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Sample records for early active rheumatoid

  1. Infliximab in active early rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Breedveld, F; Emery, P; Keystone, E; Patel, K; Furst, D; Kalden, J; St, C; Weisman, M; Smolen, J; Lipsky, P; Maini, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of the combination of infliximab plus methotrexate (MTX) on the progression of structural damage in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Subanalyses were carried out on data for patients with early RA in the Anti-TNF Therapy in RA with Concomitant Therapy (ATTRACT) study, in which 428 patients with active RA despite MTX therapy received placebo with MTX (MTX-only) or infliximab 3 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg every (q) 4 or 8 weeks with MTX (infliximab plus MTX) for 102 weeks. Early RA was defined as disease duration of 3 years or less; 82 of the 428 patients (19%) met this definition. Structural damage was assessed with the modified van der Heijde-Sharp score. The changes from baseline to week 102 in total modified van der Heijde-Sharp score were compared between the infliximab plus MTX groups and the MTX-only group. Results: The erosion and joint space narrowing scores from baseline to week 102 in the cohort of patients with early RA decreased significantly in each infliximab dose regimen compared with the MTX-only regimen. Consistent benefit was seen in the joints of both hands and feet. Conclusions: Infliximab combined with MTX inhibited the progression of structural damage in patients with early RA during the 2 year period of treatment. Early intervention with infliximab in patients with active RA despite MTX therapy may provide long term benefits by preventing radiographic progression and preserving joint integrity. PMID:14722203

  2. Comparison of composite measures of disease activity in an early seropositive rheumatoid arthritis cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ranganath, Veena K; Yoon, Jeonglim; Khanna, Dinesh; Park, Grace S; Furst, Daniel E; Elashoff, David A; Jawaheer, Damini; Sharp, John T; Gold, Richard H; Keystone, Edward C; Paulus, Harold E

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate concordance and agreement of the original DAS44/ESR‐4 item composite disease activity status measure with nine simpler derivatives when classifying patient responses by European League of Associations for Rheumatology (EULAR) criteria, using an early rheumatoid factor positive (RF+) rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patient cohort. Methods Disease‐modifying anti‐rheumatic drug‐naïve RF+ patients (n = 223; mean duration of symptoms, 6 months) were categorised as ACR none/20/50/70 responders. One‐way analysis of variance and two‐sample t tests were used to investigate the relationship between the ACR response groups and each composite measure. EULAR reached/change cut‐point scores were calculated for each composite measure. EULAR (good/moderate/none) responses for each composite measure and the degree of agreement with the DAS44/ESR‐4 item were calculated for 203 patients. Results Patients were mostly female (78%) with moderate to high disease activity. A centile‐based nomogram compared equivalent composite measure scores. Changes from baseline in the composite measures in patients with ACRnone were significantly less than those of ACR20/50/70 responders, and those for ACR50 were significantly different from those for ACR70. EULAR reached/change cut‐point scores for our cohort were similar to published cut‐points. When compared with the DAS44/ESR‐4 item, EULAR (good/moderate/none) percentage agreements were 92 with the DAS44/ESR‐3 item, 74 with the Clinical Disease Activity Index, and 80 with the DAS28/ESR‐4 item, the DAS28/CRP‐4 item and the Simplified Disease Activity Index. Conclusion The relationships of nine different RA composite measures against the DAS44/ESR‐4 item when applied to a cohort of seropositive patients with early RA are described. Each of these simplified status and response measures could be useful in assessing patients with RA, but the specific measure selected should be pre‐specified and

  3. Prevalence of Asymptomatic Arterial Hypertension and Its Correlation with Inflammatory Activity in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bajraktari, Ismet H; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Berisha, Idriz; Lahu, Ali; Kryeziu, Avni; Durmishi, Bastri; Bajraktari, Halit; Bahtiri, Elton

    2017-08-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease that worsens during the course of the disease and can cause disability. Early RA refers to the onset of symptoms within the past 3 months. In RA, increased levels of mediators of inflammation may cause arterial stiffness consequently leading to arterial hypertension. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic arterial hypertension in early RA patients as well as the correlation with parameters of inflammation. One hundred and seventy-nine early RA patients diagnosed in agreement with ACR/EULAR (American College of Rheumatology/ European League against Rheumatism) 2010 criteria were consecutively included in the study. CRP (C-reactive protein) and anti CCP (Antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides) serum levels, WBC (white blood cells) count and ESR (Erythrocyte sedimentation rate), likewise DAS-28 (28-joint disease activity score) were determined in all included patients. Parametric tests were used to compare the characteristics of the groups and to test the correlation of the variables. Statistical data analysis revealed that a majority of the patients were females (n = 141; 78.7%); the mean age at RA onset was 49.13 ± 12.13 years. Overall prevalence of hypertension was 44.13 % (n = 79). In comparison with the normotensive patients, the hypertensive patients were older and had significantly higher values of CRP, ESR, anti-CCP and DAS-28. A highly significant positive correlation between all the study parameters and systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed. Presence of significantly higher values of CRP, ESR, anti-CCP and DAS-28 in hypertensive patients indicate that inflammation is associated with an increased risk of hypertension. In this context, early screening for arterial hypertension and adequate therapeutic measures should be considered in early RA patients.

  4. Prevalence of Asymptomatic Arterial Hypertension and Its Correlation with Inflammatory Activity in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bajraktari, Ismet H.; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Berisha, Idriz; Lahu, Ali; Kryeziu, Avni; Durmishi, Bastri; Bajraktari, Halit; Bahtiri, Elton

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease that worsens during the course of the disease and can cause disability. Early RA refers to the onset of symptoms within the past 3 months. In RA, increased levels of mediators of inflammation may cause arterial stiffness consequently leading to arterial hypertension. AIM: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic arterial hypertension in early RA patients as well as the correlation with parameters of inflammation. METHODS: One hundred and seventy-nine early RA patients diagnosed in agreement with ACR/EULAR (American College of Rheumatology/ European League against Rheumatism) 2010 criteria were consecutively included in the study. CRP (C-reactive protein) and anti CCP (Antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides) serum levels, WBC (white blood cells) count and ESR (Erythrocyte sedimentation rate), likewise DAS-28 (28-joint disease activity score) were determined in all included patients. Parametric tests were used to compare the characteristics of the groups and to test the correlation of the variables. RESULTS: Statistical data analysis revealed that a majority of the patients were females (n = 141; 78.7%); the mean age at RA onset was 49.13 ± 12.13 years. Overall prevalence of hypertension was 44.13 % (n = 79). In comparison with the normotensive patients, the hypertensive patients were older and had significantly higher values of CRP, ESR, anti-CCP and DAS-28. A highly significant positive correlation between all the study parameters and systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed. CONCLUSION: Presence of significantly higher values of CRP, ESR, anti-CCP and DAS-28 in hypertensive patients indicate that inflammation is associated with an increased risk of hypertension. In this context, early screening for arterial hypertension and adequate therapeutic measures should be considered in early RA patients. PMID:28932306

  5. Do Genetic Susceptibility Variants Associate with Disease Severity in Early Active Rheumatoid Arthritis?

    PubMed

    Scott, Ian C; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Walker, Jemma; Quist, Jelmar; Spain, Sarah L; Tan, Rachael; Steer, Sophia; Okada, Yukinori; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Cope, Andrew P; Lewis, Cathryn M

    2015-07-01

    Genetic variants affect both the development and severity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent studies have expanded the number of RA susceptibility variants. We tested the hypothesis that these associated with disease severity in a clinical trial cohort of patients with early, active RA. We evaluated 524 patients with RA enrolled in the Combination Anti-Rheumatic Drugs in Early RA (CARDERA) trials. We tested validated susceptibility variants - 69 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), 15 HLA-DRB1 alleles, and amino acid polymorphisms in 6 HLA molecule positions - for their associations with progression in Larsen scoring, 28-joint Disease Activity Scores, and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores over 2 years using linear mixed-effects and latent growth curve models. HLA variants were associated with joint destruction. The *04:01 SNP (rs660895, p = 0.0003), *04:01 allele (p = 0.0002), and HLA-DRβ1 amino acids histidine at position 13 (p = 0.0005) and valine at position 11 (p = 0.0012) significantly associated with radiological progression. This association was only significant in anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive patients, suggesting that while their effects were not mediated by ACPA, they only predicted joint damage in ACPA-positive RA. Non-HLA variants did not associate with radiograph damage (assessed individually and cumulatively as a weighted genetic risk score). Two SNP - rs11889341 (STAT4, p = 0.0001) and rs653178 (SH2B3-PTPN11, p = 0.0004) - associated with HAQ scores over 6-24 months. HLA susceptibility variants play an important role in determining radiological progression in early, active ACPA-positive RA. Genome-wide and HLA-wide analyses across large populations are required to better characterize the genetic architecture of radiological progression in RA.

  6. Effective Treatment for Rapid Improvement of Both Disease Activity and Self-Reported Physical Activity in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Konijn, Nicole P C; van Tuyl, Lilian H D; Boers, Maarten; den Uyl, Debby; Ter Wee, Marieke M; Kerstens, Pit; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Nurmohamed, Michael; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Lems, Willem F

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the longitudinal relationship between disease activity and self-reported physical activity (PA) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis during the first year of treatment with combination therapy. PA was measured with the Short Questionnaire to Assess Health-Enhancing Physical Activity at baseline, 13 weeks, 26 weeks, and 52 weeks after start of treatment in the context of the Combinatietherapie Bij Reumatoïde Artritis-Light trial. The reported PA classified patients as meeting or not meeting the World Health Organization (WHO) PA guideline (cutoff: 150 minutes of moderate-to-intense activity per week). Other measurements included the Disease Activity Score (DAS). Since both treatment arms showed equal treatment effect, these were analyzed as 1 group with simple before-after analyses and generalized estimating equations (GEE). In these analyses, 140 patients (86% of the trial population, 66% women, mean age 52 years) with complete data were included. At entry, 69% of the patients met the WHO PA guideline, increasing to 90% at week 13, and remaining stable at 89% after 1 year (P < 0.001). Mean DAS improved from 4.0 to 1.8 during the first year of treatment (P < 0.001). In GEE analyses, DAS decreases were significantly associated with PA increases (P = 0.008). Patients with clinically relevant responses (expressed as DAS remission, European League Against Rheumatism good response or American College of Rheumatology criteria for 70% improvement response) showed higher PA levels compared to nonresponders, regardless of the definition of response, for both the WHO and Dutch PA guideline. Early rheumatoid arthritis patients using combination therapy improved both disease activity and PA, a beneficial effect persisting for at least 1 year. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  7. Triple DMARD treatment in early rheumatoid arthritis modulates synovial T cell activation and plasmablast/plasma cell differentiation pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wechalekar, Mihir D.; Guo, Yanxia; Yin, Xuefeng; Weedon, Helen; Proudman, Susanna M.; Smith, Malcolm D.; Nagpal, Sunil

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to investigate the genome-wide transcriptional effects of a combination of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (tDMARD; methotrexate, sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine) in synovial tissues obtained from early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. While combination DMARD strategies have been investigated for clinical efficacy, very little data exists on the potential molecular mechanism of action. We hypothesized that tDMARD would impact multiple biological pathways, but the specific pathways were unknown. Methods Paired synovial biopsy samples from early RA patients before and after 6 months of tDMARD therapy were collected by arthroscopy (n = 19). These biopsies as well as those from subjects with normal synovium (n = 28) were profiled by total RNA sequencing. Results Large differences in gene expression between RA and control biopsies (over 5000 genes) were identified. Despite clinical efficacy, the expression of a restricted set of less than 300 genes was reversed after 6 months of treatment. Many genes remained elevated, even in patients who achieved low disease activity. Interestingly, tDMARD downregulated genes included those involved in T cell activation and signaling and plasmablast/plasma cell differentiation and function. Conclusions We have identified transcriptomic signatures that characterize synovial tissue from RA patients with early disease. Analysis after 6 months of tDMARD treatment highlight consistent alterations in expression of genes related to T cell activation and plasmablast/plasma cell differentiation. These results provide novel insight into the biology of early RA and the mechanism of tDMARD action and may help identify novel drug targets to improve rates of treatment-induced disease remission. PMID:28863153

  8. Triple DMARD treatment in early rheumatoid arthritis modulates synovial T cell activation and plasmablast/plasma cell differentiation pathways.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Alice M; Wechalekar, Mihir D; Guo, Yanxia; Yin, Xuefeng; Weedon, Helen; Proudman, Susanna M; Smith, Malcolm D; Nagpal, Sunil

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the genome-wide transcriptional effects of a combination of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (tDMARD; methotrexate, sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine) in synovial tissues obtained from early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. While combination DMARD strategies have been investigated for clinical efficacy, very little data exists on the potential molecular mechanism of action. We hypothesized that tDMARD would impact multiple biological pathways, but the specific pathways were unknown. Paired synovial biopsy samples from early RA patients before and after 6 months of tDMARD therapy were collected by arthroscopy (n = 19). These biopsies as well as those from subjects with normal synovium (n = 28) were profiled by total RNA sequencing. Large differences in gene expression between RA and control biopsies (over 5000 genes) were identified. Despite clinical efficacy, the expression of a restricted set of less than 300 genes was reversed after 6 months of treatment. Many genes remained elevated, even in patients who achieved low disease activity. Interestingly, tDMARD downregulated genes included those involved in T cell activation and signaling and plasmablast/plasma cell differentiation and function. We have identified transcriptomic signatures that characterize synovial tissue from RA patients with early disease. Analysis after 6 months of tDMARD treatment highlight consistent alterations in expression of genes related to T cell activation and plasmablast/plasma cell differentiation. These results provide novel insight into the biology of early RA and the mechanism of tDMARD action and may help identify novel drug targets to improve rates of treatment-induced disease remission.

  9. Tofacitinib in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Lack of Early Change in Disease Activity Predicts a Low Probability of Achieving Low Disease Activity at Month 6.

    PubMed

    Van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Lee, Eun Bong; Fallon, Lara; Zwillich, Samuel H; Wilkinson, Bethanie; Chapman, Douglass; Demasi, Ryan; Keystone, Edward

    2018-04-26

    Optimal targeted treatment in rheumatoid arthritis requires early identification of failure to respond. This post-hoc analysis explored the relationship between early disease activity changes and achievement of low disease activity (LDA) and remission targets with tofacitinib. Data were from two randomized, double-blind, Phase 3 studies. In ORAL Start (NCT01039688), methotrexate (MTX)-naïve patients received tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg BID, or MTX, for 24 months. In placebo-controlled ORAL Standard (NCT00853385), MTX-inadequate responder (MTX-IR) patients received tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg BID or adalimumab 40 mg Q2W, with MTX, for 12 months. Probabilities of achieving LDA (CDAI ≤10; DAS28-4[ESR] ≤3.2) at months 6 and 12 were calculated, given failure to achieve threshold improvement from baseline (change in CDAI ≥6; DAS28-4[ESR] ≥1.2) at month 1 or 3. In ORAL Start, 7.2% and 5.4% of patients receiving tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg BID, respectively, failed to improve CDAI ≥6 at month 3; of those who failed, 3.8% and 28.6%, respectively, achieved month 6 CDAI-defined LDA. In ORAL Standard, 18.8% and 17.5% of patients receiving tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg BID, respectively, failed to improve CDAI ≥6 at month 3; of those who failed, 0% and 2.9%, respectively, achieved month 6 CDAI-defined LDA. Findings were similar when considering month 1 improvements or DAS28-4(ESR) thresholds. In MTX-IR patients, lack of response to tofacitinib after 1 or 3 months predicted low probability of achieving LDA at month 6. Lack of early response may be considered when deciding whether to continue treatment with tofacitinib. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of a one-year coaching program for healthy physical activity in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Brodin, Nina; Lohela-Karlsson, Malin; Swärdh, Emma; Opava, Christina H

    2015-01-01

    To describe cost-effectiveness of the Physical Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis (PARA) study intervention. Costs were collected and estimated retrospectively. Cost-effectiveness was calculated based on the intervention cost per patient with respect to change in health status (EuroQol global visual analog scale--EQ-VAS and EuroQol--EQ-5D) and activity limitation (Health assessment questionnaire - HAQ) using cost-effectiveness- and cost-minimization analyses. Total cost of the one-year intervention program was estimated to be €67 317 or €716 per participant. Estimated difference in total societal cost between the intervention (IG) and control (CG) was €580 per participant. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for one point (1/100) of improvement in EQ-VAS was estimated to be €116. By offering the intervention to more affected participants in the IG compared to less affected participants, 15.5 extra points of improvement in EQ-VAS and 0.13 points of improvement on HAQ were gained at the same cost. "Ordinary physiotherapy" was most cost-effective with regard to EQ-5D. The intervention resulted in improved effect in health status for the IG with a cost of €116 per extra point in VAS. The intervention was cost-effective if targeted towards a subgroup of more affected patients when evaluating the effect using VAS and HAQ. The physical activity coaching intervention resulted in an improved effect on VAS for the intervention group, to a higher cost. In order to maximize cost-effectiveness, this type of physical activity coaching intervention should be targeted towards patients largely affected by their RA. The intervention is cost-effective from the patients' point of view, but not from that of the general population.

  11. Painful Joints? Early Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis Is Key

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print this issue Painful Joints? Early Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis Is Key En español Send us your comments ... type of arthritis. It’s far more common than rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis is caused by wear and tear on ...

  12. Inhibition of joint damage and improved clinical outcomes with rituximab plus methotrexate in early active rheumatoid arthritis: the IMAGE trial.

    PubMed

    Tak, P P; Rigby, W F; Rubbert-Roth, A; Peterfy, C G; van Vollenhoven, R F; Stohl, W; Hessey, E; Chen, A; Tyrrell, H; Shaw, T M

    2011-01-01

    Rituximab is an effective treatment in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of the IMAGE study was to determine the efficacy of rituximab in the prevention of joint damage and its safety in combination with methotrexate (MTX) in patients initiating treatment with MTX. In this double-blind randomised controlled phase III study, 755 MTX-naïve patients with active RA were randomly assigned to MTX alone, rituximab 2×500 mg + MTX or rituximab 2×1000 mg + MTX. The primary end point at week 52 was the change in joint damage measured using a Genant-modified Sharp score. 249, 249 and 250 patients were randomly assigned to MTX alone, rituximab 2×500 mg + MTX or rituximab 2×1000 mg + MTX, respectively. At week 52, treatment with rituximab 2×1000 mg + MTX compared with MTX alone was associated with a reduction in progression of joint damage (mean change in total modified Sharp score 0.359 vs 1.079; p=0.0004) and an improvement in clinical outcomes (ACR50 65% vs 42%; p<0.0001); rituximab 2×500 mg + MTX improved clinical outcomes (ACR50 59% vs 42%; p<0.0001) compared with MTX alone but did not significantly reduce the progression of joint damage. Safety outcomes were similar between treatment groups. Treatment with rituximab 2×1000 mg in combination with MTX is an effective therapy for the treatment of patients with MTX-naïve RA. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00299104.

  13. Evidence for early disease-modifying drugs in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Scott, David L

    2004-01-01

    Some research evidence supports early aggressive treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using combination therapy with two or more disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) plus steroids, or even DMARDs plus an anti-TNF. By contrast, conservatively delayed DMARD monotherapy, given after non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have failed, has been criticised. However, recent long-term studies highlight the complexities in evaluating whether to abandon pyramidal treatment in favour of early DMARDs. Although patients given early DMARD therapy show short-term benefits, longer-term results show no prolonged clinical advantages from early DMARDs. By 5 years patients receiving early DMARDs had similar disease activity and comparable health assessment questionnaire scores to patients who received DMARDs later in their disease course. X-ray progression was persistent and virtually identical in both groups. These negative findings do not invalidate the case for early DMARD therapy, as it is gives sustained reductions in disease activity in the early years of treatment without excessive risks from adverse effects. However, early DMARDs alone do not adequately control RA in the longer term. This may require starting with very aggressive therapy or treating patients more aggressively after early DMARD therapy has been initiated. PMID:14979927

  14. Life stories of people with rheumatoid arthritis who retired early: how gender and other contextual factors shaped their everyday activities, including paid work.

    PubMed

    Stamm, T A; Machold, K P; Smolen, J; Prodinger, B

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore how contextual factors affect the everyday activities of women and men with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as evident in their life stories. Fifteen people with RA, who had retired early due to the disease, were interviewed up to three times, according to a narrative biographic interview style. The life stories of the participants, which were reconstructed from the biographical data and from the transcribed 'told story' were analysed from the perspective of contextual factors, including personal and environmental factors. The rigour and accuracy of the analysis were enhanced by reflexivity and peer-review of the results. The life stories of the participants in this study reflected how contextual factors (such as gender, the healthcare system, the support of families and social and cultural values) shaped their everyday activities. In a society such as in Austria, which is based on traditional patriarchal values, men were presented with difficulties in developing a non-paid-work-related role. For women, if paid work had to be given up, they were more likely to engage in alternative challenging activities which enabled them to develop reflective skills, which in turn contributed to a positive and enriching perspective on their life stories. Health professionals may thus use some of the women's strategies to help men. Interventions by health professionals in people with RA may benefit from an approach sensitive to personal and environmental factors.

  15. Effectiveness of a clinical practice intervention in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Descalzo, Miguel Ángel; Carbonell, Jordi; González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Sanmartí, Raimon; Balsa, Alejandro; Hernandez-Barrera, Valentín; Román-Ivorra, José Andrés; Ivorra-Cortés, José; Lisbona, Pilar; Alperi, Mercedes; Jiménez-Garcia, Rodrigo; Carmona, Loreto

    2012-03-01

    To compare the outcome of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in a country where early clinics were established versus the outcome of patients in nonprotocolized clinics. We compared 2 multicenter cohorts: an RA cohort derived from an early arthritis registry set in 36 reference hospitals in which a specific intervention was established (Evaluation of a Model for Arthritis Care in Spain [SERAP]), and a historical control cohort of patients with early RA attending 34 rheumatology departments (Prognosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis [PROAR] cohort). Effectiveness was tested by comparing the change in the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28), the change in the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and the change in the Sharp/van der Heijde radiologic score using marginal structural models. A total of 161 early RA patients were recruited in the PROAR cohort and 447 in the SERAP cohort. Being a SERAP patient was inversely correlated with activity, resulting in a decrease of -0.24 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] -0.39, -0.08) units in the population average of the DAS28 after adjustment was made. Moreover, intervention may be seen as a protective factor of radiologic damage, with a decrease of -0.05 (95% CI -0.09, -0.01) units in the logarithm of the total Sharp/van der Heijde score. On the other hand, a decrease in functional impairment was detected, but intervention was not statistically associated with HAQ changes. Preventing major radiographic progression in a 2-year term inside structured and organized special programs for the management of disease, such as early arthritis clinics, are effective compared to nonprotocolized referrals, treatment, and followup. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  16. Sustained inhibition of progressive joint damage with rituximab plus methotrexate in early active rheumatoid arthritis: 2-year results from the randomised controlled trial IMAGE.

    PubMed

    Tak, Paul P; Rigby, William; Rubbert-Roth, Andrea; Peterfy, Charles; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Stohl, William; Healy, Emma; Hessey, Eva; Reynard, Mark; Shaw, Tim

    2012-03-01

    In the IMAGEstudy, rituximab plus methotrexate (MTX) inhibited joint damage and improved clinical outcomes at 1 year in MTX-naïve patients with early active rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this study was to assess joint damage progression and clinical outcomes over 2 years. Patients (n=755) were randomised to receive rituximab 2×500 mg+MTX, 2×1000 mg+MTX or placebo+MTX. The placebo-controlled period continued to week 104. Two-year end points were defined as secondary or exploratory and included change in total Genant-modified Sharp score (mTSS), total erosion score and joint space narrowing score from baseline to week 104. Clinical efficacy and physical function end points were also assessed. At 2 years, rituximab 2×1000 mg+MTX maintained inhibition of progressive joint damage versus MTX alone (mTSS change 0.41 vs 1.95; p<0.0001 (79% inhibition)), and a higher proportion of patients receiving rituximab 2×1000 mg+MTX had no radiographic progression over 2 years compared with those receiving MTX alone (57% vs 37%; p<0.0001). Contrary to 1-year results, exploratory analysis of rituximab 2×500 mg+MTX at 2 years showed that progressive joint damage was slowed by ∼61% versus placebo+MTX (mTSS, exploratory p=0.0041). Improvements in clinical signs and symptoms and physical function seen after 1 year in rituximab-treated patients versus those receiving placebo were maintained at year 2. Safety profiles were similar between groups. Treatment with rituximab 2×1000 mg+MTX was associated with sustained improvements in radiographic, clinical and functional outcomes over 2 years. Clinical trials.gov identifier NCT00299104.

  17. Everyday ethics and help-seeking in early rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, A.; Adam, P.; Cox, S.M.; Li, L.C.

    2018-01-01

    Background Sociological understandings of chronic illness have revealed tensions and complexities around help-seeking. Although ethics underpins healthcare, its application in the area of chronic illness is limited. Here we apply an ethical framework to interview accounts and identify ethical challenges in the early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) experience. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with eight participants who had been diagnosed with RA in the 12 months prior to recruitment. Applying the concepts of autonomous decision-making and procedural justice highlighted ethical concerns which arose throughout the help-seeking process. Analysis was based on the constant-comparison approach. Results Individuals described decision-making, illness actions and the medical encounter. The process was complicated by inadequate knowledge about symptoms, common-sense understandings about the GP appointment, difficulties concerning access to specialists, and patient–practitioner interactions. Autonomous decision-making and procedural justice were compromised. The accounts revealed contradictions between the policy ideals of active self-management, patient-centred care and shared decision-making, and the everyday experiences of individuals. Conclusions For ethical healthcare there is a need for: public knowledge about early RA symptoms; more effective patient–practitioner communication; and increased support during the wait between primary and secondary care. Healthcare facilities and the government may consider different models to deliver services to people requiring rheumatology consults. PMID:20610465

  18. What are the dominant cytokines in early rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Ridgley, Laura A.; Anderson, Amy E.; Pratt, Arthur G.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic disease of evolving immune dysregulation that culminates in joint destruction and disability. The principle by which pro-inflammatory cytokines may be therapeutically targeted to abrogate disease is well established, but has yet to translate into reliable cures for patients. Emerging insights into cytokine-mediated pathobiology during rheumatoid arthritis development are reviewed, and their implications for future treatment strategies considered. Recent findings Accumulating data highlight cytokine perturbations before the clinical onset of rheumatoid arthritis. Some of these have now been linked to the arthritogenic activation of autoantibodies and associated pain and bone destruction in affected joints. These observations suggest cytokines may trigger the transition from systemic immunity to arthritis. Cytokine exposure could furthermore ‘prime’ synovial stromal cells to perpetuate a dominant pro-inflammatory environment. By facilitating cross-talk between infiltrating immune cells and even sustaining ectopic lymphoid structure development in some cases, cytokine interplay ultimately underpins the failure of arthritis to resolve. Summary Successful therapeutic stratification will depend upon an increasingly sophisticated appreciation of how dominant players amongst cytokine networks vary across time and anatomical space during incipient rheumatoid arthritis. The prize of sustained remission for all patients justifies the considerable effort required to achieve this understanding. PMID:29206659

  19. Novel autoantibody markers for early and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Somers, Klaartje; Geusens, Piet; Elewaut, Dirk; De Keyser, Filip; Rummens, Jean-Luc; Coenen, Marieke; Blom, Marlies; Stinissen, Piet; Somers, Veerle

    2011-02-01

    Approximately one-third of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients are seronegative for the 2 serological RA markers, rheumatoid factor (RF) and antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (ACCP). Moreover, the sensitivities of both markers are lower in the diagnostically important early disease phase. The aim of this study was to identify additional autoantibody markers for early RA and for RF-negative, ACCP-negative (seronegative) RA. We screened an RA synovium cDNA phage display library with autoantibodies in plasma from 10 early (symptoms of maximum 1 year) and 10 seronegative (RF-negative, ACCP-negative) RA patients with validation in 72 additional RA patients and 121 controls (38 healthy controls, 43 patients with other inflammatory rheumatic diseases, 20 osteoarthritis patients and 20 subjects with mechanical joint complaints). Fourteen novel autoantibodies were identified that showed a 54% sensitivity and 90% specificity for RA. For 11 of these autoantibodies, an exclusive presence was demonstrated in RA patients (100% specificity, 37% sensitivity) as compared to controls. All early RA patients were positive for at least one of the identified autoantibodies and antibody-positivity was associated with a shorter disease duration (P = 0.0087). 52% of RA patients who initially tested negative for RF and ACCP, tested positive for at least one of the 14 novel autoantibodies, resulting in a 19% increase in sensitivity compared to current serological testing. Moreover, 5 identified autoantibodies were detected more frequently in seronegative RA patients, indicating that these autoantibodies constitute novel candidate markers for this RA subtype. We demonstrated that the targets of 3 of these 5 autoantibodies had an increased expression in RA synovial tissue compared to control synovial tissue, pointing towards a biological rationale for these auto antibody targets in RA. In conclusion, we identified novel candidate autoantibody markers for RA that can be

  20. Rheumatoid Vasculitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... RV) is an unusual complication of longstanding, severe rheumatoid arthritis. The active vasculitis associated with rheumatoid disease occurs ... a manifestation of “extra-articular” (beyond the joint)rheumatoid arthritis and involves the small and medium-sized arteries ...

  1. Impact of early diagnosis on functional disability in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dam; Choi, Chan-Bum; Lee, Jiyoung; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Won, Soyoung; Bang, So-Young; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Chung, Won Tae; Hong, Seung-Jae; Jun, Jae-Bum; Jung, Young Ok; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Jong; Koh, Eunmi; Lee, Hye-Soon; Lee, Jaejoon; Lee, Jisoo; Lee, Sang-Heon; Lee, Shin-Seok; Lee, Sung Won; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Bo Young; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Bae, Sang-Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims To determine whether early diagnosis is beneficial for functional status of various disease durations in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Methods A total of 4,540 RA patients were enrolled as part of the Korean Observational Study Network for Arthritis (KORONA). We defined early diagnosis as a lag time between symptom onset and RA diagnosis of ≤ 12 months, whereas patients with a longer lag time comprised the delayed diagnosis group. Demographic characteristics and outcomes were compared between early and delayed diagnosis groups. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the impact of early diagnosis on the development of functional disability in RA patients. Results A total of 2,597 patients (57.2%) were included in the early diagnosis group. The average Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) score was higher in the delayed diagnosis group (0.64 ± 0.63 vs. 0.70 ± 0.66, p < 0.01), and the proportion of patients with no functional disability (HAQ = 0) was higher in the early diagnosis group (22.9% vs. 20.0%, p = 0.02). In multivariable analyses, early diagnosis was independently associated with no functional disability (odds ratio [OR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.40). In a subgroup analysis according to disease duration, early diagnosis was associated with no functional disability in patients with disease duration < 5 years (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.72) but not in patients with longer disease duration (for 5 to 10 years: OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.52; for ≥ 10 years: OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.28). Conclusions Early diagnosis is associated with no functional disability, especially in patients with shorter disease duration. PMID:27618867

  2. Complement activating properties of complexes containing rheumatoid factor in synovial fluids and sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Elson, C J; Carter, S D; Cottrell, B J; Scott, D G; Bacon, P A; Wallington, T B

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between complexes containing rheumatoid factor and complexes activating complement was examined in synovial fluids and sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In each case this was performed by quantifying the amount of rheumatoid factor bound by solid phase Fab'2 anti-C3 and/or solid phase conglutinin. Both anti-C3 coated and conglutinin coated microtitre plates bound high levels of complexes containing rheumatoid factor from sera of RA patients with vasculitis. Unexpectedly, these complexes were detected in synovial fluids from only a minority of RA patients with synovitis. However, RA synovial fluids did contain other complexes as shown by the presence of complement consuming activity, C1q binding material and immunoglobulin attaching to conglutinin. It is considered that in RA synovial fluids the complexes containing RF and those activating complement are not necessarily the same whilst in vasculitic sera the complexes containing rheumatoid factor also activate complement. PMID:3978872

  3. Discordant inflammation and pain in early and established rheumatoid arthritis: Latent Class Analysis of Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network and British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register data.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Daniel F; Ferguson, Eamonn; Young, Adam; Kiely, Patrick D W; Walsh, David A

    2016-12-13

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity is often measured using the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28). We aimed to identify and independently verify subgroups of people with RA that may be discordant with respect to self-reported and objective disease state, with potentially different clinical needs. Data were derived from three cohorts: (1) the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network (ERAN) and the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register (BSRBR), (2) those commencing tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors and (3) those using non-biologic drugs. In latent class analysis, we used variables related to pain, central pain mechanisms or inflammation (pain, vitality, mental health, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, swollen joint count, tender joint count, visual analogue scale of general health). Clinically relevant outcomes were examined. Five, four and four latent classes were found in the ERAN, BSRBR TNF inhibitor and non-biologic cohorts, respectively. The proportions of people assigned with >80% probability into latent classes were 76%, 58% and 72% in the ERAN, TNF inhibitor and non-biologic cohorts, respectively. The latent classes displayed either concordance between measures indicative of mild, moderate or severe disease activity; discordantly worse patient-reported measures despite less markedly elevated inflammation; or discordantly less severe patient-reported measures despite elevated inflammation. Latent classes with discordantly worse patient-reported measures represented 12%, 40% and 21% of the ERAN, TNF inhibitor and non-biologic cohorts, respectively; contained more females; and showed worse function. In those latent classes with worse scores at baseline, DAS28 and function improved over 1 year (p < 0.001 for all comparisons), and scores differed less at follow-up than at baseline. Discordant latent classes can be identified in people with RA, and these findings are robust across three cohorts with varying disease duration and

  4. Walking ability as a measure of treatment effect in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, J; Brydson, G; Fraser, S; Grant, M

    2001-04-01

    To assess the clinical usefulness of a prototype walkmat system in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Twenty-four subjects with early RA and symptomatic forefoot disease requiring therapy with second-line drugs were recruited. Each subject underwent clinical assessment together with gait analysis on the contact sensitive walkmat system and Kistler forceplate before and after six months of treatment with second-line drugs. Two subjects were lost to follow-up. There was the expected improvement in disease activity in response to therapy. Significant differences were also demonstrated in defined gait parameters that indicated improved weight-bearing and enhanced forefoot propulsion. Medical therapy improved walking ability in patients with RA and the walkmat system provided a useful adjunct to existing outcome measures in the assessment of lower limb function.

  5. [Implementation of an early rheumatoid athritis unit for the early recognition and treatment of the disease].

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Francisco; Monckeberg, Gustavo; Hassi, Isabel; Queirolo, Alejandra; Chicao, Fernando; Sandoval, Ximena; Jorquera, Evelyn; Badilla, Alejandro

    2018-01-01

    Early recognition of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) provides clinical benefits in terms of remission induction, reduced disease progression, and eventually treatment free remission. To describe the setting of a Unit devoted exclusively to the recognition and treatment of early RA in patients referred from primary healthcare centers (PHC) in Chile. Patients were referred from nine participating PHC from 2014 through 2016. PHC physicians received a formal training to enhance criteria recognition and program adherence. Mandatory referral criteria were an age above 17 years, and arthralgia of less than 1-year duration, plus at least one of the following: morning stiffness of more than 30 minutes, swelling involving more than 3 joints for more than 1 month, a positive squeeze test or abnormal inflammatory serum markers. One hundred twenty patients aged 45 ± 12 years (90% women) were assessed at the early rheumatoid arthritis unit. Median time to referral from PHC to the Unit was 14.6 days. The median duration of symptoms for the overall sample of patients was 10.8 months. RA was identified in 43 patients (36%), with a delay between onset of symptoms and diagnosis of 8.3 months. Regarding the performance of referral criteria, the most sensitive was morning stiffness (80%, sensitivity 95% confidence intervals (CI) 64-89%) and synovitis was the most specific (specificity 83%, 95% CI 72-90%). The positive predictive value of the three clinical criteria altogether was 68.1% (95% CI 47-83%). Institution of an early RA unit was feasible within the Chilean healthcare system enabling the identification of early RA in one-third of patients.

  6. Reductions in Radiographic Progression in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Over Twenty-Five Years: Changing Contribution From Rheumatoid Factor in Two Multicenter UK Inception Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Lewis; Norton, Sam; Nikiphorou, Elena; Jayakumar, Keeranur; McWilliams, Daniel F; Rennie, Kirsten L; Dixey, Josh; Kiely, Patrick; Walsh, David Andrew; Young, Adam

    2017-12-01

    To assess the 5-year progression of erosions and joint space narrowing (JSN) and their associations with rheumatoid factor (RF) status in 2 large, multicenter, early rheumatoid arthritis cohorts, spanning 25 years. Radiographic joint damage was recorded using the Sharp/van der Heijde (SHS) method in the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Study (ERAS), 1986-2001, and the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network (ERAN), 2002-2013. Mixed-effects negative binomial regression estimated changes in radiographic damage over 5 years, including erosions and JSN, separately. RF, along with age, sex, and baseline markers of disease activity were controlled for. A total of 1,216 patients from ERAS and 446 from ERAN had radiographic data. Compared to ERAS, ERAN patients had a lower mean total SHS score at baseline (ERAN 6.2 versus ERAS 10.5; P < 0.001) and mean annual rate of change (ERAN 2.5 per year versus ERAS 6.9 per year; P < 0.001). Seventy-four percent of ERAS and 27% of ERAN patients progressed ≥5 units. Lower scores at baseline in ERAN were largely driven by reductions in JSN (ERAS 3.9 versus ERAN 1.2; P < 0.001), along with erosions (ERAS 1.9 versus ERAN 0.8; P < 0.001). RF was associated with greater progression in each cohort, but the absolute difference in mean annual rate of change for RF-positive patients was substantially higher for ERAS (RF positive 8.6 versus RF negative 5.1; P < 0.001), relative to ERAN (RF positive 2.0 versus RF negative 1.9; P = 0.855). Radiographic progression was shown to be significantly reduced between the 2 cohorts, and was associated with lower baseline damage and other factors, including changes in early disease-modifying antirheumatic drug use. The impact of RF status as a prognostic marker of clinically meaningful change in radiographic progression has markedly diminished in the context of more modern treatment. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  7. Longitudinal study of clinical prognostic factors in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: the PREDICT study.

    PubMed

    Bird, Paul; Nicholls, Dave; Barrett, Rina; de Jager, Julien; Griffiths, Hedley; Roberts, Lynden; Tymms, Kathleen; McCloud, Philip; Littlejohn, Geoffrey

    2017-04-01

    To assess the association between baseline clinical prognostic factors and subsequent Disease Activity Score of 28 joints (DAS28) remission in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Data were collected using point of care clinical software from participating rheumatology centres. Patients aged 18 years or over whose date of clinical onset of RA was within the previous 12-24 months, who had at least 6 months of follow-up data and a DAS28-ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) score recorded between 12 and 24 months from first being seen for RA were included. Data collected included baseline demographics, mode of disease onset, pattern of joint involvement at onset, smoking status, DAS28, rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA), time from symptom onset to presentation and disease activity at baseline. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression of DAS28-ESR remission between 12 and 24 months after first assessment were performed. Data from 1017 patients were analyzed: 70% female; mean age 60 years (SD: 14.7); 70% RF-positive, 58% ACPA-positive. The strongest age and sex adjusted baseline predictors of DAS28-ESR remission at 12-24 months were remission at baseline (odds ratio [OR]: 4.49, 95% CI: 2.17-9.29, P < 0.001), being male (OR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.46-4.01, P < 0.001), abstaining from alcohol (P < 0.001) and being lower weight (OR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97-1.00, P = 0.015). There was no statistically significant association between joint onset patterns, mode of onset, RF, ACPA or smoking status. In this observational study, patients with early RA at risk of not achieving remission include those with high disease activity at baseline, women, those who drink alcohol and those with higher body weight. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Measures of rheumatoid arthritis disease activity in Australian clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew; Bagga, Hanish

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate which rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity measures are being collected in patients receiving glucocorticoids, non-biologic or biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in Australian rheumatology practice. Methods. A retrospective audit of medical records was conducted from eight rheumatology practices around Australia. Each rheumatologist recruited 30 consecutive eligible patients into the review, 10 of whom must have been receiving a biological agent for rheumatoid arthritis. Disease activity measures and radiographic assessments were collected from each patient's last consultation. For biologic patients, disease activity measures were also collected from when the patient was first initiated on the biological agent. Results. At last consultation, the disease measures that were recorded most often were ESR (89.2%), haemoglobin (87.5%), and CRP (84.2%). DAS28 was infrequently recorded (16.3%). The rate of recording disease activity measures for patients receiving biologic DMARDs decreased over time (mean 27 months). Conclusion. This review has shown inconsistency of RA activity measures being recorded in Australian rheumatology clinical practice. An accurate assessment of the disease process is necessary to effectively target rheumatoid arthritis patients to treat in order to achieve optimal outcomes.

  9. Comparing the effects of tofacitinib, methotrexate and the combination, on bone marrow oedema, synovitis and bone erosion in methotrexate-naive, early active rheumatoid arthritis: results of an exploratory randomised MRI study incorporating semiquantitative and quantitative techniques.

    PubMed

    Conaghan, Philip G; Østergaard, Mikkel; Bowes, Michael A; Wu, Chunying; Fuerst, Thomas; van der Heijde, Désirée; Irazoque-Palazuelos, Fedra; Soto-Raices, Oscar; Hrycaj, Pawel; Xie, Zhiyong; Zhang, Richard; Wyman, Bradley T; Bradley, John D; Soma, Koshika; Wilkinson, Bethanie

    2016-06-01

    To explore the effects of tofacitinib-an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-with or without methotrexate (MTX), on MRI endpoints in MTX-naive adult patients with early active RA and synovitis in an index wrist or hand. In this exploratory, phase 2, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study, patients received tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily + MTX, tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily + placebo (tofacitinib monotherapy), or MTX + placebo (MTX monotherapy), for 1 year. MRI endpoints (Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials RA MRI score (RAMRIS), quantitative RAMRIS (RAMRIQ) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI) were assessed using a mixed-effect model for repeated measures. Treatment differences with p<0.05 (vs MTX monotherapy) were considered significant. In total, 109 patients were randomised and treated. Treatment differences in RAMRIS bone marrow oedema (BME) at month 6 were -1.55 (90% CI -2.52 to -0.58) for tofacitinib + MTX and -1.74 (-2.72 to -0.76) for tofacitinib monotherapy (both p<0.01 vs MTX monotherapy). Numerical improvements in RAMRIS synovitis at month 3 were -0.63 (-1.58 to 0.31) for tofacitinib + MTX and -0.52 (-1.46 to 0.41) for tofacitinib monotherapy (both p>0.05 vs MTX monotherapy). Treatment differences in RAMRIQ synovitis were statistically significant at month 3, consistent with DCE MRI findings. Less deterioration of RAMRIS and RAMRIQ erosive damage was seen at months 6 and 12 in both tofacitinib groups versus MTX monotherapy. These results provide consistent evidence using three different MRI technologies that tofacitinib treatment leads to early reduction of inflammation and inhibits progression of structural damage. NCT01164579. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. A study on relationship among apoptosis rates, number of peripheral T cell subtypes and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lanlan; Geng, Yan; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Zhuoli

    2016-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by type 17 helper T cell (Th17)/regulatory T cell (Treg) imbalance. The objective of this article is to study whether insufficient apoptosis contributes to the imbalance of Th17/Treg in rheumatoid arthritis. Twenty-one rheumatoid arthritis patients and eight healthy volunteers were involved in this study. The percentage of CD4(+) interleukin (IL)-17(+) T cells and CD4(+) transcription factor-forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3)(+) T cells were measured by flow cytometry, and active caspase-3 labeling was used to detect early apoptosis. The number of T cell subtypes in peripheral blood between the two groups was compared, as well as the apoptotic ratio. Neither the number of Th17 nor Treg cells was significantly different between rheumatoid arthritis patients and healthy controls. However, the number of regulatory T cells positively correlated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Disease Activity Score of 28 joints and rheumatoid factor. For the apoptosis of T cell subtypes, the percentage of apoptotic Th17 cells was higher in peripheral blood of rheumatoid arthritis patients compared to controls. Furthermore, peripheral Th17 cells were more sensitive to apoptosis than Treg cells, but there was no difference between rheumatoid arthritis patients and controls. It seemed that there was no relationship between the number and apoptosis ratio of peripheral Th17/Treg cells. But the number of Treg cells positively correlated with disease activity. Furthermore, Th17 cells are more sensitive to apoptosis after freezing, especially in RA patients. This serendipitous finding may provide new areas for the further study of these two cell populations. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Early, structured disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy reduces cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis--a single centre study using non-biologic drugs.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sumit; Sarkate, Pankaj; Ghosh, Sudip; Biswas, Monodeep; Ghosh, Alakendu

    2013-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis, being a chronic disease requires long-term management of patients with drugs. The increasing cost of biologics in this era of disease management led us to devise a treatment regime, optimal for use in a developing country like India, which was economical as well as effective in controlling disease activity. To investigate if combination therapy with DMARDs can reduce cardiovascular risk in early Rheumatoid Arthritis, besides controlling disease activity. A small cohort of early Rheumatoid subjects with disease duration less than 1 year were treated with a structured DMARD regime and were followed up over a year. Disease activity score, C-reactive protein (CRP) and cardiac risk markers like lipid panel and carotid intima-medial thickness were monitored at 6 months and 1 year. A significant reduction (p < 0.001) of disease activity as well as cardiac risk parameters were observed. Our study showed that treatment of early rheumatoid arthritis with a combination regime of traditional DMARDs is highly effective in controlling disease activity as well as cardiovascular risk.

  12. Identification of a transitional fibroblast function in very early rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Filer, Andrew; Ward, Lewis S C; Kemble, Samuel; Davies, Christopher S; Munir, Hafsa; Rogers, Rebekah; Raza, Karim; Buckley, Christopher Dominic; Nash, Gerard B; McGettrick, Helen M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Synovial fibroblasts actively regulate the inflammatory infiltrate by communicating with neighbouring endothelial cells (EC). Surprisingly, little is known about how the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) alters these immunomodulatory properties. We examined the effects of phase of RA and disease outcome (resolving vs persistence) on fibroblast crosstalk with EC and regulation of lymphocyte recruitment. Methods Fibroblasts were isolated from patients without synovitis, with resolving arthritis, very early RA (VeRA; symptom ≤12 weeks) and established RA undergoing joint replacement (JRep) surgery. Endothelial-fibroblast cocultures were formed on opposite sides of porous filters. Lymphocyte adhesion from flow, secretion of soluble mediators and interleukin 6 (IL-6) signalling were assessed. Results Fibroblasts from non-inflamed and resolving arthritis were immunosuppressive, inhibiting lymphocyte recruitment to cytokine-treated endothelium. This effect was lost very early in the development of RA, such that fibroblasts no longer suppressed recruitment. Changes in IL-6 and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) signalling appeared critical for the loss of the immunosuppressive phenotype. In the absence of exogenous cytokines, JRep, but not VeRA, fibroblasts activated endothelium to support lymphocyte. Conclusions In RA, fibroblasts undergo two distinct changes in function: first a loss of immunosuppressive responses early in disease development, followed by the later acquisition of a stimulatory phenotype. Fibroblasts exhibit a transitional functional phenotype during the first 3 months of symptoms that contributes to the accumulation of persistent infiltrates. Finally, the role of IL-6 and TGF-β1 changes from immunosuppressive in resolving arthritis to stimulatory very early in the development of RA. Early interventions targeting ‘pathogenic’ fibroblasts may be required in order to restore protective regulatory processes. PMID:28847766

  13. Contemporary treatment principles for early rheumatoid arthritis: a consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Patrick D W; Brown, Andrew K; Edwards, Christopher J; O'Reilly, David T; Ostör, Andrew J K; Quinn, Mark; Taggart, Allister; Taylor, Peter C; Wakefield, Richard J; Conaghan, Philip G

    2009-07-01

    RA has a substantial impact on both patients and healthcare systems. Our objective is to advance the understanding of modern management principles in light of recent evidence concerning the condition's diagnosis and treatment. A group of practicing UK rheumatologists formulated contemporary management principles and clinical practice recommendations concerning both diagnosis and treatment. Areas of clinical uncertainty were documented, leading to research recommendations. A fundamental concept governing treatment of RA is minimization of cumulative inflammation, referred to as the inflammation-time area under the curve (AUC). To achieve this, four core principles of management were identified: (i) detect and refer patients early, even if the diagnosis is uncertain: patients should be referred at the first suspicion of persistent inflammatory polyarthritis and rheumatology departments should provide rapid access to a diagnostic and prognostic service; (ii) treat RA immediately: optimizing outcomes with conventional DMARDs and biologics requires that effective treatment be started early-ideally within 3 months of symptom onset; (iii) tight control of inflammation in RA improves outcome: frequent assessments and an objective protocol should be used to make treatment changes that maintain low-disease activity/remission at an agreed target; (iv) consider the risk-benefit ratio and tailor treatment to each patient: differing patient, disease and drug characteristics require long-term monitoring of risks and benefits with adaptations of treatments to suit individual circumstances. These principles focus on effective control of the inflammatory process in RA, but optimal uptake may require changes in service provision to accommodate appropriate care pathways.

  14. Validation of a novel multibiomarker test to assess rheumatoid arthritis disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Jeffrey R; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H; Knevel, Rachel; Huizinga, Tom W; Haney, Douglas J; Shen, Yijing; Ramanujan, Saroja; Cavet, Guy; Centola, Michael; Hesterberg, Lyndal K; Chernoff, David; Ford, Kerri; Shadick, Nancy A; Hamburger, Max; Fleischmann, Roy; Keystone, Edward; Weinblatt, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Objective Quantitative assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is important for patient management, and additional objective information may aid rheumatologists in clinical decision making. We validated a recently developed multibiomarker disease activity (MBDA) test relative to clinical disease activity in diverse RA cohorts. Methods Serum samples were obtained from the Index for Rheumatoid Arthritis Measurement, Brigham and Women's Hospital Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study, and Leiden Early Arthritis Clinic cohorts. Levels of 12 biomarkers were measured and combined according to a prespecified algorithm to generate the composite MBDA score. The relationship of the MBDA score to clinical disease activity was characterized separately in seropositive and seronegative patients using Pearson's correlations and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) to discriminate between patients with low and moderate/high disease activity. Associations between changes in MBDA score and clinical responses 6–12 weeks after initiation of anti–tumor necrosis factor or methotrexate treatment were evaluated by the AUROC. Results The MBDA score was significantly associated with the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using the C-reactive protein level (DAS28-CRP) in both seropositive (AUROC 0.77, P < 0.001) and seronegative (AUROC 0.70, P < 0.001) patients. In subgroups based on age, sex, body mass index, and treatment, the MBDA score was associated with the DAS28-CRP (P < 0.05) in all seropositive and most seronegative subgroups. Changes in the MBDA score at 6–12 weeks could discriminate both American College of Rheumatology criteria for 50% improvement responses (P = 0.03) and DAS28-CRP improvement (P = 0.002). Changes in the MBDA score at 2 weeks were also associated with subsequent DAS28-CRP response (P = 0.02). Conclusion Our findings establish the criterion and discriminant validity of a novel multibiomarker test as an

  15. What are the goals and principles of management in the early treatment of rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed

    Bykerk, Vivian Patricia; Keystone, Edward Clark

    2005-02-01

    The management of patients with new-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA) requires an awareness of the potential issues and needs that are unique to each patient with regards to their perceptions of their disease, physical needs and nutritional issues. Arthritis specialists should have a clear approach to the goals of management that are specific to patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA). In this chapter, evidence for the goals and principles of management in the early treatment of RA is discussed. Patient education, the role of self-management, physical therapies, exercise, diet and drug management are addressed. This chapter aims to provide clinicians with a clear understanding of which interventions have supporting evidence and where further research is required. Where evidence for patients with ERA is lacking, evidence from patients with established RA is reviewed.

  16. Pentosidine in synovial fluid in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: relationship with disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chen, J R; Takahashi, M; Suzuki, M; Kushida, K; Miyamoto, S; Inoue, T

    1998-12-01

    Pentosidine is an advanced glycation endproduct formed by glycosylation and oxidation. Our aim was to develop a means to measure pentosidine in synovial fluid (SF), and to compare its concentration in SF in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to investigate the relationship between its concentration in SF and the disease activity of RA. SF was collected from knee joints in 31 patients with RA and 40 with OA, who had hydrarthrosis. One patient with RA and 7 with OA who had the complication of diabetes mellitus or chronic renal failure made up the DM/CRF group, and the remaining patients made up the RA group (n = 30) and the OA group (n = 33). Pentosidine was measured by the direct HPLC method with column switching after hydrolysis of SF. Pentosidine was detected in all SF and was greater in RA (83.9 +/- 46.0 nmol/l, mean +/- SD) than in OA (40.1 +/- 19.6 nmol/l). Three DM/CRF patients undergoing hemodialysis had markedly high pentosidine levels (482.5 +/- 280.8 nmol/l). There was a significant correlation between pentosidine and C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and Lansbury Index (p < 0.01). Patients with RA were divided into high and low activity groups according to the CRP and Lansbury Index. Pentosidine was significantly higher in the high activity group (CRP > or = 2.0 mg/dl and Lansbury Index > or = 50%) than in the low activity group (CRP < 2.0 and/or Lansbury Index < 50) (100.9 +/- 42.8 vs 58.5 +/- 39.6 nmol/; p = 0.0013). Pentosidine in synovial fluid was higher in RA than in OA. Pentosidine levels in SF were related to the disease activity in RA.

  17. [Significance of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase assay in early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Liu, J; Zhu, L; Zhang, X W; Li, Z G

    2016-12-18

    To explore the titer of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) for early diagnosis of the outpatient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in real life, and to analyze its relationship with disease activity. In the study, 1 051 patients with arthritis were collected in the group who had joints tender and swelling, and 90 cases of healthy people as a control group. ELISA method was used to detect the serum level of GPI, and according to clinical features and laboratory test, all the patients including 525 RA patients, the other patients including osteoarthritis (OA), 134 cases of seronegative spine joint disease (SpA), 104 cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 31 cases of primary Sjogren syndrome (pSS), 24 cases of gout arthritis (GA), 22 cases of other connective tissue diseases (including polymyalgia rheumatica, dermatomyositis, systemic sclerosis, adult Still disease) and 46 cases of other diseases (including 165 cases of osteoporosis, avascular necrosis of the femoral head, traumatic osteomyelitis, bone and joint disease, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, tumor). The diagnostic values of GPI were assessed, and the differences between the GPI positive and negative groups of the RA patients in clinical characteristics, disease activity, severity and inflammatory index analyzed. The positive rate of serum GPI in the patients with RA was 55.4%, contrasting to other autoimmune diseases (14.3%) and healthy controls (7.78%)(P<0.001). Compared with the OA and SpA patients, the RA group was increased more significantly, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). The diagnostic value of GPI alone for RA was 0.39 mg/L, the sensitivity was 54.2%, and specificity was 87.3%. The positive rate of GPI in RF negative patients was 36.1%; the positive rate of GPI in anti-CCP antibody negative patients was 34.2%; the positive rate of GPI in RF and anti-CCP antibody negative patients was 24.1%. The level of GPI had positive correlation (P<0.05) with ESR, RF, anti

  18. Why are Dutch rheumatologists reluctant to use the COBRA treatment strategy in early rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed Central

    van Tuyl, Lilian H D; Plass, Anne Marie C; Lems, Willem F; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Dijkmans, Ben A C; Boers, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    Background The Combinatietherapie Bij Reumatoide Artritis (COBRA) trial has proved that combination therapy with prednisolone, methotrexate and sulphasalazine is superior to sulphasalazine monotherapy in suppressing disease activity and radiological progression of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, 5 years of follow‐up proved that COBRA therapy results in sustained reduction of the rate of radiological progression. Despite this evidence, Dutch rheumatologists seem reluctant to prescribe COBRA therapy. Objective To explore the reasons for the reluctance in Dutch rheumatologists to prescribe COBRA therapy. Methods A short structured questionnaire based on social–psychological theories of behaviour was sent to all Dutch rheumatologists (n = 230). Results The response rate was 50%. COBRA therapy was perceived as both effective and safe, but complex to administer. Furthermore, rheumatologists expressed their concern about the large number of pills that had to be taken, the side effects of high‐dose prednisolone and the low dose of methotrexate. Although the average attitude towards the COBRA therapy was slightly positive (above the neutral point), the majority of responding rheumatologists had a negative intention (below the neutral point) to prescribe COBRA therapy in the near future. Conclusion The reluctance of Dutch rheumatologists to prescribe effective COBRA therapy may be due to perceptions of complexity of the treatment schedule and negative patient‐related consequences of the therapy. PMID:17392349

  19. Genome-wide association study of response to methotrexate in early rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John C; Bongartz, Tim; Massey, Jonathan; Mifsud, Borbala; Spiliopoulou, Athina; Scott, Ian C; Wang, Jianmei; Morgan, Michael; Plant, Darren; Colombo, Marco; Orchard, Peter; Twigg, Sarah; McInnes, Iain B; Porter, Duncan; Freeston, Jane E; Nam, Jackie L; Cordell, Heather J; Isaacs, John D; Strathdee, Jenna L; Arnett, Donna; de Hair, Maria J H; Tak, Paul P; Aslibekyan, Stella; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Padyukov, Leonid; Bridges, S Louis; Pitzalis, Costantino; Cope, Andrew P; Verstappen, Suzanne M M; Emery, Paul; Barnes, Michael R; Agakov, Felix; McKeigue, Paul; Mushiroda, Taisei; Kubo, Michiaki; Weinshilboum, Richard; Barton, Anne; Morgan, Ann W; Barrett, Jennifer H

    2018-05-25

    Methotrexate (MTX) monotherapy is a common first treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but many patients do not respond adequately. In order to identify genetic predictors of response, we have combined data from two consortia to carry out a genome-wide study of response to MTX in 1424 early RA patients of European ancestry. Clinical endpoints were change from baseline to 6 months after starting treatment in swollen 28-joint count, tender 28-joint count, C-reactive protein and the overall 3-component disease activity score (DAS28). No single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) reached genome-wide statistical significance for any outcome measure. The strongest evidence for association was with rs168201 in NRG3 (p = 10 -7 for change in DAS28). Some support was also seen for association with ZMIZ1, previously highlighted in a study of response to MTX in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Follow-up in two smaller cohorts of 429 and 177 RA patients did not support these findings, although these cohorts were more heterogeneous.

  20. Age at onset determines severity and choice of treatment in early rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Disease activity, severity and comorbidity contribute to increased mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We evaluated the impact of age at disease onset on prognostic risk factors and treatment in patients with early disease. Methods In this study, 950 RA patients were followed regularly from the time of inclusion (<12 months from symptom onset) for disease activity (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), tender and/or swollen joints, Visual Analogue Scale pain and global scores, and Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28)) and function (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)). Disease severity, measured on the basis of radiographs of the hands and feet (erosions based on Larsen score), extraarticular disease, nodules, and comorbidities and treatment (disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), corticosteroids, biologics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) were recorded at the time of inclusion and at 5 years. Autoantibodies (rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibodies and antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (ACPAs)) and genetic markers (human leucocyte antibody (HLA) shared epitope and protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22)) were analysed at the time of inclusion. Data were stratified as young-onset RA (YORA) and late-onset RA (LORA), which were defined as being below or above the median age at the time of onset of RA (58 years). Results LORA was associated with lower frequency of ACPA (P < 0.05) and carriage of PTPN22-T variant (P < 0.01), but with greater disease activity at the time of inclusion measured on the basis of ESR (P < 0.001), CRP (P < 0.01) and accumulated disease activity (area under the curve for DAS28 score) at 6 months (P < 0.01), 12 months (P < 0.01) and 24 months (P < 0.05), as well as a higher HAQ score (P < 0.01) compared with YORA patients. At baseline and 24 months, LORA was more often associated with erosions (P < 0.01 for both) and higher

  1. Proteomic analysis of secreted proteins in early rheumatoid arthritis: anti‐citrulline autoreactivity is associated with up regulation of proinflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Hueber, Wolfgang; Tomooka, Beren H; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Kidd, Brian A; Drijfhout, Jan W; Fries, James F; van Venrooij, Walther J; Metzger, Allan L; Genovese, Mark C; Robinson, William H

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To identify peripheral blood autoantibody and cytokine profiles that characterise clinically relevant subgroups of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis using arthritis antigen microarrays and a multiplex cytokine assay. Methods Serum samples from 56 patients with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis of <6 months' duration were tested. Cytokine profiles were also determined in samples from patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and ankylosing spondylitis (n = 21), and from healthy individuals (n = 19). Data were analysed using Kruskal–Wallis test with Dunn's adjustment for multiple comparisons, linear correlation tests, significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) and hierarchical clustering software. Results Distinct antibody profiles were associated with subgroups of patients who exhibited high serum levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α, interleukin (IL)1β, IL6, IL13, IL15 and granulocyte macrophage colony‐stimulating factor. Significantly increased autoantibody reactivity against citrullinated epitopes was observed in patients within the cytokine “high” subgroup. Increased levels of TNFα, IL1α, IL12p40 and IL13, and the chemokines eotaxin/CCL11, monocyte chemoattractant protein‐1 and interferon‐inducible protein 10, were present in early rheumatoid arthritis as compared with controls (p<0.001). Chemokines showed some of the most impressive differences. Only IL8/CXCL8 concentrations were higher in patients with PsA/ankylosing spondylitis (p = 0.02). Conclusions Increased blood levels of proinflammatory cytokines are associated with autoantibody targeting of citrullinated antigens and surrogate markers of disease activity in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. Proteomic analysis of serum autoantibodies, cytokines and chemokines enables stratification of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis into molecular subgroups. PMID:16901957

  2. Anti-MCV antibodies predict radiographic progression in Greek patients with very early (<3 months duration) rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Barouta, Georgia; Katsiari, Christina G; Alexiou, Ioannis; Liaskos, Christos; Varna, Areti; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P; Germenis, Anastasios E; Sakkas, Lazaros I

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (MCV) antibodies in very early rheumatoid arthritis (VERA) and in established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Seventy-one patients with undifferentiated arthritis (UA) of <3 months duration, 141 with established RA, 53 with other rheumatic diseases, and 40 healthy individuals were included in the study. Anti-MCV, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies, and rheumatoid factor (RF) were determined and hand radiographs were recorded. Patients were assessed prospectively for 2 years, and hand radiographs were repeated. Diagnostic performance of anti-MCV was studied with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and evaluation of sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios. Forty-six percent of UA patients progressed to RA at 2 years. In VERA patients, sensitivity of anti-MCV was 52 %, compared to 44 % of anti-CCP and 37 % of RF, while specificity was 91 %, compared to 91 % of RF and 84 % of anti-CCP. Anti-MCV were detected in 25 % of VERA patients negative for both anti-CCP and RF. In established RA, anti-MCV did not sustain its diagnostic performance. By multivariable analysis, anti-MCV, but not anti-CCP or RF, showed significant correlation with radiographic progression in VERA patients. In established RA, anti-MCV, anti-CCP, and RF were associated with active disease (p ≤ 0.03) and joint damage (p ≤ 0.004). By multivariate analysis, the strongest factors for radiographic damage were disease duration (p = 0.000), HAQ score (p = 0.000), and RF (p = 0.002). In conclusion, in patients with very early UA, anti-MCV predict both progression to RA and radiological damage, and therefore, anti-MCV antibody testing may be useful in every day practice.

  3. Early rheumatoid disease. II. Patterns of joint involvement.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, A; Benn, R T; Corbett, M; Wood, P H

    1976-01-01

    Data from the first research clinic visit (Fleming and others, 1976) have been subjected to factor analysis to identify early patterns of joint involvement. Nine patterns emerged. Two patterns, if present early, were found to have prognostic significance. An eventually more severe disease was associated with a pattern of large joint involvement (shoulder, elbow, wrist, knee) and a pattern based on metatarsophalangeal joints I and III. PMID:970995

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of Triple Therapy Versus Etanercept Plus Methotrexate in Early Aggressive Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Hawre; O'Dell, James R; Bridges, S Louis; Cofield, Stacey; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Mikuls, Ted R; Moreland, Larry W; Michaud, Kaleb

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of all 4 interventions in the Treatment of Early Aggressive Rheumatoid Arthritis (TEAR) clinical trial: immediate triple (IT), immediate etanercept (IE), step-up triple (ST), and step-up etanercept (SE). Step-up interventions started with methotrexate and added either etanercept or sulfasalazine plus hydroxychloroquine to patients with persistent disease activity. We built a Markov cohort model that uses individual-level data from the TEAR trial, published literature, and supplemental clinical data. Costs were in US dollars, benefits in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), perspective was societal, and the time horizon was 5 years. The immediate strategies were more efficacious than step-up strategies. SE and IE were more costly than ST and IT, primarily due to treatment cost differences. In addition, IT was the least expensive and most effective strategy when the time horizon was 1 and 2 years. When the time horizon was 5 years, IE was marginally more effective than IT (3.483 versus 3.476 QALYs), but IE was substantially more expensive than IT ($148,800 versus $52,600), producing an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $12.5 million per QALY. These results were robust to both one-way deterministic and joint probabilistic sensitivity analyses. IT was highly cost-effective in the majority of scenarios. Although IE was more effective in 5 years, a substantial reduction in the cost of biologic agents was required in order for IE to become cost-effective in early aggressive RA under willingness-to-pay thresholds that most health care settings may find acceptable. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Hepcidin plasma levels are not associated with changes in haemoglobin in early rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Østgård, R D; Glerup, H; Jurik, A G; Kragstrup, T W; Stengaard-Pedersen, K; Hetland, M L; Hørslev-Petersen, K; Junker, P; Deleuran, B W

    2017-11-01

    A reduction in haemoglobin level is a frequent complication among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Hepcidin has been linked to disturbed erythropoiesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the longitudinal changes in hepcidin in patients with early RA. Hepcidin plasma concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in patients with early RA (n = 80) and healthy volunteers (HV, n = 40). Haemoglobin and other iron-related proteins were also measured. At baseline, all patients had active disease and were treatment naïve. Patients were treated with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and with additional adalimumab (ADA, n = 42) or placebo (PLA, n = 38) during 52 weeks, using a treat-to-target strategy, aiming for a 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) < 3.2. At baseline, hepcidin levels [median (interquartile range)] were 9.7 ng/mL (5.2-19.4 ng/mL) in DMARD + ADA and 11.3 ng/mL (5.9-19.1 ng/mL) in DMARD + PLA. Both were significantly higher than seen in HV (6.0 ng/mL (3.3-9.3 ng/mL) (p < 0.001). After 12 months, both treatment regimens resulted in normalization of hepcidin. DAS28 correlated with hepcidin at baseline (r = 0.48, p < 0.001). No correlation was observed between levels of haemoglobin and hepcidin at baseline or during the 52 week follow-up. No change in haemoglobin levels was seen as a function of hepcidin changes. In a mixed statistical model, no single factor was connected with the regulation of haemoglobin in early RA. The changes in hepcidin were not associated with changes in haemoglobin levels. Thus, hepcidin could not be used as a prognostic marker in patients with early RA.

  6. Dilemmas of participation in everyday life in early rheumatoid arthritis: a qualitative interview study (The Swedish TIRA Project).

    PubMed

    Sverker, Annette; Östlund, Gunnel; Thyberg, Mikael; Thyberg, Ingrid; Valtersson, Eva; Björk, Mathilda

    2015-01-01

    To explore the experiences of today's patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with respect to dilemmas of everyday life, especially regarding patterns of participation restrictions in valued life activities. A total of 48 patients, aged 20-63, three years post-RA diagnosis were interviewed using the Critical Incident Technique. Transcribed interviews were condensed into meaningful units describing actions/situations. These descriptions were linked to ICF participation codes according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) linking rules. Dilemmas in everyday life were experienced in domestic life, interpersonal interactions and relationships, community, social and civic life. Most dilemmas were experienced in domestic life, including participation restrictions in, e.g. gardening, repairing houses, shovelling snow, watering pot plants, sewing or walking the dog. Also many dilemmas were experienced related to recreation and leisure within the domain community, social and civic life. The different dilemmas were often related to each other. For instance, dilemmas related to community life were combined with dilemmas within mobility, such as lifting and carrying objects. Participation restrictions in today's RA patients are complex. Our results underline that the health care needs to be aware of the patients' own preferences and goals to support the early multi-professional interventions in clinical practice. Implications of Rehabilitation Today's rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients experience participation restrictions in activities not included in International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) core set for RA or in traditionally questionnaires with predefined activities. The health care need to be aware of the patients' own preferences and goals to meet the individual needs and optimize the rehabilitation in early RA in clinical practice.

  7. Serum C-X-C motif chemokine 13 is elevated in early and established rheumatoid arthritis and correlates with rheumatoid factor levels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized that serum levels of C-X-C motif chemokine 13 (CXCL13), a B-cell chemokine, would delineate a subset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients characterized by increased humoral immunity. Methods Serum from patients with established RA (the Dartmouth RA Cohort) was analyzed for CXCL13, rheumatoid factor (RF) levels, anticitrullinated peptide/protein antibody (ACPA) and total immunoglobulin G (IgG); other parameters were obtained by chart review. A confirmatory analysis was performed using samples from the Sherbrooke Early Undifferentiated PolyArthritis (EUPA) Cohort. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test, a t-test and Spearman’s correlation analysis were utilized to determine relationships between variables. Results In both the Dartmouth and Sherbrooke cohorts, CXCL13 levels were selectively increased in seropositive relative to seronegative RA patients (P = 0.0002 and P < 0.0001 for the respective cohorts), with a strong correlation to both immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA RF levels (P < 0.0001). There was a weaker relationship to ACPA titers (P = 0.03 and P = 0.006, respectively) and total IgG (P = 0.02 and P = 0.14, respectively). No relationship was seen with regard to age, sex, shared epitope status or inclusion high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in either cohort or regarding the presence of baseline erosions in the Sherbrooke Cohort, whereas a modest relationship with Disease Activity Score in 28 joints CRP (DAS28-CRP) was seen in the Dartmouth cohort but not the Sherbrooke cohort. Conclusion Using both established and early RA cohorts, marked elevations of serum CXCL13 levels resided nearly completely within the seropositive population. CXCL13 levels exhibited a strong relationship with RF, whereas the association with clinical parameters (age, sex, DAS28-CRP and erosions) or other serologic markers (ACPA and IgG) was either much weaker or absent. Elevated serum CXCL13 levels may identify a subset of seropositive RA patients whose

  8. The interleukin-20 receptor axis in early rheumatoid arthritis: novel links between disease-associated autoantibodies and radiographic progression.

    PubMed

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Greisen, Stinne Ravn; Nielsen, Morten Aagaard; Rhodes, Christopher; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Hetland, Merete Lund; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Junker, Peter; Østergaard, Mikkel; Hvid, Malene; Vorup-Jensen, Thomas; Robinson, William H; Sokolove, Jeremy; Deleuran, Bent

    2016-03-11

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is often characterized by the presence of rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated protein antibodies, and bone erosions. Current therapies can compromise immunity, leading to risk of infection. The interleukin-20 receptor (IL-20R) axis comprising IL-19, IL-20, and IL-24 and their shared receptors activates tissue homeostasis processes but not the immune system. Consequently, modulation of the IL-20R axis may not lead to immunosuppression, making it an interesting drug target. We evaluated the role of the IL-20R axis in RA and associations between plasma cytokine levels and clinical disease. Plasma IL-19, IL-20, and IL-24 levels were measured in early RA patients during a treat-to-target strategy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The IL-20R1 and IL-22R1 levels in paired peripheral blood mononuclear cells and synovial fluid mononuclear cells from a different cohort of RA patients were evaluated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Monocytes/macrophages were stimulated with heat-aggregated human immunoglobulin immune complexes and immune complexes containing citrullinated fibrinogen, and osteoclasts were incubated with IL-19, IL-20, and IL-24. The plasma concentrations of IL-20 and IL-24 (but not IL-19) were increased in early RA patients compared with healthy controls (both P < 0.002) and decreased after 6 months of treatment (both P < 0.0001). The expression of IL-22R1 (but not IL-20R1) was increased on monocytes from RA synovial fluid compared with monocytes from both RA and healthy control peripheral blood. The plasma concentrations of IL-20 and IL-24 were increased in rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated protein antibody positive compared with negative early RA patients (all P < 0.0001). Immune complexes stimulated the production of the IL-20R cytokines by monocytes/macrophages. Increased baseline plasma concentrations of IL-20 and IL-24 were associated with Sharp-van der Heijde score progression after 24

  9. Role of Diet in Influencing Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity.

    PubMed

    Badsha, Humeira

    2018-01-01

    Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) frequently ask their doctors about which diets to follow, and even in the absence of advice from their physicians, many patients are undertaking various dietary interventions. However, the role of dietary modifications in RA is not well understood. Several studies have tried to address these gaps in our understanding. Intestinal microbial modifications are being studied for the prevention and management of RA. Some benefits of vegan diet may be explained by antioxidant constituents, lactobacilli and fibre, and by potential changes in intestinal flora. Similarly, Mediterranean diet shows anti-inflammatory effects due to protective properties of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamins, but also by influencing the gut microbiome. Gluten-free and elemental diets have been associated with some benefits in RA though the existing evidence is limited. Long-term intake of fish and other sources of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are protective for development of RA. The benefits of fasting, anti-oxidant supplementation, flavanoids, and probiotics in RA are not clear. Vitamin D has been shown to influence autoimmunity and specifically decrease RA disease activity. The role of supplements such as fish oils and vitamin D should be explored in future trials to gain new insights in disease pathogenesis and develop RA-specific dietary recommendations. Specifically more research is needed to explore the association of diet and the gut microbiome and how this can influence RA disease activity.

  10. Role of Diet in Influencing Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Badsha, Humeira

    2018-01-01

    Background: Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) frequently ask their doctors about which diets to follow, and even in the absence of advice from their physicians, many patients are undertaking various dietary interventions. Discussion: However, the role of dietary modifications in RA is not well understood. Several studies have tried to address these gaps in our understanding. Intestinal microbial modifications are being studied for the prevention and management of RA. Some benefits of vegan diet may be explained by antioxidant constituents, lactobacilli and fibre, and by potential changes in intestinal flora. Similarly, Mediterranean diet shows anti-inflammatory effects due to protective properties of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamins, but also by influencing the gut microbiome. Gluten-free and elemental diets have been associated with some benefits in RA though the existing evidence is limited. Long-term intake of fish and other sources of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are protective for development of RA. The benefits of fasting, anti-oxidant supplementation, flavanoids, and probiotics in RA are not clear. Vitamin D has been shown to influence autoimmunity and specifically decrease RA disease activity. The role of supplements such as fish oils and vitamin D should be explored in future trials to gain new insights in disease pathogenesis and develop RA-specific dietary recommendations. Conclusion: Specifically more research is needed to explore the association of diet and the gut microbiome and how this can influence RA disease activity. PMID:29515679

  11. Validation of a novel multibiomarker test to assess rheumatoid arthritis disease activity.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Jeffrey R; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H; Knevel, Rachel; Huizinga, Tom W; Haney, Douglas J; Shen, Yijing; Ramanujan, Saroja; Cavet, Guy; Centola, Michael; Hesterberg, Lyndal K; Chernoff, David; Ford, Kerri; Shadick, Nancy A; Hamburger, Max; Fleischmann, Roy; Keystone, Edward; Weinblatt, Michael E

    2012-12-01

    Quantitative assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is important for patient management, and additional objective information may aid rheumatologists in clinical decision making. We validated a recently developed multibiomarker disease activity (MBDA) test relative to clinical disease activity in diverse RA cohorts. Serum samples were obtained from the Index for Rheumatoid Arthritis Measurement, Brigham and Women's Hospital Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study, and Leiden Early Arthritis Clinic cohorts. Levels of 12 biomarkers were measured and combined according to a prespecified algorithm to generate the composite MBDA score. The relationship of the MBDA score to clinical disease activity was characterized separately in seropositive and seronegative patients using Pearson's correlations and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) to discriminate between patients with low and moderate/high disease activity. Associations between changes in MBDA score and clinical responses 6-12 weeks after initiation of anti-tumor necrosis factor or methotrexate treatment were evaluated by the AUROC. The MBDA score was significantly associated with the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using the C-reactive protein level (DAS28-CRP) in both seropositive (AUROC 0.77, P < 0.001) and seronegative (AUROC 0.70, P < 0.001) patients. In subgroups based on age, sex, body mass index, and treatment, the MBDA score was associated with the DAS28-CRP (P < 0.05) in all seropositive and most seronegative subgroups. Changes in the MBDA score at 6-12 weeks could discriminate both American College of Rheumatology criteria for 50% improvement responses (P = 0.03) and DAS28-CRP improvement (P = 0.002). Changes in the MBDA score at 2 weeks were also associated with subsequent DAS28-CRP response (P = 0.02). Our findings establish the criterion and discriminant validity of a novel multibiomarker test as an objective measure of RA disease activity to aid

  12. Effect of rocker shoes on pain, disability and activity limitation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bagherzadeh Cham, Masumeh; Ghasemi, Mohammad Sadegh; Forogh, Bijan; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali; Zabihi Yeganeh, Mozdeh; Eshraghi, Arezoo

    2014-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disease which affects the joints and soft tissues of the foot and ankle. Rocker shoes may be prescribed for the symptomatic foot in rheumatoid arthritis; however, there is a limited evidence base to support the use of rocker shoes in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of heel-to-toe rocker shoes on pain, disability, and activity limitation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical trial. Seventeen female patients with rheumatoid arthritis of 1 year or more duration, disease activity score of less than 2.6, and foot and ankle pain were recruited. Heel-to-toe rocker shoe was made according to each patient's foot size. All the patients were evaluated immediately, 7 and 30 days after their first visit. Foot Function Index values were recorded at each appointment. With the use of rocker shoes, Foot Function Index values decreased in all subscales. This reduction was noted in the first visit and was maintained throughout the trials. Rocker shoe can improve pain, disability, and activity limitation in patients with rheumatoid foot pain. All the subjects reported improved comfort levels. The results of this study showed that high-top, heel-to-toe rocker shoe with wide toe box was effective at reducing foot and ankle pain. It was also regarded as comfortable and acceptable footwear by the patients with rheumatoid foot problems. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2013.

  13. Periodontitis in early and chronic rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective follow-up study in Finnish population

    PubMed Central

    Äyräväinen, Leena; Leirisalo-Repo, Marjatta; Kuuliala, Antti; Ahola, Kirsi; Koivuniemi, Riitta; Meurman, Jukka H; Heikkinen, Anna Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis with special emphasis on the role of antirheumatic drugs in periodontal health. Design Prospective follow-up study. Patients with early untreated RA and chronic active RA were examined at baseline and 16 months later. Controls were examined once. Settings and participants The study was conducted in Finland from September 2005 to May 2014 at the Helsinki University Hospital. Overall, 124 participants were recruited for dental and medical examinations: 53 were patients with early disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) naїve RA (ERA), 28 were patients with chronic RA (CRA) with insufficient response to conventional DMARDs. After baseline examination, patients with ERA started treatment with synthetic DMARDs and patients with CRA with biological DMARDs. Controls were 43 age-matched, gender-matched and community-matched participants. Outcome measures Degree of periodontitis (defined according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Periodontology). Prevalence of periodontal bacteria (analysed from plaque samples), clinical rheumatological status by Disease Activity Score, 28-joint count (DAS28), function by Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and treatment response by European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria. Results Moderate periodontitis was present in 67.3% of patients with ERA, 64.3% of patients with CRA and 39.5% of control participants (p=0.001). Further, patients with RA had significantly more periodontal findings compared with controls, recorded with common periodontal indexes. In the re-examination, patients with RA still showed poor periodontal health in spite of treatment with DMARDs after baseline examination. The prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis was higher in patients with ERA with periodontal probing depth ≥4 mm compared with patients with CRA and controls. Antirheumatic medication did not seem

  14. Periodontitis in early and chronic rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective follow-up study in Finnish population.

    PubMed

    Äyräväinen, Leena; Leirisalo-Repo, Marjatta; Kuuliala, Antti; Ahola, Kirsi; Koivuniemi, Riitta; Meurman, Jukka H; Heikkinen, Anna Maria

    2017-01-31

    To investigate the association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis with special emphasis on the role of antirheumatic drugs in periodontal health. Prospective follow-up study. Patients with early untreated RA and chronic active RA were examined at baseline and 16 months later. Controls were examined once. The study was conducted in Finland from September 2005 to May 2014 at the Helsinki University Hospital. Overall, 124 participants were recruited for dental and medical examinations: 53 were patients with early disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) naїve RA (ERA), 28 were patients with chronic RA (CRA) with insufficient response to conventional DMARDs. After baseline examination, patients with ERA started treatment with synthetic DMARDs and patients with CRA with biological DMARDs. Controls were 43 age-matched, gender-matched and community-matched participants. Degree of periodontitis (defined according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Periodontology). Prevalence of periodontal bacteria (analysed from plaque samples), clinical rheumatological status by Disease Activity Score, 28-joint count (DAS28), function by Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and treatment response by European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria. Moderate periodontitis was present in 67.3% of patients with ERA, 64.3% of patients with CRA and 39.5% of control participants (p=0.001). Further, patients with RA had significantly more periodontal findings compared with controls, recorded with common periodontal indexes. In the re-examination, patients with RA still showed poor periodontal health in spite of treatment with DMARDs after baseline examination. The prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis was higher in patients with ERA with periodontal probing depth ≥4 mm compared with patients with CRA and controls. Antirheumatic medication did not seem to affect the results. Moderate periodontitis was more frequent in

  15. The foot as a barrier in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis - an interview study among Swedish women and men.

    PubMed

    Björk, Mathilda; Thyberg, Ingrid; Valtersson, Eva; Östlund, Gunnel; Stenström, Birgitta; Sverker, Annette

    2017-12-01

    Foot impairments are related to reduced mobility and participation restrictions in daily activities in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The new biological medications are effective and reduce disease activity, but not disability to the same extent. Foot impairments are assumed to be related to participation restrictions also in patients with early RA, diagnosed after the introduction of biological medications. The knowledge of foot impairments needs to be more explored after the introduction of biological disease-modifying drugs (bDMARDs). The aim of this study was to explore the patients' perspective of foot impairments related to early RA. The sample included 59 patients (20-63 years) who were interviewed about participation dilemmas in daily life using the Critical Incident Technique. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data related to foot impairments were extracted and analyzed thematically. A research partner validated the analysis. The study was approved by the Regional Ethics Committee. Patients with early RA described a variety of participation restrictions related to foot impairments: 1) foot hindrances in domestic life, 2) foot impairments influencing work, 3) leisure activities restricted by one's feet 4) struggling to be mobile 5) foot impairments as an early sign of rheumatic disease. There is a need to focus on foot impairments related to early RA, and for health care professionals to understand these signs. A suggestion for future research is to conduct a longitudinal follow-up of foot impairment related to medication, disease activity and disability in patients diagnosed after the introduction of bDMARDs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Rheumatoid meningitis.

    PubMed

    Nihat, Akin; Chinthapalli, Krishna; Bridges, Leslie; Johns, Paul; Sofat, Nidhi; Moynihan, Barry

    2016-08-01

    Rheumatoid meningitis is a rare, potentially treatable condition that can mimic a wide range of neurological conditions, including vascular syndromes and encephalopathies. Despite a concurrent history of rheumatoid arthritis, patients often have no active synovitis. Here we describe a patient with rheumatoid meningitis who presented to a hyperacute stroke unit with dysarthria on waking and transient facial droop. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. MRI evidence of persistent joint inflammation and progressive joint damage despite clinical remission during treatment of early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Forslind, K; Svensson, B

    2016-01-01

    To determine the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of bones and joints in patients with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated for 2 years from diagnosis with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and glucocorticoids. Thirteen patients with early RA were treated according to clinical practice and followed with MRI, radiographs, and Disease Activity Score calculated on 28 joints (DAS28) at inclusion (baseline) and after 1, 4, 7, 13, and 25 months. MRI of the dominant wrist and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints were assessed for synovitis, bone oedema, and erosions using the RA MRI Score (RAMRIS) and for tenosynovitis by an MRI tenosynovitis scoring method. Radiographs were assessed by the van der Heijde modified Sharp score (SHS). Clinical remission was defined by a DAS28 < 2.6. MRI at baseline detected inflammation in joints and tendons in all patients as well as erosions in 10 out of 13 patients. Over time, the erosion score increased while the synovitis and tenosynovitis scores remained almost unchanged. Bone oedema strongly correlated with synovitis. Synovitis and tenosynovitis correlated well with the erosion score at baseline but not thereafter. The MRI changes showed that joint damage started early and continued in the presence of persistent synovial and tenosynovial inflammation. The observations made in this small study suggest that the treatment goal of 'clinical remission' should be supplemented by a 'joint remission' goal. To this end, MRI is an appropriate tool. Further studies are needed to evaluate the optimal use of MRI in early RA.

  18. [Financial cost of early rheumatoid arthritis in the first year of medical attention: three clinical scenarios in a third-tier university hospital in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Mora, Claudia; González, Andrés; Díaz, Jorge; Quintana, Gerardo

    2009-03-01

    In Colombia, the cost burden of chronic diseases is not well known, either globally or in localized areas of the health system. Rheumatoid arthritis is one of most common chronic diseases, and represents a high cost for the health system. The direct medical costs were estimated for rheumatoid arthritis patients in the in the first year of diagnosis at a level 3 university hospital in Colombia. Three therapy settings for early rheumatoid arthritis patients were established in the first year of diagnosis according to national and international guidelines. Each setting included treatment with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs or biologic therapy based on disease severity as measured by Disease Activity Score 28. All direct medical costs were included: specialized medical care, diagnostic tests and drugs. Cost information was obtained from the Central Military Hospital finance department in Bogotá and the national manual of drug prices based on the "Farmaprecios" 2007 guide, a reference in general use by health institutions. Results. The average of cost of medical care in patients with mild, moderate and severe disease was US $1689, $1805 and $23,441 respectively. The recommended retail prices of the medicines published in "Farmaprecios" was US $1418, $1821 and $31,931. When the charges levied by several major health institutions were compared, substantial increases were noted, US $4936, $7716 and $123,661, respectively. Drug costs represented 86% of total cost, laboratory costs were 10% and medical attention was only 4%. Drugs costs were the principal component of the total direct medical cost, and it increased 40 times when a biological therapy is used. Complete economic evaluation studies are necesary to estimate the viability and clinical relevance of biological therapy for early rheumatoid arthritis.

  19. 14-3-3η Autoantibodies: Diagnostic Use in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Maksymowych, Walter P; Boire, Gilles; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Wichuk, Stephanie; Turk, Samina; Boers, Maarten; Siminovitch, Katherine A; Bykerk, Vivian; Keystone, Ed; Tak, Paul Peter; van Kuijk, Arno W; Landewé, Robert; van der Heijde, Desiree; Murphy, Mairead; Marotta, Anthony

    2015-09-01

    To describe the expression and diagnostic use of 14-3-3η autoantibodies in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 14-3-3η autoantibody levels were measured using an electrochemiluminescent multiplexed assay in 500 subjects (114 disease-modifying antirheumatic drug-naive patients with early RA, 135 with established RA, 55 healthy, 70 autoimmune, and 126 other non-RA arthropathy controls). 14-3-3η protein levels were determined in an earlier analysis. Two-tailed Student t tests and Mann-Whitney U tests compared differences among groups. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves were generated and diagnostic performance was estimated by area under the curve (AUC), as well as specificity, sensitivity, and likelihood ratios (LR) for optimal cutoffs. Median serum 14-3-3η autoantibody concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in patients with early RA (525 U/ml) when compared with healthy controls (235 U/ml), disease controls (274 U/ml), autoimmune disease controls (274 U/ml), patients with osteoarthritis (259 U/ml), and all controls (265 U/ml). ROC curve analysis comparing early RA with healthy controls demonstrated a significant (p < 0.0001) AUC of 0.90 (95% CI 0.85-0.95). At an optimal cutoff of ≥ 380 U/ml, the ROC curve yielded a sensitivity of 73%, a specificity of 91%, and a positive LR of 8.0. Adding 14-3-3η autoantibodies to 14-3-3η protein positivity enhanced the identification of patients with early RA from 59% to 90%; addition of 14-3-3η autoantibodies to anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) and/or rheumatoid factor (RF) increased identification from 72% to 92%. Seventy-two percent of RF- and ACPA-seronegative patients were positive for 14-3-3η autoantibodies. 14-3-3η autoantibodies, alone and in combination with the 14-3-3η protein, RF, and/or ACPA identified most patients with early RA.

  20. Matrix-mini-tablets of lornoxicam for targeting early morning peak symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mohd, Abdul Hadi; Raghavendra Rao, Nidagurthi Guggilla; Avanapu, Srinivasa Rao

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of present research was to develop matrix-mini-tablets of lornoxicam filled in capsule for targeting early morning peak symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Materials and Methods: Matrix-mini-tablets of lornoxicam were prepared by direct compression method using microsomal enzyme dependent and pH-sensitive polymers which were further filled into an empty HPMC capsule. To assess the compatibility, FT-IR and DSC studies for pure drug, polymers and their physical mixture were performed. The formulated batches were subjected to physicochemical studies, estimation of drug content, in vitro drug release, drug release kinetics, and stability studies. Results: When FTIR and DSC studies were performed it was found that there was no interaction between lornoxicam and polymers which used. All the physicochemical properties of prepared matrix-mini-tablets were found to be in normal limits. The percentage of drug content was found to be 99.60±0.07%. Our optimized matrix mini-tablets-filled-capsule formulation F30 released lornoxicam after a lag time of 5.02±0.92 hr, 95.48±0.65 % at the end of 8 hr and 99.90±0.83 % at the end of 12 hr. Stability was also found for this formulation as per the guidelines of International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use. Conclusion: A novel colon targeted delivery system of lornoxicam was successfully developed by filling matrix-mini-tablets into an empty HPMC capsule shell for targeting early morning peak symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:24967065

  1. Early detection of rheumatoid arthritis in rats and humans with 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy: imaging synovial neoangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu; Zhang, Guojian; Wang, Xiangcheng; Zhao, Zhenfang; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xuemei; Li, Xiao-Feng

    2017-01-24

    To validate 99mTc-labeled arginylglycylaspartic acid (99mTc-3PRGD2) scintigraphy as a means to image synovial neoangiogenesis in joints afflicted by rheumatoid arthritis and to investigate its potential in the early detection and management of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis were generated in Sprague Dawley rats by type II collagen immunization and papain injection, respectively. Rats were imaged with 99mTc-3PRGD2 and 99mTc- methyl diphosphonate (99mTc MDP). X-ray images were also obtained and assessed by a radiologist. Immunohistochemistry of αvβ3 and CD31confirmed the onset of synovial neoangiogenesis. The effect of bevacizumab on rheumatoid arthritis was followed with 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy. A patient with rheumatoid arthritis and a healthy volunteer were scanned with 99mTc-3PRGD2. Two weeks after immunization, a significant increase in 99mTc-3PRGD2 was observed in the joints of the rheumatoid arthritis model though uptake in osteoarthritis model and untreated controls was low. 99mTc-MDP whole body scans failed to distinguish early rheumatoid arthritis joints from healthy controls. The expression of αvβ3 and CD31was significantly higher in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis rats compared to normal controls. In serial 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy studies, 99mTc-3PRGD2 uptake increased in parallel with disease progression. Bevacizumab anti-angiogenetic therapy both improved the symptoms of the rheumatoid arthritis rats and significantly decreased 99mTc-3PRGD2 uptake. Significantly higher 99mTc-3PRGD2 accumulation was also observed in rheumatoid arthritis joints in the patient. Our findings indicate that 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy could detect early rheumatoid arthritis by imaging the associated synovial neoangiogenesis, and may be useful in disease management.

  2. Preliminary clinical results: an analyzing tool for 2D optical imaging in detection of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adi Aizudin Bin Radin Nasirudin, Radin; Meier, Reinhard; Ahari, Carmen; Sievert, Matti; Fiebich, Martin; Rummeny, Ernst J.; No"l, Peter B.

    2011-03-01

    Optical imaging (OI) is a relatively new method in detecting active inflammation of hand joints of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA). With the high number of people affected by this disease especially in western countries, the availability of OI as an early diagnostic imaging method is clinically highly relevant. In this paper, we present a newly in-house developed OI analyzing tool and a clinical evaluation study. Our analyzing tool extends the capability of existing OI tools. We include many features in the tool, such as region-based image analysis, hyper perfusion curve analysis, and multi-modality image fusion to aid clinicians in localizing and determining the intensity of inflammation in joints. Additionally, image data management options, such as the full integration of PACS/RIS, are included. In our clinical study we demonstrate how OI facilitates the detection of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. The preliminary clinical results indicate a sensitivity of 43.5%, a specificity of 80.3%, an accuracy of 65.7%, a positive predictive value of 76.6%, and a negative predictive value of 64.9% in relation to clinical results from MRI. The accuracy of inflammation detection serves as evidence to the potential of OI as a useful imaging modality for early detection of active inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. With our in-house developed tool we extend the usefulness of OI imaging in the clinical arena. Overall, we show that OI is a fast, inexpensive, non-invasive and nonionizing yet highly sensitive and accurate imaging modality.-

  3. Analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes using flow cytometry in polymyalgia rheumatica, RS3PE and early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Shimojima, Y; Matsuda, M; Ishii, W; Gono, T; Ikeda, S

    2008-01-01

    Clinical pictures of poly-myalgia rheumatica (PMR) and remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) are often indistinguishable from those of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To investigate whether there is a difference in immunological aspects among these 3 disorders, we performed a phenotypic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Eleven patients with early RA, 14 with PMR and 11 with RS3PE were enrolled in this study. After separation of mononuclear cells from peripheral blood using the Ficoll-Hypaque method, surface markers and intracellular cytokines of lymphocytes were analyzed by 2- or 3-color flow cytometry. Both PMR and RS3PE showed a significant decrease in CD8+CD25+ cells (p<0.05), and significant increases in CD4+IFN-gamma+IL-4- (p<0.05), CD8+IFN-gamma+IL-4- (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and CD4+TNF-alpha+ cells (p<0.05) compared with early RA. CD3+CD4+ cells were higher in PMR than in RS3PE (p<0.01), but there were no significant differences in any other phenotypes between these disorders. A decrease in activated cytotoxic/suppressor T cells and increases in circulating Th1 and Tc1 cells may be common characteristics of PMR and RS3PE in comparison with early RA. Both disorders are clearly different from early RA, and probably belong to the same disease entity with regard to phenotypes of peripheral blood lymphocytes.

  4. Advances in the management of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Dale, James

    2015-08-01

    Modern early rheumatoid arthritis strategies are usually based upon a number of important overarching principles: 1. early diagnosis facilitates early commencement of disease modifying anti-rheumatic therapy; 2. early commencement of treatment reduces the long-term risk of erosive damage and functional decline; 3. composite disease activity measures should be used to quantify global rheumatoid arthritis disease activity; and 4. therapy should be intensified until a predefined disease activity target has been achieved. A substantial minority of rheumatoid arthritis patients (approximately 40%) will experience an adequate response to methotrexate monotherapy; however, the remainder may require disease modifying anti-rheumatic combination therapy, and/or biologic therapy, to achieve disease activity targets. Importantly, short term trials of methotrexate monotherapy do not appear to disadvantage outcomes provided treatment continues to be intensified if disease activity targets are not achieved. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Treating to the target of remission in early rheumatoid arthritis is cost-effective: results of the DREAM registry.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, Marloes; Kievit, Wietske; Kuper, Hillechiena H; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M A; Bernelot Moens, Hein J; Zijlstra, Theo R; den Broeder, Alfons A; van Riel, Piet L C M; Fransen, Jaap; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2013-12-13

    Where health economic studies are frequently performed using modelling, with input from randomized controlled trials and best guesses, we used real-life data to analyse the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of a treatment strategy aiming to the target of remission compared to usual care in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We used real-life data from comparable cohorts in the Dutch Rheumatoid Arthritis Monitoring (DREAM) registry: the DREAM remission induction cohort (treat-to-target, T2T) and the Nijmegen early RA inception cohort (usual care, UC). Both cohorts were followed prospectively using the DREAM registry methodology. All patients fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology criteria for RA and were included in the cohort at the time of diagnosis. The T2T cohort was treated according to a protocolised strategy aiming at remission (Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) < 2.6). The UC cohort was treated without DAS28-guided treatment decisions. EuroQol-5D utility scores were estimated from the Health Assessment Questionnaire. A health care perspective was adopted and direct medical costs were collected. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) per patient in remission and incremental cost utility ratio (ICUR) per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained were calculated over two and three years of follow-up. Two year data were available for 261 T2T patients and 213 UC patients; an extended follow-up of three years was available for 127 and 180 patients, respectively. T2T produced higher remission percentages and a larger gain in QALYs than UC. The ICER was € 3,591 per patient in remission after two years and T2T was dominant after three years. The ICUR was € 19,410 per QALY after two years and T2T was dominant after three years. We can conclude that treating to the target of remission in early RA is cost-effective compared with UC. The data suggest that in the third year, T2T becomes cost-saving.

  6. The Relationship Between Function and Disease Activity as Measured by the HAQ and DAS28 Varies Over Time and by Rheumatoid Factor Status in Early Inflammatory Arthritis (EIA). Results from the CATCH Cohort.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Tristan A; Bonner, A; Thorne, C; Boire, G; Hitchon, C; Haraoui, B P; Keystone, E C; Bykerk, V P; Pope, J E

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between function and disease activity in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort (CATCH) (n=1143) is a multi-site EIA cohort. Correlations between the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ) and DAS28 were done at every 3 months for the first year and then at 18 and 24 months. We also investigated the relationship between HAQ and DAS28 by age (<65 versus ≥65) and RF (positive vs negative). Mean HAQ and DAS28 scores were highest at the initial visit with HAQ decreasing over 24 months from a baseline of 0.94 to 0.40 and DAS28 scores decreasing from 4.54 to 2.29. All correlations between HAQ and DAS28 were significant at all time points (p<0.01). The correlations between HAQ and DAS28 were variable over time. The strongest correlation between HAQ and DAS28 occurred at initial visit (most DMARD naive) (n=1,143) and 18 months (r=0.57, n=321) and 24 months (r=0.59, n=214). The baseline correlation between HAQ and DAS28 was significantly different than correlations obtained at 3, 6, and 12 months (p=0.02, 0.01, and 0.01, respectively). Age did not change the association between HAQ and DAS28 {<65 years old (r=0.50, n=868) versus ≥65 (r=0.48, n=254), p=0.49}. The correlation between HAQ and DAS28 was stronger with RF+ patients (r=0.63, n=636) vs RF negative (r=0.47, n=477), p=0.0043. Over 2 years in EIA, HAQ and DAS both improved; correlations at time points were different over 2 years and RF status affected the correlations.

  7. Rheumatoid Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Rheumatoid Arthritis Small Text Medium Text Large Text Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory disease affecting about ...

  8. Transcriptional signature associated with early rheumatoid arthritis and healthy individuals at high risk to develop the disease

    PubMed Central

    Macías-Segura, N.; Bastian, Y.; Santiago-Algarra, D.; Castillo-Ortiz, J. D.; Alemán-Navarro, A. L.; Jaime-Sánchez, E.; Gomez-Moreno, M.; Saucedo-Toral, C. A.; Lara-Ramírez, Edgar E.; Zapata-Zuñiga, M.; Enciso-Moreno, L.; González-Amaro, R.; Ramos-Remus, C.; Enciso-Moreno, J. A.

    2018-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the mechanisms underlying the loss of tolerance in the early and preclinical stages of autoimmune diseases. The aim of this work was to identify the transcriptional profile and signaling pathways associated to non-treated early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and subjects at high risk. Several biomarker candidates for early RA are proposed. Methods Whole blood total RNA was obtained from non-treated early RA patients with <1 year of evolution as well as from healthy first-degree relatives of patients with RA (FDR) classified as ACCP+ and ACCP- according to their antibodies serum levels against cyclic citrullinated peptides. Complementary RNA (cRNA) was synthetized and hybridized to high-density microarrays. Data was analyzed in Genespring Software and functional categories were assigned to a specific transcriptome identified in subjects with RA and FDR ACCP positive. Specific signaling pathways for genes associated to RA were identified. Gene expression was evaluated by qPCR. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate these genes as biomarkers. Results A characteristic transcriptome of 551 induced genes and 4,402 repressed genes were identified in early RA patients. Bioinformatics analysis of the data identified a specific transcriptome in RA patients. Moreover, some overlapped transcriptional profiles between patients with RA and ACCP+ were identified, suggesting an up-regulated distinctive transcriptome from the preclinical stages up to progression to an early RA state. A total of 203 pathways have up-regulated genes that are shared between RA and ACCP+. Some of these genes show potential to be used as progression biomarkers for early RA with area under the curve of ROC > 0.92. These genes come from several functional categories associated to inflammation, Wnt signaling and type I interferon pathways. Conclusion The presence of a specific transcriptome in whole blood of RA patients suggests the activation

  9. Aggressive treatment of early rheumatoid arthritis: recognizing the window of opportunity and treating to target goals.

    PubMed

    Resman-Targoff, Beth H; Cicero, Marco P

    2010-11-01

    Evidence supports the use of aggressive therapy for patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Clinical outcomes in patients with early RA can improve with a treat-to-target approach that sets the goal at disease remission. The current selection of antirheumatic therapies, including conventional and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), has made disease remission a realistic target for patients with early RA. The challenge is selecting the optimal antirheumatic drug or combination of drugs for initial and subsequent therapy to balance the clinical benefits, risks, and economic considerations. In some cases, the use of biologic agents as part of the treatment regimen has shown superior results compared with conventional DMARDs alone in halting the progression of disease, especially in reducing radiographic damage. However, the use of biologic agents as initial therapy is challenged by cost-effectiveness analyses, which favor the use of conventional DMARDs. The use of biologic agents may be justified in certain patients with poor prognostic factors or those who experience an inadequate response to conventional DMARDs as a means to slow or halt disease progression and its associated disability. In these cases, the higher cost of treatment with biologic agents may be offset by decreased societal costs, such as lost work productivity, and increased health-related quality of life. Further research is needed to understand optimal strategies for balancing costs, benefits, and risks of antirheumatic drugs. Some key questions are (1) when biologic agents are appropriate for initial therapy, and (2) when to conclude that response to conventional DMARDs is inadequate and biologic agents should be initiated.

  10. Women's accounts of help-seeking in early rheumatoid arthritis from symptom onset to diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Anne; Backman, Catherine L; Adam, Paul; Li, Linda C

    2014-12-01

    As interest in gender and health grows, the notion that women are more likely than men to consult doctors is increasingly undermined as more complex understandings of help seeking and gender emerge. While men's reluctance to seek help is associated with practices of masculinities, there has been less consideration of women's help-seeking practices. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease that predominantly affects women and requires prompt treatment but considerable patient-based delays persist along the care pathway. This paper examines women's accounts of help seeking in early RA from symptom onset to diagnosis. We conducted in-depth interviews with 37 women with RA <12 months in Canada. Analysis was based on a constant comparison, thematic approach informed by narrative analysis. The women's accounts featured masculine practices associated with men's help-seeking. The women presented such behaviours as relational, e.g. rooted in family socialisation and a determination to maintain roles and 'normal' life. Our findings raise questions about how far notions of gender operate to differentiate men and women's help seeking and may indicate more similarities than differences. Recognising this has implications for policy and practice initiatives for both men and women. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Serum Biomarkers for Discrimination between Hepatitis C-Related Arthropathy and Early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Siloşi, Isabela; Boldeanu, Lidia; Biciuşcă, Viorel; Bogdan, Maria; Avramescu, Carmen; Taisescu, Citto; Padureanu, Vlad; Boldeanu, Mihail Virgil; Dricu, Anica; Siloşi, Cristian Adrian

    2017-06-19

    In the present study, we aimed to estimate the concentrations of cytokines (interleukin 6, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, TNF-α) and auto-antibodies (rheumatoid factor IgM isotype, IgM-RF, antinuclear auto-antibodies, ANA, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies IgG isotype, IgG anti-CCP3.1, anti-cardiolipin IgG isotype, IgG anti-aCL) in serum of patients with eRA (early rheumatoid arthritis) and HCVrA (hepatitis C virus-related arthropathy) and to assess the utility of IL-6, TNF-α together with IgG anti-CCP and IgM-RF in distinguishing between patients with true eRA and HCVrA, in the idea of using them as differential immunomarkers. Serum samples were collected from 54 patients (30 diagnosed with eRA-subgroup 1 and 24 with HCVrA-subgroup 2) and from 28 healthy control persons. For the evaluation of serum concentrations of studied cytokines and auto-antibodies, we used immunoenzimatique techniques. The serum concentrations of both proinflammatory cytokines were statistically significantly higher in patients of subgroup 1 and subgroup 2, compared to the control group ( p < 0.0001). Our study showed statistically significant differences of the mean concentrations only for ANA and IgG anti-CCP between subgroup 1 and subgroup 2. We also observed that IL-6 and TNF-α better correlated with auto-antibodies in subgroup 1 than in subgroup 2. In both subgroups of patients, ROC curves indicated that IL-6 and TNF-α have a higher diagnostic utility as markers of disease. In conclusion, we can say that, due to high sensitivity for diagnostic accuracy, determination of serum concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α, possibly in combination with auto-antibodies, could be useful in the diagnosis and distinguishing between patients with true eRA and HCV patients with articular manifestation and may prove useful in the monitoring of the disease course.

  12. Phrasing of the patient global assessment in the rheumatoid arthritis ACR/EULAR remission criteria: an analysis of 967 patients from two databases of early and established rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Gossec, Laure; Kirwan, John Richard; de Wit, Maarten; Balanescu, Andra; Gaujoux-Viala, Cecile; Guillemin, Francis; Rat, Anne-Christine; Saraux, Alain; Fautrel, Bruno; Kvien, Tore K; Dougados, Maxime

    2018-06-01

    The ACR/EULAR Boolean remission criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) include a strict cutoff for patient global assessment (PGA, value ≤ 1/10). Near-remission corresponds to remission for joint counts and C-reactive protein but with PGA > 1. The objective was to explore whether the contribution of PGA to remission and near-remission varied according to the wording of the PGA and in relation to disease duration. In patients with early arthritis (N = 731, French ESPOIR cohort) or established RA (N = 236 patients from across Europe), frequency of remission versus near-remission was assessed according to the phrasing used for PGA (global health versus disease activity). In 967 patients (mean [standard deviation] age 49.7 [12.7] years, 76.7% women), remission was infrequent: range 12.9-16.7% (according to wording of PGA) in early RA and 6.8-7.2% in established RA. Near-remission was more frequent: 13.0-16.8% in early RA and 13.1-13.6% in established RA. The ratio of remission to near-remission was higher in the early arthritis cohort (0.8-1.3 versus 0.5-0.5 in established RA). Using the disease activity PGA led to more remission and less near-remission than the global health PGA in the early arthritis cohort (12.9 vs 16.7% near-remission, respectively, p = 0.047) but not in established RA. The proportion of patients who can be classified as remission or near-remission differs in early RA compared to establish RA and depends upon the formulation of the PGA question. PGA referring to disease activity and not global health may be preferred in early disease, if the objective is more alignment with inflammation assessment.

  13. Functional disability and health-related quality of life in South Africans with early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hodkinson, B; Musenge, E; Ally, M; Meyer, P W A; Anderson, R; Tikly, M

    2012-10-01

    The severity and predictors of functional disability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a cohort of South Africans with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were investigated. Changes in the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ) and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) following 12 months of traditional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were studied in previously DMARD-naïve adults with disease duration ≤ 2 years. The majority of the 171 patients were female (82%), Black Africans (89%) with a mean (SD) symptom duration of 11.6 (7.0) months. In the 134 patients seen at 12 months, there were significant improvements in the HAQ and all domains of the SF-36 but 92 (69%) still had substantial functional disability (HAQ > 0.5) and 89 (66%) had suboptimal mental health [SF-36 mental composite score (MCS) < 66.6]. Multivariate analysis showed that female sex (p = 0.05) and high baseline HAQ score (p < 0.01) predicted substantial functional disability at 12 months. Unemployment (p = 0.03), high baseline pain (p = 0.02), and HAQ score (p = 0.04) predicted suboptimal mental health, with a trend towards a low level of schooling being significant (p = 0.08). Early RA has a broad impact on HRQoL in indigent South Africans, with a large proportion of patients still showing substantial functional disability and suboptimal mental health despite 12 months of DMARD therapy. Further research is needed to establish the role of interventions including psychosocial support, rehabilitation programmes, and biological therapy to improve physical function and HRQoL in this population.

  14. A randomised controlled trial of occupational therapy for people with early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hammond, A; Young, A; Kidao, R

    2004-01-01

    Occupational therapy (OT) aims at improving performance of daily living tasks, facilitating successful adjustments in lifestyle, and preventing losses of function. To evaluate the effects of a pragmatic, comprehensive OT programme on self management and health status of people with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (<2.5 years). A randomised, controlled "assessor blinded" trial was conducted with assessments made at entry, 6, 12, and 24 months. Main outcomes were AIMS2: physical function (PF), pain visual analogue scale (VAS), and Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES). Groups had similar disease duration (9 months OT (n = 162) v 10 months control (n = 164)). The OT group received 7.57 (SD 3.04) hours of therapy. Self management significantly increased in the OT group. Otherwise, there were no significant differences in any outcome measures, or between groups, by ACR functional class: AIMS2: PF (F = 0.04; p = 0.96); pain VAS (F = 0.29; p = 0.74); total ASES score (F = 0.93; p = 0.39). OT improved self management but not health status in early RA. Functional ability remains reasonably good for many in the first five years, so preventive benefits of self management may not yet be apparent and longer follow up is needed. Although many considered the education and therapy useful, insufficient numbers in the OT group used self management sufficiently to make a difference. Behavioural approaches can improve adherence and, potentially, the long term benefits. Future research should evaluate OT as a complex intervention and develop programmes from a theoretical and evidence base.

  15. Role of erosions typical of rheumatoid arthritis in the 2010 ACR/EULAR rheumatoid arthritis classification criteria: results from a very early arthritis cohort.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Gina Hetland; Norli, Ellen S; Bøyesen, Pernille; van der Heijde, Désirée; Grøvle, Lars; Haugen, Anne J; Nygaard, Halvor; Bjørneboe, Olav; Thunem, Cathrine; Kvien, Tore K; Mjaavatten, Maria D; Lie, Elisabeth

    2017-11-01

    To determine how the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) definition of erosive disease (erosion criterion) contributes to the number of patients classified as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) according to the 2010 American College of Rheumatology/EULAR RA classification criteria (2010 RA criteria) in an early arthritis cohort. Patients from the observational study Norwegian Very Early Arthritis Clinic with joint swelling ≤16 weeks, a clinical diagnosis of RA or undifferentiated arthritis, and radiographs of hands and feet were included. Erosive disease was defined according to the EULAR definition accompanying the 2010 RA criteria. We calculated the additional number of patients being classified as RA based on the erosion criteria at baseline and during follow-up. Of the 289 included patients, 120 (41.5%) fulfilled the 2010 RA criteria, whereas 15 (5.2%) fulfilled only the erosion criterion at baseline. 118 patients had radiographic follow-up at 2 years, of whom 6.8% fulfilled the 2010 RA criteria and only one patient fulfilled solely the erosion criterion during follow-up. Few patients with early arthritis were classified as RA based on solely the erosion criteria, and of those who did almost all did so at baseline. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Early Psoriatic Arthritis Versus Early Seronegative Rheumatoid Arthritis: Role of Dermoscopy Combined with Ultrasonography for Differential Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zabotti, Alen; Errichetti, Enzo; Zuliani, Francesca; Quartuccio, Luca; Sacco, Stefania; Stinco, Giuseppe; De Vita, Salvatore

    2018-05-01

    Exclusion of psoriatic skin/nail lesions is important in differentiating early seronegative rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) from early polyarticular psoriatic arthritis (EPsA) and such manifestations may go unnoticed in atypical or minimally expressed cases. The aim of this study is to assess the usefulness of integrated rheumatological-dermatological evaluation in highlighting dermatological lesions missed on rheumatological examination and to investigate the role of ultrasonography (US) and dermoscopy in improving the recognition of subclinical psoriatic findings. Patients with a new diagnosis of seropositive or seronegative ERA and EPsA with prevalent hands involvement were recruited. All were reassessed for the presence of psoriatic lesions during an integrated rheumatological-dermatological clinical evaluation and underwent hands US and proximal nailfold dermoscopy. Seventy-three consecutive subjects were included in the study: 25 with seropositive ERA, 23 with seronegative ERA, and 25 with EPsA. One-fourth of the subjects initially diagnosed as seronegative ERA presented cutaneous or nail psoriasis on integrated rheumatological-dermatological evaluation, thereby being reclassified as EPsA. The presence of at least 1 extrasynovial feature on hand US and dotted vessels on proximal nailfold dermoscopy was significantly associated with EPsA, with a sensitivity of 68.0% and 96.0% and a specificity of 88.1% and 83.3% for US and dermoscopy, respectively. When used together, specificity for PsA diagnosis raised to 90.5%. Integrated rheumatological-dermatological clinical evaluation may be helpful in identifying patients with EPsA misclassified as seronegative ERA. Additionally, US and dermoscopy may be used as supportive tools in identifying subclinical psoriatic features, which may come in handy in distinguishing EPsA from ERA.

  17. Combination therapy in early rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised, controlled, double blind 52 week clinical trial of sulphasalazine and methotrexate compared with the single components

    PubMed Central

    Dougados, M.; Combe, B.; Cantagrel, A.; Goupille, P.; Olive, P.; Schattenkirchner, M.; Meusser, S; Paimela, L; Rau, R.; Zeidler, H.; Leirisalo-Repo, M.; Peldan, K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate the potential clinical benefit of a combination therapy.
METHODS—205 patients fulfilling the ACR criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), not treated with disease modifying anti-rheumatoid drugs previously, with an early (⩽1 year duration), active (Disease Activity Score (DAS) > 3.0), rheumatoid factor and/or HLA DR 1/4 positive disease were randomised between sulphasalazine (SASP) 2000 (maximum 3000) mg daily (n = 68), or methotrexate (MTX) 7.5 (maximum 15) mg weekly (n = 69) or the combination (SASP + MTX) of both (n = 68).
RESULTS—The mean changes in the DAS during the one year follow up of the study was −1.15, −0.87, −1.26 in the SASP, MTX, and SASP + MTX group respectively (p = 0.019). However, there was no statistically significant difference in terms of either EULAR good responders 34%, 38%, 38% or ACR criteria responders 59%, 59%, 65% in the SASP, MTX, and SASP + MTX group respectively. Radiological progression evaluated by the modified Sharp score was very modest in the three groups: mean changes in erosion score: +2.4, +2.4, +1.9, in narrowing score: +2.3, +2.1, +1.6 and in total damage score: +4.6, +4.5, +3.5, in the SASP, MTX, and SASP + MTX groups respectively. Adverse events occurred more frequently in the SASP + MTX group 91% versus 75% in the SASP and MTX group (p = 0.025). Nausea was the most frequent side effect: 32%, 23%, 49% in the SASP, MTX, and SASP + MTX groups respectively (p = 0.007).
CONCLUSION—This study suggests that an early initiation therapy of disease modifying drug seems to be of benefit. However, this study was unable to demonstrate a clinically relevant superiority of the combination therapy although several outcomes were in favour of this observation. The tolerability of the three treatment modalities seems acceptable.

 Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; combination therapy; sulphasalazine; methotrexate PMID:10364900

  18. Prevalence of Coxitis and its Correlation with Inflammatory Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bajraktari, Ismet H; Krasniqi, Blerim; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Bexheti, Sadi; Bahtiri, Elton; Bajraktari, Halit; Luri, Besim

    2018-02-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease characterised by intra-articular and extra-articular manifestations but very rarely with coxitis. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of coxitis, clinical changes, and its correlation with the parameters of inflammatory activity. A cohort of 951 patients diagnosed with ACR/EULAR (American College of Rheumatology/European League against Rheumatism) 2010 criteria was enrolled in this prospective, observational and analytic research study. The CBC (Complete Blood Count), ESR (Erythrocyte sedimentation rate), CRP(C - reactive protein), Anti CCP (Antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides), X-ray examination of palms and pelvis, and the activity of the disease as measured by DAS - 28 (28 - joint disease activity score) were carried out in all subjects. Independent samples t-test was used to compare the group's characteristics, whereas Pearson correlation test was used to analyse the correlation between study variables. Of the total number of the subjects, 730 (76.8 %) were females, whereas 221 (23.2%) were males. The average age was 51.3, y/o while the most of them were between 40 - 49 y/o (32.6%). The prevalence of coxitis was 14.2%, mostly found in males (19.46%). The echosonografic prevalence of changes was 21.45%, while the radiological changes were 16.3%; in both cases, the changes were more expressed in males. The analysis showed that inflammatory parameters were significantly higher in patients with coxitis. Coxitis has high economic cost because it ends up with a mandatory need for a total hip joint prosthesis. Thus the results of this study can serve to plan and initiate early preventive measures.

  19. Prevalence of Coxitis and its Correlation with Inflammatory Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bajraktari, Ismet H.; Krasniqi, Blerim; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Bexheti, Sadi; Bahtiri, Elton; Bajraktari, Halit; Luri, Besim

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease characterised by intra-articular and extra-articular manifestations but very rarely with coxitis. AIM: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of coxitis, clinical changes, and its correlation with the parameters of inflammatory activity. METHODS: A cohort of 951 patients diagnosed with ACR/EULAR (American College of Rheumatology/European League against Rheumatism) 2010 criteria was enrolled in this prospective, observational and analytic research study. The CBC (Complete Blood Count), ESR (Erythrocyte sedimentation rate), CRP(C - reactive protein), Anti CCP (Antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides), X-ray examination of palms and pelvis, and the activity of the disease as measured by DAS - 28 (28 - joint disease activity score) were carried out in all subjects. Independent samples t-test was used to compare the group’s characteristics, whereas Pearson correlation test was used to analyse the correlation between study variables. RESULTS: Of the total number of the subjects, 730 (76.8 %) were females, whereas 221 (23.2%) were males. The average age was 51.3, y/o while the most of them were between 40 - 49 y/o (32.6%). The prevalence of coxitis was 14.2%, mostly found in males (19.46%). The echosonografic prevalence of changes was 21.45%, while the radiological changes were 16.3%; in both cases, the changes were more expressed in males. The analysis showed that inflammatory parameters were significantly higher in patients with coxitis. CONCLUSION: Coxitis has high economic cost because it ends up with a mandatory need for a total hip joint prosthesis. Thus the results of this study can serve to plan and initiate early preventive measures. PMID:29531599

  20. Rheumatoid arthritis disease activity and vitamin D deficiency in an Asian resident population.

    PubMed

    Quraishi, Mohammed K; Badsha, Humeira

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a UAE population. Forty-five consecutive subjects were prospectively recruited during the early summer with their clinical examination and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) being recorded at a clinic appointment, along with their blood sample being taken for the 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) total test. Thirty-five (76%) patients claimed to be exposed to sunlight for < 30 min daily. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (20-30 ng/mL) and deficiency (< 20 ng/mL) was 36% and 29%, respectively. RA patients who exposed their hands and feet (29 ng/mL) or more (34 ng/mL) to the sunlight had serum vitamin D levels higher than those who exposed their hands alone (18 ng/mL) or less (19 ng/mL) (P < 0.05). The variations in vitamin D levels due to skin color did not reach significance. No significant correlation was seen between serum vitamin D levels and Disease Activity Score (DAS28) or HAQ scores. A direct relationship was observed between HAQ scores and DAS28 scores (P < 0.05). We highlight the importance of skin exposure to sunlight in a conservative dressing culture. No association was observed between vitamin D and disease activity. However, the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency may negatively impact on bone health of these patients in the future. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Increased disease activity, severity and autoantibody positivity in rheumatoid arthritis patients with co-existent bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Perry, Elizabeth; Eggleton, Paul; De Soyza, Anthony; Hutchinson, David; Kelly, Clive

    2017-12-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and co-existent bronchiectasis (BRRA) have a five-fold increased mortality compared to rheumatoid arthritis alone. Yet previous studies have found no difference in clinical and serological markers of RA disease severity between BRRA patients and RA alone. However, RA disease activity measures such as Disease Activity Score of 28 joints - C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP) have not been studied, so we assessed these parameters in patients with BRRA and RA alone. BRRA patients (n = 53) had high-resolution computed tomography proven bronchiectasis without any interstitial lung disease and ≥ 2 respiratory infections/year. RA alone patients (n = 50) had no clinical or radiological evidence of lung disease. DAS28-CRP, rheumatoid factor (immunoglobulin M) and anti-CCP were measured in all patients, together with detailed clinical and radiology records. In BRRA, bronchiectasis predated RA in 58% of patients. BRRA patients had higher DAS28 scores (3.51 vs. 2.59), higher levels of anti-CCP (89% vs. 46%) and rheumatoid factor (79% vs. 52%) (P = 0.003) compared to RA alone. Where hand and foot radiology findings were recorded, 29/37 BRRA (78%) and 13/30 (43%) RA alone had evidence of erosive change (P = 0.003). There were no significant differences between groups in smoking history or disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug/biologic therapy. Increased levels of RA disease activity, severity and RA autoantibodies are demonstrated in patients with RA and co-existent bronchiectasis compared to patients with RA alone, despite lower tobacco exposure. This study demonstrates that BRRA is a more severe systemic disease than RA alone. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Early detection of rheumatoid arthritis in rats and humans with 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy: imaging synovial neoangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiangcheng; Zhao, Zhenfang; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xuemei; Li, Xiao-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To validate 99mTc-labeled arginylglycylaspartic acid (99mTc-3PRGD2) scintigraphy as a means to image synovial neoangiogenesis in joints afflicted by rheumatoid arthritis and to investigate its potential in the early detection and management of rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis were generated in Sprague Dawley rats by type II collagen immunization and papain injection, respectively. Rats were imaged with 99mTc-3PRGD2 and 99mTc- methyl diphosphonate (99mTc MDP). X-ray images were also obtained and assessed by a radiologist. Immunohistochemistry of αvβ3 and CD31confirmed the onset of synovial neoangiogenesis. The effect of bevacizumab on rheumatoid arthritis was followed with 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy. A patient with rheumatoid arthritis and a healthy volunteer were scanned with 99mTc-3PRGD2. Results: Two weeks after immunization, a significant increase in 99mTc-3PRGD2 was observed in the joints of the rheumatoid arthritis model though uptake in osteoarthritis model and untreated controls was low. 99mTc-MDP whole body scans failed to distinguish early rheumatoid arthritis joints from healthy controls. The expression of αvβ3 and CD31was significantly higher in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis rats compared to normal controls. In serial 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy studies, 99mTc-3PRGD2 uptake increased in parallel with disease progression. Bevacizumab anti-angiogenetic therapy both improved the symptoms of the rheumatoid arthritis rats and significantly decreased 99mTc-3PRGD2 uptake. Significantly higher 99mTc-3PRGD2 accumulation was also observed in rheumatoid arthritis joints in the patient. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy could detect early rheumatoid arthritis by imaging the associated synovial neoangiogenesis, and may be useful in disease management. PMID:27992368

  3. Chronic comorbidity in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Kroot, E J; van Gestel, A M; Swinkels, H L; Albers, M M; van de Putte, L B; van Riel, P L

    2001-07-01

    To study the presence of chronic coexisting diseases in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its effect on RA treatment, disease course, and outcome during the first years of the disease. From January 1985 to December 1990, 186 patients with recent onset RA were enrolled in a prospective longitudinal study. Between January 1991 and November 1992 patients were interviewed on the basis of a comorbidity questionnaire. For analysis the diseases were coded according to the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) medical diagnoses. Disease activity during the period of followup was measured by the Disease Activity Score. Outcome in terms of physical disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire) and radiological damage (Sharp's modified version) over 3 and 6 year periods was determined. In the group of 186 patients, with mean disease duration of 4.3 years at January 1991, 50 patients (27%) reported at least one chronic coexisting disease. The most frequently reported coexisting diseases were of cardiovascular (29%), respiratory (18%), or dermatological (11%) origin. For the major part (66%) chronic coexisting diseases were already present before onset of RA. No statistically significant differences in use of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs or corticosteroids were observed between RA patients with and without chronic coexisting diseases. No statistically significant differences were found in disease activity or in outcome in terms of physical disability and radiological damage over 3 and 6 year periods between the 2 groups with RA. The results showed that about 27% of patients with RA in this inception cohort had at least one chronic coexisting disease. Treatment, disease course, and outcome did not differ between patients with and without chronic coexisting diseases during the first years of the disease.

  4. Promoting physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a narrative review of behaviour change theories.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Louise; Kennedy, Norelee; Gallagher, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Despite physical activity having significant health benefits for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), current levels of physical activity in this population are suboptimal. Changing behaviour is challenging and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity in this context have had varying levels of success. This review provides an overview of common behaviour change theories used in interventions to promote physical activity and their application for promoting physical activity in people with RA. A scoping, narrative review was conducted of English language literature, using the search terms "physical activity/exercise" and keywords, which are associated with behaviour change interventions. The theoretical basis of such interventions in people with RA was assessed using the "theory coding scheme". Six theories which have been used in physical activity research are discussed. Further, four studies which aimed to increase physical activity levels in people with RA are explored in detail. To date, behaviour change interventions conducted in RA populations to increase physical activity levels have not had a strong theoretical underpinning. It is proposed that an intervention utilising the theory of planned behaviour is developed with the aim of increasing physical activity in people with RA. Implications for Rehabilitation Interventions to promote physical activity in the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) population have failed to change participants' behaviour. A small number of studies have used behaviour change theories in the development and delivery of interventions. The theory of planned behaviour is recommended as the theoretical basis for an intervention to promote physical activity in the RA population.

  5. Reduction in Serum Uric Acid May Be Related to Methotrexate Efficacy in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: Data from the Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort (CATCH)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jason J.; Bykerk, Vivian P.; Dresser, George K.; Boire, Gilles; Haraoui, Boulos; Hitchon, Carol; Thorne, Carter; Tin, Diane; Jamal, Shahin; Keystone, Edward C.; Pope, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The mechanism of action of methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is complex. It may increase adenosine levels by blocking its conversion to uric acid (UA). This study was done to determine if methotrexate lowers UA in early RA (ERA). METHODS Data were obtained from Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort, an incident ERA cohort. All ERA patients with serial UA measurements were included, comparing those with methotrexate use vs. no methotrexate exposure (controls). Analyses were exploratory. Patients with concomitant gout or taking UA-lowering therapies were excluded. RESULTS In total, 49 of the 2,524 ERA patients were identified with data available for both pre-methotrexate UA levels and post-methotrexate UA levels (300 µmol/L and 273 µmol/L, respectively; P = 0.035). The control group not taking methotrexate had a mean baseline UA level of 280 µmol/L and a follow-up level of 282 µmol/L (P = 0.448); mean change in UA with methotrexate was −26.8 µmol/L vs. 2.3 µmol/L in the no methotrexate group (P = 0.042). Methotrexate users with a decrease in UA had a disease activity score of 2.37 for 28 joints when compared with the controls (3.26) at 18 months (P = 0.042). Methotrexate users with decreased UA had a lower swollen joint count (SJC) of 0.9 at 18 months, whereas methotrexate users without lowering of UA had an SJC of 4.5 (P = 0.035). Other analyses were not significant. CONCLUSIONS Methotrexate response is associated with lowering of serum UA in ERA compared to nonusers. This may be due to changes in adenosine levels. Methotrexate response is associated with lower UA and fewer swollen joints compared to nonresponders. PMID:27081318

  6. Methodological issues in the design of a rheumatoid arthritis activity score and its cut-offs.

    PubMed

    Collignon, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can be evaluated using several scoring scales based on clinical features. The most widely used one is the Disease Activity Score involving 28 joint counts (DAS28) for which cut-offs were proposed to help physicians classify patients. However, inaccurate scoring can lead to inappropriate medical decisions. In this article some methodological issues in the design of such a score and its cut-offs are highlighted in order to further propose a strategy to overcome them. As long as the issues reviewed in this article are not addressed, results of studies based on standard disease activity scores such as DAS28 should be considered with caution.

  7. Angiopoietin-2 serum levels correlate with severity, early onset and cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    López-Mejías, Raquel; Corrales, Alfonso; Genre, Fernanda; Hernández, José L; Ochoa, Rodrigo; Blanco, Ricardo; González-Juanatey, Carlos; Martín, Javier; Llorca, Javier; González-Gay, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and high risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Angiopoietin-2 (Angpt-2), a marker of endothelial cell activation, has been proposed as a mediator of angiogenesis, which might play an important role in the regulation of endothelial integrity and inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether Angpt-2 is related to severity and CV disease in RA patients. Angpt-2 serum levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 290 patients with RA. A control group of 100 individuals frequency matched by age and sex and classic CV risk factors and CV disease was also assessed. Eighty-four patients with RA (28.9%) had experienced CV events. Also, extra-articular manifestations were present in 41 (14%) of these patients. Although there were not significant differences between patients and controls, a correlation between age at the time of disease onset and Angpt-2 was observed in RA patients (r=-0.31; p=0.02). Angpt-2 serum levels also correlated positively with extra-articular disease (mean±standard deviation in RA patients with and without extra-articular manifestations were 2476±1716 pg/ml and 1897±1228 pg/ml, respectively; p=0.01). Moreover, after adjustment for sex, age at RA diagnosis and CV risk factors, Angpt-2 levels were higher in RA patients with CV disease than in RA patients without CV complications (2472±1826 pg/ml vs. 1875±1101 pg/ml; p=0.05). Angpt-2 serum levels remained significantly higher in RA patients with CV disease compared to those without CV disease after additional adjustment for extra-articular manifestations (p=0.04). Our results show that Angpt-2 serum levels correlate with disease severity, early onset and CV disease in RA patients.

  8. Leflunomide in active rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective study in daily practice.

    PubMed

    Van Roon, E N; Jansen, T L Th A; Mourad, L; Houtman, P M; Bruyn, G A W; Griep, E N; Wilffert, B; Tobi, H; Brouwers, J R B J

    2004-06-01

    We prospectively studied the efficacy, incidence of adverse drug reactions and withdrawal from leflunomide in an outpatient population with rheumatoid arthritis in a setting of care-as-usual. In this prospective case series study, from outpatient medical records a standard dataset was collected including patient and disease characteristics, data on leflunomide use and adverse drug reactions. During the study period 136 rheumatoid arthritis patients started leflunomide. Median (range) follow-up duration was 317 (11-911) days. Sixty-five percent of patients experienced at least one adverse drug reaction related to leflunomide. During follow-up 76 patients (56%) withdrew from leflunomide treatment, mainly because of adverse drug reactions (29%) or lack of efficacy (13%). The overall incidence density for withdrawal from leflunomide was 56.2 per 100 patient-years. Complete data for calculating efficacy using a validated disease activity score on 28 joints (DAS(28)) was available for 48, 36, and 35% of patients at 2, 6, and 12 months follow-up, respectively. Within a 12-month period after start of leflunomide treatment 76% of the evaluable patients were classified as moderate or good responders according to the DAS(28) response criteria. In the setting of care-as-usual, rheumatoid arthritis patients starting leflunomide frequently experienced adverse drug reactions. More than half of the patients withdrew from leflunomide treatment within a year after start of leflunomide treatment, mainly because of adverse drug reactions.

  9. Leflunomide in active rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective study in daily practice.

    PubMed

    Van Roon, E N; Jansen, T L Th A; Mourad, L; Houtman, P M; Bruyn, G A W; Griep, E N; Wilffert, B; Tobi, H; Brouwers, J R B J

    2004-08-01

    We prospectively studied the efficacy, incidence of adverse drug reactions and withdrawal from leflunomide in an outpatient population with rheumatoid arthritis in a setting of care-as-usual. In this prospective case series study, a standard dataset was collected from outpatient medical records, including patient and disease characteristics, data on leflunomide use and adverse drug reactions. During the study period 136 rheumatoid arthritis patients started leflunomide. Median (range) follow-up duration was 317 (11-911) days. Sixty-five percent of patients experienced at least one adverse drug reaction related to leflunomide. During follow-up 76 patients (56%) withdrew from leflunomide treatment, mainly because of adverse drug reactions (29%) or lack of efficacy (13%). The overall incidence density for withdrawal from leflunomide was 56.2 per 100 patient years. Complete data for calculating efficacy using a validated disease activity score on 28 joints (DAS(28)) was available for 48, 36, and 35% of patients at 2, 6, and 12 months follow-up, respectively. Within a 12-month period after start of leflunomide treatment 76% of the evaluable patients were classified as moderate or good responders according to the DAS(28) response criteria. In the setting of care-as-usual rheumatoid arthritis patients starting leflunomide frequently experienced adverse drug reactions. More than half of the patients withdrew from leflunomide treatment within 1 year of starting leflunomide treatment, mainly because of adverse drug reactions.

  10. Expression of the Inherently Autoreactive Idiotope 9G4 on Autoantibodies to Citrullinated Peptides and on Rheumatoid Factors in Patients with Early and Established Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cambridge, Geraldine; Moura, Rita A.; Santos, Tania; Khawaja, Akif A.; Polido-Pereira, Joaquim; Canhão, Helena; Leandro, Maria J.; Fonseca, João E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The pre-symptomatic stage of Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and autoantibodies. High levels and epitope spread by Rheumatoid factors (RhF) and autoantibodies to citrullinated proteins signify progression towards disease expression. In established RA, the persistence of high autoantibody levels reflects production by both long-lived plasma cells and short-lived plasmablasts. Neither the relative contributions to pathogenesis by autoantibodies from either source, nor the factors responsible for deciding the fate of autoantigen specific ‘parent’ B-cells, is understood. Phenotypic markers identifying subsets of autoreactive B-cells are therefore of interest in understanding the origin and perpetuation of the autoimmune response in RA. One such phenotypic marker is the rat monoclonal antibody, 9G4, which recognises an idiotope on immunoglobuins derived from the inherently autoreactive VH-gene, VH4-34. We therefore investigated whether the 9G4 idiotope was expressed on autoantibodies in patients with RA. Methodology/Principal Findings Sera from 19 patients with established RA and those with <1year history of untreated polyarthritis either resolving into RA (n = 42) or non-RA diagnosis (n = 31) were included. Autoantibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides (CCP), RhF and co-expression of the 9G4 idiotope were measured by ELISA. 9G4 recognised a population of anti-CCP antibodies in the majority of sera from patients with established disease and also in samples from patients with early disaese. 9G4+RhF levels were generally lower and not associated with positivity for, or levels of 9G4+CCP. Conclusions/Significance The persistence of 9G4+ immunoglobulins, of any isotype, in serum is rare. We describe here the novel finding of 9G4 expression on anti-CCP antibodies in patients from the earliest symptoms of RA through to established disease. Our results suggest that 9G4 expression on anti-CCP autoantibodies was

  11. Emotions related to participation restrictions as experienced by patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: a qualitative interview study (the Swedish TIRA project).

    PubMed

    Östlund, Gunnel; Björk, Mathilda; Thyberg, Ingrid; Thyberg, Mikael; Valtersson, Eva; Stenström, Birgitta; Sverker, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Psychological distress is a well-known complication in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but knowledge regarding emotions and their relationship to participation restrictions is scarce. The objective of the study was to explore emotions related to participation restrictions by patients with early RA. In this study, 48 patients with early RA, aged 20-63 years, were interviewed about participation restrictions using the critical incident technique. Information from transcribed interviews was converted into dilemmas and linked to International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) participation codes. The emotions described were condensed and categorized. Hopelessness and sadness were described when trying to perform daily activities such as getting up in the mornings and getting dressed, or not being able to perform duties at work. Sadness was experienced in relation to not being able to continue leisure activities or care for children. Examples of fear descriptions were found in relation to deteriorating health and fumble fear, which made the individual withdraw from activities as a result of mistrusting the body. Anger and irritation were described in relation to domestic and employed work but also in social relations where the individual felt unable to continue valued activities. Shame or embarrassment was described when participation restrictions became visible in public. Feelings of grief, aggressiveness, fear, and shame are emotions closely related to participation restrictions in everyday life in early RA. Emotions related to disability need to be addressed both in clinical settings in order to optimize rehabilitative multi-professional interventions and in research to achieve further knowledge.

  12. Immune response profiling in early rheumatoid arthritis: discovery of a novel interaction of treatment response with viral immunity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction It remains challenging to predict the outcomes of therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of this study was to identify immune response signatures that correlate with clinical treatment outcomes in patients with RA. Methods A cohort of 71 consecutive patients with early RA starting treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) was recruited. Disease activity at baseline and after 21 to 24 weeks of follow-up was measured using the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28). Immune response profiling was performed by analyzing multi-cytokine production from peripheral blood cells following incubation with a panel of stimuli, including a mixture of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lysates. Profiles identified via principal components analysis (PCA) for each stimulus were then correlated with the ΔDAS28 from baseline to follow-up. A clinically meaningful improvement in the DAS28 was defined as a decrease of ≥1.2. Results A profile of T-cell cytokines (IL-13, IL-4, IL-5, IL-2, IL-12, and IFN-γ) produced in response to CMV/EBV was found to correlate with the ΔDAS28 from baseline to follow-up. At baseline, a higher magnitude of the CMV/EBV immune response profile predicted inadequate DAS28 improvement (mean PCA-1 scores: 65.6 versus 50.2; P = 0.029). The baseline CMV/EBV response was particularly driven by IFN-γ (P = 0.039) and IL-4 (P = 0.027). Among patients who attained clinically meaningful DAS28 improvement, the CMV/EBV PCA-1 score increased from baseline to follow-up (mean +11.6, SD 25.5), whereas among patients who responded inadequately to DMARD therapy, the CMV/EBV PCA-1 score decreased (mean -12.8, SD 25.4; P = 0.002). Irrespective of the ΔDAS28, methotrexate use was associated with up-regulation of the CMV/EBV response. The CMV/EBV profile was associated with positive CMV IgG (P <0.001), but not EBV IgG (P = 0.32), suggesting this response was related to

  13. Relationship between leptin concentrations and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Batún-Garrido, José Antonio de Jesús; Salas-Magaña, Marisol; Juárez-Rojop, Isela Esther; Hernández-Núñez, Eúfrates; Olán, Francisco

    2018-05-11

    Multiple studies have found a direct relationship between leptin concentrations and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. We studied 77 patients with the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis; the leptin determination was through an enzyme immunoassay. Disease activity was assessed by the DAS-28 CRP. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the association between significant variables and leptin concentrations. 40.3% of the patients were in remission, 41.6% were mildly active, 11.7% were moderately active and 6.5% were severely active. The results show an independent association between higher concentrations of leptin and disease activity (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.4-3.2; p .03), the number of swollen joints (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.7-8.3; p .000), the number of painful joints (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.6-4.6; p .000), and the presence of metabolic syndrome (OR 1.3; 95% IC 1.2-1,9; p .045). The data suggest that serum leptin is elevated in patients with active RA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. The Impact of Low-Dose Disease-modifying Anti-rheumatics Drugs (DMARDs) on Bone Mineral Density of Premenopausal Women in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Mahmutaj, Vigan; Boshnjaku, Shkumbin

    2016-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical polyarthritis and multisystemic involvement. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of low dose of methotrexate on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This paper follows a retrospective study, which involves 60 female patients with early onset RA diagnosed according to the American Rheumatism Association Criteria (ACR/EULAR 2010). The patients were divided into two groups group I was composed of thirty patients treated with dose of 7.5 mg/weekly methotrexate (MTX), while group II included thirty patients treated with dose of 2 g/daily sulfasalazine (SSZ). The Disease Activity was measured by a combination of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and Disease Activity Score (DAS-28). Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (L2-4), and femoral neck, was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) (Stratos 800). Laboratory findings included: In this study, we found no negative effect on BMD in RA patients treated with low dose MTX in comparison to patients treated with SSZ. There was not observed significant difference in BMD of the lumbar spine, femur neck or trochanter, of MTX and SSZ patients in the pretreatment phase, nor after 12 months of treatment. No significant change in the biochemical parameters of the both groups. Based on the results of our study, low dose of methotrexate has no negative effect on BMD in premenopausal RA patients. We believe that these results might provide new insights and that further longitudinal studies with larger groups of premenopausal RA patients are required.

  15. The Impact of Low-Dose Disease-modifying Anti-rheumatics Drugs (DMARDs) on Bone Mineral Density of Premenopausal Women in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Mahmutaj, Vigan; Boshnjaku, Shkumbin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical polyarthritis and multisystemic involvement. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of low dose of methotrexate on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Materials and methods: This paper follows a retrospective study, which involves 60 female patients with early onset RA diagnosed according to the American Rheumatism Association Criteria (ACR/EULAR 2010). The patients were divided into two groups group I was composed of thirty patients treated with dose of 7.5 mg/weekly methotrexate (MTX), while group II included thirty patients treated with dose of 2 g/daily sulfasalazine (SSZ). The Disease Activity was measured by a combination of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and Disease Activity Score (DAS-28). Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (L2–4), and femoral neck, was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) (Stratos 800). Laboratory findings included: In this study, we found no negative effect on BMD in RA patients treated with low dose MTX in comparison to patients treated with SSZ. There was not observed significant difference in BMD of the lumbar spine, femur neck or trochanter, of MTX and SSZ patients in the pretreatment phase, nor after 12 months of treatment. No significant change in the biochemical parameters of the both groups. Conclusion: Based on the results of our study, low dose of methotrexate has no negative effect on BMD in premenopausal RA patients. We believe that these results might provide new insights and that further longitudinal studies with larger groups of premenopausal RA patients are required. PMID:27147781

  16. Physical activity and the association with fatigue and sleep in Danish patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Løppenthin, K; Esbensen, B A; Østergaard, M; Jennum, P; Tolver, A; Aadahl, M; Thomsen, T; Midtgaard, J

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine physical activity behavior in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and to identify potential correlates of regular physical activity including fatigue, sleep, pain, physical function and disease activity. A total of 443 patients were recruited from a rheumatology outpatient clinic and included in this cross-sectional study. Physical activity was assessed by a four-class questionnaire, in addition to the Physical Activity Scale. Other instruments included the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Health Assessment Questionnaire. Disease activity was obtained from a nationwide clinical database. Of the included patients, 80 % were female and mean age was 60 (range 21-88 years). Hereof, 22 % (n = 96) were regularly physically active, and 78 % (n = 349) were mainly sedentary or having a low level of physical activity. An inverse univariate association was found between moderate to vigorous physical activity, and fatigue (MFI mental, MFI activity, MFI physical and MFI general), sleep, diabetes, depression, pain, patient global assessment, HAQ and disease activity. The multivariate prediction model demonstrated that fatigue-related reduced activity and physical fatigue were selected in >95 % of the bootstrap samples with median odds ratio 0.89 (2.5-97.5 % quantiles: 0.78-1.00) and 0.91 (2.5-97.5 % quantiles: 0.81-0.97), respectively, while disease activity was selected in 82 % of the bootstrap samples with median odds ratio 0.90. Moderate to vigorous physical activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is associated with the absence of several RA-related factors with the most important correlates being reduced activity due to fatigue, physical fatigue and disease activity.

  17. Early and long-standing rheumatoid arthritis: distinct molecular signatures identified by gene-expression profiling in synovia

    PubMed Central

    Lequerré, Thierry; Bansard, Carine; Vittecoq, Olivier; Derambure, Céline; Hiron, Martine; Daveau, Maryvonne; Tron, François; Ayral, Xavier; Biga, Norman; Auquit-Auckbur, Isabelle; Chiocchia, Gilles; Le Loët, Xavier; Salier, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a heterogeneous disease and its underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Because previous microarray studies have only focused on long-standing (LS) RA compared to osteoarthritis, we aimed to compare the molecular profiles of early and LS RA versus control synovia. Methods Synovial biopsies were obtained by arthroscopy from 15 patients (4 early untreated RA, 4 treated LS RA and 7 controls, who had traumatic or mechanical lesions). Extracted mRNAs were used for large-scale gene-expression profiling. The different gene-expression combinations identified by comparison of profiles of early, LS RA and healthy synovia were linked to the biological processes involved in each situation. Results Three combinations of 719, 116 and 52 transcripts discriminated, respectively, early from LS RA, and early or LS RA from healthy synovia. We identified several gene clusters and distinct molecular signatures specifically expressed during early or LS RA, thereby suggesting the involvement of different pathophysiological mechanisms during the course of RA. Conclusions Early and LS RA have distinct molecular signatures with different biological processes participating at different times during the course of the disease. These results suggest that better knowledge of the main biological processes involved at a given RA stage might help to choose the most appropriate treatment. PMID:19563633

  18. Rheumatoid arthritis: what do MRI and ultrasound show

    PubMed Central

    Jans, Lennart; Teh, James

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common inflammatory arthritis, affecting approximately 1% of the world’s population. Its pathogenesis has not been completely understood. However, there is evidence that the disease may involve synovial joints, subchondral bone marrow as well as intra- and extraarticular fat tissue, and may lead to progressive joint destruction and disability. Over the last two decades, significant improvement in its prognosis has been achieved owing to new strategies for disease management, the emergence of new biologic therapies and better utilization of conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate therapy have been recognized as essential for improving clinical outcomes in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. Despite the potential of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging to visualize all tissues typically involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, the diagnosis of early disease remains difficult due to limited specificity of findings. This paper summarizes the pathogenesis phenomena of rheumatoid arthritis and describes rheumatoid arthritis-related features of the disease within the synovium, subchondral bone marrow and articular fat tissue on MRI and ultrasound. Moreover, the paper aims to illustrate the significance of MRI and ultrasound findings in rheumatoid arthritis in the diagnosis of subclinical and early inflammation, and the importance of MRI and US in the follow-up and establishing remission. Finally, we also discuss MRI of the spine in rheumatoid arthritis, which may help assess the presence of active inflammation and complications. PMID:28439423

  19. Rheumatoid arthritis disease activity and disability affect the risk of serious infection events in RADIUS 1.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Arthur; Troum, Orrin; Hooper, Michele; Koenig, Andrew S; Chaudhari, Sandeep; Feng, Jingyuan; Wenkert, Deborah

    2013-08-01

    To determine whether disease activity and disability independently correlate with serious infection event (SIE) risk in a large rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cohort. The associations between SIE and Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) in the Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drug Intervention and Utilization Study (RADIUS 1) cohort were evaluated using the Andersen-Gill model (a proportional HR model allowing > 1 event per patient). Of 4084 patients with 347 SIE, 271 patients experienced ≥ 1 SIE. A 5-unit CDAI increase and 0.4-unit HAQ-DI increase corresponded to an increase in SIE risk with and without covariate adjustments. A 5-unit CDAI increase corresponded with a 7.7% increased SIE risk (adjusted HR 1.077, 95% CI 1.044-1.112, p < 0.0001) and a 0.4-unit HAQ-DI increase with a 30.1% increased risk (adjusted HR 1.301, 95% CI 1.225-1.381, p < 0.0001). Categorical analysis showed that more severe RA activity (even after controlling for disability) and disability were associated with an increased SIE risk. Increased RA disease activity and disability were each associated with a significantly increased SIE risk in the RADIUS 1 cohort, which could not be completely accounted for by disability.

  20. Women with rheumatoid arthritis: non-vocational activities and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Reinseth, Lillian; Espnes, Geir Arild

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine a possible relationship between partaking in non-vocational activities and health-related quality of life in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Two questionnaires were completed by 45 women with RA aged from 25 to 80. The MOS Short-Form 36 (SF-36) measured the health-related quality of life and the Interest Checklist measured the amount of non-vocational activities performed. The present study revealed a significant decrease in non-vocational activities by the participants during the last 10 years. Mental health status seemed to be of greater importance than physical function to perform non-vocational activities in daily life. There were indications that a high number of activities performed correlated positively with scores on psychological well-being, and that a low amount of activities performed correlated with the psychological distress scores.

  1. Low prevalence of work disability in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA) and early rheumatoid arthritis at enrollment into a multi-site registry: results from the catch cohort.

    PubMed

    Mussen, Lauren; Boyd, Tristan; Bykerk, Vivian; de Leon, Faye; Li, Lihua; Boire, Gilles; Hitchon, Carol; Haraoui, Boulos; Thorne, J Carter; Pope, Janet

    2013-02-01

    We determined the prevalence of work disability in early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) and undifferentiated early inflammatory arthritis (EIA) patients at first enrollment into the Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort (CATCH) who met the 2010 ACR criteria versus those not meeting criteria, to determine the impact of meeting new criteria on work disability status. Data at first visit into the cohort were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association of other variables in our database with work disability. 1,487 patients were enrolled in the CATCH study, a multi-site observational, prospective cohort of patients with EIA. 934 patients were excluded (505 based on missing criteria for ACR 2010 classification, as anti-CCP was absent, and 429 were not working for other reasons). Of the 553 patients included, 71 % were female with mean disease duration of 6.4 months. 524 (94.8 %) were employed while 29 (5.2 %) reported work disability at first visit. There were no differences between those meeting 2010 ACR criteria versus those who did not. Baseline characteristics associated with work disability were male gender, age, education, income, HAQ, and positive RF status. The mean HAQ score in work disabled patients was 1.4 versus 0.9 in those who were working (p < 0.001). Disease activity score (DAS28) was not associated with work disability (p = 0.069), nor was tender joint count, swollen joint count, anti-CCP, patient global assessment, or SF-12v2. In the regression model, work disability was associated with lower income levels (p = 0.01) and worse HAQ scores (OR 2.33; p = 0.001), but not significantly associated with male gender (p = 0.08), older age (>50 years; p = 0.3), lower education (p = 0.3) or RF positivity (p = 0.6). We found rates of work disability to be low at entry into this EIA cohort compared to previous studies. There may be potential for intervention in ERA to prevent the development of work

  2. Investigation of nano lipid vesicles of methotrexate for anti-rheumatoid activity

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Prabhakara; Shetty, Rakshith; Koland, Marina; Vijayanarayana, K; Vijayalakshmi, KK; Nairy, M Harish; Nisha, GS

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to formulate and evaluate nano lipid vesicles of methotrexate (MTX) for its anti-rheumatoid activity. Methods In this study the principle of both active as well as passive targeting using MTX-loaded stealth liposomes as per the magic gun approach was followed. Stealth liposomes of MTX were prepared by thin-film hydration method using a PEGylated phospholipid-like DSPE-MPEG 2000. Similarly, conventional liposomes were prepared using phospholipids like DPPC and DSPC. Conventional liposomes were coated with a hydrophilic biocompatible polymer like chitosan. They were investigated for their physical properties and in vitro release profile. Further, in vivo screening of the formulations for their anti-rheumatoid efficacy was carried out in rats. Rheumatoid arthritis was induced in male Wistar-Lewis rats using complete Freund’s adjuvant (1 mg/mL Mycobacterium tuberculosis, heat killed in mineral oil). Results It was found that chitosan coating of the conventional liposomes increased the physical stability of the liposomal suspension as well as its entrapment efficiency. The size of the unsonicated lipid vesicles was found to be in the range of 8–10 μm, and the sonicated lipid vesicles in the range of 210–260 nm, with good polydispersity index. Further, chitosan-coated conventional liposomes and the PEGylated liposomes released the drug for a prolonged period of time, compared to the uncoated conventional liposomes. It was found that there was a significant reduction in edema volume in the rat group administered with the test stealth liposomal formulations and chitosan-coated conventional liposomes (PEGylated and chitosan-coated conventional) compared to that of the control and standard (administered with free MTX) group of rats. PEGylated liposomes showed almost equal efficacy as that of the chitosan-coated conventional liposomes. Conclusion Lipid nano vesicles of MTX can be administered by intravenous route, whereby the

  3. Rheumatoid arthritis disease activity measures: American College of Rheumatology recommendations for use in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jaclyn; Caplan, Liron; Yazdany, Jinoos; Robbins, Mark L; Neogi, Tuhina; Michaud, Kaleb; Saag, Kenneth G; O'Dell, James R; Kazi, Salahuddin

    2012-05-01

    Although the systematic measurement of disease activity facilitates clinical decision making in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), no recommendations currently exist on which measures should be applied in clinical practice in the US. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) convened a Working Group (WG) to comprehensively evaluate the validity, feasibility, and acceptability of available RA disease activity measures and derive recommendations for their use in clinical practice. The Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Disease Activity Measures Working Group conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify RA disease activity measures. Using exclusion criteria, input from an Expert Advisory Panel (EAP), and psychometric analysis, a list of potential measures was created. A survey was administered to rheumatologists soliciting input. The WG used these survey results in conjunction with the psychometric analyses to derive final recommendations. Systematic review of the literature resulted in identification of 63 RA disease activity measures. Application of exclusion criteria and ratings by the EAP narrowed the list to 14 measures for further evaluation. Practicing rheumatologists rated 9 of these 14 measures as most useful and feasible. From these 9 measures, the WG selected 6 with the best psychometric properties for inclusion in the final set of ACR-recommended RA disease activity measures. We recommend the Clinical Disease Activity Index, Disease Activity Score with 28-joint counts (erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein), Patient Activity Scale (PAS), PAS-II, Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data with 3 measures, and Simplified Disease Activity Index because they are accurate reflections of disease activity; are sensitive to change; discriminate well between low, moderate, and high disease activity states; have remission criteria; and are feasible to perform in clinical settings. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  4. Rheumatoid Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rheumatoid Arthritis English Español 繁體中文 한국어 tiếng Việt Rheumatoid Arthritis Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease that causes pain, ...

  5. Development of a Multi-Biomarker Disease Activity Test for Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yijing; Ramanujan, Saroja; Knowlton, Nicholas; Swan, Kathryn A.; Turner, Mary; Sutton, Chris; Smith, Dustin R.; Haney, Douglas J.; Chernoff, David; Hesterberg, Lyndal K.; Carulli, John P.; Taylor, Peter C.; Shadick, Nancy A.; Weinblatt, Michael E.; Curtis, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Disease activity measurement is a key component of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) management. Biomarkers that capture the complex and heterogeneous biology of RA have the potential to complement clinical disease activity assessment. Objectives To develop a multi-biomarker disease activity (MBDA) test for rheumatoid arthritis. Methods Candidate serum protein biomarkers were selected from extensive literature screens, bioinformatics databases, mRNA expression and protein microarray data. Quantitative assays were identified and optimized for measuring candidate biomarkers in RA patient sera. Biomarkers with qualifying assays were prioritized in a series of studies based on their correlations to RA clinical disease activity (e.g. the Disease Activity Score 28-C-Reactive Protein [DAS28-CRP], a validated metric commonly used in clinical trials) and their contributions to multivariate models. Prioritized biomarkers were used to train an algorithm to measure disease activity, assessed by correlation to DAS and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for classification of low vs. moderate/high disease activity. The effect of comorbidities on the MBDA score was evaluated using linear models with adjustment for multiple hypothesis testing. Results 130 candidate biomarkers were tested in feasibility studies and 25 were selected for algorithm training. Multi-biomarker statistical models outperformed individual biomarkers at estimating disease activity. Biomarker-based scores were significantly correlated with DAS28-CRP and could discriminate patients with low vs. moderate/high clinical disease activity. Such scores were also able to track changes in DAS28-CRP and were significantly associated with both joint inflammation measured by ultrasound and damage progression measured by radiography. The final MBDA algorithm uses 12 biomarkers to generate an MBDA score between 1 and 100. No significant effects on the MBDA score were found for common comorbidities

  6. Development of a multi-biomarker disease activity test for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Centola, Michael; Cavet, Guy; Shen, Yijing; Ramanujan, Saroja; Knowlton, Nicholas; Swan, Kathryn A; Turner, Mary; Sutton, Chris; Smith, Dustin R; Haney, Douglas J; Chernoff, David; Hesterberg, Lyndal K; Carulli, John P; Taylor, Peter C; Shadick, Nancy A; Weinblatt, Michael E; Curtis, Jeffrey R

    2013-01-01

    Disease activity measurement is a key component of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) management. Biomarkers that capture the complex and heterogeneous biology of RA have the potential to complement clinical disease activity assessment. To develop a multi-biomarker disease activity (MBDA) test for rheumatoid arthritis. Candidate serum protein biomarkers were selected from extensive literature screens, bioinformatics databases, mRNA expression and protein microarray data. Quantitative assays were identified and optimized for measuring candidate biomarkers in RA patient sera. Biomarkers with qualifying assays were prioritized in a series of studies based on their correlations to RA clinical disease activity (e.g. the Disease Activity Score 28-C-Reactive Protein [DAS28-CRP], a validated metric commonly used in clinical trials) and their contributions to multivariate models. Prioritized biomarkers were used to train an algorithm to measure disease activity, assessed by correlation to DAS and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for classification of low vs. moderate/high disease activity. The effect of comorbidities on the MBDA score was evaluated using linear models with adjustment for multiple hypothesis testing. 130 candidate biomarkers were tested in feasibility studies and 25 were selected for algorithm training. Multi-biomarker statistical models outperformed individual biomarkers at estimating disease activity. Biomarker-based scores were significantly correlated with DAS28-CRP and could discriminate patients with low vs. moderate/high clinical disease activity. Such scores were also able to track changes in DAS28-CRP and were significantly associated with both joint inflammation measured by ultrasound and damage progression measured by radiography. The final MBDA algorithm uses 12 biomarkers to generate an MBDA score between 1 and 100. No significant effects on the MBDA score were found for common comorbidities. We followed a stepwise approach to

  7. Cellular myeloperoxidase activity in human monocytes stimulated by hyposialylated immunoglobulins and rheumatoid factors.

    PubMed Central

    Dodon, M D; Gazzolo, L; Quash, G A

    1984-01-01

    When hyposialylated , immunoglobulins become immunogenic and tend to form aggregates. In pursuit of the possibility that hyposialylated immunoglobulins (hs-Ig) can trigger human mononuclear phagocytic cells, we have investigated the effects of such hs-Ig on the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity of these cells. The incubation of human monocytes with aggregated hs-Ig leads to the decrease of intracellular MPO activity. This decrease is dependent on the incubation time, on the amount of hs-Ig added, and on the degree of aggregation. Incubation with unaggregated hs-Ig has a similar effect, thus providing evidence that the loss of sialic acid residues per se is enough to render these molecules capable of decreasing the MPO content of phagocytic cells. Furthermore, human rheumatoid factors, isolated from the sera of rheumatoid arthritis patients, and previously characterized as hyposailylated Ig, interact in the same way with monocytes in triggering the MPO decrease. These observations imply that hs-Ig may be considered as active stimuli in the induction of inflammatory processes, through the initiation of oxidative reactions. PMID:6329948

  8. Early non-response to certolizumab pegol in rheumatoid arthritis predicts treatment failure at one year. Data from a randomised phase III clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Berenbaum, Francis; Pham, Thao; Claudepierre, Pascal; de Chalus, Thibault; Joubert, Jean-Michel; Saadoun, Carine; Riou França, Lionel; Fautrel, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    To compare different early clinical criteria of non-response determined at three months as predictors of clinical failure at one year in patients with rheumatoid arthritis starting therapy with certolizumab pegol. Data were derived from a randomised Phase III clinical trial in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who failed to respond to methotrexate monotherapy. Patients included in this post-hoc analysis were treated with certolizumab pegol (400mg qd reduced to 200mg qd after one month) and with methotrexate. The study duration was twelve months. Response at three months was determined with the American College of Rheumatology-50, Disease Assessment Score-28 ESR, Health Assessment Questionnaire and the Clinical Disease Activity Index. The performance of these measures at predicting treatment failure at twelve months defined by the American College of Rheumatology-50 criteria was determined, using the positive predictive values as the principal evaluation criterion. Three hundred and eighty two patients were available for analysis and 225 completed the twelve-month follow-up. At Week 52, 149 (38.1%) patients met the American College of Rheumatology-50 response criterion. Positive predictive values ranged from 81% for a decrease in Health Assessment Questionnaire- Disability index score since baseline >0.22 to 95% for a decrease in Disease Assessment Score-28 score since baseline≥1.2. Sensitivity was≤70% in all cases. Performance of these measures was similar irrespective of the definition of treatment failure at 12months. Simple clinical measures of disease activity can predict future treatment failure reliably and are appropriate for implementing treat-to-target treatment strategies in everyday practice. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Longterm Work Productivity Costs Due to Absenteeism and Permanent Work Disability in Patients with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Nationwide Register Study of 7831 Patients.

    PubMed

    Martikainen, Janne A; Kautiainen, Hannu; Rantalaiho, Vappu; Puolakka, Kari T

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the development and potential disproportional distribution of longterm productivity costs (PC) and their determinants leading to work absenteeism and permanent work disability in working-aged patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A cohort of subjects with early RA was created by identifying the new cases of RA from the national drug reimbursement register that had been granted a special reimbursement for their antirheumatic medications for RA from 2000-2007. The dataset was enriched by cross-linking with other national registries detailing work absenteeism days and permanent disability pensions. In the base case, the human capital approach was applied to estimate PC based on subjects' annual number of absenteeism days and incomes. Hurdle regression analysis was applied to study the determinants of PC. Among the 7831 subjects with early RA, the mean (bootstrapped 95% CI) annual PC per person-observation year was €4800 (4547-5070). The annual PC declined after the first year of RA diagnosis, but increased significantly in subsequent years. In addition, the PC was heavily disproportionally concentrated in a small fraction of patients with RA, because only around 20% of patients accounted for the majority of total annual PC. The initiation of active drug treatment during the first 3 months after RA diagnosis significantly reduced the cumulative PC when compared with no drug treatment. The longterm PC increased significantly in parallel with years elapsing after RA diagnosis. Further, the majority of these PC are incurred by a small proportion of patients.

  10. Perceptions of physical activity engagement among adults with rheumatoid arthritis and rheumatologists.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Maura D; Scanlon, Lauren; Frits, Michelle; Shadick, Nancy A; Sharby, Nancy

    Physical activity (PA) among adults with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is suboptimal. This study assessed PA motivations and perceptions in adults with RA and rheumatologists. Patients and rheumatologists participated in structured interviews led by a behavioral scientist. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed and coded. Twenty-three patients (mean age = 63 [standard deviation = 10], 96% female) and seven rheumatologists (57% male, 29% fellows) participated. Nine themes emerged: communication with the rheumatologist, environment/access, symptom management, social support, mental health, breaking inactivity cycles, integrating PA into routines, staying in control and challenge/intimidation. Highly active patients viewed PA differently than low active patients. The need to compete with RA-free individuals may impede PA. Understanding how patients conceptualize PA will enable clinicians to formulate PA strategies to motivate patients.

  11. Cytolytic activity in T cell clones derived from human synovial rheumatoid membrane: inhibition by synovial fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Miltenburg, A M; Van Laar, J M; De Kuiper, P; Daha, M R; Breedveld, F C

    1990-01-01

    A panel of T cell clones was derived from the synovial membrane of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated whether T cell clones with cytolytic properties were present and whether T cell cytotoxicity was influenced by the presence of synovial fluid. These issues were studied using anti-CD3 and lectin-induced cytotoxicity assays. The majority of the T cell clones derived from the synovial membrane showed cytotoxic properties although non-cytotoxic clones were also found. Three clones (N11, N6 and N15) showed strong cytotoxicity (more than 40% lysis at an effector-to-target cell ratio of 10:1) whereas three clones (N16, N4 and N14) were non-cytotoxic (less than 20% lysis at an effector-to-target cell ratio of 10:1). The induction of cytotoxicity in the anti-CD3-driven system was shown to be dependent on the dose of anti-CD3 present. When synovial fluid was added to these assays a strong inhibition of cytotoxicity was found. This inhibition of cytotoxicity was found with synovial fluid samples of RA patients, as well as with non-RA synovial fluids. Both anti-CD3 and lectin-dependent cytotoxicity assays were strongly inhibited. In conclusion, T cell clones with cytotoxic activity can be isolated from rheumatoid synovial membrane. In the presence of synovial fluid these cytotoxic cells are inhibited to exert their cytotoxic function. PMID:2148285

  12. Two-year efficacy of tocilizumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Notario Ferreira, Irene; Ferrer González, Miguel Angel; Morales Garrido, Pilar; González Utrilla, Alfonso; García Sanchez, Antonio; Soto Pino, María José; Suero Rosario, Evelyn; Caro Hernández, Cristina; Añón Oñate, Isabel; Pérez Albaladejo, Lorena; Cáliz Cáliz, Rafael

    To evaluate the efficacy of tocilizumab (TCZ) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical practice, retention rates of the drug and predictors of response. We performed a descriptive, prospective, longitudinal, open-label study in patients receiving TCZ (8mg/kg/4 weeks) in a clinical practice setting. The clinical responses were evaluated using the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria, and the low activity and remission rates according to the Disease Activity Score 28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) and the Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI). The EULAR response rate was 86.63% and the DAS28 remission rate was 53.7% after 6 months of treatment; rates of low disease activity were 52.9% on CDAI and 47.1% on DAS28 at month 24. There were no statistically significant differences in EULAR response, rates of low activity and remission on DAS28 between patients receiving TCZ alone and those receiving TCZ in combination therapy, or between patients positive or negative for rheumatoid factor (RF) and/or anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies. The naïve biological therapy patients showed better remission and low activity rates after 6 months of treatment. The retention rate was 61% at month 24. Adverse events were among the most frequent causes of discontinuation. Tocilizumab is effective in RA, has a similar efficacy when used alone or in combination with synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and shows high retention rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  13. Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis and the Risk of Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, DH; Reed, G; Kremer, JM; Curtis, JR; Farkouh, ME; Harrold, LR; Hochberg, MC; Tsao, P; Greenberg, J

    2015-01-01

    Background Use of several immunomodulatory agents has been associated with reduced cardiovascular (CV) events in epidemiologic studies of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, it is unknown whether time-averaged disease activity in RA correlates with CV events. Methods We studied patients with RA followed in a longitudinal US-based registry. Time-averaged disease activity was assessed using the area under the curve of the Clinical Disease Activity Index, a validated measure of rheumatoid arthritis disease activity, assessed during follow-up. Age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, body mass index, family history of myocardial infarction (MI), aspirin use, NSAID use presence of CV disease, and baseline immunomodulator use were assessed at baseline. Cox proportional hazards regression models were examined to determine the risk of a composite CV endpoint that included MI, stroke, and CV death. Results 24,989 subjects followed for a median of 2.7 years were included in these analyses. During follow-up, we observed 422 confirmed CV endpoints for an incidence rate of 9.08 (95% confidence interval, CI, 7.90 – 10.26) per 1,000 person-years. In models adjusting for variables noted above, a 10-point reduction in time-averaged Clinical Disease Activity Index was associated with a 26% reduction in CV risk (95% confidence interval 17-34%). These results were robust in subgroup analyses stratified by presence of CV disease, use of corticosteroids, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or selective COX-2 inhibitors, change in RA treatment, and also when restricted to events adjudicated as definite or probable. Conclusions Reduced time-averaged disease activity in RA is associated with fewer CV events. PMID:25776112

  14. Effect of certolizumab pegol with methotrexate on home and work place productivity and social activities in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kavanaugh, Arthur; Smolen, Josef S; Emery, Paul; Purcaru, Oana; Keystone, Edward; Richard, Lance; Strand, Vibeke; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F

    2009-11-15

    To assess the impact of certolizumab pegol (CZP), a novel PEGylated anti-tumor necrosis factor, in combination with methotrexate (MTX) on productivity outside and within the home, and on participation in family, social, and leisure activities in adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The efficacy and safety of CZP (200 mg and 400 mg) plus MTX were assessed in 2 phase III, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (Rheumatoid Arthritis Prevention of Structural Damage [RAPID] 1 and RAPID 2). The novel, validated, RA-specific Work Productivity Survey (WPS-RA) was used to assess work place and home productivity. WPS-RA responses were collected at baseline and every 4 weeks until withdrawal/study completion. At baseline, 41.6% and 39.8% of subjects were employed outside the home in RAPID 1 and RAPID 2, respectively. Compared with placebo plus MTX, CZP plus MTX significantly reduced work absenteeism and presenteeism among patients working outside the home. Significant reductions in number of household days lost, household days with productivity reduced by >/=50%, and days lost due to RA for participation in family, social, and leisure activities were reported by patients in active treatment relative to placebo plus MTX. Improvements in all measures were observed with CZP plus MTX as early as week 4, and maintained until the study end (12 months in RAPID 1, 6 months in RAPID 2). Findings were consistent with clinical improvements with CZP plus MTX in both trials. CZP plus MTX improved productivity outside and within the home and resulted in more participation in social activities compared with placebo plus MTX. These observations suggest that considerable indirect cost gains might be achieved with this therapeutic agent in RA.

  15. Expression of chemokines CXCL4 and CXCL7 by synovial macrophages defines an early stage of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, L; Adlard, N; Juarez, M; Smallie, T; Snow, M; Buckley, C D; Raza, K; Filer, A; Scheel-Toellner, D

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives For our understanding of the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), it is important to elucidate the mechanisms underlying early stages of synovitis. Here, synovial cytokine production was investigated in patients with very early arthritis. Methods Synovial biopsies were obtained from patients with at least one clinically swollen joint within 12 weeks of symptom onset. At an 18-month follow-up visit, patients who went on to develop RA, or whose arthritis spontaneously resolved, were identified. Biopsies were also obtained from patients with RA with longer symptom duration (>12 weeks) and individuals with no clinically apparent inflammation. Synovial mRNA expression of 117 cytokines was quantified using PCR techniques and analysed using standard and novel methods of data analysis. Synovial tissue sections were stained for CXCL4, CXCL7, CD41, CD68 and von Willebrand factor. Results A machine learning approach identified expression of mRNA for CXCL4 and CXCL7 as potentially important in the classification of early RA versus resolving arthritis. mRNA levels for these chemokines were significantly elevated in patients with early RA compared with uninflamed controls. Significantly increased CXCL4 and CXCL7 protein expression was observed in patients with early RA compared with those with resolving arthritis or longer established disease. CXCL4 and CXCL7 co-localised with blood vessels, platelets and CD68+ macrophages. Extravascular CXCL7 expression was significantly higher in patients with very early RA compared with longer duration RA or resolving arthritis Conclusions Taken together, these observations suggest a transient increase in synovial CXCL4 and CXCL7 levels in early RA. PMID:25858640

  16. Expression of chemokines CXCL4 and CXCL7 by synovial macrophages defines an early stage of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yeo, L; Adlard, N; Biehl, M; Juarez, M; Smallie, T; Snow, M; Buckley, C D; Raza, K; Filer, A; Scheel-Toellner, D

    2016-04-01

    For our understanding of the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), it is important to elucidate the mechanisms underlying early stages of synovitis. Here, synovial cytokine production was investigated in patients with very early arthritis. Synovial biopsies were obtained from patients with at least one clinically swollen joint within 12 weeks of symptom onset. At an 18-month follow-up visit, patients who went on to develop RA, or whose arthritis spontaneously resolved, were identified. Biopsies were also obtained from patients with RA with longer symptom duration (>12 weeks) and individuals with no clinically apparent inflammation. Synovial mRNA expression of 117 cytokines was quantified using PCR techniques and analysed using standard and novel methods of data analysis. Synovial tissue sections were stained for CXCL4, CXCL7, CD41, CD68 and von Willebrand factor. A machine learning approach identified expression of mRNA for CXCL4 and CXCL7 as potentially important in the classification of early RA versus resolving arthritis. mRNA levels for these chemokines were significantly elevated in patients with early RA compared with uninflamed controls. Significantly increased CXCL4 and CXCL7 protein expression was observed in patients with early RA compared with those with resolving arthritis or longer established disease. CXCL4 and CXCL7 co-localised with blood vessels, platelets and CD68(+) macrophages. Extravascular CXCL7 expression was significantly higher in patients with very early RA compared with longer duration RA or resolving arthritis Taken together, these observations suggest a transient increase in synovial CXCL4 and CXCL7 levels in early RA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Rheumatoid Nodules.

    PubMed

    Tilstra, Jeremy S; Lienesch, Douglas W

    2015-07-01

    Rheumatoid nodules are a common manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis. These lesions are often easily identified based on typical diagnostic features and characteristic locations. When biopsied, nodules have a characteristic histologic appearance. Uncommonly, rheumatoid nodules can occur in systemic locations. There is no evidence that systemic therapy treats underlying rheumatoid nodules. Paradoxically, methotrexate and possibly tumor necrosis factor inhibitors can increase nodule development. Treatment of rheumatoid nodules is often not necessary, unless patients are experiencing pain or there is interference of mechanical function. This review outlines the available data on and associations of rheumatoid nodules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Choctaw Culture Early Education Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brescia, William, Ed.; Reeves, Carolyn, Ed.; Skinner, Linda, Ed.

    An effort to better prepare Choctaw youngsters for kindergarten, the Choctaw Culture Early Education Program developed a resource of 58 activities adapted to meet the needs of Choctaw 3- and 4-year olds. The activities are divided into four sections pertaining to getting started, relating to five project publications (How the Flowers Came to Be,…

  19. Anti-rheumatoid Activity of Secondary Metabolites Produced by Endophytic Chaetomium globosum

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Azeem, Ahmed M.; Zaki, Sherif M.; Khalil, Waleed F.; Makhlouf, Noha A.; Farghaly, Lamiaa M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-rheumatoid activity of secondary metabolites produced by endophytic mycobiota in Egypt. A total of 27 endophytic fungi were isolated from 10 dominant medicinal plant host species in Wadi Tala, Saint Katherine Protectorate, arid Sinai, Egypt. Of those taxa, seven isolates of Chaetomium globosum (CG1–CG7), being the most frequent taxon, were recovered from seven different host plants and screened for production of active anti-inflammatory metabolites. Isolates were cultivated on half – strength potato dextrose broth for 21 days at 28°C on a rotatory shaker at 180 rpm, and extracted in ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively. The probable inhibitory effects of both extracts against an adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) rat model were examined and compared with the effects of methotrexate (MTX) as a standard disease-modifying anti-rheumatoid drug. Disease activity and mobility scoring of AIA, histopathology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to evaluate probable inhibitory roles. A significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the severity of arthritis was observed in both the methanolic extract of CG6 (MCG6) and MTX treatment groups 6 days after treatment commenced. The average arthritis score of the MCG6 treatment group was (10.7 ± 0.82) compared to (13.8 ± 0.98) in the positive control group. The mobility score of the MCG6 treatment group (1.50 ± 0.55) was significantly lower than that of the positive control group (3.33 ± 0.82). In contrast, the ethyl acetate extract of CG6 (EACG6) treatment group showed no improvements in arthritis and mobility scores in AIA model rats. Histopathology and TEM findings confirmed the observation. Isolate CG6 was subjected to sequencing for confirmation of phenotypic identification. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1–5.8 s – ITS2 rDNA sequences obtained were compared with those deposited in the GenBank Database and registered with accession number KC

  20. Management of Early- and Late-Stage Rheumatoid Arthritis: Are Physiotherapy Students' Intended Behaviours Consistent with Canadian Best Practice Guidelines?

    PubMed Central

    Lineker, Sydney C.; Hallett, Christina; Tumber, Jake; Fernando, Nalin; Hul, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: This study examined whether physiotherapy students in a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum intend to implement best practices for management of clients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Method: Physiotherapy students (n=49) completed a subsection of the ACREU Primary Care Survey to evaluate the concordance between intended behaviours and Canadian best practices for early- and late-stage RA, before and after completing the relevant PBL content. Changes in scores were assessed using McNemar's test for dependent proportions. Results: Most students indicated that they would recommend treatments or referrals for physiotherapy/exercise, education, and occupational therapy or joint protection pre- and post-PBL (>83% and >95%, respectively). Post-PBL, more students recommended referral to a rheumatologist and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for both early and late RA; however, the increase was significant only for early RA (p=0.013 and 0.031 for referral to rheumatologist and DMARDs, respectively). More students recommended psychosocial support at both stages of RA post-PBL (early RA: p<0.001; late RA: p=0.031). Although more students recommended DMARDs post-PBL, only 8 students in total made this recommendation (16%), and fewer students considered use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Most students (94%) did not recommend referral to a surgeon for early or late RA. Conclusion: Intended behaviour of physiotherapy students was more consistent with Canadian best practice guidelines for managing clients with early- and late-stage RA following the PBL curriculum. Further study is required to determine whether the students were less aware of best practices related to pharmacologic interventions and timely referral to appropriate specialists, or whether they considered these issues to be outside their scope of practice. PMID:23729962

  1. Disease Characteristics and Rheumatoid Arthritis Development in Patients with Early Undifferentiated Arthritis: A 2-year Followup Study.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Gina H; Norli, Ellen S; Kvien, Tore K; Haugen, Anne J; Grøvle, Lars; Nygaard, Halvor; Bjørneboe, Olav; Thunem, Cathrine; Mjaavatten, Maria D; Lie, Elisabeth

    2017-02-01

    To examine the 2-year disease course in patients with undifferentiated arthritis (UA) focusing on fulfillment of the 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) rheumatoid arthritis (RA) classification criteria. Data were provided by the Norwegian Very Early Arthritis Clinic study, which included patients presenting with ≥ 1 swollen joint of ≤ 16 weeks' duration. UA was defined as patients not fulfilling the 2010 ACR/EULAR RA criteria and who did not have a clinical diagnosis other than RA at baseline. The main outcome was fulfillment of the 2010 RA criteria. Secondary outcomes were disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) use, resolution of synovitis without use of DMARD during followup, and final clinical diagnosis. We included 477 patients with UA of whom 47 fulfilled the 2010 ACR/EULAR RA criteria during followup (UA-RA) and 430 did not (UA-non-RA). Of the UA-RA patients, 70% fulfilled the criteria within the first 6 months. UA-RA patients were older, more often positive for rheumatoid factor and anticitrullinated protein antibodies, female, and ever smokers, and they more often presented with polyarticular arthritis, small joint involvement, and a swollen shoulder joint. During followup, 53% of UA-RA patients vs 13% of UA-non-RA patients used DMARD (p < 0.001). Overall, 71% of patients with UA achieved absence of clinical synovitis at final followup without use of DMARD. The most frequent final clinical diagnosis was UA (61%). Only 9.8% of patients with UA fulfilled the 2010 RA criteria during 2-year followup. Small joint involvement and swollen shoulder joint were among the factors associated with RA development. In two-thirds of patients with UA, the arthritis resolved without use of DMARD.

  2. The practice of physical activity and cryotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Peres, Daniele; Sagawa, Yoshimasa; Dugué, Benoit; Domenech, Susana C; Tordi, Nicolas; Prati, Clement

    2017-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune, chronic and inflammatory disease, which the affected patients present a higher cardiovascular mortality rate. Physical activities have been identified as the most important strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases. However, the articular damage and the chronic pain caused by RA challenges its regular practice. Moreover, persons with RA tend to avoid PA due to the fear of exacerbating the inflammatory potential and pain. One alternative to avoid the collateral effects of the PA could be the cryotherapy. Therefore, this study aimed to review studies focused on the use of both PA and cryotherapy in RA patients and to identify evidences that both therapies could be combined in order to optimize the symptomatic treatment. Four databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Elsevier and PEDro) were searched to identify publications regarding RA patients, PA and cryotherapy intervention by the terms and operators (rheumatoid arthritis AND exercise OR physical activity OR activity OR training OR reconditioning OR cryotherapy OR cold OR immersion). The selected studies should at least present one measure of the aerobic capacity, disease activity or pain relief. Among 19 studies with RA patients identified, only 4 studies used PA combined with cryotherapy. The other 13 studies used physical activities and 2 studies used cryotherapy intervention. The results of the physical activities combined with cryotherapy studies showed an improvement in the disease activity and pain relief, however without details of the physical activities intervention and an aerobic capacity. Among the physical activities studies, evidence was found suggesting that aerobic exercises and multiactivity exercises with high intensity are the more effective for improve the aerobic capacity. Even if few studies on cryotherapy were found, there are enough evidences in the literature that demonstrate the benefits of this intervention on pain relief and disease activity. In summary

  3. Adenosine Deaminase activity and HLA-DRB as diagnostic markers for Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Valadbeigi, Shirin; Ebrahimi-Rad, Mina; Khatami, Shohreh; Akhbari, Hadi; Saghiri, Reza

    2018-04-05

    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic multi systemic disorder with the unclarified ethiopathology. Although several markers have been presented for recognition of RA, but none of them has been specific. New markers such as HLA typing and activity of Adenosine deaminase (ADA) isoenzymes could be useful and specific. The aim of this study is to evaluate the pattern of ADA isoenzymes activity and HLA typing in both RA patients and healthy cases. Blood samples were collected from 55 RA patients and 60 healthy subjects, over a period of 6 months. Levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), rheumatoid factor (RF) and ADA (ADA1, ADA2, total ADA) were measured using AVITEX kit and HITACHI Auto Analyzer. In addition, HLA-DRB1*1,*04 and *010 was detected using PCR-SSP. ADA activity, particularly ADA2 level, was significantly higher among RA group (P<0.05). The concentrations of tADA in patients with RF and CRP positive were significantly higher (P <0.05). The allele prevalence of DRB1*10 and *01 was significantly higher in RA patients (8.3% and 13.1%, respectively) compared with control group (2.51% and 5.5%, respectively) (P <0.05). Calculated sensitivity and specificity for diagnostic tests in this study are listed as: CRP (75%), RF (80%), ADA (84%) and RF (90%), ADA (83%), CRP (72%), respectively. Increase tADA level and the frequency of DRB1*010 and *01 caused to susceptibility to RA. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Rheumatoid arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000431.htm Rheumatoid arthritis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term disease. It leads ...

  5. Rheumatoid Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a form of arthritis that causes pain, swelling, stiffness and loss of function in ... wrist and fingers. More women than men get rheumatoid arthritis. It often starts in middle age and is ...

  6. Serum Epstein-Barr virus DNA, detected by droplet digital PCR, correlates with disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kuusela, Elina; Kouri, Vesa-Petteri; Olkkonen, Juri; Koivuniemi, Riitta; Äyräväinen, Leena; Rajamäki, Kristiina; Valleala, Heikki; Nordström, Dan; Leirisalo-Repo, Marjatta; Ainola, Mari; Eklund, Kari K

    2018-03-20

    To study the prevalence of asymptomatic activation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to analyse the correlation of serum EBV DNA with the disease activity. The level of EBV DNA was determined by droplet digital PCR assay from the serum of 46 DMARD naive early RA (ERA) and 22 chronic RA (CRA)-patients at study onset. Follow-up samples from 31 ERA and 16 CRA patients were obtained after starting or modifying the anti-rheumatic treatment. EBV DNA was also measured from 33 healthy controls and 9 patients with adult onset Still's disease (AOSD). Disease activity was assessed by the disease activity score (DAS28). At baseline, EBV DNA was detected in the serum of 7 of the 46 ERA patients all of whom had moderate or high disease activity. In the follow-up samples, 11 of 31 patients were EBV DNA positive. At baseline EBV positive patients had significantly higher disease activity (p=0.036) and the concentration of EBV DNA correlated significantly with DAS28 (rs=0.333, p=0.024). EBV DNA was detected in 3 of 22 CRA patients at study onset and in 8 of 16 in the follow-up samples. At follow-up EBV positive patients had significantly higher DAS28 (p=0.027) and the concentration of EBV DNA correlated significantly with DAS28 (rs=0.724, p=0.002). Only one of the healthy controls and none of the AOSD patients were positive for EBV DNA. Active RA is associated with a lytic EBV infection which may have a role in the pathogenesis of RA.

  7. Early Remission Is a Realistic Target in a Majority of Patients with DMARD-naive Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rannio, Tuomas; Asikainen, Juha; Kokko, Arto; Hannonen, Pekka; Sokka, Tuulikki

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed remission rates at 3 and 12 months in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who were naive for disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) and who were treated in a Finnish rheumatology clinic from 2008 to 2011. We compared remission rates and drug treatments between patients with RA and patients with undifferentiated arthritis (UA). Data from all DMARD-naive RA and UA patients from the healthcare district were collected using software that includes demographic and clinical characteristics, disease activity, medications, and patient-reported outcomes. Our rheumatology clinic applies the treat-to-target principle, electronic monitoring of patients, and multidisciplinary care. Out of 409 patients, 406 had data for classification by the 2010 RA criteria of the American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism. A total of 68% were female, and mean age (SD) was 58 (16) years. Respectively, 56%, 60%, and 68% were positive for anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP), rheumatoid factor (RF), and RF/anti-CCP, and 19% had erosive disease. The median (interquartile range) duration of symptoms was 6 (4-12) months. A total of 310 were classified as RA and 96 as UA. The patients with UA were younger, had better functional status and lower disease activity, and were more often seronegative than the patients with RA. The 28-joint Disease Activity Score (3 variables) remission rates of RA and UA patients at 3 months were 67% and 58% (p = 0.13), and at 12 months, 71% and 79%, respectively (p = 0.16). Sustained remission was observed in 57%/56% of RA/UA patients. Patients with RA used more conventional synthetic DMARD combinations than did patients with UA. None used biological DMARD at 3 months, and only 2.7%/1.1% of the patients (RA/UA) used them at 12 months (p = 0.36). Remarkably high remission rates are achievable in real-world DMARD-naive patients with RA or UA.

  8. Rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease: lung inflammation evaluated with high resolution computed tomography scan is correlated to rheumatoid arthritis disease activity.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Dórame, Renzo; Mejía, Mayra; Mateos-Toledo, Heidegger; Rojas-Serrano, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    To describe the association between rheumatoid arthritis disease activity (RA) and interstitial lung damage (inflammation and fibrosis), in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). A retrospective study of RA patients with interstitial lung disease (restrictive pattern in lung function tests and evidence of interstitial lung disease in high resolution computed tomography (HRCT)). Patients were evaluated to exclude other causes of pulmonary disease. RA disease activity was measured with the CDAI index. Interstitial lung inflammation and fibrosis were determined by Kazerooni scale. We compared Kazerooni ground-glass score with the nearest CDAI score to HRCT date scan of the first medical evaluation at our institution. In nine patients, we compared the first ground-glass score with a second one after treatment with DMARDs and corticosteroids. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to evaluate association between RA disease activity and the Kazerooni ground-glass and fibrosis scores. Thirty-four patients were included. A positive correlation between CDAI and ground-glass scores was found (rs=0.3767, P<0.028). Fibrosis and CDAI scores were not associated (rs=-0.0747, P<0.6745). After treatment, a downward tendency in the ground-glass score was observed (median [IQR]): (2.33 [2,3] vs. 2 [1.33-2.16]), P<0.056, along with a lesser CDAI score (27 [8-43] vs. 9 [5-12]), P<0.063. There is a correlation between RA disease activity and ground-glass appearance in the HRCT of RA-ILD patients. These results suggest a positive association between RA disease activity and lung inflammation in RA-ILD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Brief Report: Predicting Functional Disability: One-Year Results From the Scottish Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Inception Cohort.

    PubMed

    Kronisch, Caroline; McLernon, David J; Dale, James; Paterson, Caron; Ralston, Stuart H; Reid, David M; Tierney, Ann; Harvie, John; McKay, Neil; Wilson, Hilary E; Munro, Robin; Saunders, Sarah; Richmond, Ruth; Baxter, Derek; McMahon, Mike; Kumar, Vinod; McLaren, John; Siebert, Stefan; McInnes, Iain B; Porter, Duncan; Macfarlane, Gary J; Basu, Neil

    2016-07-01

    To identify baseline prognostic indicators of disability at 1 year within a contemporary early inflammatory arthritis inception cohort and then develop a clinically useful tool to support early patient education and decision-making. The Scottish Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (SERA) inception cohort is a multicenter, prospective study of patients with newly presenting RA or undifferentiated arthritis. SERA data were analyzed to determine baseline predictors of disability (defined as a Health Assessment Questionnaire [HAQ] score of ≥1) at 1 year. Clinical and psychosocial baseline exposures were entered into a forward stepwise logistic regression model. The model was externally validated using newly accrued SERA data and subsequently converted into a prediction tool. Of the 578 participants (64.5% female), 36.7% (n = 212) reported functional disability at 1 year. Functional disability was independently predicted by baseline disability (odds ratio [OR] 2.67 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.98, 3.59]), depression (OR 2.52 [95% CI 1.18, 5.37]), anxiety (OR 2.37 [95% CI 1.33, 4.21]), being in paid employment with absenteeism during the last week (OR 1.19 [95% CI 0.63, 2.23]), not being in paid employment (OR 2.36 [95% CI 1.38, 4.03]), and being overweight (OR 1.61 [95% CI 1.04, 2.50]). External validation (using 113 newly acquired patients) evidenced good discriminative performance with a C statistic of 0.74, and the calibration slope showed no evidence of model overfit (P = 0.31). In the context of modern early inflammatory arthritis treatment paradigms, predictors of disability at 1 year appear to be dominated by psychosocial rather than more traditional clinical measures. This indicates the potential benefit of early access to nonpharmacologic interventions targeting key psychosocial factors, such as mental health and work disability. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  10. Active Rheumatoid Arthritis in Central Africa: A Comparative Study Between Sudan and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Elshafie, Amir I; Elkhalifa, Abdalla D; Elbagir, Sahwa; Aledrissy, Mawahib I E; Elagib, Elnour M; Nur, Musa A M; Weitoft, Tomas; Rönnelid, Johan

    2016-10-01

    To compare clinical characteristics and treatment between simultaneously investigated Sudanese and Swedish outpatients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Outpatients with RA from Sudan (n = 281) and Sweden (n = 542) diagnosed according to the 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria were recruited between December 2008 and September 2010 and compared concerning clinical presentation, treatment, and laboratory findings, including immunoglobulin M with rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF). Sudanese patients had lower inclusion age (median 49 vs 68 yrs), disease duration (48 vs 107 mos), and disease onset age (43 vs 56 yrs) as compared with Swedish patients (p < 0.0001 for all). When stratified concerning the age of inclusion, Swedish patients between 41-50 years had, however, a significantly lower age of onset, with a similar trend for all age groups above 30 years. The female preponderance was higher among Sudanese patients (89.3% vs 72.5%, p < 0.0001), and smoking was nonexistent among Sudanese female patients (p < 0.0001). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate levels and number of tender joints were significantly higher among Sudanese patients. The proportion of IgM-RF positivity was lower among Sudanese patients with RA (52.4% vs 75.5%, p < 0.0001). Higher proportions of Sudanese patients with RA were treated with methotrexate (MTX) and disease-modifying antirheumatic drug combinations, but none of them used biologics. Sudanese patients used lower doses of MTX and sulfasalazine (p < 0.0001) and higher doses of prednisolone (p < 0.0001) than Swedish patients. Sudanese patients with RA have significantly higher disease activity and are often IgM-RF-seronegative. Together with reports from Uganda and Cameroon, our data indicate a cluster of highly active and often seronegative RA in central Africa.

  11. Soluble TAM receptor tyrosine kinases in rheumatoid arthritis: correlation with disease activity and bone destruction.

    PubMed

    Xu, L; Hu, F; Zhu, H; Liu, X; Shi, L; Li, Y; Zhong, H; Su, Y

    2018-04-01

    The TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (TAM RTK) are a subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases, the role of which in autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus has been well explored, while their functions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of soluble TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (sAxl/sMer/sTyro3) in patients with RA. A total of 306 RA patients, 100 osteoarthritis (OA) patients and 120 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled into this study. The serum concentrations of sAxl/sMer/sTyro3 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), then the associations between sAxl/sMer/sTyro3 levels and clinical features of RA patients were analysed. We also investigated whether sTyro3 could promote osteoclast differentiation in vitro in RA patients. The results showed that compared with healthy controls (HCs), sTyro3 levels in the serum of RA patients were elevated remarkably and sMer levels were decreased significantly, whereas there was no difference between HCs and RA patients on sAxl levels. The sTyro3 levels were correlated weakly but positively with white blood cells (WBC), immunoglobulin (Ig)M, rheumatoid factor (RF), swollen joint counts, tender joint counts, total sharp scores and joint erosion scores. Conversely, there were no significant correlations between sMer levels and the above indices. Moreover, RA patients with high disease activity also showed higher sTyro3 levels. In-vitro osteoclast differentiation assay showed further that tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) + osteoclasts were increased significantly in the presence of sTyro3. Collectively, our study indicated that serum sTyro3 levels were elevated in RA patients and correlated positively with disease activity and bone destruction, which may serve as an important participant in RA pathogenesis. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  12. Definition of treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis based on the simplified and the clinical disease activity index.

    PubMed

    Aletaha, Daniel; Martinez-Avila, Jose; Kvien, Tore K; Smolen, Josef S

    2012-07-01

    The simplified disease activity index (SDAI) and the clinical disease activity index (CDAI) are established instruments to measure disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To date, no validated response definitions for the SDAI and CDAI are available. The authors aimed to define minor, moderate and major response criteria for the SDAI. The authors used data from two clinical trials on infliximab versus methotrexate in early (ASPIRE) or established (ATTRACT) RA, and identified the three SDAI cutpoints based on the best agreement (by κ statistics) with the American College of Rheumatology (ACR)20/50/70 responses. Cutpoints were then tested for different aspects of validity in the trial datasets and in a Norwegian disease modifying antirheumatic drug prescription dataset (NOR-DMARD). Based on agreement with the ACR response, the minor, moderate and major responses were identified as SDAI 50%, 70% and 85% improvement. These cutpoints had good face validity concerning the disease activity states achieved by the different response definitions. Construct validity was shown by a clear association of increasing SDAI response categories with increasing levels of functional improvement, achievement of better functional states and lower annual radiographic progression. Across SDAI 50/70/85, the sensitivities regarding a patient-perceived improvement decreased (73%/39%/22%) and the specificities increased (61%/89%/96%) in a meaningful way. Further, the cutpoints discriminated the different treatment arms in ASPIRE and ATTRACT. The same cutpoints were used for the CDAI, with similar results in the validation analyses. These new response criteria expand the usefulness of the SDAI and CDAI for their use as endpoints in clinical trials beyond the definition of disease activity categories.

  13. Effect of Fatigue, Older Age, Higher Body Mass Index, and Female Sex on Disability in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis in the Treatment-to-Target Era.

    PubMed

    Twigg, Sarah; Hensor, Elizabeth M A; Freeston, Jane; Tan, Ai Lyn; Emery, Paul; Tennant, Alan; Morgan, Ann W

    2018-03-01

    To compare disease activity and disability over 2 years in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) before and after implementation of treat-to-target therapy and identify predictors of adverse outcome. The Yorkshire Early Arthritis Register (YEAR) recruited 725 patients with early RA between 2002 and 2009, treated with a step-up approach. The Inflammatory Arthritis Continuum study (IACON) recruited cases between 2010 and 2014 and treated to target. A total of 384 IACON cases met 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism criteria. Latent growth curves of change in Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) were compared between YEAR and IACON. Latent class growth analysis identified trajectories of change. Baseline predictors of trajectories were identified using logistic regression. The mean DAS28 over 2 years was lower in IACON than in YEAR. Latent trajectories of HAQ change in YEAR were high stable (21% of cohort), moderate reducing (35%), and low reducing (44%). Only moderate reducing (66%) and low reducing (34%) were seen in IACON. In both cohorts, female sex and fatigue predicted adverse HAQ trajectories (high stable and moderate reducing). Odds ratios (ORs) for moderate reducing compared to low reducing for women were 2.58 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.69, 4.49) in YEAR and 5.81 (95% CI 2.44, 14.29) in IACON. ORs per centimeter fatigue visual analog score were 1.13 (95% CI 1.07, 1.20) in YEAR and 1.16 (95% CI 1.12, 1.20) in IACON. Treat-to-target therapy gave more favorable trajectories of change in DAS28 and HAQ, but adverse HAQ trajectory was more likely in women with greater fatigue, suggesting such patients would benefit from interventions to improve function as well as reduce inflammation. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  14. Hormone, metabolic peptide, and nutrient levels in the earliest phases of rheumatoid arthritis-contribution of free fatty acids to an increased cardiovascular risk during very early disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Man Wai; Koopman, Frieda A; Visscher, Jan P M; de Hair, Maria J; Gerlag, Danielle M; Tak, Paul Peter

    2017-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease associated with changes in several hormones and metabolic peptides. Crosstalk between these factors and the immune system may be important for homeostasis during inflammation. Here, we studied the levels of hormones, metabolic peptides, and nutrients in individuals at risk for developing RA (at risk). In total, 18 hormones, metabolic peptides, and nutrients were measured in fasting serum samples from 45 autoantibody-positive individuals at risk, 22 RA patients, and 16 healthy subjects. Triglyceride (TG) levels were also measured in an independent validation cohort of 32 individuals at risk, 20 early arthritis patients, and 20 healthy controls. We found an elevated TG level in individuals at risk and significantly higher TG levels in RA patients compared to healthy controls. These results were confirmed in the validation cohort. Similarly, free fatty acid (FFA) levels showed an increase in individuals at risk and were significantly higher in RA patients compared to healthy controls. In RA patients, FFA levels were positively correlated with disease activity. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and norepinephrine levels were highly significantly increased in individuals at risk and RA patients compared to healthy controls. TG and FFA levels are increased in RA patients and positively correlated with disease activity parameters. The results presented here suggest a role for FFAs in the pathogenesis of RA. Furthermore, PP and norepinephrine may be a biomarker that could assist in the identification of individuals at risk.

  15. Current and maintained health-enhancing physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Demmelmaier, Ingrid; Bergman, Patrick; Nordgren, Birgitta; Jensen, Irene; Opava, Christina H

    2013-07-01

    To describe and identify the explanatory factors of variation in current and maintained health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this cross-sectional study, current HEPA was assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and maintained HEPA with the Exercise Stage Assessment Instrument, the latter explicitly focusing on both aerobic physical activity and muscle strength training. Sociodemographic, disease-related, and psychosocial data were retrieved from the Swedish Rheumatology Quality (SRQ) registers and a postal questionnaire. The explained variations in the respective HEPA behaviors were analyzed with logistic regression. In all, 3,152 (58.5%) of 5,391 persons identified as eligible from the SRQ registers responded to the questionnaire. Current HEPA was reported by 69%, and maintained HEPA by 11% of the respondents. The most salient and consistent factors explaining variation in both current and maintained HEPA were self-efficacy, social support, and outcome expectations related to physical activity. To our knowledge, this is the first study exploring maintained physical activity in a large well-defined sample of persons with RA. Our results indicate that a minority perform maintained HEPA, including both aerobic physical activity and muscle strength training, and that psychosocial factors are the most salient and consistent in the explanation of HEPA variation. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  16. Could early rheumatoid arthritis resolve after periodontitis treatment only?: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Salemi, Simonetta; Biondo, Michela I; Fiorentino, Chiara; Argento, Giuseppe; Paolantonio, Michele; Di Murro, Carlo; Malagnino, Vito A; Canzoni, Marco; Diamanti, Andrea Picchianti; D'Amelio, Raffaele

    2014-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immune-mediated polyarthritis; currently no pathogenic agent has been identified as a disease trigger. A patient with RA, presumably caused by periodontal infection, whose remission has been observed after periodontitis treatment in absence of specific RA therapy, is reported here for the first time, to our knowledge. A 61-year-old male patient presented migrant arthritis associated with antibodies against citrullinated protein antigens positivity. The clinical features allowed to make RA diagnosis according to the 2010 European League against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology RA classification criteria. X-ray of the second upper molar showed chronic apical periodontitis. After its treatment, arthritis remission has been observed in the absence of specific RA therapy. It has been suggested that periodontitis may have a trigger role in RA pathogenesis. This could be explained by the enzymatic action of Porphyromonas gingivalis, probably leading to break tolerance to collagen. The identification and subsequent treatment of periodontitis should therefore be considered pivotal in RA prophylaxis and management.

  17. Impairment of neutrophil Fc gamma receptor mediated transmembrane signalling in active rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Goulding, N J; Guyre, P M

    1992-01-01

    Neutrophil Fc gamma receptor (Fc gamma R) signalling responses were compared in healthy subjects, patients with definite rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis, and osteoarthritis. The patients with A were subdivided into those with active synovitis and those with quiescent disease. Basal intracellular calcium ion concentrations in patients with inactive RA were significantly higher than in control subjects, which in turn were greater than in patients with active RA. Transient cytosolic calcium ion fluxes were observed after binding Fc gamma RII or Fc gamma RIII with specific monoclonal antibodies and cross linking with the F(ab')2 fragment of antimouse IgG. Response times were significantly faster for Fc gamma RII than for Fc gamma RIII. Peak concentrations of intracellular calcium ions after neutrophil stimulation were comparable for Fc gamma RII and RIII in healthy subjects. Neutrophils in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and osteoarthritis responded to Fc gamma R triggering, but in the group with active RA fluxes of calcium ions were severely depressed. Neutrophils isolated from patients with RA with quiescent disease showed exaggerated responses when compared with controls. Expression of all three Fc gamma R types on neutrophils from patients with active RA, as measured by monoclonal antibody binding, was comparable with control cells. Impairment of neutrophil Fc gamma R cytosolic signalling in active RA could reflect a receptor signalling defect with potential effects on Fc mediated functions, or a fundamental defect in calcium ion homeostasis within these cells. PMID:1535494

  18. Vectra DA for the objective measurement of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Segurado, O G; Sasso, E H

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative and regular assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is required to achieve treatment targets such as remission and to optimize clinical outcomes. To assess inflammation accurately, predict joint damage and monitor treatment response, a measure of disease activity in RA should reflect the pathological processes resulting in irreversible joint damage and functional disability. The Vectra DA blood test is an objective measure of disease activity for patients with RA. Vectra DA provides an accurate, reproducible score on a scale of 1 to 100 based on the concentrations of 12 biomarkers that reflect the pathophysiologic diversity of RA. The analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility of Vectra DA have been evaluated for patients with RA in registries and prospective and retrospective clinical studies. As a biomarker-based instrument for assessing disease activity in RA, the Vectra DA test can help monitor therapeutic response to methotrexate and biologic agents and assess clinically challenging situations, such as when clinical measures are confounded by non-inflammatory pain from fibromyalgia. Vectra DA scores correlate with imaging of joint inflammation and are predictive for radiographic progression, with high Vectra DA scores being associated with more frequent and severe progression and low scores being predictive for non-progression. In summary, the Vectra DA score is an objective measure of RA disease activity that quantifies inflammatory status. By predicting risk for joint damage more effectively than conventional clinical and laboratory measures, it has the potential to complement these measures and optimise clinical decision making.

  19. Secretory sphingomyelinase (S-SMase) activity is elevated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hanaoka, Beatriz Y; Ormseth, Michelle J; Michael Stein, C; Banerjee, Daipayan; Nikolova-Karakashian, Mariana; Crofford, Leslie J

    2018-05-01

    The goals of this study were to determine if secretory sphingomyelinase (S-SMase) activity is elevated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared to control subjects and to examine the relationships of S-SMase activity with functional status, quality of life, and RA disease activity measurements. We collected data on 33 patients who were diagnosed with RA and 17 non-RA controls who were comparable in terms of age, sex, and race. Demographic, clinical data and self-reported measures of fatigue, pain, and physical function were obtained directly from patients and controls. RA patients also completed quantitative joint assessment using a 28-joint count and functional status and quality of life assessment using the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ). Archived serum samples were used to analyze retrospectively serum S-SMase activity in patients and controls. The mean serum S-SMase activity was 1.4-fold higher in patients with RA (RA 2.8 ± 1.0 nmol/ml/h vs. controls 2.0 ± 0.8 nmol/ml/h; p = 0.014). Spearman's rho correlations between S-SMase activity and oxidant activity, markers of inflammation and endothelial activation with the exception of P-selectin (rho = 0.40, p = 0.034), measures of disease activity, functional status, and quality of life were not statistically significant in patients with RA. We confirmed that S-SMase activity is higher among RA patients compared to controls, as in other acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Future studies can build on the present findings to understand more fully the biologic role(s) of S-SMase activity in RA.

  20. Motivation as a determinant of physical activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hurkmans, E J; Maes, S; de Gucht, V; Knittle, K; Peeters, A J; Ronday, H K; Vlieland, T P M Vliet

    2010-03-01

    A sufficient level of physical activity is important in reducing the impact of disease in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. According to self-determination theory, the achievement and maintenance of physical activity is related to goal setting and ownership, which can be supported by health professionals. Our objective was to examine the association between physical activity and the extent to which RA patients 1) believe that physical activity is a goal set by themselves (autonomous regulation) or by others (coerced regulation) and 2) feel supported by rheumatologists (autonomy supportiveness). A random selection of 643 RA patients from the outpatient clinics of 3 hospitals were sent a postal survey to assess current physical activity level (Short Questionnaire to Assess Health-Enhancing Physical Activity), regulation style (Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire), and the autonomy supportiveness of their rheumatologists (modified Health Care Climate Questionnaire). Of the 271 patients (42%) who returned the questionnaire, 178 (66%) were female, their mean +/- SD age was 62 +/- 14 years, and their mean +/- SD disease duration was 10 +/- 8 years. Younger age, female sex, higher education level, shorter disease duration, lower disease activity, and a more autonomous regulation were univariately associated with more physical activity. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that younger age and a more autonomous regulation were significantly associated with a higher physical activity level (P = 0.000 and 0.050, respectively). Regulation style was a significant determinant of physical activity in RA patients. This finding may contribute to further development of interventions to enhance physical activity in RA patients.

  1. Rheumatoid lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    Lung disease - rheumatoid arthritis; Rheumatoid nodules; Rheumatoid lung ... Lung problems are common in rheumatoid arthritis. They often cause no symptoms. The cause of lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis is unknown. Sometimes, the medicines used to ...

  2. The Effect of Reduced or Withdrawn Etanercept-methotrexate Therapy on Patient-reported Outcomes in Patients with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wiland, Piotr; Dudler, Jean; Veale, Douglas; Tahir, Hasan; Pedersen, Ron; Bukowski, Jack; Vlahos, Bonnie; Williams, Theresa; Gaylord, Stefanie; Kotak, Sameer

    2016-07-01

    An analysis of a clinical trial to assess the effects of treatment reduction and withdrawal on patient-reported outcomes (PRO) in patients with early, moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who achieved 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) low disease activity (LDA) or remission with etanercept (ETN) plus methotrexate (MTX) therapy. During treatment induction, patients received open-label ETN 50 mg weekly plus MTX for 52 weeks. In the reduced-treatment phase, patients with DAS28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) ≤ 3.2 at Week 39 and DAS28-ESR < 2.6 at Week 52 in the open-label phase were randomized to double-blind treatment with ETN 25 mg plus MTX, MTX, or placebo (PBO) for 39 weeks (weeks 0-39). In the third phase, patients who achieved DAS28 remission (DAS28-ESR < 2.6) or LDA (2.6 ≤ DAS28-ESR ≤ 3.2) at Week 39 in the double-blind phase had all treatment withdrawn and were observed for an additional 26 weeks (weeks 39-65). Of the 306 patients enrolled, 193 were randomized in the double-blind phase and 131 participated in the treatment-withdrawal phase. After reduction or withdrawal of ETN 50 mg/MTX, patients reduced to ETN 25 mg/MTX experienced slight, nonsignificant declines in the majority of PRO measures, whereas switching to PBO or MTX alone caused significant declines. Presenteeism and activity impairment scores were significantly better in the ETN reduced-dose group versus MTX monotherapy and PBO at Week 39 (p ≤ 0.05). In patients with early RA who achieved remission while receiving full-dose ETN/MTX, continuing combination therapy at a lower dose did not cause a significant worsening of PRO response, but switching to MTX alone or PBO did. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00913458.

  3. Near-infrared Fluorescence Optical Imaging in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Comparison to Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Michaela; Ohrndorf, Sarah; Werner, Stephanie G; Schicke, Bernd; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Hamm, Bernd; Backhaus, Marina; Hermann, Kay-Geert A

    2015-07-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence optical imaging (FOI) is a novel imaging technology in the detection and evaluation of different arthritides. FOI was validated in comparison to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), greyscale ultrasonography (GSUS), and power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Hands of 31 patients with early RA were examined by FOI, MRI, and US. In each modality, synovitis of the wrist, metacarpophalangeal joints (MCP) 2-5, and proximal interphalangeal joints (PIP) 2-5 were scored on a 4-point scale (0-3). Sensitivity and specificity of FOI were analyzed in comparison to MRI and US as reference methods, differentiating between 3 phases of FOI enhancement (P1-3). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to evaluate the agreement of FOI with MRI and US. A total of 279 joints (31 wrists, 124 MCP and 124 PIP joints) were evaluated. With MRI as the reference method, overall sensitivity/specificity of FOI was 0.81/0.00, 0.49/0.84, and 0.86/0.38 for wrist, MCP, and PIP joints, respectively. Under application of PDUS as reference, sensitivity was even higher, while specificity turned out to be low, except for MCP joints (0.88/0.15, 0.81/0.76, and 1.00/0.27, respectively). P2 appears to be the most sensitive FOI phase, while P1 showed the highest specificity. The best agreement of FOI was shown for PDUS, especially with regard to MCP and PIP joints (ICC of 0.57 and 0.53, respectively), while correlation with MRI was slightly lower. FOI remains an interesting diagnostic tool for patients with early RA, although this study revealed limitations concerning the detection of synovitis. Further research is needed to evaluate its full diagnostic potential in rheumatic diseases.

  4. Does using an ejector chair affect muscle activation patterns in rheumatoid arthritic patients? A preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Munro, B J; Steele, J R

    2000-02-01

    The present study examined knee and arm extensor muscle activation patterns displayed by 12 elderly female rheumatoid arthritic patients (mean age = 65.5 +/- 8.6 yr) rising from an instrumented Eser ejector chair under four conditions: high seat (540 mm), low seat (450 mm), with and without ejector assistance. Electromyographic (EMG) signals were sampled (1000 Hz) for vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF) and triceps brachii (TB) using a Noraxon Telemyo System (bandwidth 0-340 Hz). Muscle onset, offset and peak activity relative to loss of seat contact (SS), and integrated EMG, were calculated for each muscle burst before SS. A high seat significantly (p < or = 005) decreased VL and TB intensity but did not change muscle activation patterns compared with rising from a low seat. Ejector assistance significantly increased VM and RF burst duration and RF intensity but had no effect on vastii muscle intensity. It was concluded that concerns pertaining to muscle disuse when rising with ejector assistance were unfounded in the present study. However, further research is required to investigate the effects of habitual use of a mechanical ejector device on muscle activation patterns.

  5. The correlation of serum bilirubin levels with disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Peng, You-Fan; Wang, Jun-Li; Pan, Guo-Gang

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the relationship between serum bilirubin and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We included a total of 173 consecutive RA patients without steroid treatment and 346 healthy subjects; the disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) was used to assess disease activity in patients with RA. Serum bilirubin concentrations were significantly lower in RA patients than in controls. Serum bilirubin was found to be negatively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (r=-0.165, P=0.030; r=-192, P=0.012) in patients with RA. There was a negative correlation between the serum bilirubin and DAS28 score (r=-0.331, P<0.001). Serum bilirubin was independently associated with the DAS28 score (b=-0.225, P=0.001) in the multiple linear regression analysis. Serum bilirubin concentrations are lower in patients with RA compared to controls and correlate with disease activity in patients with RA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Tocilizumab treatment leads to improvement in disease activity regardless of CCP status in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cappelli, Laura C; Palmer, Judy Lynn; Kremer, Joel; Bingham, Clifton O

    2017-10-01

    Autoantibodies can be useful in predicting response to certain treatments in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We aimed to evaluate initial response to tocilizumab (TCZ) by change in physician and patient-reported outcomes and laboratory parameters in a real-world cohort of patients with RA. We analyzed the data by autoantibody status to determine whether patients with seronegative RA had improved response to tocilizumab when compared to their seropositive counterparts. Data from the CORRONA RA registry were analyzed. Patients were included if they were started on TCZ and had data from a follow-up visit 4-8 months after initiation, as well as having information on serologic status. Serologic status was determined by presence of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies. Changes in disease activity measures from baseline to follow-up visit were evaluated. Both CCP-negative and -positive groups had statistically significant improvement in physician-reported measurements (physician rating of disease activity and joint counts), patient-reported measures (disease activity, pain, and fatigue), and acute phase reactants after 4-8 months of treatment with tocilizumab. The magnitude of improvement, however, did not differ significantly by CCP status. Tocilizumab led to statistically significant improvement in all patient- and physician-reported measures of disease activity evaluated in this cohort of patient with RA. The response to tocilizumab did not differ by CCP status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of physical activity in the management and assessment of rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hernández, María Vanesa; Díaz-González, Federico

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting diarthrodial joints, in which patients tend to perform less physical activity (PA) than recommended. This review focuses on the existing evidence about the relationship of PA and RA, specifically how the former influences joint inflammation, disability, quality of life and pain in RA patients, and also how disease activity potentially impacts PA in these patients. A literature search of EMBASE and MEDLINE databases from January 2000 to January 2015. The evidence indicating that PA in RA patients is safe and the benefits from regularly performing, both aerobic and resistance exercises, in these patients include improvement in: quality of life, functionality, pain and number of swollen joints. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that changes in disease activity in RA patients inversely correlate with variations in PA, as assessed by accelerometry. The regular monitoring of PA in RA patients might facilitate a more objective evaluation of variations in disease activity, helping physicians to make general and therapeutic recommendations that will improve both the health status and the joint functionality of these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  8. Interleukin-21 gene polymorphism rs2221903 is associated with disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Malinowski, Damian; Paradowska-Gorycka, Agnieszka; Safranow, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a cytokine which plays a significant role in the pathogenesis and disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Genetic polymorphisms in the IL-21 gene may alter the synthesis of IL-21. The aim of this study was to examine IL-21 and IL-21R polymorphisms in patients with RA. Material and methods We examined 422 patients with RA and 338 healthy controls. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the IL-21 (rs6822844 G>T, rs6840978 C>T, rs2221903 T>C) and IL-21R (rs2285452 G>A) genes were genotyped using TaqMan genotyping assays. Results There were no statistically significant differences in the distribution of studied genotypes and alleles between RA patients and the control group. To examine whether IL-21 polymorphisms affect disease activity in RA patients, we compared the distribution of IL-21 genotypes between patients with DAS28 ≤ 2.5 (patients with remission of disease symptoms) and patients with DAS28 > 2.5 (patients with active RA). Among patients with DAS28 > 2.5, increased prevalence of rs2221903 CT and CC genotypes was observed (OR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.04–2.28; p = 0.035). Conclusions The results of this study suggest that IL-21 and IL-21R gene polymorphisms are not risk loci for RA susceptibility, whereas the IL-21 rs2221903 polymorphism is associated with disease activity. PMID:28883856

  9. Interleukin-21 gene polymorphism rs2221903 is associated with disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Damian; Paradowska-Gorycka, Agnieszka; Safranow, Krzysztof; Pawlik, Andrzej

    2017-08-01

    Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a cytokine which plays a significant role in the pathogenesis and disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Genetic polymorphisms in the IL-21 gene may alter the synthesis of IL-21. The aim of this study was to examine IL-21 and IL-21R polymorphisms in patients with RA. We examined 422 patients with RA and 338 healthy controls. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the IL-21 (rs6822844 G>T, rs6840978 C>T, rs2221903 T>C) and IL-21R (rs2285452 G>A) genes were genotyped using TaqMan genotyping assays. There were no statistically significant differences in the distribution of studied genotypes and alleles between RA patients and the control group. To examine whether IL-21 polymorphisms affect disease activity in RA patients, we compared the distribution of IL-21 genotypes between patients with DAS28 ≤ 2.5 (patients with remission of disease symptoms) and patients with DAS28 > 2.5 (patients with active RA). Among patients with DAS28 > 2.5, increased prevalence of rs2221903 CT and CC genotypes was observed (OR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.04-2.28; p = 0.035). The results of this study suggest that IL-21 and IL-21R gene polymorphisms are not risk loci for RA susceptibility, whereas the IL-21 rs2221903 polymorphism is associated with disease activity.

  10. Reevaluation of the role of duration of morning stiffness in the assessment of rheumatoid arthritis activity.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nasim A; Yazici, Yusuf; Calvo-Alen, Jaime; Dadoniene, Jolanta; Gossec, Laure; Hansen, Troels M; Huisman, Margriet; Kallikorm, Riina; Muller, Raili; Liveborn, Margareth; Oding, Rolf; Luchikhina, Elena; Naranjo, Antonio; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Taylor, Peter; Tlustochowich, Witold; Tsirogianni, Afrodite; Sokka, Tuulikki

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the utility of the duration of morning stiffness (MS), as a patient-reported outcome (PRO), in assessing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity. We acquired information on 5439 patients in QUEST-RA, an international database of patients with RA evaluated by a standard protocol. MS duration was assessed from time of waking to time of maximal improvement. Ability of MS duration to differentiate RA activity states, based on Disease Activity Score (DAS)28, was assessed by analysis of variance; and a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted for discriminating clinically active (DAS28 > 3.2) from less active (DAS28 activity (p < 0.001). The area under the ROC curve of 0.74 (95% CI 0.72-0.75) showed moderate ability of MS duration to differentiate clinically active from less active RA. ANCOVA showed significant interactive effects between RAPID3 and the MS duration categories (p = 0.0005) in predicting DAS28v3. The effect of MS was found to be clinically important in patients with the low RAPID3 scores (< 6) in whom the presence of MS may indicate clinically active disease (DAS28v3 > 3.2). MS duration has a moderate correlation with RA disease activity. Assessment of MS duration may be clinically helpful in patients with low RAPID3 scores.

  11. Patient-Reported Disease Activity and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Harris, Nathaniel; Eudy, Amanda; Clowse, Megan

    2018-06-15

    While increased rheumatic disease activity during pregnancy has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, this activity is typically assessed by the physician. Little is known, however, about the association between patient-reported measures of disease activity and pregnancy outcomes. Univariate and multivariable regression models were used to assess the relationship between patient and physician-reported measures of disease activity and adverse pregnancy outcomes in 225 patients with lupus or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) enrolled in a prospective registry at a single academic center from 2008-2016. In women with RA, patient-reported disease activity is associated with preterm birth (OR 5.9 (1.5-23.9)), and gestational age (beta -1.5 weeks (-2.6, -0.4 weeks)). The physician assessment of disease activity also predicted preterm (OR 2.1 (1.2-3.5)), small for gestational age births (OR 1.8 (1.03-3.1), and gestational age in weeks (beta -0.6 weeks (-0.9, -0.02 weeks)). On the other hand, SLE patient-reported disease activity measures, including the HAQ, pain or global health measures, are not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, physician measures of SLE disease activity are associated with preterm birth (OR 2.9 (1.-6.3)), cesarean delivery (OR 2.3 (1.0-5.3)), and preeclampsia (OR 2.8 (1.3-6.3)). The results do not appear to be driven by lupus nephritis or antiphospholipid syndrome. For women with RA, patient-reported measures of disease activity may be useful adjuncts to physician-reported measures in identifying pregnancies at greater risk. In contrast, in SLE, no patient-reported measures were associated with adverse outcomes while physician measures of disease activity helped predict several adverse pregnancy outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Associations between Viral Infection History Symptoms, Granulocyte Reactive Oxygen Species Activity, and Active Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease in Untreated Women at Onset: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study of Tatarstan Women

    PubMed Central

    Arleevskaya, Marina I.; Shafigullina, Albina Z.; Filina, Yulia V.; Lemerle, Julie; Renaudineau, Yves

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of infectious episodes at early stages of rheumatoid arthritis (eRA) development, 59 untreated eRA patients, 77 first-degree relatives, from a longitudinal Tatarstan women cohort, were included, and compared to 67 healthy women without rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in their family history. At inclusion, informations were collected regarding both the type and incidence of infectious symptom episodes in the preceding year, and granulocyte reactive oxygen species (ROS) were studied at the basal level and after stimulation with serum-treated zymosan (STZ). In the eRA group, clinical [disease activity score (DAS28), health assessment questionnaire] and biological parameters associated with inflammation (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein) or with RA [rheumatoid factor, anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP2) antibodies] were evaluated. An elevated incidence of infection events in the previous year characterized the eRA and relative groups. In addition, a history of herpes simplex virus (HSV) episodes was associated with disease activity, while an elevated incidence of anti-CCP2 autoantibody characterized eRA patients with a history of viral upper respiratory tract infection symptoms (V-URI). Granulocyte ROS activity in eRA patients was quantitatively [STZ peak and its area under the curve (AUC)] and qualitatively (STZ time of peak) altered, positively correlated with disease activity, and parameters were associated with viral symptoms including HSV exacerbation/recurrence, and V-URI. In conclusion, our study provides arguments to consider a history of increased viral infection symptoms in RA at the early stage and such involvement needs to be studied further. PMID:29259607

  13. Associations between Viral Infection History Symptoms, Granulocyte Reactive Oxygen Species Activity, and Active Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease in Untreated Women at Onset: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study of Tatarstan Women.

    PubMed

    Arleevskaya, Marina I; Shafigullina, Albina Z; Filina, Yulia V; Lemerle, Julie; Renaudineau, Yves

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of infectious episodes at early stages of rheumatoid arthritis (eRA) development, 59 untreated eRA patients, 77 first-degree relatives, from a longitudinal Tatarstan women cohort, were included, and compared to 67 healthy women without rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in their family history. At inclusion, informations were collected regarding both the type and incidence of infectious symptom episodes in the preceding year, and granulocyte reactive oxygen species (ROS) were studied at the basal level and after stimulation with serum-treated zymosan (STZ). In the eRA group, clinical [disease activity score (DAS28), health assessment questionnaire] and biological parameters associated with inflammation (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein) or with RA [rheumatoid factor, anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP2) antibodies] were evaluated. An elevated incidence of infection events in the previous year characterized the eRA and relative groups. In addition, a history of herpes simplex virus (HSV) episodes was associated with disease activity, while an elevated incidence of anti-CCP2 autoantibody characterized eRA patients with a history of viral upper respiratory tract infection symptoms (V-URI). Granulocyte ROS activity in eRA patients was quantitatively [STZ peak and its area under the curve (AUC)] and qualitatively (STZ time of peak) altered, positively correlated with disease activity, and parameters were associated with viral symptoms including HSV exacerbation/recurrence, and V-URI. In conclusion, our study provides arguments to consider a history of increased viral infection symptoms in RA at the early stage and such involvement needs to be studied further.

  14. Women’s accounts of help-seeking in early rheumatoid arthritis from symptom onset to diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Anne; Backman, Catherine L; Adam, Paul; Li, Linda C

    2018-01-01

    Background As interest in gender and health grows, the notion that women are more likely than men to consult doctors is increasingly undermined as more complex understandings of help seeking and gender emerge. While men’s reluctance to seek help is associated with practices of masculinities, there has been less consideration of women’s help-seeking practices. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease that predominantly affects women and requires prompt treatment but considerable patient-based delays persist along the care pathway. This paper examines women’s accounts of help seeking in early RA from symptom onset to diagnosis. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 37 women with RA <12 months in Canada. Analysis was based on a constant comparison, thematic approach informed by narrative analysis. Results The women’s accounts featured masculine practices associated with men’s help-seeking. The women presented such behaviours as relational, e.g. rooted in family socialisation and a determination to maintain roles and ‘normal’ life. Discussion Our findings raise questions about how far notions of gender operate to differentiate men and women’s help seeking and may indicate more similarities than differences. Recognising this has implications for policy and practice initiatives for both men and women. PMID:24567194

  15. Behaviour change interventions to promote physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Louise; Gallagher, Stephen; Cramp, Fiona; Brand, Charles; Fraser, Alexander; Kennedy, Norelee

    2015-10-01

    Research has shown that people who have rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not usually participate in enough physical activity to obtain the benefits of optimal physical activity levels, including quality of life, aerobic fitness and disease-related characteristics. Behaviour change theory underpins the promotion of physical activity. The aim of this systematic review was to explore behaviour change interventions which targeted physical activity behaviour in people who have RA, focusing on the theory underpinning the interventions and the behaviour change techniques utilised using specific behaviour change taxonomy. An electronic database search was conducted via EBSCOhost, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science databases in August 2014, using Medical Subject Headings and keywords. A manual search of reference lists was also conducted. Randomised control trials which used behaviour change techniques and targeted physical activity behaviour in adults who have RA were included. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Five studies with 784 participants were included in the review. Methodological quality of the studies was mixed. The studies consisted of behaviour change interventions or combined practical physical activity and behaviour change interventions and utilised a large variety of behaviour change techniques. Four studies reported increased physical activity behaviour. All studies used subjective methods of assessing physical activity with only one study utilising an objective measure. There has been varied success of behaviour change interventions in promoting physical activity behaviour in people who have RA. Further studies are required to develop and implement the optimal behaviour change intervention in this population.

  16. Aerobic capacity over 16 years in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Relationship to disease activity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Sundström, Björn; Innala, Lena; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Wållberg-Jonsson, Solveig

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the change in aerobic capacity from disease onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) over 16.2 years, and its associations with disease activity and cardiovascular risk factors. Twenty-five patients (20 f/5 m), diagnosed with RA 1995-2002 were tested at disease onset and after mean 16.2 years. Parameters measured were: sub-maximal ergometer test for aerobic capacity, functional ability, self-efficacy, ESR, CRP and DAS28. At follow-up, cardiovascular risk factors were assessed as blood lipids, glucose concentrations, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), body composition, pulse wave analysis and carotid intima-media thickness. Aerobic capacity [median (IQR)] was 32.3 (27.9-42.1) ml O2/kg x min at disease onset, and 33.2 (28.4-38.9) at follow-up (p>0.05). Baseline aerobic capacity was associated with follow-up values of: BMI (rs = -.401, p = .047), waist circumference (rs = -.498, p = .011), peripheral pulse pressure (rs = -.415, p = .039) self-efficacy (rs = .420, p = .037) and aerobic capacity (rs = .557, p = .004). In multiple regression models adjusted for baseline aerobic capacity, disease activity at baseline and over time predicted aerobic capacity at follow-up (AUC DAS28, 0-24 months; β = -.14, p = .004). At follow-up, aerobic capacity was inversely associated with blood glucose levels (rs = -.508, p = .016), BMI (rs = -.434, p = .030), body fat% (rs = -.419, p = .037), aortic pulse pressure (rs = -.405, p = .044), resting heart rate (rs = -.424, p = .034) and self-efficacy (rs = .464, p = .020) at follow-up. We conclude that the aerobic capacity was maintained over 16 years. High baseline aerobic capacity associated with favourable measures of cardiovascular risk factors at follow-up. Higher disease activity in early stages of RA predicted lower aerobic capacity after 16.2 years. PMID:29272303

  17. Aerobic capacity over 16 years in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Relationship to disease activity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hörnberg, Kristina; Sundström, Björn; Innala, Lena; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Wållberg-Jonsson, Solveig

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the change in aerobic capacity from disease onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) over 16.2 years, and its associations with disease activity and cardiovascular risk factors. Twenty-five patients (20 f/5 m), diagnosed with RA 1995-2002 were tested at disease onset and after mean 16.2 years. Parameters measured were: sub-maximal ergometer test for aerobic capacity, functional ability, self-efficacy, ESR, CRP and DAS28. At follow-up, cardiovascular risk factors were assessed as blood lipids, glucose concentrations, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), body composition, pulse wave analysis and carotid intima-media thickness. Aerobic capacity [median (IQR)] was 32.3 (27.9-42.1) ml O2/kg x min at disease onset, and 33.2 (28.4-38.9) at follow-up (p>0.05). Baseline aerobic capacity was associated with follow-up values of: BMI (rs = -.401, p = .047), waist circumference (rs = -.498, p = .011), peripheral pulse pressure (rs = -.415, p = .039) self-efficacy (rs = .420, p = .037) and aerobic capacity (rs = .557, p = .004). In multiple regression models adjusted for baseline aerobic capacity, disease activity at baseline and over time predicted aerobic capacity at follow-up (AUC DAS28, 0-24 months; β = -.14, p = .004). At follow-up, aerobic capacity was inversely associated with blood glucose levels (rs = -.508, p = .016), BMI (rs = -.434, p = .030), body fat% (rs = -.419, p = .037), aortic pulse pressure (rs = -.405, p = .044), resting heart rate (rs = -.424, p = .034) and self-efficacy (rs = .464, p = .020) at follow-up. We conclude that the aerobic capacity was maintained over 16 years. High baseline aerobic capacity associated with favourable measures of cardiovascular risk factors at follow-up. Higher disease activity in early stages of RA predicted lower aerobic capacity after 16.2 years.

  18. Altered Natural Killer Cell Subsets in Seropositive Arthralgia and Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Are Associated with Autoantibody Status.

    PubMed

    Chalan, Paulina; Bijzet, Johan; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; Boots, Annemieke M H; Brouwer, Elisabeth

    2016-06-01

    The role of natural killer (NK) cells in the immunopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is unclear. Therefore, numerical and functional alterations of CD56(dim) and CD56(bright) NK cells in the early stages of RA development were studied. Whole blood samples from newly diagnosed, treatment-naive, seropositive (SP) and seronegative (SN) patients with RA (SP RA, n = 45 and SN RA, n = 12), patients with SP arthralgia (n = 30), and healthy controls (HC, n = 41) were assessed for numbers and frequencies of T cells, B cells, and NK cells. SP status was defined as positive for anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP) and/or rheumatoid factor (RF). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used for further analysis of NK cell phenotype and function. Total NK cell numbers were decreased in SP RA and SP arthralgia but not in SN RA. Also, NK cells from SP RA showed a decreased potency for interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production. A selective decrease of CD56(dim), but not CD56(bright), NK cells in SP RA and SP arthralgia was observed. This prompted investigation of CD16 (FcγRIIIa) triggering in NK cell apoptosis and cytokine expression. In vitro, CD16 triggering induced apoptosis of CD56(dim) but not CD56(bright) NK cells from HC. This apoptosis was augmented by adding interleukin 2 (IL-2). Also, CD16 triggering in the presence of IL-2 stimulated IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α expression by CD56(dim) NK cells. The decline of CD56(dim) NK cells in SP arthralgia and SP RA and the in vitro apoptosis of CD56(dim) NK cells upon CD16 triggering suggest a functional role of immunoglobulin G-containing autoantibody (anti-CCP and/or RF)-immune complexes in this process. Moreover, CD16-triggered cytokine production by CD56(dim) NK cells may contribute to systemic inflammation as seen in SP arthralgia and SP RA.

  19. Sleep quality in fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis: associations with pain, fatigue, depression, and disease activity.

    PubMed

    Ulus, Y; Akyol, Y; Tander, B; Durmus, D; Bilgici, A; Kuru, O

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the sleep quality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS); and to evaluate the relationship between sleep quality and pain, fatigue, depression, and disease activity in patients with RA and FMS. Forty RA, 40 FMS and 40 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Disease activity and disease duration were reported in patients. Pain by visual analogue scale (VAS), fatigue by Multidimensional Assesment of Fatigue (MAF), depression by Beck Depression Index (BDI), and sleep quality by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were gathered in all participants. All participants were aged between 20 and 65 years, with a mean age of 42.97±10.75 years. There was no significant difference with respect to demographic characteristics among the three study groups. Patients reported more depression than controls, but BDI scores were similar in FMS and RA patients. VAS pain scores and MAF scores were significantly different in the three groups (p<0.001). FMS and RA patients had poor sleep quality (p<0.001). FMS patients had daytime dysfunction due to sleep disorder and had worse habitual sleep efficiency than RA patients (p<0.05). In patients, positive correlations were found between PSQI and clinic assessment variables except disease duration. FMS and RA may have poor sleep quality when compared to subjects without rheumatologic disorders. The quality of sleep can be impaired by pain, fatigue, depression, and disease activity in such patients.

  20. Can active components of licorice, glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetinic acid, lick rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed

    Huang, Qing-Chun; Wang, Mao-Jie; Chen, Xiu-Min; Yu, Wan-Lin; Chu, Yong-Liang; He, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Run-Yue

    2016-01-12

    This review stated the possible application of the active components of licorice, glycyrrhizin (GL) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment based on the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2/thromboxane A2 (TxA2) pathway. The extensive literature from inception to July 2015 was searched in PubMed central, and relevant reports were identified according to the purpose of this study. The active components of licorice GL and GA exert the potential anti-inflammatory effects through, at least in part, suppressing COX-2 and its downstream product TxA2. Additionally, the COX-2/TxA2 pathway, an auto-regulatory feedback loop, has been recently found to be a crucial mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of RA. However, TxA2 is neither the pharmacological target of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) nor the target of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and the limitations and side effects of those drugs may be, at least in part, attributable to lack of the effects on the COX-2/TxA2 pathway. Therefore, GL and GA capable of targeting this pathway hold the potential as a novel add-on therapy in therapeutic strategy, which is supported by several bench experiments. The active components of licorice, GL and GA, could not only potentiate the therapeutic effects but also decrease the adverse effects of NSAIDs or DMARDs through suppressing the COX-2/TxA2 pathway during treatment course of RA.

  1. Basic aminopeptidase activity is an emerging biomarker in collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Mariana Trivilin; Murari-do-Nascimento, Stephanie; Torrigo, Isis Rossetti; Alponti, Rafaela Fadoni; Yamasaki, Simone Cristina; Silveira, Paulo Flavio

    2011-04-11

    The objective of this study was to investigate the catalytic activity of basic aminopeptidase (APB) and its association with periarticular edema and circulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and type II collagen (CII) antibodies (AACII) in a rat model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) induced by CII (CIA). Edema does not occur in part of CII-treated, even when AACII is higher than in control. TNF-alpha is detectable only in edematous CII-treated. APB in synovial membrane is predominantly a membrane-bound activity also present in soluble form and with higher activity in edematous than in non-edematous CII-treated or control. Synovial fluid and blood plasma have lower APB in non-edematous than in edematous CII-treated or control. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) the highest levels of APB are found in soluble form in control and in membrane-bound form in non-edematous CII-treated. CII treatment distinguishes two categories of rats: one with arthritic edema, high AACII, detectable TNF-alpha, high soluble and membrane-bound APB in synovial membrane and low APB in the soluble fraction of PBMCs, and another without edema and with high AACII, undetectable TNF-alpha, low APB in the synovial fluid and blood plasma and high APB in the membrane-bound fraction of PBMCs. Data suggest that APB and CIA are strongly related. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies contribute to platelet activation in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Habets, Kim L L; Trouw, Leendert A; Levarht, E W Nivine; Korporaal, Suzanne J A; Habets, Petra A M; de Groot, Philip; Huizinga, Tom W J; Toes, René E M

    2015-08-24

    Although the role of platelets in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is relatively unexplored, recent studies point towards a contribution of platelets in arthritis. We set out to determine platelet phenotype in RA and studied whether this could be influenced by the presence of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA). Platelets from healthy controls were incubated in the presence of plasma of patients with RA or age- and sex-matched healthy controls and plasma from ACPA(neg) or ACPA(pos) patients or in the presence of plate-bound ACPA. Characteristics of platelets isolated from patients with RA were correlated to disease activity. Platelets isolated from healthy controls displayed markers of platelet activation in the presence of plasma derived from RA patients, as determined by P-selectin expression, formation of aggregates and secretion of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L). Furthermore, levels of P-selectin expression and sCD40L release correlated with high ACPA titres. In accordance with these findings, enhanced platelet activation was observed after incubation with ACPA(pos) plasma versus ACPA(neg) plasma. Pre-incubation of platelets with blocking antibodies directed against low-affinity immunoglobulin G receptor (FcγRIIa) completely inhibited the ACPA-mediated activation. In addition, expression of P-selectin measured as number of platelets correlated with Disease Activity Score in 44 joints, C-reactive protein level, ACPA status and ACPA level. We show for the first time that ACPA can mediate an FcγRIIa-dependent activation of platelets. As ACPA can be detected several years before RA disease onset and activated platelets contribute to vascular permeability, these data implicate a possible role for ACPA-mediated activation of platelets in arthritis onset.

  3. Effect of Treat-to-target Strategies Aiming at Remission of Arterial Stiffness in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Tam, Lydia Ho-Pui; Shang, Qing; Li, Edmund Kwok-Ming; Wong, Priscilla Ching-Han; Kwok, Kitty Yan; Kun, Emily Wai-Lin; Yim, Isaac Cheuk-Wan; Lee, Violet Ka-Lai; Yip, Ronald Man-Lung; Pang, Steve Hin-Ting; Lao, Virginia Weng-Nga; Mak, Queenie Wah-Yan; Cheng, Isaac Tsz-Ho; Lau, Xerox Sze-Lok; Li, Tena Ka-Yan; Zhu, Tracy Yaner; Lee, Alex Pui-Wai; Tam, Lai-Shan

    2018-05-15

    To determine the efficacy of 2 tight control treatment strategies aiming at Simplified Disease Activity Score (SDAI) remission (SDAI ≤ 3.3) compared to 28-joint count Disease Activity Score (DAS28) remission (DAS28 < 2.6) in the prevention of arterial stiffness in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This was an open-label study in which 120 patients with early RA were randomized to receive 1 year of tight control treatment. Group 1 (n = 60) aimed to achieve SDAI ≤ 3.3 and Group 2 (n = 60), DAS28 < 2.6. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx) were measured at baseline and 12 months. A posthoc analysis was also performed to ascertain whether achieving sustained remission could prevent progression in arterial stiffness. The proportions of patients receiving methotrexate monotherapy were significantly lower in Group 1 throughout the study period. At 12 months, the proportions of patients achieving DAS28 and SDAI remission, and the change in PWV and AIx, were comparable between the 2 groups. In view of the lack of differences between the 2 groups, a posthoc analysis was performed at Month 12, including all 110 patients with PWV, to elucidate the independent predictors associated with the change in PWV. Multivariate analysis revealed that achieving sustained DAS28 remission at months 6, 9, and 12 and a shorter disease duration were independent explanatory variables associated with less progression of PWV. With limited access to biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, treatment efforts toward DAS28 and SDAI remission had similar effects in preventing the progression of arterial stiffness at 1 year. However, achieving sustained DAS28 remission was associated with a significantly greater improvement in PWV. [Clinical Trial registration: Clinicaltrial.gov NCT01768923.].

  4. Monetary value of lost productivity over a five year follow up in early rheumatoid arthritis estimated on the basis of official register data on patients' sickness absence and gross income: experience from the FIN-RACo trial.

    PubMed

    Puolakka, K; Kautiainen, H; Pekurinen, M; Möttönen, T; Hannonen, P; Korpela, M; Hakala, M; Arkela-Kautiainen, M; Luukkainen, R; Leirisalo-Repo, M

    2006-07-01

    To explore the monetary value of rheumatoid arthritis related loss of productivity in patients with early active disease. In a prospective cohort substudy of the FIN-RACo Trial, 162 patients with recent onset rheumatoid arthritis, aged 18 to 65 years and available to the workforce, were followed up for five years. Loss of work productivity in euros 2002 was estimated by data on absence for sickness and on income (human capital approach) from official databases. Treatment responses were evaluated by area under the curve (AUC) of the ACR-N measure and by increase in number of erosions in radiographs of hands and feet. The health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) at six months was linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). In all, 120 (75%) patients, women more often (82%) than men (61%) (p=0.002), lost work days. The mean lost productivity per patient-year was euro7217 (95% confidence interval (CI), 5561 to 9148): for women, euro6477 (4858 to 8536) and for men, euro8443 (5389 to 12,898). There was an inverse correlation with improvement: euro1101 (323 to 2156) and euro14 952 (10,662 to 19,852) for the highest and lowest quartiles of AUC of ARC-N, respectively. Lost productivity was associated with increase in the number of erosions and with disability in "changing and maintaining body position" subcategory of the ICF. Despite remission targeted treatment with disease modifying antirheumatic drugs, early rheumatoid arthritis results in substantial loss of productivity. A good improvement in the disease reduces the loss markedly.

  5. Increased Kappa/Lambda Hybrid Antibody in Serum Is a Novel Biomarker Related to Disease Activity and Inflammation in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yi, Lang; Hao, Mingju; Lu, Tian; Lin, Guigao; Chen, Lida; Gao, Ming; Fan, Gaowei; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Guojing; Yang, Xin; Li, Yulong; Zhang, Kuo; Zhang, Rui; Han, Yanxi; Wang, Lunan; Li, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    The κ/λ hybrid antibodies in normal human serum were reported recently, but their clinical relevance has not yet been explored. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the major joint diseases, and the early diagnosis and treatment of RA remain a challenge. Here, we developed a double-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system to quantify relative serum κ/λ hybrid antibody levels in RA patients, osteoarthritis (OA) patients, and healthy controls (HC) in order to assess their potential use as a serological biomarker of early disease and clinical activity and to preliminarily investigate their immunomodulatory roles in RA. Surprisingly, we found that κ/λ hybrid antibody was markedly increased in both early and established RA. Serum κ/λ hybrid antibody levels were significantly correlated with clinical indexes and inflammatory markers in RA. Further analysis showed a positive correlation between κ/λ hybrid antibody levels and the 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28). In conclusion, serum κ/λ hybrid antibodies in RA were identified for the first time. High levels of κ/λ hybrid antibody may be a useful tool in distinguishing early RA from OA and HC. We suggest κ/λ hybrid antibody as a marker for disease activity. The increased κ/λ hybrid antibodies were associated with inflammatory conditions in RA.

  6. Increased Kappa/Lambda Hybrid Antibody in Serum Is a Novel Biomarker Related to Disease Activity and Inflammation in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Lang; Hao, Mingju; Lu, Tian; Lin, Guigao; Chen, Lida; Gao, Ming; Fan, Gaowei; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Guojing; Yang, Xin; Li, Yulong; Zhang, Kuo; Zhang, Rui; Han, Yanxi; Wang, Lunan; Li, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    The κ/λ hybrid antibodies in normal human serum were reported recently, but their clinical relevance has not yet been explored. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the major joint diseases, and the early diagnosis and treatment of RA remain a challenge. Here, we developed a double-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system to quantify relative serum κ/λ hybrid antibody levels in RA patients, osteoarthritis (OA) patients, and healthy controls (HC) in order to assess their potential use as a serological biomarker of early disease and clinical activity and to preliminarily investigate their immunomodulatory roles in RA. Surprisingly, we found that κ/λ hybrid antibody was markedly increased in both early and established RA. Serum κ/λ hybrid antibody levels were significantly correlated with clinical indexes and inflammatory markers in RA. Further analysis showed a positive correlation between κ/λ hybrid antibody levels and the 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28). In conclusion, serum κ/λ hybrid antibodies in RA were identified for the first time. High levels of κ/λ hybrid antibody may be a useful tool in distinguishing early RA from OA and HC. We suggest κ/λ hybrid antibody as a marker for disease activity. The increased κ/λ hybrid antibodies were associated with inflammatory conditions in RA. PMID:27143816

  7. Autoantibodies to two novel peptides in seronegative and early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    De Winter, Liesbeth M; Hansen, Wendy L J; van Steenbergen, Hanna W; Geusens, Piet; Lenaerts, Jan; Somers, Klaartje; Stinissen, Piet; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M; Somers, Veerle

    2016-08-01

    Despite recent progress in biomarker discovery for RA diagnostics, still over one-third of RA patients-and even more in early disease-present without RF or ACPA. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of previously identified autoantibodies to novel Hasselt University (UH) peptides in early and seronegative RA. Screening for antibodies against novel UH peptides UH-RA.1, UH-RA.9, UH-RA.14 and UH-RA.21, was performed in two large independent cohorts. Peptide ELISAs were developed to screen for the presence of antibodies to UH-RA peptides. First, 292 RA patients (including 39 early patients), 90 rheumatic and 97 healthy controls from UH were studied. Antibody reactivity to two peptides (UH-RA.1 and UH-RA.21) was also evaluated in 600 RA patients, 309 patients with undifferentiated arthritis and 157 rheumatic controls from the Leiden Early Arthritis Clinic cohort. In both cohorts, 38% of RA patients were seronegative for RF and ACPA. Testing for autoantibodies to UH-RA.1 and UH-RA.21 reduced the serological gap from 38% to 29% in the UH cohort (P = 0.03) and from 38% to 32% in the Leiden Early Arthritis Clinic cohort (P = 0.01). Furthermore, 19-33% of early RA patients carried antibodies to these peptides. Specificities in rheumatic controls ranged from 82 to 96%. Whereas antibodies against UH-RA.1 were related to remission, anti-UH-RA.21 antibodies were associated with inflammation, joint erosion and higher tender and swollen joint counts. This study validates the presence of antibody reactivity to novel UH-RA peptides in seronegative and early RA. This might reinforce current diagnostics and improve early diagnosis and intervention in RA. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Citrullinated Chemokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0210 TITLE: Citrullinated Chemokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David A. Fox CONTRACTING...CONTRACT NUMBER Citrullinated Chemokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0210 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David A. Fox...citrulline, which contributes to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We show that citrullinated epithelial- derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78

  9. Variability in depression prevalence in early rheumatoid arthritis: a comparison of the CES-D and HAD-D Scales

    PubMed Central

    Covic, Tanya; Pallant, Julie F; Tennant, Alan; Cox, Sally; Emery, Paul; Conaghan, Philip G

    2009-01-01

    Background Depression is common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), however reported prevalence varies considerably. Two frequently used instruments to identify depression are the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The objectives of this study were to test if the CES-D and HADS-D (a) satisfy current modern psychometric standards for unidimensional measurement in an early RA sample; (b) measure the same construct (i.e. depression); and (c) identify similar levels of depression. Methods Data from the two scales completed by patients with early RA were fitted to the Rasch measurement model to show that (a) each scale satisfies the criteria of fit to the model, including strict unidimensionality; (b) that the scales can be co-calibrated onto a single underlying continuum of depression and to (c) examine the location of the cut points on the underlying continuum as indication of the prevalence of depression. Results Ninety-two patients with early RA (62% female; mean age = 56.3, SD = 13.7) gave 141 sets of paired CES-D and HAD-D data. Fit of the data from the CES-D was found to be poor, and the scale had to be reduced to 13 items to satisfy Rasch measurement criteria whereas the HADS-D met model expectations from the outset. The 20 items combined (CES-D13 and HADS-D) satisfied Rasch model expectations. The CES-D gave a much higher prevalence of depression than the HADS-D. Conclusion The CES-D in its present form is unsuitable for use in patients with early RA, and needs to be reduced to a 13-item scale. The HADS-D is valid for early RA and the two scales measure the same underlying construct but their cut points lead to different estimates of the level of depression. Revised cut points on the CES-D13 provide comparative prevalence rates. PMID:19200388

  10. Health assessment questionnaire score is the best predictor of 5-year quality of life in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jean-David; Dougados, Maxime; Goupille, Philippe; Cantagrel, Alain; Meyer, Olivier; Sibilia, Jean; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Combe, Bernard

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate and determine prognostic factors of 5-year quality of life in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A cohort of 191 patients with RA and disease duration < 1 year was prospectively followed over 5 years. The outcome measure was quality of life as assessed by the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2 (AIMS2). Univariate analysis, then stepwise multiple logistic regression, was used to find independent baseline prognostic variables. After accounting for death, loss of followup, and missing data, 158 patients (82.72%) were included in the analysis. The mean AIMS2 physical, symptom, psychological, social interaction, and work scores after 5 years were 1.6 (range 0-6.88), 4.0 (0-10), 3.48 (0-9.22), 4.06 (0-8.69), and 1.87 (0-8.13), respectively. The AIMS2 physical component was significantly correlated with Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score at 5 years. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the baseline values able to predict the 5-year physical, psychological, symptom, social interaction, and work status were, respectively: HAQ score and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), body mass index (BMI), HAQ; erosion score and sex, HAQ; ESR and anti-perinuclear antibody; matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) level, joint space narrowing, and tender joint scores; HAQ score and age. The multidimensional structure of the AIMS2 allowed us to assess the 5-year health-related quality of life in early RA. Using this instrument as an outcome variable, prognostic factors were selected and varied widely depending on the evaluated domain. The baseline HAQ score was the best predictive factor of 4 of the 5 domains of the AIMS2.

  11. Assessment of global DNA methylation in peripheral blood cell subpopulations of early rheumatoid arthritis before and after methotrexate.

    PubMed

    de Andres, María C; Perez-Pampin, Eva; Calaza, Manuel; Santaclara, Francisco J; Ortea, Ignacio; Gomez-Reino, Juan J; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2015-08-29

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism regulating gene expression that has been insufficiently studied in the blood of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, as only T cells and total peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with established RA have been studied and with conflicting results. Five major blood cell subpopulations: T, B and NK cells, monocytes, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, were isolated from 19 early RA patients and 17 healthy controls. Patient samples were taken before and 1 month after the start of treatment with methotrexate (MTX). Analysis included DNA methylation with high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS-SRM) and expression levels of seven methylation-specific enzymes by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD)-naïve early RA patients showed global DNA hypomethylation in T cells and monocytes, together with a lower expression of DNA methyltrasnferase 1 (DNMT1), the maintenance DNA methyltransferase, which was also decreased in B cells. Furthermore, significantly increased expression of ten-eleven translocation1 (TET1), TET2 and TET3, enzymes involved in demethylation, was found in monocytes and of TET2 in T cells. There was also modest decreased expression of DNMT3A in B cells and of growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45A (GADD45A) in T and B cells. Treatment with MTX reverted hypomethylation in T cells and monocytes, which were no longer different from controls, and increased global methylation in B cells. In addition, DNMT1 and DNMT3A showed a trend to reversion of their decreased expression. Our results confirm global DNA hypomethylation in patients with RA with specificity for some blood cell subpopulations and their reversal with methotrexate treatment. These changes are accompanied by parallel changes in the levels of enzymes involved in methylation, suggesting

  12. Predictors of satisfactory improvements in pain for patients with early rheumatoid arthritis in a treat-to-target study.

    PubMed

    Ten Klooster, Peter M; Vonkeman, Harald E; Oude Voshaar, Martijn A H; Siemons, Liseth; van Riel, Piet L C M; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify baseline predictors of achieving patient-perceived satisfactory improvement (PPSI) in pain after 6 months of treat to target in patients with early RA. Baseline and 6 month data were used from patients included in the Dutch Rheumatoid Arthritis Monitoring remission induction cohort study. Simple and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify significant predictors of achieving an absolute improvement of 30 mm or a relative improvement of 50% on a visual analogue scale for pain. At 6 months, 125 of 209 patients (59.8%) achieved an absolute PPSI and 130 patients (62.2%) achieved a relative PPSI in pain. Controlling for baseline pain, having symmetrical arthritis was the strongest independent predictor of achieving an absolute [odds ratio (OR) 3.17, P = 0.03] or relative (OR 3.44, P = 0.01) PPSI. Additionally, anti-CCP positivity (OR 2.04, P = 0.04) and having ≤12 tender joints (OR 0.29, P = 0.01) were predictive of achieving a relative PPSI. The total explained variance of baseline predictors was 30% for absolute and 18% for relative improvements, respectively. Symmetrical joint involvement, anti-CCP positivity and fewer tender joints at baseline are prognostic signs for achieving satisfactory improvement in pain after 6 months of treat to target in patients with early RA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Association between body composition and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Buenfil-Rello, Fátima Annai; Pacheco-Pantoja, Elda Leonor

    2016-01-01

    Reports regarding the association between body composition and inflammatory activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have consistently yielded contradictory results. To perform a systematic review on the association between overweight/obesity and inflammatory activity in RA. FAST approach: Article search (Medline, EBSCO, Cochrane Library), followed by abstract retrieval, full text review and blinded assessment of methodological quality for final inclusion. Because of marked heterogeneity in statistical approach and RA activity assessment method, a meta-analysis could not be done. Results are presented as qualitative synthesis. One hundred and nineteen reports were found, 16 of them qualified for full text review. Eleven studies (8,147 patients; n range: 37-5,161) approved the methodological quality filter and were finally included. Interobserver agreement for methodological quality score (ICC: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.82-0.98; P<.001) and inclusion/rejection decision (k 1.00, P>.001) was excellent. In all reports body composition was assessed by BMI; however a marked heterogeneity was found in the method used for RA activity assessment. A significant association between BMI and RA activity was found in 6 reports having larger mean sample size: 1,274 (range: 140-5,161). On the other hand, this association was not found in 5 studies having lower mean sample size: 100 (range: 7-150). The modulation of RA clinical status by body fat mass is suggested because a significant association was found between BMI and inflammatory activity in those reports with a trend toward higher statistical power. The relationship between body composition and clinical activity in RA requires be approached with further studies with higher methodological quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  14. Serum substance P: an indicator of disease activity and subclinical inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Cobos, Rosa Elda; Lugo-Zamudio, Gustavo; Flores-Estrada, Javier; Becerril-Mendoza, Lizbeth Teresa; Rodríguez-Henríquez, Pedro; Torres-González, Rubén; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Ramirez-Bello, Julian; Moreno, José

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the is study is to examine the role of serum substance P (SP) levels as a simple biomarker for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity, its correlation with other markers of disease activity, and with selected clinical parameters. The study comprised 90 RA patients and 24 healthy controls. RA activity was assessed by means of the disease activity 28-C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) index and ultrasound power Doppler (USPD) by the German ultrasound score based on seven joints. SP serum values were obtained by means of an ELISA commercial kit. Statistics were achieved by the Student's t test and Spearman correlation analysis with Bonferroni correction. As a group, RA patients had significantly increased levels of SP compared with healthy controls (p < 0.0001). SP levels correlated with DAS28-CRP (r = 0.5050, p < 0.0001), number of tender joints (NTJ, r = 0.4668, p < 0.0001), number of swollen joints (NSJ, r = 0.4439, p < 0.0001), visual analogue scale (VAS, r = 0.5131, p < 0.0001). However, SP did not correlate with CRP levels (r = 0.0468, p = 0.6613), nor with the USPD (r = 0.1740, p = 0.1009). Elevated serum SP is a common feature of RA patients, which also appears to correlate with clinical measurements of disease activity and with subjective clinical data (NTJ and VAS). Thus, although SP is higher in RA patients with high disease activity, it also detects subtle RA disease activity even in patients in apparent remission, which suggests its usefulness for therapeutic decisions.

  15. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in rheumatoid arthritis and its correlation with disease activity.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Prakash; Agarwal, Abhishek; Vyas, Sony; Kumar, Ravindra

    2017-01-01

    To analyse the prevalence of hypothyroidism in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and to elucidate its correlation with disease activity. A total of 52 RA patients were enrolled in this study. All patients were assessed fully clinically and underwent routine laboratory investigation including thyroid function testing. Hypothyroidism (defined as having a TSH level >4.20 μIU/mL) was observed in 20/52 (38.4%). Erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESR) were found significantly elevated in patients with hypothyroidism compared to those without (36.3 ± 24.2 vs. 24.6 ± 9.0 mm/h). Disease activity parameters such as DAS-28-ESR, tender joint count; VAS scores were also significantly higher in the former. A significant correlation with serum TSH levels was observed with ESR and DAS-28-ESR. Thyroid function test should be included in clinical evaluation of RA patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Refractory rheumatoid vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashok; Goel, Anshul; Lapsiwala, Mehul; Singhal, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Systemic rheumatoid vasculitis (SRV) can develop in rheumatoid arthritis of long duration and high disease activity. It most commonly manifests as cutaneous vasculitis and mononeuritis multiplex. This can involve any organ of the body and carries very high mortality. We report a case of a young male who had rheumatoid arthritis for the past 15 years and became refractory to standard drugs and anti-TNF agents. He subsequently developed SRV, which started as mononeuritis multiplex. Disease progressed to result in gangrene of hands and feet despite receiving intravenous cyclophosphamide. Intravenous immunoglobulin and rituximab also could not provide any response. Prolonged ICU stay resulted in critical care neuromyopathy. Central nervous system vasculitis developed even after repeated infusions of intravenous immunoglobulins and at last he died of complications. In this case report, we have presented rare and chronic protracted presentation of rheumatoid vasculitis involving skin, nerves, brain and testis, which was refractory to the recommended therapies. PMID:28031844

  17. Vitamin D is not useful as a biomarker for disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    de la Torre Lossa, Paola; Moreno Álvarez, Mario; González Guzmán, María Del Carmen; López Martínez, Rafael; Ríos Acosta, Carlos

    2018-05-17

    To determine whether there is an association between serum vitamin D levels and the Disease Activity Index in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). An analytical, retrospective, cross-sectional study was performed at the Hospital Luis Vernaza and Center for Rheumatology and Rehabilitation. We included 18 to 75-year-old patients with a diagnosis of RA according to the 2010 classification criteria, and with a 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 [OH] D) test within the last 3 months. The activity of the disease was assessed with the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as an acute-phase reactant. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to establish association between the variables. A total of 100 RA patients were studied. The mean vitamin D levels were 32.9 ± 11.5 ng/mL. In all, 45% showed insufficient 25 (OH) D and 55% had normal levels; no deficient vitamin D values were found. According to the DAS28-CRP, patients with low, moderate and high activity had an average vitamin D level of 30.4 ± 10.7, 31.9 ± 10.7, and 31.8 ± 12.1 ng/mL, respectively. There were no significant correlations between the disease activity and the serum vitamin D level (P=.60). In our group of RA patients, there was no statistically significant correlation between the levels of vitamin D and the activity of the disease, nor were other determining variables associated with vitamin D levels. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Rheumatoid Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition? What if my symptoms come back? Other organizations National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Citations Diagnosis and Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis by JA Rindfleisch, ...

  19. IL-6-driven STAT signalling in circulating CD4+ lymphocytes is a marker for early anticitrullinated peptide antibody-negative rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Amy E; Pratt, Arthur G; Sedhom, Mamdouh A K; Doran, John Paul; Routledge, Christine; Hargreaves, Ben; Brown, Philip M; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh; Isaacs, John D; Thomas, Ranjeny

    2016-02-01

    A previously identified signal transduction and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) target-enriched gene signature in circulating CD4+ T cells of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was prominent in autoantibody-negative individuals. Here, interleukin (IL)-6-mediated STAT signalling was investigated in circulating lymphocytes of an independent early arthritis patient cohort, seeking further insight into RA pathogenesis and biomarkers of potential clinical utility. Constitutive and IL-6-induced expression of phosphorylated STAT1 (pSTAT1) and pSTAT3 was determined in T and B cells using Phosflow cytometric analysis in patients with RA and controls. Contemporaneous levels of serum cytokines were measured by immunoassay. Induced gene expression was measured in cultured CD4+T cells by quantitative real-time PCR. Among circulating lymphocytes of 187 patients with early arthritis, constitutive pSTAT3 correlated with serum IL-6 levels maximally in CD4+ T cells. Increased constitutive pSTAT3, but not pSTAT1, was observed in circulating CD4+ T cells of patients with early anticitrullinated peptide autoantibody (ACPA)-negative RA compared with disease controls, and these levels decreased alongside markers of disease activity with IL-6R-targeted treatment. Among patients presenting with seronegative undifferentiated arthritis (UA) the ratio of constitutive pSTAT3:pSTAT1 in CD4+ T cells contributed substantially to an algorithm for predicting progression to classifiable RA during a median of 20 months follow-up (area under receiver operator characteristic curve=0.84; p<0.001). Our findings support a particular role for IL-6-driven CD4+ T cell activation via STAT3 during the induction of RA, particularly as a feature of ACPA-negative disease. CD4+ T cell pSTAT measurements show promise as biomarkers of UA-RA progression and now require independent validation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  20. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity and/or structure homologs: Contributing factors in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Sedo, Aleksi; Duke-Cohan, Jonathan S; Balaziova, Eva; Sedova, Liliana R

    2005-01-01

    Several of the proinflammatory peptides involved in rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis, including peptides induced downstream of tumor necrosis factor-α as well as the monocyte/T cell-attracting chemokines RANTES and stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α and the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and substance P, have their biological half-lives controlled by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV). Proteolysis by DPPIV regulates not only the half-life but also receptor preference and downstream signaling. In this article, we examine the role of DPPIV homologs, including CD26, the canonical DPPIV, and their substrates in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. The differing specific activities of the DPPIV family members and their differential inhibitor response provide new insights into therapeutic design. PMID:16277701

  1. Correlation of Paraoxonase Status with Disease Activity Score and Systemic Inflammation in Rheumatoid Arthritic Patients.

    PubMed

    Bindal, Usha Dudeja; Saxena, Rahul; Siddiqui, Merajul Haque; Sharma, Dilutpal

    2016-03-01

    Despite, various preventive efforts on conventional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, the incidence of CVD in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients increases continuously. To solve this conundrum one needs more investigations. The present study was conducted to evaluate the plasma paraoxonase (PON) activity along with the markers of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and disease activity score-28 (DAS28) in RA patients and clarify their role in determining the probability of RA patients to develop future CVD risk. Plasma PON, total antioxidant activity (TAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), synovial interleukin-6 (IL-6) and erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated in 40 RA patients aged 40-55 years aged and 40 age-matched healthy controls. The data obtained were compared statistically by using Student's t-test and Pearson correlation test. Besides dyslipidaemia, marked reduction in plasma PON and TAA (p< 0.05) were observed in RA patients as compared with that of healthy controls. Erythrocyte MDA, plasma CRP and synovial IL-6 levels were increased significantly (p<0.05) in RA patients. PON was negatively correlated with MDA (r = - 0.672; p < 0.001), CRP (r = -0.458; p<0.05), IL-6 (r = -0.426; p<0.05) and DAS28 (r = -0.598; p < 0.001), and positively correlated with HDL cholesterol (r = 0.648; p<0.001) and TAA (r = 0.608; p< 0.001) levels in RA patients. Alteration in PON activity might contribute to the progression of future CVD risk in RA patients, which may result from interplay of several confounding factors, such as inflammation, oxidative stress and dyslipidaemia. Furthermore, plasma PON activity, CRP and TAA levels could be considered as non-traditional factors to predict CVD risk. Thus, it is suggested that future drugs could be developed to target the non-traditional risk factors in RA patients.

  2. Endothelial progenitor cells in active rheumatoid arthritis: effects of tumour necrosis factor and glucocorticoid therapy

    PubMed Central

    Grisar, Johannes; Aletaha, Daniel; Steiner, Carl W; Kapral, Theresa; Steiner, Sabine; Säemann, Marcus; Schwarzinger, Ilse; Buranyi, Barbara; Steiner, Günter; Smolen, Josef S

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To study the effects of short‐term intermediate dose glucocorticoid (GC) therapy in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), which are known to influence cardiovascular risk, and to elucidate mechanisms potentially responsible for the reduction of EPCs in patients with active RA. Methods EPCs were quantified in 29 patients with active RA by flow cytometry, colony forming unit (CFU) and circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) assays before and after 7 days of intermediate dose GC therapy. CFU from patients with RA and from healthy referents (HR) were cultured in vitro in the absence or presence of dexamethasone (Dex) and/or TNF. Results After 1 week of GC therapy, EPC increased from 0.026 (SD 0.003)% to 0.053 (SD 0.010)% (p<0.01), and from 12 (SD 4) to 27 (SD 7) CFU/well (p<0.02); CAC also increased from 7 (SD 2) to 29 (SD 8) cells/high power field (p<0.05). In parallel, disease activity decreased significantly after GC treatment. TNF serum levels also decreased from 36 (SD 10) to 14 (SD 6) pg/ml (p<0.0001). Addition of Dex to the RA CFU led to a significant increase of mean CFU counts, whereas addition of TNF induced a decrease of CFU. Conclusions Our data indicate that TNF may be at least partly responsible for the reduction of EPC seen in patients with RA. Intermediate doses of GCs for a short period of time, apart from reducing disease activity, significantly increase circulating EPC. PMID:17293363

  3. Nutraceuticals of anti-inflammatory activity as complementary therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Al-Okbi, Sahar Y

    2014-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by elevated oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers. The severe side effects of drug used during such disease necessitate the search for new and safe approaches. Food is a rich source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory bioactive constituents including phenolic compounds, polyunsaturated fatty acids, phytosterols, toccopherols, and carotenoids. We have a series of publications dealing with the anti-inflammatory activity of different food extracts (as nutraceuticals) in experimental animals (acute and chronic inflammation model) and in clinical study (RA patients). Fish oil, primrose oil, extracts of black cumin, fenugreek, liquorice, coriander, tomato, carrot, sweet potato, broccoli, green tea, rosemary, hazelnut, walnut, wheat germ, and date in addition to the probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum were the nutraceuticals studied. During these studies, changes in inflammatory biomarkers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), seromucoids, fibrinogen, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde), antioxidant status (total antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, vitamin E, retinol, β-carotene), the level of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) and colonic microflora in response to the administration of nutraceuticals have been assessed. Results of these studies showed that the majority of nutraceuticals studied possess beneficial effect toward chronic inflammatory diseases, which might be due to the presence of one or more of the above-mentioned phytochemicals. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant nutraceuticals may serve as complementary medicine for the management of RA. © The Author(s) 2012.

  4. Gender, body mass index and rheumatoid arthritis disease activity: results from the QUEST-RA Study.

    PubMed

    Jawaheer, D; Olsen, J; Lahiff, M; Forsberg, S; Lähteenmäki, J; da Silveira, I G; Rocha, F A; Magalhães Laurindo, I M; Henrique da Mota, L M; Drosos, A A; Murphy, E; Sheehy, C; Quirke, E; Cutolo, M; Rexhepi, S; Dadoniene, J; Verstappen, S M M; Sokka, T

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether body mass index (BMI), as a proxy for body fat, influences rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a gender-specific manner. Consecutive patients with RA were enrolled from 25 countries into the QUEST-RA program between 2005 and 2008. Clinical and demographic data were collected by treating rheumatologists and by patient self-report. Distributions of Disease Activity Scores (DAS28), BMI, age, and disease duration were assessed for each country and for the entire dataset; mean values between genders were compared using Student's t-tests. An association between BMI and DAS28 was investigated using linear regression, adjusting for age, disease duration and country. A total of 5,161 RA patients (4,082 women and 1,079 men) were included in the analyses. Overall, women were younger, had longer disease duration, and higher DAS28 scores than men, but BMI was similar between genders. The mean DAS28 scores increased with increasing BMI from normal to overweight and obese, among women, whereas the opposite trend was observed among men. Regression results showed BMI (continuous or categorical) to be associated with DAS28. Compared to the normal BMI range, being obese was associated with a larger difference in mean DAS28 (0.23, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.34) than being overweight (0.12, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.21); being underweight was not associated with disease activity. These associations were more pronounced among women, and were not explained by any single component of the DAS28. BMI appears to be associated with RA disease activity in women, but not in men.

  5. Gender, body mass index and rheumatoid arthritis disease activity: results from the QUEST-RA study

    PubMed Central

    Jawaheer, Damini; Olsen, Jørn; Lahiff, Maureen; Forsberg, Sinikka; Lähteenmäki, Jukka; Silveira, Ines Guimaraes da; Rocha, Francisco Airton; Laurindo, Ieda Maria Magalhães; Mota, Licia Maria Henrique da; Drosos, Alexandros A.; Murphy, Eithne; Sheehy, Claire; Quirke, Edel; Cutolo, Maurizio; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Dadoniene, Jolanta; Verstappen, Suzan M.M.; Sokka, Tuulikki

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether body mass index (BMI), as a proxy for body fat, influences rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a gender-specific manner. Methods Consecutive patients with RA were enrolled from 25 countries into the QUEST-RA program between 2005 and 2008. Clinical and demographic data were collected by treating rheumatologists and by patient self-report. Distributions of Disease Activity Scores (DAS28), BMI, age, and disease duration were assessed for each country and for the entire dataset; mean values between genders were compared using Student’s t-tests. An association between BMI and DAS28 was investigated using linear regression, adjusting for age, disease duration and country. Results A total of 5,161 RA patients (4,082 women and 1,079 men) were included in the analyses. Overall, women were younger, had longer disease duration, and higher DAS28 scores than men, but BMI was similar between genders. The mean DAS28 scores increased with increasing BMI from normal to overweight and obese, among women, whereas the opposite trend was observed among men. Regression results showed BMI (continuous or categorical) to be associated with DAS28. Compared to the normal BMI range, being obese was associated with a larger difference in mean DAS28 (0.23, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.34) than being overweight (0.12, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.21); being underweight was not associated with disease activity. These associations were more pronounced among women, and were not explained by any single component of the DAS28. Conclusion BMI appears to be associated with RA disease activity in women, but not in men. PMID:20810033

  6. What role does rheumatoid arthritis disease activity have in cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Ramírez Huaranga, Marco Aurelio; Mínguez Sanchez, María Dolores; Zarca Diaz de la Espina, Miguel Ángel; Espinosa Prados, Pedro José; Romero Aguilera, Guillermo

    2017-04-21

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with a 1.3 to 3-fold increase in mortality, being the major cause of death from cardiovascular complications (40%-50%). Therefore, the initial approach should include cardiovascular risk (CVR) assessment using algorithms adapted for this population. Although, SCOREM is an important advance, there are data indicating that subclinical atherosclerosis may be underdiagnosed. To estimate the strength of association between carotid ultrasound and SCOREM in this population, as well as the implication of disease activity. Cross-sectional, observational, analytical study performed at the General Hospital of Ciudad Real, Spain, between June 2013 and May 2014. The evaluation of CVR was performed and, according to SCOREM, the population was divided into low and high (medium, high and very high) risk. We studied the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in low-risk patients. Of the total of 119 RA patients, 73.1% had traditional risk factors. Thirty-eight patients were excluded because of a previous cardiovascular event, diabetes mellitus and/or nephropathy. Atheromatous plaque was observed in 14.63% of the low-risk population. The factor with the strongest association to the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis was a moderate or high activity of RA measured by the simplified disease activity index with an odds ratio of 4.95 (95% CI: 1.53-16.01). Although there was an acceptable correlation between the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis and SCOREM, there was a considerable proportion of atheromatous plaques in low-risk patients. Disease activity was the risk factor most closely associated with increased CVR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  7. Circadian relationships between interleukin (IL)-6 and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones: failure of IL-6 to cause sustained hypercortisolism in patients with early untreated rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Crofford, L J; Kalogeras, K T; Mastorakos, G; Magiakou, M A; Wells, J; Kanik, K S; Gold, P W; Chrousos, G P; Wilder, R L

    1997-04-01

    Systemic symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are mediated, at least in part, by elevated levels of circulating interleukin (IL)-6, and this cytokine is also a potent stimulus of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. To evaluate the 24-h circadian secretory dynamics of ACTH, cortisol, and IL-6 and their interactions in patients with early untreated RA, we recruited and studied five newly diagnosed, untreated RA patients early in the course of their disease and five age-, gender-, and race-matched control subjects. We collected serial blood samples over 24 h and measured plasma ACTH and cortisol every 30 min and IL-6 every hour. The 24-h collection was followed by administration of ovine CRH (oCRH) and post-oCRH serial blood samples over 2 h. We analyzed the 24-h overall levels of these hormones and their circadian variations and performed time-lagged cross-correlation analyses among them. The untreated RA patients had 24 h time-integrated plasma ACTH, plasma cortisol levels, and urinary free cortisol excretion that were not significantly different from control subjects, in spite of their disease activity. However, an earlier morning surge of plasma ACTH and cortisol in the patients was suggested. Plasma ACTH and cortisol responses to oCRH were similar in RA patients and controls. IL-6 levels were significantly increased in the RA patients compared with control subjects during the early morning hours (P < 0.05). There was pronounced circadian variation of plasma Il-6 levels. In the RA patients, we detected a positive temporal correlation between plasma levels of IL-6 and ACTH/cortisol, with elevated levels of IL-6 before the elevations of ACTH and cortisol by 1 and 2 h, respectively. In the same patients, we detected a negative effect of cortisol upon IL-6 exerted with a delay of 5 h. The data presented here suggest that although endogenous IL-6 may stimulate secretion of ACTH and cortisol, overall activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis remains

  8. The combination of three autoantibodies, ACPA, RF and anti-CarP antibodies is highly specific for rheumatoid arthritis: implications for very early identification of individuals at risk to develop rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Verheul, Marije K; Böhringer, Stefan; van Delft, Myrthe A M; Jones, Jonathan D; Rigby, William F C; Gan, Ryan W; Holers, V Michael; Edison, Jess D; Deane, Kevin D; Janssen, Koen M J; Westra, Johanna; Brink, Mikael; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Huizinga, Tom W J; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M; van der Woude, Diane; Toes, Rene E M; Trouw, Leendert A

    2018-05-21

    In rheumatoid arthritis(RA), the autoantibodies anti-citrullinated protein antibodies(ACPA) and rheumatoid factor(RF) are commonly used to aid RA diagnosis. Although these autoantibodies are mainly found in RA, their specificity is not optimal. It is therefore difficult to identify RA patients, especially in very early disease, based on the presence of ACPA and RF alone. Also, anti-carbamylated protein(anti-CarP) antibodies have diagnostic and prognostic value as the presence of anti-CarP antibodies associates with joint damage in RA patients and with future RA development in arthralgia patients. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the value of combined antibody testing in relation to prediction and diagnosis of (early) RA. A literature search resulted in twelve studies, consisting of RA patients, pre-RA individuals, disease controls, healthy first-degree relatives of RA patients or healthy controls, in which data on RF, ACPA and anti-CarP antibody-status was available. Random effects meta-analyses were carried out for several antibody combinations. The individual antibodies are highly prevalent in RA(34%-80%) compared to the control groups, but are also present in non-RA controls(0%-23%). To classify most people correctly as RA or non-RA, the combination of ACPA and/or RF often performs well(specificity:65-100, sensitivity:59-88). However, triple positivity for ACPA, RF and anti-CarP antibodies results in a higher specificity(98-100) (accompanied by a lower sensitivity(11-39)). As the rheumatology field is moving towards very early identification of RA and possible screening for individuals at maximum risk in populations with a low pre-test probability, triple positivity provides interesting information on individuals at risk to develop RA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of hand and foot MRI for early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuis, Wouter P; van Steenbergen, Hanna W; Mangnus, Lukas; Newsum, Elize C; Bloem, Johan L; Huizinga, Tom W J; le Cessie, Saskia; Reijnierse, Monique; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M

    2017-08-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of MRI for early RA. In some RA patients, a classifiable diagnosis cannot be made at first presentation; these patients present with unclassified arthritis (UA). The use of MRI for early diagnosis of RA is recommended, yet the evidence for its reliability is limited. MRI of hand and foot was performed in 589 early arthritis patients included in the Leiden Early Arthritis Clinic (229 presented with RA, 159 with other arthritides and 201 with UA). Symptom-free controls provided a reference for defining an abnormal MRI. In preliminary investigations, MRI of patients who presented with RA was compared with MRI of symptom-free controls and of patients with other arthritides. Thereafter, the value of MRI in early RA diagnosis was determined in UA patients using the 1-year follow-up on fulfilling the 1987 RA criteria and start of disease-modifying drugs as outcomes. Preliminary investigations were promising. Of the UA patients, 14% developed RA and 37% started disease-modifying treatment. MRI-detected tenosynovitis was associated with RA development independent of other types of MRI-detected inflammation [odds ratio (OR) = 7.5, 95% CI: 2.4, 23] and also independent of age and other inflammatory measures (swollen joints, CRP) (OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 1.4, 12.9). Within UA patients, the negative predictive value of abnormal tenosynovitis was 95% (95% CI: 89%, 98%) and the positive predictive value 25% (95% CI: 17%, 35%). The performance was best in the subgroup of UA patients presenting with oligoarthritis (18% developed RA): the positive predictive value was 36% (95% CI: 23%, 52%), the negative predictive value was 98% (95% CI: 88%, 100%), the sensitivity was 93% (95% CI: 70%, 99%) and the specificity was 63% (95% CI: 51%, 74%). MRI contributes to the identification of UA patients who will develop RA, mostly in UA patients presenting with oligoarthritis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for

  10. Can active components of licorice, glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetinic acid, lick rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qing-Chun; Wang, Mao-Jie; Chen, Xiu-Min; Yu, Wan-Lin; Chu, Yong-Liang; He, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Run-Yue

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This review stated the possible application of the active components of licorice, glycyrrhizin (GL) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment based on the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2/thromboxane A2 (TxA2) pathway. METHODS The extensive literature from inception to July 2015 was searched in PubMed central, and relevant reports were identified according to the purpose of this study. RESULTS The active components of licorice GL and GA exert the potential anti-inflammatory effects through, at least in part, suppressing COX-2 and its downstream product TxA2. Additionally, the COX-2/TxA2 pathway, an auto-regulatory feedback loop, has been recently found to be a crucial mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of RA. However, TxA2 is neither the pharmacological target of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) nor the target of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and the limitations and side effects of those drugs may be, at least in part, attributable to lack of the effects on the COX-2/TxA2 pathway. Therefore, GL and GA capable of targeting this pathway hold the potential as a novel add-on therapy in therapeutic strategy, which is supported by several bench experiments. CONCLUSIONS The active components of licorice, GL and GA, could not only potentiate the therapeutic effects but also decrease the adverse effects of NSAIDs or DMARDs through suppressing the COX-2/TxA2 pathway during treatment course of RA. PMID:26498361

  11. Circulating leptin level in rheumatoid arthritis and its correlation with disease activity: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y H; Bae, S-C

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the circulating serum leptin level and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to establish a correlation between serum leptin levels and RA activity. We searched the PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. A meta-analysis was performed, comparing the serum/plasma leptin levels in patients with RA and healthy controls. Correlation coefficients between serum leptin level and either disease activity score 28 (DAS28) or C‑reactive protein (CRP) in RA patients were also examined. Thirteen studies with a total of 648 RA patients and 426 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Circulating leptin level was significantly higher in the RA group than in the control group (SMD = 1.056, 95 % CI = 0.647-1.465, p = 4.2 × 10 -7 ). In addition, stratification by ethnicity showed a significantly elevated leptin level in the RA group in Caucasian, Turkish, and Arab populations (SMD = 0.813, 95 % CI = 0.137-1.490, p = 0.018, SMD = 0.981, 95 % CI = 0.307-1.655, p = 0.004, and SMD = 1.469, 95 % CI = 0.443-2.495, p = 0.005 respectively). A meta-analysis of correlation coefficients showed a small but significantly positive correlation between the circulating leptin level and either DAS28 (correlation coefficient = 0.275, 95 % CI = 0.076-0.452, p = 0.007) or CRP (correlation coefficient = 0.274, 95 % CI = 0.068-0.458, p = 0.010). Our meta-analysis demonstrated that the circulating leptin level is significantly higher in patients with RA and that a small but significantly positive correlation exists between leptin levels and RA activity.

  12. The metabolic profile in early rheumatoid arthritis: a high prevalence of metabolic obesity.

    PubMed

    Müller, Raili; Kull, Mart; Põlluste, Kaja; Aart, Annika; Eglit, Triin; Lember, Margus; Kallikorm, Riina

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in early RA patients with age-gender-matched population controls focusing on the presence of MetS in different weight categories. The study group consisted of 91 consecutive patients with early RA and 273 age- and gender-matched controls subjects. MetS was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-ATP III) criteria. Mean age in both groups was 52 years, and 72.5 % were female. The prevalence of MetS did not differ between the two groups (35.2 % in RA, 34.1 % in control group). Mean systolic blood pressure in the RA group was 137 mmHg, in control group 131 mmHg, P = 0.01, and diastolic blood pressure 85 versus 81 mmHg, respectively (P < 0.01). We found that 20 of 65 (30.8 %) of RA patients compared to 80 of 152 (52.6 %) of the control subjects with elevated blood pressure received antihypertensive treatment (P < 0.01). When comparing subgroups with normal BMI, the odds of having MetS (being metabolically obese) were higher among early RA subjects (OR 5.6, CI 1.3-23.8). Of the individual components of metabolic syndrome, we found increased prevalence of hypertension (OR 2.8, CI 1.3-6.0) and hyperglycemia (OR 2.9, CI 1.0-8.0) in the RA group. Recognition of abnormal metabolic status among normal-weight RA patients who have not yet developed CVD could provide a valuable opportunity for preventative intervention.

  13. The induction of apoptosis by methotrexate in activated lymphocytes as indicated by fluorescence hyperpolarization: a possible model for predicting methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Herman, Shoshy; Zurgil, Naomi; Langevitz, Pnina; Ehrenfeld, Michael; Deutsch, Mordechai

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the in vitro response of healthy non-activated, activated, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) lymphocytes to methotrexate (MTX), and design an in vitro model for predicting the efficiency of MTX treatment for RA patients. Considering the RA profile of clonal-expanded CD4(+) T cells, phytohemagglutinin-activated mononuclear cells taken from healthy donors were incubated with different concentrations of MTX. The MTX-immunosuppressive effect was tested by fluorescence intensity measurements, including PI assay and annexin V assay. For simple detection, we used the Individual Cell Scanner (IC-S), which enables the measurement of early events in individual cells. Healthy mononuclear cells (MNC), and MNC derived from RA patients, were tested by the IC-S while utilizing fluorescence polarization (FP) measurements of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) as an established marker of activation or suppression. In healthy activated MNC, we found that MTX, through its early incubation period, interferes with the activation signal obtained by PHA and exerts an apoptotic signal, which is noted by increases in the FP. Comparing our model to six long-standing RA patients and five newly-diagnosed patients revealed significant differences in the FP measurements, including fluorescence depolarization as an early established measurement of lymphocyte activation, and hyperpolarization as a measurement of an early immunosuppressive effect. We conclude that MTX, an effective therapy for RA patients, could easily be tested by fluorescence polarization measurements of FDA before (or during) clinical use in order to predict its efficiency on a specific RA patient. Moreover, the FP measurements can be used for the diagnosis, and making timing and dosage decisions.

  14. Engagement and satisfaction with an Internet-based physical activity intervention in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, M H; Ronday, H K; Peeters, A J; Voogt-van der Harst, E M; Munneke, M; Breedveld, F C; Vliet Vlieland, T P M

    2007-03-01

    To assess the engagement in and satisfaction with an Internet-mediated physical activity intervention with individual supervision in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The intervention studied was one of the two strategies aimed at enhancing physical activity in RA patients that were being compared in a randomized controlled trial. A total of 82 patients, all experienced in using Internet and e-mail and registered at three different rheumatology out-patient clinics, were randomly allocated to the Internet-mediated individualized intervention (52 weeks). They had access to personal physical activity schedules and received individual supervision by a physical therapist by means of weekly e-mail feedback. In addition, telephone contacts, an online discussion forum, six face-to-face group meetings and electronic newsletters were offered. Besides registration of returned physical activity schedules, engagement and satisfaction were measured through questionnaires. The median physical activity schedule return rate of the 82 participants was 55%. The mean number of patients logging into the website at least once a week was 53 (70%) over 12 months. Of all patients, 69 returned the questionnaires (response 84%). Telephone contacts were used by 38/67 patients (57%), the mean (SD) number of attended group meetings was 3.1 (1.5) and the discussion forum comprised 15 posted messages. Overall, the proportions of patients being (very) satisfied with the amount of e-mail contacts, telephone contacts, usefulness of website information, physical activity schedules, group meetings and website layout were >/=85%. A smaller proportion of patients were satisfied with the links to other websites (68%), the newsletters (55%) and the online discussion forum (32%). Physical activity schedules with weekly feedback by e-mail, telephone contacts and a limited number of group meetings were frequently used website tools and modes of communication of an Internet-based physical activity

  15. Role of vitamin D supplementation in improving disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekara, S; Patted, Anand

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this exploratory study is to estimate the relationship between vitamin D (vit D) deficiency and active rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and the role of supplementation in improving disease activity. A randomized recruitment, consent screening, open-label interventional study was conducted in patients who fulfilled American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism 2010 criteria for diagnosing RA and on stable disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for 3 months. Serum vit D levels and Disease Activity Score of 28 joints/C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) disease activity status were estimated at the first visit. Subjects with low vit D levels and DAS28-CRP > 2.6 were supplemented with vit D for 12 weeks, and were assessed for improvement in disease activity and serum vit D levels. One hundred and fifty RA patients of mean age 49 ± 12.1 years, mean duration of illness 78 ± 63 months, and on treatment with DMARDs for 44 ± 39 months were recruited for the study. Of these, 73 (49%) subjects were found to have DAS28-CRP > 2.6 and serum vit D below 20 ng/mL. The patients received vit D supplement of 60 000 IU/week for 6 weeks, followed by 60 000 IU/month for a total duration of 3 months. Disease activity and vit D status were assessed for 59 (80.8%) patients who reported at the end of 12 weeks of treatment. Mean DAS28-CRP of these patients showed a statistically significant improvement from 3.68 ± 0.93 at baseline to 3.08 ± 1.11 after supplementation (P = 0.002). Serum vit D levels improved from 10.05 ± 5.18 to 57.21 ± 24.77 ng/mL (P < 0.001) during the period. Supplementation of vit D in RA patients with persisting disease activity and vit D deficiency contributed to significant improvement in disease activity within a short duration. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Sarcopenia in rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence, influence of disease activity and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Ngeuleu, Ange; Allali, F; Medrare, L; Madhi, A; Rkain, H; Hajjaj-Hassouni, N

    2017-06-01

    Evaluate the prevalence of sarcopenia on patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the influence of sarcopenia on disease activity and factors associated with sarcopenia. One hundred and twenty-three patients aged over 18 years with RA based on the 1987 ACR/EULAR classification criteria were enrolled. We performed a whole body DXA scan using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner lunar prodigy to measure fat mass, lean mass, and bone mass in the whole body and body parts. According to the anthropometric equation by Baumgartner et al., sarcopenia was defined as Relative skeletal mass index (RSMI) <5.5 kg/m 2 on women and <7.26 kg/m 2 on men. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were measured and patients were classified according to World Health Organization. Disease activity was evaluated by: disease activity score 28 ESR (DAS28 ESR), disease activity score 28 CRP (DAS28 CRP), clinical disease activity index (CDAI), simplify disease activity index (SDAI). We measured functional disability by Health assessment questionnaire (HAQ). History and previous medication use including steroids were also checked, and comorbidities were recorded. We analyzed the relation between disease parameters and sarcopenia with the r of Pearson and Spearman. Factors associated and related to sarcopenia were assessed using multiple regression analysis and t independent test. We included 123 patients (107 women). 49 subjects (39.8%) where suffering from sarcopenia, of which 40 women. Most of the sarcopenic patients were between 41 and 50 years old. Sarcopenia on female subjects was not related to parameters of disease activity evaluated by DAS 28, CDAI and SDAI. Most of the sarcopenic patients had normal BMI and abnormal waist circumference. In simple regression analysis sarcopenia was related to BMI, DAS 28 ESR, bone erosion, waist circumference and HAQ. In multiple regression analysis, sarcopenia was positively related to an increase cardiometabolic risk [p

  17. Physical articular examination in the activity of rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review of the literature : Systematic review of the literature regarding physical examination in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Medina, Yimy F; Ruíz-Gaviria, Rafael Eduardo; Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Villota, Catalina

    2018-06-01

    To summarize evidence concerning the articular examination needed to determine rheumatoid arthritis (RA) activity (follow-up or control) via a systematic review. A search of Medline, Embase, Lilacs, SciELO, the Web of Science, the National Technical Reports Library, and the reference lists of relevant studies through March 2017 was conducted using a systematic methodology to identify studies of patients with RA older than 18 years in which a detailed description of the physical examination or a description of the components of the articular examination was provided. Of 8322 references, 74 studies were included according to the selection criteria, and 6 references were ultimately included at the end of the review. Most of the included studies (n = 5) were associated with a moderate risk of bias. There was great variability among the studies and the articular examination methods used. Some studies presented the examination with a complete specification of the technique (n = 2), the consensus of rheumatologists (n = 2), or training through audiovisual materials and face-to-face courses (n = 2), but none of the studies explicitly showed the technique by which the physical examination was performed. Despite the importance of the clinical evaluation and physical examination of patients with RA for diagnosis, prognosis, clinimetrics, and follow-up, evidence concerning how to perform the articular examination is scarce.

  18. Does a lack of physical activity explain the rheumatoid arthritis lipid profile?

    PubMed

    AbouAssi, Hiba; Connelly, Margery A; Bateman, Lori A; Tune, K Noelle; Huebner, Janet L; Kraus, Virginia B; Winegar, Deborah A; Otvos, James D; Kraus, William E; Huffman, Kim M

    2017-02-10

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), cardiovascular risk is associated with paradoxical reductions in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Concentrations of small LDL (LDL-P) and HDL (HDL-P) particles are also reduced with increased inflammation and disease activity in RA patients. Here we sought to identify which measure(s) of inflammation, disease activity and cardiometabolic risk contribute most to the RA-associated lipoprotein profile. NMR lipoprotein measurements were obtained for individuals with RA (n = 50) and age-, gender-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (n = 39). Groups were compared using 39 matched pairs with 11 additional subjects used in RA only analyses. Among RA patients, relationships were determined for lipoprotein parameters with measures of disease activity, disability, pain, inflammation, body composition, insulin sensitivity and exercise. Percentage of time spent in basal activity (<1 metabolic equivalent) and exercise (≥3 metabolic equivalents) were objectively-determined. Subjects with RA had fewer total and small LDL-P as well as larger LDL and HDL size (P < 0.05). Among RA patients, pain and disability were associated with fewer small HDL-P (P < 0.05), while interleukin (IL)-6, IL-18, and TNF-α were associated with LDL size (P < 0.05). BMI, waist circumference, abdominal visceral adiposity and insulin resistance were associated with more total and small LDL-P, fewer large HDL-P, and a reduction in HDL size (P < 0.05). Most similar to the RA lipoprotein profile, more basal activity (minimal physical activity) and less exercise time were associated with fewer small LDL-P and total and small HDL-P (P < 0.05). The RA-associated lipoprotein profile is associated with a lack of physical activity. As this was a cross-sectional investigation and not an intervention and was performed from 2008-13, this study was not registered in

  19. Second-hand exposure to tobacco smoke and its effect on disease activity in Swedish rheumatoid arthritis patients. Data from BARFOT, a multicenter study of RA.

    PubMed

    Söderlin, Maria K; Andersson, Maria; Bergman, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    We studied the prevalence and effect on disease activity of ever having had second-hand exposure to tobacco smoke in Swedish rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who had never smoked. Between 1992 and 2005, 2,800 patients were included in the BARFOT early-RA study in Sweden. Disease Activity Score 28 joints (DAS28), C-reactive protein (CRP), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), rheumatoid factor (RF), general health and pain visual analogue scales (VAS), and drug treatment were registered at inclusion and at follow-up at 3, 6, and 12 months and 2 and 5 years. EULAR response criteria were applied at the same follow-up points. In 2010, a self-completion postal questionnaire was sent to 2,102 patients in the BARFOT study enquiring about lifestyle habits such as whether they had ever been exposed to tobacco smoke as a result of someone else smoking. A total of 963/1,421 patients (68%) had had second-hand exposure to tobacco smoke. At 3, 6, and 12 months, at 2 years, and at 5 years of follow-up, there were no differences in EULAR response between patients who had never smoked and who had been exposed or had not been exposed second-hand to tobacco smoke (p=0.91, p=0.88, p=0.84, p=0.61 and p=0.85, respectively). We did not find any association between second-hand exposure to tobacco smoke and disease activity in RA.

  20. Smoking in combination with antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides is associated with persistently high levels of survivin in early rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction High levels of the oncoprotein survivin may be detected in the majority of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Survivin is a sensitive predictor of joint damage and persistent disease activity. Survivin-positive patients are often poor responders to antirheumatic and biological treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of survivin status and its significance for clinical and immunological assessment of RA patients. Methods Survivin levels were measured in 339 patients from the Better Anti-Rheumatic FarmacOTherapy (BARFOT) cohort of early RA at baseline and after 24 months. The association of survivin status with joint damage (total Sharp-van der Heijde score), disease activity (Disease Activity Score based on evaluation of 28 joints (DAS28)), functional disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)), and pain perception (Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)) was calculated in the groups positive and negative for survivin on both occasions, and for the positive-negative and negative-positive groups. Results In 268 patients (79%) the levels of survivin were similar at baseline and after 24 months, 15% converted from survivin-positive to survivin-negative, and 5% from survivin-negative to survivin-positive. A combination of smoking and antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (aCCP) predicted persistently (baseline and 24 months) high levels of survivin (odds ratio 4.36 (95% CI: 2.64 to 7.20), P < 0.001), positive predictive value 0.66 and specificity 0.83). The independent nature of survivin and aCCP was demonstrated by statistical and laboratory analysis. Survivin positivity on both test occasions was associated with the progression of joint damage, significantly higher DAS28 and lower rate of remission at 24 and 60 months compared to negative-negative patients. Survivin status was less associated with changes in HAQ and VAS. Conclusions Survivin is a relevant and reproducible marker of severe RA

  1. Vitamin D status and its association with quality of life, physical activity, and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Raczkiewicz, Anna; Kisiel, Bartłomiej; Kulig, Maciej; Tłustochowicz, Witold

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and may be related to disease activity. Population-based studies have shown the influence of vitamin D deficiency on quality of life (QoL), but it was not investigated in RA patients. The aim of the study was to determine possible relationship between vitamin D deficiency, QoL, physical activity (PA), and disease activity in RA. In 97 consecutive RA patients without vitamin D supplementation (86 women and 11 men, aged 59.4 ± 12 years), serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D), calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone were measured. The patients completed Short Form 36 (SF-36), Beck Depression Inventory, and Health Assessment Questionnaire, assessed the intensity of pain, fatigue, and PA. Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints was used to assess disease activity. A comparison control group consisted of 28 osteoarthritis patients (25 women and 3 men aged 56.2 ± 15 years). Vitamin D deficiency was detected in 76.3% of RA and in 78.6% of osteoarthritis patients (P = 0.75). There was a negative correlation between 25(OH)D serum concentration and Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints in patients with active arthritis. There was a positive correlation between serum 25(OH)D and the level of PA and most aspects of SF-36, and negative correlation between serum 25(OH)D and Health Assessment Questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory in patients with disease duration of 1 year or longer. After inclusion of PA into multivariable analysis, only the correlations between 25(OH)D and SF-36 mental subscale (MCS) and pain remained significant. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in RA patients and is associated with higher disease activity and worse QoL indices. Regular PA correlates with higher vitamin D titers and better QoL in RA. Further studies are needed to explain possible influence of vitamin D on RA activity.

  2. Conversion to seronegative status after abatacept treatment in patients with early and poor prognostic rheumatoid arthritis is associated with better radiographic outcomes and sustained remission: post hoc analysis of the AGREE study.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Diahann T S L; Emery, Paul; Smolen, Josef S; Westhovens, Rene; Le Bars, Manuela; Connolly, Sean E; Ye, June; Toes, René E M; Huizinga, Tom W J

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the T-cell costimulation blocker abatacept on anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) and rheumatoid factor (RF) in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and associations between changes in serological status and clinical response. Post hoc analysis of the phase III AGREE study in methotrexate (MTX)-naïve patients with early RA and poor prognostic factors. Patients were randomised to abatacept (~10 mg/kg intravenously according to weight range) or placebo, plus MTX over 12 months followed by open-label abatacept plus MTX for 12 months. Autoantibody titres were determined by ELISA at baseline and months 6 and 12 (double-blind phase). Conversion to seronegative status and its association with clinical response were assessed at months 6 and 12. Abatacept plus MTX was associated with a greater decrease in ACPA (but not RF) titres and higher rates of both ACPA and RF conversion to seronegative status versus MTX alone. More patients converting to ACPA seronegative status receiving abatacept plus MTX achieved remission according to Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (C-reactive protein) or Clinical Disease Activity Index than patients who remained ACPA seropositive. Patients who converted to ACPA seronegative status treated with abatacept plus MTX had a greater probability of achieving sustained remission and less radiographic progression than MTX alone or patients who remained ACPA seropositive (either treatment). Treatment with abatacept plus MTX was more likely to induce conversion to ACPA/RF seronegative status in patients with early, erosive RA. Conversion to ACPA seronegative status was associated with better clinical and radiographic outcomes. NCT00122382.

  3. Conversion to seronegative status after abatacept treatment in patients with early and poor prognostic rheumatoid arthritis is associated with better radiographic outcomes and sustained remission: post hoc analysis of the AGREE study

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Paul; Smolen, Josef S; Westhovens, Rene; Le Bars, Manuela; Connolly, Sean E; Ye, June; Toes, René E M; Huizinga, Tom W J

    2018-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of the T-cell costimulation blocker abatacept on anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) and rheumatoid factor (RF) in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and associations between changes in serological status and clinical response. Methods Post hoc analysis of the phase III AGREE study in methotrexate (MTX)-naïve patients with early RA and poor prognostic factors. Patients were randomised to abatacept (~10 mg/kg intravenously according to weight range) or placebo, plus MTX over 12 months followed by open-label abatacept plus MTX for 12 months. Autoantibody titres were determined by ELISA at baseline and months 6 and 12 (double-blind phase). Conversion to seronegative status and its association with clinical response were assessed at months 6 and 12. Results Abatacept plus MTX was associated with a greater decrease in ACPA (but not RF) titres and higher rates of both ACPA and RF conversion to seronegative status versus MTX alone. More patients converting to ACPA seronegative status receiving abatacept plus MTX achieved remission according to Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (C-reactive protein) or Clinical Disease Activity Index than patients who remained ACPA seropositive. Patients who converted to ACPA seronegative status treated with abatacept plus MTX had a greater probability of achieving sustained remission and less radiographic progression than MTX alone or patients who remained ACPA seropositive (either treatment). Conclusions Treatment with abatacept plus MTX was more likely to induce conversion to ACPA/RF seronegative status in patients with early, erosive RA. Conversion to ACPA seronegative status was associated with better clinical and radiographic outcomes. Trial registration number NCT00122382 PMID:29657830

  4. Recommendations and the state of the evidence for physical activity interventions for adults with rheumatoid arthritis: 2007 to present

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Maura D; Brawerman, Marisa; Iversen, Christina N

    2013-01-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are twice as likely as their healthy peers to suffer from cardiovascular disease. RA is also a major cause of disability and reduced quality of life. Clinical trials of exercise and physical activity interventions demonstrate positive effects on muscle strength, function, aerobic capacity, mood and disability. While RA management guidelines emphasize the role of exercise and physical activity in the management of RA, the description of physical activity and exercise is vague and patients with RA remain less physically active than their healthy counterparts. This review discusses the benefits of physical activity and current physical activity recommendations in RA, describes measurement techniques to assess physical activity, and synthesizes the data from interventions to promote physical activity and improve health outcomes in adults with RA. PMID:23538738

  5. Role overload, pain and physical dysfunction in early rheumatoid or undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis in Canada.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Sally Sabry; Looper, Karl Julian; Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Purden, Margaret; Baron, Murray

    2012-05-03

    Inflammatory arthritis impairs participation in societal roles. Role overload arises when the demands by a given role set exceed the resources; time and energy, to carry out the required tasks. The present study examines the association between role overload and disease outcomes in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Patients (n = 104) of 7.61 months mean duration of inflammatory arthritis completed self-report questionnaires on sociodemographics, disease characteristics and role overload. Pain was assessed using the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and physical functioning was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) physical functioning score. Role overload was measured by the Role Overload Scale. Patients indicated the number of social roles they occupied from a total of the three typical roles; marital, parental and paid work. Participants' mean age was 56 years and 70.2% were female. Role overload was not correlated to the number of social roles, however, it was positively associated with pain (p = 0.004) and negatively associated with physical functioning (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, role overload was negatively associated with physical functioning after controlling for the relevant sociodemographic variables. This study identifies a possible reciprocal relationship between role overload and physical functioning in patients with EIA.

  6. Role overload, pain and physical dysfunction in early rheumatoid or undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammatory arthritis impairs participation in societal roles. Role overload arises when the demands by a given role set exceed the resources; time and energy, to carry out the required tasks. The present study examines the association between role overload and disease outcomes in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Methods Patients (n = 104) of 7.61 months mean duration of inflammatory arthritis completed self-report questionnaires on sociodemographics, disease characteristics and role overload. Pain was assessed using the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and physical functioning was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) physical functioning score. Role overload was measured by the Role Overload Scale. Patients indicated the number of social roles they occupied from a total of the three typical roles; marital, parental and paid work. Results Participants’ mean age was 56 years and 70.2% were female. Role overload was not correlated to the number of social roles, however, it was positively associated with pain (p = 0.004) and negatively associated with physical functioning (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, role overload was negatively associated with physical functioning after controlling for the relevant sociodemographic variables. Conclusion This study identifies a possible reciprocal relationship between role overload and physical functioning in patients with EIA. PMID:22554167

  7. Value of ultrasonography as a marker of early response to abatacept in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and an inadequate response to methotrexate: results from the APPRAISE study

    PubMed Central

    D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Wakefield, Richard J; Berner-Hammer, Hilde; Vittecoq, Olivier; Filippou, Georgios; Balint, Peter; Möller, Ingrid; Iagnocco, Annamaria; Naredo, Esperanza; Østergaard, Mikkel; Boers, Maarten; Gaillez, Corine; Van Holder, Karina; Le Bars, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To study the responsiveness of a combined power Doppler and greyscale ultrasound (PDUS) score for assessing synovitis in biologic-naïve patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) starting abatacept plus methotrexate (MTX). Methods In this open-label, multicentre, single-arm study, patients with RA (MTX inadequate responders) received intravenous abatacept (∼10 mg/kg) plus MTX for 24 weeks. A composite PDUS synovitis score, developed by the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology–European League Against Rheumatism (OMERACT–EULAR)-Ultrasound Task Force, was used to evaluate individual joints. The maximal score of each joint was added into a Global OMERACT–EULAR Synovitis Score (GLOESS) for bilateral metacarpophalangeal joints (MCPs) 2–5 (primary objective). The value of GLOESS containing other joint sets was explored, along with clinical efficacy. Results Eighty-nine patients completed the 24-week treatment period. The earliest PDUS sign of improvement in synovitis was at week 1 (mean change in GLOESS (MCPs 2–5): −0.7 (95% CIs −1.2 to −0.1)), with continuous improvement to week 24. Early improvement was observed in the component scores (power Doppler signal at week 1, synovial hyperplasia at week 2, joint effusion at week 4). Comparable changes were observed for 22 paired joints and minimal joint subsets. Mean Disease Activity Score 28 (C reactive protein) was significantly reduced from weeks 1 to 24, reaching clinical meaningful improvement (change ≥1.2) at week 8. Conclusions In this first international prospective study, the composite PDUS score is responsive to abatacept. GLOESS demonstrated the rapid onset of action of abatacept, regardless of the number of joints examined. Ultrasound is an objective tool to monitor patients with RA under treatment. Trial registration number NCT00767325. PMID:26590174

  8. Active matrix metalloproteinase-8 and periodontal bacteria depending on periodontal status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, A; Jäger, J; Krohn-Grimberghe, B; Patschan, S; Kottmann, T; Schmalz, G; Mausberg, R F; Haak, R; Ziebolz, D

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this clinical cross-sectional study was to determine the level of active matrix metalloproteinase-8 (aMMP-8) and periodontal pathogenic bacteria in gingival crevicular fluid in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with varying periodontal conditions. In total, 103 patients with RA and 104 healthy controls (HC) were included. The assessment of periodontal status included periodontal probing depth, bleeding on probing and clinical attachment loss. Periodontal disease was classified as healthy/mild, moderate or severe. For the determination of aMMP-8 levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and periodontal pathogenic bacteria using polymerase chain reaction, samples of gingival crevicular fluid were taken from the deepest gingival pockets. The statistical analyses used included a Mann-Whitney U-test, a chi-squared test or a Fisher's exact test, and the significance level was set at α = 5%. We found that 65% of patients with RA and 79% of HC had moderate to severe periodontal disease (p = 0.02). The prevalence of periodontal pathogens was almost equal (p > 0.05). Furthermore, depending on periodontal disease severity only minor differences in bacterial prevalence were detected. With increasing severity of periodontal disease, higher aMMP-8 levels were observed. Accordingly, a significant difference in patients with moderate periodontal disease (RA: 15.3 ± 13.8; HC: 9.1 ± 9.1; p ≤ 0.01) and severe periodontal disease (RA: 21.7 ± 13.3; HC: 13.1 ± 8.6; p = 0.07) was detected, with a greater tendency in the latter group. The increased aMMP-8 levels in the RA group indicate that the presence of RA appears to have an influence on the host response at a comparable level of bacterial load and periodontal disease severity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Trajectories of functional limitation in early rheumatoid arthritis and their association with mortality.

    PubMed

    Norton, Sam; Sacker, Amanda; Dixey, Josh; Done, John; Williams, Peter; Young, Adam

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to identify subgroups with distinct trajectories of functional (HAQ) progression over 10 years following diagnosis of RA and identify baseline characteristics associated with the trajectories and their prognostic value for mortality. Between 1986 and 1998, 1460 patients with RA symptoms <2 years and prior to disease-modifying treatment (DMARDs) were recruited to an inception cohort (Early RA Study). Standard clinical, functional and laboratory assessments were performed at presentation and annually. Deaths were tracked by the National Health Service Central Register. Growth mixture modelling was used to identify distinct trajectories of HAQ score progression and survival analysis employed to compare all-cause mortality across the trajectory classes. Four HAQ score progression classes were identified: moderate increasing (46%), low stable (6%), moderate stable (28%) and high stable (20%). Only the moderate-increasing class exhibited an accelerated decline in function over normal ageing. Compared with the moderate-increasing class, individuals with high-stable HAQ scores were more likely to be female, have more severe disease and other coexistent conditions. Low-stable class patients were more likely to be male and report less pain. The high-stable class had increased risk of mortality compared with the moderate-increasing class after adjusting for potential confounding factors, whereas low-stable and moderate-stable classes were at reduced mortality risk. The effect of RA on function is set within the first few years and is affected by comorbidity. Identifying distinct groups of patients may help to target those at greater risk of poor functional outcome and mortality.

  10. Cut-Offs and Response Criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) and Their Comparison to Widely-Used Indices of Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Castrejón, Isabel; Ortiz, Ana M; Toledano, Esther; Castañeda, Santos; García-Vadillo, Alberto; Carmona, Loreto

    2016-01-01

    To estimate cut-off points and to establish response criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) in patients with chronic polyarthritis. Two cohorts, one of early arthritis (Princesa Early Arthritis Register Longitudinal [PEARL] study) and other of long-term rheumatoid arthritis (Estudio de la Morbilidad y Expresión Clínica de la Artritis Reumatoide [EMECAR]) including altogether 1200 patients were used to determine cut-off values for remission, and for low, moderate and high activity through receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis. The areas under ROC (AUC) were compared to those of validated indexes (SDAI, CDAI, DAS28). ROC analysis was also applied to establish minimal and relevant clinical improvement for HUPI. The best cut-off points for HUPI are 2, 5 and 9, classifying RA activity as remission if ≤2, low disease activity if >2 and ≤5), moderate if >5 and <9 and high if ≥9. HUPI's AUC to discriminate between low-moderate activity was 0.909 and between moderate-high activity 0.887. DAS28's AUCs were 0.887 and 0.846, respectively; both indices had higher accuracy than SDAI (AUCs: 0.832 and 0.756) and CDAI (AUCs: 0.789 and 0.728). HUPI discriminates remission better than DAS28-ESR in early arthritis, but similarly to SDAI. The HUPI cut-off for minimal clinical improvement was established at 2 and for relevant clinical improvement at 4. Response criteria were established based on these cut-off values. The cut-offs proposed for HUPI perform adequately in patients with either early or long term arthritis.

  11. Cut-Offs and Response Criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) and Their Comparison to Widely-Used Indices of Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Castrejón, Isabel; Ortiz, Ana M.; Toledano, Esther; Castañeda, Santos; García-Vadillo, Alberto; Carmona, Loreto

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate cut-off points and to establish response criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) in patients with chronic polyarthritis. Methods Two cohorts, one of early arthritis (Princesa Early Arthritis Register Longitudinal [PEARL] study) and other of long-term rheumatoid arthritis (Estudio de la Morbilidad y Expresión Clínica de la Artritis Reumatoide [EMECAR]) including altogether 1200 patients were used to determine cut-off values for remission, and for low, moderate and high activity through receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis. The areas under ROC (AUC) were compared to those of validated indexes (SDAI, CDAI, DAS28). ROC analysis was also applied to establish minimal and relevant clinical improvement for HUPI. Results The best cut-off points for HUPI are 2, 5 and 9, classifying RA activity as remission if ≤2, low disease activity if >2 and ≤5), moderate if >5 and <9 and high if ≥9. HUPI’s AUC to discriminate between low-moderate activity was 0.909 and between moderate-high activity 0.887. DAS28’s AUCs were 0.887 and 0.846, respectively; both indices had higher accuracy than SDAI (AUCs: 0.832 and 0.756) and CDAI (AUCs: 0.789 and 0.728). HUPI discriminates remission better than DAS28-ESR in early arthritis, but similarly to SDAI. The HUPI cut-off for minimal clinical improvement was established at 2 and for relevant clinical improvement at 4. Response criteria were established based on these cut-off values. Conclusions The cut-offs proposed for HUPI perform adequately in patients with either early or long term arthritis. PMID:27603313

  12. Twenty‐Year Outcome and Association Between Early Treatment and Mortality and Disability in an Inception Cohort of Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results From the Norfolk Arthritis Register

    PubMed Central

    Gwinnutt, James M.; Symmons, Deborah P. M.; MacGregor, Alexander J.; Chipping, Jacqueline R.; Marshall, Tarnya; Lunt, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe the outcome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) over 20 years from symptom onset, and to assess the association between early treatment (with disease‐modifying antirheumatic drugs/steroids) and mortality and disability during follow‐up. Methods Patients recruited to the Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR) between 1990 and 1994 who met the 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism RA criteria at baseline were included in this analysis. Demographic and clinical variables were collected at baseline and at years 1–3, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 20. Disease activity (swollen joint count [SJC]/tender joint count [TJC]), disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index [HAQ DI]), and mortality over 20 years were determined. Associations between treatment group (early treatment [ET], treatment ≤6 months after symptom onset; late treatment [LT], treatment >6 months after symptom onset; never treatment [NT], no treatment) and mortality and disability were assessed using weighted pooled logistic regression and weighted multilevel mixed‐effects linear regression, respectively. Inverse weights were used to account for confounding by indication and censoring. Results This study included 602 patients with RA (median age 56 years [interquartile range 44–68 years]; 65.9% women). The median SJCs and TJCs were low during the follow‐up period (1–3 swollen joints and 3–6 tender joints). The median HAQ DI score increased after year 1 but remained at low/moderate levels (median 1.25 after year 10). The risk of mortality was reduced in the ET and LT groups compared with that in the NT group. The ET group and the NT group had comparable HAQ DI scores during the follow‐up period (β = 0.03, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] −0.06, 0.12), while the HAQ DI score was increased in the LT group (for LT versus NT, β = 0.10 [95% CI 0.02, 0.17]). Conclusion The results of this study indicate the importance of

  13. A Phase III Study Evaluating Continuation, Tapering, and Withdrawal of Certolizumab Pegol After One Year of Therapy in Patients With Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, Clifton O.; Burmester, Gerd‐Rüdiger; Bykerk, Vivian P.; Furst, Daniel E.; Mariette, Xavier; van der Heijde, Désirée; van Vollenhoven, Ronald; VanLunen, Brenda; Ecoffet, Cécile; Cioffi, Christopher; Emery, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Objective In disease‐modifying antirheumatic drug–naive patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who had achieved sustained low disease activity (a Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate of ≤3.2 at both week 40 and week 52) after 1 year of treatment with certolizumab pegol (CZP) at a standard dose (200 mg every 2 weeks plus optimized methotrexate [MTX]), we evaluated whether continuation of CZP treatment at a standard dose or at a reduced frequency (200 mg every 4 weeks plus MTX) was superior to stopping CZP (placebo plus MTX) in maintaining low disease activity for 1 additional year. Methods A total of 293 patients from period 1 of our study were re‐randomized 2:3:2 in period 2 to CZP at a standard dose (n = 84), CZP at a reduced frequency (n = 127), or placebo plus MTX (CZP stopped) (n = 82). The primary end point was the percentage of patients who maintained low disease activity throughout weeks 52–104 without flares. We used a hierarchical testing scheme, comparing CZP at a standard dose with CZP stopped. If P < 0.05 was achieved, then CZP at a reduced frequency was compared with CZP stopped (nonresponder imputation). Results The 293 patients from period 1 represented 36% fewer patients than projected, yielding a smaller number of patients eligible for period 2. Higher proportions of patients treated with the standard and reduced frequency regimens maintained low disease activity than those who had stopped CZP (48.8% and 53.2%, respectively, versus 39.2% [P = 0.112 and P = 0.041, respectively; nominal P value, first hierarchical test not significant]). Similar trends were observed for radiographic nonprogression (change from baseline of ≤0.5 in modified Sharp/van der Heijde score; 79.2% and 77.9% of patients, respectively, versus 70.3%) and normative physical function (Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index score of ≤0.5; 71.4% and 70.6% of patients, respectively, versus 57

  14. Ratio of Circulating IFNγ (+) "Th17 Cells" in Memory Th Cells Is Inversely Correlated with the Titer of Anti-CCP Antibodies in Early-Onset Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Based on Flow Cytometry Methods of the Human Immunology Project.

    PubMed

    Kotake, Shigeru; Nanke, Yuki; Yago, Toru; Kawamoto, Manabu; Kobashigawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease with chronic joint inflammation characterized by activated T cells. IL-17 and Th17 cells play important roles in the pathogenesis of RA. Recently, plasticity in helper T cells has been demonstrated; Th17 cells can convert to Th1 cells. However, it remains to be elucidated whether this conversion occurs in the early phase of RA. Here, we validated the methods of the Human Immunology Project using only the cell-surface marker through measuring the actual expression of IL-17 and IFNγ. We also evaluated the expression of CD161 in human Th17 cells. We then tried to identify Th17 cells, IL-17(+)Th17 cells, and IFNγ (+)Th17 cells in the peripheral blood of early-onset RA patients using the standardized method of the Human Immunology Project. Our findings validated the method and the expression of CD161. The ratio of IFNγ (+)Th17 cells in memory T cells was inversely correlated to the titers of anti-CCP antibodies in the early-onset RA patients. These findings suggest that Th17 cells play important roles in the early phase of RA and that anti-IL-17 antibodies should be administered to patients with early phase RA, especially those with high titers of CCP antibodies.

  15. Association of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, anti-citrullin antibodies, and IgM and IgA rheumatoid factors with serological parameters of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Alexander; Plischke, Herbert; Kellner, Herbert; Gruber, Rudolf

    2005-06-01

    We evaluated the association of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody titers with serological markers of disease activity. We also compared three different anti-CCP antibody ELISAs with an anti-citrullin ELISA and the IgM and the IgA rheumatoid factor (RF) in their performance of discriminating between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other rheumatic diseases. Sera from 333 consecutive patients of the Rheumaeinheit der Medizinischen Poliklinik Munchen, an outpatient clinic for rheumatic diseases, were collected and tested. Anti-CCP antibodies were assayed with three different commercially available ELISAs. Antifilaggrin antibodies were tested with a commercially available ELISA using in vitro deiminated recombinant rat filaggrin. IgA-RF was analyzed with an ELISA, whereas IgM-RF was measured by latex-enhanced turbidimetry. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was diagnosed in 87 patients according to the revised classification criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), probable RA was diagnosed in 23 patients in an early phase not (yet) fulfilling the ACR criteria, and 223 patients had other rheumatic diseases. Differences in sensitivity and specificity were calculated using McNemar's test. A measure of agreement (kappa statistic) was used to examine whether the tests tended to identify the same patients as positive or negative. Correlations between CCP titers and other tests were analyzed by Spearman nonparametric rank correlation. No significant differences in sensitivity and specificity were found between the tested CCP assays (80.0-80.9% and 97.3-98.1%, respectively). All three CCP tests were slightly but not significantly more sensitive and specific than the anti-citrullin assay (77% and 92%, respectively), comparably sensitive but significantly more specific compared with the IgM-RF (86% and 82%, respectively), and significantly more sensitive but comparably specific compared with the IgA-RF (63% and 94.4%, respectively) in detecting the patients

  16. Tight control of disease activity fails to improve body composition or physical function in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Lemmey, Andrew B; Wilkinson, Thomas J; Clayton, Rebecca J; Sheikh, Fazal; Whale, John; Jones, Hope S J; Ahmad, Yasmeen A; Chitale, Sarang; Jones, Jeremy G; Maddison, Peter J; O'Brien, Thomas D

    2016-10-01

    RA typically features rheumatoid cachexia [loss of muscle mass (MM) and excessive total fat mass (TFM), especially trunk FM], which contributes to physical disability. Since rheumatoid cachexia is driven by inflammation, it would be anticipated that the success of tight control of disease activity, such as treat-to-target (T2T), in attenuating inflammation would benefit body composition and physical function. This aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the impact of T2T on body composition and objectively assessed function in RA patients. A total of 82 RA patients exclusively treated by T2T, were compared with 85 matched sedentary healthy controls (HCs). Body composition was estimated by DXA, with appendicular lean mass the surrogate measure of total MM. Physical function was assessed by knee extensor strength, handgrip strength, 30 s sit-to-stands, 8' up and go, and 50' walk (tests which reflect the ability to perform activities of daily living). Although generally well treated (mean DAS28 = 2.8, with 49% in remission), RA patients had ∼10% proportionally less appendicular lean mass and were considerably fatter (by ∼27%), particularly in the trunk (∼32%), than HCs. All measures of function were 24-34% poorer in the RA patients relative to HC. Despite marked improvements in disease control (most patients achieving or approaching remission), the relative loss of MM and increased adiposity in RA patients compared with matched HCs was similar to that observed pre-T2T. Additionally, performance of objective function tests was unchanged from that reported by our group for pre-T2T RA patients. Thus T2T, even in responsive RA patients, did not attenuate rheumatoid cachexia or improve objectively assessed function. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Cost-utility of COBRA-light versus COBRA therapy in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: the COBRA-light trial

    PubMed Central

    ter Wee, Marieke M; Coupé, Veerle MH; den Uyl, Debby; Blomjous, Birgit S; Kooijmans, Esmee; Kerstens, Pit JSM; Nurmohamed, Mike T; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Boers, Maarten; Lems, Willem F

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate if COmbinatie therapie Bij Reumatoïde Artritis (COBRA)-light therapy is cost-effective in treating patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with COBRA therapy. Methods This economic evaluation was performed next to the open-label, randomised non-inferiority COBRA-light trial in 164 patients with early RA. Non-responders to COBRA or COBRA-light received etanercept (50 mg/week) for 3–6 months. The societal perspective analysis took medical direct, non-medical direct and indirect costs into account. Costs were measured with patient cost diaries for the follow-up period of 52 weeks. Bootstrapping techniques estimated uncertainty around the cost-effectiveness ratios, presented in cost-effectiveness planes. Results 164 patients were randomised to either COBRA or COBRA-light strategy. At week 52, COBRA-light proved to be non-inferior to COBRA therapy on all clinical outcome measures. The results of the base-case cost-utility analysis (intention-to-treat analyses) revealed that COBRA-light strategy is more expensive (k€9.3 (SD 0.9) compared with COBRA (k€7.2 (SD 0.8)), but the difference in costs were not significant (k€2.0; 95% CI –0.3 to 4.4). Also, both strategies produced similar quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The sensitivity analyses showed robustness of these results. In a per-protocol sensitivity analysis, in which costs of etanercept were assumed to be provided as prescribed according to protocol, both arms had much higher costs: COBRA-light: k€11.5 (8.3) compared with k€8.5 (6.8) for COBRA, and the difference in costs was significant (k€2.9; 0.6 to 5.3). Conclusions In the base-case cost-utility analysis, the two strategies produced similar QALYs for similar costs. But it is anticipated that if protocol had been followed correctly, the COBRA-light strategy would have been more costly due to additional etanercept costs, for a limited health gain. Given the limited added benefit and high costs of starting

  18. Cost-utility of COBRA-light versus COBRA therapy in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: the COBRA-light trial.

    PubMed

    Ter Wee, Marieke M; Coupé, Veerle Mh; den Uyl, Debby; Blomjous, Birgit S; Kooijmans, Esmee; Kerstens, Pit Jsm; Nurmohamed, Mike T; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Boers, Maarten; Lems, Willem F

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate if COmbinatie therapie Bij Reumatoïde Artritis (COBRA)-light therapy is cost-effective in treating patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with COBRA therapy. This economic evaluation was performed next to the open-label, randomised non-inferiority COBRA-light trial in 164 patients with early RA. Non-responders to COBRA or COBRA-light received etanercept (50 mg/week) for 3-6 months. The societal perspective analysis took medical direct, non-medical direct and indirect costs into account. Costs were measured with patient cost diaries for the follow-up period of 52 weeks. Bootstrapping techniques estimated uncertainty around the cost-effectiveness ratios, presented in cost-effectiveness planes. 164 patients were randomised to either COBRA or COBRA-light strategy. At week 52, COBRA-light proved to be non-inferior to COBRA therapy on all clinical outcome measures. The results of the base-case cost-utility analysis (intention-to-treat analyses) revealed that COBRA-light strategy is more expensive (k€9.3 (SD 0.9) compared with COBRA (k€7.2 (SD 0.8)), but the difference in costs were not significant (k€2.0; 95% CI -0.3 to 4.4). Also, both strategies produced similar quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The sensitivity analyses showed robustness of these results. In a per-protocol sensitivity analysis, in which costs of etanercept were assumed to be provided as prescribed according to protocol, both arms had much higher costs: COBRA-light: k€11.5 (8.3) compared with k€8.5 (6.8) for COBRA, and the difference in costs was significant (k€2.9; 0.6 to 5.3). In the base-case cost-utility analysis, the two strategies produced similar QALYs for similar costs. But it is anticipated that if protocol had been followed correctly, the COBRA-light strategy would have been more costly due to additional etanercept costs, for a limited health gain. Given the limited added benefit and high costs of starting etanercept in the presence of low disease

  19. Estimating the monetary value of the annual productivity gained in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis receiving etanercept plus methotrexate: interim results from the PRIZE study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Bansback, Nick; Sun, Huiying; Pedersen, Ronald; Kotak, Sameer; Anis, Aslam H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To measure and value the impact of combined etanercept (ETN) and methotrexate (MTX) therapy on work productivity in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) over 52 weeks. Methods MTX- and biological-naïve patients with RA (symptom onset ≤12 months; Disease Activity Score based on a 28-joint count (DAS28) >3.2) received open-label ETN50/MTX for 52 weeks. The Valuation of Lost Productivity (VOLP) questionnaire, measuring paid and unpaid work productivity impacts, was completed approximately every 13 weeks. Bootstrapping methods were used to test changes in VOLP outcomes over time. One-year productivity impacts were compared between responders (DAS28 ≤3.2) at week 13 and non-responders using zero-inflated models for time loss and two-part models for total costs of lost productivity. Results 196 patients were employed at baseline and had ≥1 follow-up with VOLP. Compared with baseline, at week 52, patients gained 33.4 h per 3 months in paid work and 4.2 h per week in unpaid work. Total monetary productivity gains were €1322 per 3 months. Over the 1-year period, responders gained paid (231 h) and unpaid work loss (122 h) compared with non-responders, which amounted to a gain of €3670 for responders. Conclusions This is the first clinical trial to measure and value the impact of biological treatment on all the labour input components that affect overall productivity. Combination therapy with ETN50/MTX was associated with a significant productivity gain for patients with early RA who were still observed at week 52. Over the 1-year treatment period, responders at week 13 suffered significantly less productivity loss than non-responders suggesting this gain was related to treatment response. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00913458 PMID:26535135

  20. Women, men, and rheumatoid arthritis: analyses of disease activity, disease characteristics, and treatments in the QUEST-RA study.

    PubMed

    Sokka, Tuulikki; Toloza, Sergio; Cutolo, Maurizio; Kautiainen, Hannu; Makinen, Heidi; Gogus, Feride; Skakic, Vlado; Badsha, Humeira; Peets, Tõnu; Baranauskaite, Asta; Géher, Pál; Ujfalussy, Ilona; Skopouli, Fotini N; Mavrommati, Maria; Alten, Rieke; Pohl, Christof; Sibilia, Jean; Stancati, Andrea; Salaffi, Fausto; Romanowski, Wojciech; Zarowny-Wierzbinska, Danuta; Henrohn, Dan; Bresnihan, Barry; Minnock, Patricia; Knudsen, Lene Surland; Jacobs, Johannes Wg; Calvo-Alen, Jaime; Lazovskis, Juris; Pinheiro, Geraldo da Rocha Castelar; Karateev, Dmitry; Andersone, Daina; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Yazici, Yusuf; Pincus, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Gender as a predictor of outcomes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has evoked considerable interest over the decades. Historically, there is no consensus whether RA is worse in females or males. Recent reports suggest that females are less likely than males to achieve remission. Therefore, we aimed to study possible associations of gender and disease activity, disease characteristics, and treatments of RA in a large multinational cross-sectional cohort of patients with RA called Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with RA (QUEST-RA). The cohort includes clinical and questionnaire data from patients who were seen in usual care, including 6,004 patients at 70 sites in 25 countries as of April 2008. Gender differences were analyzed for American College of Rheumatology Core Data Set measures of disease activity, DAS28 (disease activity score using 28 joint counts), fatigue, the presence of rheumatoid factor, nodules and erosions, and the current use of prednisone, methotrexate, and biologic agents. Women had poorer scores than men in all Core Data Set measures. The mean values for females and males were swollen joint count-28 (SJC28) of 4.5 versus 3.8, tender joint count-28 of 6.9 versus 5.4, erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 30 versus 26, Health Assessment Questionnaire of 1.1 versus 0.8, visual analog scales for physician global estimate of 3.0 versus 2.5, pain of 4.3 versus 3.6, patient global status of 4.2 versus 3.7, DAS28 of 4.3 versus 3.8, and fatigue of 4.6 versus 3.7 (P < 0.001). However, effect sizes were small-medium and smallest (0.13) for SJC28. Among patients who had no or minimal disease activity (0 to 1) on SJC28, women had statistically significantly higher mean values compared with men in all other disease activity measures (P < 0.001) and met DAS28 remission less often than men. Rheumatoid factor was equally prevalent among genders. Men had nodules more often than women. Women had erosions more often than men, but the statistical significance

  1. Women, men, and rheumatoid arthritis: analyses of disease activity, disease characteristics, and treatments in the QUEST-RA Study

    PubMed Central

    Sokka, Tuulikki; Toloza, Sergio; Cutolo, Maurizio; Kautiainen, Hannu; Makinen, Heidi; Gogus, Feride; Skakic, Vlado; Badsha, Humeira; Peets, Tõnu; Baranauskaite, Asta; Géher, Pál; Újfalussy, Ilona; Skopouli, Fotini N; Mavrommati, Maria; Alten, Rieke; Pohl, Christof; Sibilia, Jean; Stancati, Andrea; Salaffi, Fausto; Romanowski, Wojciech; Zarowny-Wierzbinska, Danuta; Henrohn, Dan; Bresnihan, Barry; Minnock, Patricia; Knudsen, Lene Surland; Jacobs, Johannes WG; Calvo-Alen, Jaime; Lazovskis, Juris; Pinheiro, Geraldo da Rocha Castelar; Karateev, Dmitry; Andersone, Daina; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Yazici, Yusuf; Pincus, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Gender as a predictor of outcomes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has evoked considerable interest over the decades. Historically, there is no consensus whether RA is worse in females or males. Recent reports suggest that females are less likely than males to achieve remission. Therefore, we aimed to study possible associations of gender and disease activity, disease characteristics, and treatments of RA in a large multinational cross-sectional cohort of patients with RA called Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with RA (QUEST-RA). Methods The cohort includes clinical and questionnaire data from patients who were seen in usual care, including 6,004 patients at 70 sites in 25 countries as of April 2008. Gender differences were analyzed for American College of Rheumatology Core Data Set measures of disease activity, DAS28 (disease activity score using 28 joint counts), fatigue, the presence of rheumatoid factor, nodules and erosions, and the current use of prednisone, methotrexate, and biologic agents. Results Women had poorer scores than men in all Core Data Set measures. The mean values for females and males were swollen joint count-28 (SJC28) of 4.5 versus 3.8, tender joint count-28 of 6.9 versus 5.4, erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 30 versus 26, Health Assessment Questionnaire of 1.1 versus 0.8, visual analog scales for physician global estimate of 3.0 versus 2.5, pain of 4.3 versus 3.6, patient global status of 4.2 versus 3.7, DAS28 of 4.3 versus 3.8, and fatigue of 4.6 versus 3.7 (P < 0.001). However, effect sizes were small-medium and smallest (0.13) for SJC28. Among patients who had no or minimal disease activity (0 to 1) on SJC28, women had statistically significantly higher mean values compared with men in all other disease activity measures (P < 0.001) and met DAS28 remission less often than men. Rheumatoid factor was equally prevalent among genders. Men had nodules more often than women. Women had erosions more often than men, but

  2. Effectiveness of different cryotherapies on pain and disease activity in active rheumatoid arthritis. A randomised single blinded controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, H E; Mikkelsson, M K; Kautiainen, H; Pohjolainen, T H; Leirisalo-Repo, M

    2006-01-01

    Local cryotherapy is used to relieve pain and inflammation in injuries and inflammatory conditions. Whole-body cryotherapy is an extreme method administered at -110 degrees C for 2 to 3 minutes. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of cryotherapies on pain and inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Sixty patients with active seropositive RA were recruited in a randomised controlled single-blinded study to receive whole-body cryotherapy at -110 degrees C, whole-body cryotherapy at -60 degrees C, application of local cold air at -30 degrees C and the use of cold packs locally. In the final analysis, the last 2 groups were pooled. The patients had 2-3 cryotherapy sessions daily for one week plus conventional physiotherapy. Clinical and laboratory variables and patient's and physician's global assessments were used to assess the outcome. Disease activity was calculated by DAS. Pain decreased in all treatment groups, most markedly in the whole-body cryotherapy (-110 degrees C) group. DAS decreased slightly with no statistically significant differences between the groups. No serious or permanent adverse effects were detected. Six of 40 patients (15%) discontinued the whole-body cryotherapy. Pain seemed to decrease more in patients in the whole-body cryotherapy at -110 degrees C than during other cryotherapies, but there were no significant differences in the disease activity between the groups. However, cryotherapy at -110 degrees C is expensive and available only in special centres and may have minor adverse effects. Based on our results, whole-body cryotherapy at -110 degrees C is not superior to local cryotherapy commonly used in RA patients for pain relief and as an adjunct to physiotherapy.

  3. IL-33 and soluble ST2 levels as novel predictors for remission and progression of carotid plaque in early rheumatoid arthritis: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiayun; Shang, Qing; Wong, Chun-Kwok; Li, Edmund K; Wang, Shang; Li, Rui-Jie; Lee, Ka-Lai; Leung, Ying-Ying; Ying, King-Yee; Yim, Cheuk-Wan; Kun, Emily W; Leung, Moon-Ho; Li, Martin; Li, Tena K; Zhu, Tracy Y; Yu, Shui-Lian; Kuan, Woon-Pang; Yu, Cheuk-Man; Tam, Lai-Shan

    2015-08-01

    To study the association between the baseline IL-33 and soluble ST2 (sST2) levels with disease remission and progression of carotid atherosclerosis in early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) patients. A total of 98 ERA patients were enrolled. Disease activity and the presence of carotid plaque were evaluated at baseline and 12 months later. Plasma IL-33 and sST2 levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Baseline IL-33 and sST2 levels were associated with inflammatory markers and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Overall, 44(45%), 18(18%), and 21(21%) patients achieved remission based on 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28), Boolean, and simplified disease activity score (SDAI) criteria at 12 months, respectively. Patients with detectable IL-33 at baseline were less likely to achieve DAS28 (P = 0.010) and SDAI remission (P = 0.021), while a lower baseline sST2 level was able to predict DAS28, Boolean, and SDAI remission (P = 0.005, 0.001, and <0.001, respectively). Using multivariate analysis, a lower baseline sST2 level independently predict Boolean (OR = 0.789; P = 0.005) and SDAI remission (0.812; P = 0.008). Regarding carotid atherosclerosis, 9/98(9.2%) patients had plaque progression at 12 months. Baseline IL-33 was detectable in 8/9(89%) and 42/83(51%) of patients with and without plaque progression respectively (P = 0.029). Baseline detectable IL-33 was an independent predictor for plaque progression after adjusting for traditional CV risk factors (P = 0.017). Lower baseline sST2 levels independently predict disease remission and baseline detectable IL-33 independently predicts carotid plaque progression in ERA patients. This study suggests that inflammation induced by the IL-33/ST2 axis may play a significant role in the development of cardiovascular disease in RA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Serodiagnosis and immune profile in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, P; Bhattacharya, S; Chakraborty, M; Pal, B

    1997-11-01

    One hundred and seventy-five cases of clinically diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis, 82 non-rheumatoid cases suffering from various other diseases and 40 healthy normal controls were investigated for detection of rheumatoid factor, quantitation of serum immunoglobulin, demonstration of antinuclear antibody (ANA) and LE cell phenomenon. Microlatex agglutination test of serum for rheumatoid factor (RF) showed 64% positivity in rheumatoid group and 1.2% positivity in non-rheumatoid group. All three immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgA) were found to be raised in serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, whereas only IgA level was elevated in serum of patients with non-rheumatoid diseases. ANA and LE cell phenomenon were observed in 3.4% and 2.8% cases respectively in cases of clinically diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis who had been suffering from severe active rheumatoid arthritis. In non-rheumatoid group RF was positive in significant titre in only one case of leprosy. Synovial fluid and synovium were found to be heavily infiltrated by plasma cells and lymphocytes. RF appears first in synovial fluid and then in serum. Hence RF titre in blood may not attain significant level for the first several months.

  5. [Effects of low-intensity infrared impulse laser therapy on inflammation activity markers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Ilich-Stoianovich, O; Nasonov, E L; Balabanova, R M

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate effects of low-intensity infrared impulse laser therapy (IRILT) on concentration of immunity activation [not readable: see text] (soluble receptors of TNF-alpha and neopterin) and indicator of the inflammation activity (concentration of C-reactive protein) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Enzyme immunoassay, radioimmunoassay, enzyme immunoassay and radial immunodiffusion were used to measure soluble receptors of TNF-alpha, neopterin and C-reactive protein in 38 females with verified RA receiving IRILT or sham procedures. IRILT induced lowering of neopterin, TNF-alpha soluble receptors (p < 0.01) and C-reactive protein (p < 0.01). The findings give pathogenetical grounds for IRILT use in RA as this treatment suppresses functional activity of macrophages which serve the main source of neopterin and the receptors synthesis.

  6. Anti-rheumatoid Arthritis Effect of Kaejadan via Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Activity in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung Jae; Sohn, Eun Jung; Kim, Jung Hyo; Seo, Jai Wha; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2017-03-01

    Although Kaejadan (KJD), an herbal cocktail of three medicinal plants (Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Cinnamomum loureirii, and Salvia miltiorrhiza), has been traditionally used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, its scientific evidence is not fully understood. Hence, we investigated antiinflammatory and analgesic mechanism of KJD in vivo and in vitro. Kaejadan suppressed the number of writhing responses in mice treated by acetic acid and showed antinociceptive effect by tail-flick test. Kaejadan abrogated serotonin or carrageenan or Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced paw edema and also reduced the level of Evans Blue for vascular permeability. Furthermore, KJD effectively reduced the positive responses for C-reactive protein and rheumatoid arthritis test in FCA-treated rats. Of note, KJD inhibited the level of lipid peroxide malondialdehyde and enhanced the level of superoxide dismutase in the hepatic tissues of FCA-treated rats. Additionally, KJD abrogated the levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in lipopolysaccharide and IFN-γ-exposed RAW 264.7 cells. Also, KJD reduced the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 or inducible nitric oxide synthase at protein and mRNA levels in IFN-γ and lipopolysaccharide-exposed RAW 264.7 cells. Overall, our findings demonstrate that KJD exerts antiinflammatory and analgesic effects via enhancement of antioxidant activity and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Physical Activity Assessment Using an Activity Tracker in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Axial Spondyloarthritis: Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Servy, Hervé; Molto, Anna; Sellam, Jérémie; Foltz, Violaine; Gandjbakhch, Frédérique; Hudry, Christophe; Mitrovic, Stéphane; Fautrel, Bruno; Gossec, Laure

    2018-01-01

    Background Physical activity can be tracked using mobile devices and is recommended in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) management. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends at least 150 min per week of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Objective The objectives of this study were to assess and compare physical activity and its patterns in patients with RA and axSpA using an activity tracker and to assess the feasibility of mobile devices in this population. Methods This multicentric prospective observational study (ActConnect) included patients who had definite RA or axSpA, and a smartphone. Physical activity was assessed over 3 months using a mobile activity tracker, recording the number of steps per minute. The number of patients reaching the WHO recommendations was calculated. RA and axSpA were compared, using linear mixed models, for number of steps, proportion of morning steps, duration of total activity, and MVPA. Physical activity trajectories were identified using the K-means method, and factors related to the low activity trajectory were explored by logistic regression. Acceptability was assessed by the mean number of days the tracker was worn over the 3 months (ie, adherence), the percentage of wearing time, and by an acceptability questionnaire. Results A total of 157 patients (83 RA and 74 axSpA) were analyzed; 36.3% (57/157) patients were males, and their mean age was 46 (standard deviation [SD] 12) years and mean disease duration was 11 (SD 9) years. RA and axSpA patients had similar physical activity levels of 16 (SD 11) and 15 (SD 12) min per day of MVPA (P=.80), respectively. Only 27.4% (43/157) patients reached the recommendations with a mean MVPA of 106 (SD 77) min per week. The following three trajectories were identified with constant activity: low (54.1% [85/157] of patients), moderate (42.7% [67/157] of patients), and high (3.2% [5/157] of patients) levels of MVPA. A higher body mass index was

  8. Cellular and molecular perspectives in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Veale, Douglas J; Orr, Carl; Fearon, Ursula

    2017-06-01

    Synovial immunopathology in rheumatoid arthritis is complex involving both resident and infiltrating cells. The synovial tissue undergoes significant neovascularization, facilitating an influx of lymphocytes and monocytes that transform a typically acellular loose areolar membrane into an invasive tumour-like pannus. The microvasculature proliferates to form straight regularly-branching vessels; however, they are highly dysfunctional resulting in reduced oxygen supply and a hypoxic microenvironment. Autoantibodies such as rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies are found at an early stage, often before arthritis has developed, and they have been implicated in the pathogenesis of RA. Abnormal cellular metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction thus ensue and, in turn, through the increased production of reactive oxygen species actively induce inflammation. Key pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors and their signalling pathways, including nuclear factor κB, Janus kinase-signal transducer, are highly activated when immune cells are exposed to hypoxia in the inflamed rheumatoid joint show adaptive survival reactions by activating. This review attempts to highlight those aberrations in the innate and adaptive immune systems including the role of genetic and environmental factors, autoantibodies, cellular alterations, signalling pathways and metabolism that are implicated in the pathogenesis of RA and may therefore provide an opportunity for therapeutic intervention.

  9. A five-year model to assess the early cost-effectiveness of new diagnostic tests in the early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Buisman, Leander R; Luime, Jolanda J; Oppe, Mark; Hazes, Johanna M W; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H

    2016-06-10

    There is a lack of information about the sensitivity, specificity and costs new diagnostic tests should have to improve early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our objective was to explore the early cost-effectiveness of various new diagnostic test strategies in the workup of patients with inflammatory arthritis (IA) at risk of having RA. A decision tree followed by a patient-level state transition model, using data from published literature, cohorts and trials, was used to evaluate diagnostic test strategies. Alternative tests were assessed as add-on to or replacement of the ACR/EULAR 2010 RA classification criteria for all patients and for intermediate-risk patients. Tests included B-cell gene expression (sensitivity 0.60, specificity 0.90, costs €150), MRI (sensitivity 0.90, specificity 0.60, costs €756), IL-6 serum level (sensitivity 0.70, specificity 0.53, costs €50) and genetic assay (sensitivity 0.40, specificity 0.85, costs €750). Patients with IA at risk of RA were followed for 5 years using a societal perspective. Guideline treatment was assumed using tight controlled treatment based on DAS28; if patients had a DAS28 >3.2 at 12 months or later patients could be eligible for starting biological drugs. The outcome was expressed in incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (€2014 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained) and headroom. The B-cell test was the least expensive strategy when used as an add-on and as replacement in intermediate-risk patients, making it the dominant strategy, as it has better health outcomes and lower costs. As add-on for all patients, the B-cell test was also the most cost-effective test strategy. When using a willingness-to-pay threshold of €20,000 per QALY gained, the IL-6 and MRI strategies were not cost-effective, except as replacement. A genetic assay was not cost-effective in any strategy. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis revealed that the B-cell test was consistently superior in all strategies. When

  10. The first national clinical audit for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Firth, J; Snowden, N; Ledingham, J; Rivett, A; Galloway, J; Dennison, E M; MacPhie, E; Ide, Z; Rowe, I; Kandala, N; Jameson, K

    The first national audit for rheumatoid and early inflammatory arthritis has benchmarked care for the first 3 months of follow-up activity from first presentation to a rheumatology service. Access to care, management of early rheumatoid arthritis and support for self care were measured against National Institute for Health and Care Excellence quality standards; impact of early arthritis and experience of care were measured using patient-reported outcome and experience measures. The results demonstrate delays in referral and accessing specialist care and the need for service improvement in treating to target, suppression of high levels of disease activity and support for self-care. Improvements in patient-reported outcomes within 3 months and high levels of overall satisfaction were reported but these results were affected by low response rates. This article presents a summary of the national data from the audit and discusses the implications for nursing practice.

  11. Secukinumab in Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Phase III Randomized, Double-Blind, Active Comparator- and Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Francisco J; Möricke, Rüdiger; Dokoupilova, Eva; Codding, Christine; Neal, Jeffrey; Andersson, Mats; Rohrer, Susanne; Richards, Hanno

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of secukinumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who had an inadequate response to or intolerance of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors. In this phase III study, 551 patients were randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive intravenous secukinumab at a dose of 10 mg/kg (at baseline and weeks 2 and 4) followed by subcutaneous secukinumab at a dose of either 150 mg or 75 mg every 4 weeks or, alternatively, abatacept or placebo on the same dosing schedule. The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving 20% improvement in disease activity according to the American College of Rheumatology response criteria (ACR20) at week 24 in the secukinumab 150 mg or 75 mg treatment groups as compared with placebo. Key secondary end points included change from baseline to week 24 in the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using C-reactive protein level (DAS28-CRP) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index (HAQ DI), as well as the ACR 50% improvement (ACR50) response rate at week 24. The primary efficacy end point was met in patients receiving 150 mg secukinumab, in whom the ACR20 response rate at week 24 was significantly higher than that in the placebo group. The ACR20 response rates at week 24 were 30.7% in patients receiving 150 mg secukinumab (P = 0.0305), 28.3% in those receiving 75 mg secukinumab (P = 0.0916), and 42.8% in those receiving abatacept, compared with 18.1% in the placebo group. A significant reduction in the DAS28-CRP was seen in patients treated with 150 mg secukinumab (P = 0.0495), but not in patients treated with 75 mg secukinumab. Improvements in the HAQ DI and ACR50 response rates were not significant in the 2 secukinumab dose groups compared with the placebo group. The overall safety profile was similar across all treatment groups. Secukinumab at a dose of 150 mg resulted in improvement in signs and symptoms and reduced disease activity in patients with active RA who had an

  12. A protocol for a randomised controlled trial of prefabricated versus customised foot orthoses for people with rheumatoid arthritis: the FOCOS RA trial [Foot Orthoses - Customised v Off-the-Shelf in Rheumatoid Arthritis].

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Kellie S; Godwin, Jon; Hendry, Gordon J; Steultjens, Martijn; Woodburn, Jim

    2018-01-01

    Foot pain is common in rheumatoid arthritis and appears to persist despite modern day medical management. Several clinical practice guidelines currently recommend the use of foot orthoses for the treatment of foot pain in people with rheumatoid arthritis. However, an evidence gap currently exists concerning the comparative clinical- and cost-effectiveness of prefabricated and customised foot orthoses in people with early rheumatoid arthritis. Early intervention with orthotics may offer the best opportunity for positive therapeutic outcomes. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the comparative clinical- and cost-effectiveness of prefabricated versus customised orthoses for reducing foot pain over 12 months. This is a multi-centre two-arm parallel randomised controlled trial comparing prefabricated versus customised orthoses in participants with early rheumatoid arthritis (< 2 years disease duration). A total of 160 (a minimum of 80 randomised to each arm) eligible participants will be recruited from United Kingdom National Health Service Rheumatology Outpatient Clinics. The primary outcome will be foot pain measured via the Foot Function Index pain subscale at 12 months. Secondary outcomes will include foot related impairments and disability via the Foot Impact Scale for rheumatoid arthritis, global functional status via the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire, foot disease activity via the Rheumatoid Arthritis Foot Disease Activity Index, and health-related quality of life at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Process outcomes will include recruitment/retention rates, data completion rates, intervention adherence rates, and participant intervention and trial participation satisfaction. Cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analyses will be undertaken. Outcome measures collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months will be used to evaluate the comparative clinical- and cost- effectiveness of customised versus prefabricated orthoses for this treatment of early

  13. Patient- and clinician-reported outcomes for patients with new presentation of inflammatory arthritis: observations from the National Clinical Audit for Rheumatoid and Early Inflammatory Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ledingham, Joanna M; Snowden, Neil; Rivett, Ali; Galloway, James; Ide, Zoe; Firth, Jill; MacPhie, Elizabeth; Kandala, Ngianga; Dennison, Elaine M; Rowe, Ian

    2017-02-01

    Our aim was to conduct a national audit assessing the impact and experience of early management of inflammatory arthritis by English and Welsh rheumatology units. The audit enables rheumatology services to measure for the first time their performance, patient outcomes and experience, benchmarked to regional and national comparators. All individuals >16 years of age presenting to English and Welsh rheumatology services with suspected new-onset inflammatory arthritis were included in the audit. Clinician- and patient-derived outcome and patient-reported experience measures were collected. Data are presented for the 6354 patients recruited from 1 February 2014 to 31 January 2015. Ninety-seven per cent of English and Welsh trusts participated. At the first specialist assessment, the 28-joint DAS (DAS28) was calculated for 2659 (91%) RA patients [mean DAS28 was 5.0 and mean Rheumatoid Arthritis Impact of Disease (RAID) score was 5.6]. After 3 months of specialist care, the mean DAS28 was 3.5 and slightly >60% achieved a meaningful DAS28 reduction. The average RAID score and reduction in RAID score were 3.6 and 2.4, respectively. Of the working patients ages 16-65 years providing data, 7, 5, 16 and 37% reported that they were unable to work, needed frequent time off work, occasionally and rarely needed time off work due to their arthritis, respectively; only 42% reported being asked about their work. Seventy-eight per cent of RA patients providing data agreed with the statement 'Overall in the last 3 months I have had a good experience of care for my arthritis'; <2% disagreed. This audit demonstrates that most RA patients have severe disease at the time of presentation to rheumatology services and that a significant number continue to have high disease activity after 3 months of specialist care. There is a clear need for the National Health Service to develop better systems for capturing, coding and integrating information from outpatient clinics, including measures of

  14. Patient and clinician reported outcomes for patients with new presentation of inflammatory arthritis: observations from the National Clinical Audit for Rheumatoid and Early Inflammatory Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ledingham, JM; Snowden, N; Rivett, A; Galloway, J; Firth, J; Ide, Z; MacPhie, E; Kandala, N; Dennison, EM; Rowe, I

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to conduct a national audit assessing the impact and experience of early management of inflammatory arthritis by English and Welsh rheumatology units. The audit enables rheumatology services to measure for the first time their performance, patient outcomes and experience, benchmarked to regional and national comparators. Methods All individuals >16 years of age presenting to English and Welsh rheumatology services with suspected new-onset inflammatory arthritis were included in the audit. Clinician- and patient-derived outcome and patient-reported experience measures were collected. Results Data are presented for the 6354 patients recruited from 1 February 2014 to 31 January 2015. Ninety-seven per cent of English and Welsh trusts participated. At the first specialist assessment, the 28-joint DAS (DAS28) was calculated for 2659 (91%) RA patients [mean DAS28 was 5.0 and mean Rheumatoid Arthritis Impact of Disease (RAID) score was 5.6]. After 3 months of specialist care, the mean DAS28 was 3.5 and slightly >60% achieved a meaningful DAS28 reduction. The average RAID score and reduction in RAID score were 3.6 and 2.4, respectively. Of the working patients ages 16–65 years providing data, 7, 5, 16 and 37% reported that they were unable to work, needed frequent time off work, occasionally and rarely needed time off work due to their arthritis, respectively; only 42% reported being asked about their work. Seventy-eight per cent of RA patients providing data agreed with the statement ‘Overall in the last 3 months I have had a good experience of care for my arthritis’; <2% disagreed. Conclusion This audit demonstrates that most RA patients have severe disease at the time of presentation to rheumatology services and that a significant number continue to have high disease activity after 3 months of specialist care. There is a clear need for the National Health Service to develop better systems for capturing, coding and integrating information from

  15. Disparities in rheumatoid arthritis disease activity according to gross domestic product in 25 countries in the QUEST-RA database.

    PubMed

    Sokka, T; Kautiainen, H; Pincus, T; Toloza, S; da Rocha Castelar Pinheiro, G; Lazovskis, J; Hetland, M L; Peets, T; Immonen, K; Maillefert, J F; Drosos, A A; Alten, R; Pohl, C; Rojkovich, B; Bresnihan, B; Minnock, P; Cazzato, M; Bombardieri, S; Rexhepi, S; Rexhepi, M; Andersone, D; Stropuviene, S; Huisman, M; Sierakowski, S; Karateev, D; Skakic, V; Naranjo, A; Baecklund, E; Henrohn, D; Gogus, F; Badsha, H; Mofti, A; Taylor, P; McClinton, C; Yazici, Y

    2009-11-01

    To analyse associations between the clinical status of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the gross domestic product (GDP) of their resident country. The Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (QUEST-RA) cohort includes clinical and questionnaire data from 6004 patients who were seen in usual care at 70 rheumatology clinics in 25 countries as of April 2008, including 18 European countries. Demographic variables, clinical characteristics, RA disease activity measures, including the disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28), and treatment-related variables were analysed according to GDP per capita, including 14 "high GDP" countries with GDP per capita greater than US$24,000 and 11 "low GDP" countries with GDP per capita less than US$11,000. Disease activity DAS28 ranged between 3.1 and 6.0 among the 25 countries and was significantly associated with GDP (r = -0.78, 95% CI -0.56 to -0.90, r(2) = 61%). Disease activity levels differed substantially between "high GDP" and "low GDP" countries at much greater levels than according to whether patients were currently taking or not taking methotrexate, prednisone and/or biological agents. The clinical status of patients with RA was correlated significantly with GDP among 25 mostly European countries according to all disease measures, associated only modestly with the current use of antirheumatic medications. The burden of arthritis appears substantially greater in "low GDP" than in "high GDP" countries. These findings may alert healthcare professionals and designers of health policy towards improving the clinical status of patients with RA in all countries.

  16. Disparities in rheumatoid arthritis disease activity according to gross domestic product in 25 countries in the QUEST–RA database

    PubMed Central

    Sokka, T; Kautiainen, H; Pincus, T; Toloza, S; da Rocha Castelar Pinheiro, G; Lazovskis, J; Hetland, M L; Peets, T; Immonen, K; Maillefert, J F; Drosos, A A; Alten, R; Pohl, C; Rojkovich, B; Bresnihan, B; Minnock, P; Cazzato, M; Bombardieri, S; Rexhepi, S; Rexhepi, M; Andersone, D; Stropuviene, S; Huisman, M; Sierakowski, S; Karateev, D; Skakic, V; Naranjo, A; Baecklund, E; Henrohn, D; Gogus, F; Badsha, H; Mofti, A; Taylor, P; McClinton, C; Yazici, Y

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyse associations between the clinical status of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the gross domestic product (GDP) of their resident country. Methods: The Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (QUEST–RA) cohort includes clinical and questionnaire data from 6004 patients who were seen in usual care at 70 rheumatology clinics in 25 countries as of April 2008, including 18 European countries. Demographic variables, clinical characteristics, RA disease activity measures, including the disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28), and treatment-related variables were analysed according to GDP per capita, including 14 “high GDP” countries with GDP per capita greater than US$24 000 and 11 “low GDP” countries with GDP per capita less than US$11 000. Results: Disease activity DAS28 ranged between 3.1 and 6.0 among the 25 countries and was significantly associated with GDP (r  =  −0.78, 95% CI −0.56 to −0.90, r2  =  61%). Disease activity levels differed substantially between “high GDP” and “low GDP” countries at much greater levels than according to whether patients were currently taking or not taking methotrexate, prednisone and/or biological agents. Conclusions: The clinical status of patients with RA was correlated significantly with GDP among 25 mostly European countries according to all disease measures, associated only modestly with the current use of antirheumatic medications. The burden of arthritis appears substantially greater in “low GDP” than in “high GDP” countries. These findings may alert healthcare professionals and designers of health policy towards improving the clinical status of patients with RA in all countries. PMID:19643759

  17. Association between rheumatoid arthritis disease activity, progression of functional limitation and long-term risk of orthopaedic surgery: combined analysis of two prospective cohorts supports EULAR treat to target DAS thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Nikiphorou, Elena; Norton, Sam; Young, Adam; Carpenter, Lewis; Dixey, Josh; Walsh, David Andrew; Kiely, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between disease activity in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), functional limitation and long-term orthopaedic episodes. Methods Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) disability scores were collected from two longitudinal early RA inception cohorts in routine care; Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Study and Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network from 1986 to 2012. The incidence of major and intermediate orthopaedic surgical episodes over 25 years was collected from national data sets. Disease activity was categorised by mean disease activity score (DAS28) annually between years 1 and 5; remission (RDAS≤2.6), low (LDAS>2.6–3.2), low-moderate (LMDAS≥3.2–4.19), high-moderate (HMDAS 4.2–5.1) and high (HDAS>5.1). Results Data from 2045 patients were analysed. Patients in RDAS showed no HAQ progression over 5 years, whereas there was a significant relationship between rising DAS28 category and HAQ at 1 year, and the rate of HAQ progression between years 1 and 5. During 27 986 person-years follow-up, 392 intermediate and 591 major surgeries were observed. Compared with the RDAS category, there was a significantly increased cumulative incidence of intermediate surgery in HDAS (OR 2.59 CI 1.49 to 4.52) and HMDAS (OR 1.8 CI 1.05 to 3.11) categories, and for major surgery in HDAS (OR 2.48 CI 1.5 to 4.11), HMDAS (OR 2.16 CI 1.32 to 3.52) and LMDAS (OR 2.07 CI 1.28 to 3.33) categories. There was no significant difference in HAQ progression or orthopaedic episodes between RDAS and LDAS categories. Conclusions There is an association between disease activity and both poor function and long-term orthopaedic episodes. This illustrates the far from benign consequences of persistent moderate disease activity, and supports European League Against Rheumatism treat to target recommendations to secure low disease activity or remission in all patients. PMID:26979104

  18. Treatment of very early rheumatoid arthritis with symptomatic therapy, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, or biologic agents: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Finckh, Axel; Bansback, Nick; Marra, Carlo A; Anis, Aslam H; Michaud, Kaleb; Lubin, Stanley; White, Marc; Sizto, Sonia; Liang, Matthew H

    2009-11-03

    Long-term control or remission of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be possible with very early treatment. However, no optimal first therapeutic strategy has been determined. To assess the potential cost-effectiveness of major therapeutic strategies for very early RA. Decision analytic model with probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Published data, the National Data Bank for Rheumatic Diseases, and actual 2007 hospital costs. U.S. adults with very early RA (symptom duration early DMARD therapy with methotrexate; and early therapy with biologics and methotrexate. Cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. By reducing the progression of joint erosions and subsequent functional disability, both early intervention strategies increase quality-adjusted life more than the pyramid strategy and save long-term costs. When the cost of very early intervention is factored in, the cost-effectiveness ratio of the early DMARD strategy is $4849 per QALY (95% CI, $0 to $16 354 per QALY) compared with the pyramid strategy, whereas the benefits gained through the early biologic strategy come at a substantial incremental cost. The early DMARD strategy maximizes the effectiveness of early DMARDs and reserves the use of biologics for patients with more treatment-resistant disease of longer duration, for which the incremental benefit of biologics is greater. The early biologic strategy becomes more cost-effective if drug prices are reduced, risk for death is permanently lowered through biologic therapy, patients experience drug-free remission, responders can be selected before therapy initiation, or effective alternative antirheumatic agents are available for

  19. [Management of rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Fiehn, C; Krüger, K

    2016-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common inflammatory rheumatic disease. Due to the destruction of joints in the course of the disease it leads to significant morbidity in affected patients. The quality of life and even life expectancy can be severely impaired. Early diagnosis and early initiation of treatment is a decisive step towards a more benign course of the disease. New classification criteria have been published in order to help in early diagnosis. Methods of imaging, such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging help in the detection of synovitis, which is the major pathomorphological manifestation of arthritis and should be identified without any doubt. Treatment follows the rule of treat to target with the aim of achieving remission or if this is not realistic, at least the lowest possible level of disease activity. The first and perhaps most important step in therapy is the initiation of methotrexate or if contraindications are present, another disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) as soon as the diagnosis is made. Initial addition of glucocorticoids is recommended, which should be reduced in dose and terminated as soon as possible. Furthermore, either the combination of different DMARDs or the start of biologic DMARDs, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) inhibitors or second generation biologic DMARDs is possible as a treatment option. The treatment follows the rule of shared decision-making and is the standard to treat comorbidities, the use an interdisciplinary approach and to treat functional deficits by rehabilitation measures, such as physiotherapy.

  20. Comparison of the disease activity score using erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein in African Americans with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Tamhane, Ashutosh; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald; Brown, Elizabeth E; Westfall, Andrew O; Reynolds, Richard J; Hughes, Laura B; Conn, Doyt L; Callahan, Leigh F; Jonas, Beth L; Smith, Edwin A; Brasington, Richard D; Moreland, Larry W; Bridges, S Louis

    2013-11-01

    The Disease Activity Score based on 28 joints (DAS28) has been increasingly used in clinical practice and research studies of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Studies have reported discordance between DAS28 based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) versus C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with RA. However, such comparison is lacking in African Americans with RA. This analysis included participants from the Consortium for the Longitudinal Evaluation of African Americans with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (CLEAR) registry, which enrolls self-declared African Americans with RA. Using tender and swollen joint counts, separate ESR-based and CRP-based DAS28 scores (DAS28-ESR3 and DAS28-CRP3) were calculated, as were DAS28-ESR4 and DAS28-CRP4, which included the patient's assessment of disease activity. The scores were compared using paired t-test, simple agreement and κ, correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman plots. Of the 233 included participants, 85% were women, mean age at enrollment was 52.6 years, and median disease duration at enrollment was 21 months. Mean DAS28-ESR3 was significantly higher than DAS28-CRP3 (4.8 vs 3.9; p < 0.001). Similarly, mean DAS28-ESR4 was significantly higher than DAS28-CRP4 (4.7 vs 3.9; p < 0.001). ESR-based DAS28 remained higher than CRP-based DAS28 even when stratified by age, sex, and disease duration. Overall agreement was not high between DAS28-ESR3 and DAS28-CRP3 (50%) or between DAS28-ESR4 and DAS28-CRP4 (59%). DAS28-CRP3 underestimated disease activity in 47% of the participants relative to DAS28-ESR3 and DAS28-CRP4 in 40% of the participants relative to DAS28-ESR4. There was significant discordance between the ESR-based and CRP-based DAS28, a situation that could affect clinical treatment decisions for African Americans with RA.

  1. Tofacitinib suppresses disease activity and febrile attacks in a patient with coexisting rheumatoid arthritis and familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Gök, Kevser; Cengiz, Gizem; Erol, Kemal; Ozgocmen, Salih

    2017-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common hereditary auto-inflammatory (periodic fever) syndrome, and usually successfully treated with colchicine. However, nearly 5-10% of FMF cases are resistant or intolerant to colchicine and treatment options are highly restricted in these cases. Biologics including anakinra, canakinumab, rilonacept, etanercept, infliximab, interferon-alpha, and tocilizumab are shown to have efficacy to control FMF attacks. Tofacitinib, a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor, is an orally administered non-biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Herein we report a female patient with coexisting RA and colchicine resistant FMF whose FMF attacks and disease activity were completely controlled after treatment with tofacitinib, a small-molecule JAK3 inhibitor.

  2. CD4+ CD25+ CD127low Regulatory T Cells as Indicator of Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Sahar S; El-Saied, Amany M; Mohammed, Rehab A; Mohamed, Eman E

    2016-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by disturbed immune regulation, inducing a progressive cartilage and bone destruction. Despite enrichment of T regulatory cell (T-regs) in synovial fluid, conflicting results are reported concerning T-regs in peripheral blood (PB) of RA patients. To determine possible correlation between the frequency of PB CD4+ CD25+CD127low (T-regs) with RA disease activity. Forty females with RA, classified according to the Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS-28), as highly active, mild-moderate or low disease activity; and 20 age and sex matched healthy controls, were enrolled to study CD4+ CD25+ CD127low T- regs in PB by flow cytometry. Active RA patients had lower frequency of the CD4+ CD25+ CD127low T- regs compared to those with mild-moderate or low disease activity (P <0.001). The frequencies of the T- regs showed negative correlation with the DAS-28 (P<0.01). In conclusion, CD4+ CD25+ CD127low T-regs is significantly lower in highly active RA patients compared to patients with lower activity or controls. Copyright© by the Egyptian Association of Immunologists.

  3. Economic evaluation of tocilizumab monotherapy compared to adalimumab monotherapy in the treatment of severe active rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Josh J; Ogale, Sarika; Dejonckheere, Fred; Sullivan, Sean D

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of tocilizumab (TCZ) monotherapy (Mono) versus adalimumab (ADA) Mono from the US payer perspective in patients with rheumatoid arthritis for whom methotrexate is inappropriate. We compared TCZ Mono (8 mg/kg monthly) with ADA Mono (40 mg every other week), using efficacy results from a head-to-head study, ADalimumab ACTemrA (ADACTA). We calculated the incremental cost per responder (achievement of American College of Rheumatology [ACR] 20% improvement criteria, ACR 50% improvement criteria, ACR 70% improvement criteria, or low disease activity score) for TCZ versus ADA at 6 months. A patient-level simulation was used to estimate the lifetime incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) of initiating treatment with TCZ Mono versus ADA Mono. Both drugs are followed by an etanercept-certolizumab-palliative care sequence. Nonresponders discontinue at 6 months; responders experience a constant probability of discontinuation. Discontinuers move to the next treatment. ACR responses produce changes in the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score. We mapped the HAQ score to utility to estimate QALYs. Costs include those related to hospitalization and those related to treatment (drug acquisition, administration, and monitoring). Probabilistic and one-way sensitivity analyses were conducted, along with several scenario analyses. Compared with ADA, TCZ was more effective, with an estimated 6-month incremental cost ranging from $6,570 per additional low disease activity score achiever to $14,265 per additional ACR 70% improvement criteria responder. The lifetime incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $36,944/QALY. TCZ Mono is projected to be cost-effective compared with ADA Mono in patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis for whom methotrexate is not appropriate, from a US payer perspective. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Self-efficacy and pain acceptance as mediators of the relationship between pain and performance of valued life activities in women and men with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ahlstrand, Inger; Vaz, Sharmila; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Thyberg, Ingrid; Björk, Mathilda

    2017-06-01

    To study whether personal factors (self-efficacy and pain acceptance) mediate the relationship between pain and performance of valued life activities in persons with rheumatoid arthritis. Persons with rheumatoid arthritis for at least four years ( n = 737; 73% women) answered a questionnaire measuring self-efficacy, pain acceptance, performance of valued life activities, and self-rated pain. Relationships among these constructs were explored using univariate and multivariate analyses. Structural equation modelling was then used to examine the mediational role of personal factors on the relationship between pain and performance of valued life activities. A direct negative association between pain and performance of valued life activities was identified ( Beta = .34, P < .001). This suggests that people with rheumatoid arthritis who had higher levels of pain has increased difficulties in performing valued life activities. Self-efficacy and activity engagement component of pain acceptance mediated the relationship between pain and performance of valued life activities, however the pain willingness component of pain acceptance did not influence participation in valued life activities. These findings highlight the importance of considering personal factors, such as pain acceptance and self-efficacy, in facilitating participation in valued life activities.

  5. Relevance of P-glycoprotein on CXCR4+ B cells to organ manifestation in highly active rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Shizuyo; Adachi, Tomoko; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Kawabe, Akio; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2018-03-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression on activated B cells is associated with active efflux of intracellular drugs, resulting in drug resistance. CXCR4 is associated with migration of B cells. This study was designed to elucidate the relevance of P-gp expression on CXCR4 + B cells to clinical manifestations in refractory RA. CD19 + B cells were analyzed using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. P-gp was highly expressed especially on CXCR4 + CD19 + B cells in RA. The proportion of P-gp-expressing CXCR4 + B cells correlated with disease activity, estimated by Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI), and showed marked expansion in RA patients with high SDAI and extra-articular involvement. In highly active RA, massive infiltration of P-gp + CXCR4 + CD19 + B cells was noted in CXCL12-expressing inflammatory lesions of RA synovitis and RA-associated interstitial pneumonitis. In RA patient with active extra-articular involvement, intracellular dexamethasone level (IDL) in lymphocytes diminished with expansion of P-gp + CXCR4 + CD19 + B cells. Adalimumab reduced P-gp + CXCR4 + CD19 + B cells, increased IDL in lymphocytes, and improved the clinical manifestation and allowed tapering of concomitant medications. Expansion of P-gp + CXCR4 + B cells seems to be associated with drug resistance, disease activity and progressive destructive arthritis with extra-articular involvement in RA.

  6. [Active forms of oxygen and nitrogen in blood cells of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: effect of laser therapy].

    PubMed

    Ostrakhovich, E A; Ilich-Stoianovich, O; Afanas'ev, I B

    2001-01-01

    Infrared pulse laser therapy was studied for its impact on the production of active forms of oxygen and nitrogen by neutrophils from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The authors determined the non-activated and PMA-activated production of superoxide anion-radical, peroxynitrite, peripheral neurophilic NAD.PH-oxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, and the red blood cell concentrations of reduced glutathione. Before therapy, non-activation RA neurophilic production of superoxide was much higher than in donors. Laser therapy made this parameter normal. Similarly, neutrophilic peroxynitrite production (defined by dihydrorhodamine oxidation) in RA patients was 1.7 times higher than the normal values. IF-laser therapy decreased peroxynitrite production to the values observed in donors. It is important that the therapy caused increased SOD activity (that was lower in RA patients prior to therapy) up to apparently control values. Thus, IF-laser therapy has a certain antioxidative effect by increasing SOD activity in RA patients' blood cells and reducing the production of highly reactive oxygen and nitrogen forms.

  7. Three out of four disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug-naïve rheumatoid arthritis patients meet 28-joint Disease Activity Score remission at 12 months: results from the FIN-ERA cohort.

    PubMed

    Rannio, T; Asikainen, J; Hannonen, P; Yli-Kerttula, T; Ekman, P; Pirilä, L; Kuusalo, L; Mali, M; Puurtinen-Vilkki, M; Kortelainen, S; Paltta, J; Taimen, K; Kauppi, M; Laiho, K; Nyrhinen, S; Mäkinen, H; Isomäki, P; Uotila, T; Aaltonen, K; Kautiainen, H; Sokka, T

    2017-11-01

    To assess what proportion of patients with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD)-naïve early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) reach 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) remission over 1 year, and remission variability across clinics in Finland. Patients with DMARD-naïve newly diagnosed inflammatory arthritis were recruited. The proportion of patients in 28-joint Disease Activity Score with three variables (DAS28-3) remission was compared across sites. Repeated measures were analysed using a mixed models approach with appropriate distribution and link function. In total, 611 patients were recruited at five sites: 67% were female; the mean (sd) age was 57 (16) years; 71% and 68% were positive for rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides, respectively; and 23% had radiographic erosions. A total of 506 (83%) fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism 2010 classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis for further analyses. DAS28-3 remission was met by 68% and 75% at 3 and 12 months, respectively. The clinical site had no effect on remission when adjusted for confounders. At baseline, 68% used methotrexate-based combination therapy, and 31% used triple therapy with methotrexate, hydroxychloroquine, and sulphasalazine (the Fin-RACo regimen). In multivariate analysis, the only independent predictors of DAS28-3 remission at 12 months were lower baseline DAS28-3 and triple therapy as the initial treatment. Three out of four DMARD-naïve ERA patients in Finland are in remission during the first year from the diagnosis. High remission rates were achieved for most patients with the use of conventional synthetic DMARDs in combination. Treatment of DMARD-naïve ERA patients with the FIN-RACo regimen is a predictor of DAS28-3 remission in real-life rheumatology settings.

  8. Are rheumatoid arthritis patients discernible from other early arthritis patients using 1.5T extremity magnetic resonance imaging? a large cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Stomp, Wouter; Krabben, Annemarie; van der Heijde, Désirée; Huizinga, Tom W J; Bloem, Johan L; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M; Reijnierse, Monique

    2014-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) research. A European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) task force recently suggested that MRI can improve the certainty of RA diagnosis. Because this recommendation may reflect a tendency to use MRI in daily practice, thorough studies on the value of MRI are required. Thus far no large studies have evaluated the accuracy of MRI to differentiate early RA from other patients with early arthritis. We performed a large cross-sectional study to determine whether patients who are clinically classified with RA differ in MRI features compared to patients with other diagnoses. In our study, 179 patients presenting with early arthritis (median symptom duration 15.4 weeks) underwent 1.5T extremity MRI of unilateral wrist, metacarpophalangeal, and metatarsophalangeal joints according to our arthritis protocol, the foot without contrast. Images were scored according to OMERACT Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scoring (RAMRIS) by 2 independent readers. Tenosynovitis was also assessed. The main outcome was fulfilling the 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for RA. Test characteristics and areas under the receiver-operator-characteristic curves (AUC) were evaluated. In subanalyses, the 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria were used as outcome, and analyses were stratified for anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA). The ACR 1987 criteria were fulfilled in 43 patients (24.0%). Patients with RA had higher scores for synovitis, tenosynovitis, and bone marrow edema (BME) than patients without RA (p < 0.05). ACPA-positive patients had more BME (median scores 6.5 vs. 4.25, p = 0.016) than ACPA-negative patients. For all MRI features, the predictive value for the presence of RA was low (< 50%). For all MRI features the AUC were < 0.70. Patients who fulfilled ACR/EULAR 2010 criteria but not ACR87 criteria for RA had less synovitis than patients who were positive for RA according to

  9. Health Assessment Questionnaire disability progression in early rheumatoid arthritis: Systematic review and analysis of two inception cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Sam; Fu, Bo; Scott, David L.; Deighton, Chris; Symmons, Deborah P.M.; Wailoo, Allan J.; Tosh, Jonathan; Lunt, Mark; Davies, Rebecca; Young, Adam; Verstappen, Suzanne M.M

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Health Assessment Questionnaire is widely used for patients with inflammatory polyarthritis (IP) and its subset, rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we evaluated the progression of HAQ scores in RA (i) by systematically reviewing the published literature on the methods used to assess changes in functional disability over time and (ii) to study in detail HAQ progression in two large prospective observational studies from the UK. Methods Data from two large inception cohorts, ERAS and NOAR, were studied to determine trajectories of HAQ progression over time by applying latent class growth models (LCGMs) to each dataset separately. Age, sex, baseline DAS28, symptom duration, rheumatoid factor, fulfilment of the 1987 ACR criteria and socio-economic status (SES) were included as potential predictors of HAQ trajectory subgroup membership. Results The literature search identified 49 studies showing that HAQ progression has mainly been based on average changes in the total study population. In the HAQ progression study, a LCGM with four HAQ trajectory subgroups was selected as providing the best fit in both cohorts. In both the cohorts, older age, female sex, longer symptom duration, fulfilment of the 1987 ACR criteria, higher DAS28 and lower SES were associated with increased likelihood of membership of subgroups with worse HAQ progression. Conclusion Four distinct HAQ trajectory subgroups were derived from the ERAS and NOAR cohorts. The fact that the subgroups identified were nearly identical supports their validity. Identifying distinct groups of patients who are at risk of poor functional outcome may help to target therapy to those who are most likely to benefit. PMID:24925692

  10. Efficacy and Safety of Baricitinib in Japanese Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis Receiving Background Methotrexate Therapy: A 12-week, Double-blind, Randomized Placebo-controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshiya; Emoto, Kahaku; Cai, Zhihong; Aoki, Takehiro; Schlichting, Douglas; Rooney, Terence; Macias, William

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate efficacy and safety, baricitinib [Janus kinase (JAK) 1/JAK2 inhibitor] was compared with placebo in Japanese patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite background treatment with methotrexate (MTX). This was a phase IIB, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01469013). Patients had moderate to severe active adult-onset RA despite stable treatment with MTX. Patients (n = 145) were randomized in a 2:1:1:1:1 ratio to placebo or 1 mg, 2 mg, 4 mg, or 8 mg oral baricitinib daily for 12 weeks. The primary analysis compared the combined 4/8-mg dose groups with placebo for the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20 response rate at 12 weeks. Other outcomes included additional measures of disease activity, physical function, laboratory abnormalities, and adverse events. A significantly higher proportion of patients in the combined 4/8-mg baricitinib group (37/48, 77%) compared with the placebo group (15/49, 31%) had at least an ACR20 response after 12 weeks of treatment (p < 0.001). Significant improvements in disease activity, remission, and physical function were observed as early as Week 2 of treatment with baricitinib, particularly with daily doses of ≥ 4 mg. Only 1 patient receiving baricitinib discontinued because of an adverse event. Adverse event rates with baricitinib doses ≤ 4 mg daily were similar to placebo, but there was a higher incidence of adverse events and laboratory abnormalities in the 8-mg group. In this phase II study, baricitinib was well tolerated and rapidly improved the signs, symptoms, and physical function of Japanese patients with active RA, supporting continued development of baricitinib (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01469013).

  11. Niclosamide as an adjuvant to etanercept in treatment patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: an 8-week randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Al-Gareeb, Ali Ismail A; Gorial, Faiq Isho; Mahmood, Ahmed S

    2018-06-07

    This study designed to identify the therapeutic efficacy of niclosamide (NCL) in Iraqi patients suffering from active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who were using etanercept (ETN) for more than 3 months and still had high or moderate active RA. One hundred ten patients suffering from active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who were using etanercept (ETN) for more than 3 months and still had high or moderate active RA were allocated randomly into two equal groups: one of them treated with 1000 mg/day NCL and the other treated with 1000 mg/day lactose in capsule dosage form. The study duration was 8 weeks. Clinical efficacy of the NCL was measured depending on scoring of the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28), simple disease activity index (SDAI), clinical disease activity index (CDAI), and Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) at the baseline and at the end of the 8-week treatment period. Moreover, blood sample were taken from the patients at baseline and at after 8 weeks of treatment for measurement of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 1β (IL-1 β), interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin. At the end of the clinical study, patients had good response to NCL when added to the ETN with a high significant improvement in the SJC, TJC, DAS-28, CDAI, SDAI, and HAQ-DI compared to patients who were received placebo drug. In addition to that, 33% of patients achieved an ACR 20% response (ACR20) on NCL and ETN. Of these, 4% achieved ACR50 and another 4% achieved ACR70 response. While those group treated by placebo + ETN, 5% achieved ACR20 response and no one reached to ACR50 or ACR70 response. Twenty-seven percent of RA patients who have taken the NCL achieved moderate EULAR score while only 17% from the group that taken placebo with ETN achieved moderate response. On the other hand, no significant

  12. Validity of the rheumatoid arthritis impact of disease (RAID) score and definition of cut-off points for disease activity states in a population-based European cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Salaffi, Fausto; Di Carlo, Marco; Vojinovic, Jelena; Tincani, Angela; Sulli, Alberto; Soldano, Stefano; Andreoli, Laura; Dall'Ara, Francesca; Ionescu, Ruxandra; Simić Pašalić, Katarina; Balčune, Ineta; Ferraz-Amaro, Iván; Tlustochowicz, Malgorzata; Butrimienė, Irena; Punceviciene, Egle; Toroptsova, Natalia; Grazio, Simeon; Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Masaryk, Pavol; Otsa, Kati; Bernardes, Miguel; Boyadzhieva, Vladimira; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2018-05-01

    To assess the validity of the rheumatoid arthritis impact of disease (RAID) for measuring disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to determine cut-off values for defining the disease activity states. A total of 622 RA patients from an European database have been included. Cross-validation was based on assessment of convergent and discriminant validity. Optimal cut-offs were determined against external criteria by calculating the respective 25th and 75th percentiles mean values of RAID. External criteria included definitions for remission (REM), low disease activity (LDA), moderate disease activity (MDA) and high disease activity (HDA), cut-offs of the 28-joint disease activity score-C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) score. The RAID showed a moderate degree of correlation with respect to DAS28-CRP (rho=0.417; P<0.0001). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to discriminate the ability of RAID to distinguish patients with active and non-active disease was very good with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.847 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.816 to 0.878; P<0.0001). Based on the distributions of RAID in the different disease activity groups, we propose the following cut-off values for REM: RAID ≤3; for LDA: RAID >3 and ≤4; for MDA: RAID >4 and ≤6; for HDA: RAID >6. Mean RAID differed significantly between patients classified as REM, LDA, MDA or HDA (P=0.001). The cut-offs revealed good measurement characteristics in cross-validation analysis, had great discriminatory performance in distinguishing patients with different levels of disease activity and are suited for widespread use in everyday practice application and research. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. The association of immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin G and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies with disease activity in seronegative rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Karimifar, Mansoor; Moussavi, Hamidreza; Babaei, Mehran; Akbari, Mojtaba

    2014-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease that is associated with progressive disability, systemic complications, and early death. The present study was aimed to investigate the level of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA isotypes and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody and to assess their association with disease severity based on disease activity score (DAS-28) in patients with IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF) negative RA. In this cross-sectional study, 62 RA patients with IgM-RF negative were assessed. Radiographs were obtained for all RA patients. The RF (IgG, and IgA) and anti-CCP were measured by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Values of cut-off points over 15 UI/mL for IgA IgA-RF, 20 UI/mL for IgG-RF and over 20 units for anti-CCP were considered positive. DAS-28 score was compared in regard to the IgA-RF and IgG-RF and anti-CCP positivity using Mann-Whitney test. DAS-28 score in IgA-RF positive was significantly higher than IgA-RF negative (mean score, 6.03 ± 0.33 vs. 5.44 ± 0.76 respectively, P = 0.035). In IgG-RF positive patients, DAS-28 score was similar to patients with IgG-RF negative (5.64 ± 0.59 vs. 5.46 ± 0.78 respectively, P = 0.396). Furthermore, in patients with anti-CCP positive DAS-28 score was significantly higher than patients with anti-CCP negative (5.72 ± 0.61 vs. 5.38 ± 0.79 respectively, P = 0.049). Findings indicated that there was a significant association between the amounts of IgA and anti-CCP with severity of disease in RF negative RA patients while there was no significant association between the amounts of IgG and severity of RA disease.

  14. Measuring Disease Exacerbation and Flares in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Comparison of Commonly Used Disease Activity Indices and Individual Measures.

    PubMed

    Voshaar, Martijn A H Oude; Moghadam, Marjan Ghiti; Vonkeman, Harald E; Ten Klooster, Peter M; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Tekstra, Janneke; Visser, Henk; van de Laar, Mart A F J; Jansen, Tim L

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate and compare the utility of commonly used outcome measures for assessing disease exacerbation or flare in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Data from the Dutch Potential Optimalisation of (Expediency) and Effectiveness of Tumor necrosis factor-α blockers (POET) study, in which 462 patients discontinued their tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor, were used. The ability of different measures to discriminate between those with and without physician-reported flare or medication escalation at the 3-month visit (T2) was evaluated by calculating effect size (ES) statistics. Responsiveness to increased disease activity was compared between measures by standardizing change scores (SCS) from baseline to the 3-month visit. Finally, the incremental validity of individual outcome measures beyond the Simplified Disease Activity Score was evaluated using logistic regression analysis. The SCS were greater for disease activity indices than for any of the individual measures. The 28-joint Disease Activity Score, Clinical Disease Activity Index, and Simplified Disease Activity Index performed similarly. Pain and physician's (PGA) and patient's global assessment (PtGA) of disease activity were the most responsive individual measures. Similar results were obtained for discriminative ability, with greatest ES for disease activity indices followed by pain, PGA, and PtGA. Pain was the only measure to demonstrate incremental validity beyond SDAI in predicting 3-month flare status. These results support the use of composite disease activity indices, patient-reported pain and disease activity, and physician-reported disease activity for measuring disease exacerbation or identifying flares of RA. Physical function, acute-phase response, and the auxiliary measures fatigue, participation, and emotional well-being performed poorly.

  15. Social support as a moderator of functional disability's effect on depressive feelings in early rheumatoid arthritis: a four-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Benka, Jozef; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Calfova, Anna; Macejova, Zelmira; Lazurova, Ivica; van Dijk, Jitse P; Groothoff, Johan W

    2014-02-01

    To examine associations of depressive feelings with disease-related variables and explore the moderating effect of social support on depressive feelings in individuals with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) prospectively over 4 years. Data were collected annually over 4 years. The sample consisted of 124 individuals with diagnosed RA (85.5% women; mean age 47.9 years; mean disease duration 22.2 months). The strength of cross-sectional and prospective associations of sociodemographic, disease-related variables and the direct and moderating effects of social support on depression were tested using correlations, multilevel models, and hierarchical linear regressions. The study showed that emotional support moderated the influence of functional disability on depressive feelings in individuals with RA. This was not detected for instrumental support. Further prospective associations between functional status, marital status, and depressive feelings were also found. Overall, the strongest association was found between initial depressive feelings and depressive feelings over time. Initial depression seemed to be a risk factor in explaining later depressive feelings, but emotional support might be prospectively beneficial, especially for individuals with higher levels of disability. Early detection of individuals at risk for depression and providing interventions aimed at the specific functions of social support might help to decrease mental health problems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. The relationship between disease activity, quality of life, and personality types in rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis patients.

    PubMed

    Donisan, T; Bojincă, V C; Dobrin, M A; Bălănescu, D V; Predețeanu, D; Bojincă, M; Berghea, F; Opriș, D; Groșeanu, L; Borangiu, A; Constantinescu, C L; Ionescu, R; Bălănescu, A R

    2017-07-01

    We hypothesized that clinical outcomes might be influenced by personality type (A, B, C, D) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). One hundred ninety-four patients (104 with RA, 90 with AS) participated in a questionnaire study. We evaluated health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using the Medical Outcome Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36), personality type A/B with the Jenkins Activity Survey, type C with the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory Anger-in Scale, type D with the Type D Personality Scale, and disease activity with Disease Activity Score with 28 joints for RA and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index for AS. We used Pearson's correlation coefficient, independent samples t tests, and multivariate analyses of variance. In the RA group, type D personality was significantly correlated with 7/12 SF-36 components. AS patients with type D personality had deficits in all SF-36 subscales. Type D was related with higher disease activity in RA and AS. Both RA and AS type C patients had more active disease forms and negatively affected HRQoL subscales. In the RA group, type A personality did not correlate with HRQoL, but it positively influenced pain visual analog scale scores. In AS patients, type A personality was linked with higher HRQoL and with less active disease. Type C and type D personality types were correlated with decreased HRQoL and higher disease activity in RA and AS patients. Type A personality was associated with less active disease and higher HRQoL in AS patients and with less pain in RA patients.

  17. Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor treatment and the risk of incident cardiovascular events in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rishi J; Rao, Jaya K; Hansen, Richard A; Fang, Gang; Maciejewski, Matthew; Farley, Joel

    2014-11-01

    To compare the risk of cardiovascular (CV) events between use of tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors (TNFi) and nonbiologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A nested case-control study was conducted using data from Truven's MarketScan commercial and Medicare claims database for patients with early RA who started treatment with either a TNFi or a nonbiologic DMARD between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2010. Date of CV event diagnosis for cases was defined as the event date, and 12 age-matched and sex-matched controls were sampled using incidence density sampling. Drug exposure was defined into the following mutually exclusive categories hierarchically: (1) current use of TNFi (with or without nonbiologics), (2) past use of TNFi (with or without nonbiologics), (3) current use of nonbiologics only, and (4) past use of nonbiologics only. Current use was defined as any use in the period 90 days prior to the event date. Conditional logistic regression models were used to derive incidence rate ratios (IRR). From the cohort of patients with early RA, 279 cases of incident CV events and 3348 matched controls were identified. The adjusted risk of CV events was not significantly different between current TNFi users and current nonbiologic users (IRR 0.92, 95% CI 0.59-1.44). However, past users of nonbiologics showed significantly higher risk compared to current nonbiologic users (IRR 1.47, 95% CI 1.04-2.08). No differences in the CV risk were found between current TNFi and current nonbiologic DMARD treatment in patients with early RA.

  18. A randomized, pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of curcumin in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Binu; Goel, Ajay

    2012-11-01

    Curcumin is known to possess potent antiinflammatory and antiarthritic properties. This pilot clinical study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of curcumin alone, and in combination with diclofenac sodium in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Forty-five patients diagnosed with RA were randomized into three groups with patients receiving curcumin (500 mg) and diclofenac sodium (50 mg) alone or their combination. The primary endpoints were reduction in Disease Activity Score (DAS) 28. The secondary endpoints included American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for reduction in tenderness and swelling of joint scores. Patients in all three treatment groups showed statistically significant changes in their DAS scores. Interestingly, the curcumin group showed the highest percentage of improvement in overall DAS and ACR scores (ACR 20, 50 and 70) and these scores were significantly better than the patients in the diclofenac sodium group. More importantly, curcumin treatment was found to be safe and did not relate with any adverse events. Our study provides the first evidence for the safety and superiority of curcumin treatment in patients with active RA, and highlights the need for future large-scale trials to validate these findings in patients with RA and other arthritic conditions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Early diagnosis and treatment of steroid-induced diabetes mellitus in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Ito, Satoshi; Ogishima, Hiroshi; Kondo, Yuya; Sugihara, Makoto; Hayashi, Taichi; Chino, Yusuke; Goto, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Isao; Sumida, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    To reveal how often patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or any of other connective tissue diseases (CTDs) who take prednisolone (PSL) manifest postprandial hyperglycemia, and to evaluate the effects of divided daily dose administration of PSL, and of acarbose and nateglinide, on RA patients. The blood sugar (BS) levels of the patients were measured after meals. For in-patients who showed postprandial hyperglycemia, the daily dose of PSL was divided and nateglinide and/or acarbose were/was added if their BS levels did not improve sufficiently. The patients with BS levels that were well controlled for three months were compared with the patients with poorly controlled BS levels. The BS levels of 78 patients, including 16 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), were measured after meals, and 27 of them were newly diagnosed with DM. Five of 14 patients who took a steady dose of PSL showed high BS levels after lunch (over 200 mg/dl) without elevated HbA1c. The combination therapy of divided-dose PSL and nateglinide and/or acarbose improved postprandial hyperglycemia significantly. The period from the start of PSL administration to intervention was significantly longer in patients with good control at three months than the corresponding period in those with poor control. The prevalence of postprandial hyperglycemia was high in patients with RA/CTD taking PSL; accordingly, measurement of the BS level after each meal was valuable. Combination therapy of divided-dose PSL and nateglinide and/or acarbose improved postprandial hyperglycemia.

  20. Prognostic factors in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: a case-control study revealing early predictors and outcome after 14.9 years.

    PubMed

    Flatø, Berit; Lien, Gunhild; Smerdel, Anna; Vinje, Odd; Dale, Knut; Johnston, Virginia; Sørskaar, Dag; Moum, Torbjørn; Ploski, Rafal; Førre, Øystein

    2003-02-01

    To describe the physical and psychosocial outcome in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), compared with subjects in the general population, and to determine patient characteristics, HLA alleles, and disease variables within the first 6 months of disease onset that predict persistent disease, joint erosions, and physical disability. A cohort of 268 (85%) of 316 patients with JRA first admitted to the hospital between 1980 and 1985 were examined after a median of 14.9 years (range 11.7-25.1) of disease duration. Controls matched for age, sex, and geographic region were randomly selected from the general population. Patients' medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical examinations and radiographs of the hips, ankles, and affected joints were obtained. HLA-DRB1 and DPB1 alleles were determined by genotyping and HLA-B27 by serologic testing. Physical and psychosocial health status was assessed using the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). At followup, 133 patients with JRA (50%) were in remission, 63 (24%) had developed joint erosions, and 93 (36%) had impaired physical functioning (HAQ > 0.0). Patients had greater disability, more bodily pain, and poorer general health than controls. Comparable levels of education, social function, and mental health were found, but the patients had higher rates of unemployment than controls (19% vs 7%; p < 0.001). Predictors of persistent disease and joint erosions were: young onset age and large numbers of affected joints, long duration of elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and positive IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) within the first 6 months. Additionally, persistent disease was predicted by the presence of DRB1*08, and joint erosions were predicted by symmetric arthritis and DRB1*08 and HLA-B27 in combination. DRB1*01 was a predictor of joint erosions in the pauciarticular onset type (n = 163). Predictors of physical disability were: female sex, symmetric

  1. The value of power Doppler ultrasound in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in clinical remission: Reclassifying disease activity?

    PubMed

    Vergara, Facundo; Ruta, Santiago; Rosa, Javier; Marín, Josefina; García-Mónaco, Ricardo; Soriano, Enrique R

    2017-03-18

    The aim of the present study was to describe the ultrasound (US) findings in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical remission, and to evaluate the ability of power Doppler (PD) US to reclassify disease activity in these patients. We included consecutive patients with RA according to 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism criteria, who were in clinical remission by the Disease Activity Score (DAS28<2.6). Twenty joints of both hands were assessed by US. PD signal was evaluated on a semi-quantitative scale from 0 to 3. Three different US-modified DAS28 (US-DAS28) were constructed, replacing the clinical swollen joint count by the PD US joint count using PD score ≥1, ≥2 or ≥3, respectively. Eighty-six patients were included. Twenty-three (26.7%) patients had at least one joint with abnormal US-positive PD signal. Thirteen percent of patients were reclassified to low disease activity by applying the US-DAS28 when joints were considered active with a PD signal ≥1; 12%, when a PD signal ≥2 was considered, and 2% of the patients were reclassified when a PD score of 3 was considered. No patients were reclassified to a level of moderate or high activity applying US-DAS28. Although around a quarter of patients with RA in clinical remission showed PD US features indicating residual activity, only a small percentage were reclassified to a state of low activity and none to a level of moderate or high activity, applying the proposed US-DAS28. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-assessment of Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity Using a Smartphone Application. Development and 3-month Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, S; Ito, H; Yamada, M; Yoshitomi, H; Furu, M; Ito, T; Shinohara, A; Ura, T; Okamoto, K; Aoyama, T; Tsuboyama, Tadao

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Methodologies, Models and Algorithms for Patients Rehabilitation". Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a progressive inflammatory disease that causes damage to multiple joints, decline in functional status, and premature mortality. Thus, effective and frequent objective assessments are necessary. Then, we developed a self-assessment system for RA patients based on a smartphone application. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a self-assessment system for RA patients using a smartphone application. We measured daily disease activity in nine RA patients who used the smartphone application for a period of three months. A disease activity score (DAS28) predictive model was used and feedback comments relating to disease activity were shown to patients via the smartphone application each day. To assess participants' RA disease activity, the DAS28 based on the C-reactive protein level was measured by a rheumatologist during monthly clinical visits. The disease activity measured by the application correlated well with the patients' actual disease activity during the 3-month period, as assessed by clinical examination. Furthermore, most participants gave favourable responses to a questionnaire administered at the end of the 3-month period containing questions relating to the ease of use and usefulness of the system. The results of this feasibility study indicated that the DAS28 predictive model can longitudinally predict DAS28 and may be an acceptable and useful tool for assessment of RA disease activity for both patients and healthcare providers.

  3. Merging Veterans Affairs rheumatoid arthritis registry and pharmacy data to assess methotrexate adherence and disease activity in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Grant W; Mikuls, Ted R; Hayden, Candace L; Ying, Jian; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Reimold, Andreas M; Caplan, Liron; Kerr, Gail S; Richards, J Steuart; Johnson, Dannette S; Sauer, Brian C

    2011-12-01

    The Veterans Affairs (VA) Rheumatoid Arthritis (VARA) registry and the VA Pharmacy Benefits Management database were linked to determine the association of methotrexate (MTX) adherence with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity. For each patient, the medication possession ratio (MPR) was calculated for the first episode of MTX exposure of a duration of ≥12 weeks for both new and established MTX users. High MTX adherence was defined as an MPR ≥0.80 and low MTX adherence was defined as an MPR <0.80. For each patient, the mean Disease Activity Score with 28 joints (DAS28) score, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reaction protein (CRP) level observed during registry followup were compared in high- versus low-adherence groups. In 455 RA patients, the prescribed doses of MTX (mean ± SD 16 ± 4 mg versus 16 ± 4 mg; P = 0.6) were similar in high-adherence patients (n = 370) in comparison to low-adherence patients (n = 85). However, the actual observed MTX doses taken by patients were significantly higher in the high-adherence group (mean ± SD 16 ± 5 mg versus 11 ± 3 mg; P < 0.001). DAS28 (mean ± SD 3.6 ± 1.2 versus 3.9 ± 1.5; P < 0.02), ESR (mean ± SD 24 ± 18 versus 29 ± 24 mm/hour; P = 0.05), and CRP level (mean ± SD 1.2 ± 1.3 versus 1.6 ± 1.5 mg/dl; P < 0.03) were lower in the high-adherence group compared to those with low MTX adherence. These variances were not explained by differences in baseline demographic features, concurrent treatments, or whether MTX was initiated before or after VARA enrollment. High MTX adherence was associated with improved clinical outcomes in RA patients treated with MTX. Adjustment for potential confounders did not alter the estimated effect of adherence. These results demonstrate the advantages of being able to merge clinical observations with pharmacy databases to evaluate antirheumatic drugs in clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  4. Expression and function of microRNA-188-5p in activated rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ruedel, Anke; Dietrich, Peter; Schubert, Thomas; Hofmeister, Simone; Hellerbrand, Claus; Bosserhoff, Anja Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Activated synovial fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis (RASF) play a critical role in the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent studies suggested that deregulation of microRNAs (miRs) affects the development and progression of RA. Therefore, we aimed to identify de-regulated miRs in RASF and to identify target genes that may contribute to the aggressive phenotype of RASF. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed a marked downregulation of miR-188-5p in synovial tissue samples of RA patients as well as in RASF. Exposure to the cytokine interleukine-1β lead to a further downregulation of miR-188-5p expression levels compared to control cells. Re-expression of miR-188-5p in RASF by transient transfection significantly inhibited cell migration. However, miR-188-5p re-expression had no effects on glycosaminoglycan degradation or expression of repellent factors, which have been previously shown to affect the invasive behavior of RASF. In search for target genes of miR-188-5p in RASF we performed gene expression profiling in RASF and found a strong regulatory effect of miR-188-5p on the hyaluronan binding protein KIAA1199 as well as collagens COL1A1 and COL12A1, which was confirmed by qRT-PCR. In silico analysis revealed that KIAA1199 carries a 3'UTR binding site for miR-188-5p. COL1A1 and COL12A1 showed no binding site in the mRNA region, suggesting an indirect regulation of these two genes by miR-188-5p. In summary, our study showed that miR-188-5p is down-regulated in RA in vitro and in vivo, most likely triggered by an inflammatory environment. MiR-188-5p expression is correlated to the activation state of RASF and inhibits migration of these cells. Furthermore, miR-188-5p is directly and indirectly regulating the expression of genes, which may play a role in extracellular matrix formation and destruction in RA. Herewith, this study identified potential novel therapeutic targets to inhibit the development and progression of RA.

  5. Expression and function of microRNA-188-5p in activated rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Ruedel, Anke; Dietrich, Peter; Schubert, Thomas; Hofmeister, Simone; Hellerbrand, Claus; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Activated synovial fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis (RASF) play a critical role in the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent studies suggested that deregulation of microRNAs (miRs) affects the development and progression of RA. Therefore, we aimed to identify de-regulated miRs in RASF and to identify target genes that may contribute to the aggressive phenotype of RASF. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed a marked downregulation of miR-188-5p in synovial tissue samples of RA patients as well as in RASF. Exposure to the cytokine interleukine-1β lead to a further downregulation of miR-188-5p expression levels compared to control cells. Re-expression of miR-188-5p in RASF by transient transfection significantly inhibited cell migration. However, miR-188-5p re-expression had no effects on glycosaminoglycan degradation or expression of repellent factors, which have been previously shown to affect the invasive behavior of RASF. In search for target genes of miR-188-5p in RASF we performed gene expression profiling in RASF and found a strong regulatory effect of miR-188-5p on the hyaluronan binding protein KIAA1199 as well as collagens COL1A1 and COL12A1, which was confirmed by qRT-PCR. In silico analysis revealed that KIAA1199 carries a 3’UTR binding site for miR-188-5p. COL1A1and COL12A1 showed no binding site in the mRNA region, suggesting an indirect regulation of these two genes by miR-188-5p. In summary, our study showed that miR-188-5p is down-regulated in RA in vitro and in vivo, most likely triggered by an inflammatory environment. MiR-188-5p expression is correlated to the activation state of RASF and inhibits migration of these cells. Furthermore, miR-188-5p is directly and indirectly regulating the expression of genes, which may play a role in extracellular matrix formation and destruction in RA. Herewith, this study identified potential novel therapeutic targets to inhibit the development and progression of RA. PMID:26191188

  6. Expression and function of microRNA-188-5p in activated rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Ruedel, Anke; Dietrich, Peter; Schubert, Thomas; Hofmeister, Simone; Hellerbrand, Claus; Bosserhoff, Anja Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Activated synovial fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis (RASF) play a critical role in the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent studies suggested that deregulation of microRNAs (miRs) affects the development and progression of RA. Therefore, we aimed to identify de-regulated miRs in RASF and to identify target genes that may contribute to the aggressive phenotype of RASF. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed a marked downregulation of miR-188-5p in synovial tissue samples of RA patients as well as in RASF. Exposure to the cytokine interleukine-1β lead to a further downregulation of miR-188-5p expression levels compared to control cells. Re-expression of miR-188-5p in RASF by transient transfection significantly inhibited cell migration. However, miR-188-5p re-expression had no effects on glycosaminoglycan degradation or expression of repellent factors, which have been previously shown to affect the invasive behavior of RASF. In search for target genes of miR-188-5p in RASF we performed gene expression profiling in RASF and found a strong regulatory effect of miR-188-5p on the hyaluronan binding protein KIAA1199 as well as collagens COL1A1 and COL12A1, which was confirmed by qRT-PCR. In silico analysis revealed that KIAA1199 carries a 3’UTR binding site for miR-188-5p. COL1A1 and COL12A1 showed no binding site in the mRNA region, suggesting an indirect regulation of these two genes by miR-188-5p. In summary, our study showed that miR-188-5p is down-regulated in RA in vitro and in vivo, most likely triggered by an inflammatory environment. MiR-188-5p expression is correlated to the activation state of RASF and inhibits migration of these cells. Furthermore, miR-188-5p is directly and indirectly regulating the expression of genes, which may play a role in extracellular matrix formation and destruction in RA. Herewith, this study identified potential novel therapeutic targets to inhibit the development and progression of RA. PMID:26261542

  7. Expression and function of microRNA-188-5p in activated rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ruedel, Anke; Dietrich, Peter; Schubert, Thomas; Hofmeister, Simone; Hellerbrand, Claus; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Activated synovial fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis (RASF) play a critical role in the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent studies suggested that deregulation of microRNAs (miRs) affects the development and progression of RA. Therefore, we aimed to identify de-regulated miRs in RASF and to identify target genes that may contribute to the aggressive phenotype of RASF. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed a marked downregulation of miR-188-5p in synovial tissue samples of RA patients as well as in RASF. Exposure to the cytokine interleukine-1β lead to a further downregulation of miR-188-5p expression levels compared to control cells. Re-expression of miR-188-5p in RASF by transient transfection significantly inhibited cell migration. However, miR-188-5p re-expression had no effects on glycosaminoglycan degradation or expression of repellent factors, which have been previously shown to affect the invasive behavior of RASF. In search for target genes of miR-188-5p in RASF we performed gene expression profiling in RASF and found a strong regulatory effect of miR-188-5p on the hyaluronan binding protein KIAA1199 as well as collagens COL1A1 and COL12A1, which was confirmed by qRT-PCR. In silico analysis revealed that KIAA1199 carries a 3'UTR binding site for miR-188-5p. COL1A1and COL12A1 showed no binding site in the mRNA region, suggesting an indirect regulation of these two genes by miR-188-5p. In summary, our study showed that miR-188-5p is down-regulated in RA in vitro and in vivo, most likely triggered by an inflammatory environment. MiR-188-5p expression is correlated to the activation state of RASF and inhibits migration of these cells. Furthermore, miR-188-5p is directly and indirectly regulating the expression of genes, which may play a role in extracellular matrix formation and destruction in RA. Herewith, this study identified potential novel therapeutic targets to inhibit the development and progression of RA.

  8. Disease activity, knee function, and walking ability in patients with rheumatoid arthritis 10 years after primary total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Masataka; Owaki, Hajime; Takahi, Koichiro; Fuji, Takeshi

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate disease activity, knee function, and walking ability of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) over 10 years after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Four men and 26 women (mean age, 59.9 years) underwent 42 TKAs for RA with a mean duration of 151.3 months and were followed up for a mean of 142.3 months. Preoperatively, disease activity was assessed by C-reactive protein (CRP) level only, and the range of knee motion was recorded. At the final follow-up, tender joint count, swollen joint count, visual analogue scale of RA symptoms, and the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ) score were assessed. Disease activity was evaluated using CRP, matrix metalloproteinase-3, and Disease Activity Score. Range of motion and Knee Society knee and function scores were also assessed. The use of methotrexate increased from 4 patients preoperatively to 20 patients at the final follow-up (p<0.001), and the mean dose increased from 3.9 to 6.3 mg/week (p<0.001). Among the 30 patients, the mean CRP level decreased from 2.63 mg/dl preoperatively to 0.61 mg/dl at the final follow-up (p<0.001). Disease activity was controlled. At the final follow-up, disease activity was in remission in 10 patients, low in 11, and moderate in 9. The mean Knee Society knee score was excellent (91.0), but the mean function score was poor (57.0) and diverse. Severe walking disability (function score, <40) was noted in 8 patients (11 TKAs). Knee and function scores did not correlate. Walking ability in patients with RA after TKA was generally poor. Poor function was associated with a history of spinal or lower extremity fracture surgery and the MHAQ score.

  9. Release of Active Peptidyl Arginine Deiminases by Neutrophils Can Explain Production of Extracellular Citrullinated Autoantigens in Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, Julia; Lugonja, Božo; Jimmy Ytterberg, A.; Zubarev, Roman A.; Creese, Andrew J.; Pearson, Mark J.; Grant, Melissa M.; Milward, Michael; Lundberg, Karin; Buckley, Christopher D.; Filer, Andrew; Raza, Karim; Cooper, Paul R.; Chapple, Iain L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the majority of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), antibodies specifically recognize citrullinated autoantigens that are generated by peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs). Neutrophils express high levels of PAD and accumulate in the synovial fluid (SF) of RA patients during disease flares. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that neutrophil cell death, induced by either NETosis (extrusion of genomic DNA–protein complexes known as neutrophil extracellular traps [NETs]) or necrosis, can contribute to production of autoantigens in the inflamed joint. Methods Extracellular DNA was quantified in the SF of patients with RA, patients with osteoarthritis (OA), and patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Release of PAD from neutrophils was investigated by Western blotting, mass spectrometry, immunofluorescence staining, and PAD activity assays. PAD2 and PAD4 protein expression, as well as PAD enzymatic activity, were assessed in the SF of patients with RA and those with OA. Results Extracellular DNA was detected at significantly higher levels in RA SF than in OA SF (P < 0.001) or PsA SF (P < 0.05), and its expression levels correlated with neutrophil concentrations and PAD activity in RA SF. Necrotic neutrophils released less soluble extracellular DNA compared to NETotic cells in vitro (P < 0.05). Higher PAD activity was detected in RA SF than in OA SF (P < 0.05). The citrullinated proteins PAD2 and PAD4 were found attached to NETs and also freely diffused in the supernatant. PAD enzymatic activity was detected in supernatants of neutrophils undergoing either NETosis or necrosis. Conclusion Release of active PAD isoforms into the SF by neutrophil cell death is a plausible explanation for the generation of extracellular autoantigens in RA. PMID:26245941

  10. Evaluation of different methods used to assess disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis: analyses of abatacept clinical trial data

    PubMed Central

    Dougados, M; Schmidely, N; Le Bars, M; Lafosse, C; Schiff, M; Smolen, J S; Aletaha, D; van Riel, P; Wells, G

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate different methods of reporting response to treatment or disease status for their ability to discriminate between active therapy and placebo, or to reflect structural progression or patient satisfaction with treatment using an exploratory analysis of the Abatacept in Inadequate Responders to Methotrexate (AIM) trial. Methods: 424 active (abatacept ∼10 mg/kg) and 214 placebo-treated patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were evaluated. Methods of reporting included: (1) response (American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria) versus state (disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) criteria); (2) stringency (ACR20 vs 50 vs 70; moderate disease activity state (MDAS; DAS28 <5.1) vs low disease activity state (LDAS; DAS28 ⩽3.2) vs DAS28-defined remission (DAS28 <2.6)); (3) time to onset (time to first ACR50/LDAS) and (4) sustainability of ACR50/LDAS for consecutive visits. Methods were assessed according to: (1) discriminatory capacity (number of patients needed to study (NNS)); (2) structural progression (Genant-modified Sharp score) and (3) patient satisfaction with treatment. Positive likelihood ratios (LR) evaluated the ability of the above methods to reflect structural damage and patient satisfaction. Results: MDAS and ACR20 had the highest discriminatory capacity (NNS 49 and 69). Sustained LDAS best reflected no radiographic progression (positive LR ⩾2). More stringent criteria (at least ACR50/LDAS), faster onset (⩽3 months) and sustainability (>3 visits) of ACR50/LDAS best reflected patient satisfaction (positive LR >10). Conclusions: The optimal method for reporting a measure of disease activity may differ depending on the outcome of interest. Time to onset and sustainability can be important factors when evaluating treatment response and disease status in patients with RA. PMID:19074177

  11. Epidemiological evaluation quality of life in patients suffering from early rheumatoid arthritis: a pragmatic, prospective, randomized, blind allocation controlled of a modular program group intervention.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Hadi; Chopra, Arvind; Farrokhseresht, Reza; Sarmukaddam, Sanjeev; Noghabi, Fariba Asadi; Bedekar, Nilima; Madani, Abdolhosain

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiology has taken on new roles in the management of health care services. In this study, we developed a non-pharmacological self-management modular program group intervention and evaluated its efficacy as an adjunct therapy in patients suffering from early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients were randomized to either participate in a non-equivalent intervention group along with the standard of care or only receive standard-of-care treatment at a community rheumatology center. The outcomes measured were a pain visual analog scale (VAS), patient general health (GH) on a VAS, and the Short Form 36 Health Survey version 2 scale measuring quality of life. These parameters were evaluated in the first week to obtain baseline values, and at 20, 32, 48, and 60 weeks to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention group. The patients were randomized, with 100 patients in the intervention group and 106 in the control group. The intervention and control groups were similar with regard to the percentage of women (86% vs. 89.6%), tobacco usage (25% vs. 19.8%), mean age (42.6±13.2 years vs. 46.6±10.9 years), and disease duration (15.3±6.7 months vs. 14.5±6.6 months). The mean outcomes were significantly different between the two groups, and post-hoc pairwise analysis demonstrated significant deterioration in the control group in contrast to improvement in the intervention group at the second, third, fourth, and fifth evaluations. Improvements were often seen as early as the 12-week and 24-week follow-up visits. Epidemiology contributes to the evaluation of how well specific therapies or other health interventions prevent or control health problems. The modular program group intervention implemented in this study appears to be a suitable and feasible method to facilitate much more comprehensive management of early RA in socioeconomically challenged communities.

  12. Epidemiological evaluation quality of life in patients suffering from early rheumatoid arthritis: a pragmatic, prospective, randomized, blind allocation controlled of a modular program group intervention

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Epidemiology has taken on new roles in the management of health care services. In this study, we developed a non-pharmacological self-management modular program group intervention and evaluated its efficacy as an adjunct therapy in patients suffering from early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Patients were randomized to either participate in a non-equivalent intervention group along with the standard of care or only receive standard-of-care treatment at a community rheumatology center. The outcomes measured were a pain visual analog scale (VAS), patient general health (GH) on a VAS, and the Short Form 36 Health Survey version 2 scale measuring quality of life. These parameters were evaluated in the first week to obtain baseline values, and at 20, 32, 48, and 60 weeks to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention group. RESULTS: The patients were randomized, with 100 patients in the intervention group and 106 in the control group. The intervention and control groups were similar with regard to the percentage of women (86% vs. 89.6%), tobacco usage (25% vs. 19.8%), mean age (42.6±13.2 years vs. 46.6±10.9 years), and disease duration (15.3±6.7 months vs. 14.5±6.6 months). The mean outcomes were significantly different between the two groups, and post-hoc pairwise analysis demonstrated significant deterioration in the control group in contrast to improvement in the intervention group at the second, third, fourth, and fifth evaluations. Improvements were often seen as early as the 12-week and 24-week follow-up visits. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiology contributes to the evaluation of how well specific therapies or other health interventions prevent or control health problems. The modular program group intervention implemented in this study appears to be a suitable and feasible method to facilitate much more comprehensive management of early RA in socioeconomically challenged communities. PMID:26552423

  13. Tofacitinib improves atherosclerosis despite up-regulating serum cholesterol in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kume, Kensuke; Amano, Kanzo; Yamada, Susumu; Kanazawa, Toshikatsu; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Hatta, Kazuhiko; Amano, Kuniki; Kuwaba, Noriko

    2017-12-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. This study aimed to analyze the effects of Tofacitinib treatment, a Janus kinase inhibitor, on atherosclerosis in patients with RA. Patients with an active RA (28-joint disease activity score-erythrocyte sedimentation rate > 3.2) despite methotrexate (MTX) treatment 12 mg/week were included in this open-label prospective study and started on Tofacitinib (10 mg/day, 5 mg twice/day). Japanese guideline does not allow high dose of MTX. All patients used a stable dosage of MTX, steroids, and statins or lipid-lowering drugs. The primary endpoint was the comparison of the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) at the baseline and 54 weeks after Tofa treatment. Clinical data were collected at regular visits. Forty-six patients completed this study. CIMT did not significantly change from baseline to 54 weeks (1.09 ± 0.69 and 1.08 ± 0.78 mm, p = 0.82). In 12 patients who had atherosclerosis at baseline (carotid intima-media thickness > 1.10 mm), there was a significant decrease in CIMT (0.05± 0.026 mm; p < 0.05). However, the decrease in CIMT was of limited clinical significance. Tofacitinib increased fasting total cholesterol levels from baseline to 54 weeks (216 ± 25.3 and 234 ± 28.8 mg/dL, p < 0.01). Tofacitinib affects atherosclerosis in patients with active RA The CIMT in RA patients was stable. Tofacitinib decreased the CIMT of patients who had increased CIMT at baseline. Tofacitinib reduced RA disease activity and limited vascular damage despite up-regulating cholesterol in patients with an active RA.

  14. [Correlation of DNase I in serum and synovial fluid with inflammatory activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xia-Yu; Yang, Wen-Fang; Zhang, Si-Gong; Zhao, Qin; Linag, Li-Jun; Wang, Xin; Shen, Hai-Li

    2016-08-20

    To investigate the potential role of deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). DNase I activity was measured by radial enzyme-diffusion method in serum samples from 83 RA patients and 60 healthy volunteers and in the synovial fluid (SF) from 27 RA patients and 38 patients with other inflammatory arthritis. SF cfDNA level was measured with Pico Green Kit, and the correlation among DNase I activity, cfDNA level and clinical parameters of RA patients was analyzed. Serum DNase I activity was significantly lower in RA patients than in the healthy control subjects (0.3065∓0.1436 vs 0.4289∓0.1976 U/mL, P<0.001), and was negatively correlated with ESR (r=-0.2862, P=0.0122), CRP (r=-0.2790, P=0.0184) and neutrophil cell counts (r=-0.287, P=0.011). SF DNase I activity was almost negative in patients with RA, ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and gouty arthritis (GA). SF cfDNA level in RA patients was significantly higher than that in patients with osteoarthritis (100.81∓142.98 vs 18.98∓31.40 µg/mL, P=0.002), but similar to that in patients with AS (45.85∓47.67 µg/mL, P=0.428) and GA (162.95∓97.49 µg/mL, P=0.132). In patients with inflammatory arthritis, SF cfDNA level was positively correlated with ESR (r=0.4106, P=0.0116) and CRP (r=0.5747, P=0.0002). Impairment of DNase I activity may be responsible for the enhanced NETs generation and plays a role in the pathogenesis of RA.

  15. Molecular alterations in skeletal muscle in rheumatoid arthritis are related to disease activity, physical inactivity, and disability.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Kim M; Jessee, Ryan; Andonian, Brian; Davis, Brittany N; Narowski, Rachel; Huebner, Janet L; Kraus, Virginia B; McCracken, Julie; Gilmore, Brian F; Tune, K Noelle; Campbell, Milton; Koves, Timothy R; Muoio, Deborah M; Hubal, Monica J; Kraus, William E

    2017-01-23

    To identify molecular alterations in skeletal muscle in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that may contribute to ongoing disability in RA. Persons with seropositive or erosive RA (n = 51) and control subjects matched for age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity (n = 51) underwent assessment of disease activity, disability, pain, physical activity and thigh muscle biopsies. Muscle tissue was used for measurement of pro-inflammatory markers, transcriptomics, and comprehensive profiling of metabolic intermediates. Groups were compared using mixed models. Bivariate associations were assessed with Spearman correlation. Compared to controls, patients with RA had 75% greater muscle concentrations of IL-6 protein (p = 0.006). In patients with RA, muscle concentrations of inflammatory markers were positively associated (p < 0.05 for all) with disease activity (IL-1β, IL-8), disability (IL-1β, IL-6), pain (IL-1β, TNF-α, toll-like receptor (TLR)-4), and physical inactivity (IL-1β, IL-6). Muscle cytokines were not related to corresponding systemic cytokines. Prominent among the gene sets differentially expressed in muscles in RA versus controls were those involved in skeletal muscle repair processes and glycolytic metabolism. Metabolic profiling revealed 46% higher concentrations of pyruvate in muscle in RA (p < 0.05), and strong positive correlation between levels of amino acids involved in fibrosis (arginine, ornithine, proline, and glycine) and disability (p < 0.05). RA is accompanied by broad-ranging molecular alterations in skeletal muscle. Analysis of inflammatory markers, gene expression, and metabolic intermediates linked disease-related disruptions in muscle inflammatory signaling, remodeling, and metabolic programming to physical inactivity and disability. Thus, skeletal muscle dysfunction might contribute to a viscous cycle of RA disease activity, physical inactivity, and disability.

  16. Decoy receptor 3 suppresses B cell functions and has a negative correlation with disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Han; Liu, Po-Chun; Chang, Chien-Wen; Chen, Yi-Ann; Chen, Ming-Huang; Liu, Chun-Yu; Leu, Chuen-Miin; Lin, Hsiao-Yi

    2014-01-01

    The decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a member of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily and may regulate inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of DcR3 in B cell functions and its correlation to disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The concentrations of DcR3 and TNF-α were measured by ELISA. B cell proliferation was assessed by quantification of 3H-thymidine uptake. Staphylococcus aureus Cowan (SAC) strain were used to stimulate B cell proliferation and TNF-α production. Compared to the osteoarthritis (OA) patients, the RA group had higher synovial DcR3 levels (3273.6±1623.2 vs. 1594.8±1190.0 pg/ml, p=0.003), which were negatively correlated with the serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate and Disease Activity Score using 28 joint counts (DAS28) scores (r=-0.560, p=0.002; r=-0.579, p<0.001, respectively). Although the RA B cells have more active characteristics, B cell proliferation induced by SAC was successfully suppressed by recombinant DcR3.Fc fusion protein with an average inhibition of 44.8%. Moreover, DcR3.Fc fusion protein was found to suppress SAC-induced TNF-α production by B cells in 8 RA patients (average inhibition 47.0%). The results of our study indicated that the inhibition of B cell functions by DcR3 may partially explain the negative correlation between DcR3 level and disease activity in RA patients. Our findings imply that DcR3 may be used as a biomarker for disease activity and a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of RA.

  17. Sympathetic activation during early pregnancy in humans

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Sara S; Shibata, Shigeki; Bivens, Tiffany B; Okada, Yoshiyuki; Casey, Brian M; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Sympathetic activity has been reported to increase in normotensive pregnant women, and to be even greater in women with gestational hypertension and preeclampsia at term. Whether sympathetic overactivity develops early during pregnancy, remaining high throughout gestation, or whether it only occurs at term providing the substrate for hypertensive disorders is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that sympathetic activation occurs early during pregnancy in humans. Eleven healthy women (29 ± 3 (SD) years) without prior hypertensive pregnancies were tested during the mid-luteal phase (PRE) and early pregnancy (EARLY; 6.2 ± 1.2 weeks of gestation). Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and haemodynamics were measured supine, at 30 deg and 60 deg upright tilt for 5 min each. Blood samples were drawn for catecholamines, direct renin, and aldosterone. MSNA was significantly greater during EARLY than PRE (supine: 25 ± 8 vs. 14 ± 8 bursts min−1, 60 deg tilt: 49 ± 14 vs. 40 ± 10 bursts min−1; main effect, P < 0.05). Resting diastolic pressure trended lower (P = 0.09), heart rate was similar, total peripheral resistance decreased (2172 ± 364 vs. 2543 ± 352 dyne s cm−5; P < 0.05), sympathetic vascular transduction was blunted (0.10 ± 0.05 vs. 0.36 ± 0.47 units a.u.−1 min−1; P < 0.01), and both renin (supine: 27.9 ± 6.2 vs. 14.2 ± 8.7 pg ml−1, P < 0.01) and aldosterone (supine: 16.7 ± 14.1 vs. 7.7 ± 6.8 ng ml−1, P = 0.05) were higher during EARLY than PRE. These results suggest that sympathetic activation is a common characteristic of early pregnancy in humans despite reduced diastolic pressure and total peripheral resistance. These observations challenge conventional thinking about blood pressure regulation during pregnancy, showing marked sympathetic activation occurring within the first few weeks of conception, and may provide the substrate for pregnancy induced cardiovascular complications. PMID:22687610

  18. The Ethanolic Extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ort.) Sarg. Bark and Its Fractions Delay the Progression of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Show Antinociceptive Activity in Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Pablo-Pérez, Saudy Saret; Parada-Cruz, Benjamín; Barbier, Olivier Christophe; Meléndez-Camargo, María Estela

    2018-01-01

    Eysenhardtia polystachya is widely used in folk medicine as an anti-rheumatic and analgesic agent, but no systematic study of its effects on several markers associated with rheumatoid arthritis and its ethnomedical use as analgesic agent has been performed. We evaluated the anti-arthritic and antinociceptive properties of an ethanolic extract of E. polystachya (EE) bark and its rich-flavonoids fractions in murine models. The EE was administered orally at doses of 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day, and its fractions at 25 mg/kg/day in all animal models. Anti-arthritic activity was evaluated using a complete Freund´s adjuvant (CFA)-induced rheumatoid arthritis model in rats. The severity of arthritis was evaluated by changes in paw oedema, body weight, arthritic index, radiological scores, histological assessment of synovial joints, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, haematocrit, haemoglobin, serum rheumatoid factor, serum C-reactive protein and serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-18, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-10, IL-13. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using an acetic acid-induced abdominal contraction test and a hot-plate test in mice. EE and its rich-flavonoids fractions inhibited secondary inflammatory reactions, diminished the specific histopathological alterations in the joint capsule and reduced the serum concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and GM-CSF in arthritic rats. EE also reduced the number of writhes produced by acetic acid and increased the response time on the hot plate for mice. Our findings support the use of Eysenhardtia polystachya bark for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and pain management. PMID:29755555

  19. My Treatment Approach to Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, John M.; Matteson, Eric L.

    2012-01-01

    The past decade has brought important advances in the understanding of rheumatoid arthritis and its management and treatment. New classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis, better definitions of treatment outcome and remission, and the introduction of biologic response-modifying drugs designed to inhibit the inflammatory process have greatly altered the approach to managing this disease. More aggressive management of rheumatoid arthritis early after diagnosis and throughout the course of the disease has resulted in improvement in patient functioning and quality of life, reduction in comorbid conditions, and enhanced survival. PMID:22766086

  20. Dissociated Agonist of Glucocorticoid Receptor or Prednisone for Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: Effects on P1NP and Osteocalcin Pharmacodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, S; Suzuki, A; Conrado, DJ; Peterson, MC; Hey‐Hadavi, J; McCabe, D; Rojo, R

    2017-01-01

    Fosdagrocorat (PF‐04171327), a dissociated agonist of the glucocorticoid receptor, has potent anti‐inflammatory activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with reduced adverse effects on bone health. To identify fosdagrocorat doses with bone formation marker changes similar to prednisone 5 mg, we characterized treatment‐related changes in amino‐terminal propeptide of type I collagen (P1NP) and osteocalcin (OC) with fosdagrocorat (1, 5, 10, or 15 mg) and prednisone (5 or 10 mg) in a phase II randomized trial (N = 323). The time course of markers utilized a mixed‐effects longitudinal kinetic‐pharmacodynamic model. Median predicted changes from baseline at week 8 with fosdagrocorat 5, 10, and 15 mg were −18, −22, and −22% (P1NP), and −7, −13, and −17% (OC), respectively. Changes with prednisone 5 and 10 mg were −15% and −18% (P1NP) and −10% and −17% (OC). The probability of fosdagrocorat doses up to 15 mg being noninferior to prednisone 5 mg for P1NP and OC changes was >90%. PMID:28556506

  1. Power and color Doppler ultrasound settings for inflammatory flow: impact on scoring of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Torp-Pedersen, Søren; Christensen, Robin; Szkudlarek, Marcin; Ellegaard, Karen; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Iagnocco, Annamaria; Naredo, Esperanza; Balint, Peter; Wakefield, Richard J; Torp-Pedersen, Arendse; Terslev, Lene

    2015-02-01

    To determine how settings for power and color Doppler ultrasound sensitivity vary on different high- and intermediate-range ultrasound machines and to evaluate the impact of these changes on Doppler scoring of inflamed joints. Six different types of ultrasound machines were used. On each machine, the factory setting for superficial musculoskeletal scanning was used unchanged for both color and power Doppler modalities. The settings were then adjusted for increased Doppler sensitivity, and these settings were designated study settings. Eleven patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with wrist involvement were scanned on the 6 machines, each with 4 settings, generating 264 Doppler images for scoring and color quantification. Doppler sensitivity was measured with a quantitative assessment of Doppler activity: color fraction. Higher color fraction indicated higher sensitivity. Power Doppler was more sensitive on half of the machines, whereas color Doppler was more sensitive on the other half, using both factory settings and study settings. There was an average increase in Doppler sensitivity, despite modality, of 78% when study settings were applied. Over the 6 machines, 2 Doppler modalities, and 2 settings, the grades for each of 7 of the patients varied between 0 and 3, while the grades for each of the other 4 patients varied between 0 and 2. The effect of using different machines, Doppler modalities, and settings has a considerable influence on the quantification of inflammation by ultrasound in RA patients, and this must be taken into account in multicenter studies. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  2. Impact of etanercept on work and activity impairment in employed moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis patients in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hone, Devon; Cheng, Annie; Watson, Crystal; Huang, Baisong; Bitman, Bojena; Huang, Xing-Yue; Gandra, Shravanthi R

    2013-10-01

    To quantify the impact of etanercept on work and activity impairment in employed US patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This prospective, observational, longitudinal study recruited RA patients initiating etanercept (50 mg/week) between January 2009 and March 2010. The Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (WPAI) and domestic productivity questionnaire were administered by telephone interviews at baseline and at 1, 2, 3, and 6 months after etanercept initiation. The human capital approach was used to estimate the costs of work impairment. Changes in WPAI measures were analyzed using Wilcoxon's signed rank test. RA patients (n = 204) initiating etanercept were a mean ± SD age of 46.6 ± 10.9 years and 72% were women. After 6 months, 153 patients continued treatment (continuers) and showed significant decreases in overall work impairment (41.9% at baseline versus 25.2% at 6 months; P < 0.0001), absenteeism (8.4% versus 2.3%; P = 0.0001), presenteeism (38.9% versus 24.3%; P < 0.0001), and activity impairment (55.7% versus 30.9%; P < 0.0001) and a 76.4% reduction in work hours lost weekly due to RA (3.2 versus 0.8; P = 0.0001). The projected 12-month gain in work productivity for continuers was 284.5 hours per patient, equating to $3,233-22,533 depending on annual income level, which partially or completely offset the annual cost of etanercept ($20,190). Domestic productivity improved from 41.5% at baseline to 69.6% at 6 months (P < 0.0001). In US employed moderate to severe RA patients, etanercept led to significant reductions in overall work and activity impairment; the value of increased work productivity partially or completely offset the cost of treatment. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  3. Influence of obesity, age, and comorbidities on the multi-biomarker disease activity test in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Jeffrey R; Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Harrold, Leslie R; Kremer, Joel M; Palmer, J Lynn

    2018-02-01

    Traditional markers of inflammation are often required for inclusion in rheumatoid arthritis trials, yet patients with active disease may have normal lab tests. The potential use of the multi-biomarker disease activity (MBDA) test in this setting is unclear, as is understanding of whether it is influenced by patient characteristics (e.g., age, BMI, and comorbidities). Using data from the Corrona registry, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of RA patients with MBDA tests. Patients were classified as low (<30), moderate (30-44, and high (>44) and by clinical and RA-related factors. Regression was used to evaluate the association between MBDA score and age, body mass index, comorbidities, and RA-related factors. Of 357 eligible patients, 76% (n = 273) had normal CRP (<10mg/L) with high (33%), moderate (45%), and low (22%) disease activity by MBDA. The MBDA score was significantly associated with BMI, age, CDAI, and SJC. There was no association between MBDA score and fibromyalgia, diabetes, smoking, or COPD; none were confounders between MBDA score and either SJC or CDAI. For patients in CDAI remission, older age (2.6 units per decade; p = 0.03) and obesity (β = 10.5 for BMI > 30, referent to <25; p = 0.02) were independently associated with MBDA score. An adjusted MBDA score was proposed that was highly correlated with the original MBDA (r = 0.91). In this real-world analysis, the MBDA score was associated with RA disease activity, obesity, and age, and was negligibly affected by common comorbidities. Almost one-third of patients with normal CRP had high MBDA scores. An adjustment to the MBDA score to account for body mass index and age is proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Perceived Barriers, Facilitators and Benefits for Regular Physical Activity and Exercise in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Jet J C S; Rouse, Peter C; Hale, Elizabeth D; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Metsios, George S; Duda, Joan L; Kitas, George D

    2015-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease, which not only affects the joints but can also impact on general well-being and risk for cardiovascular disease. Regular physical activity and exercise in patients with RA have numerous health benefits. Nevertheless, the majority of patients with RA are physically inactive. This indicates that people with RA might experience additional or more severe barriers to physical activity or exercise than the general population. This narrative review provides an overview of perceived barriers, benefits and facilitators of physical activity and exercise in RA. Databases were searched for articles published until September 2014 using the terms 'rheumatoid arthritis', 'physical activity', 'exercise', 'barriers', 'facilitators', 'benefits', 'motivation', 'motivators' and 'enablers'. Similarities were found between disease-specific barriers and benefits of physical activity and exercise, e.g. pain and fatigue are frequently mentioned as barriers, but reductions in pain and fatigue are perceived benefits of physical activity and exercise. Even though exercise does not influence the existence of barriers, physically active patients appear to be more capable of overcoming them. Therefore, exercise programmes should enhance self-efficacy for exercise in order to achieve long-term physical activity and exercise behaviour. Encouragement from health professionals and friends/family are facilitators for physical activity and exercise. There is a need for interventions that support RA patients in overcoming barriers to physical activity and exercise and help sustain this important health behaviour.

  5. Validating and assessing the sensitivity of the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index-derived Short Form-6D in patients with early aggressive rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Amjadi, Sogol S; Maranian, Paul M; Paulus, Harold E; Kaplan, Robert M; Ranganath, Veena K; Furst, Daniel E; Khanna, Puja P; Khanna, Dinesh

    2009-06-01

    New methodologies allow the scores for the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) to be translated into preferences/utility scores. We evaluated the construct validity of the HAQ-DI-derived Short Form-6D (SF-6D) score and assessed its responsiveness to change over 6- and 12-month followup periods in patients with early aggressive rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients (n=277) participating in an RA observational study completed self-reported measures of symptoms and the HAQ-DI at baseline and at 6 and 12 months. Total Sharp scores, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were assessed along with clinical data. Construct validity was assessed by examining the association between SF-6D score and patient-reported and clinical measures using Spearman correlation coefficients. The responsiveness of SF-6D to change was assessed using patient and physician assessments of the disease as clinical anchors. The magnitude of responsiveness was calculated using SF-6D effect size (ES). Mean SF-6D scores were 0.690, 0.720, and 0.723 at baseline and 6 and 12-month followup, respectively. Baseline patient-reported measures had moderate to high correlations with baseline SF-6D (r=0.43 to 0.52); whereas clinical measures had negligible to low correlations with SF-6D (r=0.001 to 0.32). ES was moderate for the groups that were deemed to have improved (ES 0.63-0.75) but negligible to small for those that did not (ES 0.13-0.46). Our data support the validity and responsiveness of the HAQ-DI derived SF-6D score in an early RA cohort. These results support the use of the HAQ-DI derived SF-6D in RA cohorts and clinical trials lacking preference-based measures.

  6. Early rheumatoid arthritis 6 years after diagnosis is still associated with high direct costs and increasing loss of productivity: the Swedish TIRA project.

    PubMed

    Hallert, E; Husberg, M; Kalkan, A; Skogh, T; Bernfort, L

    2014-01-01

    To calculate total costs over 6 years after diagnosis of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the longitudinal prospective multicentre TIRA study, 239 patients from seven units, diagnosed in 1996-98, reported regularly on health-care utilization and the number of days lost from work. Costs were obtained from official databases and calculated using unit costs (Swedish kronor, SEK) from 2001. Indirect costs were calculated using the human capital approach (HCA). Costs were inflation adjusted to Euro June 2012, using the Swedish Consumer Price Index and the exchange rate of June 2012. Statistical analyses were based on linear mixed models (LMMs) for changes over time. The mean total cost per patient was EUR 14,768 in year 1, increasing to EUR 18,438 in year 6. Outpatient visits and hospitalization decreased but costs for surgery increased from EUR 92/patient in year 1 to EUR 444/patient in year 6. Drug costs increased from EUR 429/patient to EUR 2214/patient, mainly because of the introduction of biologics. In year 1, drugs made up for 10% of direct costs, and increased to 49% in year 6. Sick leave decreased during the first years but disability pensions increased, resulting in unchanged indirect costs. Over the following years, disability pensions increased further and indirect costs increased from EUR 10,284 in year 1 to EUR 13,874 in year 6. LMM analyses showed that indirect costs were unchanged whereas direct costs, after an initial fall, increased over the following years, leading to increasing total costs. In the 6 years after diagnosis of early RA, drug costs were partially offset by decreasing outpatient visits but indirect costs remained unchanged and total costs increased.

  7. Comparative study of the detection of joint injury in early-stage rheumatoid arthritis by magnetic resonance imaging of the wrist and finger joints and physical examination.

    PubMed

    Tamai, Mami; Kawakami, Atsushi; Iwamoto, Naoki; Kawashiri, Shin-Ya; Fujikawa, Keita; Aramaki, Toshiyuki; Kita, Junko; Okada, Akitomo; Koga, Tomohiro; Arima, Kazuhiko; Kamachi, Makoto; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Nakamura, Hideki; Ida, Hiroaki; Origuchi, Tomoki; Takao, Shoichiro; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Uetani, Masataka; Eguchi, Katsumi

    2011-03-01

    To verify whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-proven joint injury is sensitive as compared with joint injury determined by physical examination. MRI of the wrist and finger joints of both hands was examined in 51 early-stage rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients by both plain and gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-enhanced MRI. Synovitis, bone edema, and bone erosion (the latter two included as bone lesions at the wrist joints); metacarpophalangeal joints; and proximal interphalangeal joints were considered as MRI-proven joint injury. Japan College of Rheumatology-certified rheumatologists had given a physical examination just before the MRI study. The presence of tender and/or swollen joints in the same fields as MRI was considered as joint injury on physical examination. The association of MRI-proven joint injury with physical examination-proven joint injury was examined. A total of 1,110 sites were available to be examined. MRI-proven joint injury was found in 521 sites, whereas the other 589 sites were normal. Physical examination-proven joint injury was found in 305 sites, which was significantly low as compared with MRI-proven joint injury (P = 1.1 × 10(-12) versus MRI). Joint injury on physical examination was not found in 81.5% of the sites where MRI findings were normal. Furthermore, an association of the severity of MRI-proven joint injury with that of joint injury on physical examination was clearly demonstrated (P = 1.6 × 10(-15), r(s) = 0.469). Our present data suggest that MRI is not only sensitive but accurately reflects the joint injury in patients with early-stage RA. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  8. Self-limiting arthritis among patients fulfilling the 2010 ACR/EULAR classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis in a very early arthritis cohort.

    PubMed

    Norli, Ellen Sauar; Brinkmann, Gina H; Kvien, Tore K; Bjørneboe, Olav; Haugen, Anne J; Nygaard, Halvor; Thunem, Cathrine; Lie, Elisabeth; Mjaavatten, Maria D

    2016-12-01

    To study occurrence of and factors associated with self-limiting arthritis among patients fulfilling the 2010 ACR/EULAR classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (2010 RA criteria) in patients with ≤16 weeks׳ duration of joint swelling. We applied the 2010 RA criteria in 1118 patients included in a 2-year longitudinal cohort. In all, 256 patients fulfilled the 2010 RA criteria at baseline; outcome was defined as either "self-limiting arthritis" (no DMARD use during follow-up, no swollen joints at last assessment, and no final clinical diagnosis of RA) or "persistent disease." The associations between baseline characteristics, including the components of the 2010 RA criteria score, and outcomes were studied. In total, 36 of 256 patients (14.1%) classified as having RA had self-limiting arthritis. These patients differed from patients with persistent disease according to ACPA positivity (11.1% vs. 65.0%, p < 0.001), duration of joint swelling (median = 47.5 vs. 66.0 days, p = 0.002), 2010 RA criteria points (median = 6.0 vs. 7.0, p < 0.001), and ever smoking (52.8% vs. 74.5%, p = 0.01). Having no serology points and no duration points were independent predictors of self-limiting arthritis. The rate of self-limiting arthritis was 2.7% vs. 29.4% among ACPA positive vs. ACPA negative patients (p < 0.001), and 32.5% when duration of joint swelling was <4 weeks vs. 10.6% with longer duration (p < 0.001). Negative ACPA status, short duration of joint swelling and being a never smoker were factors associated with self-limiting arthritis in early arthritis patients classified as having RA at presentation. Our findings contribute to identify patients who potentially do not need DMARDs and who should not be included in early RA clinical drug trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A cross-sectional study of pain sensitivity, disease-activity assessment, mental health, and fibromyalgia status in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Joharatnam, Nalinie; McWilliams, Daniel F; Wilson, Deborah; Wheeler, Maggie; Pande, Ira; Walsh, David A

    2015-01-20

    Pain remains the most important problem for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Active inflammatory disease contributes to pain, but pain due to non-inflammatory mechanisms can confound the assessment of disease activity. We hypothesize that augmented pain processing, fibromyalgic features, poorer mental health, and patient-reported 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28) components are associated in RA. In total, 50 people with stable, long-standing RA recruited from a rheumatology outpatient clinic were assessed for pain-pressure thresholds (PPTs) at three separate sites (knee, tibia, and sternum), DAS28, fibromyalgia, and mental health status. Multivariable analysis was performed to assess the association between PPT and DAS28 components, DAS28-P (the proportion of DAS28 derived from the patient-reported components of visual analogue score and tender joint count), or fibromyalgia status. More-sensitive PPTs at sites over or distant from joints were each associated with greater reported pain, higher patient-reported DAS28 components, and poorer mental health. A high proportion of participants (48%) satisfied classification criteria for fibromyalgia, and fibromyalgia classification or characteristics were each associated with more sensitive PPTs, higher patient-reported DAS28 components, and poorer mental health. Widespread sensitivity to pressure-induced pain, a high prevalence of fibromyalgic features, higher patient-reported DAS28 components, and poorer mental health are all linked in established RA. The increased sensitivity at nonjoint sites (sternum and anterior tibia), as well as over joints, indicates that central mechanisms may contribute to pain sensitivity in RA. The contribution of patient-reported components to high DAS28 should inform decisions on disease-modifying or pain-management approaches in the treatment of RA when inflammation may be well controlled.

  10. Evaluation of learned helplessness, self-efficacy and disease activity, functional capacity and pain in Argentinian patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Vergara, F; Rosa, J; Orozco, C; Bertiller, E; Gallardo, M A; Bravo, M; Catay, E; Collado, V; Gómez, G; Sabelli, M; García, M V; Rosemffet, M G; Citera, G; Schneeberger, E E; Catoggio, L J; Soriano, E R

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the association between learned helplessness (LH) and self-efficacy (SE) with disease activity, functional capacity, and level of pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to compare LH and SE between patients in remission and patients with active disease. This multicentre, cross-sectional study included consecutive patients (aged ≥ 18 years) with RA according to 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) criteria. LH was measured by the Rheumatology Attitude Index (RAI), Spanish version; SE with the Arthritis Self-efficacy Scale (ASES), Spanish version; functional capacity with the Health Assessment Questionnaire, Argentinian version (HAQ-A); and perceived pain by the visual analogue scale (VAS). Disease activity was measured by the Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI). A total of 115 patients (82% females) with a mean (± sd) age of 58 ± 13 years were included. We found a significantly positive correlation between LH and perceived pain (p < 0.001), HAQ-A score (p < 0.001), and CDAI (p < 0.001) and a significantly negative correlation between SE and perceived pain (p < 0.001), HAQ-A score (p < 0.001), and CDAI (p < 0.001). We found greater levels of SE and lower grades of LH in patients in remission compared to those with active disease (median 76 vs. 58; p < 0.001 and 6 vs. 11; p < 0.001, respectively). LH and SE correlated significantly with disease activity, functional capacity, and perceived pain. Levels of SE were higher in patients in remission compared to those with active disease as opposed to levels of LH, which were lower in patients in remission compared to those with active disease. These results show that cognitive factors are related to disease activity and their modifications may have importance in the management of RA.

  11. Intensive combination treatment regimens, including prednisolone, are effective in treating patients with early rheumatoid arthritis regardless of additional etanercept: 1-year results of the COBRA-light open-label, randomised, non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    ter Wee, Marieke M; den Uyl, Debby; Boers, Maarten; Kerstens, Pit; Nurmohamed, Mike; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Lems, Willem F

    2015-06-01

    Recently, we documented the likely non-inferiority of Combinatietherapie Bij Reumatoïde Artritis (COBRA)-light therapy (methotrexate increased to 25 mg/week with initial prednisolone 30 mg/day) compared with the original COBRA therapy (methotrexate 7.5 mg/week, sulfasalazine 2 g/day, with initial prednisolone 60 mg/day) after 26 weeks in patients with early active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To assess the non-inferiority of COBRA-light versus COBRA after 1 year in terms of disease activity (DAS44), functional outcome (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)) and radiographic progression (Sharp/van der Heijde score (SHS)), and to assess the effect of adding etanercept. An open-label, randomised controlled, non-inferiority trial of 162 patients with active early RA, following a treat-to-target protocol incorporating the addition of etanercept if DAS44 ≥1.6 at weeks 26 or 39. Both groups showed major improvements in DAS44 after 52 weeks: mean (SD) -2.41 (1.2) in the COBRA and -2.02 (1.0) in the COBRA-light group (p=ns). In both groups, functional ability improved and radiological progression of joints was minimal. At least one adverse event was reported in 96% of the patients in both groups. In total, 25 serious adverse events occurred: 9 vs 16 in COBRA and COBRA-light, respectively. Treatment actually instituted was often less intensive than required by the protocol: of the total population, 108 patients (67%) required etanercept (more in the COBRA-light group), but only 67 of these (62%) actually received it. Intensive COBRA or COBRA-light therapy has major, comparably favourable effects on disease activity, functional ability and radiological outcome after 1 year in patients with early RA. Protocolised addition of etanercept was often not implemented by treating rheumatologists, and patients receiving it appeared to have limited added benefit, probably because of low disease activity levels at its initiation. ISRCTN55552928. Published by the BMJ

  12. Optimal responses in disease activity scores to treatment in rheumatoid arthritis: Is a DAS28 reduction of >1.2 sufficient?

    PubMed

    Mian, Aneela N; Ibrahim, Fowzia; Scott, David L; Galloway, James

    2016-06-16

    The overall benefit of intensive treatment strategies in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains uncertain. We explored how reductions in disability and improvements in quality of life scores are affected by alternative assessments of reductions in disease activity scores for 28 joints (DAS28) in two trials of intensive treatment strategies in active RA. One trial (CARDERA) studied 467 patients with early active RA receiving 24 months of methotrexate monotherapy or steroid and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) combinations. The other trial (TACIT) studied 205 patients with established active RA; they received 12 months of treatment with DMARD combinations or biologic agents. We compared changes in the health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) and Euroqol-5D (EQ5D) at trial endpoints in European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) good and moderate EULAR responders in patients in whom complete endpoint data were available. In the CARDERA trial 98 patients (26 %) were good EULAR responders and 160 (32 %) were EULAR moderate responders; comparable data in TACIT were 66 (35 %) and 86 (46 %) patients. The magnitude of change in the HAQ and EQ5D was greater in both trials in EULAR good responders than in EULAR moderate responders. HAQ scores had a difference in of -0.49 (95 % CI -0.66, -0.32) in the CARDERA and -0.31 (95 % CI -0.47, -0.13) in the TACIT trial. With the EQ5D comparable differences were 0.12 (95 % CI 0.04, 0.19) and 0.15 (95 % CI 0.05, 0.25). Both exceeded minimum clinically important differences in HAQ and EQ5D scores. We conclude that achieving a good EULAR response with DMARDs and biologic agents in active RA results in substantially improved mean HAQ and EQ5D scores. Patients who achieve such responses should continue on treatment. However, continuing such treatment strategies is more challenging when only a moderate EULAR response is achieved. In these patients evidence of additional clinically important benefits in measures such as the HAQ

  13. Periodontal Therapy Reduces the Severity of Active Rheumatoid Arthritis in Patients Treated With or Without Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, P; Bissada, NF; Palomo, L; Han, YW; Al-Zahrani, MS; Panneerselvam, A; Askari, A

    2010-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis (PD) are common chronic inflammatory conditions. Recent studies have shown a beneficial effect of periodontal treatment on reducing the severity of active RA. This study was undertaken to further examine the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on signs and symptoms of RA in patients treated with or without anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α medications. The effect of anti-TNF-α therapy on periodontitis also was assessed. Methods Forty participants diagnosed with moderate/severe RA (under treatment for RA) and severe periodontitis were randomly assigned to receive initial non-surgical periodontal therapy with scaling/root planing and oral hygiene instructions (n=20) or no periodontal therapy (n=20). To control RA, all participants had been using disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and 20 had been using anti-TNF-α in addition to DMARDs before randomization. Periodontal probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), gingival (GI) and plaque (PI) indices, RA disease activity score (DAS-28) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured at baseline and six weeks afterwards. Linear mixed models were used to identify significant differences between subjects receiving periodontal treatment and those who did not. Results Patients receiving periodontal treatment showed a significant decrease in the mean DAS28, ESR (p < 0.001) and serum TNF-α (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant decrease in these parameters in those patients not receiving periodontal treatment. Anti- TNF-α therapy resulted in a significant improvement in CAL, PD, BOP and GI. Conclusions Non-surgical periodontal therapy had a beneficial effect on signs and symptoms of RA regardless of the medications used to treat this condition. Anti-TNF-α therapy without periodontal treatment has no significant effect on the periodontal condition. PMID:19335072

  14. Rheumatoid arthritis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks itself. The pattern of joints ... other joints and is worse in the morning. Rheumatoid arthritis is also a systemic disease, involving other body ...

  15. Alteration of matrix metalloproteinase-3 O-glycan structure as a biomarker for disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Masaru; Kuno, Atsushi; Suzuki, Katsuya; Matsuda, Atsushi; Shimazaki, Hiroko; Nakagawa, Tomomi; Otomo, Yuki; Kabe, Yasuaki; Suematsu, Makoto; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Takeuchi, Tsutomu

    2016-05-21

    Nearly all secreted proteins are glycosylated, and serum glycoproteins that exhibit disease-associated glycosylation changes have potential to be biomarkers. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) are widely used as serologic biomarkers, but they lack sufficient specificity or precision. We performed comparative glycosylation profiling of MMP-3 using a recently developed antibody-overlay lectin microarray technology that allows semicomprehensive and quantitative analysis of specific protein glycosylation to develop an RA-specific disease activity biomarker. Serum was taken from patients with RA (n = 24) whose disease activity was scored using composite measures, and MMP-3 was immunoprecipitated and subjected to lectin microarray analysis. A disease activity index (DAI) based on lectin signal was developed and validated using another cohort (n = 60). Synovial fluid MMP-3 in patients with RA and patients with osteoarthritis (OA) was also analyzed. Intense signals were observed on a sialic acid-binding lectin (Agrocybe cylindracea galectin [ACG]) and O-glycan-binding lectins (Jacalin, Agaricus bisporus agglutinin [ABA], and Amaranthus caudatus agglutinin [ACA]) by applying subnanogram levels of serum MMP-3. ACG, ABA, and ACA revealed differences in MMP-3 quantity, and Jacalin revealed differences in MMP-3 quality. The resultant index, ACG/Jacalin, correlated well with disease activity. Further validation using another cohort confirmed that this index correlated well with several DAIs and their components, and reflected DAI changes following RA treatment, with correlations greater than those for MMP-3 and CRP. Furthermore, MMP-3, which generated a high ACG/Jacalin score, accumulated in synovial fluid of patients with RA but not in that of patients with OA. Sialidase digestion revealed that the difference in quality was derived from O-glycan α-2,6-sialylation. This is the first report of a glycoprotein

  16. Quantitative power Doppler ultrasound measures of peripheral joint synovitis in poor prognosis early rheumatoid arthritis predict radiographic progression.

    PubMed

    Sreerangaiah, Dee; Grayer, Michael; Fisher, Benjamin A; Ho, Meilien; Abraham, Sonya; Taylor, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    To assess the value of quantitative vascular imaging by power Doppler US (PDUS) as a tool that can be used to stratify patient risk of joint damage in early seropositive RA while still biologic naive but on synthetic DMARD treatment. Eighty-five patients with seropositive RA of <3 years duration had clinical, laboratory and imaging assessments at 0 and 12 months. Imaging assessments consisted of radiographs of the hands and feet, two-dimensional (2D) high-frequency and PDUS imaging of 10 MCP joints that were scored for erosions and vascularity and three-dimensional (3D) PDUS of MCP joints and wrists that were scored for vascularity. Severe deterioration on radiographs and ultrasonography was seen in 45 and 28% of patients, respectively. The 3D power Doppler volume and 2D vascularity scores were the most useful US predictors of deterioration. These variables were modelled in two equations that estimate structural damage over 12 months. The equations had a sensitivity of 63.2% and specificity of 80.9% for predicting radiographic structural damage and a sensitivity of 54.2% and specificity of 96.7% for predicting structural damage on ultrasonography. In seropositive early RA, quantitative vascular imaging by PDUS has clinical utility in predicting which patients will derive benefit from early use of biologic therapy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Early medication use in new-onset rheumatoid arthritis may delay joint replacement: results of a large population-based study.

    PubMed

    Moura, Cristiano S; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Beauchamp, Marie-Eve; Lacaille, Diane; Wang, Yishu; Boire, Gilles; Fortin, Paul R; Bessette, Louis; Bombardier, Claire; Widdifield, Jessica; Hanly, John G; Feldman, Debbie; Maksymowych, Walter; Peschken, Christine; Barnabe, Cheryl; Edworthy, Steve; Bernatsky, Sasha

    2015-08-03

    Use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may prevent joint damage and potentially reduce joint replacement surgeries. We assessed the association between RA drug use and joint replacement in Quebec, Canada. A cohort of new-onset RA patients was identified from Quebec's physician billing and hospitalization databases from 2002-2011. The outcome was defined using procedure codes submitted by orthopedic surgeons. Medication use was obtained from pharmacy databases. We used alternative Cox regression models with time-dependent variables measuring the cumulative effects of past use during different time windows (one model focussing on the first year after cohort entry) for methotrexate (MTX), and other DMARDs. Models were adjusted for baseline sociodemographics, co-morbidity and prior health service use, time-dependent cumulative use of other drugs (anti-tumor necrosis factor [anti-TNF] agents, other biologics, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors [COXIBs], nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], and systemic steroids), and markers of disease severity. During follow-up, 608 joint replacements occurred among 11,333 patients (median follow-up: 4.6 years). The best-fitting model relied on the cumulative early use (within the first year after cohort entry) of MTX and of other DMARDs, with an interaction between MTX and other DMARDs. In this model, greater exposure within the first year, to either MTX (adjusted hazard ratio, HR = 0.95 per 1 month, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 0.93-0.97) or other DMARDs (HR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.95-0.99) was associated with longer time to joint replacement. Our results suggest that longer exposure to either methotrexate (MTX) or other DMARDs within the first year after RA diagnosis is associated with longer time to joint replacement surgery.

  18. Secukinumab after anti-tumour necrosis factor-α therapy: a phase III study in active rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Dokoupilová, E; Aelion, J; Takeuchi, T; Malavolta, N; Sfikakis, P P; Wang, Y; Rohrer, S; Richards, H B

    2018-02-20

    To assess the efficacy and safety of secukinumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who failed to respond to tumour necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) inhibitors. This phase III double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled study (NCT01770379) randomized (1:1:1) patients to subcutaneous secukinumab 150 mg, secukinumab 75 mg, or placebo at baseline, weeks 1, 2, 3, and 4, and then every 4 weeks. American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20 response at week 24 was the primary endpoint. Secondary outcomes included the 28-joint Disease Activity Score using C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP), Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI), and ACR50 at week 24. Long-term treatment was planned for 5 years. ACR20 response rates at week 24 for the secukinumab 150 mg and 75 mg groups were not statistically superior to placebo. None of the secondary endpoints was met for either secukinumab dose. Although not statistically significant, compared with placebo, numerically greater differences in least squares mean changes from baseline in HAQ-DI score and numerically higher ACR50 response rates were observed at week 24 in both secukinumab treatment groups. No new or unexpected adverse events were observed in this study compared with the large secukinumab safety database across psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and other RA studies. Given that other second-line therapies have demonstrated efficacy in RA patients who failed to respond to TNF-α inhibitors, these findings may suggest that interleukin-17A inhibition with secukinumab does not provide additional benefit to these patients. This study further confirms the well-characterized safety profile of secukinumab.

  19. Maintenance of efficacy and safety with subcutaneous golimumab among patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who previously received intravenous golimumab.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Peter C; Ritchlin, Christopher; Mendelsohn, Alan; Baker, Daniel; Kim, Lilianne; Xu, Zhenhua; Mack, Michael; Kremer, Joel

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy/safety of subcutaneous (SC) golimumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who previously received intravenous (IV) golimumab with or without methotrexate (MTX). Adult patients with RA (n = 643) with persistent disease despite MTX (≥ 15 mg/wk for ≥ 3 months) were randomized to IV placebo + MTX (n = 129) or IV golimumab 2-4 mg/kg (± MTX) every 12 weeks (n = 514). Patients who completed the study through Week 48 could participate in the longterm extension (LTE), comprising open-label golimumab 50 mg SC every 4 weeks (± MTX) for 24 weeks (LTE-0 to LTE-24) followed by 16 weeks of safety followup (LTE-24 to LTE-40; MTX could be adjusted). At Week 48, 28% (nominal p < 0.001 vs placebo), 11%, and 8% of patients who received IV golimumab + MTX, golimumab alone, and placebo + MTX, respectively, achieved ≥ 50% improvement in the American College of Rheumatology response criteria (ACR50). Among the 505 patients who entered the LTE and were still participating, the proportion of patients treated with golimumab 50 mg SC (± MTX) achieving an ACR50 response increased to 44% at both LTE-14 and LTE-24. ACR20, ACR70, and 28-joint Disease Activity Score using C-reactive protein exhibited similar response patterns as ACR50. Infections were the most commonly reported adverse events through the end of IV golimumab dosing (37% placebo + MTX, 45% golimumab, 51% golimumab + MTX) and with SC golimumab from LTE-0 through LTE-40 (35% golimumab, 36% golimumab + MTX). Concomitant MTX use yielded lower incidences of antibodies to SC golimumab and injection-related reactions. Clinical improvements observed in golimumab-treated patients were sustained or improved in patients switched from IV (2-4 mg/kg ± MTX) to open-label SC (50 mg ± MTX) golimumab. Both IV and SC golimumab demonstrated acceptable safety profiles (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00361335).

  20. Effect of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A Reductase Inhibitor on Disease Activity in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Bin; Yin, Yu-Feng; Zhao, Li-Dan; Wang, Li; Zheng, Wen-Jie; Chen, Hua; Wu, Qing-Jun; Tang, Fu-Lin; Zhang, Feng-Chun; Shan, Guangliang; Zhang, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (also known as statins) are widely used as lipid-lowering agents in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to reduce their cardiovascular risk. However, whether they have an effect on RA disease activity is controversial. This study aimed to investigate the effect of statins on disease activity in RA patients. A systematic literature review was performed using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, ISI WEB of Knowledge, Scopus, and Clinical Trials Register databases. Only prospective randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials comparing the efficacy of statins with placebo on adult RA patients were included. The efficacy was measured according to the ACR criteria, EULAR criteria, DAS28, HAQ score, ESR, or CRP. The Jadad score was used for quality assessment. The inverse variance method was used to analyze continuous outcomes. A fixed-effects model was used when there was no significant heterogeneity; otherwise, a random-effects model was used. For stability of results, we performed leave-one-study-out sensitivity analysis by omitting individual studies one at a time from the meta-analysis. Publication bias was assessed using Egger test. A total 13 studies involving 737 patients were included in the meta-analysis; 11 studies were included in the meta-analysis based on DAS28, while the other 2 studies were only included in the meta-analysis based on ESR or CRP. The standardized mean difference (SMD) in DAS28 between the statin group and the placebo group was −0.55 (95% CI [−0.83, −0.26], P = 0.0002), with an I2 value of 68%. Subgroup analysis showed that patients with more active disease tended to benefit more from statin therapy (SMD −0.73, P = 0.01) than patients with moderate or low disease activity (SMD −0.38, P = 0.03). Statin therapy also significantly reduced tender joint counts, swollen joint counts, ESR, and CRP compared with placebo, but the reduction in HAQ score and VAS was not

  1. Use and effects of custom-made therapeutic footwear on lower-extremity-related pain and activity limitations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A prospective observational study of a cohort.

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Rutger; Buijsmann, Saskia; Siemonsma, Petra C; Boers, Maarten; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J; Roorda, Leo D

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 55-90% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis have foot problems. Therapeutic footwear is frequently prescribed as part of usual care, but data on its use and effect is incomplete. This study aimed to investigate the use and effects of therapeutic footwear. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving custom-made therapeutic footwear for the first time formed an inception cohort. Patients reported their therapeutic footwear use on 3 consecutive days in activity diaries 14 and 20 weeks after delivery of the footwear. The Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) was used as the primary outcome of lower-extremity-related pain and activity limitations, and the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) as a secondary outcome measure of activity limitations, both at baseline and 26 weeks after therapeutic footwear delivery. The cohort comprised 114 rheumatoid arthritis patients (median disease duration 10 years). Mean (standard deviation) therapeutic footwear use was 54 (25)% of the time patients were out of bed. The median (interquartile range) WOMAC score improved from 41 (27-59) to 31 (16-45) (p < 0.001). Secondary outcome measures improved significantly. Therapeutic footwear was used with moderate intensity by most rheumatoid arthritis patients and was associated with a substantial decrease in pain and activity limitations. Therapeutic footwear is a relevant treatment option for patients with rheumatoid arthritis and foot problems.

  2. Higher education is associated with a better rheumatoid arthritis outcome concerning for pain and function but not disease activity: results from the EIRA cohort and Swedish rheumatology register.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xia; Sandberg, Maria E C; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Klareskog, Lars; Alfredsson, Lars; Bengtsson, Camilla

    2015-11-06

    Whether low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with worse rheumatoid arthritis (RA) outcomes in countries with general tax-financed healthcare systems (such as Sweden) remains to be elucidated. Our aim was to investigate the influence of educational background (achieving university/college degree (high) or not (low)) on the outcomes of early RA, in terms of disease activity (DAS28), pain (VAS-pain), and functional impairment (HAQ). We evaluated DMARD-naïve RA patients recruited in the Epidemiological Investigation of RA (EIRA) study with outcomes followed in the Swedish Rheumatology Quality (SRQ) register (N = 3021). Outcomes were categorized in three ways: (1) scores equal to/above median vs. below median; (2) DAS28-based low disease activity, good response, remission; (3) scores decreased over the median vs. less than median. Associations between educational background and outcomes were calculated by modified Poisson regressions, at diagnosis and at each of the three standard (3, 6, 12 months) follow-up visits. Patients with different educational background had similar symptom durations (195 days) and anti-rheumatic therapies at baseline, and comparable treatment patterns during follow-up. Patients with a high education level had significantly less pain and less functional disability at baseline and throughout the whole follow-up period (VAS-pain: baseline: 49 (28-67) vs. 53 (33-71), p <0.0001; 1-year visit: RR = 0.81 (95% CI 0.73-0.90). HAQ: baseline: 0.88 (0.50-1.38) vs. 1.00 (0.63-1.50), p = 0.001; 1-year visit: 0.84 (0.77-0.92)). They also had greater chances to achieve pain remission (VAS-pain ≤20) after one year (1.17 (1.07-1.28)). Adjustments for smoking and BMI altered the results only marginally. Educational background did not influence DAS28-based outcomes. In Sweden, with tax-financed, generally accessible healthcare system, RA patients with a high education level experienced less pain and less functional disability. Further

  3. Increased Prevalence of Diastolic Heart Failure in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Correlates with Active Disease, but Not with Treatment Type.

    PubMed

    Schau, Thomas; Gottwald, Michael; Arbach, Olga; Seifert, Martin; Schöpp, Maren; Neuß, Michael; Butter, Christian; Zänker, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Although heart failure (HF) is a major cause of premature mortality, there is little information regarding its prevalence and associated risk factors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of HF in a community-based RA cohort. Further, we investigated the effect of RA activity and present treatment on HF rate and cardiac structure. A diagnostic workup for HF according to the European Society of Cardiology recommendations was performed in 157 patients with RA fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism criteria (68% women, age 61 ± 13 yrs) from our outpatient clinic and in 77 age- and sex-matched controls. The prevalence of HF in patients with RA (24%) was unexpectedly high and differed significantly from the control sample (6%, p = 0.001). Diastolic HF was the dominant type (23% vs 6%), and clinical symptoms alone were of low diagnostic value. Active RA (28-joint Disease Activity Score ≥ 2.6: OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.3-9.8) was an independent risk factor of HF, as well as systemic inflammation (erythrocyte sedimentation rate > 16 mm/h: OR 5.4, 95% CI 2.1-16; C-reactive protein > 10 mg/l: OR 2.6, 95% CI 0.8-8.0) and RA duration > 10 years (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.8). HF in RA was associated with concentric hypertrophy (48% vs 17%, p < 0.001) and reduced longitudinal strain (-17.2% vs -19.7%, p < 0.001). However, the prevalence of HF was equivalent between the treatment groups [conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) 25%, tumor necrosis factor inhibitors 22%, other biological DMARD 27%]. Recognition of all diastolic HF in RA requires a complex diagnostic approach. Active rather than inactive RA places patients at a higher risk for HF, whereas influence of RA treatment on HF risk needs to be elucidated in further studies.

  4. Discordance between patient and physician assessments of global disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis and association with work productivity.

    PubMed

    Smolen, Josef S; Strand, Vibeke; Koenig, Andrew S; Szumski, Annette; Kotak, Sameer; Jones, Thomas V

    2016-05-21

    Discordance between patient and physician ratings of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) severity occurs in clinical practice and correlates with pain scores and measurements of joint disease. However, information is lacking on whether discordance impacts patients' ability to work. We evaluated the discordance between patient and physician ratings of RA disease activity before and after treatment with etanercept and investigated the associations between discordance, clinical outcomes, and work productivity. In the PRESERVE clinical trial, patients with moderate RA received open-label etanercept 50 mg once weekly plus methotrexate for 36 weeks. Baseline and week-36 disease characteristics and clinical and work productivity outcomes were categorized according to week-36 concordance category, defined as positive discordance (patient global assessment - physician global assessment ≥2), negative discordance (patient global assessment - physician global assessment ≤ -2), and concordance (absolute difference between the two disease activity assessments = 0 or 1). Correlations between discordance, clinical outcomes, and predictors of discordance were determined. At baseline, 520/762 (68.2 %) patient and physician global assessment scores were concordant, 194 (25.5 %) were positively discordant, and 48 (6.3 %) were negatively discordant. After 36 weeks of therapy, 556/763 (72.9 %) scores were concordant, 189 (24.8 %) were positively discordant, and 18 (2.4 %) were negatively discordant. Patients with week-36 concordance had the best 36-week clinical and patient-reported outcomes, and overall, the greatest improvement between baseline and week 36. Baseline pain, swollen joint count, duration of morning stiffness, fatigue, and patient general health significantly correlated with week-36 discordance, p < 0.0001 to p < 0.05. Additionally, baseline pain, patient general health, and C-reactive protein were predictors of week-36 discordance (odds ratios 1.22, 1

  5. Collagenase-3 (MMP-13) and its activators in rheumatoid arthritis: localization in the pannus-hard tissue junction and inhibition by alendronate.

    PubMed

    Konttinen, Y T; Salo, T; Hanemaaijer, R; Valleala, H; Sorsa, T; Sutinen, M; Ceponis, A; Xu, J W; Santavirta, S; Teronen, O; López-Otín, C

    1999-08-01

    The hypothesis of the present work was that the pannus tissue overlying the articular hard tissues has an aggressive phenotype and contains the newly discovered collagenase-3 and its endogenous inducers and activators. We therefore analyzed the eventual presence of collagenase-3 and its regulation at the pannus-cartilage junction. Collagenase-3 mRNA (in situ hybridization) and enzyme protein (ABC and immunofluorescence staining) were found in the pannocytes in the pannus-hard tissue junction. Inflammatory round cells associated with the critical interface contained TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. These cytokines induced collagenase-3 secretion in cultured rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts. Procollagenase-3 activators, stromelysin-1, 72 kDa type IV collagenase/gelatinase and membrane-type 1-MMP, were also found in the pannus-hard tissue junction. Active collagenase-3 was inhibited with alendronate (IC50 = 500-750 microM). Collagenase-3, due to its substrate profile and local synthesis in a milieu favoring its activation, might play a major role in the degradation of cartilage type II and bone type I collagens. Alendronate, at concentrations attainable in vivo, is able to inhibit collagenase-3. This might offer an option to control collagenase-3-mediated tissue destruction in rheumatoid arthritis.

  6. Improving healthcare consumer effectiveness: an Animated, Self-serve, Web-based Research Tool (ANSWER) for people with early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Li, Linda C; Adam, Paul; Townsend, Anne F; Stacey, Dawn; Lacaille, Diane; Cox, Susan; McGowan, Jessie; Tugwell, Peter; Sinclair, Gerri; Ho, Kendall; Backman, Catherine L

    2009-08-20

    People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) should use DMARDs (disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs) within the first three months of symptoms in order to prevent irreversible joint damage. However, recent studies report the delay in DMARD use ranges from 6.5 months to 11.5 months in Canada. While most health service delivery interventions are designed to improve the family physician's ability to refer to a rheumatologist and prescribe treatments, relatively little has been done to improve the delivery of credible, relevant, and user-friendly information for individuals to make treatment decisions. To address this care gap, the Animated, Self-serve, Web-based Research Tool (ANSWER) will be developed and evaluated to assist people in making decisions about the use of methotrexate, a type of DMARD. The objectives of this project are: 1) to develop ANSWER for people with early RA; and 2) to assess the extent to which ANSWER reduces people's decisional conflict about the use of methotrexate, improves their knowledge about RA, and improves their skills of being 'effective healthcare consumers'. Consistent with the International Patient Decision Aid Standards, the development process of ANSWER will involve: 1.) creating a storyline and scripts based on the best evidence on the use of methotrexate and other management options in RA, and the contextual factors that affect a patient's decision to use a treatment as found in ERAHSE; 2.) using an interactive design methodology to create, test, analyze and refine the ANSWER prototype; 3.) testing the content and user interface with health professionals and patients; and 4.) conducting a pilot study with 51 patients, who are diagnosed with RA in the past 12 months, to assess the extent to which ANSWER improves the quality of their decisions, knowledge and skills in being effective consumers. We envision that the ANSWER will help accelerate the dissemination of knowledge and skills necessary for people with early RA to make informed

  7. Early Changes of the Cortical Micro-Channel System in the Bare Area of the Joints of Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Werner, David; Simon, David; Englbrecht, Matthias; Stemmler, Fabian; Simon, Christoph; Berlin, Andreas; Haschka, Judith; Renner, Nina; Buder, Thomas; Engelke, Klaus; Hueber, Axel J; Rech, Jürgen; Schett, Georg; Kleyer, Arnd

    2017-08-01

    To characterize the specific structural properties of the erosion-prone bare area of the human joint, and to search for early microstructural changes in this region during rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the initial part of the study, human cadaveric hand joints were examined for exact localization of the bare area of the metacarpal heads, followed by detection of cortical micro-channels (CoMiCs) in this region by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) and, after anatomic dissection, validation of the presence of CoMiCs by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). In the second part of the study, the number and distribution of CoMiCs were analyzed in 107 RA patients compared to 105 healthy individuals of similar age and sex distribution. Investigation by HR-pQCT combined with adaptive thresholding allowed the detection of CoMiCs in the bare area of human cadaveric joints. The existence of CoMiCs in the bare area was additionally validated by micro-CT. In healthy individuals, the number of CoMiCs increased with age. RA patients showed significantly more CoMiCs compared to healthy individuals (mean ± SD 112.9 ± 54.7/joint versus 75.2 ± 41.9/joint; P < 0.001), with 20-49-year-old RA patients exhibiting similar numbers of CoMiCs as observed in healthy individuals older than age 65 years. Importantly, CoMiCs were already found in RA patients very early in their disease course, with enrichment in the erosion-prone radial side of the joint. CoMiCs represent a new form of structural change in the joints of patients with RA. Although the number of CoMiCs increases with age, RA patients develop CoMiCs much earlier in life, and such changes can even occur at the onset of the disease. CoMiCs therefore represent an interesting new opportunity to assess structural changes in RA. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  8. Understanding the information needs of women with rheumatoid arthritis concerning pregnancy, post-natal care and early parenting: A mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Ilana N; Jordan, Joanne E; Van Doornum, Sharon; Ricardo, Margaret; Briggs, Andrew M

    2015-08-19

    Although women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) face a number of challenges in negotiating the journey to parenthood, no studies have explored the information needs of women with RA in relation to their childbearing years. This study aimed to determine the need for (and preferred mode/s of delivery of) information regarding pregnancy, post-natal care and early parenting among women with RA. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 27 women with RA who were pregnant in the last 5 years, currently pregnant or planning pregnancy. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using both inductive and deductive approaches. Two validated instruments were used to quantify information needs and preferences: the Educational Needs Assessment Tool (ENAT, range 0-156, higher scores indicate higher educational needs) and the Autonomy Preference Index (API, range 0-100, higher scores indicate stronger preferences). Lack of information about medication safety, access to physical/emotional support services and practical strategies for coping with daily challenges related to parenting were the most prominent of the six key themes identified. Rheumatologists were the primary source for information regarding treatment decisions while arthritis consumer organisations were perceived as critical 'resource hubs'. There was strong preference for information delivered electronically, especially among rural participants. Quantitative outcomes supported the qualitative findings; on average, participants reported high educational needs (mean ENAT score 97.2, SD 30.8) and API scores indicated that desire for information (mean 89.8, SD 5.6) was greater than the need for involvement in treatment decision-making (mean 68.4, SD 8.2). Many women with RA struggle to find adequate information on pregnancy planning, pregnancy and early parenting in relation to their chronic condition, and there is a clear need to develop accessible information that is consumer-focused and evidence-based. Although most

  9. Apps for People With Rheumatoid Arthritis to Monitor Their Disease Activity: A Review of Apps for Best Practice and Quality

    PubMed Central

    Townsley, Hermaleigh; White, Bonnie; Langlotz, Tobias; Taylor, William J

    2017-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis requiring long-term treatment with regular monitoring by a rheumatologist to achieve good health outcomes. Since people with RA may wish to monitor their own disease activity with a smartphone app, it is important to understand the functions and quality of apps for this purpose. Objective The aim of our study was to assess the features and quality of apps to assist people to monitor their RA disease activity by (1) summarizing the available apps, particularly the instruments used for measurement of RA disease activity; (2) comparing the app features with American College of Rheumatology and European League against Rheumatism (ACR and EULAR) guidelines for monitoring of RA disease activity; and (3) rating app quality with the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). Methods Systematic searches of the New Zealand iTunes and Google Play app stores were used to identify all apps for monitoring of RA disease activity that could be used by people with RA. The apps were described by both key metadata and app functionality. App adherence with recommendations for monitoring of RA disease activity in clinical practice was evaluated by identifying whether apps included calculation of a validated composite disease activity measure and recorded results for future retrieval. App quality was assessed by 2 independent reviewers using the MARS. Results The search identified 721 apps in the Google Play store and 216 in the iTunes store, of which 19 unique apps met criteria for inclusion (8 from both app stores, 8 iTunes, and 3 Google Play). In total, 14 apps included at least one validated instrument measuring RA disease activity; 7 of 11 apps that allowed users to enter a joint count used the standard 28 swollen and tender joint count; 8 apps included at least one ACR and EULAR-recommended RA composite disease activity (CDA) measure; and 10 apps included data storage and retrieval. Only 1 app, Arthritis Power, included

  10. A randomized controlled cross-over trial investigating the effect of anti-inflammatory diet on disease activity and quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis: the Anti-inflammatory Diet In Rheumatoid Arthritis (ADIRA) study protocol.

    PubMed

    Winkvist, Anna; Bärebring, Linnea; Gjertsson, Inger; Ellegård, Lars; Lindqvist, Helen M

    2018-04-20

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects 0.5-1.0% of the population, and where many patients in spite of modern pharmacological treatment fail to reach remission. This affects physical as well as mental wellbeing and leads to severely reduced quality of life and reduced work capacity, thus yielding high individual as well as societal costs. As a complement to modern pharmacological treatment, lifestyle intervention should be evaluated as a treatment option. Scientific evidence exists for anti-inflammatory effects by single foods on RA, but no study exists where these foods have been combined to obtain maximum effect and thus offer a substantial improvement in patient life quality. The main goal of the randomized cross-over trial ADIRA (Anti-inflammatory Diet In Rheumatoid Arthritis) is to test the hypothesis that an anti-inflammatory diet intervention, compared to a regular diet, will decrease disease activity and improve quality of life in patients with stable established RA. In total, 50 RA patients with moderate disease activity are randomized to receive initially either a portfolio diet based on several food items with suggested anti-inflammatory effects or a control diet during 2 × 10 weeks with 3 months wash-out between diets. Food bags are delivered weekly by a home food delivery chain and referred to as the fiber bag and the protein bag, respectively, to partially blind participants. Both groups continue with regular pharmacological treatment. Known food biomarkers will be analyzed to measure intervention compliance. Impact on disease severity (measured by DAS28, a composite score which predicts disability and progression of RA), risk markers for cardiovascular disease and quality of life are evaluated after each diet regimen. Metabolomics will be used to evaluate the potential to predict responders to dietary treatment. A health economic evaluation is also included. The nutritional status of patients with RA often is

  11. Evaluation of the effect of tofacitinib on measured glomerular filtration rate in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: results from a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Joel M; Kivitz, Alan J; Simon-Campos, Jesus A; Nasonov, Evgeny L; Tony, Hans-Peter; Lee, Soo-Kon; Vlahos, Bonnie; Hammond, Constance; Bukowski, Jack; Li, Huihua; Schulman, Seth L; Raber, Susan; Zuckerman, Andrea; Isaacs, John D

    2015-04-06

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). During the clinical development programme, increases in mean serum creatinine (SCr) of approximately 0.07 mg/dL and 0.08 mg/dL were observed which plateaued early. This study assessed changes in measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) with tofacitinib relative to placebo in patients with active RA. This was a randomised, placebo-controlled, Phase 1 study (NCT01484561). Patients were aged ≥18 years with active RA. Patients were randomised 2:1 to oral tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily (BID) in Period 1 then placebo BID in Period 2 (tofacitinib → placebo); or oral placebo BID in both Periods (placebo → placebo). Change in mGFR was evaluated by iohexol serum clearance at four time points (run-in, pre-dose in Period 1, Period 1 end, and Period 2 end). The primary endpoint was the change in mGFR from baseline to Period 1 end. Secondary endpoints included: change in mGFR at other time points; change in estimated GFR (eGFR; Cockcroft-Gault equation) and SCr; efficacy; and safety. 148 patients were randomised to tofacitinib → placebo (N = 97) or placebo → placebo (N = 51). Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. A reduction of 8% (90% confidence interval [CI]: 2%, 14%) from baseline in adjusted geometric mean mGFR was observed during tofacitinib treatment in Period 1 vs placebo. During Period 2, mean mGFR returned towards baseline during placebo treatment, and there was no difference between the two treatment groups at the end of the study--ratio (tofacitinib → placebo/placebo → placebo) of adjusted geometric mean fold change of mGFR was 1.04 (90% CI: 0.97, 1.11). Post-hoc analyses, focussed on mGFR variability in placebo → placebo patients, were consistent with this conclusion. At study end, similar results were observed for eGFR and SCr. Clinical efficacy and safety were consistent with prior studies. Increases in

  12. Vitamin D status in rheumatoid arthritis patients: relation to clinical manifestations, disease activity, quality of life and fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gheita, Tamer A; Sayed, Safaa; Gheita, Heba A; Kenawy, Sanaa A

    2016-03-01

    To assess vitamin D levels in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and to find their relation to clinical parameters, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), quality of life (QoL) and disease activity. The study included 63 RA patients and 62 controls. Clinical examination and laboratory investigations were performed. For patients, the Disease Activity Score (DAS-28), QoL index, Health Assessment Questionnaire II (HAQ II) and Modified Larsen score were calculated. 25-OH-vitamin D was measured in patients and controls. The patients' mean age was 41.59 ± 9.69 years and disease duration 5.89 ± 3.67 years. The level of vitamin D in RA patients was significantly lower (23.11 ± 12.71 ng/mL) than that in the controls (32.59 ± 13.06 ng/mL) (P = 0.005) being deficient in 50.8%, insufficient in 23.8% and normal in 25.4%. The RA patients with FMS (n = 33) had significantly lower levels of vitamin D (19.08 ± 10.59 ng/mL) than those without (27.55 ± 13.51 ng/mL) (P = 0.008). The difference was significant on comparing those receiving hydroxychloroquine (17.39 ± 7.84 ng/mL) to those not (31.85 ± 13.85 ng/mL) (P < 0.001). Vitamin D significantly correlated with QoL index (r = 0.58, P < 0.001) and negatively with HAQ II (r = -0.36, P = 0.004) and BMI (r = -0.39, P = 0.001). Special attention is required regarding vitamin D levels in RA patients with FMS and decreased QoL. Vitamin D should be corrected and supplementation considered among the RA management armamentarium. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Impact of tocilizumab on N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis without cardiac symptoms.

    PubMed

    Yokoe, I; Kobayashi, H; Kobayashi, Y; Giles, J T; Yoneyama, K; Kitamura, N; Takei, M

    2018-05-28

    To prospectively investigate the effect of tocilizumab (TCZ) on the levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), as a predictor of congestive heart failure (CHF) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Seventy patients with RA (median age 59 years, 86% female) free of cardiovascular disease were treated with TCZ and followed for 24 weeks. The NT-proBNP levels were measured at baseline and week 24. Thirty healthy controls were included for comparison of normal NT-proBNP levels with those of RA patients. The NT-proBNP level was significantly higher in patients with RA than in controls (median 42.5 pg/mL vs 109.0 pg/mL, p < 0.001). NT-proBNP levels decreased by 63% over the 24 weeks of TCZ treatment. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the percentage change in the NT-proBNP level was significantly associated with that of the Simplified Disease Activity Index (β = 0.356, p = 0.014), even after adjusting for the levels of rheumatoid factor, duration of RA, age, and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody. TCZ decreased the NT-proBNP level in patients with RA without preceding cardiovascular disease and CHF. TCZ may have a cardioprotective effect in those with active RA.

  14. Preferential reduction of bone mineral density at the femur reflects impairment of physical activity in patients with low-activity rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sugiguchi, Shigeru; Goto, Hitoshi; Inaba, Masaaki; Nishizawa, Yoshiki

    2010-02-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) and factors influencing BMD in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) under good or moderate control were examined to assess management of osteoporosis in RA. BMD of the lumbar spine, femur, and distal radius was measured in 105 female patients with well-controlled RA. Laboratory and clinical variables associated with disease activity were measured in the same subjects, and correlations between these variables and BMD were evaluated. The RA patients showed a greater decrease in BMD of the femoral neck than of the lumbar spine. Age, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score, and Larsen damage score had negative correlations with BMD of the femoral neck. In multiple regression analysis of the parameters associated with BMD of the femoral neck in simple regression analysis, an increase in HAQ score showed a negative correlation with BMD of the femoral neck. After initiation of treatment with alendronate (ALN), BMD of the femoral neck increased and correlated with improvement in HAQ score. A decrease in BMD of the femoral neck is a characteristic of RA. This suggests that muscle tonus has more effect than weight-bearing activity on BMD in patients with RA. BMD of the femoral neck is a useful index for general evaluation of RA patients.

  15. European multicentre pilot survey to assess vitamin D status in rheumatoid arthritis patients and early development of a new Patient Reported Outcome questionnaire (D-PRO).

    PubMed

    Vojinovic, Jelena; Tincani, Angela; Sulli, Alberto; Soldano, Stefano; Andreoli, Laura; Dall'Ara, Francesca; Ionescu, Ruxandra; Pasalic, Katarina Simic; Balcune, Inete; Ferraz-Amaro, Ivan; Tlustochowicz, Małgorzata; Butrimiene, Irena; Punceviciene, Egle; Toroptsova, Natalia; Grazio, Simeon; Morovic-Vergles, Jadranka; Masaryk, Pavol; Otsa, Kati; Bernardes, Miguel; Boyadzhieva, Vladimira; Salaffi, Fausto; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2017-05-01

    To collect data on vitamin D (25(OH)D) serum levels in a large number of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients from different European countries, to investigate their relation with disease activity, disability, quality of life, and possibly to construct a new Patient Reported Outcome (PRO) questionnaire in order to self-estimate if they are at risk for vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency-related clinical implications (D-PRO). This was a European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) supported cross-sectional study (project No CLI064) which involved 625 RA patients (mean age 55±11years, mean disease duration 11±9years), 276 age and sex matched healthy subjects, and rheumatologists working in academic institutions or hospital centres, as well as PARE organizations (patient representatives) from 13 European countries. Serum samples for 25(OH)D level measurement were collected during winter time and analyzed in a central laboratory using chemiluminescence immunoassay (DiaSorin). Patient past medical history was recorded. RA patients were provided with three questionnaires: the Rheumatoid Arthritis Impact Diseases score (RAID), the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and the new D-PRO questionnaire at the time of 25(OH)D serum sampling. D-PRO questionnaire consisted of three domains, Symptom Risk Score (SRS), Habitus Risk Score (HRS) and Global Risk Score (SRS+HRS=GRS), constructed with items possibly related to vitamin D deficiency. D-PRO was correlated with both clinical and PRO scores. DAS28-CRP was also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed by non parametric tests. Mean serum concentration of 25(OH)D in RA patients (17.62±9.76ng/ml) was found significantly lower if compared to the levels obtained in matched controls (18.95±9.45ng/ml) (p=0.01), with statistically significant differences among several European countries. Negative correlations were found between 25(OH)D serum levels and DAS28-CRP (p<0.001), RAID (p=0.05) and HAQ (p=0.04) scores in the RA

  16. Physical activity levels early after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wickerson, Lisa; Mathur, Sunita; Singer, Lianne G; Brooks, Dina

    2015-04-01

    Little is known of the early changes in physical activity after lung transplantation. The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe physical activity levels in patients up to 6 months following lung transplantation and (2) to explore predictors of the change in physical activity in that population. This was a prospective cohort study. Physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-intensity activity) was measured using an accelerometer before and after transplantation (at hospital discharge, 3 months, and 6 months). Additional functional measurements included submaximal exercise capacity (measured with the 6-Minute Walk Test), quadriceps muscle torque, and health-related quality of life (measured with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey 36 [SF-36] and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire). Thirty-six lung transplant recipients (18 men, 18 women; mean age=49 years, SD=14) completed posttransplant measurements. Before transplant, daily steps were less than a third of the general population. By 3 months posttransplant, the largest improvement in physical activity had occurred, and level of daily steps reached 55% of the general population. The change in daily steps (pretransplant to 3 months posttransplant) was inversely correlated with pretransplant 6-minute walk distance (r=-.48, P=.007), daily steps (r=-.36, P=.05), and SF-36 physical functioning (SF-36 PF) score (r=-.59, P=.0005). The SF-36 PF was a significant predictor of the change in physical activity, accounting for 35% of the variation in change in daily steps. Only individuals who were ambulatory prior to transplant and discharged from the hospital in less than 3 months were included in the study. Physical activity levels improve following lung transplantation, particularly in individuals with low self-reported physical functioning. However, the majority of lung transplant recipients remain sedentary between 3 to 6 months following transplant. The role of exercise

  17. Induction therapy with adalimumab plus methotrexate for 24 weeks followed by methotrexate monotherapy up to week 48 versus methotrexate therapy alone for DMARD-naive patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: HIT HARD, an investigator-initiated study.

    PubMed

    Detert, Jacqueline; Bastian, Hans; Listing, Joachim; Weiß, Anja; Wassenberg, Siegfried; Liebhaber, Anke; Rockwitz, Karin; Alten, Rieke; Krüger, Klaus; Rau, Rolf; Simon, Christina; Gremmelsbacher, Eva; Braun, Tanja; Marsmann, Bettina; Höhne-Zimmer, Vera; Egerer, Karl; Buttgereit, Frank; Burmester, Gerd-R

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the long-term effects of induction therapy with adalimumab (ADA) plus methotrexate (MTX) in comparison with placebo (PBO) plus MTX in DMARD-naïve patients with active early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients with active early RA (disease duration of ≤12 months) were randomly assigned to receive 40 mg ADA subcutaneously every other week (eow) plus MTX 15 mg/week subcutaneously or PBO plus MTX subcutaneously at 15 mg/week over 24 weeks. Thereafter, all patients received MTX monotherapy up to week 48. The primary outcome was the Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28) at week 48. Secondary outcomes included proportions of patients in remission (DAS28<2.6), ACR responses, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score and radiographic progression. 87 patients were assigned to ADA/MTX and 85 patients to PBO/MTX. At baseline, DAS28 was 6.2±0.8 in the ADA/MTX and 6.3±0.9 in the PBO/MTX groups. At week 24, treatment with ADA/MTX compared with PBO/MTX resulted in a greater reduction in DAS28 (3.0±1.2 vs 3.6±1.4; p=0.009) and other secondary outcomes such as DAS28 remission rate (47.9% vs 29.5%; p=0.021) and HAQ (0.49±0.6 vs 0.72±0.6; p=0.0014). At week 48, the difference in clinical outcomes between groups was not statistically significant (DAS28: 3.2±1.4 vs 3.4±1.6; p=0.41). Radiographic progression at week 48 was significantly greater in patients administered PBO/MTX (Sharp/van der Heijde score: ADA/MTX 2.6 vs PBO/MTX 6.4; p=0.03, Ratingen score: 1.7 vs 4.2; p=0.01). A greater reduction in radiographic progression after initial combination therapy with ADA and MTX was seen at week 48, even after discontinuation of ADA treatment at week 24. This sustained effect was not found at the primary endpoint (DAS28 reduction).

  18. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Corner / Patient Webcasts / Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos was designed to help you learn more about Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). You will learn how the diagnosis of ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: rheumatoid arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease that causes chronic abnormal inflammation, ...

  20. Ultrasound disease activity of bilateral wrist and finger joints at three months reflects the clinical response at six months of patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs.

    PubMed

    Kawashiri, Shin-Ya; Nishino, Ayako; Shimizu, Toshimasa; Umeda, Masataka; Fukui, Shoichi; Nakashima, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Takahisa; Koga, Tomohiro; Iwamoto, Naoki; Ichinose, Kunihiro; Tamai, Mami; Nakamura, Hideki; Origuchi, Tomoki; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated whether the early responsiveness of ultrasound synovitis can predict the clinical response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients treated with biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs). Articular synovitis was assessed by ultrasound at 22 bilateral wrist and finger joints in 39 RA patients treated with bDMARDs. Each joint was assigned a gray-scale (GS) and power Doppler (PD) score from 0 to 3, and the sum of the GS or PD scores was considered to represent the ultrasound disease activity. We investigated the correlation of the change in ultrasound disease activity at three months with the EULAR response criteria at six months. GS and PD scores were significantly decreased at three months (p < 0.0001). The % changes of the GS and PD scores at three months were significantly higher at six months in moderate and good responders compared with non-responders (p < 0.05). These tendencies were numerically more prominent if clinical response was set as good responder or Disease Activity Score 28 remission. Poor improvement of ultrasound synovitis scores had good predictive value for non-responders at six months. The responsiveness of ultrasound disease activity is considered to predict further clinical response in RA patients treated with bDMARDs.

  1. Immunophenotyping of rheumatoid arthritis reveals a linkage between HLA-DRB1 genotype, CXCR4 expression on memory CD4(+) T cells, and disease activity.

    PubMed

    Nagafuchi, Yasuo; Shoda, Hirofumi; Sumitomo, Shuji; Nakachi, Shinichiro; Kato, Rika; Tsuchida, Yumi; Tsuchiya, Haruka; Sakurai, Keiichi; Hanata, Norio; Tateishi, Shoko; Kanda, Hiroko; Ishigaki, Kazuyoshi; Okada, Yukinori; Suzuki, Akari; Kochi, Yuta; Fujio, Keishi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2016-07-07

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease that leads to destructive arthritis. Although the HLA class II locus is the strongest genetic risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis, the relationship between HLA class II alleles and lymphocyte activation remains unclear. We performed immunophenotyping of peripheral blood mononuclear cells on 91 HLA-DRB1-genotyped RA patients and 110 healthy donors. The frequency of memory CXCR4(+)CD4(+) T cells, and not Th1 and Th17 cells, was significantly associated with disease severity by multiple linear regression analysis. RA patients with one or more susceptible HLA-DR haplotypes (shared epitope: SE) displayed a significantly higher frequency of memory CXCR4(+)CD4(+) T cells. Moreover, the frequency of memory CXCR4(+)CD4(+) T cells significantly correlated with the expression level of HLA-DR on B cells, which was elevated in RA patients with SE. In vitro analysis and transcriptomic pathway analysis suggested that the interaction between HLA-DR and T cell receptors is an important regulator of memory CXCR4(+)CD4(+) T cells. Clinically, a higher frequency of memory CXCR4(+)CD4(+) T cells predicted a better response to CTLA4-Ig. Memory CXCR4(+)CD4(+) T cells may serve as a powerful biomarker for unraveling the linkage between HLA-DRB1 genotype and disease activity in RA.

  2. Serum osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factors kB (RANKL) concentrations in normal children and in children with pubertal precocity, Turner's syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Buzi, F; Maccarinelli, G; Guaragni, B; Ruggeri, F; Radetti, G; Meini, A; Mazzolari, E; Cocchi, D

    2004-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily. OPG is made by osteoblastic cells and is expressed in a wide variety of cell and tissue types. It acts as a decoy receptor by binding the receptor activator of nuclear factors kB (RANKL) and preventing RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and differentiation. Numerous cytokines and hormones (TGF-beta, PTH, vitamin D, glucocorticoids and oestrogens) exert their effects on osteoclastogenesis by regulating the production of OPG. In the present study we compared serum OPG and RANKL concentrations in a group of normal children (1-14 years old) with those of pair-aged children affected by different diseases [Turner's syndrome (TS), early/precocious puberty (PP) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA)]. OPG and RANKL concentrations were measured by an enzyme immunoassay method using a commercial kit. Mean (+/- SD) OPG level in normal children was 4.05 +/- 1.63 pmol/l with no difference between males and females. OPG values in children 1-4 years old (5.87 +/- 2.22 pmol/l) were significantly higher than in children 4-14 years old (3.55 +/- 0.97 pmol/l). OPG levels in children with RA were significantly higher than in controls (6.33 +/- 2.57 pmol/l vs. 4.05 +/- 1.63 pmol/l, P < 0.01); patients with TS or PP had OPG levels superimposable to those of controls (2.61 +/- 0.67 pmol/l and 3.99 +/- 0.85 pmol/l, respectively), but in TS OPG levels were significantly lower than in age-matched females. Mean RANKL concentration in normal subjects was 0.81 +/- 1.55 pmol/l; there was a slight decline in RANKL levels with age. RANKL concentrations in subjects with TS, PP, RA and controls did not differ significantly, and did not differ from those published in adult normal subjects. It appears from our data that OPG serum levels in healthy children aged > 4 years are similar to those present in young adult men, with higher levels in the first 4 years of life. Although the meaning of the alterations of OPG levels observed in

  3. Effects of tofacitinib monotherapy on patient-reported outcomes in a randomized phase 3 study of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and inadequate responses to DMARDs.

    PubMed

    Strand, Vibeke; Kremer, Joel; Wallenstein, Gene; Kanik, Keith S; Connell, Carol; Gruben, David; Zwillich, Samuel H; Fleischmann, Roy

    2015-11-04

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. In this 6-month, phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 611 patients with inadequate response to disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD-IR) were randomized 4:4:1:1 to receive: tofacitinib 5 mg BID or tofacitinib 10 mg BID for the duration of the study, or placebo for 3 months followed by tofacitinib 5 mg BID or tofacitinib 10 mg BID. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) included: Patient Global Assessment of Disease Activity (PtGA); Patient Assessment of Pain (Pain); Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI); Medical Outcomes Survey (MOS) Short Form-36 (SF-36); Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F); and MOS Sleep Scale. Time-to-event data (PtGA and Pain) were collected using an interactive voice response system daily diary (baseline through day 14). At month 3, tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg BID demonstrated statistically significant improvements versus placebo in PtGA (both p < 0.0001), Pain (both p < 0.0001), HAQ-DI (both p < 0.0001), SF-36 Physical (p < 0.0001) and Mental (p < 0.05 [5 mg BID] and p < 0.0001 [10 mg BID]), Component Summary scores and all domain scores (p < 0.05-p < 0.0001) and FACIT-F (both p < 0.0001). Statistically significant changes from baseline in MOS Sleep Scale were reported for 10 mg BID (p < 0.05). Benefits of tofacitinib treatment were rapid in onset and significant improvements were reported at week 2 for PtGA, Pain and HAQ-DI, and differentiation from baseline was seen as early as 3 days after treatment initiation for interactive voice response system (IVRS) PtGA and IVRS Pain. The numbers needed to treat for patients to report changes greater than or equal to the minimum clinically important difference in PtGA, Pain, HAQ-DI, SF-36 Physical Component Summary score and FACIT-F ranged between 4.0-6.1 (5 mg BID) and 3.2-5.0 (10 mg BID). Tofacitinib monotherapy in DMARD-IR patients resulted

  4. Ratio of Circulating IFNγ + “Th17 Cells” in Memory Th Cells Is Inversely Correlated with the Titer of Anti-CCP Antibodies in Early-Onset Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Based on Flow Cytometry Methods of the Human Immunology Project

    PubMed Central

    Kotake, Shigeru; Nanke, Yuki; Yago, Toru; Kawamoto, Manabu; Kobashigawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease with chronic joint inflammation characterized by activated T cells. IL-17 and Th17 cells play important roles in the pathogenesis of RA. Recently, plasticity in helper T cells has been demonstrated; Th17 cells can convert to Th1 cells. However, it remains to be elucidated whether this conversion occurs in the early phase of RA. Here, we validated the methods of the Human Immunology Project using only the cell-surface marker through measuring the actual expression of IL-17 and IFNγ. We also evaluated the expression of CD161 in human Th17 cells. We then tried to identify Th17 cells, IL-17+Th17 cells, and IFNγ +Th17 cells in the peripheral blood of early-onset RA patients using the standardized method of the Human Immunology Project. Our findings validated the method and the expression of CD161. The ratio of IFNγ +Th17 cells in memory T cells was inversely correlated to the titers of anti-CCP antibodies in the early-onset RA patients. These findings suggest that Th17 cells play important roles in the early phase of RA and that anti-IL-17 antibodies should be administered to patients with early phase RA, especially those with high titers of CCP antibodies. PMID:27294146

  5. [Bone structure in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Ono, Kumiko; Ohashi, Satoru; Tanaka, Sakae; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2013-07-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) , the osteoclast pathway is activated by abnormal immune conditions accompanied by chronic inflammation, resulting in periarticular osteoporosis and local bone destruction around joints. In addition, multiple factors, including reduced physical activity and pharmacotherapies such as steroids, lead to systemic osteoporosis. These conditions cause decreasing bone mineral density and deterioration of bone quality, and expose patients to increased risk of fracture. Understanding the bone structures of RA and evaluating fracture risk are central to the treatment of RA.

  6. Gingival crevicular fluid tissue/blood vessel-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: effects of nonsurgical periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Kurgan, Ş; Önder, C; Balcı, N; Fentoğlu, Ö; Eser, F; Balseven, M; Serdar, M A; Tatakis, D N; Günhan, M

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on clinical parameters and gingival crevicular fluid levels of tissue/blood vessel-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) in patients with periodontitis, with or without rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Fifteen patients with RA and chronic periodontitis (RA-P), 15 systemically healthy patients with chronic periodontitis (H-P) and 15 periodontally and systemically healthy volunteers (C) were included in the study. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing, gingival crevicular fluid t-PA and PAI-2 levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum C-reactive protein and disease activity score were evaluated at baseline and 3 mo after mechanical nonsurgical periodontal therapy. All periodontal clinical parameters were significantly higher in the RA-P and H-P groups compared with the C group (p < 0.001) and decreased significantly after treatment (p < 0.001). Pretreatment t-PA levels were highest in the RA-P group and significantly decreased post-treatment (p = 0.047). Pre- and post-treatment PAI-2 levels were significantly lower in controls compared with both periodontitis groups (p < 0.05). Gingival crevicular fluid volume and the levels of t-PA and PAI-2 were significantly correlated. In patients with periodontitis and RA, nonsurgical periodontal therapy reduced the pretreatment gingival crevicular fluid t-PA levels, which were significantly correlated with gingival crevicular fluid PAI-2 levels. The significantly higher t-PA and PAI-2 gingival crevicular fluid levels in periodontal patients, regardless of systemic status, suggest that the plasminogen activating system plays a role in the disease process of periodontitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Rheumatoid arthritis patients with active disease and no history of cardiac pathology have higher brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels than patients with inactive disease or healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, D J; Gardiner, P V; O'Kane, M J

    2010-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased incidence cardiac failure. It is yet unclear how much the increased incidence is secondary to ischaemic damage, or whether inflammatory cytokines might have a direct effect on the myocardium. To establish if patients with active rheumatoid arthritis but no history of cardiac disease have higher serum levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), than patients with less active RA, or disease-free controls. 90 patients with RA and 31 healthy control subjects were recruited. Each was screened to exclude previous history of cardiac disease. RA disease activity was measured using the DAS28 assessment, and other demographic, physical and laboratory tests performed. Serum BNP levels were measured in all subjects. There was no difference in the age, percentage females or BMI between the RA and control subjects. Median BNP in the RA patients was 80.0 pg/ml (IQR 38.0-132.0) compared with 48.5 (26.0-86.0) in the control subjects (p=0.017). There was a significant correlation between DAS28 and serum BNP in the RA group, r=0.37, p<0.01. RA patients were divided into three groups according to DAS28 scores. Patients with very active disease (DAS28>5.1) had significantly higher BNP levels than patients with moderately active disease (3.2active RA have higher BNP levels than RA patients with moderately active or inactive disease, raising the possibility of a directly depressive effect of inflammatory cytokines on the myocardium.

  8. Flares assessed weekly in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or axial spondyloarthritis and relationship with physical activity measured using a connected activity tracker: a 3-month study.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, Charlotte; Molto, Anna; Servy, Hervé; Sellam, Jérémie; Foltz, Violaine; Gandjbakhch, Frédérique; Hudry, Christophe; Mitrovic, Stéphane; Granger, Benjamin; Fautrel, Bruno; Gossec, Laure

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is marked by flares, although their frequency is unclear. Flares may impact physical activity. Activity can be assessed objectively using activity trackers. The objective was to assess longitudinally the frequency of flares and the association between flares and objective physical activity. This prospective observational study (ActConnect) included patients with definite clinician-confirmed RA or axSpA, owning a smartphone. During 3 months, physical activity was assessed continuously by number of steps/day, using an activity tracker, and disease flares were self-assessed weekly using a specific flare question and, if relevant, the duration of the flare. The relationship between flares and physical activity for each week (time point) was assessed by linear mixed models. In all, 170/178 patients (91 patients with RA and 79 patients with axSpA; 1553 time points) were analysed: mean age was 45.5±12.4 years, mean disease duration was 10.3±8.7 years, 60 (35.3%) were men and 90 (52.9%) received biologics. The disease was well-controlled (mean Disease Activity Score 28: 2.3±1.2; mean Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index score: 3.3±2.1). Patients self-reported flares in 28.2%±28.1% of the weekly assessments. Most flares (78.9%±31.4%) lasted ≤3 days. Persistent flares lasting more than 3 days were independently associated with less weekly physical activity (p=0.03), leading to a relative decrease of 12%-21% and an absolute decrease ranging from 836 to 1462 steps/day. Flares were frequent but usually of short duration in these stable patients with RA and axSpA. Persistent flares were related to a moderate decrease in physical activity, confirming objectively the functional impact of patient-reported flares.

  9. Flares assessed weekly in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or axial spondyloarthritis and relationship with physical activity measured using a connected activity tracker: a 3-month study

    PubMed Central

    Jacquemin, Charlotte; Molto, Anna; Servy, Hervé; Sellam, Jérémie; Foltz, Violaine; Gandjbakhch, Frédérique; Hudry, Christophe; Mitrovic, Stéphane; Granger, Benjamin; Fautrel, Bruno; Gossec, Laure

    2017-01-01

    Background The evolution of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is marked by flares, although their frequency is unclear. Flares may impact physical activity. Activity can be assessed objectively using activity trackers. The objective was to assess longitudinally the frequency of flares and the association between flares and objective physical activity. Methods This prospective observational study (ActConnect) included patients with definite clinician-confirmed RA or axSpA, owning a smartphone. During 3 months, physical activity was assessed continuously by number of steps/day, using an activity tracker, and disease flares were self-assessed weekly using a specific flare question and, if relevant, the duration of the flare. The relationship between flares and physical activity for each week (time point) was assessed by linear mixed models. Results In all, 170/178 patients (91 patients with RA and 79 patients with axSpA; 1553 time points) were analysed: mean age was 45.5±12.4 years, mean disease duration was 10.3±8.7 years, 60 (35.3%) were men and 90 (52.9%) received biologics. The disease was well-controlled (mean Disease Activity Score 28: 2.3±1.2; mean Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index score: 3.3±2.1). Patients self-reported flares in 28.2%±28.1% of the weekly assessments. Most flares (78.9%±31.4%) lasted ≤3 days. Persistent flares lasting more than 3 days were independently associated with less weekly physical activity (p=0.03), leading to a relative decrease of 12%–21% and an absolute decrease ranging from 836 to 1462 steps/day. Conclusion Flares were frequent but usually of short duration in these stable patients with RA and axSpA. Persistent flares were related to a moderate decrease in physical activity, confirming objectively the functional impact of patient-reported flares. PMID:28879046

  10. Biomarkers for rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Verheul, M K; Fearon, U; Trouw, L A; Veale, D J

    2015-11-01

    Rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis are systemic inflammatory conditions characterized by a chronic form of arthritis, often leading to irreversible joint damage. Early treatment for patients with rheumatic diseases is required to reduce or prevent joint injury. However, early diagnosis can be difficult and currently it is not possible to predict which individual patient will develop progressive erosive disease or who may benefit from a specific treatment according to their clinical features at presentation. Biomarkers are therefore required to enable earlier diagnosis and predict prognosis in both rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. In this review we will examine the evidence and current status of established and experimental biomarkers in rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis for three important purposes; disease diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of response to therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Disease activity guided dose reduction and withdrawal of adalimumab or etanercept compared with usual care in rheumatoid arthritis: open label, randomised controlled, non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    van Herwaarden, Noortje; van der Maas, Aatke; Minten, Michiel J M; van den Hoogen, Frank H J; Kievit, Wietske; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Bijlsma, Johannes W J; van den Bemt, Bart J F; den Broeder, Alfons A

    2015-04-09

    To evaluate whether a disease activity guided strategy of dose reduction of two tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, adalimumab or etanercept, is non-inferior in maintaining disease control in patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared with usual care. Randomised controlled, open label, non-inferiority strategy trial. Two rheumatology outpatient clinics in the Netherlands, from December 2011 to May 2014. 180 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and low disease activity using adalimumab or etanercept; 121 allocated to the dose reduction strategy, 59 to usual care. Disease activity guided dose reduction (advice to stepwise increase the injection interval every three months, until flare of disease activity or discontinuation) or usual care (no dose reduction advice). Flare was defined as increase in DAS28-CRP (a composite score measuring disease activity) greater than 1.2, or increase greater than 0.6 and current score of at least 3.2. In the case of flare, TNF inhibitor use was restarted or escalated. Difference in proportions of patients with major flare (DAS28-CRP based flare longer than three months) between the two groups at 18 months, compared against a non-inferiority margin of 20%. Secondary outcomes included TNF inhibitor use at study end, functioning, quality of life, radiographic progression, and adverse events. Dose reduction of adalimumab or etanercept was non-inferior to usual care (proportion of patients with major flare at 18 months, 12% v 10%; difference 2%, 95% confidence interval -12% to 12%). In the dose reduction group, TNF inhibitor use could successfully be stopped in 20% (95% confidence interval 13% to 28%), the injection interval successfully increased in 43% (34% to 53%), but no dose reduction was possible in 37% (28% to 46%). Functional status, quality of life, relevant radiographic progression, and adverse events did not differ between the groups, although short lived flares (73% v 27%) and minimal radiographic progression (32% v 15

  12. Activated complement components and complement activator molecules on the surface of cell‐derived microparticles in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Biró, Éva; Nieuwland, Rienk; Tak, Paul P; Pronk, Loes M; Schaap, Marianne C L; Sturk, Augueste; Hack, C Erik

    2007-01-01

    Objectives In vitro, microparticles can activate complement via the classical pathway. If demonstrable ex vivo, this mechanism may contribute to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We therefore investigated the presence of activated complement components and complement activator molecules on the surface of cell‐derived microparticles of RA patients and healthy individuals. Methods Microparticles from synovial fluid (n = 8) and plasma (n = 9) of 10 RA patients and plasma of sex‐ and age‐matched healthy individuals (n = 10) were analysed by flow cytometry for bound complement components (C1q, C4, C3) and complement activator molecules (C‐reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid P component (SAP), immunoglobulin (Ig) M, IgG). Results Microparticles with bound C1q, C4, and/or C3 were abundant in RA synovial fluid, while in RA and control plasma much lower levels were present. Microparticles with bound C1q correlated with those with bound C3 in synovial fluid (r = 0.961, p = 0.0001), and with those with bound C4 in plasma (RA: r = 0.908, p = 0.0007; control: r = 0.632, p = 0.0498), indicating classical pathway activation. In synovial fluid, microparticles with IgM and IgG correlated with those with C1q (r = 0.728, p = 0.0408; r = 0.952, p = 0.0003, respectively), and in plasma, microparticles with CRP correlated with those with C1q (RA: r = 0.903, p = 0.0021; control: r = 0.683, p = 0.0296), implicating IgG and IgM in the classical pathway activation in RA synovial fluid, and CRP in the low level classical pathway activation in plasma. Conclusions This study demonstrates the presence of bound complement components and activator molecules on microparticles ex vivo, and supports their role in low grade complement activation in plasma and increased complement activation in RA synovial fluid. PMID:17261534

  13. Role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and platelet-activating factor in neoangiogenesis induced by synovial fluids of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lupia, E; Montrucchio, G; Battaglia, E; Modena, V; Camussi, G

    1996-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate in vivo in a mouse model the stimulation of neoangiogenesis by synovial fluids of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to determine the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and platelet-activating factor (PAF) in the formation of new vessels. Angiogenesis was studied in a mouse model in which Matrigel, injected subcutaneously, was used as a vehicle for the delivery of potential angiogenic stimuli. Synovial fluids of patients with RA but not with osteoarthritis (OA) were shown to induce neoangiogenesis. Since synovial fluid of patients with RA contained significantly higher levels of TNF-alpha-like bioactivity and of PAF than that of patients with OA, the role of these mediators was evaluated by using an anti-TNF-alpha neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) and a PAF receptor antagonist, WEB 2170. When added to Matrigel, anti-TNF-alpha mAb and particularly WEB 2170 significantly reduced neoangiogenesis induced by synovial fluids of RA patients. Moreover, PAF extracted and purified from synovial fluid induced angiogenesis. These results suggest that the neoangiogenesis observed in rheumatoid synovitis may be due, at least in part, to the angiogenic effect of locally produced TNF-alpha and PAF.

  14. Isolation of xanthone and benzophenone derivatives from Cyclopia genistoides (L.) Vent. (honeybush) and their pro-apoptotic activity on synoviocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kokotkiewicz, Adam; Luczkiewicz, Maria; Pawlowska, Justyna; Luczkiewicz, Piotr; Sowinski, Pawel; Witkowski, Jacek; Bryl, Ewa; Bucinski, Adam

    2013-10-01

    A fast and efficient method for the isolation of the C-glucosidated xanthones mangiferin and isomangiferin from the South-African plant Cyclopia genistoides was developed for the first time. The procedure involved extraction, liquid-liquid partitioning with ethyl acetate and subsequent precipitation of mangiferin and isomangiferin from methanol and acetonitrile-water fractions, respectively. Additionally, two benzophenone derivatives: 3-C-β-glucosides of maclurin and iriflophenone, were isolated from C. genistoides extracts using semi-preparative HPLC. Apart from the above, the isolation procedure also yielded hesperidin and small amounts of luteolin. The structures of the compounds were determined by 1D and 2D NMR experiments and/or LC-DAD-ESI-MS. The selected Cyclopia constituents were screened for pro-apoptotic activity on TNF-α-stimulated synovial cells isolated from rheumatoid arthritis patients. The strongest effect, measured as percent of apoptotic cells, was recorded for isomangiferin (75%), followed by iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside (71%), hesperidin (67%) and mangiferin (65%). The results are encouraging for further studies on the use of the above compounds in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. © 2013.

  15. Crescentic glomerular nephritis associated with rheumatoid arthritis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Balendran, K; Senarathne, L D S U; Lanerolle, R D

    2017-07-21

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic disorder where clinically significant renal involvement is relatively common. However, crescentic glomerular nephritis is a rarely described entity among the rheumatoid nephropathies. We report a case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis presenting with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-negative crescentic glomerular nephritis. A 54-year-old Sri Lankan woman who had recently been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis was being treated with methotrexate 10 mg weekly and infrequent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. She presented to our hospital with worsening generalized body swelling and oliguria of 1 month's duration. Her physical examination revealed that she had bilateral pitting leg edema and periorbital edema. She was not pale or icteric. She had evidence of mild synovitis of the small joints of the hand bilaterally with no deformities. No evidence of systemic vasculitis was seen. Her blood pressure was 170/100 mmHg, and her jugular venous pressure was elevated to 7 cm with an undisplaced cardiac apex. Her urine full report revealed 2+ proteinuria with active sediment (dysmorphic red blood cells [17%] and granular casts). Her 24-hour urinary protein excretion was 2 g. Her serum creatinine level was 388 μmol/L. Abdominal ultrasound revealed normal-sized kidneys with acute parenchymal changes and mild ascites. Her renal biopsy showed renal parenchyma containing 20 glomeruli showing diffuse proliferative glomerular nephritis, with 14 of 20 glomeruli showing cellular crescents, and the result of Congo red staining was negative. Her rheumatoid factor was positive with a high titer (120 IU/ml), but results for antinuclear antibody, double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (perinuclear and cytoplasmic) were negative. Antistreptolysin O titer <200 U/ml and cryoglobulins were not detected. The results of her hepatitis serology, retroviral screening, and malignancy screening were

  16. Adalimumab alone and in combination with disease‐modifying antirheumatic drugs for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in clinical practice: the Research in Active Rheumatoid Arthritis (ReAct) trial

    PubMed Central

    Burmester, Gerd R; Mariette, Xavier; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Monteagudo‐Sáez, Indalecio; Malaise, Michel; Tzioufas, Athanasios G; Bijlsma, Johannes W J; Unnebrink, Kristina; Kary, Sonja; Kupper, Hartmut

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of adalimumab alone or in combination with standard disease‐modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Patients with active RA despite treatment with DMARDs or prior treatment with a tumour necrosis factor antagonist participated in a multicentre, open‐label clinical study of adalimumab 40 mg every other week for 12 weeks with an optional extension phase. Patients were allowed to continue with pre‐existing traditional DMARDs. Long‐term safety results are reported for all patients (4210 patient‐years (PYs) of adalimumab exposure). The observed effectiveness results at week 12 are reported using American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria. Results Among the 6610 treated patients, adalimumab was generally well tolerated. Serious infections occurred in 3.1% of patients (5.5/100 PYs, including active tuberculosis, 0.5/100 PYs). Demyelinating disease (0.06%) and systemic lupus erythematosus (0.03%) were rare serious adverse events. The standardised incidence ratio of malignancy was 0.71 (95% CI 0.49 to 1.01). The standardised mortality ratio was 1.07 (95% CI 0.75 to 1.49). At week 12, 69% of patients achieved an ACR20 response, 83% a moderate, and 33% a good EULAR response. Adalimumab was effective in combination with a variety of DMARDs. The addition of adalimumab to antimalarials was comparably effective to the combination of adalimumab and methotrexate. Conclusions Considering the limitations of an open‐label study, adalimumab alone or in combination with standard DMARDs appeared to be well tolerated and effective in 6610 difficult‐to‐treat patients with active RA treated in clinical practice. PMID:17329305

  17. Early Adolescent Sexual Activity: A Developmental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitbeck, Les B.; Yoder, Kevin A.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Conger, Rand D.

    1999-01-01

    Examines predictors of early sexual intercourse for a sample of 457 adolescents in grades 8 through 10, from two-parent and single-mother families. Significant decreases were noted in the effect of mother monitoring by 10th grade. The primary predictors of early intercourse were age, opportunity (steady relationship), sexually permissive attitude,…

  18. Elevated Ratio of Th17 Cell-Derived Th1 Cells (CD161(+)Th1 Cells) to CD161(+)Th17 Cells in Peripheral Blood of Early-Onset Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients.

    PubMed

    Kotake, Shigeru; Nanke, Yuki; Yago, Toru; Kawamoto, Manabu; Kobashigawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the destruction of articular cartilage and bone with elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines. It has been reported that IL-17 and Th17 cells play important roles in the pathogenesis of RA. Recently, plasticity in helper T cells has been demonstrated; Th17 cells can convert to Th1 cells. It remains to be elucidated whether this conversion occurs in the early phase of RA. Here, we tried to identify Th17 cells, Th1 cells, and Th17 cell-derived Th1 cells (CD161(+)Th1 cells) in the peripheral blood of early-onset RA patients. We also evaluated the effect of methotrexate on the ratio of Th17 cells in early-onset RA patients. The ratio of Th17 cell-derived Th1 cells to CD161(+)Th17 cells was elevated in the peripheral blood of early-onset RA patients. In addition, MTX reduced the ratio of Th17 cells but not Th1 cells. These findings suggest that IL-17 and Th17 play important roles in the early phase of RA; thus, anti-IL-17 antibodies should be administered to patients with RA in the early phase.

  19. Elevated Ratio of Th17 Cell-Derived Th1 Cells (CD161+Th1 Cells) to CD161+Th17 Cells in Peripheral Blood of Early-Onset Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kotake, Shigeru; Nanke, Yuki; Yago, Toru; Kawamoto, Manabu; Kobashigawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the destruction of articular cartilage and bone with elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines. It has been reported that IL-17 and Th17 cells play important roles in the pathogenesis of RA. Recently, plasticity in helper T cells has been demonstrated; Th17 cells can convert to Th1 cells. It remains to be elucidated whether this conversion occurs in the early phase of RA. Here, we tried to identify Th17 cells, Th1 cells, and Th17 cell-derived Th1 cells (CD161+Th1 cells) in the peripheral blood of early-onset RA patients. We also evaluated the effect of methotrexate on the ratio of Th17 cells in early-onset RA patients. The ratio of Th17 cell-derived Th1 cells to CD161+Th17 cells was elevated in the peripheral blood of early-onset RA patients. In addition, MTX reduced the ratio of Th17 cells but not Th1 cells. These findings suggest that IL-17 and Th17 play important roles in the early phase of RA; thus, anti-IL-17 antibodies should be administered to patients with RA in the early phase. PMID:27123445

  20. [Progress on rheumatoid arthritis in elderly].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Zhao, Qin; Deng, Zhao-da; Wang, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Si-Gong; Shen, Hai-Li

    2017-06-25

    During choosing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAIDs), risk factors should be evaluated in elder patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The present study focused on biological therapies, and elderly patients should be more concerned about the risk of infection when used it. Traditional Chinese medicine has advantages of obvious curative effect, especially for tripterygium wilfordii, large clinical trial on western and Chinese medical accurate drug strategies for old patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Old patients are easier to suffer from cardiac diseases and interstitial lung disease, rheumatoid arthritis could be controlled along with the treatment for coexistent disease. The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in old patients is the same with other RA, and need to treat to target based on the aim of relieve pain and reduce activity of diseases, while the clinical charteristic and treatment target in elder patients with rheumatoid arthritis were not similar with other aged patient, so treatment standard target would vary with aging. Resent clinical studies excluded old patients, lead to lack of evidence-based medicine data. Clinical study for elder patients with rheumatoid arthritis are energetically carrying out, and could provide base and guide for clinical treatment. Copyright© 2017 by the China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Press.

  1. [Rheumatoid factor activity as a disturbing factor in the serological diagnosis of specific IgM antibodies].

    PubMed

    Lindenschmidt, E G

    1984-04-01

    Rheumatoid factors (RF) are autoantibodies mainly directed against autologous IgG. They belong at most to the IgM class antibodies. It is demonstrated at groups with unsolved hepatitis B, rubella, syphilis and toxoplasmose infection that RF do occur not rarely at these patients even without rheumatoid arthritis. This is probably due to stimulation by antigen-IgG-complexes. During serologic detection of specific IgM antibodies they present an antigen independent mu-specificity. So the test for specific IgM might even loose its diagnostic and possibly therapy indicating value. It is shown how the disturbance by RF can be calculated after adsorption with aggregated IgG. Also RF can be titrated by an enzyme immunoassay (ELISA). With IgG coated latex particles RF can be eliminated prior to the IgM-test. Solid phase techniques which are applied with enzyme-coupled antigen instead of marked anti-IgM cannot be disturbed by RF significantly.

  2. Late onset rheumatoid arthritis an observational study.

    PubMed

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Blerta; Bahtiri, Elton; Mahmutaj, Vigan

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may have an onset at older age. The onset of the disease at the age of 60 and over is called late-onset rheumatoid arthritis (LORA). The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical, laboratory, radiological, and treatment characteristics of patients with LORA compared to those with early-onset RA (EaORA), provided that all the patients had an approximately equal duration of the disease. This is an observational single-center study, which involved 120 patients with an established diagnosis of RA, of which 60 patients had LORA, and 60 patients EaORA. The disease activity, measured by the Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28-ESR), was significantly higher in the LORA group compared to the EaORA group (p<0.05). Significantly more patients with LORA had involvement of the shoulders (LORA vs. EaORA, 30% vs. 15%; p <0.05) and knees (LORA vs. EaORA, 46.7% vs. 16.7%; p <0.05). Radiological erosive changes were significantly more frequent in the LORA group in comparison with EaORA (p <0.05). There was no difference between the groups regarding rheumatoid factor (RF) positivity (p>0.05), while the number of patients positive for anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) was signifi cantly greater in the EaORA group (p<0.05). The values of C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were significantly higher in the LORA than in the EaORA group. Hemoglobin levels were lower in the LORA group (11.96±1.64 g/dL) than in the EaORA group (12.18±1.56 g/dL). The most used disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were methotrexate and sulfasalazine, while biological drugs were not used. In conclusion, based on the results of our study, LORA has some features that distinguish it from EaORA, such as higher disease activity, more frequent involvement of large joints, and more pronounced structural damage. This should be taken in account in clinical practice, especially regarding treatment choices.

  3. Rheumatoid Cachexia Revisited: A Metabolic Co-Morbidity in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Masuko, Kayo

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease in which pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, play a crucial role. The chronic inflammation, combined with reduced physical activity, leads to muscle wasting whereas fat mass would be maintained; the resulting abnormal metabolic state is described as rheumatoid cachexia. Since the loss of muscle volume would be compensated by the increased fat mass, body mass index (BMI) is reported not to reflect the nutritional status in RA patients. The implication of rheumatoid cachexia for cardiovascular risk and clinical prognosis is not clearly understood, however, adequate control of disease activity in combination with appropriate physical exercise could be the most important strategy to control rheumatoid cachexia and related metabolic problems. PMID:25988122

  4. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with increased radiological progression in women, but not in men, with early rheumatoid arthritis: results from the ESPOIR cohort (Étude et Suivi des Polyarthrites Indifférenciées Récentes).

    PubMed

    Sageloli, F; Quesada, J L; Fautrel, B; Salliot, C; Gaudin, P; Baillet, A

    2018-05-18

    We conducted this study to determine whether alcohol consumption influences radiological progression in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients fulfilling the European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology 2010 criteria in the early arthritis cohort ESPOIR (Étude et Suivi des Polyarthrites Indifférenciées Récentes) were included in this study. Alcohol consumption was collected at baseline and at each visit. We classified alcohol consumption into three groups: abstinent (0 g/day), moderate (≤ 20 g/day for women, ≤ 30 g/day for men), and abuse (> 20 g/day for women, > 30 g/day for men). The primary outcome was the occurrence of radiological progression, defined as an increase ≥ 5 points in the total Sharp/van der Heijde score. We investigated whether alcohol consumption is predictive of radiological progression at 1, 3, and 5 years by univariate and multivariate analysis adjusted for age, baseline erosion, rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated peptide antibody, smoking status, body mass index, and treatment with leflunomide or methotrexate and biologics. The study included 596 patients. When considering the influence of gender on the interaction between alcohol consumption and radiological progression, we showed a deleterious effect of moderate consumption in women [odds ratio (OR) = 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01; 2.96, p = 0.045] and a trend towards a protective effect of moderate consumption in men (OR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.21; 1.16, p = 0.106) in multivariate analysis. Our data suggest a deleterious effect of moderate consumption of alcohol on radiological progression in women, but not in men, with early RA.

  5. Ghrelin gene polymorphisms in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ozgen, Metin; Koca, Suleyman Serdar; Etem, Ebru Onalan; Yuce, Huseyin; Aydin, Suleyman; Isik, Ahmet

    2011-07-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous orexigenic peptide, has anti-inflammatory effects, down-regulates pro-inflammatory cytokines, and its altered levels are reported in various inflammatory diseases. The human preproghrelin (ghrelin/obestatin) gene shows several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including Arg51Gln, Leu72Met, Gln90Leu, and A-501C. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, and clinical significance, of these four SNPs in a small cohort of Turkish patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The study included 103 patients with RA and 103 healthy controls. In the RA group, disease activity and disease-related damage were assessed using the Disease Activity Score-28 (DAS-28), and the modified Larsen scoring (MLS) methods. In all the participants, genomic DNA was isolated and genotyped by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The frequencies of ghrelin gene SNPs were 82.5 and 79.6% in the RA and control groups, respectively, and there were no significant differences in terms of genotype distributions and allele frequencies for these four SNPs between the groups. However, the A-501C SNP was found to be associated with early disease onset, and Gln90Leu SNP with less frequent rheumatoid factor positivity, in the RA group. A-501C SNP is associated with earlier onset of RA suggesting that genetic variations in the ghrelin gene may have an impact on RA. Copyright © 2010 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. [Effects of a low calorie vegan diet on disease activity and general conditions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Fujita, A; Hashimoto, Y; Nakahara, K; Tanaka, T; Okuda, T; Koda, M

    1999-06-01

    There is little objective information about diet therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Japan. We studied 14 patients with RA who stayed in the Koda hospital for 55 days. They basically took a 1200 kcal vegan diet consisting of unpolished rice gruel, juice of raw vegetables, soya bean curd and sesame seeds, and undertook a 3-5-day fast three times. During the 55-day stay, average body weight decreased by 5.1kg. Lansbury index and ESR decreased whereas CRP did not change. WBC decreased and the differential cell counts showed a decrease of neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes without a change in lymphocytes or basophils. RBC, hemoglobin and MCV increased. LDL-C decreased, while HDL-C increased. There was no change in total protein or albumin. These data suggest that this combination of a low calorie vegan diet and fasting may contribute to improve RA with little undesirable effects on the patient's general conditions.

  7. Can Rheumatoid Arthritis Be Prevented?

    PubMed Central

    Deane, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of elevations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-related biomarkers prior to the onset of clinically apparent RA raises hopes that individuals who are at risk for future RA can be identified in a preclinical phase of disease that is defined as abnormalities of RA-related immune activity prior to the clinically apparent onset of joint disease. Additionally, there is a growing understanding of the immunologic processes that are occurring in preclinical RA, as well as a growing understanding of risk factors that may be mechanistically related to RA development. Furthermore, there are data supporting that treatment of early RA can lead to drug free remission. Taken as a whole, these findings suggest that it may be possible to use biomarkers and other factors to accurately identify the likelihood and timing of onset of future RA, and intervene with immunomodulatory therapies and/or risk factor modification to prevent the future onset of RA in at-risk individuals. Importantly, several clinical prevention trials for RA have already been tried, and one is underway. However, while our understanding of the growing understanding of the mechanisms and natural history of RA development may be leading us to the implementation of prevention strategies for RA, there are still several challenges to be met. These include developing sufficiently accurate methods of predicting those at high risk for future RA so that clinical trials can be developed based on accurate rates of development of arthritis and subjects can be adequately informed of their risk for disease, identifying the appropriate interventions and biologic targets for optimal prevention, and addressing the psychosocial and economic aspects that are crucial to developing broadly applicable prevention measures for RA. These issues notwithstanding, prevention of RA may be within reach in the near future. PMID:24315049

  8. Effect of self-efficacy and physical activity goal achievement on arthritis pain and quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Knittle, Keegan P; De Gucht, Véronique; Hurkmans, Emalie J; Vlieland, Thea P M Vliet; Peeters, André J; Ronday, H Karel; Maes, Stan

    2011-11-01

    To examine physical activity and achievement of physical activity goals in relation to self-reported pain and quality of life among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). At baseline, 271 patients with RA were asked to specify a physical activity goal, and filled in questionnaires assessing physical activity, motivation, and self-efficacy for physical activity, arthritis pain, and quality of life. Six months later, patients indicated to what extent they had achieved their baseline physical activity goal and completed the same set of questionnaires. These data were used to construct multiple mediation models that placed physical activity and physical activity goal achievement as mediators between self-efficacy and motivation on one hand, and arthritis pain and quality of life on the other. A total of 106 patients with RA completed both questionnaires. Self-efficacy at baseline predicted subsequent level of physical activity and achievement of physical activity goals. Goal achievement had a direct effect upon quality of life outcomes. Bootstrapping confidence intervals revealed indirect effects of self-efficacy upon arthritis pain and quality of life through goal achievement, but not through physical activity. Higher levels of self-efficacy for physical activity increase the likelihood that patients will achieve their physical activity goals. Achievement of physical activity goals seems to be related to lower self-reported arthritis pain, and higher levels of quality of life. In practice, clinicians can foster self-efficacy and goal achievement by assisting patients in setting realistic and attainable exercise goals, developing action plans, and by providing feedback on goal progress. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  9. Hypotonic stress promotes ATP release, reactive oxygen species production and cell proliferation via TRPV4 activation in rheumatoid arthritis rat synovial fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Fen; Hui, Zhenhai; Wei, Wei

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and systemic autoimmune-disease with complex and unclear etiology. Hypotonicity of synovial fluid is a typical characteristic of RA, which may play pivotal roles in RA pathogenesis. In this work, we studied the responses of RA synovial fibroblasts to hypotonic stress in vitro and further explored the underlying mechanisms. Data showed that hyposmotic solutions significantly triggered increases in cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c}) of synoviocytes. Subsequently, it caused rapid release of ATP, as well as remarkable production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Meanwhile, hypotonic stimulus promoted the proliferation of synovial fibroblasts. These effects weremore » almost abolished by calcium-free buffer and significantly inhibited by gadolinium (III) chloride (a mechanosensitive Ca{sup 2+} channel blocker) and ruthenium red (a transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) blocker). 4α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, a specific agonist of TRPV4, also mimicked hypotonic shock-induced responses shown above. In contrast, voltage-gated channel inhibitors verapamil and nifedipine had little influences on these responses. Furthermore, RT-PCR and western blotting evidently detected TRPV4 expression at mRNA and protein level in isolated synoviocytes. Taken together, our results indicated that hypotonic stimulus resulted in ATP release, ROS production, and cell proliferation depending on Ca{sup 2+} entry through activation of TRPV4 channel in synoviocytes. - Highlights: • Hypotonic stress evokes Ca{sup 2+} entry in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts. • Hypotonic stress induces rapid ATP release and ROS production in synoviocytes. • Hypotonic stimulation promotes the proliferation of synovial fibroblasts. • TRPV4 controls hypotonic-induced responses in synoviocytes.« less

  10. Early Adolescence: Active Science for Middle Schoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Michael; Griffin, Nancy

    1980-01-01

    Describes activities appropriate for involving middle school students as active participants in the learning process. Topics discussed include archaeology, bulletin boards, dramatizations, physics experiments using the human body, oceanography, and ecology. (CS)

  11. Conservation Seeds Activities Book. An Early Childhood Conservation Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Sherri

    This activities book is used with an early childhood conservation education program. The activities are presented in four color-coded sections, each section representing one of the four seasons. Each activity includes a statement of purpose, list of materials needed, instructional strategies, and a list of supplementary activities. In addition to…

  12. Chronobiology and the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cutolo, Maurizio

    2012-05-01

    As circadian rhythms and biological signaling occur in a complex network with cyclical 24-h period interactions (chronobiology) between the central and the autonomic nervous systems, the endocrine glands and the immune system, this review will explore the involvement of this emerging network in the disease pathophysiology and management. Recent advances regarding nocturnal hormones such as melatonin and prolactin that activate the nighttime immune response, and the successive rise of cortisol that dowregulates the ongoing immune reactivity very early in the morning, will be discussed within the circadian neuroendocrine immune network. In addition, the role of sleep and the daily distribution of body energy, which are important factors for the homoeostatic regulation of circadian physiological/pathological processes of the immune network will be reviewed.In chronic immune/inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), stiffness and functional disability are evident in the early morning hours as under the chronic stress of the disease the nighttime adrenal cortisol production becomes insufficient to inhibit ongoing nocturnal immune/inflammatory activity. Currently, the most advanced approach to optimizing the risk-benefit ratio for long-term glucocorticoid treatment in RA seems to be low-dose chronotherapy with modified nighttime release prednisone (release at 3 a.m.). A similar chronotherapeutical approach could also be effective with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs such as methotrexate.

  13. Hypereosinophilia and seroconversion of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Rachel K; Panush, Richard S; Kramer, Neil; Rosenstein, Elliot D

    2014-11-01

    At the intersection of atopy and autoimmunity, we present a patient with seronegative rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who developed hypereosinophilia, without evidence of other etiologies, as she became rheumatoid factor (RF) positive. Although the magnitude of eosinophilia in patients with RA has been thought to reflect the severity or activity of the RA, in our patient, eosinophilia developed at a time when the patient's synovitis was well controlled. Although eosinophilia may reflect associated drug hypersensitivity, discontinuation of the medications utilized to control our patient's disease, adalimumab and methotrexate, did not promote clinical improvement. Probably the most curious aspect of our patient was the concomitant development of rheumatoid factor seropositivity in the setting of previously seronegative RA. The temporal relationship between the development of peripheral eosinophilia and seroconversion suggests a possible connection between these events. We speculate that the T cell cytokine production that can induce eosinophilia may simultaneously activate RF production.

  14. Rheumatoid factor (RF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Firestein's Textbook of Rheumatology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 56. Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Rheumatoid ... and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:985-986. Hoffmann M, Lundberg K, ...

  15. Promoting Physical Activity during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidoni, Carla; Ignico, Arlene

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents from low-income families in the USA has become a significant concern over the last 20 years. One of the major contributors to this problem is the lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper is to describe initiatives designed to: (1) engage young children in physical activity during…

  16. [Current treatment of rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Carli, P; Landais, C; Aletti, M; Cournac, J-M; Poisnel, E; Paris, J-F

    2009-12-01

    Over the past 10 years, the management of rheumatoid arthritis has been revolutionized. Early diagnosis is essential and should allow an early initiation of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD), if possible within the first 3 three months after disease onset, aiming at disease remission and the best long-term prognosis. Recommendations for the prescription of synthetic and biologic DMARD (mainly anti-TNFalpha agents) are available since September 2007 [6] by HAS in France. The great efficacy of these drugs has been established from many clinical trials including tens of thousands of patients. However, severe adverse side effects may occur (allergy, tuberculosis, opportunistic infections, demyelination) and rheumatologists should remain vigilant. Global care of the patient includes prescription of pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments (education, physical treatment, ergotherapy, psychotherapy, surgery). A good coordination between all specialists is required. Screening and treatment of extra-articular manifestations, prevention of infections, osteoporosis and cardiovascular complications are essential to allow a better long-term prognosis, and reduce disability and mortality of rheumatoid arthritis.

  17. Increased alveolar plasminogen activator in early asbestosis

    SciTech Connect

    Cantin, A.; Allard, C.; Begin, R.

    1989-03-01

    Alveolar macrophage-derived plasminogen activator (PA) activity is decreased in some chronic interstitial lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and sarcoidosis but increased in experimental models of acute alveolitis. Although asbestos fibers can stimulate alveolar macrophages (AM) to release PA in vitro, the effect of chronic asbestos exposure of the lower respiratory tract on lung PA activity remains unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate PA activity of alveolar macrophages and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in asbestos-exposed sheep and asbestos workers. Forty-three sheep were exposed to either 100 mg UICC chrysotile B asbestos in 100 ml phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)more » or to 100 ml PBS by tracheal infusion every 2 wk for 18 months. At Month 18, chest roentgenograms were analyzed and alveolar macrophage and extracellular fluid PA activity were measured in samples obtained by BAL. Alveolar macrophage PA activity was increased in the asbestos-exposed sheep compared to control sheep (87.2 +/- 17.3 versus 41.1 +/- 7.2 U/10(5) AM-24 h, p less than 0.05) as was the BAL fluid PA activity (674.9 +/- 168.4 versus 81.3 +/- 19.7 U/mg alb-24 h, p less than 0.01). Among the asbestos-exposed sheep, 10 had normal chest roentgenograms (Group SA) and 15 had irregular interstitial opacities (Group SB). Strikingly, whereas Group SA did not differ from the control group in BAL cellularity or PA activity, Group SB had marked increases in alveolar macrophages (p less than 0.005), AM PA activity (p less than 0.02), and BAL PA activity (p less than 0.001) compared to the control group.« less

  18. Molecular insights into the differences in anti-inflammatory activities of green tea catechins on IL-1β signaling in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Fechtner, Sabrina; Singh, Anil; Chourasia, Mukesh; Ahmed, Salahuddin

    2017-08-15

    In this study, we found that catechins found in green tea (EGCG, EGC, and EC) differentially interfere with the IL-1β signaling pathway which regulates the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-6 and IL-8) and Cox-2 in primary human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs). EGCG and EGC inhibited IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-2 production and selectively inhibited Cox-2 expression. EC did not exhibit any inhibitory effects. When we looked at the expression of key signaling proteins in the IL-1β signaling pathway, we found all the tested catechins could inhibit TAK-1 activity. Therefore, the consumption of green tea offers an overall anti-inflammatory effect. Molecular docking analysis confirms that EGCG, EGC, and EC all occupy the active site of the TAK1 kinase domain. However, EGCG occupies the majority of the TAK1 active site. In addition to TAK1 inhibition, EGCG can also inhibit P38 and nuclear NF-κB expression whereas EC and EGC were not effective inhibitors. Our findings suggest one of the main health benefits associated with the consumption of green tea are due to the activity of EGCG and EGC which are both present at higher amounts. Although EGCG is the most effective catechin at inhibiting downstream inflammatory signaling, its effectiveness could be hindered by the presence of EC. Therefore, varying EC content in green tea may reduce the anti-inflammatory effects of other potential catechins in green tea. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. The effect of rheumatoid arthritis-associated autoantibodies on the incidence of cardiovascular events in a large inception cohort of early inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Barra, Lillian J; Pope, Janet E; Hitchon, Carol; Boire, Gilles; Schieir, Orit; Lin, Daming; Thorne, Carter J; Tin, Diane; Keystone, Edward C; Haraoui, Boulos; Jamal, Shahin; Bykerk, Vivian P

    2017-05-01

    . RA is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events (CVEs). The objective was to estimate independent effects of RA autoantibodies on the incident CVEs in patients with early RA. Patients were enrolled in the Canadian Early Inflammatory Arthritis Cohort, a prospective multicentre inception cohort. Incident CVEs, including acute coronary syndromes and cerebrovascular events, were self-reported by the patient and partially validated by medical chart review. Seropositive status was defined as either RF or ACPA positive. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards survival analysis was used to estimate the effects of seropositive status on incident CVEs, controlling for RA clinical variables and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. . A total of 2626 patients were included: the mean symptom duration at diagnosis was 6.3 months ( s . d . 4.6), the mean age was 53 years ( s . d . 15), 72% were female and 86% met classification criteria for RA. Forty-six incident CVEs occurred over 6483 person-years [incidence rate 7.1/1000 person-years (95% confidence interval 5.3, 9.4)]. The CVE rate did not differ in seropositive vs seronegative subjects and seropositivity was not associated with incident CVEs in multivariable Cox regression models. Baseline covariates independently associated with incident CVEs were older age, a history of hypertension and a longer duration of RA symptoms prior to diagnosis. The rate of CVEs early in the course of inflammatory arthritis was low; however, delays in the diagnosis of arthritis increased the rate of CVEs. Hypertension was the strongest independent risk factor for CVEs. Results support early aggressive management of RA disease activity and co-morbidities to prevent severe complications. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Does stress affect the joints? Daily stressors, stress vulnerability, immune and HPA axis activity, and short-term disease and symptom fluctuations in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Evers, Andrea W M; Verhoeven, Elisabeth W M; van Middendorp, Henriët; Sweep, Fred C G J; Kraaimaat, Floris W; Donders, A Rogier T; Eijsbouts, Agnes E; van Laarhoven, Antoinette I M; de Brouwer, Sabine J M; Wirken, Lieke; Radstake, Timothy R D J; van Riel, Piet L C M

    2014-09-01

    Both stressors and stress vulnerability factors together with immune and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity components have been considered to contribute to disease fluctuations of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether daily stressors and worrying as stress vulnerability factor as well as immune and HPA axis activity markers predict short-term disease activity and symptom fluctuations in patients with RA. In a prospective design, daily stressors, worrying, HPA axis (cortisol) and immune system (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumour necrosis factor α) markers, clinical and self-reported disease activity (disease activity score in 28 joints, RA disease activity index), and physical symptoms of pain and fatigue were monitored monthly during 6 months in 80 RA patients. Multilevel modelling indicated that daily stressors predicted increased fatigue in the next month and that worrying predicted increased self-reported disease activity, swollen joint count and pain in the next month. In addition, specific cytokines of IL-1β and IFN-γ predicted increased fatigue 1 month later. Overall, relationships remained relatively unchanged after controlling for medication use, disease duration and demographic variables. No evidence was found for immune and HPA axis activity markers as mediators of the stress-disease relationship. Daily stressors and the stress-vulnerability factor worrying predict indicators of the short-term course of RA disease activity and fatigue and pain, while specific cytokines predict short-term fluctuations of fatigue. These stress-related variables and immune markers seem to affect different aspects of disease activity or symptom fluctuations independently in RA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Experiential Aging Activities and the Early Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Elbert D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Negative views about the elderly held by adolescents can result in a negative outlook on aging. Physical, mental, and social aging experiential activities are given which can be done at home or at school. (JN)

  2. Activities for Career Development in Early Childhood Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yawkey, Thomas Daniels; Aronin, Eugene L.

    The book presents career education activities and approaches for use by teachers, administrators, counselors, and students involved in early childhood education (ages three through eight). Part One stresses the importance of and rationale for career development in the early childhood curriculum. Research support for the approach to career…

  3. Correlation of rheumatoid arthritis activity indexes (Disease Activity Score 28 measured with ESR and CRP, Simplified Disease Activity Index and Clinical Disease Activity Index) and agreement of disease activity states with various cut-off points in a Northeastern Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Marta Maria das Chagas; de Oliveira, Brenda Maria Gurgel Barreto; de Cerqueira, João Victor Medeiros; Quixadá, Raquel Telles de Souza; de Oliveira, Ídila Mont'Alverne Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28) and its versions have been used to measure rheumatoid arthritis (RA) activity, but there is no consensus about which one is the best. Determine the correlation among indexes (DAS28 ESR, DAS28 CRP, SDAI and CDAI) and evaluate agreement of activity strata using different cutoff points. Rheumatoid arthritis patients were cross-sectionally evaluated with data collection to calculate the DAS28 (ESR and CRP), SDAI and CDAI, using different cut-offs for defining remission, mild, moderate and high activity. Pearson correlations were calculated for continuous measures and agreement (kappa test) for the strata (remission, mild, moderate and high activity). Of 111 patients included, 108 were women, age 55.6 years, 11-year disease duration. DAS28 (ESR) was significantly higher than DAS28 (CRP) (4.0 vs. 3.5; p<0.001) and the values remained higher after stratification by age, gender, disease duration, rheumatoid factor and HAQ. Correlations among indexes ranged from 0.84 to 0.99, with better correlation between SDAI and CDAI. Agreements among activity strata ranged from 46.8% to 95.8%. DAS28 (CRP) with cut-off point for the remission of 2.3 underestimated disease activity by 45.8% compared with DAS28 (ESR). SDAI and CDAI showed agreement of 95.8%. The four indexes were associated with disease duration and HAQ. Although the activity indexes show good correlation, they show discrepancies in activity strata, thus requiring more researches to define a better index and better cutoff points. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Criterion validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF) for use in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: comparison with the SenseWear Armband.

    PubMed

    Tierney, M; Fraser, A; Kennedy, N

    2015-06-01

    The International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF) is a self-report questionnaire commonly used in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to measure physical activity. However, despite its frequent use in patients with RA, its validity has not been ascertained in this population. The aim of this study was to examine the criterion validity of energy expenditure from physical activity recorded with the IPAQ-SF in patients with RA compared with the objective criterion measure, the SenseWear Armband (SWA) which has been validated previously in this population. Cross-sectional criterion validation study. Regional hospital outpatient setting. Twenty-two patients with RA attending outpatient rheumatology clinics. Subjects wore an SWA for 7 full consecutive days and completed the IPAQ-SF. Energy expenditure from physical activity recorded by the SWA and the IPAQ-SF. Energy expenditure from physical activity recorded by the IPAQ-SF and the SWA showed a small, non-significant correlation (r=0.407, P=0.60). The IPAQ-SF underestimated energy expenditure from physical activity by 41% compared with the SWA. This was corroborated using Bland and Altman plots, as the IPAQ-SF was found to overestimate energy expenditure from physical activity in nine of the 22 individuals, and underestimate energy expenditure from physical activity in the remaining 13 individuals. The IPAQ-SF has limited use as an accurate and absolute measure for estimating energy expenditure from physical activity in patients with RA. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical efficacy, radiographic progression, and safety through 156 weeks of therapy with subcutaneous golimumab in combination with methotrexate in Japanese patients with active rheumatoid arthritis despite prior methotrexate therapy: final results of the randomized GO-FORTH trial

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yoshiya; Harigai, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Koike, Takao; Baker, Daniel; Ishii, Yutaka; Yoshinari, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of golimumab + methotrexate (MTX) in Japanese patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Japanese patients with active RA despite MTX were randomized to placebo + MTX (Group 1, n = 88), golimumab 50 mg + MTX (Group 2, n = 86), or golimumab 100 mg + MTX (Group 3, n = 87). Patients with <20% improvement in swollen/tender joint counts entered early escape at week 16. At week 24, all remaining placebo patients crossed over to golimumab 50 mg. Efficacy assessments included ACR20, DAS28-ESR, and HAQ-DI. Radiographic progression was assessed with the van der Heijde-modified Sharp (vdH-S) score. Results: ACR20 response rates in Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3 were 67.9, 86.1, and 82.4%, respectively, at week 52 and were maintained through week 104 (87.1, 94.0, and 88.7%) and week 156 (97.1, 94.1, and 89.5%). Proportions of patients with good/moderate DAS28-ESR response or clinically meaningful improvement in HAQ-DI were also maintained through week 156. The majority of patients did not experience radiographic progression through week 156. Among 257 golimumab-treated patients, 251 (97.7%) had ≥1 AE; 54 (21.0%) had ≥1 serious AE through week 156. Infections were the most common type of AE. Conclusions: Response to golimumab + MTX was maintained over 3 years in Japanese patients with active RA despite MTX. Safety results were consistent with the known safety profile of golimumab. PMID:26474192

  6. Efficacy and safety of tofacitinib in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: review of key Phase 2 studies.

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Roy; Kremer, Joel; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Gruben, David; Kanik, Keith; Koncz, Tamas; Krishnaswami, Sriram; Wallenstein, Gene; Wilkinson, Bethanie; Zwillich, Samuel H; Keystone, Edward

    2016-12-01

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, the safety and efficacy data from five Phase 2 studies of tofacitinib in patients with RA are summarized. Tofacitinib 1-30 mg twice daily was investigated, as monotherapy and in combination with methotrexate, in patients with RA. Tofacitinib 20 mg once daily was investigated in one study. Tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg twice daily were selected for investigation in Phase 3 studies; therefore, the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg twice daily in Phase 2 studies are the focus of this review. Tofacitinib ≥ 5 mg twice daily was efficacious in a dose-dependent manner, with statistically significant and clinically meaningful reductions in the signs and symptoms of RA and patient-reported outcomes. The safety profile was consistent across studies. The efficacy and safety profile of tofacitinib in Phase 2 studies supported its further investigation and the selection of tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily and tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily for evaluation in Phase 3 studies. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases published by Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Efficacy and safety of tofacitinib as monotherapy in Japanese patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: a 12-week, randomized, phase 2 study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshiya; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Toyoizumi, Shigeyuki; Zwillich, Samuel

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate oral tofacitinib versus placebo for treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis in Japanese patients with inadequate response to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel-group, 12-week, phase 2 study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT00687193), 317 patients received tofacitinib: 1, 3, 5, 10, or 15 mg as monotherapy or placebo twice daily (BID). response rate by American College of Rheumatology (ACR) ≥ 20% improvement criteria (ACR20) at week 12. ACR20 response rates: 37.7% (20/53), 67.9% (36/53), 73.1% (38/52), 84.9% (45/53), and 90.7% (49/54) with tofacitinib: 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15 mg BID, respectively, versus 15.4% (8/52) with placebo (p < 0.01; all doses). Dose-dependent ACR20 responses with tofacitinib versus placebo occurred from week 2 onward (p < 0.05). Changes from baseline in 28-joint disease activity score using erythrocyte sedimentation rate improved with tofacitinib versus placebo from week 4 (p < 0.01; all doses). Six tofacitinib patients experienced treatment-related serious adverse events (AEs). Most common treatment-emergent AEs: nasopharyngitis (10% vs 12%) and hyperlipidemia (5% vs 0%). Serum creatinine, hemoglobin, and total-, low-, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels increased with tofacitinib. Tofacitinib produced dose-dependent ACR20 responses and reduced disease activity. The safety profile was consistent with that reported from global monotherapy trials.

  8. Causes and consequences of fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Katz, Patricia

    2017-05-01

    To review current information on the causes, treatments, and consequences of fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis. Disease activity (inflammation, pain, joint symptoms) is associated with greater fatigue. However, disease activity per se accounts for only a small portion of fatigue, and rheumatoid arthritis medications that reduce disease activity have small effects on fatigue. Instead, factors outside the direct effects of rheumatoid arthritis, such as obesity, physical inactivity, sleep disturbance, and depression, explain the majority of variation in fatigue. Some of these factors may be indirect effects of disease (e.g. pain can lead to sleep disturbance). Rheumatoid arthritis has significant effects on the quality of life of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis. The most effective approaches to reducing rheumatoid arthritis fatigue appear to be behavioral, such as increasing physical activity, or cognitive, such as cognitive behavioral interventions. Fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis appears to be largely because of factors outside the direct effects of the disease, such as behavioral and psychological factors. In spite of the tremendous impact of fatigue on patient health and quality of life, effective treatments remain elusive, but existing data show that behavioral and cognitive approaches may be most effective.

  9. Use of exploratory factor analysis to ascertain the correlation between the activities of rheumatoid arthritis and infection by human parvovirus B19.

    PubMed

    Kakurina, Natalja; Kadisa, Anda; Lejnieks, Aivars; Mikazane, Helena; Kozireva, Svetlana; Murovska, Modra

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated a possible correlation between the clinical activities of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). RA patients were organized into two groups: 100 patients in the main group and 97 in the RA(DAS28) group. Four subgroups were defined from the main group according to the presence or absence of certain infection-specific markers: group I comprised 43 patients who had IgG antibodies against B19; group II, 25 patients with active B19 infection (B19-specific IgM antibodies and/or plasma viremia); group III, 19 patients with latent/persistent B19 infection (virus-specific sequences in peripheral blood leukocytes' DNA with or without B19-specific IgG antibodies), and group IV, 13 patients without infection markers. The RA(DAS28) group was divided into four subgroups similarly to the main group: group I, 35; group II, 31; group III, 19; and group IV, 12 patients. Disease-specific clinical values in both groups were analyzed employing EFA, and the RA(DAS28) group was additionally assessed using Disease Activity Score (DAS)28. RA activity was higher in patients who had markers of B19 infection. The highest activity of RA in both study groups was in patients with latent/persistent infection. In the RA(DAS28) group, according to DAS28, the highest activity of RA was in patients with active B19 infection. Using EFA and DAS28, a correlation between the clinical activity of RA and B19 infection was confirmed. These data suggest that EFA is applicable for medico-biological studies. Copyright © 2015 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  10. PhosphoLipid transfer protein (PLTP) exerts a direct pro-inflammatory effect on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fibroblasts-like-synoviocytes (FLS) independently of its lipid transfer activity

    PubMed Central

    Deckert, Valérie; Daien, Claire I.; Che, Hélène; Elhmioui, Jamila; Lemaire, Stéphanie; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Desrumaux, Catherine; Combe, Bernard; Hahne, Michael; Lagrost, Laurent; Morel, Jacques

    2018-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease with modification of lipids profile and an increased risk of cardiovascular events related to inflammation. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) exerts a lipid transfer activity through its active form. PLTP can also bind to receptors such as ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1). In addition to its role in lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis, the latest advances came in support of a complex role of PLTP in the regulation of the inflammatory response, both with pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to decipher the role of PLTP in joint inflammation and to assess its relevance in the context of RA. PLTP expression was examined by western-blot and by immunochemistry. ABCA1 expression was analyzed by flow cytometry. Lipid transfer activity of PLTP and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured in sera and synovial fluid (SF) from RA patients and controls (healthy subjects or osteoarthritis patients [OA]). FLS were treated with both lipid-transfer active form and inactive form of recombinant human PLTP. IL-8, IL-6, VEGF and MMP3 produced by FLS were assessed by ELISA, and proliferation by measuring 3H-Thymidine incorporation. RA synovial tissues showed higher PLTP staining than OA and PLTP protein levels were also significantly higher in RA-FLS. In addition, RA, unlike OA patients, displayed elevated levels of PLTP activity in SF, which correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Both lipid-transfer active and inactive forms of PLTP significantly increased the production of cytokines and proliferation of FLS. ABCA1 was expressed on RAFLS and PLTP activated STAT3 pathway. To conclude, PLTP is highly expressed in the joints of RA patients and may directly trigger inflammation and FLS proliferation, independently of its lipid transfer activity. These results suggest a pro-inflammatory role for PLTP in RA. PMID:29565987

  11. Arthritis of the hand - Rheumatoid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Rheumatoid Arthritis Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... debilitating when it affects the hands and fingers. Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most common forms of ...

  12. LOW BONE MINERAL DENSITY AMONG PATIENTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.

    PubMed

    Arain, Shafique Rehman; Riaz, Amir; Nazir, Lubna; Umer, Tahira Perveen; Rasool, Tabe

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is an early and common feature in rheumatoid arthritis. Apart from other manifestations, Osteoporosis is an extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis whichmay result in increased risk of fractures, morbidity mortality, and associated healthcare costs. This study evaluates bone mineral density changes in patients withrheumatoid arthritis of recent-onset. This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in the Rheumatology Department of a tertiary care hospital in Karachi. Data was collected from 76 patients presenting with seropositive or seronegative rheumatoid arthritis. Bone mineral density of these patients measured at lumbar spine and hip by using dual energy x-ray absorptiometrys can. Variables like age, gender, BMI, menstrual status, disease duration, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, vitamin D level, clinical disease activity index and seropositivity for rheumatoid arthritis were measured along with outcome variables. A total of 104 patients fulfilling inclusion criteria were registered with 28 excluded from study. A mong the remaining 76 patients, 68 (89.50%) were female, with mean age of patients (with low bone mineral density) as 50.95 ± 7.87 years. Nineteen (25%) patients had low bone mineral density, 68.52% had low BMD at spine while 10.52% at hip and 21.05% at spine and hip both. Low bone mineral density was found higher in patients with seronegative 7 (50%) as compared to seropositive patients 12 (19.4%) (p-value 0.017), whereas low bone mineral d ensity was found higher 12 (70.6%) among post-menopausal women. Low BMD was found in 25% of patients at earlier stage of the rheumatoid arthritis with seropositivity, age and menopausal status as significant risk factors.

  13. Early patterns of commercial activity in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapira, Philip; Youtie, Jan; Arora, Sanjay

    2012-03-01

    Graphene, a novel nanomaterial consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms, has attracted significant attention due to its distinctive properties, including great strength, electrical and thermal conductivity, lightness, and potential benefits for diverse applications. The commercialization of scientific discoveries such as graphene is inherently uncertain, with the lag time between the scientific development of a new technology and its adoption by corporate actors revealing the extent to which firms are able to absorb knowledge and engage in learning to implement applications based on the new technology. From this perspective, we test for the existence of three different corporate learning and activity patterns: (1) a linear process where patenting follows scientific discovery; (2) a double-boom phenomenon where corporate (patenting) activity is first concentrated in technological improvements and then followed by a period of technology productization; and (3) a concurrent model where scientific discovery in publications occurs in parallel with patenting. By analyzing corporate publication and patent activity across country and application lines, we find that, while graphene as a whole is experiencing concurrent scientific development and patenting growth, country- and application-specific trends offer some evidence of the linear and double-boom models.

  14. Cost effectiveness of etanercept (Enbrel) in combination with methotrexate in the treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis based on the TEMPO trial.

    PubMed

    Kobelt, G; Lindgren, P; Singh, A; Klareskog, L

    2005-08-01

    To estimate the cost effectiveness of combination treatment with etanercept plus methotrexate in comparison with monotherapies in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using a new model that incorporates both functional status and disease activity. Effectiveness data were based on a 2 year trial in 682 patients with active RA (TEMPO). Data on resource consumption and utility related to function and disease activity were obtained from a survey of 616 patients in Sweden. A Markov model was constructed with five states according to functional status (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)) subdivided into high and low disease activity. The cost for each quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained was estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. Disease activity had a highly significant effect on utilities, independently of HAQ. For resource consumption, only HAQ was a significant predictor, with the exception of sick leave. Compared with methotrexate alone, etanercept plus methotrexate over 2 years increased total costs by 14,221 euros and led to a QALY gain of 0.38. When treatment was continued for 10 years, incremental costs were 42,148 euros for a QALY gain of 0.91. The cost per QALY gained was 37,331 euros and 46,494 euros, respectively. The probability that the cost effectiveness ratio is below a threshold of 50,000 euros/QALY is 88%. Incorporating the influence of disease activity into this new model allows better assessment of the effects of anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment on patients' general wellbeing. In this analysis, the cost per QALY gained with combination treatment with etanercept plus methotrexate compared with methotrexate alone falls within the acceptable range.

  15. Intestinal Dysbiosis and Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Link between Gut Microbiota and the Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Montiel-Jarquín, Alvaro José; Pizano-Zárate, María Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Characterization and understanding of gut microbiota has recently increased representing a wide research field, especially in autoimmune diseases. Gut microbiota is the major source of microbes which might exert beneficial as well as pathogenic effects on human health. Intestinal microbiome's role as mediator of inflammation has only recently emerged. Microbiota has been observed to differ in subjects with early rheumatoid arthritis compared to controls, and this finding has commanded this study as a possible autoimmune process. Studies with intestinal microbiota have shown that rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by an expansion and/or decrease of bacterial groups as compared to controls. In this review, we present evidence linking intestinal dysbiosis with the autoimmune mechanisms involved in the development of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:28948174

  16. An external validation study reporting poor correlation between the claims-based index for rheumatoid arthritis severity and the disease activity score.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rishi J; Solomon, Daniel H; Weinblatt, Michael E; Shadick, Nancy; Kim, Seoyoung C

    2015-04-13

    We conducted an external validation study to examine the correlation of a previously published claims-based index for rheumatoid arthritis severity (CIRAS) with disease activity score in 28 joints calculated by using C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) and the multi-dimensional health assessment questionnaire (MD-HAQ) physical function score. Patients enrolled in the Brigham and Women's Hospital Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study (BRASS) and Medicare were identified and their data from these two sources were linked. For each patient, DAS28-CRP measurement and MD-HAQ physical function scores were extracted from BRASS, and CIRAS was calculated from Medicare claims for the period of 365 days prior to the DAS28-CRP measurement. Pearson correlation coefficient between CIRAS and DAS28-CRP as well as MD-HAQ physical function scores were calculated. Furthermore, we considered several additional pharmacy and medical claims-derived variables as predictors for DAS28-CRP in a multivariable linear regression model in order to assess improvement in the performance of the original CIRAS algorithm. In total, 315 patients with enrollment in both BRASS and Medicare were included in this study. The majority (81%) of the cohort was female, and the mean age was 70 years. The correlation between CIRAS and DAS28-CRP was low (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.07, P = 0.24). The correlation between the calculated CIRAS and MD-HAQ physical function scores was also found to be low (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.08, P = 0.17). The linear regression model containing additional claims-derived variables yielded model R(2) of 0.23, suggesting limited ability of this model to explain variation in DAS28-CRP. In a cohort of Medicare-enrolled patients with established RA, CIRAS showed low correlation with DAS28-CRP as well as MD-HAQ physical function scores. Claims-based algorithms for disease activity should be rigorously tested in distinct populations in order to establish

  17. Elevated Expression of Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-Based Inhibitory Motif (TIGIT) on T Lymphocytes is Correlated with Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qing; Deng, Zhen; Xu, Chuxin; Zeng, Lulu; Ye, Jianqing; Li, Xue; Guo, Yang; Huang, Zikun; Li, Junming

    2017-03-10

    BACKGROUND It is well known that lymphocytes play an important role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). T cell immunoreceptors with immunoglobulin (Ig) and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (TIGIT) have immunosuppressive co-stimulatory molecules that mediate inhibitory effects, but their roles in RA are poorly understood. MATERIAL AND METHODS Were recruited 76 patients with RA and 33 healthy controls (HC). Clinical manifestations, laboratory measurements, physical examination, and medical history of RA patients were recorded. The expression of TIGIT on CD3+ T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, CD3+CD4+ T lymphocytes, and CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes was determined using flow cytometry. The expression of TIGIT on T lymphocytes in patients with RA was further analyzed to investigate its correlations with markers of autoimmune response, inflammation, and disease activity in RA. RESULTS Compared with HC, the expression levels of TIGIT on CD3+CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes were significantly increased in patients with RA (P < 0.01). The frequency of TIGIT-expressing CD3+CD4+ T lymphocytes was positively correlated with RF, increased ACPA, ESR, and CRP levels. The frequency of TIGIT-expressing CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes was positively correlated with RF and ESR levels. Furthermore, the expression level of TIGIT on CD3+CD4+ T lymphocytes was positively correlated with the DAS28 score in RA. CONCLUSIONS The expression levels of TIGIT on T lymphocytes were elevated and correlated with disease activity in RA.

  18. Validity and Agreement between the 28-Joint Disease Activity Score Based on C-Reactive Protein and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Nielung, Louise; Christensen, Robin; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Bliddal, Henning; Holm, Christian Cato; Ellegaard, Karen; Slott Jensen, Hanne; Bartels, Else Marie

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To validate the agreement between the 28-joint disease activity score based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) and the 28-joint disease activity score based on C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) in a group of Danish patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Data from 109 Danish RA patients initiating biologic treatment were analysed at baseline and following one year of treatment. Participants were retrospectively enrolled from a previous cohort study and were considered eligible for this project if CRP and ESR were measured at baseline and at the follow-up visit. To assess the extent of agreement between the two DAS28 definitions, the “European League Against Rheumatism” (EULAR) response criteria based on each definition were calculated with cross-classification. Weighted Kappa (κ) coefficients were calculated, and Bland-Altman plots were used to illustrate degree of agreement between DAS28 definitions. Results. The 75 eligible patients were classified as EULAR good, moderate, and nonresponders with good agreement (61/75; 81%) between DAS28-CRP and DAS28-ESR (κ = 0.75 (95% CI: 0.63 to 0.88)). Conclusions. According to our findings, DAS28-CRP and DAS28-ESR are interchangeable when assessing RA patients and the two versions of DAS28 are comparable between studies. PMID:25632353

  19. Disease Activity Score on 28 Joints and Polypharmacy Are Independent Predictors for Health-Related Quality of Life Evaluated by INCAVISA in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    González-Gamboa, Linda Mariana; Barocio-Ramírez, Ana Karen; Rocha-Muñoz, Alberto Daniel; de Santos-Ávila, Fabiola; Meda-Lara, Rosa M; González-López, Laura; Gámez-Nava, Jorge Iván; Gómez-Bañuelos, Eduardo; Chavarria-Avila, Efrain; Durán-Barragán, Sergio; Navarro-Hernández, Rosa Elena; Pizano-Martínez, Oscar Enrique; Nuñez-Atahualpa, Lourdes; Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the main factors associated to a diminished health-related quality of life (HRQoL) evaluated by INCAVISA (Health-Related Quality of Life Inventory for Latin American Patients) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Female, 18 years or older, RA (American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria and American College of Rheumatology/European League against Rheumatism 2010 criteria) patients who attended the outpatient rheumatology department of the Hospital Civil "Dr. Juan I. Menchaca," Guadalajara, Mexico, matched with healthy controls were included. Patients with any known comorbidities or treatment with antidepressive drugs were excluded. Trained physicians performed the RA clinical evaluation and INCAVISA. All data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 software (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL); P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Patients with polypharmacy (≥3 drugs) had a lower HRQoL by INCAVISA. The number of drugs, total comorbidities, and DAS-28 (Disease Activity Score on 28 Joints) were negatively correlated with total INCAVISA. In multivariate analysis, DAS-28 and polypharmacy were independent predictors for a negative perception of HRQoL evaluated by INCAVISA in RA patients. Disease activity and disability secondary to RA have a negative impact in the HRQoL. Other factors such as the number of drugs prescribed to these patients have been shown to be important for the negative perception of their HRQoL evaluated by INCAVISA.

  20. Silymarin (Livergol®) Decreases Disease Activity Score in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Non-randomized Single-arm Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Shavandi, Mehrdad; Moini, Ali; Shakiba, Yadollah; Mashkorinia, Ahamad; Dehghani, Milad; Asar, Shirin; Kiani, Amir

    2017-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease, which can lead to joint destruction and disability. Pannus formation due to chronic synovitis is the hallmark of RA. Oxidative stress as a consequence of immune cell activation and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs can prevent inflammation and tissue destruction. Silymarin, an antioxidant extract from Silybum marianum, has been traditionally used for the treatment of liver diseases for decades. In the present non-randomized single-arm clinical trial (NRSACT) study we evaluated the effects of silymarin tablet (Livergol®) on inflammatory markers in stable RA patients. Disease activity score (DAS-28) was measured before and after adding silymarin to standard drug regimen used for controlling inflammation in RA patients. Silymarin significantly reduced the DAS28 related symptoms in 44 RA patients after 90 days (3.02±0.98 versus 2.3±0.74, p<0.001). The exact mechanism of therapeutic effects of silymarin in RA patients is not clear but it could be as the results of its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. Conducting the study on larger number of patients and also measuring cytokines levels including TNF-α and IL-1β may clarify the underlying mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of silymarin in RA patients.

  1. Early high-Tc commercial activity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The high temperature superconductors have already begun to generate the first stirrings of commercial activity. Companies that supply instruments and chemicals to researchers have enjoyed increased business. At least one company has begun to supply educational materials. Venture capital firms have invested about $15 million in startups to capitalize on developments in high-field applications, superconducting electronics, and magnetic shielding. Consulting firms are gathering and selling market research information. And the federal government is studying the question of how to cooperate with American companies to commercialize the research taking place in the national laboratories. This article discusses these issues.

  2. [Garlic effectiveness in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Denisov, L N; Andrianova, I V; Timofeeva, S S

    1999-01-01

    To perform of clinical trial of alisate--a garlic preparation produced in Russia. An open controlled trial of alisate enrolled 30 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 15 patients with RA of varying clinical form, stage and activity were given alisate in a dose 300 mg (1 tablet) twice a day for 4-6 weeks. 15 control RA patients received conventional antirheumatic therapy. The alisate group achieved a good and partial response in 86.5% of cases. The drug was well tolerated and had no side effects. In control group, some parameters changed for the worse. Alisate can be recommended for treatment of RA patients in combined and monotherapy.

  3. Early T-cell activation biophysics

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Nelly; Hivroz, Claire

    2009-01-01

    The T-cell is one of the main players in the mammalian immune response. It ensures antigen recognition at the surface of antigen-presenting cells in a complex and highly sensitive and specific process, in which the encounter of the T-cell receptor with the agonist peptide associated with the major histocompatibility complex triggers T-cell activation. While signaling pathways have been elucidated in increasing detail, the mechanism of TCR triggering remains highly controversial despite active research published in the past 10 years. In this paper, we present a short overview of pending questions on critical initial events associated with T-cell triggering. In particular, we examine biophysical approaches already in use, as well as future directions. We suggest that the most recent advances in fluorescence super-resolution imaging, coupled with the new classes of genetic fluorescent probes, will play an important role in elucidation of the T-cell triggering mechanism. Beyond this aspect, we predict that exploration of mechanical cues in the triggering process will provide new clues leading to clarification of the entire mechanism. PMID:20514131

  4. Expression of K2P5.1 potassium channels on CD4+ T lymphocytes correlates with disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Bittner, Stefan; Bobak, Nicole; Feuchtenberger, Martin; Herrmann, Alexander M; Göbel, Kerstin; Kinne, Raimund W; Hansen, Anker J; Budde, Thomas; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Frey, Oliver; Tony, Hans-Peter; Wiendl, Heinz; Meuth, Sven G

    2011-02-11

    CD4+ T cells express K(2P)5.1 (TWIK-related acid-sensitive potassium channel 2 (TASK2); KCNK5), a member of the two-pore domain potassium channel family, which has been shown to influence T cell effector functions. Recently, it was shown that K(2P)5.1 is upregulated upon (autoimmune) T cell stimulation. The aim of this study was to correlate expression levels of K(2P)5.1 on T cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to disease activity in these patients. Expression levels of K(2P)5.1 were measured by RT-PCR in the peripheral blood of 58 patients with RA and correlated with disease activity parameters (C-reactive protein levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rates, disease activity score (DAS28) scores). Twenty patients undergoing therapy change were followed-up for six months. Additionally, synovial fluid and synovial biopsies were investigated for T lymphocytes expressing K(2P)5.1. K(2P)5.1 expression levels in CD4+ T cells show a strong correlation to DAS28 scores in RA patients. Similar correlations were found for serological inflammatory parameters (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein). In addition, K(2P)5.1 expression levels of synovial fluid-derived T cells are higher compared to peripheral blood T cells. Prospective data in individual patients show a parallel behaviour of K(2P)5.1 expression to disease activity parameters during a longitudinal follow-up for six months. Disease activity in RA patients correlates strongly with K(2P)5.1 expression levels in CD4+ T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood in cross-sectional as well as in longitudinal observations. Further studies are needed to investigate the exact pathophysiological mechanisms and to evaluate the possible use of K(2P)5.1 as a potential biomarker for disease activity and differential diagnosis.

  5. Zymographic analysis using gelatin-coated film of the effect of etanercept on the extracellular matrix-degrading activity in synovial fluids of rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Kamataki, Akihisa; Ishida, Mutsuko; Komagamine, Masataka; Yoshida, Masaaki; Ando, Takanobu; Sawai, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease. Most RA patients develop cartilage and bone destruction, and various proteinases are involved in the destruction of extracellular matrix of cartilage and bone. The aim of this study is to evaluate the utility of our newly developed method to measure total gelatinolytic activity. We adopted this method for measurement in synovial fluid from RA patients treated by the anti-rheumatic drug etanercept (ETN), a recombinant human soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor fusion protein, and compared the findings with clinical and laboratory data. Enzymatic activity of synovial fluid was analyzed by zymography using gelatin-coated film, and compared with the index of Disease Activity Score of 28 joints - C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP), CRP and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 level before and after ETN therapy. Synovial fluids of 19 patients were collected before and after administration of ETN therapy. In nine of 19 patients, who showed a decrease in gelatin-degrading activity in synovial fluid, the index of DAS28-CRP (4.85-2.85, ΔDAS = -2.00) and CRP (3.30-0.94 mg/dL, ΔCRP = -2.36) was alleviated after ETN therapy, while cases with no change or an increase in gelatin-degrading activity showed a modest improvement in clinical data: DAS28-CRP (4.23-3.38, ΔDAS = -0.85) and CRP (1.70-0.74 mg/dL, ΔCRP = -0.96). Our newly developed method for measurement of gelatin-degrading activity in synovial fluid from RA patients is highly practicable and useful for predicting the effect of ETN therapy. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. SIRT1/Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase α Signaling Enhances Macrophage Polarization to an Anti-inflammatory Phenotype in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Park, So Youn; Lee, Sung Won; Lee, Sang Yeob; Hong, Ki Whan; Bae, Sun Sik; Kim, Koanhoi; Kim, Chi Dae

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Macrophages of the M1 phenotype act as pro-inflammatory mediators in synovium, whereas those of the M2 phenotype suppress inflammation and promote tissue repair. SIRT1 is a class 3 histone deacetylase with anti-inflammatory characteristics. However, the role played by SIRT1 in macrophage polarization has not been defined in RA. We investigated whether SIRT1 exerts anti-inflammatory effects by modulating M1/M2 polarization in macrophages from RA patients. In this study, SIRT1 activation promoted the phosphorylation of an adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α/acetyl-CoA carboxylase in macrophages exposed to interleukin (IL)-4, and that this resulted in the expressions of M2 genes, including MDC, FcεRII, MrC1, and IL-10, at high levels. Furthermore, these expressions were inhibited by sirtinol (an inhibitor of SIRT1) and compound C (an inhibitor of AMPK). Moreover, SIRT1 activation downregulated LPS/interferon γ-mediated NF-κB activity by inhibiting p65 acetylation and the expression of M1 genes, such as CCL2, iNOS, IL-12 p35, and IL-12 p40. Macrophages from SIRT1 transgenic (Tg)-mice exhibited enhanced polarization of M2 phenotype macrophages and reduced polarization of M1 phenotype macrophages. In line with these observations, SIRT1-Tg mice showed less histological signs of arthritis, that is, lower TNFα and IL-1β expressions and less severe arthritis in the knee joints, compared to wild-type mice. Taken together, the study shows activation of SIRT1/AMPKα signaling exerts anti-inflammatory activities by regulating M1/M2 polarization, and thereby reduces inflammatory responses in RA. Furthermore, it suggests that SIRT1 signaling be viewed as a therapeutic target in RA. PMID:28966618

  7. Pain rather than self-reported sedentary time explains variation in perceived health and activity limitation in persons with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross sectional study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Demmelmaier, Ingrid; Åsenlöf, Pernilla; Bergman, Patrick; Nordgren, Birgitta; Opava, Christina H

    2017-06-01

    To investigate (1) the amount of self-reported time spent sedentary among a large cohort of persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and (2) the contribution of sedentary time to explain perceived health and activity limitation in RA beyond that of previously known correlates. This cross-sectional study used data from a postal questionnaire and the Swedish Rheumatology Quality registers (SRQ). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess sedentary time (sitting) and moderate, vigorous and walking activity (MVPA). Sociodemographics, pain, fatigue, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety/depression, disease duration, MVPA and sedentary time were included in multiple regression models with perceived health (Visual Analogue Scale 0-100) and activity limitation (Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire) as dependent variables. In all 3152 (59%) of 5391 persons identified as eligible from the SRQ, responded to the questionnaire. 2819 individuals with complete data on all study variables were analysed. Mean time (SD) spent sedentary was 257 (213) minutes per day. Sedentary time did not contribute significantly to explain perceived health and only minimally to explain activity limitation. Instead, variation was mainly explained by pain; for perceived health (Beta = 0.780, p < 0.001) and for activity limitation (Beta = 0.445, p < 0.001).The results indicate a non-significant role of sedentary time and a need for increased focus on pain in the management of RA. Future studies should use prospective designs and objective assessment methods to further investigate the associations between sedentary time and health outcomes in persons with RA.

  8. Rheumatoid arthritis in a military aviator.

    PubMed

    Moszyk, Danielle J; Sulit, Daryl J

    2007-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory condition whose pathogenesis is determined partially by genetic and environmental factors. Without treatment, 20 to 30% of individuals with this condition will become permanently disabled in a few years. Rheumatoid arthritis and its potential complications can cause significant disability and could seriously affect the performance of an aviator. Traditionally, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD) and biologics have not been used until disease progression occurs, but they recently have been added earlier in the course of disease for a more aggressive approach to treatment. It has been shown to significantly reduce the number of affected joints, pain, and disability. This newer treatment regimen has helped a military pilot continue his aviation career. We present the case of an experienced designated military pilot who was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. He was initially treated early with a DMARD and biologic medication. He has remained in remission and currently only uses etanercept (biologic medication) and a non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drug to control his disease. He has responded favorably to therapy and has few limitations. Due to his positive response to treatment, the aviator was granted military aeromedical waivers for rheumatoid arthritis and chronic medication use.

  9. A randomised comparative study of the short term clinical and biological effects of intravenous pulse methylprednisolone and infliximab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis despite methotrexate treatment.

    PubMed

    Durez, P; Nzeusseu Toukap, A; Lauwerys, B R; Manicourt, D H; Verschueren, P; Westhovens, R; Devogelaer, J-P; Houssiau, F A

    2004-09-01

    To compare the short term clinical and biological effects of intravenous (i.v.) pulse methylprednisolone (MP) and infliximab (IFX) in patients with severe active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite methotrexate (MTX) treatment. Patients with active RA despite MTX treatment were randomly allocated to receive a single i.v. infusion of MP (1 g) or three i.v. infusions of IFX (3 mg/kg) on weeks 0, 2, and 6. Patients were "blindly" evaluated for disease activity measures. Quality of life (QoL) was evaluated through the SF-36 health survey. Serum matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) titres were measured at baseline, weeks 2 and 6. Compared with baseline, significant improvement was noted in all activity measures, including serum C reactive protein (CRP) titres, in the IFX group only. At week 14, 6/9 (67%) and 4/9 (44%) IFX patients met the ACR20 and 50 response criteria, while this was the case in only 1/12 (8%) and 0/12 (0%) MP patients, respectively (p<0.05). None of the QoL scales improved with MP treatment, whereas some did so in the IFX group. Serum MMP-3 titres significantly decreased (41% drop) at week 6 in the IFX group, while no changes were seen in patients given MP. This short term randomised comparative study demonstrates that TNF blockade is better than MP pulse therapy in a subset of patients with severe refractory RA, with improvement in not only clinical parameters of disease activity but also biological inflammatory indices, such as serum CRP and MMP-3 titres.

  10. Ultrasound-detected subclinical inflammation was better reflected by the disease activity score (DAS-28) in patients with suspicion of inflammatory arthritis compared to established rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ciurtin, Coziana; Wyszynski, Karol; Clarke, Robert; Mouyis, Maria; Manson, Jessica; Marra, Giampiero

    2016-10-01

    Limited data are available about the ultrasound (US)-detected inflammatory features in patients with suspicion of inflammatory arthritis (S-IA) vs. established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our study aimed to assess if the presence of power Doppler (PD) can be predicted by a combination of clinical, laboratory and US parameters. We conducted a real-life, retrospective cohort study comparing clinical, laboratory and US parameters of 108 patients with established RA and 93 patients with S-IA. We propose a PD signal prediction model based on a beta-binomial distribution for PD variable using a mix of outcome measures. Patients with RA in clinical remission had significantly more active inflammation and erosions on US when compared with patients with S-IA with similar disease scores (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, respectively); however, RA patients with different disease activity score (DAS-28) scores had similar PD scores (p = 0.058). The PD scores did not correlate with erosions (p = 0.38) or DAS-28 scores (p = 0.28) in RA patients, but they correlated with high disease activity in S-IA patients (p = 0.048). Subclinical inflammation is more common in patients with RA in clinical remission or with low disease activity than in patients with S-IA; therefore, US was more useful in assessing for true remission in RA rather than diagnosing IA in patients with low disease activity scores. This is the first study to propose a PD prediction model integrating several outcome measures in the two different groups of patients. Further research into validating this model can minimise the risk of underdiagnosing subclinical inflammation.

  11. Study to determine the criterion validity of the SenseWear Armband as a measure of physical activity in people with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Marie; Fraser, Alexander; Purtill, Helen; Kennedy, Norelee

    2013-06-01

    Measuring physical activity in people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is of great importance in light of the increased mortality in this population due to cardiovascular disease. Validation of activity monitors in specific populations is recommended to ensure the accuracy of physical activity measurement. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the validity of the SenseWear Pro3 Armband (SWA) as a measure of physical activity during activities of daily living (ADL) in people with RA. Fourteen subjects (8 men and 6 women) with a diagnosis of RA were recruited from rheumatology clinics at the Mid-Western Regional Hospitals, Limerick, Ireland. Participants undertook a series of ADL of varying intensities. The SWA was compared to the criterion measures of the Oxycon Mobile indirect calorimetry system (energy expenditure in kJ) and of manual video observation (step count). Bland and Altman, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and correlation analyses were done using SPSS, version 19.0. The SWA showed substantial agreement (ICC 0.717, P < 0.001) and a strong relationship (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.852) compared with the criterion measure when estimating energy expenditure during ADL. However, it was found that the SWA overestimated energy expenditure, particularly at higher intensity levels. The ability of the SWA to estimate step counts during ADL was poor (ICC 0.304, P = 0.038). The SWA can be considered a valid tool to estimate energy expenditure during ADL in the RA population; however, attention should be paid to its tendency to overestimate energy expenditure. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  12. Fall Activities for the Early Childhood and Special Education Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Penny

    Designed for teachers of early childhood or special education students, this guide contains instructions and illustrations for classroom activities for the months of September, October, and November. Most of the activities involve art projects and many incorporate teaching in other subject areas such as mathematics, language arts, science, and…

  13. Sports, Physical Activity and Recreation in Early American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballou, Ralph B.

    Sports and physical recreation activities have been part of American life since the days of the early settlers. Although the settlers were faced with problems of survival, accounts of life in the colonies in the 1600's carry mention of bowling in the streets, play with bows and arrows, and ice skating. Other activities to gain popularity before…

  14. Workjobs: Activity-Centered Learning for Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorton, Mary Baratta

    Based on the idea that through active involvement with the materials the child would draw out the generalizations within the material, a teacher's method of activity-centered learning for early childhood education is presented. The first section of the book deals with the development of language through workjobs, emphasizing perception, matching,…

  15. Early development of synchrony in cortical activations in the human.

    PubMed

    Koolen, N; Dereymaeker, A; Räsänen, O; Jansen, K; Vervisch, J; Matic, V; Naulaers, G; De Vos, M; Van Huffel, S; Vanhatalo, S

    2016-05-13

    Early intermittent cortical activity is thought to play a crucial role in the growth of neuronal network development, and large scale brain networks are known to provide the basis for higher brain functions. Yet, the early development of the large scale synchrony in cortical activations is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the early intermittent cortical activations seen in the human scalp EEG show a clear developmental course during the last trimester of pregnancy, the period of intensive growth of cortico-cortical connections. We recorded scalp EEG from altogether 22 premature infants at post-menstrual age between 30 and 44 weeks, and the early cortical synchrony was quantified using recently introduced activation synchrony index (ASI). The developmental correlations of ASI were computed for individual EEG signals as well as anatomically and mathematically defined spatial subgroups. We report two main findings. First, we observed a robust and statistically significant increase in ASI in all cortical areas. Second, there were significant spatial gradients in the synchrony in fronto-occipital and left-to-right directions. These findings provide evidence that early cortical activity is increasingly synchronized across the neocortex. The ASI-based metrics introduced in our work allow direct translational comparison to in vivo animal models, as well as hold promise for implementation as a functional developmental biomarker in future research on human neonates. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. A tumor endoprosthesis is useful in elderly rheumatoid arthritis patient with acute intercondylar fracture of the distal femur.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Hiroki; Naito, Yohei; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Nakamura, Tomoki; Sudo, Akihiro

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the use of total knee arthroplasty using a tumor prosthesis in the treatment of elderly patients with an intercondylar fracture of the distal femur. Supracondylar fractures of the femur in patients with rheumatoid arthritis are difficult to treat due to joint deformity. We present outcomes for treating intercondylar fractures of the distal femur in rheumatoid arthritis patient using a tumor endoprosthesis. This technique allows early mobilization of the patient, with restoration of a good range of knee motion. A tumor prosthesis appears to be a viable treatment option for intercondylar femoral fractures in elderly patients. It is well tolerated and permits early ambulation and return to activities of daily living.

  17. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors may predispose to significant increase in tuberculosis risk: a multicenter active-surveillance report.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Carmona, Loreto; Valverde, Vicente Rodríguez; Mola, Emilio Martín; Montero, Maria Dolores

    2003-08-01

    The long-term safety of therapeutic agents that neutralize tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is uncertain. Recent evidence based on spontaneous reporting shows an association with active tuberculosis (TB). We undertook this study to determine and describe the long-term safety of 2 of these agents, infliximab and etanercept, in rheumatic diseases based on a national active-surveillance system following the commercialization of the drugs. We analyzed the safety data actively collected in the BIOBADASER (Base de Datos de Productos Biológicos de la Sociedad Española de Reumatología) database, which was launched in February 2000 by the Spanish Society of Rheumatology. For the estimation of TB risk, the annual incidence rate in patients treated with these agents was compared with the background rate and with the rate in a cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) assembled before the era of anti-TNF treatment. Seventy-one participating centers sent data on 1,578 treatments with infliximab (86%) or etanercept (14%) in 1,540 patients. Drug survival rates (reported as the cumulative percentage of patients still receiving medication) for infliximab and etanercept pooled together were 85% and 81% at 1 year and 2 years, respectively. Instances of discontinuation were essentially due to adverse events. Seventeen cases of TB were found in patients treated with infliximab. The estimated incidence of TB associated with infliximab in RA patients was 1,893 per 100,000 in the year 2000 and 1,113 per 100,000 in the year 2001. These findings represent a significant increased risk compared with background rates. In the first 5 months of 2002, after official guidelines were established for TB prevention in patients treated with biologics, only 1 new TB case was registered (in January). Therapy with infliximab is associated with an increased risk of active TB. Proper measures are needed to prevent and manage this adverse event.

  18. Impact of Adalimumab on Work Productivity and Activity Impairment in Japanese Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Large-Scale, Prospective, Single-Cohort ANOUVEAU Study.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Ryo; Komatsu, Shuichi; Yamazaki, Kiyotaka; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Agata, Naoki; Igarashi, Ataru; Tango, Toshiro; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2017-03-01

    The Adalimumab Non-interventional Trial for Up-verified Effects and Utility (ANOUVEAU) was a large-scale, multicenter, prospective, observational, single-cohort study that evaluated the effects of adalimumab (ADA) on rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-related work productivity and activity impairment (RA-related WPAI) and disease activity in routine rheumatology care in Japan. Patients with RA were categorized as paid workers (PWs, ≥35 h/week), part-time workers (PTWs, <35 h/week), or homemakers (HMs, unemployed) and were administered the WPAI for RA (WPAI/RA) questionnaire. All patients who received ADA were followed for 48 weeks to evaluate safety and effectiveness. Of the 1808 patients analyzed, 825, 243, and 740 patients were PWs, PTWs, and HMs, respectively. WPAI/RA domain scores significantly improved at weeks 12, 24, and 48 in all groups, with maximum improvement observed for PWs (p < 0.05). Additionally, remission rates (according to Disease Activity Score 28, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Simplified Disease Activity Index, or Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index scores) and EuroQol 5-Dimension 3-Level scores significantly increased from baseline to 48 weeks in all groups (p < 0.0001). Analysis of patient subgroups revealed better WPAI/RA outcomes for patients who were biologic-naïve, treated with concomitant methotrexate, or with RA duration of ≤2 years (p < 0.05). The rate of serious adverse events over 48 weeks of ADA treatment was 5.23%. Treatment with ADA provided sustained improvement in WPAI and had an acceptable safety profile in patients with RA. AbbVie GK and Eisai Co., Ltd. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01346488.

  19. Studying the Immunomodulatory Effects of Small Molecule Ras-Inhibitors in Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yoel Kloog RECIPIENT: Tel Aviv University TEL AVIV 69978 Israel REPORT DATE: October...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Studying the Immunomodulatory Effects of Small Molecule Ras- Inhibitors in Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) display augmented activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway, and accordingly overexpression of active K-RAS in

  20. Effects of the oral Janus kinase inhibitor tofacitinib on patient-reported outcomes in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: results of two Phase 2 randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Wallenstein, Gene V; Kanik, Keith S; Wilkinson, Bethanie; Cohen, Stanley; Cutolo, Maurizio; Fleischmann, Roy; Genovese, Mark C; Gomez Reino, Juan; Gruben, David; Kremer, Joel; Krishnaswami, Sriram; Lee, Eun Bong; Pascual-Ramos, Virginia; Strand, Vibeke; Zwillich, Samuel H

    2016-01-01

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here we investigated the effects of tofacitinib on patient-reported outcomes (PRO) in patients with active RA. Two, 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 2b studies were performed. The combination study evaluated patients with inadequate response to methotrexate who received tofacitinib 1-15 mg twice daily (BID), 20 mg once daily or placebo, on background methotrexate. In the monotherapy study, patients with inadequate response to disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs received tofacitinib 1-15 mg BID, adalimumab 40 mg once every other week or placebo. PROs measured were: Patient's Assessment of Arthritis Pain (PAAP), Patient's Assessment of Disease Activity, HAQ-DI, FACIT-F and SF-36. In the combination study (n=507), significant improvements (p<0.05) versus placebo were observed at Week 12 in PAAP (visual analogue scale) and HAQ-DI for all tofacitinib groups. In the monotherapy study (n=384), significant improvements in PAAP were observed at Week 12 for tofacitinib 5, 10 and 15 mg BID, and in HAQ-DI for tofacitinib 3, 5, 10 and 15 mg BID. Significant improvements versus placebo were seen at Week 2 in PAAP (both studies) and HAQ‑DI (monotherapy study) with tofacitinib, and were maintained throughout each study. In both studies, improvements in several domains of the SF-36 in the tofacitinib groups were observed at Weeks 12 and 24. In patients with active RA, tofacitinib, either in combination with methotrexate or as monotherapy, demonstrated rapid and sustained improvement in pain, physical functioning and health-related quality of life.