritage of the Pajarito Plateau to 3rd and 4th grade students from the surrounding area, as well as the Family YMCA’s Adventure Programs Director. The Pajarito Plateau provides a remarkable geologic classroom because minimal structural features complicate the stratigraphy and dramatic volcanic and erosional processes are plainly on display and easily accessible. Our methodology consists of two approaches. First, we will build an interpretive display of the local geology at PEEC that will highlight prominent rock formations and geologic processes seen on a daily basis. It will include a simplified stratigraphic section with field specimens and a map linked to each specimen’s location to encourage further exploration. Second, we will develop and implement a kinesthetic curriculum for an exploratory field class. Active engagement with geologic phenomena will take place in many forms, such as a scavenger hunt for precipitated crystals in the vesicles of basalt flows and a search for progressively smaller rhyodacite clasts scattered along an actively eroding canyon. We believe students will be more receptive to origin explanations when they possess a piece of the story. Students will be provided with field books to make drawings of geologic features. This will encourage independent assessment of phenomena and introduce the skill of scientific observation. We

  8. Histopathological Changes in Third-Instar and Adult Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) After in vitro Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Caro-Corrales, Lorena; Caro-Corrales, Jose; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Lopez-Valenzuela, Jose; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Coronado-Velazquez, Daniel; Hernandez-Ortiz, Emilio; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most harmful pests of mango causing direct damage by oviposition on the fruit pulp. Mango for export is subjected to hydrothermal treatment as a quarantine method for the control of this pest, but exposure to heat for long periods of time reduces considerably the quality and shelf-life of treated fruit. The aim of this work was to study morphological changes of third-instar larvae and adults of A. ludens after in vitro exposure to high temperature at sublethal times. A heating block system was used to expose larvae at 46.1°C for 19.6 and 12.9 min, producing 94.6 and 70% mortality, respectively. Treated larvae were processed for optical microscopy. A fraction of surviving treated larvae was separated into containers with artificial diet to allow development into adults. Adult sexual organs were dissected and processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Results showed that 94.6% of the treated larvae died at 46.1°C for 19.6 min and none of the surviving larvae eclosed to adulthood, as they developed as malformed puparia. For the in vitro treatment at 46.1°C during 12.9 min, 70% of the treated larvae died and only 3.75% reached the adult stage, but ultrastructural damage in the male testes and in the female ovaries was observed. Additionally, 11.1% of the adult flies from the in vitro treatment also showed wing malformation and were incapable of flying. The analysis showed that surviving flies were unable to reproduce. PMID:25797796

  9. Interaction between Short-Term Heat Pretreatment and Fipronil on 2nd Instar Larvae of Diamondback Moth, Plutella Xylostella (Linn)

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaojun; Tian, Sufen; Wang, Dehui; Gao, Fei; Wei, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Based on the cooperative virulence index (c.f.) and LC50 of fipronil, the interaction effect between short-term heat pretreatment and fipronil on 2nd instar larvae of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), was assessed. The results suggested that pretreatment of the tested insects at 30 °C for 2, 4 and 8h could somewhat decrease the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations. The LC50 values of fipronil increased after heat pretreatment and c.f. values in all these treatments were below zero. These results indicated that real mortalities were less than theoretical ones and antagonism was found in the treatments of fipronil at 0.39 and 0.78 mg/L after heat pretreatment at 30 °C at 2, 4 and 8 h. However, pretreatment at 30 °C for 12h could increase the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations, the LC50 of fipronil decreased after heat pretreatment and c.f. values in all these treatments were above zero, which indicated real mortalities were higher than theoretical ones. Pretreatment of the tested insects at 35 °C for 2, 4, 8 and 12h was found to increase the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations which resulted in the decrease of LC50 values of fipronil and c.f. above zero in all treatments with only one exception. Most interactions were assessed as synergism. The results indicated that cooperative virulence index (c.f.) may be adopted in hormetic effect assessment. PMID:20877489

  10. Eating competence of Hispanic parents is associated with attitudes and behaviors that may mediate fruit and vegetable-related behaviors of 4th grade youth.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Barbara; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie

    2012-10-01

    Parent self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and behaviors toward cooking and fruits and vegetables mediate children's eating. Eating competence, an intra-individual approach to food-related attitudes and behaviors, is associated with healthful outcomes but has not been studied as a moderator of parent food-related behaviors that mediate healthful eating in 4th grade children. Parents (n = 339; 78% Hispanic, 89% female) of 4th graders who participated in an impact study of the Cooking with Kids curriculum in Santa Fe, NM schools eligible for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education completed the following surveys: Satter eating competence inventory for low-income (ecSI/LI) (16 items, Likert scale, possible score 0-48); modeling behaviors related to food preparation and fruits/vegetables (11 items, Likert scale, possible score 0-33); self-efficacy/outcome expectancies (SE/OE) (12 items, Likert scale, possible score 12-60); and availability of fruits/vegetables (20 items, possible score 0-20). Higher scores indicate more desired behaviors. The mean ecSI/LI score was 33.6 ± 8.5; 59% were eating competent, i.e., ecSI/LI ≥ 32. Eating-competent parents demonstrated more modeling (16.3 ± 5.0 vs. 14.0 ± 4.3; P < 0.001), greater SE/OE (53.7 ± 10.1 vs. 51.2 ± 8.5; P = 0.03), and greater in-home fruit/vegetable availability (12.7 ± 3.0 vs. 11.9 ± 3.2; P = 0.02). Two clusters of modeling behavior were defined: achievers and strivers. Modeling achievers (34.9 ± 6.9) were more eating competent (P < 0.001) than strivers (30.3 ± 8.9). Eating competence moderated parent food-related behaviors. Measuring eating competence may contribute to understanding parent behavior as a mediator in school-based nutrition interventions.

  11. Fuel for Fun: a cluster-randomized controlled study of cooking skills, eating behaviors, and physical activity of 4th graders and their families.

    PubMed

    Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Lohse, Barbara; Smith, Stephanie; Browning, Ray; Strutz, Erin; Nigg, Claudio; Balgopal, Meena; Kelly, Kathleen; Ruder, Elizabeth

    2016-05-26

    Childhood obesity remains a serious concern in the United States and in many other countries. Direct experience preparing and tasting healthful foods and increasing activity during the school day are promising prevention approaches. Engaging parents and families remains an important challenge. Fuel for Fun: Cooking with Kids Plus Parents and Play is a multi-component school- and family-based intervention for 4th graders and their families intended to promote positive food and activity environments, policies and behaviors at the individual, family and school levels. This paper describes the design and evaluation plan. Four cohorts of 4th-graders and their parents from 8 schools in 2 districts in the same Northern Colorado region are participating in a 4-arm cluster randomized controlled trial. Theory-based Fuel for Fun consists of 5 components delivered over 1 school year: 1) Cooking with Kids - Colorado; an experiential classroom-based cooking and tasting curriculum, 2) Cafeteria Connections; cafeteria-based reinforcements of classroom food experiences using behavioral economic strategies, 3) SPARK active recess; a playground intervention to engage children in moderate to vigorous activity, 4) Fuel for Fun Family; multi-element supports targeting parents to reinforce the 3 school-based components at home, and 5) About Eating; an online interactive program for parents addressing constructs of eating competence and food resource management. Outcomes include child and parent measures of fruit and vegetable preferences and intake, cooking, physical activity, sedentary behaviors and attitudes. School level data assess lunch plate waste and physical activity at recess. In-depth diet and accelerometry assessments are collected with a subsample of parent-child dyads. Data are collected at baseline, immediately post-intervention at 7 months, and at 12 month follow-up. We anticipate recruiting 1320-1584 children and their parents over the length of the project. The Fuel

  12. Analysis of the genetic variants of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in inhabitants of the 4th Nile cataract region in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Kempinska-Podhorodecka, Agnieszka; Knap, Oktawian; Drozd, Arleta; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Parafiniuk, Miroslaw; Parczewski, Milosz; Milkiewicz, Malgorzata

    2013-02-01

    Malaria is one of the most common diseases in the African population. Genetic variance in glucose dehydrogenase 6-phosphate (G6PD) in humans determines the response to malaria exposure. In this study, we aimed to analyze the frequency of two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (G202A and A376G) present in two local tribes of Sudanese Arabs from the region of the 4th Nile cataract in Sudan, the Shagia and Manasir. The polymorphisms in G6PD were analyzed in 217 individuals (126 representatives of the Shagia tribe and 91 of the Manasir tribe). Real-time PCR and RFLP-PCR were utilized to analyze significant differences in the prevalence of alleles and genotypes. The 202A G6P allele frequency was 0.7%, whereas the G202 variant was found in 93.3% of cases. The AA, GA, and GG genotype frequencies for the A376G G6PD codon among the Shagia were 88, 11.1, and 0.9%, respectively; this is similar to the distribution among Manasir tribe representatives (94.5, 3.3, and 2.2%, respectively; OR 3.44 [0.85-16.17], p=0.6). Notably, in north-eastern Sudan the G6PD B (202G/376A) compound genotype frequency was 90.3%, whereas the G6PD A variant (202G/376G) was found in 1.4% of that population. Identification of the G6PD A- variant (202A/376G) in the isolated Shagia tribe provides important information regarding the tribal ancestry. Taken together, the data presented in this study suggest that the Shagia tribe was still nomadic between 4000 and 12,000 years ago. Moreover, the lack of G6PD A- genotype among ethnically diverse Monasir tribesmen indicates a separation of the Shagia from the other tribes in the region of the 4th Nile cataract in Sudan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Future perspectives in melanoma research. Meeting report from the “Melanoma Bridge. Napoli, December 2nd-4th 2012”

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent insights into the genetic and somatic aberrations have initiated a new era of rapidly evolving targeted and immune-based treatments for melanoma. After decades of unsuccessful attempts to finding a more effective cure in the treatment of melanoma now we have several drugs active in melanoma. The possibility to use these drugs in combination to improve responses to overcome the resistance, to potentiate the action of immune system with the new immunomodulating antibodies, and identification of biomarkers that can predict the response to a particular therapy represent new concepts and approaches in the clinical management of melanoma. The third “Melanoma Research: “A bridge from Naples to the World” meeting, shortened as “Bridge Melanoma Meeting” took place in Naples, December 2 to 4th, 2012. The four topics of discussion at this meeting were: advances in molecular profiling and novel biomarkers, combination therapies, novel concepts toward integrating biomarkers and therapies into contemporary clinical management of patients with melanoma across the entire spectrum of disease stage, and the knowledge gained from the biology of tumor microenvironment across different tumors as a bridge to impact on prognosis and response to therapy in melanoma. This international congress gathered more than 30 international faculty members who in an interactive atmosphere which stimulated discussion and exchange of their experience regarding the most recent advances in research and clinical management of melanoma patients. PMID:23731854

  14. The Structure of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th Edition, Text Revision) Personality Disorder Symptoms in a Large National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Trull, Timothy J.; Vergés, Alvaro; Wood, Phillip K.; Jahng, Seungmin; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the latent structure underlying the criteria for DSM–IV–TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.) personality disorders in a large nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Personality disorder symptom data were collected using a structured diagnostic interview from approximately 35,000 adults assessed over two waves of data collection in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Our analyses suggested that a seven-factor solution provided the best fit for the data, and these factors were marked primarily by one or at most two personality disorder criteria sets. A series of regression analyses that used external validators tapping Axis I psychopathology, treatment for mental health problems, functioning scores, interpersonal conflict, and suicidal ideation and behavior provided support for the seven-factor solution. We discuss these findings in the context of previous studies that have examined the structure underlying the personality disorder criteria as well as the current proposals for DSM-5 personality disorders. PMID:22506626

  15. Preliminary Study on LiF4-ThF4-PuF4 Utilization as Fuel Salt of miniFUJI Molten Salt Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waris, Abdul; Aji, Indarta K.; Pramuditya, Syeilendra; Widayani; Irwanto, Dwi

    2016-08-01

    miniFUJI reactor is molten salt reactor (MSR) which is one type of the Generation IV nuclear energy systems. The original miniFUJI reactor design uses LiF-BeF2-ThF4-233UF4 as a fuel salt. In the present study, the use of LiF4-ThF4-PuF4 as fuel salt instead of LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 will be discussed. The neutronics cell calculation has been performed by using PIJ (collision probability method code) routine of SRAC 2006 code, with the nuclear data library is JENDL-4.0. The results reveal that the reactor can attain the criticality condition with the plutonium concentration in the fuel salt is equal to 9.16% or more. The conversion ratio diminishes with the enlarging of plutonium concentration in the fuel. The neutron spectrum of miniFUJI MSR with plutonium fuel becomes harder compared to that of the 233U fuel.

  16. Scheuermann's disease in a juvenile male from the late Roman necropolis of Torrenueva (3rd-4th century CE, Granada, Spain).

    PubMed

    Viciano, Joan; López-Lázaro, Sandra; Pérez-Fernández, Ángela; Amores-Ampuero, Anabel; D'Anastasio, Ruggero; Jiménez-Triguero, José Miguel

    2017-09-01

    This study details a severe case of Scheuermann's disease (SD) in a well-preserved skeleton of a juvenile male (designated TOR302), dated to 3rd-4th century CE, from the late Roman necropolis of Torrenueva (Granada, Spain). Individual TOR302 shows an evident kyphotic curve in the thoraco-lumbar spine, which is characterised by: (i) vertebral bodies of thoracic vertebra T2, thoracic segment T4-T9, and thoraco-lumbar segment T12-L2 wedged at >5°; (ii) slight anterior extensions of the epiphyseal ring; (iii) Schmorl's nodes on the superior and/or inferior plates; and (iv) a Cobb angle of 75°, derived from thoracic segments T4-T9. In addition, TOR302 shows other skeletal malformations as the secondary results of abnormal growth, due to altered biomechanical forces imposed by the spinal deformity, including: (i) lateral distortion of the spine that causes a slight secondary scoliotic curve; (ii) pelvic obliquity; and (iii) discrepancy in the length of the limbs. We argue that the secondary skeletal abnormalities allowed the individual to adapt to his spinal deformity meaning he was able to walk without the aid of a stick. Despite SD being a common modern clinical finding, few cases have been reported in ancient skeletal remains. This case therefore represents an important contribution to the palaeopathological literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Report of the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) international course and Cameroon Neurosurgery Society Congress (CNS) Yaoundé (Cameroon), 1st--4th October 2007].

    PubMed

    Eyenga, V C; Ndoumbe, A; Eloundou, N J

    2008-04-01

    Neurosurgery remains a very marginal activity in sub-Saharan Africa. In this part of the world which counts nearly 40 countries, some do not have a single neurosurgeon, some have one to five, the number of ten neurosurgeons per country remaining an exception! In its concern of popularizing and of developing neurosurgery worldwide, the WFNS organized an international course in Africa, October 2007 2nd-3rd in Yaoundé (Cameroon). The Cameroon Neurosurgery Society (CNS) took this opportunity to organize its very first congress in the presence of the WFNS delegation from October 1st to 4th, 2007. The joint meeting with the WFNS was baptized the "African Week of Neurosurgery". This special event was a first in sub-Saharan Africa. The delegation of the WFNS, led by Professor J. Brotchi (Belgium) President of the WFNS, was made up of Professors A. Sousa (Brazil), Mr. Choux (France), N. Tribolet (Swiss), M. Arraez (Spain), A. Bricolo (Italy), A. Kamlichi (Morocco), G. Dechambenoit (France), K. Kalangu (Zimbabwe). Twenty three neurosurgeons coming from nine African countries (Cameroon, Nigeria, Gabon, Congo, Niger, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Senegal, and Guinea) took an active part in work. The scientific success of this event led to the creation of the "Association of Neurological Surgeons of Africa (ANSA)" which will be the WFNS-Africa interface in order to insure the development of neurosurgery in Africa.

  18. Integrating data and mashup concepts in Hydro-Meteorological Research: the torrential rainfall event in Genoa (4th November 2011) case study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedrina, T.; Parodi, A.; Quarati, A.; Clematis, A.; Rebora, N.; Laiosa, D.

    2012-04-01

    One of the critical issues in Hydro-Meteorological Research (HMR) is a better exploitation of data archives according to a multidisciplinary perspective. Different Earth science databases offer a huge amount of observational data, which often need to be assembled, processed, combined accordingly HM scientists needs. The cooperation between scientists active in HMR and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is essential in the development of innovative tools and applications for manipulating, aggregating and re-arranging heterogeneous information in flexible way. In this paper it is described an application devoted to the collection and integration of HM datasets, originated by public or private sources, freely exposed via Web services API. This application uses the mashup, recently become very popular in many fields, (Chow S.-W., 2007) technology concepts. Such methodology means combination of data and/or programs published by external online sources into an integrated experience. Mashup seems to be a promising methodology to respond to the multiple data-related activities into which HM researchers are daily involved (e.g. finding and retrieving high volume data; learning formats and developing readers; extracting parameters; performing filtering and mask; developing analysis and visualization tools). The specific case study of the recent extreme rainfall event, occurred over Genoa in Italy on the 4th November 2011 is shown through the integration of semi-professional weather observational networks as free available data source in addition to official weather networks.

  19. [How to apply the 4th March 2002 French law, making information to patients mandatory after the identification of a new risk?].

    PubMed

    Setbon, Michel

    2005-11-30

    The 4th March 2002 French law, through its L. 1111-2 article, makes it mandatory to inform persons who received medical care, investigation or preventive intervention when a new risk is identified after the act was done. The article L. 1413-13 of the law adds that health authorities can summon responsible professionals if they establish a lack of information, unless it is impossible to find again exposed patients. The text relates conclusions of the working group set up in 2003 by the Chief Medical Officer whose mission was to identify what kind of situations fitted this new right and the consequences, in terms of action, of the qualification of an event as a "new risk". The two main outcomes were to clear up the basic ambiguity concerning the term of "new risk" and to propose a framework defining the multiple stages by which it has to be assessed. Furthermore, the diversity of potential situations to be faced in connection with the possible consequences of information raised the issue of objectives aimed by the lawmaker. Despite good intentions, the law as laid down appears insufficient to ensure that this new right will be always beneficial to the patients, in terms of public health.

  20. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 4th edition-Chinese version index scores in Taiwanese children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pinchen; Cheng, Chung-Ping; Chang, Chen-Lin; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hsu, Hsiu-Yi; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2013-02-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 4th edition-Chinese version (WISC-IV-Chinese) has been in clinical use in Taiwan since 2007. Research is needed to determine how the WISC-IV, modified from its earlier version, will affect its interpretation in clinical practice in a Mandarin-speaking context. We attempted to use WISC-IV-Chinese scores to identify the cognitive strengths and weaknesses in 334 Taiwanese children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Comparison of cognitive profiles of WISC-IV-Chinese scores between subtypes of ADHD was also performed. The results indicated that the four-factor model of the WISC-IV-Chinese fitted well for Taiwanese children with ADHD. The profiles showed that performance in the index score of the Processing Speed Index was the weakness domain for the Taiwanese children with ADHD, as confirmed by two different kinds of analytic methods. Cognitive profile analysis of ADHD subtypes revealed children with inattentive subtypes to have a greater weakness in processing speed performance. The implications of the profiles of the index scores on the WISC-IV-Chinese version for Taiwanese children with ADHD were explored. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  1. Improvement in platelet count after 3rd-line and 4th-line eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori in patients with immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Jomen, Wataru; Sato, Takashi; Maesawa, Chihaya

    2017-01-01

    Case 1: A 78-year-old woman was diagnosed with H. pylori positive gastritis at a previous hospital in April 2012 and received 3rd-line H. pylori eradication therapy, which ended in failure. She was referred to our department due to oral hemorrhage, petechiae involving all four extremities, and thrombocytopenia in January 2016. She was hospitalized with a diagnosis of ITP and received inpatient treatment. While receiving outpatient prednisolone (PSL) treatment, we administered 4th-line eradication therapy in March. Her platelet levels have since returned to normal, and PSL treatment has been discontinued. She is currently followed without treatment. Case 2: A 65-year-old woman was diagnosed with ITP at a previous hospital in June 2013 and received 2nd-line eradication therapy, which ended in failure. Thereafter, PSL treatment was continued but she was later referred to our department in March 2016. Since 3rd-line eradication therapy was successful, her platelet count normalized and PSL treatment has been discontinued. She is currently followed without treatment. Based on our observations in these two cases, third-line H. pylori eradication therapy is potentially effective in ITP patients.

  2. [Approach to Evidence-based Medicine Exercises Using Flipped Teaching: Introductory Education for Clinical Practice for 4th-Year Pharmacy Students].

    PubMed

    Onda, Mitsuko; Takagaki, Nobumasa

    2018-01-01

     Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences has included an evidence-based medicine (EBM) exercise in the introductory education for clinical practice for 4th-year pharmacy students since 2015. The purpose of this exercise is to learn the process of practice and basic concepts of EBM, especially to cultivate the practical ability to solve patients' problems and answer their questions. Additionally, in 2016, we have attempted flipped teaching. The students are instructed to review the basic knowledge necessary for active learning in this exercise by watching video teaching materials and to bring reports summarizing the contents on the flipped teaching days. The program includes short lectures [overview of EBM, document retrieval, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and systematic review], exercises [patient, intervention, comparison, outcome (PICO) structuring, critical appraisal of papers in small groups with tutors], and presentations. The program includes: step 1, PICO structuring based on scenarios; step 2, critical appraisal of English-language papers on RCTs using evaluation worksheets; and step 3, reviewing the results of the PICO exercise with patients. The results of the review are shared among groups through general discussion. In this symposium, I discuss students' attitudes, the effectiveness of small group discussions using flipped teaching, and future challenges to be addressed in this program.

  3. New tumor entities in the 4th edition of the World Health Organization classification of head and neck tumors: Nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and skull base.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lester D R; Franchi, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    The World Health Organization recently published the 4th edition of the Classification of Head and Neck Tumors, including several new entities, emerging entities, and significant updates to the classification and characterization of tumor and tumor-like lesions, specifically as it relates to nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and skull base in this overview. Of note, three new entities (NUT carcinoma, seromucinous hamartoma, biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma,) were added to this section, while emerging entities (SMARCB1-deficient carcinoma and HPV-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic-like features) and several tumor-like entities (respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma, chondromesenchymal hamartoma) were included as provisional diagnoses or discussed in the setting of the differential diagnosis. The sinonasal tract houses a significant diversity of entities, but interestingly, the total number of entities has been significantly reduced by excluding tumor types if they did not occur exclusively or predominantly at this site or if they are discussed in detail elsewhere in the book. Refinements to nomenclature and criteria were provided to sinonasal papilloma, borderline soft tissue tumors, and neuroendocrine neoplasms. Overall, the new WHO classification reflects the state of current understanding for many relatively rare neoplasms, with this article highlighting the most significant changes.

  4. Differential diagnosis of a probable case of non-adult thalassaemia from 4th century AD Romano-British Colchester, UK.

    PubMed

    Rohnbogner, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Our current understanding of immigration and diasporic disease in Roman Britain has been greatly enhanced by the recent identification of thalassaemia in the non-adult skeletal record. The wide phenotypic variation in the clinical expression of β-thalassaemia, however, means that additional cases may go unrecognised. A probable diagnosis for β-thalassaemia intermedia or a mild form of major in a 1.0-1.5year old skeleton from Butt Road, Colchester, dating to the 4th century AD is discussed here. The assessment was undertaken using macroscopic and radiographic analysis. Several conditions were apparent, including trauma and probable β-thalassaemia and active vitamin D deficiency. Diagnosis proved difficult due to the challenges that non-adult thalassaemia poses for identification in the skeletal record, as in the absence of the cranium only 'rib-within-a-rib' is currently considered as pathognomonic of the condition. This case demonstrates the variations in expression of this type of genetic anaemia and adds emphasis to a more widespread presence of this important condition in Roman Britain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Update from the 4th Edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Head and Neck Tumours: Tumors of the Salivary Gland.

    PubMed

    Seethala, Raja R; Stenman, Göran

    2017-03-01

    The salivary gland section in the 4th edition of the World Health Organization classification of head and neck tumors features the description and inclusion of several entities, the most significant of which is represented by (mammary analogue) secretory carcinoma. This entity was extracted mainly from acinic cell carcinoma based on recapitulation of breast secretory carcinoma and a shared ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Also new is the subsection of "Other epithelial lesions," for which key entities include sclerosing polycystic adenosis and intercalated duct hyperplasia. Many entities have been compressed into their broader categories given clinical and morphologic similarities, or transitioned to a different grouping as was the case with low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma reclassified as intraductal carcinoma (with the applied qualifier of low-grade). Specific grade has been removed from the names of the salivary gland entities such as polymorphous adenocarcinoma, providing pathologists flexibility in assigning grade and allowing for recognition of a broader spectrum within an entity. Cribriform adenocarcinoma of (minor) salivary gland origin continues to be divisive in terms of whether it should be recognized as a distinct category. This chapter also features new key concepts such as high-grade transformation. The new paradigm of translocations and gene fusions being common in salivary gland tumors is featured heavily in this chapter.

  6. Arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the 4th and 5th finger using an interlocking screw device to treat severe recurrence of Dupuytren's disease.

    PubMed

    Novoa-Parra, C D; Montaner-Alonso, D; Pérez-Correa, J I; Morales-Rodríguez, J; Rodrigo-Pérez, J L; Morales-Suarez-Varela, M

    To assess the radiological and functional outcome of arthrodesis of the 4th and 5th finger using the APEX™ (Extremity Medical, Parsippany,NJ)intermedullary interlocking screw system in patients with severe recurrence of Dupuytren's disease. The DASH questionnaire and the VAS scale were used to assess the clinical outcomes. The angle of arthrodesis, fusion time and implant fixation were evaluated on x-rays. The patients were monitored for complications during surgery and the follow-up period. The sample comprised 6 patients. Mean follow up was 19.6 months. All of the patients presented clinical and radiological evidence of fusion at 8 weeks, with fusion angles of 30° (3) and 45° (3). There were no complications and none of the implants had to be removed. The functional outcomes in these patients were poor. The system offers a reliable method for IPJ arthrodesis at a precise angle. It promotes stable fixation that does not require prolonged immobilisation. It can be used together with other procedures on the hand with severe recurrence of DD. The functional outcomes for this group of patients using this device were poor. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. The structure of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition, text revision) personality disorder symptoms in a large national sample.

    PubMed

    Trull, Timothy J; Vergés, Alvaro; Wood, Phillip K; Jahng, Seungmin; Sher, Kenneth J

    2012-10-01

    We examined the latent structure underlying the criteria for DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.) personality disorders in a large nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Personality disorder symptom data were collected using a structured diagnostic interview from approximately 35,000 adults assessed over two waves of data collection in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Our analyses suggested that a seven-factor solution provided the best fit for the data, and these factors were marked primarily by one or at most two personality disorder criteria sets. A series of regression analyses that used external validators tapping Axis I psychopathology, treatment for mental health problems, functioning scores, interpersonal conflict, and suicidal ideation and behavior provided support for the seven-factor solution. We discuss these findings in the context of previous studies that have examined the structure underlying the personality disorder criteria as well as the current proposals for DSM-5 personality disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Status and Trend of Regal Fritillary (Speyeria idalia) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the 4th of July Butterfly Count Program in 1977–2014

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Regal Fritillary (Speyeria idalia) primarily inhabits prairie, a native grassland of central North America, and occurs rarely in nonprairie grasslands further east. This butterfly has experienced widespread decline and marked range contraction. We analyze Regal Fritillary incidence and abundance during 1977–2014 in 4th of July Butterfly Counts, an annual census of butterflies in North America. Volunteers count within the same 24 km diameter circle each year. Only 6% of counts in range reported a Regal, while 18% of counts in core range in the Midwest and Great Plains did. 99.9% of Regal individuals occurred in core range. Only four circles east of core range reported this species, and only during the first half of the study period. All individuals reported west of its main range occurred in two circles in Colorado in the second half of the study. The number of counts per year and survey effort per count increased during the study. During 1991–2014, >31 counts occurred per year in core Regal range, compared to 0–23 during 1975–1990. During 1991–2014, all measures of Regal presence and abundance declined, most significantly. These results agree with other sources that Regal Fritillary has contracted its range and declined in abundance. PMID:27239370

  9. European guidelines for empirical antibacterial therapy for febrile neutropenic patients in the era of growing resistance: summary of the 2011 4th European Conference on Infections in Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Averbuch, Diana; Orasch, Christina; Cordonnier, Catherine; Livermore, David M.; Mikulska, Małgorzata; Viscoli, Claudio; Gyssens, Inge C.; Kern, Winfried V.; Klyasova, Galina; Marchetti, Oscar; Engelhard, Dan; Akova, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Owing to increasing resistance and the limited arsenal of new antibiotics, especially against Gram-negative pathogens, carefully designed antibiotic regimens are obligatory for febrile neutropenic patients, along with effective infection control. The Expert Group of the 4th European Conference on Infections in Leukemia has developed guidelines for initial empirical therapy in febrile neutropenic patients, based on: i) the local resistance epidemiology; and ii) the patient’s risk factors for resistant bacteria and for a complicated clinical course. An ‘escalation’ approach, avoiding empirical carbapenems and combinations, should be employed in patients without particular risk factors. A ‘de-escalation’ approach, with initial broad-spectrum antibiotics or combinations, should be used only in those patients with: i) known prior colonization or infection with resistant pathogens; or ii) complicated presentation; or iii) in centers where resistant pathogens are prevalent at the onset of febrile neutropenia. In the latter case, infection control and antibiotic stewardship also need urgent review. Modification of the initial regimen at 72–96 h should be based on the patient’s clinical course and the microbiological results. Discontinuation of antibiotics after 72 h or later should be considered in neutropenic patients with fever of unknown origin who are hemodynamically stable since presentation and afebrile for at least 48 h, irrespective of neutrophil count and expected duration of neutropenia. This strategy aims to minimize the collateral damage associated with antibiotic overuse, and the further selection of resistance. PMID:24323983

  10. CHANGES IN THE REGIONAL PREVALENCE OF CHILD OBESITY IN 4th, 8th, AND 11th GRADE STUDENTS IN TEXAS FROM 2000–2002 TO 2004–2005

    PubMed Central

    Kelder, S. H.; Pérez, A.; Day, R. S.; Benoit, J.; Frankowski, R. F.; Walker, J. L.; Lee, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    Although national and state estimates of child obesity are available, data at these levels are insufficient to monitor effects of local obesity prevention initiatives. The purpose of this study was to examine regional changes in the prevalence of obesity due to state-wide policies and programs among children in grades 4, 8, and 11 in Texas Health Service Regions (HSR) between 2000–2002 and 2004–2005, and nine selected counties in 2004–2005. A cross-sectional, probability-based sample of 23,190 Texas students in grades 4, 8, and 11 were weighed and measured to obtain body mass index (BMI). Obesity was greater than 95th percentile for BMI by age/sex using CDC growth charts. Child obesity prevalence significantly decreased between 2000–2002 and 2004–2005 for 4th grade students in the El Paso HSR (−7.0%, p=0.005). A leveling off in the prevalence of obesity was noted for all other regions for grades 4, 8 and 11. County-level data supported the statistically significant decreases noted in the El Paso region. The reduction of child obesity levels observed in the El Paso area is one of the few examples of effective programs and policies based on a population-wide survey: in this region, a local foundation funded extensive regional implementation of community programs for obesity prevention, including an evidence-based elementary school-based health promotion program, adult nutrition and physical activity programs, and a radio and television advertising campaign. Results emphasize the need for sustained school, community and policy efforts, and that these efforts can result in decreases in child obesity at the population level. PMID:19798066

  11. New tumour entities in the 4th edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Head and Neck tumours: odontogenic and maxillofacial bone tumours.

    PubMed

    Speight, Paul M; Takata, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    The latest (4th) edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Head and Neck tumours has recently been published with a number of significant changes across all tumour sites. In particular, there has been a major attempt to simplify classifications and to use defining criteria which can be used globally in all situations, avoiding wherever possible the use of complex molecular techniques which may not be affordable or widely available. This review summarises the changes in Chapter 8: Odontogenic and maxillofacial bone lesions. The most significant change is the re-introduction of the classification of the odontogenic cysts, restoring this books status as the only text which classifies and defines the full range of lesions of the odontogenic tissues. The consensus group considered carefully the terminology of lesions and were concerned to ensure that the names used properly reflected the best evidence regarding the true nature of specific entities. For this reason, this new edition restores the odontogenic keratocyst and calcifying odontogenic cyst to the classification of odontogenic cysts and rejects the previous terminology (keratocystic odontogenic tumour and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour) which were intended to suggest that they are true neoplasms. New entities which have been introduced include the sclerosing odontogenic carcinoma and primordial odontogenic tumour. In addition, some previously poorly defined lesions have been removed, including the ameloblastic fibrodentinoma, ameloblastic fibro-odontoma, which are probably developing odontomas, and the odontoameloblastoma, which is not regarded as an entity. Finally, the terminology "cemento" has been restored to cemento-ossifying fibroma and cemento-osseous dysplasias, to properly reflect that they are of odontogenic origin and are found in the tooth-bearing areas of the jaws.

  12. Identification and Characterization of Mycoplasma feriruminatoris sp. nov. Strains Isolated from Alpine Ibex: A 4th Species in the Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster Hosted by Non-domesticated Ruminants?

    PubMed Central

    Ambroset, Chloé; Pau-Roblot, Corinne; Game, Yvette; Gaurivaud, Patrice; Tardy, Florence

    2017-01-01

    The genus Mycoplasma, a group of free-living, wall-less prokaryotes includes more than 100 species of which dozens are primary pathogens of humans and domesticated animals. Mycoplasma species isolated from wildlife are rarely investigated but could provide a fuller picture of the evolutionary history and diversity of this genus. In 2013 several isolates from wild Caprinae were tentatively assigned to a new species, Mycoplasma (M.) feriruminatoris sp. nov., characterized by an unusually rapid growth in vitro and close genetic proximity to ruminant pathogenic species. We suspected that atypical isolates recently collected from Alpine ibex in France belonged to this new species. The present study was undertaken to verify this hypothesis and to further characterize the French ibex isolates. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to identify the isolates and position them in trees containing several other mycoplasma species pathogenic to domesticated ruminants. Population diversity was characterized by genomic macrorestriction and by examining the capacity of different strains to produce capsular polysaccharides, a feature now known to vary amongst mycoplasma species pathogenic to ruminants. This is the first report of M. feriruminatoris isolation from Alpine ibex in France. Phylogenetic analyses further suggested that M. feriruminatoris might constitute a 4th species in a genetic cluster that so far contains only important ruminant pathogens, the so-called Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. A PCR assay for specific identification is proposed. These French isolates were not clonal, despite being collected in a restricted region of the Alps, which signifies a considerable diversity of the new species. Strains were able to concomitantly produce two types of capsular polysaccharides, β-(1→6)-galactan and β-(1→6)-glucan, with variation in their respective ratio, a feature never before described in mycoplasmas. PMID:28611743

  13. Application of the FUN3D Unstructured-Grid Navier-Stokes Solver to the 4th AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Hammond, Dana P.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Pirzadeh, S. Z.; Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    FUN3D Navier-Stokes solutions were computed for the 4th AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop grid convergence study, downwash study, and Reynolds number study on a set of node-based mixed-element grids. All of the baseline tetrahedral grids were generated with the VGRID (developmental) advancing-layer and advancing-front grid generation software package following the gridding guidelines developed for the workshop. With maximum grid sizes exceeding 100 million nodes, the grid convergence study was particularly challenging for the node-based unstructured grid generators and flow solvers. At the time of the workshop, the super-fine grid with 105 million nodes and 600 million elements was the largest grid known to have been generated using VGRID. FUN3D Version 11.0 has a completely new pre- and post-processing paradigm that has been incorporated directly into the solver and functions entirely in a parallel, distributed memory environment. This feature allowed for practical pre-processing and solution times on the largest unstructured-grid size requested for the workshop. For the constant-lift grid convergence case, the convergence of total drag is approximately second-order on the finest three grids. The variation in total drag between the finest two grids is only 2 counts. At the finest grid levels, only small variations in wing and tail pressure distributions are seen with grid refinement. Similarly, a small wing side-of-body separation also shows little variation at the finest grid levels. Overall, the FUN3D results compare well with the structured-grid code CFL3D. The FUN3D downwash study and Reynolds number study results compare well with the range of results shown in the workshop presentations.

  14. The Effects of Acculturation on Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics among Hispanic 4th Grade Children in Texas Public Schools, 2004-2005

    PubMed Central

    Mirchandani, Gita G.; Castrucci, Brian C.; Chávez, Noel; Handler, Arden; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Childhood obesity is a national epidemic that disproportionately affects Hispanic children. Evidence suggests that increased acculturation among this population adversely affects diet and other healthy lifestyle characteristics, leading to higher rates of overweight and obesity. Healthy lifestyle characteristics must be understood in order to prevent or decrease overweight and obesity among Hispanic children. METHODS Using the School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) study, we examined cross-sectional data on healthy lifestyle characteristics collected in Texas public schools from Hispanic 4th grade children in 2004-2005. We calculated adjusted odds ratios and associated confidence intervals using multivariate logistic regression analyses to analyze the association between acculturation and healthy lifestyle characteristics among Spanish-speaking Hispanic children compared to English-speaking Hispanic children. RESULTS Spanish-speaking Hispanic boys consumed more milk and fruit than English-speaking Hispanic boys (milk: AOR: 1.7, p = 0.02; fruit: AOR: 2.5, p = .0001). The likelihood that Spanish-speaking Hispanic boys and girls did not know that there is a relationship between overweight and health problems were two times greater (boys: AOR: 1.7, p = .03; girls: AOR: 2.2, p = .006) than their English-speaking Hispanic counterparts. Likelihood of weight loss attempts was greater among Spanish-speaking Hispanic boys than English-speaking Hispanic boys (AOR: 1.9, p = .04). CONCLUSIONS Results are mixed. Lower levels of acculturation appear to be associated with both positive and negative healthy lifestyle characteristics, depending on sex. These findings have important implications for school health policies and programs and should be distributed to school administrators. PMID:22385089

  15. Mapping the origins of Imperial Roman workers (1st-4th century CE) at Vagnari, Southern Italy, using 87 Sr/86 Sr and δ18 O variability.

    PubMed

    Emery, Matthew V; Stark, Robert J; Murchie, Tyler J; Elford, Spencer; Schwarcz, Henry P; Prowse, Tracy L

    2018-04-18

    We obtained the oxygen and strontium isotope composition of teeth from Roman period (1st to 4th century CE) inhabitants buried in the Vagnari cemetery (Southern Italy), and present the first strontium isotope variation map of the Italian peninsula using previously published data sets and new strontium data. We test the hypothesis that the Vagnari population was predominantly composed of local individuals, instead of migrants originating from abroad. We analyzed the oxygen ( 18 O/ 16 O) and strontium ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) isotope composition of 43 teeth. We also report the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr composition of an additional 13 molars, 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values from fauna (n = 10), and soil (n = 5) samples local to the area around Vagnari. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr variation map of Italy uses 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values obtained from previously published data sources from across Italy (n = 199). Converted tooth carbonate (δ 18 O DW ) and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr data indicate that the majority of individuals buried at Vagnari were local to the region. ArcGIS bounded Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) interpolation of the pan-Italian 87 Sr/ 86 Sr data set approximates the expected 87 Sr/ 86 Sr range of Italy's geological substratum, producing the first strontium map of the Italian peninsula. Results suggest that only 7% of individuals buried at Vagnari were born elsewhere and migrated to Vagnari, while the remaining individuals were either local to Vagnari (58%), or from the southern Italian peninsula (34%). Our results are consistent with the suggestion that Roman Imperial lower-class populations in southern Italy sustained their numbers through local reproduction measures, and not through large-scale immigration from outside the Italian peninsula. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Relationship between Long Working Hours and Suicidal Thoughts: Nationwide Data from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Jung, Pil Kyun; Roh, Jaehoon; Seok, Hongdeok; Won, Jong-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Background Long working hours are a worldwide problem and may increase the risk of various health issues. However, the health effects of long working hours on suicidal thoughts have not been frequently studied. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between long working hours and suicidal thoughts in the rapidly developing country of Korea. Methods Data from 12,076 participants (7,164 men, 4,912 women) from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were used for the current analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for suicidal thoughts. Combined effects of long working hours and lower socioeconomic status or sleep disturbance were also estimated. Results Compared to groups who worked less than 52 hours per week, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for suicidal thoughts in groups who worked 60 hours or more per week were 1.36 (1.09–1.70) for males and 1.38 (1.11–1.72) for females, even after controlling for household income, marital status, history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus, health-related behaviors, and past two weeks’ experience of injury, intoxication, or acute or chronic diseases, as well as type of work. The combined effects of long working hours with lower socioeconomic status, or with sleep disturbance, were also significantly higher compared to participants who worked less than 52 hours per week with higher socioeconomic status, or with 6–8 hours of nighttime sleep. Conclusion In this study, long working hours were linked to suicidal thoughts for both genders. Additionally, the odds of those suicidal thoughts were higher for lower socioeconomic groups. To prevent adverse psychological health problems such as suicidal thoughts, a strategy regarding long working hours should be investigated. PMID:26080022

  17. Relationship between Long Working Hours and Suicidal Thoughts: Nationwide Data from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Jung, Pil Kyun; Roh, Jaehoon; Seok, Hongdeok; Won, Jong-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Long working hours are a worldwide problem and may increase the risk of various health issues. However, the health effects of long working hours on suicidal thoughts have not been frequently studied. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between long working hours and suicidal thoughts in the rapidly developing country of Korea. Data from 12,076 participants (7,164 men, 4,912 women) from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were used for the current analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for suicidal thoughts. Combined effects of long working hours and lower socioeconomic status or sleep disturbance were also estimated. Compared to groups who worked less than 52 hours per week, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for suicidal thoughts in groups who worked 60 hours or more per week were 1.36 (1.09-1.70) for males and 1.38 (1.11-1.72) for females, even after controlling for household income, marital status, history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus, health-related behaviors, and past two weeks' experience of injury, intoxication, or acute or chronic diseases, as well as type of work. The combined effects of long working hours with lower socioeconomic status, or with sleep disturbance, were also significantly higher compared to participants who worked less than 52 hours per week with higher socioeconomic status, or with 6-8 hours of nighttime sleep. In this study, long working hours were linked to suicidal thoughts for both genders. Additionally, the odds of those suicidal thoughts were higher for lower socioeconomic groups. To prevent adverse psychological health problems such as suicidal thoughts, a strategy regarding long working hours should be investigated.

  18. The Prevention Disaster Program of Flood in 2013 for the 4th Grade Students of Kawatanaka Primary School, Tokushima Prefecture, Japan and Underflow Channels Revealed in 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamata, Sanae; Murata, Mamoru

    2017-12-01

    The Typhoon No. 18 caused flood on September 15, 2013 in the Kawata River basin, Yoshinogawa City, Tokushima Prefecture. The Kawata River is a raised river bed of 36.7 m with banks to 40.5 m above sea level. The heavy rain did not destroy the banks but made the river level 39.4 m high and then pressed the underflow channel. As the Kawatanaka primary school is located at 36.2 m height, it was not submerged although the underflow channel overbanked the adjacent playground. An educational program on the prevention and reduction for natural disaster, which consists of science, social studies and presentation, was conducted to 18 students of the 4th grade in the period of integrated study in the Kawatanaka primary school from September 17, 2013. On the first day, flow current markings from 625 holes, 30 cm to 1 mm in diameter, on the playground were observed. The flow currents showed direction from SE to NW. On the basis of their observations on the flow currents that water runs from high to low, the students considered the phenomena as a result of tilting of the ground. They conducted activity as their homework to confirm their hypothesis to know if there is any tilt in the ground. They took plastic bottle filled with water and reviled that the ground had 1 to 2 degrees’ tilt to the NW during the experiment. On the bases of the difference between E to W flow of the Kawata River and their SE to NW estimated current flow on the playground and the fact that the bank of the river was not destroyed, the students suggested that the heavy rain had pressed the underflow channels. The suggested channels were found on the playground, where new school buildings were constructed in 2016, by one of the students who studied the program in 2013.

  19. Estimates of premorbid ability in a neurodegenerative disease clinic population: comparing the Test of Premorbid Functioning and the Wide Range Achievement Test, 4th Edition.

    PubMed

    Berg, Jody-Lynn; Durant, January; Banks, Sarah J; Miller, Justin B

    2016-05-01

    Two frequently used measures to assess premorbid intellectual ability include the Wide Range Achievement Test, 4th Edition Reading Subtest (WRAT-4 READ) and the Test of Premorbid Functioning (TOPF). The present study compared estimates obtained from these measures in a neurodegenerative disease population. Records from 85 referrals seen for neuropsychological evaluation in a neurodegenerative disorders clinic were reviewed. Evaluations included TOPF, WRAT-4 READ, and measures of memory, reasoning, language, and executive functioning. Pairwise correlations and concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) were calculated between raw scores and predicted intelligence estimates. Discrepancy scores were calculated between estimates and data were divided into three groups based on size of standardized discrepancy score: Equal, WRAT-4 READ > TOPF, and TOPF > WRAT-4 READ. analysis of variances compared groups on demographic characteristics and cognitive performance. Despite strong Pearson correlation, CCC between predicted IQ estimates showed poor agreement between measures, with evidence of both fixed and proportional bias. Discrepancies ranged from -24.0 to 22.0 (M = 1.78, SD = 6.65), with TOPF generating higher estimates on average. Individuals performing better on WRAT-4 READ were significantly older (M age = 76.26, SD = 7.53) than those performing similarly on both measures and those performing better on TOPF (F (2, 82) = 7.31, p < .001). All other comparisons between groups on demographic variables and cognitive measures were non-significant. Estimates of premorbid intelligence obtained from the TOPF and WRAT-4 READ have a strong linear relationship, but systematically generate inconsistent estimates in a neurodegenerative disease clinical sample and should not be used interchangeably.

  20. Generalized Procrustes analysis of an ontogenetic series of modified crania: Evaluating the technique of modification in the Migration Period of Europe (4th-7th century AD).

    PubMed

    Mayall, Peter; Pilbrow, Varsha

    2018-05-01

    The arrival of the Huns into Europe in the fourth century AD increased the occurrence of intentional cranial modification among European nomads. It has been postulated that the Huns used a two-bandage cranial binding technique to differentiate themselves from surrounding nomadic groups, including those from Georgia. This study examines this hypothesis by comparing Migration Period (4th to 7th century AD) juvenile crania, which retain strong impressions of bindings, with adult modified crania from Hungary and Georgia. Twelve surface landmarks and 251 semi-landmarks were used to study ontogenetic trajectories in 9 juvenile and 16 adult modified skulls from 8 Hungarian sites and 21 adult skulls from two Georgian sites. Generalized Procrustes analysis, linear regression of Procrutes distance on dental age and log centroid size, and warping the principal components (PCs) in shape space helped to identify cranial shape changes. The PCs provide significant separation of the juvenile and adult groups from Georgia and Hungary. Variation in modified cranial shape was limited in Hungary compared to Georgia. There was stronger correlation between juvenile and adult modified cranial shape in Hungary than in Georgia. Warping along the first axis reveals the trajectory from marked flattening of the frontal and occipital regions in juveniles to diminished flattening in the same regions in adult crania, corresponding with one binding. Another depression extending from the post-bregmatic region to the temporal region, similarly strong in juveniles but diminishing in adults, marks the second binding. Hungarian crania were modified with two bindings with limited shape variation, whereas the Georgian crania had greater variation in shape being also modified with antero-posterior bindings. The findings from this study alongside contemporary historical sources help to understand the role of intentional cranial modification as a mark of social identity among nomads in the Migration Period

  1. Relationship of activities outside work to sleep and depression/anxiety disorders in Korean workers: the 4th Korean working condition survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Jae; Jung, Sung Won; Lee, Hee Sung; Kim, Guang Hwi; Lee, Jae Gwang; Lee, June-Hee; Kim, Joo Ja

    2017-01-01

    Sleep disorders and depression/anxiety disorders are long-standing and significant problem for mental health. Also there are already known so many negative health effect of these disorders. But there were few studies to examine the association between activities outside work and forementioned disorders. So this study aimed the association of those things by using the Republic of Korean data. Data from 32,232 wage workers were used in the 4th Korean Working Condition Survey. General and occupational characteristics, sleep disorders, depression/anxiety disorders and activities outside work are included in questionnaire. To find the relationship between activities outside work and sleep, depression/anxiety disorders, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used after adjusting for general and occupational characteristics. We observed that volunteer activities increased the odds ratio of both sleep disorders and depression/anxiety disorders(Odds ratio[OR] = 1.35, 95% confidence interval[CI]: 1.03-1.78 and OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.29-1.84, respectively). And self-development activities increase the odds ratio of sleep disorders(OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.17-1.57). Gardening activities lowered the odds ratio of depression/anxiety disorders(OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.59-0.94). Some of activities outside work were related to sleep disorders and depression/anxiety disorders among Korean wage workers. Our results showed negative health effect of some kinds of activities outside work such as volunteering and self-devlopment compared to other studies that emphasized positive effect of those activities for health.

  2. Identification and Characterization of Mycoplasma feriruminatoris sp. nov. Strains Isolated from Alpine Ibex: A 4th Species in the Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster Hosted by Non-domesticated Ruminants?

    PubMed

    Ambroset, Chloé; Pau-Roblot, Corinne; Game, Yvette; Gaurivaud, Patrice; Tardy, Florence

    2017-01-01

    The genus Mycoplasma , a group of free-living, wall-less prokaryotes includes more than 100 species of which dozens are primary pathogens of humans and domesticated animals. Mycoplasma species isolated from wildlife are rarely investigated but could provide a fuller picture of the evolutionary history and diversity of this genus. In 2013 several isolates from wild Caprinae were tentatively assigned to a new species, Mycoplasma ( M.) feriruminatoris sp. nov., characterized by an unusually rapid growth in vitro and close genetic proximity to ruminant pathogenic species. We suspected that atypical isolates recently collected from Alpine ibex in France belonged to this new species. The present study was undertaken to verify this hypothesis and to further characterize the French ibex isolates. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to identify the isolates and position them in trees containing several other mycoplasma species pathogenic to domesticated ruminants. Population diversity was characterized by genomic macrorestriction and by examining the capacity of different strains to produce capsular polysaccharides, a feature now known to vary amongst mycoplasma species pathogenic to ruminants. This is the first report of M. feriruminatoris isolation from Alpine ibex in France. Phylogenetic analyses further suggested that M. feriruminatoris might constitute a 4th species in a genetic cluster that so far contains only important ruminant pathogens, the so-called Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. A PCR assay for specific identification is proposed. These French isolates were not clonal, despite being collected in a restricted region of the Alps, which signifies a considerable diversity of the new species. Strains were able to concomitantly produce two types of capsular polysaccharides, β-(1→6)-galactan and β-(1→6)-glucan, with variation in their respective ratio, a feature never before described in mycoplasmas.

  3. Cardiovascular screening in adolescents and young adults: a prospective study comparing the Pre-participation Physical Evaluation Monograph 4th Edition and ECG

    PubMed Central

    Fudge, Jessie; Harmon, Kimberly G; Owens, David S; Prutkin, Jordan M; Salerno, Jack C; Asif, Irfan M; Haruta, Alison; Pelto, Hank; Rao, Ashwin L; Toresdahl, Brett G; Drezner, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    Background This study compares the accuracy of cardiovascular screening in active adolescents and young adults using a standardised history, physical examination and resting 12-lead ECG. Methods Participants were prospectively screened using a standardised questionnaire based on the Pre-participation Physical Evaluation Monograph 4th Edition (PPE-4), physical examination and ECG interpreted using modern standards. Participants with abnormal findings had focused echocardiography and further evaluation. Primary outcomes included disorders associated with sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Results From September 2010 to July 2011, 1339 participants underwent screening: age 13–24 (mean 16) years, 49% male, 68% Caucasian, 17% African-American and 1071 (80%) participating in organised sports. Abnormal history responses were reported on 916 (68%) questionnaires. After physician review, 495/ 916 (54%) participants with positive questionnaires were thought to have non-cardiac symptoms and/or a benign family history and did not warrant additional evaluation. Physical examination was abnormal in 124 (9.3%) participants, and 72 (5.4%) had ECG abnormalities. Echocardiograms were performed in 586 (44%) participants for abnormal history (31%), physical examination (8%) or ECG (5%). Five participants (0.4%) were identified with a disorder associated with SCA, all with ECG-detected Wolff-Parkinson-White. The false-positive rates for history, physical examination and ECG were 31.3%, 9.3% and 5%, respectively. Conclusions A standardised history and physical examination using the PPE-4 yields a high false-positive rate in a young active population with limited sensitivity to identify those at risk for SCA. ECG screening has a low false-positive rate using modern interpretation standards and improves detection of primary electrical disease at risk of SCA. PMID:24948082

  4. Cardiovascular screening in adolescents and young adults: a prospective study comparing the Pre-participation Physical Evaluation Monograph 4th Edition and ECG.

    PubMed

    Fudge, Jessie; Harmon, Kimberly G; Owens, David S; Prutkin, Jordan M; Salerno, Jack C; Asif, Irfan M; Haruta, Alison; Pelto, Hank; Rao, Ashwin L; Toresdahl, Brett G; Drezner, Jonathan A

    2014-08-01

    This study compares the accuracy of cardiovascular screening in active adolescents and young adults using a standardised history, physical examination and resting 12-lead ECG. Participants were prospectively screened using a standardised questionnaire based on the Pre-participation Physical Evaluation Monograph 4th Edition (PPE-4), physical examination and ECG interpreted using modern standards. Participants with abnormal findings had focused echocardiography and further evaluation. Primary outcomes included disorders associated with sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). From September 2010 to July 2011, 1339 participants underwent screening: age 13-24 (mean 16) years, 49% male, 68% Caucasian, 17% African-American and 1071 (80%) participating in organised sports. Abnormal history responses were reported on 916 (68%) questionnaires. After physician review, 495/916 (54%) participants with positive questionnaires were thought to have non-cardiac symptoms and/or a benign family history and did not warrant additional evaluation. Physical examination was abnormal in 124 (9.3%) participants, and 72 (5.4%) had ECG abnormalities. Echocardiograms were performed in 586 (44%) participants for abnormal history (31%), physical examination (8%) or ECG (5%). Five participants (0.4%) were identified with a disorder associated with SCA, all with ECG-detected Wolff-Parkinson-White. The false-positive rates for history, physical examination and ECG were 31.3%, 9.3% and 5%, respectively. A standardised history and physical examination using the PPE-4 yields a high false-positive rate in a young active population with limited sensitivity to identify those at risk for SCA. ECG screening has a low false-positive rate using modern interpretation standards and improves detection of primary electrical disease at risk of SCA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Potency of Bacillus thuringiensis isolates from bareng Tenes-Malang City as a biological control agent for suppressing third instar of Aedes aegypti larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutfiana, Nihayatul; Gama, Zulfaidah Penata

    2017-11-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that is transmitted by the female Aedes species. The number of dengue fever cases has increased in many geographic regions including Indonesia and one of them occurred in Bareng Tenes, Malang City, East Java Province. The objective of this research was to identify the potency of B. thuringeinsis isolates from Bareng Tenes, Malang, as the biological agent to control third instar Ae. aegypti larvae and to identify the potential B. thuringiensis isolates based on 16S rDNA sequence. B. thuringiensis was isolated from water and soil from 12 sites in the Bareng Tenes area. Bacterial isolation was performed using B. thuringiensis selective media. Several isolates had similar phenotypic characters with B. thuringiensis used to toxicity test against third instar Ae. aegypti larvae. The LC50-96h value was determined using probit regression. The most effective isolate was identified based on the 16S rDNA sequence, then aligned to the reference isolate using the BLAST program. A phylogeny tree was constructed using the Maximum Likelihood method. This study showed that among 22 isolates of B. thuringiensis, only BA02b, BS04a, and BA03a isolates have similar phenotypic characters with B. thuringiensis. Based on the toxicity test of B. thuringiensis against the third instar of Ae. aegypti larvae, it was indicated that BA02b and BA03a isolates were the potential agents to control Ae. aegypti larvae. BA02b isolate was the most effective B. thuringiensis (LC50-96h = 2,75 x 107 cell/mL). Based on 16S rDNA sequence, BA02b was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis var. Israelensis BGSC4Q2 (99 % similarities).

  6. Description of the last-instar larva and pupa of a leaf-mining hispine - Prionispa champaka Maulik, 1919 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae, Oncocephalini).

    PubMed

    Liao, Chengqing; Liu, Peng; Xu, Jiasheng; Staines, Charles L; Dai, Xiaohua

    2018-01-01

    The last-instar larva and pupa of Prionispa champaka Maulik, 1919 are described and figured in detail. The chaetotaxy of the head, mouthparts, legs, and dorsal and ventral surfaces of the body are given. The larva of P. champaka mine in the leaves of Pollia japonica Thunb. (Commelinaceae) and pupate in the base of the mid-ribs. The adults were also observed feeding on the leaves of Pollia siamensis (Carib.) Faden ex D. Y. Hong. The prominent diagnostic characters of immature stages of other species of the three genera of Oncocephalini ( Prionispa , Chaeridiona , and Oncocephala ) are discussed.

  7. New Wisdom to Defy an Old Enemy: Summary from a scientific symposium at the 4th Influenza Vaccines for the World (IVW) 2012 Congress, 11 October, Valencia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Poland, Gregory A; Fleming, Douglas M; Treanor, John J; Maraskovsky, Eugene; Luke, Thomas C; Ball, Emma M A; Poland, Caroline M

    2013-04-17

    Both seasonal and pandemic influenza cause considerable morbidity and mortality globally. In addition, the ongoing threat of new, unpredictable influenza pandemics from emerging variant strains cannot be underestimated. Recently bioCSL (previously known as CSL Biotherapies) sponsored a symposium 'New Wisdom to Defy an Old Enemy' at the 4th Influenza Vaccines for the World Congress in Valencia, Spain. This symposium brought together a renowned faculty of experts to discuss lessons from past experience, novel influenza vaccine developments, and new methods to increase vaccine acceptance and coverage. Specific topics reviewed and discussed included new vaccine development efforts focused on improving efficacy via alternative administration routes, dose modifications, improved adjuvants, and the use of master donor viruses. Improved safety was also discussed, particularly the new finding of an excess of febrile reactions isolated to children who received the 2010 Southern Hemisphere (SH) trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). Significant work has been done to both identify the cause and minimize the risk of febrile reactions in children. Other novel prophylactic and therapeutic advances were discussed including immunotherapy. Standard IVIg and hIVIg have been used in ferret studies and human case reports with promising results. New adjuvants, such as ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant, were noted to provide single-dose, prolonged protection with seasonal vaccine after lethal H5N1 virus challenge in a ferret model of human influenza disease. The data suggest that adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines may provide broader protection than unadjuvanted vaccines. The use of an antigen-formulated vaccine to induce broad protection between pandemics that could bridge the gap between pandemic declaration and the production of a homologous vaccine was also discussed. Finally, despite the availability of effective vaccines, most current efforts to increase influenza vaccine coverage

  8. EDITORIAL: Instrumentation and Methods for Neutron Scattering—papers from the 4th European Conference on Neutron Scattering in Lund, Sweden, June 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennie, Adrian R.

    2008-03-01

    Neutron scattering is used as a tool to study problems in disciplines that include chemistry, materials science, biology and condensed matter physics as well as problems from neighbouring disciplines such as geology, environmental sciences and archaeology. Equipment for these studies is found at laboratories with research reactors or spallation neutron sources and there are many recent or current developments with new instruments and even entirely new facilities such as the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge, USA, the OPAL reactor at Lucas Heights, Australia and the second target station at the ISIS facility in the UK. Design and optimization of the instruments at these facilities involves work with many research laboratories and groups in universities. Every four years the European Conference on Neutron Scattering (ECNS) brings together both the specialists in neutron instrumentation and the community of users (in intervening years there are International and American conferences). In June 2007 about 700 delegates came to the 4th ECNS that was held in Lund, Sweden. There were more than 600 presentations as talks and posters. The opportunity to publish papers in Measurement Science and Technology that relate to neutron scattering instrumentation and method development was offered to the participants, and the papers that follow describe some of the recent activity in this field. Accounts of work on condensed matter science and the applications of neutron scattering appear separately in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. There are, of course, many features of neutron instrumentation that are specific to this particular field of measurement. However, there are also many elements of apparatus and experiment design that can usefully be shared with a broader community. It is hoped that this issue with papers from ECNS will find a broad community of interest. Apart from descriptions of overall design of diffractometers and spectrometers there are accounts of new

  9. Social networks and health-related quality of life among Chinese old adults in urban areas: results from 4th National Household Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Lei, P; Xu, L; Nwaru, B I; Long, Q; Wu, Z

    2016-02-01

    To examine the associations between components of social networks and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in community-dwelling old adults in urban areas in China. Data from the 4th National Household Health Survey (NHHS) in China, conducted in 2008, were used. HRQoL of respondents aged ≥15 years was assessed using EQ-5D in the NHHS. The sample for the current analysis included 9833 old adults aged ≥60 years. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between indicators of social network and HRQoL. Approximately 6% of the respondents saw their children once a year or less, and approximately 1% reported that they had no children. Thirteen percent of the sample seldom contacted their neighbours and seldom met with relatives or friends; approximately 62% seldom attended social gatherings. The five dimensions of HRQoL (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression) were reported to be moderate or severe in 14.5%, 9.4%, 12.6%, 18.3% and 9.3% of the sample, respectively. The mean visual analogue scale (VAS) score and EQ-5D index using the time trade-off method was 70.96 [standard deviation (SD) 14.79] and 0.869 (SD 0.163), respectively. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, old adults with weaker social networks were more likely to report problems on EQ-5D dimensions, lower VAS scores and lower EQ-5D indexes. For old adults living in urban communities in China, increased social participation has a positive effect on various dimensions of HRQoL. There is a need for policy considerations that will improve integration of community-level public resources in order to encourage frequent social interaction among old adults, and promote health and social care as a whole. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of the toxic potential of calcium carbide in the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg(9).

    PubMed

    Danish, Mohd; Fatima, Ambreen; Khanam, Saba; Jyoti, Smita; Rahul; Ali, Fahad; Naz, Falaq; Siddique, Yasir Hasan

    2015-11-01

    In the present study the toxic potential of calcium carbide (CaC2) was studied on the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg(9). The third instar larvae were exposed to 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32×10(-3)g/ml of CaC2 in diet for 24h. The results reveal that the dose 2×10(-3)g/ml was not toxic but the remaining doses showed a dose dependent significant increase in the hsp70 expression, β-galactosidase activity, tissue damage, oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content), glutathione-S-transferase activity, expression of Caspase 3 and 9, apoptotic index and DNA damage (midgut cells). A significant reduction as compared to control group in total protein, glutathione content and acetylcholinesterase activity was also observed. The Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy analysis (ICPAES) reveals the presence of copper, iron, sodium, aluminium, manganese, calcium, nickel and mercury. The toxic effects of CaC2 in the present study may be attributed to the impurities present in it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Duplex Real-Time PCR Assay Distinguishes Aedes aegypti From Ae. albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Using DNA From Sonicated First-Instar Larvae.

    PubMed

    Kothera, Linda; Byrd, Brian; Savage, Harry M

    2017-11-07

    Aedes aegypti (L.) and Ae. albopictus (Skuse) are important arbovirus vectors in the United States, and the recent emergence of Zika virus disease as a public health concern in the Americas has reinforced a need for tools to rapidly distinguish between these species in collections made by vector control agencies. We developed a duplex real-time PCR assay that detects both species and does not cross-amplify in any of the other seven Aedes species tested. The lower limit of detection for our assay is equivalent to ∼0.03 of a first-instar larva in a 60-µl sample (0.016 ng of DNA per real-time PCR reaction). The assay was sensitive and specific in mixtures of both species that reflected up to a 2,000-fold difference in DNA concentration. In addition, we developed a simple protocol to extract DNA from sonicated first-instar larvae, and used that DNA to test the assay. Because it uses real-time PCR, the assay saves time by not requiring a separate visualization step. This assay can reduce the time needed for vector control agencies to make species identifications, and thus inform decisions about surveillance and control. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017 This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Airglow at 630 and 557.7 nm during HF pumping of the Ionosphere near the 4th Gyroharmonic at the ``Sura'' Facility in September 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindin, Alexey; Nasyrov, Igor; Grach, Savely; Sergeev, Evgeny; Klimenko, Vladimir; Beletsky, Alexandr

    We present results of artificial optical emission observations in the red (630 nm) and green (557.7 nm) lines of the atomic oxygen during ionosphere HF pumping at the Sura facility (56.1°N, 46.1°E, magnetic field dip angle 71.5°) in Sep. 2012. Pump wave (PW) of O-polarization at frequencies f0 = 4.74 - 5.64 MHz was used in the experiment according to ionospheric conditions after sunset. Two CCD cameras (S1C/079-FP(FU) and KEO Sentinel with fields of view 20° and 145°, respectively, and 3 photometers were used for the emission registration. For estimation of a relation between the PW frequency f0 and 4th electron gyroharmonic 4fce Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE) registration was applied (for details see [1]). On September 11 the pump beam was inclined by 12° to the South, the PW frequencies f0 = 5.40 and 5.42 MHz were slightly above 4fce. On September 13, for vertical pumping, f0 was 5.64 MHz (well above 4fce), 5.32 - 5.42 MHz (around 4fce) and 4.74 MHz (well below 4fce). On September 14 the vertical pumping at f0 = 5.30 - 5.36 MHz and 4.74 MHz was used. In the latter day due to natural motion of the ionosphere and concurrent SEE measurements we were able to obtain a fine dependence of the optical brightness on the proximity f0 and 4fce. For the red line no essential dependence, as well of the shape and position of the airglow spot on the proximity was obtained with one exception: on Sep. 14 when, according to the SEE spectra, f0 was just below 4fce (by 15-20 kHz), the brightness essentially increased, by 1.25-1.5 times. For the green line, the brightest emission occurred when f0 was passing through 4fce (Sep. 14) and when f0 = 5.64 MHz (Sep. 13, well above 4fce). Also, on Sep. 14 the airglow enhancement in the red line during the pumping was replaced by the suppression of the background emission when the ionosphere critical frequency approached to f0 by less than 500 kHz. Similar effect was obtained on Sep. 11 and in [2] for south-inclined pump beam

  13. An Assessment of 4th-, 8th-, and 11th-Grade Students' Environmental Science Knowledge Related to Oregon's Marine Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Assesses the understanding that a sample of Oregon public school students (n=159) had of geology, physical and chemical characteristics, ecology, and natural resources as related to a marine environment. Results indicate that student understanding in some areas does not progress beyond the early grades and that the interdisciplinary approach of…

  14. Identifying and Living Leadership in the Lives of Prekindergarten through 4th-Grade Girls: The Story of One Intentional Leadership Identity Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Darlyne; Hufford, Mariandl M. C.; Emmerson, Melissa S.; Eckert, Sarah Anne

    2017-01-01

    Cultivating leadership identity early in a child's development is crucial. This article examines the development of an intentional leadership identity development program for young girls. Using participatory action research (PAR), faculty and students from a college school of social work and administrators and teachers from a suburban…

  15. Prey preference of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii between first instar western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and nymphs of the twospotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuenong; Enkegaard, Annie

    2010-01-01

    The prey preference of polyphagous predators plays an important role in suppressing different species of pest insects. In this study the prey preference of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined between nymphs of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and first instar larvae of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), as well as between active and chrysalis spider mite protonymphs and active and chrysalis spider mite deutonymphs. The study was done in the laboratory on bean leaf discs at 25 ± 1° C and 70 ± 5% RH. Amblyseius swirskii had a clear preference for thrips compared to both spider mite protonymphs and deutonymphs. About twice as many thrips as spider mites were consumed. Amblyseius swirskii did not show a preference between active and chrysalis stages of spider mites.

  16. Effect of Dimethoate (Rogor 30% EC) on the brain neurosecretory cells of third instar grubs of Oryctes rhinoceros L. (Coleoptera : Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Padmasheela, N C; Delvi, M R

    2004-10-01

    The brain neurosecretory cells of III instar grubs of Oryctes rhinoceros were exposed to insecticide Dimethoate (Rogor 30% EC) in the laboratory condition. The sublethal doses (0.125, 0.25 and 0.5%) of Rogor at time intervals of 8, 16 and 24 h have produced marked changes in the structure and the secretory activities of medial and lateral neurosecretory cells. Rogor stimulates the synthetic activity of these cells at the initial stages of its action and results in the accumulation of neurosecretory materials (NSM) in the cytoplasm. The decreased neurosecretion at later stages of the action was due to its transportation through the axons before the death of treated grubs. Similarly, vacuolization, shrinking and degeneration of cells were also observed in treated grubs.

  17. Noise as a Public Health Problem: Proceedings of the International Congress (4th) Held at Turin (Italy) on June 21-25, 1983. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    22 , 821-825. Peters, D.A.V., Prenatal stress: effects on brain biogenic amine and plasma corticosterone levels. Pharmacol., Biochem. and Behav., 17...527 Late Postnatal Effect on Corticosterone Blood Level, of an Acoustical Stimulation Previously Applied to Mice During Pre or Early Postnatal...evaluated threshold shifts and/or hair cell destruction as indicatozs of damage. The aim has particularly been focused on the effect of systema- tically

  18. Antibacterial activity inducible in the haemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, by injection of formalin-treated Escherichia coli K-12 during the fifth larval instar and pharate adult development.

    PubMed

    Sumida, M; Ichimori, H; Johchi, S; Takaoka, A; Yuhki, T; Mori, H; Matsubara, F

    1992-01-01

    1. Antibacterial activity inducible in the haemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, by immunization, i.e. by injection of formalin-treated Escherichia coli (E. coli) K-12 during the fifth larval instar and pharate adult development that was reared aseptically on an artificial diet was determined by inhibition zone assay using the same bacterium as a test organism. 2. A peak of antibacterial activity was observed in each development stage; approximately 8 mm in diameter of a clear zone at days 3 or 4 in the fifth larval instar and approximately 5 mm at day 1 in the pharate adults. 3. Acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of immunized haemolymph followed by overlay assay showed that an activity band was associated with two peptide bands that were similar to the cecropin-like peptides A and B that were reported in the silkworm (Morishima et al., 1988, Agri. Biol. Chem. 52, 929-934). Any other activity bands were not observed. No activity band was detectable from the haemolymph of non-immunized insects. 4. Fractionation of antibacterial peptides in immunized haemolymph on a CM-cellulose column resulted in separation of two groups of activity, both in the fifth instar larvae and in the pharate adults with a slight difference in elution conditions. 5. Duration of high antibacterial activity induced by a single immunization was approximately 12 hr in the fifth instar day 3 larvae and 48 hr in the day 2 pharate adults.

  19. Administration of IL-1beta to the 4th ventricle causes anorexia that is blocked by agouti-related peptide and that coincides with activation of tyrosine-hydroxylase neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract.

    PubMed

    DeBoer, Mark D; Scarlett, Jarrad M; Levasseur, Peter R; Grant, Wilmon F; Marks, Daniel L

    2009-02-01

    Inflammation-associated cachexia is associated with multiple chronic diseases and involves activation of appetite regulating centers in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH). The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in the brainstem has also been implicated as an important nucleus involved in appetite regulation. We set out to determine whether the NTS may be involved in inflammation-associated anorexia by injecting IL-1 beta into the 4th ventricle and assessing food intake and NTS neuronal activation. Injection of IL-1 beta produced a decrease in food intake at 3 and 12h after injection which was ameliorated at the 12h time point by a sub-threshold dose of agouti-related peptide (AgRP). Investigation into neuron types in the NTS revealed that IL-1 beta injection was associated with an increase in c-Fos activity in NTS neurons expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Additionally, injection of IL-1 beta into the 4th ventricle did not produce c-Fos activation of neurons expressing pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the ARH, cells known to be involved in producing anorexia in response to systemic inflammation. Double-label in situ hybridization revealed that TH neurons did not express IL-1 receptor I (IL1-RI) transcript, demonstrating that c-Fos activation of TH neurons in this setting was not via direct stimulation of IL-1 beta on TH neurons themselves. We conclude that IL-1 beta injection into the 4th ventricle produces anorexia and is accompanied by an increase in activation in TH neurons in the NTS. This provides evidence that the brainstem may be an important mediator of anorexia in the setting of inflammation.

  20. Administration of IL-1β to the 4th ventricle causes anorexia that is blocked by agouti-related peptide and that coincides with activation of tyrosine-hydroxylase neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract

    PubMed Central

    DeBoer, Mark D.; Scarlett, Jarrad M.; Levasseur, Peter R.; Grant, Wilmon F.; Marks, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation-associated cachexia is associated with multiple chronic diseases and involves activation of appetite regulating centers in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH). The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in the brainstem has also been implicated as an important nucleus involved in appetite regulation. We set out to determine whether the NTS may be involved in inflammation-associated anorexia by injecting IL-1β into the 4th ventricle and assessing food intake and NTS neuronal activation. Injection of IL-1β produced a decrease in food intake at 3 and 12 h after injection which was ameliorated at the 12 h time point by a sub-threshold dose of agouti-related peptide (AgRP). Investigation into neuron types in the NTS revealed that IL-1β injection was associated with an increase in c-Fos activity in NTS neurons expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Additionally, injection of IL-1β into the 4th ventricle did not produce c-Fos activation of neurons expressing pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the ARH, cells known to be involved in producing anorexia in response to systemic inflammation. Double-label in situ hybridization revealed that TH neurons did not express IL-1 receptor I (IL1-RI) transcript, demonstrating that c-Fos activation of TH neurons in this setting was not via direct stimulation of IL-1β on TH neurons themselves. We conclude that IL-1β injection into the 4th ventricle produces anorexia and is accompanied by an increase in activation in TH neurons in the NTS. This provides evidence that the brainstem may be an important mediator of anorexia in the setting of inflammation. PMID:19028534

  1. Comparison of 4th-Generation HIV Antigen/Antibody Combination Assay With 3rd-Generation HIV Antibody Assays for the Occurrence of False-Positive and False-Negative Results.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, Alagarraju; Alatoom, Adnan; Burns, Susan; Ashmore, Jerry; Kim, Anne; Emerson, Brian; Bannister, Edward; Ansari, M Qasim

    2015-01-01

    To assess the false-positive and false-negative rates of a 4th-generation human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) assay, the Abbott ARCHITECT, vs 2 HIV 3rd-generation assays, the Siemens Centaur and the Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics Vitros. We examined 123 patient specimens. In the first phase of the study, we compared 99 specimens that had a positive screening result via the 3rd-generation Vitros assay (10 positive, 82 negative, and 7 indeterminate via confirmatory immunofluorescent assay [IFA]/Western blot [WB] testing). In the second phase, we assessed 24 HIV-1 RNA-positive (positive result via the nuclear acid amplification test [NAAT] and negative/indeterminate results via the WB test) specimens harboring acute HIV infection. The 4th-generation ARCHITECT assay yielded fewer false-positive results (n = 2) than the 3rd-generation Centaur (n = 9; P = .02) and Vitros (n = 82; P <.001) assays. One confirmed positive case had a false-negative result via the Centaur assay. When specimens from the 24 patients with acute HIV-1 infection were tested, the ARCHITECT assay yielded fewer false-negative results (n = 5) than the Centaur (n = 10) (P = .13) and the other 3rd-generation tests (n = 16) (P = .002). This study indicates that the 4th-generation ARCHITECT HIV assay yields fewer false-positive and false-negative results than the 3rd-generation HIV assays we tested. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP).

  2. Contamination with HIV antibody may be responsible for false positive results in specimens tested on automated platforms running HIV 4th generation assays in a region of high HIV prevalence.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Diana Ruth; Korsman, Stephen N; Hsiao, Nei-Yuan; Morobadi, Molefi Daniel; Vawda, Sabeehah; Goedhals, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    In South Africa where the prevalence of HIV infection is very high, 4th generation HIV antibody/p24 antigen combo immunoassays are the tests of choice for laboratory based screening. Testing is usually performed in clinical pathology laboratories on automated analysers. To investigate the cause of false positive results on 4th generation HIV testing platforms in public sector laboratories, the performance of two automated platforms was compared in a clinical pathology setting, firstly on routine diagnostic specimens and secondly on known sero-negative samples. Firstly, 1181 routine diagnostic specimens were sequentially tested on Siemens and Roche automated 4th generation platforms. HIV viral load, western blot and follow up testing were used to determine the true status of inconclusive specimens. Subsequently, known HIV seronegative samples from a single donor were repeatedly tested on both platforms and an analyser was tested for surface contamination with HIV positive serum to identify how suspected specimen contamination could be occurring. Serial testing of diagnostic specimens yielded 163 weakly positive or discordant results. Only 3 of 163 were conclusively shown to indicate true HIV infection. Specimen contamination with HIV antibody was suspected, based on the following evidence: the proportion of positive specimens increased on repeated passage through the analysers; viral loads were low or undetectable and western blots negative or indeterminate on problem specimens; screen negative, 2nd test positive specimens tested positive when reanalysed on the screening assay; follow up specimens (where available) were negative. Similarly, an increasing number of known negative specimens became (repeatedly) sero-positive on serial passage through one of the analysers. Internal and external analyser surfaces were contaminated with HIV serum, evidence that sample splashes occur during testing. Due to the extreme sensitivity of these assays, contamination with minute

  3. Fipronil as a larvicide against container-inhabiting mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the laboratory, Fipronil was tested against laboratory-reared and field-collected early 4th instar Aedes albopictus larvae. The insecticide was also bioassayed for activity against natural field populations of Ae. albopictus inhabiting one-liter capacity stone-made containers in a cemetery, St. A...

  4. Study on Group-Based Problem-Solving of Pre-Service Teachers in Early Childhood Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prachagool, Veena; Nuangchalerm, Prasart

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to investigate how to develop pre-service teachers in early childhood education through employing group-based problem-solving. Participant in this research are 4th year study of pre-service teachers in early childhood education. Forty seven pre-service teachers were selected in the second semester, academic year 2010 by…

  5. Correlation of hemocyte counts with different developmental parameters during the last larval instar of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Beetz, Susann; Holthusen, Traute K; Koolman, Jan; Trenczek, Tina

    2008-02-01

    We determined the changes in hemocyte titer and in the abundance of hemocyte types of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta during the fourth and fifth larval stadium and the beginning of the pupal stadium. As we analyzed the samples of individual insects at daily intervals, we were able to correlate phenotypical features, body weight, as well as total protein content and lysozyme activity in the hemolymph with the observations on hemocytes. In the course of the fifth larval stadium, the hemocyte titer decreased slightly and declined further after pupation. Using calculated values for total hemocyte numbers, females had about five times and males three times more hemocytes in the circulating population at the beginning of the wandering stage (in the middle of the fifth larval stadium) than immediately after the last larval--larval molt (from the fourth to the fifth larval stadium). This sexual difference was mainly due to an increase in the number of plasmatocytes, which was more prominent in females than in males. Granular cells were dominant in early fifth larval stadium while plasmatocytes were the most abundant cells in pupae. Oenocytoids and spherule cells disappeared during the wandering stage. Lysozyme activity in the hemolymph rose to a maximum during the wandering stage, with females having lysozyme values twice as high as those for males. These changes in lysozyme activity, however, did not correlate with the increase of total hemolymph protein titer which occurred already at the beginning of the wandering stage. We postulate that changes in hemocyte titers are under direct hormonal control, which has to be proven in future experiments. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. [Angel Pulido Martín (1878-1970). 4th Chief of the Urology Service of the Provincial Hospital of Madrid].

    PubMed

    Sáiz Carrero, Ataúlfo

    2003-05-01

    To review the biography and scientific contributions of Dr. Angel Pulido Martin, fourth chairman of the Department of Urology at the Hospital Provincial of Madrid, and formerly at the Urology Clinic at the San Juan de Dios Hospital of Madrid. In addition, to show a panoramic view on how doctors who obtained scholarships to study outside Spain were trained in a specialty at the beginning of the 20th century. We reviewed memoirs books from Dr. Pulido Martin ("Medical letters", "Dr. Pulido and his time", and "Memoirs of a doctor"), his Ph.D. thesis and other works. We also reviewed biographic data obtained from his contemporaries in different publications. We report his experiences as a student in the specialities of Urology and Gynecology, since he first thought about taking this last one. Main european urologic and gynecologic centers of that time are represented, as well as some of the main characters in these specialties. We appreciate his great working spirit, which was inculcated into him by his father Dr. Pulido Fernandez, his enterprising desire, and the great professional he was, creating departments of urology which were school and model for many urologists of his time. A sincere clinician, Dr. Pulido Martin liked accuracy and daily self-improvement. He also was exceptional for his kindness treating patients and disciples. His publications on urologic topics were numerous; he also was fluent and entertaining as a non medical writer. He was an outstanding urologist in the early 20th century; he was member of the committee which elaborated the statutes of the Spanish Society of Urology, in which he was President for 11 years. He was also one of the founding members of the International Society of Urology and delegate of its Spanish chapter. He was official lecturer in several meetings, and also member of the Spanish Academy of Medicine and Surgery.

  7. Ultrastructure of book gill development in embryos and first instars of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus L. (Chelicerata, Xiphosura)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The transmission electron microscope (TEM) is used for the first time to study the development of book gills in the horseshoe crab. Near the end of the nineteenth century the hypothesis was presented for homology and a common ancestry for horseshoe crab book gills and arachnid book lungs. The present developmental study and the author's recent ones of book gills (SEM) and scorpion book lungs (TEM) are intended to clarify early histological work and provide new ultrastructural details for further research and for hypotheses about evolutionary history and relationships. Results The observations herein are in agreement with earlier reports that the book gill lamellae are formed by proliferation and evagination of epithelial cells posterior to opisthosomal branchial appendages. A cartilage-like endoskeleton is produced in the base of the opisthosomal appendages. The lamellar precursor cells in the appendage base proliferate, migrate outward and secrete the lamellar cuticle from their apical surface. A series of external, posteriorly-directed lamellae is formed, with each lamella having a central channel for hemolymph and pillar-type space holders formed from cells of the opposed walls. This repeated, page-like pattern results also in water channels (without space holders) between the sac-like hemolymph lamellae. Conclusions The developmental observations herein and in an earlier study (TEM) of scorpion book lungs show that the lamellae in book gills and book lungs result from some similar activities and features of the precursor epithelial cells: proliferation, migration, alignment and apical/basal polarity with secretion of cuticle from the apical surface and the basal surface in contact with hemolymph. These cellular similarities and the resulting book-like structure suggest a common ancestry, but there are also substantial developmental differences in producing these organs for gas exchange in the different environments, aqueous and terrestrial. For

  8. Multi-centre field evaluation of the performance of the Trinity Biotech Uni-Gold HIV 1/2 rapid test as a first-line screening assay for gay and bisexual men compared with 4th generation laboratory immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Keen, P; Conway, D P; Cunningham, P; McNulty, A; Couldwell, D L; Davies, S C; Smith, D E; Gray, J; Holt, M; O'Connor, C C; Read, P; Callander, D; Prestage, G; Guy, R

    2017-01-01

    The Trinity Biotech Uni-Gold HIV test (Uni-Gold) is often used as a supplementary rapid test in testing algorithms. To evaluate the operational performance of the Uni-Gold as a first-line screening test among gay and bisexual men (GBM) in a setting where 4th generation HIV laboratory assays are routinely used. We compared the performance of Uni-Gold with conventional HIV serology conducted in parallel among GBM attending 22 testing sites. Sensitivity was calculated separately for acute and established infection, defined using 4th generation screening Ag/Ab immunoassay (EIA) and Western blot results. Previous HIV testing history and results of supplementary 3rd generation HIV Ab EIA, and p24 antigen EIA were used to further characterise cases of acute infection. Of 10,793 specimens tested with Uni-Gold and conventional serology, 94 (0.90%, 95%CI:0.70-1.07) were confirmed as HIV-positive by conventional serology, and 37 (39.4%) were classified as acute infection. Uni-Gold sensitivity was 81.9% overall (77/94, 95%CI:72.6-89.1); 56.8% for acute infection (21/37, 95%CI:39.5-72.9) and 98.2% for established infection (56/57, 95%CI:90.6-100.0). Of 17 false non-reactive Uni-Gold results, 16 were acute infections, and of these seven were p24 antigen reactive but antibody negative. Uni-Gold specificity was 99.9% (10,692/10,699, 95%CI:99.9-100.0), PPV was 91.7% (95%CI:83.6-96.6) and NPV was 99.8% (95%CI:99.7-99.9), respectively. In this population, Uni-Gold had good specificity and sensitivity was high for established infections when compared to 4th generation laboratory assays, however sensitivity was lower in acute infections. Where rapid tests are used in populations with a high proportion of acute infections, additional testing strategies are needed to detect acute infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Correlation study of blood drug concentration and nephrotoxicity on high dose methotrexate therapy in suggestion of diagnosis and treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the 4th revised edition].

    PubMed

    Cheng, D H; Lu, H; Zou, X Q

    2017-10-02

    Objective: To explore the influence of the 4th revised treatment recommendations in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) on high dose methotrexate(HD-MTX)-induced nephrotoxicity and MTX blood concentrations. Method: The clinical data from 330 ALL children who received 1 242 courses of HD-MTX therapies from September 2012 to November 2016 was collected. The courses were divided into two groups based on the chemotherapies: original scheme group was treated with the 3rd revised regimen, and new scheme group was treated with the 4th revised regimen. The two groups in acute kidney injury (AKI) and MTX blood concentrations were compared. Result: The incidences of AKI with low risk (LR) and intermediate risk (IR) in new scheme group were significantly lower than those in original scheme group (1.3%(3/229) vs . 7.9%(24/303), 4.9%(10/204) vs . 12.8%(26/203), χ(2)=11.831 and 7.888 respectively, both P <0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of AKI with high risk (HR) in the two groups (15.2%(10/66) vs . 10.5%(25/237), χ(2)=1.071, P >0.05). The 48h MTX blood concentrations and the interphase from onste to MTX concentrations decreased to the safe level with LR and IR children in new scheme group were significantly lower than those in original scheme group (0.36(0.08-4.00) vs . 0.44(0.06-32.00) μmol/L, 0.49(0.22-33.00) vs . 0.60(0.18-83.00) μmol/L, 3(2-6) vs . 3(2-11) d, 3(2-11) vs . 3(2-19) d, Z =-5.953, -2.658, -4.490 and -4.729 respectively, all P <0.05). The differences with HR were not observed between the two groups (0.61(0.14-36.00) vs . 0.71(0.11-68.00) μmol/L, 3(2-15) vs . 3(2-13) d, Z =-1.465 and -1.179 respectively, both P >0.05). Conclusion: Decreased renal toxicity and acceleration of MTX excretion may occur when childhood ALL with LR and IR were treated with the 4th revised regimen. However, nephrotoxicity and MTX blood concentrations have no significant differences with HR in the two regimens, and close monitoring are necessary.

  10. Morphological and histomorphological structures of testes and ovaries in early developmental stages of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroki; Kirino, Yohei; Katsuma, Susumu; Aoki, Fugaku; Suzuki, Masataka G

    2016-01-01

    The gonad develops as a testis in male or an ovary in female. In the silkworm, B. mori , little is known about testis and ovary in the embryonic stages and early larval stages. In this study, we performed morphological and histomorphological observations of ovaries and testes from the late embryonic stage to the 1st instar larval stage. Results obtained with lack of accurate information on sex of examined individuals may be misleading, thus we performed phenotypic observations of gonads by utilizing sex-limited strain that enables us to easily discriminate female embryos from male ones based on those egg colors. In testis, four testicular follicles were clearly observed in the testis at the first instar larval stage, and boundary layers were formed between the testicular follicles. At the late embryonic stage, the testis consisted of four testicular follicles, while the boundary layers were still obscure. In ovary, four ovarioles were easily recognizable in the ovary at the first instar larval stage, and boundary layers were formed between the ovarioles. However, in the late embryonic stage, it was quite difficult to identify four ovarioles. Morphological characteristics were almost similar between testis and ovary in early developmental stages. Our present study demonstrates that the most reliable difference between testis and ovary in early developmental stages is the attaching point of the duct. Formation and development of the duct may be sensitive to the sex-determining signal and display sexual dimorphism in early embryonic stages.

  11. Oral immunization with Escherichia coli K-12 of the fifth instar larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, reared on an artificial diet under completely aseptic conditions.

    PubMed

    Ichimori, H; Yuhki, T; Mori, H; Matsubara, F; Sumida, M

    1992-01-01

    1. Effect of oral administration of live or formalin-treated Escherichia coli (E. coli) K-12 to the fifth instar, days 1 and 3 larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, on induction of antibacterial activity in the haemolymph was investigated using the silkworms reared on an artificial diet under completely aseptic conditions. 2. When live E. coli was administered to the male day 1 larvae, low but significant antibacterial activity of 3.8 mm was detectable in the haemolymph of one individual at 48 hr after immunization. The proportion of the larvae to express antibacterial activity increased thereafter and at 120 hr after immunization, all three individuals showed antibacterial activity. In day 3 male larvae, activity was detectable at 48 and 72 hr after immunization. 3. When formalin-treated E. coli was orally administered to days 1 and 3 male larvae, no activity was detectable at any time post-immunization. 4. In the second experiment, when day 1 larvae, females and males were orally immunized with live E. coli, only females showed antibacterial activity in the haemolymph, beginning from 24 hr after immunization and up to 96 hr. 5. Removal of an antibiotic, chloramphenicol, from ingredients of an artificial diet was required for induction of antibacterial activity with oral administration of live E. coli. 6. When live E. coli that grows at pH 9.0 was selected and used for oral immunization, antibacterial activity was induced both in females and males at 72 hr after immunization and the activity was observed at 96 hr. 7. These results suggest that establishment of oral immunization with live E. coli in the silkworm larvae requires multiplication of E. coli in the midgut lumen and possibly its colonization on the luminal surface.

  12. The thoracic muscular system and its innervation in third instar Calliphora vicina Larvae. I. Muscles of the pro- and mesothorax and the pharyngeal complex.

    PubMed

    Hanslik, Ulrike; Schoofs, Andreas; Niederegger, Senta; Heinzel, Hans-Georg; Spiess, Roland

    2010-08-01

    An anatomical description is given by the muscles in the pro- and mesothorax, and those associated with the feeding apparatus (cephalopharyngeal skeleton, CPS) that participate in feeding behavior in third instar Calliphora larvae. The body wall muscles in the pro- and mesothoracic segments are organized in three layers: internal, intermedial, and external. The muscles were labeled with roman numerals according to the nomenclature in use for the abdominal segments. Muscles associated with the CPS are labeled according to their function. The prothorax bears five pairs of lateral symmetrically longitudinal segmental body wall muscles and lacks the transversal muscle group present in the mesothorax and abdominal segments. Additionally, four pairs of intersegmental muscles project from the prothorax to the second, fourth, and fifth segment. The mesothorax bears 15 pairs of segmental longitudinal and 18 pairs of transversal muscles. The accessory pharyngeal muscles span the CPS and the cuticle. Three pairs of protractors and retractors and two pairs of mouth hook accessors (MH(AC)) exist, which move the CPS relative to the body. The pharyngeal muscles are exclusively attached to the structures of the CPS. The mouth hook elevators and depressors, which mediate the hooks rotation are attached to the ventral arm of the CPS and project to a dorsal (elevators) or ventral (depressors) protuberance of the mouth hooks. The cibarial dilator muscles (CDM) span the dorsal arms of the CPS and the dorsal surface of the esophagus and mediate food ingestion. The labial retractors (LRs) lack antagonists and project from the ventral surface of the CPS to the unpaired labium. Contractions of these muscles open the mouth cavity. J. Morphol. 271:960-968, 2010. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Cooling rate and starvation affect supercooling point and cold tolerance of the Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts fourth instar larvae (Coleoptera: Dermestidae).

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh, M; Izadi, H

    2018-01-01

    Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) is an important insect pest of stored products. In this study, the survival strategies of T. granarium fourth instar larvae were investigated at different sub-zero temperatures following different cooling rates, acclimation to different relative humidity (RH) and different starvation times. Our results show that larvae of T. granarium are freeze-intolerant. There was a strong link between cooling rates and supercooling point, which means the slower the decrease in temperature, the lower the supercooling point. Trehalose content was greater in insects cooled at a rate of 0.5°C/min. According to results, the RH did not affect supercooling point. However, acclimation to an RH of 25% increased mortality following exposure to - 10°C/24h. The time necessary to reach 95% mortality was 1737h and 428h at - 5°C and - 10°C. The lowest lipid and trehalose content was detected in insects acclimated to 25% RH, although, the different RH treatments did not significantly affect glycogen content of T. granarium larvae. The supercooling point of larvae was gradually increased following starvation. By contrast, fed larvae had the greatest lipid, glycogen, and trehalose content, and insects starved for eight days had the lowest energy contents. There was a sharp decline in the survival of larvae between - 11 and - 18°C after 1h exposure. Our results indicate the effects of cooling rate and starvation on energy reserves and survival of T. granarium. We conclude that T. granarium may not survive under similar stress conditions of the stored products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Variable-Instar Climate-Driven Individual Beetle-Based Phenology Model for the Invasive Asian Longhorned Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Trotter, R Talbot; Keena, Melody A

    2016-12-01

    Efforts to manage and eradicate invasive species can benefit from an improved understanding of the physiology, biology, and behavior of the target species, and ongoing efforts to eradicate the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky) highlight the roles this information may play. Here, we present a climate-driven phenology model for A. glabripennis that provides simulated life-tables for populations of individual beetles under variable climatic conditions that takes into account the variable number of instars beetles may undergo as larvae. Phenology parameters in the model are based on a synthesis of published data and studies of A. glabripennis, and the model output was evaluated using a laboratory-reared population maintained under varying temperatures mimicking those typical of Central Park in New York City. The model was stable under variations in population size, simulation length, and the Julian dates used to initiate individual beetles within the population. Comparison of model results with previously published field-based phenology studies in native and invasive populations indicates both this new phenology model, and the previously published heating-degree-day model show good agreement in the prediction of the beginning of the flight season for adults. However, the phenology model described here avoids underpredicting the cumulative emergence of adults through the season, in addition to providing tables of life stages and estimations of voltinism for local populations. This information can play a key role in evaluating risk by predicting the potential for population growth, and may facilitate the optimization of management and eradication efforts. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. WHO is in and WHO is out of the mouth, salivary glands, and jaws sections of the 4th edition of the WHO classification of head and neck tumours.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, R A

    2018-02-01

    This review of changes to the 4th edition of the WHO classification of head and neck tumours focuses on their impact on the surgical care of diseases that affect the salivary glands, jaws, and oral cavity. Updates to the chapter on the salivary glands include the addition of secretory carcinoma and sclerosing polycystic adenosis. The odontogenic cysts are back, and the odontogenic keratocyst is listed among them, as it has now lost its brief and confusing designation as a neoplasm. The newly-defined sclerosing odontogenic carcinoma and primordial odontogenic tumour have been added. Oropharyngeal tumours have been separated from those of the oral cavity, which reflects the importance of HPV in carcinoma of the tonsils. The problems of grading oral epithelial dysplasia persist. Copyright © 2017 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical validation of a novel diagnostic HIV-2 total nucleic acid qualitative assay using the Abbott m2000 platform: Implications for complementary HIV-2 nucleic acid testing for the CDC 4th generation HIV diagnostic testing algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ming; Wong, Audrey J S; Raugi, Dana N; Smith, Robert A; Seilie, Annette M; Ortega, Jose P; Bogusz, Kyle M; Sall, Fatima; Ba, Selly; Seydi, Moussa; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S; Coombs, Robert W

    2017-01-01

    The 2014 CDC 4th generation HIV screening algorithm includes an orthogonal immunoassay to confirm and discriminate HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. Additional nucleic acid testing (NAT) is recommended to resolve indeterminate or undifferentiated HIV seroreactivity. HIV-2 NAT requires a second-line assay to detect HIV-2 total nucleic acid (TNA) in patients' blood cells, as a third of untreated patients have undetectable plasma HIV-2 RNA. To validate a qualitative HIV-2 TNA assay using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HIV-2-infected Senegalese study participants. We evaluated the assay precision, sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic performance of an HIV-2 TNA assay. Matched plasma and PBMC samples were collected from 25 HIV-1, 30 HIV-2, 8 HIV-1/-2 dual-seropositive and 25 HIV seronegative individuals. Diagnostic performance was evaluated by comparing the outcome of the TNA assay to the results obtained by the 4th generation HIV screening and confirmatory immunoassays. All PBMC from 30 HIV-2 seropositive participants tested positive for HIV-2 TNA including 23 patients with undetectable plasma RNA. Of the 30 matched plasma specimens, one was HIV non-reactive. Samples from 50 non-HIV-2 infected individuals were confirmed as non-reactive for HIV-2 Ab and negative for HIV-2 TNA. The agreement between HIV-2 TNA and the combined immunoassay results was 98.8% (79/80). Furthermore, HIV-2 TNA was detected in 7 of 8 PBMC specimens from HIV-1/HIV-2 dual-seropositive participants. Our TNA assay detected HIV-2 DNA/RNA in PBMC from serologically HIV-2 reactive, HIV indeterminate or HIV undifferentiated individuals with undetectable plasma RNA, and is suitable for confirming HIV-2 infection in the HIV testing algorithm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Designing Effective Instruction. 4th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Gary R.; Ross, Steven M.; Kemp, Jerrold E.

    This book presents practical skills for successful instructional design. Maintaining a balance between theory and application, it offers a flexible model that can be adapted for use in many settings. Examples are presented from business, higher education, and K-12 education. The 15 chapters are: (1) "Introduction to the Instructional Design…

  18. Exergie /4th revised and enlarged edition/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baloh, T.; Wittwer, E.

    The theoretical concept of exergy is explained and its practical applications are discussed. Equilibrium and thermal equilibrium are reviewed as background, and exergy is considered as a reference point for solid-liquid, liquid-liquid, and liquid-gas systems. Exergetic calculations and their graphic depictions are covered. The concepts of enthalpy and entropy are reviewed in detail, including their applications to gas mixtures, solutions, and isolated substances. The exergy of gas mixtures, solutions, and isolated substances is discussed, including moist air, liquid water in water vapor, dry air, and saturation-limited solutions. Mollier exergy-enthalpy-entropy diagrams are presented for two-component systems, and exergy losses for throttling, isobaric mixing, and heat transfer are addressed. The relationship of exergy to various processes is covered, including chemical processes, combustion, and nuclear reactions. The optimization of evaporation plants through exergy is discussed. Calculative examples are presented for energy production and heating, industrial chemical processes, separation of liquid air, nuclear reactors, and others.

  19. 4th Annual Pharmacogenomics and Medicine Lectures.

    PubMed

    Oestreicher, P

    2001-08-01

    In the future, pharmacogenomics will play an important role in the treatment of patients by making it possible to predict drug response based on an individual's genetic make-up. Similarly, pharmacogenomics may be used to reduce the probability that adverse effects will occur. The use of a patient's genetic information will lead to greater predictability in clinical outcomes and personalisation of medical care. Pharmacogenomic information can also aid in drug development by helping to select individuals that are likely to respond to a medication for participation in clinical trials. Integration of pharmacogenomics into the healthcare system has a number of potential economic benefits, including reduced costs of healthcare and drug discovery. The FDA has no specific plans to regulate therapy-guiding pharmacogenomic tests, which are different from diagnostic genetic tests. There are a number of ethical issues related to pharmacogenomics, including the credibility of the system for protecting the rights and welfare of human research subjects, general concerns about genetic research, privacy issues and equitable distribution of the technology. To ensure integration of pharmacogenomics into the healthcare system it will be important to obtain public support through education about the benefits and risks of this technology.

  20. Electronic Learning. Art: The 4th "R."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2001-01-01

    With the Internet revolution in education, students are learning to think as designers and artists. The language of art must become the fourth "R," and students must become literate in this environment. The paper discusses art and the digital age and what teachers can do (rename art, hire more art teachers, and increase fourth-R literacy…

  1. [4th World Conference on Women].

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    The World Platform of Action is a document prepared by the secretary of the UN Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) that acknowledges commitments made by the subscribing governments. In the final preparatory meeting for the Fourth International Conference on Women in Beijing, official delegations of the world's governments discussed the draft of the Platform of Action. Throughout the Platform, there is evidence of a retreat from concepts internationally recognized at other conferences. The Vatican, in alliance with countries like Honduras, Argentina, and Guatemala, and with fundamentalist religious groups, is largely responsible for the obstruction. The draft indicates which topics have failed to gain consensus and require discussion at the full Conference. The Platform is defined as an agenda for seeking empowerment of women, an objective necessitating removal of obstacles to active participation by women in all spheres of public life. The Platform defines the critical areas for action as the persistent increase in poverty among women, unequal access to education and training, unequal access to health care, violence against women and girls, effects of persecution and armed conflicts, unequal access to productive processes, and unequal power and influence in decision making at all levels. Insufficient mechanisms for promoting women, protection of the human rights of women, women and communication, and women and the environment are other priority topics. Problems are discussed in each of these areas, and objectives and concrete actions are proposed. The work describes the types of institutional changes that will be needed if the objectives are to be achieved; defines sex, gender, and other relevant terms; and analyses some of the strategic objectives in greater detail. The final section contains recommendations for women's groups and other lobbyists in Colombia to present to the government.

  2. Annual FAA Forecast Conference Proceedings (4th).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    have a very definite point of view, one we’ve energy problem, the high price of energy or the held for a long time, and you might want to question...counter can be placed anywhere, depending expensively generating reliable operational data at on how long a cord you want to deal with. We nontowered... definitional pro- cent higher. Outside of the metropolitan areas, blems and efforts to avoid Arizona’s tax on aircraft. master plans were on the average three

  3. International Conference on Electromagnetic Windows (4th).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-15

    ftJ S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVER9D(j RINTERNATONAL CONFERENCE ON Conference -ELECTROMAGNETIC WINDOWS •s. -RPORtNG ORG. RDTMUA - C-5-81 7. AUTHOR(s...matching. About 20% bandwidth was claimed. It should be remembered that this technique is polarization sensitive and lacks the type of circular...various radome design options, for example, thin, half-wave solid,sandwich, and metal insert types , and followed this -3- C-5-81 by a discussion of

  4. Fireworks on the 4th of July

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, R. Michael

    2013-02-01

    After half a century of waiting, the drama was intense. Physicists slept overnight outside the auditorium to get seats for the seminar at the CERN lab in Geneva, Switzerland. Ten thousand miles away on the other side of the planet, at the world's most prestigious international particle physics conference, hundreds of physicists from every corner of the globe lined up to hear the seminar streamed live from Geneva (see Fig. 1). And in universities from North America to Asia, physicists and students gathered to watch the streaming talks.

  5. Radiofrequency Radiation Dosimetry Handbook. 4th Edition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    reasonable. Such an equivalence was demon- strated by -Nielsen and Nielsen (1965) when they measured identical thermoregu- latory responses to exercise ...Circulatory and sweating responses during exercise and heat stress, pp. 251-276. In E. R. Adair (ed.). Microwavcs and Thermoregula- tion. ISBN:0-12-044020-2... RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b. TELEPHONE (Include Area Code) 22c. OFFICE SYMBOL Y.Williami D. Hurt ( 512) 536-20 USAFSAM/RZP DD FORM 1473, 84 MAR 83 APR

  6. 4th Penn State Bioinorganic Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, Carsten

    The research area of biological inorganic chemistry encompasses a wide variety of subfields, including molecular biology, biochemistry, biophysics, inorganic chemistry, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, and theoretical chemistry, as well as many different methods, such as biochemical characterization of enzymes, reaction kinetics, a plethora of spectroscopic techniques, and computational methods. The above methods are combined to understand the formation, function, and regulation of the many metallo-cofactors found in Nature as well as to identify novel metallo-cofactors. Many metalloenzyme-catalyzed reactions are extremely complex, but are of fundamental importance to science and society. Examples include (i) the reduction of the chemically inert molecule,more » dinitrogen, to ammonia by the enzyme nitrogenase (this reaction is fundamental for the production of nitrogen fertilizers); (ii) the oxidation of water to dioxygen by the Mn4Ca cluster found in photosystem II; and (iii) myriad reactions in which aliphatic, inert C-H bonds are cleaved for subsequent functionalization of the carbon atoms (the latter reactions are important in the biosynthesis of many natural products). Because of the broad range of areas and techniques employed in this field, research in bioinorganic chemistry is typically carried out collaboratively between two or more research groups. It is of paramount importance that researchers working in this field have a good, basic, working knowledge of many methods and approaches employed in the field, in order to design and discuss experiments with collaborators. Therefore, the training of students working in bioinorganic chemistry is an important aspect of this field. Hugely successful “bioinorganic workshops” were offered in the 1990s at The University of Georgia. These workshops laid the foundation for many of the extant collaborative research efforts in this area today. The large and diverse group of bioinorganic chemists at The Pennsylvania State University and our unique laboratory space are well suited for the continuation of such training workshops. The co-principal investigators of this award lead these efforts. After a smaller “trial workshop” in 2010, the Penn State bioinorganic group, led by the co-PIs, offers these workshops biennially. The 2012, 2014, and 2016 workshops provided training to 123, 162, and 153 participants, respectively, by offering (i) a series of lectures given by faculty experts on the given topic, (ii) hands-on training in small groups by experts in the various methods, and (iii) sharing research results of the participants by oral and poster presentations. The centerpiece of the workshops is the hands-on training, in which approximately half of the participants from all ranks (undergraduate students to faculty) served as teachers. In this section, the traditional roles of teachers and students were sometimes reversed to the extent that undergraduate students taught faculty in the students' areas of specialty. We anticipate that these workshops will facilitate research in bioinorganic chemistry and will help establish future collaborations among “workshop alumni” to carry out cutting-edge research in bioinorganic chemistry that will address many important topics relevant to our society.« less

  7. Lunar Prospector mated to 4th stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Lockheed Martin Missile Systems integration and test staff join NASA's Lunar Prospector spacecraft to the Trans Lunar Injection Module of the spacecraft at Astrotech, a commercial payload processing facility, in Titusville, Fla. The small robotic spacecraft, to be launched on an Athena II launch vehicle by Lockheed Martin, is designed to provide the first global maps of the Moon's surface compositional elements and its gravitational and magnetic fields. The launch of Lunar Prospector is scheduled for Jan. 5, 1998 at 8:31 p.m.

  8. Seismic Waves, 4th order accurate

    SciTech Connect

    2013-08-16

    SW4 is a program for simulating seismic wave propagation on parallel computers. SW4 colves the seismic wave equations in Cartesian corrdinates. It is therefore appropriate for regional simulations, where the curvature of the earth can be neglected. SW4 implements a free surface boundary condition on a realistic topography, absorbing super-grid conditions on the far-field boundaries, and a kinematic source model consisting of point force and/or point moment tensor source terms. SW4 supports a fully 3-D heterogeneous material model that can be specified in several formats. SW4 can output synthetic seismograms in an ASCII test format, or in the SAC finarymore » format. It can also present simulation information as GMT scripts, whixh can be used to create annotated maps. Furthermore, SW4 can output the solution as well as the material model along 2-D grid planes.« less

  9. Fireworks on the 4th of July

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, R. Michael

    2013-01-01

    After half a century of waiting, the drama was intense. Physicists slept overnight outside the auditorium to get seats for the seminar at the CERN lab in Geneva, Switzerland. Ten thousand miles away on the other side of the planet, at the world's most prestigious international particle physics conference, hundreds of physicists from every corner…

  10. Incomplete Early Childhood Immunization Series and Missing Fourth DTaP Immunizations; Missed Opportunities or Missed Visits?

    PubMed

    Robison, Steve G

    2013-01-01

    The successful completion of early childhood immunizations is a proxy for overall quality of early care. Immunization statuses are usually assessed by up-to-date (UTD) rates covering combined series of different immunizations. However, series UTD rates often only bear on which single immunization is missing, rather than the success of all immunizations. In the US, most series UTD rates are limited by missing fourth DTaP-containing immunizations (diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis) due at 15 to 18 months of age. Missing 4th DTaP immunizations are associated either with a lack of visits at 15 to 18 months of age, or to visits without immunizations. Typical immunization data however cannot distinguish between these two reasons. This study compared immunization records from the Oregon ALERT IIS with medical encounter records for two-year olds in the Oregon Health Plan. Among those with 3 valid DTaPs by 9 months of age, 31.6% failed to receive a timely 4th DTaP; of those without a 4th DTaP, 42.1% did not have any provider visits from 15 through 18 months of age, while 57.9% had at least one provider visit. Those with a 4th DTaP averaged 2.45 encounters, while those with encounters but without 4th DTaPs averaged 2.23 encounters.

  11. Peer Rejection and Aggression and Early Starter Models of Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Miller-Johnson, Shari; Coie, John D.; Maumary-Gremaud, Anne; Bierman, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Peer rejection and aggression in the early school years were examined for their relevance to early starting conduct problems. The sample of 657 boys and girls from 4 geographical locations was followed from 1st through 4th grades. Peer rejection in 1st grade added incrementally to the prediction of early starting conduct problems in 3rd and 4th grades, over and above the effects of aggression. Peer rejection and aggression in 1st grade were also associated with the impulsive and emotionally reactive behaviors found in older samples. Being rejected by peers subsequent to 1st grade marginally added to the prediction of early starting conduct problems in 3rd and 4th grades, controlling for 1st grade ADHD symptoms and aggression. Furthermore, peer rejection partially mediated the predictive relation between early ADHD symptoms and subsequent conduct problems. These results support the hypothesis that the experience of peer rejection in the early school years adds to the risk for early starting conduct problems. PMID:12041708

  12. Cadmium contamination of early human milk.

    PubMed

    Sikorski, R; Paszkowski, T; Radomański, T; Szkoda, J

    1989-01-01

    The concentration of cadmium was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry in colostrum samples obtained from 110 women on the 4th postpartum day. Detectable amounts of cadmium were found in 95% of the examined samples and the geometric mean of the determined values was 0.002 mg/kg. In 3 cases (2.7%, the examined neonates received via mother's milk an amount of cadmium exceeding the maximum daily intake level for this metal. Maternal age, parity and place of residence did not affect the determined cadmium levels of milk. Cadmium content in the early human milk of current smokers did not differ significantly from that of nonsmoking mothers.

  13. Rate of Language Growth in Children with Hearing Loss in an Auditory-Verbal Early Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the rate of language growth of children in an early intervention program providing auditory-verbal therapy. A retrospective investigation, the study applied a linear growth model to estimate a mean growth curve and the extent of individual variation in language performance on the Preschool Language Scale, 4th ed.…

  14. Assessing change in diet and biological affinity between the 4th and 3rd millennia cal BCE in the Portuguese Estremadura: a preliminary dental comparison of Feteira II and Bolores.

    PubMed

    Horwath, B C; Waterman, A J; Lillios, K T; Irish, J D

    2014-04-01

    Although the social and political changes accompanying the transition from the Neolithic through Copper Age, between the 4th and 3rd millennia cal BCE, in southwestern Iberia are reasonably well understood, much less is known about whether population movements and dietary changes accompanied these transformations. To address this question, human dental remains from the Middle through Late Neolithic site of Feteira II (3600-2900 cal BCE) and the Late Neolithic site of Bolores (2800-2600 cal BCE) in the Portuguese Estremadura were used to examine diet (microwear) and affinity (dental non-metrics). Microwear features were not found to be significantly different between Feteira II and Bolores, suggesting that the emergence of social complexity during this period did not result in large-scale changes in subsistence practices during the period of use at these sites. Using the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System and supporting statistics, no significant difference between the samples from Feteira II and Bolores was observed, suggesting that no population replacement occurred between the Middle Neolithic and Late Neolithic/Copper Age. However, at Bolores there is some indication that there may have been demographic exchanges between southern Iberian and North African populations during the Late Neolithic/Copper Age. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of statistical shape analysis for the estimation of bone and forensic age using the shapes of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae in a young Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Chang-Hoon; Shin, Sang Min; Choi, Yong-Seok; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Maki, Koutaro; Kim, Yong-Il; Kim, Seong-Sik; Park, Soo-Byung; Son, Woo-Sung

    2015-12-01

    From computed tomographic images, the dentocentral synchondrosis can be identified in the second cervical vertebra. This can demarcate the border between the odontoid process and the body of the 2nd cervical vertebra and serve as a good model for the prediction of bone and forensic age. Nevertheless, until now, there has been no application of the 2nd cervical vertebra based on the dentocentral synchondrosis. In this study, statistical shape analysis was used to build bone and forensic age estimation regression models. Following the principles of statistical shape analysis and principal components analysis, we used cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to evaluate a Japanese population (35 males and 45 females, from 5 to 19 years old). The narrowest prediction intervals among the multivariate regression models were 19.63 for bone age and 2.99 for forensic age. There was no significant difference between form space and shape space in the bone and forensic age estimation models. However, for gender comparison, the bone and forensic age estimation models for males had the higher explanatory power. This study derived an improved objective and quantitative method for bone and forensic age estimation based on only the 2nd, 3rd and 4th cervical vertebral shapes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of archaeological triacylglycerols by high resolution nanoESI, FT-ICR MS and IRMPD MS/MS: Application to 5th century BC-4th century AD oil lamps from Olbia (Ukraine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, Nicolas; Rolando, Christian; Høtje, Jakob Munk; Tokarski, Caroline

    2009-07-01

    This work presents the precise identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) extracted from archaeological samples using a methodology based on nanoelectrospray and Fourier transform mass spectrometry. The archaeological TAG identification needs adapted sample preparation protocols to trace samples in advanced degradation state. More precisely, the proposed preparation procedure includes extraction of the lipid components from finely grinded ceramic using dichloromethane/methanol mixture with additional ultrasonication treatment, and TAG purification by solid phase extraction on a diol cartridge. Focusing on the analytical approach, the implementation of "in-house" species-dependent TAG database was investigated using MS and InfraRed Multiphoton Dissociation (IRMPD) MS/MS spectra; several vegetal oils, dairy products and animal fats were studied. The high mass accuracy of the Fourier transform analyzer ([Delta]m below 2.5 ppm) provides easier data interpretation, and allows distinction between products of different origins. In details, the IRMPD spectra of the lithiated TAGs reveal fragmentation reactions including loss of free neutral fatty acid and loss of fatty acid as [alpha],[beta]-unsaturated moieties. Based on the developed preparation procedure and on the constituted database, TAG extracts from 5th century BC to 4th century AD Olbia lamps were analyzed. The structural information obtained succeeds in identifying that bovine/ovine fats were used as fuel used in these archaeological Olbia lamps.

  17. Targeted therapy against multi-resistant bacteria in leukemic and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: guidelines of the 4th European Conference on Infections in Leukemia (ECIL-4, 2011)

    PubMed Central

    Averbuch, Diana; Cordonnier, Catherine; Livermore, David M.; Mikulska, Małgorzata; Orasch, Christina; Viscoli, Claudio; Gyssens, Inge C.; Kern, Winfried V.; Klyasova, Galina; Marchetti, Oscar; Engelhard, Dan; Akova, Murat

    2013-01-01

    The detection of multi-resistant bacterial pathogens, particularly those to carbapenemases, in leukemic and stem cell transplant patients forces the use of old or non-conventional agents as the only remaining treatment options. These include colistin/polymyxin B, tigecycline, fosfomycin and various anti-gram-positive agents. Data on the use of these agents in leukemic patients are scanty, with only linezolid subjected to formal trials. The Expert Group of the 4th European Conference on Infections in Leukemia has developed guidelines for their use in these patient populations. Targeted therapy should be based on (i) in vitro susceptibility data, (ii) knowledge of the best treatment option against the particular species or phenotype of bacteria, (iii) pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data, and (iv) careful assessment of the risk-benefit balance. For infections due to resistant Gram-negative bacteria, these agents should be preferably used in combination with other agents that remain active in vitro, because of suboptimal efficacy (e.g., tigecycline) and the risk of emergent resistance (e.g., fosfomycin). The paucity of new antibacterial drugs in the near future should lead us to limit the use of these drugs to situations where no alternative exists. PMID:24323984

  18. Beyond the floor effect on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--4th Ed. (WISC-IV): calculating IQ and Indexes of subjects presenting a floored pattern of results.

    PubMed

    Orsini, A; Pezzuti, L; Hulbert, S

    2015-05-01

    It is now widely known that children with severe intellectual disability show a 'floor effect' on the Wechsler scales. This effect emerges because the practice of transforming raw scores into scaled scores eliminates any variability present in participants with low intellectual ability and because intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are limited insofar as they do not measure scores lower than 40. Following Hessl et al.'s results, the present authors propose a method for the computation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--4th Ed. (WISC-IV)'s IQ and Indexes in intellectually disabled participants affected by a floored pattern of results. The Italian standardization sample (n = 2200) for the WISC-IV was used. The method presented in this study highlights the limits of the 'floor effect' of the WISC-IV in children with serious intellectual disability who present a profile with weighted scores of 1 in all the subtests despite some variability in the raw scores. Such method eliminates the floor effect of the scale and therefore makes it possible to analyse the strengths and weaknesses of the WISC-IV's Indexes in these participants. The Authors reflect on clinical utility of this method and on the meaning of raw score of 0 on subtest. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Aggressive B-cell lymphomas in the update of the 4th edition of the World Health Organization classification of haematopoietic and lymphatic tissues: refinements of the classification, new entities and genetic findings.

    PubMed

    Ott, German

    2017-09-01

    The update of the 4th edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Haematopoietic and Lymphatic Tissues portends important new findings and concepts in the diagnosis, classification and biology of lymphomas. This review summarizes the basic concepts and cornerstones of the classification of aggressive B-cell lymphomas and details the major changes. Of importance, there is a new concept of High-grade B-cell lymphomas (HGBL), partly replacing the provisional entity of B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and Burkitt lymphoma, the so-called grey zone lymphomas. They either harbour MYC translocations together with a BCL2 and/or a BCL6 rearrangement (HGBL-Double Hit) or HGBL, not otherwise specified (NOS), lacking a double or triple hit constellation. In addition, the requirement for providing the cell-of-origin classification in the diagnostic work-up of DLBCLs, the role of MYC alterations in DLBCL subtypes, and newer findings in the specific variants/subtypes are highlighted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Comparative evaluation of phenoloxidase activity in different larval stages of four lepidopteran pests after exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Valadez-Lira, J A; Alcocer-Gonzalez, J M; Damas, G; Nuñez-Mejía, G; Oppert, B; Rodriguez-Padilla, C; Tamez-Guerra, P

    2012-01-01

    Microbial entomopathogen-based bioinsecticides are recognized as alternatives to synthetic pesticides. Insects defend themselves against microbial pathogens by innate mechanisms, including increased phenoloxidase (PO) activity, but its relationship with microbial bioinsecticides efficacy is little known. This study evaluated the differences in PO activity at different developmental stages of the tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Pyralidae), beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Noctuidae), and cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Noctuidae). Additionally, 2(nd)- and 4(th)-instars were exposed to the LC(50) value of the commercial Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) spray, Biobit(®). The percentage of insecticidal activity (IA%) on 2(nd)-instar Biobit-exposed larvae was approximately the predicted 50 % mortality for all species except S. exigua. With all 4(th) instar Biobit-exposed larvae, mortality was not significantly different from that of unexposed larvae. Unexposed insects had a significantly higher PO activity in pre-pupae and pupae than early-instar larvae and adults, whereas PO activity was higher in adult females than in males. Correlation analysis between IA% and PO activity revealed significant r-values (p < 0.01) in 2(nd) instar H. virescens (r = 0.979) and P. interpunctella (r = 0.930). Second instar Biobit-exposed P. interpunctella had 10 times more PO activity than unexposed larvae. Similarly, the amount of total protein was lower in 4(th) instar Biobit-exposed H. virescens and higher in S. exigua. Therefore, the results indicated a relationship between Biobit susceptibility and PO activity in some cases. This information may be useful if the Biobit application period is timed for a developmental stage with low PO activity. However, more studies are needed to determine the correlation of each insect with a particular bioinsecticide.

  1. Long-term stability of peri-implant tissues after bone or soft tissue augmentation. Effect of zirconia or titanium abutments on peri-implant soft tissues. Summary and consensus statements. The 4th EAO Consensus Conference 2015.

    PubMed

    Sicilia, Alberto; Quirynen, Marc; Fontolliet, Alain; Francisco, Helena; Friedman, Anton; Linkevicius, Tomas; Lutz, Rainer; Meijer, Henny J; Rompen, Eric; Rotundo, Roberto; Schwarz, Frank; Simion, Massimo; Teughels, Wim; Wennerberg, Ann; Zuhr, Otto

    2015-09-01

    Several surgical techniques and prosthetic devices have been developed in the last decades, aiming to improve aesthetic, hygienic and functional outcomes that may affect the peri-implant tissues, such as procedures of bone and soft tissue augmentation and the use of custom-made abutments of titanium and zirconium. Three systematic reviews, based on randomized clinical trials and prospective studies covering the above reported topics were analysed, and the detected evidence was exposed to interactive experts' discussion during the group's and general assembly's meetings of the 4th EAO Consensus Conference. The results are reported using the following abbreviations: S-T: short-term evidence, M-T: medium-term evidence; L-T: long-term evidence; LE: limited evidence. Soft tissue augmentation procedures may be indicated for the increase of soft tissue thickness and keratinized tissue, the reduction of interproximal peri-implant bone loss, and the coverage of shallow peri-implant soft tissue recessions (S-T, LE), L-T is lacking. Guided bone regeneration approaches (GBR) showed efficacy when used for ridge reconstruction after the complete healing of the soft tissues (S-T & L-T), and the stability of the augmented bone may play a role in the maintenance of the soft tissue position and dimensions (LE). No significant differences were observed between titanium and zirconia abutments when evaluating probing pocket depth, bleeding on probing, marginal bone levels and mucosal recessions. Zirconia abutments were associated with more biological complications but demonstrated superiority in terms of achieving natural soft tissue colour (S-T). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory 4th Quarter 2009 Milestone Report: Measure and simulate target temperature and dynamic response in optimized NDCX-I configurations with initial diagnostics suite

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Barnard, J.J.; Henestroza, E.

    2009-09-30

    This milestone has been met. The effort contains two main components: (1) Experimental results of warm dense matter target experiments on optimized NDCX-I configurations that include measurements of target temperature and transient target behavior. (2) A theoretical model of the target response to beam heating that includes an equilibrium heating model of the target foil and a model for droplet formation in the target for comparison with experimental results. The experiments on ion-beam target heating use a 300-350-keV K{sup +} pulsed beam from the Neutralized Compression Drift Experiment (NDCX-I) accelerator at LBNL. The NDCX-I accelerator delivers an uncompressed pulse beammore » of several microseconds with a typical power density of >100 kW/cm{sup 2} over a final focus spot size of about 1 mm. An induction bunching module the NDCX-I compresses a portion of the beam pulse to reach a much higher power density over 2 nanoseconds. Under these conditions the free-standing foil targets are rapidly heated to temperatures to over 4000 K. We model the target thermal dynamics using the equation of heat conduction for the temperature T(x,t) as a function of time (t) and spatial dimension along the beam direction (x). The competing cooling processes release energy from the surface of the foil due to evaporation, radiation, and thermionic (Richardson) emission. A description of the experimental configuration of the target chamber and results from initial beam-target experiments are reported in our FY08 4th Quarter and FY09 2nd Quarter Milestone Reports. The WDM target diagnostics include a high-speed multichannel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. The fast optical pyrometer is a unique and significant new diagnostic which provides valuable information on the temperature evolution of the heated target.« less

  3. Unravelling biocultural population structure in 4th/3rd century BC Monterenzio Vecchio (Bologna, Italy) through a comparative analysis of strontium isotopes, non-metric dental evidence, and funerary practices.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Rita; Bortolini, Eugenio; Lugli, Federico; Mancuso, Giuseppe; Buti, Laura; Oxilia, Gregorio; Vazzana, Antonino; Figus, Carla; Serrangeli, Maria Cristina; Margherita, Cristiana; Penzo, Annachiara; Gruppioni, Giorgio; Gottarelli, Antonio; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Cipriani, Anna; Feeney, Robin N M; Benazzi, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    The 4th century BC marks the main entrance of Celtic populations in northern Italy. Their arrival has been suggested based on the presence of Celtic customs in Etruscan mortuary contexts, yet up to now few bioarchaeological data have been examined to support or reject the arrival of these newcomers. Here we use strontium isotopes, non-metric dental traits and funerary patterns to unravel the biocultural structure of the necropolis of Monterenzio Vecchio (Bologna, Italy). Subsamples of our total sample of 38 individuals were analyzed based on different criteria characterizing the following analyses: 1) strontium isotope analysis to investigate migratory patterns and provenance; 2) non-metric dental traits to establish biological relationships between Monterenzio Vecchio, 13 Italian Iron age necropolises and three continental and non-continental Celtic necropolises; 3) grave goods which were statistically explored to detect possible patterns of cultural variability. The strontium isotopes results indicate the presence of local and non-local individuals, with some revealing patterns of mobility. The dental morphology reveals an affinity between Monterenzio Vecchio and Iron Age Italian samples. However, when the Monterenzio Vecchio sample is separated by isotopic results into locals and non-locals, the latter share affinity with the sample of non-continental Celts from Yorkshire (UK). Moreover, systematic analyses demonstrate that ethnic background does not retain measurable impact on the distribution of funerary elements. Our results confirm the migration of Celtic populations in Monterenzio as archaeologically hypothesized on the basis of the grave goods, followed by a high degree of cultural admixture between exogenous and endogenous traits. This contribution shows that combining different methods offers a more comprehensive perspective for the exploration of biocultural processes in past and present populations.

  4. Results of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Patients with Breast Cancer in 10-Year Own Material of the 4th Military Teaching Hospital with Polyclinic in Wrocław.

    PubMed

    Kabziński, Piotr; Rac, Jacek; Dorobisz, Tadeusz; Pawłowski, Wiktor; Ziomek, Agnieszka; Chabowski, Mariusz; Janczak, Dawid; Leśniak, Michał; Janczak, Dariusz

    2016-05-01

    At present, sentinel lymph node biopsy is a standard procedure to assess the advancement of breast cancer and cutaneous melanoma. The aim of the study was to assess the role of the sentinel lymph node biopsy in the treatment of patients with breast cancer in our own material. Analyzed was medical documentation of 258 patients with initially operable breast cancer, qualified for operation with sentinel lymph node biopsy in 2004-2014 in the Department of Surgery of the 4th Military Teaching Hospital. A few hours prior to the planned surgery, radioisotope (technitium-99 sulfur colloid) was applied in the area of tumor or under the areola. 1-2 hours after administering the tracer, the lymphoscintigraphy with the labelling of the sentinel lymph node on the skin was performed. On the basis of the gathered material, obtained were the following parameters: sensitivity - 100%, and specificity - 94.6%. Four cases were false negative (5.5%). 1. Marking the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer, based on the single visualisation method with the use of radioisotope, is a useful and effective technique. 2. The factor influencing the results of the sentinel lymph node biopsy (true positive and negative results and false negative result) was the number of the excised lymph nodes except for the sentinel lymph node. 3. Patients with estrogen receptor expression had often metastases to sentinel lymph node (145 cases - 56%). 4. The false negative rate, i.e. 5.5% in our material, is within the limits of acceptability given in the literature. 5. The sentinel lymph node biopsy performed by the experienced surgical team is a reliable diagnostic tool with a low complication rate.

  5. The International Health Partnership Plus: rhetoric or real change? Results of a self-reported survey in the context of the 4th high level forum on aid effectiveness in Busan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, which provides an international agreement on how to deliver aid, has recently been reviewed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Health sector aid effectiveness is important, given the volume of financial aid and the number of mechanisms through which health assistance is provided. Recognizing this, the international community created the International Health Partnership (IHP+), to apply the Paris Declaration to the health sector. This paper, which presents findings from an independent monitoring process (IHP+Results), makes a valuable contribution to the literature in the context of the recent 4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness in Busan, Korea. Methods IHP+Results monitored commitments made under the IHP + using an agreed framework with twelve measures for IHP + Development Partners and ten for IHP + recipient country governments. Data were collected through self-administered survey tools. IHP+Results analyzed these data, using transparent criteria, to produce Scorecards as a means to highlight progress against commitments and thereby strengthen mutual accountability amongst IHP + signatories. Results There have been incremental improvements in the strengthening of national planning processes and principles around mutual accountability. There has also been progress in Development Partners aligning their support with national budgets. But there is a lack of progress in the use of countries’ financial management and procurement systems, and in the integration of duplicative performance reporting frameworks and information systems. Discussion and Conclusions External, independent monitoring is potentially useful for strengthening accountability in health sector aid. While progress in strengthening country ownership, harmonisation and alignment seems evident, there are ongoing challenges. In spite of some useful findings, there are limitations with IHP

  6. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (4th, Athens, Georgia, October 23-25, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Sigrid, Ed.

    The materials collected here were presented at the fourth annual meeting held October 23 through 25, 1982, at the University of Georgia. The papers are grouped under the following headings: Mathematical Abilities; Understanding; Early Number; Adolescent Reasoning; Problem Solving; Teaching and Teacher Education; and Technology. Space limitations…

  7. Performance comparison of the 4th generation Bio-Rad Laboratories GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA on the EVOLIS™ automated system versus Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo, Ortho Anti-HIV 1+2 EIA on Vitros ECi and Siemens HIV-1/O/2 enhanced on Advia Centaur.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Elizabeth O; Stewart, Greg; Bajzik, Olivier; Ferret, Mathieu; Bentsen, Christopher; Shriver, M Kathleen

    2013-12-01

    A multisite study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the Bio-Rad 4th generation GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA versus Abbott 4th generation ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo. The performance of two 3rd generation EIAs, Ortho Diagnostics Anti-HIV 1+2 EIA and Siemens HIV 1/O/2 was also evaluated. Study objective was comparison of analytical HIV-1 p24 antigen detection, sensitivity in HIV-1 seroconversion panels, specificity in blood donors and two HIV false reactive panels. Analytical sensitivity was evaluated with International HIV-1 p24 antigen standards, the AFFSAPS (pg/mL) and WHO 90/636 (IU/mL) standards; sensitivity in acute infection was compared on 55 seroconversion samples, and specificity was evaluated on 1000 negative blood donors and two false reactive panels. GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab demonstrated better analytical HIV antigen sensitivity compared to ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo: 0.41 IU/mL versus 1.2 IU/mL (WHO) and 12.7 pg/mL versus 20.1 pg/mL (AFSSAPS); GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA also demonstrated slightly better specificity compared to ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo (100% versus 99.7%). The 4th generation HIV Combo tests detected seroconversion 7-11 days earlier than the 3rd generation HIV antibody only EIAs. Both 4th generation immunoassays demonstrated excellent performance in sensitivity, with the reduction of the serological window period (7-11 days earlier detection than the 3rd generation HIV tests). However, GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab demonstrated improved HIV antigen analytical sensitivity and slightly better specificity when compared to ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay, with higher positive predictive values (PPV) for low prevalence populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on early intervention. The four articles presented on this theme are: (1) "Deaf Infants, Hearing Mothers: A Research Report" (Kathryn P. Meadow-Orlans, and others), reporting findings on effects of auditory loss on early development; (2) "Maintaining Involvement of Inner City Families in Early Intervention Programs through…

  9. Metal ring on 4th or 5th finger markedly increases both cardiac troponin I at left ventricle and cancer-related parameters such as oncogen C-fosAb2 & integrin α₅β₁[corrected] by 4-12 times. Thus these metal rings appear to promote both heart problems & cancer.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Hines, Howard; Jones, Marilyn; O'Young, Brian; Duvvi, Harsha; Lu, Dominic P; Pallos, Andrew; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2010-01-01

    We examined patients wearing a metal ring on the left 4th finger with abnormally increased Cardiac Troponin I (which is known to increase in the presence of myocardial injury or left ventricular hypertrophy) of 5-14ng BDORT units (depending on the ring and individual) at left ventricle compared with normal value of 1ng BDORT units or less. Although shape of the ECG does not change significantly regardless of whether metal rings are on or not, when rings are on, the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test evaluation of trace of ECG revealed "Vulnerable Period of Rising Part of T-wave" of ECG waves (which correspond to the left ventricle and AV node) become abnormal with increased Cardiac Troponin I. DHEA in various parts of the body reduced significantly and maximum decrease in DHEA was found when metal ring was on the left 4th and 5th fingers. Telomere reduced with each of the 5 fingers, but the 2nd, 4th, and 5th fingers produced the maximum reduction of telomere. When metal ring was inserted onto the left 1st finger and left 2nd finger, Cardiac Troponin I did not change significantly. Additional abnormality was found when patients with cancer wore metal ring(s); namely both Cardiac Troponin I and cancer parameters, such as Integrin α₅β₁[corrected] and Oncogen C-fos Ab2, increase anywhere between 4-12 times. However, when the ring was cut, creating a 1mm or longer empty space, no increase in cancer markers and Cardiac Troponin I were observed. Similar findings were found with metal bracelets.

  10. Redescription of the adults and new descriptions of the previously unknown immature stages of Culex (Culex) articularis Philippi, 1865 (Diptera: Culicidae) from central Chile.

    PubMed

    González, Christian R; Reyes, Carolina; Rada, Viviana

    2015-05-05

    Male and female adults of Culex (Culex) articularis Philippi are redescribed, and the 4th-instar larva and pupa are described and illustrated for the first time. Culex articularis is compared with other species of the subgenus Culex. Illustrations of diagnostic characters of the female, male genitalia, 4th-instar larva, and pupa are also provided.

  11. Green-synthesized CdS nano-pesticides: Toxicity on young instars of malaria vectors and impact on enzymatic activities of the non-target mud crab Scylla serrata.

    PubMed

    Sujitha, Vasu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Pandiyan, Amuthvalli; Aruliah, Rajasekar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Higuchi, Akon; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Kumar, Suresh; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-07-01

    Currently, nano-formulated mosquito larvicides have been widely proposed to control young instars of malaria vector populations. However, the fate of nanoparticles in the aquatic environment is scarcely known, with special reference to the impact of nanoparticles on enzymatic activity of non-target aquatic invertebrates. In this study, we synthesized CdS nanoparticles using a green protocol relying on the cheap extract of Valoniopsis pachynema algae. CdS nanoparticles showed high toxicity on young instars of the malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi and A. sundaicus. The antimalarial activity of the nano-synthesized product against chloroquine-resistant (CQ-r) Plasmodium falciparum parasites was investigated. From a non-target perspective, we focused on the impact of this novel nano-pesticide on antioxidant enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities of the mud crab Scylla serrata. The characterization of nanomaterials was carried out by UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy, as well as SEM and XRD analyses. In mosquitocidal assays, LC 50 of V. pachynema-synthesized CdS nanoparticles on A. stephensi ranged from 16.856 (larva I), to 30.301μg/ml (pupa), while for An. sundaicus they ranged from 13.584 to 22.496μg/ml. The antiplasmodial activity of V. pachynema extract and CdS nanoparticles was evaluated against CQ-r and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. IC 50 of V. pachynema extract was 58.1μg/ml (CQ-s) and 71.46μg/ml (CQ-r), while nano-CdS IC 50 was 76.14μg/ml (CQ-s) and 89.21μg/ml (CQ-r). In enzymatic assays, S. serrata crabs were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations, i.e. 4, 6 and 8μg/ml of CdS nanoparticles, assessing changes in GST and AChE activity after 16days. We observed significantly higher activity of GST, if compared to the control, during the whole experiment period. In addition, a single treatment with CdS nanoparticles led to a significant decrease in AChE activity over time. The toxicity of Cd

  12. The thoracic muscular system and its innervation in third instar Calliphora vicina Larvae. II. Projection patterns of the nerves associated with the pro- and mesothorax and the pharyngeal complex.

    PubMed

    Schoofs, Andreas; Hanslik, Ulrike; Niederegger, Senta; Heinzel, Hans-Georg; Spiess, Roland

    2010-08-01

    We describe the anatomy of the nerves that project from the central nervous system (CNS) to the pro- and mesothoracic segments and the cephalopharyngeal skeleton (CPS) for third instar Calliphora larvae. Due to the complex branching pattern we introduce a nomenclature that labels side branches of first and second order. Two fine nerves that were not yet described are briefly introduced. One paired nerve projects to the ventral arms (VAs) of the CPS. The second, an unpaired nerve, projects to the ventral surface of the cibarial part of the esophagus (ES). Both nerves were tentatively labeled after the structures they innervate. The antennal nerve (AN) innervates the olfactory dorsal organ (DO). It contains motor pathways that project through the frontal connectives (FC) to the frontal nerve (FN) and innervate the cibarial dilator muscles (CDM) which mediate food ingestion. The maxillary nerve (MN) innervates the sensory terminal organ (TO), ventral organ (VO), and labial organ (LO) and comprises the motor pathways to the mouth hook (MH) elevator, MH depressor, and the labial retractor (LR) which opens the mouth cavity. An anastomosis of unknown function exists between the AN and MN. The prothoracic accessory nerve (PaN) innervates a dorsal protractor muscle of the CPS and sends side branches to the aorta and the bolwig organ (BO) (stemmata). In its further course, this nerve merges with the prothoracic nerve (PN). The architecture of the PN is extremely complex. It innervates a set of accessory pharyngeal muscles attached to the CPS and the body wall musculature of the prothorax. Several anastomoses exist between side branches of this nerve which were shown to contain motor pathways. The mesothoracic nerve (MeN) innervates a MH accessor and the longitudinal and transversal body wall muscles of the second segment. J. Morphol. 271:969-979, 2010. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    In addition to Dr. Robert Goddard's pioneering work, American experimentation in rocketry prior to World War II grew, primarily in technical societies. This is an early rocket motor designed and developed by the American Rocket Society in 1932.

  14. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    During the 19th century, rocket enthusiasts and inventors began to appear in almost every country. Some people thought these early rocket pioneers were geniuses, and others thought they were crazy. Claude Ruggieri, an Italian living in Paris, apparently rocketed small animals into space as early as 1806. The payloads were recovered by parachute. As depicted here by artist Larry Toschik, French authorities were not always impressed with rocket research. They halted Ruggieri's plans to launch a small boy using a rocket cluster. (Reproduced from a drawing by Larry Toschik and presented here courtesy of the artist and Motorola Inc.)

  15. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1950-01-01

    Test firing of a Redstone Missile at Redstone Test Stand in the early 1950's. The Redstone was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the von Braun Team under the management of the U.S. Army. The Redstone was the first major rocket development program in the United States.

  16. Early Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Nuys, Ute Elisabeth

    1986-01-01

    Presents reviews of the following mathematics software designed to teach young children counting, number recognition, visual discrimination, matching, addition, and subtraction skills; Stickybear Numbers, Learning with Leeper, Getting Ready to Read and Add, Counting Parade, Early Games for Young Children, Charlie Brown's 1,2,3's, Let's Go Fishing,…

  17. Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Donald L.; Willis, Sherry L.

    This book summarizes theory and discusses major issues pertaining to child development in the early childhood years. Chapter I provides an introduction to the conceptual framework and major theories of child development. Chapter II deals with motor, sensory, and perceptual development. Chapter III focuses on the cognitive-developmental theory of…

  18. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    During the early introduction of rockets to Europe, they were used only as weapons. Enemy troops in India repulsed the British with rockets. Later, in Britain, Sir William Congreve developed a rocket that could fire to about 9,000 feet. The British fired Congreve rockets against the United States in the War of 1812.

  19. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    In the 19th Century, experiments in America, Europe, and elsewhere attempted to build postal rockets to deliver mail from one location to another. The idea was more novel than successful. Many stamps used in these early postal rockets have become collector's items.

  20. P16.30 4th ventricle glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Unal, E.; Isik, S.; Gurbuz, M.; Kilic, K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: We present the 2nd case ever known in English literature describing a glioblastoma of the fourth ventricle originating from cerebellar peduncle. CASE DESCIPTION: A 66 years old woman was admitted to hospital with dizziness and nausea for four months. An MRI scan showed fourth ventricle mass. First impression was an ependymoma due to MRI scan characteristics. Results: A surgery was performed and histopathology revealed Grade IV glial tumor. Radiotherapy was done. CONCLUSION: This report suggests that GBM can mimic every tumor in the CNS. Surgery is the best option for these tumors not only for aggressive behaviour of glioblastoma but also to prevent hydrocephalus and associated symptoms.

  1. Special Issue From the 4th USDA Greenhouse Gas Symposium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Greenhouse gases emitted from agricultural and forest systems continue to be a topic of interest because of their potential role in the global climate and the potential monetary return in the form of carbon credits from the adoption of mitigation strategies. There are several challenges in the scien...

  2. Physics Computing '92: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groot, Robert A.; Nadrchal, Jaroslav

    1993-04-01

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Preface * INVITED PAPERS * Ab Initio Theoretical Approaches to the Structural, Electronic and Vibrational Properties of Small Clusters and Fullerenes: The State of the Art * Neural Multigrid Methods for Gauge Theories and Other Disordered Systems * Multicanonical Monte Carlo Simulations * On the Use of the Symbolic Language Maple in Physics and Chemistry: Several Examples * Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions in Catalysis and Population Models * Computer Algebra, Symmetry Analysis and Integrability of Nonlinear Evolution Equations * The Path-Integral Quantum Simulation of Hydrogen in Metals * Digital Optical Computing: A New Approach of Systolic Arrays Based on Coherence Modulation of Light and Integrated Optics Technology * Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Granular Materials * Numerical Implementation of a K.A.M. Algorithm * Quasi-Monte Carlo, Quasi-Random Numbers and Quasi-Error Estimates * What Can We Learn from QMC Simulations * Physics of Fluctuating Membranes * Plato, Apollonius, and Klein: Playing with Spheres * Steady States in Nonequilibrium Lattice Systems * CONVODE: A REDUCE Package for Differential Equations * Chaos in Coupled Rotators * Symplectic Numerical Methods for Hamiltonian Problems * Computer Simulations of Surfactant Self Assembly * High-dimensional and Very Large Cellular Automata for Immunological Shape Space * A Review of the Lattice Boltzmann Method * Electronic Structure of Solids in the Self-interaction Corrected Local-spin-density Approximation * Dedicated Computers for Lattice Gauge Theory Simulations * Physics Education: A Survey of Problems and Possible Solutions * Parallel Computing and Electronic-Structure Theory * High Precision Simulation Techniques for Lattice Field Theory * CONTRIBUTED PAPERS * Case Study of Microscale Hydrodynamics Using Molecular Dynamics and Lattice Gas Methods * Computer Modelling of the Structural and Electronic Properties of the Supported Metal Catalysis * Ordered Particle Simulations for Serial and MIMD Parallel Computers * "NOLP" -- Program Package for Laser Plasma Nonlinear Optics * Algorithms to Solve Nonlinear Least Square Problems * Distribution of Hydrogen Atoms in Pd-H Computed by Molecular Dynamics * A Ray Tracing of Optical System for Protein Crystallography Beamline at Storage Ring-SIBERIA-2 * Vibrational Properties of a Pseudobinary Linear Chain with Correlated Substitutional Disorder * Application of the Software Package Mathematica in Generalized Master Equation Method * Linelist: An Interactive Program for Analysing Beam-foil Spectra * GROMACS: A Parallel Computer for Molecular Dynamics Simulations * GROMACS Method of Virial Calculation Using a Single Sum * The Interactive Program for the Solution of the Laplace Equation with the Elimination of Singularities for Boundary Functions * Random-Number Generators: Testing Procedures and Comparison of RNG Algorithms * Micro-TOPIC: A Tokamak Plasma Impurities Code * Rotational Molecular Scattering Calculations * Orthonormal Polynomial Method for Calibrating of Cryogenic Temperature Sensors * Frame-based System Representing Basis of Physics * The Role of Massively Data-parallel Computers in Large Scale Molecular Dynamics Simulations * Short-range Molecular Dynamics on a Network of Processors and Workstations * An Algorithm for Higher-order Perturbation Theory in Radiative Transfer Computations * Hydrostochastics: The Master Equation Formulation of Fluid Dynamics * HPP Lattice Gas on Transputers and Networked Workstations * Study on the Hysteresis Cycle Simulation Using Modeling with Different Functions on Intervals * Refined Pruning Techniques for Feed-forward Neural Networks * Random Walk Simulation of the Motion of Transient Charges in Photoconductors * The Optical Hysteresis in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon * Diffusion Monte Carlo Analysis of Modern Interatomic Potentials for He * A Parallel Strategy for Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Polar Liquids on Transputer Arrays * Distribution of Ions Reflected on Rough Surfaces * The Study of Step Density Distribution During Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth: Monte Carlo Computer Simulation * Towards a Formal Approach to the Construction of Large-scale Scientific Applications Software * Correlated Random Walk and Discrete Modelling of Propagation through Inhomogeneous Media * Teaching Plasma Physics Simulation * A Theoretical Determination of the Au-Ni Phase Diagram * Boson and Fermion Kinetics in One-dimensional Lattices * Computational Physics Course on the Technical University * Symbolic Computations in Simulation Code Development and Femtosecond-pulse Laser-plasma Interaction Studies * Computer Algebra and Integrated Computing Systems in Education of Physical Sciences * Coordinated System of Programs for Undergraduate Physics Instruction * Program Package MIRIAM and Atomic Physics of Extreme Systems * High Energy Physics Simulation on the T_Node * The Chapman-Kolmogorov Equation as Representation of Huygens' Principle and the Monolithic Self-consistent Numerical Modelling of Lasers * Authoring System for Simulation Developments * Molecular Dynamics Study of Ion Charge Effects in the Structure of Ionic Crystals * A Computational Physics Introductory Course * Computer Calculation of Substrate Temperature Field in MBE System * Multimagnetical Simulation of the Ising Model in Two and Three Dimensions * Failure of the CTRW Treatment of the Quasicoherent Excitation Transfer * Implementation of a Parallel Conjugate Gradient Method for Simulation of Elastic Light Scattering * Algorithms for Study of Thin Film Growth * Algorithms and Programs for Physics Teaching in Romanian Technical Universities * Multicanonical Simulation of 1st order Transitions: Interface Tension of the 2D 7-State Potts Model * Two Numerical Methods for the Calculation of Periodic Orbits in Hamiltonian Systems * Chaotic Behavior in a Probabilistic Cellular Automata? * Wave Optics Computing by a Networked-based Vector Wave Automaton * Tensor Manipulation Package in REDUCE * Propagation of Electromagnetic Pulses in Stratified Media * The Simple Molecular Dynamics Model for the Study of Thermalization of the Hot Nucleon Gas * Electron Spin Polarization in PdCo Alloys Calculated by KKR-CPA-LSD Method * Simulation Studies of Microscopic Droplet Spreading * A Vectorizable Algorithm for the Multicolor Successive Overrelaxation Method * Tetragonality of the CuAu I Lattice and Its Relation to Electronic Specific Heat and Spin Susceptibility * Computer Simulation of the Formation of Metallic Aggregates Produced by Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solution * Scaling in Growth Models with Diffusion: A Monte Carlo Study * The Nucleus as the Mesoscopic System * Neural Network Computation as Dynamic System Simulation * First-principles Theory of Surface Segregation in Binary Alloys * Data Smooth Approximation Algorithm for Estimating the Temperature Dependence of the Ice Nucleation Rate * Genetic Algorithms in Optical Design * Application of 2D-FFT in the Study of Molecular Exchange Processes by NMR * Advanced Mobility Model for Electron Transport in P-Si Inversion Layers * Computer Simulation for Film Surfaces and its Fractal Dimension * Parallel Computation Techniques and the Structure of Catalyst Surfaces * Educational SW to Teach Digital Electronics and the Corresponding Text Book * Primitive Trinomials (Mod 2) Whose Degree is a Mersenne Exponent * Stochastic Modelisation and Parallel Computing * Remarks on the Hybrid Monte Carlo Algorithm for the ∫4 Model * An Experimental Computer Assisted Workbench for Physics Teaching * A Fully Implicit Code to Model Tokamak Plasma Edge Transport * EXPFIT: An Interactive Program for Automatic Beam-foil Decay Curve Analysis * Mapping Technique for Solving General, 1-D Hamiltonian Systems * Freeway Traffic, Cellular Automata, and Some (Self-Organizing) Criticality * Photonuclear Yield Analysis by Dynamic Programming * Incremental Representation of the Simply Connected Planar Curves * Self-convergence in Monte Carlo Methods * Adaptive Mesh Technique for Shock Wave Propagation * Simulation of Supersonic Coronal Streams and Their Interaction with the Solar Wind * The Nature of Chaos in Two Systems of Ordinary Nonlinear Differential Equations * Considerations of a Window-shopper * Interpretation of Data Obtained by RTP 4-Channel Pulsed Radar Reflectometer Using a Multi Layer Perceptron * Statistics of Lattice Bosons for Finite Systems * Fractal Based Image Compression with Affine Transformations * Algorithmic Studies on Simulation Codes for Heavy-ion Reactions * An Energy-Wise Computer Simulation of DNA-Ion-Water Interactions Explains the Abnormal Structure of Poly[d(A)]:Poly[d(T)] * Computer Simulation Study of Kosterlitz-Thouless-Like Transitions * Problem-oriented Software Package GUN-EBT for Computer Simulation of Beam Formation and Transport in Technological Electron-Optical Systems * Parallelization of a Boundary Value Solver and its Application in Nonlinear Dynamics * The Symbolic Classification of Real Four-dimensional Lie Algebras * Short, Singular Pulses Generation by a Dye Laser at Two Wavelengths Simultaneously * Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations of the Apex-Oxygen-Model * Approximation Procedures for the Axial Symmetric Static Einstein-Maxwell-Higgs Theory * Crystallization on a Sphere: Parallel Simulation on a Transputer Network * FAMULUS: A Software Product (also) for Physics Education * MathCAD vs. FAMULUS -- A Brief Comparison * First-principles Dynamics Used to Study Dissociative Chemisorption * A Computer Controlled System for Crystal Growth from Melt * A Time Resolved Spectroscopic Method for Short Pulsed Particle Emission * Green's Function Computation in Radiative Transfer Theory * Random Search Optimization Technique for One-criteria and Multi-criteria Problems * Hartley Transform Applications to Thermal Drift Elimination in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy * Algorithms of Measuring, Processing and Interpretation of Experimental Data Obtained with Scanning Tunneling Microscope * Time-dependent Atom-surface Interactions * Local and Global Minima on Molecular Potential Energy Surfaces: An Example of N3 Radical * Computation of Bifurcation Surfaces * Symbolic Computations in Quantum Mechanics: Energies in Next-to-solvable Systems * A Tool for RTP Reactor and Lamp Field Design * Modelling of Particle Spectra for the Analysis of Solid State Surface * List of Participants

  3. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 43, 4th Quarter 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    plan in Iraq, and it echoed the millennial slogan, “It’s the economy, stupid!” Naomi Klein offers the poignant observa- tion that injecting greed and...closer study. Alternatively, creating a two-tier market system that makes the cost of business unsus- tainable for informal market entrepreneurs is one

  4. Written Work in Psychology. 4th Edition, 1988-1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, James

    Designed for students in a community college introductory psychology course, this booklet provides course assignments and ideas to improve students' writing. The booklet covers the following topics: (1) course writing assignments and the steps in preparing summaries of readings; (2) academic honesty and ways to avoid plagiarism; (3) the use of…

  5. [Docimologic analysis of 4th-year preclinical exam questions].

    PubMed

    Gnagne-Agnero, Koffi N; Zinsou, E M; Assoumou, N M; Adiko, E F

    2003-12-01

    Operative Dentistry and Endodontics' Department of the School of Dentistry of Abidjan experienced pre-clinical exam in fourth year of dentistry with MCQ following guided courses which aim was to lead student to be correctly in charge of the patients when they start their first clinical performance. The objective off his this work is to show how one's can analyse exams questions efficiently. In this work the authors present et discuss the results of the evaluation of this preclinical exam performed through calculation of index of success (Ir) which gives us information on the difficulty of a question for all the students who answered, the discriminative index (Id) which allow to determine when a question is selective enough to distinguish weak to strong students in a group. The mean to evaluate is well chosen because the questions asked has a Ir between 46% et 80% (satisfying Ir) and the average Id is between 0.30 and 0.53 (Id discriminates well among 0.30 et 1). This methodology allows an evaluation of a high number of students by stocked questions.

  6. Medical School Admissions: The Insider's Guide. 4th Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zebala, John A.; And Others

    This revised and updated handbook written by recent medical school graduates offers a firsthand account of successful strategies for the medical school admissions process. Six chapters discuss the following topics: (1) premedical preparation (planning undergraduate study and picking the right college); (2) power techniques for higher grades…

  7. ACSPRI 2014 4th International Social Science Methodology Conference Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    Validity, trustworthiness and rigour: quality and the idea of qualitative research . Journal of Advanced Nursing, 304-310. Spencer, L., Ritchie, J...increasing data quality; the Total Survey Error framework; multi-modal on-line surveying, quality frameworks for assessing qualitative research ; and...provided an overview of the current perspectives on causal claims in qualitative research . Three approaches to generating plausible causal

  8. ISPOR Code of Ethics 2017 (4th Edition).

    PubMed

    Santos, Jessica; Palumbo, Francis; Molsen-David, Elizabeth; Willke, Richard J; Binder, Louise; Drummond, Michael; Ho, Anita; Marder, William D; Parmenter, Louise; Sandhu, Gurmit; Shafie, Asrul A; Thompson, David

    2017-12-01

    As the leading health economics and outcomes research (HEOR) professional society, ISPOR has a responsibility to establish a uniform, harmonized international code for ethical conduct. ISPOR has updated its 2008 Code of Ethics to reflect the current research environment. This code addresses what is acceptable and unacceptable in research, from inception to the dissemination of its results. There are nine chapters: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Ethical Principles respect, beneficence and justice with reference to a non-exhaustive compilation of international, regional, and country-specific guidelines and standards; 3 - Scope HEOR definitions and how HEOR and the Code relate to other research fields; 4 - Research Design Considerations primary and secondary data related issues, e.g., participant recruitment, population and research setting, sample size/site selection, incentive/honorarium, administration databases, registration of retrospective observational studies and modeling studies; 5 - Data Considerations privacy and data protection, combining, verification and transparency of research data, scientific misconduct, etc.; 6 - Sponsorship and Relationships with Others (roles of researchers, sponsors, key opinion leaders and advisory board members, research participants and institutional review boards (IRBs) / independent ethics committees (IECs) approval and responsibilities); 7 - Patient Centricity and Patient Engagement new addition, with explanation and guidance; 8 - Publication and Dissemination; and 9 - Conclusion and Limitations. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 4th Grade - Mangrove Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with elementary children in grade four prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  10. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 63, 4th Quarter 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    wondrous trinity” for use in the current threat environment, Mr. Owens could refer to my piece entitled “The Age of Irregular Warfare: So What...listen, but its future enemy did. When it comes to good ideas, neither rank nor age confers a monopoly. JFQ is intended to stay at the vanguard, to...will need to evolve with an emphasis on rejuvenating and sustaining the country’s economic vitality while relying increasingly on credible forms of

  11. The 4th Armored Division in the Encirclement of Nancy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    Germans to bar the way. The Germans sent two depleted but still dangerous mechanized infantry divi- sions, the 3d and 15th Panzergrenadier, from Italy...when the 3d Panzergrenadier Division handily repulsed a crossing of the Moselle mounted by the 80th Infantry Division on 5 September. Having been...deceived for long. At 0100 on 13 September, the 3d Panzergrenadier Division hit the Dieulouard bridgehead with a strong counterattack, causing the corps

  12. The 4th Armored Division in the Encirclement of Nancy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    for the Germans to bar the way. The Germans sent two depleted but still dangerous mechanized infantry divi- sions, the 3d and 15th Panzergrenadier...Wood’s mis- givings were borne out when the 3d Panzergrenadier Division handily repulsed a crossing of the Moselle mounted by the 86th Infantry...not deceived for long. At 0100 on 13 September, the 3d Panzergrenadier Division hit the Dieulouard bridgehead with a strong counterattack, causing

  13. Healthy Young Children: A Manual for Programs, 4th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S., Ed.

    Noting that the health component of child care should be planned to respond to the developmental patterns of young children, this manual was developed as a reference and resource guide for program directors and teachers of young children and can be used as a textbook for adult learners. The manual, based on national standards and reviewed by…

  14. Glossary: Defense Acquisition Acronyms and Terms. 4th Edition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    Appropriations Committee R HARDMAN Manpower Planning for Hardware (Navy/USMC) HASC House Armed Services Committee 11 HBC House Budget Committee R HCA Head of...Logistics Review Group (Navy) LRIP Low Rate Initial Production LRP Low Rate Production LRRDAP Long Range Research, Development and Acquisition Plan...Software User’s Manual R SUPSHIPS Superintendent of Shipbuilding S/V Survivability/Vulnerability SVR Shop Visit Rate R SW or S/W Software SX Systems

  15. Venezuela as an Exporter of 4th Generation Warfare Instability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    military reserve and the paramili- tary (militia) organizations are charged to: 1) protect the country from a U.S. or Colombian invasion with an...illicit Venezuelan- Colombian TCO trade represents, it is not likely that this alliance will go away soon.57 25 Clearly, the Venezuelan state and... Colombian FARC, the Iranian Quds force (the elite paramilitary unit of the Revolutionary Guards) has also placed operatives and trainers in embassies

  16. How Good Is Our School? 4th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Scotland, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This new updated fourth edition of "How Good is Our School?" is the result of a wide-ranging consultation through which stakeholders have contributed to the development of a substantially new set of quality indicators and supporting toolkit. This publication is designed to promote effective self-evaluation as the first stage in a process…

  17. BOOK REVIEW: Mastering Physics (4th edn) Macmillan Master Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugden, Chris

    2000-01-01

    The preface to the first edition of this book, in 1982, stated the aim as `presenting ideas with a directness and simplicity that will enable students to achieve maximum comprehension in the shortest possible time'. The fourth edition remains true to this aim, whilst paying some attention to the possibility of using the book alongside classroom work as well as a revision aid. However, it is as a clear concise summary of GCSE level physics (and a little bit beyond) that this book excels. I would recommend it to students as a revision aid at the end of the course and as a reference book during it. There should certainly be a few copies in the school library. Since I see the book's main role as being for the individual use of students it seemed sensible to ask one for his impression of the book having completed GCSE Physics a few months ago, and this is appended below. Philip Britton The book is split into many small, precise subsections and so allows easy reference to the topic you want to know about. The major equations are all included and explained well. The text is quite detailed and includes helpful examples. Concepts are explained in simple stages and in a way that is easy to understand; for example, the phases of the moon and ray diagrams. Resistors, which had been a little difficult for me, are very well explained. A simple detail like putting the names of the circuit symbols beside them on diagrams helps a lot. Throughout the book there are plenty of diagrams used to assist understanding rather than just illustrate the book. Overall I think that it would be best used as a revision aid. It reads very much like a syllabus with added explanation and examples. Perhaps it would be possible for a class to read a section before a lesson so less basic explanation is required during the lesson and other work can be done. The sections are brief enough to allow even the apathetic to complete such a homework assignment.

  18. The 1992 4th NASA SERC Symposium on VLSI Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Sterling R.

    1992-01-01

    Papers from the fourth annual NASA Symposium on VLSI Design, co-sponsored by the IEEE, are presented. Each year this symposium is organized by the NASA Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) at the University of Idaho and is held in conjunction with a quarterly meeting of the NASA Data System Technology Working Group (DSTWG). One task of the DSTWG is to develop new electronic technologies that will meet next generation electronic data system needs. The symposium provides insights into developments in VLSI and digital systems which can be used to increase data systems performance. The NASA SERC is proud to offer, at its fourth symposium on VLSI design, presentations by an outstanding set of individuals from national laboratories, the electronics industry, and universities. These speakers share insights into next generation advances that will serve as a basis for future VLSI design.

  19. DefenseLink Special: 4th OF July 2005

    Science.gov Websites

    DefenseLink.mil Aug. 04, 2015 War on Terror Transformation News Products Press Resources Images Websites Contact of Staff President George W. Bush delivers remarks on the war on terror at Fort Bragg, N.C., June 28

  20. International Summer Institute in Surface Science (4th), (ISISS 1979).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-09

    Gold crystallites growing on KC1 substrates were found, under certain conditions during the coalescence stage, to form large, irregularly shaped, very...structure up to the interface. The next part gives results issued from structural models for the crystal-melt interface of monoatomic solids. The main