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Sample records for early acquired words

  1. Acquiring a Single New Word.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Susan; Bartlett, Elsa

    Twenty children aged 3;0 to 3;10 were studied for behavior related to the acquisition of a single new word ("chromium," which was presented as designating the color olive green). The research was conducted in three cycles: prior to exposure to "chromium," at the time of a single encounter with that word, and about a week after the first encounter.…

  2. Acquired prosopagnosia without word recognition deficits.

    PubMed

    Susilo, Tirta; Wright, Victoria; Tree, Jeremy J; Duchaine, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    It has long been suggested that face recognition relies on specialized mechanisms that are not involved in visual recognition of other object categories, including those that require expert, fine-grained discrimination at the exemplar level such as written words. But according to the recently proposed many-to-many theory of object recognition (MTMT), visual recognition of faces and words are carried out by common mechanisms [Behrmann, M., & Plaut, D. C. ( 2013 ). Distributed circuits, not circumscribed centers, mediate visual recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 210-219]. MTMT acknowledges that face and word recognition are lateralized, but posits that the mechanisms that predominantly carry out face recognition still contribute to word recognition and vice versa. MTMT makes a key prediction, namely that acquired prosopagnosics should exhibit some measure of word recognition deficits. We tested this prediction by assessing written word recognition in five acquired prosopagnosic patients. Four patients had lesions limited to the right hemisphere while one had bilateral lesions with more pronounced lesions in the right hemisphere. The patients completed a total of seven word recognition tasks: two lexical decision tasks and five reading aloud tasks totalling more than 1200 trials. The performances of the four older patients (3 female, age range 50-64 years) were compared to those of 12 older controls (8 female, age range 56-66 years), while the performances of the younger prosopagnosic (male, 31 years) were compared to those of 14 younger controls (9 female, age range 20-33 years). We analysed all results at the single-patient level using Crawford's t-test. Across seven tasks, four prosopagnosics performed as quickly and accurately as controls. Our results demonstrate that acquired prosopagnosia can exist without word recognition deficits. These findings are inconsistent with a key prediction of MTMT. They instead support the hypothesis that face

  3. Reduplication Facilitates Early Word Segmentation

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    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Skarabela, Barbora

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the possibility that early word segmentation is aided by infants' tendency to segment words with repeated syllables ("reduplication"). Twenty-four nine-month-olds were familiarized with passages containing one novel reduplicated word and one novel non-reduplicated word. Their central fixation times in response to…

  4. Words and possible words in early language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Marchetto, Erika; Bonatti, Luca L

    2013-11-01

    In order to acquire language, infants must extract its building blocks-words-and master the rules governing their legal combinations from speech. These two problems are not independent, however: words also have internal structure. Thus, infants must extract two kinds of information from the same speech input. They must find the actual words of their language. Furthermore, they must identify its possible words, that is, the sequences of sounds that, being morphologically well formed, could be words. Here, we show that infants' sensitivity to possible words appears to be more primitive and fundamental than their ability to find actual words. We expose 12- and 18-month-old infants to an artificial language containing a conflict between statistically coherent and structurally coherent items. We show that 18-month-olds can extract possible words when the familiarization stream contains marks of segmentation, but cannot do so when the stream is continuous. Yet, they can find actual words from a continuous stream by computing statistical relationships among syllables. By contrast, 12-month-olds can find possible words when familiarized with a segmented stream, but seem unable to extract statistically coherent items from a continuous stream that contains minimal conflicts between statistical and structural information. These results suggest that sensitivity to word structure is in place earlier than the ability to analyze distributional information. The ability to compute nontrivial statistical relationships becomes fully effective relatively late in development, when infants have already acquired a considerable amount of linguistic knowledge. Thus, mechanisms for structure extraction that do not rely on extensive sampling of the input are likely to have a much larger role in language acquisition than general-purpose statistical abilities. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. A database for semantic, grammatical, and frequency properties of the first words acquired by Italian children.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Pasquale; Barca, Laura; Burani, Cristina

    2004-08-01

    The CFVlexvar.xls database includes imageability, frequency, and grammatical properties of the first words acquired by Italian children. For each of 519 words that are known by children 18-30 months of age (taken from Caselli & Casadio's, 1995, Italian version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory), new values of imageability are provided and values for age of acquisition, child written frequency, and adult written and spoken frequency are included. In this article, correlations among the variables are discussed and the words are grouped into grammatical categories. The results show that words acquired early have imageable referents, are frequently used in the texts read and written by elementary school children, and are frequent in adult written and spoken language. Nouns are acquired earlier and are more imageable than both verbs and adjectives. The composition in grammatical categories of the child's first vocabulary reflects the composition of adult vocabulary. The full set of these norms can be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive/.

  6. Early Combinations of Words and Actions.

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    Shore, Cecilia

    Previous research has shown a similar starting time for early combinations of words and play actions in children and has suggested that similar cognitive processes underlie the transition to combining activities in language, symbolic play, and manipulative play. A study was undertaken to investigate combining activities in these three domains and…

  7. Infants Track Word Forms in Early Word-Object Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamuner, Tania S.; Fais, Laurel; Werker, Janet F.

    2014-01-01

    A central component of language development is word learning. One characterization of this process is that language learners discover objects and then look for word forms to associate with these objects (Mcnamara, 1984; Smith, 2000). Another possibility is that word forms themselves are also important, such that once learned, hearing a familiar…

  8. Episodic Specificity in Acquiring Thematic Knowledge of Novel Words from Descriptive Episodes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meichao; Chen, Shuang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Xiaohong; Yang, Yufang

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined whether thematic relations of the novel words could be acquired via descriptive episodes, and if yes, whether it could be generalized to thematically related words in a different scenario. In Experiment 1, a lexical decision task was used where the novel words served as primes for target words in four conditions: (1) corresponding concepts of the novel words, (2) thematically related words in the same episodes as that in learning condition, (3) thematically related words in different episodes, or (4) unrelated words served as targets. Event related potentials elicited by the targets revealed that compared to the unrelated words, the corresponding concepts and thematically related words in the same episodes elicited smaller N400s with a frontal-central distribution, whereas the thematically related words in different episodes elicited an enhanced late positive component. Experiment 2 further showed a priming effect of the corresponding concepts on the thematically related words in the same episodes as well as in a different episode, indicating that the absence of a priming effect of the learned novel words on the thematically related words in different episode could not be attributed to inappropriate selection of thematically related words in the two conditions. These results indicate that only the corresponding concepts and the thematically related words in the learning episodes were successfully primed, whereas the thematic association between the novel words and the thematically related words in different scenarios could only be recognized in a late processing stage. Our findings suggest that thematic knowledge of novel words is organized via separate scenarios, which are represented in a clustered manner in the semantic network. PMID:28428766

  9. Episodic Specificity in Acquiring Thematic Knowledge of Novel Words from Descriptive Episodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meichao; Chen, Shuang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Xiaohong; Yang, Yufang

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined whether thematic relations of the novel words could be acquired via descriptive episodes, and if yes, whether it could be generalized to thematically related words in a different scenario. In Experiment 1, a lexical decision task was used where the novel words served as primes for target words in four conditions: (1) corresponding concepts of the novel words, (2) thematically related words in the same episodes as that in learning condition, (3) thematically related words in different episodes, or (4) unrelated words served as targets. Event related potentials elicited by the targets revealed that compared to the unrelated words, the corresponding concepts and thematically related words in the same episodes elicited smaller N400s with a frontal-central distribution, whereas the thematically related words in different episodes elicited an enhanced late positive component. Experiment 2 further showed a priming effect of the corresponding concepts on the thematically related words in the same episodes as well as in a different episode, indicating that the absence of a priming effect of the learned novel words on the thematically related words in different episode could not be attributed to inappropriate selection of thematically related words in the two conditions. These results indicate that only the corresponding concepts and the thematically related words in the learning episodes were successfully primed, whereas the thematic association between the novel words and the thematically related words in different scenarios could only be recognized in a late processing stage. Our findings suggest that thematic knowledge of novel words is organized via separate scenarios, which are represented in a clustered manner in the semantic network.

  10. The paca that roared: Immediate cumulative semantic interference among newly acquired words.

    PubMed

    Oppenheim, Gary M

    2018-08-01

    With 40,000 words in the average vocabulary, how can speakers find the specific words that they want so quickly and easily? Cumulative semantic interference in language production provides a clue: when naming a large series of pictures, with a few mammals sprinkled about, naming each subsequent mammal becomes slower and more error-prone. Such interference mirrors predictions from an incremental learning algorithm applied to meaning-driven retrieval from an established vocabulary, suggesting retrieval benefits from a constant, implicit, re-optimization process (Oppenheim et al., 2010). But how quickly would a new mammal (e.g. paca) engage in this re-optimization? In this experiment, 18 participants studied 3 novel and 3 familiar exemplars from each of six semantic categories, and immediately performed a timed picture-naming task. Consistent with the learning model's predictions, naming latencies revealed immediate cumulative semantic interference in all directions: from new words to new words, from new words to old words, from old words to new words, and from old words to old words. Repeating the procedure several days later produced similar-magnitude effects, demonstrating that newly acquired words can be immediately semantically integrated, at least to the extent necessary to produce typical cumulative semantic interference. These findings extend the Dark Side model's scope to include novel word production, and are considered in terms of mechanisms for lexical selection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Early Word Order Representations: Novel Arguments against Old Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franck, Julie; Millotte, Severine; Lassotta, Romy

    2011-01-01

    One major controversy in the field of language development concerns the nature of children's early representations of word order. While studies using preferential looking methods suggest that children as early as 20 months represent word order as an abstract, grammatical property, experiments using the Weird Word Order (WWO) paradigm suggest that…

  12. Electrophysiological Evidence of Early Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Around their first birthday infants begin to talk, yet they comprehend words long before. This study investigated the event-related potentials (ERP) responses of nine-month-olds on basic level picture-word pairings. After a familiarization phase of six picture-word pairings per semantic category, comprehension for novel exemplars was tested in a…

  13. Acquiring Novel Words and Their Past Tenses: Evidence from Lexical Effects on Phonetic Categorisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Shane; Sedin, Leanne M.; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments addressed how novel verbs come to be represented in the auditory input lexicon, and how the inflected forms of such novel words are acquired and recognised. Participants were introduced to new spoken forms as uninflected verbs. These varied in whether they contained a final /d/ (e.g., "confald" or "confal"). Either immediately…

  14. When is four far more than three? Children's generalization of newly acquired number words.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi Ting; Spelke, Elizabeth; Snedeker, Jesse

    2010-04-01

    What is the relationship between children's first number words and number concepts? We used training tasks to explore children's interpretation of number words as they acquired the words' meanings. Children who had mastered the meanings of only the first two or three number words were systematically provided with varied input on the next word-to-quantity mapping, and their extension of the newly trained word was assessed across a variety of test items. Children who had already mastered number words to three generalized training on four to new objects and nouns, such that their representation of the newly learned number was approximate. In contrast, children who had mastered only one and two learned to apply three reliably within a single count-noun context (e.g., three dogs), but did not generalize training to new objects labeled with different nouns (e.g., three cows). Both findings suggest that children fail to map newly learned words in their counting routine to the fully abstract concepts of natural numbers.

  15. Independence of Early Speech Processing from Word Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Katherine E.; Leonard, Matthew K.; Chan, Alexander M.; Torres, Christina; Sizemore, Marisa L.; Qu, Zhe; Eskandar, Emad; Dale, Anders M.; Elman, Jeffrey L.; Cash, Sydney S.; Halgren, Eric

    2013-01-01

    We combined magnetoencephalography (MEG) with magnetic resonance imaging and electrocorticography to separate in anatomy and latency 2 fundamental stages underlying speech comprehension. The first acoustic-phonetic stage is selective for words relative to control stimuli individually matched on acoustic properties. It begins ∼60 ms after stimulus onset and is localized to middle superior temporal cortex. It was replicated in another experiment, but is strongly dissociated from the response to tones in the same subjects. Within the same task, semantic priming of the same words by a related picture modulates cortical processing in a broader network, but this does not begin until ∼217 ms. The earlier onset of acoustic-phonetic processing compared with lexico-semantic modulation was significant in each individual subject. The MEG source estimates were confirmed with intracranial local field potential and high gamma power responses acquired in 2 additional subjects performing the same task. These recordings further identified sites within superior temporal cortex that responded only to the acoustic-phonetic contrast at short latencies, or the lexico-semantic at long. The independence of the early acoustic-phonetic response from semantic context suggests a limited role for lexical feedback in early speech perception. PMID:22875868

  16. Evidence for Early Morphological Decomposition in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomyak, Olla; Marantz, Alec

    2010-01-01

    We employ a single-trial correlational MEG analysis technique to investigate early processing in the visual recognition of morphologically complex words. Three classes of affixed words were presented in a lexical decision task: free stems (e.g., taxable), bound roots (e.g., tolerable), and unique root words (e.g., vulnerable, the root of which…

  17. Emotional words facilitate lexical but not early visual processing.

    PubMed

    Trauer, Sophie M; Kotz, Sonja A; Müller, Matthias M

    2015-12-12

    Emotional scenes and faces have shown to capture and bind visual resources at early sensory processing stages, i.e. in early visual cortex. However, emotional words have led to mixed results. In the current study ERPs were assessed simultaneously with steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) to measure attention effects on early visual activity in emotional word processing. Neutral and negative words were flickered at 12.14 Hz whilst participants performed a Lexical Decision Task. Emotional word content did not modulate the 12.14 Hz SSVEP amplitude, neither did word lexicality. However, emotional words affected the ERP. Negative compared to neutral words as well as words compared to pseudowords lead to enhanced deflections in the P2 time range indicative of lexico-semantic access. The N400 was reduced for negative compared to neutral words and enhanced for pseudowords compared to words indicating facilitated semantic processing of emotional words. LPC amplitudes reflected word lexicality and thus the task-relevant response. In line with previous ERP and imaging evidence, the present results indicate that written emotional words are facilitated in processing only subsequent to visual analysis.

  18. Learning transitive verbs from single-word verbs in the input by young children acquiring English.

    PubMed

    Ninio, Anat

    2016-09-01

    The environmental context of verbs addressed by adults to young children is claimed to be uninformative regarding the verbs' meaning, yielding the Syntactic Bootstrapping Hypothesis that, for verb learning, full sentences are needed to demonstrate the semantic arguments of verbs. However, reanalysis of Gleitman's (1990) original data regarding input to a blind child revealed the context of single-word parental verbs to be more transparent than that of sentences. We tested the hypothesis that English-speaking children learn their early verbs from parents' single-word utterances. Distribution of single-word transitive verbs produced by a large sample of young children was strongly predicted by the relative token frequency of verbs in parental single-word utterances, but multiword sentences had no predictive value. Analysis of the interactive context showed that objects of verbs are retrievable by pragmatic inference, as is the meaning of the verbs. Single-word input appears optimal for learning an initial vocabulary of verbs.

  19. The Role of Geminates in Infants' Early Word Production and Word-Form Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vihman, Marilyn; Majoran, Marinella

    2017-01-01

    Infants learning languages with long consonants, or geminates, have been found to "overselect" and "overproduce" these consonants in early words and also to commonly omit the word-initial consonant. A production study with thirty Italian children recorded at 1;3 and 1;9 strongly confirmed both of these tendencies. To test the…

  20. Children's early reading vocabulary: description and word frequency lists.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Morag; Dixon, Maureen; Masterson, Jackie; Gray, Bob

    2003-12-01

    When constructing stimuli for experimental investigations of cognitive processes in early reading development, researchers have to rely on adult or American children's word frequency counts, as no such counts exist for English children. The present paper introduces a database of children's early reading vocabulary, for use by researchers and teachers. Texts from 685 books from reading schemes and story books read by 5-7 year-old children were used in the construction of the database. All words from the 685 books were typed or scanned into an Oracle database. The resulting up-to-date word frequency list of early print exposure in the UK is available in two forms from a website address given in this paper. This allows access to one list of the words ordered alphabetically and one list of the words ordered by frequency. We also briefly address some fundamental issues underlying early reading vocabulary (e.g., that it is heavily skewed towards low frequencies). Other characteristics of the vocabulary are then discussed. We hope the word frequency lists will be of use to researchers seeking to control word frequency, and to teachers interested in the vocabulary to which young children are exposed in their reading material.

  1. Early attentional bias for negative words when competition is induced.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ming-Chou; Li, Shuo-Heng; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2016-05-01

    Previous research (Zeelenberg, Wagenmakers, & Rotteveel, 2006) revealed that emotionally meaningful words were identified significantly better than neutral words, with no difference between positive and negative words. Since in that study only a single target word was displayed at a time, we hypothesized that the equivalent performances for positive and negative words were due to a lack of competition. To test this, in our Experiment 1, we replicated Zeelenberg and colleagues' finding, using emotion-laden Chinese words and the identical data-limited method, which measured the accuracy of a briefly shown target. We then introduced competition in Experiment 2 by simultaneously presenting two words during the target frame, and found evidence for an early attentional bias to negative words. In Experiment 3, we confirmed that the bias in Experiment 2 was not due to the inevitable repetition of stimuli. Taken together, these results support our hypothesis that, in the presence of competition, negative words receive attentional priority and consequently have enhanced perceptual representations.

  2. Pigeons acquire multiple categories in parallel via associative learning: A parallel to human word learning?

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Brooks, Daniel I.; McMurray, Bob

    2014-01-01

    Might there be parallels between category learning in animals and word learning in children? To examine this possibility, we devised a new associative learning technique for teaching pigeons to sort 128 photographs of objects into 16 human language categories. We found that pigeons learned all 16 categories in parallel, they perceived the perceptual coherence of the different object categories, and they generalized their categorization behavior to novel photographs from the training categories. More detailed analyses of the factors that predict trial-by-trial learning implicated a number of factors that may shape learning. First, we found considerable trial-by-trial dependency of pigeons’ categorization responses, consistent with several recent studies that invoke this dependency to claim that humans acquire words via symbolic or inferential mechanisms; this finding suggests that such dependencies may also arise in associative systems. Second, our trial-by-trial analyses divulged seemingly irrelevant aspects of the categorization task, like the spatial location of the report responses, which influenced learning. Third, those trial-by-trial analyses also supported the possibility that learning may be determined both by strengthening correct stimulus-response associations and by weakening incorrect stimulus-response associations. The parallel between all these findings and important aspects of human word learning suggests that associative learning mechanisms may play a much stronger part in complex human behavior than is commonly believed. PMID:25497520

  3. Early Word Comprehension in Infants: Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergelson, Elika; Swingley, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A handful of recent experimental reports have shown that infants of 6-9 months know the meanings of some common words. Here, we replicate and extend these findings. With a new set of items, we show that when young infants (age 6-16 months, n = 49) are presented with side-by-side video clips depicting various common early words, and one clip is…

  4. Acquired word deafness, and the temporal grain of sound representation in the primary auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Phillips, D P; Farmer, M E

    1990-11-15

    This paper explores the nature of the processing disorder which underlies the speech discrimination deficit in the syndrome of acquired word deafness following from pathology to the primary auditory cortex. A critical examination of the evidence on this disorder revealed the following. First, the most profound forms of the condition are expressed not only in an isolation of the cerebral linguistic processor from auditory input, but in a failure of even the perceptual elaboration of the relevant sounds. Second, in agreement with earlier studies, we conclude that the perceptual dimension disturbed in word deafness is a temporal one. We argue, however, that it is not a generalized disorder of auditory temporal processing, but one which is largely restricted to the processing of sounds with temporal content in the milliseconds to tens-of-milliseconds time frame. The perceptual elaboration of sounds with temporal content outside that range, in either direction, may survive the disorder. Third, we present neurophysiological evidence that the primary auditory cortex has a special role in the representation of auditory events in that time frame, but not in the representation of auditory events with temporal grains outside that range.

  5. Kinematic investigation of lingual movement in words of increasing length in acquired apraxia of speech.

    PubMed

    Bartle-Meyer, Carly J; Goozee, Justine V; Murdoch, Bruce E

    2009-02-01

    The current study aimed to use electromagnetic articulography (EMA) to investigate the effect of increasing word length on lingual kinematics in acquired apraxia of speech (AOS). Tongue-tip and tongue-back movement was recorded for five speakers with AOS and a concomitant aphasia (mean age = 53.6 years; SD = 12.60) during target consonant production (i.e. /t, s, k/ singletons; /kl, sk/ clusters), for one and two syllable stimuli. The results obtained for each of the participants with AOS were individually compared to those obtained by a control group (n = 12; mean age = 52.08 years; SD = 12.52). Results indicated that the participants with AOS exhibited longer movement durations and, in some instances, larger tongue movements during consonant singletons and consonant cluster constituents embedded within mono- and multisyllabic utterances. Despite this, two participants with AOS exhibited a word length effect that was comparable with the control speakers, and possibly indicative of an intact phonological system.

  6. Speaker variability augments phonological processing in early word learning

    PubMed Central

    Rost, Gwyneth C.; McMurray, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Infants in the early stages of word learning have difficulty learning lexical neighbors (i.e., word pairs that differ by a single phoneme), despite the ability to discriminate the same contrast in a purely auditory task. While prior work has focused on top-down explanations for this failure (e.g. task demands, lexical competition), none has examined if bottom-up acoustic-phonetic factors play a role. We hypothesized that lexical neighbor learning could be improved by incorporating greater acoustic variability in the words being learned, as this may buttress still developing phonetic categories, and help infants identify the relevant contrastive dimension. Infants were exposed to pictures accompanied by labels spoken by either a single or multiple speakers. At test, infants in the single-speaker condition failed to recognize the difference between the two words, while infants who heard multiple speakers discriminated between them. PMID:19143806

  7. Prosodic Phonological Representations Early in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Jane; Martin, Andrea E.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments examined the nature of the phonological representations used during visual word recognition. We tested whether a minimality constraint (R. Frost, 1998) limits the complexity of early representations to a simple string of phonemes. Alternatively, readers might activate elaborated representations that include prosodic syllable…

  8. Early Word Comprehension in Infants: Replication and Extension

    PubMed Central

    Bergelson, Elika; Swingley, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A handful of recent experimental reports have shown that infants of 6 to 9 months know the meanings of some common words. Here, we replicate and extend these findings. With a new set of items, we show that when young infants (age 6-16 months, n=49) are presented with side-by-side video clips depicting various common early words, and one clip is named in a sentence, they look at the named video at above-chance rates. We demonstrate anew that infants understand common words by 6-9 months, and that performance increases substantially around 14 months. The results imply that 6-9 month olds’ failure to understand words not referring to objects (verbs, adjectives, performatives) in a similar prior study is not attributable to the use of dynamic video depictions. Thus, 6-9 month olds’ experience of spoken language includes some understanding of common words for concrete objects, but relatively impoverished comprehension of other words. PMID:26664329

  9. Acquired initiating mutations in early hematopoietic cells of CLL patients.

    PubMed

    Damm, Frederik; Mylonas, Elena; Cosson, Adrien; Yoshida, Kenichi; Della Valle, Véronique; Mouly, Enguerran; Diop, M'boyba; Scourzic, Laurianne; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyano, Satoru; Kikushige, Yoshikane; Davi, Frederick; Lambert, Jérôme; Gautheret, Daniel; Merle-Béral, Hélène; Sutton, Laurent; Dessen, Philippe; Solary, Eric; Akashi, Koichi; Vainchenker, William; Mercher, Thomas; Droin, Nathalie; Ogawa, Seishi; Nguyen-Khac, Florence; Bernard, Olivier A

    2014-09-01

    Appropriate cancer care requires a thorough understanding of the natural history of the disease, including the cell of origin, the pattern of clonal evolution, and the functional consequences of the mutations. Using deep sequencing of flow-sorted cell populations from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we established the presence of acquired mutations in multipotent hematopoietic progenitors. Mutations affected known lymphoid oncogenes, including BRAF, NOTCH1, and SF3B1. NFKBIE and EGR2 mutations were observed at unexpectedly high frequencies, 10.7% and 8.3% of 168 advanced-stage patients, respectively. EGR2 mutations were associated with a shorter time to treatment and poor overall survival. Analyses of BRAF and EGR2 mutations suggest that they result in deregulation of B-cell receptor (BCR) intracellular signaling. Our data propose disruption of hematopoietic and early B-cell differentiation through the deregulation of pre-BCR signaling as a phenotypic outcome of CLL mutations and show that CLL develops from a pre-leukemic phase. The origin and pathogenic mechanisms of CLL are not fully understood. The current work indicates that CLL develops from pre-leukemic multipotent hematopoietic progenitors carrying somatic mutations. It advocates for abnormalities in early B-cell differentiation as a phenotypic convergence of the diverse acquired mutations observed in CLL. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Acquiring Complex Focus-Marking: Finnish 4- to 5-Year-Olds Use Prosody and Word Order in Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Arnhold, Anja; Chen, Aoju; Järvikivi, Juhani

    2016-01-01

    Using a language game to elicit short sentences in various information structural conditions, we found that Finnish 4- to 5-year-olds already exhibit a characteristic interaction between prosody and word order in marking information structure. Providing insights into the acquisition of this complex system of interactions, the production data showed interesting parallels to adult speakers of Finnish on the one hand and to children acquiring other languages on the other hand. Analyzing a total of 571 sentences produced by 16 children, we found that children rarely adjusted input word order, but did systematically avoid marked OVS order in contrastive object focus condition. Focus condition also significantly affected four prosodic parameters, f0, duration, pauses and voice quality. Differing slightly from effects displayed in adult Finnish speech, the children produced larger f0 ranges for words in contrastive focus and smaller ones for unfocused words, varied only the duration of object constituents to be longer in focus and shorter in unfocused condition, inserted more pauses before and after focused constituents and systematically modified their use of non-modal voice quality only in utterances with narrow focus. Crucially, these effects were modulated by word order. In contrast to comparable data from children acquiring Germanic languages, the present findings reflect the more central role of word order and of interactions between word order and prosody in marking information structure in Finnish. Thus, the study highlights the role of the target language in determining linguistic development. PMID:27990130

  11. Statistical learning of an auditory sequence and reorganization of acquired knowledge: A time course of word segmentation and ordering.

    PubMed

    Daikoku, Tatsuya; Yatomi, Yutaka; Yumoto, Masato

    2017-01-27

    Previous neural studies have supported the hypothesis that statistical learning mechanisms are used broadly across different domains such as language and music. However, these studies have only investigated a single aspect of statistical learning at a time, such as recognizing word boundaries or learning word order patterns. In this study, we neutrally investigated how the two levels of statistical learning for recognizing word boundaries and word ordering could be reflected in neuromagnetic responses and how acquired statistical knowledge is reorganised when the syntactic rules are revised. Neuromagnetic responses to the Japanese-vowel sequence (a, e, i, o, and u), presented every .45s, were recorded from 14 right-handed Japanese participants. The vowel order was constrained by a Markov stochastic model such that five nonsense words (aue, eao, iea, oiu, and uoi) were chained with an either-or rule: the probability of the forthcoming word was statistically defined (80% for one word; 20% for the other word) by the most recent two words. All of the word transition probabilities (80% and 20%) were switched in the middle of the sequence. In the first and second quarters of the sequence, the neuromagnetic responses to the words that appeared with higher transitional probability were significantly reduced compared with those that appeared with a lower transitional probability. After switching the word transition probabilities, the response reduction was replicated in the last quarter of the sequence. The responses to the final vowels in the words were significantly reduced compared with those to the initial vowels in the last quarter of the sequence. The results suggest that both within-word and between-word statistical learning are reflected in neural responses. The present study supports the hypothesis that listeners learn larger structures such as phrases first, and they subsequently extract smaller structures, such as words, from the learned phrases. The present

  12. Acquisition of Malay word recognition skills: lessons from low-progress early readers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lay Wah; Wheldall, Kevin

    2011-02-01

    Malay is a consistent alphabetic orthography with complex syllable structures. The focus of this research was to investigate word recognition performance in order to inform reading interventions for low-progress early readers. Forty-six Grade 1 students were sampled and 11 were identified as low-progress readers. The results indicated that both syllable awareness and phoneme blending were significant predictors of word recognition, suggesting that both syllable and phonemic grain-sizes are important in Malay word recognition. Item analysis revealed a hierarchical pattern of difficulty based on the syllable and the phonic structure of the words. Error analysis identified the sources of errors to be errors due to inefficient syllable segmentation, oversimplification of syllables, insufficient grapheme-phoneme knowledge and inefficient phonemic code assembly. Evidence also suggests that direct instruction in syllable segmentation, phonemic awareness and grapheme-phoneme correspondence is necessary for low-progress readers to acquire word recognition skills. Finally, a logical sequence to teach grapheme-phoneme decoding in Malay is suggested. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Acquiring concepts and features of novel words by two types of learning: direct mapping and inference.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yufang

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the semantic representation of novel words learnt in two conditions: directly mapping a novel word to a concept (Direct mapping: DM) and inferring the concept from provided features (Inferred learning: IF). A condition where no definite concept could be inferred (No basic-level meaning: NM) served as a baseline. The semantic representation of the novel word was assessed via a semantic-relatedness judgment task. In this task, the learned novel word served as a prime, while the corresponding concept, an unlearned feature of the concept, and an unrelated word served as targets. ERP responses to the targets, primed by the novel words in the three learning conditions, were compared. For the corresponding concept, smaller N400s were elicited in the DM and IF conditions than in the NM condition, indicating that the concept could be obtained in both learning conditions. However, for the unlearned feature, the targets in the IF condition produced an N400 effect while in the DM condition elicited an LPC effect relative to the NM learning condition. No ERP difference was observed among the three learning conditions for the unrelated words. The results indicate that conditions of learning affect the semantic representation of novel word, and that the unlearned feature was only activated by the novel word in the IF learning condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Acquisition of English word stress patterns in early and late bilinguals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guion, Susan G.

    2004-05-01

    Given early acquisition of prosodic knowledge as demonstrated by infants' sensitivity to native language accentual patterns, the question of whether learners can acquire new prosodic patterns across the life span arises. Acquisition of English stress by early and late Spanish-English and Korean-English bilinguals was investigated. In a production task, two-syllable nonwords were produced in noun and verb sentence frames. In a perception task, preference for first or last syllable stress on the nonwords was indicated. Also, real words that were phonologically similar to the nonwords were collected. Logistic regression analyses and ANOVAs were conducted to determine the effect of three factors (syllable structure, lexical class, and stress patterns of phonologically similar words) on the production and perception responses. In all three groups, stress patterns of phonologically similar real words predicted stress on nonwords. For the two other factors, early bilinguals patterned similarly to the native-English participants. Late Spanish-English bilinguals demonstrated less learning of stress patterns based on syllabic structure, and late Korean-English bilinguals demonstrated less learning of stress patterns based on lexical class than native-English speakers. Thus, compared to native speakers, late bilinguals' ability to abstract stress patterns is reduced and affected by the first language. [Work supported by NIH.

  15. Acquired Affective Associations Induce Emotion Effects in Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsch, Nathalie; Kuchinke, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined how contextual learning and in particular emotionality conditioning impacts the neural processing of words, as possible key factors for the acquisition of words' emotional connotation. 21 participants learned on five consecutive days associations between meaningless pseudowords and unpleasant or neutral pictures using an…

  16. Acquiring L2 Sentence Comprehension: A Longitudinal Study of Word Monitoring in Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Georgina; Gullberg, Marianne; Hellwig, Frauke; Mitterer, Holger; Indefrey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the development of second language online auditory processing with ab initio German learners of Dutch. We assessed the influence of different levels of background noise and different levels of semantic and syntactic target word predictability on word-monitoring latencies. There was evidence of syntactic, but not…

  17. Acquiring Orthographic Processing through Word Reading: Evidence from Children Learning to Read French and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Deacon, Helene; Chen, Becky X.; Commissaire, Eva; Au-Yeung, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the within-language and cross-language relationships between orthographic processing and word reading in French and English across Grades 1 and 2. Seventy-three children in French Immersion completed measures of orthographic processing and word reading in French and English in Grade 1 and Grade 2, as well as a series of control…

  18. The word-length effect in acquired alexia, and real and virtual hemianopia.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Claire A; Abegg, Mathias; Sekunova, Alla; Barton, Jason J S

    2012-04-01

    A word-length effect is often described in pure alexia, with reading time proportional to the number of letters in a word. Given the frequent association of right hemianopia with pure alexia, it is uncertain whether and how much of the word-length effect may be attributable to the hemifield loss. To isolate the contribution of the visual field defect, we simulated hemianopia in healthy subjects with a gaze-contingent paradigm during an eye-tracking experiment. We found a minimal word-length effect of 14 ms/letter for full-field viewing, which increased to 38 ms/letter in right hemianopia and to 31 ms/letter in left hemianopia. We found a correlation between mean reading time and the slope of the word-length effect in hemianopic conditions. The 95% upper prediction limits for the word-length effect were 51 ms/letter in subjects with full visual fields and 161 ms/letter with simulated right hemianopia. These limits, which can be considered diagnostic criteria for an alexic word-length effect, were consistent with the reading performance of six patients with diagnoses based independently on perimetric and imaging data: two patients with probable hemianopic dyslexia, and four with alexia and lesions of the left fusiform gyrus, two with and two without hemianopia. Two of these patients also showed reduction of the word-length effect over months, one with and one without a reading rehabilitation program. Our findings clarify the magnitude of the word-length effect that originates from hemianopia alone, and show that the criteria for a word-length effect indicative of alexia differ according to the degree of associated hemifield loss. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Napping facilitates word learning in early lexical development.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Klára; Myers, Kyle; Foster, Russell; Plunkett, Kim

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the role that night-time sleep and daytime naps play in early cognitive development. Our aim was to investigate how napping affects word learning in 16-month-olds. Thirty-four typically developing infants were assigned randomly to nap and wake groups. After teaching two novel object-word pairs to infants, we tested their initial performance with an intermodal preferential looking task in which infants are expected to increase their target looking time compared to a distracter after hearing its auditory label. A second test session followed after approximately a 2-h delay. The delay contained sleep for the nap group or no sleep for the wake group. Looking behaviour was measured with an automatic eye-tracker. Vocabulary size was assessed using the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory. A significant interaction between group and session was found in preferential looking towards the target picture. The performance of the nap group increased after the nap, whereas that of the wake group did not change. The gain in performance correlated positively with the expressive vocabulary size in the nap group. These results indicate that daytime napping helps consolidate word learning in infancy. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  20. Multiplex lexical networks reveal patterns in early word acquisition in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stella, Massimo; Beckage, Nicole M.; Brede, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Network models of language have provided a way of linking cognitive processes to language structure. However, current approaches focus only on one linguistic relationship at a time, missing the complex multi-relational nature of language. In this work, we overcome this limitation by modelling the mental lexicon of English-speaking toddlers as a multiplex lexical network, i.e. a multi-layered network where N = 529 words/nodes are connected according to four relationship: (i) free association, (ii) feature sharing, (iii) co-occurrence, and (iv) phonological similarity. We investigate the topology of the resulting multiplex and then proceed to evaluate single layers and the full multiplex structure on their ability to predict empirically observed age of acquisition data of English speaking toddlers. We find that the multiplex topology is an important proxy of the cognitive processes of acquisition, capable of capturing emergent lexicon structure. In fact, we show that the multiplex structure is fundamentally more powerful than individual layers in predicting the ordering with which words are acquired. Furthermore, multiplex analysis allows for a quantification of distinct phases of lexical acquisition in early learners: while initially all the multiplex layers contribute to word learning, after about month 23 free associations take the lead in driving word acquisition.

  1. Feature Biases in Early Word Learning: Network Distinctiveness Predicts Age of Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelthaler, Tomas; Hills, Thomas T.

    2017-01-01

    Do properties of a word's features influence the order of its acquisition in early word learning? Combining the principles of mutual exclusivity and shape bias, the present work takes a network analysis approach to understanding how feature distinctiveness predicts the order of early word learning. Distance networks were built from nouns with edge…

  2. Acquiring Word Class Distinctions in American Sign Language: Evidence from Handshape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brentari, Diane; Coppola, Marie; Jung, Ashley; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Handshape works differently in nouns versus a class of verbs in American Sign Language (ASL) and thus can serve as a cue to distinguish between these two word classes. Handshapes representing characteristics of the object itself ("object" handshapes) and handshapes representing how the object is handled ("handling" handshapes)…

  3. Words and Maps: Developmental Changes in Mental Models of Spatial Information Acquired from Descriptions and Depictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttal, David H.; Fisher, Joan A.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2006-01-01

    People acquire spatial information from many sources, including maps, verbal descriptions, and navigating in the environment. The different sources present spatial information in different ways. For example, maps can show many spatial relations simultaneously, but in a description, each spatial relation must be presented sequentially. The present…

  4. Acute periostitis in early acquired syphilis simulating shin splints in a jogger.

    PubMed

    Meier, J L; Mollet, E

    1986-01-01

    Acute periostitis affecting the long bones is a characteristic but uncommon manifestation of syphilis in the adult with an early acquired infection. This report describes the history of a jogger who developed acute localized periostitis of the shaft of both tibiae during the early stage of acquired syphilis. Symptomatology was initially attributed to the medial tibial stress syndrome.

  5. Hearing taboo words can result in early talker effects in word recognition for female listeners.

    PubMed

    Tuft, Samantha E; MᶜLennan, Conor T; Krestar, Maura L

    2018-02-01

    Previous spoken word recognition research using the long-term repetition-priming paradigm found performance costs for stimuli mismatching in talker identity. That is, when words were repeated across the two blocks, and the identity of the talker changed reaction times (RTs) were slower than when the repeated words were spoken by the same talker. Such performance costs, or talker effects, followed a time course, occurring only when processing was relatively slow. More recent research suggests that increased explicit and implicit attention towards the talkers can result in talker effects even during relatively fast processing. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether word meaning would influence the pattern of talker effects in an easy lexical decision task and, if so, whether results would differ depending on whether the presentation of neutral and taboo words was mixed or blocked. Regardless of presentation, participants responded to taboo words faster than neutral words. Furthermore, talker effects for the female talker emerged when participants heard both taboo and neutral words (consistent with an attention-based hypothesis), but not for participants that heard only taboo or only neutral words (consistent with the time-course hypothesis). These findings have important implications for theoretical models of spoken word recognition.

  6. A Neurocomputational Account of Taxonomic Responding and Fast Mapping in Early Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

    2010-01-01

    We present a neurocomputational model with self-organizing maps that accounts for the emergence of taxonomic responding and fast mapping in early word learning, as well as a rapid increase in the rate of acquisition of words observed in late infancy. The quality and efficiency of generalization of word-object associations is directly related to…

  7. Asymmetries in Early Word Recognition: The Case of Stops and Fricatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; van der Feest, Suzanne V. H.; Fikkert, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Toddlers' discrimination of native phonemic contrasts is generally unproblematic. Yet using those native contrasts in word learning and word recognition can be more challenging. In this article, we investigate perceptual versus phonological explanations for asymmetrical patterns found in early word recognition. We systematically investigated the…

  8. Estimating when and how words are acquired: A natural experiment on the development of the mental lexicon

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Edward T.; Bernstein, Lynne E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Sensitivity of subjective estimates of Age of Acquisition (AOA) and Acquisition Channel (AC) (printed, spoken, signed) to differences in word exposure within and between populations that differ dramatically in perceptual experience was examined. Methods 50 participants with early-onset deafness and 50 with normal hearing rated 175 words in terms of subjective age-of-acquisition and acquisition channel. Additional data were collected using a standardized test of reading and vocabulary. Results Deaf participants rated words as learned later (M = 10 years) than did participants with normal hearing (M = 8.5 years) (F(1,99) = 28.59; p < .01). Group-averaged item ratings of AOA were highly correlated across the groups (r = .971), and with normative order of acquisition (deaf: r = .950 and hearing: r = .946). The groups differed in their ratings of acquisition channel: Hearing: printed = 30%, spoken = 70%, signed =0%; Deaf: printed = 45%, spoken = 38%, signed = 17%. Conclusions Subjective AOA and AC measures are sensitive to between- and within-group differences in word experience. The results demonstrate that these subjective measures can be applied as reliable proxies for direct measures of lexical development in studies of lexical knowledge in adults with prelingual onset deafness. PMID:18506048

  9. Frequency Effects or Context Effects in Second Language Word Learning: What Predicts Early Lexical Production?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Subtirelu, Nicholas; Salsbury, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This study examines frequency, contextual diversity, and contextual distinctiveness effects in predicting produced versus not-produced frequent nouns and verbs by early second language (L2) learners of English. The study analyzes whether word frequency is the strongest predictor of early L2 word production independent of contextual diversity and…

  10. Early Word Decoding Ability as a Longitudinal Predictor of Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordström, Thomas; Jacobson, Christer; Söderberg, Pernilla

    2016-01-01

    This study, using a longitudinal design with a Swedish cohort of young readers, investigates if children's early word decoding ability in second grade can predict later academic performance. In an effort to estimate the unique effect of early word decoding (grade 2) with academic performance (grade 9), gender and non-verbal cognitive ability were…

  11. Early Acquisition of Basic Word Order in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugisaki, Koji

    2008-01-01

    The acquisition of word order has been one of the central issues in the study of child language. One striking finding from the detailed investigation of various child languages is that from the earliest observable stages, children are highly sensitive to the basic word order of their target language. However, the evidence so far comes mainly from…

  12. The Edge Factor in Early Word Segmentation: Utterance-Level Prosody Enables Word Form Extraction by 6-Month-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Elizabeth K.; Seidl, Amanda; Tyler, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Past research has shown that English learners begin segmenting words from speech by 7.5 months of age. However, more recent research has begun to show that, in some situations, infants may exhibit rudimentary segmentation capabilities at an earlier age. Here, we report on four perceptual experiments and a corpus analysis further investigating the initial emergence of segmentation capabilities. In Experiments 1 and 2, 6-month-olds were familiarized with passages containing target words located either utterance medially or at utterance edges. Only those infants familiarized with passages containing target words aligned with utterance edges exhibited evidence of segmentation. In Experiments 3 and 4, 6-month-olds recognized familiarized words when they were presented in a new acoustically distinct voice (male rather than female), but not when they were presented in a phonologically altered manner (missing the initial segment). Finally, we report corpus analyses examining how often different word types occur at utterance boundaries in different registers. Our findings suggest that edge-aligned words likely play a key role in infants’ early segmentation attempts, and also converge with recent reports suggesting that 6-month-olds’ have already started building a rudimentary lexicon. PMID:24421892

  13. Acquiring Comprehensive Observations using an Integrated Sensorweb for Early Warning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Ambrose, Steve

    2006-01-01

    As an integrated observing strategy, the concept of sensorweb for Earth observations is appealing in many aspects. For instance, by increasing the spatial and temporal coverage of observations from space and other vantage points, one can eventually aid in increasing the accuracy of the atmospheric models which are precursor to hurricane track prediction, volcanic eruption forecast, and trajectory path of transcontinental transport of dust, harmful nuclear and chemical plumes. In reality, there is little analysis'available in terms of benefits, costs and optimized set of sensors needed to make these necessary observations. This is a complex problem that must be carefully studied and balanced over many boundaries such as science, defense, early warning security, and surveillance. Simplistically, the sensorweb concept from the technological point of view alone has a great appeal in the defense, early warning and security applications. In fact, it can be relatively less expensive in per unit cost as opposed to building and deploying it for the scientific use. However, overall observing approach should not be singled out and aligned somewhat . orthogonally to serve a particular need. On the other hand, the sensorweb should be designed and deployed to serve multiple subject areas and customers simultaneously; and can behave as directed measuring systems for both science and operational entities. Sensorweb can be designed to act as expert systems, and/or also provide a dedicated integrated surveillance network. Today, there is no system in the world that is fully integrated in terms of reporting timely multiple hazards warnings, computing the lass of life and property damage estimates, and is also designed to cater to everyone's needs. It is not an easier problem to undertake and more so is not practically solvable. At this time due to some recent events in the world, the scientific community, social scientists, and operational agencies are more cognizant and getting

  14. Acquiring Comprehensive Observations using an integrated Sensorweb for Early Warning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Ambrose, Steve

    2006-01-01

    As an integrated observing strategy, the concept of sensorweb for Earth observations is appealing in many aspects. For instance, by increasing the spatial and temporal coverage of observations from space and other vantage points, one can eventually aid in increasing the accuracy of the atmospheric models which are precursor to hurricane track prediction, volcanic eruption forecast, and trajectory path of transcontinental transport of dust, harmful nuclear and chemical plumes. In reality, there is little analysis'available in terms of benefits, costs and optimized set of sensors needed to make these necessary observations. This is a complex problem that must be carefully studied and balanced over many boundaries such as science, defense, early warning, security, and surveillance. Simplistically, the sensorweb concept from the technological point of view alone has a great appeal in the defense, early warning and security applications. In fact, it can be relatively less expensive in per unit cost as opposed to building and deploying it for the scientific use. However, overall observing approach should not be singled out and aligned somewhat orthogonally to serve a particular need. On the other hand, the sensorweb should be designed and deployed to serve multiple subject areas and customers simultaneously; and can behave as directed measuring systems for both science and operational entities. Sensorweb can be designed to act as expert systems, and/or also provide a dedicated integrated surveillance network. Today, there is no system in the world that is fully integrated in terms of reporting timely multiple hazards warnings, computing the loss of life and property damage estimates, and is also designed to cater to everyone's needs. It is not an easier problem to undertake and more so is not practically solvable. At this time due to some recent events in the world, the scientific community, social scientists, and operational agencies are more cognizant and getting

  15. Innate or Acquired? - Disentangling Number Sense and Early Number Competencies.

    PubMed

    Siemann, Julia; Petermann, Franz

    2018-01-01

    The clinical profile termed developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a fundamental disability affecting children already prior to arithmetic schooling, but the formal diagnosis is often only made during school years. The manifold associated deficits depend on age, education, developmental stage, and task requirements. Despite a large body of studies, the underlying mechanisms remain dubious. Conflicting findings have stimulated opposing theories, each presenting enough empirical support to remain a possible alternative. A so far unresolved question concerns the debate whether a putative innate number sense is required for successful arithmetic achievement as opposed to a pure reliance on domain-general cognitive factors. Here, we outline that the controversy arises due to ambiguous conceptualizations of the number sense. It is common practice to use early number competence as a proxy for innate magnitude processing, even though it requires knowledge of the number system. Therefore, such findings reflect the degree to which quantity is successfully transferred into symbols rather than informing about quantity representation per se . To solve this issue, we propose a three-factor account and incorporate it into the partly overlapping suggestions in the literature regarding the etiology of different DD profiles. The proposed view on DD is especially beneficial because it is applicable to more complex theories identifying a conglomerate of deficits as underlying cause of DD.

  16. Examining the role of social cues in early word learning.

    PubMed

    Briganti, Alicia M; Cohen, Leslie B

    2011-02-01

    Infants watched a video of an adult pointing towards two different objects while hearing novel labels. Analyses indicated that 14- and 18-month-olds looked longer at the target object, but only 18-month-olds showed word learning. The results suggest that different types of social cues are available at different ages. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Semantic Interaction in Early and Late Bilinguals: All Words Are Not Created Equally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gathercole, Virginia C. Mueller; Moawad, Ruba Abdelmatloub

    2010-01-01

    This study examines L1-L2 interaction in semantic categorization in early and late L2 learners. Word categories that overlapped but were not identical in Arabic and English were tested. Words always showed a "wider" range of application in one language, "narrower" in the other. Three types of categories--"classical", "radial", and…

  18. Recognition Memory for Braille or Spoken Words: An fMRI study in Early Blind

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Harold; Sinclair, Robert J.; Agato, Alvin

    2012-01-01

    We examined cortical activity in early blind during word recognition memory. Nine participants were blind at birth and one by 1.5 yrs. In an event-related design, we studied blood oxygen level-dependent responses to studied (“old”) compared to novel (“new”) words. Presentation mode was in Braille or spoken. Responses were larger for identified “new” words read with Braille in bilateral lower and higher tier visual areas and primary somatosensory cortex. Responses to spoken “new” words were larger in bilateral primary and accessory auditory cortex. Auditory cortex was unresponsive to Braille words and occipital cortex responded to spoken words but not differentially with “old”/“new” recognition. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had larger responses to “old” words only with Braille. Larger occipital cortex responses to “new” Braille words suggested verbal memory based on the mechanism of recollection. A previous report in sighted noted larger responses for “new” words studied in association with pictures that created a distinctiveness heuristic source factor which enhanced recollection during remembering. Prior behavioral studies in early blind noted an exceptional ability to recall words. Utilization of this skill by participants in the current study possibly engendered recollection that augmented remembering “old” words. A larger response when identifying “new” words possibly resulted from exhaustive recollecting the sensory properties of “old” words in modality appropriate sensory cortices. The uniqueness of a memory role for occipital cortex is in its cross-modal responses to coding tactile properties of Braille. The latter possibly reflects a “sensory echo” that aids recollection. PMID:22251836

  19. Recognition memory for Braille or spoken words: an fMRI study in early blind.

    PubMed

    Burton, Harold; Sinclair, Robert J; Agato, Alvin

    2012-02-15

    We examined cortical activity in early blind during word recognition memory. Nine participants were blind at birth and one by 1.5years. In an event-related design, we studied blood oxygen level-dependent responses to studied ("old") compared to novel ("new") words. Presentation mode was in Braille or spoken. Responses were larger for identified "new" words read with Braille in bilateral lower and higher tier visual areas and primary somatosensory cortex. Responses to spoken "new" words were larger in bilateral primary and accessory auditory cortex. Auditory cortex was unresponsive to Braille words and occipital cortex responded to spoken words but not differentially with "old"/"new" recognition. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had larger responses to "old" words only with Braille. Larger occipital cortex responses to "new" Braille words suggested verbal memory based on the mechanism of recollection. A previous report in sighted noted larger responses for "new" words studied in association with pictures that created a distinctiveness heuristic source factor which enhanced recollection during remembering. Prior behavioral studies in early blind noted an exceptional ability to recall words. Utilization of this skill by participants in the current study possibly engendered recollection that augmented remembering "old" words. A larger response when identifying "new" words possibly resulted from exhaustive recollecting the sensory properties of "old" words in modality appropriate sensory cortices. The uniqueness of a memory role for occipital cortex is in its cross-modal responses to coding tactile properties of Braille. The latter possibly reflects a "sensory echo" that aids recollection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Predictive coding accelerates word recognition and learning in the early stages of language development.

    PubMed

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna

    2017-11-01

    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard syllables are faster and more robust when the preceding word context predicts the ending of a familiar word. For unfamiliar, novel word forms, however, word-expectancy violation generates a prediction error response, the strength of which significantly correlates with children's vocabulary scores at 12 months. These results suggest that predictive coding may accelerate word recognition and support early learning of novel words, including not only the learning of heard word forms but also their mapping to meanings. Prediction error may mediate learning via attention, since infants' attention allocation to the entire learning situation in natural environments could account for the link between prediction error and the understanding of word meanings. On the whole, the present results on predictive coding support the view that principles of brain function reported across domains in humans and non-human animals apply to language and its development in the infant brain. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: http://hy.fi/unitube/video/e1cbb495-41d8-462e-8660-0864a1abd02c. [Correction added on 27 January 2017, after first online publication: The video abstract link was added.]. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. What are the early indicators of persistent word reading difficulties among Chinese readers in elementary grades?

    PubMed

    Yeung, Pui-Sze; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Chan, David Wai-Ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-Hoa

    2014-05-01

    To identify the indicators of persistent reading difficulties among Chinese readers in early elementary grades, the performance of three groups of Chinese children with different reading trajectories ('persistent poor word readers', 'improved poor word readers' and 'skilled word readers') in reading-related measures was analysed in a 3-year longitudinal study. The three groups were classified according to their performance in a standardized Chinese word reading test in Grade 1 and Grade 4. Results of analysis of variance and logistic regression on the reading-related measures revealed that rapid naming and syntactic skills were important indicators of early word reading difficulty. Syntactic skills and morphological awareness were possible markers of persistent reading problems. Chinese persistent poor readers did not differ significantly from skilled readers on the measures of phonological skills. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Using variability to guide dimensional weighting: Associative mechanisms in early word learning

    PubMed Central

    Apfelbaum, Keith S.; McMurray, Bob

    2013-01-01

    At 14 months, children appear to struggle to apply their fairly well developed speech perception abilities to learning similar sounding words (e.g. bih/dih; Stager & Werker, 1997). However, variability in non-phonetic aspects of the training stimuli seems to aid word learning at this age. Extant theories of early word learning cannot account for this benefit of variability. We offer a simple explanation for this range of effects based on associative learning. Simulations suggest that if infants encode both non-contrastive information (e.g. cues to speaker voice) and meaningful linguistic cues (e.g. place of articulation or voicing), then associative learning mechanisms predict these variability effects in early word learning. Crucially, this means that despite the importance of task variables in predicting performance, this body of work shows that phonological categories are still developing in this age, and that the structure of non-informative cues has critical influences on word learning abilities. PMID:21609356

  3. The Impact of Early Classroom Inattention on Phonological Processing and Word-Reading Development.

    PubMed

    Dittman, Cassandra K

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated the longitudinal relationships between inattention, phonological processing and word reading across the first 2 years of formal reading instruction. In all, 136 school entrants were administered measures of letter knowledge, phonological awareness, phonological memory, rapid naming, and word reading at the start and end of their 1st year of school, and the end of their 2nd year, while teachers completed rating scales of inattention. School entry inattentiveness predicted unique variance in word reading at the end of first grade, after controlling for verbal ability, letter knowledge, and phonological processing. End-of-first-grade inattention predicted a small but significant amount of unique variance in second-grade word reading and word-reading efficiency. Inattention, however, was not a reliable predictor of phonological processing in either first or second grade. Early classroom inattentiveness influences learning to read independent of critical developmental precursors of word-reading development. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Early Visual Word Processing Is Flexible: Evidence from Spatiotemporal Brain Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Davis, Matthew H; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Hauk, Olaf

    2015-09-01

    Visual word recognition is often described as automatic, but the functional locus of top-down effects is still a matter of debate. Do task demands modulate how information is retrieved, or only how it is used? We used EEG/MEG recordings to assess whether, when, and how task contexts modify early retrieval of specific psycholinguistic information in occipitotemporal cortex, an area likely to contribute to early stages of visual word processing. Using a parametric approach, we analyzed the spatiotemporal response patterns of occipitotemporal cortex for orthographic, lexical, and semantic variables in three psycholinguistic tasks: silent reading, lexical decision, and semantic decision. Task modulation of word frequency and imageability effects occurred simultaneously in ventral occipitotemporal regions-in the vicinity of the putative visual word form area-around 160 msec, following task effects on orthographic typicality around 100 msec. Frequency and typicality also produced task-independent effects in anterior temporal lobe regions after 200 msec. The early task modulation for several specific psycholinguistic variables indicates that occipitotemporal areas integrate perceptual input with prior knowledge in a task-dependent manner. Still, later task-independent effects in anterior temporal lobes suggest that word recognition eventually leads to retrieval of semantic information irrespective of task demands. We conclude that even a highly overlearned visual task like word recognition should be described as flexible rather than automatic.

  5. Age/Order of Acquisition Effects and the Cumulative Learning of Foreign Words: A Word Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izura, Cristina; Perez, Miguel A.; Agallou, Elizabeth; Wright, Victoria C.; Marin, Javier; Stadthagen-Gonzalez, Hans; Ellis, Andrew W.

    2011-01-01

    Early acquired words are processed faster than later acquired words in lexical and semantic tasks. Demonstrating such age of acquisition (AoA) effects beyond reasonable doubt, and then investigating those effects empirically, is complicated by the natural correlation between AoA and other word properties such as frequency and imageability. In an…

  6. Independent Deficits of Visual Word and Motion Processing in Aging and Early Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Velarde, Carla; Perelstein, Elizabeth; Ressmann, Wendy; Duffy, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether visual processing impairments in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) reflect uniform posterior cortical decline, or independent disorders of visual processing for reading and navigation. Young and older normal controls were compared to early AD patients using psychophysical measures of visual word and motion processing. We find elevated perceptual thresholds for letters and word discrimination from young normal controls, to older normal controls, to early AD patients. Across subject groups, visual motion processing showed a similar pattern of increasing thresholds, with the greatest impact on radial pattern motion perception. Combined analyses show that letter, word, and motion processing impairments are independent of each other. Aging and AD may be accompanied by independent impairments of visual processing for reading and navigation. This suggests separate underlying disorders and highlights the need for comprehensive evaluations to detect early deficits. PMID:22647256

  7. Sexual Abuse Exposure Alters Early Processing of Emotional Words: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Grégoire, Laurent; Caparos, Serge; Leblanc, Carole-Anne; Brisson, Benoit; Blanchette, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the time course of emotional information processing between trauma-exposed and control participants, using electrophysiological measures. We conceived an emotional Stroop task with two types of words: trauma-related emotional words and neutral words. We assessed the evoked cerebral responses of sexual abuse victims without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and no abuse participants. We focused particularly on an early wave (C1/P1), the N2pc, and the P3b. Our main result indicated an early effect (55–165 ms) of emotionality, which varied between non-exposed participants and sexual abuse victims. This suggests that potentially traumatic experiences modulate early processing of emotional information. Our findings showing neurobiological alterations in sexual abuse victims (without PTSD) suggest that exposure to highly emotional events has an important impact on neurocognitive function even in the absence of psychopathology. PMID:29379428

  8. Impaired Word Recognition in Alzheimer's Disease: The Role of Age of Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuetos, Fernando; Herrera, Elena; Ellis, Andrew W.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of word production in patients with Alzheimer's disease have identified the age of acquisition of words as an important predictor of retention or loss, with early acquired words remaining accessible for longer than later acquired words. If, as proposed by current theories, effects of age of acquisition reflect the involvement of semantic…

  9. What Makes a Word Easy to Acquire? The Effects of Word Class, Frequency, Imageability and Phonological Neighbourhood Density on Lexical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses how a set of psycholinguistic factors may account for children's lexical development. Age of acquisition is compared to a measure of lexical development based on vocabulary size rather than age, and robust regression models are used to assess the individual and joint effects of word class, frequency, imageability and…

  10. Beyond naïve cue combination: salience and social cues in early word learning.

    PubMed

    Yurovsky, Daniel; Frank, Michael C

    2017-03-01

    Children learn their earliest words through social interaction, but it is unknown how much they rely on social information. Some theories argue that word learning is fundamentally social from its outset, with even the youngest infants understanding intentions and using them to infer a social partner's target of reference. In contrast, other theories argue that early word learning is largely a perceptual process in which young children map words onto salient objects. One way of unifying these accounts is to model word learning as weighted cue combination, in which children attend to many potential cues to reference, but only gradually learn the correct weight to assign each cue. We tested four predictions of this kind of naïve cue combination account, using an eye-tracking paradigm that combines social word teaching and two-alternative forced-choice testing. None of the predictions were supported. We thus propose an alternative unifying account: children are sensitive to social information early, but their ability to gather and deploy this information is constrained by domain-general cognitive processes. Developmental changes in children's use of social cues emerge not from learning the predictive power of social cues, but from the gradual development of attention, memory, and speed of information processing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Beyond Naïve Cue Combination: Salience and Social Cues in Early Word Learning

    PubMed Central

    Yurovsky, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Children learn their earliest words through social interaction, but it is unknown how much they rely on social information. Some theories argue that word learning is fundamentally social from its outset, with even the youngest infants understanding intentions and using them to infer a social partner’s target of reference. In contrast, other theories argue that early word learning is largely a perceptual process in which young children map words onto salient objects. One way of unifying these accounts is to model word learning as weighted cue-combination, in which children attend to many potential cues to reference, but only gradually learn the correct weight to assign each cue. We tested four predictions of this kind of naïve cue-combination account, using an eye-tracking paradigm that combines social word-teaching and two-alternative forced-choice testing. None of the predictions were supported. We thus propose an alternative unifying account: children are sensitive to social information early, but their ability to gather and deploy this information is constrained by domain-general cognitive processes. Developmental changes in children’s use of social cues emerge not from learning the predictive power of social cues, but from the gradual development of attention, memory, and speed of information processing. PMID:26575408

  12. Separating the influences of prereading skills on early word and nonword reading.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Laura R; Carroll, Julia M; Solity, Jonathan E

    2013-10-01

    The essential first step for a beginning reader is to learn to match printed forms to phonological representations. For a new word, this is an effortful process where each grapheme must be translated individually (serial decoding). The role of phonological awareness in developing a decoding strategy is well known. We examined whether beginning readers recruit different skills depending on the nature of the words being read (familiar words vs. nonwords). Print knowledge, phoneme and rhyme awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), phonological short-term memory (STM), nonverbal reasoning, vocabulary, auditory skills, and visual attention were measured in 392 prereaders 4 and 5 years of age. Word and nonword reading were measured 9 months later. We used structural equation modeling to examine the skills-reading relationship and modeled correlations between our two reading outcomes and among all prereading skills. We found that a broad range of skills were associated with reading outcomes: early print knowledge, phonological STM, phoneme awareness and RAN. Whereas all of these skills were directly predictive of nonword reading, early print knowledge was the only direct predictor of word reading. Our findings suggest that beginning readers draw most heavily on their existing print knowledge to read familiar words. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Emotional conflict occurs at an early stage: evidence from the emotional face-word Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiang-ru; Zhang, Hui-jun; Wu, Ting-ting; Luo, Wen-bo; Luo, Yue-jia

    2010-06-30

    The perceptual processing of emotional conflict was studied using electrophysiological techniques to measure event-related potentials (ERPs). The emotional face-word Stroop task in which emotion words are written in prominent red color across a face was use to study emotional conflict. In each trial, the emotion word and facial expression were either congruent or incongruent (in conflict). When subjects were asked to identify the expression of the face during a trial, the incongruent condition evoked a more negative N170 ERP component in posterior lateral sites than in the congruent condition. In contrast, when subjects were asked to identify the word during a trial, the incongruent condition evoked a less negative N170 component than the congruent condition. The present findings extend our understanding of the control processes involved in emotional conflict by demonstrating that differentiation of emotional congruency begins at an early perceptual processing stage. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Not Only Size Matters: Early-Talker and Late-Talker Vocabularies Support Different Word-Learning Biases in Babies and Networks.

    PubMed

    Colunga, Eliana; Sims, Clare E

    2017-02-01

    In typical development, word learning goes from slow and laborious to fast and seemingly effortless. Typically developing 2-year-olds seem to intuit the whole range of things in a category from hearing a single instance named-they have word-learning biases. This is not the case for children with relatively small vocabularies (late talkers). We present a computational model that accounts for the emergence of word-learning biases in children at both ends of the vocabulary spectrum based solely on vocabulary structure. The results of Experiment 1 show that late-talkers' and early-talkers' noun vocabularies have different structures and that neural networks trained on the vocabularies of individual late talkers acquire different word-learning biases than those trained on early-talker vocabularies. These models make novel predictions about the word-learning biases in these two populations. Experiment 2 tests these predictions on late- and early-talking toddlers in a novel noun generalization task. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. Relationships between Structural and Acoustic Properties of Maternal Talk and Children's Early Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suttora, Chiara; Salerni, Nicoletta; Zanchi, Paola; Zampini, Laura; Spinelli, Maria; Fasolo, Mirco

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate specific associations between structural and acoustic characteristics of infant-directed (ID) speech and word recognition. Thirty Italian-acquiring children and their mothers were tested when the children were 1;3. Children's word recognition was measured with the looking-while-listening task. Maternal ID speech was…

  16. Exploring the Learning of Mathematics Word Problems by African Immigrant Early Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahofa, Ernest; Adendorff, Stanley; Kwenda, Chiwimbiso

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the learning of mathematics word problems by African immigrant early learners in the Western Cape Province of South Africa (SA). Phenomenology was used as the philosophical underpinning for this study and also informed the research method. Purposive sampling methods were used to select 10 African immigrant…

  17. Differences in Word Recognition between Early Bilinguals and Monolinguals: Behavioral and ERP Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Minna; Hulten, Annika; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral and brain responses (ERPs) of bilingual word recognition to three fundamental psycholinguistic factors, frequency, morphology, and lexicality, in early bilinguals vs. monolinguals. Earlier behavioral studies have reported larger frequency effects in bilinguals' nondominant vs. dominant language and in some studies…

  18. Early Decomposition in Visual Word Recognition: Dissociating Morphology, Form, and Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Bozic, Mirjana; Randall, Billi

    2008-01-01

    The role of morphological, semantic, and form-based factors in the early stages of visual word recognition was investigated across different SOAs in a masked priming paradigm, focusing on English derivational morphology. In a first set of experiments, stimulus pairs co-varying in morphological decomposability and in semantic and orthographic…

  19. Early Action and Gesture "Vocabulary" and Its Relation with Word Comprehension and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caselli, Maria Cristina; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Stefanini, Silvia; Volterra, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Data from 492 Italian infants (8-18 months) were collected with the parental questionnaire MacArthur Bates Communicative Development Inventories to describe early actions and gestures (A-G) "vocabulary" and its relation with spoken vocabulary in both comprehension and production. A-G were more strongly correlated with word comprehension…

  20. Predictive Coding Accelerates Word Recognition and Learning in the Early Stages of Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna

    2017-01-01

    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard…

  1. Is nevtral NEUTRAL? Visual similarity effects in the early phases of written-word recognition.

    PubMed

    Marcet, Ana; Perea, Manuel

    2017-08-01

    For simplicity, contemporary models of written-word recognition and reading have unspecified feature/letter levels-they predict that the visually similar substituted-letter nonword PEQPLE is as effective at activating the word PEOPLE as the visually dissimilar substituted-letter nonword PEYPLE. Previous empirical evidence on the effects of visual similarly across letters during written-word recognition is scarce and nonconclusive. To examine whether visual similarity across letters plays a role early in word processing, we conducted two masked priming lexical decision experiments (stimulus-onset asynchrony = 50 ms). The substituted-letter primes were visually very similar to the target letters (u/v in Experiment 1 and i/j in Experiment 2; e.g., nevtral-NEUTRAL). For comparison purposes, we included an identity prime condition (neutral-NEUTRAL) and a dissimilar-letter prime condition (neztral-NEUTRAL). Results showed that the similar-letter prime condition produced faster word identification times than the dissimilar-letter prime condition. We discuss how models of written-word recognition should be amended to capture visual similarity effects across letters.

  2. A neurocomputational account of taxonomic responding and fast mapping in early word learning.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

    2010-01-01

    We present a neurocomputational model with self-organizing maps that accounts for the emergence of taxonomic responding and fast mapping in early word learning, as well as a rapid increase in the rate of acquisition of words observed in late infancy. The quality and efficiency of generalization of word-object associations is directly related to the quality of prelexical, categorical representations in the model. We show how synaptogenesis supports coherent generalization of word-object associations and show that later synaptic pruning minimizes metabolic costs without being detrimental to word learning. The role played by joint-attentional activities is identified in the model, both at the level of selecting efficient cross-modal synapses and at the behavioral level, by accelerating and refining overall vocabulary acquisition. The model can account for the qualitative shift in the way infants use words, from an associative to a referential-like use, for the pattern of overextension errors in production and comprehension observed during early childhood and typicality effects observed in lexical development. Interesting by-products of the model include a potential explanation of the shift from prototype to exemplar-based effects reported for adult category formation, an account of mispronunciation effects in early lexical development, and extendability to include accounts of individual differences in lexical development and specific disorders such as Williams syndrome. The model demonstrates how an established constraint on lexical learning, which has often been regarded as domain-specific, can emerge from domain-general learning principles that are simultaneously biologically, psychologically, and socially plausible.

  3. Exploring Individual Differences in Irregular Word Recognition among Children with Early-Emerging and Late-Emerging Word Reading Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steacy, Laura M.; Kearns, Devin M.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Compton, Donald L.; Cho, Eunsoo; Lindstrom, Esther R.; Collins, Alyson A.

    2017-01-01

    Models of irregular word reading that take into account both child- and word-level predictors have not been evaluated in typically developing children and children with reading difficulty (RD). The purpose of the present study was to model individual differences in irregular word reading ability among 5th grade children (N = 170), oversampled for…

  4. Do Children Who Acquire Word Reading without Explicit Phonics Employ Compensatory Learning? Issues of Phonological Recoding, Lexical Orthography, and Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, G. Brian; McKay, Michael F.; Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M.; Connelly, Vincent; Kaa, Richard T.; Ewing, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Two studies were conducted across three countries to examine samples of beginning readers without systematic explicit phonics who had reached the same level of word reading accuracy as comparison samples with high and moderate explicit phonics. Had they employed any compensatory learning to reach that level? Four hypotheses of compensatory…

  5. Words, words, words!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-09-01

    Words matter. They are the "atoms" of written and oral communication. Students rely on words in textbooks and other instructional resources and in classroom lectures and discussions. As instructors, there are times when we need to think carefully about the words we use. Sometimes there are problems that may not be initially apparent and we may introduce confusion when we were aiming for clarity.

  6. Newly-acquired words are more phonologically robust in verbal short-term memory when they have associated semantic representations.

    PubMed

    Savill, Nicola; Ellis, Andrew W; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) is a crucial cognitive function central to language learning, comprehension and reasoning, yet the processes that underlie this capacity are not fully understood. In particular, although STM primarily draws on a phonological code, interactions between long-term phonological and semantic representations might help to stabilise the phonological trace for words ("semantic binding hypothesis"). This idea was first proposed to explain the frequent phoneme recombination errors made by patients with semantic dementia when recalling words that are no longer fully understood. However, converging evidence in support of semantic binding is scant: it is unusual for studies of healthy participants to examine serial recall at the phoneme level and also it is difficult to separate the contribution of phonological-lexical knowledge from effects of word meaning. We used a new method to disentangle these influences in healthy individuals by training new 'words' with or without associated semantic information. We examined phonological coherence in immediate serial recall (ISR), both immediately and the day after training. Trained items were more likely to be recalled than novel nonwords, confirming the importance of phonological-lexical knowledge, and items with semantic associations were also produced more accurately than those with no meaning, at both time points. For semantically-trained items, there were fewer phoneme ordering and identity errors, and consequently more complete target items were produced in both correct and incorrect list positions. These data show that lexical-semantic knowledge improves the robustness of verbal STM at the sub-item level, even when the effect of phonological familiarity is taken into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An image is worth a thousand words: why nouns tend to dominate verbs in early word learning.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Colleen; Song, Lulu; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Lannon, Robert

    2011-03-01

    Nouns are generally easier to learn than verbs (e.g., Bornstein, 2005; Bornstein et al., 2004; Gentner, 1982; Maguire, Hirsh-Pasek, & Golinkoff, 2006). Yet, verbs appear in children's earliest vocabularies, creating a seeming paradox. This paper examines one hypothesis about the difference between noun and verb acquisition. Perhaps the advantage nouns have is not a function of grammatical form class but rather related to a word's imageability. Here, word imageability ratings and form class (nouns and verbs) were correlated with age of acquisition according to the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) (Fenson et al., 1994). CDI age of acquisition was negatively correlated with words' imageability ratings. Further, a word's imageability contributes to the variance of the word's age of acquisition above and beyond form class, suggesting that at the beginning of word learning, imageability might be a driving factor.

  8. Examining the Independent Contribution of Prosodic Sensitivity to Word Reading and Spelling in Early Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliman, A. J.; Gutiérrez Palma, N.; Critten, S.; Wood, C.; Cunnane, H.; Pillinger, C.

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the independent contribution of prosodic sensitivity--the rhythmic patterning of speech-to word reading and spelling in a sample of early readers. Ninety-three English-speaking children aged 5-6 years old (M = 69.28 months, SD = 3.67) were assessed for their prosodic sensitivity, vocabulary knowledge,…

  9. Contribution of early Alzheimer's Disease-related Pathophysiology to the Development of Acquired epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gschwind, Tilo; Lafourcade, Carlos; Gfeller, Tim; Zaichuk, Mariana; Rambousek, Lukas; Knuesel, Irene; Fritschy, Jean-Marc

    2018-06-04

    Aberrant epileptic activity is detectable at early disease stages in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and in AD mouse models. Here, we investigated in young ArcticAβ mice whether AD-like pathology renders neuronal networks more susceptible to development of acquired epilepsy induced by unilateral intrahippocampal injection of kainic acid (IHK). In this temporal lobe epilepsy model, IHK induces a status epilepticus followed after two weeks by spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). ArcticAβ mice exhibited more severe status epilepticus and early onset of SRS. This hyperexcitable phenotype was characterized in CA1 neurons by decreased synaptic strength, increased kainic acid-induced LTP, and reduced frequency of spontaneous inhibitory currents. However, no difference in neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation, axonal reorganization or adult neurogenesis was observed in ArcticAβ mice compared to wildtype littermates following IHK-induced epileptogenesis. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression was reduced at baseline and its IHK-induced elevation in mossy fibers and granule cells was attenuated. However, although this alteration might underlie premature seizure onset, neutralization of soluble Aβ species by intracerebroventricular Aβ-specific antibody application mitigated the hyperexcitable phenotype of ArcticAβ mice and prevented early SRS onset. Therefore, development of seizures at early stages of AD is mediated primarily by Aβ species causing widespread changes in synaptic function. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling Polymorphemic Word Recognition: Exploring Differences among Children with Early-Emerging and Late- Emerging Word Reading Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Devin M.; Steacy, Laura M.; Compton, Donald L.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Goodwin, Amanda P.; Cho, Eunsoo; Lindstrom, Esther R.; Collins, Alyson A.

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive models of derived polymorphemic word recognition skill in developing readers, with an emphasis on children with reading difficulty (RD), have not been developed. The purpose of the present study was to model individual differences in polymorphemic word recognition ability at the item level among 5th-grade children (N = 173)…

  11. Word learning in deaf children with cochlear implants: effects of early auditory experience.

    PubMed

    Houston, Derek M; Stewart, Jessica; Moberly, Aaron; Hollich, George; Miyamoto, Richard T

    2012-05-01

    Word-learning skills were tested in normal-hearing 12- to 40-month-olds and in deaf 22- to 40-month-olds 12 to 18 months after cochlear implantation. Using the Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm (IPLP), children were tested for their ability to learn two novel-word/novel-object pairings. Normal-hearing children demonstrated learning on this task at approximately 18 months of age and older. For deaf children, performance on this task was significantly correlated with early auditory experience: Children whose cochlear implants were switched on by 14 months of age or who had relatively more hearing before implantation demonstrated learning in this task, but later implanted profoundly deaf children did not. Performance on this task also correlated with later measures of vocabulary size. Taken together, these findings suggest that early auditory experience facilitates word learning and that the IPLP may be useful for identifying children who may be at high risk for poor vocabulary development. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Word learning in deaf children with cochlear implants: effects of early auditory experience

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Derek M.; Stewart, Jessica; Moberly, Aaron; Hollich, George; Miyamoto, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    Word-learning skills were tested in normal-hearing 12- to 40-month-olds and in deaf 22- to 40-month-olds 12 to 18 months after cochlear implantation. Using the Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm (IPLP), children were tested for their ability to learn two novel-word/novel-object pairings. Normal-hearing children demonstrated learning on this task at approximately 18 months of age and older. For deaf children, performance on this task was significantly correlated with early auditory experience: Children whose cochlear implants were switched on by 14 months of age or who had relatively more hearing before implantation demonstrated learning in this task, but later implanted profoundly deaf children did not. Performance on this task also correlated with later measures of vocabulary size. Taken together, these findings suggest that early auditory experience facilitates word learning and that the IPLP may be useful for identifying children who may be at high risk for poor vocabulary development. PMID:22490184

  13. Genetic Influences on Early Word Recognition Abilities and Disabilities: A Study of 7-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Spinath, Frank M.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background: A fundamental issue for child psychology concerns the origins of individual differences in early reading development. Method: A measure of word recognition, the Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE), was administered by telephone to a representative population sample of 3,909 same-sex and opposite-sex pairs of 7-year-old twins.…

  14. Advanced fiber tracking in early acquired brain injury causing cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Lennartsson, F; Holmström, L; Eliasson, A-C; Flodmark, O; Forssberg, H; Tournier, J-D; Vollmer, B

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted MR imaging and fiber tractography can be used to investigate alterations in white matter tracts in patients with early acquired brain lesions and cerebral palsy. Most existing studies have used diffusion tensor tractography, which is limited in areas of complex fiber structures or pathologic processes. We explored a combined normalization and probabilistic fiber-tracking method for more realistic fiber tractography in this patient group. This cross-sectional study included 17 children with unilateral cerebral palsy and 24 typically developing controls. DWI data were collected at 1.5T (45 directions, b=1000 s/mm(2)). Regions of interest were defined on a study-specific fractional anisotropy template and mapped onto subjects for fiber tracking. Probabilistic fiber tracking of the corticospinal tract and thalamic projections to the somatosensory cortex was performed by using constrained spherical deconvolution. Tracts were qualitatively assessed, and DTI parameters were extracted close to and distant from lesions and compared between groups. The corticospinal tract and thalamic projections to the somatosensory cortex were realistically reconstructed in both groups. Structural changes to tracts were seen in the cerebral palsy group and included splits, dislocations, compaction of the tracts, or failure to delineate the tract and were associated with underlying pathology seen on conventional MR imaging. Comparisons of DTI parameters indicated primary and secondary neurodegeneration along the corticospinal tract. Corticospinal tract and thalamic projections to the somatosensory cortex showed dissimilarities in both structural changes and DTI parameters. Our proposed method offers a sensitive means to explore alterations in WM tracts to further understand pathophysiologic changes following early acquired brain injury. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  15. Brain regions and functional interactions supporting early word recognition in the face of input variability.

    PubMed

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Siugzdaite, Roma; Gómez, David Maximiliano; Macagno, Francesco; Cattarossi, Luigi; Mehler, Jacques

    2017-07-18

    Perception and cognition in infants have been traditionally investigated using habituation paradigms, assuming that babies' memories in laboratory contexts are best constructed after numerous repetitions of the very same stimulus in the absence of interference. A crucial, yet open, question regards how babies deal with stimuli experienced in a fashion similar to everyday learning situations-namely, in the presence of interfering stimuli. To address this question, we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy to test 40 healthy newborns on their ability to encode words presented in concomitance with other words. The results evidenced a habituation-like hemodynamic response during encoding in the left-frontal region, which was associated with a progressive decrement of the functional connections between this region and the left-temporal, right-temporal, and right-parietal regions. In a recognition test phase, a characteristic neural signature of recognition recruited first the right-frontal region and subsequently the right-parietal ones. Connections originating from the right-temporal regions to these areas emerged when newborns listened to the familiar word in the test phase. These findings suggest a neural specialization at birth characterized by the lateralization of memory functions: the interplay between temporal and left-frontal regions during encoding and between temporo-parietal and right-frontal regions during recognition of speech sounds. Most critically, the results show that newborns are capable of retaining the sound of specific words despite hearing other stimuli during encoding. Thus, habituation designs that include various items may be as effective for studying early memory as repeated presentation of a single word.

  16. Early rehabilitation for severe acquired brain injury in intensive care unit: multicenter observational study.

    PubMed

    Bartolo, Michelangelo; Bargellesi, Stefano; Castioni, Carlo A; Bonaiuti, Donatella; Antenucci, Roberto; Benedetti, Angelo; Capuzzo, Valeria; Gamna, Federica; Radeschi, Giulio; Citerio, Giuseppe; Colombo, Carolina; Del Casale, Laura; Recubini, Elena; Toska, Saimir; Zanello, Marco; D'Aurizio, Carlo; Spina, Tullio; Del Gaudio, Alredo; Di Rienzo, Filomena; Intiso, Domenico; Dallocchio, Giulia; Felisatti, Giovanna; Lavezzi, Susanna; Zoppellari, Roberto; Gariboldi, Valentina; Lorini, Luca; Melizza, Giovanni; Molinero, Guido; Mandalà, Giorgio; Pignataro, Amedeo; Montis, Andrea; Napoleone, Alessandro; Pilia, Felicita; Pisu, Marina; Semerjian, Monica; Pagliaro, Giuseppina; Nardin, Lorella; Scarponi, Federico; Zampolini, Mauro; Zava, Raffaele; Massetti, Maria A; Piccolini, Carlo; Aloj, Fulvio; Antonelli, Sergio; Zucchella, Chiara

    2016-02-01

    The increased survival after a severe acquired brain injury (sABI) raise the problem of making most effective the treatments in Intensive Care Unit (ICU)/Neurointensive Care Unit (NICU), also integrating rehabilitation care. Despite previous studies reported that early mobilization in ICU was effective in preventing complications and reducing hospital stay, few studies addressed the rehabilitative management of sABI patients in ICU/NICU. To collect clinical and functional data about the early rehabilitative management of sABI patients during ICU/NICU stay. Prospective, observational, multicenter study. Fourteen facilities supplied by intensive neurorehabilitation units and ICU/NICUs. Consecutive sABI patients admitted to ICU/NICU. Patients were evaluated at admission and then every 3-5 days. Clinical, functional and rehabilitative data, including Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Disability Rating Scale (DRS), The Rancho Los Amigos Levels of Cognitive Functioning Scale (LCF), Early Rehabilitation Barthel Index (ERBI), Glasgow Outcome scale (GOS) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) were collected. One hundred and two patients (F/M 44/58) were enrolled. The mean duration of ICU stay was 24.7±13.9 days and the first rehabilitative evaluation occurred after 8.7±8.8 days. Regular postural changes and multijoint mobilization were prescribed in 63.7% and 64.7% cases, respectively. The mean session duration was 38±11.5 minutes. Swallowing evaluation was performed in 14.7% patients, psychological support was provided to 12.7% of patients' caregivers, while 17.6% received a psycho-educational intervention, and 28.4% were involved in interdisciplinary team meetings. The main discharge destinations were Severe Acquired Brain Injury rehabilitation units for 43.7%, intensive neurorehabilitation units for 20.7%. Data showed that early rehabilitation was not diffusely performed in sABI subjects in ICU/NICU and rehabilitative interventions were variable; one-third of subjects were

  17. Lexical Access in Early Stages of Visual Word Processing: A Single-Trial Correlational MEG Study of Heteronym Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomyak, Olla; Marantz, Alec

    2009-01-01

    We present an MEG study of heteronym recognition, aiming to distinguish between two theories of lexical access: the "early access" theory, which entails that lexical access occurs at early (pre 200 ms) stages of processing, and the "late access" theory, which interprets this early activity as orthographic word-form identification rather than…

  18. The posterior semantic asymmetry (PSA): An early brain electrical signature of semantic activation from written words.

    PubMed

    Koppehele-Gossel, Judith; Schnuerch, Robert; Gibbons, Henning

    2018-06-06

    This study replicates and extends the findings of Koppehele-Gossel, Schnuerch, and Gibbons (2016) of a posterior semantic asymmetry (PSA) in event-related brain potentials (ERPs), which closely tracks the time course and degree of semantic activation from single visual words. This negativity peaked 300 ms after word onset, was derived by subtracting right- from left-side activity, and was larger in a semantic task compared to two non-semantic control tasks. The validity of the PSA in reflecting the effort to activate word meaning was again attested by a negative correlation between the meaning-specific PSA increase and verbal intelligence, even after controlling for nonverbal intelligence. Extending prior work, current source density (CSD) transformation was used. CSD results were consistent with a left temporo-parietal cortical origin of the PSA. Moreover, no PSA was found for pictorial material, suggesting that the component reflects early semantic processing specific to verbal stimuli. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Emotions in word and face processing: early and late cortical responses.

    PubMed

    Schacht, Annekathrin; Sommer, Werner

    2009-04-01

    Recent research suggests that emotion effects in word processing resemble those in other stimulus domains such as pictures or faces. The present study aims to provide more direct evidence for this notion by comparing emotion effects in word and face processing in a within-subject design. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded as participants made decisions on the lexicality of emotionally positive, negative, and neutral German verbs or pseudowords, and on the integrity of intact happy, angry, and neutral faces or slightly distorted faces. Relative to neutral and negative stimuli both positive verbs and happy faces elicited posterior ERP negativities that were indistinguishable in scalp distribution and resembled the early posterior negativities reported by others. Importantly, these ERP modulations appeared at very different latencies. Therefore, it appears that similar brain systems reflect the decoding of both biological and symbolic emotional signals of positive valence, differing mainly in the speed of meaning access, which is more direct and faster for facial expressions than for words.

  20. Recognition memory advantage for negative emotional words has an early expiry date: Evidence from brain oscillations and ERPs.

    PubMed

    Santaniello, G; Ferré, P; Rodríguez-Gómez, P; Poch, C; Eva, M Moreno; Hinojosa, J A

    2018-06-15

    Evidence from prior studies has shown an advantage in recognition memory for emotional compared to neutral words. Whether this advantage is short-lived or rather extends over longer periods, as well as whether the effect depends on words' valence (i.e., positive or negative), remains unknown. In the present ERP/EEG study, we investigated this issue by manipulating the lag distance (LAG-2, LAG-8 and LAG-16) between the presentation of old and new words in an online recognition memory task. LAG differences were observed at behavior, ERPs and in the theta frequency band. In line with previous studies, negative words were associated with faster reaction times, higher hit rates and increased amplitude in a positive ERP component between 386 and 564 ms compared to positive and neutral words. Remarkably, the interaction of LAG by EMOTION revealed that negative words were associated with better performance and larger ERPs amplitudes only at LAG-2. Also in the LAG-2 condition, emotional words (i.e., positive and negative words) induced a stronger desynchronization in the beta band between 386 and 542 ms compared to neutral words. These early enhanced memory effects for emotional words are discussed in terms of the Negative Emotional Valence Enhances Recapitulation (NEVER) model and the mobilization-minimization hypothesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neural competition as a developmental process: early hemispheric specialization for word processing delays specialization for face processing.

    PubMed

    Li, Su; Lee, Kang; Zhao, Jing; Yang, Zhi; He, Sheng; Weng, Xuchu

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about the impact of learning to read on early neural development for word processing and its collateral effects on neural development in non-word domains. Here, we examined the effect of early exposure to reading on neural responses to both word and face processing in preschool children with the use of the Event Related Potential (ERP) methodology. We specifically linked children's reading experience (indexed by their sight vocabulary) to two major neural markers: the amplitude differences between the left and right N170 on the bilateral posterior scalp sites and the hemispheric spectrum power differences in the γ band on the same scalp sites. The results showed that the left-lateralization of both the word N170 and the spectrum power in the γ band were significantly positively related to vocabulary. In contrast, vocabulary and the word left-lateralization both had a strong negative direct effect on the face right-lateralization. Also, vocabulary negatively correlated with the right-lateralized face spectrum power in the γ band even after the effects of age and the word spectrum power were partialled out. The present study provides direct evidence regarding the role of reading experience in the neural specialization of word and face processing above and beyond the effect of maturation. The present findings taken together suggest that the neural development of visual word processing competes with that of face processing before the process of neural specialization has been consolidated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neural competition as a developmental process: Early hemispheric specialization for word processing delays specialization for face processing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Su; Lee, Kang; Zhao, Jing; Yang, Zhi; He, Sheng; Weng, Xuchu

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of learning to read on early neural development for word processing and its collateral effects on neural development in non-word domains. Here, we examined the effect of early exposure to reading on neural responses to both word and face processing in preschool children with the use of the Event Related Potential (ERP) methodology. We specifically linked children’s reading experience (indexed by their sight vocabulary) to two major neural markers: the amplitude differences between the left and right N170 on the bilateral posterior scalp sites and the hemispheric spectrum power differences in the γ band on the same scalp sites. The results showed that the left-lateralization of both the word N170 and the spectrum power in the γ band were significantly positively related to vocabulary. In contrast, vocabulary and the word left-lateralization both had a strong negative direct effect on the face right-lateralization. Also, vocabulary negatively correlated with the right-lateralized face spectrum power in the γ band even after the effects of age and the word spectrum power were partialled out. The present study provides direct evidence regarding the role of reading experience in the neural specialization of word and face processing above and beyond the effect of maturation. The present findings taken together suggest that the neural development of visual word processing competes with that of face processing before the process of neural specialization has been consolidated. PMID:23462239

  3. Acquired color vision and visual field defects in patients with ocular hypertension and early glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Papaconstantinou, Dimitris; Georgalas, Ilias; Kalantzis, George; Karmiris, Efthimios; Koutsandrea, Chrysanthi; Diagourtas, Andreas; Ladas, Ioannis; Georgopoulos, Gerasimos

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To study acquired color vision and visual field defects in patients with ocular hypertension (OH) and early glaucoma. Methods: In a prospective study we evaluated 99 eyes of 56 patients with OH without visual field defects and no hereditary color deficiencies, followed up for 4 to 6 years (mean = 4.7 ± 0.6 years). Color vision defects were studied using a special computer program for Farnsworth–Munsell 100 hue test and visual field tests were performed with Humphrey analyzer using program 30–2. Both tests were repeated every six months. Results: In fifty-six eyes, glaucomatous defects were observed during the follow-up period. There was a statistically significant difference in total error score (TES) between eyes that eventually developed glaucoma (157.89 ± 31.79) and OH eyes (75.51 ± 31.57) at the first examination (t value 12.816, p < 0.001). At the same time visual field indices were within normal limits in both groups. In the glaucomatous eyes the earliest statistical significant change in TES was identified at the first year of follow-up and was −20.62 ± 2.75 (t value 9.08, p < 0.001) while in OH eyes was −2.11 ± 4.36 (t value 1.1, p = 0.276). Pearson’s coefficient was high in all examinations and showed a direct correlation between TES and mean deviation and corrected pattern standard deviation in both groups. Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of color vision defects provides the possibility of follow-up and can prove a useful means for detecting early glaucomatous changes in patients with normal visual fields. PMID:19668575

  4. Acquired color vision and visual field defects in patients with ocular hypertension and early glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Papaconstantinou, Dimitris; Georgalas, Ilias; Kalantzis, George; Karmiris, Efthimios; Koutsandrea, Chrysanthi; Diagourtas, Andreas; Ladas, Ioannis; Georgopoulos, Gerasimos

    2009-01-01

    To study acquired color vision and visual field defects in patients with ocular hypertension (OH) and early glaucoma. In a prospective study we evaluated 99 eyes of 56 patients with OH without visual field defects and no hereditary color deficiencies, followed up for 4 to 6 years (mean = 4.7 +/- 0.6 years). Color vision defects were studied using a special computer program for Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test and visual field tests were performed with Humphrey analyzer using program 30-2. Both tests were repeated every six months. In fifty-six eyes, glaucomatous defects were observed during the follow-up period. There was a statistically significant difference in total error score (TES) between eyes that eventually developed glaucoma (157.89 +/- 31.79) and OH eyes (75.51 +/- 31.57) at the first examination (t value 12.816, p < 0.001). At the same time visual field indices were within normal limits in both groups. In the glaucomatous eyes the earliest statistical significant change in TES was identified at the first year of follow-up and was -20.62 +/- 2.75 (t value 9.08, p < 0.001) while in OH eyes was -2.11 +/- 4.36 (t value 1.1, p = 0.276). Pearson's coefficient was high in all examinations and showed a direct correlation between TES and mean deviation and corrected pattern standard deviation in both groups. Quantitative analysis of color vision defects provides the possibility of follow-up and can prove a useful means for detecting early glaucomatous changes in patients with normal visual fields.

  5. Early Prediction of Intensive Care Unit-Acquired Weakness: A Multicenter External Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Witteveen, Esther; Wieske, Luuk; Sommers, Juultje; Spijkstra, Jan-Jaap; de Waard, Monique C; Endeman, Henrik; Rijkenberg, Saskia; de Ruijter, Wouter; Sleeswijk, Mengalvio; Verhamme, Camiel; Schultz, Marcus J; van Schaik, Ivo N; Horn, Janneke

    2018-01-01

    An early diagnosis of intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW) is often not possible due to impaired consciousness. To avoid a diagnostic delay, we previously developed a prediction model, based on single-center data from 212 patients (development cohort), to predict ICU-AW at 2 days after ICU admission. The objective of this study was to investigate the external validity of the original prediction model in a new, multicenter cohort and, if necessary, to update the model. Newly admitted ICU patients who were mechanically ventilated at 48 hours after ICU admission were included. Predictors were prospectively recorded, and the outcome ICU-AW was defined by an average Medical Research Council score <4. In the validation cohort, consisting of 349 patients, we analyzed performance of the original prediction model by assessment of calibration and discrimination. Additionally, we updated the model in this validation cohort. Finally, we evaluated a new prediction model based on all patients of the development and validation cohort. Of 349 analyzed patients in the validation cohort, 190 (54%) developed ICU-AW. Both model calibration and discrimination of the original model were poor in the validation cohort. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC-ROC) was 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54-0.66). Model updating methods improved calibration but not discrimination. The new prediction model, based on all patients of the development and validation cohort (total of 536 patients) had a fair discrimination, AUC-ROC: 0.70 (95% CI: 0.66-0.75). The previously developed prediction model for ICU-AW showed poor performance in a new independent multicenter validation cohort. Model updating methods improved calibration but not discrimination. The newly derived prediction model showed fair discrimination. This indicates that early prediction of ICU-AW is still challenging and needs further attention.

  6. Severe sepsis in community-acquired pneumonia--early recognition and treatment.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Jose Manuel; Paiva, Jose Artur; Rello, Jordi

    2012-07-01

    Despite remarkable advances in its management, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality leading to significant consumption of health, social and economic resources. The assessment of CAP severity is a cornerstone in its management, facilitating selection of the most appropriate site of care and empirical antibiotic therapy. Several clinical scoring systems based on 30-day mortality have been developed to identify those patients with the highest risk of death. Although well validated in appropriate patient groups, each system has its own limitations and each exhibits different sensitivity and specificity values. These problems have increased interest in the use of biomarkers to predict CAP severity. Although so far no ideal solution has been identified, recent advances in bacterial genomic load quantification have made this tool very attractive. Early antibiotic therapy is essential to the reduction of CAP mortality and the selection of antibiotic treatment according to clinical guidelines is also associated with an improved outcome. In addition, the addition of a macrolide to standard empirical therapy seems to improve outcome in severe CAP although the mechanism of this is unclear. Finally, the role of adjuvant therapy has not yet been satisfactorily established. In this review we will present our opinion on current best practice in the assessment of severity and treatment of severe CAP. Copyright © 2012 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Suprasegmental Features Are Not Acquired Early: Perception and Production of Monosyllabic Cantonese Lexical Tones in 4- to 6-Year-Old Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Wong, Puisan; Tsz-Tin Leung, Carrie

    2018-05-17

    Previous studies reported that children acquire Cantonese tones before 3 years of age, supporting the assumption in models of phonological development that suprasegmental features are acquired rapidly and early in children. Yet, recent research found a large disparity in the age of Cantonese tone acquisition. This study investigated Cantonese tone development in 4- to 6-year-old children. Forty-eight 4- to 6-year-old Cantonese-speaking children and 28 mothers of the children labeled 30 pictures representing familiar words in the 6 tones in a picture-naming task and identified pictures representing words in different Cantonese tones in a picture-pointing task. To control for lexical biases in tone assessment, tone productions were low-pass filtered to eliminate lexical information. Five judges categorized the tones in filtered stimuli. Tone production accuracy, tone perception accuracy, and correlation between tone production and perception accuracy were examined. Children did not start to produce adultlike tones until 5 and 6 years of age. Four-year-olds produced none of the tones with adultlike accuracy. Five- and 6-year-olds attained adultlike productions in 2 (T5 and T6) to 3 (T4, T5, and T6) tones, respectively. Children made better progress in tone perception and achieved higher accuracy in perception than in production. However, children in all age groups perceived none of the tones as accurately as adults, except that T1 was perceived with adultlike accuracy by 6-year-olds. Only weak association was found between children's tone perception and production accuracy. Contradicting to the long-held assumption that children acquire lexical tone rapidly and early before the mastery of segmentals, this study found that 4- to 6-year-old children have not mastered the perception or production of the full set of Cantonese tones in familiar monosyllabic words. Larger development was found in children's tone perception than tone production. The higher tone perception

  8. Relationships of French and English Morphophonemic Orthographies to Word Reading, Spelling, and Reading Comprehension during Early and Middle Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Robert D.; Fayol, Michel; Casalis, Séverine; Nagy, William; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2016-01-01

    Two longitudinal studies of word reading, spelling, and reading comprehension identified commonalities and differences in morphophonemic orthographies—French (Study 1, n=1313) or English (Study 2, n=114) in early childhood (grade 2) and middle childhood (grade 5). For French and English, statistically significant concurrent relationships among these literacy skills occurred in grades 2 and 5, and longitudinal relationships for each skill with itself from grade 2 to 5; but concurrent relationships were more sizable and longitudinal relationships more variable for English than French especially for word reading to reading comprehension. Results show that, for both morphophonemic orthographies, assessment and instructional practices should be tailored to early or middle childhood, and early childhood reading comprehension may not be related to middle childhood spelling. Also discussed are findings applying only to English, for which word origin is primarily Anglo-Saxon in early childhood, but increasingly French in middle childhood. PMID:27818573

  9. Relationships of French and English Morphophonemic Orthographies to Word Reading, Spelling, and Reading Comprehension during Early and Middle Childhood.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Robert D; Fayol, Michel; Zorman, Michel; Casalis, Séverine; Nagy, William; Berninger, Virginia W

    2016-12-01

    Two longitudinal studies of word reading, spelling, and reading comprehension identified commonalities and differences in morphophonemic orthographies-French (Study 1, n =1313) or English (Study 2, n =114) in early childhood (grade 2) and middle childhood (grade 5). For French and English, statistically significant concurrent relationships among these literacy skills occurred in grades 2 and 5, and longitudinal relationships for each skill with itself from grade 2 to 5; but concurrent relationships were more sizable and longitudinal relationships more variable for English than French especially for word reading to reading comprehension. Results show that, for both morphophonemic orthographies, assessment and instructional practices should be tailored to early or middle childhood, and early childhood reading comprehension may not be related to middle childhood spelling. Also discussed are findings applying only to English, for which word origin is primarily Anglo-Saxon in early childhood, but increasingly French in middle childhood.

  10. Prosody and Spoken Word Recognition in Early and Late Spanish-English Bilingual Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutsen, Frank R.; Dvorak, Justin D.; Deweber, Derick D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to compare the influence of word properties on gated single-word recognition in monolingual and bilingual individuals under conditions of native and nonnative accent and to determine whether word-form prosody facilitates recognition in bilingual individuals. Method: Word recognition was assessed in monolingual and…

  11. Vernier But Not Grating Acuity Contributes to an Early Stage of Visual Word Processing.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yufei; Tong, Xiuhong; Chen, Wei; Weng, Xuchu; He, Sheng; Zhao, Jing

    2018-03-28

    The process of reading words depends heavily on efficient visual skills, including analyzing and decomposing basic visual features. Surprisingly, previous reading-related studies have almost exclusively focused on gross aspects of visual skills, while only very few have investigated the role of finer skills. The present study filled this gap and examined the relations of two finer visual skills measured by grating acuity (the ability to resolve periodic luminance variations across space) and Vernier acuity (the ability to detect/discriminate relative locations of features) to Chinese character-processing as measured by character form-matching and lexical decision tasks in skilled adult readers. The results showed that Vernier acuity was significantly correlated with performance in character form-matching but not visual symbol form-matching, while no correlation was found between grating acuity and character processing. Interestingly, we found no correlation of the two visual skills with lexical decision performance. These findings provide for the first time empirical evidence that the finer visual skills, particularly as reflected in Vernier acuity, may directly contribute to an early stage of hierarchical word processing.

  12. Early Prefrontal Brain Responses to the Hedonic Quality of Emotional Words – A Simultaneous EEG and MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Keuper, Kati; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Rehbein, Maimu A.; Eden, Annuschka S.; Laeger, Inga; Junghöfer, Markus; Zwanzger, Peter; Dobel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The hedonic meaning of words affects word recognition, as shown by behavioral, functional imaging, and event-related potential (ERP) studies. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics and cognitive functions behind are elusive, partly due to methodological limitations of previous studies. Here, we account for these difficulties by computing combined electro-magnetoencephalographic (EEG/MEG) source localization techniques. Participants covertly read emotionally high-arousing positive and negative nouns, while EEG and MEG were recorded simultaneously. Combined EEG/MEG current-density reconstructions for the P1 (80–120 ms), P2 (150–190 ms) and EPN component (200–300 ms) were computed using realistic individual head models, with a cortical constraint. Relative to negative words, the P1 to positive words predominantly involved language-related structures (left middle temporal and inferior frontal regions), and posterior structures related to directed attention (occipital and parietal regions). Effects shifted to the right hemisphere in the P2 component. By contrast, negative words received more activation in the P1 time-range only, recruiting prefrontal regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Effects in the EPN were not statistically significant. These findings show that different neuronal networks are active when positive versus negative words are processed. We account for these effects in terms of an “emotional tagging” of word forms during language acquisition. These tags then give rise to different processing strategies, including enhanced lexical processing of positive words and a very fast language-independent alert response to negative words. The valence-specific recruitment of different networks might underlie fast adaptive responses to both approach- and withdrawal-related stimuli, be they acquired or biological. PMID:23940642

  13. The Impact of Morphological Awareness on Word Reading and Dictation in Chinese Early Adolescent Readers With and Without Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Kalindi, Sylvia Chanda; Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the role of morphological awareness in understanding Chinese word reading and dictation among Chinese-speaking adolescent readers in Hong Kong as well as the cognitive-linguistic profile of early adolescent readers with dyslexia. Fifty-four readers with dyslexia in Grades 5 and 6 were compared with 54 chronological age-matched (CA) typical readers on the following measures of cognitive-linguistic and literacy skills: morphological awareness, phonological awareness, visual-orthographic knowledge, rapid naming, vocabulary knowledge, verbal short-term memory (STM), Chinese word reading, and dictation (or spelling). The results indicated that early adolescent readers with dyslexia performed less well than the typical readers on all cognitive-linguistic and literacy measures except the phonological measures. Both groups' scores showed substantial correlations between morphological awareness and Chinese word reading and dictation. Visual-orthographic knowledge and rapid naming were also associated with dictation in early adolescent readers with and without dyslexia, respectively. Moderated multiple regression analyses further revealed that morphological awareness and rapid naming explained unique variance in word reading and dictation for the readers with dyslexia and typical readers separately after controlling readers' age and group effect. These results highlight the potential importance of morphological awareness and rapid naming in Chinese word reading and writing in Chinese early adolescents' literacy development and impairment.

  14. Word position affects stimulus recognition: evidence for early ERP short-term plastic modulation.

    PubMed

    Spironelli, Chiara; Galfano, Giovanni; Umiltà, Carlo; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2011-12-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the short-term plastic changes that follow word learning at a neurophysiological level. The main hypothesis was that word position (left or right visual field, LVF/RH or RVF/LH) in the initial learning phase would leave a trace that affected, in the subsequent recognition phase, the Recognition Potential (i.e., the first negative component distinguishing words from other stimuli) elicited 220-240 ms after centrally presented stimuli. Forty-eight students were administered, in the learning phase, 125 words for 4s, randomly presented half in the left and half in the right visual field. In the recognition phase, participants were split into two equal groups, one was assigned to the Word task, the other to the Picture task (in which half of the 125 pictures were new, and half matched prior studied words). During the Word task, old RVF/LH words elicited significantly greater negativity in left posterior sites with respect to old LVF/RH words, which in turn showed the same pattern of activation evoked by new words. Therefore, correspondence between stimulus spatial position and hemisphere specialized in automatic word recognition created a robust prime for subsequent recognition. During the Picture task, pictures matching old RVF/LH words showed no differences compared with new pictures, but evoked significantly greater negativity than pictures matching old LVF/RH words. Thus, the priming effect vanished when the task required a switch from visual analysis to stored linguistic information, whereas the lack of correspondence between stimulus position and network specialized in automatic word recognition (i.e., when words were presented to the LVF/RH) revealed the implicit costs for recognition. Results support the view that short-term plastic changes occurring in a linguistic learning task interact with both stimulus position and modality (written word vs. picture representation). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  15. Orthographic Analogies and Early Reading: Evidence from a Multiple Clue Word Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Robert S.; Deault, Louise; Daki, Julia; Aouad, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments using a variation of the clue word analogy task (Goswami, 1986) explored whether children can make orthographic analogies when given multiple clue words, beyond the known effects of purely phonological activation. In Experiment 1, 42 children (mean age 6 years and 8 months) were first taught 3 "clue" words (e.g.,…

  16. Caregivers' Gestures Direct Infant Attention during Early Word Learning: The Importance of Dynamic Synchrony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Nancy de Villiers; Zukow-Goldring, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    How do young infants discover word meanings? We have theorized that caregivers educate infants' attention (cf. Gibson, J.J., 1966) by synchronizing the saying of a word with a dynamic gesture displaying the object/referent (Zukow-Goldring, 1997). Detecting an amodal invariant across gesture and speech brackets the word and object within the…

  17. Numerical morphology supports early number word learning: Evidence from a comparison of young Mandarin and English learners.

    PubMed

    Le Corre, Mathieu; Li, Peggy; Huang, Becky H; Jia, Gisela; Carey, Susan

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies showed that children learning a language with an obligatory singular/plural distinction (Russian and English) learn the meaning of the number word for one earlier than children learning Japanese, a language without obligatory number morphology (Barner, Libenson, Cheung, & Takasaki, 2009; Sarnecka, Kamenskaya, Yamana, Ogura, & Yudovina, 2007). This can be explained by differences in number morphology, but it can also be explained by many other differences between the languages and the environments of the children who were compared. The present study tests the hypothesis that the morphological singular/plural distinction supports the early acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one by comparing young English learners to age and SES matched young Mandarin Chinese learners. Mandarin does not have obligatory number morphology but is more similar to English than Japanese in many crucial respects. Corpus analyses show that, compared to English learners, Mandarin learners hear number words more frequently, are more likely to hear number words followed by a noun, and are more likely to hear number words in contexts where they denote a cardinal value. Two tasks show that, despite these advantages, Mandarin learners learn the meaning of the number word for one three to six months later than do English learners. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that prior knowledge of the numerical meaning of the distinction between singular and plural supports the acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Numerical morphology supports early number word learning: Evidence from a comparison of young Mandarin and English learners

    PubMed Central

    Corre, Mathieu Le; Li, Peggy; Huang, Becky H.; Jia, Gisela; Carey, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that children learning a language with an obligatory singular/plural distinction (Russian and English) learn the meaning of the number word for one earlier than children learning Japanese, a language without obligatory number morphology (Barner, Libenson, Cheung, & Takasaki, 2009; Sarnecka, Kamenskaya, Yamana, Ogura, & Yudovina, 2007). This can be explained by differences in number morphology, but it can also be explained by many other differences between the languages and the environments of the children who were compared. The present study tests the hypothesis that the morphological singular/plural distinction supports the early acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one by comparing young English learners to age and SES matched young Mandarin Chinese learners. Mandarin does not have obligatory number morphology but is more similar to English than Japanese in many crucial respects. Corpus analyses show that, compared to English learners, Mandarin learners hear number words more frequently, are more likely to hear number words followed by a noun, and are more likely to hear number words in contexts where they denote a cardinal value. Two tasks show that, despite these advantages, Mandarin learners learn the meaning of the number word for one three to six months later than do English learners. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that prior knowledge of the numerical meaning of the distinction between singular and plural supports the acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one. PMID:27423486

  19. Vowel reduction in word-final position by early and late Spanish-English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Byers, Emily; Yavas, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Vowel reduction is a prominent feature of American English, as well as other stress-timed languages. As a phonological process, vowel reduction neutralizes multiple vowel quality contrasts in unstressed syllables. For bilinguals whose native language is not characterized by large spectral and durational differences between tonic and atonic vowels, systematically reducing unstressed vowels to the central vowel space can be problematic. Failure to maintain this pattern of stressed-unstressed syllables in American English is one key element that contributes to a "foreign accent" in second language speakers. Reduced vowels, or "schwas," have also been identified as particularly vulnerable to the co-articulatory effects of adjacent consonants. The current study examined the effects of adjacent sounds on the spectral and temporal qualities of schwa in word-final position. Three groups of English-speaking adults were tested: Miami-based monolingual English speakers, early Spanish-English bilinguals, and late Spanish-English bilinguals. Subjects performed a reading task to examine their schwa productions in fluent speech when schwas were preceded by consonants from various points of articulation. Results indicated that monolingual English and late Spanish-English bilingual groups produced targeted vowel qualities for schwa, whereas early Spanish-English bilinguals lacked homogeneity in their vowel productions. This extends prior claims that schwa is targetless for F2 position for native speakers to highly-proficient bilingual speakers. Though spectral qualities lacked homogeneity for early Spanish-English bilinguals, early bilinguals produced schwas with near native-like vowel duration. In contrast, late bilinguals produced schwas with significantly longer durations than English monolinguals or early Spanish-English bilinguals. Our results suggest that the temporal properties of a language are better integrated into second language phonologies than spectral qualities

  20. Vowel reduction in word-final position by early and late Spanish-English bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Vowel reduction is a prominent feature of American English, as well as other stress-timed languages. As a phonological process, vowel reduction neutralizes multiple vowel quality contrasts in unstressed syllables. For bilinguals whose native language is not characterized by large spectral and durational differences between tonic and atonic vowels, systematically reducing unstressed vowels to the central vowel space can be problematic. Failure to maintain this pattern of stressed-unstressed syllables in American English is one key element that contributes to a “foreign accent” in second language speakers. Reduced vowels, or “schwas,” have also been identified as particularly vulnerable to the co-articulatory effects of adjacent consonants. The current study examined the effects of adjacent sounds on the spectral and temporal qualities of schwa in word-final position. Three groups of English-speaking adults were tested: Miami-based monolingual English speakers, early Spanish-English bilinguals, and late Spanish-English bilinguals. Subjects performed a reading task to examine their schwa productions in fluent speech when schwas were preceded by consonants from various points of articulation. Results indicated that monolingual English and late Spanish-English bilingual groups produced targeted vowel qualities for schwa, whereas early Spanish-English bilinguals lacked homogeneity in their vowel productions. This extends prior claims that schwa is targetless for F2 position for native speakers to highly-proficient bilingual speakers. Though spectral qualities lacked homogeneity for early Spanish-English bilinguals, early bilinguals produced schwas with near native-like vowel duration. In contrast, late bilinguals produced schwas with significantly longer durations than English monolinguals or early Spanish-English bilinguals. Our results suggest that the temporal properties of a language are better integrated into second language phonologies than spectral

  1. English Listeners Use Suprasegmental Cues to Lexical Stress Early During Spoken-Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Poellmann, Katja; Kong, Ying-Yee

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We used an eye-tracking technique to investigate whether English listeners use suprasegmental information about lexical stress to speed up the recognition of spoken words in English. Method In a visual world paradigm, 24 young English listeners followed spoken instructions to choose 1 of 4 printed referents on a computer screen (e.g., “Click on the word admiral”). Displays contained a critical pair of words (e.g., ˈadmiral–ˌadmiˈration) that were segmentally identical for their first 2 syllables but differed suprasegmentally in their 1st syllable: One word began with primary lexical stress, and the other began with secondary lexical stress. All words had phrase-level prominence. Listeners' relative proportion of eye fixations on these words indicated their ability to differentiate them over time. Results Before critical word pairs became segmentally distinguishable in their 3rd syllables, participants fixated target words more than their stress competitors, but only if targets had initial primary lexical stress. The degree to which stress competitors were fixated was independent of their stress pattern. Conclusions Suprasegmental information about lexical stress modulates the time course of spoken-word recognition. Specifically, suprasegmental information on the primary-stressed syllable of words with phrase-level prominence helps in distinguishing the word from phonological competitors with secondary lexical stress. PMID:28056135

  2. Sounds, Letters and Meanings: The Independent Influences of Phonological, Morphological and Orthographic Skills on Early Word Reading Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, S. Helene

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the independent contributions of phonological awareness, orthographic processing and morphological awareness on early word reading. English-speaking children in Grades 1 and 3 completed measures of these three constructs, as well as standardised measures of real and pseudoword reading and of vocabulary. Each of…

  3. Relationships of French and English Morphophonemic Orthographies to Word Reading, Spelling, and Reading Comprehension during Early and Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Robert D.; Fayol, Michel; Zorman, Michel; Casalis, Séverine; Nagy, William; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2016-01-01

    Two longitudinal studies of word reading, spelling, and reading comprehension identified commonalities and differences in morphophonemic orthographies--French (Study 1, n = 1,313) or English (Study 2, n = 114) in early childhood (Grade 2)and middle childhood (Grade 5). For French and English, statistically significant concurrent relationships…

  4. Word Finding in Children and Adolescents with a History of Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Maureen

    1992-01-01

    Word finding in relation to brain injury is discussed for children and adolescents with unilateral congenital malformations of the brain, early hydrocephalus, childhood-acquired left hemisphere stroke, and acquired traumatic head injury. Studies examining the recovery of word-finding deficits after brain injury are discussed, along with…

  5. Using speakers' referential intentions to model early cross-situational word learning.

    PubMed

    Frank, Michael C; Goodman, Noah D; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2009-05-01

    Word learning is a "chicken and egg" problem. If a child could understand speakers' utterances, it would be easy to learn the meanings of individual words, and once a child knows what many words mean, it is easy to infer speakers' intended meanings. To the beginning learner, however, both individual word meanings and speakers' intentions are unknown. We describe a computational model of word learning that solves these two inference problems in parallel, rather than relying exclusively on either the inferred meanings of utterances or cross-situational word-meaning associations. We tested our model using annotated corpus data and found that it inferred pairings between words and object concepts with higher precision than comparison models. Moreover, as the result of making probabilistic inferences about speakers' intentions, our model explains a variety of behavioral phenomena described in the word-learning literature. These phenomena include mutual exclusivity, one-trial learning, cross-situational learning, the role of words in object individuation, and the use of inferred intentions to disambiguate reference.

  6. Potential Cost-effectiveness of Early Identification of Hospital-acquired Infection in Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Tsalik, Ephraim L; Li, Yanhong; Hudson, Lori L; Chu, Vivian H; Himmel, Tiffany; Limkakeng, Alex T; Katz, Jason N; Glickman, Seth W; McClain, Micah T; Welty-Wolf, Karen E; Fowler, Vance G; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Woods, Christopher W; Reed, Shelby D

    2016-03-01

    Limitations in methods for the rapid diagnosis of hospital-acquired infections often delay initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy. New diagnostic approaches offer potential clinical and cost-related improvements in the management of these infections. We developed a decision modeling framework to assess the potential cost-effectiveness of a rapid biomarker assay to identify hospital-acquired infection in high-risk patients earlier than standard diagnostic testing. The framework includes parameters representing rates of infection, rates of delayed appropriate therapy, and impact of delayed therapy on mortality, along with assumptions about diagnostic test characteristics and their impact on delayed therapy and length of stay. Parameter estimates were based on contemporary, published studies and supplemented with data from a four-site, observational, clinical study. Extensive sensitivity analyses were performed. The base-case analysis assumed 17.6% of ventilated patients and 11.2% of nonventilated patients develop hospital-acquired infection and that 28.7% of patients with hospital-acquired infection experience delays in appropriate antibiotic therapy with standard care. We assumed this percentage decreased by 50% (to 14.4%) among patients with true-positive results and increased by 50% (to 43.1%) among patients with false-negative results using a hypothetical biomarker assay. Cost of testing was set at $110/d. In the base-case analysis, among ventilated patients, daily diagnostic testing starting on admission reduced inpatient mortality from 12.3 to 11.9% and increased mean costs by $1,640 per patient, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $21,389 per life-year saved. Among nonventilated patients, inpatient mortality decreased from 7.3 to 7.1% and costs increased by $1,381 with diagnostic testing. The resulting incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $42,325 per life-year saved. Threshold analyses revealed the probabilities of developing

  7. Perceptions of physical activity and walking in an early stage after stroke or acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Törnbom, Karin; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S; Danielsson, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity has been established as being highly beneficial for health after stroke. There are considerable global efforts to find rehabilitation programs that encourage increased physical activity for persons with stroke. However, many persons with stroke or acquired brain injury do not reach recommended levels of physical activity and increased knowledge about why is needed. We aimed to explore views and experiences of physical activity and walking among persons with stroke or acquired brain injury. A qualitative study was conducted, among persons with stroke (n = 8) or acquired brain injury (n = 2) from a rehabilitation unit at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Sweden. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were held about perceptions and experiences of walking and physical activity in general. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis, with categories that were determined inductively. Physical activity in general and walking ability more specifically were considered very important by the participants. However, physical activity was, regardless of exercising habits pre-injury, associated with different kinds of negative feelings and experiences. Commonly reported internal barriers in the current study were; fatigue, fear of falling or getting hurt in traffic, lack of motivation and depression. Reported external barriers were mostly related to walking, for example; bad weather, uneven ground, lack of company or noisy or too busy surroundings. Persons with stroke or acquired brain injury found it difficult to engage in and sustain an eligible level of physical activity. Understanding individual concerns about motivators and barriers surrounding physical activity may facilitate the work of forming tailor-made rehabilitation for these groups, so that the levels of physical activity and walking can increase.

  8. Word Learning in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants: Effects of Early Auditory Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Derek M.; Stewart, Jessica; Moberly, Aaron; Hollich, George; Miyamoto, Richard T.

    2012-01-01

    Word-learning skills were tested in normal-hearing 12- to 40-month-olds and in deaf 22- to 40-month-olds 12 to 18 months after cochlear implantation. Using the Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm (IPLP), children were tested for their ability to learn two novel-word/novel-object pairings. Normal-hearing children demonstrated learning on this…

  9. Beyond Naïve Cue Combination: Salience and Social Cues in Early Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurovsky, Daniel; Frank, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    Children learn their earliest words through social "interaction," but it is unknown how much they rely on social "information." Some theories argue that word learning is fundamentally social from its outset, with even the youngest infants understanding intentions and using them to infer a social partner's target of reference.…

  10. A Comparison of Two Flashcard Interventions for Teaching Sight Words to Early Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    January, Stacy-Ann A.; Lovelace, Mary E.; Foster, Tori E.; Ardoin, Scott P.

    2017-01-01

    Strategic Incremental Rehearsal (SIR) is a recently developed flashcard intervention that blends Traditional Drill with Incremental Rehearsal (IR) for teaching sight words. The initial study evaluating SIR found it was more effective than IR for teaching sight words to first-grade students. However, that study failed to assess efficiency, which is…

  11. Looking and Touching: What Extant Approaches Reveal about the Structure of Early Word Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Kristi; Mitsven, Samantha; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal; Friend, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the current study is to assess the temporal dynamics of vision and action to evaluate the underlying word representations that guide infants' responses. Sixteen-month-old infants participated in a two-alternative forced-choice word-picture matching task. We conducted a moment-by-moment analysis of looking and reaching behaviors as they…

  12. How do children acquire early grammar and build multiword utterances? A corpus study of French children aged 2 to 4.

    PubMed

    Le Normand, M T; Moreno-Torres, I; Parisse, C; Dellatolas, G

    2013-01-01

    In the last 50 years, researchers have debated over the lexical or grammatical nature of children's early multiword utterances. Due to methodological limitations, the issue remains controversial. This corpus study explores the effect of grammatical, lexical, and pragmatic categories on mean length of utterances (MLU). A total of 312 speech samples from high-low socioeconomic status (SES) French-speaking children aged 2-4 years were annotated with a part-of-speech-tagger. Multiple regression analyses show that grammatical categories, particularly the most frequent subcategories, were the best predictors of MLU both across age and SES groups. These findings support the view that early language learning is guided by grammatical rather than by lexical words. This corpus research design can be used for future cross-linguistic and cross-pathology studies. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. Audiovisual spoken word training can promote or impede auditory-only perceptual learning: prelingually deafened adults with late-acquired cochlear implants versus normal hearing adults.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Lynne E; Eberhardt, Silvio P; Auer, Edward T

    2014-01-01

    Training with audiovisual (AV) speech has been shown to promote auditory perceptual learning of vocoded acoustic speech by adults with normal hearing. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether AV speech promotes auditory-only (AO) perceptual learning in prelingually deafened adults with late-acquired cochlear implants. Participants were assigned to learn associations between spoken disyllabic C(=consonant)V(=vowel)CVC non-sense words and non-sense pictures (fribbles), under AV and then AO (AV-AO; or counter-balanced AO then AV, AO-AV, during Periods 1 then 2) training conditions. After training on each list of paired-associates (PA), testing was carried out AO. Across all training, AO PA test scores improved (7.2 percentage points) as did identification of consonants in new untrained CVCVC stimuli (3.5 percentage points). However, there was evidence that AV training impeded immediate AO perceptual learning: During Period-1, training scores across AV and AO conditions were not different, but AO test scores were dramatically lower in the AV-trained participants. During Period-2 AO training, the AV-AO participants obtained significantly higher AO test scores, demonstrating their ability to learn the auditory speech. Across both orders of training, whenever training was AV, AO test scores were significantly lower than training scores. Experiment 2 repeated the procedures with vocoded speech and 43 normal-hearing adults. Following AV training, their AO test scores were as high as or higher than following AO training. Also, their CVCVC identification scores patterned differently than those of the cochlear implant users. In Experiment 1, initial consonants were most accurate, and in Experiment 2, medial consonants were most accurate. We suggest that our results are consistent with a multisensory reverse hierarchy theory, which predicts that, whenever possible, perceivers carry out perceptual tasks immediately based on the experience and biases they bring to the task. We

  14. Audiovisual spoken word training can promote or impede auditory-only perceptual learning: prelingually deafened adults with late-acquired cochlear implants versus normal hearing adults

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Lynne E.; Eberhardt, Silvio P.; Auer, Edward T.

    2014-01-01

    Training with audiovisual (AV) speech has been shown to promote auditory perceptual learning of vocoded acoustic speech by adults with normal hearing. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether AV speech promotes auditory-only (AO) perceptual learning in prelingually deafened adults with late-acquired cochlear implants. Participants were assigned to learn associations between spoken disyllabic C(=consonant)V(=vowel)CVC non-sense words and non-sense pictures (fribbles), under AV and then AO (AV-AO; or counter-balanced AO then AV, AO-AV, during Periods 1 then 2) training conditions. After training on each list of paired-associates (PA), testing was carried out AO. Across all training, AO PA test scores improved (7.2 percentage points) as did identification of consonants in new untrained CVCVC stimuli (3.5 percentage points). However, there was evidence that AV training impeded immediate AO perceptual learning: During Period-1, training scores across AV and AO conditions were not different, but AO test scores were dramatically lower in the AV-trained participants. During Period-2 AO training, the AV-AO participants obtained significantly higher AO test scores, demonstrating their ability to learn the auditory speech. Across both orders of training, whenever training was AV, AO test scores were significantly lower than training scores. Experiment 2 repeated the procedures with vocoded speech and 43 normal-hearing adults. Following AV training, their AO test scores were as high as or higher than following AO training. Also, their CVCVC identification scores patterned differently than those of the cochlear implant users. In Experiment 1, initial consonants were most accurate, and in Experiment 2, medial consonants were most accurate. We suggest that our results are consistent with a multisensory reverse hierarchy theory, which predicts that, whenever possible, perceivers carry out perceptual tasks immediately based on the experience and biases they bring to the task. We

  15. Does Early Algebraic Reasoning Differ as a Function of Students’ Difficulty with Calculations versus Word Problems?

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Sarah R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2014-01-01

    According to national mathematics standards, algebra instruction should begin at kindergarten and continue through elementary school. Most often, teachers address algebra in the elementary grades with problems related to solving equations or understanding functions. With 789 2nd- grade students, we administered (a) measures of calculations and word problems in the fall and (b) an assessment of pre-algebraic reasoning, with items that assessed solving equations and functions, in the spring. Based on the calculation and word-problem measures, we placed 148 students into 1 of 4 difficulty status categories: typically performing, calculation difficulty, word-problem difficulty, or difficulty with calculations and word problems. Analyses of variance were conducted on the 148 students; path analytic mediation analyses were conducted on the larger sample of 789 students. Across analyses, results corroborated the finding that word-problem difficulty is more strongly associated with difficulty with pre-algebraic reasoning. As an indicator of later algebra difficulty, word-problem difficulty may be a more useful predictor than calculation difficulty, and students with word-problem difficulty may require a different level of algebraic reasoning intervention than students with calculation difficulty. PMID:25309044

  16. Effects of baseline and early acquired thrombocytopaenia on long-term mortality in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with bivalirudin.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ziad A; Qureshi, Yasir H; Karimi Galougahi, Keyvan; Poludasu, Shyam; Roye, Swathi; Krishnan, Prakash; Zalewski, Adrian; Shah, Zainab Z; Bhatti, Navdeep; Kalapatapu, Kumar; Mehran, Roxana; Dangas, George; Kini, Annapoorna S; Sharma, Samin K

    2016-04-08

    Bivalirudin use as a procedural anticoagulant in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with a lower incidence of thrombocytopaenia compared to other antithrombotic agents. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic impact of baseline thrombocytopaenia and early changes in platelet counts among patients undergoing PCI with exclusive use of bivalirudin. We evaluated 7,505 patients who underwent PCI over a period of eight years. Patients who received unfractionated heparin and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors were specifically excluded. Eight hundred and fifty-eight (11.4%) patients had baseline thrombocytopaenia and 451 (6.0%) developed acquired thrombocytopaenia. After adjustment for potential covariates, moderate to severe acquired thrombocytopaenia was the strongest independent predictor (HR 4.34, 95% CI: 2.13-8.84; p<0.001) of in-hospital net adverse clinical events, which included major adverse cardiac events and major bleeding complications. Age, male gender, baseline platelet count and intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) insertion were independent predictors of in-hospital acquired thrombocytopaenia. After a mean follow-up of 2.6±1.7 years, moderate to severe baseline thrombocytopaenia (HR 2.42, 95% CI: 1.79-3.29; p<0.001), moderate to severe acquired thrombocytopaenia (HR 2.37, 95% CI: 1.13-4.97; p=0.02) and severe changes in platelet count (>67 k) were significant predictors of mortality. In patients undergoing PCI with bivalirudin, moderate to severe baseline and acquired thrombocytopaenia along with severe changes in platelet count are associated with higher long-term mortality.

  17. Posterior N1 asymmetry to English and Welsh words in Early and Late English-Welsh bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Giordana; Savill, Nicola; Thomas, Enlli; Thierry, Guillaume

    2010-09-01

    We investigated the lateralization of the posterior event-related potential (ERP) component N1 (120-170 ms) to written words in two groups of bilinguals. Fourteen Early English-Welsh bilinguals and 14 late learners of Welsh performed a semantic categorization task on separate blocks of English and Welsh words. In both groups, the N1 was strongly lateralized over the left posterior sites for both languages. A robust correlation was found between N1 asymmetry for English and N1 asymmetry for Welsh words in both groups. Furthermore, in Late Bilinguals, the N1 asymmetry for Welsh words increased with years of experience in Welsh. These data suggest that, in Late Bilinguals, the lateralization of neural circuits involved in written word recognition for the second language is associated to the organization for the first language, and that increased experience with the second language is associated to a larger functional cerebral asymmetry in favor of the left hemisphere. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Selective visual attention to emotional words: Early parallel frontal and visual activations followed by interactive effects in visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Sebastian; Kissler, Johanna

    2016-10-01

    Human brains spontaneously differentiate between various emotional and neutral stimuli, including written words whose emotional quality is symbolic. In the electroencephalogram (EEG), emotional-neutral processing differences are typically reflected in the early posterior negativity (EPN, 200-300 ms) and the late positive potential (LPP, 400-700 ms). These components are also enlarged by task-driven visual attention, supporting the assumption that emotional content naturally drives attention. Still, the spatio-temporal dynamics of interactions between emotional stimulus content and task-driven attention remain to be specified. Here, we examine this issue in visual word processing. Participants attended to negative, neutral, or positive nouns while high-density EEG was recorded. Emotional content and top-down attention both amplified the EPN component in parallel. On the LPP, by contrast, emotion and attention interacted: Explicit attention to emotional words led to a substantially larger amplitude increase than did explicit attention to neutral words. Source analysis revealed early parallel effects of emotion and attention in bilateral visual cortex and a later interaction of both in right visual cortex. Distinct effects of attention were found in inferior, middle and superior frontal, paracentral, and parietal areas, as well as in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Results specify separate and shared mechanisms of emotion and attention at distinct processing stages. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3575-3587, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Words, Words, Words: English, Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Barbara

    The Quinmester course on words gives the student the opportunity to increase his proficiency by investigating word origins, word histories, morphology, and phonology. The course includes the following: dictionary skills and familiarity with the "Oxford,""Webster's Third," and "American Heritage" dictionaries; word…

  20. Selective early-acquired fear memories undergo temporary suppression during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Pattwell, Siobhan S.; Bath, Kevin G.; Casey, B. J.; Ninan, Ipe; Lee, Francis S.

    2011-01-01

    Highly conserved neural circuitry between rodents and humans has allowed for in-depth characterization of behavioral and molecular processes associated with emotional learning and memory. Despite increased prevalence of affective disorders in adolescent humans, few studies have characterized how associative-emotional learning changes during the transition through adolescence or identified mechanisms underlying such changes. By examining fear conditioning in mice, as they transitioned into and out of adolescence, we found that a suppression of contextual fear occurs during adolescence. Although contextual fear memories were not expressed during early adolescence, they could be retrieved and expressed as the mice transitioned out of adolescence. This temporary suppression of contextual fear was associated with blunted synaptic activity in the basal amygdala and decreased PI3K and MAPK signaling in the hippocampus. These findings reveal a unique form of brain plasticity in fear learning during early adolescence and may prove informative for understanding endogenous mechanisms to suppress unwanted fear memories. PMID:21220344

  1. Phonological Words and Stuttering on Function Words

    PubMed Central

    Au-Yeung, James; Howell, Peter; Pilgrim, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    Stuttering on function words was examined in 51 people who stutter. The people who stutter were subdivided into young (2 to 6 years), middle (6 to 9 years), and older (9 to 12 years) child groups; teenagers (13 to 18 years); and adults (20 to 40 years). As reported by previous researchers, children up to about age 9 stuttered more on function words (pronouns, articles, prepositions, conjunctions, auxiliary verbs), whereas older people tended to stutter more on content words (nouns, main verbs, adverbs, adjectives). Function words in early positions in utterances, again as reported elsewhere, were more likely to be stuttered than function words at later positions in an utterance. This was most apparent for the younger groups of speakers. For the remaining analyses, utterances were segmented into phonological words on the basis of Selkirk’s work (1984). Stuttering rate was higher when function words occurred in early phonological word positions than other phonological word positions whether the phonological word appeared in initial position in an utterance or not. Stuttering rate was highly dependent on whether the function word occurred before or after the single content word allowed in Selkirk’s (1984) phonological words. This applied, once again, whether the phonological word was utterance-initial or not. It is argued that stuttering of function words before their content word in phonological words in young speakers is used as a delaying tactic when the forthcoming content word is not prepared for articulation. PMID:9771625

  2. Abstract Knowledge of Word Order by 19 Months: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franck, Julie; Millotte, Severine; Posada, Andres; Rizzi, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Word order is one of the earliest aspects of grammar that the child acquires, because her early utterances already respect the basic word order of the target language. However, the question of the nature of early syntactic representations is subject to debate. Approaches inspired by formal syntax assume that the head-complement order,…

  3. Looking and touching: what extant approaches reveal about the structure of early word knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Kristi; Mitsven, Samantha; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal; Friend, Margaret

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the current study is to assess the temporal dynamics of vision and action to evaluate the underlying word representations that guide infants' responses. Sixteen-month-old infants participated in a two-alternative forced-choice word-picture matching task. We conducted a moment-by-moment analysis of looking and reaching behaviors as they occurred in tandem to assess the speed with which a prompted word was processed (visual reaction time) as a function of the type of haptic response: Target, Distractor, or No Touch. Visual reaction times (visual RTs) were significantly slower during No Touches compared to Distractor and Target Touches, which were statistically indistinguishable. The finding that visual RTs were significantly faster during Distractor Touches compared to No Touches suggests that incorrect and absent haptic responses appear to index distinct knowledge states: incorrect responses are associated with partial knowledge whereas absent responses appear to reflect a true failure to map lexical items to their target referents. Further, we found that those children who were faster at processing words were also those children who exhibited better haptic performance. This research provides a methodological clarification on knowledge measured by the visual and haptic modalities and new evidence for a continuum of word knowledge in the second year of life. © 2014 The Authors Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Looking and touching: What extant approaches reveal about the structure of early word knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, Kristi; Mitsven, Samantha; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal; Friend, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the current study is to assess the temporal dynamics of vision and action to evaluate the underlying word representations that guide infants’ responses. Sixteen-month-old infants participated in a two-alternative forced-choice word-picture matching task. We conducted a moment-by-moment analysis of looking and reaching behaviors as they occurred in tandem to assess the speed with which a prompted word was processed (visual reaction time) as a function of the type of haptic response: Target, Distractor, or No Touch. Visual reaction times (visual RTs) were significantly slower during No Touches compared to Distractor and Target Touches, which were statistically indistinguishable. The finding that visual RTs were significantly faster during Distractor Touches compared to No Touches suggests that incorrect and absent haptic responses appear to index distinct knowledge states: incorrect responses are associated with partial knowledge whereas absent responses appear to reflect a true failure to map lexical items to their target referents. Further, we found that those children who were faster at processing words were also those children who exhibited better haptic performance. This research provides a methodological clarification on knowledge measured by the visual and haptic modalities and new evidence for a continuum of word knowledge in the second year of life. PMID:25444711

  5. Acquiring skill at medical image inspection: learning localized in early visual processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowden, Paul T.; Davies, Ian R. L.; Roling, Penny; Watt, Simon J.

    1997-04-01

    Acquisition of the skill of medical image inspection could be due to changes in visual search processes, 'low-level' sensory learning, and higher level 'conceptual learning.' Here, we report two studies that investigate the extent to which learning in medical image inspection involves low- level learning. Early in the visual processing pathway cells are selective for direction of luminance contrast. We exploit this in the present studies by using transfer across direction of contrast as a 'marker' to indicate the level of processing at which learning occurs. In both studies twelve observers trained for four days at detecting features in x- ray images (experiment one equals discs in the Nijmegen phantom, experiment two equals micro-calcification clusters in digitized mammograms). Half the observers examined negative luminance contrast versions of the images and the remainder examined positive contrast versions. On the fifth day, observers swapped to inspect their respective opposite contrast images. In both experiments leaning occurred across sessions. In experiment one, learning did not transfer across direction of luminance contrast, while in experiment two there was only partial transfer. These findings are consistent with the contention that some of the leaning was localized early in the visual processing pathway. The implications of these results for current medical image inspection training schedules are discussed.

  6. Early development of letter specialization in left fusiform is associated with better word reading and smaller fusiform face area.

    PubMed

    Centanni, Tracy M; Norton, Elizabeth S; Park, Anne; Beach, Sara D; Halverson, Kelly; Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Gaab, Nadine; Gabrieli, John DE

    2018-03-05

    A functional region of left fusiform gyrus termed "the visual word form area" (VWFA) develops during reading acquisition to respond more strongly to printed words than to other visual stimuli. Here, we examined responses to letters among 5- and 6-year-old early kindergarten children (N = 48) with little or no school-based reading instruction who varied in their reading ability. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure responses to individual letters, false fonts, and faces in left and right fusiform gyri. We then evaluated whether signal change and size (spatial extent) of letter-sensitive cortex (greater activation for letters versus faces) and letter-specific cortex (greater activation for letters versus false fonts) in these regions related to (a) standardized measures of word-reading ability and (b) signal change and size of face-sensitive cortex (fusiform face area or FFA; greater activation for faces versus letters). Greater letter specificity, but not letter sensitivity, in left fusiform gyrus correlated positively with word reading scores. Across children, in the left fusiform gyrus, greater size of letter-sensitive cortex correlated with lesser size of FFA. These findings are the first to suggest that in beginning readers, development of letter responsivity in left fusiform cortex is associated with both better reading ability and also a reduction of the size of left FFA that may result in right-hemisphere dominance for face perception. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. English Listeners Use Suprasegmental Cues to Lexical Stress Early during Spoken-Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jesse, Alexandra; Poellmann, Katja; Kong, Ying-Yee

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We used an eye-tracking technique to investigate whether English listeners use suprasegmental information about lexical stress to speed up the recognition of spoken words in English. Method: In a visual world paradigm, 24 young English listeners followed spoken instructions to choose 1 of 4 printed referents on a computer screen (e.g.,…

  8. The Relevance of Metrical Information in Early Prosodic Word Acquisition: A Comparison of Catalan and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Pilar

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of Prosodic Word shapes in Catalan, a language which differs from both Spanish and English in the distribution of PW structures. Of particular interest are the truncations of initial unstressed syllables, and how these develop over time. Developmental qualitative and quantitative data from seven…

  9. Metacognitive Strategies: A Foundation for Early Word Spelling and Reading in Kindergartners with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiff, Rachel; Nuri Ben-Shushan, Yohi; Ben-Artzi, Elisheva

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of metacognitive instruction on the spelling and word reading of Hebrew-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI). Participants were 67 kindergarteners with SLI in a supported learning context. Children were classified into three spelling instruction groups: (a) metalinguistic instruction (ML), (b) ML…

  10. The Magic of Words: Teaching Vocabulary in the Early Childhood Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Wright, Tanya S.

    2014-01-01

    Developing a large and rich vocabulary is central to learning to read. Children must know the words that make up written texts in order to understand them, especially as the vocabulary demands of content-related materials increase in the upper grades. Studies have documented that the size of a person's vocabulary is strongly related to how…

  11. Learning in Complex Environments: The Effects of Background Speech on Early Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Brianna T. M.; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2016-01-01

    Although most studies of language learning take place in quiet laboratory settings, everyday language learning occurs under noisy conditions. The current research investigated the effects of background speech on word learning. Both younger (22- to 24-month-olds; n = 40) and older (28- to 30-month-olds; n = 40) toddlers successfully learned novel…

  12. How does Interhemispheric Communication in Visual Word Recognition Work? Deciding between Early and Late Integration Accounts of the Split Fovea Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Haegen, Lise; Brysbaert, Marc; Davis, Colin J.

    2009-01-01

    It has recently been shown that interhemispheric communication is needed for the processing of foveally presented words. In this study, we examine whether the integration of information happens at an early stage, before word recognition proper starts, or whether the integration is part of the recognition process itself. Two lexical decision…

  13. Innate or Acquired? – Disentangling Number Sense and Early Number Competencies

    PubMed Central

    Siemann, Julia; Petermann, Franz

    2018-01-01

    The clinical profile termed developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a fundamental disability affecting children already prior to arithmetic schooling, but the formal diagnosis is often only made during school years. The manifold associated deficits depend on age, education, developmental stage, and task requirements. Despite a large body of studies, the underlying mechanisms remain dubious. Conflicting findings have stimulated opposing theories, each presenting enough empirical support to remain a possible alternative. A so far unresolved question concerns the debate whether a putative innate number sense is required for successful arithmetic achievement as opposed to a pure reliance on domain-general cognitive factors. Here, we outline that the controversy arises due to ambiguous conceptualizations of the number sense. It is common practice to use early number competence as a proxy for innate magnitude processing, even though it requires knowledge of the number system. Therefore, such findings reflect the degree to which quantity is successfully transferred into symbols rather than informing about quantity representation per se. To solve this issue, we propose a three-factor account and incorporate it into the partly overlapping suggestions in the literature regarding the etiology of different DD profiles. The proposed view on DD is especially beneficial because it is applicable to more complex theories identifying a conglomerate of deficits as underlying cause of DD. PMID:29725316

  14. Early prediction of intensive care unit-acquired weakness using easily available parameters: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Wieske, Luuk; Witteveen, Esther; Verhamme, Camiel; Dettling-Ihnenfeldt, Daniela S; van der Schaaf, Marike; Schultz, Marcus J; van Schaik, Ivo N; Horn, Janneke

    2014-01-01

    An early diagnosis of Intensive Care Unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW) using muscle strength assessment is not possible in most critically ill patients. We hypothesized that development of ICU-AW can be predicted reliably two days after ICU admission, using patient characteristics, early available clinical parameters, laboratory results and use of medication as parameters. Newly admitted ICU patients mechanically ventilated ≥2 days were included in this prospective observational cohort study. Manual muscle strength was measured according to the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale, when patients were awake and attentive. ICU-AW was defined as an average MRC score <4. A prediction model was developed by selecting predictors from an a-priori defined set of candidate predictors, based on known risk factors. Discriminative performance of the prediction model was evaluated, validated internally and compared to the APACHE IV and SOFA score. Of 212 included patients, 103 developed ICU-AW. Highest lactate levels, treatment with any aminoglycoside in the first two days after admission and age were selected as predictors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the prediction model was 0.71 after internal validation. The new prediction model improved discrimination compared to the APACHE IV and the SOFA score. The new early prediction model for ICU-AW using a set of 3 easily available parameters has fair discriminative performance. This model needs external validation.

  15. Early versus later response to treatment in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: analysis of the REACH study.

    PubMed

    Blasi, Francesco; Ostermann, Helmut; Racketa, Jill; Medina, Jesús; McBride, Kyle; Garau, Javier

    2014-01-22

    Key goals in the treatment of CAP include early response to treatment and achievement of clinical stability. The US FDA recommends early response endpoints (72 hours after initiation of treatment) in clinical trials for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. REACH (REtrospective Study to Assess the Clinical Management of Patients With Moderate-to-Severe Complicated Skin and Soft Tissue Infections [cSSTI] or CAP in the Hospital Setting) was a retrospective observational study, providing current data on the clinical management and resource burden of CAP in real-life settings in European hospitals. This analysis reviews the characteristics and outcomes of patients showing early positive response to treatment (time to clinical stability [TCS] ≤4 days, as assessed by Halm's criteria) compared with patients with later positive response (TCS >4 days). Patients were adults, hospitalized with CAP (2010-2011) and requiring in-hospital treatment with intravenous antibiotics. Of the 2039 patients included in REACH, 585 (28.7%) had TCS assessed by Halm's criteria: 332 (56.8%) showed early response (median 3.0 days), and 253 (43.2%) showed later response to treatment (median 7.0 days). Use of Halm's criteria varied across participating countries, ranging from 0% (Belgium) to 49.1% (UK). Patient characteristics and relevant medical history were similar between the two groups. There were no notable differences in initial antibiotic therapy between groups, except that more early responders had been treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate and amoxicillin monotherapy (22.6%; 7.5%, respectively) than later responders (5.9%; 1.2%, respectively). Initial treatment modification and re-infection or recurrences were less frequent in early responders compared with later responders (14.2% and 3.3% vs. 34.8% and 5.9%, respectively). Early responders had a shorter duration of hospitalization (mean 9.4 ± SD 7.0; median 8.0 days vs. mean 15.6 ± SD 10.5; median 12

  16. Social interaction facilitates word learning in preverbal infants: Word-object mapping and word segmentation.

    PubMed

    Hakuno, Yoko; Omori, Takahide; Yamamoto, Jun-Ichi; Minagawa, Yasuyo

    2017-08-01

    In natural settings, infants learn spoken language with the aid of a caregiver who explicitly provides social signals. Although previous studies have demonstrated that young infants are sensitive to these signals that facilitate language development, the impact of real-life interactions on early word segmentation and word-object mapping remains elusive. We tested whether infants aged 5-6 months and 9-10 months could segment a word from continuous speech and acquire a word-object relation in an ecologically valid setting. In Experiment 1, infants were exposed to a live tutor, while in Experiment 2, another group of infants were exposed to a televised tutor. Results indicate that both younger and older infants were capable of segmenting a word and learning a word-object association only when the stimuli were derived from a live tutor in a natural manner, suggesting that real-life interaction enhances the learning of spoken words in preverbal infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Early transition to oral antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia: duration of therapy, clinical outcomes, and cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Omidvari, K; de Boisblanc, B P; Karam, G; Nelson, S; Haponik, E; Summer, W

    1998-08-01

    Our objective was to compare therapeutic outcome and analyse cost-benefit of a 'conventional' (7-day course of i.v. antibiotic therapy) vs. an abbreviated (2-day i.v. antibiotic course followed by 'switch' to oral antibiotics) therapy for in-patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We used a multicenter prospective, randomized, parallel group with a 28 day follow-up, at the University-based teaching hospitals: The Medical Center of Louisiana in New Orleans, LA and hospitals listed in the acknowledgement. Ninety-five patients were randomized to receive either a 'conventional' course of intravenous antibiotic therapy with cefamandole 1 g i.v. every 6 h for 7 days (n = 37), or an abbreviated course of intravenous therapy with cefamandole (1 g i.v. every 6 h for 2 days) followed by oral therapy with cefaclor (500 mg every 8 h for 5 days). No difference was found in the clinical courses, cure rates, survival or the resolution of the chest radiograph abnormalities among the two groups. The mean duration of therapy (6.88 days for the conventional group compared to 7-30 days for the early oral therapy group) and the frequencies of overall symptomatic improvement (97% vs. 95%, respectively) were similar in both groups. Patients who received early oral therapy had shorter hospital stays (7.3 vs. 9.71 days, P = 0.01), and a lower total cost of care ($2953 vs. $5002, P < 0.05). It was concluded that early transition to an oral antibiotic after an abbreviated course of intravenous therapy in CAP is substantially less expensive and has comparable efficacy to conventional intravenous therapy. Altering physicians' customary management of hospitalized patients with CAP can reduce costs with no appreciable additional risk of adverse patient outcome.

  18. Before words: reading western astronomical texts in early nineteenth-century Japan.

    PubMed

    Frumer, Yulia

    2016-04-01

    In 1803, the most prominent Japanese astronomer of his time, Takahashi Yoshitoki, received a newly imported Dutch translation of J. J. Lalande's 'Astronomie'. He could not read Dutch, yet he dedicated almost a year to a close examination of this massive work, taking notes and contemplating his own astronomical practices. How did he read a book he could not read? Following the clues Yoshitoki left in his notes, we discover that he found meanings not only in words, but also in what are often taken for granted or considered to be auxiliary tools for data manipulation, such as symbols, units, tables, and diagrams. His rendering of these non-verbal textual elements into a familiar format was crucial for Yoshitoki's reading, and constituted the initial step in the process of integrating Lalande's astronomy into Japanese astronomical practices, and the subsequent translation of the text into Japanese.

  19. Chinese and Korean Characters Engage the Same Visual Word Form Area in Proficient Early Chinese-Korean Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jian'e; Shi, Jinfu; Jiang, Yi; He, Sheng; Weng, Xuchu

    2011-01-01

    A number of recent studies consistently show an area, known as the visual word form area (VWFA), in the left fusiform gyrus that is selectively responsive for visual words in alphabetic scripts as well as in logographic scripts, such as Chinese characters. However, given the large difference between Chinese characters and alphabetic scripts in terms of their orthographic rules, it is not clear at a fine spatial scale, whether Chinese characters engage the same VWFA in the occipito-temporal cortex as alphabetic scripts. We specifically compared Chinese with Korean script, with Korean script serving as a good example of alphabetic writing system, but matched to Chinese in the overall square shape. Sixteen proficient early Chinese-Korean bilinguals took part in the fMRI experiment. Four types of stimuli (Chinese characters, Korean characters, line drawings and unfamiliar Chinese faces) were presented in a block-design paradigm. By contrasting characters (Chinese or Korean) to faces, presumed VWFAs could be identified for both Chinese and Korean characters in the left occipito-temporal sulcus in each subject. The location of peak response point in these two VWFAs were essentially the same. Further analysis revealed a substantial overlap between the VWFA identified for Chinese and that for Korean. At the group level, there was no significant difference in amplitude of response to Chinese and Korean characters. Spatial patterns of response to Chinese and Korean are similar. In addition to confirming that there is an area in the left occipito-temporal cortex that selectively responds to scripts in both Korean and Chinese in early Chinese-Korean bilinguals, our results show that these two scripts engage essentially the same VWFA, even at the level of fine spatial patterns of activation across voxels. These results suggest that similar populations of neurons are engaged in processing the different scripts within the same VWFA in early bilinguals. PMID:21818386

  20. An Early Algebra Approach to Pattern Generalisation: Actualising the Virtual through Words, Gestures and Toilet Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Francesca; Sinclair, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on pattern generalisation as a way to introduce young students to early algebra. We build on research on patterning activities that feature, in their work with algebraic thinking, both looking for sameness recursively in a pattern (especially figural patterns, but also numerical ones) and conjecturing about function-based…

  1. Combined ERP/fMRI evidence for early word recognition effects in the posterior inferior temporal gyrus.

    PubMed

    Dien, Joseph; Brian, Eric S; Molfese, Dennis L; Gold, Brian T

    2013-10-01

    Two brain regions with established roles in reading are the posterior middle temporal gyrus and the posterior fusiform gyrus (FG). Lesion studies have also suggested that the region located between them, the posterior inferior temporal gyrus (pITG), plays a central role in word recognition. However, these lesion results could reflect disconnection effects since neuroimaging studies have not reported consistent lexicality effects in pITG. Here we tested whether these reported pITG lesion effects are due to disconnection effects or not using parallel Event-related Potentials (ERP)/functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. We predicted that the Recognition Potential (RP), a left-lateralized ERP negativity that peaks at about 200-250 msec, might be the electrophysiological correlate of pITG activity and that conditions that evoke the RP (perceptual degradation) might therefore also evoke pITG activity. In Experiment 1, twenty-three participants performed a lexical decision task (temporally flanked by supraliminal masks) while having high-density 129-channel ERP data collected. In Experiment 2, a separate group of fifteen participants underwent the same task while having fMRI data collected in a 3T scanner. Examination of the ERP data suggested that a canonical RP effect was produced. The strongest corresponding effect in the fMRI data was in the vicinity of the pITG. In addition, results indicated stimulus-dependent functional connectivity between pITG and a region of the posterior FG near the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) during word compared to nonword processing. These results provide convergent spatiotemporal evidence that the pITG contributes to early lexical access through interaction with the VWFA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Minimal second language exposure, SES, and early word comprehension: New evidence from a direct assessment*

    PubMed Central

    Deanda, Stephanie; Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal; Friend, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Although the extant literature provides robust evidence of the influence of language exposure and socioeconomic status (SES) on language acquisition, it is unknown how sensitive the early receptive vocabulary system is to these factors. The current study investigates effects of minimal second language exposure and SES on the comprehension vocabulary of 16-month-old children in the language in which they receive the greatest exposure. Study 1 revealed minimal second language exposure and SES exert significant and independent effects on a direct measure of vocabulary comprehension in English-dominant and English monolingual children (N = 72). In Study 2, we replicated the effect of minimal second language exposure in Spanish-dominant and Spanish monolingual children (N = 86), however no effect of SES on vocabulary was obtained. Our results emphasize the sensitivity of the language system to minimal changes in the environment in early development. PMID:26957947

  3. What is in a word? Neuron: Early usage and evolution in antiquity to its long-lasting current significance.

    PubMed

    Frixione, Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    Neuron, a Greek term with a rustic background, made much of its way to its current significance since antiquity, when full recognition was achieved that sensory and motor signals travel through the animal body along nerves (neura, plural). Drawing from classic and recent historical scholarship, this study identifies the successive steps toward such a major breakthrough, starting from the usage of the expression in archaic times and continuing up to the much later transference of a mature theory into the modern world. It is shown that four main consecutive stages may be distinguished in the process: (a) incorporation of the word into early anatomical terminology; (b) theorizing on material composition, origin, properties, and role of the neura in animal bodies; (c) functional association of the neura with a transmitting vehicle; (d) identification of true anatomical and physiological correspondences. Upon this over 2000-year-old foundation is still being built one of the most relevant and fascinating scientific adventures of all time.

  4. Simple Words and Fuzzy Zones: Early Directions for Temporary River Research in South Africa

    PubMed

    Uys; O'Keeffe

    1997-07-01

    / Although a large proportion of South Africa's rivers are nonperennial, ecological research into these systems has only recently been initiated. Consequently, we have little verified information about the ecological functioning of these rivers or knowledge of how best to manage them. High water demands in a semiarid region results in the flow of most perennial rivers being altered from permanent to temporary in sections, through impoundment, land-use changes, abstraction, etc. Conversely, sections of many temporary rivers are altered to perennial as a result of interbasin transfers or may be exploited for surface water. Effective and appropriate management of these modifications must be based on sound scientific information, which requires intensified, directed research. We anticipate that temporary river research in South Africa will, of necessity, be driven primarily by short-term collaborative efforts and secondarily by long-term ecological studies. At the outset, a simple conceptual framework is required to encourage an appreciation of current views of the spatial and temporal dynamics of nonperennial rivers and of the variability and unpredictability that characterize these systems. We adopt the view that perennial and episodic/ephemeral rivers represent either end of a continuum, separated by a suite of intermediate flow regimes. A conceptual diagram of this continuum is presented. In the absence of a functional classification for temporary rivers, a descriptive terminology has been systematically devised in an attempt to standardize definition of the different types of river regimes encountered in the country. Present terminology lacks structure and commonly accepted working definitions. KEY WORDS: Temporary rivers; Intermittent rivers; Continuum; Terminology; Classification; Ecosystem management; South Africa

  5. Relationship between the Use of Inhaled Steroids for Chronic Respiratory Diseases and Early Outcomes in Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Almirall, Jordi; Bolíbar, Ignasi; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Palomera, Elisabet; Roig, Jordi; Hospital, Imma; Carandell, Eugenia; Agustí, Mercè; Ayuso, Pilar; Estela, Andreu; Torres, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of inhaled steroids in patients with chronic respiratory diseases is a matter of debate due to the potential effect on the development and prognosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We assessed whether treatment with inhaled steroids in patients with chronic bronchitis, COPD or asthma and CAP may affect early outcome of the acute pneumonic episode. Methods Over 1-year period, all population-based cases of CAP in patients with chronic bronchitis, COPD or asthma were registered. Use of inhaled steroids were registered and patients were followed up to 30 days after diagnosis to assess severity of CAP and clinical course (hospital admission, ICU admission and mortality). Results Of 473 patients who fulfilled the selection criteria, inhaled steroids were regularly used by 109 (23%). In the overall sample, inhaled steroids were associated with a higher risk of hospitalization (OR=1.96, p = 0.002) in the bivariate analysis, but this effect disappeared after adjusting by other severity-related factors (adjusted OR=1.08, p=0.787). This effect on hospitalization also disappeared when considering only patients with asthma (OR=1.38, p=0.542), with COPD alone (OR=4.68, p=0.194), but a protective effect was observed in CB patients (OR=0.15, p=0.027). Inhaled steroids showed no association with ICU admission, days to clinical recovery and mortality in the overall sample and in any disease subgroup. Conclusions Treatment with inhaled steroids is not a prognostic factor in COPD and asthmatic patients with CAP, but could prevent hospitalization for CAP in patients with clinical criteria of chronic bronchitis. PMID:24039899

  6. Effectiveness of a Very Early Stepping Verticalization Protocol in Severe Acquired Brain Injured Patients: A Randomized Pilot Study in ICU

    PubMed Central

    Bonini, Sara; Maffia, Sara; Molatore, Katia; Sebastianelli, Luca; Zarucchi, Alessio; Matteri, Diana; Ercoli, Giuseppe; Maestri, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Verticalization was reported to improve the level of arousal and awareness in patients with severe acquired brain injury (ABI) and to be safe in ICU. We evaluated the effectiveness of a very early stepping verticalization protocol on their functional and neurological outcome. Methods Consecutive patients with Vegetative State or Minimally Conscious State were enrolled in ICU on the third day after an ABI. They were randomized to undergo conventional physiotherapy alone or associated to fifteen 30-minute sessions of verticalization, using a tilt table with robotic stepping device. Once stabilized, patients were transferred to our Neurorehabilitation unit for an individualized treatment. Outcome measures (Glasgow Coma Scale, Coma Recovery Scale revised -CRSr-, Disability Rating Scale–DRS- and Levels of Cognitive Functioning) were assessed on the third day from the injury (T0), at ICU discharge (T1) and at Rehab discharge (T2). Between- and within-group comparisons were performed by the Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test, respectively. Results Of the 40 patients enrolled, 31 completed the study without adverse events (15 in the verticalization group and 16 in the conventional physiotherapy). Early verticalization started 12.4±7.3 (mean±SD) days after ABI. The length of stay in ICU was longer for the verticalization group (38.8 ± 15.7 vs 25.1 ± 11.2 days, p = 0.01), while the total length of stay (ICU+Neurorehabilitation) was not significantly different (153.2 ± 59.6 vs 134.0 ± 61.0 days, p = 0.41). All outcome measures significantly improved in both groups after the overall period (T2 vs T0, p<0.001 all), as well as after ICU stay (T1 vs T0, p<0.004 all) and after Neurorehabilitation (T2 vs T1, p<0.004 all). The improvement was significantly better in the experimental group for CRSr (T2-T0 p = 0.033, T1-T0 p = 0.006) and (borderline) for DRS (T2-T0 p = 0.040, T1-T0 p = 0.058). Conclusions A stepping verticalization

  7. Effectiveness of a Very Early Stepping Verticalization Protocol in Severe Acquired Brain Injured Patients: A Randomized Pilot Study in ICU.

    PubMed

    Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Zivi, Ilaria; Valsecchi, Roberto; Bonini, Sara; Maffia, Sara; Molatore, Katia; Sebastianelli, Luca; Zarucchi, Alessio; Matteri, Diana; Ercoli, Giuseppe; Maestri, Roberto; Saltuari, Leopold

    2016-01-01

    Verticalization was reported to improve the level of arousal and awareness in patients with severe acquired brain injury (ABI) and to be safe in ICU. We evaluated the effectiveness of a very early stepping verticalization protocol on their functional and neurological outcome. Consecutive patients with Vegetative State or Minimally Conscious State were enrolled in ICU on the third day after an ABI. They were randomized to undergo conventional physiotherapy alone or associated to fifteen 30-minute sessions of verticalization, using a tilt table with robotic stepping device. Once stabilized, patients were transferred to our Neurorehabilitation unit for an individualized treatment. Outcome measures (Glasgow Coma Scale, Coma Recovery Scale revised -CRSr-, Disability Rating Scale-DRS- and Levels of Cognitive Functioning) were assessed on the third day from the injury (T0), at ICU discharge (T1) and at Rehab discharge (T2). Between- and within-group comparisons were performed by the Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test, respectively. Of the 40 patients enrolled, 31 completed the study without adverse events (15 in the verticalization group and 16 in the conventional physiotherapy). Early verticalization started 12.4±7.3 (mean±SD) days after ABI. The length of stay in ICU was longer for the verticalization group (38.8 ± 15.7 vs 25.1 ± 11.2 days, p = 0.01), while the total length of stay (ICU+Neurorehabilitation) was not significantly different (153.2 ± 59.6 vs 134.0 ± 61.0 days, p = 0.41). All outcome measures significantly improved in both groups after the overall period (T2 vs T0, p<0.001 all), as well as after ICU stay (T1 vs T0, p<0.004 all) and after Neurorehabilitation (T2 vs T1, p<0.004 all). The improvement was significantly better in the experimental group for CRSr (T2-T0 p = 0.033, T1-T0 p = 0.006) and (borderline) for DRS (T2-T0 p = 0.040, T1-T0 p = 0.058). A stepping verticalization protocol, started since the acute stages, improves the short

  8. It's a word: early electrophysiological response to the character likeness of pictographs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingxia; Jiang, Ting; Mei, Leilei; Yang, Hongmin; Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui; Dong, Qi

    2011-07-01

    Using unfamiliar and meaningless pictographs that varied in their degree of similarity to Chinese characters, the current study tested whether the early electrophysiological response was modulated by character likeness. We measured P100 and N170 while 20 native Chinese speakers were viewing Chinese characters, drawings of objects, and pictographs. Comparisons across the three categories of stimuli showed that pictographs elicited a smaller N170 amplitude than did Chinese characters and a stronger N170 amplitude than did objects, but did not differ in the P100 amplitude from the other two categories. Within the category of pictographs, stimuli with a higher degree of character likeness elicited larger N170 amplitudes and shorter N170 peak latencies, and this effect was again not observed in P100. These results suggest that N170 is sensitive to visual stimuli's character likeness even though they are unfamiliar pictographs with no meanings or sounds. Copyright © 2010 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Support Vector Feature Selection for Early Detection of Anastomosis Leakage From Bag-of-Words in Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Soguero-Ruiz, Cristina; Hindberg, Kristian; Rojo-Alvarez, Jose Luis; Skrovseth, Stein Olav; Godtliebsen, Fred; Mortensen, Kim; Revhaug, Arthur; Lindsetmo, Rolv-Ole; Augestad, Knut Magne; Jenssen, Robert

    2016-09-01

    The free text in electronic health records (EHRs) conveys a huge amount of clinical information about health state and patient history. Despite a rapidly growing literature on the use of machine learning techniques for extracting this information, little effort has been invested toward feature selection and the features' corresponding medical interpretation. In this study, we focus on the task of early detection of anastomosis leakage (AL), a severe complication after elective surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery, using free text extracted from EHRs. We use a bag-of-words model to investigate the potential for feature selection strategies. The purpose is earlier detection of AL and prediction of AL with data generated in the EHR before the actual complication occur. Due to the high dimensionality of the data, we derive feature selection strategies using the robust support vector machine linear maximum margin classifier, by investigating: 1) a simple statistical criterion (leave-one-out-based test); 2) an intensive-computation statistical criterion (Bootstrap resampling); and 3) an advanced statistical criterion (kernel entropy). Results reveal a discriminatory power for early detection of complications after CRC (sensitivity 100%; specificity 72%). These results can be used to develop prediction models, based on EHR data, that can support surgeons and patients in the preoperative decision making phase.

  10. Mid-regional proadrenomedullin: An early marker of response in critically ill patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia?

    PubMed

    Pereira, J M; Azevedo, A; Basílio, C; Sousa-Dias, C; Mergulhão, P; Paiva, J A

    Mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) is a novel biomarker with potential prognostic utility in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). To evaluate the value of MR-proADM levels at ICU admission for further severity stratification and outcome prediction, and its kinetics as an early predictor of response in severe CAP (SCAP). Prospective, single-center, cohort study of 19 SCAP patients admitted to the ICU within 12h after the first antibiotic dose. At ICU admission median MR-proADM was 3.58nmol/l (IQR: 2.83-10.00). No significant association was found between its serum levels at admission and severity assessed by SAPS II (Spearman's correlation=0.24, p=0.31) or SOFA score (SOFA<10: <3.45nmol/l vs. SOFA≥10: 3.90nmol/l, p=0.74). Hospital and one-year mortality were 26% and 32%, respectively. No significant difference in median MR-proADM serum levels was found between survivors and non-survivors and its accuracy to predict hospital mortality was bad (aROC 0.53). After 48h of antibiotic therapy, MR-proADM decreased in all but 5 patients (median -20%; IQR -56% to +0.1%). Its kinetics measured by the percent change from baseline was a good predictor of clinical response (aROC 0.80). The best discrimination was achieved by classifying patients according to whether MR-proADM decreased or not within 48h. No decrease in MR-proADM serum levels significantly increased the chances of dying independently of general severity (SAPS II-adjusted OR 174; 95% CI 2-15,422; p=0.024). In SCAP patients, a decrease in MR-proADM serum levels in the first 48h after ICU admission was a good predictor of clinical response and better outcome. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. ARID5B polymorphism confers an increased risk to acquire specific MLL rearrangements in early childhood leukemia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute leukemia in early age (EAL) is characterized by acquired genetic alterations such as MLL rearrangements (MLL-r). The aim of this case-controlled study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IKZF1, ARID5B, and CEBPE could be related to the onset of EAL cases (<24 months-old at diagnosis). Methods The SNPs (IKZF1 rs11978267, ARID5B rs10821936 and rs10994982, CEBPE rs2239633) were genotyped in 265 cases [169 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 96 acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)] and 505 controls by Taqman allelic discrimination assay. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between SNPs of cases and controls, adjusted on skin color and/or age. The risk was determined by calculating odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Children with the IKZF1 SNP had an increased risk of developing MLL-germline ALL in white children. The heterozygous/mutant genotype in ARID5B rs10994982 significantly increased the risk for MLL-germline leukemia in white and non-white children (OR 2.60, 95% CI: 1.09-6.18 and OR 3.55, 95% CI: 1.57-8.68, respectively). The heterozygous genotype in ARID5B rs10821936 increased the risk for MLL-r leukemia in both white and non-white (OR 2.06, 95% CI: 1.12-3.79 and OR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.09-5.10, respectively). Furthermore, ARID5B rs10821936 conferred increased risk for MLL-MLLT3 positive cases (OR 7.10, 95% CI:1.54-32.68). Our data do not show evidence that CEBPE rs2239633 confers increased genetic susceptibility to EAL. Conclusions IKZF1 and CEBPE variants seem to play a minor role in genetic susceptibility to EAL, while ARID5B rs10821936 increased the risk of MLL-MLLT3. This result shows that genetic susceptibility could be associated with the differences regarding MLL breakpoints and partner genes. PMID:24564228

  12. What Looks Like a Jiggy but Acts like a Zimbo?: A Study of Early Word Meaning Using Artificial Objects. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, Number 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentner, Dedre

    A major concern in recent research is whether perceptual or functional information is of primary importance in children's early word meanings. In the study described here, artificial objects were used so that form and function could be independently manipulated. There were 57 subjects, ranging in age from 2.5 years to adulthood. The subjects were…

  13. Can I Order a Burger at rnacdonalds.com? Visual Similarity Effects of Multi-Letter Combinations at the Early Stages of Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcet, Ana; Perea, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has shown that early in the word recognition process, there is some degree of uncertainty concerning letter identity and letter position. Here, we examined whether this uncertainty also extends to the mapping of letter features onto letters, as predicted by the Bayesian Reader (Norris & Kinoshita, 2012). Indeed, anecdotal…

  14. Learning the language of time: Children's acquisition of duration words.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Katharine A; Barner, David

    2015-05-01

    Children use time words like minute and hour early in development, but take years to acquire their precise meanings. Here we investigate whether children assign meaning to these early usages, and if so, how. To do this, we test their interpretation of seven time words: second, minute, hour, day, week, month, and year. We find that preschoolers infer the orderings of time words (e.g., hour>minute), but have little to no knowledge of the absolute durations they encode. Knowledge of absolute duration is learned much later in development - many years after children first start using time words in speech - and in many children does not emerge until they have acquired formal definitions for the words. We conclude that associating words with the perception of duration does not come naturally to children, and that early intuitive meanings of time words are instead rooted in relative orderings, which children may infer from their use in speech. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison between the story recall test and the word-list learning test in Korean patients with mild cognitive impairment and early stage of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Baek, Min Jae; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Sangyun

    2012-01-01

    Among verbal memory tests, two that are commonly used to measure the ability of verbal memory function in cognitive impairment are story recall tests and word-list learning tests. However, research is limited regarding which test might be more sensitive in discriminating between normal cognitive aging and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the Korean population. The purpose of the current study was to compare the word-list learning test (Seoul Verbal Learning Test; SVLT) and the story recall test (Korean Story Recall Test; KSRT) to determine which test is more sensitive in discriminating between individuals with normal cognitive aging and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage of AD in Korea. A total of 53 healthy adults, 127 patients with MCI, and 72 patients with early stage of AD participated in this study. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve and area under the curve (AUC) were evaluated to compare these two tests. The results showed that the AUC of the SVLT was significantly larger than the AUC of the KSRT in all three groups (healthy adults vs. MCI and early stage of AD; healthy adults vs. MCI; healthy adults vs. early stage of AD). However, in comparison of patients with MCI and early stage of AD, the AUC of SVLT and the AUC of KSRT were not significant. The word-list learning test is a more useful tool for examining verbal memory function for older adults in Korea than the story recall test.

  16. The Role of Morphological and Phonological Awareness in the Early Development of Word Spelling and Reading in Typically Developing and Disabled Arabic Readers.

    PubMed

    Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor; Taha, Haitham

    2017-11-01

    The study is a cross-sectional developmental investigation of morphological and phonological awareness in word spelling and reading in Arabic in reading-accuracy disabled (RD) children and in age-matched typically developing (TR) controls in grades 1-4 (N = 160). Morphological awareness tasks targeted the root and word pattern derivational system of Arabic, in both the oral and the written modalities. Phonological awareness employed a variety of orally administered segmentation and deletion tasks. The results demonstrated early deficits in morphological awareness, besides deficits in phonological awareness, in RD children as compared with typically developing controls, as well as in word and pseudoword spelling and reading (voweled and unvoweled). While phonological awareness emerged as the strongest predictor of reading, morphological awareness was also found to predict unique variance in reading, and even more so in spelling, beyond phonological awareness and cognitive skills. The results demonstrate the early emergence of morphological awareness deficits, alongside phonological deficits in Arabic RD, as well as the role of morphological processing in early reading and spelling. These findings reflect the centrality of derivational morphology in the structure of the spoken and the written Arabic word. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. First learned words are not forgotten: Age-of-acquisition effects in the tip-of-the-tongue experience.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Eduardo; Pastore, Massimiliano; Valentini, Rosa; Peressotti, Francesca

    2015-10-01

    A large body of evidence indicates that the age at which a word is acquired predicts the time required to retrieve that word during speech production. Here we explored whether age of acquisition also predicts the experience of being unable to produce a known word at a particular moment. Italian speakers named a sequence of pictures in Experiment 1 or retrieved a word as a response to a definition in Experiment 2. In both experiments, the participants were instructed to indicate when they were in a tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) state. Generalized mixed-effects models performed on the TOT and correct responses revealed that word frequency and age of acquisition predicted the TOT states. Specifically, low-frequency words elicited more TOTs than did high-frequency words, replicating previous findings. In addition, late-acquired words elicited more TOTs than did early-acquired words. Further analyses revealed that the age of acquisition was a better predictor of TOTs than was word frequency. The effects of age of acquisition were similar with subjective and objective measures of age of acquisition, and persisted when several psycholinguistic variables were taken into consideration as predictors in the generalized mixed-effects models. We explained these results in terms of weaker semantic-to-phonological connections in the speech production system for late-acquired words.

  18. Age of Acquisition Effects on Word Processing for Chinese Native Learners’ English: ERP Evidence for the Arbitrary Mapping Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jin; Liu, Tongtong; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Pei, Xuna

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed at distinguishing processing of early learned L2 words from late ones for Chinese natives who learn English as a foreign language. Specifically, we examined whether the age of acquisition (AoA) effect arose during the arbitrary mapping from conceptual knowledge onto linguistic units. The behavior and ERP data were collected when 28 Chinese-English bilinguals were asked to perform semantic relatedness judgment on word pairs, which represented three stages of word learning (i.e., primary school, junior and senior high schools). A 3 (AoA: early vs. intermediate vs. late) × 2 (regularity: regular vs. irregular) × 2 (semantic relatedness: related vs. unrelated) × 2 (hemisphere: left vs. right) × 3 (brain area: anterior vs. central vs. posterior) within-subjects design was adopted. Results from the analysis of N100 and N400 amplitudes showed that early learned words had an advantage in processing accuracy and speed; there is a tendency that the AoA effect was more pronounced for irregular word pairs and in the semantic related condition. More important, ERP results showed early acquired words induced larger N100 amplitudes for early AoA words in the parietal area and more negative-going N400 than late acquire words in the frontal and central regions. The results indicate the locus of the AoA effect might derive from the arbitrary mapping between word forms and semantic concepts, and early acquired words have more semantic interconnections than late acquired words. PMID:28572785

  19. Multiple Aspects of Self-Regulation Uniquely Predict Mathematics but Not Letter–Word Knowledge in the Early Elementary Grades

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Greenberg, Mark; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2017-01-01

    The relation of self-regulation measured prior to school entry to developing math and reading ability in prekindergarten through the second grade was examined in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,292 children and families in predominantly rural and low-income communities in 2 regions of high poverty in the United States. Direct assessments of executive function, effortful control, and stress response physiology (indexed by resting levels of cortisol and alpha amylase obtained from saliva) were measured at child age 48 months and parents and teachers reported on children’s effortful control using temperament rating scales at child age approximately 60 months. Math and reading ability, as measured by the Woodcock-Johnson III applied problems and letter–word subtests, respectively, were measured at prekindergarten through the second grade. Effects for self-regulation measures were seen primarily for initial level and to some extent growth in both mathematics and reading, even when controlling for family demographic characteristics that represent relevant selection factors into higher levels of both self-regulation and academic achievement. These effects persisted for mathematics but not for reading with the inclusion of child cognitive abilities, vocabulary, and speed of processing measured in prekindergarten, concurrent with the first time point for the academic measures. Results are interpreted as indicating a role for self-regulation in learning ability generally, likely through support for attention and reasoning abilities that are most specific to the assessment of mathematics in this analysis. Implications for instruction and for assessment and the best ways to support the development of early math and reading ability for children at risk for school failure are discussed. PMID:25688999

  20. Multiple aspects of self-regulation uniquely predict mathematics but not letter-word knowledge in the early elementary grades.

    PubMed

    Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Greenberg, Mark; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2015-04-01

    The relation of self-regulation measured prior to school entry to developing math and reading ability in prekindergarten through the second grade was examined in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,292 children and families in predominantly rural and low-income communities in 2 regions of high poverty in the United States. Direct assessments of executive function, effortful control, and stress response physiology (indexed by resting levels of cortisol and alpha amylase obtained from saliva) were measured at child age 48 months and parents and teachers reported on children's effortful control using temperament rating scales at child age approximately 60 months. Math and reading ability, as measured by the Woodcock-Johnson III applied problems and letter-word subtests, respectively, were measured at prekindergarten through the second grade. Effects for self-regulation measures were seen primarily for initial level and to some extent growth in both mathematics and reading, even when controlling for family demographic characteristics that represent relevant selection factors into higher levels of both self-regulation and academic achievement. These effects persisted for mathematics but not for reading with the inclusion of child cognitive abilities, vocabulary, and speed of processing measured in prekindergarten, concurrent with the first time point for the academic measures. Results are interpreted as indicating a role for self-regulation in learning ability generally, likely through support for attention and reasoning abilities that are most specific to the assessment of mathematics in this analysis. Implications for instruction and for assessment and the best ways to support the development of early math and reading ability for children at risk for school failure are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Can I order a burger at rnacdonalds.com? Visual similarity effects of multi-letter combinations at the early stages of word recognition.

    PubMed

    Marcet, Ana; Perea, Manuel

    2018-05-01

    Previous research has shown that early in the word recognition process, there is some degree of uncertainty concerning letter identity and letter position. Here, we examined whether this uncertainty also extends to the mapping of letter features onto letters, as predicted by the Bayesian Reader (Norris & Kinoshita, 2012). Indeed, anecdotal evidence suggests that nonwords containing multi-letter homoglyphs (e.g., rn→m), such as docurnent, can be confusable with their base word. We conducted 2 masked priming lexical decision experiments in which the words/nonwords contained a middle letter that was visually similar to a multi-letter homoglyph (e.g., docurnent [rn-m], presiclent [cl-d]). Three types of primes were employed: identity, multi-letter homoglyph, and orthographic control. We used 2 commonly used fonts: Tahoma in Experiment 1 and Calibri in Experiment 2. Results in both experiments showed faster word identification times in the homoglyph condition than in the control condition (e.g., docurnento-DOCUMENTO faster than docusnento-DOCUMENTO). Furthermore, the homoglyph condition produced nearly the same latencies as the identity condition. These findings have important implications not only at a theoretical level (models of printed word recognition) but also at an applied level (Internet administrators/users). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. How does interhemispheric communication in visual word recognition work? Deciding between early and late integration accounts of the split fovea theory.

    PubMed

    Van der Haegen, Lise; Brysbaert, Marc; Davis, Colin J

    2009-02-01

    It has recently been shown that interhemispheric communication is needed for the processing of foveally presented words. In this study, we examine whether the integration of information happens at an early stage, before word recognition proper starts, or whether the integration is part of the recognition process itself. Two lexical decision experiments are reported in which words were presented at different fixation positions. In Experiment 1, a masked form priming task was used with primes that had two adjacent letters transposed. The results showed that although the fixation position had a substantial influence on the transposed letter priming effect, the priming was not smaller when the transposed letters were sent to different hemispheres than when they were projected to the same hemisphere. In Experiment 2, stimuli were presented that either had high frequency hemifield competitors or could be identified unambiguously on the basis of the information in one hemifield. Again, the lexical decision times did not vary as a function of hemifield competitors. These results are consistent with the early integration account, as presented in the SERIOL model of visual word recognition.

  3. Word Sorts for General Music Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2015-01-01

    Word sorts are standard practice for aiding children in acquiring skills in English language arts. When included in the general music classroom, word sorts may aid students in acquiring a working knowledge of music vocabulary. The author shares a word sort activity drawn from vocabulary in John Lithgow's children's book "Never Play…

  4. Statistical process control: A feasibility study of the application of time-series measurement in early neurorehabilitation after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Gabriela; Schult, Marie-Louise; Bartfai, Aniko; Elg, Mattias

    2017-01-31

    Progress in early cognitive recovery after acquired brain injury is uneven and unpredictable, and thus the evaluation of rehabilitation is complex. The use of time-series measurements is susceptible to statistical change due to process variation. To evaluate the feasibility of using a time-series method, statistical process control, in early cognitive rehabilitation. Participants were 27 patients with acquired brain injury undergoing interdisciplinary rehabilitation of attention within 4 months post-injury. The outcome measure, the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, was analysed using statistical process control. Statistical process control identifies if and when change occurs in the process according to 3 patterns: rapid, steady or stationary performers. The statistical process control method was adjusted, in terms of constructing the baseline and the total number of measurement points, in order to measure a process in change. Statistical process control methodology is feasible for use in early cognitive rehabilitation, since it provides information about change in a process, thus enabling adjustment of the individual treatment response. Together with the results indicating discernible subgroups that respond differently to rehabilitation, statistical process control could be a valid tool in clinical decision-making. This study is a starting-point in understanding the rehabilitation process using a real-time-measurements approach.

  5. How Do Children Acquire Early Grammar and Build Multiword Utterances? A Corpus Study of French Children Aged 2 to 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Normand, M. T.; Moreno-Torres, I.; Parisse, C.; Dellatolas, G.

    2013-01-01

    In the last 50 years, researchers have debated over the lexical or grammatical nature of children's early multiword utterances. Due to methodological limitations, the issue remains controversial. This corpus study explores the effect of grammatical, lexical, and pragmatic categories on mean length of utterances (MLU). A total of 312 speech samples…

  6. Dissociation between implicit and explicit manifestations of awareness in early stage dementia: evidence from the emotional Stroop effect for dementia-related words.

    PubMed

    Martyr, Anthony; Clare, Linda; Nelis, Sharon M; Roberts, Judith L; Robinson, Julia U; Roth, Ilona; Markova, Ivana S; Woods, Robert T; Whitaker, Christopher J; Morris, Robin G

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether people with dementia (PwD), and carers of PwD, show a processing bias to dementia-related words in an emotional Stroop task, and if so, whether the presence of such a bias is related to level of explicit awareness of the condition. Seventy-nine people with early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular or mixed dementia, and their carers, completed an emotional Stroop task. Time taken to colour-name dementia-related and neutral words was compared within and between groups. Additionally, as a comparison, ratings of the awareness of the condition shown by PwD were made on the basis of a detailed interview with each PwD and his/her carer. PwD and carers showed the same level of increase in response times to salient compared to neutral words. In the PwD this effect was unrelated to the degree of awareness that they demonstrated regarding the condition. The emotional Stroop effect in response to dementia-related words in PwD indicates that preserved implicit awareness of the condition can be elicited even where there is reduced explicit awareness. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Word Spotting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, James

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes the use of word-spotting in psycholinguistic research. Notes that listeners hear a list of nonsense words, some of which contain embedded real words, and they detect those embedded words, a task designed to study the segmentation of continuous speech. Describes the task and summarizes its advantages and disadvantages. (12 references)…

  8. Early (N170/M170) Face-Sensitivity Despite Right Lateral Occipital Brain Damage in Acquired Prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Esther Alonso; Caharel, Stéphanie; Henson, Richard; Rossion, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Compared to objects, pictures of faces elicit a larger early electromagnetic response at occipito-temporal sites on the human scalp, with an onset of 130 ms and a peak at about 170 ms. This N170 face effect is larger in the right than the left hemisphere and has been associated with the early categorization of the stimulus as a face. Here we tested whether this effect can be observed in the absence of some of the visual areas showing a preferential response to faces as typically identified in neuroimaging. Event-related potentials were recorded in response to faces, cars, and their phase-scrambled versions in a well-known brain-damaged case of prosopagnosia (PS). Despite the patient’s right inferior occipital gyrus lesion encompassing the most posterior cortical area showing preferential response to faces (“occipital face area”), we identified an early face-sensitive component over the right occipito-temporal hemisphere of the patient that was identified as the N170. A second experiment supported this conclusion, showing the typical N170 increase of latency and amplitude in response to inverted faces. In contrast, there was no N170 in the left hemisphere, where PS has a lesion to the middle fusiform gyrus and shows no evidence of face-preferential response in neuroimaging (no left “fusiform face area”). These results were replicated by a magnetoencephalographic investigation of the patient, disclosing a M170 component only in the right hemisphere. These observations indicate that face-preferential activation in the inferior occipital cortex is not necessary to elicit early visual responses associated with face perception (N170/M170) on the human scalp. These results further suggest that when the right inferior occipital cortex is damaged, the integrity of the middle fusiform gyrus and/or the superior temporal sulcus – two areas showing face-preferential responses in the patient’s right hemisphere – might be necessary to generate the N170 effect

  9. The Role of Audiovisual Speech in the Early Stages of Lexical Processing as Revealed by the ERP Word Repetition Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basirat, Anahita; Brunellière, Angèle; Hartsuiker, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies suggest that audiovisual speech influences lexical processing. However, it is not clear which stages of lexical processing are modulated by audiovisual speech. In this study, we examined the time course of the access to word representations in long-term memory when they were presented in auditory-only and audiovisual modalities.…

  10. The Carmat Bioprosthetic Total Artificial Heart Is Associated With Early Hemostatic Recovery and no Acquired von Willebrand Syndrome in Calves.

    PubMed

    Smadja, David M; Susen, Sophie; Rauch, Antoine; Cholley, Bernard; Latrémouille, Christian; Duveau, Daniel; Zilberstein, Luca; Méléard, Denis; Boughenou, Marie-Fazia; Belle, Eric Van; Gaussem, Pascale; Capel, Antoine; Jansen, Piet; Carpentier, Alain

    2017-10-01

    To determine hemostasis perturbations, including von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers, after implantation of a new bioprosthetic and pulsatile total artificial heart (TAH). Preclinical study SETTING: Single-center biosurgical research laboratory. Female Charolais calves, 2-to-6 months old, weighing 102-to-122 kg. Surgical implantation of TAH through a mid-sternotomy approach. Four of 12 calves had a support duration of several days (4, 4, 8, and 10 days), allowing for the exploration of early steps of hemostasis parameters, including prothrombin time; coagulation factor levels (II, V, VII+X, and fibrinogen); and platelet count. Multimeric analysis of VWF was performed to detect a potential loss of high-molecular weight (HMW) multimers, as previously described for continuous flow rotary blood pumps. Despite the absence of anticoagulant treatment administered in the postoperative phase, no signs of coagulation activation were detected. Indeed, after an immediate postsurgery decrease of prothrombin time, platelet count, and coagulation factor levels, most parameters returned to baseline values. HMW multimers of VWF remained stable either after initiation or during days of support. Coagulation parameters and platelet count recovery in the postoperative phase of the Carmat TAH (Camat SA, Velizy Villacoublay Cedex, France) implantation in calves, in the absence of anticoagulant treatment and associated with the absence of decrease in HMW multimers of VWF, is in line with early hemocompatibility that is currently being validated in human clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The First World War years of Sydney Domville Rowland: an early case of possible laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Wever, Peter C; Hodges, A J

    2016-08-01

    Sydney Domville Rowland was a bacteriologist and staff member at the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine when the First World War broke out in 1914. Following a request to the Director of the Lister Institute to staff and equip a mobile field laboratory as quickly as possible, Rowland was appointed to take charge of No. 1 Mobile Laboratory and took up a temporary commission at the rank of Lieutenant in the Royal Army Medical Corps. On 9 October 1914, Rowland set out for the European mainland and was subsequently attached to General Headquarters in Saint-Omer, France (October 1914-June 1915), No. 10 Casualty Clearing Station in Lijssenthoek, Belgium (June 1915-February 1916, during which period he was promoted Major), and No. 26 General Hospital in Étaples, France (February 1916-March 1917). His research focused on gas gangrene, typhoid fever, trench fever, wound infection and cerebrospinal fever. In February of 1917, while engaged in identifying meningococcal carriers, Rowland contracted cerebrospinal meningitis to which he succumbed at age 44 on 6 March 1917. His untimely death might have been caused by laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease, especially since Rowland's work with Neisseria meningitidis isolates had extended beyond routine laboratory techniques and included risk procedures like immunisation of rabbits with pathogenic strains isolated from cerebrospinal fluid. Currently, microbiology laboratory workers who are routinely exposed to N. meningitidis isolates are recognised as a population at increased risk for meningococcal disease, for which reason recommended preventive measures include vaccination and handling of isolates within a class II biosafety cabinet. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Acquired neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Lozeron, Pierre; Trocello, Jean-Marc; Kubis, Nathalie

    2013-09-01

    Acquired neuropathies represent most of the neuropathies encountered in clinical practice. Hundreds of causes have been identified even though up to 41% of patients are still classified as idiopathic (Rajabally and Shah in J Neurol 258:1431-1436, 1). Routine evaluation relies on comprehensive medical history taking, clinical examination, nerve conduction studies and laboratory tests. Other investigations such as nerve biopsy or nerve or muscle imaging are performed in specific settings. This review focuses on recent advances in acquired neuropathies.

  13. Development of a vocabulary of object shapes in a child with a very-early-acquired visual agnosia: a unique case.

    PubMed

    Funnell, Elaine; Wilding, John

    2011-02-01

    We report a longitudinal study of an exceptional child (S.R.) whose early-acquired visual agnosia, following encephalitis at 8 weeks of age, did not prevent her from learning to construct an increasing vocabulary of visual object forms (drawn from different categories), albeit slowly. S.R. had problems perceiving subtle differences in shape; she was unable to segment local letters within global displays; and she would bring complex scenes close to her eyes: a symptom suggestive of an attempt to reduce visual crowding. Investigations revealed a robust ability to use the gestalt grouping factors of proximity and collinearity to detect fragmented forms in noisy backgrounds, compared with a very weak ability to segment fragmented forms on the basis of contrasts of shape. When contrasts in spatial grouping and shape were pitted against each other, shape made little contribution, consistent with problems in perceiving complex scenes, but when shape contrast was varied, and spatial grouping was held constant, S.R. showed the same hierarchy of difficulty as the controls, although her responses were slowed. This is the first report of a child's visual-perceptual development following very early neurological impairments to the visual cortex. Her ability to learn to perceive visual shape following damage at a rudimentary stage of perceptual development contrasts starkly with the loss of such ability in childhood cases of acquired visual agnosia that follow damage to the established perceptual system. Clearly, there is a critical period during which neurological damage to the highly active, early developing visual-perceptual system does not prevent but only impairs further learning.

  14. Offensive Words, Lethal Weapons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Russell

    2007-01-01

    The old childhood ditty "sticks and stones may break my bones, but words will never hurt me" has proved wiser than the avalanche of commentary provoked by the recent insults by Don Imus and the killings at Virginia Tech. Our society forbids public name-calling but allows sticks and stones. Anyone can acquire a gun, but everyone must be…

  15. Impairment on a self-ordered working memory task in patients with early-acquired hippocampal atrophy.

    PubMed

    Geva, Sharon; Cooper, Janine M; Gadian, David G; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2016-08-01

    One of the features of both adult-onset and developmental forms of amnesia resulting from bilateral medial temporal lobe damage, or even from relatively selective damage to the hippocampus, is the sparing of working memory. Recently, however, a number of studies have reported deficits on working memory tasks in patients with damage to the hippocampus and in macaque monkeys with neonatal hippocampal lesions. These studies suggest that successful performance on working memory tasks with high memory load require the contribution of the hippocampus. Here we compared performance on a working memory task (the Self-ordered Pointing Task), between patients with early onset hippocampal damage and a group of healthy controls. Consistent with the findings in the monkeys with neonatal lesions, we found that the patients were impaired on the task, but only on blocks of trials with intermediate memory load. Importantly, only intermediate to high memory load blocks yielded significant correlations between task performance and hippocampal volume. Additionally, we found no evidence of proactive interference in either group, and no evidence of an effect of time since injury on performance. We discuss the role of the hippocampus and its interactions with the prefrontal cortex in serving working memory. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Dysfunctional visual word form processing in progressive alexia

    PubMed Central

    Rising, Kindle; Stib, Matthew T.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.; Beeson, Pélagie M.

    2013-01-01

    Progressive alexia is an acquired reading deficit caused by degeneration of brain regions that are essential for written word processing. Functional imaging studies have shown that early processing of the visual word form depends on a hierarchical posterior-to-anterior processing stream in occipito-temporal cortex, whereby successive areas code increasingly larger and more complex perceptual attributes of the letter string. A region located in the left lateral occipito-temporal sulcus and adjacent fusiform gyrus shows maximal selectivity for words and has been dubbed the ‘visual word form area’. We studied two patients with progressive alexia in order to determine whether their reading deficits were associated with structural and/or functional abnormalities in this visual word form system. Voxel-based morphometry showed left-lateralized occipito-temporal atrophy in both patients, very mild in one, but moderate to severe in the other. The two patients, along with 10 control subjects, were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging as they viewed rapidly presented words, false font strings, or a fixation crosshair. This paradigm was optimized to reliably map brain regions involved in orthographic processing in individual subjects. All 10 control subjects showed a posterior-to-anterior gradient of selectivity for words, and all 10 showed a functionally defined visual word form area in the left hemisphere that was activated for words relative to false font strings. In contrast, neither of the two patients with progressive alexia showed any evidence for a selectivity gradient or for word-specific activation of the visual word form area. The patient with mild atrophy showed normal responses to both words and false font strings in the posterior part of the visual word form system, but a failure to develop selectivity for words in the more anterior part of the system. In contrast, the patient with moderate to severe atrophy showed minimal activation of any part

  17. Dysfunctional visual word form processing in progressive alexia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen M; Rising, Kindle; Stib, Matthew T; Rapcsak, Steven Z; Beeson, Pélagie M

    2013-04-01

    Progressive alexia is an acquired reading deficit caused by degeneration of brain regions that are essential for written word processing. Functional imaging studies have shown that early processing of the visual word form depends on a hierarchical posterior-to-anterior processing stream in occipito-temporal cortex, whereby successive areas code increasingly larger and more complex perceptual attributes of the letter string. A region located in the left lateral occipito-temporal sulcus and adjacent fusiform gyrus shows maximal selectivity for words and has been dubbed the 'visual word form area'. We studied two patients with progressive alexia in order to determine whether their reading deficits were associated with structural and/or functional abnormalities in this visual word form system. Voxel-based morphometry showed left-lateralized occipito-temporal atrophy in both patients, very mild in one, but moderate to severe in the other. The two patients, along with 10 control subjects, were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging as they viewed rapidly presented words, false font strings, or a fixation crosshair. This paradigm was optimized to reliably map brain regions involved in orthographic processing in individual subjects. All 10 control subjects showed a posterior-to-anterior gradient of selectivity for words, and all 10 showed a functionally defined visual word form area in the left hemisphere that was activated for words relative to false font strings. In contrast, neither of the two patients with progressive alexia showed any evidence for a selectivity gradient or for word-specific activation of the visual word form area. The patient with mild atrophy showed normal responses to both words and false font strings in the posterior part of the visual word form system, but a failure to develop selectivity for words in the more anterior part of the system. In contrast, the patient with moderate to severe atrophy showed minimal activation of any part of

  18. Relation of Cardiac Complications in the Early Phase of Community-Acquired Pneumonia to Long-Term Mortality and Cardiovascular Events.

    PubMed

    Cangemi, Roberto; Calvieri, Camilla; Falcone, Marco; Bucci, Tommaso; Bertazzoni, Giuliano; Scarpellini, Maria G; Barillà, Francesco; Taliani, Gloria; Violi, Francesco

    2015-08-15

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is complicated by cardiac events in the early phase of the disease. Aim of this study was to assess if these intrahospital cardiac complications may account for overall mortality and cardiovascular events occurring during a long-term follow-up. Three hundred one consecutive patients admitted to the University-Hospital, Policlinico Umberto I, with community-acquired pneumonia were prospectively recruited and followed up for a median of 17.4 months. Primary end point was the occurrence of death for any cause, and secondary end point was the occurrence of cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction [MI], and stroke). During the intrahospital stay, 55 patients (18%) experienced a cardiac complication. Of these, 32 had an MI (29 non-ST-elevation MI and 3 ST-elevation MI) and 30 had a new episode of atrial fibrillation (7 nonmutually exclusive events). During the follow-up, 89 patients died (51% of patients with an intrahospital cardiac complication and 26% of patients without, p <0.001) and 73 experienced a cardiovascular event (47% of patients with and 19% of patients without an intrahospital cardiac complication, p <0.001). A Cox regression analysis showed that intrahospital cardiac complications, age, and Pneumonia Severity Index were significantly associated with overall mortality, whereas intrahospital cardiac complications, age, hypertension, and diabetes were significantly associated with cardiovascular events during the follow-up. In conclusion, this prospective study shows that intrahospital cardiac complications in the early phase of pneumonia are associated with an enhanced risk of death and cardiovascular events during long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Baby's first 10 words.

    PubMed

    Tardif, Twila; Fletcher, Paul; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Kaciroti, Niko; Marchman, Virginia A

    2008-07-01

    Although there has been much debate over the content of children's first words, few large sample studies address this question for children at the very earliest stages of word learning. The authors report data from comparable samples of 265 English-, 336 Putonghua- (Mandarin), and 369 Cantonese-speaking 8- to 16-month-old infants whose caregivers completed MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories and reported them to produce between 1 and 10 words. Analyses of individual words indicated striking commonalities in the first words that children learn. However, substantive cross-linguistic differences appeared in the relative prevalence of common nouns, people terms, and verbs as well as in the probability that children produced even one of these word types when they had a total of 1-3, 4-6, or 7-10 words in their vocabularies. These data document cross-linguistic differences in the types of words produced even at the earliest stages of vocabulary learning and underscore the importance of parental input and cross-linguistic/cross-cultural variations in children's early word-learning.

  20. Word learning mechanisms.

    PubMed

    He, Angela Xiaoxue; Arunachalam, Sudha

    2017-07-01

    How do children acquire the meanings of words? Many word learning mechanisms have been proposed to guide learners through this challenging task. Despite the availability of rich information in the learner's linguistic and extralinguistic input, the word-learning task is insurmountable without such mechanisms for filtering through and utilizing that information. Different kinds of words, such as nouns denoting object concepts and verbs denoting event concepts, require to some extent different kinds of information and, therefore, access to different kinds of mechanisms. We review some of these mechanisms to examine the relationship between the input that is available to learners and learners' intake of that input-that is, the organized, interpreted, and stored representations they form. We discuss how learners segment individual words from the speech stream and identify their grammatical categories, how they identify the concepts denoted by these words, and how they refine their initial representations of word meanings. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1435. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1435 This article is categorized under: Linguistics > Language Acquisition Psychology > Language. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Relative Contributions of Vocabulary, Decoding, and Phonemic Awareness to Word Reading in English versus German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggate, Sebastian; Reese, Elaine; Lenhard, Wolfgang; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Beginning readers in shallow orthographies acquire word reading skills more quickly than in deep orthographies like English. In addition to extending this evidence base by comparing reading acquisition in English with the more transparent German, we conducted a longitudinal study and investigated whether different early reading skills made…

  2. Evidence for morphological composition in compound words using MEG.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Teon L; Cid de Garcia, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Psycholinguistic and electrophysiological studies of lexical processing show convergent evidence for morpheme-based lexical access for morphologically complex words that involves early decomposition into their constituent morphemes followed by some combinatorial operation. Considering that both semantically transparent (e.g., sailboat) and semantically opaque (e.g., bootleg) compounds undergo morphological decomposition during the earlier stages of lexical processing, subsequent combinatorial operations should account for the difference in the contribution of the constituent morphemes to the meaning of these different word types. In this study we use magnetoencephalography (MEG) to pinpoint the neural bases of this combinatorial stage in English compound word recognition. MEG data were acquired while participants performed a word naming task in which three word types, transparent compounds (e.g., roadside), opaque compounds (e.g., butterfly), and morphologically simple words (e.g., brothel) were contrasted in a partial-repetition priming paradigm where the word of interest was primed by one of its constituent morphemes. Analysis of onset latency revealed shorter latencies to name compound words than simplex words when primed, further supporting a stage of morphological decomposition in lexical access. An analysis of the associated MEG activity uncovered a region of interest implicated in morphological composition, the Left Anterior Temporal Lobe (LATL). Only transparent compounds showed increased activity in this area from 250 to 470 ms. Previous studies using sentences and phrases have highlighted the role of LATL in performing computations for basic combinatorial operations. Results are in tune with decomposition models for morpheme accessibility early in processing and suggest that semantics play a role in combining the meanings of morphemes when their composition is transparent to the overall word meaning.

  3. Acquired hyperpigmentations*

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis PMID:24626644

  4. When Language Experience Fails to Explain Word Reading Development: Early Cognitive and Linguistic Profiles of Young Foreign Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chieh-Fang; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Although language experience is a key factor in successful foreign language (FL) learning, many FL learners fail to achieve performance levels that were predicted on the basis of their FL experience. This retrospective study investigated early cognitive and linguistic correlates of learning English as a foreign language (FL) in a group of…

  5. Do Actions Speak Louder than Words? Classroom Attitudes and Behavior in Relation to Bullying in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholte, Ron; Sentse, Miranda; Granic, Isabela

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine to what extent classroom factors (i.e., classroom antibullying attitudes and behavioral norms) contributed to individual bullying, after controlling for individual difference characteristics. Participants were 2,547 early adolescents (M = 13.4 years, SD = 0.63) from 109 middle school classes. Self- and…

  6. Clusters of Word Properties as Predictors of Elementary School Children's Performance on Two Word Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellings, Agnes; Coppens, Karien; Gelissen, John; Schreuder, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Often, the classification of words does not go beyond "difficult" (i.e., infrequent, late-learned, nonimageable, etc.) or "easy" (i.e., frequent, early-learned, imageable, etc.) words. In the present study, we used a latent cluster analysis to divide 703 Dutch words with scores for eight word properties into seven clusters of words. Each cluster…

  7. The CURB65 pneumonia severity score outperforms generic sepsis and early warning scores in predicting mortality in community‐acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Gavin; Nathwani, Dilip; Davey, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background The performance of CURB65 in predicting mortality in community‐acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been tested in two large observational studies. However, it has not been tested against generic sepsis and early warning scores, which are increasingly being advocated for identification of high‐risk patients in acute medical wards. Method A retrospective analysis was performed of data prospectively collected for a CAP quality improvement study. The ability to stratify mortality and performance characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and area under the receiver operating curve) were calculated for stratifications of CURB65, CRB65, the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria and the standardised early warning score (SEWS). Results 419 patients were included in the main analysis with a median age of 74 years (men = 47%). CURB65 and CRB65 stratified mortality in a more clinically useful way and had more favourable operating characteristics than SIRS or SEWS; for example, mortality in low‐risk patients was 2% when defined by CURB65, but 9% when defined by SEWS and 11–17% when defined by variations of the SIRS criteria. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of CURB65 was 71%, 69%, 35% and 91%, respectively, compared with 62%, 73%, 35% and 89% for the best performing version of SIRS and 52%, 67%, 27% and 86% for SEWS. CURB65 had the greatest area under the receiver operating curve (0.78 v 0.73 for CRB65, 0.68 for SIRS and 0.64 for SEWS). Conclusions CURB65 should not be supplanted by SIRS or SEWS for initial prognostic assessment in CAP. Further research to identify better generic prognostic tools is required. PMID:16928720

  8. Word form Encoding in Chinese Word Naming and Word Typing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Li, Cheng-Yi

    2011-01-01

    The process of word form encoding was investigated in primed word naming and word typing with Chinese monosyllabic words. The target words shared or did not share the onset consonants with the prime words. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 100 ms or 300 ms. Typing required the participants to enter the phonetic letters of the target word,…

  9. Using spoken words to guide open-ended category formation.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Aneesh; Seabra Lopes, Luís

    2011-11-01

    Naming is a powerful cognitive tool that facilitates categorization by forming an association between words and their referents. There is evidence in child development literature that strong links exist between early word-learning and conceptual development. A growing view is also emerging that language is a cultural product created and acquired through social interactions. Inspired by these studies, this paper presents a novel learning architecture for category formation and vocabulary acquisition in robots through active interaction with humans. This architecture is open-ended and is capable of acquiring new categories and category names incrementally. The process can be compared to language grounding in children at single-word stage. The robot is embodied with visual and auditory sensors for world perception. A human instructor uses speech to teach the robot the names of the objects present in a visually shared environment. The robot uses its perceptual input to ground these spoken words and dynamically form/organize category descriptions in order to achieve better categorization. To evaluate the learning system at word-learning and category formation tasks, two experiments were conducted using a simple language game involving naming and corrective feedback actions from the human user. The obtained results are presented and discussed in detail.

  10. Children Acquire Emotion Categories Gradually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widen, Sherri C.; Russell, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Some accounts imply that basic-level emotion categories are acquired early and quickly, whereas others imply that they are acquired later and more gradually. Our study examined this question for fear, happiness, sadness, and anger in the context of children's categorization of emotional facial expressions. Children (N=168, 2-5 years) first labeled…

  11. 'Mum's the word': Predictors and outcomes of weight concerns in pre-adolescent and early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ng, Johan Yau Yin; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Vlachopoulos, Symeon; Katartzi, Ermioni S; Nikitaras, Nikitas

    2016-03-01

    Predictors and outcomes of weight concerns in pre-adolescent and adolescent girls are well known, but few models have incorporated concerns reported directly by mothers as a predictor, and both eating and exercise outcomes. Using questionnaires, a comprehensive model of 232 pre-adolescent and early adolescent girls' weight concerns, eating restraint, and exercise behavior was tested. Structural equation modeling showed that daughters' weight concerns were predicted primarily by their perceptions of their mothers' concerns about the daughters' weight, as well as by daughters' BMI, appearance conversations with friends, and perceived media pressure. Mothers' concerns with their daughters' weight were indirectly associated with daughters' own concerns, via the daughters' perceptions of their mothers' concerns. Daughters' concerns with their weight were a strong predictor of eating restraint, but not exercise behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Early fiberoptic bronchoscopy during non-invasive ventilation in patients with decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to community-acquired-pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Inefficient clearance of copious respiratory secretion is a cause of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) failure, especially in chronic respiratory patients with community-acquired-pneumonia (CAP) and impaired consciousness. We postulated that in such a clinical scenario, when intubation and conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) are strongly recommended, the suction of secretions with fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FBO) may increase the chance of NPPV success. The objective of this pilot study was, firstly, to verify the safety and effectiveness of early FBO during NPPV and, secondly, to compare the hospital outcomes of this strategy versus a CMV-based strategy in patients with decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to CAP who are not appropriate candidates for NPPV because of inefficient mucous clearance and hypercapnic encephalopathy (HE). Methods This is a 12-month prospective matched case-control study performed in one respiratory semi-intensive care unit (RSICU) with expertise in NPPV and in one intensive care unit (ICU). Fifteen acutely decompensated COPD patients with copious secretion retention and HE due to CAP undergoing NPPV in RSICU, and 15 controls (matched for arterial blood gases, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation score III, Kelly-Matthay scale, pneumonia extension and severity) receiving CMV in the ICU were studied. Results Two hours of NPPV significantly improved arterial blood gases, Kelly and cough efficiency scores without FBO-related complications. NPPV avoided intubation in 12/15 patients (80%). Improvement in arterial blood gases was similar in the two groups, except for a greater PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio with CMV. The rates of overall and septic complications, and of tracheostomy were lower in the NPPV group (20%, 20%, and 0%) versus the CMV group (80%, 60%, and 40%; P < 0.05). Hospital mortality, duration of hospitalisation and duration of ventilation were similar

  13. Early fiberoptic bronchoscopy during non-invasive ventilation in patients with decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to community-acquired-pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Scala, Raffaele; Naldi, Mario; Maccari, Uberto

    2010-01-01

    Inefficient clearance of copious respiratory secretion is a cause of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) failure, especially in chronic respiratory patients with community-acquired-pneumonia (CAP) and impaired consciousness. We postulated that in such a clinical scenario, when intubation and conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) are strongly recommended, the suction of secretions with fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FBO) may increase the chance of NPPV success. The objective of this pilot study was, firstly, to verify the safety and effectiveness of early FBO during NPPV and, secondly, to compare the hospital outcomes of this strategy versus a CMV-based strategy in patients with decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to CAP who are not appropriate candidates for NPPV because of inefficient mucous clearance and hypercapnic encephalopathy (HE). This is a 12-month prospective matched case-control study performed in one respiratory semi-intensive care unit (RSICU) with expertise in NPPV and in one intensive care unit (ICU). Fifteen acutely decompensated COPD patients with copious secretion retention and HE due to CAP undergoing NPPV in RSICU, and 15 controls (matched for arterial blood gases, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation score III, Kelly-Matthay scale, pneumonia extension and severity) receiving CMV in the ICU were studied. Two hours of NPPV significantly improved arterial blood gases, Kelly and cough efficiency scores without FBO-related complications. NPPV avoided intubation in 12/15 patients (80%). Improvement in arterial blood gases was similar in the two groups, except for a greater PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio with CMV. The rates of overall and septic complications, and of tracheostomy were lower in the NPPV group (20%, 20%, and 0%) versus the CMV group (80%, 60%, and 40%; P < 0.05). Hospital mortality, duration of hospitalisation and duration of ventilation were similar in the two groups. In patients

  14. Cardiac troponin-I on diagnosis predicts early death and refractoriness in acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Experience of the French Thrombotic Microangiopathies Reference Center.

    PubMed

    Benhamou, Y; Boelle, P-Y; Baudin, B; Ederhy, S; Gras, J; Galicier, L; Azoulay, E; Provôt, F; Maury, E; Pène, F; Mira, J-P; Wynckel, A; Presne, C; Poullin, P; Halimi, J-M; Delmas, Y; Kanouni, T; Seguin, A; Mousson, C; Servais, A; Bordessoule, D; Perez, P; Hamidou, M; Cohen, A; Veyradier, A; Coppo, P

    2015-02-01

    Cardiac involvement is a major cause of mortality in patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). However, diagnosis remains underestimated and delayed, owing to subclinical injuries. Cardiac troponin-I measurement (cTnI) on admission could improve the early diagnosis of cardiac involvement and have prognostic value. To assess the predictive value of cTnI in patients with TTP for death or refractoriness. The study involved a prospective cohort of adult TTP patients with acquired severe ADAMTS-13 deficiency (< 10%) and included in the registry of the French Reference Center for Thrombotic Microangiopathies. Centralized cTnI measurements were performed on frozen serum on admission. Between January 2003 and December 2011, 133 patients with TTP (mean age, 48 ± 17 years) had available cTnI measurements on admission. Thirty-two patients (24%) had clinical and/or electrocardiogram features. Nineteen (14.3%) had cardiac symptoms, mainly congestive heart failure and myocardial infarction. Electrocardiogram changes, mainly repolarization disorders, were present in 13 cases. An increased cTnI level (> 0.1 μg L(-1) ) was present in 78 patients (59%), of whom 46 (59%) had no clinical cardiac involvement. The main outcomes were death (25%) and refractoriness (17%). Age (P = 0.02) and cTnI level (P = 0.002) showed the greatest impact on survival. A cTnI level of > 0.25 μg L(-1) was the only independent factor in predicting death (odds ratio [OR] 2.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-7.22; P = 0.024) and/or refractoriness (OR 3.03; 95% CI 1.27-7.3; P = 0.01). A CTnI level of > 0.25 μg L(-1) at presentation in patients with TTP appears to be an independent factor associated with a three-fold increase in the risk of death or refractoriness. Therefore, cTnI level should be considered as a prognostic indicator in patients diagnosed with TTP. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  15. The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) for outcome prediction in emergency department patients with community-acquired pneumonia: results from a 6-year prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sbiti-Rohr, Diana; Kutz, Alexander; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Thomann, Robert; Zimmerli, Werner; Hoess, Claus; Henzen, Christoph; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the accuracy of the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) to predict mortality and adverse clinical outcomes for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) compared to standard risk scores such as the pneumonia severity index (PSI) and CURB-65. Design Secondary analysis of patients included in a previous randomised-controlled trial with a median follow-up of 6.1 years. Settings Patients with CAP included on admission to the emergency departments (ED) of 6 tertiary care hospitals in Switzerland. Participants A total of 925 patients with confirmed CAP were included. NEWS, PSI and CURB-65 scores were calculated on admission to the ED based on admission data. Main outcome measure Our primary outcome was all-cause mortality within 6 years of follow-up. Secondary outcomes were adverse clinical outcome defined as intensive care unit (ICU) admission, empyema and unplanned hospital readmission all occurring within 30 days after admission. We used regression models to study associations of baseline risk scores and outcomes with the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) as a measure of discrimination. Results 6-year overall mortality was 45.1% (n=417) with a stepwise increase with higher NEWS categories. For 30 day and 6-year mortality prediction, NEWS showed only low discrimination (AUC 0.65 and 0.60) inferior compared to PSI and CURB-65. For prediction of ICU admission, NEWS showed moderate discrimination (AUC 0.73) and improved the prognostic accuracy of a regression model, including PSI (AUC from 0.66 to 0.74, p=0.001) and CURB-65 (AUC from 0.64 to 0.73, p=0.015). NEWS was also superior to PSI and CURB-65 for prediction of empyema, but did not well predict rehospitalisation. Conclusions NEWS provides additional prognostic information with regard to risk of ICU admission and complications and thereby improves traditional clinical-risk scores in the management of patients with CAP in the ED setting. Trial registration number

  16. The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) for outcome prediction in emergency department patients with community-acquired pneumonia: results from a 6-year prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sbiti-Rohr, Diana; Kutz, Alexander; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Thomann, Robert; Zimmerli, Werner; Hoess, Claus; Henzen, Christoph; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2016-09-28

    To investigate the accuracy of the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) to predict mortality and adverse clinical outcomes for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) compared to standard risk scores such as the pneumonia severity index (PSI) and CURB-65. Secondary analysis of patients included in a previous randomised-controlled trial with a median follow-up of 6.1 years. Patients with CAP included on admission to the emergency departments (ED) of 6 tertiary care hospitals in Switzerland. A total of 925 patients with confirmed CAP were included. NEWS, PSI and CURB-65 scores were calculated on admission to the ED based on admission data. Our primary outcome was all-cause mortality within 6 years of follow-up. Secondary outcomes were adverse clinical outcome defined as intensive care unit (ICU) admission, empyema and unplanned hospital readmission all occurring within 30 days after admission. We used regression models to study associations of baseline risk scores and outcomes with the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) as a measure of discrimination. 6-year overall mortality was 45.1% (n=417) with a stepwise increase with higher NEWS categories. For 30 day and 6-year mortality prediction, NEWS showed only low discrimination (AUC 0.65 and 0.60) inferior compared to PSI and CURB-65. For prediction of ICU admission, NEWS showed moderate discrimination (AUC 0.73) and improved the prognostic accuracy of a regression model, including PSI (AUC from 0.66 to 0.74, p=0.001) and CURB-65 (AUC from 0.64 to 0.73, p=0.015). NEWS was also superior to PSI and CURB-65 for prediction of empyema, but did not well predict rehospitalisation. NEWS provides additional prognostic information with regard to risk of ICU admission and complications and thereby improves traditional clinical-risk scores in the management of patients with CAP in the ED setting. ISRCTN95122877; Post-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  17. Easy Words: Reference Resolution in a Malevolent Referent World.

    PubMed

    Gleitman, Lila R; Trueswell, John C

    2018-06-15

    This article describes early stages in the acquisition of a first vocabulary by infants and young children. It distinguishes two major stages, the first of which operates by a stand-alone word-to-world pairing procedure and the second of which, using the evidence so acquired, builds a domain-specific syntax-sensitive structure-to-world pairing procedure. As we show, the first stage of learning is slow, restricted in character, and to some extent errorful, whereas the second procedure is determinative, rapid, and essentially errorless. Our central claim here is that the early, referentially based learning procedure succeeds at all because it is reined in by attention-focusing properties of word-to-world timing and related indicants of referential intent. Copyright © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Word order processing in the bilingual brain.

    PubMed

    Saur, Dorothee; Baumgaertner, Annette; Moehring, Anja; Büchel, Christian; Bonnesen, Matthias; Rose, Michael; Musso, Mariachristina; Meisel, Jürgen M

    2009-01-01

    One of the issues debated in the field of bilingualism is the question of a "critical period" for second language acquisition. Recent studies suggest an influence of age of onset of acquisition (AOA) particularly on syntactic processing; however, the processing of word order in a sentence context has not yet been examined specifically. We used functional MRI to examine word order processing in two groups of highly proficient German-French bilinguals who had either acquired French or German after the age of 10, and a third group which had acquired both languages before the age of three. Subjects listened to French and German sentences in which the order of subject and verb was systematically varied. In both groups of late bilinguals, processing of L2 compared to L1 resulted in higher levels of activation mainly of the left inferior frontal cortex while early bilinguals showed no activation difference in any of these areas. A selective increase in activation for late bilinguals only suggests that AOA contributes to modulating overall syntactic processing in L2. In addition, native speakers of French showed significantly higher activation for verb-subject-order than native German speakers. These data suggest that AOA effects may in particular affect those grammatical structures which are marked in the first language.

  19. Individual language experience modulates rapid formation of cortical memory circuits for novel words

    PubMed Central

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain’s capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions. We found that larger number of previously acquired languages and earlier average age of acquisition (AoA) predicted greater response increase to novel non-native word-forms. This suggests that early and extensive language experience is associated with greater neural flexibility for acquiring novel words with unfamiliar phonology. Conversely, later AoA was associated with a stronger response increase for phonologically native novel word-forms, indicating better tuning of neural linguistic circuits to native phonology. The results suggest that individual language experience has a strong effect on the neural mechanisms of word learning, and that it interacts with the phonological familiarity of the novel lexicon. PMID:27444206

  20. Magical Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauch-Nelson, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Prompted by a parent's comment that indicated a desire for her elementary-age children to learn the elements and principles of design in their art class, the author set out to enrich her own understanding and appreciation of the language used in the art room. Looking at word origins helps students appreciate the significance of art and craft in…

  1. Sarbalap! Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantu, Virginia, Comp.; And Others

    Prepared by bilingual teacher aide students, this glossary provides the Spanish translation of about 1,300 English words used in the bilingual classroom. Intended to serve as a handy reference for teachers, teacher aides, and students, the glossary can also be used in teacher training programs as a vocabulary builder for future bilingual teachers…

  2. Interactive language learning by robots: the transition from babbling to word forms.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Caroline; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L; Saunders, Joe

    2012-01-01

    The advent of humanoid robots has enabled a new approach to investigating the acquisition of language, and we report on the development of robots able to acquire rudimentary linguistic skills. Our work focuses on early stages analogous to some characteristics of a human child of about 6 to 14 months, the transition from babbling to first word forms. We investigate one mechanism among many that may contribute to this process, a key factor being the sensitivity of learners to the statistical distribution of linguistic elements. As well as being necessary for learning word meanings, the acquisition of anchor word forms facilitates the segmentation of an acoustic stream through other mechanisms. In our experiments some salient one-syllable word forms are learnt by a humanoid robot in real-time interactions with naive participants. Words emerge from random syllabic babble through a learning process based on a dialogue between the robot and the human participant, whose speech is perceived by the robot as a stream of phonemes. Numerous ways of representing the speech as syllabic segments are possible. Furthermore, the pronunciation of many words in spontaneous speech is variable. However, in line with research elsewhere, we observe that salient content words are more likely than function words to have consistent canonical representations; thus their relative frequency increases, as does their influence on the learner. Variable pronunciation may contribute to early word form acquisition. The importance of contingent interaction in real-time between teacher and learner is reflected by a reinforcement process, with variable success. The examination of individual cases may be more informative than group results. Nevertheless, word forms are usually produced by the robot after a few minutes of dialogue, employing a simple, real-time, frequency dependent mechanism. This work shows the potential of human-robot interaction systems in studies of the dynamics of early language

  3. Linguistic Knowledge at Early Stage I; Evidence from Successive Single Word Utterances. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horgan, Dianne

    A study was conducted to determine whether the child expresses linguistic knowledge during the single-word period. The order of mention in 65 sets of successive single-word utterances from five children at Stage 1, two to four years old, were analyzed. To elicit speech, the children were shown line drawings representing such situations as animate…

  4. Not Only Size Matters: Early-Talker and Late-Talker Vocabularies Support Different Word-Learning Biases in Babies and Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colunga, Eliana; Sims, Clare E.

    2017-01-01

    In typical development, word learning goes from slow and laborious to fast and seemingly effortless. Typically developing 2-year-olds seem to intuit the whole range of things in a category from hearing a single instance named--they have word-learning biases. This is not the case for children with relatively small vocabularies ("late…

  5. Does "Word Coach" Coach Words?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Tom; Horst, Marlise

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the design and testing of an integrated suite of vocabulary training games for Nintendo[TM] collectively designated "My Word Coach" (Ubisoft, 2008). The games' design is based on a wide range of learning research, from classic studies on recycling patterns to frequency studies of modern corpora. Its general usage…

  6. A prospective, randomized comparison of an in-line heat moisture exchange filter and heated wire humidifiers: rates of ventilator-associated early-onset (community-acquired) or late-onset (hospital-acquired) pneumonia and incidence of endotracheal tube occlusion.

    PubMed

    Kirton, O C; DeHaven, B; Morgan, J; Morejon, O; Civetta, J

    1997-10-01

    To compare the performance of an in-line heat moisture exchanging filter (HMEF) (Pall BB-100; Pall Corporation; East Hills, NY) to a conventional heated wire humidifier (H-wH) (Marquest Medical Products Inc., Englewood, Colo) in the mechanical ventilator circuit on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and the rate of endotracheal tube occlusion. This report describes a prospective, randomized trial of 280 consecutive trauma patients in a 20-bed trauma ICU (TICU). All intubated patients not ventilated elsewhere in the medical center prior to their TICU admission were randomized to either an in-line HMEF or a H-wH in the breathing circuit. Ventilator circuits were changed routinely every 7 days, and closed system suction catheters were changed every 3 days. HMEFs were changed every 24 h, or more frequently if necessary. A specific endotracheal tube suction and lavage protocol was not employed. Patients were dropped from the HMEF group if the filter was changed more than three times a day or the patient was placed on a regimen of ultra high-frequency ventilation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria for diagnosis of pneumonia were used; early-onset, community-acquired pneumonia was defined if CDC criteria were met in < or =3 days, and late-onset, hospital-acquired pneumonia was defined if criteria were met in >3 days. Laboratory and chest radiograph interpretation were blinded. The patient ages ranged from 15 to 95 years in the HMEF group and 16 to 87 years in the H-wH group (p=not significant), with a mean age of 46 years and 48 years, respectively. The male to female ratio ranged between 78 to 82%/22 to 18%, respectively, and 55% of all admissions were related to blunt trauma, 40% secondary to penetrating trauma, and 5% to major burns. There was no difference in Injury Severity Score (ISS) between the two groups. Moreover, there was no significant difference in mean ISS among those who did not develop pneumonia and those

  7. Favourite words.

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, P; Thomas, D; Burge, D

    1985-01-01

    A prospective survey of language used by children aged between 2 and 16 years for 'taboo subjects' was carried out on a paediatric surgical ward and in the outpatients clinic. The children were interviewed in the presence of their parent(s). A remarkable diversity of words and phrases was noted. Language was affected by the age and sex of the patient. This survey is of interest to all clinicians who need to communicate with children. PMID:4051546

  8. Spanish Words in the Jicarilla Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pono, Filomena P.; And Others

    As contact with the American Indian people increased, Indian words, expressions, and terms filtered into the English language. On the other hand, the Indians also borrowed words from those people who came to the New World. The Jicarillas, because of their early contact with the Spanish culture and civilization, tended to borrow more words from the…

  9. Children's learning of number words in an indigenous farming-foraging group.

    PubMed

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Jara-Ettinger, Julian; Gibson, Edward

    2014-07-01

    We show that children in the Tsimane', a farming-foraging group in the Bolivian rain-forest, learn number words along a similar developmental trajectory to children from industrialized countries. Tsimane' children successively acquire the first three or four number words before fully learning how counting works. However, their learning is substantially delayed relative to children from the United States, Russia, and Japan. The presence of a similar developmental trajectory likely indicates that the incremental stages of numerical knowledge - but not their timing - reflect a fundamental property of number concept acquisition which is relatively independent of language, culture, age, and early education. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The development of a vocabulary for PEEPS-SE-profiles of early expressive phonological skills for Swedish.

    PubMed

    Marklund, Ulrika; Lacerda, Francisco; Persson, Anna; Lohmander, Anette

    2018-04-10

    This paper describes the development of a vocabulary for Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills for Swedish (PEEPS-SE), a tool for assessment of expressive phonology in Swedish-learning children in the age range of 18-36 months. PEEPS-SE is the Swedish version of the original PEEPS, Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills, which uses two age-adequate word lists-a basic word list (BWL) for the assessment of 18-24-month-old children, to which an expanded word list (EWL) is added for assessment of 24-36-month-old children, or children with more than 250 words in their expressive vocabulary. The selection of words in PEEPS-SE is based on two types of criteria: age of acquisition and phonological complexity. The words also need to be easy to elicit in a natural way in test situations. Vocabulary data previously collected with the Swedish Early Communicative Development Inventory are used for selection of age-adequate words, where the BWL contains words acquired earlier compared to the additional words in the EWL. The latter also contains words that are more phonologically complex compared to those in the BWL. Word complexity was determined by the Swedish version of word complexity measure. PEEPS-SE has made an attempt to match the original version of PEEPS in terms of both assessment method and word selection.

  11. Word recognition and phonetic structure acquisition: Possible relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, James

    2002-05-01

    Several accounts of possible relations between the emergence of the mental lexicon and acquisition of native language phonological structure have been propounded. In one view, acquisition of word meanings guides infants' attention toward those contrasts that are linguistically significant in their language. In the opposing view, native language phonological categories may be acquired from statistical patterns of input speech, prior to and independent of learning at the lexical level. Here, a more interactive account will be presented, in which phonological structure is modeled as emerging consequentially from the self-organization of perceptual space underlying word recognition. A key prediction of this model is that early native language phonological categories will be highly context specific. Data bearing on this prediction will be presented which provide clues to the nature of infants' statistical analysis of input.

  12. Learning new meanings for known words: Biphasic effects of prior knowledge.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiaoping; Perfetti, Charles; Stafura, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    In acquiring word meanings, learners are often confronted by a single word form that is mapped to two or more meanings. For example, long after how to roller-"skate", one may learn that "skate" is also a kind of fish. Such learning of new meanings for familiar words involves two potentially contrasting processes, relative to new form-new meaning learning: 1) Form-based familiarity may facilitate learning a new meaning, and 2) meaning-based interference may inhibit learning a new meaning. We examined these two processes by having native English speakers learn new, unrelated meanings for familiar (high frequency) and less familiar (low frequency) English words, as well as for unfamiliar (novel or pseudo-) words. Tracking learning with cued-recall tasks at several points during learning revealed a biphasic pattern: higher learning rates and greater learning efficiency for familiar words relative to novel words early in learning and a reversal of this pattern later in learning. Following learning, interference from original meanings for familiar words was detected in a semantic relatedness judgment task. Additionally, lexical access to familiar words with new meanings became faster compared to their exposure controls, but no such effect occurred for less familiar words. Overall, the results suggest a biphasic pattern of facilitating and interfering processes: Familiar word forms facilitate learning earlier, while interference from original meanings becomes more influential later. This biphasic pattern reflects the co-activation of new and old meanings during learning, a process that may play a role in lexicalization of new meanings.

  13. Learning new meanings for known words: Biphasic effects of prior knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiaoping; Perfetti, Charles; Stafura, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    In acquiring word meanings, learners are often confronted by a single word form that is mapped to two or more meanings. For example, long after how to roller-“skate”, one may learn that “skate” is also a kind of fish. Such learning of new meanings for familiar words involves two potentially contrasting processes, relative to new form-new meaning learning: 1) Form-based familiarity may facilitate learning a new meaning, and 2) meaning-based interference may inhibit learning a new meaning. We examined these two processes by having native English speakers learn new, unrelated meanings for familiar (high frequency) and less familiar (low frequency) English words, as well as for unfamiliar (novel or pseudo-) words. Tracking learning with cued-recall tasks at several points during learning revealed a biphasic pattern: higher learning rates and greater learning efficiency for familiar words relative to novel words early in learning and a reversal of this pattern later in learning. Following learning, interference from original meanings for familiar words was detected in a semantic relatedness judgment task. Additionally, lexical access to familiar words with new meanings became faster compared to their exposure controls, but no such effect occurred for less familiar words. Overall, the results suggest a biphasic pattern of facilitating and interfering processes: Familiar word forms facilitate learning earlier, while interference from original meanings becomes more influential later. This biphasic pattern reflects the co-activation of new and old meanings during learning, a process that may play a role in lexicalization of new meanings. PMID:29399593

  14. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N. J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1983-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of utmost importance. PMID:6342737

  15. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome *

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N.J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1992-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of the utmost importance. PMID:1544049

  16. Functional Neuroanatomy of Contextual Acquisition of Concrete and Abstract Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mestres-Misse, Anna; Munte, Thomas F.; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    The meaning of a novel word can be acquired by extracting it from linguistic context. Here we simulated word learning of new words associated to concrete and abstract concepts in a variant of the human simulation paradigm that provided linguistic context information in order to characterize the brain systems involved. Native speakers of Spanish…

  17. Finding Words and Word Structure in Artificial Speech: The Development of Infants' Sensitivity to Morphosyntactic Regularities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetto, Erika; Bonatti, Luca L.

    2015-01-01

    To achieve language proficiency, infants must find the building blocks of speech and master the rules governing their legal combinations. However, these problems are linked: words are also built according to rules. Here, we explored early morphosyntactic sensitivity by testing when and how infants could find either words or within-word structure…

  18. Developmental Spelling and Word Recognition: A Validation of Ehri's Model of Word Recognition Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Ashlee A.

    2009-01-01

    Ehri's developmental model of word recognition outlines early reading development that spans from the use of logos to advanced knowledge of oral and written language to read words. Henderson's developmental spelling theory presents stages of word knowledge that progress in a similar manner to Ehri's phases. The purpose of this research study was…

  19. Lexical leverage: Category knowledge boosts real-time novel word recognition in two-year- olds

    PubMed Central

    Borovsky, Arielle; Ellis, Erica M.; Evans, Julia L.; Elman, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that infants tend to add words to their vocabulary that are semantically related to other known words, though it is not clear why this pattern emerges. In this paper, we explore whether infants to leverage their existing vocabulary and semantic knowledge when interpreting novel label-object mappings in real-time. We initially identified categorical domains for which individual 24-month-old infants have relatively higher and lower levels of knowledge, irrespective of overall vocabulary size. Next, we taught infants novel words in these higher and lower knowledge domains and then asked if their subsequent real-time recognition of these items varied as a function of their category knowledge. While our participants successfully acquired the novel label -object mappings in our task, there were important differences in the way infants recognized these words in real time. Namely, infants showed more robust recognition of high (vs. low) domain knowledge words. These findings suggest that dense semantic structure facilitates early word learning and real-time novel word recognition. PMID:26452444

  20. Famous talker effects in spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Maibauer, Alisa M; Markis, Teresa A; Newell, Jessica; McLennan, Conor T

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that talker-specific representations affect spoken word recognition relatively late during processing. However, participants in these studies were listening to unfamiliar talkers. In the present research, we used a long-term repetition-priming paradigm and a speeded-shadowing task and presented listeners with famous talkers. In Experiment 1, half the words were spoken by Barack Obama, and half by Hillary Clinton. Reaction times (RTs) to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words only when repeated by the same talker. However, in Experiment 2, using nonfamous talkers, RTs to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words both when repeated by the same talker and when repeated by a different talker. Taken together, the results demonstrate that talker-specific details can affect the perception of spoken words relatively early during processing when words are spoken by famous talkers.

  1. Word, Words, Words: Ellul and the Mediocritization of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Franz; Foltz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    The authors explore how technique via propaganda has replaced the word with images creating a mass society and limiting the ability of people to act as individuals. They begin by looking at how words affect human society and how they have changed over time. They explore how technology has altered the meaning of words in order to create a more…

  2. Negative Transfer Effects on L2 Word Order Processing

    PubMed Central

    Erdocia, Kepa; Laka, Itziar

    2018-01-01

    Does first language (L1) word order affect the processing of non-canonical but grammatical syntactic structures in second language (L2) comprehension? In the present study, we test whether L1-Spanish speakers of L2-Basque process subject–verb–object (SVO) and object–verb–subject (OVS) non-canonical word order sentences of Basque in the same way as Basque native speakers. Crucially, while OVS orders are non-canonical in both Spanish and Basque, SVO is non-canonical in Basque but is the canonical word order in Spanish. Our electrophysiological results showed that the characteristics of L1 affect the processing of the L2 even at highly proficient and early-acquired bilingual populations. Specifically, in the non-native group, we observed a left anterior negativity-like component when comparing S and O at sentence initial position and a P600 when comparing those elements at sentence final position. Those results are similar of those reported by Casado et al. (2005) for native speakers of Spanish indicating that L2-Basque speakers rely in their L1-Spanish when processing SVO–OVS word order sentences. Our results favored the competition model (MacWhinney, 1997). PMID:29593626

  3. Negative Transfer Effects on L2 Word Order Processing.

    PubMed

    Erdocia, Kepa; Laka, Itziar

    2018-01-01

    Does first language (L1) word order affect the processing of non-canonical but grammatical syntactic structures in second language (L2) comprehension? In the present study, we test whether L1-Spanish speakers of L2-Basque process subject-verb-object (SVO) and object-verb-subject (OVS) non-canonical word order sentences of Basque in the same way as Basque native speakers. Crucially, while OVS orders are non-canonical in both Spanish and Basque, SVO is non-canonical in Basque but is the canonical word order in Spanish. Our electrophysiological results showed that the characteristics of L1 affect the processing of the L2 even at highly proficient and early-acquired bilingual populations. Specifically, in the non-native group, we observed a left anterior negativity-like component when comparing S and O at sentence initial position and a P600 when comparing those elements at sentence final position. Those results are similar of those reported by Casado et al. (2005) for native speakers of Spanish indicating that L2-Basque speakers rely in their L1-Spanish when processing SVO-OVS word order sentences. Our results favored the competition model (MacWhinney, 1997).

  4. Early second language acquisition: a comparison of the linguistic output of a pre-school child acquiring English as a second language with that of a monolingual peer.

    PubMed

    Letts, C A

    1991-08-01

    Two pre-school children were recorded at regular intervals over a 9-month period while playing freely together. One child was acquiring English as a second language, whilst the other was a monolingual English speaker. The sociolinguistic domain was such that the children were likely to be motivated to communicate with each other in English. A variety of quantitative measures were taken from the transcribed data, including measures of utterance type, length, type-token ratios, use of auxiliaries and morphology. The child for whom English was a second language was found to be well able to interact on equal terms with his partner, despite being somewhat less advanced in some aspects of English language development by the end of the sampling period. Whilst he appeared to be consolidating his language skills during this time, his monolingual partner appeared to be developing rapidly. It is hoped that normative longitudinal data of this kind will be of use in the accurate assessment of children from dual language backgrounds, who may be referred for speech and language therapy.

  5. Strategic Word Attack: Acquired Contextual Strategies in Young Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matz, Karl A.

    A study demonstrated that young children who have difficulty with phonics can be taught to read through other methods, that phonics is only one of the many useful strategies that a child can employ, and that many contextual strategies are easier to learn and more reliable than phonics. A case study was conducted during an intervention with a young…

  6. Word acquisition, retention, and transfer: findings from contextual and isolated word training.

    PubMed

    Martin-Chang, Sandra Lyn; Levy, Betty Ann; O'Neil, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Successful reading instruction entails not only acquiring new words but also remembering them after training has finished and accessing their word-specific representations when they are encountered in new text. We report two studies demonstrating that acquisition, retention, and transfer of unfamiliar words were affected differentially by isolated word and context training. Materials were individualized to include only those words that average readers in second grade were unable to name in context. Different words were trained in each condition; context training presented words in stories, and isolated word training presented words on flashcards. Together, the studies show that context training promotes word acquisition beyond that experienced from reading words in isolation. Contrary to the prevailing opinion, memory performance for words trained in context and in isolation did not differ; children demonstrated excellent retention over an 8-day interval in both conditions. Finally, transfer was maximized when the congruency between training and testing was high. Therefore, when reading trained words in novel circumstances, the best method of training was mediated by the transfer task employed at test.

  7. Flexible, rapid and automatic neocortical word form acquisition mechanism in children as revealed by neuromagnetic brain response dynamics.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Eino; Leminen, Alina; de Paoli, Stine; Bundgaard, Anette; Kingo, Osman Skjold; Krøjgaard, Peter; Shtyrov, Yury

    2017-07-15

    Children learn new words and word forms with ease, often acquiring a new word after very few repetitions. Recent neurophysiological research on word form acquisition in adults indicates that novel words can be acquired within minutes of repetitive exposure to them, regardless of the individual's focused attention on the speech input. Although it is well-known that children surpass adults in language acquisition, the developmental aspects of such rapid and automatic neural acquisition mechanisms remain unexplored. To address this open question, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to scrutinise brain dynamics elicited by spoken words and word-like sounds in healthy monolingual (Danish) children throughout a 20-min repetitive passive exposure session. We found rapid neural dynamics manifested as an enhancement of early (~100ms) brain activity over the short exposure session, with distinct spatiotemporal patterns for different novel sounds. For novel Danish word forms, signs of such enhancement were seen in the left temporal regions only, suggesting reliance on pre-existing language circuits for acquisition of novel word forms with native phonology. In contrast, exposure both to novel word forms with non-native phonology and to novel non-speech sounds led to activity enhancement in both left and right hemispheres, suggesting that more wide-spread cortical networks contribute to the build-up of memory traces for non-native and non-speech sounds. Similar studies in adults have previously reported more sluggish (~15-25min, as opposed to 4min in the present study) or non-existent neural dynamics for non-native sound acquisition, which might be indicative of a higher degree of plasticity in the children's brain. Overall, the results indicate a rapid and highly plastic mechanism for a dynamic build-up of memory traces for novel acoustic information in the children's brain that operates automatically and recruits bilateral temporal cortical circuits. Copyright © 2017

  8. "Daddy, Where Did the Words Go?" How Teachers Can Help Emergent Readers Develop a Concept of Word in Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanigan, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on a concept that has rarely been studied in beginning reading research--a child's concept of word in text. Recent examinations of this phenomenon suggest that a child's ability to match spoken words to written words while reading--a concept of word in text--plays a pivotal role in early reading development. In this article,…

  9. Acquired platelet function defect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some cases cannot be prevented. Alternative Names Acquired qualitative platelet disorders; Acquired disorders of platelet function Images ... Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare ...

  10. Arabic word recognizer for mobile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Nitin; Abdollahian, Golnaz; Brame, Ben; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2011-03-01

    When traveling in a region where the local language is not written using a "Roman alphabet," translating written text (e.g., documents, road signs, or placards) is a particularly difficult problem since the text cannot be easily entered into a translation device or searched using a dictionary. To address this problem, we are developing the "Rosetta Phone," a handheld device (e.g., PDA or mobile telephone) capable of acquiring an image of the text, locating the region (word) of interest within the image, and producing both an audio and a visual English interpretation of the text. This paper presents a system targeted for interpreting words written in Arabic script. The goal of this work is to develop an autonomous, segmentation-free Arabic phrase recognizer, with computational complexity low enough to deploy on a mobile device. A prototype of the proposed system has been deployed on an iPhone with a suitable user interface. The system was tested on a number of noisy images, in addition to the images acquired from the iPhone's camera. It identifies Arabic words or phrases by extracting appropriate features and assigning "codewords" to each word or phrase. On a dictionary of 5,000 words, the system uniquely mapped (word-image to codeword) 99.9% of the words. The system has a 82% recognition accuracy on images of words captured using the iPhone's built-in camera.

  11. Font size matters--emotion and attention in cortical responses to written words.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Mareike; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2012-01-01

    For emotional pictures with fear-, disgust-, or sex-related contents, stimulus size has been shown to increase emotion effects in attention-related event-related potentials (ERPs), presumably reflecting the enhanced biological impact of larger emotion-inducing pictures. If this is true, size should not enhance emotion effects for written words with symbolic and acquired meaning. Here, we investigated ERP effects of font size for emotional and neutral words. While P1 and N1 amplitudes were not affected by emotion, the early posterior negativity started earlier and lasted longer for large relative to small words. These results suggest that emotion-driven facilitation of attention is not necessarily based on biological relevance, but might generalize to stimuli with arbitrary perceptual features. This finding points to the high relevance of written language in today's society as an important source of emotional meaning.

  12. Associative Asymmetry of Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Jeremy B.; Boulton, Kathy L.; Gagné, Christina L.

    2014-01-01

    Early verbal-memory researchers assumed participants represent memory of a pair of unrelated items with 2 independent, separately modifiable, directional associations. However, memory for pairs of unrelated words (A-B) exhibits associative symmetry: a near-perfect correlation between accuracy on forward (A??) and backward (??B) cued recall. This…

  13. Early pediatric atopic dermatitis shows only a cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA)(+) TH2/TH1 cell imbalance, whereas adults acquire CLA(+) TH22/TC22 cell subsets.

    PubMed

    Czarnowicki, Tali; Esaki, Hitokazu; Gonzalez, Juana; Malajian, Dana; Shemer, Avner; Noda, Shinji; Talasila, Sreya; Berry, Adam; Gray, Jayla; Becker, Lauren; Estrada, Yeriel; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Xiuzhong; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Krueger, James G; Paller, Amy S; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2015-10-01

    Identifying differences and similarities between cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA)(+) polarized T-cell subsets in children versus adults with atopic dermatitis (AD) is critical for directing new treatments toward children. We sought to compare activation markers and frequencies of skin-homing (CLA(+)) versus systemic (CLA(-)) "polar" CD4 and CD8 T-cell subsets in patients with early pediatric AD, adults with AD, and control subjects. Flow cytometry was used to measure CD69/inducible costimulator/HLA-DR frequency in memory cell subsets, as well as IFN-γ, IL-13, IL-9, IL-17, and IL-22 cytokines, defining TH1/cytotoxic T (TC) 1, TH2/TC2, TH9/TC9, TH17/TC17, and TH22/TC22 populations in CD4 and CD8 cells, respectively. We compared peripheral blood from 19 children less than 5 years old and 42 adults with well-characterized moderate-to-severe AD, as well as age-matched control subjects (17 children and 25 adults). Selective inducible costimulator activation (P < .001) was seen in children. CLA(+) TH2 T cells were markedly expanded in both children and adults with AD compared with those in control subjects, but decreases in CLA(+) TH1 T-cell numbers were greater in children with AD (17% vs 7.4%, P = .007). Unlike in adults, no imbalances were detected in CLA(-) T cells from pediatric patients with AD nor were there altered frequencies of TH22 T cells within the CLA(+) or CLA(-) compartments. Adults with AD had increased frequencies of IL-22-producing CD4 and CD8 T cells within the skin-homing population, compared with controls (9.5% vs 4.5% and 8.6% vs 2.4%, respectively; P < .001), as well as increased HLA-DR activation (P < .01). These data suggest that TH2 activation within skin-homing T cells might drive AD in children and that reduced counterregulation by TH1 T cells might contribute to excess TH2 activation. TH22 "spreading" of AD is not seen in young children and might be influenced by immune development, disease chronicity, or recurrent skin infections

  14. An Initial Investigation of the Neural Correlates of Word Processing in Preschoolers With Specific Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Haebig, Eileen; Leonard, Laurence; Usler, Evan; Deevy, Patricia; Weber, Christine

    2018-03-15

    Previous behavioral studies have found deficits in lexical-semantic abilities in children with specific language impairment (SLI), including reduced depth and breadth of word knowledge. This study explored the neural correlates of early emerging familiar word processing in preschoolers with SLI and typical development. Fifteen preschoolers with typical development and 15 preschoolers with SLI were presented with pictures followed after a brief delay by an auditory label that did or did not match. Event-related brain potentials were time locked to the onset of the auditory labels. Children provided verbal judgments of whether the label matched the picture. There were no group differences in the accuracy of identifying when pictures and labels matched or mismatched. Event-related brain potential data revealed that mismatch trials elicited a robust N400 in both groups, with no group differences in mean amplitude or peak latency. However, the typically developing group demonstrated a more robust late positive component, elicited by mismatch trials. These initial findings indicate that lexical-semantic access of early acquired words, indexed by the N400, does not differ between preschoolers with SLI and typical development when highly familiar words are presented in isolation. However, the typically developing group demonstrated a more mature profile of postlexical reanalysis and integration, indexed by an emerging late positive component. The findings lay the necessary groundwork for better understanding processing of newly learned words in children with SLI.

  15. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Bilingual Word Processing

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Matthew K.; Brown, Timothy T.; Travis, Katherine E.; Gharapetian, Lusineh; Hagler, Donald J.; Dale, Anders M.; Elman, Jeffrey L.; Halgren, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Studies with monolingual adults have identified successive stages occurring in different brain regions for processing single written words. We combined magnetoencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging to compare these stages between the first (L1) and second (L2) languages in bilingual adults. L1 words in a size judgment task evoked a typical left-lateralized sequence of activity first in ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOT: previously associated with visual word-form encoding), and then ventral frontotemporal regions (associated with lexico-semantic processing). Compared to L1, words in L2 activated right VOT more strongly from ~135 ms; this activation was attenuated when words became highly familiar with repetition. At ~400ms, L2 responses were generally later than L1, more bilateral, and included the same lateral occipitotemporal areas as were activated by pictures. We propose that acquiring a language involves the recruitment of right hemisphere and posterior visual areas that are not necessary once fluency is achieved. PMID:20004256

  16. The Colour of Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrar, Bernice Lever

    Students from the ages of 13 or 14 onward need to know the "colours of words" which can let them live fully in the rainbow of life, thus eliminating student fears associated with written language and of being pawns of those who have the power of words, especially written words. Colour coding the eight basic types of work that words can…

  17. A Spoken Word Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lyle V.; Wepman, Joseph M.

    This word count is a composite listing of the different words spoken by a selected sample of 54 English-speaking adults and the frequency with which each of the different words was used in a particular test. The stimulus situation was identical for each subject and consisted of 20 cards of the Thematic Apperception Test. Although most word counts…

  18. Jasper Johns' Painted Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinger, Esther

    1989-01-01

    States that the painted words in Jasper Johns' art act in two different capacities: concealed words partake in the artist's interrogation of visual perception; and visible painted words question classical representation. Argues that words are Johns' means of critiquing modernism. (RS)

  19. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... pneumonia; HCAP Patient Instructions Pneumonia in adults - discharge Images Hospital-acquired pneumonia Respiratory system References Chastre J, Luyt C-E. Ventilator-associated pneumonia. In: Broaddus ...

  20. A Few Words about Words | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ken Michaels, Guest Writer In Shakepeare’s play “Hamlet,” Polonius inquires of the prince, “What do you read, my lord?” Not at all pleased with what he’s reading, Hamlet replies, “Words, words, words.”1 I have previously described the communication model in which a sender encodes a message and then sends it via some channel (or medium) to a receiver, who decodes the message

  1. A Few Words about Words | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ken Michaels, Guest Writer In Shakepeare’s play “Hamlet,” Polonius inquires of the prince, “What do you read, my lord?” Not at all pleased with what he’s reading, Hamlet replies, “Words, words, words.”1 I have previously described the communication model in which a sender encodes a message and then sends it via some channel (or medium) to a receiver, who decodes the message and, ideally, understands what was sent. Surely the most common way of encoding a message is in choosing the most appropriate words for the listener or reader.

  2. Phoneme Error Pattern by Heritage Speakers of Spanish on an English Word Recognition Test.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lu-Feng

    2017-04-01

    Heritage speakers acquire their native language from home use in their early childhood. As the native language is typically a minority language in the society, these individuals receive their formal education in the majority language and eventually develop greater competency with the majority than their native language. To date, there have not been specific research attempts to understand word recognition by heritage speakers. It is not clear if and to what degree we may infer from evidence based on bilingual listeners in general. This preliminary study investigated how heritage speakers of Spanish perform on an English word recognition test and analyzed their phoneme errors. A prospective, cross-sectional, observational design was employed. Twelve normal-hearing adult Spanish heritage speakers (four men, eight women, 20-38 yr old) participated in the study. Their language background was obtained through the Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire. Nine English monolingual listeners (three men, six women, 20-41 yr old) were also included for comparison purposes. Listeners were presented with 200 Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6 words in quiet. They repeated each word orally and in writing. Their responses were scored by word, word-initial consonant, vowel, and word-final consonant. Performance was compared between groups with Student's t test or analysis of variance. Group-specific error patterns were primarily descriptive, but intergroup comparisons were made using 95% or 99% confidence intervals for proportional data. The two groups of listeners yielded comparable scores when their responses were examined by word, vowel, and final consonant. However, heritage speakers of Spanish misidentified significantly more word-initial consonants and had significantly more difficulty with initial /p, b, h/ than their monolingual peers. The two groups yielded similar patterns for vowel and word-final consonants, but heritage speakers made significantly

  3. Travelling Policies and Global Buzzwords: How International Non-Governmental Organizations and Charities Spread the Word about Early Childhood in the Global South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on a web-search commissioned by an international charity to review the work of international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) and charities which promote and support early childhood education and care (ECEC) in the global South. The article examines examples of such initiatives. It is suggested that there is…

  4. Relationship between Gestures and Words in Children with Down's Syndrome and Typically Developing Children in the Early Stages of Communicative Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Jana M.; Longobardi, Emiddia; Caselli, M. Cristina

    2003-01-01

    Background: Previous research has emphasized the importance of gesture in early communicative development. These studies have reported that gestures are used frequently during the first two years of life and may play a transitional role in the language acquisition process. Although there are now numerous descriptions of the relationship between…

  5. Acquired pendular nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sarah; Shaikh, Aasef G.

    2017-01-01

    Acquired pendular nystagmus is comprised of quasi-sinusoidal oscillations of the eyes significantly affecting gaze holding and clarity of vision. The most common causes of acquired pendular nystagmus include demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis and the syndrome of ocular palatal tremor. However, several other deficits, such as pharmacological intoxication, metabolic and genetic disorders, and granulomatous disorders can lead to syndromes mimicking acquired pendular nystagmus. Study of the kinematic features of acquired pendular nystagmus has suggested a putative pathophysiology of an otherwise mysterious neurological disorder. Here we review clinical features of neurological deficits that co-occur with acquired pendular nystagmus. Subsequent discussion of the pathophysiology of individual forms of pendular nystagmus speculates on mechanisms of the underlying disease while providing insights into pharmacotherapy of nystagmus. PMID:28320194

  6. Acquired pendular nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sarah; Shaikh, Aasef G

    2017-04-15

    Acquired pendular nystagmus is comprised of quasi-sinusoidal oscillations of the eyes significantly affecting gaze holding and clarity of vision. The most common causes of acquired pendular nystagmus include demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis and the syndrome of ocular palatal tremor. However, several other deficits, such as pharmacological intoxication, metabolic and genetic disorders, and granulomatous disorders can lead to syndromes mimicking acquired pendular nystagmus. Study of the kinematic features of acquired pendular nystagmus has suggested a putative pathophysiology of an otherwise mysterious neurological disorder. Here we review clinical features of neurological deficits that co-occur with acquired pendular nystagmus. Subsequent discussion of the pathophysiology of individual forms of pendular nystagmus speculates on mechanisms of the underlying disease while providing insights into pharmacotherapy of nystagmus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Different Neural Correlates of Emotion-Label Words and Emotion-Laden Words: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Wu, Chenggang; Meng, Yaxuan; Yuan, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    It is well-documented that both emotion-label words (e.g., sadness, happiness) and emotion-laden words (e.g., death, wedding) can induce emotion activation. However, the neural correlates of emotion-label words and emotion-laden words recognition have not been examined. The present study aimed to compare the underlying neural responses when processing the two kinds of words by employing event-related potential (ERP) measurements. Fifteen Chinese native speakers were asked to perform a lexical decision task in which they should judge whether a two-character compound stimulus was a real word or not. Results showed that (1) emotion-label words and emotion-laden words elicited similar P100 at the posteriors sites, (2) larger N170 was found for emotion-label words than for emotion-laden words at the occipital sites on the right hemisphere, and (3) negative emotion-label words elicited larger Late Positivity Complex (LPC) on the right hemisphere than on the left hemisphere while such effect was not found for emotion-laden words and positive emotion-label words. The results indicate that emotion-label words and emotion-laden words elicit different cortical responses at both early (N170) and late (LPC) stages. In addition, right hemisphere advantage for emotion-label words over emotion-laden words can be observed in certain time windows (i.e., N170 and LPC) while fails to be detected in some other time window (i.e., P100). The implications of the current findings for future emotion research were discussed. PMID:28983242

  8. Different Neural Correlates of Emotion-Label Words and Emotion-Laden Words: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Wu, Chenggang; Meng, Yaxuan; Yuan, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    It is well-documented that both emotion-label words (e.g., sadness, happiness) and emotion-laden words (e.g., death, wedding) can induce emotion activation. However, the neural correlates of emotion-label words and emotion-laden words recognition have not been examined. The present study aimed to compare the underlying neural responses when processing the two kinds of words by employing event-related potential (ERP) measurements. Fifteen Chinese native speakers were asked to perform a lexical decision task in which they should judge whether a two-character compound stimulus was a real word or not. Results showed that (1) emotion-label words and emotion-laden words elicited similar P100 at the posteriors sites, (2) larger N170 was found for emotion-label words than for emotion-laden words at the occipital sites on the right hemisphere, and (3) negative emotion-label words elicited larger Late Positivity Complex (LPC) on the right hemisphere than on the left hemisphere while such effect was not found for emotion-laden words and positive emotion-label words. The results indicate that emotion-label words and emotion-laden words elicit different cortical responses at both early (N170) and late (LPC) stages. In addition, right hemisphere advantage for emotion-label words over emotion-laden words can be observed in certain time windows (i.e., N170 and LPC) while fails to be detected in some other time window (i.e., P100). The implications of the current findings for future emotion research were discussed.

  9. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... care provider about when to begin screening. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition No specific diet will prevent or delay acquired ... Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información de la ...

  10. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Discourse Bootstrapping: Preschoolers Use Linguistic Discourse to Learn New Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jessica; Barner, David

    2016-01-01

    When children acquire language, they often learn words in the absence of direct instruction (e.g. "This is a ball!") or even social cues to reference (e.g. eye gaze, pointing). However, there are few accounts of how children do this, especially in cases where the referent of a new word is ambiguous. Across two experiments, we test…

  12. Predicting Word Reading Ability: A Quantile Regression Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlraith, Autumn L.

    2018-01-01

    Predictors of early word reading are well established. However, it is unclear if these predictors hold for readers across a range of word reading abilities. This study used quantile regression to investigate predictive relationships at different points in the distribution of word reading. Quantile regression analyses used preschool and…

  13. Words Come in Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Edward

    This vocabulary enrichment book presents over 100 word roots of the English language. Each root is defined and its origin discussed. Words which derive from the roots are also defined and used in sentences which illustrate their meaning and usage. Over a thousand words are included in all, deriving from such roots as: allos, alter, ambul, arch,…

  14. Interactive Word Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Narvaez, Rose

    2013-01-01

    It is common to see word walls displaying the vocabulary that students have learned in class. Word walls serve as visual scaffolds and are a classroom strategy used to reinforce reading and language arts instruction. Research shows a strong relationship between student word knowledge and academic achievement (Stahl and Fairbanks 1986). As a…

  15. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs; Hasbun, Rodrigo; Koedel, Uwe; Whitney, Cynthia G; Wijdicks, Eelco

    2016-11-03

    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges and subarachnoid space that can also involve the brain cortex and parenchyma. It can be acquired spontaneously in the community - community-acquired bacterial meningitis - or in the hospital as a complication of invasive procedures or head trauma (nosocomial bacterial meningitis). Despite advances in treatment and vaccinations, community-acquired bacterial meningitis remains one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are the most common causative bacteria and are associated with high mortality and morbidity; vaccines targeting these organisms, which have designs similar to the successful vaccine that targets Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis, are now being used in many routine vaccination programmes. Experimental and genetic association studies have increased our knowledge about the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis. Early antibiotic treatment improves the outcome, but the growing emergence of drug resistance as well as shifts in the distribution of serotypes and groups are fuelling further development of new vaccines and treatment strategies. Corticosteroids were found to be beneficial in high-income countries depending on the bacterial species. Further improvements in the outcome are likely to come from dampening the host inflammatory response and implementing preventive measures, especially the development of new vaccines.

  16. The Significance of the Poetic in Early Childhood Education: Stanley Cavell and Lucy Sprague Mitchell on Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    This paper begins with a discussion of Stanley Cavell's philosophy of language learning. Young people learn more than the meaning of words when acquiring language: they learn about (the quality of) our form of life. If we--as early childhood educators--see language teaching as something like handing some inert thing to a child, then we unduly…

  17. Facilitating Word Recognition and Spelling Using Word Boxes and Word Sort Phonic Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Laurice M.

    2002-01-01

    Word boxes and word sorts are two word study phonics approaches that involve teaching phonemic awareness, making letter-sound associations, and teaching spelling through the use of well-established behavioral principles. The current study examines the effectiveness of word boxes and word sorts. Findings revealed that word boxes and word sort…

  18. Does Grammatical Structure Accelerate Number Word Learning? Evidence from Learners of Dual and Non-Dual Dialects of Slovenian.

    PubMed

    Marušič, Franc; Žaucer, Rok; Plesničar, Vesna; Razboršek, Tina; Sullivan, Jessica; Barner, David

    2016-01-01

    How does linguistic structure affect children's acquisition of early number word meanings? Previous studies have tested this question by comparing how children learning languages with different grammatical representations of number learn the meanings of labels for small numbers, like 1, 2, and 3. For example, children who acquire a language with singular-plural marking, like English, are faster to learn the word for 1 than children learning a language that lacks the singular-plural distinction, perhaps because the word for 1 is always used in singular contexts, highlighting its meaning. These studies are problematic, however, because reported differences in number word learning may be due to unmeasured cross-cultural differences rather than specific linguistic differences. To address this problem, we investigated number word learning in four groups of children from a single culture who spoke different dialects of the same language that differed chiefly with respect to how they grammatically mark number. We found that learning a dialect which features "dual" morphology (marking of pairs) accelerated children's acquisition of the number word two relative to learning a "non-dual" dialect of the same language.

  19. Does Grammatical Structure Accelerate Number Word Learning? Evidence from Learners of Dual and Non-Dual Dialects of Slovenian

    PubMed Central

    Plesničar, Vesna; Razboršek, Tina; Sullivan, Jessica; Barner, David

    2016-01-01

    How does linguistic structure affect children’s acquisition of early number word meanings? Previous studies have tested this question by comparing how children learning languages with different grammatical representations of number learn the meanings of labels for small numbers, like 1, 2, and 3. For example, children who acquire a language with singular-plural marking, like English, are faster to learn the word for 1 than children learning a language that lacks the singular-plural distinction, perhaps because the word for 1 is always used in singular contexts, highlighting its meaning. These studies are problematic, however, because reported differences in number word learning may be due to unmeasured cross-cultural differences rather than specific linguistic differences. To address this problem, we investigated number word learning in four groups of children from a single culture who spoke different dialects of the same language that differed chiefly with respect to how they grammatically mark number. We found that learning a dialect which features “dual” morphology (marking of pairs) accelerated children’s acquisition of the number word two relative to learning a “non-dual” dialect of the same language. PMID:27486802

  20. The Two-Word Stage: Motivated by Linguistic or Cognitive Constraints?

    PubMed Central

    Berk, Stephanie; Lillo-Martin, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Child development researchers often discuss a “two-word” stage during language acquisition. However, there is still debate over whether the existence of this stage reflects primarily cognitive or linguistic constraints. Analyses of longitudinal data from two Deaf children, Mei and Cal, not exposed to an accessible first language (American Sign Language - ASL) until the age of 6 years, suggest that a linguistic constraint is observed when cognition is relatively spared. These older children acquiring a first language after delayed exposure exhibit aspects of a two-word stage of language development. Results from intelligence assessments, achievement tests, drawing tasks, and qualitative cognitive analyses show that Mei and Cal are at least of average intelligence and ability. However, results from language analyses clearly show differences from both age peers and younger native signers in the early two-word stage, providing new insights into the nature of this phase of language development. PMID:22475876

  1. Does "a picture is worth 1000 words" apply to iconic Chinese words? Relationship of Chinese words and pictures.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shih-Yu; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2018-05-29

    The meaning of a picture can be extracted rapidly, but the form-to-meaning relationship is less obvious for printed words. In contrast to English words that follow grapheme-to-phoneme correspondence rule, the iconic nature of Chinese words might predispose them to activate their semantic representations more directly from their orthographies. By using the paradigm of repetition blindness (RB) that taps into the early level of word processing, we examined whether Chinese words activate their semantic representations as directly as pictures do. RB refers to the failure to detect the second occurrence of an item when it is presented twice in temporal proximity. Previous studies showed RB for semantically related pictures, suggesting that pictures activate their semantic representations directly from their shapes and thus two semantically related pictures are represented as repeated. However, this does not apply to English words since no RB was found for English synonyms. In this study, we replicated the semantic RB effect for pictures, and further showed the absence of semantic RB for Chinese synonyms. Based on our findings, it is suggested that Chinese words are processed like English words, which do not activate their semantic representations as directly as pictures do.

  2. Do handwritten words magnify lexical effects in visual word recognition?

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Gil-López, Cristina; Beléndez, Victoria; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    An examination of how the word recognition system is able to process handwritten words is fundamental to formulate a comprehensive model of visual word recognition. Previous research has revealed that the magnitude of lexical effects (e.g., the word-frequency effect) is greater with handwritten words than with printed words. In the present lexical decision experiments, we examined whether the quality of handwritten words moderates the recruitment of top-down feedback, as reflected in word-frequency effects. Results showed a reading cost for difficult-to-read and easy-to-read handwritten words relative to printed words. But the critical finding was that difficult-to-read handwritten words, but not easy-to-read handwritten words, showed a greater word-frequency effect than printed words. Therefore, the inherent physical variability of handwritten words does not necessarily boost the magnitude of lexical effects.

  3. More than Words: Fast Acquisition and Generalization of Orthographic Regularities during Novel Word Learning in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Matti; Polonyi, Tünde; Abari, Kálmán

    2014-01-01

    In literates, reading is a fundamental channel for acquiring new vocabulary both in the mother tongue and in foreign languages. By using an artificial language learning task, we examined the acquisition of novel written words and their embedded regularities (an orthographic surface feature and a syllabic feature) in three groups of university…

  4. Word Writing vs. Meaning Inferencing in Contextualized L2 Vocabulary Learning: Assessing the Effect of Different Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candry, Sarah; Elgort, Irina; Deconinck, Julie; Eyckmans, June

    2017-01-01

    The majority of L2 vocabulary studies concentrate on learning word meaning and provide learners with opportunities for semantic elaboration (i.e., focus on word meaning). However, in initial vocabulary learning, engaging in structural elaboration (i.e., focus on word form) with a view to acquiring L2 word form is equally important. The present…

  5. Word recognition in Alzheimer's disease: Effects of semantic degeneration.

    PubMed

    Cuetos, Fernando; Arce, Noemí; Martínez, Carmen; Ellis, Andrew W

    2017-03-01

    Impairments of word recognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been less widely investigated than impairments affecting word retrieval and production. In particular, we know little about what makes individual words easier or harder for patients with AD to recognize. We used a lexical selection task in which participants were shown sets of four items, each set consisting of one word and three non-words. The task was simply to point to the word on each trial. Forty patients with mild-to-moderate AD were significantly impaired on this task relative to matched controls who made very few errors. The number of patients with AD able to recognize each word correctly was predicted by the frequency, age of acquisition, and imageability of the words, but not by their length or number of orthographic neighbours. Patient Mini-Mental State Examination and phonological fluency scores also predicted the number of words recognized. We propose that progressive degradation of central semantic representations in AD differentially affects the ability to recognize low-imageability, low-frequency, late-acquired words, with the same factors affecting word recognition as affecting word retrieval. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  6. The effect of sign language structure on complex word reading in Chinese deaf adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lu, Aitao; Yu, Yanping; Niu, Jiaxin; Zhang, John X

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate whether sign language structure plays a role in the processing of complex words (i.e., derivational and compound words), in particular, the delay of complex word reading in deaf adolescents. Chinese deaf adolescents were found to respond faster to derivational words than to compound words for one-sign-structure words, but showed comparable performance for two-sign-structure words. For both derivational and compound words, response latencies to one-sign-structure words were shorter than to two-sign-structure words. These results provide strong evidence that the structure of sign language affects written word processing in Chinese. Additionally, differences between derivational and compound words in the one-sign-structure condition indicate that Chinese deaf adolescents acquire print morphological awareness. The results also showed that delayed word reading was found in derivational words with two signs (DW-2), compound words with one sign (CW-1), and compound words with two signs (CW-2), but not in derivational words with one sign (DW-1), with the delay being maximum in DW-2, medium in CW-2, and minimum in CW-1, suggesting that the structure of sign language has an impact on the delayed processing of Chinese written words in deaf adolescents. These results provide insight into the mechanisms about how sign language structure affects written word processing and its delayed processing relative to their hearing peers of the same age.

  7. How Did Light Acquire a Velocity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauginie, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We discuss how light acquired a velocity through history, from the ancient Greeks to the early modern era. Combining abstract debates, models of light, practical needs, planned research and chance, this history illustrates several key points that should be brought out in science education.

  8. Desmosomes in acquired disease

    PubMed Central

    Stahley, Sara N.; Kowalczyk, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Desmosomes are cell-cell junctions that mediate adhesion and couple the intermediate filament cytoskeleton to sites of cell-cell contact. This architectural arrangement functions to integrate adhesion and cytoskeletal elements of adjacent cells. The importance of this robust adhesion system is evident in numerous human diseases, both inherited and acquired, that occur when desmosome function is compromised. This review focuses on autoimmune and infectious diseases that impair desmosome function. In addition, we discuss emerging evidence that desmosomal genes are often misregulated in cancer. The emphasis of our discussion is placed on how human diseases inform our understanding of basic desmosome biology, and in turn, how fundamental advances in the cell biology of desmosomes may lead to new treatments for acquired diseases of the desmosome. PMID:25795143

  9. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  10. Visual Word Recognition Across the Adult Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Shikora, Emily R.; Balota, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examines visual word recognition in a large sample (N = 148) across the adult lifespan and across a large set of stimuli (N = 1187) in three different lexical processing tasks (pronunciation, lexical decision, and animacy judgments). Although the focus of the present study is on the influence of word frequency, a diverse set of other variables are examined as the system ages and acquires more experience with language. Computational models and conceptual theories of visual word recognition and aging make differing predictions for age-related changes in the system. However, these have been difficult to assess because prior studies have produced inconsistent results, possibly due to sample differences, analytic procedures, and/or task-specific processes. The current study confronts these potential differences by using three different tasks, treating age and word variables as continuous, and exploring the influence of individual differences such as vocabulary, vision, and working memory. The primary finding is remarkable stability in the influence of a diverse set of variables on visual word recognition across the adult age spectrum. This pattern is discussed in reference to previous inconsistent findings in the literature and implications for current models of visual word recognition. PMID:27336629

  11. The Relationships among Cognitive Correlates and Irregular Word, Non-Word, and Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; University, Mu'tah; Urso, Annmarie; Mather, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explored four hypotheses: (a) the relationships among rapid automatized naming (RAN) and processing speed (PS) to irregular word, non-word, and word reading; (b) the predictive power of various RAN and PS measures, (c) the cognitive correlates that best predicted irregular word, non-word, and word reading, and (d) reading performance of…

  12. Word Processing Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatlin, Rebecca; And Others

    Research indicates that people tend to use only five percent of the capabilities available in word processing software. The major objective of this study was to determine to what extent word processing was used by businesses, what competencies were required by those businesses, and how those competencies were being learned in Mid-South states. A…

  13. Chippy's Computer Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willing, Kathlene R.; Girard, Suzanne

    Intended for young children just becoming familiar with computers, this naming book introduces and reinforces new computer vocabulary and concepts. The 20 words are presented alphabetically, along with illustrations, providing room for different activities in which children can match and name the pictures and words. The 20 vocabulary items are…

  14. Painting with Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Barry

    1983-01-01

    The part that words play in teaching art has been underestimated. In a good art class, there is an interplay of ideas about the ongoing work. By using the right words, the teacher can help students develop their creative faculties. (CS)

  15. Words That Encourage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenbach, Brooke B.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers and education leaders are aware that their words can have a significant effect on their students. Words can build them up and encourage them to work hard or tear them down and lead them to despair. The language used in teacher evaluations is no different, says teacher Brooke Eisenbach. In this article, she shares stories of colleagues…

  16. Mapping the acquisition of the number word sequence in the first year of school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Learning to count and to produce the correct sequence of number words in English is not a simple process. In NSW government schools taking part in Early Action for Success, over 800 students in each of the first 3 years of school were assessed every 5 weeks over the school year to determine the highest correct oral count they could produce. Rather than displaying a steady increase in the accurate sequence of the number words produced, the kindergarten data reported here identified clear, substantial hurdles in the acquisition of the counting sequence. The large-scale, longitudinal data also provided evidence of learning to count through the teens being facilitated by the semi-regular structure of the number words in English. Instead of occurring as hurdles to starting the next counting sequence, number words corresponding to some multiples of ten (10, 20 and 100) acted as if they were rest points. These rest points appear to be artefacts of how the counting sequence is acquired.

  17. Word-identification priming for ignored and attended words

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, M.; Ladd, S. L.; Vaidya, C. J.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study.

  18. A Corpus-Based Comparative Study of "Learn" and "Acquire"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Bei

    2016-01-01

    As an important yet intricate linguistic feature in English language, synonymy poses a great challenge for second language learners. Using the 100 million-word British National Corpus (BNC) as data and the software Sketch Engine (SkE) as an analyzing tool, this article compares the usage of "learn" and "acquire" used in natural…

  19. Implicit Sublexical Phonological Processing in an Acquired Dyslexic Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrandt, Nancy; Sokol, Scott M.

    1993-01-01

    Reports a case study of an acquired dyslexic subject who showed no evidence of having any access to sublexical phonological information. Notes, however, that the subject showed normal effects of spelling regularity for low-frequency words, suggesting sublexical phonological processing. Suggests that the types of explicit tasks previously used are…

  20. Brain signatures of early lexical and morphological learning of a new language.

    PubMed

    Havas, Viktória; Laine, Matti; Rodríguez Fornells, Antoni

    2017-07-01

    Morphology is an important part of language processing but little is known about how adult second language learners acquire morphological rules. Using a word-picture associative learning task, we have previously shown that a brief exposure to novel words with embedded morphological structure (suffix for natural gender) is enough for language learners to acquire the hidden morphological rule. Here we used this paradigm to study the brain signatures of early morphological learning in a novel language in adults. Behavioural measures indicated successful lexical (word stem) and morphological (gender suffix) learning. A day after the learning phase, event-related brain potentials registered during a recognition memory task revealed enhanced N400 and P600 components for stem and suffix violations, respectively. An additional effect observed with combined suffix and stem violations was an enhancement of an early N2 component, most probably related to conflict-detection processes. Successful morphological learning was also evident in the ERP responses to the subsequent rule-generalization task with new stems, where violation of the morphological rule was associated with an early (250-400ms) and late positivity (750-900ms). Overall, these findings tend to converge with lexical and morphosyntactic violation effects observed in L1 processing, suggesting that even after a short exposure, adult language learners can acquire both novel words and novel morphological rules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Learning the Language of Locomotion: Do Children Use Biomechanical Structure to Constrain Hypotheses about Word Meaning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malt, Barbara C.; White, Anne; Ameel, Eef; Storms, Gert

    2016-01-01

    Much has been said about children's strategies for mapping elements of meaning to words in toddlerhood. However, children continue to refine word meanings and patterns of word use into middle childhood and beyond, even for common words appearing in early vocabulary. We address where children past toddlerhood diverge from adults and where they more…

  2. The Slow Developmental Time Course of Real-Time Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigler, Hannah; Farris-Trimble, Ashley; Greiner, Lea; Walker, Jessica; Tomblin, J. Bruce; McMurray, Bob

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the developmental time course of spoken word recognition in older children using eye tracking to assess how the real-time processing dynamics of word recognition change over development. We found that 9-year-olds were slower to activate the target words and showed more early competition from competitor words than…

  3. Algorithms in the historical emergence of word senses.

    PubMed

    Ramiro, Christian; Srinivasan, Mahesh; Malt, Barbara C; Xu, Yang

    2018-03-06

    Human language relies on a finite lexicon to express a potentially infinite set of ideas. A key result of this tension is that words acquire novel senses over time. However, the cognitive processes that underlie the historical emergence of new word senses are poorly understood. Here, we present a computational framework that formalizes competing views of how new senses of a word might emerge by attaching to existing senses of the word. We test the ability of the models to predict the temporal order in which the senses of individual words have emerged, using an historical lexicon of English spanning the past millennium. Our findings suggest that word senses emerge in predictable ways, following an historical path that reflects cognitive efficiency, predominantly through a process of nearest-neighbor chaining. Our work contributes a formal account of the generative processes that underlie lexical evolution.

  4. Primary acquired cold urticaria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chyh-Woei; Sheffer, Albert L

    2003-01-01

    Primary acquired cold urticaria (ACU) is the most common type of cold urticaria characterized by rapid onset of pruritic hives, swelling, and possible severe systemic reactions including hypotension and shock after cold exposure. Primary ACU is diagnosed by history of such symptoms, a positive immediate cold-contact stimulation test, and negative laboratory evaluation for underlying systemic disorders. Clinicians should be aware that patients with ACU may be susceptible to life-threatening systemic reactions especially during aquatic activities and that proper patient education is extremely important. This article reviews the clinical presentation, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of primary ACU.

  5. The Effects of Lexical Pitch Accent on Infant Word Recognition in Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Yamane, Naoto; Mazuka, Reiko

    2018-01-01

    Learners of lexical tone languages (e.g., Mandarin) develop sensitivity to tonal contrasts and recognize pitch-matched, but not pitch-mismatched, familiar words by 11 months. Learners of non-tone languages (e.g., English) also show a tendency to treat pitch patterns as lexically contrastive up to about 18 months. In this study, we examined if this early-developing capacity to lexically encode pitch variations enables infants to acquire a pitch accent system, in which pitch-based lexical contrasts are obscured by the interaction of lexical and non-lexical (i.e., intonational) features. Eighteen 17-month-olds learning Tokyo Japanese were tested on their recognition of familiar words with the expected pitch or the lexically opposite pitch pattern. In early trials, infants were faster in shifting their eyegaze from the distractor object to the target object than in shifting from the target to distractor in the pitch-matched condition. In later trials, however, infants showed faster distractor-to-target than target-to-distractor shifts in both the pitch-matched and pitch-mismatched conditions. We interpret these results to mean that, in a pitch-accent system, the ability to use pitch variations to recognize words is still in a nascent state at 17 months. PMID:29375452

  6. Recalling taboo and nontaboo words.

    PubMed

    Jay, Timothy; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; King, Krista

    2008-01-01

    People remember emotional and taboo words better than neutral words. It is well known that words that are processed at a deep (i.e., semantic) level are recalled better than words processed at a shallow (i.e., purely visual) level. To determine how depth of processing influences recall of emotional and taboo words, a levels of processing paradigm was used. Whether this effect holds for emotional and taboo words has not been previously investigated. Two experiments demonstrated that taboo and emotional words benefit less from deep processing than do neutral words. This is consistent with the proposal that memories for taboo and emotional words are a function of the arousal level they evoke, even under shallow encoding conditions. Recall was higher for taboo words, even when taboo words were cued to be recalled after neutral and emotional words. The superiority of taboo word recall is consistent with cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging research.

  7. Embodied attention and word learning by toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    Many theories of early word learning begin with the uncertainty inherent to learning a word from its co-occurrence with a visual scene. However, the relevant visual scene for infant word learning is neither from the adult theorist’s view nor the mature partner’s view, but is rather from the learner’s personal view. Here we show that when 18-month old infants interacted with objects in play with their parents, they created moments in which a single object was visually dominant. If parents named the object during these moments of bottom-up selectivity, later forced-choice tests showed that infants learned the name, but did not when naming occurred during a less visually selective moment. The momentary visual input for parents and toddlers was captured via head cameras placed low on each participant’s forehead as parents played with and named objects for their infant. Frame-by-frame analyses of the head camera images at and around naming moments were conducted to determine the visual properties at input that were associated with learning. The analyses indicated that learning occurred when bottom-up visual information was clean and uncluttered. The sensory-motor behaviors of infants and parents were also analyzed to determine how their actions on the objects may have created these optimal visual moments for learning. The results are discussed with respect to early word learning, embodied attention, and the social role of parents in early word learning. PMID:22878116

  8. Naturally acquired microchimerism

    PubMed Central

    GAMMILL, HILARY S.; NELSON, J. LEE

    2010-01-01

    Bi-directional transplacental trafficking occurs routinely during the course of normal pregnancy, from fetus to mother and from mother to fetus. In addition to a variety of cell-free substances, it is now well recognized that some cells are also exchanged. Microchimerism refers to a small number of cells (or DNA) harbored by one individual that originated in a genetically different individual. While microchimerism can be the result of iatrogenic interventions such as transplantation or transfusion, by far the most common source is naturally acquired microchimerism from maternal-fetal trafficking during pregnancy. Microchimerism is a subject of much current interest for a number of reasons. During pregnancy, fetal microchimerism can be sought from the mother’s blood for the purpose of prenatal diagnosis. Moreover, studies of fetal microchimerism during pregnancy may offer insight into complications of pregnancy, such as preeclampsia, as well as insights into the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis which usually ameliorates during pregnancy. Furthermore, it is now known that microchimerism persists decades later, both fetal microchimerism in women who have been pregnant and maternal microchimerism in her progeny. Investigation of the long-term consequences of fetal and maternal microchimerism is another exciting frontier of active study, with initial results pointing both to adverse and beneficial effects. This review will provide an overview of microchimerism during pregnancy and of current knowledge regarding long-term effects of naturally acquired fetal and maternal microchimerism. PMID:19924635

  9. Detection of CTX-M-15 beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae causing hospital- and community-acquired urinary tract infections as early as 2004, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Manyahi, Joel; Moyo, Sabrina J; Tellevik, Marit Gjerde; Ndugulile, Faustine; Urassa, Willy; Blomberg, Bjørn; Langeland, Nina

    2017-04-17

    The spread of Extended Spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) among Enterobacteriaceae and other Gram-Negative pathogens in the community and hospitals represents a major challenge to combat infections. We conducted a study to assess the prevalence and genetic makeup of ESBL-type resistance in bacterial isolates causing community- and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections. A total of 172 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were collected in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, from patients who met criteria of community and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections. We used E-test ESBL strips to test for ESBL-phenotype and PCR and sequencing for detection of ESBL genes. Overall 23.8% (41/172) of all isolates were ESBL-producers. ESBL-producers were more frequently isolated from hospital-acquired infections (32%, 27/84 than from community-acquired infections (16%, 14/88, p < 0.05). ESBL-producers showed high rate of resistance to ciprofloxacin (85.5%), doxycycline (90.2%), gentamicin (80.5%), nalidixic acid (84.5%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (85.4%). Furthermore, 95% of ESBL-producers were multi-drug resistant compared to 69% of non-ESBL-producers (p < 0.05). The distribution of ESBL genes were as follows: 29/32 (90.6%) bla CTX-M-15 , two bla SHV-12 , and one had both bla CTX-M-15 and bla SHV-12 . Of 29 isolates carrying bla CTX-M-15 , 69% (20/29) and 31% (9/29) were hospital and community, respectively. Bla SHV-12 genotypes were only detected in hospital-acquired infections. bla CTX-M-15 is a predominant gene conferring ESBL-production in Enterobacteriaceae causing both hospital- and community-acquired infections in Tanzania.

  10. Decorporation: officially a word.

    PubMed

    Fisher, D R

    2000-05-01

    This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition.

  11. Task-Dependent Masked Priming Effects in Visual Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    A method used widely to study the first 250 ms of visual word recognition is masked priming: These studies have yielded a rich set of data concerning the processes involved in recognizing letters and words. In these studies, there is an implicit assumption that the early processes in word recognition tapped by masked priming are automatic, and masked priming effects should therefore be invariant across tasks. Contrary to this assumption, masked priming effects are modulated by the task goal: For example, only word targets show priming in the lexical decision task, but both words and non-words do in the same-different task; semantic priming effects are generally weak in the lexical decision task but are robust in the semantic categorization task. We explain how such task dependence arises within the Bayesian Reader account of masked priming (Norris and Kinoshita, 2008), and how the task dissociations can be used to understand the early processes in lexical access. PMID:22675316

  12. [The effect of taboo word on language processing].

    PubMed

    Huszár, Tamás; Makra, Emese; Hallgató, Emese; Janacsek, Karolina; Németh, Dezsö

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge about how we process taboo words brings us closer to the and emotional processes, and broadens the interpretative framework in psychiatry and psychotherapy. In this study the lexical decision paradigm was used. Subjects were presented neutral words, taboo words and pseudowords in a random order, and they had to indicate whether the presented word was meaningful (neutral and taboo words) or meaningless (pseudowords). Each target word was preceded by a prime word (either taboo or neutral). SOA differed in the two experimental conditions (it was 250 msec in the experimental group, and 500 msec in the control group). In the experimental group, response latencies increased for target words that were preceded by taboo prime words, as compared to those that were preceded by neutral prime words. In the control group prime had no such differential effects on response latencies. Results indicate that emotional processing of taboo words occur very early and the negative effect of taboo words on the following lexical decision fades away in 500 msec. Our experiment and other empirical data are presented in this paper.

  13. Finding Words in a Language that Allows Words without Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Aissati, Abder; McQueen, James M.; Cutler, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Across many languages from unrelated families, spoken-word recognition is subject to a constraint whereby potential word candidates must contain a vowel. This constraint minimizes competition from embedded words (e.g., in English, disfavoring "win" in "twin" because "t" cannot be a word). However, the constraint would be counter-productive in…

  14. Acquired aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Elaine M

    2004-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is a disorder characterized by a profound deficit of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, bone marrow hypocellularity, and peripheral blood pancytopenia. It primarily affects children, young adults, and those over 60 years of age. The majority of cases are idiopathic; however, idiosyncratic reactions to some drugs, chemicals, and viruses have been implicated in its etiology. An autoimmune T-cell reaction likely causes the stem cell depletion, but the precise mechanism, as well as the eliciting and target antigens, is unknown. Symptoms vary from severe life-threatening cytopenias to moderate or non-severe disease that does not require transfusion support. The peripheral blood typically exhibits pancytopenia, reticulocytopenia, and normocytic or macrocytic erythrocytes. The bone marrow is hypocellular and may exhibit dysplasia of the erythrocyte precursors. First line treatment for severe AA consists of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in young patients with HLA identical siblings, while immunosuppression therapy is used for older patients and for those of any age who lack a HLA matched donor. Patients with AA have an increased risk of developing paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), or acute leukemia. Further elucidation of the pathophysiology of this disease will result in a better understanding of the interrelationship among AA, PNH, and MDS, and may lead to novel targeted therapies.

  15. Electrophysiological Responses to Coarticulatory and Word Level Miscues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Joanisse, Marc F.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of coarticulation cues on spoken word recognition is not yet well understood. This acoustic/phonetic variation may be processed early and recognized as sensory noise to be stripped away, or it may influence processing at a later prelexical stage. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) in a picture/spoken word matching…

  16. Novel Spoken Word Learning in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Peggy S.

    2013-01-01

    A high percentage of individuals with dyslexia struggle to learn unfamiliar spoken words, creating a significant obstacle to foreign language learning after early childhood. The origin of spoken-word learning difficulties in this population, generally thought to be related to the underlying literacy deficit, is not well defined (e.g., Di Betta…

  17. The Mechanism of Word Crowding

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Deyue; Akau, Melanie M. U.; Chung, Susana T. L.

    2011-01-01

    Word reading speed in peripheral vision is slower when words are in close proximity of other words (Chung, 2004). This word crowding effect could arise as a consequence of interaction of low-level letter features between words, or the interaction between high-level holistic representations of words. We evaluated these two hypotheses by examining how word crowding changes for five configurations of flanking words: the control condition — flanking words were oriented upright; scrambled — letters in each flanking word were scrambled in order; horizontal-flip — each flanking word was the left-right mirror-image of the original; letter-flip — each letter of the flanking word was the left-right mirror-image of the original; and vertical-flip — each flanking word was the up-down mirror-image of the original. The low-level letter feature interaction hypothesis predicts similar word crowding effect for all the different flanker configurations, while the high-level holistic representation hypothesis predicts less word crowding effect for all the alternative flanker conditions, compared with the control condition. We found that oral reading speed for words flanked above and below by other words, measured at 10° eccentricity in the nasal field, showed the same dependence on the vertical separation between the target and its flanking words, for the various flanker configurations. The result was also similar when we rotated the flanking words by 90° to disrupt the periodic vertical pattern, which presumably is the main structure in words. The remarkably similar word crowding effect irrespective of the flanker configurations suggests that word crowding arises as a consequence of interactions of low-level letter features. PMID:22079315

  18. The mechanism of word crowding.

    PubMed

    Yu, Deyue; Akau, Melanie M U; Chung, Susana T L

    2012-01-01

    Word reading speed in peripheral vision is slower when words are in close proximity of other words (Chung, 2004). This word crowding effect could arise as a consequence of interaction of low-level letter features between words, or the interaction between high-level holistic representations of words. We evaluated these two hypotheses by examining how word crowding changes for five configurations of flanking words: the control condition - flanking words were oriented upright; scrambled - letters in each flanking word were scrambled in order; horizontal-flip - each flanking word was the left-right mirror-image of the original; letter-flip - each letter of the flanking word was the left-right mirror-image of the original; and vertical-flip - each flanking word was the up-down mirror-image of the original. The low-level letter feature interaction hypothesis predicts similar word crowding effect for all the different flanker configurations, while the high-level holistic representation hypothesis predicts less word crowding effect for all the alternative flanker conditions, compared with the control condition. We found that oral reading speed for words flanked above and below by other words, measured at 10° eccentricity in the nasal field, showed the same dependence on the vertical separation between the target and its flanking words, for the various flanker configurations. The result was also similar when we rotated the flanking words by 90° to disrupt the periodic vertical pattern, which presumably is the main structure in words. The remarkably similar word crowding effect irrespective of the flanker configurations suggests that word crowding arises as a consequence of interactions of low-level letter features. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Visual word ambiguity.

    PubMed

    van Gemert, Jan C; Veenman, Cor J; Smeulders, Arnold W M; Geusebroek, Jan-Mark

    2010-07-01

    This paper studies automatic image classification by modeling soft assignment in the popular codebook model. The codebook model describes an image as a bag of discrete visual words selected from a vocabulary, where the frequency distributions of visual words in an image allow classification. One inherent component of the codebook model is the assignment of discrete visual words to continuous image features. Despite the clear mismatch of this hard assignment with the nature of continuous features, the approach has been successfully applied for some years. In this paper, we investigate four types of soft assignment of visual words to image features. We demonstrate that explicitly modeling visual word assignment ambiguity improves classification performance compared to the hard assignment of the traditional codebook model. The traditional codebook model is compared against our method for five well-known data sets: 15 natural scenes, Caltech-101, Caltech-256, and Pascal VOC 2007/2008. We demonstrate that large codebook vocabulary sizes completely deteriorate the performance of the traditional model, whereas the proposed model performs consistently. Moreover, we show that our method profits in high-dimensional feature spaces and reaps higher benefits when increasing the number of image categories.

  20. Learning to See Words

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Skilled reading requires recognizing written words rapidly; functional neuroimaging research has clarified how the written word initiates a series of responses in visual cortex. These responses are communicated to circuits in ventral occipitotemporal (VOT) cortex that learn to identify words rapidly. Structural neuroimaging has further clarified aspects of the white matter pathways that communicate reading signals between VOT and language systems. We review this circuitry, its development, and its deficiencies in poor readers. This review emphasizes data that measure the cortical responses and white matter pathways in individual subjects rather than group differences. Such methods have the potential to clarify why a child has difficulty learning to read and to offer guidance about the interventions that may be useful for that child. PMID:21801018

  1. The Origins of Word Learning: Brain Responses of 3-Month-Olds Indicate Their Rapid Association of Objects and Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Manuela; Friederici, Angela D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study explored the origins of word learning in early infancy. Using event-related potentials (ERP) we monitored the brain activity of 3-month-old infants when they were repeatedly exposed to several initially novel words paired consistently with each the same initially novel objects or inconsistently with different objects. Our results…

  2. Acute Acquired Concomitant Esotropia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingchang; Deng, Daming; Sun, Yuan; Shen, Tao; Cao, Guobin; Yan, Jianhua; Chen, Qiwen; Ye, Xuelian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acute acquired concomitant esotropia (AACE) is a rare, distinct subtype of esotropia. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the clinical characteristics and discuss the classification and etiology of AACE. Charts from 47 patients with AACE referred to our institute between October 2010 and November 2014 were reviewed. All participants underwent a complete medical history, ophthalmologic and orthoptic examinations, and brain and orbital imaging. Mean age at onset was 26.6 ± 12.2 years. Of the 18 cases with deviations ≤ 20 PD, 16 presented with diplopia at distance and fusion at near vision at the onset of deviation; differences between distance and near deviations were < 8 PD; all cases except one were treated with prism and diplopia resolved. Of the 29 cases with deviations > 20 PD, 5 were mild hypermetropic with age at onset between 5 and 19 years, 16 were myopic, and 8 were emmetropic with age at onset > 12 years; 24 were surgically treated and 5 cases remained under observation; all 24 cases achieved normal retinal correspondence or fusion or stereopsis on postoperative day 1 in synoptophore; in 23 cases diplopia or visual confusion resolved postoperatively. Of the 47 cases, brain and orbital imaging in 2 cases revealed a tumor in the cerebellopontine angle and 1 case involved spinocerebellar ataxia as revealed by genetic testing. AACE in this study was characterized by a sudden onset of concomitant nonaccommodative esotropia with diplopia or visual confusion at 5 years of age or older and the potential for normal binocular vision. We suggest that AACE can be divided into 2 subgroups consisting of patients with relatively small versus large angle deviations. Coexisting or underlying neurological diseases were infrequent in AACE. PMID:26705210

  3. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how listeners understand English words that have shorter words embedded in them. A series of auditory-auditory priming experiments assessed the activation of six types of embedded words (2 embedded positions × 3 embedded proportions) under different listening conditions. Facilitation of lexical decision responses to targets (e.g., pig) associated with words embedded in primes (e.g., hamster ) indexed activation of the embedded words (e.g., ham ). When the listening conditions were optimal, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham ) primed their targets in all six conditions (Experiment 1a). Within carrier words (e.g., hamster ), the same set of embedded words produced priming only when they were at the beginning or comprised a large proportion of the carrier word (Experiment 1b). When the listening conditions were made suboptimal by expanding or compressing the primes, significant priming was found for isolated embedded words (Experiment 2a), but no priming was produced when the carrier words were compressed/expanded (Experiment 2b). Similarly, priming was eliminated when the carrier words were presented with one segment replaced by noise (Experiment 3). When cognitive load was imposed, priming for embedded words was again found when they were presented in isolation (Experiment 4a), but not when they were embedded in the carrier words (Experiment 4b). The results suggest that both embedded position and proportion play important roles in the activation of embedded words, but that such activation only occurs under unusually good listening conditions.

  4. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how listeners understand English words that have shorter words embedded in them. A series of auditory-auditory priming experiments assessed the activation of six types of embedded words (2 embedded positions × 3 embedded proportions) under different listening conditions. Facilitation of lexical decision responses to targets (e.g., pig) associated with words embedded in primes (e.g., hamster) indexed activation of the embedded words (e.g., ham). When the listening conditions were optimal, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham) primed their targets in all six conditions (Experiment 1a). Within carrier words (e.g., hamster), the same set of embedded words produced priming only when they were at the beginning or comprised a large proportion of the carrier word (Experiment 1b). When the listening conditions were made suboptimal by expanding or compressing the primes, significant priming was found for isolated embedded words (Experiment 2a), but no priming was produced when the carrier words were compressed/expanded (Experiment 2b). Similarly, priming was eliminated when the carrier words were presented with one segment replaced by noise (Experiment 3). When cognitive load was imposed, priming for embedded words was again found when they were presented in isolation (Experiment 4a), but not when they were embedded in the carrier words (Experiment 4b). The results suggest that both embedded position and proportion play important roles in the activation of embedded words, but that such activation only occurs under unusually good listening conditions. PMID:25593407

  5. Word Production Deficits in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvel, Cherie L.; Schwartz, Barbara L.; Isaacs, Keren L.

    2004-01-01

    Fronto-cerebellar circuitry is implicated in word production. Data suggest that the cerebellum is involved in word "search," whereas the prefrontal cortex underlies the "selection" of words from among competing alternatives. We explored the role of search and selection processes in word production deficits in schizophrenia patients. In Experiment…

  6. Learning to Read and Write Polysyllabic Words: The Effects of Morphology and Context on the Acquisition of Whole-Word Representations in Fourth and Fifth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ghanem, Reem

    2017-01-01

    Accurate and rapid word recognition requires highly-specified phonological, orthographic, and semantic word-specific representations. It has been established that children acquire these representations through phonological decoding in a process known as orthographic learning. Studies examining orthographic learning and its predictors have thus far…

  7. The Influence of Concreteness of Concepts on the Integration of Novel Words into the Semantic Network

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jinfeng; Liu, Wenjuan; Yang, Yufang

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of previous studies revealing a processing advantage of concrete words over abstract words, the current study aimed to further explore the influence of concreteness on the integration of novel words into semantic memory with the event related potential (ERP) technique. In the experiment during the learning phase participants read two-sentence contexts and inferred the meaning of novel words. The novel words were two-character non-words in Chinese language. Their meaning was either a concrete or abstract known concept which could be inferred from the contexts. During the testing phase participants performed a lexical decision task in which the learned novel words served as primes for either their corresponding concepts, semantically related or unrelated targets. For the concrete novel words, the semantically related words belonged to the same semantic categories with their corresponding concepts. For the abstract novel words, the semantically related words were synonyms of their corresponding concepts. The unrelated targets were real words which were concrete or abstract for the concrete or abstract novel words respectively. The ERP results showed that the corresponding concepts and the semantically related words elicited smaller N400s than the unrelated words. The N400 effect was not modulated by the concreteness of the concepts. In addition, the concrete corresponding concepts elicited a smaller late positive component (LPC) than the concrete unrelated words. This LPC effect was absent for the abstract words. The results indicate that although both concrete and abstract novel words can be acquired and linked to their related words in the semantic network after a short learning phase, the concrete novel words are learned better. Our findings support the (extended) dual coding theory and broaden our understanding of adult word learning and changes in concept organization. PMID:29255440

  8. The Influence of Concreteness of Concepts on the Integration of Novel Words into the Semantic Network.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jinfeng; Liu, Wenjuan; Yang, Yufang

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of previous studies revealing a processing advantage of concrete words over abstract words, the current study aimed to further explore the influence of concreteness on the integration of novel words into semantic memory with the event related potential (ERP) technique. In the experiment during the learning phase participants read two-sentence contexts and inferred the meaning of novel words. The novel words were two-character non-words in Chinese language. Their meaning was either a concrete or abstract known concept which could be inferred from the contexts. During the testing phase participants performed a lexical decision task in which the learned novel words served as primes for either their corresponding concepts, semantically related or unrelated targets. For the concrete novel words, the semantically related words belonged to the same semantic categories with their corresponding concepts. For the abstract novel words, the semantically related words were synonyms of their corresponding concepts. The unrelated targets were real words which were concrete or abstract for the concrete or abstract novel words respectively. The ERP results showed that the corresponding concepts and the semantically related words elicited smaller N400s than the unrelated words. The N400 effect was not modulated by the concreteness of the concepts. In addition, the concrete corresponding concepts elicited a smaller late positive component (LPC) than the concrete unrelated words. This LPC effect was absent for the abstract words. The results indicate that although both concrete and abstract novel words can be acquired and linked to their related words in the semantic network after a short learning phase, the concrete novel words are learned better. Our findings support the (extended) dual coding theory and broaden our understanding of adult word learning and changes in concept organization.

  9. ERP correlates of unexpected word forms in a picture–word study of infants and adults

    PubMed Central

    Duta, M.D.; Styles, S.J.; Plunkett, K.

    2012-01-01

    We tested 14-month-olds and adults in an event-related potentials (ERPs) study in which pictures of familiar objects generated expectations about upcoming word forms. Expected word forms labelled the picture (word condition), while unexpected word forms mismatched by either a small deviation in word medial vowel height (mispronunciation condition) or a large deviation from the onset of the first speech segment (pseudoword condition). Both infants and adults showed sensitivity to both types of unexpected word form. Adults showed a chain of discrete effects: positivity over the N1 wave, negativity over the P2 wave (PMN effect) and negativity over the N2 wave (N400 effect). Infants showed a similar pattern, including a robust effect similar to the adult P2 effect. These observations were underpinned by a novel visualisation method which shows the dynamics of the ERP within bands of the scalp over time. The results demonstrate shared processing mechanisms across development, as even subtle deviations from expected word forms were indexed in both age groups by a reduction in the amplitude of characteristic waves in the early auditory evoked potential. PMID:22483072

  10. Understanding Medical Words

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript on. The alternative text for the background image is a mother and daughter sitting on a couch looking at the computer A free, online tutorial from the National Library of Medicine that teaches you about many of the words related to your health care Do you have ...

  11. Word Problem Wizardry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jack

    1991-01-01

    Presents suggestions for teaching math word problems to elementary students. The strategies take into consideration differences between reading in math and reading in other areas. A problem-prediction game and four self-checking activities are included along with a magic password challenge. (SM)

  12. From Thoughts to Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaus, Marlene

    The activities presented in this book, designed to help children translate their thoughts into spoken and written words, can supplement an elementary teacher's own language arts lessons. Objectives for each activity are listed, with the general focus of the many oral activities being to develop a rich verbal background for future written work. The…

  13. Word Processing Career Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagoner, Kathleen P., Comp.

    Word processing, a system for improved communication through the use of skilled personnel, revised procedures, and automated equipment, is creating new jobs and changing traditional ones. This pamphlet, intended for business managers and educators, was created to present information concerning new office structures, job descriptions, and career…

  14. Generalizing Word Lattice Translation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    demonstrate substantial gains for Chinese-English and Arabic -English translation. Keywords: word lattice translation, phrase-based and hierarchical...introduce in reordering models. Our experiments evaluating the approach demonstrate substantial gains for Chinese-English and Arabic -English translation. 15...gains for Chinese-English and Arabic -English translation. 1 Introduction When Brown and colleagues introduced statistical machine translation in the

  15. Words of Reason.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Francis A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the word "reason" as it is used in political discourse. Argues that "reason"'s plasticity and flexibility help it to stimulate and evoke variable mental images and responses in different settings and situations. Notes that the example of reason of state shows "reason"'s rhetorical power and privilege, its…

  16. Word Processing Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Marcia A.; Kusek, Robert W.

    A combination of facts, examples, models, tools, and sources useful in developing and teaching word processing (WP) programs is provided in this guide. Eight sections are included. Sections 1 and 2 present introductory information on WP (e.g., history, five phases of WP, problems occurring in WP offices, factors of people, procedures, and…

  17. Have Words, Will Understand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Shifting the focus from words to concepts--does it work? The author shares his findings from such a project with three primary schools in the UK. Many children aged 7-10 find mastering the language of science difficult and do not make the progress that they could. Encountering complex terminology in the science language causes students to become…

  18. Sparkling and Spinning Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Ruth Kearney

    1964-01-01

    Teachers should foster in children's writing the use of words with "sparkle" and "spin"--"sparkle" implying brightness and vitality, "spin" connoting industry, patience, and painstaking work. By providing creative listening experiences with good children's or adult literature, the teacher can encourage students to broaden their imaginations and…

  19. Development and Relationships Between Phonological Awareness, Morphological Awareness and Word Reading in Spoken and Standard Arabic.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Rachel; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2018-01-01

    This study addressed the development of and the relationship between foundational metalinguistic skills and word reading skills in Arabic. It compared Arabic-speaking children's phonological awareness (PA), morphological awareness, and voweled and unvoweled word reading skills in spoken and standard language varieties separately in children across five grade levels from childhood to adolescence. Second, it investigated whether skills developed in the spoken variety of Arabic predict reading in the standard variety. Results indicate that although individual differences between students in PA are eliminated toward the end of elementary school in both spoken and standard language varieties, gaps in morphological awareness and in reading skills persisted through junior and high school years. The results also show that the gap in reading accuracy and fluency between Spoken Arabic (SpA) and Standard Arabic (StA) was evident in both voweled and unvoweled words. Finally, regression analyses showed that morphological awareness in SpA contributed to reading fluency in StA, i.e., children's early morphological awareness in SpA explained variance in children's gains in reading fluency in StA. These findings have important theoretical and practical contributions for Arabic reading theory in general and they extend the previous work regarding the cross-linguistic relevance of foundational metalinguistic skills in the first acquired language to reading in a second language, as in societal bilingualism contexts, or a second language variety, as in diglossic contexts.

  20. Development and Relationships Between Phonological Awareness, Morphological Awareness and Word Reading in Spoken and Standard Arabic

    PubMed Central

    Schiff, Rachel; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2018-01-01

    This study addressed the development of and the relationship between foundational metalinguistic skills and word reading skills in Arabic. It compared Arabic-speaking children’s phonological awareness (PA), morphological awareness, and voweled and unvoweled word reading skills in spoken and standard language varieties separately in children across five grade levels from childhood to adolescence. Second, it investigated whether skills developed in the spoken variety of Arabic predict reading in the standard variety. Results indicate that although individual differences between students in PA are eliminated toward the end of elementary school in both spoken and standard language varieties, gaps in morphological awareness and in reading skills persisted through junior and high school years. The results also show that the gap in reading accuracy and fluency between Spoken Arabic (SpA) and Standard Arabic (StA) was evident in both voweled and unvoweled words. Finally, regression analyses showed that morphological awareness in SpA contributed to reading fluency in StA, i.e., children’s early morphological awareness in SpA explained variance in children’s gains in reading fluency in StA. These findings have important theoretical and practical contributions for Arabic reading theory in general and they extend the previous work regarding the cross-linguistic relevance of foundational metalinguistic skills in the first acquired language to reading in a second language, as in societal bilingualism contexts, or a second language variety, as in diglossic contexts. PMID:29686633

  1. Multimodal Word Meaning Induction From Minimal Exposure to Natural Text.

    PubMed

    Lazaridou, Angeliki; Marelli, Marco; Baroni, Marco

    2017-04-01

    By the time they reach early adulthood, English speakers are familiar with the meaning of thousands of words. In the last decades, computational simulations known as distributional semantic models (DSMs) have demonstrated that it is possible to induce word meaning representations solely from word co-occurrence statistics extracted from a large amount of text. However, while these models learn in batch mode from large corpora, human word learning proceeds incrementally after minimal exposure to new words. In this study, we run a set of experiments investigating whether minimal distributional evidence from very short passages suffices to trigger successful word learning in subjects, testing their linguistic and visual intuitions about the concepts associated with new words. After confirming that subjects are indeed very efficient distributional learners even from small amounts of evidence, we test a DSM on the same multimodal task, finding that it behaves in a remarkable human-like way. We conclude that DSMs provide a convincing computational account of word learning even at the early stages in which a word is first encountered, and the way they build meaning representations can offer new insights into human language acquisition. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Cross-situational statistical word learning in young children.

    PubMed

    Suanda, Sumarga H; Mugwanya, Nassali; Namy, Laura L

    2014-10-01

    Recent empirical work has highlighted the potential role of cross-situational statistical word learning in children's early vocabulary development. In the current study, we tested 5- to 7-year-old children's cross-situational learning by presenting children with a series of ambiguous naming events containing multiple words and multiple referents. Children rapidly learned word-to-object mappings by attending to the co-occurrence regularities across these ambiguous naming events. The current study begins to address the mechanisms underlying children's learning by demonstrating that the diversity of learning contexts affects performance. The implications of the current findings for the role of cross-situational word learning at different points in development are discussed along with the methodological implications of employing school-aged children to test hypotheses regarding the mechanisms supporting early word learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acquisition of Three Word Knowledge Aspects through Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daskalovska, Nina

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that second or foreign language learners can acquire vocabulary through reading. The aim of the study was to investigate (a) the effects of reading an authentic novel on the acquisition of 3 aspects of word knowledge: spelling, meaning, and collocation; (b) the influence of reading on the acquisition of partial and…

  4. Motivate Students to Engage in Word Study Using Vocabulary Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Jenny C.; Narkon, Drue E.

    2011-01-01

    Vocabulary instruction across the content areas aids reading comprehension, making it time well spent in the classroom. Although students with learning disabilities (LD) need many practice opportunities to learn new words, engaging them in vocabulary instruction may prove challenging. Due to their past difficulties in acquiring reading skills,…

  5. Ultrasound of Inherited vs. Acquired Demyelinating Polyneuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Zaidman, Craig M.; Harms, Matthew B.; Pestronk, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We compared features of nerve enlargement in inherited and acquired demyelinating neuropathies using ultrasound. Methods We measured median and ulnar nerve cross-sectional areas in proximal and distal regions in 128 children and adults with inherited (Charcot-Marie Tooth-1 (CMT-1) (n=35)) and acquired (Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) (n=55), Guillaine-Barre Syndrome (GBS) (n=21) and Multifocal Motor Neuropathy (MMN) (n=17)) demyelinating neuropathies. We classified nerve enlargement by degree and number of regions affected. We defined patterns of nerve enlargement as: none- no enlargement; mild-nerves enlarged but never more than twice normal; regional- nerves normal at at least one region and enlarged more than twice normal at atleast one region; diffuse- nerves enlarged at all four regions with atleast one region more than twice normal size. Results Nerve enlargement was commonly diffuse (89%) and generally more than twice normal size in CMT-1, but not (p<0.001) in acquired disorders which mostly had either no, mild or regional nerve enlargement (CIDP (64%), GBS (95%), and MMN (100%)). In CIDP, subjects treated within three months of disease onset had less nerve enlargement than those treated later. Discussion Ultrasound identified patterns of diffuse nerve enlargement can be used to screen patients suspected of having CMT-1. Normal, mildly, or regionally enlarged nerves in demyelinating polyneuropathy suggests an acquired etiology. Early treatment in CIDP may impede nerve enlargement. PMID:24101129

  6. Infant word recognition: Insights from TRACE simulations☆

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The TRACE model of speech perception (McClelland & Elman, 1986) is used to simulate results from the infant word recognition literature, to provide a unified, theoretical framework for interpreting these findings. In a first set of simulations, we demonstrate how TRACE can reconcile apparently conflicting findings suggesting, on the one hand, that consonants play a pre-eminent role in lexical acquisition (Nespor, Peña & Mehler, 2003; Nazzi, 2005), and on the other, that there is a symmetry in infant sensitivity to vowel and consonant mispronunciations of familiar words (Mani & Plunkett, 2007). In a second series of simulations, we use TRACE to simulate infants’ graded sensitivity to mispronunciations of familiar words as reported by White and Morgan (2008). An unexpected outcome is that TRACE fails to demonstrate graded sensitivity for White and Morgan’s stimuli unless the inhibitory parameters in TRACE are substantially reduced. We explore the ramifications of this finding for theories of lexical development. Finally, TRACE mimics the impact of phonological neighbourhoods on early word learning reported by Swingley and Aslin (2007). TRACE offers an alternative explanation of these findings in terms of mispronunciations of lexical items rather than imputing word learning to infants. Together these simulations provide an evaluation of Developmental (Jusczyk, 1993) and Familiarity (Metsala, 1999) accounts of word recognition by infants and young children. The findings point to a role for both theoretical approaches whereby vocabulary structure and content constrain infant word recognition in an experience-dependent fashion, and highlight the continuity in the processes and representations involved in lexical development during the second year of life. PMID:24493907

  7. Infant word recognition: Insights from TRACE simulations.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

    2014-02-01

    The TRACE model of speech perception (McClelland & Elman, 1986) is used to simulate results from the infant word recognition literature, to provide a unified, theoretical framework for interpreting these findings. In a first set of simulations, we demonstrate how TRACE can reconcile apparently conflicting findings suggesting, on the one hand, that consonants play a pre-eminent role in lexical acquisition (Nespor, Peña & Mehler, 2003; Nazzi, 2005), and on the other, that there is a symmetry in infant sensitivity to vowel and consonant mispronunciations of familiar words (Mani & Plunkett, 2007). In a second series of simulations, we use TRACE to simulate infants' graded sensitivity to mispronunciations of familiar words as reported by White and Morgan (2008). An unexpected outcome is that TRACE fails to demonstrate graded sensitivity for White and Morgan's stimuli unless the inhibitory parameters in TRACE are substantially reduced. We explore the ramifications of this finding for theories of lexical development. Finally, TRACE mimics the impact of phonological neighbourhoods on early word learning reported by Swingley and Aslin (2007). TRACE offers an alternative explanation of these findings in terms of mispronunciations of lexical items rather than imputing word learning to infants. Together these simulations provide an evaluation of Developmental (Jusczyk, 1993) and Familiarity (Metsala, 1999) accounts of word recognition by infants and young children. The findings point to a role for both theoretical approaches whereby vocabulary structure and content constrain infant word recognition in an experience-dependent fashion, and highlight the continuity in the processes and representations involved in lexical development during the second year of life.

  8. Perception of Musical Emotion in the Students with Cognitive and Acquired Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Mazaheryazdi, Malihe; Aghasoleimani, Mina; Karimi, Maryam; Arjmand, Pirooz

    2018-01-01

    Hearing loss can affect the perception of emotional reaction to the music. The present study investigated whether the students with congenital hearing loss exposed to the deaf culture, percept the same emotion from the music as students with acquired hearing loss. Participants were divided into two groups; 30 students with bilaterally congenital moderate to severe hearing loss that were selected from deaf schools located in Tehran, Iran and 30 students with an acquired hearing loss with the same degree of hearing loss selected from Amiralam Hospital, Tehran, Iran and compared with the group of 30 age and gender-matched normal hearing subjects served our control in 2012. The musical stimuli consisted of three different sequences of music, (sadness, happiness, and fear) each with the duration of 60 sec. The students were asked to point to the lists of words that best matched with their emotions. Emotional perception of sadness, happiness, and fear in congenital hearing loss children was significantly poorly than acquired hearing loss and normal hearing group ( P <0.001). There was no significant difference in the emotional perception of sadness, happiness, and fear among the group of acquired hearing loss and normal hearing group ( P =0.75), ( P =1) and ( P =0.16) respectively. Neural plasticity induced by hearing assistant devises may be affected by the time when a hearing aid was first fitted and how the auditory system responds to the reintroduction of certain sounds via amplification. Therefore, children who experienced auditory input of different sound patterns in their early childhood will show more perceptual flexibility in different situations than the children with congenital hearing loss and Deaf culture.

  9. Hear here: children with hearing loss learn words by listening.

    PubMed

    Lew, Joyce; Purcell, Alison A; Doble, Maree; Lim, Lynne H

    2014-10-01

    Early use of hearing devices and family participation in auditory-verbal therapy has been associated with age-appropriate verbal communication outcomes for children with hearing loss. However, there continues to be great variability in outcomes across different oral intervention programmes and little consensus on how therapists should prioritise goals at each therapy session for positive clinical outcomes. This pilot intervention study aimed to determine whether therapy goals that concentrate on teaching preschool children with hearing loss how to distinguish between words in a structured listening programme is effective, and whether gains in speech perception skills impact on vocabulary and speech development without them having to be worked on directly in therapy. A multiple baseline across subjects design was used in this within-subject controlled study. 3 children aged between 2:6 and 3:1 with moderate-severe to severe-profound hearing loss were recruited for a 6-week intervention programme. Each participant commenced at different stages of the 10-staged listening programme depending on their individual listening skills at recruitment. Speech development and vocabulary assessments were conducted before and after the training programme in addition to speech perception assessments and probes conducted throughout the intervention programme. All participants made gains in speech perception skills as well as vocabulary and speech development. Speech perception skills acquired were noted to be maintained a week after intervention. In addition, all participants were able to generalise speech perception skills learnt to words that had not been used in the intervention programme. This pilot study found that therapy directed at listening alone is promising and that it may have positive impact on speech and vocabulary development without these goals having to be incorporated into a therapy programme. Although a larger study is necessary for more conclusive findings, the

  10. Differences in word associations to pictures and words.

    PubMed

    Saffran, Eleanor M; Coslett, H Branch; Keener, Matthew T

    2003-01-01

    Normal subjects were asked to produce the "first word that comes to mind" in response to pictures or words that differed with respect to manipulability and animacy. In separate analyses across subjects and items, normal subjects produced a significantly higher proportion of action words (that is, verbs) to pictures as compared to words, to manipulable as compared to non-manipulable stimuli and to inanimate as compared to animate stimuli. The largest proportion of action words was elicited by pictures of non-living, manipulable objects. Furthermore, associates to words matched standard word associates significantly more often than those elicited by pictures. These data suggest that pictures and words initially contact different forms of conceptual information and are consistent with an account of semantic organization that assumes that information is distributed across different domains reflecting the mode of acquisition of that knowledge.

  11. An update on acquired nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Rucker, Janet C

    2008-01-01

    Proper evaluation and treatment of acquired nystagmus requires accurate characterization of nystagmus type and visual effects. This review addresses important historical and examination features of nystagmus and current concepts of pathogenesis and treatment of gaze-evoked nystagmus, nystagmus due to vision loss, acquired pendular nystagmus, peripheral and central vestibular nystagmus, and periodic alternating nystagmus.

  12. The Development of Word-Object Associations in Typically Developing Infants and Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Oh Ryeong

    2013-01-01

    The ability to form associations between words and objects rapidly with a short amount of exposure is a marker of more proficient word learners in typically developing (TD) infants. Investigating the underlying mechanisms for how words are associated with objects is necessary for understanding early word learning in the TD population as well as in…

  13. Word Maturity: A New Metric for Word Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landauer, Thomas K.; Kireyev, Kirill; Panaccione, Charles

    2011-01-01

    A new metric, Word Maturity, estimates the development by individual students of knowledge of every word in a large corpus. The metric is constructed by Latent Semantic Analysis modeling of word knowledge as a function of the reading that a simulated learner has done and is calibrated by its developing closeness in information content to that of a…

  14. Word Links: A Strategy for Developing Word Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, Ruth Helen

    2007-01-01

    Word Links, an effective strategy for developing students' vocabulary, is based on four principles. It provides contextual and definitional information; offers repeated exposure to words and opportunities to practice them; encourages students to think about relationships among word meanings; and involves active engagement in learning tasks. Yopp…

  15. Word Savvy: Integrating Vocabulary, Spelling, and Word Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Max

    2004-01-01

    Tired of assigning weekly spelling lists that students memorize for the test only to have them misspell the words in their daily writing? Then join Max Brand in his fifth-grade classroom where word learning is integrated fully into literacy workshops. Using spelling investigations, word study notebooks, reading logs, and writers' notebooks,…

  16. Fine-Grained Sensitivity to Statistical Information in Adult Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vouloumanos, Athena

    2008-01-01

    A language learner trying to acquire a new word must often sift through many potential relations between particular words and their possible meanings. In principle, statistical information about the distribution of those mappings could serve as one important source of data, but little is known about whether learners can in fact track multiple…

  17. Parallel and Serial Reading Processes in Children's Word and Nonword Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Boer, Madelon; de Jong, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Fluent reading is characterized by rapid and accurate identification of words. It is commonly accepted that such identification relies on the availability of orthographic knowledge. However, whether this orthographic knowledge should be seen as an accumulation of word-specific knowledge in a lexicon acquired through decoding or as a well-developed…

  18. Age-of-Acquisition Effects in Visual Word Recognition: Evidence from Expert Vocabularies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadthagen-Gonzalez, Hans; Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Damian, Markus F.

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments assessed the contributions of age-of-acquisition (AoA) and frequency to visual word recognition. Three databases were created from electronic journals in chemistry, psychology and geology in order to identify technical words that are extremely frequent in each discipline but acquired late in life. In Experiment 1, psychologists…

  19. Children's Learning of Number Words in an Indigenous Farming-Foraging Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piantadosi, Steven T.; Jara-Ettinger, Julian; Gibson, Edward

    2014-01-01

    We show that children in the Tsimane', a farming-foraging group in the Bolivian rain-forest, learn number words along a similar developmental trajectory to children from industrialized countries. Tsimane' children successively acquire the first three or four number words before fully learning how counting works. However, their learning is…

  20. Learning with sublexical information from emerging reading vocabularies in exceptionally early and normal reading development.

    PubMed

    Thompson, G Brian; Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M; Wilson, Kathryn J; McKay, Michael F; Margrain, Valerie G

    2015-03-01

    Predictions from theories of the processes of word reading acquisition have rarely been tested against evidence from exceptionally early readers. The theories of Ehri, Share, and Byrne, and an alternative, Knowledge Sources theory, were so tested. The former three theories postulate that full development of context-free letter sounds and awareness of phonemes are required for normal acquisition, while the claim of the alternative is that with or without such, children can use sublexical information from their emerging reading vocabularies to acquire word reading. Results from two independent samples of children aged 3-5, and 5 years, with mean word reading levels of 7 and 9 years respectively, showed underdevelopment of their context-free letter sounds and phoneme awareness, relative to their word reading levels and normal comparison samples. Despite such underdevelopment, these exceptional readers engaged in a form of phonological recoding that enabled pseudoword reading, at the level of older-age normal controls matched on word reading level. Moreover, in the 5-year-old sample further experiments showed that, relative to normal controls, they had a bias toward use of sublexical information from their reading vocabularies for phonological recoding of heterophonic pseudowords with irregular consistent spelling, and were superior in accessing word meanings independently of phonology, although only if the readers were without exposure to explicit phonics. The three theories were less satisfactory than the alternative theory in accounting for the learning of the exceptionally early readers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. It's What's on the Outside that Matters: An Advantage for External Features in Children's Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Tessa M.; Beech, John R.; Mayall, Kate M.; Andrews, Antony S.

    2006-01-01

    The relative importance of internal and external letter features of words in children's developing reading was investigated to clarify further the nature of early featural analysis. In Experiment 1, 72 6-, 8-, and 10-year-olds read aloud words displayed as wholes, external features only (central features missing, thereby preserving word shape…

  2. Grammar and Frequency Effects in the Acquisition of Prosodic Words in European Portuguese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigario, Marina; Freitas, Maria Joao; Frota, Sonia

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the acquisition of prosodic words in European Portuguese (EP) through analysis of grammatical and statistical properties of the target language and child speech. The analysis of grammatical properties shows that there are solid cues to the prosodic word (PW) in EP, and the presence of early word-based phonology in child…

  3. Speech perception and spoken word recognition: past and present.

    PubMed

    Jusezyk, Peter W; Luce, Paul A

    2002-02-01

    The scientific study of the perception of spoken language has been an exciting, prolific, and productive area of research for more than 50 yr. We have learned much about infants' and adults' remarkable capacities for perceiving and understanding the sounds of their language, as evidenced by our increasingly sophisticated theories of acquisition, process, and representation. We present a selective, but we hope, representative review of the past half century of research on speech perception, paying particular attention to the historical and theoretical contexts within which this research was conducted. Our foci in this review fall on three principle topics: early work on the discrimination and categorization of speech sounds, more recent efforts to understand the processes and representations that subserve spoken word recognition, and research on how infants acquire the capacity to perceive their native language. Our intent is to provide the reader a sense of the progress our field has experienced over the last half century in understanding the human's extraordinary capacity for the perception of spoken language.

  4. Information properties of morphologically complex words modulate brain activity during word reading

    PubMed Central

    Hultén, Annika; Lehtonen, Minna; Lagus, Krista; Salmelin, Riitta

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Neuroimaging studies of the reading process point to functionally distinct stages in word recognition. Yet, current understanding of the operations linked to those various stages is mainly descriptive in nature. Approaches developed in the field of computational linguistics may offer a more quantitative approach for understanding brain dynamics. Our aim was to evaluate whether a statistical model of morphology, with well‐defined computational principles, can capture the neural dynamics of reading, using the concept of surprisal from information theory as the common measure. The Morfessor model, created for unsupervised discovery of morphemes, is based on the minimum description length principle and attempts to find optimal units of representation for complex words. In a word recognition task, we correlated brain responses to word surprisal values derived from Morfessor and from other psycholinguistic variables that have been linked with various levels of linguistic abstraction. The magnetoencephalography data analysis focused on spatially, temporally and functionally distinct components of cortical activation observed in reading tasks. The early occipital and occipito‐temporal responses were correlated with parameters relating to visual complexity and orthographic properties, whereas the later bilateral superior temporal activation was correlated with whole‐word based and morphological models. The results show that the word processing costs estimated by the statistical Morfessor model are relevant for brain dynamics of reading during late processing stages. PMID:29524274

  5. Information properties of morphologically complex words modulate brain activity during word reading.

    PubMed

    Hakala, Tero; Hultén, Annika; Lehtonen, Minna; Lagus, Krista; Salmelin, Riitta

    2018-06-01

    Neuroimaging studies of the reading process point to functionally distinct stages in word recognition. Yet, current understanding of the operations linked to those various stages is mainly descriptive in nature. Approaches developed in the field of computational linguistics may offer a more quantitative approach for understanding brain dynamics. Our aim was to evaluate whether a statistical model of morphology, with well-defined computational principles, can capture the neural dynamics of reading, using the concept of surprisal from information theory as the common measure. The Morfessor model, created for unsupervised discovery of morphemes, is based on the minimum description length principle and attempts to find optimal units of representation for complex words. In a word recognition task, we correlated brain responses to word surprisal values derived from Morfessor and from other psycholinguistic variables that have been linked with various levels of linguistic abstraction. The magnetoencephalography data analysis focused on spatially, temporally and functionally distinct components of cortical activation observed in reading tasks. The early occipital and occipito-temporal responses were correlated with parameters relating to visual complexity and orthographic properties, whereas the later bilateral superior temporal activation was correlated with whole-word based and morphological models. The results show that the word processing costs estimated by the statistical Morfessor model are relevant for brain dynamics of reading during late processing stages. © 2018 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Who is "Daddy" Revisited: The Status of Two-Year-Olds' Over-Extended Words in Use and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jean R.; Chapman, Robin S.

    1977-01-01

    Diary observations of two-year-olds' over-extended word use have been interpreted as arising from the word's underlying semantic feature structure. This interpretation was rejected after a study of five children. The need to construct models of early word meaning reflecting certain early language development patterns is discussed. (CHK)

  7. Decoding and disrupting left midfusiform gyrus activity during word reading

    PubMed Central

    Hirshorn, Elizabeth A.; Ward, Michael J.; Fiez, Julie A.; Ghuman, Avniel Singh

    2016-01-01

    The nature of the visual representation for words has been fiercely debated for over 150 y. We used direct brain stimulation, pre- and postsurgical behavioral measures, and intracranial electroencephalography to provide support for, and elaborate upon, the visual word form hypothesis. This hypothesis states that activity in the left midfusiform gyrus (lmFG) reflects visually organized information about words and word parts. In patients with electrodes placed directly in their lmFG, we found that disrupting lmFG activity through stimulation, and later surgical resection in one of the patients, led to impaired perception of whole words and letters. Furthermore, using machine-learning methods to analyze the electrophysiological data from these electrodes, we found that information contained in early lmFG activity was consistent with an orthographic similarity space. Finally, the lmFG contributed to at least two distinguishable stages of word processing, an early stage that reflects gist-level visual representation sensitive to orthographic statistics, and a later stage that reflects more precise representation sufficient for the individuation of orthographic word forms. These results provide strong support for the visual word form hypothesis and demonstrate that across time the lmFG is involved in multiple stages of orthographic representation. PMID:27325763

  8. Decoding and disrupting left midfusiform gyrus activity during word reading.

    PubMed

    Hirshorn, Elizabeth A; Li, Yuanning; Ward, Michael J; Richardson, R Mark; Fiez, Julie A; Ghuman, Avniel Singh

    2016-07-19

    The nature of the visual representation for words has been fiercely debated for over 150 y. We used direct brain stimulation, pre- and postsurgical behavioral measures, and intracranial electroencephalography to provide support for, and elaborate upon, the visual word form hypothesis. This hypothesis states that activity in the left midfusiform gyrus (lmFG) reflects visually organized information about words and word parts. In patients with electrodes placed directly in their lmFG, we found that disrupting lmFG activity through stimulation, and later surgical resection in one of the patients, led to impaired perception of whole words and letters. Furthermore, using machine-learning methods to analyze the electrophysiological data from these electrodes, we found that information contained in early lmFG activity was consistent with an orthographic similarity space. Finally, the lmFG contributed to at least two distinguishable stages of word processing, an early stage that reflects gist-level visual representation sensitive to orthographic statistics, and a later stage that reflects more precise representation sufficient for the individuation of orthographic word forms. These results provide strong support for the visual word form hypothesis and demonstrate that across time the lmFG is involved in multiple stages of orthographic representation.

  9. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  10. COMPUTER-AIDED WORD RESEARCH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SILIAKUS, H.J.

    IN PREPARATION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A GENERAL FREQUENCY WORD LIST IN GERMAN DESIGNED TO MEET THE NEEDS OF THE INTERMEDIATE AND ADVANCED LEVELS OF READING IN THE GERMAN CURRICULUM, A COMPUTER-BASED WORD COUNT WAS BEGUN IN AUSTRALIA'S UNIVERSITY OF ADELAIDE. USING MAGNETIC TAPES CONTAINING (1) A TEXT OF OVER 100,000 RUNNING WORDS, (2) 1,000 MOST…

  11. Word Learning as Bayesian Inference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Fei; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a Bayesian framework for understanding how adults and children learn the meanings of words. The theory explains how learners can generalize meaningfully from just one or a few positive examples of a novel word's referents, by making rational inductive inferences that integrate prior knowledge about plausible word meanings with…

  12. Environmental Print and Word Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Virginia; Farrell, Denise; Delaney, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Compares two views about the importance of environmental print in children's learning experiences. Assesses environmental print knowledge in non-reading preschool children and relates it to word recognition training. Finds words from the known logos were more readily learned than the matching control words, but only in Study 1 were the known logo…

  13. Build an Interactive Word Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Word walls visually display important vocabulary covered during class. Although teachers have often been encouraged to post word walls in their classrooms, little information is available to guide them. This article describes steps science teachers can follow to transform traditional word walls into interactive teaching tools. It also describes a…

  14. Skipped words and fixated words are processed differently during reading.

    PubMed

    Eskenazi, Michael A; Folk, Jocelyn R

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether words are processed differently when they are fixated during silent reading than when they are skipped. According to a serial processing model of eye movement control (e.g., EZ Reader) skipped words are fully processed (Reichle, Rayner, Pollatsek, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 26(04):445-476, 2003), whereas in a parallel processing model (e.g., SWIFT) skipped words do not need to be fully processed (Engbert, Nuthmann, Richter, Kliegl, Psychological Review, 112(4):777-813, 2005). Participants read 34 sentences with target words embedded in them while their eye movements were recorded. All target words were three-letter, low-frequency, and unpredictable nouns. After the reading session, participants completed a repetition priming lexical decision task with the target words from the reading session included as the repetition prime targets, with presentation of those same words during the reading task acting as the prime. When participants skipped a word during the reading session, their reaction times on the lexical decision task were significantly longer (M = 656.42 ms) than when they fixated the word (M = 614.43 ms). This result provides evidence that skipped words are sometimes not processed to the same degree as fixated words during reading.

  15. Novel word learning in older adults: A role for sleep?

    PubMed Central

    Kurdziel, Laura B. F.; Mantua, Janna; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is an offline period during which newly acquired semantic information is transformed into longer-lasting memories. Language acquisition, which requires new word learning and semantic integration, is preferentially benefitted by a period of sleep in children and young adults. Specific features of sleep (e.g., sleep stage characteristics) have been associated with enhanced language acquisition and generalization. However, with increasing age, even in healthy individuals, sleep quality and quantity decrease. Simultaneously, deficits in word retrieval and new word learning emerge. It is unknown whether age-related alterations in language ability are linked with alterations in sleep. The goal of this review is to examine changes in language learning and sleep across the lifespan. We consider how sleep detriments that occur with aging could affect abilities to learn novel words and semantic generalization and propose hypotheses to motivate future research in this area. PMID:27291336

  16. Performance impact of stop lists and morphological decomposition on word-word corpus-based semantic space models.

    PubMed

    Keith, Jeff; Westbury, Chris; Goldman, James

    2015-09-01

    Corpus-based semantic space models, which primarily rely on lexical co-occurrence statistics, have proven effective in modeling and predicting human behavior in a number of experimental paradigms that explore semantic memory representation. The most widely studied extant models, however, are strongly influenced by orthographic word frequency (e.g., Shaoul & Westbury, Behavior Research Methods, 38, 190-195, 2006). This has the implication that high-frequency closed-class words can potentially bias co-occurrence statistics. Because these closed-class words are purported to carry primarily syntactic, rather than semantic, information, the performance of corpus-based semantic space models may be improved by excluding closed-class words (using stop lists) from co-occurrence statistics, while retaining their syntactic information through other means (e.g., part-of-speech tagging and/or affixes from inflected word forms). Additionally, very little work has been done to explore the effect of employing morphological decomposition on the inflected forms of words in corpora prior to compiling co-occurrence statistics, despite (controversial) evidence that humans perform early morphological decomposition in semantic processing. In this study, we explored the impact of these factors on corpus-based semantic space models. From this study, morphological decomposition appears to significantly improve performance in word-word co-occurrence semantic space models, providing some support for the claim that sublexical information-specifically, word morphology-plays a role in lexical semantic processing. An overall decrease in performance was observed in models employing stop lists (e.g., excluding closed-class words). Furthermore, we found some evidence that weakens the claim that closed-class words supply primarily syntactic information in word-word co-occurrence semantic space models.

  17. Modelling acquired dyslexia: a software tool for developing grapheme-phoneme correspondences.

    PubMed Central

    D'Autrechy, C. L.; Reggia, J. A.; Berndt, R. S.

    1991-01-01

    In extending a computer model of acquired dyslexia, it has become necessary to develop a way to group printed characters in a word so that the character groups essentially have a one-to-one correspondence with the word's phonemes (speech sounds). This requires deriving a set of correspondences (legal character groupings, legal associations of character groups with phonemes, etc.) that yield a single grouping or "segmentation" of characters when applied to any English word. To facilitate and partially automate this task, a segmentation program has been developed that uses an interchangeable set of correspondences. The program segments words according to these correspondences and tabulates their success over large sets of words. The program has been used successfully to segment a 20,000 word corpus, demonstrating that this approach can be used effectively and efficiently. PMID:1807611

  18. To mind the mind: An event-related potential study of word class and semantic ambiguity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-lin; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to jointly examine the effects of word class, word class ambiguity, and semantic ambiguity on the brain response to words in syntactically specified contexts. Four types of words were used: (1) word class ambiguous words with a high degree of semantic ambiguity (e.g., ‘duck’); (2) word class ambiguous words with little or no semantic ambiguity (e.g., ‘vote’); (3) word class unambiguous nouns (e.g., ‘sofa’); and (4) word class unambiguous verbs (e.g., ‘eat’). These words were embedded in minimal phrases that explicitly specified their word class: “the” for nouns (and ambiguous words used as nouns) and “to” for verbs (and ambiguous words used as verbs). Our results replicate the basic word class effects found in prior work (Federmeier, K.D., Segal, J.B., Lombrozo, T., Kutas, M., 2000. Brain responses to nouns, verbs and class ambiguous words in context. Brain, 123 (12), 2552–2566), including an enhanced N400 (250–450ms) to nouns compared with verbs and an enhanced frontal positivity (300–700 ms) to unambiguous verbs in relation to unambiguous nouns. A sustained frontal negativity (250–900 ms) that was previously linked to word class ambiguity also appeared in this study but was specific to word class ambiguous items that also had a high level of semantic ambiguity; word class ambiguous items without semantic ambiguity, in contrast, were more positive than class unambiguous words in the early part of this time window (250–500 ms). Thus, this frontal negative effect seems to be driven by the need to resolve the semantic ambiguity that is sometimes associated with different grammatical uses of a word class ambiguous homograph rather than by the class ambiguity per se. PMID:16516169

  19. Emotion Words: Adding Face Value.

    PubMed

    Fugate, Jennifer M B; Gendron, Maria; Nakashima, Satoshi F; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2017-06-12

    Despite a growing number of studies suggesting that emotion words affect perceptual judgments of emotional stimuli, little is known about how emotion words affect perceptual memory for emotional faces. In Experiments 1 and 2 we tested how emotion words (compared with control words) affected participants' abilities to select a target emotional face from among distractor faces. Participants were generally more likely to false alarm to distractor emotional faces when primed with an emotion word congruent with the face (compared with a control word). Moreover, participants showed both decreased sensitivity (d') to discriminate between target and distractor faces, as well as altered response biases (c; more likely to answer "yes") when primed with an emotion word (compared with a control word). In Experiment 3 we showed that emotion words had more of an effect on perceptual memory judgments when the structural information in the target face was limited, as well as when participants were only able to categorize the face with a partially congruent emotion word. The overall results are consistent with the idea that emotion words affect the encoding of emotional faces in perceptual memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Children value informativity over logic in word learning.

    PubMed

    Ramscar, Michael; Dye, Melody; Klein, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    The question of how children learn the meanings of words has long puzzled philosophers and psychologists. As Quine famously pointed out, simply hearing a word in context reveals next to nothing about its meaning. How then do children learn to understand and use words correctly? Here, we show how learning theory can offer an elegant solution to this seemingly intractable puzzle in language acquisition. From it, we derived formal predictions about word learning in situations of Quinean ambiguity, and subsequently tested our predictions on toddlers, undergraduates, and developmental psychologists. The toddlers' performance was consistent both with our predictions and with the workings of implicit mechanisms that can facilitate the learning of meaningful lexical systems. Adults adopted a markedly different and likely suboptimal strategy. These results suggest one explanation for why early word learning can appear baffling: Adult intuitions may be a poor source of insight into how children learn.

  1. Learning words and learning sounds: Advances in language development.

    PubMed

    Vihman, Marilyn M

    2017-02-01

    Phonological development is sometimes seen as a process of learning sounds, or forming phonological categories, and then combining sounds to build words, with the evidence taken largely from studies demonstrating 'perceptual narrowing' in infant speech perception over the first year of life. In contrast, studies of early word production have long provided evidence that holistic word learning may precede the formation of phonological categories. In that account, children begin by matching their existing vocal patterns to adult words, with knowledge of the phonological system emerging from the network of related word forms. Here I review evidence from production and then consider how the implicit and explicit learning mechanisms assumed by the complementary memory systems model might be understood as reconciling the two approaches. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  2. LEARNING WORDS FOR LIFE

    PubMed Central

    Gillanders, Cristina; Castro, Dina C.; Franco, Ximena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching vocabulary to young dual language learners is critical for their learning in school. This article presents recommendations for promoting vocabulary during reading aloud and conversations in early childhood. PMID:26500378

  3. Defining a Conceptual Topography of Word Concreteness: Clustering Properties of Emotion, Sensation, and Magnitude among 750 English Words

    PubMed Central

    Troche, Joshua; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Reilly, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive science has a longstanding interest in the ways that people acquire and use abstract vs. concrete words (e.g., truth vs. piano). One dominant theory holds that abstract and concrete words are subserved by two parallel semantic systems. We recently proposed an alternative account of abstract-concrete word representation premised upon a unitary, high dimensional semantic space wherein word meaning is nested. We hypothesize that a range of cognitive and perceptual dimensions (e.g., emotion, time, space, color, size, visual form) bound this space, forming a conceptual topography. Here we report a normative study where we examined the clustering properties of a sample of English words (N = 750) spanning a spectrum of concreteness in a continuous manner from highly abstract to highly concrete. Participants (N = 328) rated each target word on a range of 14 cognitive dimensions (e.g., color, emotion, valence, polarity, motion, space). The dimensions reduced to three factors: Endogenous factor, Exogenous factor, and Magnitude factor. Concepts were plotted in a unified, multimodal space with concrete and abstract concepts along a continuous continuum. We discuss theoretical implications and practical applications of this dataset. These word norms are freely available for download and use at http://www.reilly-coglab.com/data/. PMID:29075224

  4. Defining a Conceptual Topography of Word Concreteness: Clustering Properties of Emotion, Sensation, and Magnitude among 750 English Words.

    PubMed

    Troche, Joshua; Crutch, Sebastian J; Reilly, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive science has a longstanding interest in the ways that people acquire and use abstract vs. concrete words (e.g., truth vs. piano). One dominant theory holds that abstract and concrete words are subserved by two parallel semantic systems. We recently proposed an alternative account of abstract-concrete word representation premised upon a unitary, high dimensional semantic space wherein word meaning is nested. We hypothesize that a range of cognitive and perceptual dimensions (e.g., emotion, time, space, color, size, visual form) bound this space, forming a conceptual topography. Here we report a normative study where we examined the clustering properties of a sample of English words ( N = 750) spanning a spectrum of concreteness in a continuous manner from highly abstract to highly concrete. Participants ( N = 328) rated each target word on a range of 14 cognitive dimensions (e.g., color, emotion, valence, polarity, motion, space). The dimensions reduced to three factors: Endogenous factor, Exogenous factor, and Magnitude factor. Concepts were plotted in a unified, multimodal space with concrete and abstract concepts along a continuous continuum. We discuss theoretical implications and practical applications of this dataset. These word norms are freely available for download and use at http://www.reilly-coglab.com/data/.

  5. Rapid Statistical Learning Supporting Word Extraction From Continuous Speech.

    PubMed

    Batterink, Laura J

    2017-07-01

    The identification of words in continuous speech, known as speech segmentation, is a critical early step in language acquisition. This process is partially supported by statistical learning, the ability to extract patterns from the environment. Given that speech segmentation represents a potential bottleneck for language acquisition, patterns in speech may be extracted very rapidly, without extensive exposure. This hypothesis was examined by exposing participants to continuous speech streams composed of novel repeating nonsense words. Learning was measured on-line using a reaction time task. After merely one exposure to an embedded novel word, learners demonstrated significant learning effects, as revealed by faster responses to predictable than to unpredictable syllables. These results demonstrate that learners gained sensitivity to the statistical structure of unfamiliar speech on a very rapid timescale. This ability may play an essential role in early stages of language acquisition, allowing learners to rapidly identify word candidates and "break in" to an unfamiliar language.

  6. Statistical Laws Governing Fluctuations in Word Use from Word Birth to Word Death

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Tenenbaum, Joel; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the dynamic properties of 107 words recorded in English, Spanish and Hebrew over the period 1800–2008 in order to gain insight into the coevolution of language and culture. We report language independent patterns useful as benchmarks for theoretical models of language evolution. A significantly decreasing (increasing) trend in the birth (death) rate of words indicates a recent shift in the selection laws governing word use. For new words, we observe a peak in the growth-rate fluctuations around 40 years after introduction, consistent with the typical entry time into standard dictionaries and the human generational timescale. Pronounced changes in the dynamics of language during periods of war shows that word correlations, occurring across time and between words, are largely influenced by coevolutionary social, technological, and political factors. We quantify cultural memory by analyzing the long-term correlations in the use of individual words using detrended fluctuation analysis. PMID:22423321

  7. Statistical Laws Governing Fluctuations in Word Use from Word Birth to Word Death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Tenenbaum, Joel; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-03-01

    We analyze the dynamic properties of 107 words recorded in English, Spanish and Hebrew over the period 1800-2008 in order to gain insight into the coevolution of language and culture. We report language independent patterns useful as benchmarks for theoretical models of language evolution. A significantly decreasing (increasing) trend in the birth (death) rate of words indicates a recent shift in the selection laws governing word use. For new words, we observe a peak in the growth-rate fluctuations around 40 years after introduction, consistent with the typical entry time into standard dictionaries and the human generational timescale. Pronounced changes in the dynamics of language during periods of war shows that word correlations, occurring across time and between words, are largely influenced by coevolutionary social, technological, and political factors. We quantify cultural memory by analyzing the long-term correlations in the use of individual words using detrended fluctuation analysis.

  8. Word Learning and Individual Differences in Word Learning Reflected in Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Wlotko, Edward W.; Hart, Lesley A.

    2005-01-01

    Adults learned the meanings of rare words (e.g., gloaming) and then made meaning judgments on pairs of words. The 1st word was a trained rare word, an untrained rare word, or an untrained familiar word. Event-related potentials distinguished trained rare words from both untrained rare and familiar words, first at 140 ms and again at 400-600 ms…

  9. The word-length effect and disyllabic words.

    PubMed

    Lovatt, P; Avons, S E; Masterson, J

    2000-02-01

    Three experiments compared immediate serial recall of disyllabic words that differed on spoken duration. Two sets of long- and short-duration words were selected, in each case maximizing duration differences but matching for frequency, familiarity, phonological similarity, and number of phonemes, and controlling for semantic associations. Serial recall measures were obtained using auditory and visual presentation and spoken and picture-pointing recall. In Experiments 1a and 1b, using the first set of items, long words were better recalled than short words. In Experiments 2a and 2b, using the second set of items, no difference was found between long and short disyllabic words. Experiment 3 confirmed the large advantage for short-duration words in the word set originally selected by Baddeley, Thomson, and Buchanan (1975). These findings suggest that there is no reliable advantage for short-duration disyllables in span tasks, and that previous accounts of a word-length effect in disyllables are based on accidental differences between list items. The failure to find an effect of word duration casts doubt on theories that propose that the capacity of memory span is determined by the duration of list items or the decay rate of phonological information in short-term memory.

  10. Estimating affective word covariates using word association data.

    PubMed

    Van Rensbergen, Bram; De Deyne, Simon; Storms, Gert

    2016-12-01

    Word ratings on affective dimensions are an important tool in psycholinguistic research. Traditionally, they are obtained by asking participants to rate words on each dimension, a time-consuming procedure. As such, there has been some interest in computationally generating norms, by extrapolating words' affective ratings using their semantic similarity to words for which these values are already known. So far, most attempts have derived similarity from word co-occurrence in text corpora. In the current paper, we obtain similarity from word association data. We use these similarity ratings to predict the valence, arousal, and dominance of 14,000 Dutch words with the help of two extrapolation methods: Orientation towards Paradigm Words and k-Nearest Neighbors. The resulting estimates show very high correlations with human ratings when using Orientation towards Paradigm Words, and even higher correlations when using k-Nearest Neighbors. We discuss possible theoretical accounts of our results and compare our findings with previous attempts at computationally generating affective norms.

  11. Active retinitis in an infant with postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Piersigilli, F; Catena, G; De Gasperis, M R; Lozzi, S; Auriti, C

    2012-07-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is frequently associated with active retinitis. In contrast, in the immunocompetent neonate with postnatally acquired CMV infection retinitis is rarely present and usually does not progress. We describe the case of an infant with postnatal CMV infection and active retinitis diagnosed at 20 days of life. Owing to the rapid progression of the retinitis, therapy with intravenous ganciclovir was performed, with prompt regression of the retinitis. Therapy was then continued with oral valganciclovir for one further week. Although very unusual, CMV retinitis has to be taken into consideration in neonates with early postnatally acquired CMV infection, as an early diagnosis and treatment may be crucial to avoid visual impairment.

  12. Rapid modulation of spoken word recognition by visual primes.

    PubMed

    Okano, Kana; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J

    2016-02-01

    In a masked cross-modal priming experiment with ERP recordings, spoken Japanese words were primed with words written in one of the two syllabary scripts of Japanese. An early priming effect, peaking at around 200ms after onset of the spoken word target, was seen in left lateral electrode sites for Katakana primes, and later effects were seen for both Hiragana and Katakana primes on the N400 ERP component. The early effect is thought to reflect the efficiency with which words in Katakana script make contact with sublexical phonological representations involved in spoken language comprehension, due to the particular way this script is used by Japanese readers. This demonstrates fast-acting influences of visual primes on the processing of auditory target words, and suggests that briefly presented visual primes can influence sublexical processing of auditory target words. The later N400 priming effects, on the other hand, most likely reflect cross-modal influences on activity at the level of whole-word phonology and semantics.

  13. Rapid modulation of spoken word recognition by visual primes

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Kana; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2015-01-01

    In a masked cross-modal priming experiment with ERP recordings, spoken Japanese words were primed with words written in one of the two syllabary scripts of Japanese. An early priming effect, peaking at around 200ms after onset of the spoken word target, was seen in left lateral electrode sites for Katakana primes, and later effects were seen for both Hiragana and Katakana primes on the N400 ERP component. The early effect is thought to reflect the efficiency with which words in Katakana script make contact with sublexical phonological representations involved in spoken language comprehension, due to the particular way this script is used by Japanese readers. This demonstrates fast-acting influences of visual primes on the processing of auditory target words, and suggests that briefly presented visual primes can influence sublexical processing of auditory target words. The later N400 priming effects, on the other hand, most likely reflect cross-modal influences on activity at the level of whole-word phonology and semantics. PMID:26516296

  14. Word and pseudoword superiority effects reflected in the ERP waveform

    PubMed Central

    Coch, Donna; Mitra, Priya

    2010-01-01

    A variant of the Reicher-Wheeler task was used to determine when in the event-related potential (ERP) waveform indices of word and pseudoword superiority effects might be present, and whether ERP measures of superiority effects correlated with standardized behavioral measures of orthographic fluency and single word reading. ERPs were recorded to briefly presented, masked letter strings that included real words (DARK/PARK), pseudowords (DARL/PARL), nonwords (RDKA/RPKA), and letter-in-xs (DXXX, PXXX) stimuli. Participants decided which of two letters occurred at a given position in the string (here, forced-choice alternatives D and P). Behaviorally, both word (more accurate choices for letters in words than in baseline nonwords or letter-in-xs) and pseudoword (more accurate choices for letters in pseudowords than in baseline conditions) superiority effects were observed. Electrophysiologically, effects of orthographic regularity and familiarity were apparent as early as the P150 time window (100–160 ms), an effect of lexicality was observed as early as the N200 time window (160–200 ms), and peak amplitude of the N300 and N400 also differentiated word and pseudoword as compared to baseline stimuli. Further, the size of the P150 and N400 ERP word superiority effects was related to standardized behavioral measures of fluency and reading. Results suggest that orthographic fluency is reflected in both lower-level, sublexical, perceptual processing and higher-level, lexical processing in fluently reading adults. PMID:20211607

  15. Developmental Constraints on Learning Artificial Grammars with Fixed, Flexible and Free Word Order

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Iga; Baggio, Giosuè

    2017-01-01

    Human learning, although highly flexible and efficient, is constrained in ways that facilitate or impede the acquisition of certain systems of information. Some such constraints, active during infancy and childhood, have been proposed to account for the apparent ease with which typically developing children acquire language. In a series of experiments, we investigated the role of developmental constraints on learning artificial grammars with a distinction between shorter and relatively frequent words (‘function words,’ F-words) and longer and less frequent words (‘content words,’ C-words). We constructed 4 finite-state grammars, in which the order of F-words, relative to C-words, was either fixed (F-words always occupied the same positions in a string), flexible (every F-word always followed a C-word), or free. We exposed adults (N = 84) and kindergarten children (N = 100) to strings from each of these artificial grammars, and we assessed their ability to recognize strings with the same structure, but a different vocabulary. Adults were better at recognizing strings when regularities were available (i.e., fixed and flexible order grammars), while children were better at recognizing strings from the grammars consistent with the attested distribution of function and content words in natural languages (i.e., flexible and free order grammars). These results provide evidence for a link between developmental constraints on learning and linguistic typology. PMID:29089910

  16. Left-frontal brain potentials index conceptual implicit memory for words initially viewed subliminally.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jason C W; Li, Wen; Lui, Ming; Paller, Ken A

    2009-08-18

    Neural correlates of explicit and implicit memory tend to co-occur and are therefore difficult to measure independently, posing problems for understanding the unique nature of different types of memory processing. To circumvent this problem, we developed an experimental design wherein subjects acquired information from words presented in a subliminal manner, such that conscious remembering was minimized. Cross-modal word repetition was used so that perceptual implicit memory would also be limited. Healthy human subjects viewed subliminal words six times each and about 2 min later heard the same words interspersed with new words in a category-verification test. Electrophysiological correlates of word repetition included negative brain potentials over left-frontal locations beginning approximately 500 ms after word onset. Behavioral responses were slower for repeated words than for new words. Differential processing of word meaning in the absence of explicit memory was most likely responsible for differential electrical and behavioral responses to old versus new words. Moreover, these effects were distinct from neural correlates of explicit memory observed in prior experiments, and were observed here in two separate experiments, thus providing a foundation for further investigations of relationships and interactions between different types of memory engaged when words repeat.

  17. Bilingual reading of compound words.

    PubMed

    Ko, In Yeong; Wang, Min; Kim, Say Young

    2011-02-01

    The present study investigated whether bilingual readers activate constituents of compound words in one language while processing compound words in the other language via decomposition. Two experiments using a lexical decision task were conducted with adult Korean-English bilingual readers. In Experiment 1, the lexical decision of real English compound words was more accurate when the translated compounds (the combination of the translation equivalents of the constituents) in Korean (the nontarget language) were real words than when they were nonwords. In Experiment 2, when the frequency of the second constituents of compound words in English (the target language) was manipulated, the effect of lexical status of the translated compounds was greater on the compounds with high-frequency second constituents than on those with low-frequency second constituents in the target language. Together, these results provided evidence for morphological decomposition and cross-language activation in bilingual reading of compound words.

  18. Abolishing the Word-Length Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, Charles; Suprenant, Aime M.; Bireta, Tamra J.; Stuart, George; Neath, Ian

    2004-01-01

    The authors report 2 experiments that compare the recall of long and short words in pure and mixed lists. In pure lists, long words were much more poorly remembered than short words. In mixed lists, this word-length effect was abolished and both the long and short words were recalled as well as short words in pure lists. These findings contradict…

  19. Do preschool children learn to read words from environmental prints?

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Pei; Weng, Xuchu; Li, Su

    2014-01-01

    Parents and teachers worldwide believe that a visual environment rich with print can contribute to young children's literacy. Children seem to recognize words in familiar logos at an early age. However, most of previous studies were carried out with alphabetic scripts. Alphabetic letters regularly correspond to phonological segments in a word and provide strong cues about the identity of the whole word. Thus it was not clear whether children can learn to read words by extracting visual word form information from environmental prints. To exclude the phonological-cue confound, this study tested children's knowledge of Chinese words embedded in familiar logos. The four environmental logos were employed and transformed into four versions with the contextual cues (i.e., something apart from the presentation of the words themselves in logo format like the color, logo and font type cues) gradually minimized. Children aged from 3 to 5 were tested. We observed that children of different ages all performed better when words were presented in highly familiar logos compared to when they were presented in a plain fashion, devoid of context. This advantage for familiar logos was also present when the contextual information was only partial. However, the role of various cues in learning words changed with age. The color and logo cues had a larger effect in 3- and 4- year-olds than in 5-year-olds, while the font type cue played a greater role in 5-year-olds than in the other two groups. Our findings demonstrated that young children did not easily learn words by extracting their visual form information even from familiar environmental prints. However, children aged 5 begin to pay more attention to the visual form information of words in highly familiar logos than those aged 3 and 4.

  20. Do Preschool Children Learn to Read Words from Environmental Prints?

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Pei; Weng, Xuchu; Li, Su

    2014-01-01

    Parents and teachers worldwide believe that a visual environment rich with print can contribute to young children's literacy. Children seem to recognize words in familiar logos at an early age. However, most of previous studies were carried out with alphabetic scripts. Alphabetic letters regularly correspond to phonological segments in a word and provide strong cues about the identity of the whole word. Thus it was not clear whether children can learn to read words by extracting visual word form information from environmental prints. To exclude the phonological-cue confound, this study tested children's knowledge of Chinese words embedded in familiar logos. The four environmental logos were employed and transformed into four versions with the contextual cues (i.e., something apart from the presentation of the words themselves in logo format like the color, logo and font type cues) gradually minimized. Children aged from 3 to 5 were tested. We observed that children of different ages all performed better when words were presented in highly familiar logos compared to when they were presented in a plain fashion, devoid of context. This advantage for familiar logos was also present when the contextual information was only partial. However, the role of various cues in learning words changed with age. The color and logo cues had a larger effect in 3- and 4- year-olds than in 5-year-olds, while the font type cue played a greater role in 5-year-olds than in the other two groups. Our findings demonstrated that young children did not easily learn words by extracting their visual form information even from familiar environmental prints. However, children aged 5 begin to pay more attention to the visual form information of words in highly familiar logos than those aged 3 and 4. PMID:24465677

  1. Holistic word processing in dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Aisling; Misra, Karuna

    2017-01-01

    People with dyslexia have difficulty learning to read and many lack fluent word recognition as adults. In a novel task that borrows elements of the ‘word superiority’ and ‘word inversion’ paradigms, we investigate whether holistic word recognition is impaired in dyslexia. In Experiment 1 students with dyslexia and controls judged the similarity of pairs of 6- and 7-letter words or pairs of words whose letters had been partially jumbled. The stimuli were presented in both upright and inverted form with orthographic regularity and orientation randomized from trial to trial. While both groups showed sensitivity to orthographic regularity, both word inversion and letter jumbling were more detrimental to skilled than dyslexic readers supporting the idea that the latter may read in a more analytic fashion. Experiment 2 employed the same task but using shorter, 4- and 5-letter words and a design where orthographic regularity and stimuli orientation was held constant within experimental blocks to encourage the use of either holistic or analytic processing. While there was no difference in reaction time between the dyslexic and control groups for inverted stimuli, the students with dyslexia were significantly slower than controls for upright stimuli. These findings suggest that holistic word recognition, which is largely based on the detection of orthographic regularity, is impaired in dyslexia. PMID:29121046

  2. Using Serial and Discrete Digit Naming to Unravel Word Reading Processes

    PubMed Central

    Altani, Angeliki; Protopapas, Athanassios; Georgiou, George K.

    2018-01-01

    During reading acquisition, word recognition is assumed to undergo a developmental shift from slow serial/sublexical processing of letter strings to fast parallel processing of whole word forms. This shift has been proposed to be detected by examining the size of the relationship between serial- and discrete-trial versions of word reading and rapid naming tasks. Specifically, a strong association between serial naming of symbols and single word reading suggests that words are processed serially, whereas a strong association between discrete naming of symbols and single word reading suggests that words are processed in parallel as wholes. In this study, 429 Grade 1, 3, and 5 English-speaking Canadian children were tested on serial and discrete digit naming and word reading. Across grades, single word reading was more strongly associated with discrete naming than with serial naming of digits, indicating that short high-frequency words are processed as whole units early in the development of reading ability in English. In contrast, serial naming was not a unique predictor of single word reading across grades, suggesting that within-word sequential processing was not required for the successful recognition for this set of words. Factor mixture analysis revealed that our participants could be clustered into two classes, namely beginning and more advanced readers. Serial naming uniquely predicted single word reading only among the first class of readers, indicating that novice readers rely on a serial strategy to decode words. Yet, a considerable proportion of Grade 1 students were assigned to the second class, evidently being able to process short high-frequency words as unitized symbols. We consider these findings together with those from previous studies to challenge the hypothesis of a binary distinction between serial/sublexical and parallel/lexical processing in word reading. We argue instead that sequential processing in word reading operates on a continuum

  3. Using Serial and Discrete Digit Naming to Unravel Word Reading Processes.

    PubMed

    Altani, Angeliki; Protopapas, Athanassios; Georgiou, George K

    2018-01-01

    During reading acquisition, word recognition is assumed to undergo a developmental shift from slow serial/sublexical processing of letter strings to fast parallel processing of whole word forms. This shift has been proposed to be detected by examining the size of the relationship between serial- and discrete-trial versions of word reading and rapid naming tasks. Specifically, a strong association between serial naming of symbols and single word reading suggests that words are processed serially, whereas a strong association between discrete naming of symbols and single word reading suggests that words are processed in parallel as wholes. In this study, 429 Grade 1, 3, and 5 English-speaking Canadian children were tested on serial and discrete digit naming and word reading. Across grades, single word reading was more strongly associated with discrete naming than with serial naming of digits, indicating that short high-frequency words are processed as whole units early in the development of reading ability in English. In contrast, serial naming was not a unique predictor of single word reading across grades, suggesting that within-word sequential processing was not required for the successful recognition for this set of words. Factor mixture analysis revealed that our participants could be clustered into two classes, namely beginning and more advanced readers. Serial naming uniquely predicted single word reading only among the first class of readers, indicating that novice readers rely on a serial strategy to decode words. Yet, a considerable proportion of Grade 1 students were assigned to the second class, evidently being able to process short high-frequency words as unitized symbols. We consider these findings together with those from previous studies to challenge the hypothesis of a binary distinction between serial/sublexical and parallel/lexical processing in word reading. We argue instead that sequential processing in word reading operates on a continuum

  4. The time course of morphological processing during spoken word recognition in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Qu, Qingqing; Ni, Aiping; Zhou, Junyi; Li, Xingshan

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the time course of morphological processing during spoken word recognition using the printed-word paradigm. Chinese participants were asked to listen to a spoken disyllabic compound word while simultaneously viewing a printed-word display. Each visual display consisted of three printed words: a semantic associate of the first constituent of the compound word (morphemic competitor), a semantic associate of the whole compound word (whole-word competitor), and an unrelated word (distractor). Participants were directed to detect whether the spoken target word was on the visual display. Results indicated that both the morphemic and whole-word competitors attracted more fixations than the distractor. More importantly, the morphemic competitor began to diverge from the distractor immediately at the acoustic offset of the first constituent, which was earlier than the whole-word competitor. These results suggest that lexical access to the auditory word is incremental and morphological processing (i.e., semantic access to the first constituent) that occurs at an early processing stage before access to the representation of the whole word in Chinese.

  5. Identifiable Orthographically Similar Word Primes Interfere in Visual Word Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    University students participated in five experiments concerning the effects of unmasked, orthographically similar, primes on visual word recognition in the lexical decision task (LDT) and naming tasks. The modal prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 350 ms. When primes were words that were orthographic neighbors of the targets, and…

  6. Word Stress in German Single-Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyermann, Sandra; Penke, Martina

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a lexical-decision experiment that was conducted to investigate the impact of word stress on visual word recognition in German. Reaction-time latencies and error rates of German readers on different levels of reading proficiency (i.e., third graders and fifth graders from primary school and university students) were compared…

  7. Ten Important Words Plus: A Strategy for Building Word Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, Ruth Helen; Yopp, Hallie Kay

    2007-01-01

    In this strategy, students individually select and record 10 important words on self-adhesive notes as they read a text. Then students build a group bar graph displaying their choices, write a sentence that summarizes the content, and then respond to prompts that ask them to think about words in powerful ways. Several prompts are suggested, each…

  8. Using New Vocabulary in Writing: Exploring How Word and Learner Characteristics Relate to the Likelihood That Writers Use Newly Taught Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Christina L.; Kearns, Devin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding academic vocabulary is essential to student success in school. Use of academic vocabulary words in writing is considered one of the strongest measures of how well a reader understands a given word. In theory, willingness to use academic vocabulary in writing indicates the complexity of acquiring representations of the word's…

  9. Auditory word recognition: extrinsic and intrinsic effects of word frequency.

    PubMed

    Connine, C M; Titone, D; Wang, J

    1993-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the influence of word frequency in a phoneme identification task. Speech voicing continua were constructed so that one endpoint was a high-frequency word and the other endpoint was a low-frequency word (e.g., best-pest). Experiment 1 demonstrated that ambiguous tokens were labeled such that a high-frequency word was formed (intrinsic frequency effect). Experiment 2 manipulated the frequency composition of the list (extrinsic frequency effect). A high-frequency list bias produced an exaggerated influence of frequency; a low-frequency list bias showed a reverse frequency effect. Reaction time effects were discussed in terms of activation and postaccess decision models of frequency coding. The results support a late use of frequency in auditory word recognition.

  10. Beyond Word Processing. In Microsoft Word 5.0 with Word 5.1 Addendum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jean Marie; Yoder, Sharon

    This book is designed for use with Microsoft Word 5.0; it includes an addendum covering the new features of Word 5.1. The contents of the book are designed to get individuals started using some of the more advanced techniques available in Word. Some of the ideas presented in the book will be of immediate use and others are more complex. All of the…

  11. Never Trust Your Word Processor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linke, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the auto correction mode of word processors that leads to a number of problems and describes an example in biochemistry exams that shows how word processors can lead to mistakes in databases and in papers. The author contends that, where this system is applied, spell checking should not be left to a word…

  12. The Pursuit of Word Meanings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Jon Scott; Gleitman, Lila R.; Trueswell, John C.; Yang, Charles

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate here the performance of four models of cross-situational word learning: two global models, which extract and retain multiple referential alternatives from each word occurrence; and two local models, which extract just a single referent from each occurrence. One of these local models, dubbed "Pursuit," uses an associative…

  13. First Words and First Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Catriona M.; Conway, Martin A.

    2010-01-01

    In two experiments autobiographical memories from childhood were recalled to cue words naming common objects, locations, activities and emotions. Participants recalled their earliest specific memory associated with each word and dated their age at the time of the remembered event. A striking and specific finding emerged: age of earliest memory was…

  14. Resources for Teaching Word Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schell, Leo M., Ed.; And Others

    Only materials specifically designed to teach one or more of the following word identification skills were included in this booklet: sight words, context clues, phonic analysis, structural analysis, and dictionary skills. Materials for grades one through six are stressed, although a few materials suitable for secondary school students are listed.…

  15. Word Recognition and Critical Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Patrick

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses the distinctions between literal and critical reading and explains the role that word recognition ability plays in critical reading behavior. It concludes that correct word recognition provides the raw material on which higher order critical reading is based. (DB)

  16. Is Banara Really a Word?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth; Witzel, Naoko

    2009-01-01

    Bowers, Davis, and Hanley (Bowers, J. S., Davis, C. J., & Hanley, D. A. (2005). "Interfering neighbours: The impact of novel word learning on the identification of visually similar words." "Cognition," 97(3), B45-B54) reported that if participants were trained to type nonwords such as "banara", subsequent semantic categorization responses to…

  17. The Word Part Levels Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasao, Yosuke; Webb, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of English affixes plays a significant role in increasing knowledge of words. However, few attempts have been made to create a valid and reliable measure of affix knowledge. The Word Part Levels Test (WPLT) was developed to measure three aspects of affix knowledge: form (recognition of written affix forms), meaning (knowledge of affix…

  18. Bilingual Reading of Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong; Wang, Min; Kim, Say Young

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether bilingual readers activate constituents of compound words in one language while processing compound words in the other language via decomposition. Two experiments using a lexical decision task were conducted with adult Korean-English bilingual readers. In Experiment 1, the lexical decision of real English…

  19. Processing emotional words in two languages with one brain: ERP and fMRI evidence from Chinese-English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiyao; Lin, Jie; Chen, Bingle; Lu, Chunming; Guo, Taomei

    2015-10-01

    Emotional words in a bilingual's second language (L2) seem to have less emotional impact compared to emotional words in the first language (L1). The present study examined the neural mechanisms of emotional word processing in Chinese-English bilinguals' two languages by using both event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behavioral results show a robust positive word processing advantage in L1 such that responses to positive words were faster and more accurate compared to responses to neutral words and negative words. In L2, emotional words only received higher accuracies than neutral words. In ERPs, positive words elicited a larger early posterior negativity and a smaller late positive component than neutral words in L1, while a trend of reduced N400 component was found for positive words compared to neutral words in L2. In fMRI, reduced activation was found for L1 emotional words in both the left middle occipital gyrus and the left cerebellum whereas increased activation in the left cerebellum was found for L2 emotional words. Altogether, these results suggest that emotional word processing advantage in L1 relies on rapid and automatic attention capture while facilitated semantic retrieval might help processing emotional words in L2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Semantic priming from crowded words.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Su-Ling; He, Sheng; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Vision in a cluttered scene is extremely inefficient. This damaging effect of clutter, known as crowding, affects many aspects of visual processing (e.g., reading speed). We examined observers' processing of crowded targets in a lexical decision task, using single-character Chinese words that are compact but carry semantic meaning. Despite being unrecognizable and indistinguishable from matched nonwords, crowded prime words still generated robust semantic-priming effects on lexical decisions for test words presented in isolation. Indeed, the semantic-priming effect of crowded primes was similar to that of uncrowded primes. These findings show that the meanings of words survive crowding even when the identities of the words do not, suggesting that crowding does not prevent semantic activation, a process that may have evolved in the context of a cluttered visual environment.

  1. Behavior Management for Children and Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slifer, Keith J.; Amari, Adrianna

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral problems such as disinhibition, irritability, restlessness, distractibility, and aggression are common after acquired brain injury (ABI). The persistence and severity of these problems impair the brain-injured individual's reintegration into family, school, and community life. Since the early 1980s, behavior analysis and therapy have…

  2. Observational Word Learning: Beyond Propose-But-Verify and Associative Bean Counting.

    PubMed

    Roembke, Tanja; McMurray, Bob

    2016-04-01

    Learning new words is difficult. In any naming situation, there are multiple possible interpretations of a novel word. Recent approaches suggest that learners may solve this problem by tracking co-occurrence statistics between words and referents across multiple naming situations (e.g. Yu & Smith, 2007), overcoming the ambiguity in any one situation. Yet, there remains debate around the underlying mechanisms. We conducted two experiments in which learners acquired eight word-object mappings using cross-situational statistics while eye-movements were tracked. These addressed four unresolved questions regarding the learning mechanism. First, eye-movements during learning showed evidence that listeners maintain multiple hypotheses for a given word and bring them all to bear in the moment of naming. Second, trial-by-trial analyses of accuracy suggested that listeners accumulate continuous statistics about word/object mappings, over and above prior hypotheses they have about a word. Third, consistent, probabilistic context can impede learning, as false associations between words and highly co-occurring referents are formed. Finally, a number of factors not previously considered in prior analysis impact observational word learning: knowledge of the foils, spatial consistency of the target object, and the number of trials between presentations of the same word. This evidence suggests that observational word learning may derive from a combination of gradual statistical or associative learning mechanisms and more rapid real-time processes such as competition, mutual exclusivity and even inference or hypothesis testing.

  3. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Richard D; Hall, Jesse B

    2010-03-01

    Severe weakness is being recognized as a complication that impacts significantly on the pace and degree of recovery and return to former functional status of patients who survive the organ failures that mandate life-support therapies such as mechanical ventilation. Despite the apparent importance of this problem, much remains to be understood about its incidence, causes, prevention, and treatment. Review from literature and an expert round-table. The Brussels Round Table Conference in 2009 convened more than 20 experts in the fields of intensive care, neurology, and muscle physiology to review current understandings of intensive care unit-acquired weakness and to improve clinical outcome. Formal electrophysiological evaluation of patients with intensive care unit-acquired weakness can identify peripheral neuropathies, myopathies, and combinations of these disorders, although the correlation of these findings to weakness measurable at the bedside is not always precise. For routine clinical purposes, bedside assessment of neuromuscular function can be performed but is often confounded by complicating factors such as sedative and analgesic administration. Risk factors for development of intensive care unit-acquired weakness include bed rest itself, sepsis, and corticosteroid exposure. A strong association exists between weakness and long-term ventilator dependence; weakness is a major determinant of patient outcomes after surviving acute respiratory failure and may be present for months, or indefinitely, in the convalescence phase of critical illness. Although much has been learned about the physiology and cell and molecular biology of skeletal and diaphragm dysfunction under conditions of aging, exercise, disuse, and sepsis, the application of these understandings to the bedside requires more study in both bench models and patients. Although a trend toward greater immobilization and sedation of patients has characterized the past several decades of intensive care

  4. Why is number word learning hard? Evidence from bilingual learners.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Katie; Kimura, Katherine; Cheung, Pierina; Barner, David

    2015-12-01

    Young children typically take between 18 months and 2 years to learn the meanings of number words. In the present study, we investigated this developmental trajectory in bilingual preschoolers to examine the relative contributions of two factors in number word learning: (1) the construction of numerical concepts, and (2) the mapping of language specific words onto these concepts. We found that children learn the meanings of small number words (i.e., one, two, and three) independently in each language, indicating that observed delays in learning these words are attributable to difficulties in mapping words to concepts. In contrast, children generally learned to accurately count larger sets (i.e., five or greater) simultaneously in their two languages, suggesting that the difficulty in learning to count is not tied to a specific language. We also replicated previous studies that found that children learn the counting procedure before they learn its logic - i.e., that for any natural number, n, the successor of n in the count list denotes the cardinality n+1. Consistent with past studies, we found that children's knowledge of successors is first acquired incrementally. In bilinguals, we found that this knowledge exhibits item-specific transfer between languages, suggesting that the logic of the positive integers may not be stored in a language-specific format. We conclude that delays in learning the meanings of small number words are mainly due to language-specific processes of mapping words to concepts, whereas the logic and procedures of counting appear to be learned in a format that is independent of a particular language and thus transfers rapidly from one language to the other in development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Acquired Aplastic Anemia in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hartung, Helge D.; Olson, Timothy S.; Bessler, Monica

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This article provides a practice-based and concise review of the etiology, diagnosis, and management of acquired aplastic anemia in children. Bone marrow transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, and supportive care are discussed in detail. The aim is to provide the clinician with a better understanding of the disease and to offer guidelines for the management of children with this uncommon yet serious disorder. PMID:24237973

  6. [Acquired disorders of color vision].

    PubMed

    Lascu, Lidia; Balaş, Mihaela

    2002-01-01

    This article is a general view of acquired disorders of color vision. The revision of the best known methods and of the etiopathogenic classification is not very important in ophthalmology but on the other hand, the detection of the blue defect advertise and associated ocular pathology. There is a major interest in serious diseases as multiple sclerosis, AIDS, diabetes melitus, when the first ocular sign can be a defect in the color vision.

  7. Musicality: instinct or acquired skill?

    PubMed

    Marcus, Gary F

    2012-10-01

    Is the human tendency toward musicality better thought of as the product of a specific, evolved instinct or an acquired skill? Developmental and evolutionary arguments are considered, along with issues of domain-specificity. The article also considers the question of why humans might be consistently and intensely drawn to music if musicality is not in fact the product of a specifically evolved instinct. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. On pleasure and thrill: the interplay between arousal and valence during visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Recio, Guillermo; Conrad, Markus; Hansen, Laura B; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the interplay between arousal and valence in the early processing of affective words. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read words organized in an orthogonal design with the factors valence (positive, negative, neutral) and arousal (low, medium, high) in a lexical decision task. We observed faster reaction times for words of positive valence and for those of high arousal. Data from ERPs showed increased early posterior negativity (EPN) suggesting improved visual processing of these conditions. Valence effects appeared for medium and low arousal and were absent for high arousal. Arousal effects were obtained for neutral and negative words but were absent for positive words. These results suggest independent contributions of arousal and valence at early attentional stages of processing. Arousal effects preceded valence effects in the ERP data suggesting that arousal serves as an early alert system preparing a subsequent evaluation in terms of valence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Grammatical dissociation during acquired childhood aphasia.

    PubMed

    Martins, Isabel Pavão; Loureiro, Clara; Ramos, Sara; Moreno, Teresa

    2009-12-01

    We report the case of a 6-year-old female who suffered a left hemisphere stroke attributed to a genetically determined prothrombotic state. She presented a fluent speech pattern with selective difficulty in retrieving names but not verbs. An evaluation was designed to clarify whether her symptoms represented a specific impairment of name retrieval. The child undertook an experimental battery of visual naming tasks requiring the production of 52 nouns (belonging to nine different semantic categories) and 44 verbs. Her performance was compared with that of 12 healthy children, matched for age and IQ, attending a local kindergarten. The child retrieved significantly more verbs than nouns (chi(2)=16.27, p<0.01) and had a significantly lower score in noun (t=-7.2, p<0.005), but not in verb retrieval than the comparison group. This pattern persisted when verbs and nouns were matched for oral word frequency, showing that the results could not be explained by stimuli difficulty. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a grammatical dissociation in a child. It suggests that nouns and verbs are subject to different processing early in development, at least before the formal acquisition of grammar. It contradicts theories that postulate a common processing of different grammatical categories early in life.

  10. Lexical Quality in the Brain: ERP evidence for robust word learning from context

    PubMed Central

    Frishkoff, Gwen A.; Perfetti, Charles A.; Collins-Thompson, K

    2010-01-01

    We examined event-related potentials (ERPs) before and after word learning, using training contexts that differed in their level of contextual support for meaning acquisition. Novel words appeared either in contexts that were semantically constraining, providing strong cues to meaning, or in contexts that were weakly constraining, that is, uninformative. After each sentence, participants were shown the word in isolation and were asked to generate a close synonym. Immediately after training, words trained in high-constraint contexts elicited a smaller left temporal negativity (N300FT7) compared with words trained in low-constraint contexts, and both types of trained words elicited a stronger medial frontal negativity (N350Fz) relative to familiar words. Two days after training the N300FT7 disappeared and was replaced by a later, left parietal (P600Pz) effect. To examine robust learning, we administered a semantic priming test two days after training. Familiar words and words trained in high-constraint contexts elicited strong N400 effects. By contrast, words trained in low-constraint contexts elicited a weak N400 effect, and novel (untrained rare) words elicited no semantic priming. These findings suggest that supportive contexts and the use of an active meaning-generation task may lead to robust word learning. The effects of this training can be observed as changes in an early left frontal component, as well as the classical N400 effect. We discuss implications for theories of "partial" semantic knowledge and for robust word learning and instruction. PMID:20614356

  11. The acquisition of simple associations as observed in color-word contingency learning.

    PubMed

    Lin, Olivia Y-H; MacLeod, Colin M

    2018-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the learning of simple associations in a color-word contingency task. Participants responded manually to the print colors of 3 words, with each word associated strongly to 1 of the 3 colors and weakly to the other 2 colors. Despite the words being irrelevant, response times to high-contingency stimuli and to low-contingency stimuli quickly diverged. This high-low difference remained quite constant over successive blocks of trials, evidence of stable contingency learning. Inclusion of a baseline condition-an item having no color-word contingency-permitted separation of the contingency learning effect into 2 components: a cost due to low contingency and a benefit due to high contingency. Both cost and benefit were quick to acquire, quick to extinguish, and quick to reacquire. The color-word contingency task provides a simple way to directly study the learning of associations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Processing Electromyographic Signals to Recognize Words

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, C. C.; Lee, D. D.

    2009-01-01

    A recently invented speech-recognition method applies to words that are articulated by means of the tongue and throat muscles but are otherwise not voiced or, at most, are spoken sotto voce. This method could satisfy a need for speech recognition under circumstances in which normal audible speech is difficult, poses a hazard, is disturbing to listeners, or compromises privacy. The method could also be used to augment traditional speech recognition by providing an additional source of information about articulator activity. The method can be characterized as intermediate between (1) conventional speech recognition through processing of voice sounds and (2) a method, not yet developed, of processing electroencephalographic signals to extract unspoken words directly from thoughts. This method involves computational processing of digitized electromyographic (EMG) signals from muscle innervation acquired by surface electrodes under a subject's chin near the tongue and on the side of the subject s throat near the larynx. After preprocessing, digitization, and feature extraction, EMG signals are processed by a neural-network pattern classifier, implemented in software, that performs the bulk of the recognition task as described.

  13. 12 CFR 583.1 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acquire. 583.1 Section 583.1 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.1 Acquire. The term acquire means to acquire, directly or indirectly...

  14. Emotional arousal enhances word repetition priming

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Laura A.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine if emotional content increases repetition priming magnitude. In the study phase of Experiment 1, participants rated high-arousing negative (taboo) words and neutral words for concreteness. In the test phase, they made lexical decision judgements for the studied words intermixed with novel words (half taboo, half neutral) and pseudowords. In Experiment 2, low-arousing negative (LAN) words were substituted for the taboo words, and in Experiment 3 all three word types were used. Results showed significant priming in all experiments, as indicated by faster reaction times for studied words than for novel words. A priming × emotion interaction was found in Experiments 1 and 3, with greater priming for taboo relative to neutral words. The LAN words in Experiments 2 and 3 showed no difference in priming magnitude relative to the other word types. These results show selective enhancement of word repetition priming by emotional arousal. PMID:26321783

  15. Word Learning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Luyster, Rhiannon; Lord, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have been gaining attention, partly as an example of unusual developmental trajectories related to early neurobiological differences. The present investigation addressed the process of learning new words in order to explore mechanisms of language delay and impairment. The sample included 21 typically developing toddlers matched on expressive vocabulary with 21 young children with ASD. Two tasks were administered to teach children a new word and were supplemented by cognitive and diagnostic measures. In most analyses, there were no group differences in performance. Children with ASD did not consistently make mapping errors, even in word learning situations which required the use of social information. These findings indicate that some children with ASD, in developmentally appropriate tasks, are able to use information from social interactions to guide word-object mappings. This result has important implications for our understanding of how children with ASD learn language. PMID:19899931

  16. The role of spatial attention in visual word processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccann, Robert S.; Folk, Charles L.; Johnston, James C.

    1992-01-01

    Subjects made lexical decisions on a target letter string presented above or below fixation. In Experiments 1 and 2, target location was cued 100 ms in advance of target onset. Responses were faster on validly than on invalidly cued trials. In Experiment 3, the target was sometimes accompanied by irrelevant stimuli on the other side of fixation; in such cases, responses were slowed (a spatial filtering effect). Both cuing and filtering effects on response time were additive with effects of word frequency and lexical status (words vs. nonwords). These findings are difficult to reconcile with claims that spatial attention is less involved in processing familiar words than in unfamiliar words and nonwords. The results can be reconciled with a late-selection locus of spatial attention only with difficulty, but are easily explained by early-selection models.

  17. Examining Word Factors and Child Factors for Acquisition of Conditional Sound-Spelling Consistencies: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Petscher, Yaacov; Park, Younghee

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that children acquire spelling by picking up conditional sound-spelling consistencies. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated how variation in word characteristics (words that vary systematically in terms of phoneme-grapheme correspondences) and child factors (individual differences in the ability to extract…

  18. Thematic Journeys. Words that I Own

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingher, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Children may feel a sense of ownership when they learn a new vocabulary word that genuinely excites them--a dynamic word, a poetic word, a word with a delicious sound or interesting meaning. Right away, they like to try out these words, experiment with them, incorporate them into the speaking and writing, and impress others with their mastery.…

  19. BioWord: A sequence manipulation suite for Microsoft Word

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The ability to manipulate, edit and process DNA and protein sequences has rapidly become a necessary skill for practicing biologists across a wide swath of disciplines. In spite of this, most everyday sequence manipulation tools are distributed across several programs and web servers, sometimes requiring installation and typically involving frequent switching between applications. To address this problem, here we have developed BioWord, a macro-enabled self-installing template for Microsoft Word documents that integrates an extensive suite of DNA and protein sequence manipulation tools. Results BioWord is distributed as a single macro-enabled template that self-installs with a single click. After installation, BioWord will open as a tab in the Office ribbon. Biologists can then easily manipulate DNA and protein sequences using a familiar interface and minimize the need to switch between applications. Beyond simple sequence manipulation, BioWord integrates functionality ranging from dyad search and consensus logos to motif discovery and pair-wise alignment. Written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) as an open source, object-oriented project, BioWord allows users with varying programming experience to expand and customize the program to better meet their own needs. Conclusions BioWord integrates a powerful set of tools for biological sequence manipulation within a handy, user-friendly tab in a widely used word processing software package. The use of a simple scripting language and an object-oriented scheme facilitates customization by users and provides a very accessible educational platform for introducing students to basic bioinformatics algorithms. PMID:22676326

  20. BioWord: a sequence manipulation suite for Microsoft Word.

    PubMed

    Anzaldi, Laura J; Muñoz-Fernández, Daniel; Erill, Ivan

    2012-06-07

    The ability to manipulate, edit and process DNA and protein sequences has rapidly become a necessary skill for practicing biologists across a wide swath of disciplines. In spite of this, most everyday sequence manipulation tools are distributed across several programs and web servers, sometimes requiring installation and typically involving frequent switching between applications. To address this problem, here we have developed BioWord, a macro-enabled self-installing template for Microsoft Word documents that integrates an extensive suite of DNA and protein sequence manipulation tools. BioWord is distributed as a single macro-enabled template that self-installs with a single click. After installation, BioWord will open as a tab in the Office ribbon. Biologists can then easily manipulate DNA and protein sequences using a familiar interface and minimize the need to switch between applications. Beyond simple sequence manipulation, BioWord integrates functionality ranging from dyad search and consensus logos to motif discovery and pair-wise alignment. Written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) as an open source, object-oriented project, BioWord allows users with varying programming experience to expand and customize the program to better meet their own needs. BioWord integrates a powerful set of tools for biological sequence manipulation within a handy, user-friendly tab in a widely used word processing software package. The use of a simple scripting language and an object-oriented scheme facilitates customization by users and provides a very accessible educational platform for introducing students to basic bioinformatics algorithms.

  1. Pubertal Changes in Emotional Information Processing: Pupillary, Behavioral, and Subjective Evidence during Emotional Word Identification

    PubMed Central

    Silk, Jennifer S.; Siegle, Greg J.; Whalen, Diana J.; Ostapenko, Laura J.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated pupillary and behavioral responses to an emotional word valence identification paradigm among 32 pre/early and 34 mid/late pubertal typically developing children and adolescents. Participants were asked to identify the valence of positive, negative, and neutral words while pupil dilation was assessed using an eye-tracker. Mid-to-late pubertal children showed greater peak pupillary reactivity to words presented during the emotional word identification task than pre-to-early pubertal children, regardless of word valence. Mid-to-late pubertal children also showed smaller sustained pupil dilation than pre-to-early pubertal children after the word was no longer on screen. These findings were replicated controlling for participants’ age. Additionally, mid-to-late pubertal children had faster reaction times to all words, and rated themselves as more emotional during their laboratory visit compared to pre-to-early pubertal children. Greater recall of emotional words following the task was associated with mid-to-late pubertal status, and greater recall of emotional words was also associated with higher peak pupil dilation. These results provide physiological, behavioral, and subjective evidence consistent with a model of puberty-specific changes in neurobehavioral systems underpinning emotional reactivity. PMID:19144220

  2. Pubertal changes in emotional information processing: pupillary, behavioral, and subjective evidence during emotional word identification.

    PubMed

    Silk, Jennifer S; Siegle, Greg J; Whalen, Diana J; Ostapenko, Laura J; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Dahl, Ronald E

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated pupillary and behavioral responses to an emotional word valence identification paradigm among 32 pre-/early pubertal and 34 mid-/late pubertal typically developing children and adolescents. Participants were asked to identify the valence of positive, negative, and neutral words while pupil dilation was assessed using an eyetracker. Mid-/late pubertal children showed greater peak pupillary reactivity to words presented during the emotional word identification task than pre-/early pubertal children, regardless of word valence. Mid-/late pubertal children also showed smaller sustained pupil dilation than pre-/early pubertal children after the word was no longer on screen. These findings were replicated controlling for participants' age. In addition, mid-/late pubertal children had faster reaction times to all words, and rated themselves as more emotional during their laboratory visit compared to pre-/early pubertal children. Greater recall of emotional words following the task was associated with mid-/late pubertal status, and greater recall of emotional words was also associated with higher peak pupil dilation. These results provide physiological, behavioral, and subjective evidence consistent with a model of puberty-specific changes in neurobehavioral systems underpinning emotional reactivity.

  3. The Organization of Words and Symbolic Gestures in 18-Month-Olds' Lexicons: Evidence from a Disambiguation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suanda, Sumarga H.; Namy, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    Infants' early communicative repertoires include both words and symbolic gestures. The current study examined the extent to which infants organize words and gestures in a single unified lexicon. As a window into lexical organization, eighteen-month-olds' ("N" = 32) avoidance of word-gesture overlap was examined and compared with…

  4. Development of First-Graders' Word Reading Skills: For Whom Can Dynamic Assessment Tell Us More?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Eunsoo; Compton, Donald L.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Steacy, Laura M.; Collins, Alyson A.; Lindström, Esther R.

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic assessment (DA) of word reading measures learning potential for early reading development by documenting the amount of assistance needed to learn how to read words with unfamiliar orthography. We examined the additive value of DA for predicting first-grade decoding and word recognition development while controlling for autoregressive…

  5. The origins of word learning: Brain responses of 3-month-olds indicate their rapid association of objects and words.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Manuela; Friederici, Angela D

    2017-03-01

    The present study explored the origins of word learning in early infancy. Using event-related potentials (ERP) we monitored the brain activity of 3-month-old infants when they were repeatedly exposed to several initially novel words paired consistently with each the same initially novel objects or inconsistently with different objects. Our results provide strong evidence that these young infants extract statistic regularities in the distribution of the co-occurrences of objects and words extremely quickly. The data suggest that this ability is based on the rapid formation of associations between the neural representations of objects and words, but that the new associations are not retained in long-term memory until the next day. The type of brain response moreover indicates that, unlike in older infants, in 3-month-olds a semantic processing stage is not involved. Their ability to combine words with meaningful information is caused by a primary learning mechanism that enables the formation of proto-words and acts as a precursor for the acquisition of genuine words. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Reconstruction of acquired oromandibular defects.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Rui P; Yetzer, Jacob G

    2013-05-01

    Acquired defects of the mandible resulting from trauma, infection, osteoradionecrosis, and ablative surgery of the oral cavity and lower face are particularly debilitating. Familiarity with mandibular and cervical anatomy is crucial in achieving mandibular reconstruction. The surgeon must evaluate which components of the hard and soft tissue are missing in selecting a method of reconstruction. Complexity of mandibular reconstruction ranges from simple rigid internal fixation to microvascular free tissue transfer, depending on defect- and patient-related factors. Modern techniques for microvascular tissue transfer provide a wide array of reconstructive options that can be tailored to patients' specific needs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Constitutional and acquired autosomal aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Jackson-Cook, Colleen

    2011-12-01

    Chromosomal imbalances can result from numerical or structural anomalies. Numerical chromosomal abnormalities are often referred to as aneuploid conditions. This article focuses on the occurrence of constitutional and acquired autosomal aneuploidy in humans. Topics covered include frequency, mosaicism, phenotypic findings, and etiology. The article concludes with a consideration of anticipated advances that might allow for the development of screening tests and/or lead to improvements in our understanding and management of the role that aneuploidy plays in the aging process and acquisition of age-related and constitutional conditions.

  8. The inhibition of acquired fear.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín; Vianna, Mónica M R; Bevilaqua, Lía R M

    2004-01-01

    A conditioned stimulus (CS) associated with a fearsome unconditioned stimulus (US) generates learned fear. Acquired fear is at the root of a variety of mental disorders, among which phobias, generalized anxiety, the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and some forms of depression. The simplest way to inhibit learned fear is to extinguish it, which is usually done by repeatedly presenting the CS alone, so that a new association, CS-"no US", will eventually overcome the previously acquired CS-US association. Extinction was first described by Pavlov as a form of "internal inhibition" and was recommended by Freud and Ferenczi in the 1920s (who called it "habituation") as the treatment of choice for phobic disorders. It is used with success till this day, often in association with anxiolytic drugs. Extinction has since then been applied, also successfully and also often in association with anxiolytics, to the treatment of panic, generalized anxiety disorders and, more recently, PTSD. Extinction of learned fear involves gene expression, protein synthesis, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and signaling pathways in the hippocampus and the amygdala at the time of the first CS-no US association. It can be enhanced by increasing the exposure to the "no US" component at the time of behavioral testing, to the point of causing the complete uninstallment of the original fear response. Some theorists have recently proposed that reiteration of the CS alone may induce a reconsolidation of the learned behavior instead of its extinction. Reconsolidation would preserve the original memory from the labilization induced by its retrieval. If true, this would of course be disastrous for the psychotherapy of fear-motivated disorders. Here we show that neither the CS nor retrieval cause anything remotely like reconsolidation, but just extinction. In fact, our findings indicate that the reconsolidation hypothesis is essentially incorrect, at least for the form of contextual fear most

  9. Phonemic carryover perseveration: word blends.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Hugh W; Christman, Sarah S

    2004-11-01

    This article will outline and describe the aphasic disorder of recurrent perseveration and will demonstrate how it interacts with the retrieval and production of spoken words in the language of fluent aphasic patients who have sustained damage to the left (dominant) posterior temporoparietal lobe. We will concentrate on the various kinds of sublexical segmental perseverations (the so-called phonemic carryovers of Santo Pietro and Rigrodsky) that most often play a role in the generation of word blendings. We will show how perseverative blends allow the clinician to better understand the dynamics of word and syllable production in fluent aphasia by scrutinizing the "onset/rime" and "onset/superrime" constituents of monosyllabic and polysyllabic words, respectively. We will demonstrate to the speech language pathologist the importance of the trochee stress pattern and the possibility that its metrical template may constitute a structural unit that can be perseverated.

  10. The influence of contextual diversity on word learning.

    PubMed

    Johns, Brendan T; Dye, Melody; Jones, Michael N

    2016-08-01

    In a series of analyses over mega datasets, Jones, Johns, and Recchia (Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66(2), 115-124, 2012) and Johns et al. (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 132:2, EL74-EL80, 2012) found that a measure of contextual diversity that takes into account the semantic variability of a word's contexts provided a better fit to both visual and spoken word recognition data than traditional measures, such as word frequency or raw context counts. This measure was empirically validated with an artificial language experiment (Jones et al.). The present study extends the empirical results with a unique natural language learning paradigm, which allows for an examination of the semantic representations that are acquired as semantic diversity is varied. Subjects were incidentally exposed to novel words as they rated short selections from articles, books, and newspapers. When novel words were encountered across distinct discourse contexts, subjects were both faster and more accurate at recognizing them than when they were seen in redundant contexts. However, learning across redundant contexts promoted the development of more stable semantic representations. These findings are predicted by a distributional learning model trained on the same materials as our subjects.

  11. Dimensional adjectives: factors affecting children's ability to compare objects using novel words.

    PubMed

    Ryalls, B O

    2000-05-01

    A series of 3 studies tested the hypothesis that children's difficulty acquiring dimensional adjectives, such as big, little, tall, and short, is a consequence of how these words are used by adults. Three- and 4-year-olds were asked to compare pairs of objects drawn from a novel stimulus series using real dimension words (taller and shorter; Study 1) and novel dimension words (maller and borger; Studies 1-3). Characteristics of testing, including the presence or absence of a categorization task, were manipulated. Findings indicated that children easily acquired novel dimension words when they were used in a strictly comparative fashion but had difficulty when also exposed to the categorical form of usage. It is concluded that having to learn both categorical and comparative meanings at once may impede acquisition of dimensional adjectives. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  12. Vocabulary knowledge mediates the link between socioeconomic status and word learning in grade school.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Mandy J; Schneider, Julie M; Middleton, Anna E; Ralph, Yvonne; Lopez, Michael; Ackerman, Robert A; Abel, Alyson D

    2018-02-01

    The relationship between children's slow vocabulary growth and the family's low socioeconomic status (SES) has been well documented. However, previous studies have often focused on infants or preschoolers and primarily used static measures of vocabulary at multiple time points. To date, there is no research investigating whether SES predicts a child's word learning abilities in grade school and, if so, what mediates this relationship. In this study, 68 children aged 8-15 years performed a written word learning from context task that required using the surrounding text to identify the meaning of an unknown word. Results revealed that vocabulary knowledge significantly mediated the relationship between SES (as measured by maternal education) and word learning. This was true despite the fact that the words in the linguistic context surrounding the target word are typically acquired well before 8 years of age. When controlling for vocabulary, word learning from written context was not predicted by differences in reading comprehension, decoding, or working memory. These findings reveal that differences in vocabulary growth between grade school children from low and higher SES homes are likely related to differences in the process of word learning more than knowledge of surrounding words or reading skills. Specifically, children from lower SES homes are not as effective at using known vocabulary to build a robust semantic representation of incoming text to identify the meaning of an unknown word. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Word Processors and Invention in Technical Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Thomas T.

    1989-01-01

    Explores how word processing affects thinking and writing. Examines two myths surrounding word processors and invention in technical writing. Describes how word processing can enhance invention through collaborative writing, templates, and on-screen outlining. (MM)

  14. A few words about dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Benny

    2009-10-01

    More and more, one encounters people who describe themselves as dyslectic. What is dyslexia? A detailed article in the July issue of Science, explains the phenomenon, and related aspects (1). The following are some of its points. Dyslexia is characterized by a difficulty is understanding and using alphabetic or logographic principles to acquire accurate and fluent reading skills. Dyslexia is persistent: a child who fails to read adequately in 1st grade has a high probability of reading poorly in 4th grade and in high school. Thus, difficulty in early reading limits reading comprehension in the later years of education, as students shift from learning to read to reading to learn. Dyslexia is often defined by a discrepancy between an average or above-average score on a test of general intelligence (intelligence quotient [IQ] test) and a low score on a standardized reading test. There is an observation that dyslexia is independent of other talents that allow some children with dyslexia to grow into re markably successful adults. Dyslexia is strongly heritable, occurring in up to 70% of identical twins and 50% of individuals who have a parent or sibling with dyslexia. Environmental factors are also important in reading development, even in children at genetic risk for dyslexia. Dyslexia can be treated. Once children are diagnosed with dyslexia because of reading failure, treatments are instructional. Instruction yields substantial improvement in reading accuracy for many, but not all, children if instruction is more intensive (for instance, 100 minutes per day for 8 weeks), occurs in small groups (1 or 2 students per teacher), and includes explicit and systematic instruction in phonological awareness and decoding strategies.

  15. Number word use in toddlerhood is associated with number recall performance at seven years of age.

    PubMed

    Libertus, Melissa E; Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that verbal working memory and vocabulary acquisition are linked in early childhood. However, it is unclear whether acquisition of a narrow range of words during toddlerhood may be particularly related to recall of the same words later in life. Here we asked whether vocabulary acquisition of number words, location and quantifier terms over the first three years of life are associated with verbal and visuospatial working memory at seven years. Our results demonstrate that children who produced more number words between 20-26 months and started to produce the number words 1-10 earlier showed greater number recall at 7 years of age. This link was specific to numbers and neither extended to quantifier and location terms nor verbal and visuospatial working memory performance with other stimuli. These findings suggest a category-specific link between the mental lexicon of number words and working memory for numbers at an early age.

  16. Visual recognition of permuted words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Sheikh Faisal; Shafait, Faisal; Breuel, Thomas M.

    2010-02-01

    In current study we examine how letter permutation affects in visual recognition of words for two orthographically dissimilar languages, Urdu and German. We present the hypothesis that recognition or reading of permuted and non-permuted words are two distinct mental level processes, and that people use different strategies in handling permuted words as compared to normal words. A comparison between reading behavior of people in these languages is also presented. We present our study in context of dual route theories of reading and it is observed that the dual-route theory is consistent with explanation of our hypothesis of distinction in underlying cognitive behavior for reading permuted and non-permuted words. We conducted three experiments in lexical decision tasks to analyze how reading is degraded or affected by letter permutation. We performed analysis of variance (ANOVA), distribution free rank test, and t-test to determine the significance differences in response time latencies for two classes of data. Results showed that the recognition accuracy for permuted words is decreased 31% in case of Urdu and 11% in case of German language. We also found a considerable difference in reading behavior for cursive and alphabetic languages and it is observed that reading of Urdu is comparatively slower than reading of German due to characteristics of cursive script.

  17. Creating a Culture that Acknowledges the Power of Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Carol Garboden

    2012-01-01

    The language used by adults in an early childhood setting is one of the most telling indicators of the values of a center. Each center has its own culture of language that consists of often heard phrases and scripts used when teaching and caring for young children. Listening closely to words, tones, and scripts--educators tune into what is unseen,…

  18. Listening through Voices: Infant Statistical Word Segmentation across Multiple Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf Estes, Katharine; Lew-Williams, Casey

    2015-01-01

    To learn from their environments, infants must detect structure behind pervasive variation. This presents substantial and largely untested learning challenges in early language acquisition. The current experiments address whether infants can use statistical learning mechanisms to segment words when the speech signal contains acoustic variation…

  19. Flexible Use of Mutual Exclusivity in Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalashnikova, Marina; Mattock, Karen; Monaghan, Padraic

    2016-01-01

    From an early age, children apply the mutual exclusivity (ME) assumption, demonstrating preference for one-to-one mappings between words and their referents. However, for the acquisition of referentially overlapping terms, ME use must be suspended. We test whether contextual cues to intended meaning, in the form of presence of a speaker, may be…

  20. Prosodic Awareness and Children's Multisyllabic Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliman, Andrew J.; Mundy, Ian R.; Wade-Woolley, Lesly; Wood, Clare; Bird, Chelsea

    2017-01-01

    Prosodic awareness (the rhythmic patterning of speech) accounts for unique variance in reading development. However, studies have thus far focused on early readers and utilised literacy measures which fail to distinguish between monosyllabic and multisyllabic words. The current study investigated the factors that are specifically associated with…

  1. Pedagogy for Liberation: Spoken Word Poetry in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiore, Mia

    2015-01-01

    The Black Arts Movement of the 1960s and 1970s, hip hop of the 1980s and early 1990s, and spoken word poetry have each attempted to initiate the dialogical process outlined by Paulo Freire as necessary in overturning oppression. Each art form has done this by critically engaging with the world and questioning dominant systems of power. However,…

  2. The Embroidered Word: A Stitchery Overview for Visual Arts Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, June

    2012-01-01

    This historical research provides an examination of the embroidered word as a visual art piece, from early traditional examples to contemporary forms. It is intended to encourage appreciation of embroidery as an art form and to stimulate discussion about the role of historical contexts in the studio education of artists at the university level.…

  3. Foodborne listeriosis acquired in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Silk, Benjamin J; McCoy, Morgan H; Iwamoto, Martha; Griffin, Patricia M

    2014-08-15

    Listeriosis is characterized by bacteremia or meningitis. We searched for listeriosis case series and outbreak investigations published in English by 2013, and assessed the strength of evidence for foodborne acquisition among patients who ate hospital food. We identified 30 reports from 13 countries. Among the case series, the median proportion of cases considered to be hospital-acquired was 25% (range, 9%-67%). The median number of outbreak-related illnesses considered to be hospital-acquired was 4.0 (range, 2-16). All patients were immunosuppressed in 18 of 24 (75%) reports with available data. Eight outbreak reports with strong evidence for foodborne acquisition in a hospital implicated sandwiches (3 reports), butter, precut celery, Camembert cheese, sausage, and tuna salad (1 report each). Foodborne acquisition of listeriosis among hospitalized patients is well documented internationally. The number of listeriosis cases could be reduced substantially by establishing hospital policies for safe food preparation for immunocompromised patients and by not serving them higher-risk foods. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. WAYS OF ACQUIRING FLYING PHOBIA.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Bettina; Vriends, Noortje; Margraf, Jürgen; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-02-01

    The few studies that have explored how flying phobia is acquired have produced contradictory results. We hypothesized that classical conditioning plays a role in acquiring flying phobia and investigated if vicarious (model) learning, informational learning through media, and experiencing stressful life events at the time of onset of phobia also play a role. Thirty patients with flying phobia and thirty healthy controls matched on age, sex, and education were interviewed with the Mini-DIPS, the short German version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) and the Fear-of-Flying History Interview. Fifty Percent of patients with flying phobia and 53% of healthy controls reported frightening events in the air. There was no significant difference between the two samples. Thus there were not more classical conditioning events for patients with flying phobia. There also was no significant difference between the two samples for vicarious (model) learning: 37% of flying phobia patients and 23% of healthy controls felt influenced by model learning. The influence of informational learning through media was significantly higher for the clinical sample (70%) than for the control group (37%). Patients with flying phobia experienced significantly more stressful life events in the period of their frightening flight experience (60%) than healthy controls (19%). Frightening experiences while flying are quite common, but not everybody develops a flying phobia. Stressful life events and other factors might enhance conditionability. Informational learning through negative media reports probably reinforces the development of flying phobia. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Evidence from neglect dyslexia for morphological decomposition at the early stages of orthographic-visual analysis

    PubMed Central

    Reznick, Julia; Friedmann, Naama

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether and how the morphological structure of written words affects reading in word-based neglect dyslexia (neglexia), and what can be learned about morphological decomposition in reading from the effect of morphology on neglexia. The oral reading of 7 Hebrew-speaking participants with acquired neglexia at the word level—6 with left neglexia and 1 with right neglexia—was evaluated. The main finding was that the morphological role of the letters on the neglected side of the word affected neglect errors: When an affix appeared on the neglected side, it was neglected significantly more often than when the neglected side was part of the root; root letters on the neglected side were never omitted, whereas affixes were. Perceptual effects of length and final letter form were found for words with an affix on the neglected side, but not for words in which a root letter appeared in the neglected side. Semantic and lexical factors did not affect the participants' reading and error pattern, and neglect errors did not preserve the morpho-lexical characteristics of the target words. These findings indicate that an early morphological decomposition of words to their root and affixes occurs before access to the lexicon and to semantics, at the orthographic-visual analysis stage, and that the effects did not result from lexical feedback. The same effects of morphological structure on reading were manifested by the participants with left- and right-sided neglexia. Since neglexia is a deficit at the orthographic-visual analysis level, the effect of morphology on reading patterns in neglexia further supports that morphological decomposition occurs in the orthographic-visual analysis stage, prelexically, and that the search for the three letters of the root in Hebrew is a trigger for attention shift in neglexia. PMID:26528159

  6. Effects of Word and Morpheme Familiarity on Reading of Derived Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Joanne F.; Katz, Lauren A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine factors that influence students' reading of derived words. Recent research suggests that the lexical quality of a derived word depends on the familiarity of the word, its morphemic constituents (i.e., base word and affixes), and the frequency with which the base word appears in other words (i.e., members of…

  7. Learning builds on learning: Infants' use of native language sound patterns to learn words

    PubMed Central

    Graf Estes, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    The present research investigated how infants apply prior knowledge of environmental regularities to support new learning. The experiments tested whether infants could exploit experience with native language (English) phonotactic patterns to facilitate associating sounds with meanings during word learning. Fourteen-month-olds heard fluent speech that contained cues for detecting target words; they were embedded in sequences that occur across word boundaries. A separate group heard the target words embedded without word boundary cues. Infants then participated in an object label-learning task. With the opportunity to use native language patterns to segment the target words, infants subsequently learned the labels. Without this experience, infants failed. Novice word learners can take advantage of early learning about sounds scaffold lexical development. PMID:24980741

  8. Neural correlates of visualizations of concrete and abstract words in preschool children: a developmental embodied approach

    PubMed Central

    D’Angiulli, Amedeo; Griffiths, Gordon; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The neural correlates of visualization underlying word comprehension were examined in preschool children. On each trial, a concrete or abstract word was delivered binaurally (part 1: post-auditory visualization), followed by a four-picture array (a target plus three distractors; part 2: matching visualization). Children were to select the picture matching the word they heard in part 1. Event-related potentials (ERPs) locked to each stimulus presentation and task interval were averaged over sets of trials of increasing word abstractness. ERP time-course during both parts of the task showed that early activity (i.e., <300 ms) was predominant in response to concrete words, while activity in response to abstract words became evident only at intermediate (i.e., 300–699 ms) and late (i.e., 700–1000 ms) ERP intervals. Specifically, ERP topography showed that while early activity during post-auditory visualization was linked to left temporo-parietal areas for concrete words, early activity during matching visualization occurred mostly in occipito-parietal areas for concrete words, but more anteriorly in centro-parietal areas for abstract words. In intermediate ERPs, post-auditory visualization coincided with parieto-occipital and parieto-frontal activity in response to both concrete and abstract words, while in matching visualization a parieto-central activity was common to both types of words. In the late ERPs for both types of words, the post-auditory visualization involved right-hemispheric activity following a “post-anterior” pathway sequence: occipital, parietal, and temporal areas; conversely, matching visualization involved left-hemispheric activity following an “ant-posterior” pathway sequence: frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital areas. These results suggest that, similarly, for concrete and abstract words, meaning in young children depends on variably complex visualization processes integrating visuo-auditory experiences and supramodal embodying

  9. The Organization of Words and Symbolic Gestures in 18-Month-Olds’ Lexicons: Evidence from a Disambiguation Task

    PubMed Central

    Suanda, Sumarga H.; Namy, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Infants’ early communicative repertoires include both words and symbolic gestures. The current study examined the extent to which infants organize words and gestures in a single unified lexicon. As a window into lexical organization, eighteen-month-olds’ (N = 32) avoidance of word-gesture overlap was examined and compared to avoidance of word-word overlap. The current study revealed that when presented with novel words, infants avoided lexical overlap, mapping novel words onto novel objects. In contrast, when presented with novel gestures, infants sought overlap, mapping novel gestures onto familiar objects. The results suggest that infants do not treat words and gestures as equivalent lexical items and that during a period of development when word and symbolic gesture processing share many similarities, important differences also exist between these two symbolic forms. PMID:23539273

  10. Tinea pedis acquired in mosques?

    PubMed

    Veraldi, Stefano; Esposito, Luigi; Gorani, Alberto

    2018-03-30

    Interdigital tinea pedis is a mycotic infection of the feet which occurs mainly in adult males. The transmission is due to repeated contacts with the soil. In Italy, Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes (including T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale) and Epidermophyton floccosum are the most frequently involved species. Interdigital tinea pedis is characterized clinically by maceration, erythema, vesicles, scales, crusts, erosions and ulcers located at the 2 nd , 3 rd and 4 th interdigital folds. Interdigital tinea pedis may be asymptomatic; however, when erosions and ulcers occur, the patients may complain of pruritus, burning sensation and pain. Superinfections, caused by Candida albicans and Gram-negative bacteria, are not rare. 1 We present four cases of interdigital tinea pedis which was probably acquired in Turkish mosques and holy Muslim places. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Medical treatment of acquired nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, David; Eggenberger, Eric

    2012-11-01

    This article synthesises recent findings and addresses relevant anatomy, pathophysiologic considerations, and current treatment options for common forms of acquired nystagmus including vestibular and gaze holding dysfunction. Some forms of nystagmus have relatively specific treatments, such as baclofen for periodic alternating nystagmus, and repositioning for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Recent studies have brought changes to many of the treatments of nystagmus variants. Additionally, other recent advances in nystagmus treatment, like the usage of 4-aminopyridine, have added potent medications to the physician's armamentarium. Nystagmus is a commonly encountered entity in clinical practice. However, evidence supported treatments are scarce. Medical treatment of nystagmus is difficult, with often limited and variable response to pharmacologic therapies. This mandates a continued re-evaluation of patients and creation of an individualized approach to this common clinical problem.

  12. Acquired Elastotic Hemangioma: Case Series and Comprehensive Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hinds, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    Background Acquired elastotic hemangioma is a benign vascular proliferation that typically presents as an asymptomatic red plaque on a sun-exposed site of an adult. Material and Methods The PubMed database was used to search the following words: acquired, angioma, arm, basal, carcinoma, cell, elastosis, elastotic, exposed, forearm, hemangioma, solar, sun, and vascular. The relevant papers and reference cited generated by the search were reviewed. The features from a case series of 11 patients with acquired elastotic hemangioma are presented. In addition, a comprehensive review of the characteristics of this unique hemangioma—not only in our 11 patients but also in the previously reported 34 individuals with this lesion—is provided. Results Acquired elastotic hemangioma, reported in 45 patients (24 women and 21 men), typically appeared as an asymptomatic solitary red plaque in sun-exposed areas—most commonly the forearm--of adults aged 50 years or older. The pathology shows a proliferation of vascular channels—surrounded and intertwined by intense solar elastosis--in the upper dermis, located parallel to the overlying epidermis, and separated from it by a zone of normal-appearing superficial papillary dermis. There was extensive solar elastosis surrounding and between the new blood vessels; some of the endothelial cells protrude (in a hob-nail pattern) into the vessel lumen. The clinical differential diagnosis includes basal cell carcinoma and the pathologic differential diagnosis includes other benign, malignant, and reactive vascular lesions. Ultraviolet radiation may contribute to the pathogenesis of this hemangioma since it occurs on sun-exposed sites. There was no recurrence of the lesion following either excision or observation. Conclusions The possibility of acquired elastotic hemangioma should be considered by clinicians when they encounter an older individual with a new red plaque on a sun-exposed site that clinically appears to be a superficial

  13. Fast Mapping of Novel Word Forms Traced Neurophysiologically

    PubMed Central

    Shtyrov, Yury

    2011-01-01

    Human capacity to quickly learn new words, critical for our ability to communicate using language, is well-known from behavioral studies and observations, but its neural underpinnings remain unclear. In this study, we have used event-related potentials to record brain activity to novel spoken word forms as they are being learnt by the human nervous system through passive auditory exposure. We found that the brain response dynamics change dramatically within the short (20 min) exposure session: as the subjects become familiarized with the novel word forms, the early (∼100 ms) fronto-central activity they elicit increases in magnitude and becomes similar to that of known real words. At the same time, acoustically similar real words used as control stimuli show a relatively stable response throughout the recording session; these differences between the stimulus groups are confirmed using both factorial and linear regression analyses. Furthermore, acoustically matched novel non-speech stimuli do not demonstrate similar response increase, suggesting neural specificity of this rapid learning phenomenon to linguistic stimuli. Left-lateralized perisylvian cortical networks appear to be underlying such fast mapping of novel word forms unto the brain’s mental lexicon. PMID:22125543

  14. Neural Correlates of Emotion Processing in Word Detection Task

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wenshuang; Chen, Liang; Zhou, Chunxia; Luo, Wenbo

    2018-01-01

    In our previous study, we have proposed a three-stage model of emotion processing; in the current study, we investigated whether the ERP component may be different when the emotional content of stimuli is task-irrelevant. In this study, a dual-target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task was used to investigate how the emotional content of words modulates the time course of neural dynamics. Participants performed the task in which affectively positive, negative, and neutral adjectives were rapidly presented while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 18 undergraduates. The N170 component was enhanced for negative words relative to positive and neutral words. This indicates that automatic processing of negative information occurred at an early perceptual processing stage. In addition, later brain potentials such as the late positive potential (LPP) were only enhanced for positive words in the 480–580-ms post-stimulus window, while a relatively large amplitude signal was elicited by positive and negative words between 580 and 680 ms. These results indicate that different types of emotional content are processed distinctly at different time windows of the LPP, which is in contrast with the results of studies on task-relevant emotional processing. More generally, these findings suggest that a negativity bias to negative words remains to be found in emotion-irrelevant tasks, and that the LPP component reflects dynamic separation of emotion valence. PMID:29887824

  15. Modulation of brain activity by multiple lexical and word form variables in visual word recognition: A parametric fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Hauk, Olaf; Davis, Matthew H; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2008-09-01

    Psycholinguistic research has documented a range of variables that influence visual word recognition performance. Many of these variables are highly intercorrelated. Most previous studies have used factorial designs, which do not exploit the full range of values available for continuous variables, and are prone to skewed stimulus selection as well as to effects of the baseline (e.g. when contrasting words with pseudowords). In our study, we used a parametric approach to study the effects of several psycholinguistic variables on brain activation. We focussed on the variable word frequency, which has been used in numerous previous behavioural, electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies, in order to investigate the neuronal network underlying visual word processing. Furthermore, we investigated the variable orthographic typicality as well as a combined variable for word length and orthographic neighbourhood size (N), for which neuroimaging results are still either scarce or inconsistent. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression analysis of event-related fMRI data acquired from 21 subjects in a silent reading paradigm. The frequency variable correlated negatively with activation in left fusiform gyrus, bilateral inferior frontal gyri and bilateral insulae, indicating that word frequency can affect multiple aspects of word processing. N correlated positively with brain activity in left and right middle temporal gyri as well as right inferior frontal gyrus. Thus, our analysis revealed multiple distinct brain areas involved in visual word processing within one data set.

  16. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries. Effective...

  17. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries. Effective...

  18. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries. Effective...

  19. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries. Effective...

  20. [Effects of noise competition on monosyllabic and disyllabic word perception in children].

    PubMed

    Liu, H H; Liu, S; Li, Y; Zheng, Z P; Jin, X; Li, J; Ren, C C; Zheng, J; Zhang, J; Chen, M; Hao, J S; Yang, Y; Liu, W; Ni, X

    2017-05-07

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of noise competition on word perception in normal hearing (NH) children and children with cochlear implantation (CI). Methods: To estimate the contribution of noise competition on speech perception, word perception in speech-shaped noise(SSN)and 4-talker babble noise(BN) with Mandarin Lexical Neighborhood Test were performed in 80 NH children and 89 children with CI. Corrected perception percentages were acquired in each group. Results: Both signal to noise ratio (SNR) and noise type influenced the word perception. In NH group, corrected percentages of disyllabic word perception in SSN were 24.2%, 55.9%, 77.1%, 85.1% and 88.9% at -8, -4, 0, 4 and 8 dB SNR, corresponding corrected percentages of monosyllabic word were 13.9%, 39.5%, 60.1%, 68.8% and 80.1%, respectively. In BN noise, corrected percentages of disyllabic word were 2.4%, 24.3%, 55.6%, 74.3% and 86.2%, corresponding monosyllabic word were 2.3%, 20.8%, 47.2%, 61.1% and 74.8%, respectively. In CI group, corrected percentages of dissyllabic word in SSN and BN at 10 dB SNR were 65.5% and 58.1%, respectively. Corresponding monosyllabic word were 49.0% and 41.0%. For SNR=5 dB, corrected percentages of disyllabic word in SSN and BN were 50.0% and 38.1%, corresponding corrected percentages of monosyllabic word were 40.8% and 25.1%, respectively. Analysis indicated that the masking effect were significantly higher in BN compared with SSN. Conclusions: Noise competition influence word perception performance significantly. In specific, the influence of noise on word perception is bigger in children with CI than in NH children. The masking effect is higher in BN noise when compared with SSN.

  1. Phonological Codes Are Assembled before Word Fixation: Evidence from Boundary Paradigm in Sentence Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miellet, Sebastien; Sparrow, Laurent

    2004-01-01

    This experiment employed the boundary paradigm during sentence reading to explore the nature of early phonological coding in reading. Fixation durations were shorter when the parafoveal preview was the correct word than when it was a spelling control pseudoword. In contrast, there was no significant difference between correct word and…

  2. Young Children's Use of Contrast in Word Learning: The Case of Proper Names

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, D. Geoffrey; Rhemtulla, Mijke

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has established that contrast can exert a powerful effect on early word learning. This study examined the role of contrast in young children's ability to learn proper names. Preschoolers heard a novel word for an unfamiliar stuffed animal in the presence of a second stuffed animal of either the same or a different kind.…

  3. Working Memory and Literacy as Predictors of Performance on Algebraic Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kerry; Ng, Swee-Fong; Ng, Ee-Lynn; Lim, Zee-Ying

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies on individual differences in mathematical abilities have shown that working memory contributes to early arithmetic performance. In this study, we extended the investigation to algebraic word problem solving. A total of 151 10-year-olds were administered algebraic word problems and measures of working memory, intelligence quotient…

  4. An Initial Investigation of the Neural Correlates of Word Processing in Preschoolers with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haebig, Eileen; Leonard, Laurence; Usler, Evan; Deevy, Patricia; Weber, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Previous behavioral studies have found deficits in lexical--semantic abilities in children with specific language impairment (SLI), including reduced depth and breadth of word knowledge. This study explored the neural correlates of early emerging familiar word processing in preschoolers with SLI and typical development. Method: Fifteen…

  5. Fourteen-Month-Olds' Decontextualized Understanding of Words for Absent Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Kristi; Sundara, Megha

    2017-01-01

    The majority of research examining infants' decontextualized word knowledge comes from studies in which words and pictures are presented simultaneously. However, comprehending utterances about unseen objects is a hallmark of language. Do infants demonstrate decontextualized absent object knowledge early in the second year of life? Further, to what…

  6. Attempting to "Increase Intake from the Input": Attention and Word Learning in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenbaum, Elena J.; Amso, Dima; Righi, Giulia; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that social attention is related to early language abilities. We explored whether we can facilitate word learning among children with autism by directing attention to areas of the scene that have been demonstrated as relevant for successful word learning. We tracked eye movements to faces and objects while children…

  7. Duality of Mathematical Thinking When Making Sense of Simple Word Problems: Theoretical Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polotskaia, Elena; Savard, Annie; Freiman, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    This essay proposes a reflection on the learning difficulties and teaching approaches associated with arithmetic word problem solving. We question the development of word problem solving skills in the early grades of elementary school. We are trying to revive the discussion because first, the knowledge in question--reversibility of arithmetic…

  8. Word Learning in 6-Month-Olds: Fast Encoding-Weak Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Manuela; Friederici, Angela D.

    2011-01-01

    There has been general consensus that initial word learning during early infancy is a slow and time-consuming process that requires very frequent exposure, whereas later in development, infants are able to quickly learn a novel word for a novel meaning. From the perspective of memory maturation, this shift in behavioral development might represent…

  9. The Pursuit of Word Meanings

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Jon Scott; Gleitman, Lila R.; Trueswell, John C.; Yang, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate here the performance of four models of cross-situational word learning; two global models, which extract and retain multiple referential alternatives from each word occurrence; and two local models, which extract just a single referent from each occurrence. One of these local models, dubbed Pursuit, uses an associative learning mechanism to estimate word-referent probability but pursues and tests the best referent-meaning at any given time. Pursuit is found to perform as well as global models under many conditions extracted from naturalistic corpora of parent child-interactions, even though the model maintains far less information than global models. Moreover, Pursuit is found to best capture human experimental findings from several relevant cross-situational word-learning experiments, including those of Yu and Smith (2007), the paradigm example of a finding believed to support fully global cross-situational models. Implications and limitations of these results are discussed, most notably that the model characterizes only the earliest stages of word learning, when reliance on the co-occurring referent world is at its greatest. PMID:27666335

  10. Ensuring the profitability of acquired physician practices.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, J P

    1997-01-01

    Healthcare organizations are aggressively acquiring physician group practices to create primary care networks and broaden their managed care market penetration. However, few are realizing a positive return on investment after acquisition. The odds that acquired practices will be profitable can be improved if healthcare organizations plan carefully by establishing separate acquiring entities, setting clear goals for the practices, forming skilled management teams with strong physician leadership to manage the acquired practices, and carefully structuring their physician incentive compensation plans.

  11. Promoting Cardiovascular Health in Patients Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Harris, Robin

    2018-03-01

    Patients living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (PLWHA) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease because of advances in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome treatment and increased life expectancy. Cardiovascular health promotion in PLWHA includes strategies for risk factor reduction, disease prevention, early detection, and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Emotion Words Shape Emotion Percepts

    PubMed Central

    Gendron, Maria; Lindquist, Kristen A.; Barsalou, Lawrence; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    People believe they see emotion written on the faces of other people. In an instant, simple facial actions are transformed into information about another's emotional state. The present research examined whether a perceiver unknowingly contributes to emotion perception with emotion word knowledge. We present 2 studies that together support a role for emotion concepts in the formation of visual percepts of emotion. As predicted, we found that perceptual priming of emotional faces (e.g., a scowling face) was disrupted when the accessibility of a relevant emotion word (e.g., anger) was temporarily reduced, demonstrating that the exact same face was encoded differently when a word was accessible versus when it was not. The implications of these findings for a linguistically relative view of emotion perception are discussed. PMID:22309717

  13. Structural and functional correlates for language efficiency in auditory word processing.

    PubMed

    Jung, JeYoung; Kim, Sunmi; Cho, Hyesuk; Nam, Kichun

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to provide convergent understanding of the neural basis of auditory word processing efficiency using a multimodal imaging. We investigated the structural and functional correlates of word processing efficiency in healthy individuals. We acquired two structural imaging (T1-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during auditory word processing (phonological and semantic tasks). Our results showed that better phonological performance was predicted by the greater thalamus activity. In contrary, better semantic performance was associated with the less activation in the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), supporting the neural efficiency hypothesis that better task performance requires less brain activation. Furthermore, our network analysis revealed the semantic network including the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and pMTG was correlated with the semantic efficiency. Especially, this network acted as a neural efficient manner during auditory word processing. Structurally, DLPFC and cingulum contributed to the word processing efficiency. Also, the parietal cortex showed a significate association with the word processing efficiency. Our results demonstrated that two features of word processing efficiency, phonology and semantics, can be supported in different brain regions and, importantly, the way serving it in each region was different according to the feature of word processing. Our findings suggest that word processing efficiency can be achieved by in collaboration of multiple brain regions involved in language and general cognitive function structurally and functionally.

  14. Structural and functional correlates for language efficiency in auditory word processing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunmi; Cho, Hyesuk; Nam, Kichun

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to provide convergent understanding of the neural basis of auditory word processing efficiency using a multimodal imaging. We investigated the structural and functional correlates of word processing efficiency in healthy individuals. We acquired two structural imaging (T1-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during auditory word processing (phonological and semantic tasks). Our results showed that better phonological performance was predicted by the greater thalamus activity. In contrary, better semantic performance was associated with the less activation in the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), supporting the neural efficiency hypothesis that better task performance requires less brain activation. Furthermore, our network analysis revealed the semantic network including the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and pMTG was correlated with the semantic efficiency. Especially, this network acted as a neural efficient manner during auditory word processing. Structurally, DLPFC and cingulum contributed to the word processing efficiency. Also, the parietal cortex showed a significate association with the word processing efficiency. Our results demonstrated that two features of word processing efficiency, phonology and semantics, can be supported in different brain regions and, importantly, the way serving it in each region was different according to the feature of word processing. Our findings suggest that word processing efficiency can be achieved by in collaboration of multiple brain regions involved in language and general cognitive function structurally and functionally. PMID:28892503

  15. Word categorization from distributional information: frames confer more than the sum of their (Bigram) parts.

    PubMed

    Mintz, Toben H; Wang, Felix Hao; Li, Jia

    2014-12-01

    Grammatical categories, such as noun and verb, are the building blocks of syntactic structure and the components that govern the grammatical patterns of language. However, in many languages words are not explicitly marked with their category information, hence a critical part of acquiring a language is categorizing the words. Computational analyses of child-directed speech have shown that distributional information-information about how words pattern with one another in sentences-could be a useful source of initial category information. Yet questions remain as to whether learners use this kind of information, and if so, what kinds of distributional patterns facilitate categorization. In this paper we investigated how adults exposed to an artificial language use distributional information to categorize words. We compared training situations in which target words occurred in frames (i.e., surrounded by two words that frequently co-occur) against situations in which target words occurred in simpler bigram contexts (where an immediately adjacent word provides the context for categorization). We found that learners categorized words together when they occurred in similar frame contexts, but not when they occurred in similar bigram contexts. These findings are particularly relevant because they accord with computational investigations showing that frame contexts provide accurate category information cross-linguistically. We discuss these findings in the context of prior research on distribution-based categorization and the broader implications for the role of distributional categorization in language acquisition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Word Categorization From Distributional Information: Frames Confer More Than the Sum of Their (Bigram) Parts

    PubMed Central

    Mintz, Toben H.; Wang, Felix Hao; Li, Vivian Jia

    2014-01-01

    Grammatical categories, such as noun and verb, are the building blocks of syntactic structure and the components that govern the grammatical patterns of language. However, in many languages words are not explicitly marked with their category information, hence a critical part of acquiring a language is categorizing the words. Computational analyses of child-directed speech have shown that distributional information—information about how words pattern with one another in sentences—could be a useful source of initial category information. Yet questions remain as to whether learners use this kind of information, and if so, what kinds of distributional patterns facilitate categorization. In this paper we investigated how adults exposed to an artificial language use distributional information to categorize words. We compared training situations in which target words occurred in frames (i.e., surrounded by two words that frequently co-occur) against situations in which target words occurred in simpler bigram contexts (where an immediately adjacent word provides the context for categorization). We found that learners categorized words together when they occurred in similar frame contexts, but not when they occurred in similar bigram contexts. These findings are particularly relevant because they accord with computational investigations showing that frame contexts provide accurate category information cross-linguistically. We discuss these findings in the context of prior research on distribution-based categorization and the broader implications for the role of distributional categorization in language acquisition. PMID:25164244

  17. Word Processing. A Handbook for Business Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jeffrey R., Jr., Ed.

    This handbook is designed to provide information to help teachers keep abreast of changes in word processing and to develop necessary teaching skills. The handbook is divided into two main parts: understanding word processing and teaching word processing skills. In the introduction the part word processing plays in the business scheme of a company…

  18. Using the Word Processor in Writing Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melia, Josie

    Writing groups can use word processors or microcomputers in many different types of writing activities. Four hour-long sessions at a word processor with the help of a skilled word processing tutor have been found to be sufficient to provide a working knowledge of word processing. When two or three students enrolled in a writing class are assigned…

  19. Emotion Words Affect Eye Fixations during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Graham G.; O'Donnell, Patrick J.; Sereno, Sara C.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion words are generally characterized as possessing high arousal and extreme valence and have typically been investigated in paradigms in which they are presented and measured as single words. This study examined whether a word's emotional qualities influenced the time spent viewing that word in the context of normal reading. Eye movements…

  20. Pictures Improve Memory of SAT Vocabulary Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Melva; Finkelstein, Arleen

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that students can improve their memory of Scholastic Aptitude Test vocabulary words by associating the words with corresponding pictures taken from magazines. Finds that long-term recall of words associated with pictures was higher than recall of words not associated with pictures. (RS)